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Sample records for a431 cells identification

  1. Identification of specific gravity sensitive signal transduction pathways in human A431 carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijken, P. J.; de Groot, R. P.; Kruijer, W.; de Laat, S. W.; Verkleij, A. J.; Boonstra, J.

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) activates a well characterized signal transduction cascade in human A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells. The influence of gravity on EGF-induced EGF-receptor clustering and early gene expression as well as on actin polymerization and actin organization have been investigated. Different signalling pathways induced by the agents TPA, forskolin and A23187 that activate gene expression were tested for sensitivity to gravity. EGF-induced c-fos and c-jun expression were decreased in microgravity. However, constitutive β-2 microglobulin expression remained unaltered. Under simulated weightlessness conditions EGF- and TPA-induced c-fos expression was decreased, while forskolin- and A23187-induced c-fos expression was independent of the gravity conditions. These results suggest that gravity affects specific signalling pathways. Preliminary results indicate that EGF-induced EGF-receptor clustering remained unaltered irrespective of the gravity conditions. Furthermore, the relative filamentous actin content of steady state A431 cells was enhanced under microgravity conditions and actin filament organization was altered. Under simulated weightlessness actin filament organization in steady state cells as well as in EGF-treated cells was altered as compared to the 1 G reference experiment. Interestingly the microtubule and keratin organization in untreated cells showed no difference with the normal gravity samples. This indicates that gravity may affect specific components of the signal transduction circuitry.

  2. Diosmin reduces cell viability of A431 skin cancer cells through apoptotic induction.

    PubMed

    Buddhan, Rajamanickam; Manoharan, Shanmugam

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic potential of the diosmin in A431 skin cancer cells. The cytotoxic (anti-cell proliferative) potential of diosmin in A431 cells was assessed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay (cell viability), dual staining (apoptotic induction), dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate assay (reactive oxygen species [ROS] generation), DNA fragmentation study, Western blotting analysis (apoptotic markers expression) and flow cytometry (cell cycle arrest). Diosmin reduced the cell viability of A431 cells in a dose-dependent fashion and the inhibitory concentration 50% value was attained at 45 μg/ml using MTT assay. Diosmin at a concentration of 45 μg/ml generated excessive ROS in A431 cells, as compared to untreated cells. Diosmin treated A431 cells also revealed multiple DNA fragments than the untreated cells. Diosmin upregulated the expression of p53, caspases 3 and 9 and downregulated the expression of Bcl-2, matrix metalloproteinases-2 and 9 in A431 cells. The cytotoxic or anti-cell proliferative potential of diosmin is due to its ROS-mediated apoptotic induction potential, as well as due to its role in the inhibition of invasion in the A431 cells.

  3. Establishment of A431 cell membrane chromatography-RPLC method for screening target components from Radix Caulophylli.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaofang; Wang, Sicen; Hou, Jingjing; He, Langchong

    2011-03-01

    We describe here an analytical method of A431 cell membrane chromatography (A431/CMC) (CMC, cell membrane chromatography) combined with RPLC for recognition, separation, and identification of target components from traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) Radix Caulophylli. The A431 cells with high expressed epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were used to prepare the stationary phase in the CMC model. Retention fractions on the A431-CMC model were collected using an automated fraction collection and injection module (FC/I). Each fraction was analyzed by RPLC under the optimized conditions. Gefitinib and erlotinib were used as standard compounds to investigate the suitability and reliability of the A431 cell membrane chromatography-RPLC method prior to screening target component from Radix Caulophylli total alkaloids. The results indicated that caulophine and taspine were the target component acting on the epidermal growth factor receptor. This method could be an efficient way in drug discovery using natural medicinal herbs as a source of novel compounds. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Fisetin inhibits growth, induces G2/M arrest and apoptosis of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells: Role of mitochondrial membrane potential disruption and consequent caspases activation

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Harish C.; Sharma, Samriti; Elmets, Craig A.; Athar, Mohammad; Afaq, Farrukh

    2013-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) one of the most common neoplasms causes serious morbidity and mortality. Therefore, identification of non-toxic phytochemicals for prevention/treatment of NMSCs is highly desirable. Fisetin (3,3′,4′,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), a dietary flavonoid, present in fruits and vegetables possesses anti-oxidant and anti-proliferative properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemotherapeutic potential of fisetin in cultured human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Treatment of A431 cells with fistein (5-80 μM) resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Employing clonogenic assay, we found that fisetin treatment significantly reduced colony formation in A431 cells. Fisetin treatment of A431 cells resulted in G2/M arrest and induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, treatment of A431 cells with fisetin resulted in (i) decreased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl2, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1), (ii) increased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, Bak and Bad), (iii) disruption of mitochondrial potential, (iv) release of cytchrome c and Smac/DIABLO from mitochondria, (v) activation of caspases, and (vi) cleavage of PARP protein. Pretreatment of A431 cells with the pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) blocked fisetin-induced cleavage of caspases and PARP. Taken together, these data provide evidence that fisetin possesses chemotherapeutic potential against human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Overall, these results suggest that fisetin could be developed as a novel therapeutic agent for the management of NMSCs. PMID:23800058

  5. Anticancer effects of cantharidin in A431 human skin cancer (Epidermoid carcinoma) cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Chi-Chuan; Yu, Fu-Shun; Fan, Ming-Jen; Chen, Ya-Yin; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Chou, Yu-Cheng; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Tang, Nou-Ying; Peng, Shu-Fen; Huang, Wen-Wen; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2017-03-01

    Cantharidin (CTD), a potential anticancer agent of Traditional Chinese Medicine has cytotxic effects in different human cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic effects of CTD on A431 human skin cancer (epidermoid carcinoma) cells in vitro and in A431 cell xenograft mouse model were examined. In vitro, A431 human skin cell were treated with CTD for 24 and 48 h. Cell phase distribution, ROS production, Ca 2+ release, Caspase activity and the level of apoptosis associated proteins were measured. In vivo, A431 cell xenograft mouse model were examined. CTD-induced cell morphological changes and decreased percentage of viable A431 cells via G0/G1 phase arrest and induced apoptosis. CTD-induced G0/G1 phase arrest through the reduction of protein levels of cyclin E, CDK6, and cyclin D in A431 cells. CTD-induced cell apoptosis of A431 cells also was confirm by DNA gel electrophoresis showed CTD-induced DNA fragmentation. CTD reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential and stimulated release of cytochrome c, AIF and Endo G in A431 cells. Flow cytometry demonstrated that CTD increased activity of caspase-8, -9 and -3. However, when cells were pretreated with specific caspase inhibitors activity was reduced and cell viability increased. CTD increased protein levels of death receptors such as DR4, DR5, TRAIL and levels of the active form of caspase-8, -9 and -3 in A431 cells. AIF and Endo G proteins levels were also enhanced by CTD. In vivo studies showed that CTD significantly inhibited A431 cell xenograft tumors in mice. Taken together, these in vitro and in vivo results provide insight into the mechanisms of CTD on cell growth and tumor production. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 723-738, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A combined A431 cell membrane chromatography and online high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method for screening compounds from total alkaloid of Radix Caulophylli acting on the human EGFR.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meng; Ren, Jing; Du, Hui; Zhang, Yanmin; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Sicen; He, Langchong

    2010-10-15

    We have developed an online analytical method that combines A431 cell membrane chromatography (A431/CMC) with high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC/MS) for identifying active components from Radix Caulophylli acting on human EGFR. Retention fractions on A431/CMC model were captured onto an enrichment column and the components were directly analyzed by combining a 10-port column switcher with an LC/MS system for separation and preliminary identification. Using Sorafenib tosylate as a positive control, taspine and caulophine from Radix Caulophylli were identified as the active molecules which could act on the EGFR. This A431/CMC-online-LC/MS method can be applied for screening active components acting on EGFR from traditional Chinese medicines exemplified by Radix Caulophylli and will be of great utility in drug discovery using natural medicinal herbs as a source of novel compounds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The growth of human fibroblasts and A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells on gamma-irradiated human amnion collagen substrata.

    PubMed

    Liu, B; Harrell, R; Lamb, D J; Dresden, M H; Spira, M

    1989-10-15

    Human fibroblasts and A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells were cultured on gamma-irradiated human amnion collagen as well as on plastic dishes and non-irradiated collagen coated dishes. The morphology, attachment, growth and short-term cytotoxicity of these culture conditions have been determined. Both irradiated and non-irradiated amnion collagen enhanced the attachment and proliferation of fibroblasts as compared to the plastic dishes. No differences in these properties were observed for A431 cells cultured on irradiated collagen when compared with culture on non-irradiated collagen substrates. Cytotoxicity assays showed that irradiated and non-irradiated collagens were not cytotoxic for either fibroblasts or A431 cells. The results demonstrated that amnion collagen irradiated at doses of 0.25-2.0 Mrads is optimal for cell growth.

  8. Lysosomal Signaling Enhances Mitochondria-Mediated Photodynamic Therapy in A431 Cancer Cells: Role of Iron

    PubMed Central

    Saggu, Shalini; Hung, Hsin-I; Quiogue, Geraldine; Lemasters, John J.; Nieminen, Anna-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    In photodynamic therapy (PDT), light activates a photosensitizer added to a tissue, resulting in singlet oxygen formation and cell death. The photosensitizer phthalocyanine 4 (Pc 4) localizes primarily to mitochondrial membranes in cancer cells, resulting in mitochondria-mediated cell death. The aim of this study was to determine how lysosomes contribute to PDT-induced cell killing by mitochondria-targeted photosensitizers such as Pc 4. We monitored cell killing of A431 cells after Pc 4-PDT in the presence and absence of bafilomycin, an inhibitor of the vacuolar proton pump of lysosomes and endosomes. Bafilomycin was not toxic by itself, but greatly enhanced Pc 4-PDT-induced cell killing. To investigate whether iron loading of lysosomes affects bafilomycin-induced killing, cells were incubated with ammonium ferric citrate (30 μm) for 30 h prior to PDT. Ammonium ferric citrate enhanced Pc 4 plus bafilomycin-induced cell killing without having toxicity by itself. Iron chelators (desferrioxamine and starch-desferrioxamine) and the inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium (and ferrous iron) uniporter, Ru360, protected against Pc 4 plus bafilomycin toxicity. These results support the conclusion that chelatable iron stored in the lysosomes enhances the efficacy of bafilomycin-mediated PDT and that lysosomal disruption augments PDT with Pc 4. PMID:22220628

  9. Toxicity of dimethylmonothioarsinic acid toward human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Naranmandura, Hua; Ibata, Kenji; Suzuki, Kazuo T

    2007-08-01

    Chronic ingestion of arsenic-contaminated drinking water induces skin lesions and urinary bladder cancer in humans. It is now recognized that thioarsenicals such as dimethylmonothioarsinic acid (DMMTA (V)) are commonly excreted in the urine of humans and animals and that the production of DMMTA (V) may be a risk factor for the development of the diseases caused by arsenic. The toxicity of DMMTA (V) was compared with that of related nonthiolated arsenicals with respect to cell viability, uptake ability, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cell cycle progression of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells, arsenate (iAs (V)), arsenite (iAs (III)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA (V)), and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA (III)) being used as reference nonthiolated arsenicals. DMMTA (V) (LC 50 = 10.7 microM) was shown to be much more cytotoxic than iAs (V) (LC 50 = 571 microM) and DMA (V) (LC 50 = 843 microM), and its potency was shown to be close to that of trivalent arsenicals iAs (III) (LC 50 = 5.49 microM) and DMA (III) (LC 50 = 2.16 microM). The greater cytotoxicity of DMMTA (V) was associated with greater cellular uptake and distribution, and the level of intracellular ROS remarkably increased in A431 cells upon exposure to DMMTA (V) compared to that after exposure to other trivalent arsenicals at the respective LC 50. Exposure of DMMTA (V) to cells for 24 h induced cell cycle perturbation. Namely, the percentage of cells residing in S and G2/M phases increased from 10.2 and 15.6% to 46.5 and 20.8%, respectively. These results suggest that although DMMTA (V) is a pentavalent arsenical, it is taken up efficiently by cells and causes various levels of toxicity, in a manner different from that of nonthiolated pentavalent arsenicals, demonstrating that DMMTA (V) is one of the most toxic arsenic metabolites. The high cytotoxicity of DMMTA (V) was explained and/or proposed by (1) efficient uptake by cells followed by (2) its transformation to DMA (V), (3) producing ROS

  10. Flurbiprofen benzyl nitrate (NBS-242) inhibits the growth of A-431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells and targets β-catenin.

    PubMed

    Nath, Niharika; Liu, Xiaoping; Jacobs, Lloydine; Kashfi, Khosrow

    2013-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin/T cell factor (TCF) signaling pathway is important in the development of nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). Nitric-oxide-releasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NO-NSAIDs) are chemopreventive agents consisting of a traditional NSAID attached to an NO-releasing moiety through a chemical spacer. Previously we showed that an aromatic spacer enhanced the potency of a particular NO-NSAID compared to an aliphatic spacer. We synthesized an NO-releasing NSAID with an aromatic spacer (flurbiprofen benzyl nitrate, NBS-242), and using the human skin cancer cell line A-431, we evaluated its effects on cell kinetics, Wnt/β-catenin, cyclin D1, and caspase-3. NBS-242 inhibited the growth of A-431 cancer cells, being ~15-fold more potent than flurbiprofen and up to 5-fold more potent than NO-flurbiprofen with an aliphatic spacer, the half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for growth inhibition being 60 ± 4 μM, 320 ± 20 μM, and 880 ± 65 μM for NBS-242, NO-flurbiprofen, and flurbiprofen, respectively. This effect was associated with inhibition of proliferation, accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, and an increase in apoptotic cell population. NBS-242 cleaved β-catenin both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of A-431 cells. NBS-242 activated caspase-3 whose activation was reflected in the cleavage of procaspase-3. To test the functional consequence of β-catenin cleavage, we determined the expression of cyclin D1, a Wnt-response gene. NBS-242 reduced cyclin D1 levels in a concentration dependent manner. These findings establish a strong inhibitory effect of NBS-242 in A-431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. NBS-242 modulates parameters that are important in determining cellular mass.

  11. Proteolytic cleavage and activation of PAK2 during UV irradiation-induced apoptosis in A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, T K; Chang, W C; Chan, W H; Yang, S D; Ni, M H; Yu, J S

    1998-09-15

    Exposure of mammalian cells to ultraviolet (UV) light elicits a cellular response and can also lead to apoptotic cell death. In this report, we show that a 36-kDa myelin basic protein (MBP) kinase detected by an in-gel kinase assay can be dramatically activated during the early stages of UV irradiation-triggered apoptosis of A431 cells. Immunoblot analysis revealed that this 36-kDa MBP kinase could be recognized by an antibody against the C-terminal regions of a family of p21Cdc42/Rac-activated kinases (PAKs). By using this antibody and a PAK2-specific antibody against the N-terminal region of PAK2 as studying tools, we further demonstrated that UV irradiation caused cleavage of PAK2 to generate a 36-kDa C-terminal catalytic fragment and a 30-kDa N-terminal fragment in A431 cells. The appearance of the 36-kDa C-terminal catalytic fragment of PAK2 matched exactly with the activation of the 36-kDa MBP kinase in A431 cells upon UV irradiation. In addition, UV irradiation also led to activation of CPP32/caspase-3, but not ICH-1L/caspase-2 and ICE/caspase-1, in A431 cells and the kinetics of activation of CPP32/caspase-3 appeared to correlate well with that of DNA fragmentation and of cleavage/activation of PAK2, respectively. Moreover, blockage of activation of CPP32/caspase-3 by pretreating the cells with two specific tetrapeptidic inhibitors for caspases (Ac-DEVD-cho and Ac-YVAD-cmk) could significantly attenuate the extent of cleavage/activation of PAK2 induced by UV irradiation. Collectively, the results demonstrate that cleavage and activation of PAK2 can be induced during the early stages of UV irradiation-triggered apoptosis and indicate the involvement of CPP32/caspase-3 in this process.

  12. Purification of high-molecular-weight subfraction from porcine skin inhibiting proliferation of A431 human carcinoma epidermoid cells.

    PubMed

    Belova, O V; Sergienko, V I; Arion, V Ya; Lukanidina, T A; Moskvina, S N; Zimina, I V; Borisenko, G G; Lutsenko, G V; Grechikhina, M V; Kovaleva, E V; Klyuchnikova, Zh I

    2014-07-01

    Subfraction with a molecular weight >250 kDa isolated from porcine skin and inhibiting the proliferation of A431 human carcinoma epidermoid cells was purified by DEAE 32 anion exchange chromatography with NaCl concentration step-gradient. The effects of the initial subfraction and fractions obtained by separation in DEAE 32 on the proliferation of A431 human carcinoma epidermoid cells were studied in vitro in two tests (MTT and fluorescent test). The more sensitive fluorescent test showed the highest inhibitory activity of fraction No. 2 released from the column at 0.15 M NaCl. One major protein component and a series of minor protein components were detected in this fraction by vertical PAAG-SDS electrophoresis.

  13. Resveratrol enhances ultraviolet B-induced cell death through nuclear factor-{kappa}B pathway in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Preeti; Kalra, Neetu; Nigam, Nidhi

    Resveratrol has been reported to suppress cancer progression in several in vivo and in vitro models, whereas ultraviolet B (UVB), a major risk for skin cancer, is known to induce cell death in cancerous cells. Here, we investigated whether resveratrol can sensitize A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells to UVB-induced cell death. We examined the combined effect of UVB (30 mJ/cm{sup 2}) and resveratrol (60 {mu}M) on A431 cells. Exposure of A431 carcinoma cells to UVB radiation or resveratrol can inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. However, the combination of resveratrol and UVB exposure was associated with increased proliferation inhibition ofmore » A431 cells compared with either agent alone. Furthermore, results showed that resveratrol and UVB treatment of A431 cells disrupted the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-{kappa}B) pathway by blocking phosphorylation of serine 536 and inactivating NF-{kappa}B and subsequent degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, which regulates the expression of survivin. Resveratrol and UVB treatment also decreased the phosphorylation of tyrosine 701 of the important transcription factor signal transducer activator of transcription (STAT1), which in turn inhibited translocation of phospho-STAT1 to the nucleus. Moreover, resveratrol/UVB also inhibited the metastatic protein LIMK1, which reduced the motility of A431 cells. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the combination of resveratrol and UVB act synergistically against skin cancer cells. Thus, resveratrol is a potential chemotherapeutic agent against skin carcinogenesis.« less

  14. Regulation of apoptosis by resveratrol through JAK/STAT and mitochondria mediated pathway in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Madan, Esha; Prasad, Sahdeo; Roy, Preeti

    2008-12-26

    Resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenolic phytoalexin present mainly in grapes, red wine and berries, is known to possess strong chemopreventive and anticancer properties. Here, we demonstrated the anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities of resveratrol in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Resveratrol has cytotoxic effects through inhibiting cellular proliferation of A431 cells, which leads to the induction of apoptosis, as evident by an increase in the fraction of cells in the sub-G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle and Annexin-V binding of externalized phosphatidylserine. Results revealed that inhibition of proliferation is associated with regulation of the JAK/STAT pathway, where resveratrol prevents phosphorylation ofmore » JAK, thereby inhibiting STAT1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, resveratrol treatment actively stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Consequently, an imbalance in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio triggered the caspase cascade and subsequent cleavage of PARP, thereby shifting the balance in favor of apoptosis. These observations indicate that resveratrol treatment inhibits JAK/STAT-mediated gene transcription and induce the mitochondrial cell death pathway.« less

  15. A green approach toward quinoxalines and bis-quinoxalines and their biological evaluation against A431, human skin cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Debasish; Cruz, Jessica; Morales, Liza D; Arman, Hadi D; Cuate, Erica; Lee, Young S; Banik, Bimal K; Kim, Dae J

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a practical green procedure to synthesize quinoxalines and bis-quinoxalines and evaluate their inhibitory effects on the viability of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. A series of quinoxaline and bis-quinoxaline derivatives have been designed and synthesized following a microwave-assisted and bismuth nitrate-catalyzed eco-friendly route. A detailed comparison has been made between microwave-induced protocol with the reactions occurred at room temperature. The structure of the compounds have been elucidated by various spectroscopic methods and finally confirmed by x-ray crystallographic analyses. Two quinoxaline derivatives, compounds 6 and 12 have demonstrated inhibitory effects on the viability of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells when compared with HaCaT nontumorigenic human keratinocyte cells. Notably, compound 6 inhibits Stat3 phosphorylation/activation in A431 skin cancer cells.

  16. Icotinib, a potent and specific EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, inhibits growth of squamous cell carcinoma cell line A431 through negatively regulating AKT signaling.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenzhen; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Xiaohua; Cai, Peifen; Fang, Xianying; Xu, Qiang; Sun, Yang; Gu, Yanhong

    2013-06-01

    Icotinib is a potent and specific epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. In this study, we reported that icotinib had the antitumor activity on human squamous cell carcinoma cell line A431 in vitro. Meanwhile, adhesion to fibronectin and expression of integrin α3 and β1 were significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner after the treatment of icotinib. Moreover, icotinib induced cell cycle arrested and affected expression of various cell cycle related proteins in squamous cancer cell line A431, whereas it did not cause apoptosis. Furthermore, icotinib remarkably down-regulated phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) though blocking the interaction between 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) and AKT in A431 cells. Taken together, it is shown that the small molecular compound, icotinib, has an anti-squamous cell carcinoma activity in vitro and its antitumor mechanism is associated with the blockage of the interaction between PDK1 and AKT. These results provide a novel strategy for anti-squamous cell carcinoma therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Interference of silibinin with IGF-1R signalling pathways protects human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells from UVB-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Weiwei; Otkur, Wuxiyar; Li, Lingzhi

    Highlights: ► Silibinin protects A431 cells from UVB irradiation-induced apoptosis. ► Up-regulation of the IGF-1R-JNK/ERK pathways by UVB induces cell apoptosis. ► Silibinin inhibits IGF-1R pathways to repress caspase-8-mediated apoptosis. -- Abstract: Ultraviolet B (UVB) from sunlight is a major cause of cutaneous lesion. Silibinin, a traditional hepatic protectant, elicits protective effects against UVB-induced cellular damage. In A431 cells, the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) was markedly up-regulated by UVB irradiation. The activation of the IGF-1R signalling pathways contributed to apoptosis of the cells rather than rescuing the cells from death. Up-regulated IGF-1R stimulated downstream mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), suchmore » as c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). The subsequent activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 led to apoptosis. The activation of IGF-1R signalling pathways is the cause of A431 cell death. The pharmacological inhibitors and the small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting IGF-1R suppressed the downstream activation of JNK/ERK-caspases to help the survival of the UVB-irradiated A431 cells. Indeed, silibinin treatment suppressed the IGF-1R-JNK/ERK pathways and thus protected the cells from UVB-induced apoptosis.« less

  18. Binding of fluoresceinated epidermal growth factor to A431 cell sub-populations studied using a model-independent analysis of flow cytometric fluorescence data.

    PubMed Central

    Chatelier, R C; Ashcroft, R G; Lloyd, C J; Nice, E C; Whitehead, R H; Sawyer, W H; Burgess, A W

    1986-01-01

    A method is developed for determining ligand-cell association parameters from a model-free analysis of data obtained with a flow cytometer. The method requires measurement of the average fluorescence per cell as a function of ligand and cell concentration. The analysis is applied to data obtained for the binding of fluoresceinated epidermal growth factor to a human epidermoid carcinoma cell line, A431. The results indicate that the growth factor binds to two classes of sites on A431 cells: 4 X 10(4) sites with a dissociation constant (KD) of less than or equal to 20 pM, and 1.5 X 10(6) sites with a KD of 3.7 nM. A derived plot of the average fluorescence per cell versus the average number of bound ligands per cell is used to construct binding isotherms for four sub-populations of A431 cells fractionated on the basis of low-angle light scatter. The four sub-populations bind the ligand with equal affinity but differ substantially in terms of the number of binding sites per cell. We also use this new analysis to critically evaluate the use of 'Fluorotrol' as a calibration standard in flow cytometry. PMID:3015587

  19. Ebselen reduces the toxicity of mechlorethamine in A-431 cells via inhibition of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lulla, Anju; Pino, Maria A; Piętka-Ottlik, Magdalena; Młochowski, Jacek; Sparavalo, Oleksiy; Billack, Blase

    2013-06-01

    A series of test compounds were evaluated for an ability to reduce the toxicity of the nitrogen mustard mechlorethamine (HN2) in vitro. The test compounds included resveratrol, pterostilbene, vitamin C, ebselen, ebselen diselenide, and ebselen-sulfur. Among them, ebselen demonstrated the highest degree of protection against HN2 toxicity. To this end, pretreatment of the cells with ebselen offered protection against the toxicant whereas no protection was observed when cells were first incubated with HN2 and then treated with ebselen. Significant increases in caspase 3 and caspase 9 activities were observed in response to HN2, and ebselen was found to reduce these effects. Taken together, the data presented here indicate that ebselen is an effective countermeasure to nitrogen mustard in vitro, which is worthy of future investigation in vivo. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Alpha-santalol, a chemopreventive agent against skin cancer, causes G2/M cell cycle arrest in both p53-mutated human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells and p53 wild-type human melanoma UACC-62 cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background α-Santalol, an active component of sandalwood oil, has shown chemopreventive effects on skin cancer in different murine models. However, effects of α-santalol on cell cycle have not been studied. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate effects of α-santalol on cell cycle progression in both p53 mutated human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells and p53 wild-type human melanoma UACC-62 cells to elucidate the mechanism(s) of action. Methods MTT assay was used to determine cell viability in A431 cells and UACC-62; fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of propidium iodide staining was used for determining cell cycle distribution in A431 cells and UACC-62 cells; immunoblotting was used for determining the expression of various proteins and protein complexes involved in the cell cycle progression; siRNA were used to knockdown of p21 or p53 in A431 and UACC-62 cells and immunofluorescence microscopy was used to investigate microtubules in UACC-62 cells. Results α-Santalol at 50-100 μM decreased cell viability from 24 h treatment and α-santalol at 50 μM-75 μM induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest from 6 h treatment in both A431 and UACC-62 cells. α-Santalol altered expressions of cell cycle proteins such as cyclin A, cyclin B1, Cdc2, Cdc25c, p-Cdc25c and Cdk2. All of these proteins are critical for G2/M transition. α-Santalol treatment up-regulated the expression of p21 and suppressed expressions of mutated p53 in A431 cells; whereas, α-santalol treatment increased expressions of wild-type p53 in UACC-62 cells. Knockdown of p21 in A431 cells, knockdown of p21 and p53 in UACC-62 cells did not affect cell cycle arrest caused by α-santalol. Furthermore, α-santalol caused depolymerization of microtubules similar to vinblastine in UACC-62 cells. Conclusions This study for the first time identifies effects of α-santalol in G2/M phase arrest and describes detailed mechanisms of G2/M phase arrest by this agent, which might be

  1. Up-regulation of the tight-junction protein ZO-1 by substance P and IGF-1 in A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ji-Ae; Murata, Shizuka; Nishida, Teruo

    2009-08-01

    The formation of a barrier by tight junctions is important in epithelia of various tissues. Substance P (SP) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 synergistically promote barrier function in the corneal epithelium. We have now examined the effects of SP and IGF-1 on expression of the tight-junction protein zonula occludens (ZO)-1 in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunoblot analyses revealed that SP and IGF-1 increased the amounts of ZO-1 mRNA and protein in these cells in a concentration-dependent manner, with neither SP nor IGF-1 alone having such an effect. The SP- and IGF-1-induced up-regulation of ZO-1 was accompanied by phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and both of these effects were blocked by PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK activation. SP and IGF-1 also increased the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) (an indicator of barrier function) of an A431 cell monolayer in a manner sensitive to PD98059. Our results thus suggest that the synergistic induction of ZO-1 expression by SP and IGF-1 may promote barrier function in skin epithelial cells. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Extracellular ATP is a mitogen for 3T3, 3T6, and A431 cells and acts synergistically with other growth factors.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, N; Wang, D J; Heppel, L A

    1989-01-01

    Extracellular ATP in concentrations of 5-50 microM displayed very little mitogenic activity by itself but it caused synergistic stimulation of [3H]thymidine incorporation in the presence of phorbol 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate, epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, insulin, adenosine, or 5'-(N-ethyl)carboxamidoadenosine. Cultures of Swiss 3T3, Swiss 3T6, A431, DDT1-MF2, and HFF cells were used. The percent of cell nuclei labeled with [3H]thymidine and cell number were also increased. ADP was equally mitogenic, while UTP and ITP were much less active. The effect of ATP was not due to hydrolysis by ectoenzymes to form adenosine, a known growth factor. Thus, the nonhydrolyzable analogue adenosine 5'-[beta, gamma-imido]triphosphate was mitogenic. In addition, it was found that ATP showed synergism in 3T6 and 3T3 cells when present for only the first hour of an incorporation assay, during which time no significant hydrolysis occurred. Furthermore, prolonged preincubation of cells with ATP reduced the mitogenic response to ATP but not to adenosine; preincubation with adenosine or N6-(R-phenylisopropyl)adenosine had the reverse effect. Finally, the effect of adenosine, but not of ATP, was inhibited by aminophylline. We conclude that extracellular ATP is a mitogen that interacts with P2 purinoceptors on the plasma membrane. PMID:2813367

  3. Induction of apoptosis by lupeol in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells through regulation of mitochondrial, Akt/PKB and NFkappaB signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Madan, Esha; Nigam, Nidhi; Roy, Preeti; George, Jasmine; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2009-09-01

    The rising incidence of skin cancer in humans makes it equivalent to malignancies of organs. Therefore, it is necessary to intensify our efforts for better understanding and development of novel treatment and preventive approaches for skin cancer. Fruits and other plant derived products have gained considerable attention as they can reduce the risk of several cancer types. Lupeol, a triterpene, present in many fruits and medicinal plants, has been shown to possess many pharmacological properties including anti-cancer effect in both in vitro and in vivo assay systems. In the present study, apoptosis inducing effects of lupeol were studied in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Cell cycle analysis showed that lupeol treatment induces apoptosis (14-37%) in a dose-dependent manner as evident by an increased sub G(1) cell population. The RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that lupeol-induced apoptosis was associated with caspase dependent mitochondrial cell death pathway through activation of Bax, caspases, Apaf1, decrease in Bcl-2 expression and subsequent cleavage of PARP. Lupeol treatment also inhibited Akt/PKB signaling pathway by inhibition of Bad (Ser136) phosphorylation and 14-3-3 expression. In addition, lupeol treatment inhibited cell survival by inactivation of NFkappaB through upregulation of its inhibitor Ikappabetaalpha. The Caspase mediated apoptosis was noticed by decrease in lupeol induced apoptosis by Caspase inhibitors as well as increase in reactive oxygen species generation and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. These results suggest that lupeol could be an effective anti-cancer agent and merits further investigation.

  4. Bromelain inhibits nuclear factor kappa-B translocation, driving human epidermoid carcinoma A431 and melanoma A375 cells through G(2)/M arrest to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bhui, Kulpreet; Tyagi, Shilpa; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Singh, Madhulika; Roy, Preeti; Singh, Richa; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2012-03-01

    Bromelain, obtained from pineapple, is already in use clinically as adjunct in chemotherapy. Our objective was to test its ability to act as a sole anti-cancer agent. Therefore, we describe its anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and subsequent anti-cancer effects in vitro, against human epidermoid carcinoma-A431 and melanoma-A375 cells. Bromelain exhibited reduction in proliferation of both these cell-lines and suppressed their potential for anchorage-independent growth. Further, suppression of inflammatory signaling by bromelain was evident by inhibition of Akt regulated-nuclear factor-kappaB activation via suppression of inhibitory-kappaBα phosphorylation and concomitant reduction in cyclooxygenase-2. Since, the inflammatory cascade is well-known to be closely allied to cancer; we studied the effect of bromelain on events/molecules central to it. Bromelain caused depletion of intracellular glutathione and generation of reactive oxygen-species followed by mitochondrial membrane depolarization. This led to bromelain-induced cell-cycle arrest at G(2)/M phase which was mediated by modulation of cyclin B1, phospho-cdc25C, Plk1, phospho-cdc2, and myt1. This was subsequently followed by induction of apoptosis, indicated by membrane-blebbing, modulation of Bax-Bcl-2 ratio, Apaf-1, caspase-9, and caspase-3; chromatin-condensation, increase in caspase-activity and DNA-fragmentation. Bromelain afforded substantial anti-cancer potential in these settings; hence we suggest it as a potential prospect for anti-cancer agent besides only an additive in chemotherapy. Copyright ©2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-mediated epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor transinactivation and EGF receptor-independent stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase by bradykinin in A431 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Graness, A; Hanke, S; Boehmer, F D; Presek, P; Liebmann, C

    2000-01-01

    Transactivation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) has been proposed to represent an essential link between G-protein-coupled receptors and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in various cell types. In the present work we report, in contrast, that in A431 cells bradykinin transinactivates the EGFR and stimulates MAPK activity independently of EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation. Both effects of bradykinin are mediated by a pertussis-toxin-insensitive G-protein. Three lines of evidence suggest the activation of a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) by bradykinin: (i) treatment of A431 cells with bradykinin decreases both basal and EGF-induced EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation, (ii) this effect of bradykinin can be blocked by two different PTP inhibitors, and (iii) bradykinin significantly increased the PTP activity in total A431 cell lysates when measured in vitro. The transmembrane receptor PTP sigma was identified as a putative mediator of bradykinin-induced downregulation of EGFR autophosphorylation. Activation of MAPK in response to bradykinin was insensitive towards AG 1478, a specific inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine kinase, but was blocked by wortmannin or bisindolylmaleimide, inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) and protein kinase C (PKC) respectively. These results also suggest that the bradykinin-induced activation of MAPK is independent of EGFR and indicate a pathway involving PI3-K and PKC. In addition, bradykinin evokes a rapid and transient increase in Src kinase activity. Although Src does not participate in bradykinin-induced stimulation of PTP activity, inhibition of Src by 4-amino-5-(4-methylphenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo(3,4-d)pyrimidine leads to an increase in MAPK activation by bradykinin. Our results suggest that in A431 cells the G(q/11)-protein-coupled bradykinin B(2) receptor may stimulate PTP activity and thereby transinactivate the EGFR, and may simultaneously activate MAPK by an alternative signalling pathway

  6. 1,4-Naphthoquinone activates the HSP90/HSF1 pathway through the S-arylation of HSP90 in A431 cells: Negative regulation of the redox signal transduction pathway by persulfides/polysulfides.

    PubMed

    Abiko, Yumi; Sha, Liang; Shinkai, Yasuhiro; Unoki, Takamitsu; Luong, Nho Cong; Tsuchiya, Yukihiro; Watanabe, Yasuo; Hirose, Reiko; Akaike, Takaaki; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2017-03-01

    The current consensus is that environmental electrophiles activate redox signal transduction pathways through covalent modification of sensor proteins with reactive thiol groups at low concentrations, while they cause cell damage at higher concentrations. We previously exposed human carcinoma A431 cells to the atmospheric electrophile 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4-NQ) and found that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), a negative regulator of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), was a target of 1,4-NQ. In the study presented here, we determined whether 1,4-NQ activates HSF1. We also examined whether such redox signaling could be regulated by nucleophilic sulfur species. Exposure of A431 cells to 1,4-NQ covalently modified cellular HSP90, resulting in repression of the association between HSF1 with HSP90, thereby enhancing HSF1 translocation into the nuclei. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis with recombinant HSP90 revealed that the modifications site were Cys412 and Cys564. We found that HSF1 activation mediated by 1,4-NQ upregulated downstream genes, such as HSPA6. HSF1 knockdown accelerated 1,4-NQ-mediated cytotoxicity in the cells. While simultaneous treatment with reactive persulfide and polysulfide, Na 2 S 2 and Na 2 S 4 , blocked 1,4-NQ-dependent protein modification and HSF1 activation in A431 cells, the knockdown of Cys persulfide producing enzymes cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and/or cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) enhanced these phenomena. 1,4-NQ-thiol adduct and 1,4-NQ-S-1,4-NQ adduct were produced during the enzymatic reaction of recombinant CSE in the presence of 1,4-NQ. The results suggest that activation of the HSP90-HSF1 signal transduction pathway mediated by 1,4-NQ protects cells against 1,4-NQ and that per/polysulfides can diminish the reactivity of 1,4-NQ by forming sulfur adducts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Detergent solubilization of the EGF receptor from A431 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayanidhi, R.; Rintoul, D. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Functional reconstitution of purified preparations of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) requires dissociation of the protein from its plasma membrane lipid environment. Solubilization of membrane proteins in this manner requires the use of detergents, which are known to disrupt plasma membrane lipid/protein interactions. We have investigated the ability of three nonionic detergents to solubilize the human EGFR selectively, and have also analyzed the effect of these various treatments on the intrinsic tyrosyl kinase activity of the receptor. The nonionic detergent known as n-octyl glucoside (n-octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside) was found to give the best combination of selectivity, yield, and maintenance of enzymatic activity of the human EGFR.

  8. 77 FR 5489 - Identification of Human Cell Lines Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ...-01] Identification of Human Cell Lines Project AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology... cell line samples as part of the Identification of Human Cell Lines Project. All data and corresponding... cell lines accepted on the NIST Applied Genetics Group Web site at http://www.nist.gov/mml/biochemical...

  9. Identification of cells initiating human melanomas.

    PubMed

    Schatton, Tobias; Murphy, George F; Frank, Natasha Y; Yamaura, Kazuhiro; Waaga-Gasser, Ana Maria; Gasser, Martin; Zhan, Qian; Jordan, Stefan; Duncan, Lyn M; Weishaupt, Carsten; Fuhlbrigge, Robert C; Kupper, Thomas S; Sayegh, Mohamed H; Frank, Markus H

    2008-01-17

    Tumour-initiating cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation, which are responsible for tumour growth, have been identified in human haematological malignancies and solid cancers. If such minority populations are associated with tumour progression in human patients, specific targeting of tumour-initiating cells could be a strategy to eradicate cancers currently resistant to systemic therapy. Here we identify a subpopulation enriched for human malignant-melanoma-initiating cells (MMIC) defined by expression of the chemoresistance mediator ABCB5 (refs 7, 8) and show that specific targeting of this tumorigenic minority population inhibits tumour growth. ABCB5+ tumour cells detected in human melanoma patients show a primitive molecular phenotype and correlate with clinical melanoma progression. In serial human-to-mouse xenotransplantation experiments, ABCB5+ melanoma cells possess greater tumorigenic capacity than ABCB5- bulk populations and re-establish clinical tumour heterogeneity. In vivo genetic lineage tracking demonstrates a specific capacity of ABCB5+ subpopulations for self-renewal and differentiation, because ABCB5+ cancer cells generate both ABCB5+ and ABCB5- progeny, whereas ABCB5- tumour populations give rise, at lower rates, exclusively to ABCB5- cells. In an initial proof-of-principle analysis, designed to test the hypothesis that MMIC are also required for growth of established tumours, systemic administration of a monoclonal antibody directed at ABCB5, shown to be capable of inducing antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in ABCB5+ MMIC, exerted tumour-inhibitory effects. Identification of tumour-initiating cells with enhanced abundance in more advanced disease but susceptibility to specific targeting through a defining chemoresistance determinant has important implications for cancer therapy.

  10. Identification of cells initiating human melanomas

    PubMed Central

    Schatton, Tobias; Murphy, George F.; Frank, Natasha Y.; Yamaura, Kazuhiro; Waaga-Gasser, Ana Maria; Gasser, Martin; Zhan, Qian; Jordan, Stefan; Duncan, Lyn M.; Weishaupt, Carsten; Fuhlbrigge, Robert C.; Kupper, Thomas S.; Sayegh, Mohamed H.; Frank, Markus H.

    2012-01-01

    Tumour-initiating cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation, which are responsible for tumour growth, have been identified in human haematological malignancies1,2 and solid cancers3–6. If such minority populations are associated with tumour progression in human patients, specific targeting of tumour-initiating cells could be a strategy to eradicate cancers currently resistant to systemic therapy. Here we identify a subpopulation enriched for human malignant-melanoma-initiating cells (MMIC) defined by expression of the chemoresistance mediator ABCB5 (refs 7, 8) and show that specific targeting of this tumorigenic minority population inhibits tumour growth. ABCB5+ tumour cells detected in human melanoma patients show a primitive molecular phenotype and correlate with clinical melanoma progression. In serial human-to-mouse xenotransplantation experiments, ABCB5+ melanoma cells possess greater tumorigenic capacity than ABCB5− bulk populations and re-establish clinical tumour heterogeneity. In vivo genetic lineage tracking demonstrates a specific capacity of ABCB5+ sub-populations for self-renewal and differentiation, because ABCB5+ cancer cells generate both ABCB5+ and ABCB5− progeny, whereas ABCB5− tumour populations give rise, at lower rates, exclusively to ABCB5− cells. In an initial proof-of-principle analysis, designed to test the hypothesis that MMIC are also required for growth of established tumours, systemic administration of a monoclonal antibody directed at ABCB5, shown to be capable of inducing antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in ABCB5+ MMIC, exerted tumour-inhibitory effects. Identification of tumour-initiating cells with enhanced abundance in more advanced disease but susceptibility to specific targeting through a defining chemoresistance determinant has important implications for cancer therapy. PMID:18202660

  11. Identification of Metastatic Tumor Stem Cell

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    addition to a tumor stem cell , an existence of a metastatic stem cell is predicted. Despite the critical importance of the concept, this idea has not been...isolating stem cell population from a unique set of breast tumor cell lines and by examining their metastatic behavior in an animal model. The overall...will (i) isolate stem - cell population from non-metastatic and metastatic cells of a pair of syngenic breast tumor cell lines, and test their metastatic

  12. Identification and isolation of adult liver stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Minoru; Miyajima, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Hepatoblasts are considered to be liver stem/progenitor cells in the fetus because they propagate and differentiate into two types of liver epithelial cells, hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. In adults, oval cells that emerge in severely injured liver are considered facultative hepatic stem/progenitor cells. However, the nature of oval cells has remained unclear for long time due to the lack of a method to isolate them. It has also been unclear whether liver stem/progenitor cells exist in normal adult liver. Recently, we and others have successfully identified oval cells and adult liver stem/progenitor cells. Here, we describe the identification and isolation of mouse liver stem/progenitor cells by utilizing antibodies against specific cell surface marker molecules.

  13. Identification of cell density signal molecule

    DOEpatents

    Schwarz, Richard I.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a novel proteinaceous cell density signal molecule (CDS) between 25 and 35 kD, which is secreted by fibroblastic primary avian tendon cells in culture, and causes the cells to self-regulate their proliferation and the expression of differentiated function. It effects an increase of procollagen production in avian tendon cell cultures of ten fold while proliferation rates are decreased. CDS, and the antibodies which recognize them, are important for the development of diagnostics and treatments for injuries and diseases involving connective tissues, particularly tendon. Also disclosed are methods of production and use.

  14. Identification of cell density signal molecule

    DOEpatents

    Schwarz, R.I.

    1998-04-21

    Disclosed herein is a novel proteinaceous cell density signal molecule (CDS) between 25 and 35 kD, which is secreted by fibroblastic primary avian tendon cells in culture, and causes the cells to self-regulate their proliferation and the expression of differentiated function. It effects an increase of procollagen production in avian tendon cell cultures of ten fold while proliferation rates are decreased. CDS, and the antibodies which recognize them, are important for the development of diagnostics and treatments for injuries and diseases involving connective tissues, particularly tendon. Also disclosed are methods of production and use. 2 figs.

  15. Quantitative identification of senescent cells in aging and disease.

    PubMed

    Biran, Anat; Zada, Lior; Abou Karam, Paula; Vadai, Ezra; Roitman, Lior; Ovadya, Yossi; Porat, Ziv; Krizhanovsky, Valery

    2017-08-01

    Senescent cells are present in premalignant lesions and sites of tissue damage and accumulate in tissues with age. In vivo identification, quantification and characterization of senescent cells are challenging tasks that limit our understanding of the role of senescent cells in diseases and aging. Here, we present a new way to precisely quantify and identify senescent cells in tissues on a single-cell basis. The method combines a senescence-associated beta-galactosidase assay with staining of molecular markers for cellular senescence and of cellular identity. By utilizing technology that combines flow cytometry with high-content image analysis, we were able to quantify senescent cells in tumors, fibrotic tissues, and tissues of aged mice. Our approach also yielded the finding that senescent cells in tissues of aged mice are larger than nonsenescent cells. Thus, this method provides a basis for quantitative assessment of senescent cells and it offers proof of principle for combination of different markers of senescence. It paves the way for screening of senescent cells for identification of new senescence biomarkers, genes that bypass senescence or senolytic compounds that eliminate senescent cells, thus enabling a deeper understanding of the senescent state in vivo. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Identification of Potential Germ-Cell Mutagens

    EPA Science Inventory

    The existence of agents that can induce germ-cell mutations in experimental systems has been recognized since 1927 with the discovery of the ability of X-rays to induce such mutations in Drosophila. Various rodent-based germ-cell mutation assays have been developed, and ~50 germ...

  17. Identification of a novel rhabdovirus in Spodoptera frugiperda cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hailun; Galvin, Teresa A; Glasner, Dustin R; Shaheduzzaman, Syed; Khan, Arifa S

    2014-06-01

    The Sf9 cell line, derived from Spodoptera frugiperda, is used as a cell substrate for biological products, and no viruses have been reported in this cell line after extensive testing. We used degenerate PCR assays and massively parallel sequencing (MPS) to identify a novel RNA virus belonging to the order Mononegavirales in Sf9 cells. Sequence analysis of the assembled virus genome showed the presence of five open reading frames (ORFs) corresponding to the genes for the N, P, M, G, and L proteins in other rhabdoviruses and an unknown ORF of 111 amino acids located between the G- and L-protein genes. BLAST searches indicated that the S. frugiperda rhabdovirus (Sf-rhabdovirus) was related in a limited region of the L-protein gene to Taastrup virus, a newly discovered member of the Mononegavirales from a leafhopper (Hemiptera), and also to plant rhabdoviruses, particularly in the genus Cytorhabdovirus. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences in the L-protein gene indicated that Sf-rhabdovirus is a novel virus that branched with Taastrup virus. Rhabdovirus morphology was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy of filtered supernatant samples from Sf9 cells. Infectivity studies indicated potential transient infection by Sf-rhabdovirus in other insect cell lines, but there was no evidence of entry or virus replication in human cell lines. Sf-rhabdovirus sequences were also found in the Sf21 parental cell line of Sf9 cells but not in other insect cell lines, such as BT1-TN-5B1-4 (Tn5; High Five) cells and Schneider's Drosophila line 2 [D.Mel.(2); SL2] cells, indicating a species-specific infection. The results indicate that conventional methods may be complemented by state-of-the-art technologies with extensive bioinformatics analysis for identification of novel viruses. The Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cell line is used as a cell substrate for the development and manufacture of biological products. Extensive testing has not previously identified any viruses in this cell

  18. Identification of a Novel Rhabdovirus in Spodoptera frugiperda Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hailun; Galvin, Teresa A.; Glasner, Dustin R.; Shaheduzzaman, Syed

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Sf9 cell line, derived from Spodoptera frugiperda, is used as a cell substrate for biological products, and no viruses have been reported in this cell line after extensive testing. We used degenerate PCR assays and massively parallel sequencing (MPS) to identify a novel RNA virus belonging to the order Mononegavirales in Sf9 cells. Sequence analysis of the assembled virus genome showed the presence of five open reading frames (ORFs) corresponding to the genes for the N, P, M, G, and L proteins in other rhabdoviruses and an unknown ORF of 111 amino acids located between the G- and L-protein genes. BLAST searches indicated that the S. frugiperda rhabdovirus (Sf-rhabdovirus) was related in a limited region of the L-protein gene to Taastrup virus, a newly discovered member of the Mononegavirales from a leafhopper (Hemiptera), and also to plant rhabdoviruses, particularly in the genus Cytorhabdovirus. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences in the L-protein gene indicated that Sf-rhabdovirus is a novel virus that branched with Taastrup virus. Rhabdovirus morphology was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy of filtered supernatant samples from Sf9 cells. Infectivity studies indicated potential transient infection by Sf-rhabdovirus in other insect cell lines, but there was no evidence of entry or virus replication in human cell lines. Sf-rhabdovirus sequences were also found in the Sf21 parental cell line of Sf9 cells but not in other insect cell lines, such as BT1-TN-5B1-4 (Tn5; High Five) cells and Schneider's Drosophila line 2 [D.Mel.(2); SL2] cells, indicating a species-specific infection. The results indicate that conventional methods may be complemented by state-of-the-art technologies with extensive bioinformatics analysis for identification of novel viruses. IMPORTANCE The Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cell line is used as a cell substrate for the development and manufacture of biological products. Extensive testing has not previously identified any

  19. Identification of progenitor cancer stem cell in lentigo maligna melanoma.

    PubMed

    Bongiorno, M R; Doukaki, S; Malleo, F; Aricò, M

    2008-07-01

    The potential role of stem cells in neoplasia has aroused considerable interest over the past few years. A number of known biologic characteristics of melanomas support the theory that they may originate in a mutated stem cell. Melanocytic stem cell markers have been described recently. Moreover, the CD133 cells that show surface markers for CD34 are stem cells primitive. These stem cells are capable of differentiating into neurons, glia, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, and melanocytes in vitro. The identification of cancer stem/initiating cells with a crucial role in tumor formation may open up new pharmacologic perspectives. The purpose of this study is to detect the expression of CD133 and CD34, two putative markers of cancer stem cells in the lentigo maligna melanoma. Thirty cases of lentigo maligna melanoma were analyzed using indirect immunohistochemical staining. The vast majority of the samples analyzed showed the presence of rare cells, which were clearly positive for CD133 and CD34. Strong CD133 and CD34 staining was found in the outer root sheath of the mid-lower hair follicles, intermixed with atypical melanocytes extending along layers of the hair follicles. A number of these staminal cells were adjacent and intermixed with melanoma cells. This study supports the stem cell origin of this tumor and suggests that the precursor of the melanoma in question is a stem-like cell rather than the primitive melanoblast committed to be exclusively involved in melanocytic differentiation.

  20. Identification and Manipulation of Memory Engram Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Ramirez, Steve; Redondo, Roger L; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    How memories are formed and stored in the brain remains a fascinating question in neuroscience. Here we discuss the memory engram theory, our recent attempt to identify and manipulate memory engram cells in the brain with optogenetics, and how these methods are used to address questions such as how false memory is formed and how the valence of a memory can be changed in the brain. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  1. Biologically synthesised silver nanoparticles from three diverse family of plant extracts and their anticancer activity against epidermoid A431 carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Debasis; Pradhan, Sonali; Ashe, Sarbani; Rauta, Pradipta Ranjan; Nayak, Bismita

    2015-11-01

    Biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles is a cost effective natural process where the phytochemicals specifically phenols, flavonoids and terpenoids present in the plant extracts act as capping and reducing agent. Due to their nano size regime the silver nanoparticles may directly bind to the DNA of the pathogenic bacterial strains leading to higher antimicrobial activity. In the current study silver nanoparticles were synthesised using plant extracts from different origin Cucurbita maxima (petals), Moringa oleifera (leaves) and Acorus calamus (rhizome). The synthesised nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (Fe-SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Highly crystalline, roughly spherical and cuboidal silver nanoparticles of 30-70 nm in size were synthesised. The nanoparticles provided strong antimicrobial activity against pathogenic strains. The effect of the synthesised nanoparticles against A431 skin cancer cell line was tested for their toxicity by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye. The IC50 values of 82.39±3.1, 83.57±3.9 and 78.58±2.7 μg/ml were calculated for silver nanoparticles synthesised by C. maxima, M. oleifera and A. calamus respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of Human Cutaneous Basal Cell Carcinoma Cancer Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Huw; Olivero, Carlotta; Patel, Girish K

    2018-04-20

    The cancer stem cell model states that a subset of tumor cells, called "cancer stem cells," can initiate and propagate tumor growth through self-renewal, high proliferative capacity, and their ability to recreate tumor heterogeneity. In basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we have shown that tumor cells that express the cell surface protein CD200 fulfill the cancer stem cell hypothesis. CD200+ CD45- BCC cells represent 0.05-3.96% of all BCC cells and reside in small clusters at the tumor periphery. Using a novel, reproducible in vivo xenograft growth assay, we determined that tumor-initiating cell (TIC) frequencies are approximately 1 per 1.5 million unsorted BCC cells. The CD200+ CD45- BCC subpopulation recreated BCC tumor growth in vivo with typical histological architecture and expression of sonic hedgehog-regulated genes. Reproducible in vivo BCC growth was achieved with as few as 10,000 CD200+ CD45- cells, representing ~1500-fold enrichment. The methods used to identify and purify CD200+ CD45- BCC cells, as well as characterize gene expression, are described herein.

  3. Identification of Epigenetic Changes in Prostate Cancer using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    0240 TITLE: Identification of Epigenetic Changes in Prostate Cancer using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Donna M...TITLE AND SUBTITLE I Identification of Epigenetic Changes in Prostate Cancer using 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells ... stem cells (iPSCs). Comparison of gene and protein expression of these prostatic iPSCs and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) revealed similarities but

  4. Identification and immunophenotypic characterization of normal and pathological mast cells.

    PubMed

    Morgado, José Mário; Sánchez-Muñoz, Laura; Teodósio, Cristina; Escribano, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are secretory cells that are central players in human allergic disease and immune responses. With the exception of a few pathological situations, MCs are usually present at relatively low frequencies in most tissues. Since their first description, MCs in tissues were identified mostly using their morphological characteristics and their typical coloration when stained with aniline dyes. However, increasing availability of highly specific antibodies now permits the use of fluorescence-based flow cytometry as the method of choice for the quantification, characterization, and purification of cells in suspension. This technique allows for a rapid analysis of thousands of events and for the identification of cells present at frequencies as low as one event in 10(6) unwanted cells. This method also permits for simultaneous characterization of multiple antigens at a single-cell level, which is ideal in order to study rare populations of cells like MCs. Here we describe the basis of flow cytometry-based immunophenotyping applied to the study of MC. The protocol focuses on the study of human MCs present in body fluids (mainly bone marrow) but can easily be adapted to study MCs from other tissues and species.

  5. Identification of active and quiescent adipose vascular stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Guiting; Xin, Zhongcheng; Zhang, Haiyang; Banie, Lia; Wang, Guifang; Qiu, Xuefeng; Ning, Hongxiu; Lue, Tom F; Lin, Ching-Shwun

    2012-02-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the existence of both active and quiescent stem cells in bone marrow, hair follicle and intestine. We attempted to identify active and quiescent vascular stromal cells (VSC) in adipose tissue. For identification of active VSC, adult rats were injected intraperitoneally with thymidine analog 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) and their subcutaneous tissue harvested 3 days later. For identification of quiescent VSC, newborn rats were injected intraperitoneally with EdU and their subcutaneous tissue harvested 9 weeks later. The harvested adipose tissues were examined for the co-localization of EdU with VSC marker CD34, smooth muscle marker SMA, endothelial marker RECA and pericyte marker CD140b. In adult rat adipose tissues harvested 3 days after EdU injection, there were 28.80 ± 8.70 (mean ± SD) EdU+ cells/100 × microscopic field, and approximately 6.2% of cell nuclei were labeled with EdU. The percentages of EdU+ cells expressing the following markers were approximately: 84 for CD34, 5.6 for RECA (rat endothelial marker), 3.7 for SMA and 14.8 for CD140b. In the adipose tissues of newborn rats that were harvested 9 weeks after EdU injection, the percentages of EdU+ cells expressing the following markers were approximately: 76 for CD34, 1.8 for RECA, 0 for SMA and 12.9 for CD140b. In both the short-term (active) and long-term (quiescent) EdU-labeled adipose tissues, the EdU label was consistently co-localized with CD34 and in the proximity of CD140b stain or in the adventitia. Both active and quiescent VSC expressed CD34 and localized to capillaries and the adventitia of larger blood vessels.

  6. Single-cell genetic analysis validates cytopathological identification of circulating cancer cells in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Broncy, Lucile; Njima, Basma Ben; Méjean, Arnaud; Béroud, Christophe; Romdhane, Khaled Ben; Ilie, Marius; Hofman, Veronique; Muret, Jane; Hofman, Paul; Bouhamed, Habiba Chaabouni; Paterlini-Bréchot, And Patrizia

    2018-04-13

    Circulating Rare Cells (CRC) are non-haematological cells circulating in blood. They include Circulating Cancer Cells (CCC) and cells with uncertain malignant features (CRC-UMF) according to cytomorphology. Clear cell renal cell carcinomas frequently bear a mutated Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene. To match blind genetic analysis of CRC and tumor samples with CRC cytopathological diagnosis. 29/30 patients harboured CRC (20 harboured CCC, 29 CRC-UMF) and 25/29 patients carried VHL mutations in their tumour. 205 single CRC (64 CCC, 141 CRC-UMF) provided genetic data. 57/57 CCC and 104/125 CRC-UMF from the 25 patients with VHL-mutated tumor carried the same VHL mutation detected in the tumor. Seven CCC and 16 CRC-UMF did not carry VHL mutations but were found in patients with wild-type VHL tumor tissue. All the CCC and 83,2% (104/125) of the CRC-UMF were found to carry the same VHL mutation identified in the corresponding tumorous tissue, validating cytopathological identification of CCC in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. The blood of 30 patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma was treated by ISET ® for CRC isolation, cytopathology and single-cell VHL mutations analysis, performed blindly and compared to VHL mutations of corresponding tumor tissues and leukocytes.

  7. Identification of multipotent stem cells from adult dog periodontal ligament.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Jun; Zhao, Yu-Ming; Lin, Bi-Chen; Yang, Jie; Ge, Li-Hong

    2012-08-01

    Periodontal diseases, which are characterized by destruction of the connective tissues responsible for restraining the teeth within the jaw, are the main cause of tooth loss. Periodontal regeneration mediated by human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) may offer an alternative strategy for the treatment of periodontal disease. Dogs are a widely used large-animal model for the study of periodontal-disease progression, tissue regeneration, and dental implants, but little attention has been paid to the identification of the cells involved in this species. This study aimed to characterize stem cells isolated from canine periodontal ligament (cPDLSCs). The cPDLSCs, like hPDLSCs, showed clonogenic capability and expressed the mesenchymal stem cell markers STRO-1, CD146, and CD105, but not CD34. After induction of osteogenesis, cPDLSCs showed calcium accumulation in vitro. Moreover, cPDLSCs also showed both adipogenic and chondrogenic potential. Compared with cell-free controls, more cementum/periodontal ligament-like structures were observed in CB-17/SCID mice into which cPDLSCs had been transplanted. These results suggest that cPDLSCs are clonogenic, highly proliferative, and have multidifferentiation potential, and that they could be used as a new cellular therapeutic approach to facilitate successful and more predictable regeneration of periodontal tissue using a canine model of periodontal disease. © 2012 Eur J Oral Sci.

  8. 76 FR 16609 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Identification of Human Cell Lines Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Identification of Human Cell Lines Project AGENCY: National Institute of... by short tandem repeat (STR) profiling up to 1500 human cell line samples as part of the Identification of Human Cell Lines Project. All data and corresponding information will be posted in a publically...

  9. An immunohistochemical identification key for cell types in adult mouse prostatic and urethral tissue sections

    PubMed Central

    Turco, Anne E.; Gottschalk, Adam; Halberg, Richard B.; Guo, Jinjin; McMahon, Jill A.; McMahon, Andrew P.

    2017-01-01

    Though many methods can be used to identify cell types contained in complex tissues, most require cell disaggregation and destroy information about where cells reside in relation to their microenvironment. Here, we describe a polytomous key for cell type identification in intact sections of adult mouse prostate and prostatic urethra. The key is organized as a decision tree and initiates with one round of immunostaining for nerve, epithelial, fibromuscular/hematolymphoid, or vascular associated cells. Cell identities are recursively eliminated by subsequent staining events until the remaining pool of potential cell types can be distinguished by direct comparison to other cells. We validated our identification key using wild type adult mouse prostate and urethra tissue sections and it currently resolves sixteen distinct cell populations which include three nerve fiber types as well as four epithelial, five fibromuscular/hematolymphoid, one nerve-associated, and three vascular-associated cell types. We demonstrate two uses of this novel identification methodology. We first used the identification key to characterize prostate stromal cell type changes in response to constitutive phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase activation in prostate epithelium. We then used the key to map cell lineages in a new reporter mouse strain driven by Wnt10aem1(cre/ERT2)Amc. The identification key facilitates rigorous and reproducible cell identification in prostate tissue sections and can be expanded to resolve additional cell types as new antibodies and other resources become available. PMID:29145476

  10. Selection of peptidoglycan-specific aptamers for bacterial cells identification.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Iêda Mendes; de Souza Lacerda, Camila Maria; de Faria, Lígia Santana; Corrêa, Cristiane Rodrigues; de Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro

    2014-12-01

    Peptidoglycan is a highly complex and essential macromolecule of bacterial outer cell wall; it is a heteropolymer made up of linear glycan strands cross-linked by peptides. Peptidoglycan has a particular composition which makes it a possible target for specific bacterial recognition. Aptamers are single-stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that bind to target molecules with high affinity and specificity. Aptamers can be labeled with different radioisotopes and possess several properties that make them suitable for molecular imaging. The purpose of this study was to obtain aptamers for use as radiopharmaceutical in bacterial infection diagnosis. Two aptamers (Antibac1 and Antibac2) against peptidoglycan were selected through the Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) methodology. The dissociation constant (Kd) for Antibac1 was 0.415 + 0.047 μM and for Antibac2 was 1.261 + 0.280 μM. These aptamers labeled with (32)P showed high affinity for Staphylococcus aureus cells. The binding to S. aureus and Escherichia coli in vitro were significantly higher than for Candida albicans and human fibroblasts, demonstrating their specificity for bacterial cells. These results point Antibac1 and Antibac2 as promising tools for bacterial infections identification.

  11. Fluorescent protein vectors for pancreatic islet cell identification in live-cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Hongyan; Xu, Yunjian; Yu, Qian; Gylfe, Erik; Tengholm, Anders

    2016-10-01

    The islets of Langerhans contain different types of endocrine cells, which are crucial for glucose homeostasis. β- and α-cells that release insulin and glucagon, respectively, are most abundant, whereas somatostatin-producing δ-cells and particularly pancreatic polypeptide-releasing PP-cells are more scarce. Studies of islet cell function are hampered by difficulties to identify the different cell types, especially in live-cell imaging experiments when immunostaining is unsuitable. The aim of the present study was to create a set of vectors for fluorescent protein expression with cell-type-specific promoters and evaluate their applicability in functional islet imaging. We constructed six adenoviral vectors for expression of red and green fluorescent proteins controlled by the insulin, preproglucagon, somatostatin, or pancreatic polypeptide promoters. After transduction of mouse and human islets or dispersed islet cells, a majority of the fluorescent cells also immunostained for the appropriate hormone. Recordings of the sub-plasma membrane Ca(2+) and cAMP concentrations with a fluorescent indicator and a protein biosensor, respectively, showed that labeled cells respond to glucose and other modulators of secretion and revealed a striking variability in Ca(2+) signaling among α-cells. The measurements allowed comparison of the phase relationship of Ca(2+) oscillations between different types of cells within intact islets. We conclude that the fluorescent protein vectors allow easy identification of specific islet cell types and can be used in live-cell imaging together with organic dyes and genetically encoded biosensors. This approach will facilitate studies of normal islet physiology and help to clarify molecular defects and disturbed cell interactions in diabetic islets.

  12. Morphological Identification and Single-Cell Genomics of Marine Diplonemids.

    PubMed

    Gawryluk, Ryan M R; Del Campo, Javier; Okamoto, Noriko; Strassert, Jürgen F H; Lukeš, Julius; Richards, Thomas A; Worden, Alexandra Z; Santoro, Alyson E; Keeling, Patrick J

    2016-11-21

    Recent global surveys of marine biodiversity have revealed that a group of organisms known as "marine diplonemids" constitutes one of the most abundant and diverse planktonic lineages [1]. Though discovered over a decade ago [2, 3], their potential importance was unrecognized, and our knowledge remains restricted to a single gene amplified from environmental DNA, the 18S rRNA gene (small subunit [SSU]). Here, we use single-cell genomics (SCG) and microscopy to characterize ten marine diplonemids, isolated from a range of depths in the eastern North Pacific Ocean. Phylogenetic analysis confirms that the isolates reflect the entire range of marine diplonemid diversity, and comparisons to environmental SSU surveys show that sequences from the isolates range from rare to superabundant, including the single most common marine diplonemid known. SCG generated a total of ∼915 Mbp of assembled sequence across all ten cells and ∼4,000 protein-coding genes with homologs in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthology database, distributed across categories expected for heterotrophic protists. Models of highly conserved genes indicate a high density of non-canonical introns, lacking conventional GT-AG splice sites. Mapping metagenomic datasets [4] to SCG assemblies reveals virtually no overlap, suggesting that nuclear genomic diversity is too great for representative SCG data to provide meaningful phylogenetic context to metagenomic datasets. This work provides an entry point to the future identification, isolation, and cultivation of these elusive yet ecologically important cells. The high density of nonconventional introns, however, also portends difficulty in generating accurate gene models and highlights the need for the establishment of stable cultures and transcriptomic analyses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of novel kynurenine production-inhibiting benzenesulfonamide derivatives in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Shintaro; Takai, Kazushige; Isaka, Yoshinobu; Takahashi, Susumu; Unno, Yuka; Ogo, Naohisa; Matsuno, Kenji; Takikawa, Osamu; Asai, Akira

    2012-03-16

    Kynurenine (Kyn), a metabolite of tryptophan (Trp), is known to be a key regulator of human immune responses including cancer immune tolerance. Therefore, abrogation of Kyn production from cancer cells by small molecules may be a promising approach to anticancer therapy. Indeed, several small molecule inhibitors of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism of Trp to Kyn, exert antitumor effects in animal models. We screened our chemical libraries using a cell-based Kyn production assay to identify a new type of small molecules that regulate Kyn production, and for the first time identified a benzenesulfonamide derivative (compound 1) as a hit with the ability to inhibit Kyn production in interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-stimulated A431 and HeLa cells. Unlike the previously identified S-benzylisothiourea derivative, compound 2, compound 1 had little effect on the enzymatic activity of recombinant human IDO in vitro but suppressed the expression of IDO at the mRNA level in cells. Furthermore, compound 1 suppressed STAT1-dependent transcriptional activity and DNA binding, whereas no decrement in either the expression or phosphorylation level of STAT1 was observed. The inhibition of IDO expression by several benzenesulfonamide derivatives is associated with the suppression of STAT1. Thus, compound 1 and its analogs might be useful for analyzing the regulation of IDO activation, and STAT1-targeting could be an alternative to the IDO-directed approach for the regulation of Kyn levels by small molecules in the tumor microenvironment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of Cell Surface Molecules Involved in Dystroglycan-Independent Lassa Virus Cell Entry

    PubMed Central

    Ströher, Ute; Ebihara, Hideki; Feldmann, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Although O-mannosylated dystroglycan is a receptor for Lassa virus, a causative agent of Lassa fever, recent findings suggest the existence of an alternative receptor(s). Here we identified four molecules as receptors for Lassa virus: Axl and Tyro3, from the TAM family, and dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) and liver and lymph node sinusoidal endothelial calcium-dependent lectin (LSECtin), from the C-type lectin family. These molecules enhanced the binding of Lassa virus to cells and mediated infection independently of dystroglycan. Axl- or Tyro3-mediated infection required intracellular signaling via the tyrosine kinase activity of Axl or Tyro3, whereas DC-SIGN- or LSECtin-mediated infection and binding were dependent on a specific carbohydrate and on ions. The identification of these four molecules as Lassa virus receptors advances our understanding of Lassa virus cell entry. PMID:22156524

  15. Identification and characterization of polyclonal αβ T cells with dendritic cell properties

    PubMed Central

    Kuka, Mirela; Munitic, Ivana; Ashwell, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    An efficient immune response requires coordination between innate and adaptive immunity, which act through cells different in origin and function. Here we report the identification of thymus-derived αβ TCR+ cells that express CD11c and MHC class II, and require FLT3L for development (TDC). TDC express genes heretofore found uniquely in T cells or DC, as well as a distinctive signature of cytotoxicity-related genes. Unlike other innate T cell subsets, TDC have a polyclonal TCR repertoire andrespond to cognate antigens. However, they differ from conventional T cells in that they do not require help from antigen-presenting cells, respond to TLR-mediated stimulation by producing IL-12 and process and present antigen. The physiologic relevance of TDC, found in mice and humans, is still under investigation, but the fact that they combine key features of T and DC cells suggests that they provide a bridge between the innate and adaptive immune systems. PMID:23187623

  16. Automatic digital image analysis for identification of mitotic cells in synchronous mammalian cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Eccles, B A; Klevecz, R R

    1986-06-01

    Mitotic frequency in a synchronous culture of mammalian cells was determined fully automatically and in real time using low-intensity phase-contrast microscopy and a newvicon video camera connected to an EyeCom III image processor. Image samples, at a frequency of one per minute for 50 hours, were analyzed by first extracting the high-frequency picture components, then thresholding and probing for annular objects indicative of putative mitotic cells. Both the extraction of high-frequency components and the recognition of rings of varying radii and discontinuities employed novel algorithms. Spatial and temporal relationships between annuli were examined to discern the occurrences of mitoses, and such events were recorded in a computer data file. At present, the automatic analysis is suited for random cell proliferation rate measurements or cell cycle studies. The automatic identification of mitotic cells as described here provides a measure of the average proliferative activity of the cell population as a whole and eliminates more than eight hours of manual review per time-lapse video recording.

  17. Cell identification using Raman spectroscopy in combination with optical trapping and microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafft, Christoph; Dochow, Sebastian; Beleites, Claudia; Popp, Jürgen

    2014-03-01

    Cell identification by Raman spectroscopy has evolved to be an attractive complement to established optical techniques. Raman activated cell sorting (RACS) offers prospects to complement the widely applied fluorescence activated cell sorting. RACS can be realized by combination with optical traps and microfluidic devices. The progress of RACS is reported for a cellular model system that can be found in peripheral blood of tumor patients. Lymphocytes and erythrocytes were extracted from blood samples. Breast carcinoma derived tumor cells (MCF-7, BT-20) and acute myeloid leukemia cells (OCI-AML3) were grown in cell cultures. First, Raman images were collected from dried cells on calcium fluoride slides. Support vector machines (SVM) classified 99.7% of the spectra to the correct cell type. Second, a 785 nm laser was used for optical trapping of single cells in aqueous buffer and for excitation of the Raman spectrum. SVM distinguished 1210 spectra of tumor and normal cells with a sensitivity of >99.7% and a specificity of >99.5%. Third, a microfluidic glass chip was designed to inject single cells, modify the flow speed, accommodate fibers of an optical trap and sort single cells after Raman based identification with 514 nm for excitation. Forth, the microfluidic chip was fabricated by quartz which improved cell identification results with 785 nm excitation. Here, partial least squares discriminant analysis gave classification rates of 98%. Finally, a Raman-on-chip approach was developed that integrates fibers for trapping, Raman excitation and signal detection in a single compact unit.

  18. [Isolation and identification of dog periodontal ligament stem cells].

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiu-Mei; Liu, Hong-Wei; Jin, Yan; Liu, Yuan; He, Hui-Xia

    2009-02-01

    To isolate, culture and identify a dog periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC) line in vitro. The adult dog periodontal ligament cells were isolated by limited dilution of culture cell for single cell clone. Cells originated from one of these clones were assessed through colony-forming efficiency and immunocytochemistry assay and alkaline phosphatase stain was used to identify the source of adult dog periodontal stem cells, at the same time, PDLSC were induced with mineralizatin solution and was found to have long protrude like an osteoblast. Differentiation of PDLSC were assessed. Mineralized potential was studied by Von-Kossa staining. The dog PDLSC expressed STRO-1, which was the marker of mesenchymal stem cells. Also Vimentin, osteoblast-like marker alkaline phosphatase and Collagen-I expressed weakly. Cells were clonegenic, highly proliferative cells and capable of differentiating into osteoblasts/cementoblasts. The evidence suggests that the cultured cells were stem cells from adult dog periodontal ligament.

  19. Identification and differentiation of hepatic stem cells during liver development.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Akihide; Gonzalez, Frank J; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

    2006-05-01

    Stem cells responsible for maintenance and repair of tissues are found in a number of organs. The liver's remarkable capacity to regenerate after hepatectomy or chemical-induced injury does not involve proliferation of stem cells. However, recent studies suggest that liver stem cells exist in both embryonic and adult livers. Using fluorescence-activated cell sorting and a culture system in which primitive hepatic progenitor cells form colonies, a novel class of cells with the marker profile c-Met(+)CD49f(+/low)c-Kit(-)CD45(-)TER119(-) was found in the developing liver. This class apparently represents the population of cells that form colonies containing distinct hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. When cells in this class are transplanted into the spleen or liver of mice subjected to liver injury, the cells migrate and differentiate into liver parenchymal cells and cholangiocytes that are morphologically and functionally indistinguishable from their native counterparts. During mid-gestation, hematopoietic cells migrate into the liver from a region bounded by aorta, gonad, and mesonephros and produce oncostatin M (OSM). In combination with glucocorticoid hormones, OSM induces maturation of liver stem and progenitor cells, including those of the c-Met(+)CD49f(+/low)c-Kit(-)CD45(-)TER119(-) class. The ability to manipulate the proliferation and differentiation of liver stem cells in vitro will greatly aid in analyzing mechanisms of liver development and offers promise in stem cell therapy of liver diseases.

  20. Isolation, Identification, and Culture of Human Lymphatic Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Lokmic, Zerina

    2016-01-01

    A protocol describing the isolation of foreskin lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) and lymphatic malformation lymphatic endothelial cells (LM LECs) is presented herein. To isolate LECs and LM LECs, tissues are mechanically disrupted to make a single-cell suspension, which is then enzymatically digested in dispase and collagenase type II. LECs and LM LECs, in the resulting single-cell suspension, are then sequentially labeled with antibodies recognizing fibroblast and endothelial cell surface antigens CD34 and CD31 and separated from the remaining components in the cell suspension by capture with magnetic beads. Viable LECs and LM LECs are then seeded and expanded on fibronectin-coated flasks. LEC and LM LEC purity is determined immunohistochemically using cell surface markers CD31, CD34, podoplanin, VEGFR-3 and nuclear marker PROX-1. Cells whose purity is >98 % are used for experiments between passage 4 and 6.

  1. Identification, Characterization, and Utilization of Adult Meniscal Progenitor Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    pluripotent stem cells for osteoarthritis drug screening . Arthritis Rheumatol. 66, 3062–3072. Xia, Y., Zheng, S., Bidthanapally, A., 2008. Depth-dependent...the development of knee osteoarthritis (OA). New treatments centered on the stem /progenitor cell population resident within the adult meniscus will be...biology to develop a profile of repair cells in the adult meniscus, track meniscal stem /progenitor cell (MSPC) behavior within meniscus as function of

  2. Identification, Characterization, and Utilization of Adult Meniscal Progenitor Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    the development of knee osteoarthritis (OA). New treatments centered on the stem/progenitor cell population resident within the adult meniscus will be...cells, stem cells, progenitor cells, meniscus healing, meniscus repair, osteoarthritis 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT...changes that occur after injury. As a result, meniscal injuries are a common underlying cause of post-traumatic osteoarthritis . This is particularly

  3. Identification, Characterization, and Utilization of Adult Meniscal Progenitor Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    development of knee osteoarthritis (OA). New treatments centered on the stem/progenitor cell population resident within the adult meniscus will be key to...cells, progenitor cells, meniscus healing, meniscus repair, osteoarthritis 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER...common underlying cause of post- traumatic osteoarthritis . This is particularly striking in young, healthy individuals such as military personnel

  4. Single cell adhesion force measurement for cell viability identification using an AFM cantilever-based micro putter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yajing; Nakajima, Masahiro; Kojima, Seiji; Homma, Michio; Kojima, Masaru; Fukuda, Toshio

    2011-11-01

    Fast and sensitive cell viability identification is a key point for single cell analysis. To address this issue, this paper reports a novel single cell viability identification method based on the measurement of single cell shear adhesion force using an atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever-based micro putter. Viable and nonviable yeast cells are prepared and put onto three kinds of substrate surfaces, i.e. tungsten probe, gold and ITO substrate surfaces. A micro putter is fabricated from the AFM cantilever by focused ion beam etching technique. The spring constant of the micro putter is calibrated using the nanomanipulation approach. The shear adhesion force between the single viable or nonviable cell and each substrate is measured using the micro putter based on the nanorobotic manipulation system inside an environmental scanning electron microscope. The adhesion force is calculated based on the deflection of the micro putter beam. The results show that the adhesion force of the viable cell to the substrate is much larger than that of the nonviable cell. This identification method is label free, fast, sensitive and can give quantitative results at the single cell level.

  5. Identification of transcript regulatory patterns in cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Gusnanto, Arief; Gosling, John Paul; Pope, Christopher

    2017-10-15

    Studying transcript regulatory patterns in cell differentiation is critical in understanding its complex nature of the formation and function of different cell types. This is done usually by measuring gene expression at different stages of the cell differentiation. However, if the gene expression data available are only from the mature cells, we have some challenges in identifying transcript regulatory patterns that govern the cell differentiation. We propose to exploit the information of the lineage of cell differentiation in terms of correlation structure between cell types. We assume that two different cell types that are close in the lineage will exhibit many common genes that are co-expressed relative to those that are far in the lineage. Current analysis methods tend to ignore this correlation by testing for differential expression assuming some sort of independence between cell types. We employ a Bayesian approach to estimate the posterior distribution of the mean of expression in each cell type, by taking into account the cell formation path in the lineage. This enables us to infer genes that are specific in each cell type, indicating the genes are involved in directing the cell differentiation to that particular cell type. We illustrate the method using gene expression data from a study of haematopoiesis. R codes to perform the analysis are available in http://www1.maths.leeds.ac.uk/∼arief/R/CellDiff/. a.gusnanto@leeds.ac.uk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Study on activity measurement of Nostoc flagelliforme cells based on color identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yizhong; Su, Jianyu; Liu, Tiegen; Kong, Fanzhi; Jia, Shiru

    2008-12-01

    In order to measure the activities of Nostoc flagelliforme cells, a new method based on color identification was proposed in this paper. N. flagelliforme cells were colored with fluoreseein diaeetate. Then, an image of colored N. flagelliforme cells was taken, and changed from RGB model to HIS model. Its histogram of hue H was calculated, which was used as the input of a designed BP network. The output of the BP network was the description of measured activity of N. flagelliforme cells. After training, the activity of N. flagelliforme cells was identified by the BP network according to the histogram of H of their colored image. Experiments were conducted with satisfied results to show the feasibility and usefulness of activity measurement of N. flagelliforme cells based on color identification.

  7. Identification and functional characterization of muscle satellite cells in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Heinrich

    2017-01-01

    Work on genetic model systems such as Drosophila and mouse has shown that the fundamental mechanisms of myogenesis are remarkably similar in vertebrates and invertebrates. Strikingly, however, satellite cells, the adult muscle stem cells that are essential for the regeneration of damaged muscles in vertebrates, have not been reported in invertebrates. In this study, we show that lineal descendants of muscle stem cells are present in adult muscle of Drosophila as small, unfused cells observed at the surface and in close proximity to the mature muscle fibers. Normally quiescent, following muscle fiber injury, we show that these cells express Zfh1 and engage in Notch-Delta-dependent proliferative activity and generate lineal descendant populations, which fuse with the injured muscle fiber. In view of strikingly similar morphological and functional features, we consider these novel cells to be the Drosophila equivalent of vertebrate muscle satellite cells. PMID:29072161

  8. Identification of Lectins from Metastatic Cancer Cells through Magnetic Glyconanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kavunja, Herbert W.; Voss, Patricia G.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells can have characteristic carbohydrate binding properties. Previously, it was shown that a highly metastatic melanoma cell line B16F10 bound to galacto-side-functionalized nanoparticles much stronger than the corresponding less metastatic B16F1 cells. To better understand the carbohydrate binding properties of cancer cells, herein, we report the isolation and characterization of endogenous galactose binding proteins from B16F10 cells using magnetic glyconanoparticles. The galactose-coated magnetic glyconanoparticles could bind with lectins present in the cells and be isolated through magnet-mediated separation. Through Western blot and mass spectrometry, the arginine/serine rich splicing factor Sfrs1 was identified as a galactose-selective endogenous lectin, overexpressed in B16F10 cells, compared with B16F1 cells. In addition, galactin-3 was found in higher amounts in B16F10 cells. Finally, the glyconanoparticles exhibited a superior efficiency in lectin isolation, from both protein mixtures and live cells, than the corresponding more traditional microparticles functionalized with carbohydrates. Thus, the magnetic glyconanoparticles present a useful tool for discovery of endogenous lectins, as well as binding partners of lectins, without prior knowledge of protein identities. PMID:27110035

  9. Induction and identification of rabbit peripheral blood derived dendritic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jing; Yang, FuYuan; Chen, WenLi

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To study a method of the induction of dendritic cells (DCs) from rabbit peripheral blood. Methods: Peripheral blood cells were removed from rabbit, filtered through nylon mesh. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from the blood cells by Ficoll-Hypaque centrifugation (density of 1.077g/cm3).To obtain DCs, PBMC were cultured in RPMI1640 medium containing 10% fetal calf serum, 50U/mL penicillin and streptomycin, referred to subsequently as complete medium, at 37°C in 5% CO2 atmosphere for 4 hours. Nonadherent cells were aspirated, adherent cells were continued incubated in complete medium, supplemented with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, 50ng/ml),and interleukin 4 (IL-4, 50ng/ml) for 9 days. Fluorescein labeled antibodies(anti-CD14, anti-HLA-DR, anti-CD86) were used to sign cells cultured for 3,6,9 days respectively, Then flow cytometry was performed. Results: Ratio of anti-HLA-DR and anti-CD86 labeled cells increased with induction time extension, in contrast with anti-CD14. Conclusion: Dendritic cells can be effectively induced by the method of this experiment, cell maturation status increased with induction time extension.

  10. Automated Photoreceptor Cell Identification on Nonconfocal Adaptive Optics Images Using Multiscale Circular Voting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianfei; Jung, HaeWon; Dubra, Alfredo; Tam, Johnny

    2017-09-01

    Adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) has enabled quantification of the photoreceptor mosaic in the living human eye using metrics such as cell density and average spacing. These rely on the identification of individual cells. Here, we demonstrate a novel approach for computer-aided identification of cone photoreceptors on nonconfocal split detection AOSLO images. Algorithms for identification of cone photoreceptors were developed, based on multiscale circular voting (MSCV) in combination with a priori knowledge that split detection images resemble Nomarski differential interference contrast images, in which dark and bright regions are present on the two sides of each cell. The proposed algorithm locates dark and bright region pairs, iteratively refining the identification across multiple scales. Identification accuracy was assessed in data from 10 subjects by comparing automated identifications with manual labeling, followed by computation of density and spacing metrics for comparison to histology and published data. There was good agreement between manual and automated cone identifications with overall recall, precision, and F1 score of 92.9%, 90.8%, and 91.8%, respectively. On average, computed density and spacing values using automated identification were within 10.7% and 11.2% of the expected histology values across eccentricities ranging from 0.5 to 6.2 mm. There was no statistically significant difference between MSCV-based and histology-based density measurements (P = 0.96, Kolmogorov-Smirnov 2-sample test). MSCV can accurately detect cone photoreceptors on split detection images across a range of eccentricities, enabling quick, objective estimation of photoreceptor mosaic metrics, which will be important for future clinical trials utilizing adaptive optics.

  11. Automated Photoreceptor Cell Identification on Nonconfocal Adaptive Optics Images Using Multiscale Circular Voting

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianfei; Jung, HaeWon; Dubra, Alfredo; Tam, Johnny

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) has enabled quantification of the photoreceptor mosaic in the living human eye using metrics such as cell density and average spacing. These rely on the identification of individual cells. Here, we demonstrate a novel approach for computer-aided identification of cone photoreceptors on nonconfocal split detection AOSLO images. Methods Algorithms for identification of cone photoreceptors were developed, based on multiscale circular voting (MSCV) in combination with a priori knowledge that split detection images resemble Nomarski differential interference contrast images, in which dark and bright regions are present on the two sides of each cell. The proposed algorithm locates dark and bright region pairs, iteratively refining the identification across multiple scales. Identification accuracy was assessed in data from 10 subjects by comparing automated identifications with manual labeling, followed by computation of density and spacing metrics for comparison to histology and published data. Results There was good agreement between manual and automated cone identifications with overall recall, precision, and F1 score of 92.9%, 90.8%, and 91.8%, respectively. On average, computed density and spacing values using automated identification were within 10.7% and 11.2% of the expected histology values across eccentricities ranging from 0.5 to 6.2 mm. There was no statistically significant difference between MSCV-based and histology-based density measurements (P = 0.96, Kolmogorov-Smirnov 2-sample test). Conclusions MSCV can accurately detect cone photoreceptors on split detection images across a range of eccentricities, enabling quick, objective estimation of photoreceptor mosaic metrics, which will be important for future clinical trials utilizing adaptive optics. PMID:28873173

  12. An overview on the identification of MAIT cell antigens.

    PubMed

    Kjer-Nielsen, Lars; Corbett, Alexandra J; Chen, Zhenjun; Liu, Ligong; Mak, Jeffrey Y W; Godfrey, Dale I; Rossjohn, Jamie; Fairlie, David P; McCluskey, James; Eckle, Sidonia B G

    2018-04-14

    Mucosal Associated Invariant T (MAIT) cells are restricted by the monomorphic MHC class I-like molecule, MHC-related protein-1 (MR1). Until 2012, the origin of the MAIT cell antigens (Ags) was unknown, although it was established that MAIT cells could be activated by a broad range of bacteria and yeasts, possibly suggesting a conserved Ag. Using a combination of protein chemistry, mass spectrometry, cellular biology, structural biology and chemistry, we discovered MAIT cell ligands derived from folic acid (vitamin B9) and from an intermediate in the microbial biosynthesis of riboflavin (vitamin B2). While the folate derivative 6-formylpterin (6-FP) generally inhibited MAIT cell activation, two riboflavin pathway derivatives, 5-(2-oxopropylideneamino)-6-D-ribitylaminouracil (5-OP-RU) and 5-(2-oxoethylideneamino)-6-D-ribitylaminouracil (5-OE-RU), were potent MAIT cell agonists. Other intermediates and derivatives of riboflavin synthesis displayed weak or no MAIT cell activation. Collectively, these studies revealed that in addition to peptide and lipid-based Ags, small molecule natural product metabolites are also ligands that can activate T cells expressing αβ T cell receptors, and here we recount this discovery. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic identification of brain cell types underlying schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Skene, Nathan G; Bryois, Julien; Bakken, Trygve E; Breen, Gerome; Crowley, James J; Gaspar, Héléna A; Giusti-Rodriguez, Paola; Hodge, Rebecca D; Miller, Jeremy A; Muñoz-Manchado, Ana B; O'Donovan, Michael C; Owen, Michael J; Pardiñas, Antonio F; Ryge, Jesper; Walters, James T R; Linnarsson, Sten; Lein, Ed S; Sullivan, Patrick F; Hjerling-Leffler, Jens

    2018-06-01

    With few exceptions, the marked advances in knowledge about the genetic basis of schizophrenia have not converged on findings that can be confidently used for precise experimental modeling. By applying knowledge of the cellular taxonomy of the brain from single-cell RNA sequencing, we evaluated whether the genomic loci implicated in schizophrenia map onto specific brain cell types. We found that the common-variant genomic results consistently mapped to pyramidal cells, medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and certain interneurons, but far less consistently to embryonic, progenitor or glial cells. These enrichments were due to sets of genes that were specifically expressed in each of these cell types. We also found that many of the diverse gene sets previously associated with schizophrenia (genes involved in synaptic function, those encoding mRNAs that interact with FMRP, antipsychotic targets, etc.) generally implicated the same brain cell types. Our results suggest a parsimonious explanation: the common-variant genetic results for schizophrenia point at a limited set of neurons, and the gene sets point to the same cells. The genetic risk associated with MSNs did not overlap with that of glutamatergic pyramidal cells and interneurons, suggesting that different cell types have biologically distinct roles in schizophrenia.

  14. Identification and Characterization of Cells with Cancer Stem Cell Properties in Human Primary Lung Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Suo, Zhenhe; Munthe, Else; Solberg, Steinar; Ma, Liwei; Wang, Mengyu; Westerdaal, Nomdo Anton Christiaan; Kvalheim, Gunnar; Gaudernack, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer (LC) with its different subtypes is generally known as a therapy resistant cancer with the highest morbidity rate worldwide. Therapy resistance of a tumor is thought to be related to cancer stem cells (CSCs) within the tumors. There have been indications that the lung cancer is propagated and maintained by a small population of CSCs. To study this question we established a panel of 15 primary lung cancer cell lines (PLCCLs) from 20 fresh primary tumors using a robust serum-free culture system. We subsequently focused on identification of lung CSCs by studying these cell lines derived from 4 representative lung cancer subtypes such as small cell lung cancer (SCLC), large cell carcinoma (LCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC). We identified a small population of cells strongly positive for CD44 (CD44high) and a main population which was either weakly positive or negative for CD44 (CD44low/−). Co-expression of CD90 further narrowed down the putative stem cell population in PLCCLs from SCLC and LCC as spheroid-forming cells were mainly found within the CD44highCD90+ sub-population. Moreover, these CD44highCD90+ cells revealed mesenchymal morphology, increased expression of mesenchymal markers N-Cadherin and Vimentin, increased mRNA levels of the embryonic stem cell related genes Nanog and Oct4 and increased resistance to irradiation compared to other sub-populations studied, suggesting the CD44highCD90+ population a good candidate for the lung CSCs. Both CD44highCD90+ and CD44highCD90− cells in the PLCCL derived from SCC formed spheroids, whereas the CD44low/− cells were lacking this potential. These results indicate that CD44highCD90+ sub-population may represent CSCs in SCLC and LCC, whereas in SCC lung cancer subtype, CSC potentials were found within the CD44high sub-population. PMID:23469181

  15. Identification of the zinc finger 216 (ZNF216) in human carcinoma cells: a potential regulator of EGFR activity

    PubMed Central

    Mincione, Gabriella; Di Marcantonio, Maria Carmela; Tarantelli, Chiara; Savino, Luca; Ponti, Donatella; Marchisio, Marco; Lanuti, Paola; Sancilio, Silvia; Calogero, Antonella; Di Pietro, Roberta; Muraro, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), a member of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) proteins, is aberrantly expressed or deregulated in tumors and plays pivotal roles in cancer onset and metastatic progression. ZNF216 gene has been identified as one of Immediate Early Genes (IEGs) induced by RTKs. Overexpression of ZNF216 protein sensitizes 293 cell line to TNF-α induced apoptosis. However, ZNF216 overexpression has been reported in medulloblastomas and metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinomas. Thus, the role of this protein is still not clearly understood. In this study, the inverse correlation between EGFR and ZNF216 expression was confirmed in various human cancer cell lines differently expressing EGFR. EGF treatment of NIH3T3 cells overexpressing both EGFR and ZNF216 (NIH3T3-EGFR/ZNF216), induced a long lasting activation of EGFR in the cytosolic fraction and an accumulation of phosphorylated EGFR (pEGFR) more in the nuclear than in the cytosolic fraction compared to NIH3T3-EGFR cells. Moreover, EGF was able to stimulate an increased expression of ZNF216 in the cytosolic compartment and its nuclear translocation in a time-dependent manner in NIH3T3-EGFR/ZNF216. A similar trend was observed in A431 cells endogenously expressing the EGFR and transfected with Znf216. The increased levels of pEGFR and ZNF216 in the nuclear fraction of NIH3T3-EGFR/ZNF216 cells were paralleled by increased levels of phospho-MAPK and phospho-Akt. Surprisingly, EGF treatment of NIH3T3-EGFR/ZNF216 cells induced a significant increase of apoptosis thus indicating that ZNF216 could sensitize cells to EGF-induced apoptosis and suggesting that it may be involved in the regulation and effects of EGFR signaling. PMID:27732953

  16. ALA-PpIX variability quantitatively imaged in A431 epidermoid tumors using in vivo ultrasound fluorescence tomography and ex vivo assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DSouza, Alisha V.; Flynn, Brendan P.; Gunn, Jason R.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Anand, Sanjay; Maytin, Edward V.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2014-03-01

    Treatment monitoring of Aminolevunilic-acid (ALA) - Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) of basal-cell carcinoma (BCC) calls for superficial and subsurface imaging techniques. While superficial imagers exist for this purpose, their ability to assess PpIX levels in thick lesions is poor; additionally few treatment centers have the capability to measure ALA-induced PpIX production. An area of active research is to improve treatments to deeper and nodular BCCs, because treatment is least effective in these. The goal of this work was to understand the logistics and technical capabilities to quantify PpIX at depths over 1mm, using a novel hybrid ultrasound-guided, fiber-based fluorescence molecular spectroscopictomography system. This system utilizes a 633nm excitation laser and detection using filtered spectrometers. Source and detection fibers are collinear so that their imaging plane matches that of ultrasound transducer. Validation with phantoms and tumor-simulating fluorescent inclusions in mice showed sensitivity to fluorophore concentrations as low as 0.025μg/ml at 4mm depth from surface, as presented in previous years. Image-guided quantification of ALA-induced PpIX production was completed in subcutaneous xenograft epidermoid cancer tumor model A431 in nude mice. A total of 32 animals were imaged in-vivo, using several time points, including pre-ALA, 4-hours post-ALA, and 24-hours post-ALA administration. On average, PpIX production in tumors increased by over 10-fold, 4-hours post-ALA. Statistical analysis of PpIX fluorescence showed significant difference among all groups; p<0.05. Results were validated by exvivo imaging of resected tumors. Details of imaging, analysis and results will be presented to illustrate variability and the potential for imaging these values at depth.

  17. An Improved Algorithm of Congruent Matching Cells (CMC) Method for Firearm Evidence Identifications.

    PubMed

    Tong, Mingsi; Song, John; Chu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The Congruent Matching Cells (CMC) method was invented at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for firearm evidence identifications. The CMC method divides the measured image of a surface area, such as a breech face impression from a fired cartridge case, into small correlation cells and uses four identification parameters to identify correlated cell pairs originating from the same firearm. The CMC method was validated by identification tests using both 3D topography images and optical images captured from breech face impressions of 40 cartridge cases fired from a pistol with 10 consecutively manufactured slides. In this paper, we discuss the processing of the cell correlations and propose an improved algorithm of the CMC method which takes advantage of the cell correlations at a common initial phase angle and combines the forward and backward correlations to improve the identification capability. The improved algorithm is tested by 780 pairwise correlations using the same optical images and 3D topography images as the initial validation.

  18. An Improved Algorithm of Congruent Matching Cells (CMC) Method for Firearm Evidence Identifications

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Mingsi; Song, John; Chu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The Congruent Matching Cells (CMC) method was invented at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for firearm evidence identifications. The CMC method divides the measured image of a surface area, such as a breech face impression from a fired cartridge case, into small correlation cells and uses four identification parameters to identify correlated cell pairs originating from the same firearm. The CMC method was validated by identification tests using both 3D topography images and optical images captured from breech face impressions of 40 cartridge cases fired from a pistol with 10 consecutively manufactured slides. In this paper, we discuss the processing of the cell correlations and propose an improved algorithm of the CMC method which takes advantage of the cell correlations at a common initial phase angle and combines the forward and backward correlations to improve the identification capability. The improved algorithm is tested by 780 pairwise correlations using the same optical images and 3D topography images as the initial validation. PMID:26958441

  19. Identification of oocyte progenitor cells in the zebrafish ovary.

    PubMed

    Draper, Bruce W

    2012-01-01

    Zebrafish breed year round and females are capable of producing thousands of eggs during their lifetime. This amazing fecundity is due to the fact that the adult ovary, contains premeiotic oocyte progenitor cells, called oogonia, which produce a continuous supply of new oocytes throughout adult life. Oocyte progenitor cells can be easily identified based on their expression of Vasa, and their characteristic nuclear morphology. Thus, the zebrafish ovary provides a unique and powerful system to study the genetic regulation of oocyte production in a vertebrate animal. A method is presented here for identifying oocyte progenitor cells in the zebrafish ovary using whole-mount confocal immunofluorescence that is simple and accurate.

  20. Automatic cell identification and visualization using digital holographic microscopy with head mounted augmented reality devices.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Timothy; Rawat, Siddharth; Markman, Adam; Javidi, Bahram

    2018-03-01

    We propose a compact imaging system that integrates an augmented reality head mounted device with digital holographic microscopy for automated cell identification and visualization. A shearing interferometer is used to produce holograms of biological cells, which are recorded using customized smart glasses containing an external camera. After image acquisition, segmentation is performed to isolate regions of interest containing biological cells in the field-of-view, followed by digital reconstruction of the cells, which is used to generate a three-dimensional (3D) pseudocolor optical path length profile. Morphological features are extracted from the cell's optical path length map, including mean optical path length, coefficient of variation, optical volume, projected area, projected area to optical volume ratio, cell skewness, and cell kurtosis. Classification is performed using the random forest classifier, support vector machines, and K-nearest neighbor, and the results are compared. Finally, the augmented reality device displays the cell's pseudocolor 3D rendering of its optical path length profile, extracted features, and the identified cell's type or class. The proposed system could allow a healthcare worker to quickly visualize cells using augmented reality smart glasses and extract the relevant information for rapid diagnosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the integration of digital holographic microscopy with augmented reality devices for automated cell identification and visualization.

  1. Fired Cartridge Case Identification Using Optical Images and the Congruent Matching Cells (CMC) Method.

    PubMed

    Tong, Mingsi; Song, John; Chu, Wei; Thompson, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    The Congruent Matching Cells (CMC) method for ballistics identification was invented at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The CMC method is based on the correlation of pairs of small correlation cells instead of the correlation of entire images. Four identification parameters - T CCF, T θ, T x and T y are proposed for identifying correlated cell pairs originating from the same firearm. The correlation conclusion (matching or non-matching) is determined by whether the number of CMC is ≥ 6. This method has been previously validated using a set of 780 pair-wise 3D topography images. However, most ballistic images stored in current local and national databases are in an optical intensity (grayscale) format. As a result, the reliability of applying the CMC method on optical intensity images is an important issue. In this paper, optical intensity images of breech face impressions captured on the same set of 40 cartridge cases are correlated and analyzed for the validation test of CMC method using optical images. This includes correlations of 63 pairs of matching images and 717 pairs of non-matching images under top ring lighting. Tests of the method do not produce any false identification (false positive) or false exclusion (false negative) results, which support the CMC method and the proposed identification criterion, C = 6, for firearm breech face identifications using optical intensity images.

  2. Fired Cartridge Case Identification Using Optical Images and the Congruent Matching Cells (CMC) Method

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Mingsi; Song, John; Chu, Wei; Thompson, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    The Congruent Matching Cells (CMC) method for ballistics identification was invented at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The CMC method is based on the correlation of pairs of small correlation cells instead of the correlation of entire images. Four identification parameters – TCCF, Tθ, Tx and Ty are proposed for identifying correlated cell pairs originating from the same firearm. The correlation conclusion (matching or non-matching) is determined by whether the number of CMC is ≥ 6. This method has been previously validated using a set of 780 pair-wise 3D topography images. However, most ballistic images stored in current local and national databases are in an optical intensity (grayscale) format. As a result, the reliability of applying the CMC method on optical intensity images is an important issue. In this paper, optical intensity images of breech face impressions captured on the same set of 40 cartridge cases are correlated and analyzed for the validation test of CMC method using optical images. This includes correlations of 63 pairs of matching images and 717 pairs of non-matching images under top ring lighting. Tests of the method do not produce any false identification (false positive) or false exclusion (false negative) results, which support the CMC method and the proposed identification criterion, C = 6, for firearm breech face identifications using optical intensity images. PMID:26601045

  3. Mid-infrared spectroscopy in skin cancer cell type identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastl, Lena; Kemper, Björn; Lloyd, Gavin R.; Nallala, Jayakrupakar; Stone, Nick; Naranjo, Valery; Penaranda, Francisco; Schnekenburger, Jürgen

    2017-07-01

    Mid infrared spectroscopy samples were developed for the analysis of skin tumor cell types and three dimensional tissue phantoms towards the application of midIR spectroscopy for fast and reliable skin cancer diagnostics.

  4. Biophysical isolation and identification of circulating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Che, James; Yu, Victor; Garon, Edward B; Goldman, Jonathan W; Di Carlo, Dino

    2017-04-11

    Isolation and enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from blood is important for determining patient prognosis and monitoring treatment. Methods based on affinity to cell surface markers have been applied to both purify (via immunoseparation) and identify (via immunofluorescence) CTCs. However, variability of cell biomarker expression associated with tumor heterogeneity and evolution and cross-reactivity of antibody probes have long complicated CTC enrichment and immunostaining. Here, we report a truly label-free high-throughput microfluidic approach to isolate, enumerate, and characterize the biophysical properties of CTCs using an integrated microfluidic device. Vortex-mediated deformability cytometry (VDC) consists of an initial vortex region which enriches large CTCs, followed by release into a downstream hydrodynamic stretching region which deforms the cells. Visualization and quantification of cell deformation with a high-speed camera revealed populations of large (>15 μm diameter) and deformable (aspect ratio >1.2) CTCs from 16 stage IV lung cancer samples, that are clearly distinguished by increased deformability compared to contaminating blood cells and rare large cells isolated from healthy patients. The VDC technology demonstrated a comparable positive detection rate of putative CTCs above healthy baseline (93.8%) with respect to standard immunofluorescence (71.4%). Automation allows full enumeration of CTCs from a 10 mL vial of blood within <1 h after sample acquisition, compared with 4+ hours with standard approaches. Moreover, cells are released into any collection vessel for further downstream analysis. VDC shows potential for accurate CTC enumeration without labels and confirms the unique highly deformable biophysical properties of large CTCs circulating in blood.

  5. The identification of specialized pacemaking cells in the anal sphincters.

    PubMed

    Shafik, Ahmed; El Sibai, Olfat; Ahmed, Ismail

    2006-07-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are claimed to generate the electrical activity in the colon and stomach. As the external (EAS) and internal (IAS) anal sphincters exhibit resting electrical activity, we hypothesized the presence of ICC in these sphincters. This hypothesis was investigated in the current study. Specimens from the EAS and IAS were taken from normal areas of the anorectum which had been surgically excised by abdominoperineal operation for rectal cancer of 28 patients (16 men, 12 women, mean age 42.2+/-4.8 years). The specimens were subjected to c-kit immunohistochemistry. Controls for the specificity of the antisera consisted of tissue incubation with normal rabbit serum substituted for the primary antiserum. Fusiform, c-kit positive, ICC-like cells were detected in the anal sphincters; they had dendritic processes. They were clearly distinguishable from the non-branching, c-kit negative smooth and striated muscle cells of the anal sphincters. The specimens contained also c-kit positive mast cells, but they had a rounded body with no dendritic processes. Immunoreactivity was absent in negative controls in which the primary antibody was omitted. We have identified, for the first time, cells in EAS and IAS with morphological and immunological phenotypes similar to ICCs of the gut. These cells appear to be responsible for initiating the slow waves recorded from the anal sphincters and for controlling their activity. A deficiency or absence of these cells may affect the anal motile activity. Studies are needed to explore the role of these cells in anal motility disorders.

  6. Identification of Multipotent Stem/Progenitor Cells in Murine Sclera

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chia-Ling; Wu, Pei-Chang; Fini, M. Elizabeth; Shi, Songtao

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. The sclera forms the fibrous outer coat of the eyeball and acts as a supportive framework. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the sclera contains mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells. Method. Scleral tissue from C57BL6/J mice was separated from the retina and choroid and subsequently enzyme digested to release single cells. Proliferation capacity, self-renewal capacity, and ability for multipotent differentiation were analyzed by BrdU labeling, flow cytometry, reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction, immunocytochemistry, and in vivo transplantation. Results. The scleral stem/progenitor cells (SSPCs) possessed clonogenic and high doubling capacities. These cells were positive for the mesenchymal markers Sca-1, CD90.2, CD44, CD105, and CD73 and negative for the hematopoietic markers CD45, CD11b, Flk1, CD34, and CD117. In addition to expressing stem cell genes ABCG2, Six2, Notch1, and Pax6, SSPCs were able to differentiate to adipogenic, chondrogenic, and neurogenic lineages. Conclusions. This study indicates that the sclera contains multipotent mesenchymal stem cells. Further study of SSPCs may help elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanism of scleral diseases such as scleritis and myopia. PMID:21788434

  7. Identification of Regulatory T Cells in Tolerated Allografts

    PubMed Central

    Graca, Luis; Cobbold, Stephen P.; Waldmann, Herman

    2002-01-01

    Induction of transplantation tolerance with certain therapeutic nondepleting monoclonal antibodies can lead to a robust state of peripheral “dominant” tolerance. Regulatory CD4+ T cells, which mediate this form of “dominant” tolerance, can be isolated from spleens of tolerant animals. To determine whether there were any extra-lymphoid sites that might harbor regulatory T cells we sought their presence in tolerated skin allografts and in normal skin. When tolerated skin grafts are retransplanted onto T cell–depleted hosts, graft-infiltrating T cells exit the graft and recolonize the new host. These colonizing T cells can be shown to contain members with regulatory function, as they can prevent nontolerant lymphocytes from rejecting fresh skin allografts, without hindrance of rejection of third party skin. Our results suggest that T cell suppression of graft rejection is an active process that operates beyond secondary lymphoid tissue, and involves the persistent presence of regulatory T cells at the site of the tolerated transplant. PMID:12070291

  8. Identification of Reprogrammed Myeloid Cell Transcriptomes in NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ravi; Fischer, Kari R.; Choi, Hyejin; El Rayes, Tina; Ryu, Seongho; Nasar, Abu; Spinelli, Cathy F.; Andrews, Weston; Elemento, Olivier; Nolan, Daniel; Stiles, Brendon; Rafii, Shahin; Narula, Navneet; Davuluri, Ramana; Altorki, Nasser K.; Mittal, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related mortality worldwide, with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as the most prevalent form. Despite advances in treatment options including minimally invasive surgery, CT-guided radiation, novel chemotherapeutic regimens, and targeted therapeutics, prognosis remains dismal. Therefore, further molecular analysis of NSCLC is necessary to identify novel molecular targets that impact prognosis and the design of new-targeted therapies. In recent years, tumor “activated/reprogrammed” stromal cells that promote carcinogenesis have emerged as potential therapeutic targets. However, the contribution of stromal cells to NSCLC is poorly understood. Here, we show increased numbers of bone marrow (BM)-derived hematopoietic cells in the tumor parenchyma of NSCLC patients compared with matched adjacent non-neoplastic lung tissue. By sorting specific cellular fractions from lung cancer patients, we compared the transcriptomes of intratumoral myeloid compartments within the tumor bed with their counterparts within adjacent non-neoplastic tissue from NSCLC patients. The RNA sequencing of specific myeloid compartments (immature monocytic myeloid cells and polymorphonuclear neutrophils) identified differentially regulated genes and mRNA isoforms, which were inconspicuous in whole tumor analysis. Genes encoding secreted factors, including osteopontin (OPN), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7 (CCL7) and thrombospondin 1 (TSP1) were identified, which enhanced tumorigenic properties of lung cancer cells indicative of their potential as targets for therapy. This study demonstrates that analysis of homogeneous stromal populations isolated directly from fresh clinical specimens can detect important stromal genes of therapeutic value. PMID:26046767

  9. PET imaging of T cells: Target identification and feasibility assessment.

    PubMed

    Auberson, Yves P; Briard, Emmanuelle; Rudolph, Bettina; Kaupmann, Klemen; Smith, Paul; Oberhauser, Berndt

    2018-06-01

    Imaging T cells using positron emission tomography (PET) would be highly useful for diagnosis and monitoring in immunology and oncology patients. There are however no obvious targets that can be used to develop imaging agents for this purpose. We evaluated several potential target proteins with selective expression in T cells, and for which lead molecules were available: PKC , Lck, ZAP70 and Itk. Ultimately, we focused on Itk (interleukin-2-inducible T cell kinase) and identified a tool molecule with properties suitable for in vivo imaging of T cells, (5aR)-5,5-difluoro-5a-methyl-N-(1-((S)-3-(methylsulfonyl)-phenyl)(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)methyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-1,4,4a,5,5a,6-hexahydro-cyclopropa[f]-indazole-3-carboxamide (23). While not having the optimal profile for clinical use, this molecule indicates that it might be possible to develop Itk-selective PET ligands for imaging the distribution of T cells in patients. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Bacterial cell identification in differential interference contrast microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Obara, Boguslaw; Roberts, Mark A J; Armitage, Judith P; Grau, Vicente

    2013-04-23

    Microscopy image segmentation lays the foundation for shape analysis, motion tracking, and classification of biological objects. Despite its importance, automated segmentation remains challenging for several widely used non-fluorescence, interference-based microscopy imaging modalities. For example in differential interference contrast microscopy which plays an important role in modern bacterial cell biology. Therefore, new revolutions in the field require the development of tools, technologies and work-flows to extract and exploit information from interference-based imaging data so as to achieve new fundamental biological insights and understanding. We have developed and evaluated a high-throughput image analysis and processing approach to detect and characterize bacterial cells and chemotaxis proteins. Its performance was evaluated using differential interference contrast and fluorescence microscopy images of Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Results demonstrate that the proposed approach provides a fast and robust method for detection and analysis of spatial relationship between bacterial cells and their chemotaxis proteins.

  11. Ultrastructural identification of Langerhans cells in normal swine epidermis.

    PubMed Central

    Romano, J; Balaguer, L

    1991-01-01

    Langerhans cells of the epidermis of 6-month-old white crossbred farm pigs were identified by electron microscopy. Ultrastructurally they were similar to those described in other mammals. They were present in basal and suprabasal layers and were characterised by a lobulated nucleus and an electrolucent cytoplasm with occasional dendritic processes, and the absence of tonofilaments and specialised unions with surrounding keratinocytes. They were specifically identified by the presence of characteristic rod or racquet-shaped intracytoplasmic granules. Intraepidermal clear cells without specific granules were present, although no melanocytes were observed. This is the first report of the presence of Birbeck granules in porcine Langerhans cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:1817140

  12. Potentials of single-cell biology in identification and validation of disease biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Niu, Furong; Wang, Diane C; Lu, Jiapei; Wu, Wei; Wang, Xiangdong

    2016-09-01

    Single-cell biology is considered a new approach to identify and validate disease-specific biomarkers. However, the concern raised by clinicians is how to apply single-cell measurements for clinical practice, translate the message of single-cell systems biology into clinical phenotype or explain alterations of single-cell gene sequencing and function in patient response to therapies. This study is to address the importance and necessity of single-cell gene sequencing in the identification and development of disease-specific biomarkers, the definition and significance of single-cell biology and single-cell systems biology in the understanding of single-cell full picture, the development and establishment of whole-cell models in the validation of targeted biological function and the figure and meaning of single-molecule imaging in single cell to trace intra-single-cell molecule expression, signal, interaction and location. We headline the important role of single-cell biology in the discovery and development of disease-specific biomarkers with a special emphasis on understanding single-cell biological functions, e.g. mechanical phenotypes, single-cell biology, heterogeneity and organization of genome function. We have reason to believe that such multi-dimensional, multi-layer, multi-crossing and stereoscopic single-cell biology definitely benefits the discovery and development of disease-specific biomarkers. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  13. Simultaneous genomic identification and profiling of a single cell using semiconductor-based next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Manabu; Kusano, Junko; Ohtaki, Shinsaku; Ishikura, Takashi; Katayama, Jin; Koguchi, Akira; Paumen, Michael; Hayashi, Yoshiharu

    2014-09-01

    Combining single-cell methods and next-generation sequencing should provide a powerful means to understand single-cell biology and obviate the effects of sample heterogeneity. Here we report a single-cell identification method and seamless cancer gene profiling using semiconductor-based massively parallel sequencing. A549 cells (adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cell line) were used as a model. Single-cell capture was performed using laser capture microdissection (LCM) with an Arcturus® XT system, and a captured single cell and a bulk population of A549 cells (≈ 10(6) cells) were subjected to whole genome amplification (WGA). For cell identification, a multiplex PCR method (AmpliSeq™ SNP HID panel) was used to enrich 136 highly discriminatory SNPs with a genotype concordance probability of 10(31-35). For cancer gene profiling, we used mutation profiling that was performed in parallel using a hotspot panel for 50 cancer-related genes. Sequencing was performed using a semiconductor-based bench top sequencer. The distribution of sequence reads for both HID and Cancer panel amplicons was consistent across these samples. For the bulk population of cells, the percentages of sequence covered at coverage of more than 100 × were 99.04% for the HID panel and 98.83% for the Cancer panel, while for the single cell percentages of sequence covered at coverage of more than 100 × were 55.93% for the HID panel and 65.96% for the Cancer panel. Partial amplification failure or randomly distributed non-amplified regions across samples from single cells during the WGA procedures or random allele drop out probably caused these differences. However, comparative analyses showed that this method successfully discriminated a single A549 cancer cell from a bulk population of A549 cells. Thus, our approach provides a powerful means to overcome tumor sample heterogeneity when searching for somatic mutations.

  14. Global Identification of Disease Associated Genes in Fragile X Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    for this study listed as follows: 1) Validate the co-localized R-loop formation and chromosome fragility in Fragile X cells, particularly at the brain ...retardation protein February 2016, NGS Data Analysis & Informatics Conference, San Diego, California (Poster presentation) Title: Global detection

  15. Identification of aromatase activity in rodent pituitary cell strains.

    PubMed

    Callard, G V; Petro, Z; Tashjian, A H

    1983-07-01

    To date, biochemical evidence has been presented for hypophysial aromatization in only one species, a teleost fish, although the pituitary glands of several mammals have been reported to be aromatase negative. To reinvestigate this problem, established clonal strains of rodent pituitary cells (GH3, GH4C1, and AtT20/D16) were incubated at 37 C for 6-48 h in serum-less medium containing [7-3H]androstenedione. Radiolabeled metabolites were isolated by solvent extraction, thin layer chromatography, and phenolic partition. The authenticity of the estrogenic products in both cells and incubation medium was verified by methylation and recrystallization to constant specific activity. Measurement of androgen metabolites was also validated by recrystallization of selected samples. Authentic estrone and 17 beta-estradiol were identified in cultures of the two PRL- and GH-secreting clones, and there were strain differences in the quantity of estrogen produced (GH3 greater than GH4C1). Under the same conditions, aromatization was not detectable in the ACTH-secreting line (AtT20/D16). A time-yield analysis of androgen metabolism in GH4C1 cells showed that aromatization was linear for 12 h after labeling, but that substrate was diverted mainly to 5 alpha-reducing pathways. Large amounts of highly polar metabolites accumulated 24 and 48 h after the addition of [3H]androgen, and subsequent hydrolysis revealed that these were sulfo- and glucuronoconjugates. The metabolic fate of estrogen in GH4C1 cultures was investigated indirectly by adding a radioinert estrone trap together with the radiolabeled androgen substrate and was also tested in separate cultures by adding [3H]estrone and [3H]estradiol directly. Although the two estrogens were interconverted, there was no evidence that formed or added estrogen was extensively metabolized or conjugated. We conclude that the expression of aromatase activity in hypophysial cells is not a property of all transformed lines but may be dictated

  16. Identification of Cell-Binding Adhesins of Leptospira interrogans

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Karen V.; Hahn, Beth; Wunder, Elsio A.; Ko, Albert I.; Haake, David A.; Coburn, Jenifer

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a globally distributed bacterial infectious disease caused by pathogenic members of the genus Leptospira. Infection can lead to illness ranging from mild and non-specific to severe, with jaundice, kidney and liver dysfunction, and widespread endothelial damage. The adhesion of pathogenic Leptospira species (spp.), the causative agent of leptospirosis, to host tissue components is necessary for infection and pathogenesis. While it is well-established that extracellular matrix (ECM) components play a role in the interaction of the pathogen with host molecules, we have shown that pathogenic Leptospira interrogans binds to host cells more efficiently than to ECM components. Using in vitro phage display to select for phage clones that bind to EA.hy926 endothelial cells, we identified the putative lipoproteins LIC10508 and LIC13411, and the conserved hypothetical proteins LIC12341 and LIC11574, as candidate L. interrogans sv. Copenhageni st. Fiocruz L1–130 adhesins. Recombinant LIC11574, but not its L. biflexa homologue LBF1629, exhibited dose-dependent binding to both endothelial and epithelial cells. In addition, LIC11574 and LIC13411 bind to VE-cadherin, an endothelial cell receptor for L. interrogans. Extraction of bacteria with the non-ionic detergent Triton X-114 resulted in partitioning of the candidate adhesins to the detergent fraction, a likely indication that these proteins are outer membrane localized. All candidate adhesins were recognized by sera obtained from leptospirosis patients but not by sera from healthy individuals as assessed by western blot. This work has identified bacterial adhesins that are potentially involved in L. interrogans infection of the mammalian host, and through cadherin binding, may contribute to dissemination and vascular damage. Our findings may be of value in leptospirosis control and prevention, with the bacterial adhesins potentially serving as targets for development of diagnostics, therapeutics, and

  17. Identification of gene regulation models from single-cell data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Lisa; Raymond, William; Munsky, Brian

    2018-09-01

    In quantitative analyses of biological processes, one may use many different scales of models (e.g. spatial or non-spatial, deterministic or stochastic, time-varying or at steady-state) or many different approaches to match models to experimental data (e.g. model fitting or parameter uncertainty/sloppiness quantification with different experiment designs). These different analyses can lead to surprisingly different results, even when applied to the same data and the same model. We use a simplified gene regulation model to illustrate many of these concerns, especially for ODE analyses of deterministic processes, chemical master equation and finite state projection analyses of heterogeneous processes, and stochastic simulations. For each analysis, we employ MATLAB and PYTHON software to consider a time-dependent input signal (e.g. a kinase nuclear translocation) and several model hypotheses, along with simulated single-cell data. We illustrate different approaches (e.g. deterministic and stochastic) to identify the mechanisms and parameters of the same model from the same simulated data. For each approach, we explore how uncertainty in parameter space varies with respect to the chosen analysis approach or specific experiment design. We conclude with a discussion of how our simulated results relate to the integration of experimental and computational investigations to explore signal-activated gene expression models in yeast (Neuert et al 2013 Science 339 584–7) and human cells (Senecal et al 2014 Cell Rep. 8 75–83)5.

  18. Daytime identification of summer hailstorm cells from MSG data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, A.; López, L.; Sánchez, J. L.; García-Ortega, E.; Cattani, E.; Levizzani, V.

    2014-04-01

    Identifying deep convection is of paramount importance, as it may be associated with extreme weather phenomena that have significant impact on the environment, property and populations. A new method, the hail detection tool (HDT), is described for identifying hail-bearing storms using multispectral Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) data. HDT was conceived as a two-phase method, in which the first step is the convective mask (CM) algorithm devised for detection of deep convection, and the second a hail mask algorithm (HM) for the identification of hail-bearing clouds among cumulonimbus systems detected by CM. Both CM and HM are based on logistic regression models trained with multispectral MSG data sets comprised of summer convective events in the middle Ebro Valley (Spain) between 2006 and 2010, and detected by the RGB (red-green-blue) visualization technique (CM) or C-band weather radar system of the University of León. By means of the logistic regression approach, the probability of identifying a cumulonimbus event with CM or a hail event with HM are computed by exploiting a proper selection of MSG wavelengths or their combination. A number of cloud physical properties (liquid water path, optical thickness and effective cloud drop radius) were used to physically interpret results of statistical models from a meteorological perspective, using a method based on these "ingredients". Finally, the HDT was applied to a new validation sample consisting of events during summer 2011. The overall probability of detection was 76.9 % and the false alarm ratio 16.7 %.

  19. Identification of Novel Tumor-Associated Cell Surface Sialoglycoproteins in Human Glioblastoma Tumors Using Quantitative Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Autelitano, François; Loyaux, Denis; Roudières, Sébastien; Déon, Catherine; Guette, Frédérique; Fabre, Philippe; Ping, Qinggong; Wang, Su; Auvergne, Romane; Badarinarayana, Vasudeo; Smith, Michael; Guillemot, Jean-Claude; Goldman, Steven A.; Natesan, Sridaran; Ferrara, Pascual; August, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiform (GBM) remains clinical indication with significant “unmet medical need”. Innovative new therapy to eliminate residual tumor cells and prevent tumor recurrences is critically needed for this deadly disease. A major challenge of GBM research has been the identification of novel molecular therapeutic targets and accurate diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers. Many of the current clinical therapeutic targets of immunotoxins and ligand-directed toxins for high-grade glioma (HGG) cells are surface sialylated glycoproteins. Therefore, methods that systematically and quantitatively analyze cell surface sialoglycoproteins in human clinical tumor samples would be useful for the identification of potential diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for malignant gliomas. In this study, we used the bioorthogonal chemical reporter strategy (BOCR) in combination with label-free quantitative mass spectrometry (LFQ-MS) to characterize and accurately quantify the individual cell surface sialoproteome in human GBM tissues, in fetal, adult human astrocytes, and in human neural progenitor cells (NPCs). We identified and quantified a total of 843 proteins, including 801 glycoproteins. Among the 843 proteins, 606 (72%) are known cell surface or secreted glycoproteins, including 156 CD-antigens, all major classes of cell surface receptor proteins, transporters, and adhesion proteins. Our findings identified several known as well as new cell surface antigens whose expression is predominantly restricted to human GBM tumors as confirmed by microarray transcription profiling, quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining. This report presents the comprehensive identification of new biomarkers and therapeutic targets for the treatment of malignant gliomas using quantitative sialoglycoproteomics with clinically relevant, patient derived primary glioma cells. PMID:25360666

  20. Identification of novel tumor-associated cell surface sialoglycoproteins in human glioblastoma tumors using quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Autelitano, François; Loyaux, Denis; Roudières, Sébastien; Déon, Catherine; Guette, Frédérique; Fabre, Philippe; Ping, Qinggong; Wang, Su; Auvergne, Romane; Badarinarayana, Vasudeo; Smith, Michael; Guillemot, Jean-Claude; Goldman, Steven A; Natesan, Sridaran; Ferrara, Pascual; August, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiform (GBM) remains clinical indication with significant "unmet medical need". Innovative new therapy to eliminate residual tumor cells and prevent tumor recurrences is critically needed for this deadly disease. A major challenge of GBM research has been the identification of novel molecular therapeutic targets and accurate diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers. Many of the current clinical therapeutic targets of immunotoxins and ligand-directed toxins for high-grade glioma (HGG) cells are surface sialylated glycoproteins. Therefore, methods that systematically and quantitatively analyze cell surface sialoglycoproteins in human clinical tumor samples would be useful for the identification of potential diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for malignant gliomas. In this study, we used the bioorthogonal chemical reporter strategy (BOCR) in combination with label-free quantitative mass spectrometry (LFQ-MS) to characterize and accurately quantify the individual cell surface sialoproteome in human GBM tissues, in fetal, adult human astrocytes, and in human neural progenitor cells (NPCs). We identified and quantified a total of 843 proteins, including 801 glycoproteins. Among the 843 proteins, 606 (72%) are known cell surface or secreted glycoproteins, including 156 CD-antigens, all major classes of cell surface receptor proteins, transporters, and adhesion proteins. Our findings identified several known as well as new cell surface antigens whose expression is predominantly restricted to human GBM tumors as confirmed by microarray transcription profiling, quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining. This report presents the comprehensive identification of new biomarkers and therapeutic targets for the treatment of malignant gliomas using quantitative sialoglycoproteomics with clinically relevant, patient derived primary glioma cells.

  1. CD44 Is a Negative Cell Surface Marker for Pluripotent Stem Cell Identification during Human Fibroblast Reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Candida; Tanavde, Vivek; Lakshmipathy, Uma

    2014-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are promising tools for disease research and cell therapy. One of the critical steps in establishing iPSC lines is the early identification of fully reprogrammed colonies among unreprogrammed fibroblasts and partially reprogrammed intermediates. Currently, colony morphology and pluripotent stem cell surface markers are used to identify iPSC colonies. Through additional clonal characterization, we show that these tools fail to distinguish partially reprogrammed intermediates from fully reprogrammed iPSCs. Thus, they can lead to the selection of suboptimal clones for expansion. A subsequent global transcriptome analysis revealed that the cell adhesion protein CD44 is a marker that differentiates between partially and fully reprogrammed cells. Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry confirmed that CD44 is highly expressed in the human parental fibroblasts used for the reprogramming experiments. It is gradually lost throughout the reprogramming process and is absent in fully established iPSCs. When used in conjunction with pluripotent cell markers, CD44 staining results in the clear identification of fully reprogrammed cells. This combination of positive and negative surface markers allows for easier and more accurate iPSC detection and selection, thus reducing the effort spent on suboptimal iPSC clones. PMID:24416407

  2. Identification of human cell responses to benzene and benzene metabolites.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Bruce; Gavin, Igor M; Arbieva, Zarema; King, Stephen T; Jayaraman, Sundararajan; Prabhakar, Bellur S

    2007-09-01

    Benzene is a common air pollutant and confirmed carcinogen, especially in reference to the hematopoietic system. In the present study we analyzed cytokine/chemokine production by, and gene expression induction in, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells upon their exposure to the benzene metabolites catechol, hydroquinone, 1,2,4-benzenetriol, and p-benzoquinone. Protein profiling showed that benzene metabolites can stimulate the production of chemokines, the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6, and the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5. Activated cells showed concurrent suppression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 expression. We also identified changes in global gene expression patterns in response to benzene metabolite challenges by using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. Treatment with 1,2,4-benzenetriol resulted in the suppression of genes related to the regulation of protein expression and a concomitant activation of genes that encode heat shock proteins and cytochrome P450 family members. Protein and gene expression profiling identified unique human cellular responses upon exposure to benzene and benzene metabolites.

  3. Rapid identification and quantification of tumor cells using an electrocatalytic method based on gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    de la Escosura-Muñiz, Alfredo; Sánchez-Espinel, Christian; Díaz-Freitas, Belén; González-Fernández, Africa; Maltez-da Costa, Marisa; Merkoçi, Arben

    2009-12-15

    There is a high demand for simple, rapid, efficient, and user-friendly alternative methods for the detection of cells in general and, in particular, for the detection of cancer cells. A biosensor able to detect cells would be an all-in-one dream device for such applications. The successful integration of nanoparticles into cell detection assays could allow for the development of this novel class of cell sensors. Indeed, their application could well have a great future in diagnostics, as well as other fields. As an example of a novel biosensor, we report here an electrocatalytic device for the specific identification of tumor cells that quantifies gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) coupled with an electrotransducing platform/sensor. Proliferation and adherence of tumor cells are achieved on the electrotransducer/detector, which consists of a mass-produced screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE). In situ identification/quantification of tumor cells is achieved with a detection limit of 4000 cells per 700 microL of suspension. This novel and selective cell-sensing device is based on the reaction of cell surface proteins with specific antibodies conjugated with AuNPs. Final detection requires only a couple of minutes, taking advantage of the catalytic properties of AuNPs on hydrogen evolution. The proposed detection method does not require the chemical agents used in most existing assays for the detection of AuNPs. It allows for the miniaturization of the system and is much cheaper than other expensive and sophisticated methods used for tumor cell detection. We envisage that this device could operate in a simple way as an immunosensor or DNA sensor. Moreover, it could be used, even by inexperienced staff, for the detection of protein molecules or DNA strands.

  4. Colors Identification for Blind People using Cell Phone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, A. L.; Graffigna, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    Assistive Technology (AT) is an interdisciplinary research area that allows finding solutions to the individual with disability [1] by easing or improving the functions or the skills for accomplishing daily activities. A technology can be considered "assistive" if it is fit for the needs, skills and capabilities of the person, taking into account mainly the intended activity and the limitations of the context and environs where the person performs such activity. The current work intends to solve the problems of vision impaired persons to recognize colors. To this aim, a Java application for cell phones has been made which lets complement the mobiles' technology with that of image processing. The means to obtain the colors from a view are based on analysing the different color models join to a mechanism to reduce the collected data. This paper describes preliminary experiences, methodology and results considering the user perception.

  5. White blood cells identification system based on convolutional deep neural learning networks.

    PubMed

    Shahin, A I; Guo, Yanhui; Amin, K M; Sharawi, Amr A

    2017-11-16

    White blood cells (WBCs) differential counting yields valued information about human health and disease. The current developed automated cell morphology equipments perform differential count which is based on blood smear image analysis. Previous identification systems for WBCs consist of successive dependent stages; pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, feature selection, and classification. There is a real need to employ deep learning methodologies so that the performance of previous WBCs identification systems can be increased. Classifying small limited datasets through deep learning systems is a major challenge and should be investigated. In this paper, we propose a novel identification system for WBCs based on deep convolutional neural networks. Two methodologies based on transfer learning are followed: transfer learning based on deep activation features and fine-tuning of existed deep networks. Deep acrivation featues are extracted from several pre-trained networks and employed in a traditional identification system. Moreover, a novel end-to-end convolutional deep architecture called "WBCsNet" is proposed and built from scratch. Finally, a limited balanced WBCs dataset classification is performed through the WBCsNet as a pre-trained network. During our experiments, three different public WBCs datasets (2551 images) have been used which contain 5 healthy WBCs types. The overall system accuracy achieved by the proposed WBCsNet is (96.1%) which is more than different transfer learning approaches or even the previous traditional identification system. We also present features visualization for the WBCsNet activation which reflects higher response than the pre-trained activated one. a novel WBCs identification system based on deep learning theory is proposed and a high performance WBCsNet can be employed as a pre-trained network. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Identification of cell wall proteins in the flax (Linum usitatissimum) stem.

    PubMed

    Day, Arnaud; Fénart, Stéphane; Neutelings, Godfrey; Hawkins, Simon; Rolando, Christian; Tokarski, Caroline

    2013-03-01

    Sequential salt (CaCl2 , LiCl) extractions were used to obtain fractions enriched in cell wall proteins (CWPs) from the stem of 60-day-old flax (Linum usitatissimum) plants. High-resolution FT-ICR MS analysis and the use of recently published genomic data allowed the identification of 11 912 peptides corresponding to a total of 1418 different proteins. Subcellular localization using TargetP, Predotar, and WoLF PSORT led to the identification of 152 putative flax CWPs that were classified into nine different functional classes previously established for Arabidopsis thaliana. Examination of different functional classes revealed the presence of a number of proteins known to be involved in, or potentially involved in cell-wall metabolism in plants. The flax stem cell wall proteome was also compared with transcriptomic data previously obtained on comparable samples. This study represents a major contribution to the identification of CWPs in flax and will lead to a better understanding of cell wall biology in this species. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Identification of Cell Type-Specific Differences in Erythropoietin Receptor Signaling in Primary Erythroid and Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Salopiata, Florian; Depner, Sofia; Wäsch, Marvin; Böhm, Martin E.; Mücke, Oliver; Plass, Christoph; Lehmann, Wolf D.; Kreutz, Clemens; Timmer, Jens; Klingmüller, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer, with its most prevalent form non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and is commonly treated with chemotherapeutic drugs such as cisplatin. Lung cancer patients frequently suffer from chemotherapy-induced anemia, which can be treated with erythropoietin (EPO). However, studies have indicated that EPO not only promotes erythropoiesis in hematopoietic cells, but may also enhance survival of NSCLC cells. Here, we verified that the NSCLC cell line H838 expresses functional erythropoietin receptors (EPOR) and that treatment with EPO reduces cisplatin-induced apoptosis. To pinpoint differences in EPO-induced survival signaling in erythroid progenitor cells (CFU-E, colony forming unit-erythroid) and H838 cells, we combined mathematical modeling with a method for feature selection, the L1 regularization. Utilizing an example model and simulated data, we demonstrated that this approach enables the accurate identification and quantification of cell type-specific parameters. We applied our strategy to quantitative time-resolved data of EPO-induced JAK/STAT signaling generated by quantitative immunoblotting, mass spectrometry and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in CFU-E and H838 cells as well as H838 cells overexpressing human EPOR (H838-HA-hEPOR). The established parsimonious mathematical model was able to simultaneously describe the data sets of CFU-E, H838 and H838-HA-hEPOR cells. Seven cell type-specific parameters were identified that included for example parameters for nuclear translocation of STAT5 and target gene induction. Cell type-specific differences in target gene induction were experimentally validated by qRT-PCR experiments. The systematic identification of pathway differences and sensitivities of EPOR signaling in CFU-E and H838 cells revealed potential targets for intervention to selectively inhibit EPO-induced signaling in the tumor cells but leave the responses in erythroid

  8. Identification of N-Acyl Phosphatidylserine Molecules in Eukaryotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Ziqiang; Li, Shengrong; Smith, Dale C.; Shaw, Walter A.; Raetz, Christian R. H.

    2008-01-01

    While profiling the lipidome of the mouse brain by mass spectrometry, we discovered a novel family of N-acyl phosphatidylserine (N-acyl-PS) molecules. These N-acyl-PS species were enriched by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography, and they were then characterized by accurate mass measurements, tandem mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, and comparison to an authentic standard. Mouse brain N-acyl-PS molecules are heterogeneous and constitute about 0.1 % of the total lipid. In addition to various ester-linked fatty acyl chains on their glycerol backbones, the complexity of the N-acyl-PS series is further increased by the presence of diverse amide-linked N-acyl chains, which include saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated species. N-acyl-PS molecular species were also detected in the lipids of pig brain, mouse RAW264.7 macrophage tumor cells and yeast, but not E. coli. N-acyl-PSs may be biosynthetic precursors of N-acyl serine molecules, such as the recently reported signaling lipid N-arachidonoyl serine from bovine brain. We suggest that a phospholipase D might cleave N-acyl-PS to generate N-acyl serine, in analogy to the biosynthesis of the endocannabinoid N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (anadamide) from N-arachidonoyl phosphatidylethanolamine. PMID:18031065

  9. Performance of mid infrared spectroscopy in skin cancer cell type identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastl, Lena; Kemper, Björn; Lloyd, Gavin R.; Nallala, Jayakrupakar; Stone, Nick; Naranjo, Valery; Penaranda, Francisco; Schnekenburger, Jürgen

    2017-02-01

    Marker free optical spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the rapid inspection of pathologically suspicious skin lesions and the non-invasive detection of early skin tumors. This goal can be reached by the combination of signal localization and the spectroscopical detection of chemical cell signatures. We here present the development and application of mid infrared spectroscopy (midIR) for the analysis of skin tumor cell types and three dimensional tissue phantoms towards the application of midIR spectroscopy for fast and reliable skin diagnostics. We developed standardized in vitro skin systems with increasing complexity, from single skin cell types as fibroblasts, keratinocytes and melanoma cells, to mixtures of these and finally three dimensional skin cancer phantoms. The cell systems were characterized with different systems in the midIR range up to 12 μm. The analysis of the spectra by novel data processing algorithms demonstrated the clear separation of all cell types, especially melanoma cells. Special attention and algorithm training was required for closely related mesenchymal cell types as dedifferentiated melanoma cells and fibroblasts. Proof of concept experiments with mixtures of in vivo fluorescence labelled skin cell types allowed the test of the new algorithms performance for the identification of specific cell types. The intense training of the software systems with various samples resulted in a increased sensitivity and specificity of the combined midIR and software system. These data highlight the potential of midIR spectroscopy as sensitive and specific future optical biopsy technology.

  10. Rapid Identification of Cell-Specific, Internalizing RNA Aptamers with Bioinformatics Analyses of a Cell-Based Aptamer Selection

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, William H.; Bair, Thomas; Peek, Andrew S.; Liu, Xiuying; Dassie, Justin; Stockdale, Katie R.; Behlke, Mark A.; Miller, Francis J.; Giangrande, Paloma H.

    2012-01-01

    Background The broad applicability of RNA aptamers as cell-specific delivery tools for therapeutic reagents depends on the ability to identify aptamer sequences that selectively access the cytoplasm of distinct cell types. Towards this end, we have developed a novel approach that combines a cell-based selection method (cell-internalization SELEX) with high-throughput sequencing (HTS) and bioinformatics analyses to rapidly identify cell-specific, internalization-competent RNA aptamers. Methodology/Principal Findings We demonstrate the utility of this approach by enriching for RNA aptamers capable of selective internalization into vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Several rounds of positive (VSMCs) and negative (endothelial cells; ECs) selection were performed to enrich for aptamer sequences that preferentially internalize into VSMCs. To identify candidate RNA aptamer sequences, HTS data from each round of selection were analyzed using bioinformatics methods: (1) metrics of selection enrichment; and (2) pairwise comparisons of sequence and structural similarity, termed edit and tree distance, respectively. Correlation analyses of experimentally validated aptamers or rounds revealed that the best cell-specific, internalizing aptamers are enriched as a result of the negative selection step performed against ECs. Conclusions and Significance We describe a novel approach that combines cell-internalization SELEX with HTS and bioinformatics analysis to identify cell-specific, cell-internalizing RNA aptamers. Our data highlight the importance of performing a pre-clear step against a non-target cell in order to select for cell-specific aptamers. We expect the extended use of this approach to enable the identification of aptamers to a multitude of different cell types, thereby facilitating the broad development of targeted cell therapies. PMID:22962591

  11. Identification of individual biofilm-forming bacterial cells using Raman tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samek, Ota; Bernatová, Silvie; Ježek, Jan; Šiler, Martin; Šerý, Mojmir; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Hrubanová, Kamila; Zemánek, Pavel; Holá, Veronika; Růžička, Filip

    2015-05-01

    A method for in vitro identification of individual bacterial cells is presented. The method is based on a combination of optical tweezers for spatial trapping of individual bacterial cells and Raman microspectroscopy for acquisition of spectral "Raman fingerprints" obtained from the trapped cell. Here, Raman spectra were taken from the biofilm-forming cells without the influence of an extracellular matrix and were compared with biofilm-negative cells. Results of principal component analyses of Raman spectra enabled us to distinguish between the two strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Thus, we propose that Raman tweezers can become the technique of choice for a clearer understanding of the processes involved in bacterial biofilms which constitute a highly privileged way of life for bacteria, protected from the external environment.

  12. Identification of individual biofilm-forming bacterial cells using Raman tweezers.

    PubMed

    Samek, Ota; Bernatová, Silvie; Ježek, Jan; Šiler, Martin; Šerý, Mojmir; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Hrubanová, Kamila; Zemánek, Pavel; Holá, Veronika; Růžička, Filip

    2015-05-01

    A method for in vitro identification of individual bacterial cells is presented. The method is based on a combination of optical tweezers for spatial trapping of individual bacterial cells and Raman microspectroscopy for acquisition of spectral “Raman fingerprints” obtained from the trapped cell. Here, Raman spectra were taken from the biofilm-forming cells without the influence of an extracellular matrix and were compared with biofilm-negative cells. Results of principal component analyses of Raman spectra enabled us to distinguish between the two strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Thus, we propose that Raman tweezers can become the technique of choice for a clearer understanding of the processes involved in bacterial biofilms which constitute a highly privileged way of life for bacteria, protected from the external environment.

  13. A Method for the Direct Identification of Differentiating Muscle Cells by a Fluorescent Mitochondrial Dye

    PubMed Central

    Miyake, Tetsuaki; McDermott, John C.; Gramolini, Anthony O.

    2011-01-01

    Identification of differentiating muscle cells generally requires fixation, antibodies directed against muscle specific proteins, and lengthy staining processes or, alternatively, transfection of muscle specific reporter genes driving GFP expression. In this study, we examined the possibility of using the robust mitochondrial network seen in maturing muscle cells as a marker of cellular differentiation. The mitochondrial fluorescent tracking dye, MitoTracker, which is a cell-permeable, low toxicity, fluorescent dye, allowed us to distinguish and track living differentiating muscle cells visually by epi-fluorescence microscopy. MitoTracker staining provides a robust and simple detection strategy for living differentiating cells in culture without the need for fixation or biochemical processing. PMID:22174849

  14. Effects of radiation from a radiofrequency identification (RFID) microchip on human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lai, Henry C; Chan, Ho Wing; Singh, Narendra P

    2016-01-01

    Radiofrequency identification (RFID) microchips are used to remotely identify objects, e.g. an animal in which a chip is implanted. A passive RFID microchip absorbs energy from an external source and emits a radiofrequency identification signal which is then decoded by a detector. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the radiofrequency energy emitted by a RFID microchip on human cancer cells. Molt-4 leukemia, BT474 breast cancer, and HepG2 hepatic cancer cells were exposed in vitro to RFID microchip-emitted radiofrequency field for 1 h. Cells were counted before and after exposure. Effects of pretreatment with the spin-trap compound N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone or the iron-chelator deferoxamine were also investigated. Results We found that the energy effectively killed/retarded the growth of the three different types of cancer cells, and the effect was blocked by the spin-trap compound or the iron-chelator, whereas an inactive microchip and energy from the external source had no significant effect on the cells. Conclusions Data of the present study suggest that radiofrequency field from the microchip affects cancer cells via the Fenton Reaction. Implantation of RFID microchips in tumors may provide a new method for cancer treatment.

  15. Identification and quantitation of morphological cell types in electrophoretically separated human embryonic kidney cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, K. B.; Kunze, M. E.; Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Four major cell types were identified by phase microscopy in early passage human embryonic kidney cell cultures. They are small and large epithelioid, domed, and fenestrated cells. Fibroblasts are also present in some explants. The percent of each cell type changes with passage number as any given culture grows. As a general rule, the fraction of small epithelioid cells increases, while the fraction of fenestrated cells, always small, decreases further. When fibroblasts are present, they always increase in percentage of the total cell population. Electrophoretic separation of early passage cells showed that the domed cells have the highest electrophoretic mobility, fibroblasts have an intermediate high mobility, small epithelioid cells have a low mobility, broadly distributed, and fenestrated cells have the lowest mobility. All cell types were broadly distributed among electrophoretic subfractions, which were never pure but only enriched with respect to a given cell type.

  16. Identification of the Downstream Promoter Targets of Smad Tumor Suppressors in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    signaling mediator Smad2, Smad3 and Smad4 which form oligomeric complexes and migrate into nucleus to function as transcription factors to modulate... Smad3 and Smad4. 2. Identification of the downstream promoter targets of Smad3 or Smad4 in breast cancer cells. 3. Identify Smad4 regulated downstream...Development of a novel chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (CHIPS) using a TAP-TAG system to isolate in vivo binding targets of Smad3 and Smad4

  17. Hematologic Assessment in Pet Rats, Mice, Hamsters, and Gerbils: Blood Sample Collection and Blood Cell Identification.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, Nicole M; Moore, David M; Zimmerman, Kurt; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-09-01

    Hamsters, gerbils, rats, and mice are presented to veterinary clinics and hospitals for prophylactic care and treatment of clinical signs of disease. Physical examination, history, and husbandry practice information can be supplemented greatly by assessment of hematologic parameters. As a resource for veterinarians and their technicians, this article describes the methods for collection of blood, identification of blood cells, and interpretation of the hemogram in mice, rats, gerbils, and hamsters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification of a Population of Epidermal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells with Enhanced Potential for Tumor Formation

    PubMed Central

    Adhikary, Gautam; Grun, Dan; Kerr, Candace; Balasubramanian, Sivaprakasam; Rorke, Ellen A.; Vemuri, Mohan; Boucher, Shayne; Bickenbach, Jackie R.; Hornyak, Thomas; Xu, Wen; Fisher, Matthew L.; Eckert, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Epidermal squamous cell carcinoma is among the most common cancers in humans. These tumors are comprised of phenotypically diverse populations of cells that display varying potential for proliferation and differentiation. An important goal is identifying cells from this population that drive tumor formation. To enrich for tumor-forming cells, cancer cells were grown as spheroids in non-attached conditions. We show that spheroid-selected cells form faster growing and larger tumors in immune-compromised mice as compared to non-selected cells. Moreover, spheroid-selected cells gave rise to tumors following injection of as few as one hundred cells, suggesting these cells have enhanced tumor-forming potential. Cells isolated from spheroid-selected tumors retain an enhanced ability to grow as spheroids when grown in non-attached culture conditions. Thus, these tumor-forming cells retain their phenotype following in vivo passage as tumors. Detailed analysis reveals that spheroid-selected cultures are highly enriched for expression of epidermal stem cell and embryonic stem cell markers, including aldehyde dehydrogenase 1, keratin 15, CD200, keratin 19, Oct4, Bmi-1, Ezh2 and trimethylated histone H3. These studies indicate that a subpopulation of cells that possess stem cell-like properties and express stem cell markers can be derived from human epidermal cancer cells and that these cells display enhanced ability to drive tumor formation. PMID:24376802

  19. [Identification of occult disseminated tumor cells by recombinant herpes simplex virus expressing GFP (HSV(GFP))].

    PubMed

    Han, Xiang-ping; Shi, Gui-lan; Wang, Cheng-feng; Li, Jie; Zhang, Jian-wei; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Shu-ren; Liu, Bin-lei

    2012-12-01

    To develop a novel rapid protocol for the detection of occult disseminated tumor cells by a recombinant herpes simplex virus expressing GFP (HSV(GFP)). Tumor cells of seven cell lines were exposed to HSV(GFP) and then examined for GFP expression by fluorescence microscopy. Various numbers of tumor cells (10, 100, 1000, 10 000) were mixed into 2 ml human whole blood, separated with lymphocytes separation medium, exposed to HSV(GFP), incubated at 37°C for 6 - 24 h and then counted for the number of green cells under the fluorescence microscope. Some clinical samples including peripheral blood, pleural effusion, ascites, spinal fluid from tumor-bearing patients were screened using this protocol in parallel with routine cytological examination. HSV(GFP) was able to infect all 7 tumor cell lines indicating that the HSV(GFP) can be used to detect different types of tumor cells. The detection sensitivity was 10 cancer cells in 2 ml whole blood. In the clinical samples, there were 4/15 positive by routine cytological examination but 11/15 positive by HSV(GFP), indicating a higher sensitivity of this new protocol. Recombinant herpes simplex virus-mediated green fluorescence is a simple and sensitive technique for the identification of occult disseminated cancer cells including circulating tumor cells (CTCs).

  20. Identification of tumor-initiating cells derived from two canine rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    KISHIMOTO, Takuya Evan; YASHIMA, Shoko; NAKAHIRA, Rei; ONOZAWA, Eri; AZAKAMI, Daigo; UJIKE, Makoto; OCHIAI, Kazuhiko; ISHIWATA, Toshiyuki; TAKAHASHI, Kimimasa; MICHISHITA, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Cancer stem cells or tumor-initiating cells (TICs) are a small subpopulation of cells that have the capacity to self-renew, differentiate and initiate tumors. These cells may function in tumor initiation, aggression and recurrence. Whether spheres derived from canine rhabdomyosarcoma cells have stem cell-like properties is unclear. We induced sphere formation in the canine rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines, CMS-C and CMS-J, and characterized the spheres in vitro and in vivo. Sphere-forming cells were more resistant to vincristine, mitoxantrone and doxorubicin than adherent cells. Xenograft transplantation demonstrated that 1 × 103 sphere-forming cells derived from CMS-C were sufficient for tumor formation. The sphere assay showed that the sphere-forming cells were present in these tumors. These results suggest that the spheres derived from canine rhabdomyosarcoma cells may possess characteristics of TICs. This study provides the foundation for elucidating the contribution of TICs to rhabdomyosarcoma tumorigenesis. PMID:28529244

  1. Identification of tumor-initiating cells derived from two canine rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Takuya Evan; Yashima, Shoko; Nakahira, Rei; Onozawa, Eri; Azakami, Daigo; Ujike, Makoto; Ochiai, Kazuhiko; Ishiwata, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Kimimasa; Michishita, Masaki

    2017-07-07

    Cancer stem cells or tumor-initiating cells (TICs) are a small subpopulation of cells that have the capacity to self-renew, differentiate and initiate tumors. These cells may function in tumor initiation, aggression and recurrence. Whether spheres derived from canine rhabdomyosarcoma cells have stem cell-like properties is unclear. We induced sphere formation in the canine rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines, CMS-C and CMS-J, and characterized the spheres in vitro and in vivo. Sphere-forming cells were more resistant to vincristine, mitoxantrone and doxorubicin than adherent cells. Xenograft transplantation demonstrated that 1 × 10 3 sphere-forming cells derived from CMS-C were sufficient for tumor formation. The sphere assay showed that the sphere-forming cells were present in these tumors. These results suggest that the spheres derived from canine rhabdomyosarcoma cells may possess characteristics of TICs. This study provides the foundation for elucidating the contribution of TICs to rhabdomyosarcoma tumorigenesis.

  2. Near-field photothermal microspectroscopy for adult stem-cell identification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Grude, Olaug; Hammiche, Azzedine; Pollock, Hubert; Bentley, Adam J; Walsh, Michael J; Martin, Francis L; Fullwood, Nigel J

    2007-12-01

    The identification of stem cells in adult tissue is a challenging problem in biomedicine. Currently, stem cells are identified by individual epitopes, which are generally tissue specific. The discovery of a stem-cell marker common to other adult tissue types could open avenues in the development of therapeutic stem-cell strategies. We report the use of the novel technique of Fourier transform infrared near-field photothermal microspectroscopy (FTIR-PTMS) for the characterization of stem cells, transit amplifying (TA) cells and terminally differentiated (TD) cells in the corneal epithelium. Principal component analysis (PCA) data demonstrate excellent discrimination of cell type by spectra. PCA in combination with linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) shows that FTIR-PTMS very effectively discriminates between the three cell populations. Statistically significant differences above the 99% confidence level between IR spectra from stem cells and TA cells suggest that nucleic acid conformational changes are an important component of the differences between spectral data from the two cell types. FTIR-PTMS is a new addition to existing spectroscopy methods based on the concept of interfacing a conventional FTIR spectrometer with an atomic force microscope equipped with a near-field thermal sensing probe. FTIR-PTMS spectroscopy currently has spatial resolution that is similar to that of diffraction-limited optical detection FTIR spectroscopy techniques, but as a near-field probing technique has considerable potential for further improvement. Our work also suggests that FTIR-PTMS is potentially more sensitive than synchrotron radiation FTIR spectroscopy for some applications. Microspectroscopy techniques like FTIR-PTMS provide information about the entire molecular composition of cells, in contrast to epitope recognition that only considers the presence or absence of individual molecules. Our results with FTIR-PTMS on corneal stem cells are promising for the potential

  3. Got black swimming dots in your cell culture? Identification of Achromobacter as a novel cell culture contaminant

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Jennifer Sue; Birmingham, Janette Marie; Fenton, Jenifer Imig

    2009-01-01

    ARTICLE SUMMARY Cell culture model systems are utilized for their ease of use, relative inexpensiveness, and potentially limitless sample size. Reliable results cannot be obtained, however, when cultures contain contamination. This report discusses the observation and identification of mobile black specks observed in multiple cell lines. Cultures of the contamination were grown, and DNA was purified from isolated colonies. The 16S rDNA gene was PCR amplified using primers that will amplify the gene from many genera, and then sequenced. Sequencing results matched the members of the genus Achromobacter, bacteria common in the environment. Achromobacter species have been shown to be resistant to multiple antibiotics. Attempts to decontaminate the eukaryotic cell culture used multiple antibiotics at different concentrations. The contaminating Achromobacter was eventually eliminated, without permanently harming the eukaryotic cells, using a combination of the antibiotics ciprofloxacin and piperacillin. PMID:19926304

  4. Systematic evaluation of markers used for the identification of human induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Bharathan, Sumitha Prameela; Manian, Kannan Vrindavan; Aalam, Syed Mohammed Musheer; Palani, Dhavapriya; Deshpande, Prashant Ajit; Pratheesh, Mankuzhy Damodaran; Srivastava, Alok

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Low efficiency of somatic cell reprogramming and heterogeneity among human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) demand extensive characterization of isolated clones before their use in downstream applications. By monitoring human fibroblasts undergoing reprogramming for their morphological changes and expression of fibroblast (CD13), pluripotency markers (SSEA-4 and TRA-1-60) and a retrovirally expressed red fluorescent protein (RV-RFP), we compared the efficiency of these features to identify bona fide hiPSC colonies. The co-expression kinetics of fibroblast and pluripotency markers in the cells being reprogrammed and the emerging colonies revealed the heterogeneity within SSEA-4+ and TRA-1-60+ cells, and the inadequacy of these commonly used pluripotency markers for the identification of bona fide hiPSC colonies. The characteristic morphological changes in the emerging hiPSC colonies derived from fibroblasts expressing RV-RFP showed a good correlation between hiPSC morphology acquisition and silencing of RV-RFP and facilitated the easy identification of hiPSCs. The kinetics of retroviral silencing and pluripotency marker expression in emerging colonies suggested that combining both these markers could demarcate the stages of reprogramming with better precision than with pluripotency markers alone. Our results clearly demonstrate that the pluripotency markers that are routinely analyzed for the characterization of established iPSC colonies are not suitable for the isolation of pluripotent cells in the early stages of reprogramming, and silencing of retrovirally expressed reporter genes helps in the identification of colonies that have attained a pluripotent state and the morphology of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). PMID:28089995

  5. Automated identification of complementarity determining regions (CDRs) reveals peculiar characteristics of CDRs and B cell epitopes.

    PubMed

    Ofran, Yanay; Schlessinger, Avner; Rost, Burkhard

    2008-11-01

    Exact identification of complementarity determining regions (CDRs) is crucial for understanding and manipulating antigenic interactions. One way to do this is by marking residues on the antibody that interact with B cell epitopes on the antigen. This, of course, requires identification of B cell epitopes, which could be done by marking residues on the antigen that bind to CDRs, thus requiring identification of CDRs. To circumvent this vicious circle, existing tools for identifying CDRs are based on sequence analysis or general biophysical principles. Often, these tools, which are based on partial data, fail to agree on the boundaries of the CDRs. Herein we present an automated procedure for identifying CDRs and B cell epitopes using consensus structural regions that interact with the antigens in all known antibody-protein complexes. Consequently, we provide the first comprehensive analysis of all CDR-epitope complexes of known three-dimensional structure. The CDRs we identify only partially overlap with the regions suggested by existing methods. We found that the general physicochemical properties of both CDRs and B cell epitopes are rather peculiar. In particular, only four amino acids account for most of the sequence of CDRs, and several types of amino acids almost never appear in them. The secondary structure content and the conservation of B cell epitopes are found to be different than previously thought. These characteristics of CDRs and epitopes may be instrumental in choosing which residues to mutate in experimental search for epitopes. They may also assist in computational design of antibodies and in predicting B cell epitopes.

  6. HAZARD IDENTIFICATION: EFFICIENCY OF SHORT-TERM TESTS IN IDENTIFYING GERM CELL MUTAGENS AND PUTATIVE NONGENOTOXIC CARCINOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    For more than a decade, mutagenicity tests have had a clearly defined role in the identification of potential human mutagens and an ancillary role in the identification of potential human carcinogens. he efficiency of short-term tests in identifying germ cell mutagens has been ex...

  7. Synchrotron FTIR Imaging For The Identification Of Cell Types Within Human Tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Michael J.; Pounder, F. Nell; Nasse, Michael J.

    2010-02-03

    The use of synchrotron Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (S-FTIR) has been shown to be a very promising tool for biomedical research. S-FTIR spectroscopy allows for the fast acquisition of infrared (IR) spectra at a spatial resolution approaching the IR diffraction limit. The development of the Infrared Environmental Imaging (IRENI) beamline at the Synchrotron Radiation Center (SRC) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison has allowed for diffraction limited imaging measurements of cells in human prostate and breast tissues. This has allowed for the identification of cell types within tissues that would otherwise not have been resolvable using conventional FTIR sources.

  8. Cell line name recognition in support of the identification of synthetic lethality in cancer from text

    PubMed Central

    Kaewphan, Suwisa; Van Landeghem, Sofie; Ohta, Tomoko; Van de Peer, Yves; Ginter, Filip; Pyysalo, Sampo

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: The recognition and normalization of cell line names in text is an important task in biomedical text mining research, facilitating for instance the identification of synthetically lethal genes from the literature. While several tools have previously been developed to address cell line recognition, it is unclear whether available systems can perform sufficiently well in realistic and broad-coverage applications such as extracting synthetically lethal genes from the cancer literature. In this study, we revisit the cell line name recognition task, evaluating both available systems and newly introduced methods on various resources to obtain a reliable tagger not tied to any specific subdomain. In support of this task, we introduce two text collections manually annotated for cell line names: the broad-coverage corpus Gellus and CLL, a focused target domain corpus. Results: We find that the best performance is achieved using NERsuite, a machine learning system based on Conditional Random Fields, trained on the Gellus corpus and supported with a dictionary of cell line names. The system achieves an F-score of 88.46% on the test set of Gellus and 85.98% on the independently annotated CLL corpus. It was further applied at large scale to 24 302 102 unannotated articles, resulting in the identification of 5 181 342 cell line mentions, normalized to 11 755 unique cell line database identifiers. Availability and implementation: The manually annotated datasets, the cell line dictionary, derived corpora, NERsuite models and the results of the large-scale run on unannotated texts are available under open licenses at http://turkunlp.github.io/Cell-line-recognition/. Contact: sukaew@utu.fi PMID:26428294

  9. Identification of Cell Cycle-Regulated Genes by Convolutional Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chenglin; Cui, Peng; Huang, Tao

    2017-01-01

    The cell cycle-regulated genes express periodically with the cell cycle stages, and the identification and study of these genes can provide a deep understanding of the cell cycle process. Large false positives and low overlaps are big problems in cell cycle-regulated gene detection. Here, a computational framework called DLGene was proposed for cell cycle-regulated gene detection. It is based on the convolutional neural network, a deep learning algorithm representing raw form of data pattern without assumption of their distribution. First, the expression data was transformed to categorical state data to denote the changing state of gene expression, and four different expression patterns were revealed for the reported cell cycle-regulated genes. Then, DLGene was applied to discriminate the non-cell cycle gene and the four subtypes of cell cycle genes. Its performances were compared with six traditional machine learning methods. At last, the biological functions of representative cell cycle genes for each subtype are analyzed. Our method showed better and more balanced performance of sensitivity and specificity comparing to other machine learning algorithms. The cell cycle genes had very different expression pattern with non-cell cycle genes and among the cell-cycle genes, there were four subtypes. Our method not only detects the cell cycle genes, but also describes its expression pattern, such as when its highest expression level is reached and how it changes with time. For each type, we analyzed the biological functions of the representative genes and such results provided novel insight to the cell cycle mechanisms. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Streamlined method for parallel identification of single domain antibodies to membrane receptors on whole cells

    PubMed Central

    Rossotti, Martín; Tabares, Sofía; Alfaya, Lucía; Leizagoyen, Carmen; Moron, Gabriel; González-Sapienza, Gualberto

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Owing to their minimal size, high production yield, versatility and robustness, the recombinant variable domain (nanobody) of camelid single chain antibodies are valued affinity reagents for research, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications. While their preparation against purified antigens is straightforward, the generation of nanobodies to difficult targets such as multi-pass or complex membrane cell receptors remains challenging. Here we devised a platform for high throughput identification of nanobodies to cell receptor based on the use of a biotin handle. METHODS Using a biotin-acceptor peptide tag, the in vivo biotinylation of nanobodies in 96 well culture blocks was optimized allowing their parallel analysis by flow cytometry and ELISA, and their direct used for pull-down/MS target identification. RESULTS The potential of this strategy was demonstrated by the selection and characterization of panels of nanobodies to Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18), MHC II and the mouse Ly-5 leukocyte common antigen (CD45) receptors, from a VHH library obtained from a llama immunized with mouse bone marrow derived dendritic cells. By on and off switching of the addition of biotin, the method also allowed the epitope binning of the selected Nbs directly on cells. CONCLUSIONS This strategy streamline the selection of potent nanobodies to complex antigens, and the selected nanobodies constitute ready-to-use biotinylated reagents. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE This method will accelerate the discovery of nanobodies to cell membrane receptors which comprise the largest group of drug and analytical targets. PMID:25819371

  11. Identification of new genes in a cell envelope-cell division gene cluster of Escherichia coli: cell envelope gene murG.

    PubMed Central

    Salmond, G P; Lutkenhaus, J F; Donachie, W D

    1980-01-01

    We report the identification, cloning, and mapping of a new cell envelope gene, murG. This lies in a group of five genes of similar phenotype (in the order murE murF murG murC ddl) all concerned with peptidoglycan biosynthesis. This group is in a larger cluster of at least 10 genes, all of which are involved in some way with cell envelope growth. Images PMID:6998962

  12. Identification of cancer stem cell markers in human malignant mesothelioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ghani, Farhana Ishrat; Yamazaki, Hiroto; Iwata, Satoshi

    2011-01-14

    Research highlights: {yields} We performed serial transplantation of surgical samples and established new cell lines of malignant mesothelioma. {yields} SP cell and expressions of CD9/CD24/CD26 were often observed in mesothelioma cell lines. {yields} SP and CD24{sup +} cells proliferated by asymmetric cell division-like manner. CD9{sup +} and CD24{sup +} cells have higher potential to generate spheroid colony. {yields} The marker-positive cells have clear tendency to generate larger tumors in mice. -- Abstract: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive and therapy-resistant neoplasm arising from the pleural mesothelial cells and usually associated with long-term asbestos exposure. Recent studies suggest that tumors containmore » cancer stem cells (CSCs) and their stem cell characteristics are thought to confer therapy-resistance. However, whether MM cell has any stem cell characteristics is not known. To understand the molecular basis of MM, we first performed serial transplantation of surgical samples into NOD/SCID mice and established new cell lines. Next, we performed marker analysis of the MM cell lines and found that many of them contain SP cells and expressed several putative CSC markers such as CD9, CD24, and CD26. Interestingly, expression of CD26 closely correlated with that of CD24 in some cases. Sorting and culture assay revealed that SP and CD24{sup +} cells proliferated by asymmetric cell division-like manner. In addition, CD9{sup +} and CD24{sup +} cells have higher potential to generate spheroid colony than negative cells in the stem cell medium. Moreover, these marker-positive cells have clear tendency to generate larger tumors in mouse transplantation assay. Taken together, our data suggest that SP, CD9, CD24, and CD26 are CSC markers of MM and could be used as novel therapeutic targets.« less

  13. Identification and validation nucleolin as a target of curcumol in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Wu, Jiacai; Li, Xumei; Liu, Haowei; Qin, Jianli; Bai, Zhun; Chi, Bixia; Chen, Xu

    2018-06-30

    Identification of the specific protein target(s) of a drug is a critical step in unraveling its mechanisms of action (MOA) in many natural products. Curcumol, isolated from well known Chinese medicinal plant Curcuma zedoary, has been shown to possess multiple biological activities. It can inhibit nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) proliferation and induce apoptosis, but its target protein(s) in NPC cells remains unclear. In this study, we employed a mass spectrometry-based chemical proteomics approach reveal the possible protein targets of curcumol in NPC cells. Cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA), molecular docking and cell-based assay was used to validate the binding interactions. Chemical proteomics capturing uncovered that NCL is a target of curcumol in NPC cells, Molecular docking showed that curcumol bound to NCL with an -7.8 kcal/mol binding free energy. Cell function analysis found that curcumol's treatment leads to a degradation of NCL in NPC cells, and it showed slight effects on NP69 cells. In conclusion, our results providing evidences that NCL is a target protein of curcumol. We revealed that the anti-cancer effects of curcumol in NPC cells are mediated, at least in part, by NCL inhibition. Many natural products showed high bioactivity, while their mechanisms of action (MOA) are very poor or completely missed. Understanding the MOA of natural drugs can thoroughly exploit their therapeutic potential and minimize their adverse side effects. Identification of the specific protein target(s) of a drug is a critical step in unraveling its MOA. Compound-centric chemical proteomics is a classic chemical proteomics approach which integrates chemical synthesis with cell biology and mass spectrometry (MS) to identify protein targets of natural products determine the drug mechanism of action, describe its toxicity, and figure out the possible cause of off-target. It is an affinity-based chemical proteomics method to identify small molecule-protein interactions

  14. Identification of different subsets of lung cells using Raman microspectroscopy and whole cell nucleus isolation.

    PubMed

    Pijanka, Jacek K; Stone, Nicholas; Rutter, Abigail V; Forsyth, Nicholas; Sockalingum, Ganesh D; Yang, Ying; Sulé-Suso, Josep

    2013-09-07

    Raman spectroscopy has been widely used to study its possible clinical application in cancer diagnosis. However, in order to make it into clinical practice, it is important that this technique is able not only to identify cancer cells from their normal counterparts, but also from the array of cells present in human tissues. To this purpose, we used Raman spectroscopy to assess whether this technique was able to differentiate not only between lung cancer cells and lung epithelial cells but also from lung fibroblasts. Furthermore, we studied whether the differences were due to cell lineage (epithelial versus fibroblast) or to different proliferative characteristics of cells, and where in the cell compartment these differences might reside. To answer these questions we studied cell cytoplasm, cell nucleus and isolated whole cell nuclei. Our data suggests that Raman spectroscopy can differentiate between lung cancer, lung epithelial cells and lung fibroblasts. More important, it can also differentiate between 2 cells from the same lineage (fibroblast) but with one of them rendered immortal and with an increased proliferative activity. Finally, it seems that the main spectral differences reside in the cell nucleus and that the study of isolated nuclei strengthens the differences between cells.

  15. Identification of a Functional Plasmodesmal Localization Signal in a Plant Viral Cell-To-Cell-Movement Protein.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Cheng; Lazarowitz, Sondra G; Citovsky, Vitaly

    2016-01-19

    Our fundamental knowledge of the protein-sorting pathways required for plant cell-to-cell trafficking and communication via the intercellular connections termed plasmodesmata has been severely limited by the paucity of plasmodesmal targeting sequences that have been identified to date. To address this limitation, we have identified the plasmodesmal localization signal (PLS) in the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) cell-to-cell-movement protein (MP), which has emerged as the paradigm for dissecting the molecular details of cell-to-cell transport through plasmodesmata. We report here the identification of a bona fide functional TMV MP PLS, which encompasses amino acid residues between positions 1 and 50, with residues Val-4 and Phe-14 potentially representing critical sites for PLS function that most likely affect protein conformation or protein interactions. We then demonstrated that this PLS is both necessary and sufficient for protein targeting to plasmodesmata. Importantly, as TMV MP traffics to plasmodesmata by a mechanism that is distinct from those of the three plant cell proteins in which PLSs have been reported, our findings provide important new insights to expand our understanding of protein-sorting pathways to plasmodesmata. The science of virology began with the discovery of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Since then, TMV has served as an experimental and conceptual model for studies of viruses and dissection of virus-host interactions. Indeed, the TMV cell-to-cell-movement protein (MP) has emerged as the paradigm for dissecting the molecular details of cell-to-cell transport through the plant intercellular connections termed plasmodesmata. However, one of the most fundamental and key functional features of TMV MP, its putative plasmodesmal localization signal (PLS), has not been identified. Here, we fill this gap in our knowledge and identify the TMV MP PLS. Copyright © 2016 Yuan et al.

  16. Pooled protein immunization for identification of cell surface antigens in Streptococcus sanguinis.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiuchun; Kitten, Todd; Munro, Cindy L; Conrad, Daniel H; Xu, Ping

    2010-07-26

    Available bacterial genomes provide opportunities for screening vaccines by reverse vaccinology. Efficient identification of surface antigens is required to reduce time and animal cost in this technology. We developed an approach to identify surface antigens rapidly in Streptococcus sanguinis, a common infective endocarditis causative species. We applied bioinformatics for antigen prediction and pooled antigens for immunization. Forty-seven surface-exposed proteins including 28 lipoproteins and 19 cell wall-anchored proteins were chosen based on computer algorithms and comparative genomic analyses. Eight proteins among these candidates and 2 other proteins were pooled together to immunize rabbits. The antiserum reacted strongly with each protein and with S. sanguinis whole cells. Affinity chromatography was used to purify the antibodies to 9 of the antigen pool components. Competitive ELISA and FACS results indicated that these 9 proteins were exposed on S. sanguinis cell surfaces. The purified antibodies had demonstrable opsonic activity. The results indicate that immunization with pooled proteins, in combination with affinity purification, and comprehensive immunological assays may facilitate cell surface antigen identification to combat infectious diseases.

  17. Pooled Protein Immunization for Identification of Cell Surface Antigens in Streptococcus sanguinis

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xiuchun; Kitten, Todd; Munro, Cindy L.; Conrad, Daniel H.; Xu, Ping

    2010-01-01

    Background Available bacterial genomes provide opportunities for screening vaccines by reverse vaccinology. Efficient identification of surface antigens is required to reduce time and animal cost in this technology. We developed an approach to identify surface antigens rapidly in Streptococcus sanguinis, a common infective endocarditis causative species. Methods and Findings We applied bioinformatics for antigen prediction and pooled antigens for immunization. Forty-seven surface-exposed proteins including 28 lipoproteins and 19 cell wall-anchored proteins were chosen based on computer algorithms and comparative genomic analyses. Eight proteins among these candidates and 2 other proteins were pooled together to immunize rabbits. The antiserum reacted strongly with each protein and with S. sanguinis whole cells. Affinity chromatography was used to purify the antibodies to 9 of the antigen pool components. Competitive ELISA and FACS results indicated that these 9 proteins were exposed on S. sanguinis cell surfaces. The purified antibodies had demonstrable opsonic activity. Conclusions The results indicate that immunization with pooled proteins, in combination with affinity purification, and comprehensive immunological assays may facilitate cell surface antigen identification to combat infectious diseases. PMID:20668678

  18. High-resolution Identification and Separation of Living Cell Types by Multiple microRNA-responsive Synthetic mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Endo, Kei; Hayashi, Karin; Saito, Hirohide

    2016-02-23

    The precise identification and separation of living cell types is critical to both study cell function and prepare cells for medical applications. However, intracellular information to distinguish live cells remains largely inaccessible. Here, we develop a method for high-resolution identification and separation of cell types by quantifying multiple microRNA (miRNA) activities in live cell populations. We found that a set of miRNA-responsive, in vitro synthesized mRNAs identify a specific cell population as a sharp peak and clearly separate different cell types based on less than two-fold differences in miRNA activities. Increasing the number of miRNA-responsive mRNAs enhanced the capability for cell identification and separation, as we precisely and simultaneously distinguished different cell types with similar miRNA profiles. In addition, the set of synthetic mRNAs separated HeLa cells into subgroups, uncovering heterogeneity of the cells and the level of resolution achievable. Our method could identify target live cells and improve the efficiency of cell purification from heterogeneous populations.

  19. Targeted nanodiamonds for identification of subcellular protein assemblies in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Lake, Michael P.; Bouchard, Louis-S.

    2017-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can be used to successfully determine the structures of proteins. However, such studies are typically done ex situ after extraction of the protein from the cellular environment. Here we describe an application for nanodiamonds as targeted intensity contrast labels in biological TEM, using the nuclear pore complex (NPC) as a model macroassembly. We demonstrate that delivery of antibody-conjugated nanodiamonds to live mammalian cells using maltotriose-conjugated polypropylenimine dendrimers results in efficient localization of nanodiamonds to the intended cellular target. We further identify signatures of nanodiamonds under TEM that allow for unambiguous identification of individual nanodiamonds from a resin-embedded, OsO4-stained environment. This is the first demonstration of nanodiamonds as labels for nanoscale TEM-based identification of subcellular protein assemblies. These results, combined with the unique fluorescence properties and biocompatibility of nanodiamonds, represent an important step toward the use of nanodiamonds as markers for correlated optical/electron bioimaging. PMID:28636640

  20. Identification Of Cells With A Compact Microscope Imaging System With Intelligent Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDowell, Mark (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A Microscope Imaging System (CMIS) with intelligent controls is disclosed that provides techniques for scanning, identifying, detecting and tracking mic?oscopic changes in selected characteristics or features of various surfaces including, but not limited to, cells, spheres, and manufactured products subject to difficult-to-see imperfections. The practice of the present invention provides applications that include colloidal hard spheres experiments, biological cell detection for patch clamping, cell movement and tracking, as well as defect identification in products, such as semiconductor devices, where surface damage can be significant, but difficult to detect. The CMIS system is a machine vision system, which combines intelligent image processing with remote control capabilities and provides the ability to autofocus on a microscope sample, automatically scan an image, and perform machine vision analysis on multiple samples simultaneously.

  1. Is Identification of Lupus Erythematosus Cells Still Useful? A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; MacNeal, Lucinda A; Wittman, Brenda J; Rutledge, Joe C

    A 13-year-old girl presented with significant weight loss, depression, anemia, and neutropenia. The preliminary diagnosis was anorexia nervosa combined with depression. Due to peripheral cytopenia, a bone marrow biopsy was performed to rule out leukemia. Lupus erythematosus (LE) cells were found in the bone marrow aspirate, which prompted autoantibody testing, although clinically it was not suspected the patient had systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Further testing demonstrated very high levels of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) (>12 U) and anti-double strand DNA (dsNDA) (>1000 IU/mL), which confirmed the diagnosis of SLE. The patient was treated with steroids for SLE, and symptoms improved quickly. In conclusion, although the identification of LE cells as one of the diagnostic criteria for SLE has been obsolete, careful examination of bone marrow to identify LE cells is still very important in the diagnosis of unsuspected SLE.

  2. Machine Learning Approach to Automated Quality Identification of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Colony Images.

    PubMed

    Joutsijoki, Henry; Haponen, Markus; Rasku, Jyrki; Aalto-Setälä, Katriina; Juhola, Martti

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this research is on automated identification of the quality of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) colony images. iPS cell technology is a contemporary method by which the patient's cells are reprogrammed back to stem cells and are differentiated to any cell type wanted. iPS cell technology will be used in future to patient specific drug screening, disease modeling, and tissue repairing, for instance. However, there are technical challenges before iPS cell technology can be used in practice and one of them is quality control of growing iPSC colonies which is currently done manually but is unfeasible solution in large-scale cultures. The monitoring problem returns to image analysis and classification problem. In this paper, we tackle this problem using machine learning methods such as multiclass Support Vector Machines and several baseline methods together with Scaled Invariant Feature Transformation based features. We perform over 80 test arrangements and do a thorough parameter value search. The best accuracy (62.4%) for classification was obtained by using a k-NN classifier showing improved accuracy compared to earlier studies.

  3. Single marker identification of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cancer stem cells with aldehyde dehyrdrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Clay, MR.; Tabor, M.; Owen, J.; Carey, TE.; Bradford, CR.; Wolf, GT.; Wicha, MS.; Prince, ME.

    2010-01-01

    Background According to the cancer stem cell (CSC) theory only a small subset of cancer cells are capable of forming tumors. We previously reported that CD44 isolates tumorigenic cells from HNSCC. Recent studies indicate that aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity may represent a more specific marker of CSCs. Methods Six primary HNSCC were collected. Cells with high and low ALDH activity (ALDHhigh/ALDHlow) were isolated. ALDHhigh and ALDHlow populations were implanted into NOD/SCID mice and monitored for tumor development. Results ALDHhigh cells represented a small percentage of the tumor cells (1-7.8%). ALDHhigh cells formed tumors from as few as 500 cells in 24/45 implantations while only 3/37 implantations of ALDHlow cells formed tumors. Conclusions ALDHhigh cells comprise a subpopulation cells in HNSCC that are tumorigenic and capable of producing tumors at very low numbers. This finding indicates that ALDH activity on its own is a highly selective marker for CSCs in HNSCC. PMID:20073073

  4. Identification and genetic analysis of cancer cells with PCR-activated cell sorting

    PubMed Central

    Eastburn, Dennis J.; Sciambi, Adam; Abate, Adam R.

    2014-01-01

    Cell sorting is a central tool in life science research for analyzing cellular heterogeneity or enriching rare cells out of large populations. Although methods like FACS and FISH-FC can characterize and isolate cells from heterogeneous populations, they are limited by their reliance on antibodies, or the requirement to chemically fix cells. We introduce a new cell sorting technology that robustly sorts based on sequence-specific analysis of cellular nucleic acids. Our approach, PCR-activated cell sorting (PACS), uses TaqMan PCR to detect nucleic acids within single cells and trigger their sorting. With this method, we identified and sorted prostate cancer cells from a heterogeneous population by performing >132 000 simultaneous single-cell TaqMan RT-PCR reactions targeting vimentin mRNA. Following vimentin-positive droplet sorting and downstream analysis of recovered nucleic acids, we found that cancer-specific genomes and transcripts were significantly enriched. Additionally, we demonstrate that PACS can be used to sort and enrich cells via TaqMan PCR reactions targeting single-copy genomic DNA. PACS provides a general new technical capability that expands the application space of cell sorting by enabling sorting based on cellular information not amenable to existing approaches. PMID:25030902

  5. Identification of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma biomarker candidates through proteomic analysis of cancer cell secretome.

    PubMed

    Marimuthu, Arivusudar; Chavan, Sandip; Sathe, Gajanan; Sahasrabuddhe, Nandini A; Srikanth, Srinivas M; Renuse, Santosh; Ahmad, Sartaj; Radhakrishnan, Aneesha; Barbhuiya, Mustafa A; Kumar, Rekha V; Harsha, H C; Sidransky, David; Califano, Joseph; Pandey, Akhilesh; Chatterjee, Aditi

    2013-11-01

    Protein biomarker discovery for early detection of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a crucial unmet need to improve patient outcomes. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics has emerged as a promising tool for identification of biomarkers in different cancer types. Proteins secreted from cancer cells can serve as potential biomarkers for early diagnosis. In the current study, we have used isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling methodology coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry to identify and quantitate secreted proteins from a panel of head and neck carcinoma cell lines. In all, we identified 2,472 proteins, of which 225 proteins were secreted at higher or lower abundance in HNSCC-derived cell lines. Of these, 148 were present in higher abundance and 77 were present in lower abundance in the cancer-cell derived secretome. We detected a higher abundance of some previously known markers for HNSCC including insulin like growth factor binding protein 3, IGFBP3 (11-fold) and opioid growth factor receptor, OGFR (10-fold) demonstrating the validity of our approach. We also identified several novel secreted proteins in HNSCC including olfactomedin-4, OLFM4 (12-fold) and hepatocyte growth factor activator, HGFA (5-fold). IHC-based validation was conducted in HNSCC using tissue microarrays which revealed overexpression of IGFBP3 and OLFM4 in 70% and 75% of the tested cases, respectively. Our study illustrates quantitative proteomics of secretome as a robust approach for identification of potential HNSCC biomarkers. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: An Updated Secretome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Lgr5-positive cells are cancer stem cells in skin squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shunli; Gong, Zhenyu; Chen, Mingrui; Liu, Benli; Bian, Donghui; Wu, Kai

    2014-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) in most human tumors are commonly identified and enriched using similar strategies for identifying normal stem cells, including flow cytometry assays for side population, high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, and CD133 positivity. Thus, development of a method for isolating a specific cancer using cancer-specific characteristic appears to be potentially important. Here, we reported extremely high Lgr5 levels in the specimen from skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in patients. Using SCC cell line A431, we detected high Lgr5 and CD133 levels in ALDH-high or side population from these cancer cells. To figure out whether Lgr5 is a marker of CSCs in SCC, we transfected A431 cells with a Lgr5-creERT-2A-DTR/Cag-Loxp-GFP-STOP-Loxp-RFP plasmid and purified transfected cells (tA431) based on GFP by flow cytometry. 4-Hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) was given to label Lgr5-positive cells with RFP, for comparison to GFP-positive Lgr5-negative cells. Lgr5-positive cells grew significantly faster than Lgr5-negative cells, and the fold increase in growth of Lgr5-positive vs Lgr5-negative cells is significantly higher than SP vs non-SP, or ALDH-high vs ALDH-low, or CD133-positive vs CD133-negative cells. Moreover, in Lgr5-negative population, Lgr5-positive re-appeared in culture with time, suggesting that Lgr5-positive cells can be regenerated from Lgr5-negative cells. Furthermore, the growth of tA431 cells significantly decreased upon a single dose of diphtheria toxin (DT)/4-OHT to eliminate Lgr5-positive cell lineage, while multiple doses of DT/4-OHT nearly completely inhibited tA431 cell growth. Taken together, our data provide compelling data to demonstrate that Lgr5-positive cells are CSCs in skin SCC.

  7. Identification of innate lymphoid cells in single-cell RNA-Seq data.

    PubMed

    Suffiotti, Madeleine; Carmona, Santiago J; Jandus, Camilla; Gfeller, David

    2017-07-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) consist of natural killer (NK) cells and non-cytotoxic ILCs that are broadly classified into ILC1, ILC2, and ILC3 subtypes. These cells recently emerged as important early effectors of innate immunity for their roles in tissue homeostasis and inflammation. Over the last few years, ILCs have been extensively studied in mouse and human at the functional and molecular level, including gene expression profiling. However, sorting ILCs with flow cytometry for gene expression analysis is a delicate and time-consuming process. Here we propose and validate a novel framework for studying ILCs at the transcriptomic level using single-cell RNA-Seq data. Our approach combines unsupervised clustering and a new cell type classifier trained on mouse ILC gene expression data. We show that this approach can accurately identify different ILCs, especially ILC2 cells, in human lymphocyte single-cell RNA-Seq data. Our new model relies only on genes conserved across vertebrates, thereby making it in principle applicable in any vertebrate species. Considering the rapid increase in throughput of single-cell RNA-Seq technology, our work provides a computational framework for studying ILC2 cells in single-cell transcriptomic data and may help exploring their conservation in distant vertebrate species.

  8. Accounting for cell lineage and sex effects in the identification of cell-specific DNA methylation using a Bayesian model selection algorithm.

    PubMed

    White, Nicole; Benton, Miles; Kennedy, Daniel; Fox, Andrew; Griffiths, Lyn; Lea, Rodney; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2017-01-01

    Cell- and sex-specific differences in DNA methylation are major sources of epigenetic variation in whole blood. Heterogeneity attributable to cell type has motivated the identification of cell-specific methylation at the CpG level, however statistical methods for this purpose have been limited to pairwise comparisons between cell types or between the cell type of interest and whole blood. We developed a Bayesian model selection algorithm for the identification of cell-specific methylation profiles that incorporates knowledge of shared cell lineage and allows for the identification of differential methylation profiles in one or more cell types simultaneously. Under the proposed methodology, sex-specific differences in methylation by cell type are also assessed. Using publicly available, cell-sorted methylation data, we show that 51.3% of female CpG markers and 61.4% of male CpG markers identified were associated with differential methylation in more than one cell type. The impact of cell lineage on differential methylation was also highlighted. An evaluation of sex-specific differences revealed differences in CD56+NK methylation, within both single and multi- cell dependent methylation patterns. Our findings demonstrate the need to account for cell lineage in studies of differential methylation and associated sex effects.

  9. Bioinformatics-Based Identification of Candidate Genes from QTLs Associated with Cell Wall Traits in Populus

    SciTech Connect

    Ranjan, Priya; Yin, Tongming; Zhang, Xinye

    2009-11-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies are an integral part of plant research and are used to characterize the genetic basis of phenotypic variation observed in structured populations and inform marker-assisted breeding efforts. These QTL intervals can span large physical regions on a chromosome comprising hundreds of genes, thereby hampering candidate gene identification. Genome history, evolution, and expression evidence can be used to narrow the genes in the interval to a smaller list that is manageable for detailed downstream functional genomics characterization. Our primary motivation for the present study was to address the need for a research methodology that identifies candidatemore » genes within a broad QTL interval. Here we present a bioinformatics-based approach for subdividing candidate genes within QTL intervals into alternate groups of high probability candidates. Application of this approach in the context of studying cell wall traits, specifically lignin content and S/G ratios of stem and root in Populus plants, resulted in manageable sets of genes of both known and putative cell wall biosynthetic function. These results provide a roadmap for future experimental work leading to identification of new genes controlling cell wall recalcitrance and, ultimately, in the utility of plant biomass as an energy feedstock.« less

  10. Identification of a nucleoside analog active against adenosine kinase–expressing plasma cell malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, Jouliana; Hernandez-Hopkins, Denise; Akar, Gunkut; Barelli, Peter J.; Sahai, Michelle A.; Zhou, Hufeng; Totonchy, Jennifer; Jayabalan, David; Niesvizky, Ruben; Guasparri, Ilaria; Liu, Yifang; Sei, Shizuko; Shoemaker, Robert H.; Elemento, Olivier; Kaye, Kenneth M.

    2017-01-01

    Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a largely incurable malignancy of B cell origin with plasmacytic differentiation. Here, we report the identification of a highly effective inhibitor of PEL. This compound, 6-ethylthioinosine (6-ETI), is a nucleoside analog with toxicity to PEL in vitro and in vivo, but not to other lymphoma cell lines tested. We developed and performed resistome analysis, an unbiased approach based on RNA sequencing of resistant subclones, to discover the molecular mechanisms of sensitivity. We found different adenosine kinase–inactivating (ADK-inactivating) alterations in all resistant clones and determined that ADK is required to phosphorylate and activate 6-ETI. Further, we observed that 6-ETI induces ATP depletion and cell death accompanied by S phase arrest and DNA damage only in ADK-expressing cells. Immunohistochemistry for ADK served as a biomarker approach to identify 6-ETI–sensitive tumors, which we documented for other lymphoid malignancies with plasmacytic features. Notably, multiple myeloma (MM) expresses high levels of ADK, and 6-ETI was toxic to MM cell lines and primary specimens and had a robust antitumor effect in a disseminated MM mouse model. Several nucleoside analogs are effective in treating leukemias and T cell lymphomas, and 6-ETI may fill this niche for the treatment of PEL, plasmablastic lymphoma, MM, and other ADK-expressing cancers. PMID:28504647

  11. Identification of Novel Avian Influenza Virus Derived CD8+ T-Cell Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Reemers, Sylvia S. N.; van Haarlem, Daphne A.; Sijts, Alice J. A. M.; Vervelde, Lonneke; Jansen, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) infection is a continuing threat to both humans and poultry. Influenza virus specific CD8+ T cells are associated with protection against homologous and heterologous influenza strains. In contrast to what has been described for humans and mice, knowledge on epitope-specific CD8+ T cells in chickens is limited. Therefore, we set out to identify AIV-specific CD8+ T-cell epitopes. Epitope predictions based on anchor residues resulted in 33 candidate epitopes. MHC I inbred chickens were infected with a low pathogenic AIV strain and sacrificed at 5, 7, 10 and 14 days post infection (dpi). Lymphocytes isolated from lung, spleen and blood were stimulated ex vivo with AIV-specific pooled or individual peptides and the production of IFNγ was determined by ELIspot. This resulted in the identification of 12 MHC B12-restricted, 3 B4-restricted and 1 B19-restricted AIV- specific CD8+ T-cell epitopes. In conclusion, we have identified novel AIV-derived CD8+ T-cell epitopes for several inbred chicken strains. This knowledge can be used to study the role of CD8+ T cells against AIV infection in a natural host for influenza, and may be important for vaccine development. PMID:22384112

  12. Identification of tumor cells infiltrating into connective tissue in esophageal cancer by multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Jiang, Liwei; Kang, Deyong; Wu, Xuejing; Xu, Meifang; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Lin, Jiangbo; Chen, Jianxin

    2016-10-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most common malignancies of the gastrointestinal cancers and carries poorer prognosis than other gastrointestinal cancers. In general practice, the depth of tumor infiltration in esophageal wall is crucial to establishing appropriate treatment plan which is established by detecting the tumor infiltration depth. Connective tissue is one of the main structures that form the esophageal wall. So, identification of tumor cells infiltrating into connective tissue is helping for detecting the tumor infiltration depth. Our aim is to evaluate whether multiphoton microscopy (MPM) can be used to detect tumor cells infiltrating into connective tissue in the esophageal cancer. MPM is well-suited for real-time detecting morphologic and cellular changes in fresh tissues since many endogenous fluorophores of fresh tissues are excited through two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG). In this work, microstructure of tumor cells and connective tissue are first studied. Then, morphological changes of collagen fibers after the infiltration of tumor cells are shown. These results show that MPM has the ability to detect tumor cells infiltrating into connective tissue in the esophageal cancer. In the future, MPM may be a promising imaging technique for detecting tumor cells in esophageal cancer.

  13. Modulated Raman spectroscopy for enhanced identification of bladder tumor cells in urine samples.

    PubMed

    Canetta, Elisabetta; Mazilu, Michael; De Luca, Anna Chiara; Carruthers, Antonia E; Dholakia, Kishan; Neilson, Sam; Sargeant, Harry; Briscoe, Tina; Herrington, C Simon; Riches, Andrew C

    2011-03-01

    Standard Raman spectroscopy (SRS) is a noninvasive technique that is used in the biomedical field to discriminate between normal and cancer cells. However, the presence of a strong fluorescence background detracts from the use of SRS in real-time clinical applications. Recently, we have reported a novel modulated Raman spectroscopy (MRS) technique to extract the Raman spectra from the background. In this paper, we present the first application of MRS to the identification of human urothelial cells (SV-HUC-1) and bladder cancer cells (MGH) in urine samples. These results are compared to those obtained by SRS. Classification using the principal component analysis clearly shows that MRS allows discrimination between Raman spectra of SV-HUC-1 and MGH cells with high sensitivity (98%) and specificity (95%). MRS is also used to distinguish between SV-HUC-1 and MGH cells after exposure to urine for up to 6 h. We observe a marked change in the MRS of SV-HUC-1 and MGH cells with time in urine, indicating that the conditions of sample collection will be important for the application of this methodology to clinical urine samples.

  14. Lattice Symmetry and Identification-The Fundamental Role of Reduced Cells in Materials Characterization.

    PubMed

    Mighell, A D

    2001-01-01

    In theory, physical crystals can be represented by idealized mathematical lattices. Under appropriate conditions, these representations can be used for a variety of purposes such as identifying, classifying, and understanding the physical properties of materials. Critical to these applications is the ability to construct a unique representation of the lattice. The vital link that enabled this theory to be realized in practice was provided by the 1970 paper on the determination of reduced cells. This seminal paper led to a mathematical approach to lattice analysis initially based on systematic reduction procedures and the use of standard cells. Subsequently, the process evolved to a matrix approach based on group theory and linear algebra that offered a more abstract and powerful way to look at lattices and their properties. Application of the reduced cell to both database work and laboratory research at NIST was immediately successful. Currently, this cell and/or procedures based on reduction are widely and routinely used by the general scientific community: (i) for calculating standard cells for the reporting of crystalline materials, (ii) for classifying materials, (iii) in crystallographic database work (iv) in routine x-ray and neutron diffractometry, and (v) in general crystallographic research. Especially important is its use in symmetry determination and in identification. The focus herein is on the role of the reduced cell in lattice symmetry determination.

  15. Identification of a nucleoside analog active against adenosine kinase-expressing plasma cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Utthara; Sadek, Jouliana; Reichel, Jonathan; Hernandez-Hopkins, Denise; Akar, Gunkut; Barelli, Peter J; Sahai, Michelle A; Zhou, Hufeng; Totonchy, Jennifer; Jayabalan, David; Niesvizky, Ruben; Guasparri, Ilaria; Hassane, Duane; Liu, Yifang; Sei, Shizuko; Shoemaker, Robert H; Warren, J David; Elemento, Olivier; Kaye, Kenneth M; Cesarman, Ethel

    2017-06-01

    Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a largely incurable malignancy of B cell origin with plasmacytic differentiation. Here, we report the identification of a highly effective inhibitor of PEL. This compound, 6-ethylthioinosine (6-ETI), is a nucleoside analog with toxicity to PEL in vitro and in vivo, but not to other lymphoma cell lines tested. We developed and performed resistome analysis, an unbiased approach based on RNA sequencing of resistant subclones, to discover the molecular mechanisms of sensitivity. We found different adenosine kinase-inactivating (ADK-inactivating) alterations in all resistant clones and determined that ADK is required to phosphorylate and activate 6-ETI. Further, we observed that 6-ETI induces ATP depletion and cell death accompanied by S phase arrest and DNA damage only in ADK-expressing cells. Immunohistochemistry for ADK served as a biomarker approach to identify 6-ETI-sensitive tumors, which we documented for other lymphoid malignancies with plasmacytic features. Notably, multiple myeloma (MM) expresses high levels of ADK, and 6-ETI was toxic to MM cell lines and primary specimens and had a robust antitumor effect in a disseminated MM mouse model. Several nucleoside analogs are effective in treating leukemias and T cell lymphomas, and 6-ETI may fill this niche for the treatment of PEL, plasmablastic lymphoma, MM, and other ADK-expressing cancers.

  16. A practical guide for the identification of membrane and plasma membrane proteins in human embryonic stem cells and human embryonal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Dormeyer, Wilma; van Hoof, Dennis; Mummery, Christine L; Krijgsveld, Jeroen; Heck, Albert J R

    2008-10-01

    The identification of (plasma) membrane proteins in cells can provide valuable insights into the regulation of their biological processes. Pluripotent cells such as human embryonic stem cells and embryonal carcinoma cells are capable of unlimited self-renewal and share many of the biological mechanisms that regulate proliferation and differentiation. The comparison of their membrane proteomes will help unravel the biological principles of pluripotency, and the identification of biomarker proteins in their plasma membranes is considered a crucial step to fully exploit pluripotent cells for therapeutic purposes. For these tasks, membrane proteomics is the method of choice, but as indicated by the scarce identification of membrane and plasma membrane proteins in global proteomic surveys it is not an easy task. In this minireview, we first describe the general challenges of membrane proteomics. We then review current sample preparation steps and discuss protocols that we found particularly beneficial for the identification of large numbers of (plasma) membrane proteins in human tumour- and embryo-derived stem cells. Our optimized assembled protocol led to the identification of a large number of membrane proteins. However, as the composition of cells and membranes is highly variable we still recommend adapting the sample preparation protocol for each individual system.

  17. Effects of intracellular iron overload on cell death and identification of potent cell death inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shenglin; Yu, Xiaonan; Ding, Haoxuan; Han, Jianan; Feng, Jie

    2018-06-11

    Iron overload causes many diseases, while the underlying etiologies of these diseases are unclear. Cell death processes including apoptosis, necroptosis, cyclophilin D-(CypD)-dependent necrosis and a recently described additional form of regulated cell death called ferroptosis, are dependent on iron or iron-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, whether the accumulation of intracellular iron itself induces ferroptosis or other forms of cell death is largely elusive. In present study, we study the role of intracellular iron overload itself-induced cell death mechanisms by using ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) and a membrane-permeable Ferric 8-hydroxyquinoline complex (Fe-8HQ) respectively. We show that FAC-induced intracellular iron overload causes ferroptosis. We also identify 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) inhibitor GSK2334470 as a potent ferroptosis inhibitor. Whereas, Fe-8HQ-induced intracellular iron overload causes unregulated necrosis, but partially activates PARP-1 dependent parthanatos. Interestingly, we identify many phenolic compounds as potent inhibitors of Fe-8HQ-induced cell death. In conclusion, intracellular iron overload-induced cell death form might be dependent on the intracellular iron accumulation rate, newly identified cell death inhibitors in our study that target ferroptosis and unregulated oxidative cell death represent potential therapeutic strategies against iron overload related diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification of p63+ keratinocyte progenitor cells in circulation and their matrix-directed differentiation to epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In the event of chronic diabetes or burn wounds, accomplishing skin regeneration is a major concern. Autologous skin grafting is the most effective remedy, but the tissue harvest may create more nonhealing wounds. Currently available skin substitutes have a limited clinical outcome because of immune reactions arising from the xenobiotic scaffold or allogenous cells. Autologous stem cells that can be collected without an additional injury may be a viable option for skin-tissue engineering. Presence of a low number of keratinocyte progenitor cells (KPCs) within the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMNC) population has been indicated. Identification, isolation, expansion, and differentiation of KPCs is necessary before they are considered for skin regeneration, which is the focus of this study. Methods Culture of isolated human PBMNCs on a cell-specific matrix was carried out to induce differentiation of KPCs. Flow cytometry and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were done for epithelial stem cell marker p63 and lineage markers cytokeratin 5 and cytokeratin 14, to track differentiation. Proliferation was confirmed by quantifying the proliferating cell nuclear antigen-expressing cells. Immunostaining with epithelial cell markers, involucrin and filaggrin, was carried out to establish terminal differentiation. Microscopic analysis confirmed growth and survival of KPCs on the dermal fibroblast monolayer and on a transplantable fibrin sheet. Results We demonstrated that KPCs are p63+ and CD34-. The specifically designed composition of the extracellular matrix was found to support selective adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of p63+ KPCs. The PBMNC culture for 12 days under controlled conditions resulted in a homogenous population that expressed cytokeratins, and >90% of the cells were found to proliferate. Subculture for 5 days resulted in expression of filaggrin and involucrin, suggesting terminal differentiation. Transfer of matrix

  19. Identification of p63+ keratinocyte progenitor cells in circulation and their matrix-directed differentiation to epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nair, Renjith P; Krishnan, Lissy K

    2013-04-11

    In the event of chronic diabetes or burn wounds, accomplishing skin regeneration is a major concern. Autologous skin grafting is the most effective remedy, but the tissue harvest may create more nonhealing wounds. Currently available skin substitutes have a limited clinical outcome because of immune reactions arising from the xenobiotic scaffold or allogenous cells. Autologous stem cells that can be collected without an additional injury may be a viable option for skin-tissue engineering. Presence of a low number of keratinocyte progenitor cells (KPCs) within the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMNC) population has been indicated. Identification, isolation, expansion, and differentiation of KPCs is necessary before they are considered for skin regeneration, which is the focus of this study. Culture of isolated human PBMNCs on a cell-specific matrix was carried out to induce differentiation of KPCs. Flow cytometry and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were done for epithelial stem cell marker p63 and lineage markers cytokeratin 5 and cytokeratin 14, to track differentiation. Proliferation was confirmed by quantifying the proliferating cell nuclear antigen-expressing cells. Immunostaining with epithelial cell markers, involucrin and filaggrin, was carried out to establish terminal differentiation. Microscopic analysis confirmed growth and survival of KPCs on the dermal fibroblast monolayer and on a transplantable fibrin sheet. We demonstrated that KPCs are p63(+) and CD34-. The specifically designed composition of the extracellular matrix was found to support selective adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of p63(+) KPCs. The PBMNC culture for 12 days under controlled conditions resulted in a homogenous population that expressed cytokeratins, and >90% of the cells were found to proliferate. Subculture for 5 days resulted in expression of filaggrin and involucrin, suggesting terminal differentiation. Transfer of matrix-selected KPCs to a

  20. Identification of agents effective against multiple toxins and viruses by host-oriented cell targeting.

    PubMed

    Zilbermintz, Leeor; Leonardi, William; Jeong, Sun-Young; Sjodt, Megan; McComb, Ryan; Ho, Chi-Lee C; Retterer, Cary; Gharaibeh, Dima; Zamani, Rouzbeh; Soloveva, Veronica; Bavari, Sina; Levitin, Anastasia; West, Joel; Bradley, Kenneth A; Clubb, Robert T; Cohen, Stanley N; Gupta, Vivek; Martchenko, Mikhail

    2015-08-27

    A longstanding and still-increasing threat to the effective treatment of infectious diseases is resistance to antimicrobial countermeasures. Potentially, the targeting of host proteins and pathways essential for the detrimental effects of pathogens offers an approach that may discover broad-spectrum anti-pathogen countermeasures and circumvent the effects of pathogen mutations leading to resistance. Here we report implementation of a strategy for discovering broad-spectrum host-oriented therapies against multiple pathogenic agents by multiplex screening of drugs for protection against the detrimental effects of multiple pathogens, identification of host cell pathways inhibited by the drug, and screening for effects of the agent on other pathogens exploiting the same pathway. We show that a clinically used antimalarial drug, Amodiaquine, discovered by this strategy, protects host cells against infection by multiple toxins and viruses by inhibiting host cathepsin B. Our results reveal the practicality of discovering broadly acting anti-pathogen countermeasures that target host proteins exploited by pathogens.

  1. Identification of ADAM 31: a protein expressed in Leydig cells and specialized epithelia.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Smith, J W

    2000-06-01

    A family of proteins containing a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain (ADAMs) has been identified recently. Here, we report the identification of a novel member of the ADAM protein family from mouse. This protein is designated ADAM 31. The complementary DNA sequence of ADAM 31 predicts a transmembrane protein with metalloproteinase, disintegrin, cysteine-rich, and cytoplasmic domains. Messenger RNA encoding ADAM 31 was most abundant in testes, but was also detected in many other tissues. More significantly, the antibodies raised against ADAM 31 reveal that the protein has a unique and restricted expression pattern. ADAM 31 is expressed in Leydig cells of the testes, but unlike many other ADAMs, it is not found on developing sperm. Furthermore, ADAM 31 is highly expressed on four types of specialized epithelia: the cauda epididymidis, the vas deferens, the convoluted tubules of the kidney, and the parietal cells of the stomach.

  2. Label-free identification of white blood cell using optical diffraction tomography (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jonghee; Kim, Kyoohyun; Kim, Min-hyeok; Kang, Suk-Jo; Park, YongKeun

    2016-03-01

    White blood cells (WBC) have crucial roles in immune systems which defend the host against from disease conditions and harmful invaders. Various WBC subsets have been characterized and reported to be involved in many pathophysiologic conditions. It is crucial to isolate a specific WBC subset to study its pathophysiological roles in diseases. Identification methods for a specific WBC population are rely on invasive approaches, including Wright-Gimesa staining for observing cellular morphologies and fluorescence staining for specific protein markers. While these methods enable precise classification of WBC populations, they could disturb cellular viability or functions. In order to classify WBC populations in a non-invasive manner, we exploited optical diffraction tomography (ODT). ODT is a three-dimensional (3-D) quantitative phase imaging technique that measures 3-D refractive index (RI) distributions of individual WBCs. To test feasibility of label-free classification of WBC populations using ODT, we measured four subtypes of WBCs, including B cell, CD4 T cell, CD8 T cell, and natural killer (NK) cell. From measured 3-D RI tomograms of WBCs, we obtain quantitative structural and biochemical information and classify each WBC population using a machine learning algorithm.

  3. Comprehensive Identification of Meningococcal Genes and Small Noncoding RNAs Required for Host Cell Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Capel, Elena; Zomer, Aldert L.; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Bole, Christine; Izac, Brigitte; Frapy, Eric; Meyer, Julie; Bouzinba-Ségard, Haniaa; Bille, Emmanuelle; Jamet, Anne; Cavau, Anne; Letourneur, Franck; Bourdoulous, Sandrine; Rattei, Thomas; Coureuil, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis and septicemia, affecting infants and adults worldwide. N. meningitidis is also a common inhabitant of the human nasopharynx and, as such, is highly adapted to its niche. During bacteremia, N. meningitidis gains access to the blood compartment, where it adheres to endothelial cells of blood vessels and causes dramatic vascular damage. Colonization of the nasopharyngeal niche and communication with the different human cell types is a major issue of the N. meningitidis life cycle that is poorly understood. Here, highly saturated random transposon insertion libraries of N. meningitidis were engineered, and the fitness of mutations during routine growth and that of colonization of endothelial and epithelial cells in a flow device were assessed in a transposon insertion site sequencing (Tn-seq) analysis. This allowed the identification of genes essential for bacterial growth and genes specifically required for host cell colonization. In addition, after having identified the small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) located in intergenic regions, the phenotypes associated with mutations in those sRNAs were defined. A total of 383 genes and 8 intergenic regions containing sRNA candidates were identified to be essential for growth, while 288 genes and 33 intergenic regions containing sRNA candidates were found to be specifically required for host cell colonization. PMID:27486197

  4. Identification of differentially expressed genes in human lung squamous cell carcinoma using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenyue; Zhang, Kaitai; Zhang, Xinyu; Lei, Wendong; Xiao, Ting; Ma, Jinfang; Guo, Suping; Shao, Shujuan; Zhang, Husheng; Liu, Yan; Yuan, Jinsong; Hu, Zhi; Ma, Ying; Feng, Xiaoli; Hu, Songnian; Zhou, Jun; Cheng, Shujun; Gao, Yanning

    2004-08-20

    Lung cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related deaths. Over the past decade, much has been known about the molecular changes associated with lung carcinogenesis; however, our understanding to lung tumorigenesis is still incomplete. To identify genes that are differentially expressed in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung, we compared the expression profiles between primarily cultured SCC tumor cells and bronchial epithelial cells derived from morphologically normal bronchial epithelium of the same patient. Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), two cDNA libraries containing up- and down-regulated genes in the tumor cells were constructed, named as LCTP and LCBP. The two libraries comprise 258 known genes and 133 unknown genes in total. The known up-regulated genes in the library LCTP represented a variety of functional groups; including metabolism-, cell adhesion and migration-, signal transduction-, and anti-apoptosis-related genes. Using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, seven genes chosen randomly from the LCTP were analyzed in the tumor tissue paired with its corresponding adjacent normal lung tissue derived from 16 cases of the SCC. Among them, the IQGAP1, RAP1GDS1, PAICS, MLF1, and MARK1 genes showed a consistent expression pattern with that of the SSH analysis. Identification and further characterization of these genes may allow a better understanding of lung carcinogenesis.

  5. Identification and characterization of [6]-shogaol from ginger as inhibitor of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rongxia; Heiss, Elke H; Sider, Nadine; Schinkovitz, Andreas; Gröblacher, Barbara; Guo, Dean; Bucar, Franz; Bauer, Rudolf; Dirsch, Verena M; Atanasov, Atanas G

    2015-01-01

    Scope Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, making the identification of new counteracting agents and their mechanisms of action relevant. Ginger and its constituents have been reported to improve cardiovascular health, but no studies exist addressing a potential interference with VSMC proliferation. Methods and results The dichloromethane extract of ginger inhibited VSMC proliferation when monitored by resazurin metabolic conversion (IC50 = 2.5 μg/mL). The examination of major constituents from ginger yielded [6]-shogaol as the most active compound (IC50 = 2.7 μM). In the tested concentration range [6]-shogaol did not exhibit cytotoxicity toward VSMC and did not interfere with endothelial cell proliferation. [6]-shogaol inhibited DNA synthesis and induced accumulation of the VSMC in the G0/G1 cell-cycle phase accompanied with activation of the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/HO-1 pathway. Since [6]-shogaol lost its antiproliferative activity in the presence of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor tin protoporphyrin IX, HO-1 induction appears to contribute to the antiproliferative effect. Conclusion This study demonstrates for the first time inhibitory potential of ginger constituents on VSMC proliferation. The presented data suggest that [6]-shogaol exerts its antiproliferative effect through accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 cell-cycle phase associated with activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. PMID:25631547

  6. Identification of chimeric antigen receptors that mediate constitutive or inducible proliferation of T cells.

    PubMed

    Frigault, Matthew J; Lee, Jihyun; Basil, Maria Ciocca; Carpenito, Carmine; Motohashi, Shinichiro; Scholler, John; Kawalekar, Omkar U; Guedan, Sonia; McGettigan, Shannon E; Posey, Avery D; Ang, Sonny; Cooper, Laurence J N; Platt, Jesse M; Johnson, F Brad; Paulos, Chrystal M; Zhao, Yangbing; Kalos, Michael; Milone, Michael C; June, Carl H

    2015-04-01

    This study compared second-generation chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) encoding signaling domains composed of CD28, ICOS, and 4-1BB (TNFRSF9). Here, we report that certain CARs endow T cells with the ability to undergo long-term autonomous proliferation. Transduction of primary human T cells with lentiviral vectors encoding some of the CARs resulted in sustained proliferation for up to 3 months following a single stimulation through the T-cell receptor (TCR). Sustained numeric expansion was independent of cognate antigen and did not require the addition of exogenous cytokines or feeder cells after a single stimulation of the TCR and CD28. Results from gene array and functional assays linked sustained cytokine secretion and expression of T-bet (TBX21), EOMES, and GATA-3 to the effect. Sustained expression of the endogenous IL2 locus has not been reported in primary T cells. Sustained proliferation was dependent on CAR structure and high expression, the latter of which was necessary but not sufficient. The mechanism involves constitutive signaling through NF-κB, AKT, ERK, and NFAT. The propagated CAR T cells retained a diverse TCR repertoire, and cellular transformation was not observed. The CARs with a constitutive growth phenotype displayed inferior antitumor effects and engraftment in vivo. Therefore, the design of CARs that have a nonconstitutive growth phenotype may be a strategy to improve efficacy and engraftment of CAR T cells. The identification of CARs that confer constitutive or nonconstitutive growth patterns may explain observations that CAR T cells have differential survival patterns in clinical trials. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. A Comparison of Exogenous Labels for the Histological Identification of Transplanted Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Francesca J.; Liu, Jessie R.; Modo, Michel

    2017-01-01

    The interpretation of cell transplantation experiments is often dependent on the presence of an exogenous label for the identification of implanted cells. The exogenous labels Hoechst 33342, 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU), PKH26, and Qtracker were compared for their labeling efficiency, cellular effects, and reliability to identify a human neural stem cell (hNSC) line implanted intracerebrally into the rat brain. Hoechst 33342 (2 mg/ml) exhibited a delayed cytotoxicity that killed all cells within 7 days. This label was hence not progressed to in vivo studies. PKH26 (5 μM), Qtracker (15 nM), and BrdU (0.2 μM) labeled 100% of the cell population at day 1, although BrdU labeling declined by day 7. BrdU and Qtracker exerted effects on proliferation and differentiation. PKH26 reduced viability and proliferation at day 1, but this normalized by day 7. In an in vitro coculture assay, all labels transferred to unlabeled cells. After transplantation, the reliability of exogenous labels was assessed against the gold standard of a human-specific nuclear antigen (HNA) antibody. BrdU, PKH26, and Qtracker resulted in a very small proportion (<2%) of false positives, but a significant amount of false negatives (~30%), with little change between 1 and 7 days. Exogenous labels can therefore be reliable to identify transplanted cells without exerting major cellular effects, but validation is required. The interpretation of cell transplantation experiments should be presented in the context of the label's limitations. PMID:27938486

  8. Identification of B cell epitopes of alcohol dehydrogenase allergen of Curvularia lunata.

    PubMed

    Nair, Smitha; Kukreja, Neetu; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Arora, Naveen

    2011-01-01

    Epitope identification assists in developing molecules for clinical applications and is useful in defining molecular features of allergens for understanding structure/function relationship. The present study was aimed to identify the B cell epitopes of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) allergen from Curvularia lunata using in-silico methods and immunoassay. B cell epitopes of ADH were predicted by sequence and structure based methods and protein-protein interaction tools while T cell epitopes by inhibitory concentration and binding score methods. The epitopes were superimposed on a three dimensional model of ADH generated by homology modeling and analyzed for antigenic characteristics. Peptides corresponding to predicted epitopes were synthesized and immunoreactivity assessed by ELISA using individual and pooled patients' sera. The homology model showed GroES like catalytic domain joined to Rossmann superfamily domain by an alpha helix. Stereochemical quality was confirmed by Procheck which showed 90% residues in most favorable region of Ramachandran plot while Errat gave a quality score of 92.733%. Six B cell (P1-P6) and four T cell (P7-P10) epitopes were predicted by a combination of methods. Peptide P2 (epitope P2) showed E(X)(2)GGP(X)(3)KKI conserved pattern among allergens of pathogenesis related family. It was predicted as high affinity binder based on electronegativity and low hydrophobicity. The computational methods employed were validated using Bet v 1 and Der p 2 allergens where 67% and 60% of the epitope residues were predicted correctly. Among B cell epitopes, Peptide P2 showed maximum IgE binding with individual and pooled patients' sera (mean OD 0.604±0.059 and 0.506±0.0035, respectively) followed by P1, P4 and P3 epitopes. All T cell epitopes showed lower IgE binding. Four B cell epitopes of C. lunata ADH were identified. Peptide P2 can serve as a potential candidate for diagnosis of allergic diseases.

  9. Novel ligands for cancer diagnosis: selection of peptide ligands for identification and isolation of B-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Michael J; Samli, Kausar N; Chang, Ya-Ching; Brown, Kathlynn C

    2006-04-01

    Lymphoma and leukemia account for nearly 8% of cancer fatalities each year. Present treatments do not differentiate between normal and malignant cells. New reagents that distinguish malignant cells and enable the isolation of these cells from the normal background will enhance the molecular characterization of disease and specificity of treatment. Peptide ligands were selected from a phage-displayed peptide library by biopanning on the B-cell lymphoma line, A20. The isolated peptides were assessed as reagents for identification and isolation of lymphoma cells by flow cytometry and cell capture with magnetic beads. Two novel peptides and one obtained previously on cardiomyocytes were selected. A20 cells bind phage displaying these peptides 250- to 450-fold over control phage. These phage bind to other bone marrow-derived cancel lines including some macrophage and T cells but do not bind to normal splenocytes. Synthetic constructs of these peptides have binding affinities comparable to B-cell-specific antibodies. Similar to antibodies, these peptides can be used in flow cytometry and magnetic bead capture to distinguish lymphoma cells from normal splenocytes. Bone marrow-derived malignant cells express cell surface markers that can be used to distinguish them from normal cells. These results demonstrate the ability to use an unbiased screen to rapidly generate high-affinity peptide ligands for identification and isolation of lymphoma cells.

  10. Identification of chimeric antigen receptors that mediate constitutive or inducible proliferation of T cells

    PubMed Central

    Frigault, Matthew J; Lee, Jihyun; Basil, Maria Ciocca; Carpenito, Carmine; Motohashi, Shinichiro; Scholler, John; Kawalekar, Omkar U.; Guedan, Sonia; McGettigan, Shannon E.; Posey, Avery D.; Ang, Sonny; Cooper, Laurence J. N.; Platt, Jesse M.; Johnson, F. Brad; Paulos, Chrystal M; Zhao, Yangbing; Kalos, Michael; Milone, Michael C.; June, Carl H.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared second generation chimeric antigen receptors encoding signaling domains composed of CD28, ICOS and 4-1BB. Here we report that certain CARs endow T cells with the ability to undergo long-term autonomous proliferation. Transduction of primary human T-cell with lentiviral vectors encoding some of the CARs resulted in sustained proliferation for up to three months following a single stimulation through the TCR. Sustained numeric expansion was independent of cognate antigen and did not require the addition of exogenous cytokines or feeder cells after a single stimulation of the TCR and CD28. Results from gene array and functional assays linked sustained cytokine secretion and expression of T-bet, EOMES and GATA-3 to the effect. Sustained expression of the endogenous IL2 locus has not been reported in primary T cells. Sustained proliferation was dependent on CAR structure and high expression, the latter of which was necessary but not sufficient. The mechanism involves constitutive signaling through NF-kB, Akt, Erk and NFAT. The propagated CAR T cells retained a diverse TCR repertoire and cellular transformation was not observed. The CARs with a constitutive growth phenotype displayed inferior antitumor effects and engraftment in vivo. Therefore the design of CARs that have a non-constitutive growth phenotype may be a strategy to improve efficacy and engraftment of CAR T cells. The identification of CARs that confer constitutive or non-constitutive growth patterns may explain observations that CAR T cells have differential survival patterns in clinical trials. PMID:25600436

  11. Membrane protease degradomics: proteomic identification and quantification of cell surface protease substrates.

    PubMed

    Butler, Georgina S; Dean, Richard A; Smith, Derek; Overall, Christopher M

    2009-01-01

    The modification of cell surface proteins by plasma membrane and soluble proteases is important for physiological and pathological processes. Methods to identify shed and soluble substrates are crucial to further define the substrate repertoire, termed the substrate degradome, of individual proteases. Identifying protease substrates is essential to elucidate protease function and involvement in different homeostatic and disease pathways. This characterisation is also crucial for drug target identification and validation, which would then allow the rational design of specific targeted inhibitors for therapeutic intervention. We describe two methods for identifying and quantifying shed cell surface protease targets in cultured cells utilising Isotope-Coded Affinity Tags (ICAT) and Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification (iTRAQ). As a model system to develop these techniques, we chose a cell-membrane expressed matrix metalloproteinase, MMP-14, but the concepts can be applied to proteases of other classes. By over-expression, or conversely inhibition, of a particular protease with careful selection of control conditions (e.g. vector or inactive protease) and differential labelling, shed proteins can be identified and quantified by mass spectrometry (MS), MS/MS fragmentation and database searching.

  12. Systematic identification of combinatorial drivers and targets in cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Tabchy, Adel; Eltonsy, Nevine; Housman, David E; Mills, Gordon B

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need to elicit and validate highly efficacious targets for combinatorial intervention from large scale ongoing molecular characterization efforts of tumors. We established an in silico bioinformatic platform in concert with a high throughput screening platform evaluating 37 novel targeted agents in 669 extensively characterized cancer cell lines reflecting the genomic and tissue-type diversity of human cancers, to systematically identify combinatorial biomarkers of response and co-actionable targets in cancer. Genomic biomarkers discovered in a 141 cell line training set were validated in an independent 359 cell line test set. We identified co-occurring and mutually exclusive genomic events that represent potential drivers and combinatorial targets in cancer. We demonstrate multiple cooperating genomic events that predict sensitivity to drug intervention independent of tumor lineage. The coupling of scalable in silico and biologic high throughput cancer cell line platforms for the identification of co-events in cancer delivers rational combinatorial targets for synthetic lethal approaches with a high potential to pre-empt the emergence of resistance.

  13. Systematic Identification of Combinatorial Drivers and Targets in Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Tabchy, Adel; Eltonsy, Nevine; Housman, David E.; Mills, Gordon B.

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need to elicit and validate highly efficacious targets for combinatorial intervention from large scale ongoing molecular characterization efforts of tumors. We established an in silico bioinformatic platform in concert with a high throughput screening platform evaluating 37 novel targeted agents in 669 extensively characterized cancer cell lines reflecting the genomic and tissue-type diversity of human cancers, to systematically identify combinatorial biomarkers of response and co-actionable targets in cancer. Genomic biomarkers discovered in a 141 cell line training set were validated in an independent 359 cell line test set. We identified co-occurring and mutually exclusive genomic events that represent potential drivers and combinatorial targets in cancer. We demonstrate multiple cooperating genomic events that predict sensitivity to drug intervention independent of tumor lineage. The coupling of scalable in silico and biologic high throughput cancer cell line platforms for the identification of co-events in cancer delivers rational combinatorial targets for synthetic lethal approaches with a high potential to pre-empt the emergence of resistance. PMID:23577104

  14. Identification of Host Cell Factors Associated with Astrovirus Replication in Caco-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Andrea; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Méndez, Ernesto; Arias, Carlos F

    2015-10-01

    Astroviruses are small, nonenveloped viruses with a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome causing acute gastroenteritis in children and immunocompromised patients. Since positive-sense RNA viruses have frequently been found to replicate in association with membranous structures, in this work we characterized the replication of the human astrovirus serotype 8 strain Yuc8 in Caco-2 cells, using density gradient centrifugation and free-flow zonal electrophoresis (FFZE) to fractionate cellular membranes. Structural and nonstructural viral proteins, positive- and negative-sense viral RNA, and infectious virus particles were found to be associated with a distinct population of membranes separated by FFZE. The cellular proteins associated with this membrane population in infected and mock-infected cells were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. The results indicated that membranes derived from multiple cell organelles were present in the population. Gene ontology and protein-protein interaction network analysis showed that groups of proteins with roles in fatty acid synthesis and ATP biosynthesis were highly enriched in the fractions of this population in infected cells. Based on this information, we investigated by RNA interference the role that some of the identified proteins might have in the replication cycle of the virus. Silencing of the expression of genes involved in cholesterol (DHCR7, CYP51A1) and fatty acid (FASN) synthesis, phosphatidylinositol (PI4KIIIβ) and inositol phosphate (ITPR3) metabolism, and RNA helicase activity (DDX23) significantly decreased the amounts of Yuc8 genomic and antigenomic RNA, synthesis of the structural protein VP90, and virus yield. These results strongly suggest that astrovirus RNA replication and particle assembly take place in association with modified membranes potentially derived from multiple cell organelles. Astroviruses are common etiological agents of acute gastroenteritis in children and immunocompromised patients

  15. Identification of Host Cell Factors Associated with Astrovirus Replication in Caco-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Murillo, Andrea; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Barkla, Bronwyn J.; Méndez, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Astroviruses are small, nonenveloped viruses with a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome causing acute gastroenteritis in children and immunocompromised patients. Since positive-sense RNA viruses have frequently been found to replicate in association with membranous structures, in this work we characterized the replication of the human astrovirus serotype 8 strain Yuc8 in Caco-2 cells, using density gradient centrifugation and free-flow zonal electrophoresis (FFZE) to fractionate cellular membranes. Structural and nonstructural viral proteins, positive- and negative-sense viral RNA, and infectious virus particles were found to be associated with a distinct population of membranes separated by FFZE. The cellular proteins associated with this membrane population in infected and mock-infected cells were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. The results indicated that membranes derived from multiple cell organelles were present in the population. Gene ontology and protein-protein interaction network analysis showed that groups of proteins with roles in fatty acid synthesis and ATP biosynthesis were highly enriched in the fractions of this population in infected cells. Based on this information, we investigated by RNA interference the role that some of the identified proteins might have in the replication cycle of the virus. Silencing of the expression of genes involved in cholesterol (DHCR7, CYP51A1) and fatty acid (FASN) synthesis, phosphatidylinositol (PI4KIIIβ) and inositol phosphate (ITPR3) metabolism, and RNA helicase activity (DDX23) significantly decreased the amounts of Yuc8 genomic and antigenomic RNA, synthesis of the structural protein VP90, and virus yield. These results strongly suggest that astrovirus RNA replication and particle assembly take place in association with modified membranes potentially derived from multiple cell organelles. IMPORTANCE Astroviruses are common etiological agents of acute gastroenteritis in children and

  16. Identification of markers for quiescent pancreatic stellate cells in the normal human pancreas.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Michael Friberg Bruun; Mortensen, Michael Bau; Detlefsen, Sönke

    2017-10-01

    Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) play a central role as source of fibrogenic cells in pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis. In contrast to quiescent hepatic stellate cells (qHSCs), a specific marker for quiescent PSCs (qPSCs) that can be used in formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE) normal human pancreatic tissue has not been identified. The aim of this study was to identify a marker enabling the identification of qPSCs in normal human FFPE pancreatic tissue. Immunohistochemical (IHC), double-IHC, immunofluorescence (IF) and double-IF analyses were carried out using a tissue microarray consisting of cores with normal human pancreatic tissue. Cores with normal human liver served as control. Antibodies directed against adipophilin, α-SMA, CD146, CRBP-1, cytoglobin, desmin, GFAP, nestin, S100A4 and vinculin were examined, with special emphasis on their expression in periacinar cells in the normal human pancreas and perisinusoidal cells in the normal human liver. The immunolabelling capacity was evaluated according to a semiquantitative scoring system. Double-IF of the markers of interest together with markers for other periacinar cells was performed. Moreover, the utility of histochemical stains for the identification of human qPSCs was examined, and their ultrastructure was revisited by electron microscopy. Adipophilin, CRBP-1, cytoglobin and vinculin were expressed in qHSCs in the liver, whereas cytoglobin and adipophilin were expressed in qPSCs in the pancreas. Adipophilin immunohistochemistry was highly dependent on the preanalytical time interval (PATI) from removal of the tissue to formalin fixation. Cytoglobin, S100A4 and vinculin were expressed in periacinar fibroblasts (FBs). The other examined markers were negative in human qPSCs. Our data indicate that cytoglobin and adipophilin are markers of qPSCs in the normal human pancreas. However, the use of adipophilin as a qPSC marker may be limited due to its high dependence on optimal PATI

  17. Identification, localization and morphology of APUD cells in gastroenteropancreatic system of stomach-containing teleosts

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qian Sheng; Fang, Zhi Ping; Huang, Feng Jie

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To identify the type localization and morphology of APUD endocrine cells in the gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) system of stomach-containing teleosts, and study APUD endocrine system in the stomach, intestine and pancreas of fish species. METHODS: Two kinds of immunocytochemical (ICC) techniques of the streptavidin biotin-peroxidase complex (SABC) and streptavidin-peroxidase (S-P) method were used. The identification, localization and morphology of APUD endocrine cells scattered in the mucosa of digestive tract, intermuscular nerve plexus and glandular body of northern snakehead (Channa argus), ricefield eel (Monopterus albus), yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus ful vidraco), mandarinfish (Siniperca chuatsi), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), oriental sheatfish (Silurus asotus), freshwater pomfret (Colossoma brachypomum) and nile tilapia (Tilapia nilotica) were investigated with 8 kinds of antisera. RESULTS: The positive reaction of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) immunoreactive endocrine (IRE) cells was found in the digestive tract and glandular body of 8 fish species in different degree. Only a few gastrin (GAS)-IRE cells were seen in C. argus, M. albus and P. fulvidraco. Glucagon (GLU)-IRE cells were not found in the digestive tract and glandular body but existed in pancreatic island of most fish species. The positive reaction of growth hormone (GH)-IRE cells was found only in pancreatic island of S. Chuatsi and S. Asotus, no positive reaction in the other 6 fish species. Somatostatin (SOM), calcitonin (CAL), neurofilament (NF) and insulin (INS)-IRE cells in the stomach, intestine and pancreas of 8 kinds of fish were different in distribution and types. The distribution of all 8 APUD cells was the most in gastrointestinal epithelium mucosa and then in digestive glands. The positive reaction of SOM- and 5-HT-IRE cells was found in intermuscular nerve plexus of intestine of P. fulvidraco and S.chuatsi. Only GH-IRE cells were densely scattered in the pancreatic

  18. Identification of inhibitors using a cell-based assay for monitoring Golgi-resident protease activity.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Julia M; Hamilton, Christin A; Bhojani, Mahaveer S; Larsen, Martha J; Ross, Brian D; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz

    2007-05-01

    Noninvasive real-time quantification of cellular protease activity allows monitoring of enzymatic activity and identification of activity modulators within the protease's natural milieu. We developed a protease activity assay based on differential localization of a recombinant reporter consisting of a Golgi retention signal and a protease cleavage sequence fused to alkaline phosphatase (AP). When expressed in mammalian cells, this protein localizes to Golgi bodies and, on protease-mediated cleavage, AP translocates to the extracellular medium where its activity is measured. We used this system to monitor the Golgi-associated protease furin, a pluripotent enzyme with a key role in tumorigenesis, viral propagation of avian influenza, ebola, and HIV as well as in activation of anthrax, pseudomonas, and diphtheria toxins. This technology was adapted for high-throughput screening of 39,000-compound small molecule libraries, leading to identification of furin inhibitors. Furthermore, this strategy was used to identify inhibitors of another Golgi protease, the beta-site amyloid precursor protein (APP)-cleaving enzyme (BACE). BACE cleavage of the APP leads to formation of the Abeta peptide, a key event that leads to Alzheimer's disease. In conclusion, we describe a customizable noninvasive technology for real-time assessment of Golgi protease activity used to identify inhibitors of furin and BACE.

  19. Identification of inhibitors using a cell based assay for monitoring golgi-resident protease activity

    PubMed Central

    Coppola, Julia M.; Hamilton, Christin A.; Bhojani, Mahaveer S.; Larsen, Martha J.; Ross, Brian D.; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz

    2007-01-01

    Non-invasive real time quantification of cellular protease activity allows monitoring of enzymatic activity and identification of activity modulators within the protease’s natural milieu. We developed a protease-activity assay based on differential localization of a recombinant reporter consisting of a Golgi retention signal and a protease cleavage sequence fused to alkaline phosphatase (AP). When expressed in mammalian cells, this protein localizes to Golgi bodies and, upon protease mediated cleavage, AP translocates to the extracellular medium where its activity is measured. We used this system to monitor the Golgi-associated protease furin, a pluripotent enzyme with a key role in tumorigenesis, viral propagation of avian influenza, ebola, and HIV, and in activation of anthrax, pseudomonas, and diphtheria toxins. This technology was adapted for high throughput screening of 30,000 compound small molecule libraries, leading to identification of furin inhibitors. Further, this strategy was utilized to identify inhibitors of another Golgi protease, the β-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE). BACE cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein leads to formation of the Aβ peptide, a key event that leads to Alzheimer’s disease. In conclusion, we describe a customizable, non-invasive technology for real time assessment of Golgi protease activity used to identify inhibitors of furin and BACE. PMID:17316541

  20. Identification of cardiomyocyte nuclei and assessment of ploidy for the analysis of cell turnover.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Olaf; Zdunek, Sofia; Alkass, Kanar; Druid, Henrik; Bernard, Samuel; Frisén, Jonas

    2011-01-15

    Assays to quantify myocardial renewal rely on the accurate identification of cardiomyocyte nuclei. We previously ¹⁴C birth dated human cardiomyocytes based on the nuclear localization of cTroponins T and I. A recent report by Kajstura et al. suggested that cTroponin I is only localized to the nucleus in a senescent subpopulation of cardiomyocytes, implying that ¹⁴C birth dating of cTroponin T and I positive cell populations underestimates cardiomyocyte renewal in humans. We show here that the isolation of cell nuclei from the heart by flow cytometry with antibodies against cardiac Troponins T and I, as well as pericentriolar material 1 (PCM-1), allows for isolation of close to all cardiomyocyte nuclei, based on ploidy and marker expression. We also present a reassessment of cardiomyocyte ploidy, which has important implications for the analysis of cell turnover, and iododeoxyuridine (IdU) incorporation data. These data provide the foundation for reliable analysis of cardiomyocyte turnover in humans. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification and characterization of a resident vascular stem/progenitor cell population in preexisting blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Naito, Hisamichi; Kidoya, Hiroyasu; Sakimoto, Susumu; Wakabayashi, Taku; Takakura, Nobuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Vasculogenesis, the in-situ assembly of angioblast or endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), may persist into adult life, contributing to new blood vessel formation. However, EPCs are scattered throughout newly developed blood vessels and cannot be solely responsible for vascularization. Here, we identify an endothelial progenitor/stem-like population located at the inner surface of preexisting blood vessels using the Hoechst method in which stem cell populations are identified as side populations. This population is dormant in the steady state but possesses colony-forming ability, produces large numbers of endothelial cells (ECs) and when transplanted into ischaemic lesions, restores blood flow completely and reconstitutes de-novo long-term surviving blood vessels. Moreover, although surface markers of this population are very similar to conventional ECs, and they reside in the capillary endothelium sub-population, the gene expression profile is completely different. Our results suggest that this heterogeneity of stem-like ECs will lead to the identification of new targets for vascular regeneration therapy. PMID:22179698

  2. Single Cell Genome Amplification Accelerates Identification of the Apratoxin Biosynthetic Pathway from a Complex Microbial Assemblage

    PubMed Central

    Grindberg, Rashel V.; Ishoey, Thomas; Brinza, Dumitru; Esquenazi, Eduardo; Coates, R. Cameron; Liu, Wei-ting; Gerwick, Lena; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Pevzner, Pavel; Lasken, Roger; Gerwick, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Filamentous marine cyanobacteria are extraordinarily rich sources of structurally novel, biomedically relevant natural products. To understand their biosynthetic origins as well as produce increased supplies and analog molecules, access to the clustered biosynthetic genes that encode for the assembly enzymes is necessary. Complicating these efforts is the universal presence of heterotrophic bacteria in the cell wall and sheath material of cyanobacteria obtained from the environment and those grown in uni-cyanobacterial culture. Moreover, the high similarity in genetic elements across disparate secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways renders imprecise current gene cluster targeting strategies and contributes sequence complexity resulting in partial genome coverage. Thus, it was necessary to use a dual-method approach of single-cell genomic sequencing based on multiple displacement amplification (MDA) and metagenomic library screening. Here, we report the identification of the putative apratoxin. A biosynthetic gene cluster, a potent cancer cell cytotoxin with promise for medicinal applications. The roughly 58 kb biosynthetic gene cluster is composed of 12 open reading frames and has a type I modular mixed polyketide synthase/nonribosomal peptide synthetase (PKS/NRPS) organization and features loading and off-loading domain architecture never previously described. Moreover, this work represents the first successful isolation of a complete biosynthetic gene cluster from Lyngbya bouillonii, a tropical marine cyanobacterium renowned for its production of diverse bioactive secondary metabolites. PMID:21533272

  3. A portable Raman acoustic levitation spectroscopic system for the identification and environmental monitoring of algal cells.

    PubMed

    Wood, Bayden R; Heraud, Philip; Stojkovic, Slobodanka; Morrison, Danielle; Beardall, John; McNaughton, Don

    2005-08-01

    We report the coupling of a portable Raman spectrometer to an acoustic levitation device to enable environmental monitoring and the potential taxonomic identification of microalgae. Spectra of living cells were recorded at 785 nm using a fiber-optic probe coupled to a portable Raman spectrometer. The spectra exhibit an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and clearly show bands from chlorophyll a and beta-carotene. Spectra of levitated photobleached microalgae clearly show a reduction in chlorophyll a concentration relative to beta-carotene after 10 min of exposure to a quartz halogen lamp. Spectra recorded from levitated nitrogen-limited cells also show a significant reduction in bands associated with chlorophyll a, as compared to nitrogen-replete cells. To investigate the diagnostic capability of the technique, four species of microalgae were analyzed. Good quality spectra of all four species were obtained showing varying ratios of beta-carotene to chlorophyll. The combination of an acoustic levitation device and a portable Raman spectrometer shows potential as a taxonomic and environmental monitoring tool with direct application to field studies in remote environments.

  4. Ancient DNA identification of early 20th century simian T-cell leukemia virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Calvignac, Sébastien; Terme, Jean-Michel; Hensley, Shannon M; Jalinot, Pierre; Greenwood, Alex D; Hänni, Catherine

    2008-06-01

    The molecular identification of proviruses from ancient tissues (and particularly from bones) remains a contentious issue. It can be expected that the copy number of proviruses will be low, which magnifies the risk of contamination with retroviruses from exogenous sources. To assess the feasibility of paleoretrovirological studies, we attempted to identify proviruses from early 20th century bones of museum specimens while following a strict ancient DNA methodology. Simian T-cell leukemia virus type 1 sequences were successfully obtained and authenticated from a Chlorocebus pygerythrus specimen. This represents the first clear evidence that it will be possible to use museum specimens to better characterize simian and human T-tropic retrovirus genetic diversity and analyze their origin and evolution, in greater detail.

  5. Identification and characterization of [6]-shogaol from ginger as inhibitor of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rongxia; Heiss, Elke H; Sider, Nadine; Schinkovitz, Andreas; Gröblacher, Barbara; Guo, Dean; Bucar, Franz; Bauer, Rudolf; Dirsch, Verena M; Atanasov, Atanas G

    2015-05-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, making the identification of new counteracting agents and their mechanisms of action relevant. Ginger and its constituents have been reported to improve cardiovascular health, but no studies exist addressing a potential interference with VSMC proliferation. The dichloromethane extract of ginger inhibited VSMC proliferation when monitored by resazurin metabolic conversion (IC50 = 2.5 μg/mL). The examination of major constituents from ginger yielded [6]-shogaol as the most active compound (IC50 = 2.7 μM). In the tested concentration range [6]-shogaol did not exhibit cytotoxicity toward VSMC and did not interfere with endothelial cell proliferation. [6]-shogaol inhibited DNA synthesis and induced accumulation of the VSMC in the G0 /G1 cell-cycle phase accompanied with activation of the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/HO-1 pathway. Since [6]-shogaol lost its antiproliferative activity in the presence of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor tin protoporphyrin IX, HO-1 induction appears to contribute to the antiproliferative effect. This study demonstrates for the first time inhibitory potential of ginger constituents on VSMC proliferation. The presented data suggest that [6]-shogaol exerts its antiproliferative effect through accumulation of cells in the G0 /G1 cell-cycle phase associated with activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Markers for the identification of tendon-derived stem cells in vitro and tendon stem cells in situ - update and future development.

    PubMed

    Lui, Pauline Po Yee

    2015-06-02

    The efficacy of tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) for the promotion of tendon and tendon-bone junction repair has been reported in animal studies. Modulation of the tendon stem cell niche in vivo has also been reported to influence tendon structure. There is a need to have specific and reliable markers that can define TDSCs in vitro and tendon stem cells in situ for several reasons: to understand the basic biology of TDSCs and their subpopulations in vitro; to understand the identity, niches and functions of tendon/progenitor stem cells in vivo; to meet the governmental regulatory requirements for quality of TDSCs when translating the exciting preclinical findings into clinical trial/practice; and to develop new treatment strategies for mobilizing endogenous stem/progenitor cells in tendon. TDSCs were reported to express the common mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers and some embryonic stem cell (ESC) markers, and there were attempts to use these markers to label tendon stem cells in situ. Are these stem cell markers useful for the identification of TDSCs in vitro and tracking of tendon stem cells in situ? This review aims to discuss the values of the panel of MSC, ESC and tendon-related markers for the identification of TDSCs in vitro. Important factors influencing marker expression by TDSCs are discussed. The usefulness and limitations of the panel of MSC, ESC and tendon-related markers for tracking stem cells in tendon, especially tendon stem cells, in situ are then reviewed. Future research directions are proposed.

  7. Single cell subtractive transcriptomics for identification of cell-specifically expressed candidate genes of pyrrolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Sievert, Christian; Beuerle, Till; Hollmann, Julien; Ober, Dietrich

    2015-09-01

    Progress has recently been made in the elucidation of pathways of secondary metabolism. However, because of its diversity, genetic information concerning biosynthetic details is still missing for many natural products. This is also the case for the biosynthesis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. To close this gap, we tested strategies using tissues that express this pathway in comparison to tissues in which this pathway is not expressed. As many pathways of secondary metabolism are known to be induced by jasmonates, the pyrrolizidine alkaloid-producing species Heliotropium indicum, Symphytum officinale, and Cynoglossum officinale of the Boraginales order were treated with methyl jasmonate. An effect on pyrrolizidine alkaloid levels and on transcript levels of homospermidine synthase, the first specific enzyme of pyrrolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis, was not detectable. Therefore, a method was developed by making use of the often observed cell-specific production of secondary compounds. H. indicum produces pyrrolizidine alkaloids exclusively in the shoot. Homospermidine synthase is expressed only in the cells of the lower leaf epidermis and the epidermis of the stem. Suggesting that the whole pathway of pyrrolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis might be localized in these cells, we have isolated single cells of the upper and lower epidermis by laser-capture microdissection. The resulting cDNA preparations have been used in a subtractive transcriptomic approach. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction has shown that the resulting library is significantly enriched for homospermidine-synthase-coding transcripts providing a valuable source for the identification of further genes involved in pyrrolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification, expansion and characterization of cancer cells with stem cell properties from head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaseb, Hatem O.; Department of Clinical Pathology, National Cancer Institute; Fohrer-Ting, Helene

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a major public health concern. Recent data indicate the presence of cancer stem cells (CSC) in many solid tumors, including HNSCC. Here, we assessed the stem cell (SC) characteristics, including cell surface markers, radioresistance, chromosomal instability, and in vivo tumorigenic capacity of CSC isolated from HNSCC patient specimens. We show that spheroid enrichment of CSC from early and short-term HNSCC cell cultures was associated with increased expression of CD44, CD133, SOX2 and BMI1 compared with normal oral epithelial cells. On immunophenotyping, five of 12 SC/CSC markers were homogenously expressed in all tumormore » cultures, while one of 12 was negative, four of 12 showed variable expression, and two of the 12 were expressed heterogeneously. We showed that irradiated CSCs survived and retained their self-renewal capacity across different ionizing radiation (IR) regimens. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses of parental and clonally-derived tumor cells revealed different chromosome copy numbers from cell to cell, suggesting the presence of chromosomal instability in HNSCC CSC. Further, our in vitro and in vivo mouse engraftment studies suggest that CD44+/CD66− is a promising, consistent biomarker combination for HNSCC CSC. Overall, our findings add further evidence to the proposed role of HNSCC CSCs in therapeutic resistance. - Highlights: • Spheroid enrichment selects cancer stem cells (CSC) from head & neck tumors (HNSCC). • Compared to normal epithelial cells, isolated CSC express increased SC/CSC markers. • Isolated CSC display enhanced radioresistance, clonogenicity and tumorigenicity. • HNSCC CSC express chromosomal instability. • CD44+/CD66− is a promising, consistent biomarker for HNSCC CSC.« less

  9. Advances towards reliable identification and concentration determination of rare cells in peripheral blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemany Server, R.; Martens, D.; Jans, K.; Bienstman, P.; Hill, D.

    2016-03-01

    Through further development, integration and validation of micro-nano-bio and biophotonics systems FP7 CanDo is developing an instrument that will permit highly reproducible and reliable identification and concentration determination of rare cells in peripheral blood for two key societal challenges, early and low cost anti-cancer drug efficacy determination and cancer diagnosis/monitoring. A cellular link between the primary malignant tumour and the peripheral metastases, responsible for 90% of cancerrelated deaths, has been established in the form of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood. Furthermore, the relatively short survival time of CTCs in peripheral blood means that their detection is indicative of tumour progression thereby providing in addition to a prognostic value an evaluation of therapeutic efficacy and early recognition of tumour progression in theranostics. In cancer patients however blood concentrations are very low (=1 CTC/1E9 cells) and current detection strategies are too insensitive, limiting use to prognosis of only those with advanced metastatic cancer. Similarly, problems occur in therapeutics with anti-cancer drug development leading to lengthy and costly trials often preventing access to market. The novel cell separation/Raman analysis technologies plus nucleic acid based molecular characterization of the CanDo platform will provide an accurate CTC count with high throughput and high yield meeting both key societal challenges. Being beyond the state of art it will lead to substantial share gains not just in the high end markets of drug discovery and cancer diagnostics but due to modular technologies also in others. Here we present preliminary DNA hybridization sensing results.

  10. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes in Blood Cells of Narcolepsy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Susumu; Honda, Yutaka; Honda, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    Study Objective: A close association between the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1*1501/DQB1*0602 and abnormalities in some inflammatory cytokines have been demonstrated in narcolepsy. Specific alterations in the immune system have been suggested to occur in this disorder. We attempted to identify alterations in gene expression underlying the abnormalities in the blood cells of narcoleptic patients. Designs: Total RNA from 12 narcolepsy-cataplexy patients and from 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were pooled. The pooled samples were initially screened for candidate genes for narcolepsy by differential display analysis using annealing control primers (ACP). The second screening of the samples was carried out by semiquantitative PCR using gene-specific primers. Finally, the expression levels of the candidate genes were further confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR using a new set of samples (20 narcolepsy-cataplexy patients and 20 healthy controls). Results: The second screening revealed differential expression of 4 candidate genes. Among them, MX2 was confirmed as a significantly down-regulated gene in the white blood cells of narcoleptic patients by quantitative real-time PCR. Conclusion: We found the MX2 gene to be significantly less expressed in comparison with normal subjects in the white blood cells of narcoleptic patients. This gene is relevant to the immune system. Although differential display analysis using ACP technology has a limitation in that it does not help in determining the functional mechanism underlying sleep/wakefulness dysregulation, it is useful for identifying novel genetic factors related to narcolepsy, such as HLA molecules. Further studies are required to explore the functional relationship between the MX2 gene and narcolepsy pathophysiology. Citation: Tanaka S; Honda Y; Honda M. Identification of differentially expressed genes in blood cells of narcolepsy patients. SLEEP 2007;30(8):974-979. PMID:17702266

  11. Identification of embryonic precursor cells that differentiate into thymic epithelial cells expressing autoimmune regulator

    PubMed Central

    Takizawa, Nobukazu; Miyauchi, Maki; Yanai, Hiromi; Tateishi, Ryosuke; Shinzawa, Miho; Yoshinaga, Riko; Kurihara, Masaaki; Yasuda, Hisataka; Sakamoto, Reiko; Yoshida, Nobuaki

    2016-01-01

    Medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) expressing autoimmune regulator (Aire) are critical for preventing the onset of autoimmunity. However, the differentiation program of Aire-expressing mTECs (Aire+ mTECs) is unclear. Here, we describe novel embryonic precursors of Aire+ mTECs. We found the candidate precursors of Aire+ mTECs (pMECs) by monitoring the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (RANK), which is required for Aire+ mTEC differentiation. pMECs unexpectedly expressed cortical TEC molecules in addition to the mTEC markers UEA-1 ligand and RANK and differentiated into mTECs in reaggregation thymic organ culture. Introduction of pMECs in the embryonic thymus permitted long-term maintenance of Aire+ mTECs and efficiently suppressed the onset of autoimmunity induced by Aire+ mTEC deficiency. Mechanistically, pMECs differentiated into Aire+ mTECs by tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6-dependent RANK signaling. Moreover, nonclassical nuclear factor-κB activation triggered by RANK and lymphotoxin-β receptor signaling promoted pMEC induction from progenitors exhibiting lower RANK expression and higher CD24 expression. Thus, our findings identified two novel stages in the differentiation program of Aire+ mTECs. PMID:27401343

  12. Inhibition of STAT-3 Results in Radiosensitization of Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, James A.; Trummell, Hoa Q.; Willey, Christopher D.; Plants, Brian A.; Raisch, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription – 3 (STAT-3) is a downstream component of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFr) signaling process that may facilitate the resistance of tumor cells to conventional cancer treatments. Studies were performed to determine if inhibition of this downstream protein may produce radiosensitization. Methods/Results A431 cells (human squamous cell carcinoma cells with EGFr overexpression) were found to be sensitized to radiation after treatment with STAT-3 small interfering RNA (siRNA). Therefore, a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against STAT-3 was designed and cloned into a pBABE vector system modified for shRNA expression. Following transfection, clone 2.1 was selected for further study as it showed a dramatic reduction of STAT-3 protein (and mRNA) when compared to A431 parental cells or a negative control shRNA cell line (transfected with STAT-3 shRNA with 2 base pairs mutated). A431 2.1 showed doubling times of 25-31 h as compared to 18-24 h for the parental cell line. The A431 shRNA knockdown STAT-3 cells A431 were more sensitive to radiation than A431 parental or negative STAT-3 control cells. Conclusion A431 cells stably transfected with shRNA against STAT-3 resulted in enhanced radiosensitivity. Further work will be necessary to determine whether inhibition of STAT-3 phosphorylation is a necessary step for the radiosensitization that is induced by inhibition of EGFr. PMID:19616333

  13. Identification of B Cells as a Major Site for Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 Latency

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Aimee N.; Izume, Satoko; Dolan, Brian P.; LaPatra, Scott; Kent, Michael; Dong, Jing

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), commonly known as koi herpesvirus (KHV), is a member of the Alloherpesviridae, and is a recently discovered emerging herpesvirus that is highly pathogenic for koi and common carp. Our previous study demonstrated that CyHV-3 becomes latent in peripheral white blood cells (WBC). In this study, CyHV-3 latency was further investigated in IgM+ WBC. The presence of the CyHV-3 genome in IgM+ WBC was about 20-fold greater than in IgM− WBC. To determine whether CyHV-3 expressed genes during latency, transcription from all eight open reading frames (ORFs) in the terminal repeat was investigated in IgM+ WBC from koi with latent CyHV-3 infection. Only a spliced ORF6 transcript was found to be abundantly expressed in IgM+ WBC from CyHV-3 latently infected koi. The spliced ORF6 transcript was also detected in vitro during productive infection as early as 1 day postinfection. The ORF6 transcript from in vitro infection begins at −127 bp upstream of the ATG codon and ends +188 bp downstream of the stop codon, +20 bp downstream of the polyadenylation signal. The hypothetical protein of ORF6 contains a consensus sequence with homology to a conserved domain of EBNA-3B and ICP4 from Epstein-Barr virus and herpes simplex virus 1, respectively, both members of the Herpesviridae. This is the first report of latent CyHV-3 in B cells and identification of gene transcription during latency for a member of the Alloherpesviridae. IMPORTANCE This is the first demonstration that a member of the Alloherpesviridae, cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), establishes a latent infection in the B cells of its host, Cyprinus carpio. In addition, this is the first report of identification of gene transcription during latency for a member of Herpesvirales outside Herpesviridae. This is also the first report that the hypothetical protein of latent transcript of CyHV-3 contains a consensus sequence with homology to a conserved domain of EBNA-3B from Epstein

  14. Identification of B cells as a major site for cyprinid herpesvirus 3 latency.

    PubMed

    Reed, Aimee N; Izume, Satoko; Dolan, Brian P; LaPatra, Scott; Kent, Michael; Dong, Jing; Jin, Ling

    2014-08-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), commonly known as koi herpesvirus (KHV), is a member of the Alloherpesviridae, and is a recently discovered emerging herpesvirus that is highly pathogenic for koi and common carp. Our previous study demonstrated that CyHV-3 becomes latent in peripheral white blood cells (WBC). In this study, CyHV-3 latency was further investigated in IgM(+) WBC. The presence of the CyHV-3 genome in IgM(+) WBC was about 20-fold greater than in IgM(-) WBC. To determine whether CyHV-3 expressed genes during latency, transcription from all eight open reading frames (ORFs) in the terminal repeat was investigated in IgM(+) WBC from koi with latent CyHV-3 infection. Only a spliced ORF6 transcript was found to be abundantly expressed in IgM(+) WBC from CyHV-3 latently infected koi. The spliced ORF6 transcript was also detected in vitro during productive infection as early as 1 day postinfection. The ORF6 transcript from in vitro infection begins at -127 bp upstream of the ATG codon and ends +188 bp downstream of the stop codon, +20 bp downstream of the polyadenylation signal. The hypothetical protein of ORF6 contains a consensus sequence with homology to a conserved domain of EBNA-3B and ICP4 from Epstein-Barr virus and herpes simplex virus 1, respectively, both members of the Herpesviridae. This is the first report of latent CyHV-3 in B cells and identification of gene transcription during latency for a member of the Alloherpesviridae. This is the first demonstration that a member of the Alloherpesviridae, cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), establishes a latent infection in the B cells of its host, Cyprinus carpio. In addition, this is the first report of identification of gene transcription during latency for a member of Herpesvirales outside Herpesviridae. This is also the first report that the hypothetical protein of latent transcript of CyHV-3 contains a consensus sequence with homology to a conserved domain of EBNA-3B from Epstein-Barr virus and ICP4

  15. [Electrophoretic patterns of cell wall protein as a criterion for the identification and classification of Corynebacteria].

    PubMed

    Mykhal's'kyĭ, L O; Furtat, I M; Dem'ianenko, F P; Kostiuchyk, A A

    2001-01-01

    Electrophoretic patterns of cell wall protein of three industrial strains, that were used for production of lysin, and eight collection strains from the genus Corynevacterium were studied to analyze their similarity as well as to estimate an opportunity of using this parameter as an additional criterion for identification and classification of corynebacteria. Similarity coefficient of cell wall overall and main protein electrophoretic patterns were determined by a specially created computer program. Electrophoretic analysis showed that every specie had an individual protein profile. There were determined biopolymers common for the specie, genus and individual among the overall majors and minors. The obtained results showed, that the patterns of main proteins were more conservative and informative in comparison with those ones of overall proteins. The definition of similarity coefficient by the main protein patterns has correlated with the protein profile characteristics of every analyzed strain, and it managed to distribute them into the separate groups. The similarity coefficient of preparations by the main protein patterns allows to separate one specie or a strain from another, and that gives us a chance to claim that this parameter could be used as an additional criterion for differentiation and referring the corynebacteria to a certain taxonomic group.

  16. Identification of small molecule inhibitors of cytokinesis and single cell wound repair

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Andrew G.; Sider, Jenny R.; Verbrugghe, Koen; Fenteany, Gabriel; von Dassow, George; Bement, William M.

    2013-01-01

    Screening of small molecule libraries offers the potential to identify compounds that inhibit specific biological processes and, ultimately, to identify macromolecules that are important players in such processes. To date, however, most screens of small molecule libraries have focused on identification of compounds that inhibit known proteins or particular steps in a given process, and have emphasized automated primary screens. Here we have used “low tech” in vivo primary screens to identify small molecules that inhibit both cytokinesis and single cell wound repair, two complex cellular processes that possess many common features. The “diversity set”, an ordered array of 1990 compounds available from the National Cancer Institute, was screened in parallel to identify compounds that inhibit cytokinesis in D. excentricus (sand dollar) embryos and single cell wound repair in X. laevis (frog) oocytes. Two small molecules were thus identified: Sph1 and Sph2. Sph1 reduces Rho activation in wound repair and suppresses formation of the spindle midzone during cytokinesis. Sph2 also reduces Rho activation in wound repair and may inhibit cytokinesis by blocking membrane fusion. The results identify two small molecules of interest for analysis of wound repair and cytokinesis, reveal that these processes are more similar than often realized and reveal the potential power of low tech screens of small molecule libraries for analysis of complex cellular processes. PMID:23125193

  17. Identification of a unique gene cluster of Brucella spp. that mediates adhesion to host cells

    PubMed Central

    Czibener, Cecilia; Ugalde, Juan Esteban

    2011-01-01

    Brucella, the causative agent of brucellosis, a major zoonotic disease affecting a broad range of mammals, is a gram negative bacterium whose virulence is dependent on the capacity to attach and invade different cells of the host. The bacterium is able to infect through a diverse repertoire of epitheliums: skin, airways or gastric. Although much has been studied on the mechanisms Brucella uses to establish an intracellular replication niche, almost none is known on how the bacterium adheres and invades host cells. We report here the identification of a pathogenicity island that harbors a gene homologous to proteins with bacterial immunoglobulin-like domains present in other pathogens that play a role in attachment and invasion. Deletion of the entire island results in a mutant with a reduced attachment capacity measured by intracellular replication and adhesion assays. Intraperitoneal and oral experimental infection of mice strongly suggests that this island plays a role during the oral infection probably mediating attachment and trespassing of the gastric epithelium to establish a systemic infection. PMID:21911075

  18. Identification of a unique gene cluster of Brucella spp. that mediates adhesion to host cells.

    PubMed

    Czibener, Cecilia; Ugalde, Juan Esteban

    2012-01-01

    Brucella, the causative agent of brucellosis, a major zoonotic disease affecting a broad range of mammals, is a gram-negative bacterium whose virulence is dependent on the capacity to attach and invade different cells of the host. The bacterium is able to infect through a diverse repertoire of epitheliums: skin, airways or gastric. Although much has been studied on the mechanisms Brucella uses to establish an intracellular replication niche, almost none is known on how the bacterium adheres and invades host cells. We report here the identification of a pathogenicity island that harbors a gene homologous to proteins with bacterial immunoglobulin-like domains present in other pathogens that play a role in attachment and invasion. Deletion of the entire island results in a mutant with a reduced attachment capacity measured by intracellular replication and adhesion assays. Intraperitoneal and oral experimental infection of mice strongly suggests that this island plays a role during the oral infection probably mediating attachment and trespassing of the gastric epithelium to establish a systemic infection. Copyright © 2011 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of DRG-1 As a Melanoma-Associated Antigen Recognized by CD4+ Th1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kiniwa, Yukiko; Li, Jiang; Wang, Mingjun; Sun, Chuang; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Wang, Rong-Fu; Wang, Helen Y.

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy has emerged as a promising strategy for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Clinical studies have demonstrated the feasibility of cancer immunotherapy using tumor antigens recognized by CD8+ T cells. However, the overall immune responses induced by these antigens are too weak and transient to induce tumor regression in the majority of patients who received immunization. A growing body of evidence suggests that CD4+ T helper (Th) cells play an important role in antitumor immunity. Therefore, the identification of MHC class II-restricted tumor antigens capable of stimulating CD4+ T cells may provide opportunities for developing effective cancer vaccines. To this end, we describe the identification of developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 1 (DRG-1) as a melanoma-associated antigen recognized by HLA-DR11-restricted CD4+ Th1 cells. Epitope mapping analysis showed that the DRG1248-268 epitope of DRG-1 was required for T cell recognition. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that DRG-1 was highly expressed in melanoma cell lines but not in normal tissues. DRG-1 knockdown by lentiviral-based shRNA suppressed melanoma cell proliferation and soft agar colony formation. Taken together, these data suggest that DRG-1 plays an important role in melanoma cell growth and transformation, indicating that DRG1 may represent a novel target for CD4+ T cell-mediated immunotherapy in melanoma. PMID:25993655

  20. Identification of DRG-1 As a Melanoma-Associated Antigen Recognized by CD4+ Th1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kiniwa, Yukiko; Li, Jiang; Wang, Mingjun; Sun, Chuang; Lee, Jeffrey E; Wang, Rong-Fu; Wang, Helen Y

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy has emerged as a promising strategy for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Clinical studies have demonstrated the feasibility of cancer immunotherapy using tumor antigens recognized by CD8(+) T cells. However, the overall immune responses induced by these antigens are too weak and transient to induce tumor regression in the majority of patients who received immunization. A growing body of evidence suggests that CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells play an important role in antitumor immunity. Therefore, the identification of MHC class II-restricted tumor antigens capable of stimulating CD4(+) T cells may provide opportunities for developing effective cancer vaccines. To this end, we describe the identification of developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 1 (DRG-1) as a melanoma-associated antigen recognized by HLA-DR11-restricted CD4(+) Th1 cells. Epitope mapping analysis showed that the DRG1248-268 epitope of DRG-1 was required for T cell recognition. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that DRG-1 was highly expressed in melanoma cell lines but not in normal tissues. DRG-1 knockdown by lentiviral-based shRNA suppressed melanoma cell proliferation and soft agar colony formation. Taken together, these data suggest that DRG-1 plays an important role in melanoma cell growth and transformation, indicating that DRG1 may represent a novel target for CD4(+) T cell-mediated immunotherapy in melanoma.

  1. High-throughput identification of genotype-specific cancer vulnerabilities in mixtures of barcoded tumor cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Channing; Mannan, Aristotle M.; Yvone, Griselda Metta; Ross, Kenneth N.; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Marton, Melissa A.; Taylor, Bradley R.; Crenshaw, Andrew; Gould, Joshua Z.; Tamayo, Pablo; Weir, Barbara A.; Tsherniak, Aviad; Wong, Bang; Garraway, Levi A.; Shamji, Alykhan F.; Palmer, Michelle A.; Foley, Michael A.; Winckler, Wendy; Schreiber, Stuart L.; Kung, Andrew L.; Golub, Todd R.

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of genetically characterized cell lines are available for the discovery of genotype-specific cancer vulnerabilities. However, screening large numbers of compounds against large numbers of cell lines is currently impractical, and such experiments are often difficult to control1-4. Here, we report a method called PRISM that allows pooled screening of mixtures of cancer cell lines by labeling each cell line with 24-nucleotide barcodes. PRISM displayed the expected patterns of cell killing seen in conventional (unpooled) assays. In a screen of 102 cell lines across 8,400 compounds, PRISM led to the identification of BRD-7880 as a potent and highly specific inhibitor of aurora kinases B and C. Cell line pools also efficiently formed tumors as xenografts, and PRISM recapitulated the expected pattern of erlotinib sensitivity in vivo. PMID:26928769

  2. 3D high-content screening for the identification of compounds that target cells in dormant tumor spheroid regions.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Carsten; Riefke, Björn; Gründemann, Stephan; Krebs, Alice; Christian, Sven; Prinz, Florian; Osterland, Marc; Golfier, Sven; Räse, Sebastian; Ansari, Nariman; Esner, Milan; Bickle, Marc; Pampaloni, Francesco; Mattheyer, Christian; Stelzer, Ernst H; Parczyk, Karsten; Prechtl, Stefan; Steigemann, Patrick

    2014-04-15

    Cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions need to adapt to an unfavorable metabolic microenvironment. As distance from supplying blood vessels increases, oxygen and nutrient concentrations decrease and cancer cells react by stopping cell cycle progression and becoming dormant. As cytostatic drugs mainly target proliferating cells, cancer cell dormancy is considered as a major resistance mechanism to this class of anti-cancer drugs. Therefore, substances that target cancer cells in poorly vascularized tumor regions have the potential to enhance cytostatic-based chemotherapy of solid tumors. With three-dimensional growth conditions, multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) reproduce several parameters of the tumor microenvironment, including oxygen and nutrient gradients as well as the development of dormant tumor regions. We here report the setup of a 3D cell culture compatible high-content screening system and the identification of nine substances from two commercially available drug libraries that specifically target cells in inner MCTS core regions, while cells in outer MCTS regions or in 2D cell culture remain unaffected. We elucidated the mode of action of the identified compounds as inhibitors of the respiratory chain and show that induction of cell death in inner MCTS core regions critically depends on extracellular glucose concentrations. Finally, combinational treatment with cytostatics showed increased induction of cell death in MCTS. The data presented here shows for the first time a high-content based screening setup on 3D tumor spheroids for the identification of substances that specifically induce cell death in inner tumor spheroid core regions. This validates the approach to use 3D cell culture screening systems to identify substances that would not be detectable by 2D based screening in otherwise similar culture conditions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of target genes of synovial sarcoma-associated fusion oncoprotein using human pluripotent stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hayakawa, Kazuo; Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► We tried to identify targets of synovial sarcoma (SS)-associated SYT–SSX fusion gene. ► We established pluripotent stem cell (PSC) lines with inducible SYT–SSX gene. ► SYT–SSX responsive genes were identified by the induction of SYT–SSX in PSC. ► SS-related genes were selected from database by in silico analyses. ► 51 genes were finally identified among SS-related genes as targets of SYT–SSX in PSC. -- Abstract: Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a malignant soft tissue tumor harboring chromosomal translocation t(X; 18)(p11.2; q11.2), which produces SS-specific fusion gene, SYT–SSX. Although precise function of SYT–SSX remains to be investigated, accumulating evidences suggestmore » its role in gene regulation via epigenetic mechanisms, and the product of SYT–SSX target genes may serve as biomarkers of SS. Lack of knowledge about the cell-of-origin of SS, however, has placed obstacle in the way of target identification. Here we report a novel approach to identify SYT–SSX2 target genes using human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) containing a doxycycline-inducible SYT–SSX2 gene. SYT–SSX2 was efficiently induced both at mRNA and protein levels within three hours after doxycycline administration, while no morphological change of hPSCs was observed until 24 h. Serial microarray analyses identified genes of which the expression level changed more than twofold within 24 h. Surprisingly, the majority (297/312, 95.2%) were up-regulated genes and a result inconsistent with the current concept of SYT–SSX as a transcriptional repressor. Comparing these genes with SS-related genes which were selected by a series of in silico analyses, 49 and 2 genes were finally identified as candidates of up- and down-regulated target of SYT–SSX, respectively. Association of these genes with SYT–SSX in SS cells was confirmed by knockdown experiments. Expression profiles of SS-related genes in hPSCs and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were

  4. Identification of copy number variations and translocations in cancer cells from Hi-C data.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Abhijit; Ay, Ferhat

    2017-10-18

    with CNV events for a breast cancer cell line (r=0.89) and capture most of the CNVs we simulate using Avesim. For HiCtrans predictions, we report evidence from the literature for 30 out of 90 translocations for eight of our cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we show that our tools identify and correctly classify relatively understudied rearrangements such as double minutes (DMs) and homogeneously staining regions (HSRs). Considering the inherent limitations of existing techniques for karyotyping (i.e., missing balanced rearrangements and those near repetitive regions), the accurate identification of CNVs and translocations in a cost-effective and high-throughput setting is still a challenge. Our results show that the set of tools we develop effectively utilize moderately sequenced Hi-C libraries (100-300 million reads) to identify known and de novo chromosomal rearrangements/abnormalities in well-established cancer cell lines. With the decrease in required number of cells and the increase in attainable resolution, we believe that our framework will pave the way towards comprehensive mapping of genomic rearrangements in primary cells from cancer patients using Hi-C. CNV calling: https://github.com/ay-lab/HiCnvTranslocation calling: https://github.com/ay-lab/HiCtransHi-C simulation: https://github.com/ay-lab/AveSim. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Identification of functional interactome of a key cell division regulatory protein CedA of E.coli.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pankaj; Tomar, Anil Kumar; Kundu, Bishwajit

    2018-01-01

    Cell division is compromised in DnaAcos mutant Escherichia coli cells that results in filamentous cell morphology. This is countered by over-expression of CedA protein that induces cytokinesis and thus, regular cell morphology is regained; however via an unknown mechanism. To understand the process systematically, exact role of CedA should be deciphered. Protein interactions are crucial for functional organization of a cell and their identification helps in revealing exact function(s) of a protein and its binding partners. Thus, this study was intended to identify CedA binding proteins (CBPs) to gain more clues of CedA function. We isolated CBPs by pull down assay using purified recombinant CedA and identified nine CBPs by mass spectrometric analysis (MALDI-TOF MS and LC-MS/MS), viz. PDHA1, RL2, DNAK, LPP, RPOB, G6PD, GLMS, RL3 and YBCJ. Based on CBPs identified, we hypothesize that CedA plays a crucial and multifaceted role in cell cycle regulation and specific pathways in which CedA participates may include transcription and energy metabolism. However, further validation through in-vitro and in-vivo experiments is necessary. In conclusion, identification of CBPs may help us in deciphering mechanism of CedA mediated cell division during chromosomal DNA over-replication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification and functional validation of HPV-mediated hypermethylation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus-positive (HPV+) head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represents a distinct clinical and epidemiological condition compared with HPV-negative (HPV-) HNSCC. To test the possible involvement of epigenetic modulation by HPV in HNSCC, we conducted a genome-wide DNA-methylation analysis. Methods Using laser-capture microdissection of 42 formalin-fixed paraffin wax-embedded (FFPE) HNSCCs, we generated DNA-methylation profiles of 18 HPV+ and 14 HPV- samples, using Infinium 450 k BeadArray technology. Methylation data were validated in two sets of independent HPV+/HPV- HNSCC samples (fresh-frozen samples and cell lines) using two independent methods (Infinium 450 k and whole-genome methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeDIP-seq)). For the functional analysis, an HPV- HNSCC cell line was transduced with lentiviral constructs containing the two HPV oncogenes (E6 and E7), and effects on methylation were assayed using the Infinium 450 k technology. Results and discussion Unsupervised clustering over the methylation variable positions (MVPs) with greatest variation showed that samples segregated in accordance with HPV status, but also that HPV+ tumors are heterogeneous. MVPs were significantly enriched at transcriptional start sites, leading to the identification of a candidate CpG island methylator phenotype in a sub-group of the HPV+ tumors. Supervised analysis identified a strong preponderance (87%) of MVPs towards hypermethylation in HPV+ HNSCC. Meta-analysis of our HNSCC and publicly available methylation data in cervical and lung cancers confirmed the observed DNA-methylation signature to be HPV-specific and tissue-independent. Grouping of MVPs into functionally more significant differentially methylated regions identified 43 hypermethylated promoter DMRs, including for three cadherins of the Polycomb group target genes. Integration with independent expression data showed strong negative correlation, especially for the

  7. Identification of Mediator Kinase Substrates in Human Cells using Cortistatin A and Quantitative Phosphoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Poss, Zachary C; Ebmeier, Christopher C; Odell, Aaron T; Tangpeerachaikul, Anupong; Lee, Thomas; Pelish, Henry E; Shair, Matthew D; Dowell, Robin D; Old, William M; Taatjes, Dylan J

    2016-04-12

    Cortistatin A (CA) is a highly selective inhibitor of the Mediator kinases CDK8 and CDK19. Using CA, we now report a large-scale identification of Mediator kinase substrates in human cells (HCT116). We identified over 16,000 quantified phosphosites including 78 high-confidence Mediator kinase targets within 64 proteins, including DNA-binding transcription factors and proteins associated with chromatin, DNA repair, and RNA polymerase II. Although RNA-seq data correlated with Mediator kinase targets, the effects of CA on gene expression were limited and distinct from CDK8 or CDK19 knockdown. Quantitative proteome analyses, tracking around 7,000 proteins across six time points (0-24 hr), revealed that CA selectively affected pathways implicated in inflammation, growth, and metabolic regulation. Contrary to expectations, increased turnover of Mediator kinase targets was not generally observed. Collectively, these data support Mediator kinases as regulators of chromatin and RNA polymerase II activity and suggest their roles extend beyond transcription to metabolism and DNA repair. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of immunohistochemical markers for distinguishing lung adenocarcinoma from squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Cheng; Yan, Li; Wang, Lin; Sun, Yang; Wang, Xingxing; Lin, Zongwu; Zhang, Yongxing; Wang, Qun

    2015-01-01

    Background Immunohistochemical staining has been widely used in distinguishing lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) from lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC), which is of vital importance for the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Due to the lack of a comprehensive analysis of different lung cancer subtypes, there may still be undiscovered markers with higher diagnostic accuracy. Methods Herein first, we systematically analyzed high-throughput data obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Combining differently expressed gene screening and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, we attempted to identify the genes which might be suitable as immunohistochemical markers in distinguishing LUAD from LUSC. Then we detected the expression of six of these genes (MLPH, TMC5, SFTA3, DSG3, DSC3 and CALML3) in lung cancer sections using immunohistochemical staining. Results A number of genes were identified as candidate immunohistochemical markers with high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing LUAD from LUSC. Then the staining results confirmed the potentials of the six genes (MLPH, TMC5, SFTA3, DSG3, DSC3 and CALML3) in distinguishing LUAD from LUSC, and their sensitivity and specificity were not less than many commonly used markers. Conclusions The results revealed that the six genes (MLPH, TMC5, SFTA3, DSG3, DSC3 and CALML3) might be suitable markers in distinguishing LUAD from LUSC, and also validated the feasibility of our methods for identification of candidate markers from high-throughput data. PMID:26380766

  9. Improved Recovery and Identification of Membrane Proteins from Rat Hepatic Cells using a Centrifugal Proteomic Reactor*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hu; Wang, Fangjun; Wang, Yuwei; Ning, Zhibin; Hou, Weimin; Wright, Theodore G.; Sundaram, Meenakshi; Zhong, Shumei; Yao, Zemin; Figeys, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Despite their importance in many biological processes, membrane proteins are underrepresented in proteomic analysis because of their poor solubility (hydrophobicity) and often low abundance. We describe a novel approach for the identification of plasma membrane proteins and intracellular microsomal proteins that combines membrane fractionation, a centrifugal proteomic reactor for streamlined protein extraction, protein digestion and fractionation by centrifugation, and high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem MS. The performance of this approach was illustrated for the study of the proteome of ER and Golgi microsomal membranes in rat hepatic cells. The centrifugal proteomic reactor identified 945 plasma membrane proteins and 955 microsomal membrane proteins, of which 63 and 47% were predicted as bona fide membrane proteins, respectively. Among these proteins, >800 proteins were undetectable by the conventional in-gel digestion approach. The majority of the membrane proteins only identified by the centrifugal proteomic reactor were proteins with ≥2 transmembrane segments or proteins with high molecular mass (e.g. >150 kDa) and hydrophobicity. The improved proteomic reactor allowed the detection of a group of endocytic and/or signaling receptor proteins on the plasma membrane, as well as apolipoproteins and glycerolipid synthesis enzymes that play a role in the assembly and secretion of apolipoprotein B100-containing very low density lipoproteins. Thus, the centrifugal proteomic reactor offers a new analytical tool for structure and function studies of membrane proteins involved in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. PMID:21749988

  10. Rapid identification of iron deficiency in blood donors with red cell indexes provided by Advia 120.

    PubMed

    Radtke, Hartmut; Meyer, Tina; Kalus, Ulrich; Röcker, Lothar; Salama, Abdulgabar; Kiesewetter, Holger; Latza, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    A new generation of automated hematology analyzers allows the rapid determination of various red cell (RBC) indexes, including the percentage of hypochromic mature RBCs (HYPOm) and the hemoglobin (Hb) content of reticulocytes (CHr). These indexes have not yet been validated as measures for the detection of iron deficiency in blood donors. Iron status was evaluated in a total of 1142 unselected prospective blood donors based on measurement of serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, and Hb compared to RBC indexes provided by an automated hematology analyzer (Advia 120, Bayer HealthCare) including HYPOm and CHr. Assuming that the most precise measure for body iron storage is related to the logarithm of the ratio of soluble transferrin receptor to ferritin, the sensitivity of ferritin for the diagnosis of iron depletion was 89 percent compared to 57 percent for HYPOm and CHr, respectively, to 69 percent for the combination of both RBC indexes, and to 26 percent for Hb concentration. The RBC indexes HYPOm und CHr are significantly better screening measures for identification of iron depletion in blood donors than Hb.

  11. Identification and characterization of a novel flavin-containing spermine oxidase of mammalian cell origin.

    PubMed Central

    Vujcic, Slavoljub; Diegelman, Paula; Bacchi, Cyrus J; Kramer, Debora L; Porter, Carl W

    2002-01-01

    During polyamine catabolism, spermine and spermidine are first acetylated by spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT) and subsequently oxidized by polyamine oxidase (PAO) to produce spermidine and putrescine, respectively. In attempting to clone the PAO involved in this back-conversion pathway, we encountered an oxidase that preferentially cleaves spermine in the absence of prior acetylation by SSAT. A BLAST search using maize PAO sequences identified homologous mammalian cDNAs derived from human hepatoma and mouse mammary carcinoma: the encoded proteins differed by 20 amino acids. When either cDNA was transiently transfected into HEK-293 cells, intracellular spermine pools decreased by 75% while spermidine and N (1)-acetylspermidine pools increased, suggesting that spermine was selectively and directly oxidized by the enzyme. Substrate specificity using lysates of oxidase-transfected HEK-293 cells revealed that the newly identified oxidase strongly favoured spermine over N (1)-acetylspermine and that it failed to act on N (1)-acetylspermidine, spermidine or the preferred PAO substrate, N (1), N (12)-diacetylspermine. The PAO inhibitor, MDL-72,527, only partially blocked oxidation of spermine while a previously reported PAO substrate, N (1)-( n -octanesulphonyl)spermine, potently inhibited the reaction. Overall, the data indicate that the enzyme represents a novel mammalian oxidase which, on the basis of substrate specificity, we have designated spermine oxidase in order to distinguish it from the PAO involved in polyamine back-conversion. The identification of an enzyme capable of directly oxidizing spermine to spermidine has important implications for understanding polyamine homoeostasis and for interpreting metabolic and cellular responses to clinically relevant polyamine analogues and inhibitors. PMID:12141946

  12. The Use of P63 Immunohistochemistry for the Identification of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Conde, Esther; Angulo, Bárbara; Redondo, Pilar; Toldos, Oscar; García-García, Elena; Suárez-Gauthier, Ana; Rubio-Viqueira, Belén; Marrón, Carmen; García-Luján, Ricardo; Sánchez-Céspedes, Montse; López-Encuentra, Angel; Paz-Ares, Luis; López-Ríos, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Introduction While some targeted agents should not be used in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), other agents might preferably target SCCs. In a previous microarray study, one of the top differentially expressed genes between adenocarcinomas (ACs) and SCCs is P63. It is a well-known marker of squamous differentiation, but surprisingly, its expression is not widely used for this purpose. Our goals in this study were (1) to further confirm our microarray data, (2) to analize the value of P63 immunohistochemistry (IHC) in reducing the number of large cell carcinoma (LCC) diagnoses in surgical specimens, and (3) to investigate the potential of P63 IHC to minimize the proportion of “carcinoma NOS (not otherwise specified)” in a prospective series of small tumor samples. Methods With these goals in mind, we studied (1) a tissue-microarray comprising 33 ACs and 99 SCCs on which we performed P63 IHC, (2) a series of 20 surgically resected LCCs studied for P63 and TTF-1 IHC, and (3) a prospective cohort of 66 small thoracic samples, including 32 carcinoma NOS, that were further classified by the result of P63 and TTF-1 IHC. Results The results in the three independent cohorts were as follows: (1) P63 IHC was differentially expressed in SCCs when compared to ACs (p<0.0001); (2) half of the 20 (50%) LCCs were positive for P63 and were reclassified as SCCs; and (3) all P63 positive cases (34%) were diagnosed as SCCs. Conclusions P63 IHC is useful for the identification of lung SCCs. PMID:20808915

  13. Identification of novel binding partners (annexins) for the cell death signal phosphatidylserine and definition of their recognition motif.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Sabrina; Kreft, Sandra; Etich, Julia; Frie, Christian; Stermann, Jacek; Grskovic, Ivan; Frey, Benjamin; Mielenz, Dirk; Pöschl, Ernst; Gaipl, Udo; Paulsson, Mats; Brachvogel, Bent

    2011-02-18

    Identification and clearance of apoptotic cells prevents the release of harmful cell contents thereby suppressing inflammation and autoimmune reactions. Highly conserved annexins may modulate the phagocytic cell removal by acting as bridging molecules to phosphatidylserine, a characteristic phagocytosis signal of dying cells. In this study five members of the structurally and functionally related annexin family were characterized for their capacity to interact with phosphatidylserine and dying cells. The results showed that AnxA3, AnxA4, AnxA13, and the already described interaction partner AnxA5 can bind to phosphatidylserine and apoptotic cells, whereas AnxA8 lacks this ability. Sequence alignment experiments located the essential amino residues for the recognition of surface exposed phosphatidylserine within the calcium binding motifs common to all annexins. These amino acid residues were missing in the evolutionary young AnxA8 and when they were reintroduced by site directed mutagenesis AnxA8 gains the capability to interact with phosphatidylserine containing liposomes and apoptotic cells. By defining the evolutionary conserved amino acid residues mediating phosphatidylserine binding of annexins we show that the recognition of dying cells represent a common feature of most annexins. Hence, the individual annexin repertoire bound to the cell surface of dying cells may fulfil opsonin-like function in cell death recognition.

  14. The role of CD133 in the identification and characterisation of tumour-initiating cells in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Tirino, Virginia; Camerlingo, Rosa; Franco, Renato; Malanga, Donatella; La Rocca, Antonello; Viglietto, Giuseppe; Rocco, Gaetano; Pirozzi, Giuseppe

    2009-09-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that specific sub-populations of cancer cells with stem cell characteristics within the bulk of tumours are implicated in the pathogenesis of heterogeneous malignant tumours. The cells that drive tumour growth have been denoted cancer-initiating cells or cancer stem cells (hereafter CSCs). CSCs have been isolated initially from leukaemias and subsequently from several solid tumours including brain, breast, prostate, colon and lung cancer. This study aimed at isolating and characterising the population of tumour-initiating cells in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Specimens of NSCLC obtained from 89 patients undergoing tumour resection at the Cancer National Institute of Naples were analysed. Three methods to isolate the tumour-initiating cells were used: (1) flow cytometry analysis for identification of positive cells for surface markers such as CD24, CD29, CD31, CD34, CD44, CD133 and CD326; (2) Hoechst 33342 dye exclusion test for the identification of a side-population characteristic for the presence of stem cells; (3) non-adherent culture condition able to form spheres with stem cell-like characteristics. Definition of the tumourigenic potential of the cells through soft agar assay and injection into NOD/SCID mice were used to functionally define (in vitro and in vivo) putative CSCs isolated from NSCLC samples. Upon flow cytometry analysis of NSCLC samples, CD133-positive cells were found in 72% of 89 fresh specimens analysed and, on average, represented 6% of the total cells. Moreover, the number of CD133-positive cells increased markedly when the cells, isolated from NSCLC specimens, were grown as spheres in non-adherent culture conditions. Cells from NSCLC, grown as spheres, when assayed in soft agar, give rise to a 3.8-fold larger number of colonies in culture and are more tumourigenic in non-obese diabetic (NOD)/severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice compared with the corresponding adherent cells. We have isolated and

  15. Evaluation and identification of hepatitis B virus entry inhibitors using HepG2 cells overexpressing a membrane transporter NTCP.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Masashi; Watashi, Koichi; Tsukuda, Senko; Aly, Hussein Hassan; Fukasawa, Masayoshi; Fujimoto, Akira; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Aizaki, Hideki; Ito, Takayoshi; Koiwai, Osamu; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Wakita, Takaji

    2014-01-17

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) entry has been analyzed using infection-susceptible cells, including primary human hepatocytes, primary tupaia hepatocytes, and HepaRG cells. Recently, the sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) membrane transporter was reported as an HBV entry receptor. In this study, we established a strain of HepG2 cells engineered to overexpress the human NTCP gene (HepG2-hNTCP-C4 cells). HepG2-hNTCP-C4 cells were shown to be susceptible to infection by blood-borne and cell culture-derived HBV. HBV infection was facilitated by pretreating cells with 3% dimethyl sulfoxide permitting nearly 50% of the cells to be infected with HBV. Knockdown analysis suggested that HBV infection of HepG2-hNTCP-C4 cells was mediated by NTCP. HBV infection was blocked by an anti-HBV surface protein neutralizing antibody, by compounds known to inhibit NTCP transporter activity, and by cyclosporin A and its derivatives. The infection assay suggested that cyclosporin B was a more potent inhibitor of HBV entry than was cyclosporin A. Further chemical screening identified oxysterols, oxidized derivatives of cholesterol, as inhibitors of HBV infection. Thus, the HepG2-hNTCP-C4 cell line established in this study is a useful tool for the identification of inhibitors of HBV infection as well as for the analysis of the molecular mechanisms of HBV infection. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Micrometer-Scale Magnetic-Resonance-Coupled Radio-Frequency Identification and Transceivers for Wireless Sensors in Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaolin; Aggarwal, Kamal; Yang, Mimi X.; Parizi, Kokab B.; Xu, Xiaoqing; Akin, Demir; Poon, Ada S. Y.; Wong, H.-S. Philip

    2017-07-01

    We report the design, analysis, and characterization of a three-inductor radio-frequency identification (RFID) and transceiver system for potential applications in individual cell tracking and monitoring. The RFID diameter is 22 μ m and can be naturally internalized by living cells. Using magnetic resonance coupling, the system shows resonance shifts when the RFID is present and also when the RFID loading capacitance changes. It operates at 60 GHz with a high signal magnitude up to -50 dB and a sensitivity of 0.2. This miniaturized RFID with a high signal magnitude is a promising step toward continuous, real-time monitoring of activities at cellular levels.

  17. Comparative analysis of activation induced marker (AIM) assays for sensitive identification of antigen-specific CD4 T cells.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Samantha; Baxter, Amy E; Cirelli, Kimberly M; Dan, Jennifer M; Morou, Antigoni; Daigneault, Audrey; Brassard, Nathalie; Silvestri, Guido; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Havenar-Daughton, Colin; Crotty, Shane; Kaufmann, Daniel E

    2017-01-01

    The identification and study of antigen-specific CD4 T cells, both in peripheral blood and in tissues, is key for a broad range of immunological research, including vaccine responses and infectious diseases. Detection of these cells is hampered by both their rarity and their heterogeneity, in particular with regards to cytokine secretion profiles. These factors prevent the identification of the total pool of antigen-specific CD4 T cells by classical methods. We have developed assays for the highly sensitive detection of such cells by measuring the upregulation of surface activation induced markers (AIM). Here, we compare two such assays based on concurrent expression of CD69 plus CD40L (CD154) or expression of OX40 plus CD25, and we develop additional AIM assays based on OX40 plus PD-L1 or 4-1BB. We compare the relative sensitivity of these assays for detection of vaccine and natural infection-induced CD4 T cell responses and show that these assays identify distinct, but overlapping populations of antigen-specific CD4 T cells, a subpopulation of which can also be detected on the basis of cytokine synthesis. Bystander activation had minimal effect on AIM markers. However, some T regulatory cells upregulate CD25 upon antigen stimulation. We therefore validated AIM assays designed to exclude most T regulatory cells, for both human and non-human primate (NHP, Macaca mulatta) studies. Overall, through head-to-head comparisons and methodological improvements, we show that AIM assays represent a sensitive and valuable method for the detection of antigen-specific CD4 T cells.

  18. Comparative analysis of activation induced marker (AIM) assays for sensitive identification of antigen-specific CD4 T cells

    PubMed Central

    Cirelli, Kimberly M.; Dan, Jennifer M.; Morou, Antigoni; Daigneault, Audrey; Brassard, Nathalie; Silvestri, Guido; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Havenar-Daughton, Colin; Crotty, Shane

    2017-01-01

    The identification and study of antigen-specific CD4 T cells, both in peripheral blood and in tissues, is key for a broad range of immunological research, including vaccine responses and infectious diseases. Detection of these cells is hampered by both their rarity and their heterogeneity, in particular with regards to cytokine secretion profiles. These factors prevent the identification of the total pool of antigen-specific CD4 T cells by classical methods. We have developed assays for the highly sensitive detection of such cells by measuring the upregulation of surface activation induced markers (AIM). Here, we compare two such assays based on concurrent expression of CD69 plus CD40L (CD154) or expression of OX40 plus CD25, and we develop additional AIM assays based on OX40 plus PD-L1 or 4-1BB. We compare the relative sensitivity of these assays for detection of vaccine and natural infection-induced CD4 T cell responses and show that these assays identify distinct, but overlapping populations of antigen-specific CD4 T cells, a subpopulation of which can also be detected on the basis of cytokine synthesis. Bystander activation had minimal effect on AIM markers. However, some T regulatory cells upregulate CD25 upon antigen stimulation. We therefore validated AIM assays designed to exclude most T regulatory cells, for both human and non-human primate (NHP, Macaca mulatta) studies. Overall, through head-to-head comparisons and methodological improvements, we show that AIM assays represent a sensitive and valuable method for the detection of antigen-specific CD4 T cells. PMID:29065175

  19. Quantitative image cytometry measurements of lipids, DNA, CD45 and cytokeratin for circulating tumor cell identification in a model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futia, Gregory L.; Qamar, Lubna; Behbakht, Kian; Gibson, Emily A.

    2016-04-01

    Circulating tumor cell (CTC) identification has applications in both early detection and monitoring of solid cancers. The rarity of CTCs, expected at ~1-50 CTCs per million nucleated blood cells (WBCs), requires identifying methods based on biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity for accurate identification. Discovery of biomarkers with ever higher sensitivity and specificity to CTCs is always desirable to potentially find more CTCs in cancer patients thus increasing their clinical utility. Here, we investigate quantitative image cytometry measurements of lipids with the biomarker panel of DNA, Cytokeratin (CK), and CD45 commonly used to identify CTCs. We engineered a device for labeling suspended cell samples with fluorescent antibodies and dyes. We used it to prepare samples for 4 channel confocal laser scanning microscopy. The total data acquired at high resolution from one sample is ~ 1.3 GB. We developed software to perform the automated segmentation of these images into regions of interest (ROIs) containing individual cells. We quantified image features of total signal, spatial second moment, spatial frequency second moment, and their product for each ROI. We performed measurements on pure WBCs, cancer cell line MCF7 and mixed samples. Multivariable regressions and feature selection were used to determine combination features that are more sensitive and specific than any individual feature separately. We also demonstrate that computation of spatial characteristics provides higher sensitivity and specificity than intensity alone. Statistical models allowed quantification of the required sensitivity and specificity for detecting small levels of CTCs in a human blood sample.

  20. Identification of different ALK mutations in a pair of neuroblastoma cell lines established at diagnosis and relapse.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lindi; Humphreys, Angharad; Turnbull, Lisa; Bellini, Angela; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Salwen, Helen; Cohn, Susan L; Bown, Nick; Tweddle, Deborah A

    2016-12-27

    Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) is a transmembrane receptor kinase that belongs to the insulin receptor superfamily and has previously been shown to play a role in cell proliferation, migration and invasion in neuroblastoma. Activating ALK mutations are reported in both hereditary and sporadic neuroblastoma tumours, and several ALK inhibitors are currently under clinical evaluation as novel treatments for neuroblastoma. Overall, mutations at codons F1174, R1275 and F1245 together account for ~85% of reported ALK mutations in neuroblastoma. NBLW and NBLW-R are paired cell lines originally derived from an infant with metastatic MYCN amplified Stage IVS (Evans Criteria) neuroblastoma, at diagnosis and relapse, respectively. Using both Sanger and targeted deep sequencing, this study describes the identification of distinct ALK mutations in these paired cell lines, including the rare R1275L mutation, which has not previously been reported in a neuroblastoma cell line. Analysis of the sensitivity of NBLW and NBLW-R cells to a panel of ALK inhibitors (TAE-684, Crizotinib, Alectinib and Lorlatinib) revealed differences between the paired cell lines, and overall NBLW-R cells with the F1174L mutation were more resistant to ALK inhibitor induced apoptosis compared with NBLW cells. This pair of cell lines represents a valuable pre-clinical model of clonal evolution of ALK mutations associated with neuroblastoma progression.

  1. Identification of novel direct protein-protein interactions by irradiating living cells with femtosecond UV laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Itri, Francesco; Monti, Daria Maria; Chino, Marco; Vinciguerra, Roberto; Altucci, Carlo; Lombardi, Angela; Piccoli, Renata; Birolo, Leila; Arciello, Angela

    2017-10-07

    The identification of protein-protein interaction networks in living cells is becoming increasingly fundamental to elucidate main biological processes and to understand disease molecular bases on a system-wide level. We recently described a method (LUCK, Laser UV Cross-linKing) to cross-link interacting protein surfaces in living cells by UV laser irradiation. By using this innovative methodology, that does not require any protein modification or cell engineering, here we demonstrate that, upon UV laser irradiation of HeLa cells, a direct interaction between GAPDH and alpha-enolase was "frozen" by a cross-linking event. We validated the occurrence of this direct interaction by co-immunoprecipitation and Immuno-FRET analyses. This represents a proof of principle of the LUCK capability to reveal direct protein interactions in their physiological environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of Epigenetic Changes in Prostate Cancer using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    somatic cells in human iPS cells. Nat Cell Bioi, 13: 541, 2011 5. Polo, J. M., Liu, S., Figueroa , M. E. et al.: Cell type of origin influences the...human iPS cells. Nat Cell Bioi 13: 5•1 \\ - 5•19. 18. Poloj:\\ə, Lu S, Figueroa ME, Kulalert W, Eminli S, ct a!. (20 10) Cell type of origin

  3. A chip assisted immunomagnetic separation system for the efficient capture and in situ identification of circulating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Man; Wen, Cong-Ying; Wu, Ling-Ling; Hong, Shao-Li; Hu, Jiao; Xu, Chun-Miao; Pang, Dai-Wen; Zhang, Zhi-Ling

    2016-04-07

    The detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), a kind of "liquid biopsy", represents a potential alternative to noninvasive detection, characterization and monitoring of carcinoma. Many previous studies have shown that the number of CTCs has a significant relationship with the stage of cancer. However, CTC enrichment and detection remain notoriously difficult because they are extremely rare in the bloodstream. Herein, aided by a microfluidic device, an immunomagnetic separation system was applied to efficiently capture and in situ identify circulating tumor cells. Magnetic nanospheres (MNs) were modified with an anti-epithelial-cell-adhesion-molecule (anti-EpCAM) antibody to fabricate immunomagnetic nanospheres (IMNs). IMNs were then loaded into the magnetic field controllable microfluidic chip to form uniform IMN patterns. The IMN patterns maintained good stability during the whole processes including enrichment, washing and identification. Apart from its simple manufacture process, the obtained microfluidic device was capable of capturing CTCs from the bloodstream with an efficiency higher than 94%. The captured cells could be directly visualized with an inverted fluorescence microscope in situ by immunocytochemistry (ICC) identification, which decreased cell loss effectively. Besides that, the CTCs could be recovered completely just by PBS washing after removal of the permanent magnets. It was observed that all the processes showed negligible influence on cell viability (viability up to 93%) and that the captured cells could be re-cultured for more than 5 passages after release without disassociating IMNs. In addition, the device was applied to clinical samples and almost all the samples from patients showed positive results, which suggests it could serve as a valuable tool for CTC enrichment and detection in the clinic.

  4. Identification of shed proteins from Chinese hamster ovary cells: Application of statistical confidence using human and mouse protein databases

    SciTech Connect

    Ahram, Mamoun; Strittmatter, Eric F.; Monroe, Matthew E.

    The shedding process releases ligands, receptors, and other proteins from the surface of the cell and is a mechanism whereby cells communicate. Even though altered regulation of this process has been implicated in several diseases, global approaches to evaluate shed proteins have not been developed. A goal of this study was to identify global changes in shed proteins in media taken from cells exposed to low-doses of radiation in an effort to develop a fundamental understanding of the bystander response. CHO cells were chosen for this study because they have been widely used for radiation studies and since they havemore » been reported to respond to radiation by releasing factors into the media that cause genomic instability and cytotoxicity in unexposed cells, i.e., a bystander effect. Media samples taken for irradiated cells were evaluated using a combination of tandem- and FTICR-mass spectrometry analysis. Since the hamster genome has not been sequenced, mass spectrometry data was searched against the mouse and human proteins databases. Nearly 150 proteins that were identified by tandem mass spectrometry were confirmed by FTICR. When both types of mass spectrometry data were evaluated with a new confidence scoring tool, which is based on discriminant analyses, about 500 protein were identified. Approximately 20% of these identifications were either integral membrane proteins or membrane associated proteins, suggesting that they were derived from the cell surface, hence were likely shed. However, estimates of quantitative changes, based on two independent mass spectrometry approaches, did not identify any protein abundance changes attributable to the bystander effect. Results from this study demonstrate the feasibility of global evaluation of shed proteins using mass spectrometry in conjunction with cross-species protein databases and that significant improvement in peptide/protein identifications is provided by the confidence scoring tool.« less

  5. High-Throughput Identification and Screening of Novel Methylobacterium Species Using Whole-Cell MALDI-TOF/MS Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tani, Akio; Sahin, Nurettin; Matsuyama, Yumiko; Enomoto, Takashi; Nishimura, Naoki; Yokota, Akira; Kimbara, Kazuhide

    2012-01-01

    Methylobacterium species are ubiquitous α-proteobacteria that reside in the phyllosphere and are fed by methanol that is emitted from plants. In this study, we applied whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis (WC-MS) to evaluate the diversity of Methylobacterium species collected from a variety of plants. The WC-MS spectrum was reproducible through two weeks of cultivation on different media. WC-MS spectrum peaks of M. extorquens strain AM1 cells were attributed to ribosomal proteins, but those were not were also found. We developed a simple method for rapid identification based on spectra similarity. Using all available type strains of Methylobacterium species, the method provided a certain threshold similarity value for species-level discrimination, although the genus contains some type strains that could not be easily discriminated solely by 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Next, we evaluated the WC-MS data of approximately 200 methylotrophs isolated from various plants with MALDI Biotyper software (Bruker Daltonics). Isolates representing each cluster were further identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In most cases, the identification by WC-MS matched that by sequencing, and isolates with unique spectra represented possible novel species. The strains belonging to M. extorquens, M. adhaesivum, M. marchantiae, M. komagatae, M. brachiatum, M. radiotolerans, and novel lineages close to M. adhaesivum, many of which were isolated from bryophytes, were found to be the most frequent phyllospheric colonizers. The WC-MS technique provides emerging high-throughputness in the identification of known/novel species of bacteria, enabling the selection of novel species in a library and identification without 16S rRNA gene sequencing. PMID:22808262

  6. A machine learning approach for the identification of key markers involved in brain development from single-cell transcriptomic data.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yongli; Hase, Takeshi; Li, Hui Peng; Prabhakar, Shyam; Kitano, Hiroaki; Ng, See Kiong; Ghosh, Samik; Wee, Lawrence Jin Kiat

    2016-12-22

    The ability to sequence the transcriptomes of single cells using single-cell RNA-seq sequencing technologies presents a shift in the scientific paradigm where scientists, now, are able to concurrently investigate the complex biology of a heterogeneous population of cells, one at a time. However, till date, there has not been a suitable computational methodology for the analysis of such intricate deluge of data, in particular techniques which will aid the identification of the unique transcriptomic profiles difference between the different cellular subtypes. In this paper, we describe the novel methodology for the analysis of single-cell RNA-seq data, obtained from neocortical cells and neural progenitor cells, using machine learning algorithms (Support Vector machine (SVM) and Random Forest (RF)). Thirty-eight key transcripts were identified, using the SVM-based recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE) method of feature selection, to best differentiate developing neocortical cells from neural progenitor cells in the SVM and RF classifiers built. Also, these genes possessed a higher discriminative power (enhanced prediction accuracy) as compared commonly used statistical techniques or geneset-based approaches. Further downstream network reconstruction analysis was carried out to unravel hidden general regulatory networks where novel interactions could be further validated in web-lab experimentation and be useful candidates to be targeted for the treatment of neuronal developmental diseases. This novel approach reported for is able to identify transcripts, with reported neuronal involvement, which optimally differentiate neocortical cells and neural progenitor cells. It is believed to be extensible and applicable to other single-cell RNA-seq expression profiles like that of the study of the cancer progression and treatment within a highly heterogeneous tumour.

  7. Identification of a Methane Oxidation Intermediate on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode Surfaces with Fourier Transform Infrared Emission.

    PubMed

    Pomfret, Michael B; Steinhurst, Daniel A; Owrutsky, Jeffrey C

    2013-04-18

    Fuel interactions on solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes are studied with in situ Fourier transform infrared emission spectroscopy (FTIRES). SOFCs are operated at 800 °C with CH4 as a representative hydrocarbon fuel. IR signatures of gas-phase oxidation products, CO2(g) and CO(g), are observed while cells are under load. A broad feature at 2295 cm(-1) is assigned to CO2 adsorbed on Ni as a CH4 oxidation intermediate during cell operation and while carbon deposits are electrochemically oxidized after CH4 operation. Electrochemical control provides confirmation of the assignment of adsorbed CO2. FTIRES has been demonstrated as a viable technique for the identification of fuel oxidation intermediates and products in working SOFCs, allowing for the elucidation of the mechanisms of fuel chemistry.

  8. Identification of a Cell-of-Origin for Fibroblasts Comprising the Fibrotic Reticulum in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Hong; Bodempudi, Vidya; Benyumov, Alexey; Hergert, Polla; Tank, Damien; Herrera, Jeremy; Braziunas, Jeff; Larsson, Ola; Parker, Matthew; Rossi, Daniel; Smith, Karen; Peterson, Mark; Limper, Andrew; Jessurun, Jose; Connett, John; Ingbar, David; Phan, Sem; Bitterman, Peter B.; Henke, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease of the middle aged and elderly with a prevalence of one million persons worldwide. The fibrosis spreads from affected alveoli into contiguous alveoli, creating a reticular network that leads to death by asphyxiation. Lung fibroblasts from patients with IPF have phenotypic hallmarks, distinguishing them from their normal counterparts: pathologically activated Akt signaling axis, increased collagen and α-smooth muscle actin expression, distinct gene expression profile, and ability to form fibrotic lesions in model organisms. Despite the centrality of these fibroblasts in disease pathogenesis, their origin remains uncertain. Here, we report the identification of cells in the lungs of patients with IPF with the properties of mesenchymal progenitors. In contrast to progenitors isolated from nonfibrotic lungs, IPF mesenchymal progenitor cells produce daughter cells manifesting the full spectrum of IPF hallmarks, including the ability to form fibrotic lesions in zebrafish embryos and mouse lungs, and a transcriptional profile reflecting these properties. Morphological analysis of IPF lung tissue revealed that mesenchymal progenitor cells and cells with the characteristics of their progeny comprised the fibrotic reticulum. These data establish that the lungs of patients with IPF contain pathological mesenchymal progenitor cells that are cells of origin for fibrosis-mediating fibroblasts. These fibrogenic mesenchymal progenitors and their progeny represent an unexplored target for novel therapies to interdict fibrosis. PMID:24631025

  9. Comparison of Whole-Cell SELEX Methods for the Identification of Staphylococcus Aureus-Specific DNA Aptamers

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jihea; Kim, Giyoung; Park, Saet Byeol; Lim, Jongguk; Mo, Changyeun

    2015-01-01

    Whole-cell Systemic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment (SELEX) is the process by which aptamers specific to target cells are developed. Aptamers selected by whole-cell SELEX have high affinity and specificity for bacterial surface molecules and live bacterial targets. To identify DNA aptamers specific to Staphylococcus aureus, we applied our rapid whole-cell SELEX method to a single-stranded ssDNA library. To improve the specificity and selectivity of the aptamers, we designed, selected, and developed two categories of aptamers that were selected by two kinds of whole-cell SELEX, by mixing and combining FACS analysis and a counter-SELEX process. Using this approach, we have developed a biosensor system that employs a high affinity aptamer for detection of target bacteria. FAM-labeled aptamer sequences with high binding to S. aureus, as determined by fluorescence spectroscopic analysis, were identified, and aptamer A14, selected by the basic whole-cell SELEX using a once-off FACS analysis, and which had a high binding affinity and specificity, was chosen. The binding assay was evaluated using FACS analysis. Our study demonstrated the development of a set of whole-cell SELEX derived aptamers specific to S. aureus; this approach can be used in the identification of other bacteria. PMID:25884791

  10. Comparison of whole-cell SELEX methods for the identification of Staphylococcus aureus-specific DNA aptamers.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jihea; Kim, Giyoung; Park, Saet Byeol; Lim, Jongguk; Mo, Changyeun

    2015-04-15

    Whole-cell Systemic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment (SELEX) is the process by which aptamers specific to target cells are developed. Aptamers selected by whole-cell SELEX have high affinity and specificity for bacterial surface molecules and live bacterial targets. To identify DNA aptamers specific to Staphylococcus aureus, we applied our rapid whole-cell SELEX method to a single-stranded ssDNA library. To improve the specificity and selectivity of the aptamers, we designed, selected, and developed two categories of aptamers that were selected by two kinds of whole-cell SELEX, by mixing and combining FACS analysis and a counter-SELEX process. Using this approach, we have developed a biosensor system that employs a high affinity aptamer for detection of target bacteria. FAM-labeled aptamer sequences with high binding to S. aureus, as determined by fluorescence spectroscopic analysis, were identified, and aptamer A14, selected by the basic whole-cell SELEX using a once-off FACS analysis, and which had a high binding affinity and specificity, was chosen. The binding assay was evaluated using FACS analysis. Our study demonstrated the development of a set of whole-cell SELEX derived aptamers specific to S. aureus; this approach can be used in the identification of other bacteria.

  11. A droplet-based microfluidic chip as a platform for leukemia cell lysate identification using surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Hassoun, Mohamed; Rüger, Jan; Kirchberger-Tolstik, Tatiana; Schie, Iwan W; Henkel, Thomas; Weber, Karina; Cialla-May, Dana; Krafft, Christoph; Popp, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    A new approach is presented for cell lysate identification which uses SERS-active silver nanoparticles and a droplet-based microfluidic chip. Eighty-nanoliter droplets are generated by injecting silver nanoparticles, KCl as aggregation agent, and cell lysate containing cell constituents, such as nucleic acids, carbohydrates, metabolites, and proteins into a continuous flow of mineral oil. This platform enables accurate mixing of small volumes inside the meandering channels of the quartz chip and allows acquisition of thousands of SERS spectra with 785 nm excitation at an integration time of 1 s. Preparation of three batches of three leukemia cell lines demonstrated the experimental reproducibility. The main advantage of a high number of reproducible spectra is to apply statistics for large sample populations with robust classification results. A support vector machine with leave-one-batch-out cross-validation classified SERS spectra with sensitivities, specificities, and accuracies better than 99% to differentiate Jurkat, THP-1, and MONO-MAC-6 leukemia cell lysates. This approach is compared with previous published reports about Raman spectroscopy for leukemia detection, and an outlook is given for transfer to single cells. A quartz chip was designed for SERS at 785 nm excitation. Principal component analysis of SERS spectra clearly separates cell lysates using variations in band intensity ratios.

  12. Large-Scale Identification and Characterization of Heterodera avenae Putative Effectors Suppressing or Inducing Cell Death in Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Changlong; Chen, Yongpan; Jian, Heng; Yang, Dan; Dai, Yiran; Pan, Lingling; Shi, Fengwei; Yang, Shanshan; Liu, Qian

    2018-01-01

    Heterodera avenae is one of the most important plant pathogens and causes vast losses in cereal crops. As a sedentary endoparasitic nematode, H. avenae secretes effectors that modify plant defenses and promote its biotrophic infection of its hosts. However, the number of effectors involved in the interaction between H. avenae and host defenses remains unclear. Here, we report the identification of putative effectors in H. avenae that regulate plant defenses on a large scale. Our results showed that 78 of the 95 putative effectors suppressed programmed cell death (PCD) triggered by BAX and that 7 of the putative effectors themselves caused cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana. Among the cell-death-inducing effectors, three were found to be dependent on their specific domains to trigger cell death and to be expressed in esophageal gland cells by in situ hybridization. Ten candidate effectors that suppressed BAX-triggered PCD also suppressed PCD triggered by the elicitor PsojNIP and at least one R-protein/cognate effector pair, suggesting that they are active in suppressing both pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Notably, with the exception of isotig16060, these putative effectors could also suppress PCD triggered by cell-death-inducing effectors from H. avenae, indicating that those effectors may cooperate to promote nematode parasitism. Collectively, our results indicate that the majority of the tested effectors of H. avenae may play important roles in suppressing cell death induced by different elicitors in N. benthamiana. PMID:29379510

  13. Effects of demethoxycurcumin on the viability and apoptosis of skin cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yaoqun; Zhang, Pei; Yang, Hongyun; Ge, Yong; Xin, Yong

    2017-07-01

    The present study investigated the effects and mechanisms of demethoxycurcumin (DMC) on a human skin squamous cell carcinoma cell line, A431, and a human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. A431 and HaCaT cells were cultured in vitro. The effects of DMC treatment on cell viability were analyzed using the Cell Counting kit‑8 (CCK‑8) assay; cell cycle distribution was analyzed by flow cytometry; apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry and Hoechst 33258 staining; and the protein expression levels of cytochrome c, B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2), Bcl‑2‑associated X protein (BAX), caspase‑9 and caspase‑3 were evaluated by western blotting. CCK‑8 assay results demonstrated that DMC treatment significantly inhibited viability of A431 and HaCaT cells in a dose‑dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis confirmed that DMC treatment induced apoptosis in a dose‑dependent manner, and significantly increased the proportion of cells in G2/M phase. Western blot analysis indicated that the protein expression levels of Bcl‑2 were decreased, whereas the expression levels of BAX, caspase‑9, caspase‑3 and cytochrome c were increased following DMC treatment compared with in untreated cells. In conclusion, DMC treatment significantly inhibited viability of A431 and HaCaT cells, and induced cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. The present study indicated that DMC may induce apoptosis of skin cancer cells through a caspase‑dependent pathway.

  14. A Multifaceted Study of Scedosporium boydii Cell Wall Changes during Germination and Identification of GPI-Anchored Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ghamrawi, Sarah; Gastebois, Amandine; Zykwinska, Agata; Vandeputte, Patrick; Marot, Agnès; Mabilleau, Guillaume; Cuenot, Stéphane; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Scedosporium boydii is a pathogenic filamentous fungus that causes a wide range of human infections, notably respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. The development of new therapeutic strategies targeting S. boydii necessitates a better understanding of the physiology of this fungus and the identification of new molecular targets. In this work, we studied the conidium-to-germ tube transition using a variety of techniques including scanning and transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, two-phase partitioning, microelectrophoresis and cationized ferritin labeling, chemical force spectroscopy, lectin labeling, and nanoLC-MS/MS for cell wall GPI-anchored protein analysis. We demonstrated that the cell wall undergoes structural changes with germination accompanied with a lower hydrophobicity, electrostatic charge and binding capacity to cationized ferritin. Changes during germination also included a higher accessibility of some cell wall polysaccharides to lectins and less CH3/CH3 interactions (hydrophobic adhesion forces mainly due to glycoproteins). We also extracted and identified 20 GPI-anchored proteins from the cell wall of S. boydii, among which one was detected only in the conidial wall extract and 12 only in the mycelial wall extract. The identified sequences belonged to protein families involved in virulence in other fungi like Gelp/Gasp, Crhp, Bglp/Bgtp families and a superoxide dismutase. These results highlighted the cell wall remodeling during germination in S. boydii with the identification of a substantial number of cell wall GPI-anchored conidial or hyphal specific proteins, which provides a basis to investigate the role of these molecules in the host-pathogen interaction and fungal virulence. PMID:26038837

  15. A Multifaceted Study of Scedosporium boydii Cell Wall Changes during Germination and Identification of GPI-Anchored Proteins.

    PubMed

    Ghamrawi, Sarah; Gastebois, Amandine; Zykwinska, Agata; Vandeputte, Patrick; Marot, Agnès; Mabilleau, Guillaume; Cuenot, Stéphane; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Scedosporium boydii is a pathogenic filamentous fungus that causes a wide range of human infections, notably respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. The development of new therapeutic strategies targeting S. boydii necessitates a better understanding of the physiology of this fungus and the identification of new molecular targets. In this work, we studied the conidium-to-germ tube transition using a variety of techniques including scanning and transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, two-phase partitioning, microelectrophoresis and cationized ferritin labeling, chemical force spectroscopy, lectin labeling, and nanoLC-MS/MS for cell wall GPI-anchored protein analysis. We demonstrated that the cell wall undergoes structural changes with germination accompanied with a lower hydrophobicity, electrostatic charge and binding capacity to cationized ferritin. Changes during germination also included a higher accessibility of some cell wall polysaccharides to lectins and less CH3/CH3 interactions (hydrophobic adhesion forces mainly due to glycoproteins). We also extracted and identified 20 GPI-anchored proteins from the cell wall of S. boydii, among which one was detected only in the conidial wall extract and 12 only in the mycelial wall extract. The identified sequences belonged to protein families involved in virulence in other fungi like Gelp/Gasp, Crhp, Bglp/Bgtp families and a superoxide dismutase. These results highlighted the cell wall remodeling during germination in S. boydii with the identification of a substantial number of cell wall GPI-anchored conidial or hyphal specific proteins, which provides a basis to investigate the role of these molecules in the host-pathogen interaction and fungal virulence.

  16. Identification of Novel Pax8 Targets in FRTL-5 Thyroid Cells by Gene Silencing and Expression Microarray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Di Palma, Tina; Conti, Anna; de Cristofaro, Tiziana; Scala, Serena; Nitsch, Lucio; Zannini, Mariastella

    2011-01-01

    Background The differentiation program of thyroid follicular cells (TFCs), by far the most abundant cell population of the thyroid gland, relies on the interplay between sequence-specific transcription factors and transcriptional coregulators with the basal transcriptional machinery of the cell. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to the fully differentiated thyrocyte are still the object of intense study. The transcription factor Pax8, a member of the Paired-box gene family, has been demonstrated to be a critical regulator required for proper development and differentiation of thyroid follicular cells. Despite being Pax8 well-characterized with respect to its role in regulating genes involved in thyroid differentiation, genomics approaches aiming at the identification of additional Pax8 targets are lacking and the biological pathways controlled by this transcription factor are largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings To identify unique downstream targets of Pax8, we investigated the genome-wide effect of Pax8 silencing comparing the transcriptome of silenced versus normal differentiated FRTL-5 thyroid cells. In total, 2815 genes were found modulated 72 h after Pax8 RNAi, induced or repressed. Genes previously reported to be regulated by Pax8 in FRTL-5 cells were confirmed. In addition, novel targets genes involved in functional processes such as DNA replication, anion transport, kinase activity, apoptosis and cellular processes were newly identified. Transcriptome analysis highlighted that Pax8 is a key molecule for thyroid morphogenesis and differentiation. Conclusions/Significance This is the first large-scale study aimed at the identification of new genes regulated by Pax8, a master regulator of thyroid development and differentiation. The biological pathways and target genes controlled by Pax8 will have considerable importance to understand thyroid disease progression as well as to set up novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:21966443

  17. Identification on Membrane and Characterization of Phosphoproteins Using an Alkoxide-Bridged Dinuclear Metal Complex as a Phosphate-Binding Tag Molecule

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi; Ando, Eiji; Furuta, Masaru; Kinoshita, Eiji; Kinoshita-Kikuta, Emiko; Koike, Tohru; Tsunasawa, Susumu; Nishimura, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a method for on-membrane direct identification of phosphoproteins, which are detected by a phosphate-binding tag (Phos-tag) that has an affinity to phosphate groups with a chelated Zn2+ ion. This rapid profiling approach for phosphoproteins combines chemical inkjet technology for microdispensing of reagents onto a tiny region of target proteins with mass spectrometry for on-membrane digested peptides. Using this method, we analyzed human epidermoid carcinoma cell lysates of A-431 cells stimulated with epidermal growth factor, and identified six proteins with intense signals upon affinity staining with the phosphate-binding tag. It was already known that these proteins are phosphorylated, and our new approach proved to be effective at rapid profiling of phosphoproteins. Furthermore, we tried to determine their phosphorylation sites by MS/MS analysis after in-gel digestion of the corresponding spots on the 2DE gel to the rapid on-membrane identifications. As one example of use of information gained from the rapid-profiling approach, we successfully characterized a phosphorylation site at Ser-113 on prostaglandin E synthase 3. PMID:18166671

  18. Identification of Prognostic Biomarkers for Progression of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-09

    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Carcinoma, Squamous; Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Neoplasms; Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Lung Cancer; Neoplasms, Lung; Neoplasms, Pulmonary; Pulmonary Cancer; Pulmonary Neoplasms

  19. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy for rapid identification and quality evaluation of cell culture media components.

    PubMed

    Li, Boyan; Ryan, Paul W; Shanahan, Michael; Leister, Kirk J; Ryder, Alan G

    2011-11-01

    The application of fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy to the quantitative analysis of complex, aqueous solutions of cell culture media components was investigated. These components, yeastolate, phytone, recombinant human insulin, eRDF basal medium, and four different chemically defined (CD) media, are used for the formulation of basal and feed media employed in the production of recombinant proteins using a Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell based process. The comprehensive analysis (either identification or quality assessment) of these materials using chromatographic methods is time consuming and expensive and is not suitable for high-throughput quality control. The use of EEM in conjunction with multiway chemometric methods provided a rapid, nondestructive analytical method suitable for the screening of large numbers of samples. Here we used multiway robust principal component analysis (MROBPCA) in conjunction with n-way partial least squares discriminant analysis (NPLS-DA) to develop a robust routine for both the identification and quality evaluation of these important cell culture materials. These methods are applicable to a wide range of complex mixtures because they do not rely on any predetermined compositional or property information, thus making them potentially very useful for sample handling, tracking, and quality assessment in biopharmaceutical industries.

  20. Multiple Convective Cell Identification and Tracking Algorithm for documenting time-height evolution of measured polarimetric radar and lightning properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, D.; Hu, J.; Zhang, P.; Snyder, J.; Orville, R. E.; Ryzhkov, A.; Zrnic, D.; Williams, E.; Zhang, R.

    2017-12-01

    A methodology to track the evolution of the hydrometeors and electrification of convective cells is presented and applied to various convective clouds from warm showers to super-cells. The input radar data are obtained from the polarimetric NEXRAD weather radars, The information on cloud electrification is obtained from Lightning Mapping Arrays (LMA). The development time and height of the hydrometeors and electrification requires tracking the evolution and lifecycle of convective cells. A new methodology for Multi-Cell Identification and Tracking (MCIT) is presented in this study. This new algorithm is applied to time series of radar volume scans. A cell is defined as a local maximum in the Vertical Integrated Liquid (VIL), and the echo area is divided between cells using a watershed algorithm. The tracking of the cells between radar volume scans is done by identifying the two cells in consecutive radar scans that have maximum common VIL. The vertical profile of the polarimetric radar properties are used for constructing the time-height cross section of the cell properties around the peak reflectivity as a function of height. The LMA sources that occur within the cell area are integrated as a function of height as well for each time step, as determined by the radar volume scans. The result of the tracking can provide insights to the evolution of storms, hydrometer types, precipitation initiation and cloud electrification under different thermodynamic, aerosol and geographic conditions. The details of the MCIT algorithm, its products and their performance for different types of storm are described in this poster.

  1. Identification of CD34+ and CD34− leukemia-initiating cells in MLL-rearranged human acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Yuki; Watanabe, Takashi; Saito, Yoriko; Kuroki, Yoko; Hijikata, Atsushi; Takagi, Masatoshi; Tomizawa, Daisuke; Eguchi, Mariko; Eguchi-Ishimae, Minenori; Kaneko, Akiko; Ono, Rintaro; Sato, Kaori; Suzuki, Nahoko; Fujiki, Saera; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Ishii, Eiichi; Shultz, Leonard D.; Ohara, Osamu; Mizutani, Shuki

    2015-01-01

    Translocation of the mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene with AF4, AF9, or ENL results in acute leukemia with both lymphoid and myeloid involvement. We characterized leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) in primary infant MLL-rearranged leukemia using a xenotransplantation model. In MLL-AF4 patients, CD34+CD38+CD19+ and CD34−CD19+ cells initiated leukemia, and in MLL-AF9 patients, CD34−CD19+ cells were LICs. In MLL-ENL patients, either CD34+ or CD34− cells were LICs, depending on the pattern of CD34 expression. In contrast, in patients with these MLL translocations, CD34+CD38−CD19−CD33− cells were enriched for normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with in vivo long-term multilineage hematopoietic repopulation capacity. Although LICs developed leukemic cells with clonal immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IGH) rearrangement in vivo, CD34+CD38−CD19−CD33− cells repopulated recipient bone marrow and spleen with B cells, showing broad polyclonal IGH rearrangement and recipient thymus with CD4+ single positive (SP), CD8+ SP, and CD4+CD8+ double-positive (DP) T cells. Global gene expression profiling revealed that CD9, CD32, and CD24 were over-represented in MLL-AF4, MLL-AF9, and MLL-ENL LICs compared with normal HSCs. In patient samples, these molecules were expressed in CD34+CD38+ and CD34− LICs but not in CD34+CD38−CD19−CD33− HSCs. Identification of LICs and LIC-specific molecules in primary human MLL-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukemia may lead to improved therapeutic strategies for MLL-rearranged leukemia. PMID:25538041

  2. Identification of Cellular Sources of IL-2 Needed for Regulatory T Cell Development and Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Owen, David L; Mahmud, Shawn A; Vang, Kieng B; Kelly, Ryan M; Blazar, Bruce R; Smith, Kendall A; Farrar, Michael A

    2018-06-15

    The cytokine IL-2 is critical for promoting the development, homeostasis, and function of regulatory T (Treg) cells. The cellular sources of IL-2 that promote these processes remain unclear. T cells, B cells, and dendritic cells (DCs) are known to make IL-2 in peripheral tissues. We found that T cells and DCs in the thymus also make IL-2. To identify cellular sources of IL-2 in Treg cell development and homeostasis, we used Il2 FL/FL mice to selectively delete Il2 in T cells, B cells, and DCs. Because IL-15 can partially substitute for IL-2 in Treg cell development, we carried out the majority of these studies on an Il15 -/- background. Deletion of Il2 in B cells, DCs, or both these subsets had no effect on Treg cell development, either in wild-type (WT) or Il15 -/- mice. Deletion of Il2 in T cells had minimal effects in WT mice but virtually eliminated developing Treg cells in Il15 -/- mice. In the spleen and most peripheral lymphoid organs, deletion of Il2 in B cells, DCs, or both subsets had no effect on Treg cell homeostasis. In contrast, deletion of Il2 in T cells led to a significant decrease in Treg cells in either WT or Il15 -/- mice. The one exception was the mesenteric lymph nodes where significantly fewer Treg cells were observed when Il2 was deleted in both T cells and DCs. Thus, T cells are the sole source of IL-2 needed for Treg cell development, but DCs can contribute to Treg cell homeostasis in select organs. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  3. Identification of a population of cells with hematopoietic stem cell properties in mouse aorta-gonad-mesonephros cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Nobuhisa, Ikuo; Ohtsu, Naoki; Okada, Seiji

    The aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region is a primary source of definitive hematopoietic cells in the midgestation mouse embryo. In cultures of dispersed AGM regions, adherent cells containing endothelial cells are observed first, and then non-adherent hematopoietic cells are produced. Here we report on the characterization of hematopoietic cells that emerge in the AGM culture. Based on the expression profiles of CD45 and c-Kit, we defined three cell populations: CD45{sup low} c-Kit{sup +} cells that had the ability to form hematopoietic cell colonies in methylcellulose media and in co-cultures with stromal cells; CD45{sup low} c-Kit{sup -} cells that showed a granulocyte morphology;more » CD45{sup high} c-Kit{sup low/-} that exhibited a macrophage morphology. In co-cultures of OP9 stromal cells and freshly prepared AGM cultures, CD45{sup low} c-Kit{sup +} cells from the AGM culture had the abilities to reproduce CD45{sup low} c-Kit{sup +} cells and differentiate into CD45{sup low} c-Kit{sup -} and CD45{sup high} c-Kit{sup low/-} cells, whereas CD45{sup low} c-Kit{sup -} and CD45{sup high} c-Kit{sup low/-} did not produce CD45{sup low} c-Kit{sup +} cells. Furthermore, CD45{sup low} c-Kit{sup +} cells displayed a long-term repopulating activity in adult hematopoietic tissue when transplanted into the liver of irradiated newborn mice. These results indicate that CD45{sup low} c-Kit{sup +} cells from the AGM culture have the potential to reconstitute multi-lineage hematopoietic cells.« less

  4. Identification and validation of novel prognostic markers in Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rabjerg, Maj

    2017-10-01

    insights since we could detect currents compatible with KCa3.1 and KCa1.1 in the cell membrane of primary and commercial ccRCC cell lines. Nonetheless, we were not able to show any significant inhibition of cell growth by the selective inhibitors of KCa3.1 and KCa1.1, TRAM-34, RA-2 and Paxilline. In study III our aim was to investigate the prognostic role of 19 genes selected on the basis of an earlier study done by the group. We used Taqman® Low Density Array to perform a quantitative real-time PCR analysis. By selecting an optimal cut-point and correct for overestimation of the p-value, we could identify three genes with impact on prognosis of ccRCC in both univariate and multivariate analysis. High expression of the genes SPP1 and CSNK2A1 (encoding Osteopontin and CK2α respectively) correlated with poor prognosis while high expression of DEFB1 (encoding β-Defensin) correlated with better prognosis. Study IV focused on validating the results obtained in Paper III by investigating the protein expression of CK2α (Protein kinase 2, alpha subunit) in the different subtypes of RCC and oncocytoma. Furthermore, we investigated whether protein expression of CK2α in ccRCC correlated with prognosis. Here we could show, that a positive nuclear staining was a marker of poor prognosis in high-stage ccRCC. Moreover, enzyme activity analysis revealed a higher activity of the protein kinase in tumor tissue of ccRCC than in normal renal cortex. Novel insights were provided in a proliferation study where we investigated the selective inhibitors of CK2α, CX-4945 and E9. CX-4945 was able to inhibit ccRCC cell growth by nearly 50%. All together the studies presented in this thesis add additional information to the ongoing research within identification of novel prognostic markers in ccRCC. We have discovered four new molecular markers, which reliably can predict prognosis at the time of diagnosis. Additionally, we identified CK2α as a novel therapeutic target of ccRCC. The studies

  5. A Historical Perspective on the Identification of Cell Types in Pancreatic Islets of Langerhans by Staining and Histochemical Techniques

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Before the middle of the previous century, cell types of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans were identified primarily on the basis of their color reactions with histological dyes. At that time, the chemical basis for the staining properties of islet cells in relation to the identity, chemistry and structure of their hormones was not fully understood. Nevertheless, the definitive islet cell types that secrete glucagon, insulin, and somatostatin (A, B, and D cells, respectively) could reliably be differentiated from each other with staining protocols that involved variations of one or more tinctorial techniques, such as the Mallory-Heidenhain azan trichrome, chromium hematoxylin and phloxine, aldehyde fuchsin, and silver impregnation methods, which were popularly used until supplanted by immunohistochemical techniques. Before antibody-based staining methods, the most bona fide histochemical techniques for the identification of islet B cells were based on the detection of sulfhydryl and disulfide groups of insulin. The application of the classical islet tinctorial staining methods for pathophysiological studies and physiological experiments was fundamental to our understanding of islet architecture and the physiological roles of A and B cells in glucose regulation and diabetes. PMID:26216133

  6. Identification of Breast Cancer Inhibitors Specific for G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor (GPER)-Expressing Cells.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Francesca; Carullo, Gabriele; Giordano, Francesca; Spina, Elena; Nigro, Alessandra; Garofalo, Antonio; Tassini, Sabrina; Costantino, Gabriele; Vincetti, Paolo; Bruno, Agostino; Radi, Marco

    2017-08-22

    Together with estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ, the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) mediates important pathophysiological signaling pathways induced by estrogens and is currently regarded as a promising target for ER-negative (ER-) and triple-negative (TN) breast cancer. Only a few selective GPER modulators have been reported to date, and their use in cancer cell lines has often led to contradictory results. Herein we report the application of virtual screening and cell-based studies for the identification of new chemical scaffolds with a specific antiproliferative effect against GPER-expressing breast cancer cell lines. Out of the four different scaffolds identified, 8-chloro-4-(4-chlorophenyl)pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxaline 14 c was found to be the most promising compound able to induce: 1) antiproliferative activity in GPER-expressing cell lines (MCF7 and SKBR3), similarly to G15; 2) no effect on cells that do not express GPER (HEK293); 3) a decrease in cyclin D1 expression; and 4) a sustained induction of cell-cycle negative regulators p53 and p21. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. High-recovery visual identification and single-cell retrieval of circulating tumor cells for genomic analysis using a dual-technology platform integrated with automated immunofluorescence staining.

    PubMed

    Campton, Daniel E; Ramirez, Arturo B; Nordberg, Joshua J; Drovetto, Nick; Clein, Alisa C; Varshavskaya, Paulina; Friemel, Barry H; Quarre, Steve; Breman, Amy; Dorschner, Michael; Blau, Sibel; Blau, C Anthony; Sabath, Daniel E; Stilwell, Jackie L; Kaldjian, Eric P

    2015-05-06

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are malignant cells that have migrated from solid cancers into the blood, where they are typically present in rare numbers. There is great interest in using CTCs to monitor response to therapies, to identify clinically actionable biomarkers, and to provide a non-invasive window on the molecular state of a tumor. Here we characterize the performance of the AccuCyte®--CyteFinder® system, a comprehensive, reproducible and highly sensitive platform for collecting, identifying and retrieving individual CTCs from microscopic slides for molecular analysis after automated immunofluorescence staining for epithelial markers. All experiments employed a density-based cell separation apparatus (AccuCyte) to separate nucleated cells from the blood and transfer them to microscopic slides. After staining, the slides were imaged using a digital scanning microscope (CyteFinder). Precisely counted model CTCs (mCTCs) from four cancer cell lines were spiked into whole blood to determine recovery rates. Individual mCTCs were removed from slides using a single-cell retrieval device (CytePicker™) for whole genome amplification and subsequent analysis by PCR and Sanger sequencing, whole exome sequencing, or array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Clinical CTCs were evaluated in blood samples from patients with different cancers in comparison with the CellSearch® system. AccuCyte--CyteFinder presented high-resolution images that allowed identification of mCTCs by morphologic and phenotypic features. Spike-in mCTC recoveries were between 90 and 91%. More than 80% of single-digit spike-in mCTCs were identified and even a single cell in 7.5 mL could be found. Analysis of single SKBR3 mCTCs identified presence of a known TP53 mutation by both PCR and whole exome sequencing, and confirmed the reported karyotype of this cell line. Patient sample CTC counts matched or exceeded CellSearch CTC counts in a small feasibility cohort. The Accu

  8. Identification of a dendritic cell receptor that couples sensing of necrosis to immunity.

    PubMed

    Sancho, David; Joffre, Olivier P; Keller, Anna M; Rogers, Neil C; Martínez, Dolores; Hernanz-Falcón, Patricia; Rosewell, Ian; Reis e Sousa, Caetano

    2009-04-16

    Injury or impaired clearance of apoptotic cells leads to the pathological accumulation of necrotic corpses, which induce an inflammatory response that initiates tissue repair. In addition, antigens present in necrotic cells can sometimes provoke a specific immune response and it has been argued that necrosis could explain adaptive immunity in seemingly infection-free situations, such as after allograft transplantation or in spontaneous and therapy-induced tumour rejection. In the mouse, the CD8alpha+ subset of dendritic cells phagocytoses dead cell remnants and cross-primes CD8+ T cells against cell-associated antigens. Here we show that CD8alpha+ dendritic cells use CLEC9A (also known as DNGR-1), a recently-characterized C-type lectin, to recognize a preformed signal that is exposed on necrotic cells. Loss or blockade of CLEC9A does not impair the uptake of necrotic cell material by CD8+ dendritic cells, but specifically reduces cross-presentation of dead-cell-associated antigens in vitro and decreases the immunogenicity of necrotic cells in vivo. The function of CLEC9A requires a key tyrosine residue in its intracellular tail that allows the recruitment and activation of the tyrosine kinase SYK, which is also essential for cross-presentation of dead-cell-associated antigens. Thus, CLEC9A functions as a SYK-coupled C-type lectin receptor to mediate sensing of necrosis by the principal dendritic-cell subset involved in regulating cross-priming to cell-associated antigens.

  9. Identification of a distinct population of CD133+CXCR4+ cancer stem cells in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cioffi, Michele; D’Alterio, Crescenzo; Camerlingo, Rosalba; Tirino, Virginia; Consales, Claudia; Riccio, Anna; Ieranò, Caterina; Cecere, Sabrina Chiara; Losito, Nunzia Simona; Greggi, Stefano; Pignata, Sandro; Pirozzi, Giuseppe; Scala, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    CD133 and CXCR4 were evaluated in the NCI-60 cell lines to identify cancer stem cell rich populations. Screening revealed that, ovarian OVCAR-3, -4 and -5 and colon cancer HT-29, HCT-116 and SW620 over expressed both proteins. We aimed to isolate cells with stem cell features sorting the cells expressing CXCR4+CD133+ within ovarian cancer cell lines. The sorted population CD133+CXCR4+ demonstrated the highest efficiency in sphere formation in OVCAR-3, OVCAR-4 and OVCAR-5 cells. Moreover OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and NANOG were highly expressed in CD133+CXCR4+ sorted OVCAR-5 cells. Most strikingly CXCR4+CD133+ sorted OVCAR-5 and -4 cells formed the highest number of tumors when inoculated in nude mice compared to CD133−CXCR4−, CD133+CXCR4−, CD133−CXCR4+ cells. CXCR4+CD133+ OVCAR-5 cells were resistant to cisplatin, overexpressed the ABCG2 surface drug transporter and migrated toward the CXCR4 ligand, CXCL12. Moreover, when human ovarian cancer cells were isolated from 37 primary ovarian cancer, an extremely variable level of CXCR4 and CD133 expression was detected. Thus, in human ovarian cancer cells CXCR4 and CD133 expression identified a discrete population with stem cell properties that regulated tumor development and chemo resistance. This cell population represents a potential therapeutic target. PMID:26020117

  10. Identification of myogenic-endothelial progenitor cells in the interstitial spaces of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Tetsuro; Akatsuka, Akira; Ando, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Matsuzawa, Hideyuki; Hotta, Tomomitsu; Roy, Roland R; Edgerton, V Reggie

    2002-05-13

    Putative myogenic and endothelial (myo-endothelial) cell progenitors were identified in the interstitial spaces of murine skeletal muscle by immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy using CD34 antigen. Enzymatically isolated cells were characterized by fluorescence-activated cell sorting on the basis of cell surface antigen expression, and were sorted as a CD34+ and CD45- fraction. Cells in this fraction were approximately 94% positive for Sca-1, and mostly negative (<3% positive) for CD14, 31, 49, 144, c-kit, and FLK-1. The CD34+/45- cells formed colonies in clonal cell cultures and colony-forming units displayed the potential to differentiate into adipocytes, endothelial, and myogenic cells. The CD34+/45- cells fully differentiated into vascular endothelial cells and skeletal muscle fibers in vivo after transplantation. Immediately after sorting, CD34+/45- cells expressed only c-met mRNA, and did not express any other myogenic cell-related markers such as MyoD, myf-5, myf-6, myogenin, M-cadherin, Pax-3, and Pax-7. However, after 3 d of culture, these cells expressed mRNA for all myogenic markers. CD34+/45- cells were distinct from satellite cells, as they expressed Bcrp1/ABCG2 gene mRNA (Zhou et al., 2001). These findings suggest that myo-endothelial progenitors reside in the interstitial spaces of mammalian skeletal muscles, and that they can potentially contribute to postnatal skeletal muscle growth.

  11. Identification and functional analysis of endothelial tip cell-enriched genes.

    PubMed

    del Toro, Raquel; Prahst, Claudia; Mathivet, Thomas; Siegfried, Geraldine; Kaminker, Joshua S; Larrivee, Bruno; Breant, Christiane; Duarte, Antonio; Takakura, Nobuyuki; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Penninger, Josef; Eichmann, Anne

    2010-11-11

    Sprouting of developing blood vessels is mediated by specialized motile endothelial cells localized at the tips of growing capillaries. Following behind the tip cells, endothelial stalk cells form the capillary lumen and proliferate. Expression of the Notch ligand Delta-like-4 (Dll4) in tip cells suppresses tip cell fate in neighboring stalk cells via Notch signaling. In DLL4(+/-) mouse mutants, most retinal endothelial cells display morphologic features of tip cells. We hypothesized that these mouse mutants could be used to isolate tip cells and so to determine their genetic repertoire. Using transcriptome analysis of retinal endothelial cells isolated from DLL4(+/-) and wild-type mice, we identified 3 clusters of tip cell-enriched genes, encoding extracellular matrix degrading enzymes, basement membrane components, and secreted molecules. Secreted molecules endothelial-specific molecule 1, angiopoietin 2, and apelin bind to cognate receptors on endothelial stalk cells. Knockout mice and zebrafish morpholino knockdown of apelin showed delayed angiogenesis and reduced proliferation of stalk cells expressing the apelin receptor APJ. Thus, tip cells may regulate angiogenesis via matrix remodeling, production of basement membrane, and release of secreted molecules, some of which regulate stalk cell behavior.

  12. Identification of Cell Wall Synthesis Regulatory Genes Controlling Biomass Characteristics and Yield in Rice (Oryza Sativa)

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Zhaohua PEng; Ronald, Palmela; Wang, Guo-Liang

    This project aims to identify the regulatory genes of rice cell wall synthesis pathways using a cell wall removal and regeneration system. We completed the gene expression profiling studies following the time course from cell wall removal to cell wall regeneration in rice suspension cells. We also completed, total proteome, nuclear subproteome and histone modification studies following the course from cell wall removal and cell wall regeneration process. A large number of differentially expressed regulatory genes and proteins were identified. Meanwhile, we generated RNAi and over-expression transgenic rice for 45 genes with at least 10 independent transgenic lines for eachmore » gene. In addition, we ordered T-DNA and transposon insertion mutants for 60 genes from Korea, Japan, and France and characterized the mutants. Overall, we have mutants and transgenic lines for over 90 genes, exceeded our proposed goal of generating mutants for 50 genes. Interesting Discoveries a) Cell wall re-synthesis in protoplasts may involve a novel cell wall synthesis mechanism. The synthesis of the primary cell wall is initiated in late cytokinesis with further modification during cell expansion. Phragmoplast plays an essential role in cell wall synthesis. It services as a scaffold for building the cell plate and formation of a new cell wall. Only one phragmoplast and one new cell wall is produced for each dividing cell. When the cell wall was removed enzymatically, we found that cell wall re-synthesis started from multiple locations simultaneously, suggesting that a novel mechanism is involved in cell wall re-synthesis. This observation raised many interesting questions, such as how the starting sites of cell wall synthesis are determined, whether phragmoplast and cell plate like structures are involved in cell wall re-synthesis, and more importantly whether the same set of enzymes and apparatus are used in cell wall re-synthesis as during cytokinesis. Given that many known cell

  13. Directed Neural Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Is a Sensitive System for the Identification of Novel Hox Gene Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Bami, Myrto; Episkopou, Vasso; Gavalas, Anthony; Gouti, Mina

    2011-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Hox family of homeodomain transcription factors plays fundamental roles in regulating cell specification along the anterior posterior axis during development of all bilaterian animals by controlling cell fate choices in a highly localized, extracellular signal and cell context dependent manner. Some studies have established downstream target genes in specific systems but their identification is insufficient to explain either the ability of Hox genes to direct homeotic transformations or the breadth of their patterning potential. To begin delineating Hox gene function in neural development we used a mouse ES cell based system that combines efficient neural differentiation with inducible Hoxb1 expression. Gene expression profiling suggested that Hoxb1 acted as both activator and repressor in the short term but predominantly as a repressor in the long run. Activated and repressed genes segregated in distinct processes suggesting that, in the context examined, Hoxb1 blocked differentiation while activating genes related to early developmental processes, wnt and cell surface receptor linked signal transduction and cell-to-cell communication. To further elucidate aspects of Hoxb1 function we used loss and gain of function approaches in the mouse and chick embryos. We show that Hoxb1 acts as an activator to establish the full expression domain of CRABPI and II in rhombomere 4 and as a repressor to restrict expression of Lhx5 and Lhx9. Thus the Hoxb1 patterning activity includes the regulation of the cellular response to retinoic acid and the delay of the expression of genes that commit cells to neural differentiation. The results of this study show that ES neural differentiation and inducible Hox gene expression can be used as a sensitive model system to systematically identify Hox novel target genes, delineate their interactions with signaling pathways in dictating cell fate and define the extent of functional overlap among different Hox

  14. Identification of Regulatory Factors for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Salivary Epithelial Cells in a Co-Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yun-Jong; Koh, Jin; Gauna, Adrienne E.; Chen, Sixue; Cha, Seunghee

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Sjögren’s syndrome or head and neck cancer patients who have undergone radiation therapy suffer from severe dry mouth (xerostomia) due to salivary exocrine cell death. Regeneration of the salivary glands requires a better understanding of regulatory mechanisms by which stem cells differentiate into exocrine cells. In our study, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were co-cultured with primary salivary epithelial cells from C57BL/6 mice. Co-cultured bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells clearly resembled salivary epithelial cells, as confirmed by strong expression of salivary gland epithelial cell-specific markers, such as alpha-amylase, muscarinic type 3 receptor, aquaporin-5, and cytokeratin 19. To identify regulatory factors involved in this differentiation, transdifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells were analyzed temporarily by two-dimensional-gel-electrophoresis, which detected 58 protein spots (>1.5 fold change, p<0.05) that were further categorized into 12 temporal expression patterns. Of those proteins only induced in differentiated mesenchymal stem cells, ankryin-repeat-domain-containing-protein 56, high-mobility-group-protein 20B, and transcription factor E2a were selected as putative regulatory factors for mesenchymal stem cell transdifferentiation based on putative roles in salivary gland development. Induction of these molecules was confirmed by RT-PCR and western blotting on separate sets of co-cultured mesenchymal stem cells. In conclusion, our study is the first to identify differentially expressed proteins that are implicated in mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into salivary gland epithelial cells. Further investigation to elucidate regulatory roles of these three transcription factors in mesenchymal stem cell reprogramming will provide a critical foundation for a novel cell-based regenerative therapy for patients with xerostomia. PMID:25402494

  15. Identification and Single-Cell Functional Characterization of an Endodermally Biased Pluripotent Substate in Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Allison, Thomas F; Smith, Andrew J H; Anastassiadis, Konstantinos; Sloane-Stanley, Jackie; Biga, Veronica; Stavish, Dylan; Hackland, James; Sabri, Shan; Langerman, Justin; Jones, Mark; Plath, Kathrin; Coca, Daniel; Barbaric, Ivana; Gokhale, Paul; Andrews, Peter W

    2018-05-09

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) display substantial heterogeneity in gene expression, implying the existence of discrete substates within the stem cell compartment. To determine whether these substates impact fate decisions of hESCs we used a GFP reporter line to investigate the properties of fractions of putative undifferentiated cells defined by their differential expression of the endoderm transcription factor, GATA6, together with the hESC surface marker, SSEA3. By single-cell cloning, we confirmed that substates characterized by expression of GATA6 and SSEA3 include pluripotent stem cells capable of long-term self-renewal. When clonal stem cell colonies were formed from GATA6-positive and GATA6-negative cells, more of those derived from GATA6-positive cells contained spontaneously differentiated endoderm cells than similar colonies derived from the GATA6-negative cells. We characterized these discrete cellular states using single-cell transcriptomic analysis, identifying a potential role for SOX17 in the establishment of the endoderm-biased stem cell state. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification and characterization of a non-satellite cell muscle resident progenitor during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kathryn J; Pannérec, Alice; Cadot, Bruno; Parlakian, Ara; Besson, Vanessa; Gomes, Edgar R; Marazzi, Giovanna; Sassoon, David A

    2010-03-01

    Satellite cells are resident myogenic progenitors in postnatal skeletal muscle involved in muscle postnatal growth and adult regenerative capacity. Here, we identify and describe a population of muscle-resident stem cells, which are located in the interstitium, that express the cell stress mediator PW1 but do not express other markers of muscle stem cells such as Pax7. PW1(+)/Pax7(-) interstitial cells (PICs) are myogenic in vitro and efficiently contribute to skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo as well as generating satellite cells and PICs. Whereas Pax7 mutant satellite cells show robust myogenic potential, Pax7 mutant PICs are unable to participate in myogenesis and accumulate during postnatal growth. Furthermore, we found that PICs are not derived from a satellite cell lineage. Taken together, our findings uncover a new and anatomically identifiable population of muscle progenitors and define a key role for Pax7 in a non-satellite cell population during postnatal muscle growth.

  17. Evaluation of imaging biomarkers for identification of single cancer cells in blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odaka, Masao; Kim, Hyonchol; Girault, Mathias; Hattori, Akihiro; Terazono, Hideyuki; Matsuura, Kenji; Yasuda, Kenji

    2015-06-01

    A method of discriminating single cancer cells from whole blood cells based on their morphological visual characteristics (i.e., “imaging biomarker”) was examined. Cells in healthy rat blood, a cancer cell line (MAT-LyLu), and cells in cancer-cell-implanted rat blood were chosen as models, and their bright-field (BF, whole-cell morphology) and fluorescence (FL, nucleus morphology) images were taken by an on-chip multi-imaging flow cytometry system and compared. Eight imaging biomarker indices, i.e., cellular area in a BF image, nucleus area in an FL image, area ratio of a whole cell and its nucleus, distance of the mass center between a whole cell and nucleus, cellular and nucleus perimeter, and perimeter ratios were calculated and analyzed using the BF and FL images taken. Results show that cancer cells can be clearly distinguished from healthy blood cells using correlation diagrams for cellular and nucleus areas as two different categories. Moreover, a portion of cancer cells showed a low nucleus perimeter ratio less than 0.9 because of the irregular nucleus morphologies of cancer cells. These results indicate that the measurements of imaging biomarkers are practically applicable to identifying cancer cells in blood.

  18. Identification of SSEA-1 expressing enhanced reprogramming (SEER) cells in porcine embryonic fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dong; Secher, Jan O.; Mashayekhi, Kaveh; Nielsen, Troels T.; Hyttel, Poul; Freude, Kristine K.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Previous research has shown that a subpopulation of cells within cultured human dermal fibroblasts, termed multilineage-differentiating stress enduring (Muse) cells, are preferentially reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells. However, controversy exists over whether these cells are the only cells capable of being reprogrammed from a heterogeneous population of fibroblasts. Similarly, there is little research to suggest such cells may exist in embryonic tissues or other species. To address if such a cell population exists in pigs, we investigated porcine embryonic fibroblast populations (pEFs) and identified heterogeneous expression of several key cell surface markers. Strikingly, we discovered a small population of stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 positive cells (SSEA-1+) in Danish Landrace and Göttingen minipig pEFs, which were absent in the Yucatan pEFs. Furthermore, reprogramming of SSEA-1+ sorted pEFs led to higher reprogramming efficiency. Subsequent transcriptome profiling of the SSEA-1+ vs. the SSEA-1neg cell fraction revealed highly comparable gene signatures. However several genes that were found to be upregulated in the SSEA-1+ cells were similarly expressed in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We therefore termed these cells SSEA-1 Expressing Enhanced Reprogramming (SEER) cells. Interestingly, SEER cells were more effective at differentiating into osteocytes and chondrocytes in vitro. We conclude that SEER cells are more amenable for reprogramming and that the expression of mesenchymal stem cell genes is advantageous in the reprogramming process. This data provides evidence supporting the elite theory and helps to delineate which cell types and specific genes are important for reprogramming in the pig. PMID:28426281

  19. Identification of resident and inflammatory bone marrow derived cells in the sclera by bone marrow and haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hisatomi, Toshio; Sonoda, Koh‐hei; Ishikawa, Fumihiko; Qiao, Hong; Nakamura, Takahiro; Fukata, Mitsuhiro; Nakazawa, Toru; Noda, Kousuke; Miyahara, Shinsuke; Harada, Mine; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Hafezi‐Moghadam, Ali; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Miller, Joan W

    2007-01-01

    Aims To characterise bone marrow derived cells in the sclera under normal and inflammatory conditions, we examined their differentiation after transplantation from two different sources, bone marrow and haematopoietic stem cells (HSC). Methods Bone marrow and HSC from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice were transplanted into irradiated wild‐type mice. At 1 month after transplantation, mice were sacrificed and their sclera examined by histology, immunohistochemistry (CD11b, CD11c, CD45), and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. To investigate bone marrow derived cell recruitment under inflammatory conditions, experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) was induced in transplanted mice. Results GFP positive cells were distributed in the entire sclera and comprised 22.4 (2.8)% (bone marrow) and 28.4 (10.9)% (HSC) of the total cells in the limbal zone and 18.1 (6.7)% (bone marrow) and 26.3 (3.4)% (HSC) in the peripapillary zone. Immunohistochemistry showed that GFP (+) CD11c (+), GFP (+) CD11b (+) cells migrated in the sclera after bone marrow and HSC transplantation. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy revealed antigen presenting cells among the scleral fibroblasts. In EAU mice, vast infiltration of GFP (+) cells developed into the sclera. Conclusion We have provided direct and novel evidence for the migration of bone marrow and HSC cells into the sclera differentiating into macrophages and dendritic cells. Vast infiltration of bone marrow and HSC cells was found to be part of the inflammatory process in EAU. PMID:17035278

  20. Functional Identification of Dendritic Cells in the Teleost Model, Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Bassity, Elizabeth; Clark, Theodore G.

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells are specialized antigen presenting cells that bridge innate and adaptive immunity in mammals. This link between the ancient innate immune system and the more evolutionarily recent adaptive immune system is of particular interest in fish, the oldest vertebrates to have both innate and adaptive immunity. It is unknown whether dendritic cells co-evolved with the adaptive response, or if the connection between innate and adaptive immunity relied on a fundamentally different cell type early in evolution. We approached this question using the teleost model organism, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), with the aim of identifying dendritic cells based on their ability to stimulate naïve T cells. Adapting mammalian protocols for the generation of dendritic cells, we established a method of culturing highly motile, non-adherent cells from trout hematopoietic tissue that had irregular membrane processes and expressed surface MHCII. When side-by-side mixed leukocyte reactions were performed, these cells stimulated greater proliferation than B cells or macrophages, demonstrating their specialized ability to present antigen and therefore their functional homology to mammalian dendritic cells. Trout dendritic cells were then further analyzed to determine if they exhibited other features of mammalian dendritic cells. Trout dendritic cells were found to have many of the hallmarks of mammalian DCs including tree-like morphology, the expression of dendritic cell markers, the ability to phagocytose small particles, activation by toll-like receptor-ligands, and the ability to migrate in vivo. As in mammals, trout dendritic cells could be isolated directly from the spleen, or larger numbers could be derived from hematopoietic tissue and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. PMID:22427987

  1. Identification of Spen as a Crucial Factor for Xist Function through Forward Genetic Screening in Haploid Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Monfort, Asun; Di Minin, Giulio; Postlmayr, Andreas; Freimann, Remo; Arieti, Fabiana; Thore, Stéphane; Wutz, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Summary In mammals, the noncoding Xist RNA triggers transcriptional silencing of one of the two X chromosomes in female cells. Here, we report a genetic screen for silencing factors in X chromosome inactivation using haploid mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that carry an engineered selectable reporter system. This system was able to identify several candidate factors that are genetically required for chromosomal repression by Xist. Among the list of candidates, we identify the RNA-binding protein Spen, the homolog of split ends. Independent validation through gene deletion in ESCs confirms that Spen is required for gene repression by Xist. However, Spen is not required for Xist RNA localization and the recruitment of chromatin modifications, including Polycomb protein Ezh2. The identification of Spen opens avenues for further investigation into the gene-silencing pathway of Xist and shows the usefulness of haploid ESCs for genetic screening of epigenetic pathways. PMID:26190100

  2. Identification of cell surface glycoprotein markers for glioblastoma-derived stem-like cells using a lectin microarray and LC-MS/MS approach

    PubMed Central

    He, Jintang; Liu, Yashu; Xie, Xiaolei; Zhu, Thant; Soules, Mary; DiMeco, Francesco; Vescovi, Angelo L.; Fan, Xing; Lubman, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite progress in the treatment of glioblastoma, more than 95% of patients suffering from this disease still die within two years. Recent findings support the belief that cancer stem-like cells are responsible for tumor formation and ongoing growth. Here a method combining lectin microarray and LC-MS/MS was used to discover the cell surface glycoprotein markers of a glioblastoma-derived stem-like cell line. Lectin microarray analysis of cell surface glycans showed that two galactose-specific lectins Trichosanthes kirilowii agglutinin (TKA) and Peanut agglutinin (PNA) could distinguish the stem-like glioblastoma neurosphere culture from a traditional adherent glioblastoma cell line. Agarose-bound TKA and PNA were used to capture the glycoproteins from the two cell cultures, which were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The glycoproteins were quantified by spectral counting, resulting in the identification of 12 and 11 potential glycoprotein markers from the TKA and PNA captured fractions respectively. Almost all of these proteins were membrane proteins. Differential expression was verified by Western blotting analysis of 6 interesting proteins, including the up-regulated Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase zeta, Tenascin-C, Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2, Podocalyxin-like protein 1 and CD90, and the down-regulated CD44. An improved understanding of these proteins may be important for earlier diagnosis and better therapeutic targeting of glioblastoma. PMID:20235609

  3. A novel methodology for non-linear system identification of battery cells used in non-road hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Johannes; Hametner, Christoph; Jakubek, Stefan; Quasthoff, Marcus

    2014-12-01

    An accurate state of charge (SoC) estimation of a traction battery in hybrid electric non-road vehicles, which possess higher dynamics and power densities than on-road vehicles, requires a precise battery cell terminal voltage model. This paper presents a novel methodology for non-linear system identification of battery cells to obtain precise battery models. The methodology comprises the architecture of local model networks (LMN) and optimal model based design of experiments (DoE). Three main novelties are proposed: 1) Optimal model based DoE, which aims to high dynamically excite the battery cells at load ranges frequently used in operation. 2) The integration of corresponding inputs in the LMN to regard the non-linearities SoC, relaxation, hysteresis as well as temperature effects. 3) Enhancements to the local linear model tree (LOLIMOT) construction algorithm, to achieve a physical appropriate interpretation of the LMN. The framework is applicable for different battery cell chemistries and different temperatures, and is real time capable, which is shown on an industrial PC. The accuracy of the obtained non-linear battery model is demonstrated on cells with different chemistries and temperatures. The results show significant improvement due to optimal experiment design and integration of the battery non-linearities within the LMN structure.

  4. Identification of two novel glial-restricted cell populations in the embryonic telencephalon arising from unique origins

    PubMed Central

    Strathmann, Frederick G; Wang, Xi; Mayer-Pröschel, Margot

    2007-01-01

    Background Considerably less attention has been given to understanding the cellular components of gliogenesis in the telencephalon when compared to neuronogenesis, despite the necessity of normal glial cell formation for neurological function. Early proposals of exclusive ventral oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) generation have been challenged recently with studies revealing the potential of the dorsal telencephalon to also generate oligodendrocytes. The identification of OPCs generated from multiple regions of the developing telencephalon, together with the need of the embryonic telencephalon to provide precursor cells for oligodendrocytes as well as astrocytes in ventral and dorsal areas, raises questions concerning the identity of the precursor cell populations capable of generating macroglial subtypes during multiple developmental windows and in differing locations. Results We have identified progenitor populations in the ventral and dorsal telencephalon restricted to the generation of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. We further demonstrate that the dorsal glial progenitor cells can be generated de novo from the dorsal telencephalon and we demonstrate their capacity for in vivo production of both myelin-forming oligodendrocytes and astrocytes upon transplantation. Conclusion Based on our results we offer a unifying model of telencephalic gliogenesis, with the generation of both oligodendrocytes and astrocytes from spatially separate, but functionally similar, glial restricted populations at different developmental times in the dorsal and ventral CNS. PMID:17439658

  5. Identification of a novel cell culture adaptation site on the capsid of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Kyle; Fowler, Veronica L.; Barnett, Paul V.; Gold, Sarah; Wadsworth, Jemma; Knowles, Nick J.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination remains the most effective tool for control of foot-and-mouth disease both in endemic countries and as an emergency preparedness for new outbreaks. Foot-and-mouth disease vaccines are chemically inactivated virus preparations and the production of new vaccines is critically dependent upon cell culture adaptation of field viruses, which can prove problematic. A major driver of cell culture adaptation is receptor availability. Field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) use RGD-dependent integrins as receptors, whereas cell culture adaptation often selects for variants with altered receptor preferences. Previously, two independent sites on the capsid have been identified where mutations are associated with improved cell culture growth. One is a shallow depression formed by the three major structural proteins (VP1–VP3) where mutations create a heparan sulphate (HS)-binding site (the canonical HS-binding site). The other involves residues of VP1 and is located at the fivefold symmetry axis. For some viruses, changes at this site result in HS binding; for others, the receptors are unknown. Here, we report the identification of a novel site on VP2 where mutations resulted in an expanded cell tropism of a vaccine variant of A/IRN/87 (called A − ). Furthermore, we show that introducing the same mutations into a different type A field virus (A/TUR/2/2006) resulted in the same expanded cell culture tropism as the A/IRN/87 A −  vaccine variant. These observations add to the evidence for multiple cell attachment mechanisms for FMDV and may be useful for vaccine manufacture when cell culture adaptation proves difficult. PMID:26296881

  6. Identification of a novel cell culture adaptation site on the capsid of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Kyle; Fowler, Veronica L; Barnett, Paul V; Gold, Sarah; Wadsworth, Jemma; Knowles, Nick J; Jackson, Terry

    2015-09-01

    Vaccination remains the most effective tool for control of foot-and-mouth disease both in endemic countries and as an emergency preparedness for new outbreaks. Foot-and-mouth disease vaccines are chemically inactivated virus preparations and the production of new vaccines is critically dependent upon cell culture adaptation of field viruses, which can prove problematic. A major driver of cell culture adaptation is receptor availability. Field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) use RGD-dependent integrins as receptors, whereas cell culture adaptation often selects for variants with altered receptor preferences. Previously, two independent sites on the capsid have been identified where mutations are associated with improved cell culture growth. One is a shallow depression formed by the three major structural proteins (VP1-VP3) where mutations create a heparan sulphate (HS)-binding site (the canonical HS-binding site). The other involves residues of VP1 and is located at the fivefold symmetry axis. For some viruses, changes at this site result in HS binding; for others, the receptors are unknown. Here, we report the identification of a novel site on VP2 where mutations resulted in an expanded cell tropism of a vaccine variant of A/IRN/87 (called A - ). Furthermore, we show that introducing the same mutations into a different type A field virus (A/TUR/2/2006) resulted in the same expanded cell culture tropism as the A/IRN/87 A -  vaccine variant. These observations add to the evidence for multiple cell attachment mechanisms for FMDV and may be useful for vaccine manufacture when cell culture adaptation proves difficult.

  7. Identification of Primary Transcriptional Regulation of Cell Cycle-Regulated Genes upon DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tong; Chou, Jeff; Mullen, Thomas E.; Elkon, Rani; Zhou, Yingchun; Simpson, Dennis A.; Bushel, Pierre R.; Paules, Richard S.; Lobenhofer, Edward K.; Hurban, Patrick; Kaufmann, William K.

    2007-01-01

    The changes in global gene expression in response to DNA damage may derive from either direct induction or repression by transcriptional regulation or indirectly by synchronization of cells to specific cell cycle phases, such as G1 or G2. We developed a model that successfully estimated the expression levels of >400 cell cycle-regulated genes in normal human fibroblasts based on the proportions of cells in each phase of the cell cycle. By isolating effects on the gene expression associated with the cell cycle phase redistribution after genotoxin treatment, the direct transcriptional target genes were distinguished from genes for which expression changed secondary to cell synchronization. Application of this model to ionizing radiation (IR)-treated normal human fibroblasts identified 150 of 406 cycle-regulated genes as putative direct transcriptional targets of IR-induced DNA damage. Changes in expression of these genes after IR treatment derived from both direct transcriptional regulation and cell cycle synchronization. PMID:17404513

  8. Identification of a Monocyte Receptor on Herpesvirus-Infected Endothelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etingin, Orli R.; Silverstein, Roy L.; Hajjar, David P.

    1991-08-01

    The adhesion of circulating blood cells to vascular endothelium may be an initial step in atherosclerosis, inflammation, and wound healing. One mechanism for promoting cell-cell adhesion involves the expression of adhesion molecules on the surface of the target cell. Herpes simplex virus infection of endothelium induces arterial injury and has been implicated in the development of human atherosclerosis. We now demonstrate that HSV-infected endothelial cells express the adhesion molecule GMP140 and that this requires cell surface expression of HSV glycoprotein C and local thrombin generation. Monocyte adhesion to HSV-infected endothelial cells was completely inhibited by anti-GMP140 antibodies but not by antibodies to other adhesion molecules such as VCAM and ELAM-1. The induction of GMP140 expression on HSV-infected endothelium may be an important pathophysiological mechanism in virus-induced cell injury and inflammation.

  9. Simultaneous Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Multiple Uropathogens on a Microfluidic Chip with Paper-Supported Cell Culture Arrays.

    PubMed

    Xu, Banglao; Du, Yan; Lin, Jinqiong; Qi, Mingyue; Shu, Bowen; Wen, Xiaoxia; Liang, Guangtie; Chen, Bin; Liu, Dayu

    2016-12-06

    A microfluidic chip was developed for one-step identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of multiple uropathogens. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchip used had features of cell culture chamber arrays connected through a sample introduction channel. At the bottom of each chamber, a paper substrate preloaded with chromogenic media and antimicrobial agents was embedded. By integrating a hydrophobic membrane valve on the microchip, the urine sample can be equally distributed into and confined in individual chambers. The identification and AST assays on multiple uropathogens were performed by combining the spatial resolution of the cell culture arrays and the color resolution from the chromogenic reaction. The composite microbial testing assay was based on dynamic changes in color in a serial of chambers. The bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the lowest concentration of an antimicrobial agent that is capable of inhibiting the chromogenic reaction. Using three common uropathogenic bacteria as test models, the developed microfluidic approach was demonstrated to be able to complete the multiple colorimetric assays in 15 h. The accuracy of the microchip method, in comparison with that of the conventional approach, showed a coincidence of 94.1%. Our data suggest this microfluidic approach will be a promising tool for simple and fast uropathogen testing in resource-limited settings.

  10. Micro-Raman spectroscopic identification of bacterial cells of the genus Staphylococcus and dependence on their cultivation conditions.

    PubMed

    Harz, M; Rösch, P; Peschke, K-D; Ronneberger, O; Burkhardt, H; Popp, J

    2005-11-01

    Microbial contamination is not only a medical problem, but also plays a large role in pharmaceutical clean room production and food processing technology. Therefore many techniques were developed to achieve differentiation and identification of microorganisms. Among these methods vibrational spectroscopic techniques (IR, Raman and SERS) are useful tools because of their rapidity and sensitivity. Recently we have shown that micro-Raman spectroscopy in combination with a support vector machine is an extremely capable approach for a fast and reliable, non-destructive online identification of single bacteria belonging to different genera. In order to simulate different environmental conditions we analyzed in this contribution different Staphylococcus strains with varying cultivation conditions in order to evaluate our method with a reliable dataset. First, micro-Raman spectra of the bulk material and single bacterial cells that were grown under the same conditions were recorded and used separately for a distinct chemotaxonomic classification of the strains. Furthermore Raman spectra were recorded from single bacterial cells that were cultured under various conditions to study the influence of cultivation on the discrimination ability. This dataset was analyzed both with a hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and a support vector machine (SVM).

  11. Identification of a regulatory T cell specific cell surface molecule that mediates suppressive signals and induces Foxp3 expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Wan, Qi; Kozhaya, Lina; Fujii, Hodaka; Unutmaz, Derya

    2008-07-16

    Regulatory T (T(reg)) cells control immune activation and maintain tolerance. How T(regs) mediate their suppressive function is unclear. Here we identified a cell surface molecule, called GARP, (or LRRC32), which within T cells is specifically expressed in T(regs) activated through the T cell receptor (TCR). Ectopic expression of GARP in human naïve T (T(N)) cells inhibited their proliferation and cytokine secretion upon TCR activation. Remarkably, GARP over-expression in T(N) cells induced expression of T(reg) master transcription factor Foxp3 and endowed them with a partial suppressive function. The extracellular but not the cytoplasmic region of GARP, was necessary for these functions. Silencing Foxp3 in human T(reg) cells reduced expression of GARP and attenuated their suppressive function. However, GARP function was not affected when Foxp3 was downregulated in GARP-overexpressing cells, while silencing GARP in Foxp3-overexpressing cells reduced their suppressive activity. These findings reveal a novel cell surface molecule-mediated regulatory mechanism, with implications for modulating aberrant immune responses.

  12. Inhibition of Phosphatidylcholine-Specific Phospholipase C Interferes with Proliferation and Survival of Tumor Initiating Cells in Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Renata; Mercurio, Laura; Canevari, Silvana; Podo, Franca; Miotti, Silvia; Iorio, Egidio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The role of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC), the enzyme involved in cell differentiation and proliferation, has not yet been explored in tumor initiating cells (TICs). We investigated PC-PLC expression and effects of PC-PLC inhibition in two adherent (AD) squamous carcinoma cell lines (A431 and CaSki), with different proliferative and stemness potential, and in TIC-enriched floating spheres (SPH) originated from them. Results Compared with immortalized non-tumoral keratinocytes (HaCaT) A431-AD cells showed 2.5-fold higher PC-PLC activity, nuclear localization of a 66-kDa PC-PLC isoform, but a similar distribution of the enzyme on plasma membrane and in cytoplasmic compartments. Compared with A431-AD, A431-SPH cells showed about 2.8-fold lower PC-PLC protein and activity levels, but similar nuclear content. Exposure of adherent cells to the PC-PLC inhibitor D609 (48h) induced a 50% reduction of cell proliferation at doses comprised between 33 and 50 μg/ml, without inducing any relevant cytotoxic effect (cell viability 95±5%). In A431-SPH and CaSki-SPH D609 induced both cytostatic and cytotoxic effects at about 20 to 30-fold lower doses (IC50 ranging between 1.2 and 1.6 μg/ml). Furthermore, D609 treatment of A431-AD and CaSki-AD cells affected the sphere-forming efficiency, which dropped in both cells, and induced down-modulation of stem-related markers mRNA levels (Oct4, Nestin, Nanog and ALDH1 in A431; Nestin and ALDH1 in CaSki cells). Conclusions These data suggest that the inhibition of PC-PLC activity may represent a new therapeutic approach to selectively target the most aggressive and tumor promoting sub-population of floating spheres originated from squamous cancer cells possessing different proliferative and stemness potential. PMID:26402860

  13. Identification of various cell culture models for the study of Zika virus

    PubMed Central

    Himmelsbach, Kiyoshi; Hildt, Eberhard

    2018-01-01

    AIM To identify cell culture models supportive for Zika virus (ZIKV) replication. METHODS Various human and non-human cell lines were infected with a defined amount of ZIKV Polynesia strain. Cells were analyzed 48 h post infection for the amount of intracellular and extracellular viral genomes and infectious viral particles by quantitative real-time PCR and virus titration assay. The extent of replication was monitored by immunofluorescence and western blot analysis by using Env and NS1 specific antibodies. Innate immunity was assayed by luciferase reporter assay and immunofluorescence analysis. RESULTS All investigated cell lines except CHO cells supported infection, replication and release of ZIKV. While in infected A549 and Vero cells a pronounced cytopathic effect was observed COS7, 293T and Huh7.5 cells were most resistant. Although the analyzed cell lines released comparable amounts of viral genomes to the supernatant significant differences were found for the number of infectious viral particles. The neuronal cell lines N29.1 and SH-SY5Y released 100 times less infectious viral particles than Vero-, A549- or 293T-cells. However there is no strict correlation between the amount of produced viral particles and the induction of an interferon response in the analyzed cell lines. CONCLUSION The investigated cell lines with their different tissue origins and diverging ZIKV susceptibility display a toolbox for ZIKV research. PMID:29468137

  14. Robust cell tracking in epithelial tissues through identification of maximum common subgraphs.

    PubMed

    Kursawe, Jochen; Bardenet, Rémi; Zartman, Jeremiah J; Baker, Ruth E; Fletcher, Alexander G

    2016-11-01

    Tracking of cells in live-imaging microscopy videos of epithelial sheets is a powerful tool for investigating fundamental processes in embryonic development. Characterizing cell growth, proliferation, intercalation and apoptosis in epithelia helps us to understand how morphogenetic processes such as tissue invagination and extension are locally regulated and controlled. Accurate cell tracking requires correctly resolving cells entering or leaving the field of view between frames, cell neighbour exchanges, cell removals and cell divisions. However, current tracking methods for epithelial sheets are not robust to large morphogenetic deformations and require significant manual interventions. Here, we present a novel algorithm for epithelial cell tracking, exploiting the graph-theoretic concept of a 'maximum common subgraph' to track cells between frames of a video. Our algorithm does not require the adjustment of tissue-specific parameters, and scales in sub-quadratic time with tissue size. It does not rely on precise positional information, permitting large cell movements between frames and enabling tracking in datasets acquired at low temporal resolution due to experimental constraints such as phototoxicity. To demonstrate the method, we perform tracking on the Drosophila embryonic epidermis and compare cell-cell rearrangements to previous studies in other tissues. Our implementation is open source and generally applicable to epithelial tissues. © 2016 The Authors.

  15. Identification of a dendritic cell receptor that couples sensing of necrosis to immunity

    PubMed Central

    Sancho, David; Joffre, Olivier P.; Keller, Anna M.; Rogers, Neil C.; Martinez, Dolores; Hernanz-Falcón, Patricia; Rosewell, Ian; Reis e Sousa, Caetano

    2009-01-01

    Injury or impaired clearance of apoptotic cells leads to the pathological accumulation of necrotic corpses, which induce an inflammatory response that initiates tissue repair1. In addition, antigens present within necrotic cells can sometimes provoke a specific immune response2-4 and it has been argued that necrosis could explain adaptive immunity in seemingly infection-free situations, such as after allograft transplantation or in spontaneous and therapy-induced tumour rejection5, 6. In the mouse, the CD8α+ subset of dendritic cells (DC) phagocytoses dead cell remnants and crossprimes CD8+ T cells against cell-associated antigens7. Here, we show that CD8α+ DC utilise CLEC9A (DNGR-1), a recently-characterised C-type lectin8-10, to recognise a preformed signal that is exposed on necrotic cells. Loss or blockade of CLEC9A does not impair uptake of necrotic cell material by CD8α+ DC but specifically reduces crosspresentation of dead cell-associated antigens in vitro and decreases the immunogenicity of necrotic cells in vivo. The function of CLEC9A requires a key tyrosine residue within its intracellular tail that allows recruitment and activation of the tyrosine kinase Syk, which is also essential for crosspresentation of dead cell-associated antigens. Thus, CLEC9A functions as a Syk-coupled C-type lectin receptor to mediate sensing of necrosis by the principal DC subset involved in regulating crosspriming to cell-associated antigens. PMID:19219027

  16. Comparative proteomics analysis of oral cancer cell lines: identification of cancer associated proteins

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A limiting factor in performing proteomics analysis on cancerous cells is the difficulty in obtaining sufficient amounts of starting material. Cell lines can be used as a simplified model system for studying changes that accompany tumorigenesis. This study used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) to compare the whole cell proteome of oral cancer cell lines vs normal cells in an attempt to identify cancer associated proteins. Results Three primary cell cultures of normal cells with a limited lifespan without hTERT immortalization have been successfully established. 2DE was used to compare the whole cell proteome of these cells with that of three oral cancer cell lines. Twenty four protein spots were found to have changed in abundance. MALDI TOF/TOF was then used to determine the identity of these proteins. Identified proteins were classified into seven functional categories – structural proteins, enzymes, regulatory proteins, chaperones and others. IPA core analysis predicted that 18 proteins were related to cancer with involvements in hyperplasia, metastasis, invasion, growth and tumorigenesis. The mRNA expressions of two proteins – 14-3-3 protein sigma and Stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 – were found to correlate with the corresponding proteins’ abundance. Conclusions The outcome of this analysis demonstrated that a comparative study of whole cell proteome of cancer versus normal cell lines can be used to identify cancer associated proteins. PMID:24422745

  17. Is sphere assay useful for the identification of cancer initiating cells of the ovary?

    PubMed

    Martínez-Serrano, María José; Caballero-Baños, Miguel; Vilella, Ramon; Vidal, Laura; Pahisa, Jaume; Martínez-Roman, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that the presence of tumor-initiating cells (TICs) in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has a role in chemoresistance and relapse. Surface markers such as CD44(+)/CD24(-), CD117(+), and CD133(+) expression have been reported as potential markers for TICs related to ovarian cancer and tumorigenic cell lines. In this study, we have investigated if spheroid forms are TIC specific or whether they can also be produced by somatic stem cells from healthy tissue in vitro. In addition, we also investigated the specificity of surface markers to identify TICs from papillary serous EOC patients. Cells were obtained from fresh tumors from 10 chemotherapy-naive patients with EOC, and cells from ovarian and tubal epithelium were obtained from 5 healthy menopausal women undergoing surgery for benign pathology and cultured in standard and in selective medium. Cells forming nonadherent spheroids were considered TICs, and the adherent cells were considered as non-TIC-like. Percentages of CD24(+), CD44(+), CD117(+), CD133(+), and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF-R)(+) cell surface markers were analyzed by flow cytometry. Four of 10 EOC cell tissues were excluded from the study. Tumor cells cultured in selective medium developed spheroid forms after 1 to 7 weeks in 5 of 6 EOC patients. No spheroid forms were observed in cultures of cells from healthy women. Unlike previously published data, low levels of CD24(+), CD44(+), CD117(+), and VEGF-R(+) expression were observed in spheroid cells, whereas expression of CD133(+) was moderate but higher in adherent cells from papillary serous EOC cells in comparison with adherent cells from controls. Papillary serous EOC contains TICs that form spheroids with low expression of CD44(+), CD24(+), CD117(+) and VEGF-R(+). Further research is required to find specific surface markers to identify papillary serous TICs.

  18. Identification of unique release kinetics of serotonin from guinea-pig and human enterochromaffin cells

    PubMed Central

    Raghupathi, Ravinarayan; Duffield, Michael D; Zelkas, Leah; Meedeniya, Adrian; Brookes, Simon J H; Sia, Tiong Cheng; Wattchow, David A; Spencer, Nick J; Keating, Damien J

    2013-01-01

    The major source of serotonin (5-HT) in the body is the enterochromaffin (EC) cells lining the intestinal mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. Despite the fact that EC cells synthesise ∼95% of total body 5-HT, and that this 5-HT has important paracrine and endocrine roles, no studies have investigated the mechanisms of 5-HT release from single primary EC cells. We have developed a rapid primary culture of guinea-pig and human EC cells, allowing analysis of single EC cell function using electrophysiology, electrochemistry, Ca2+ imaging, immunocytochemistry and 3D modelling. Ca2+ enters EC cells upon stimulation and triggers quantal 5-HT release via L-type Ca2+ channels. Real time amperometric techniques reveal that EC cells release 5-HT at rest and this release increases upon stimulation. Surprisingly for an endocrine cell storing 5-HT in large dense core vesicles (LDCVs), EC cells release 70 times less 5-HT per fusion event than catecholamine released from similarly sized LDCVs in endocrine chromaffin cells, and the vesicle release kinetics instead resembles that observed in mammalian synapses. Furthermore, we measured EC cell density along the gastrointestinal tract to create three-dimensional (3D) simulations of 5-HT diffusion using the minimal number of variables required to understand the physiological relevance of single cell 5-HT release in the whole-tissue milieu. These models indicate that local 5-HT levels are likely to be maintained around the activation threshold for mucosal 5-HT receptors and that this is dependent upon stimulation and location within the gastrointestinal tract. This is the first study demonstrating single cell 5-HT release in primary EC cells. The mode of 5-HT release may represent a unique mode of exocytosis amongst endocrine cells and is functionally relevant to gastrointestinal sensory and motor function. PMID:24099799

  19. Identification and characterization of cannabinoids that induce cell death through mitochondrial permeability transition in Cannabis leaf cells.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Satoshi; Tanaka, Yumi; Sasaki, Kaori; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Fukamizu, Tomohide; Shoyama, Yoshinari; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Taura, Futoshi

    2007-07-13

    Cannabinoids are secondary metabolites stored in capitate-sessile glands on leaves of Cannabis sativa. We discovered that cell death is induced in the leaf tissues exposed to cannabinoid resin secreted from the glands, and identified cannabichromenic acid (CBCA) and Delta(1)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) as unique cell death mediators from the resin. These cannabinoids effectively induced cell death in the leaf cells or suspension-cultured cells of C. sativa, whereas pretreatment with the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) inhibitor cyclosporin A suppressed this cell death response. Examinations using isolated mitochondria demonstrated that CBCA and THCA mediate opening of MPT pores without requiring Ca(2+) and other cytosolic factors, resulting in high amplitude mitochondrial swelling, release of mitochondrial proteins (cytochrome c and nuclease), and irreversible loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Therefore, CBCA and THCA are considered to cause serious damage to mitochondria through MPT. The mitochondrial damage was also confirmed by a marked decrease of ATP level in cannabinoid-treated suspension cells. These features are in good accord with those of necrotic cell death, whereas DNA degradation was also observed in cannabinoid-mediated cell death. However, the DNA degradation was catalyzed by nuclease(s) released from mitochondria during MPT, indicating that this reaction was not induced via a caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, the inhibition of the DNA degradation only slightly blocked the cell death induced by cannabinoids. Based on these results, we conclude that CBCA and THCA have the ability to induce necrotic cell death via mitochondrial dysfunction in the leaf cells of C. sativa.

  20. Identification of factors that function in Drosophila salivary gland cell death during development using proteomics

    PubMed Central

    McPhee, C K; Balgley, B M; Nelson, C; Hill, J H; Batlevi, Y; Fang, X; Lee, C S; Baehrecke, E H

    2013-01-01

    Proteasome inhibitors induce cell death and are used in cancer therapy, but little is known about the relationship between proteasome impairment and cell death under normal physiological conditions. Here, we investigate the relationship between proteasome function and larval salivary gland cell death during development in Drosophila. Drosophila larval salivary gland cells undergo synchronized programmed cell death requiring both caspases and autophagy (Atg) genes during development. Here, we show that ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) function is reduced during normal salivary gland cell death, and that ectopic proteasome impairment in salivary gland cells leads to early DNA fragmentation and salivary gland condensation in vivo. Shotgun proteomic analyses of purified dying salivary glands identified the UPS as the top category of proteins enriched, suggesting a possible compensatory induction of these factors to maintain proteolysis during cell death. We compared the proteome following ectopic proteasome impairment to the proteome during developmental cell death in salivary gland cells. Proteins that were enriched in both populations of cells were screened for their function in salivary gland degradation using RNAi knockdown. We identified several factors, including trol, a novel gene CG11880, and the cop9 signalsome component cop9 signalsome 6, as required for Drosophila larval salivary gland degradation. PMID:22935612

  1. Robust cell tracking in epithelial tissues through identification of maximum common subgraphs

    PubMed Central

    Bardenet, Rémi; Zartman, Jeremiah J.; Baker, Ruth E.

    2016-01-01

    Tracking of cells in live-imaging microscopy videos of epithelial sheets is a powerful tool for investigating fundamental processes in embryonic development. Characterizing cell growth, proliferation, intercalation and apoptosis in epithelia helps us to understand how morphogenetic processes such as tissue invagination and extension are locally regulated and controlled. Accurate cell tracking requires correctly resolving cells entering or leaving the field of view between frames, cell neighbour exchanges, cell removals and cell divisions. However, current tracking methods for epithelial sheets are not robust to large morphogenetic deformations and require significant manual interventions. Here, we present a novel algorithm for epithelial cell tracking, exploiting the graph-theoretic concept of a ‘maximum common subgraph’ to track cells between frames of a video. Our algorithm does not require the adjustment of tissue-specific parameters, and scales in sub-quadratic time with tissue size. It does not rely on precise positional information, permitting large cell movements between frames and enabling tracking in datasets acquired at low temporal resolution due to experimental constraints such as phototoxicity. To demonstrate the method, we perform tracking on the Drosophila embryonic epidermis and compare cell–cell rearrangements to previous studies in other tissues. Our implementation is open source and generally applicable to epithelial tissues. PMID:28334699

  2. Identification of protein kinase C α- and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells in the microbat retina.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Bee; Jeon, Joo-Yeong; Jeon, Chang-Jin

    2018-05-09

    A growing number of studies have revealed the functional neuroarchitecture of the microbat retina and suggested that microbats can see using their eyes. To better understand the organization of the microbat retina, quantitative analysis of protein kinase C alpha (PKCα)- and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive (IR) cells was conducted on the greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) retina. As a result, PKCα immunoreactivity was observed in rod bipolar cells, consistent with previous studies on other mammalian retinas. PKCα-IR cell distribution in the inner nuclear layer showed regional differences in density, with the highest density found in the nasal retina. The average density of PKCα-IR cells was 10,487±441 cells/mm2 (mean ± S.D.; n=4), with a total of 43,077±1,843 cells/retina. TH-IR cells in the Rhinolophus ferrumequinum retina could be classified into four types based on soma location and ramification in the inner plexiform layer: conventional amacrine, displaced amacrine, interplexiform, and intercalated cells. The majority of TH-IR cells were conventional amacrine cells. TH-IR cells were nonrandomly distributed at low density over the retina. The average density was 29.7±3.1 cells/mm2 (mean ± S.D.; n=3), with a total of 124.0±11.3 cells/retina. TH-IR processes showed varicosities and formed ring-like structures encircling AII amacrine cells. Our study provides the foundation for understanding the neurochemical architecture of the microbat retina and supports the notion that the eyes do play a role in the visual system of microbats.

  3. Identification and characterization of cancer stem-like cells from primary carcinoma of the cervix uteri.

    PubMed

    Feng, Dingqing; Peng, Cheng; Li, Cairong; Zhou, Ying; Li, Min; Ling, Bin; Wei, Haiming; Tian, Zhigang

    2009-11-01

    Like many other solid tumors, cervical cancer contains a heterogeneous population of cancer cells. Several investigators have identified putative stem cells from solid tumors and cancer cell lines via the capacity to self renew and drive tumor formation. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize a cancer stem-like cell population from primary carcinoma of the cervix uteri. Cervical carcinoma from 19 patients staged I-II following International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) criteria were disaggregated and subjected to growth conditions selective for stem cells. Eight of nineteen tumor-derived cultures encompassed stem-like cells capable of self-renewal, extensive proliferation as clonal non-adherent spherical clusters. Cell markers of spheroid were identified as CD44+CK17+. Cell survival assays showed the sphere-forming cells were only 48% inhibited by doxorubicin whereas 78% inhibited by paclitaxel. Chemo-resistance may partly attribute to the exclusive expression of ABC transporter. To investigate the tumorigenicity of these stem-like cells, xenoengraftment of 10(5) dissociated spheroid cells allowed full recapitulation of the original tumor, whereas the same amount of tumor cells without non-adherent spheroid selection remained non-tumorigenic. Stemness properties of these spheroid cells were further established by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting, demonstrating the expression of embryonic and adult stemness-related genes (Oct-4, Piwil2, C-myc, Stat3 and Sox2). Based on these findings, we assert that cervical cancer contain a subpopulation of tumor initiating cells with stem-like properties, thus facilitating the approach to therapeutic strategies aimed at eradicating the tumorigenic subpopulation within cervical cancer.

  4. Identification of Novel Targets for Lung Cancer Therapy Using an Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Model.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Vivek; Rao, Mahadev; Zhang, Hongen; Beers, Jeanette; Wangsa, Darawalee; Wangsa, Danny; Buishand, Floryne O; Wang, Yonghong; Yu, Zhiya; Stevenson, Holly; Reardon, Emily; McLoughlin, Kaitlin C; Kaufman, Andrew; Payabyab, Eden; Hong, Julie A; Zhang, Mary; Davis, Sean R; Edelman, Daniel C; Chen, Guokai; Miettinen, Markku; Restifo, Nicholas; Ried, Thomas; Meltzer, Paul S; Schrump, David S

    2018-04-01

    Despite extensive studies, the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that mediate initiation and progression of lung cancers have not been fully elucidated. Previously, we have demonstrated that via complementary mechanisms, including DNA methylation, polycomb repressive complexes, and noncoding RNAs, cigarette smoke induces stem-like phenotypes that coincide with progression to malignancy in normal respiratory epithelia as well as enhanced growth and metastatic potential of lung cancer cells. To further investigate epigenetic mechanisms contributing to stemness/pluripotency in lung cancers and potentially identify novel therapeutic targets in these malignancies, induced pluripotent stem cells were generated from normal human small airway epithelial cells. Lung induced pluripotent stem cells were generated by lentiviral transduction of small airway epithelial cells of OSKM (Yamanaka) factors (octamer-binding transcription factor 4 [Oct4], sex-determining region Y box 2 [SOX2], Kruppel-like factor 4 [KLF4], and MYC proto-oncogene, bHLH transcription factor [MYC]). Western blot, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing analysis were performed. The lung induced pluripotent stem cells exhibited hallmarks of pluripotency, including morphology, surface antigen and stem cell gene expression, in vitro proliferation, and teratoma formation. In addition, lung induced pluripotent stem cells exhibited no chromosomal aberrations, complete silencing of reprogramming transgenes, genomic hypermethylation, upregulation of genes encoding components of polycomb repressive complex 2, hypermethylation of stem cell polycomb targets, and modulation of more than 15,000 other genes relative to parental small airway epithelial cells. Additional sex combs like-3 (ASXL3), encoding a polycomb repressive complex 2-associated protein not previously described in reprogrammed cells, was markedly upregulated in lung induced pluripotent stem cell as well as human

  5. Identification of liver cancer-specific aptamers using whole live cells.

    PubMed

    Shangguan, Dihua; Meng, Ling; Cao, Zehui Charles; Xiao, Zeyu; Fang, Xiaohong; Li, Ying; Cardona, Diana; Witek, Rafal P; Liu, Chen; Tan, Weihong

    2008-02-01

    Liver cancer is the third most deadly cancers in the world. Unfortunately, there is no effective treatment. One of the major problems is that most cancers are diagnosed in the later stage, when surgical resection is not feasible. Thus, accurate early diagnosis would significantly improve the clinical outcome of liver cancer. Currently, there are no effective molecular probes to recognize biomarkers that are specific for liver cancer. The objective of our current study is to identify liver cancer cell-specific molecular probes that could be used for liver cancer recognition and diagnosis. We applied a newly developed cell-SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment) method for the generation of molecular probes for specific recognition of liver cancer cells. The cell-SELEX uses whole live cells as targets to select aptamers (designed DNA/RNA) for cell recognition. In generating aptamers for liver cancer recognition, two liver cell lines were used: a liver cancer cell line BNL 1ME A.7R.1 (MEAR) and a noncancer cell line, BNL CL.2 (BNL). Both cell lines were originally derived from Balb/cJ mice. Through multiple rounds of selection using BNL as a control, we have identified a panel of aptamers that specifically recognize the cancer cell line MEAR with Kd in the nanomolar range. We have also demonstrated that some of the selective aptamers could specifically bind liver cancer cells in a mouse model. There are two major new results (compared with our reported cell-SELEX methodology) in addition to the generation of aptamers specifically for liver cancer. The first one is that our current study demonstrates that cell-based aptamer selection can select specific aptamers for multiple cell lines, even for two cell lines with minor differences (MEAR cell is derived from BNL by chemical inducement); and the second result is that cell-SELEX can be used for adhesive cells and thus open the door for solid tumor selection and investigation. The newly

  6. Screening and Identification of Peptides Specifically Targeted to Gastric Cancer Cells from a Phage Display Peptide Library

    PubMed

    Sahin, Deniz; Taflan, Sevket Onur; Yartas, Gizem; Ashktorab, Hassan; Smoot, Duane T

    2018-04-25

    Background: Gastric cancer is the second most common cancer among the malign cancer types. Inefficiency of traditional techniques both in diagnosis and therapy of the disease makes the development of alternative and novel techniques indispensable. As an alternative to traditional methods, tumor specific targeting small peptides can be used to increase the efficiency of the treatment and reduce the side effects related to traditional techniques. The aim of this study is screening and identification of individual peptides specifically targeted to human gastric cancer cells using a phage-displayed peptide library and designing specific peptide sequences by using experimentally-eluted peptide sequences. Methods: Here, MKN-45 human gastric cancer cells and HFE-145 human normal gastric epithelial cells were used as the target and control cells, respectively. 5 rounds of biopannning with a phage display 12-peptide library were applied following subtraction biopanning with HFE-145 control cells. The selected phage clones were established by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence detection. We first obtain random phage clones after five biopanning rounds, determine the binding levels of each individual clone. Then, we analyze the frequencies of each amino acid in best binding clones to determine positively overexpressed amino acids for designing novel peptide sequences. Results: DE532 (VETSQYFRGTLS) phage clone was screened positive, showing specific binding on MKN-45 gastric cancer cells. DE-Obs (HNDLFPSWYHNY) peptide, which was designed by using amino acid frequencies of experimentally selected peptides in the 5th round of biopanning, showed specific binding in MKN-45 cells. Conclusion: Selection and characterization of individual clones may give us specifically binding peptides, but more importantly, data extracted from eluted phage clones may be used to design theoretical peptides with better binding properties than even experimentally selected ones

  7. Expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva; Almeida, Maria Carolina Leal; Costa, Alessandra Scorse; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Serrano, Rodrigo Lorenzetti; Machado, Carlos D'Apparecida Santos

    2016-01-01

    Heparanase is an enzyme that cleaves heparan sulfate chains. Oligosaccharides generated by heparanase induce tumor progression. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma comprise types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Evaluate the glycosaminoglycans profile and expression of heparanase in two human cell lines established in culture, immortalized skin keratinocyte (HaCaT) and squamous cell carcinoma (A431) and also investigate the expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and eyelid skin of individuals not affected by the disease (control). Glycosaminoglycans were quantified by electrophoresis and indirect ELISA method. The heparanase expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRTPCR). The A431 strain showed significant increase in the sulfated glycosaminoglycans, increased heparanase expression and decreased hyaluronic acid, comparing to the HaCaT lineage. The mRNA expression of heparanase was significantly higher in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma compared with control skin samples. It was also observed increased heparanase expression in squamous cell carcinoma compared to the Basal cell carcinoma. The glycosaminoglycans profile, as well as heparanase expression are different between HaCaT and A431 cell lines. The increased expression of heparanase in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma suggests that this enzyme could be a marker for the diagnosis of such types of non-melanoma cancers, and may be useful as a target molecule for future alternative treatment.

  8. Identification of Cell Cycle-regulated Genes in Fission YeastD⃞

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xu; Karuturi, R. Krishna Murthy; Miller, Lance D.; Lin, Kui; Jia, Yonghui; Kondu, Pinar; Wang, Long; Wong, Lim-Soon; Liu, Edison T.; Balasubramanian, Mohan K.; Liu, Jianhua

    2005-01-01

    Cell cycle progression is both regulated and accompanied by periodic changes in the expression levels of a large number of genes. To investigate cell cycle-regulated transcriptional programs in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we developed a whole-genome oligonucleotide-based DNA microarray. Microarray analysis of both wild-type and cdc25 mutant cell cultures was performed to identify transcripts whose levels oscillated during the cell cycle. Using an unsupervised algorithm, we identified 747 genes that met the criteria for cell cycle-regulated expression. Peaks of gene expression were found to be distributed throughout the entire cell cycle. Furthermore, we found that four promoter motifs exhibited strong association with cell cycle phase-specific expression. Examination of the regulation of MCB motif-containing genes through the perturbation of DNA synthesis control/MCB-binding factor (DSC/MBF)-mediated transcription in arrested synchronous cdc10 mutant cell cultures revealed a subset of functional targets of the DSC/MBF transcription factor complex, as well as certain gene promoter requirements. Finally, we compared our data with those for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and found ∼140 genes that are cell cycle regulated in both yeasts, suggesting that these genes may play an evolutionarily conserved role in regulation of cell cycle-specific processes. Our complete data sets are available at http://giscompute.gis.a-star.edu.sg/~gisljh/CDC. PMID:15616197

  9. Identification of Baicalin as an Immunoregulatory Compound by Controlling TH17 Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Yiwei; Li, Ming

    2011-01-01

    TH17 cells have been implicated in a growing list of inflammatory disorders. Antagonism of TH17 cells can be used for the treatment of inflammatory injury. Currently, very little is known about the natural compound controlling the differentiation of TH17 cells. Here, we showed that Baicalin, a compound isolated from a Chinese herb, inhibited TH17 cell differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. Baicalin might inhibit newly generated TH17 cells via reducing RORγt expression, and together with up-regulating Foxp3 expression to suppress RORγt-mediated IL-17 expression in established TH17 cells. In vivo treatment with Baicalin could inhibit TH17 cell differentiation, restrain TH17 cells infiltration into kidney, and protect MRL/lpr mice against nephritis. Our findings not only demonstrate that Baicalin could control TH17 cell differentiation but also suggest that Baicalin might be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of TH17 cells-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:21359178

  10. Functionalization of nanotextured substrates for enhanced identification of metastatic breast cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansur, Nuzhat; Raziul Hasan, Mohammad; Kim, Young-tae; Iqbal, Samir M.

    2017-09-01

    Metastasis is the major cause of low survival rates among cancer patients. Once cancer cells metastasize, it is extremely difficult to contain the disease. We report on a nanotextured platform for enhanced detection of metastatic cells. We captured metastatic (MDA-MDB-231) and non-metastatic (MCF-7) breast cancer cells on anti-EGFR aptamer modified plane and nanotextured substrates. Metastatic cells were seen to change their morphology at higher rates when captured on nanotextured substrates than on plane substrates. Analysis showed statistically different morphological behaviors of metastatic cells that were very pronounced on the nanotextured substrates. Several distance matrices were calculated to quantify the dissimilarity of cell shape change. Nanotexturing increased the dissimilarity of the metastatic cells and as a result the contrast between metastatic and non-metastatic cells increased. Jaccard distance measurements found that the shape change ratio of the non-metastatic and metastatic cells was enhanced from 1:1.01 to 1:1.81, going from plane to nanotextured substrates. The shape change ratio of the non-metastatic to metastatic cells improved from 1:1.48 to 1:2.19 for the Hausdorff distance and from 1:1.87 to 1:4.69 for the Mahalanobis distance after introducing nanotexture. Distance matrix analysis showed that nanotexture increased the shape change ratios of non-metastatic and metastatic cells. Hence, the detectability of metastatic cells increased. These calculated matrices provided clear and explicit measures to discriminate single cells for their metastatic state on functional nanotextured substrates.

  11. Identification of a Novel Pathway That Selectively Modulates Apoptosis of Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tinnikov, Alexander A.; Yeung, Kay T.; Das, Sharmistha; Samuels, Herbert H.

    2014-01-01

    Expression of the nuclear receptor interacting factor 3 (NRIF3) coregulator in a wide variety of breast cancer cells selectively leads to rapid caspase-2–dependent apoptotic cell death. A novel death domain (DD1) was mapped to a 30– amino acid region of NRIF3. Because the cytotoxicity of NRIF3 and DD1 seems to be cell type–specific, these studies suggest that breast cancer cells contain a novel “death switch” that can be specifically modulated by NRIF3 or DD1. Using an MCF-7 cell cDNA library in a yeast two-hybrid screen, we cloned a factor that mediates apoptosis by DD1 and refer to this factor as DD1-interacting factor-1 (DIF-1). DIF-1 is a transcriptional repressor that mediates its effect through SirT1, and this repression is attenuated by the binding of NRIF3/DD1. DIF-1 expression rescues breast cancer cells from NRIF3/DD1-induced apoptosis. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of DIF-1 selectively leads to apoptosis of breast cancer cells, further suggesting that DIF-1 plays a key role in NRIF3/DD1-mediated apoptosis. A protein kinase A inhibitor (H89) also elicits apoptosis of breast cancer cells but not of the other cell types examined, and DIF-1 also protects these cells from H89-mediated apoptosis. In addition, H89 incubation results in a rapid increase in NRIF3 levels and siRNA knockdown of NRIF3 protects breast cancer cells from H89-mediated apoptosis. Our results indicate that DIF-1 plays a key role in breast cancer cell survival and further characterizing this pathway may provide important insights into developing novel therapies to selec tively target breast cancer cells for apoptosis. PMID:19190336

  12. Identification of whole pathogenic cells by monoclonal antibodies generated against a specific peptide from an immunogenic cell wall protein.

    PubMed

    Kaba, Hani E J; Maier, Natalia; Schliebe-Ohler, Nicole; Mayer, Yvonne; Müller, Peter P; van den Heuvel, Joop; Schuchhardt, Johannes; Hanack, Katja; Bilitewski, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    We selected the immunogenic cell wall ß-(1,3)-glucosyltransferase Bgl2p from Candida albicans as a target protein for the production of antibodies. We identified a unique peptide sequence in the protein and generated monoclonal anti- C. albicans Bgl2p antibodies, which bound in particular to whole C. albicans cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel mesenchymal and haematopoietic cell isoforms of the SHP-2 docking receptor, PZR: identification, molecular cloning and effects on cell migration.

    PubMed Central

    Zannettino, Andrew C W; Roubelakis, Maria; Welldon, Katie J; Jackson, Denise E; Simmons, Paul J; Bendall, Linda J; Henniker, Anthony; Harrison, Kate L; Niutta, Silvana; Bradstock, Kenneth F; Watt, Suzanne M

    2003-01-01

    SHP-2 (Src homology phosphatase type-2) is essential for haematopoietic skeletal and vascular development. Thus the identification of its binding partners is critically important. In the present study, we describe a unique monoclonal antibody, WM78, which interacts with PZR, a SHP-2 binding partner. Furthermore, we identify two novel isoforms of PZR, PZRa and PZRb, derived by differential splicing from a single gene transcription unit on human chromosome 1q24. All are type 1 transmembrane glycoproteins with identical extracellular and transmembrane domains, but differ in their cytoplasmic tails. The PZR intracellular domain contains two SHP-2 binding immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (VIY(246)AQL and VVY(263)ADI) which are not present in PZRa and PZRb. Using the WM78 monoclonal antibody, which recognizes the common extracellular domain of the PZR isoforms, we demonstrate that the PZR molecules are expressed on mesenchymal and haematopoietic cells, being present on the majority of CD34(+)CD38(+) and early clonogenic progenitors, and at lower levels on CD34(+)CD38(-) cells and the hierarchically more primitive pre-colony forming units. Interestingly, we show by reverse transcriptase-PCR that the PZR isoforms are differentially expressed in haematopoietic, endothelial and mesenchymal cells. Both PZR and PZRb are present in CD133(+) precursors and endothelial cells, PZRb predominates in mesenchymal and committed myelomonocytic progenitor cells, and all three isoforms occur in erythroid precursor cell lines. Importantly, using SHP-2 mutant (Delta 46-110) and SHP-2 rescue of embryonic fibroblasts stably expressing the PZR isoforms, we demonstrate for the first time that PZR, but not PZRa or PZRb, facilitates fibronectin- dependent migration of cells expressing a competent SHP-2 molecule. These observations will be instrumental in determining the mechanisms whereby PZR isoforms regulate cell motility. PMID:12410637

  14. Identification of Ccr4-Not Complex Components as Regulators of Transition from Partial to Genuine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kamon, Masayoshi; Katano, Miyuki; Hiraki-Kamon, Keiko; Hishida, Tomoaki; Nakachi, Yutaka; Mizuno, Yosuke; Okazaki, Yasushi; Suzuki, Ayumu; Hirasaki, Masataka; Ueda, Atsushi; Nishimoto, Masazumi; Kato, Hidemasa

    2014-01-01

    Somatic cells can be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by defined factors. However, substantial cell numbers subjected to iPSC induction stray from the main reprogramming route and are immortalized as partial iPSCs. These partial iPSCs can become genuine iPSCs by exposure to the ground state condition. However, such conversion is only possible for mouse partial iPSCs, and it is not applicable to human cells. Moreover, the molecular basis of this conversion is completely unknown. Therefore, we performed genome-wide screening with a piggyBac vector to identify genes involved in conversion from partial to genuine iPSCs. This screening led to identification of Cnot2, one of the core components of the Ccr4-Not complex. Subsequent analyses revealed that other core components, Cnot1 and Cnot3, also contributed to the conversion. Thus, our data have uncovered a novel role of core components of the Ccr4-Not complex as regulators of transition from partial to genuine iPSCs. PMID:24200330

  15. Identification of candidate genes in Populus cell wall biosynthesis using text-mining, co-expression network and comparative genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaohan; Ye, Chuyu; Bisaria, Anjali

    2011-01-01

    Populus is an important bioenergy crop for bioethanol production. A greater understanding of cell wall biosynthesis processes is critical in reducing biomass recalcitrance, a major hindrance in efficient generation of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. Here, we report the identification of candidate cell wall biosynthesis genes through the development and application of a novel bioinformatics pipeline. As a first step, via text-mining of PubMed publications, we obtained 121 Arabidopsis genes that had the experimental evidences supporting their involvement in cell wall biosynthesis or remodeling. The 121 genes were then used as bait genes to query an Arabidopsis co-expression database and additionalmore » genes were identified as neighbors of the bait genes in the network, increasing the number of genes to 548. The 548 Arabidopsis genes were then used to re-query the Arabidopsis co-expression database and re-construct a network that captured additional network neighbors, expanding to a total of 694 genes. The 694 Arabidopsis genes were computationally divided into 22 clusters. Queries of the Populus genome using the Arabidopsis genes revealed 817 Populus orthologs. Functional analysis of gene ontology and tissue-specific gene expression indicated that these Arabidopsis and Populus genes are high likelihood candidates for functional genomics in relation to cell wall biosynthesis.« less

  16. Identification of an HLA-A24-restricted OY-TES-1 epitope recognized by cytotoxic T-cells.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Hideo; Noguchi, Yuji; Uenaka, Akiko; Aji, Toshiki; Ono, Toshiro; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Aoe, Motoi; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi; Nakayama, Eiichi

    2005-01-01

    OY-TES-1 was identified as a human homologue of the mouse, guinea pig, and pig proacrosin binding protein sp32 precursor. Differential expression levels of OY-TES-1 mRNA between testis and other normal tissues, and its expression in cancers indicated that OY-TES-1 would be classified as a cancer/testis antigen and considered to be a candidate of target antigen for cancer immunotherapy. In this study, we showed identification of HLA-A24-binding OY-TES-1 peptide, TES(401-409) (KTPFVSPLL) recognized by CD8 T-cells. Purified CD8 T-cells from healthy donors stimulated in vitro with the peptide-pulsed autologous DC and PBMC produced IFNgamma in response to the peptide-pulsed PBMC and showed cytotoxicity against the peptide-pulsed autologous EBV-B specifically. Furthermore, cytotoxicity was also observed against an OY-TES-1 mRNA-expressing tumor line, LK79. The retention time of the fraction in HPLC of the acid eluate from LK79 cells that showed positive sensitization against autologous EBV-B cells in recognition by CD8 CTL was the same as that of the fraction of the TES(401-409) peptide itself, suggesting that the TES(401-409) was a naturally processed peptide on LK79.

  17. VE-cadherin expression allows identification of a new class of hematopoietic stem cells within human embryonic liver.

    PubMed

    Oberlin, Estelle; Fleury, Maud; Clay, Denis; Petit-Cocault, Laurence; Candelier, Jean-Jacques; Mennesson, Benoît; Jaffredo, Thierry; Souyri, Michèle

    2010-11-25

    Edification of the human hematopoietic system during development is characterized by the production of waves of hematopoietic cells separated in time, formed in distinct embryonic sites (ie, yolk sac, truncal arteries including the aorta, and placenta). The embryonic liver is a major hematopoietic organ wherein hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) expand, and the future, adult-type, hematopoietic cell hierarchy becomes established. We report herein the identification of a new, transient, and rare cell population in the human embryonic liver, which coexpresses VE-cadherin, an endothelial marker, CD45, a pan-hematopoietic marker, and CD34, a common endothelial and hematopoietic marker. This population displays an outstanding self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation potential, as detected by in vitro and in vivo hematopoietic assays compared with its VE-cadherin negative counterpart. Based on VE-cadherin expression, our data demonstrate the existence of 2 phenotypically and functionally separable populations of multipotent HSCs in the human embryo, the VE-cadherin(+) one being more primitive than the VE-cadherin(-) one, and shed a new light on the hierarchical organization of the embryonic liver HSC compartment.

  18. Identification of vaccinia virus epitope-specific HLA-A*0201-restricted T cells and comparative analysis of smallpox vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Drexler, Ingo; Staib, Caroline; Kastenmüller, Wolfgang; Stevanović, Stefan; Schmidt, Burkhard; Lemonnier, François A.; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Busch, Dirk H.; Bernhard, Helga; Erfle, Volker; Sutter, Gerd

    2003-01-01

    Despite worldwide eradication of naturally occurring variola virus, smallpox remains a potential threat to both civilian and military populations. New, safe smallpox vaccines are being developed, and there is an urgent need for methods to evaluate vaccine efficacy after immunization. Here we report the identification of an immunodominant HLA-A*0201-restricted epitope that is recognized by cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and conserved among Orthopoxvirus species including variola virus. This finding has permitted analysis and monitoring of epitope-specific T cell responses after immunization and demonstration of the identified T cell specificity in an A*0201-positive human donor. Vaccination of transgenic mice allowed us to compare the immunogenicity of several vaccinia viruses including highly attenuated, replication-deficient modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA). MVA vaccines elicited levels of CD8+ T cell responses that were comparable to those induced by the replication-competent vaccinia virus strains. Finally, we demonstrate that MVA vaccination is fully protective against a lethal respiratory challenge with virulent vaccinia virus strain Western Reserve. Our data provide a basis to rationally estimate immunogenicity of safe, second-generation poxvirus vaccines and suggest that MVA may be a suitable candidate. PMID:12518065

  19. Evidence of progenitor cells in the adult human cochlea: sphere formation and identification of ABCG2.

    PubMed

    Massucci-Bissoli, Milene; Lezirovitz, Karina; Oiticica, Jeanne; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to search for evidence of stem or progenitor cells in the adult human cochlea by testing for sphere formation capacity and the presence of the stem cell marker ABCG2. Cochleas removed from patients undergoing vestibular schwannoma resection (n=2) and from brain-dead organ donors (n=4) were dissociated for either flow cytometry analysis for the stem cell marker ABCG2 or a sphere formation assay that is widely used to test the sphere-forming capacity of cells from mouse inner ear tissue. Spheres were identified after 2-5 days in vitro, and the stem cell marker ABCG2 was detected using flow cytometric analysis after cochlear dissociation. Evidence suggests that there may be progenitor cells in the adult human cochlea, although further studies are required.

  20. "(Not) all (dead) things share the same breath": identification of cell death mechanisms in anticancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Rello-Varona, Santiago; Herrero-Martín, David; López-Alemany, Roser; Muñoz-Pinedo, Cristina; Tirado, Oscar M

    2015-03-15

    During the last decades, the knowledge of cell death mechanisms involved in anticancer therapy has grown exponentially. However, in many studies, cell death is still described in an incomplete manner. The frequent use of indirect proliferation assays, unspecific probes, or bulk analyses leads too often to misunderstandings regarding cell death events. There is a trend to focus on molecular or genetic regulations of cell demise without a proper characterization of the phenotype that is the object of this study. Sometimes, cancer researchers can feel overwhelmed or confused when faced with such a corpus of detailed insights, nomenclature rules, and debates about the accuracy of a particular probe or assay. On the basis of the information available, we propose a simple guide to distinguish forms of cell death in experimental settings using cancer cell lines. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Identification of a potential tumor differentiation factor receptor candidate in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sokolowska, Izabela; Woods, Alisa G; Gawinowicz, Mary Ann; Roy, Urmi; Darie, Costel C

    2012-07-01

    Tumor differentiation factor (TDF) is a pituitary protein that is secreted into the bloodstream and has an endocrine function. TDF and TDF-P1, a 20-residue peptide selected from the ORF of TDF, induce differentiation in human breast and prostate cancer cells, but not in other cells. TDF has no known mechanism of action. In our recent study, we identified heat shock 70 kDa proteins (HSP70s) as TDF receptors (TDF-Rs) in breast cancer cells. Therefore, we sought to investigate whether TDF-R candidates from prostate cancer cells are the same as those identified in breast cancer cells. Here, we used TDF-P1 to purify the potential TDF-R candidates by affinity purification chromatography from DU145 and PC3 steroid-resistant prostate cancer cells, LNCaP steroid-responsive prostate cancer cells, and nonprostate NG108 neuroblastoma and BLK CL.4 fibroblast-like cells. We identified the purified proteins by MS, and validated them by western blotting, immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoaffinity purification chromatography, and structural biology. We identified seven candidate proteins, of which three were from the HSP70 family. These three proteins were validated as potential TDF-R candidates in LNCaP steroid-responsive and in DU145 and PC3 steroid-resistant prostate cancer cells, but not in NG108 neuroblastoma and BLK CL.4 fibroblast-like cells. Our previous study and the current study suggest that GRP78, and perhaps HSP70s, are strong TDF-R candidates, and further suggest that TDF interacts with its receptors exclusively in breast and prostate cells, inducing cell differentiation through a novel, steroid-independent pathway. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS.

  2. An integrated centrifugo-opto-microfluidic platform for arraying, analysis, identification and manipulation of individual cells.

    PubMed

    Burger, R; Kurzbuch, D; Gorkin, R; Kijanka, G; Glynn, M; McDonagh, C; Ducrée, J

    2015-01-21

    In this work we present a centrifugal microfluidic system enabling highly efficient collective trapping and alignment of particles such as microbeads and cells, their multi-colour fluorescent detection and subsequent manipulation by optical tweezers. We demonstrate array-based capture and imaging followed by "cherry-picking" of individual particles, first for fluorescently labelled polystyrene (PS) beads and then for cells. Different cell lines are discriminated based on intracellular as well as surface-based markers.

  3. Identification of a T-helper cell epitope on the rotavirus VP6 protein.

    PubMed Central

    Baños, D M; Lopez, S; Arias, C F; Esquivel, F R

    1997-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the T-helper (Th)-cell response against rotavirus, in a mouse model. Adult BALB/c mice were inoculated parenterally with porcine rotavirus YM, and the Th-cell response from spleen cells against the virus and two overlapping fragments of the major capsid protein VP6 (VP6(1-192) and VP6(171-397)) were evaluated in vitro. The Th cells recognized the YM virus and the two protein fragments, suggesting that there are at least two Th-cell epitopes on the VP6 molecule. To study the specificity of Th cells against VP6 at the clonal level, we established two Th-cell hybridomas cross-reactive for the VP6 protein of rotavirus strains YM and SA11. Both hybridomas recognized the VP6(171-397) polypeptide, and a synthetic peptide comprising the amino acids 289 to 302 (RLSFQLVRPPNMTP) of YM VP6 in the context of the major histocompatibility complex class II IEd molecule. The Th-cell hybridomas recognized rotavirus VP6 in a highly cross-reactive fashion, since they could be stimulated by eight different strains of rotavirus, including the murine rotavirus EDIM, that represent five G serotypes and at least two subgroups. The amino acid sequence of the VP6 epitope is highly conserved in most group A rotavirus strains sequenced so far. On the other hand, it was found that Th cells specific for the VP6 epitope may constitute an important proportion of the total polyclonal Th-cell response against rotavirus YM in spleen cells. These results demonstrate that VP6 can be a target for highly cross-reactive Th cells. PMID:8985366

  4. Identification of Highly Methylated Genes across Various Types of B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Bethge, Nicole; Honne, Hilde; Hilden, Vera; Trøen, Gunhild; Eknæs, Mette; Liestøl, Knut; Holte, Harald; Delabie, Jan; Smeland, Erlend B.; Lind, Guro E.

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations of gene expression are important in the development of cancer. In this study, we identified genes which are epigenetically altered in major lymphoma types. We used DNA microarray technology to assess changes in gene expression after treatment of 11 lymphoma cell lines with epigenetic drugs. We identified 233 genes with upregulated expression in treated cell lines and with downregulated expression in B-cell lymphoma patient samples (n = 480) when compared to normal B cells (n = 5). The top 30 genes were further analyzed by methylation specific PCR (MSP) in 18 lymphoma cell lines. Seven of the genes were methylated in more than 70% of the cell lines and were further subjected to quantitative MSP in 37 B-cell lymphoma patient samples (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (activated B-cell like and germinal center B-cell like subtypes), follicular lymphoma and Burkitt`s lymphoma) and normal B lymphocytes from 10 healthy donors. The promoters of DSP, FZD8, KCNH2, and PPP1R14A were methylated in 28%, 67%, 22%, and 78% of the 36 tumor samples, respectively, but not in control samples. Validation using a second series of healthy donor controls (n = 42; normal B cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, bone marrow, tonsils and follicular hyperplasia) and fresh-frozen lymphoma biopsies (n = 25), confirmed the results. The DNA methylation biomarker panel consisting of DSP, FZD8, KCNH2, and PPP1R14A was positive in 89% (54/61) of all lymphomas. Receiver operating characteristic analysis to determine the discriminative power between lymphoma and healthy control samples showed a c-statistic of 0.96, indicating a possible role for the biomarker panel in monitoring of lymphoma patients. PMID:24260260

  5. Targeted identification of metastasis-associated cell-surface sialoglycoproteins in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lifang; Nyalwidhe, Julius O; Guo, Siqi; Drake, Richard R; Semmes, O John

    2011-06-01

    Covalent attachment of carbohydrates to proteins is one of the most common post-translational modifications. At the cell surface, sugar moieties of glycoproteins contribute to molecular recognition events involved in cancer metastasis. We have combined glycan metabolic labeling with mass spectrometry analysis to identify and characterize metastasis-associated cell surface sialoglycoproteins. Our model system used syngeneic prostate cancer cell lines derived from PC3 (N2, nonmetastatic, and ML2, highly metastatic). The metabolic incorporation of AC(4)ManNAz and subsequent specific labeling of cell surface sialylation was confirmed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Affinity isolation of the modified sialic-acid containing cell surface proteins via click chemistry was followed by SDS-PAGE separation and liquid chromatography-tandem MS analysis. We identified 324 proteins from N2 and 372 proteins of ML2. Using conservative annotation, 64 proteins (26%) from N2 and 72 proteins (29%) from ML2 were classified as extracellular or membrane-associated glycoproteins. A selective enrichment of sialoglycoproteins was confirmed. When compared with global proteomic analysis of the same cells, the proportion of identified glycoprotein and cell-surface proteins were on average threefold higher using the selective capture approach. Functional clustering of differentially expressed proteins by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that the vast majority of glycoproteins overexpressed in the metastatic ML2 subline were involved in cell motility, migration, and invasion. Our approach effectively targeted surface sialoglycoproteins and efficiently identified proteins that underlie the metastatic potential of the ML2 cells.

  6. Identification and characterization of putative stem cells in the adult pig ovary.

    PubMed

    Bui, Hong-Thuy; Van Thuan, Nguyen; Kwon, Deug-Nam; Choi, Yun-Jung; Kang, Min-Hee; Han, Jae-Woong; Kim, Teoan; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-06-01

    Recently, the concept of 'neo-oogenesis' has received increasing attention, since it was shown that adult mammals have a renewable source of eggs. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the origin of these eggs and to confirm whether neo-oogenesis continues throughout life in the ovaries of the adult mammal. Adult female pigs were utilized to isolate, identify and characterize, including their proliferation and differentiation capabilities, putative stem cells (PSCs) from the ovary. PSCs were found to comprise a heterogeneous population based on c-kit expression and cell size, and also express stem and germ cell markers. Analysis of PSC molecular progression during establishment showed that these cells undergo cytoplasmic-to-nuclear translocation of Oct4 in a manner reminiscent of gonadal primordial germ cells (PGCs). Hence, cells with the characteristics of early PGCs are present or are generated in the adult pig ovary. Furthermore, the in vitro establishment of porcine PSCs required the presence of ovarian cell-derived extracellular regulatory factors, which are also likely to direct stem cell niche interactions in vivo. In conclusion, the present work supports a crucial role for c-kit and kit ligand/stem cell factor in stimulating the growth, proliferation and nuclear reprogramming of porcine PSCs, and further suggests that porcine PSCs might be the culture equivalent of early PGCs. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Identification of tumorigenic cells and therapeutic targets in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Krampitz, Geoffrey Wayne; George, Benson M.; Willingham, Stephen B.; Volkmer, Jens-Peter; Weiskopf, Kipp; Jahchan, Nadine; Newman, Aaron M.; Sahoo, Debashis; Zemek, Allison J.; Yanovsky, Rebecca L.; Nguyen, Julia K.; Schnorr, Peter J.; Mazur, Pawel K.; Sage, Julien; Longacre, Teri A.; Visser, Brendan C.; Poultsides, George A.; Norton, Jeffrey A.; Weissman, Irving L.

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) are a type of pancreatic cancer with limited therapeutic options. Consequently, most patients with advanced disease die from tumor progression. Current evidence indicates that a subset of cancer cells is responsible for tumor development, metastasis, and recurrence, and targeting these tumor-initiating cells is necessary to eradicate tumors. However, tumor-initiating cells and the biological processes that promote pathogenesis remain largely uncharacterized in PanNETs. Here we profile primary and metastatic tumors from an index patient and demonstrate that MET proto-oncogene activation is important for tumor growth in PanNET xenograft models. We identify a highly tumorigenic cell population within several independent surgically acquired PanNETs characterized by increased cell-surface protein CD90 expression and aldehyde dehydrogenase A1 (ALDHA1) activity, and provide in vitro and in vivo evidence for their stem-like properties. We performed proteomic profiling of 332 antigens in two cell lines and four primary tumors, and showed that CD47, a cell-surface protein that acts as a “don’t eat me” signal co-opted by cancers to evade innate immune surveillance, is ubiquitously expressed. Moreover, CD47 coexpresses with MET and is enriched in CD90hi cells. Furthermore, blocking CD47 signaling promotes engulfment of tumor cells by macrophages in vitro and inhibits xenograft tumor growth, prevents metastases, and prolongs survival in vivo. PMID:27035983

  8. Identification of Fungal T Cell Epitopes by Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Roschitzki, Bernd; LeibundGut-Landmann, Salomé

    2017-01-01

    CD4 + T cells play a key role in host defense against many fungal infections. T cells are also implicated in vaccine immunity to fungi. To date, only a small number of fungal antigens have been identified. Knowing the antigenic determinants of fungi-specific T cells greatly facilitates the detection, enumeration and characterizes the antifungal T cells and it constitutes an important step toward the design and development of vaccination strategies. This chapter describes a method of MHC-II ligand elution and mass spectrometric analysis to identify naturally processed and presented fungal peptide epitopes.

  9. Integrated Proteomic Profiling of Cell Line Conditioned Media and Pancreatic Juice for the Identification of Pancreatic Cancer Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Makawita, Shalini; Smith, Chris; Batruch, Ihor; Zheng, Yingye; Rückert, Felix; Grützmann, Robert; Pilarsky, Christian; Gallinger, Steven; Diamandis, Eleftherios P.

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths, for which serological biomarkers are urgently needed. Most discovery-phase studies focus on the use of one biological source for analysis. The present study details the combined mining of pancreatic cancer-related cell line conditioned media and pancreatic juice for identification of putative diagnostic leads. Using strong cation exchange chromatography, followed by LC-MS/MS on an LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer, we extensively characterized the proteomes of conditioned media from six pancreatic cancer cell lines (BxPc3, MIA-PaCa2, PANC1, CAPAN1, CFPAC1, and SU.86.86), the normal human pancreatic ductal epithelial cell line HPDE, and two pools of six pancreatic juice samples from ductal adenocarcinoma patients. All samples were analyzed in triplicate. Between 1261 and 2171 proteins were identified with two or more peptides in each of the cell lines, and an average of 521 proteins were identified in the pancreatic juice pools. In total, 3479 nonredundant proteins were identified with high confidence, of which ∼40% were extracellular or cell membrane-bound based on Genome Ontology classifications. Three strategies were employed for identification of candidate biomarkers: (1) examination of differential protein expression between the cancer and normal cell lines using label-free protein quantification, (2) integrative analysis, focusing on the overlap of proteins among the multiple biological fluids, and (3) tissue specificity analysis through mining of publically available databases. Preliminary verification of anterior gradient homolog 2, syncollin, olfactomedin-4, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, and collagen alpha-1(VI) chain in plasma samples from pancreatic cancer patients and healthy controls using ELISA, showed a significant increase (p < 0.01) of these proteins in plasma from pancreatic cancer patients. The combination of these five proteins showed an improved area under the receiver

  10. Identification of a novel oxidative stress induced cell death by Sorafenib and oleanolic acid in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lange, Matthias; Abhari, Behnaz Ahangarian; Hinrichs, Tobias M; Fulda, Simone; Liese, Juliane

    2016-10-15

    The lack of effective chemotherapies in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still an unsolved problem and underlines the need for new strategies in liver cancer treatment. In this study, we present a novel approach to improve the efficacy of Sorafenib, today's only routinely used chemotherapeutic drug for HCC, in combination with triterpenoid oleanolic acid (OA). Our data show that cotreatment with subtoxic concentrations of Sorafenib and OA leads to highly synergistic induction of cell death. Importantly, Sorafenib/OA cotreatment triggers cell damage in a sustained manner and suppresses long-term clonogenic survival. Sorafenib/OA cotreatment induces DNA fragmentation and caspase-3/7 cleavage and the addition of the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD.fmk shows the requirement of caspase activation for Sorafenib/OA-triggered cell death. Furthermore, Sorafenib/OA co-treatment stimulates a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Most importantly, the accumulation of intracellular ROS is required for cell death induction, since the addition of ROS scavengers (i.e. α-tocopherol, MnTBAP) that prevent the increase of intracellular ROS levels completely rescues cells from Sorafenib/OA-triggered cell death. In conclusion, OA represents a novel approach to increase the sensitivity of HCC cells to Sorafenib via oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cell-SELEX-Based Identification of a Human and Mouse Cross-Reactive Endothelial Cell-Internalizing Aptamer.

    PubMed

    Dua, Pooja; Kang, Sinae; Shin, Hye-Soo; Kim, Soyoun; Lee, Dong-Ki

    2018-04-02

    Increased interest and insights gained by researchers on the roles of endothelial cells in the pathophysiology of cancer, inflammatory, and cardiovascular diseases have led to the design of pharmacological interventions aimed at the endothelium lining in the diseased sites. Toward this end, we used established brain microvascular endothelial cell lines mouse (bEND3), human (hCMEC/D3), and Toggle Cell-SELEX to identify a species cross-reactive, endothelial cell-internalizing aptamer R11-3. This 2'F-modified RNA aptamer is specific for endothelial cells as no internalization was seen with cells of nonendothelial origin. R11-3 was truncated in size, and its potential in endothelial targeted therapeutics was established using VEGFR2 targeting long interfering RNA (liRNA) aptamer chimera. Due to its specificity for both mouse and human endothelial cells, we believe that this aptamer not only fits for development of endothelial targeted drug development for human diseases but is also suitable for preclinical evaluation in mice.

  12. Immunopotentiation by SGP and Quil A. II. Identification of responding cell populations.

    PubMed

    Flebbe, L M; Braley-Mullen, H

    1986-04-15

    The adjuvants SGP (a starch-acrylamide polymer) and Quil A (purified saponin) were shown to markedly augment antibody responses to T-independent (TI) antigens, suggesting that their adjuvant effects may be at least partially mediated through B cells. The ability of both adjuvants to augment primary responses to trinitrophenyl (TNP)-Ficoll (TI-2 antigen) in athymic nude mice further suggested these adjuvants affect B cells. SGP, however, did not induce a response to the T-dependent (TD) antigen dinitrophenyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (DNP-KLH) in athymic nude mice, indicating it was unable to replace the requirement for T-helper cells for responses to TD antigens. Responses to TNP-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were augmented by SGP in CBA/N X Balb/c immune defective (xid) mice. However, SGP was unable to induce a response to TNP-Ficoll in xid mice. The SGP and Quil A augmented responses to TNP-Ficoll were completely inhibited by the mitotic inhibitor, Velban, indicating that SGP and Quil A increased the plaque-forming cell (PFC) response primarily by stimulating cell proliferation, and not by recruitment of antigen-reactive cells. The effects of the adjuvants on secondary responses were investigated using adoptive transfer experiments. SGP and A1(OH)3 both increased the induction of hapten-specific memory B cells in mice primed with DNP-KLH. SGP, Quil A, and A1(OH)3 also increased priming of carrier specific T cells. Priming of memory B cells with DNP-KLH and either A1(OH)3 or SGP was prevented when T cells were depleted with anti-lymphocyte serum (ALS) at the time of antigen priming, indicating that the augmentation of memory B-cell priming by SGP and A1(OH)3 was dependent on the presence of functional T cells. SGP and Quil A were both unable to augment memory cell induction to the TI antigen, TNP-Ficoll, even though both adjuvants markedly augmented primary IgM and IgG responses to this antigen. Based on these results, it is suggested that SGP and Quil A can mediate

  13. [The cultivation and identification of lacrimal gland adenoid cystic cancer stem cells].

    PubMed

    Lyu, Jianmei; He, Yanjin; Xie, Lianfeng; Liu, Xun; Zhu, Limin

    2015-10-01

    To isolate and cultivate the Lacrimal gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma cells line, study Cancer Stem Cells properties. Experimental study. Lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma cancer stem cells were cultivated in serum-free suspension culture and the morphological changes were observed. Cells were divided into two groups, the LACC-CSC experimental group and the LACC control group. The flow cytometry instrument was used to detect the expression of classical stem cell markers CD133 and ABCG2. Transwell chamber was used to detect the cancer stem cell aggressivity and differentiated into the vascular endothelial cells. The tumorigenic force in vitro xenotransplantation were applied. LACC cells can grow suspensively after vaccinated in serum free medium and form tumor microspheres after 10-12 days. Flow cytometry experiments showed that the expression ratio of stem cell markers CD133 in LACC-CSC was (35.67 ± 6.86)%, significantly different to LACC with (0.46 ± 0.48)%, (t = 8.867, P < 0.05). Similarly, the expression ratio of stem cell marker ABCG2 in LACC-CSC was (39.99 ± 4.54)%, significantly different to LACC with (6.75 ± 1.34)%, (t = -9.932, P < 0.05). In vitro experiment of Matrigel invasion, LACC-CSC went through the matrigel basement membrane averagely (32.60 ± 8.79)/HP contrary to LACC with average (10.20 ± 2.77)/HP after 24 hours, showing statistically significance (t = 5.433, P < 0.05) between the two groups. After training for 48 hours, the difference between two groups was still obvious (t = 5.779, P < 0.05) with LACC-CSC average (62.60 ± 4.83)/HP to LACC (44.00 ± 5.34)/HP. When induced by serum medium containing VEGF and bFGF, LACC-CSC grew adherent gradually and cell morphological changes occurred after continuous induction to long spindle cells. When cultured into three-dimensional matrix structure they formed vessel samples and expressed vascular endothelial marker CD31 and CD34. Transplanted tumor in vitro experiment, mice of LACC-CSC group grew

  14. Research Resource: Global Identification of Estrogen Receptor β Target Genes in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shanle, Erin K.; Zhao, Zibo; Hawse, John; Wisinski, Kari; Keles, Sunduz; Yuan, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancers that are negative for estrogen receptor α (ERα), progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 are known as triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC). TNBCs are associated with an overall poor prognosis because they lack expression of therapeutic targets like ERα and are biologically more aggressive. A second estrogen receptor, ERβ, has been found to be expressed in 50% to 90% of ERα-negative breast cancers, and ERβ expression in TNBCs has been shown to correlate with improved disease-free survival and good prognosis. To elucidate the role of ERβ in regulating gene expression and cell proliferation in TNBC cells, the TNBC cell line MDA-MB-468 was engineered with inducible expression of full-length ERβ. In culture, ERβ expression inhibited cell growth by inducing a G1 cell cycle arrest, which was further enhanced by 17β-estradiol treatment. In xenografts, ERβ expression also inhibited tumor formation and growth, and 17β-estradiol treatment resulted in rapid tumor regression. Furthermore, genomic RNA sequencing identified both ligand-dependent and -independent ERβ target genes, some of which were also regulated by ERβ in other TNBC cell lines and correlated with ERβ expression in a cohort of TNBCs from the Cancer Genome Atlas Network. ERβ target genes were enriched in genes that regulate cell death and survival, cell movement, cell development, and growth and proliferation, as well as genes involved in the Wnt/β-catenin and the G1/S cell cycle phase checkpoint pathways. In addition to confirming the anti-proliferative effects of ERβ in TNBC cells, these data provide a comprehensive resource of ERβ target genes and suggest that ERβ may be targeted with ligands that can stimulate its growth inhibitory effects. PMID:23979844

  15. Identification of genuine primary pulmonary NK cell lymphoma via clinicopathologic observation and clonality assay.

    PubMed

    Gong, Li; Wei, Long-Xiao; Huang, Gao-Sheng; Zhang, Wen-Dong; Wang, Lu; Zhu, Shao-Jun; Han, Xiu-Juan; Yao, Li; Lan, Miao; Li, Yan-Hong; Zhang, Wei

    2013-08-19

    Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, is an uncommon lymphoma associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). It most commonly involves the nasal cavity and upper respiratory tract. Primary pulmonary NK/T cell lymphoma is extremely rare. If a patient with a NK or T-cell tumor has an unusual reaction to treatment or an unusual prognosis, it is wise to differentiate NK from T-cell tumors. The clinicopathologic characteristics, immunophenotype, EBV in situ hybridization, and T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement of primary pulmonary NK cell lymphoma from a 73-year-old Chinese woman were investigated and the clonal status was determined using female X-chromosomal inactivation mosaicism and polymorphisms at the phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) gene. The lesion showed the typical histopathologic characteristics and immunohistochemical features of NK/T cell lymphoma. However, the sample was negative for TCR gene rearrangement. A clonality assay demonstrated that the lesion was monoclonal. It is concluded that this is the first recorded case of genuine primary pulmonary NK cell lymphoma. The purpose of the present work is to recommend that pathologists carefully investigate the whole lesion to reduce the likelihood that primary pulmonary NK cell lymphoma will be misdiagnosed as an infectious lesion. In addition, TCR gene rearrangement and clonal analysis, which is based on female X-chromosomal inactivation mosaicism and polymorphisms at PGK and androgen receptor (AR) loci, were found to play important roles in differentiating NK cell lymphoma from T cell lymphoma. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/5205300349457729.

  16. Identification of the bombesin receptor on murine and human cells by cross-linking experiments.

    PubMed

    Kris, R M; Hazan, R; Villines, J; Moody, T W; Schlessinger, J

    1987-08-15

    The bombesin receptor present on the surface of murine and human cells was identified using 125I-labeled gastrin-releasing peptide as a probe, the cross-linking agent disuccinimidyl suberate, and sodium dodecyl sulfate gels. A clone of NIH-3T3 cells which possesses approximately 80,000 bombesin receptors/cell with a single binding constant of approximately 1.9 X 10(-9) M was used in these studies. In addition, we used Swiss 3T3 cells and a human glioma cell line which possesses approximately 100,000 and approximately 55,000 bombesin receptors/cell, respectively. Under conditions found optimal for binding, it is demonstrated that 125I-labeled gastrin-releasing peptide can be cross-linked specifically to a glycoprotein of apparent molecular mass of 65,000 daltons on the surface of the NIH-3T3 cells. Similar results were obtained when the cross-linked product was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing or non-reducing conditions. Moreover, the cross-linking reaction is specific and saturable and the 65,000-dalton polypeptide is not observed when the cross-linking experiments were performed with a NIH-3T3 cell line which is devoid of bombesin receptors. Interestingly, glycoproteins with apparent molecular weights of 75,000 were labeled specifically by 125I-labeled gastrin-releasing peptide when similar experiments were performed with Swiss 3T3 cells and with human glioma cell line GM-340. These different molecular weights may indicate differential glycosylation as treatment with the enzyme N-glycanase reduced the apparent molecular weight of the cross-linked polypeptide to 45,000. On the basis of these results it is concluded that the cross-linked polypeptides represent the bombesin receptor or the ligand-binding subunit of a putative larger bombesin receptor expressed on the surface of these cells.

  17. Giardia lamblia: identification of molecules that contribute to direct mast cell activation.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Cruz, Samira; Gomez-García, Argelia; Matadamas-Martínez, Félix; Alvarado-Torres, Juan A; Meza-Cervantez, Patricia; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes; Yépez-Mulia, Lilián

    2018-06-02

    Mast cells play a central role in the early clearance of the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia. In a previous study, we reported that G. lamblia live trophozoites or trophozoite-derived total soluble extract induced direct activation (IgE-independent) of mast cells and release of IL-6 and TNF-α. To identify the Giardia molecules and the mast cell receptors involved in this activation, trophozoite-derived total soluble proteins separated into three fractions (F1-F3) were evaluated for its ability to activate mast cells in vitro. F2 activated mast cells in a greater extent than F1 and F3. Furthermore, F2 induced the release of IL-6 and TNF-α by mast cells. TLR2 and TLR4 expression increased slightly after mast cell stimulation with either F2 or total soluble extract; however, these receptors were not involved in F2 or total soluble extract-induced proinflammatory cytokine production. Proteins present in F2 as unique and high-intensity bands identified by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, include molecules with important biological activities such as enolase and arginine deiminase (ADI). Recombinant ADI and enolase were tested for their ability to activate mast cells, but only ADI induced a significant release of IL-6 and TNF-α. ADI product, citrulline but not ammonium, also induced mast cell release of TNF-α. Interestingly, recombinant ADI still stimulated the secretion of TNF-α by mast cells in a arginine-free medium, although in a lower extend that in the presence of arginine, indicating that either ADI itself can stimulate mast cells or through its metabolic product, citrulline.

  18. Identification of a high-efficiency baculovirus DNA replication origin that functions in insect and mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yueh-Lung; Wu, Carol-P; Huang, Yu-Hui; Huang, Sheng-Ping; Lo, Huei-Ru; Chang, Hao-Shuo; Lin, Pi-Hsiu; Wu, Ming-Cheng; Chang, Chia-Jung; Chao, Yu-Chan

    2014-11-01

    a large number of imperfect inverted repeats and is the most active ori in the viral genome during virus infection in insect cells. We also found that it is a unique ori that can replicate in mammalian cells without the assistance of baculovirus gene products. The identification of this ori should contribute to a better understanding of baculovirus DNA replication. Also, this ori is very useful in assisting with gene expression in mammalian cells. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Identification of Newly Committed Pancreatic Cells in the Adult Mouse Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Socorro, Mairobys; Criscimanna, Angela; Riva, Patricia; Tandon, Manuj; Prasadan, Krishna; Guo, Ping; Humar, Abhinav; Husain, Sohail Z; Leach, Steven D; Gittes, George K; Esni, Farzad

    2017-12-13

    Multipotent epithelial cells with high Aldehyde dehydrogenase activity have been previously reported to exist in the adult pancreas. However, whether they represent true progenitor cells remains controversial. In this study, we isolated and characterized cells with ALDH activity in the adult mouse or human pancreas during physiological conditions or injury. We found that cells with ALDH activity are abundant in the mouse pancreas during early postnatal growth, pregnancy, and in mouse models of pancreatitis and type 1 diabetes (T1D). Importantly, a similar population of cells is found abundantly in healthy children, or in patients with pancreatitis or T1D. We further demonstrate that cells with ALDH activity can commit to either endocrine or acinar lineages, and can be divided into four sub-populations based on CD90 and Ecadherin expression. Finally, our in vitro and in vivo studies show that the progeny of ALDH1 + /CD90 - /Ecad - cells residing in the adult mouse pancreas have the ability to initiate Pancreatic and duodenal homeobox (Pdx1) expression for the first time. In summary, we provide evidence for the existence of a sortable population of multipotent non-epithelial cells in the adult pancreas that can commit to the pancreatic lineage following proliferation and mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET).

  20. [Establishment and identification of mouse lymphoma cell line EL4 expressing red fluorescent protein].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Jie; Cao, Jiang; Chen, Chong; Wang, Dong-Yang; Zeng, Ling-Yu; Pan, Xiu-Ying; Xu, Kai-Lin

    2010-02-01

    This study was purposed to construct a lentiviral vector encoding red fluorescent protein (DsRed) and transfect DsRed into EL4 cells for establishing mouse leukemia/lymphoma model expressing DsRed. The bicistronic SIN lentiviral transfer plasmid containing the genes encoding neo and internal ribosomal entry site-red fluorescent protein (IRES-DsRed) was constructed. Human embryonic kidney 293FT cells were co-transfected with the three plasmids by liposome method. The viral particles were collected and used to transfect EL4 cells, then the cells were selected by G418. The results showed that the plasmid pXZ208-neo-IRES-DsRed was constructed successfully, and the viral titer reached to 10(6) U/ml. EL4 cells were transfected by the viral solution efficiently. The transfected EL4 cells expressing DsRed survived in the final concentration 600 microg/ml of G418. The expression of DsRed in the transfected EL4 cells was demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. In conclusion, the EL4/DsRed cell line was established successfully.

  1. Identification of Proliferative and Apoptotic Sertoli Cells Using Fluorescence and Confocal Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Hernández, Jesús; Seco-Rovira, Vicente; Beltrán-Frutos, Ester; Quesada-Cubo, Victor; Ferrer, Concepción; Pastor, Luis Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Sertoli cells, the testicular somatic cells of the seminiferous epithelium, are vital for the survival of the epithelium. They undergo proliferation and apoptosis during fetal, neonatal, and prepubertal development. Apoptosis is increased in certain situations such as exposure to many substances, for example, toxics, or short photoperiod in the non-breeding season of some mammals. Therefore, it has always been considered that Sertoli cells that reach adulthood are quiescent cells, that is to say, nonproliferative, do not die, are terminally differentiated, and whose numbers remain constant. Recently, a degree of both proliferation and apoptosis has been observed in normal adult conditions, suggesting that consideration of this cell as quiescent may be subject to change. All this make it necessary to use histochemical techniques to demonstrate whether Sertoli cells are undergoing proliferation or apoptosis in histological sections and to allow the qualitative and quantitative study of these. In this chapter, we present two double-staining techniques that can be used for identifying Sertoli cells in proliferation or apoptosis by fluorescence microscopy. In both, the Sertoli cells are identified by an immunohistochemistry for vimentin followed by an immunohistochemistry for PCNA or a TUNEL histochemistry.

  2. Identification of Novel Targets of the Human Cell Cycle Regulatory Protein Cdc34

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    Bohman, for stains and plamids, J. La Baer for the cDNA library, C. Molina, H. P. Roest, J. Hoeijmaker, P. Sassone-Corsi for antisera, and to Shirong...mammalian CDC34 cell cycle gene. American Association of Cancer Research, 36, A191 (1995). Hershko, A., Role of ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis in cell

  3. Identification of thyroid tumor cell vulnerabilities through a siRNA-based functional screening.

    PubMed

    Anania, Maria; Gasparri, Fabio; Cetti, Elena; Fraietta, Ivan; Todoerti, Katia; Miranda, Claudia; Mazzoni, Mara; Re, Claudia; Colombo, Riccardo; Ukmar, Giorgio; Camisasca, Stefano; Pagliardini, Sonia; Pierotti, Marco; Neri, Antonino; Galvani, Arturo; Greco, Angela

    2015-10-27

    The incidence of thyroid carcinoma is rapidly increasing. Although generally associated with good prognosis, a fraction of thyroid tumors are not cured by standard therapy and progress to aggressive forms for which no effective treatments are currently available. In order to identify novel therapeutic targets for thyroid carcinoma, we focused on the discovery of genes essential for sustaining the oncogenic phenotype of thyroid tumor cells, but not required to the same degree for the viability of normal cells (non-oncogene addiction paradigm). We screened a siRNA oligonucleotide library targeting the human druggable genome in thyroid cancer BCPAP cell line in comparison with immortalized normal human thyrocytes (Nthy-ori 3-1). We identified a panel of hit genes whose silencing interferes with the growth of tumor cells, while sparing that of normal ones. Further analysis of three selected hit genes, namely Cyclin D1, MASTL and COPZ1, showed that they represent common vulnerabilities for thyroid tumor cells, as their inhibition reduced the viability of several thyroid tumor cell lines, regardless the histotype or oncogenic lesion. This work identified non-oncogenes essential for sustaining the phenotype of thyroid tumor cells, but not of normal cells, thus suggesting that they might represent promising targets for new therapeutic strategies.

  4. Identification of stem cells from human umbilical cord blood with embryonic and hematopoietic characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Yong; Wang Honglan; Mazzone, Theodore

    2006-08-01

    We identified stem cells from the umbilical cord blood, designated cord blood-stem cells (CB-SC). CB-SC displayed important embryonic stem (ES) cell characteristics including expression of ES-cell-specific molecular markers including transcription factors OCT-4 and Nanog, along with stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-3 and SSEA-4. CB-SC also expressed hematopoietic cell antigens including CD9, CD45 and CD117, but were negative for CD34. CB-SC displayed very low immunogenicity as indicated by expression of a very low level of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens and failure to stimulate the proliferation of allogeneic lymphocytes. CB-SC could give rise to cells with endothelial-like and neuronal-like characteristics in vitro,more » as demonstrated by expression of lineage-associated markers. Notably, CB-SC could be stimulated to differentiate into functional insulin-producing cells in vivo and eliminated hyperglycemia after transplantation into a streptozotocin-induced diabetic mouse model. These findings may have significant potential to advance stem-cell-based therapeutics.« less

  5. Identification of a G protein coupled receptor induced in activated T cells.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, M H; Smith, D I; Sundick, R S

    1993-07-15

    Many genes are induced after T cell activation to make a cell competent for proliferation and ultimately, function. Many of these genes encode surface receptors for growth factors that signal a cell to proliferate. We have cloned a novel gene (clone 6H1) that codes for a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. This gene was isolated from a chicken activated T cell cDNA library by low level hybridization to mammalian IL-2 cDNA probes. The 308 amino acid open reading frame has seven hydrophobic, presumably transmembrane domains and a consensus site for interaction with G proteins. Tissue distribution studies suggest that gene expression is restricted to activated T cells. The message appears by 1 h after activation and is maintained for at least 45 h. Transcription of 6H1 is induced by a number of T cell stimuli and is inhibited by cyclosporin A, but not by cycloheximide. This is the first description of a member of this superfamily expressed specifically in activated T cells. The gene product may provide a link between T cell growth factors and G protein activation.

  6. [Screening and identification of anoikis-resistant gene UBCH7 in esophageal cancer cells].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Bo-Shi; Wang, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Ming-Rong; Jia, Xue-Mei

    2012-02-01

    Anoikis is a kind of programmed cell death induced by loss of extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion, which is one of key factors for homestasis. Resistance to anoikis is required for tumor cell metastasis. We have previously shown several anoikis-resistance genes in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In order to find novel anoikis-resistant genes in ESCC, we constructed retroviral cDNA library using total RNA from ESCC cell lines. NIH 3T3 cells, which are sensitive to anoikis, were infected with the library constructed. The cells were cultured in soft agar, and the clones which can survive in detached states were selected. The cDNAs inserted into the anoikis-resistant NIH3T3 clones were amplified using retroviral specific primers. Sequencing analysis showed that a cDNA fragment inserted into the anoikis-resistant clone contains full coding sequence (ORF) of human UBCH7/UBE2L3 gene. By infection with retrovirus encoding UBCH7 ORF (pMSCV-UBCH7), forced expression of UBCH7 increased the anoikis-resistance of NIH3T3 cells. More importantly, knockdown of UBCH7 expression by siRNA transfection reduced the anoikis-resistant ability of esophageal cancer MLuC1 cells. The data suggest that UBCH7/UBE2L3 gene would be involved in anoikis-resistance in ESCC.

  7. Isolation and Identification of Proteins Secreted by Cells Cultured within Synthetic Hydrogel-Based Matrices

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Cells interact with and remodel their microenvironment, degrading large extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (e.g., fibronectin, collagens) and secreting new ECM proteins and small soluble factors (e.g., growth factors, cytokines). Synthetic mimics of the ECM have been developed as controlled cell culture platforms for use in both fundamental and applied studies. However, how cells broadly remodel these initially well-defined matrices remains poorly understood and difficult to probe. In this work, we have established methods for widely examining both large and small proteins that are secreted by cells within synthetic matrices. Specifically, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), a model primary cell type, were cultured within well-defined poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-peptide hydrogels, and these cell-matrix constructs were decellularized and degraded for subsequent isolation and analysis of deposited proteins. Shotgun proteomics using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry identified a variety of proteins, including the large ECM proteins fibronectin and collagen VI. Immunostaining and confocal imaging confirmed these results and provided visualization of protein organization within the synthetic matrices. Additionally, culture medium was collected from the encapsulated hMSCs, and a Luminex assay was performed to identify secreted soluble factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelial growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), interleukin 8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Together, these methods provide a unique approach for studying dynamic reciprocity between cells and synthetic microenvironments and have the potential to provide new biological insights into cell responses during three-dimensional (3D) controlled cell culture. PMID:29552635

  8. Identification of an inducible regulator of c-myb expression during T-cell activation.

    PubMed Central

    Phan, S C; Feeley, B; Withers, D; Boxer, L M

    1996-01-01

    Resting T cells express very low levels of c-Myb protein. During T-cell activation, c-myb expression is induced and much of the increase in expression occurs at the transcriptional level. We identified a region of the c-myb 5' flanking sequence that increased c-myb expression during T-cell activation. In vivo footprinting by ligation-mediated PCR was performed to correlate in vivo protein binding with functional activity. A protein footprint was visible over this region of the c-myb 5' flanking sequence in activated T cells but not in unactivated T cells. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) with nuclear extract from activated T cells and an oligonucleotide of this binding site demonstrated a new protein-DNA complex, referred to as CMAT for c-myb in activated T cells; this complex was not present in unactivated T cells. Because the binding site showed some sequence similarity with the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) binding site, we compared the kinetics of induction of the two binding complexes and the molecular masses of the two proteins. Studies of the kinetics of induction showed that the NFAT EMSA binding complex appeared earlier than the CMAT complex. The NFAT protein migrated more slowly in a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel than the CMAT protein did. In addition, an antibody against NFAT did not cross-react with the CMAT protein. The appearance of the CMAT binding complex was inhibited by both cyclosporin A and rapamycin. The CMAT protein appears to be a novel inducible protein involved in the regulation of c-myb expression during T-cell activation. PMID:8628306

  9. Isolation and Identification of Proteins Secreted by Cells Cultured within Synthetic Hydrogel-Based Matrices.

    PubMed

    Sawicki, Lisa A; Choe, Leila H; Wiley, Katherine L; Lee, Kelvin H; Kloxin, April M

    2018-03-12

    Cells interact with and remodel their microenvironment, degrading large extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (e.g., fibronectin, collagens) and secreting new ECM proteins and small soluble factors (e.g., growth factors, cytokines). Synthetic mimics of the ECM have been developed as controlled cell culture platforms for use in both fundamental and applied studies. However, how cells broadly remodel these initially well-defined matrices remains poorly understood and difficult to probe. In this work, we have established methods for widely examining both large and small proteins that are secreted by cells within synthetic matrices. Specifically, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), a model primary cell type, were cultured within well-defined poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-peptide hydrogels, and these cell-matrix constructs were decellularized and degraded for subsequent isolation and analysis of deposited proteins. Shotgun proteomics using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry identified a variety of proteins, including the large ECM proteins fibronectin and collagen VI. Immunostaining and confocal imaging confirmed these results and provided visualization of protein organization within the synthetic matrices. Additionally, culture medium was collected from the encapsulated hMSCs, and a Luminex assay was performed to identify secreted soluble factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelial growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), interleukin 8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Together, these methods provide a unique approach for studying dynamic reciprocity between cells and synthetic microenvironments and have the potential to provide new biological insights into cell responses during three-dimensional (3D) controlled cell culture.

  10. Identification of the cell binding domain in Nipah virus G glycoprotein using a phage display system.

    PubMed

    Lam, Chui-Wan; AbuBakar, Sazaly; Chang, Li-Yen

    2017-05-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxovirus with unusual broad host tropism and is designated as a Category C pathogen by the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. NiV infection is initiated after binding of the viral G glycoprotein to the host cell receptor. The aim of this study was to map the NiV G glycoprotein cell binding domain using a phage display system. The NiV G extracellular domain was truncated and displayed as attachment proteins on M13 phage g3p minor coat protein. The binding efficiency of recombinant phages displaying different regions of NiV G to mammalian cells was evaluated. Results showed that regions of NiV G consisting of amino acids 396-602 (recombinant phage G4) and 498-602 (recombinant phage G5) demonstrated the highest binding to both Vero (5.5×10 3 cfu/ml and 5.6×10 3 cfu/ml) and THP-1 cells (3.5×10 3 cfu/ml and 2.9×10 3 cfu/ml). However, the binding of both of these recombinant phages to THP-1 cells was significantly lower than to Vero cells, and this could be due to the lack of primary host cell receptor expression on THP-1 cells. Furthermore, the binding between these two recombinant phages was competitive suggesting that there was a common host cell attachment site. This study employed an approach that is suitable for use in a biosafety level 2 containment laboratory without the need to use live virus to show that NiV G amino acids 498-602 play an important role for attachment to host cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of cancer initiating cells in K-Ras driven lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mainardi, Sara; Mijimolle, Nieves; Francoz, Sarah; Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Sánchez-García, Isidro; Barbacid, Mariano

    2014-01-07

    Ubiquitous expression of a resident K-Ras(G12V) oncogene in adult mice revealed that most tissues are resistant to K-Ras oncogenic signals. Indeed, K-Ras(G12V) expression only induced overt tumors in lungs. To identify these transformation-permissive cells, we induced K-Ras(G12V) expression in a very limited number of adult lung cells (0.2%) and monitored their fate by X-Gal staining, a surrogate marker coexpressed with the K-Ras(G12V) oncoprotein. Four weeks later, 30% of these cells had proliferated to form small clusters. However, only SPC(+) alveolar type II (ATII) cells were able to form hyperplastic lesions, some of which progressed to adenomas and adenocarcinomas. In contrast, induction of K-Ras(G12V) expression in lung cells by intratracheal infection with adenoviral-Cre particles generated hyperplasias in all regions except the proximal airways. Bronchiolar and bronchioalveolar duct junction hyperplasias were primarily made of CC10(+) Clara cells. Some of them progressed to form benign adenomas. However, only alveolar hyperplasias, exclusively made up of SPC(+) ATII cells, progressed to yield malignant adenocarcinomas. Adenoviral infection induced inflammatory infiltrates primarily made of T and B cells. This inflammatory response was essential for the development of K-Ras(G12V)-driven bronchiolar hyperplasias and adenomas, but not for the generation of SPC(+) ATII lesions. Finally, activation of K-Ras(G12V) during embryonic development under the control of a Sca1 promoter yielded CC10(+), but not SPC(+), hyperplasias, and adenomas. These results, taken together, illustrate that different types of lung cells can generate benign lesions in response to K-Ras oncogenic signals. However, in adult mice, only SPC(+) ATII cells were able to yield malignant adenocarcinomas.

  12. Identification of tissue-specific cell death using methylation patterns of circulating DNA

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann-Werman, Roni; Neiman, Daniel; Zemmour, Hai; Moss, Joshua; Magenheim, Judith; Vaknin-Dembinsky, Adi; Rubertsson, Sten; Nellgård, Bengt; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Spalding, Kirsty; Haller, Michael J.; Wasserfall, Clive H.; Schatz, Desmond A.; Greenbaum, Carla J.; Dorrell, Craig; Grompe, Markus; Zick, Aviad; Hubert, Ayala; Maoz, Myriam; Fendrich, Volker; Bartsch, Detlef K.; Golan, Talia; Ben Sasson, Shmuel A.; Zamir, Gideon; Razin, Aharon; Cedar, Howard; Shapiro, A. M. James; Glaser, Benjamin; Shemer, Ruth; Dor, Yuval

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive detection of cell death could prove an invaluable resource in many physiologic and pathologic situations. Cell-free circulating DNA (cfDNA) released from dying cells is emerging as a diagnostic tool for monitoring cancer dynamics and graft failure. However, existing methods rely on differences in DNA sequences in source tissues, so that cell death cannot be identified in tissues with a normal genome. We developed a method of detecting tissue-specific cell death in humans based on tissue-specific methylation patterns in cfDNA. We interrogated tissue-specific methylome databases to identify cell type-specific DNA methylation signatures and developed a method to detect these signatures in mixed DNA samples. We isolated cfDNA from plasma or serum of donors, treated the cfDNA with bisulfite, PCR-amplified the cfDNA, and sequenced it to quantify cfDNA carrying the methylation markers of the cell type of interest. Pancreatic β-cell DNA was identified in the circulation of patients with recently diagnosed type-1 diabetes and islet-graft recipients; oligodendrocyte DNA was identified in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis; neuronal/glial DNA was identified in patients after traumatic brain injury or cardiac arrest; and exocrine pancreas DNA was identified in patients with pancreatic cancer or pancreatitis. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that the tissue origins of cfDNA and thus the rate of death of specific cell types can be determined in humans. The approach can be adapted to identify cfDNA derived from any cell type in the body, offering a minimally invasive window for diagnosing and monitoring a broad spectrum of human pathologies as well as providing a better understanding of normal tissue dynamics. PMID:26976580

  13. Proteomic Identification of Heat Shock-Induced Danger Signals in a Melanoma Cell Lysate Used in Dendritic Cell-Based Cancer Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    González, Fermín E; Chernobrovkin, Alexey; Pereda, Cristián; García-Salum, Tamara; Tittarelli, Andrés; López, Mercedes N; Salazar-Onfray, Flavio; Zubarev, Roman A

    2018-01-01

    Autologous dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with cancer cell-derived lysates have become a promising tool in cancer immunotherapy. During the last decade, we demonstrated that vaccination of advanced melanoma patients with autologous tumor antigen presenting cells (TAPCells) loaded with an allogeneic heat shock- (HS-) conditioned melanoma cell-derived lysate (called TRIMEL) is able to induce an antitumor immune response associated with a prolonged patient survival. TRIMEL provides not only a broad spectrum of potential melanoma-associated antigens but also danger signals that are crucial in the induction of a committed mature DC phenotype. However, potential changes induced by heat conditioning on the proteome of TRIMEL are still unknown. The identification of newly or differentially expressed proteins under defined stress conditions is relevant for understanding the lysate immunogenicity. Here, we characterized the proteomic profile of TRIMEL in response to HS treatment. A quantitative label-free proteome analysis of over 2800 proteins was performed, with 91 proteins that were found to be regulated by HS treatment: 18 proteins were overexpressed and 73 underexpressed. Additionally, 32 proteins were only identified in the HS-treated TRIMEL and 26 in non HS-conditioned samples. One protein from the overexpressed group and two proteins from the HS-exclusive group were previously described as potential damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Some of the HS-induced proteins, such as haptoglobin, could be also considered as DAMPs and candidates for further immunological analysis in the establishment of new putative danger signals with immunostimulatory functions.

  14. Proteomic Identification of Heat Shock-Induced Danger Signals in a Melanoma Cell Lysate Used in Dendritic Cell-Based Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chernobrovkin, Alexey; Pereda, Cristián; García-Salum, Tamara; Tittarelli, Andrés; López, Mercedes N.; Salazar-Onfray, Flavio

    2018-01-01

    Autologous dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with cancer cell-derived lysates have become a promising tool in cancer immunotherapy. During the last decade, we demonstrated that vaccination of advanced melanoma patients with autologous tumor antigen presenting cells (TAPCells) loaded with an allogeneic heat shock- (HS-) conditioned melanoma cell-derived lysate (called TRIMEL) is able to induce an antitumor immune response associated with a prolonged patient survival. TRIMEL provides not only a broad spectrum of potential melanoma-associated antigens but also danger signals that are crucial in the induction of a committed mature DC phenotype. However, potential changes induced by heat conditioning on the proteome of TRIMEL are still unknown. The identification of newly or differentially expressed proteins under defined stress conditions is relevant for understanding the lysate immunogenicity. Here, we characterized the proteomic profile of TRIMEL in response to HS treatment. A quantitative label-free proteome analysis of over 2800 proteins was performed, with 91 proteins that were found to be regulated by HS treatment: 18 proteins were overexpressed and 73 underexpressed. Additionally, 32 proteins were only identified in the HS-treated TRIMEL and 26 in non HS-conditioned samples. One protein from the overexpressed group and two proteins from the HS-exclusive group were previously described as potential damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Some of the HS-induced proteins, such as haptoglobin, could be also considered as DAMPs and candidates for further immunological analysis in the establishment of new putative danger signals with immunostimulatory functions. PMID:29744371

  15. Identification of a Peptide-Pheromone that Enhances Listeria monocytogenes Escape from Host Cell Vacuoles

    PubMed Central

    Xayarath, Bobbi; Alonzo, Francis; Freitag, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that invades mammalian cells and escapes from membrane-bound vacuoles to replicate within the host cell cytosol. Gene products required for intracellular bacterial growth and bacterial spread to adjacent cells are regulated by a transcriptional activator known as PrfA. PrfA becomes activated following L. monocytogenes entry into host cells, however the signal that stimulates PrfA activation has not yet been defined. Here we provide evidence for L. monocytogenes secretion of a small peptide pheromone, pPplA, which enhances the escape of L. monocytogenes from host cell vacuoles and may facilitate PrfA activation. The pPplA pheromone is generated via the proteolytic processing of the PplA lipoprotein secretion signal peptide. While the PplA lipoprotein is dispensable for pathogenesis, bacteria lacking the pPplA pheromone are significantly attenuated for virulence in mice and have a reduced efficiency of bacterial escape from the vacuoles of nonprofessional phagocytic cells. Mutational activation of PrfA restores virulence and eliminates the need for pPplA-dependent signaling. Experimental evidence suggests that the pPplA peptide may help signal to L. monocytogenes its presence within the confines of the host cell vacuole, stimulating the expression of gene products that contribute to vacuole escape and facilitating PrfA activation to promote bacterial growth within the cytosol. PMID:25822753

  16. Identification of LMO2 transcriptome and interactome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Cubedo, Elena; Gentles, Andrew J.; Huang, Chuanxin; Natkunam, Yasodha; Bhatt, Shruti; Lu, Xiaoqing; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Romero-Camarero, Isabel; Freud, Aharon; Zhao, Shuchun; Bacchi, Carlos E.; Martínez-Climent, Jose A.; Sánchez-García, Isidro; Melnick, Ari

    2012-01-01

    LMO2 regulates gene expression by facilitating the formation of multipartite DNA-binding complexes. In B cells, LMO2 is specifically up-regulated in the germinal center (GC) and is expressed in GC-derived non-Hodgkin lymphomas. LMO2 is one of the most powerful prognostic indicators in diffuse large B-cell (DLBCL) patients. However, its function in GC B cells and DLBCL is currently unknown. In this study, we characterized the LMO2 transcriptome and transcriptional complex in DLBCL cells. LMO2 regulates genes implicated in kinetochore function, chromosome assembly, and mitosis. Overexpression of LMO2 in DLBCL cell lines results in centrosome amplification. In DLBCL, the LMO2 complex contains some of the traditional partners, such as LDB1, E2A, HEB, Lyl1, ETO2, and SP1, but not TAL1 or GATA proteins. Furthermore, we identified novel LMO2 interacting partners: ELK1, nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFATc1), and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor1 (LEF1) proteins. Reporter assays revealed that LMO2 increases transcriptional activity of NFATc1 and decreases transcriptional activity of LEF1 proteins. Overall, our studies identified a novel LMO2 transcriptome and interactome in DLBCL and provides a platform for future elucidation of LMO2 function in GC B cells and DLBCL pathogenesis. PMID:22517897

  17. [Isolation and identification of human periodontal ligament stem cells in vitro].

    PubMed

    Shen, Tao; Chang, Hui-jun; Jian, Cong-xiang; Yang, Yan-chun; Zhou, Ji-xiang

    2011-02-01

    To isolate and identify human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC) by improved methods and assess the characteristics of PDLSC ex vivo. The periodontal ligament cells were obtained from the healthy impacted third molars and teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes and used to isolate PDLSC by limiting dilution assay. PDLSC were cultured and expanded in alpha-MEM supplemented with 10% FBS. Colony-forming assay, immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, osteogenic and adipogenic induction were used to identify PDLSC. The obtained cells had high colony-forming efficiency and were positive staining for vimentin and negative for pancytokeratin. Flow cytometry revealed that the isolated cells were positive for STRO-1 and CD146 antibodies and most were in the G0/G1 phase of cell cycle. Under specific conditions, they could differentiate to the osteoblast and adipocyte lineages in vitro. Limiting dilution assay is an effective method to isolate PDLSC and the single-cell-derived colonies demonstrate the properties of stem cells in vitro.

  18. Identification of flubendazole as potential anti-neuroblastoma compound in a large cell line screen.

    PubMed

    Michaelis, Martin; Agha, Bishr; Rothweiler, Florian; Löschmann, Nadine; Voges, Yvonne; Mittelbronn, Michel; Starzetz, Tatjana; Harter, Patrick N; Abhari, Behnaz A; Fulda, Simone; Westermann, Frank; Riecken, Kristoffer; Spek, Silvia; Langer, Klaus; Wiese, Michael; Dirks, Wilhelm G; Zehner, Richard; Cinatl, Jaroslav; Wass, Mark N; Cinatl, Jindrich

    2015-02-03

    Flubendazole was shown to exert anti-leukaemia and anti-myeloma activity through inhibition of microtubule function. Here, flubendazole was tested for its effects on the viability of in total 461 cancer cell lines. Neuroblastoma was identified as highly flubendazole-sensitive cancer entity in a screen of 321 cell lines from 26 cancer entities. Flubendazole also reduced the viability of five primary neuroblastoma samples in nanomolar concentrations thought to be achievable in humans and inhibited vessel formation and neuroblastoma tumour growth in the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. Resistance acquisition is a major problem in high-risk neuroblastoma. 119 cell lines from a panel of 140 neuroblastoma cell lines with acquired resistance to various anti-cancer drugs were sensitive to flubendazole in nanomolar concentrations. Tubulin-binding agent-resistant cell lines displayed the highest flubendazole IC50 and IC90 values but differences between drug classes did not reach statistical significance. Flubendazole induced p53-mediated apoptosis. The siRNA-mediated depletion of the p53 targets p21, BAX, or PUMA reduced the neuroblastoma cell sensitivity to flubendazole with PUMA depletion resulting in the most pronounced effects. The MDM2 inhibitor and p53 activator nutlin-3 increased flubendazole efficacy while RNAi-mediated p53-depletion reduced its activity. In conclusion, flubendazole represents a potential treatment option for neuroblastoma including therapy-refractory cells.

  19. Identification of flubendazole as potential anti-neuroblastoma compound in a large cell line screen

    PubMed Central

    Michaelis, Martin; Agha, Bishr; Rothweiler, Florian; Löschmann, Nadine; Voges, Yvonne; Mittelbronn, Michel; Starzetz, Tatjana; Harter, Patrick N.; Abhari, Behnaz A.; Fulda, Simone; Westermann, Frank; Riecken, Kristoffer; Spek, Silvia; Langer, Klaus; Wiese, Michael; Dirks, Wilhelm G.; Zehner, Richard; Cinatl, Jaroslav; Wass, Mark N.; Cinatl, Jindrich

    2015-01-01

    Flubendazole was shown to exert anti-leukaemia and anti-myeloma activity through inhibition of microtubule function. Here, flubendazole was tested for its effects on the viability of in total 461 cancer cell lines. Neuroblastoma was identified as highly flubendazole-sensitive cancer entity in a screen of 321 cell lines from 26 cancer entities. Flubendazole also reduced the viability of five primary neuroblastoma samples in nanomolar concentrations thought to be achievable in humans and inhibited vessel formation and neuroblastoma tumour growth in the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. Resistance acquisition is a major problem in high-risk neuroblastoma. 119 cell lines from a panel of 140 neuroblastoma cell lines with acquired resistance to various anti-cancer drugs were sensitive to flubendazole in nanomolar concentrations. Tubulin-binding agent-resistant cell lines displayed the highest flubendazole IC50 and IC90 values but differences between drug classes did not reach statistical significance. Flubendazole induced p53-mediated apoptosis. The siRNA-mediated depletion of the p53 targets p21, BAX, or PUMA reduced the neuroblastoma cell sensitivity to flubendazole with PUMA depletion resulting in the most pronounced effects. The MDM2 inhibitor and p53 activator nutlin-3 increased flubendazole efficacy while RNAi-mediated p53-depletion reduced its activity. In conclusion, flubendazole represents a potential treatment option for neuroblastoma including therapy-refractory cells. PMID:25644037

  20. Identification of early B cell precursors (stage 1 and 2 hematogones) in the peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Kurzer, Jason H; Weinberg, Olga K

    2018-05-25

    Differentiating malignant B-lymphoblasts from early benign B cell precursors (hematogones) is a vital component of the diagnosis of B-lymphoblastic leukaemia. It has been previously reported that only late-stage B cell precursors circulate in the peripheral blood. Consequently, flow cytometric detection of cells with immunophenotypic findings similar to earlier stage precursors in the peripheral blood justifiably raises concern for involvement by B-lymphoblastic leukaemia. We report here, however, that benign early B cell precursors can indeed be detected in the peripheral blood, thus complicating the interpretation of flow cytometric findings derived from these sample types. A retrospective search of our collective databases identified 13 cases containing circulating early stage B cell precursors. The patients ranged in age from 15 days to 85 years old. All positive cases demonstrated that the earlier B cell precursors were associated with later stage precursors, a finding that could help differentiate these cells from B-lymphoblastic leukaemia. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Summary of the DREAM8 Parameter Estimation Challenge: Toward Parameter Identification for Whole-Cell Models.

    PubMed

    Karr, Jonathan R; Williams, Alex H; Zucker, Jeremy D; Raue, Andreas; Steiert, Bernhard; Timmer, Jens; Kreutz, Clemens; Wilkinson, Simon; Allgood, Brandon A; Bot, Brian M; Hoff, Bruce R; Kellen, Michael R; Covert, Markus W; Stolovitzky, Gustavo A; Meyer, Pablo

    2015-05-01

    Whole-cell models that explicitly represent all cellular components at the molecular level have the potential to predict phenotype from genotype. However, even for simple bacteria, whole-cell models will contain thousands of parameters, many of which are poorly characterized or unknown. New algorithms are needed to estimate these parameters and enable researchers to build increasingly comprehensive models. We organized the Dialogue for Reverse Engineering Assessments and Methods (DREAM) 8 Whole-Cell Parameter Estimation Challenge to develop new parameter estimation algorithms for whole-cell models. We asked participants to identify a subset of parameters of a whole-cell model given the model's structure and in silico "experimental" data. Here we describe the challenge, the best performing methods, and new insights into the identifiability of whole-cell models. We also describe several valuable lessons we learned toward improving future challenges. Going forward, we believe that collaborative efforts supported by inexpensive cloud computing have the potential to solve whole-cell model parameter estimation.

  2. Identification and characterisation of side population cells in the canine pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Sarah J; Gremeaux, Lies; Riemers, Frank M; Brinkhof, Bas; Vankelecom, Hugo; Penning, Louis C; Meij, Björn P

    2012-06-01

    To date, stem/progenitor cells have not been identified in the canine pituitary gland. Cells that efficiently exclude the vital dye Hoechst 33342 can be visualised and identified using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) as a 'side population' (SP), distinct from the main population (MP). Such SPs have been identified in several tissues and display stem/progenitor cell characteristics. In this study, a small SP (1.3%, n=6) was detected in the anterior pituitary glands of healthy dogs. Quantitative PCR indicated significantly higher expression of CD34 and Thy1 in this SP, but no differences in the expression of CD133, Bmi-1, Axin2 or Shh. Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and Lhx3 expression were significantly higher in the MP than in the SP, but no differences in the expression of Tpit, GH or PRL were found. The study demonstrated the existence of an SP of cells in the normal canine pituitary gland, encompassing cells with stem cell characteristics and without POMC expression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells by Immunofluorescence with Pax7 and Laminin Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xuesong; Naz, Faiza; Juan, Aster H; Dell'Orso, Stefania; Sartorelli, Vittorio

    2018-04-19

    Immunofluorescence is an effective method that helps to identify different cell types on tissue sections. In order to study the desired cell population, antibodies for specific cell markers are applied on tissue sections. In adult skeletal muscle, satellite cells (SCs) are stem cells that contribute to muscle repair and regeneration. Therefore, it is important to visualize and trace the satellite cell population under different physiological conditions. In resting skeletal muscle, SCs reside between the basal lamina and myofiber plasma membrane. A commonly used marker for identifying SCs on the myofibers or in cell culture is the paired box protein Pax7. In this article, an optimized Pax7 immunofluorescence protocol on skeletal muscle sections is presented that minimizes non-specific staining and background. Another antibody that recognizes a protein (laminin) of the basal lamina was also added to help identify SCs. Similar protocols can also be used to perform double or triple labeling with Pax7 and antibodies for additional proteins of interest.

  4. Identification of Nascent Memory CD8 T Cells and Modeling of Their Ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Crauste, Fabien; Mafille, Julien; Boucinha, Lilia; Djebali, Sophia; Gandrillon, Olivier; Marvel, Jacqueline; Arpin, Christophe

    2017-03-22

    Primary immune responses generate short-term effectors and long-term protective memory cells. The delineation of the genealogy linking naive, effector, and memory cells has been complicated by the lack of phenotypes discriminating effector from memory differentiation stages. Using transcriptomics and phenotypic analyses, we identify Bcl2 and Mki67 as a marker combination that enables the tracking of nascent memory cells within the effector phase. We then use a formal approach based on mathematical models describing the dynamics of population size evolution to test potential progeny links and demonstrate that most cells follow a linear naive→early effector→late effector→memory pathway. Moreover, our mathematical model allows long-term prediction of memory cell numbers from a few early experimental measurements. Our work thus provides a phenotypic means to identify effector and memory cells, as well as a mathematical framework to investigate their genealogy and to predict the outcome of immunization regimens in terms of memory cell numbers generated. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of BAG3 target proteins in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells by proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Galdiero, Francesca; Bello, Anna Maria; Spina, Anna; Capiluongo, Anna; Liuu, Sophie; De Marco, Margot; Rosati, Alessandra; Capunzo, Mario; Napolitano, Maria; Vuttariello, Emilia; Monaco, Mario; Califano, Daniela; Turco, Maria Caterina; Chiappetta, Gennaro; Vinh, Joëlle; Chiappetta, Giovanni

    2018-01-30

    BAG3 protein is an apoptosis inhibitor and is highly expressed in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer. We investigated the entire set of proteins modulated by BAG3 silencing in the human anaplastic thyroid 8505C cancer cells by using the Stable-Isotope Labeling by Amino acids in Cell culture strategy combined with mass spectrometry analysis. By this approach we identified 37 up-regulated and 54 down-regulated proteins in BAG3-silenced cells. Many of these proteins are reportedly involved in tumor progression, invasiveness and resistance to therapies. We focused our attention on an oncogenic protein, CAV1, and a tumor suppressor protein, SERPINB2, that had not previously been reported to be modulated by BAG3. Their expression levels in BAG3-silenced cells were confirmed by qRT-PCR and western blot analyses, disclosing two novel targets of BAG3 pro-tumor activity. We also examined the dataset of proteins obtained by the quantitative proteomics analysis using two tools, Downstream Effect Analysis and Upstream Regulator Analysis of the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis software. Our analyses confirm the association of the proteome profile observed in BAG3-silenced cells with an increase in cell survival and a decrease in cell proliferation and invasion, and highlight the possible involvement of four tumor suppressor miRNAs and TP53/63 proteins in BAG3 activity.

  6. A framework for identification of actionable cancer genome dependencies in small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sos, Martin L.; Dietlein, Felix; Peifer, Martin; Schöttle, Jakob; Balke-Want, Hyatt; Müller, Christian; Koker, Mirjam; Richters, André; Heynck, Stefanie; Malchers, Florian; Heuckmann, Johannes M.; Seidel, Danila; Eyers, Patrick A.; Ullrich, Roland T.; Antonchick, Andrey P.; Vintonyak, Viktor V.; Schneider, Peter M.; Ninomiya, Takashi; Waldmann, Herbert; Büttner, Reinhard; Rauh, Daniel; Heukamp, Lukas C.; Thomas, Roman K.

    2012-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for about 15% of all lung cancers. The prognosis of SCLC patients is devastating and no biologically targeted therapeutics are active in this tumor type. To develop a framework for development of specific SCLC-targeted drugs we conducted a combined genomic and pharmacological vulnerability screen in SCLC cell lines. We show that SCLC cell lines capture the genomic landscape of primary SCLC tumors and provide genetic predictors for activity of clinically relevant inhibitors by screening 267 compounds across 44 of these cell lines. We show Aurora kinase inhibitors are effective in SCLC cell lines bearing MYC amplification, which occur in 3–7% of SCLC patients. In MYC-amplified SCLC cells Aurora kinase inhibition associates with G2/M-arrest, inactivation of PI3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, and induction of apoptosis. Aurora dependency in SCLC primarily involved Aurora B, required its kinase activity, and was independent of depletion of cytoplasmic levels of MYC. Our study suggests that a fraction of SCLC patients may benefit from therapeutic inhibition of Aurora B. Thus, thorough chemical and genomic exploration of SCLC cell lines may provide starting points for further development of rational targeted therapeutic intervention in this deadly tumor type. PMID:23035247

  7. Summary of the DREAM8 Parameter Estimation Challenge: Toward Parameter Identification for Whole-Cell Models

    PubMed Central

    Karr, Jonathan R.; Williams, Alex H.; Zucker, Jeremy D.; Raue, Andreas; Steiert, Bernhard; Timmer, Jens; Kreutz, Clemens; Wilkinson, Simon; Allgood, Brandon A.; Bot, Brian M.; Hoff, Bruce R.; Kellen, Michael R.; Covert, Markus W.; Stolovitzky, Gustavo A.; Meyer, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Whole-cell models that explicitly represent all cellular components at the molecular level have the potential to predict phenotype from genotype. However, even for simple bacteria, whole-cell models will contain thousands of parameters, many of which are poorly characterized or unknown. New algorithms are needed to estimate these parameters and enable researchers to build increasingly comprehensive models. We organized the Dialogue for Reverse Engineering Assessments and Methods (DREAM) 8 Whole-Cell Parameter Estimation Challenge to develop new parameter estimation algorithms for whole-cell models. We asked participants to identify a subset of parameters of a whole-cell model given the model’s structure and in silico “experimental” data. Here we describe the challenge, the best performing methods, and new insights into the identifiability of whole-cell models. We also describe several valuable lessons we learned toward improving future challenges. Going forward, we believe that collaborative efforts supported by inexpensive cloud computing have the potential to solve whole-cell model parameter estimation. PMID:26020786

  8. Targeted Identification of Metastasis-associated Cell-surface Sialoglycoproteins in Prostate Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lifang; Nyalwidhe, Julius O.; Guo, Siqi; Drake, Richard R.; Semmes, O. John

    2011-01-01

    Covalent attachment of carbohydrates to proteins is one of the most common post-translational modifications. At the cell surface, sugar moieties of glycoproteins contribute to molecular recognition events involved in cancer metastasis. We have combined glycan metabolic labeling with mass spectrometry analysis to identify and characterize metastasis-associated cell surface sialoglycoproteins. Our model system used syngeneic prostate cancer cell lines derived from PC3 (N2, nonmetastatic, and ML2, highly metastatic). The metabolic incorporation of AC4ManNAz and subsequent specific labeling of cell surface sialylation was confirmed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Affinity isolation of the modified sialic-acid containing cell surface proteins via click chemistry was followed by SDS-PAGE separation and liquid chromatography-tandem MS analysis. We identified 324 proteins from N2 and 372 proteins of ML2. Using conservative annotation, 64 proteins (26%) from N2 and 72 proteins (29%) from ML2 were classified as extracellular or membrane-associated glycoproteins. A selective enrichment of sialoglycoproteins was confirmed. When compared with global proteomic analysis of the same cells, the proportion of identified glycoprotein and cell-surface proteins were on average threefold higher using the selective capture approach. Functional clustering of differentially expressed proteins by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that the vast majority of glycoproteins overexpressed in the metastatic ML2 subline were involved in cell motility, migration, and invasion. Our approach effectively targeted surface sialoglycoproteins and efficiently identified proteins that underlie the metastatic potential of the ML2 cells. PMID:21447706

  9. Identification of helper T cell epitopes of dengue virus E-protein.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, C; Dériaud, E; Megret, F; Briand, J P; Van Regenmortel, M H; Deubel, V

    1993-05-01

    The T cell proliferative response to dengue 2 (Jamaica) E-glycoprotein (495 amino acids) was analyzed in vitro using either killed virus or E-protein fragments or synthetic peptides. Inactivated dengue virus stimulated dengue-specific lymph node (LN) CD4+T cell proliferation in BALB/c (H-2d), C3H (H-2k) and DBA/1 (H-2q) but not in C57BL/6 (H-2b) mice. Moreover, LN cells from dengue-virus primed BALB/c mice proliferated in vitro in response to three purified non-overlapping E-protein fragments expressed in E. coli as polypeptides fused to trpE (f22-205, f267-354, f366-424). To further determine T cell epitopes in the E-protein, synthetic peptides were selected using prediction algorithms for T cell epitopes. Highest proliferative responses were obtained after in vitro exposure of virus-primed LN cells to peptides p135-157, p270-298, p295-307 and p337-359. Peptide p59-78 was able to induce specific B and T cell responses in peptide-primed mice of H-2d, H-2q and H-2k haplotypes. Two peptides p59-78 corresponding to two dengue (Jamaica and Sri Lanka) isolates and differing only at position 71 cross-reacted at the B but not at the T cell level in H-2b mice. This analysis of murine T helper cell response to dengue E-protein may be of use in dengue subunit vaccine design.

  10. Clinical allergy to hazelnut and peanut: identification of T cell cross-reactive allergens.

    PubMed

    Glaspole, Ian N; de Leon, Maria P; Prickett, Sara R; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Rolland, Jennifer M

    2011-01-01

    Peanut and tree nut allergies are life-threatening conditions for many affected individuals worldwide. Currently there is no cure. While co-allergy to peanut and tree nuts is a common clinical observation, and IgE cross-reactivity between peanut and tree nuts is reported, T cell cross-reactivity is poorly defined. Hazelnut-specific T cell lines were established using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 5 subjects with co-allergy to hazelnut and peanut. These lines were stimulated with hazelnut and peanut extracts and purified major peanut allergens, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2. Proliferation was determined by (3)H-thymidine incorporation and secretion of key Th1 (IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-5) cytokines analysed by ELISA. Hazelnut-specific T cell lines from all 5 subjects proliferated upon stimulation with both hazelnut and peanut extracts and for 4 subjects, to Ara h 1 and/or Ara h 2. Proliferating cells were mainly CD4+ T cells and produced both IL-5 and IFN-γ in response to hazelnut and peanut stimulation. Mitogenicity of extracts and allergens was excluded by their lack of stimulation of house dust mite-specific T cells. Our finding that hazelnut and peanut co-allergy is associated with cross-reactive T cell responses, driven partly by cross-reactivity to the major peanut allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, points to future development of allergen immunotherapy by targeting cross-reactive T cells. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Identification and characterization of smallest pore-forming protein in the cell wall of pathogenic Corynebacterium urealyticum DSM 7109.

    PubMed

    Abdali, Narges; Younas, Farhan; Mafakheri, Samaneh; Pothula, Karunakar R; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich; Tauch, Andreas; Benz, Roland

    2018-05-09

    Corynebacterium urealyticum, a pathogenic, multidrug resistant member of the mycolata, is known as causative agent of urinary tract infections although it is a bacterium of the skin flora. This pathogenic bacterium shares with the mycolata the property of having an unusual cell envelope composition and architecture, typical for the genus Corynebacterium. The cell wall of members of the mycolata contains channel-forming proteins for the uptake of solutes. In this study, we provide novel information on the identification and characterization of a pore-forming protein in the cell wall of C. urealyticum DSM 7109. Detergent extracts of whole C. urealyticum cultures formed in lipid bilayer membranes slightly cation-selective pores with a single-channel conductance of 1.75 nS in 1 M KCl. Experiments with different salts and non-electrolytes suggested that the cell wall pore of C. urealyticum is wide and water-filled and has a diameter of about 1.8 nm. Molecular modelling and dynamics has been performed to obtain a model of the pore. For the search of the gene coding for the cell wall pore of C. urealyticum we looked in the known genome of C. urealyticum for a similar chromosomal localization of the porin gene to known porH and porA genes of other Corynebacterium strains. Three genes are located between the genes coding for GroEL2 and polyphosphate kinase (PKK2). Two of the genes (cur_1714 and cur_1715) were expressed in different constructs in C. glutamicum ΔporAΔporH and in porin-deficient BL21 DE3 Omp8 E. coli strains. The results suggested that the gene cur_1714 codes alone for the cell wall channel. The cell wall porin of C. urealyticum termed PorACur was purified to homogeneity using different biochemical methods and had an apparent molecular mass of about 4 kDa on tricine-containing sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Biophysical characterization of the purified protein (PorACur) suggested indeed that cur_1714 is the gene

  12. Identification of candidate vaccine antigens of bovine hemoparasites Theileria parva and Babesia bovis by use of helper T cell clones.

    PubMed

    Brown, W C; Zhao, S; Logan, K S; Grab, D J; Rice-Ficht, A C

    1995-03-01

    Current vaccines for bovine hemoparasites utilize live attenuated organisms or virulent organisms administered concurrently with antiparasitic drugs. Although such vaccines can be effective, for most hemoparasites the mechanisms of acquired resistance to challenge infection with heterologous parasite isolates have not been clearly defined. Selection of potentially protective antigens has traditionally made use of antibodies to identify immunodominant proteins. However, numerous studies have indicated that induction of high antibody titers neither predicts the ability of an antigen to confer protective immunity nor correlates with protection. Because successful parasites have evolved antibody evasion tactics, alternative strategies to identify protective immunogens should be used. Through the elaboration of cytokines, T helper 1-(Th1)-like T cells and macrophages mediate protective immunity against many intracellular parasites, and therefore most likely play an important role in protective immunity against bovine hemoparasites. CD4+ T cell clones specific for soluble or membrane antigens of either Theileria parva schizonts or Babesia bovis merozoites were therefore employed to identify parasite antigens that elicit strong Th cell responses in vitro. Soluble cytosolic parasite antigen was fractionated by gel filtration, anion exchange chromatography or hydroxylapatite chromatography, or a combination thereof, and fractions were tested for the ability to induce proliferation of Th cell clones. This procedure enabled the identification of stimulatory fractions containing T. parva proteins of approximately 10 and 24 kDa. Antisera raised against the purified 24 kDa band reacted with a native schizont protein of approximately 30 kDa. Babesia bovis-specific Th cell clones tested against fractionated soluble Babesia bovis merozoite antigen revealed the presence of at least five distinct antigenic epitopes. Proteins separated by gel filtration revealed four patterns of

  13. Identification of ATF5-Interacting, SH3-Containing Proteins in Breast Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    CRE-dependent gene repression on R-Ras, HSP27 , and 14-3-3eta, which contribute to ATF5- mediated cell proliferation in Hep3B cell. (Fig. 5) Page 6...transfected with indicated constructs and mRNA level for R-Ras, HSP27 , and YWHAH(14-3-3eta) was determined by RT-PCR. β-actin was used as control...B23-dependent regulation of ATF5 stability impacts on expression of ATF5 downstream targets R-Ras, HSP27 , and 14-3-3eta, and cell proliferation of

  14. Identification of mast cells in buffy coat preparations from dogs with inflammatory skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Cayatte, S M; McManus, P M; Miller, W H; Scott, D W

    1995-02-01

    In 100 dogs with 4 inflammatory dermatologic diseases, buffy coat preparations from EDTA-treated blood samples were examined cytologically. Fifty-four dogs had atopy, 26 had flea-bite hypersensitivity, 17 had sarcoptic mange, and 3 had food allergy. Twenty-eight dogs had 2 or more concurrent skin diseases; most of these had secondary pyoderma. Dogs did not have mast cell tumors. Thirteen samples contained 1 or more mast cells/4 slides reviewed. This study revealed that dogs with inflammatory skin diseases can have a few to many mast cells evident on cytologic examination of buffy coat preparations.

  15. Improvement in Saccharification Yield of Mixed Rumen Enzymes by Identification of Recalcitrant Cell Wall Constituents Using Enzyme Fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Badhan, Ajay; Wang, Yu-Xi; Gruninger, Robert; Patton, Donald; Powlowski, Justin; Tsang, Adrian; McAllister, Tim A

    2015-01-01

    Identification of recalcitrant factors that limit digestion of forages and the development of enzymatic approaches that improve hydrolysis could play a key role in improving the efficiency of meat and milk production in ruminants. Enzyme fingerprinting of barley silage fed to heifers and total tract indigestible fibre residue (TIFR) collected from feces was used to identify cell wall components resistant to total tract digestion. Enzyme fingerprinting results identified acetyl xylan esterases as key to the enhanced ruminal digestion. FTIR analysis also suggested cross-link cell wall polymers as principal components of indigested fiber residues in feces. Based on structural information from enzymatic fingerprinting and FTIR, enzyme pretreatment to enhance glucose yield from barley straw and alfalfa hay upon exposure to mixed rumen-enzymes was developed. Prehydrolysis effects of recombinant fungal fibrolytic hydrolases were analyzed using microassay in combination with statistical experimental design. Recombinant hemicellulases and auxiliary enzymes initiated degradation of plant structural polysaccharides upon application and improved the in vitro saccharification of alfalfa and barley straw by mixed rumen enzymes. The validation results showed that microassay in combination with statistical experimental design can be successfully used to predict effective enzyme pretreatments that can enhance plant cell wall digestion by mixed rumen enzymes.

  16. Cell-Free Expression and In Situ Immobilization of Parasite Proteins from Clonorchis sinensis for Rapid Identification of Antigenic Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Jung Won; Kim, Ho-Cheol; Shin, Hyun-Il; Kim, Yu Jung; Kim, Dong-Myung

    2015-01-01

    Progress towards genetic sequencing of human parasites has provided the groundwork for a post-genomic approach to develop novel antigens for the diagnosis and treatment of parasite infections. To fully utilize the genomic data, however, high-throughput methodologies are required for functional analysis of the proteins encoded in the genomic sequences. In this study, we investigated cell-free expression and in situ immobilization of parasite proteins as a novel platform for the discovery of antigenic proteins. PCR-amplified parasite DNA was immobilized on microbeads that were also functionalized to capture synthesized proteins. When the microbeads were incubated in a reaction mixture for cell-free synthesis, proteins expressed from the microbead-immobilized DNA were instantly immobilized on the same microbeads, providing a physical linkage between the genetic information and encoded proteins. This approach of in situ expression and isolation enables streamlined recovery and analysis of cell-free synthesized proteins and also allows facile identification of the genes coding antigenic proteins through direct PCR of the microbead-bound DNA. PMID:26599101

  17. Targeting of PHOX2B expression allows the identification of drugs effective in counteracting neuroblastoma cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Zanni, Eleonora Di; Bianchi, Giovanna; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Raffaghello, Lizzia; Ceccherini, Isabella; Bachetti, Tiziana

    2017-01-01

    The pathogenic role of the PHOX2B gene in neuroblastoma is indicated by heterozygous mutations in neuroblastoma patients and by gene overexpression in both neuroblastoma cell lines and tumor samples. PHOX2B encodes a transcription factor which is crucial for the correct development and differentiation of sympathetic neurons. PHOX2B overexpression is considered a prognostic marker for neuroblastoma and it is also used by clinicians to monitor minimal residual disease. Furthermore, it has been observed that neuronal differentiation in neuroblastoma is dependent on down-regulation of PHOX2B expression, which confirms that PHOX2B expression may be considered a target in neuroblastoma. Here, PHOX2B promoter or 3′ untranslated region were used as molecular targets in an in vitro high-throughput approach that led to the identification of molecules able to decrease PHOX2B expression at transcriptional and likely even at post-transcriptional levels. Further functional investigations carried out on PHOX2B mRNA levels and biological consequences, such as neuroblastoma cell apoptosis and growth, showed that chloroquine and mycophenolate mofetil are most promising agents for neuroblastoma therapy based on down-regulation of PHOX2B expression. Finally, a strong correlation between the effect of drugs in terms of down-regulation of PHOX2B expression and of biological consequences in neuroblastoma cells confirms the role of PHOX2B as a potential molecular target in neuroblastoma. PMID:29069774

  18. Identification of malaria parasite-infected red blood cell surface aptamers by inertial microfluidic SELEX (I-SELEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, Christina M.; Hou, Han Wei; Han, Jongyoon; Niles, Jacquin C.

    2015-07-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites invade and remodel human red blood cells (RBCs) by trafficking parasite-synthesized proteins to the RBC surface. While these proteins mediate interactions with host cells that contribute to disease pathogenesis, the infected RBC surface proteome remains poorly characterized. Here we use a novel strategy (I-SELEX) to discover high affinity aptamers that selectively recognize distinct epitopes uniquely present on parasite-infected RBCs. Based on inertial focusing in spiral microfluidic channels, I-SELEX enables stringent partitioning of cells (efficiency ≥ 106) from unbound oligonucleotides at high volume throughput (~2 × 106 cells min-1). Using an RBC model displaying a single, non-native antigen and live malaria parasite-infected RBCs as targets, we establish suitability of this strategy for de novo aptamer selections. We demonstrate recovery of a diverse set of aptamers that recognize distinct, surface-displayed epitopes on parasite-infected RBCs with nanomolar affinity, including an aptamer against the protein responsible for placental sequestration, var2CSA. These findings validate I-SELEX as a broadly applicable aptamer discovery platform that enables identification of new reagents for mapping the parasite-infected RBC surface proteome at higher molecular resolution to potentially contribute to malaria diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccine efforts.

  19. Prediction of B-cell linear epitopes with a combination of support vector machine classification and amino acid propensity identification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsin-Wei; Lin, Ya-Chi; Pai, Tun-Wen; Chang, Hao-Teng

    2011-01-01

    Epitopes are antigenic determinants that are useful because they induce B-cell antibody production and stimulate T-cell activation. Bioinformatics can enable rapid, efficient prediction of potential epitopes. Here, we designed a novel B-cell linear epitope prediction system called LEPS, Linear Epitope Prediction by Propensities and Support Vector Machine, that combined physico-chemical propensity identification and support vector machine (SVM) classification. We tested the LEPS on four datasets: AntiJen, HIV, a newly generated PC, and AHP, a combination of these three datasets. Peptides with globally or locally high physicochemical propensities were first identified as primitive linear epitope (LE) candidates. Then, candidates were classified with the SVM based on the unique features of amino acid segments. This reduced the number of predicted epitopes and enhanced the positive prediction value (PPV). Compared to four other well-known LE prediction systems, the LEPS achieved the highest accuracy (72.52%), specificity (84.22%), PPV (32.07%), and Matthews' correlation coefficient (10.36%).

  20. Identification of a novel set of genes reflecting different in vivo invasive patterns of human GBM cells.

    PubMed

    Monticone, Massimiliano; Daga, Antonio; Candiani, Simona; Romeo, Francesco; Mirisola, Valentina; Viaggi, Silvia; Melloni, Ilaria; Pedemonte, Simona; Zona, Gianluigi; Giaretti, Walter; Pfeffer, Ulrich; Castagnola, Patrizio

    2012-08-17

    Most patients affected by Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, grade IV glioma) experience a recurrence of the disease because of the spreading of tumor cells beyond surgical boundaries. Unveiling mechanisms causing this process is a logic goal to impair the killing capacity of GBM cells by molecular targeting.We noticed that our long-term GBM cultures, established from different patients, may display two categories/types of growth behavior in an orthotopic xenograft model: expansion of the tumor mass and formation of tumor branches/nodules (nodular like, NL-type) or highly diffuse single tumor cell infiltration (HD-type). We determined by DNA microarrays the gene expression profiles of three NL-type and three HD-type long-term GBM cultures. Subsequently, individual genes with different expression levels between the two groups were identified using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM). Real time RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and immunoblot analyses, were performed for a selected subgroup of regulated gene products to confirm the results obtained by the expression analysis. Here, we report the identification of a set of 34 differentially expressed genes in the two types of GBM cultures. Twenty-three of these genes encode for proteins localized to the plasma membrane and 9 of these for proteins are involved in the process of cell adhesion. This study suggests the participation in the diffuse infiltrative/invasive process of GBM cells within the CNS of a novel set of genes coding for membrane-associated proteins, which should be thus susceptible to an inhibition strategy by specific targeting.Massimiliano Monticone and Antonio Daga contributed equally to this work.

  1. A Self-Directed Method for Cell-Type Identification and Separation of Gene Expression Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Zuckerman, Neta S.; Noam, Yair; Goldsmith, Andrea J.; Lee, Peter P.

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression analysis is generally performed on heterogeneous tissue samples consisting of multiple cell types. Current methods developed to separate heterogeneous gene expression rely on prior knowledge of the cell-type composition and/or signatures - these are not available in most public datasets. We present a novel method to identify the cell-type composition, signatures and proportions per sample without need for a-priori information. The method was successfully tested on controlled and semi-controlled datasets and performed as accurately as current methods that do require additional information. As such, this method enables the analysis of cell-type specific gene expression using existing large pools of publically available microarray datasets. PMID:23990767

  2. Identification, emergence and mobilization of circulating endothelial cells or progenitors in the embryo.

    PubMed

    Pardanaud, Luc; Eichmann, Anne

    2006-07-01

    Using quail-chick parabiosis and QH1 monoclonal antibody analysis, we have identified circulating endothelial cells and/or progenitors in the embryo. These cells were already present early in ontogeny, before the third embryonic day. Under normal conditions, they integrated into most tissues but remained scarce. When experimental angiogenic responses were induced by wounding or grafts onto the chorioallantoic membrane, circulating endothelial cells were rapidly mobilized and selectively integrated sites of neoangiogenesis. Their mobilization was not dependent on the presence of the bone marrow as it was effective before its differentiation. Surprisingly, mobilization was not effective during sprouting angiogenesis following VEGF treatment of chorioallantoic membrane. Thus, embryonic circulating endothelial cells were efficiently mobilized during the establishment of an initial vascular supply to ischemic tissues following wounding or grafting, but were not involved during classical sprouting angiogenesis.

  3. Identification of Pertussis-Specific Effector Memory T Cells in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Schure, Rose-Minke; Öztürk, Kemal; Berbers, Guy; Sanders, Elisabeth; van Twillert, Inonge; Carollo, Maria; Mascart, Françoise; Ausiello, Clara M.; van Els, Cecile A. C. M.; Smits, Kaat; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Whooping cough remains a problem despite vaccination, and worldwide resurgence of pertussis is evident. Since cellular immunity plays a role in long-term protection against pertussis, we studied pertussis-specific T-cell responses. Around the time of the preschool acellular pertussis (aP) booster dose at 4 years of age, T-cell memory responses were compared in children who were primed during infancy with either a whole-cell pertussis (wP) or an aP vaccine. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and stimulated with pertussis vaccine antigens for 5 days. T cells were characterized by flow-based analysis of carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) dilution and CD4, CD3, CD45RA, CCR7, gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) expression. Before the aP preschool booster vaccination, both the proliferated pertussis toxin (PT)-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell fractions (CFSEdim) were higher in aP- than in wP-primed children. Post-booster vaccination, more pertussis-specific CD4+ effector memory cells (CD45RA− CCR7−) were induced in aP-primed children than in those primed with wP. The booster vaccination did not appear to significantly affect the T-cell memory subsets and functionality in aP-primed or wP-primed children. Although the percentages of Th1 cytokine-producing cells were alike in aP- and wP-primed children pre-booster vaccination, aP-primed children produced more Th1 cytokines due to higher numbers of proliferated pertussis-specific effector memory cells. At present, infant vaccinations with four aP vaccines in the first year of life result in pertussis-specific CD4+ and CD8+ effector memory T-cell responses that persist in children until 4 years of age and are higher than those in wP-primed children. The booster at 4 years of age is therefore questionable; this may be postponed to 6 years of age. PMID:25787136

  4. [Effects of icotinib hydrochloride on the proliferation and apoptosis of human lung cancer cell lines].

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Han, Xiao-hong; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Jian-fei; Shi, Yuan-kai

    2012-09-25

    To explore the effects of icotinib on the proliferation and apoptosis of various lung cancer cell lines. Human lung cancer cell lines HCC827, H1650, H1975, A549 and human epidermal cancer cell line A431 were treated in vitro with icotinib or gefitinib at a concentration gradient of 0 - 40 µmol/L. Their proliferation effects were analyzed by the thiazolyl blue (MTT) assay and the apoptotic effects detected by flow cytometer. The downstream signaling proteins were detected by Western blot. The median inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of icotinib for A431 and HCC827 cell lines were (0.04 ± 0.02) and (0.15 ± 0.06) µmol/L respectively. No significant differences existed between the inhibitions of gefitinib and icotinib on A431, HCC827, H1650, H1975 and A549 cell lines (all P > 0.05). Compared with H1650, H1975 and A549 cell lines, icotinib significantly inhibited A431 (P = 0.009, 0.005 and 0.000) and HCC827 (P = 0.001, 0.001 and 0.000) cell lines. And it lowered the expressions of p-AKT, p-ERK and survivin protein expression through the inhibited activity of p-EGFR protein. Icotinib can arrest the proliferation of lung adenocarcinoma cells with EGFR mutation or over-expression by inhibiting the signal pathways of AKT-ERK and survivin.

  5. New strategies for allergen T cell epitope identification: going beyond IgE

    PubMed Central

    Schulten, Véronique; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Background Type I allergy and allergic asthma are common diseases in the developed world associated with IgE antibodies and Th2 cell reactivity. To date, the only causative treatment for allergic disease is specific immunotherapy (SIT). Method Here, we review recent works from our laboratory focused on identifying human T cell epitopes associated with allergic disease and their potential use as biomarkers or therapeutic targets for SIT. In previous studies, we have mapped T cell epitopes associated with the major ten Timothy grass (Tg) allergens, defined on the basis of human IgE reactivity by ELISPOT. Results Interestingly, in about 33% of allergic donors no T cell epitopes from overlapping peptides spanning the entire sequences of these allergens were identified, despite vigorous T cell responses to the Tg extract. Using a bioinformatics-proteomic approach, we identified a set of 93 novel Tg proteins, many of which were found to elicit IL-5 production in T cells from allergic donors despite lacking IgE reactivity. Next, we assessed T cell responses to the novel Tg proteins in donors who had been treated with subcutaneous specific immunotherapy (SCIT). A subset of these proteins showed a strong reduction of IL-5 responses in donors who had received SCIT compared to allergic donors, which correlated with patient's self-reported improvement of allergic symptoms. Conclusion A bioinformatics-proteomic approach has successfully identified additional Tg-derived T cell targets independent of IgE reactivity. This method can be applied to other allergies potentially leading to the discovery of promising therapeutic targets for allergen-specific immunotherapy. PMID:25402674

  6. Identification of breast cancer cell subtypes sensitive to ATG4B inhibition.

    PubMed

    Bortnik, Svetlana; Choutka, Courtney; Horlings, Hugo M; Leung, Samuel; Baker, Jennifer H; Lebovitz, Chandra; Dragowska, Wieslawa H; Go, Nancy E; Bally, Marcel B; Minchinton, Andrew I; Gelmon, Karen A; Gorski, Sharon M

    2016-10-11

    Autophagy, a lysosome-mediated degradation and recycling process, functions in advanced malignancies to promote cancer cell survival and contribute to cancer progression and drug resistance. While various autophagy inhibition strategies are under investigation for cancer treatment, corresponding patient selection criteria for these autophagy inhibitors need to be developed. Due to its central roles in the autophagy process, the cysteine protease ATG4B is one of the autophagy proteins being pursued as a potential therapeutic target. In this study, we investigated the expression of ATG4B in breast cancer, a heterogeneous disease comprised of several molecular subtypes. We examined a panel of breast cancer cell lines, xenograft tumors, and breast cancer patient specimens for the protein expression of ATG4B, and found a positive association between HER2 and ATG4B protein expression. We showed that HER2-positive cells, but not HER2-negative breast cancer cells, require ATG4B to survive under stress. In HER2-positive cells, cytoprotective autophagy was dependent on ATG4B under both starvation and HER2 inhibition conditions. Combined knockdown of ATG4B and HER2 by siRNA resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability, and the combination of ATG4B knockdown with trastuzumab resulted in a greater reduction in cell viability compared to trastuzumab treatment alone, in both trastuzumab-sensitive and -resistant HER2 overexpressing breast cancer cells. Together these results demonstrate a novel association of ATG4B positive expression with HER2 positive breast cancers and indicate that this subtype is suitable for emerging ATG4B inhibition strategies.

  7. New CD20 alternative splice variants: molecular identification and differential expression within hematological B cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Gamonet, Clémentine; Bole-Richard, Elodie; Delherme, Aurélia; Aubin, François; Toussirot, Eric; Garnache-Ottou, Francine; Godet, Yann; Ysebaert, Loïc; Tournilhac, Olivier; Caroline, Dartigeas; Larosa, Fabrice; Deconinck, Eric; Saas, Philippe; Borg, Christophe; Deschamps, Marina; Ferrand, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    CD20 is a B cell lineage-specific marker expressed by normal and leukemic B cells and targeted by several antibody immunotherapies. We have previously shown that the protein from a CD20 mRNA splice variant (D393-CD20) is expressed at various levels in leukemic B cells or lymphoma B cells but not in resting, sorted B cells from the peripheral blood of healthy donors. Western blot (WB) analysis of B malignancy primary samples showed additional CD20 signals. Deep molecular PCR analysis revealed four new sequences corresponding to in-frame CD20 splice variants (D657-CD20, D618-CD20, D480-CD20, and D177-CD20) matching the length of WB signals. We demonstrated that the cell spliceosome machinery can process ex vivo D480-, D657-, and D618-CD20 transcript variants by involving canonical sites associated with cryptic splice sites. Results of specific and quantitative RT-PCR assays showed that these CD20 splice variants are differentially expressed in B malignancies. Moreover, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transformation modified the CD20 splicing profile and mainly increased the D393-CD20 variant transcripts. Finally, investigation of three cohorts of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients showed that the total CD20 splice variant expression was higher in a stage B and C sample collection compared to routinely collected CLL samples or relapsed refractory stage A, B, or C CLL. The involvement of these newly discovered alternative CD20 transcript variants in EBV transformation makes them interesting molecular indicators, as does their association with oncogenesis rather than non-oncogenic B cell diseases, differential expression in B cell malignancies, and correlation with CLL stage and some predictive CLL markers. This potential should be investigated in further studies.

  8. Isolation, identification and multipotential differentiation of mouse adipose tissue-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Taha, Masoumeh Fakhr; Hedayati, Vahideh

    2010-08-01

    Bone marrow and adipose tissue have provided two suitable sources of mesenchymal stem cells. Although previous studies have confirmed close similarities between bone marrow-derived stem cells (BM-MSCs) and adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs), the molecular phenotype of ADSCs is still poorly identified. In the present study, mouse ADSCs were isolated from the inguinal fat pad of 12-14 weeks old mice. Freshly isolated and three passaged ADSCs were analyzed for the expression of OCT4, Sca-1, c-kit and CD34 by RT-PCR. Three passaged ADSCs were analyzed by flow cytometry for the presence of CD11b, CD45, CD31, CD29 and CD44. Moreover, cardiogenic, adipogenic and neurogenic differentiation of ADSCs were induced in vitro. Freshly isolated ADSCs showed the expression of OCT4, Sca-1, c-kit and CD34, and two days cultured ADSCs were positively immunostained with anti-OCT4 monoclonal antibody. After three passages, the expression of OCT4, c-kit and CD34 eliminated, while the expression of Sca-1 showed a striking enhancement. These cells were identified positive for CD29 and CD44 markers, and they showed the lack of CD45 and CD31 expression. Three passaged ADSCs were differentiated to adipocyte-, cardiomyocyte- and neuron-like cells that were identified based on the positive staining with Sudan black, anti-cardiac troponin I antibody and anti-map-2 antibody, respectively. In conclusion, adipose tissue contains a stem cell population that seems to be a good multipotential cell candidate for the future cell replacement therapy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A system identification approach for developing model predictive controllers of antibody quality attributes in cell culture processes.

    PubMed

    Downey, Brandon; Schmitt, John; Beller, Justin; Russell, Brian; Quach, Anthony; Hermann, Elizabeth; Lyon, David; Breit, Jeffrey

    2017-11-01

    As the biopharmaceutical industry evolves to include more diverse protein formats and processes, more robust control of Critical Quality Attributes (CQAs) is needed to maintain processing flexibility without compromising quality. Active control of CQAs has been demonstrated using model predictive control techniques, which allow development of processes which are robust against disturbances associated with raw material variability and other potentially flexible operating conditions. Wide adoption of model predictive control in biopharmaceutical cell culture processes has been hampered, however, in part due to the large amount of data and expertise required to make a predictive model of controlled CQAs, a requirement for model predictive control. Here we developed a highly automated, perfusion apparatus to systematically and efficiently generate predictive models using application of system identification approaches. We successfully created a predictive model of %galactosylation using data obtained by manipulating galactose concentration in the perfusion apparatus in serialized step change experiments. We then demonstrated the use of the model in a model predictive controller in a simulated control scenario to successfully achieve a %galactosylation set point in a simulated fed-batch culture. The automated model identification approach demonstrated here can potentially be generalized to many CQAs, and could be a more efficient, faster, and highly automated alternative to batch experiments for developing predictive models in cell culture processes, and allow the wider adoption of model predictive control in biopharmaceutical processes. © 2017 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:1647-1661, 2017. © 2017 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  10. A system identification approach for developing model predictive controllers of antibody quality attributes in cell culture processes

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, John; Beller, Justin; Russell, Brian; Quach, Anthony; Hermann, Elizabeth; Lyon, David; Breit, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    As the biopharmaceutical industry evolves to include more diverse protein formats and processes, more robust control of Critical Quality Attributes (CQAs) is needed to maintain processing flexibility without compromising quality. Active control of CQAs has been demonstrated using model predictive control techniques, which allow development of processes which are robust against disturbances associated with raw material variability and other potentially flexible operating conditions. Wide adoption of model predictive control in biopharmaceutical cell culture processes has been hampered, however, in part due to the large amount of data and expertise required to make a predictive model of controlled CQAs, a requirement for model predictive control. Here we developed a highly automated, perfusion apparatus to systematically and efficiently generate predictive models using application of system identification approaches. We successfully created a predictive model of %galactosylation using data obtained by manipulating galactose concentration in the perfusion apparatus in serialized step change experiments. We then demonstrated the use of the model in a model predictive controller in a simulated control scenario to successfully achieve a %galactosylation set point in a simulated fed‐batch culture. The automated model identification approach demonstrated here can potentially be generalized to many CQAs, and could be a more efficient, faster, and highly automated alternative to batch experiments for developing predictive models in cell culture processes, and allow the wider adoption of model predictive control in biopharmaceutical processes. © 2017 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:1647–1661, 2017 PMID:28786215

  11. Identification of Hepatitis C Virus Inhibitors Targeting Different Aspects of Infection Using a Cell-Based Assay

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xuemei; Sainz, Bruno; Petukhov, Pavel A.

    2012-01-01

    With 2 to 3% of the worldwide population chronically infected, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection continues to be a major health care burden. Unfortunately, current interferon-based treatment options are not effective in all patients and are associated with significant side effects. Consequently, there is an ongoing need to identify and develop new anti-HCV therapies. Toward this goal, we previously developed a cell-based HCV infection assay for antiviral compound screening based on a low-multiplicity-of-infection approach that uniquely allows for the identification of antiviral compounds that target cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc) at any step of the viral infection cycle. Using this assay, here we report the screening of the NCI Diversity Set II library, containing 1,974 synthesized chemical compounds, and the identification of compounds with specific anti-HCV activity. In combination with toxicity counterscreening, we identified 30 hits from the compound library, 13 of which showed reproducible and dose-dependent inhibition of HCV with mean therapeutic indices (50% cytotoxic concentration [CC50]/50% effective concentration [EC50]) of greater than 6. Using HCV pseudotype and replicon systems of multiple HCV genotypes, as well as infectious HCVcc-based assembly and secretion analysis, we determined that different compounds within this group of candidate inhibitors target different steps of viral infection. The compounds identified not only will serve as biological probes to study and further dissect the biology of viral infection but also should facilitate the development of new anti-HCV therapeutic treatments. PMID:22948883

  12. Identification of a B cell signature associated with renal transplant tolerance in humans

    PubMed Central

    Newell, Kenneth A.; Asare, Adam; Kirk, Allan D.; Gisler, Trang D.; Bourcier, Kasia; Suthanthiran, Manikkam; Burlingham, William J.; Marks, William H.; Sanz, Ignacio; Lechler, Robert I.; Hernandez-Fuentes, Maria P.; Turka, Laurence A.; Seyfert-Margolis, Vicki L.

    2010-01-01

    Establishing long-term allograft acceptance without the requirement for continuous immunosuppression, a condition known as allograft tolerance, is a highly desirable therapeutic goal in solid organ transplantation. Determining which recipients would benefit from withdrawal or minimization of immunosuppression would be greatly facilitated by biomarkers predictive of tolerance. In this study, we identified the largest reported cohort to our knowledge of tolerant renal transplant recipients, as defined by stable graft function and receiving no immunosuppression for more than 1 year, and compared their gene expression profiles and peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets with those of subjects with stable graft function who are receiving immunosuppressive drugs as well as healthy controls. In addition to being associated with clinical and phenotypic parameters, renal allograft tolerance was strongly associated with a B cell signature using several assays. Tolerant subjects showed increased expression of multiple B cell differentiation genes, and a set of just 3 of these genes distinguished tolerant from nontolerant recipients in a unique test set of samples. This B cell signature was associated with upregulation of CD20 mRNA in urine sediment cells and elevated numbers of peripheral blood naive and transitional B cells in tolerant participants compared with those receiving immunosuppression. These results point to a critical role for B cells in regulating alloimmunity and provide a candidate set of genes for wider-scale screening of renal transplant recipients. PMID:20501946

  13. Cell Wall and Secreted Proteins of Candida albicans: Identification, Function, and Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chaffin, W. Lajean; López-Ribot, José Luis; Casanova, Manuel; Gozalbo, Daniel; Martínez, José P.

    1998-01-01

    The cell wall is essential to nearly every aspect of the biology and pathogenicity of Candida albicans. Although it was intially considered an almost inert cellular structure that protected the protoplast against osmotic offense, more recent studies have demonstrated that it is a dynamic organelle. The major components of the cell wall are glucan and chitin, which are associated with structural rigidity, and mannoproteins. The protein component, including both mannoprotein and nonmannoproteins, comprises some 40 or more moieties. Wall proteins may differ in their expression, secretion, or topological location within the wall structure. Proteins may be modified by glycosylation (primarily addition of mannose residues), phosphorylation, and ubiquitination. Among the secreted enzymes are those that are postulated to have substrates within the cell wall and those that find substrates in the extracellular environment. Cell wall proteins have been implicated in adhesion to host tissues and ligands. Fibrinogen, complement fragments, and several extracellular matrix components are among the host proteins bound by cell wall proteins. Proteins related to the hsp70 and hsp90 families of conserved stress proteins and some glycolytic enzyme proteins are also found in the cell wall, apparently as bona fide components. In addition, the expression of some proteins is associated with the morphological growth form of the fungus and may play a role in morphogenesis. Finally, surface mannoproteins are strong immunogens that trigger and modulate the host immune response during candidiasis. PMID:9529890

  14. Highly dense, optically inactive silica microbeads for the isolation and identification of circulating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Chang Eun; Moon, Hui-Sung; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Park, Jong-Myeon; Park, Donghyun; Han, Kyung-Yeon; Park, Keunchil; Sun, Jong-Mu; Park, Woong-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Efficient isolation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from whole blood is a major challenge for the clinical application of CTCs. Here, we report an efficient method to isolate CTCs from whole blood using highly dense and transparent silica microbeads. The surfaces of silica microbeads were fully covered with an antibody to capture CTCs, and blocked by zwitterionic moieties to prevent the non-specific adsorption of blood cells. Owing to the high density of the silica microbeads, the complexation of CTCs with silica microbeads resulted in the efficient sedimentation of CTC-microbead complexes, which enabled their discrimination from other blood cells in density gradient media. Model CTCs (MCF-7, HCC827, and SHP-77) with various levels of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) were isolated efficiently, especially those with low EpCAM expression (SHP-77). Moreover, the transparency of silica microbeads enabled CTCs to be clearly identified without interference caused by microbeads. The improved sensitivity resulted in increased CTC recovery from patient samples compared with the FDA-approved CellSearch system (14/15 using our method; 5/15 using the CellSearch system). These results indicate that the isolation method described in this report constitutes a powerful tool for the isolation of CTCs from whole blood, which has important applications in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of T-cell Receptors Targeting KRAS-mutated Human Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiong J.; Yu, Zhiya; Griffith, Kayla; Hanada, Ken-ichi; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Yang, James C.

    2015-01-01

    KRAS is one of the most frequently mutated proto-oncogenes in human cancers. The dominant oncogenic mutations of KRAS are single amino acid substitutions at codon 12, in particular G12D and G12V present in 60–70% of pancreatic cancers and 20–30% of colorectal cancers. The consistency, frequency, and tumor specificity of these “neo-antigens” make them attractive therapeutic targets. Recent data associates T cells that target mutated antigens with clinical immunotherapy responses in patients with metastatic melanoma, lung cancer, or cholangiocarcinoma. Using HLA-peptide prediction algorithms, we noted that HLA-A*11:01 could potentially present mutated KRAS variants. By immunizing HLA-A*11:01 transgenic mice, we generated murine T cells and subsequently isolated T-cell receptors (TCRs) highly reactive to the mutated KRAS variants G12V and G12D. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) transduced with these TCRs could recognize multiple HLA-A*11:01+ tumor lines bearing the appropriate KRAS mutations. In a xenograft model of large established tumor, adoptive transfer of these transduced PBLs reactive with an HLA-A*11:01, G12D-mutated pancreatic cell line could significantly reduce its growth in NSG mice (P = 0.002). The success of adoptive transfer of TCR-engineered T cells against melanoma and other cancers support clinical trials with these T cells that recognize mutated KRAS in patients with a variety of common cancer types. PMID:26701267

  16. Identification of metabolic profiling of cell culture of licorice compared with its native one.

    PubMed

    Man, Shuli; Guo, Songbo; Gao, Wenyuan; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Liming; Li, Xinglin

    2013-04-01

    Glycyrrhiza uralensis has long been used as a flavoring and sweetening agent in food products. In the last ten years, suspensions of Glycyrhiza cells have been successfully established. However, there is no report of full metabolic profiling research on these cells. To identify their composition we used HPLC-DAD coupled with ESI(+/-)-MS (n) to compare the constituents of cultured Glycyrhiza (CG) cells with those the native cells (NG). We identified 60 compounds including flavonoids, phenols, and triterpenoids. Among these compounds, 42 occurred both in NG and CG, nine were present in NG only and nine were present in CG alone. The number of the triterpenoid aglycones without glycones in CG was smaller than that in NG. The number of flavanone, isoflavone, isoflavan, and benzenoid compounds was also smaller in CG than that in NG, whereas the number of pterocarpans was much higher. Although differences existed between CG and NG, the extract of CG was similar to that of NG. With the development of cell suspension culture-based biotransformation, cell culture of Glycyrrhiza has the potential to be more profitable than field cultivation in some areas.

  17. Identification of Annexin A4 as a hepatopancreas factor involved in liver cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Danhua; Golubkov, Vladislav S.; Han, Wenlong; Correa, Ricardo G.; Zhou, Ying; Lee, Sunyoung; Strongin, Alex Y.; Dong, P. Duc Si

    2014-01-01

    To gain insight into liver and pancreas development, we investigated the target of 2F11, a monoclonal antibody of unknown antigen, widely used in zebrafish studies for labeling hepatopancreatic ducts. Utilizing mass spectrometry and in vivo assays, we determined the molecular target of 2F11 to be Annexin A4 (Anxa4), a calcium binding protein. We further found that in both zebrafish and mouse endoderm, Anxa4 is broadly expressed in the developing liver and pancreas, and later becomes more restricted to the hepatopancreatic ducts and pancreatic islets, including the insulin producing β-cells. Although Anxa4 is a known target of several monogenic diabetes genes and its elevated expression is associated with chemoresistance in malignancy, its in vivo role is largely unexplored. Knockdown of Anxa4 in zebrafish leads to elevated expression of caspase 8 and Δ113p53, and liver bud specific activation of Caspase 3 and apoptosis. Mosaic knockdown reveal that Anxa4 is required cell-autonomously in the liver bud for cell survival. This finding is further corroborated with mosaic anxa4 knockout studies using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Collectively, we identify Anxa4 as a new, evolutionarily conserved hepatopancreatic factor that is required in zebrafish for liver progenitor viability, through inhibition of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. A role for Anxa4 in cell survival may have implications for the mechanism of diabetic β-cell apoptosis and cancer cell chemoresistance. PMID:25176043

  18. Identification of ion-channel modulators that protect against aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Emma J.; Kirkwood, Nerissa K.; Kitcher, Siân R.; O’Reilly, Molly; Cantillon, Daire M.; Goodyear, Richard J.; Secker, Abigail; Baxendale, Sarah; Bull, James C.; Waddell, Simon J.; Whitfield, Tanya T.; Ward, Simon E.; Kros, Corné J.; Richardson, Guy P.

    2017-01-01

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics are used to treat life-threatening bacterial infections but can cause deafness due to hair cell death in the inner ear. Compounds have been described that protect zebrafish lateral line hair cells from aminoglycosides, but few are effective in the cochlea. As the aminoglycosides interact with several ion channels, including the mechanoelectrical transducer (MET) channels by which they can enter hair cells, we screened 160 ion-channel modulators, seeking compounds that protect cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs) from aminoglycoside-induced death in vitro. Using zebrafish, 72 compounds were identified that either reduced loading of the MET-channel blocker FM 1-43FX, decreased Texas red–conjugated neomycin labeling, or reduced neomycin-induced hair cell death. After testing these 72 compounds, and 6 structurally similar compounds that failed in zebrafish, 13 were found that protected against gentamicin-induced death of OHCs in mouse cochlear cultures, 6 of which are permeant blockers of the hair cell MET channel. None of these compounds abrogated aminoglycoside antibacterial efficacy. By selecting those without adverse effects at high concentrations, 5 emerged as leads for developing pharmaceutical otoprotectants to alleviate an increasing clinical problem. PMID:29263311

  19. Identification of Multipotent Stem Cells in Human Brain Tissue Following Stroke.

    PubMed

    Tatebayashi, Kotaro; Tanaka, Yasue; Nakano-Doi, Akiko; Sakuma, Rika; Kamachi, Saeko; Shirakawa, Manabu; Uchida, Kazutaka; Kageyama, Hiroto; Takagi, Toshinori; Yoshimura, Shinichi; Matsuyama, Tomohiro; Nakagomi, Takayuki

    2017-06-01

    Perivascular regions of the brain harbor multipotent stem cells. We previously demonstrated that brain pericytes near blood vessels also develop multipotency following experimental ischemia in mice and these ischemia-induced multipotent stem cells (iSCs) can contribute to neurogenesis. However, it is essential to understand the traits of iSCs in the poststroke human brain for possible applications in stem cell-based therapies for stroke patients. In this study, we report for the first time that iSCs can be isolated from the poststroke human brain. Putative iSCs were derived from poststroke brain tissue obtained from elderly stroke patients requiring decompressive craniectomy and partial lobectomy for diffuse cerebral infarction. Immunohistochemistry showed that these iSCs were localized near blood vessels within poststroke areas containing apoptotic/necrotic neurons and expressed both the stem cell marker nestin and several pericytic markers. Isolated iSCs expressed these same markers and demonstrated high proliferative potential without loss of stemness. Furthermore, isolated iSCs expressed other stem cell markers, such as Sox2, c-myc, and Klf4, and differentiated into multiple cells in vitro, including neurons. These results show that iSCs, which are likely brain pericyte derivatives, are present within the poststroke human brain. This study suggests that iSCs can contribute to neural repair in patients with stroke.

  20. Modelling breast cancer requires identification and correction of a critical cell lineage-dependent transduction bias

    DOE PAGES

    Hines, William C.; Yaswen, Paul; Bissell, Mina J.

    2015-04-21

    When trying to explore the biology and etiology of human cancers, clinically relevant human culture models are essential. Current breast tumour models, such as those from oncogenically transformed primary breast cells, produce predominantly basal-like properties, whereas the more common phenotype expressed by the vast majority of breast tumours are luminal. Reasons for this puzzling, yet important phenomenon, are not understood. We show here that luminal epithelial cells are significantly more resistant to viral transduction than their myoepithelial counterparts. Here, we suggest that this is a significant barrier to generating luminal cell lines and experimental tumours in vivo and to accuratemore » interpretation of results. We show that the resistance is due to lower affinity of luminal cells for virus attachment, which can be overcome by pretreating cells—or virus—with neuraminidase. We present an analytical method for quantifying transductional differences between cell types and an optimized protocol for transducing unsorted primary human breast cells in context.« less

  1. Identification of ion-channel modulators that protect against aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Emma J; Kirkwood, Nerissa K; Kitcher, Siân R; O'Reilly, Molly; Derudas, Marco; Cantillon, Daire M; Goodyear, Richard J; Secker, Abigail; Baxendale, Sarah; Bull, James C; Waddell, Simon J; Whitfield, Tanya T; Ward, Simon E; Kros, Corné J; Richardson, Guy P

    2017-12-21

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics are used to treat life-threatening bacterial infections but can cause deafness due to hair cell death in the inner ear. Compounds have been described that protect zebrafish lateral line hair cells from aminoglycosides, but few are effective in the cochlea. As the aminoglycosides interact with several ion channels, including the mechanoelectrical transducer (MET) channels by which they can enter hair cells, we screened 160 ion-channel modulators, seeking compounds that protect cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs) from aminoglycoside-induced death in vitro. Using zebrafish, 72 compounds were identified that either reduced loading of the MET-channel blocker FM 1-43FX, decreased Texas red-conjugated neomycin labeling, or reduced neomycin-induced hair cell death. After testing these 72 compounds, and 6 structurally similar compounds that failed in zebrafish, 13 were found that protected against gentamicin-induced death of OHCs in mouse cochlear cultures, 6 of which are permeant blockers of the hair cell MET channel. None of these compounds abrogated aminoglycoside antibacterial efficacy. By selecting those without adverse effects at high concentrations, 5 emerged as leads for developing pharmaceutical otoprotectants to alleviate an increasing clinical problem.

  2. Identification of Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei adhesins for human respiratory epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Balder, Rachel; Lipski, Serena; Lazarus, John J; Grose, William; Wooten, Ronald M; Hogan, Robert J; Woods, Donald E; Lafontaine, Eric R

    2010-09-28

    Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei cause the diseases melioidosis and glanders, respectively. A well-studied aspect of pathogenesis by these closely-related bacteria is their ability to invade and multiply within eukaryotic cells. In contrast, the means by which B. pseudomallei and B. mallei adhere to cells are poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to identify adherence factors expressed by these organisms. Comparative sequence analyses identified a gene product in the published genome of B. mallei strain ATCC23344 (locus # BMAA0649) that resembles the well-characterized Yersinia enterocolitica autotransporter adhesin YadA. The gene encoding this B. mallei protein, designated boaA, was expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to significantly increase adherence to human epithelial cell lines, specifically HEp2 (laryngeal cells) and A549 (type II pneumocytes), as well as to cultures of normal human bronchial epithelium (NHBE). Consistent with these findings, disruption of the boaA gene in B. mallei ATCC23344 reduced adherence to all three cell types by ~50%. The genomes of the B. pseudomallei strains K96243 and DD503 were also found to contain boaA and inactivation of the gene in DD503 considerably decreased binding to monolayers of HEp2 and A549 cells and to NHBE cultures.A second YadA-like gene product highly similar to BoaA (65% identity) was identified in the published genomic sequence of B. pseudomallei strain K96243 (locus # BPSL1705). The gene specifying this protein, termed boaB, appears to be B. pseudomallei-specific. Quantitative attachment assays demonstrated that recombinant E. coli expressing BoaB displayed greater binding to A549 pneumocytes, HEp2 cells and NHBE cultures. Moreover, a boaB mutant of B. pseudomallei DD503 showed decreased adherence to these respiratory cells. Additionally, a B. pseudomallei strain lacking expression of both boaA and boaB was impaired in its ability to thrive inside J774A.1 murine macrophages

  3. Identification of Barramundi (Lates calcarifer) DC-SCRIPT, a Specific Molecular Marker for Dendritic Cells in Fish

    PubMed Central

    Zoccola, Emmanuelle; Delamare-Deboutteville, Jérôme; Barnes, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Antigen presentation is a critical step bridging innate immune recognition and specific immune memory. In mammals, the process is orchestrated by dendritic cells (DCs) in the lymphatic system, which initiate clonal proliferation of antigen-specific lymphocytes. However, fish lack a classical lymphatic system and there are currently no cellular markers for DCs in fish, thus antigen-presentation in fish is poorly understood. Recently, antigen-presenting cells similar in structure and function to mammalian DCs were identified in various fish, including rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and zebrafish (Danio rerio). The present study aimed to identify a potential molecular marker for DCs in fish and therefore targeted DC-SCRIPT, a well-conserved zinc finger protein that is preferentially expressed in all sub-types of human DCs. Putative dendritic cells were obtained in culture by maturation of spleen and pronephros-derived monocytes. DC-SCRIPT was identified in barramundi by homology using RACE PCR and genome walking. Specific expression of DC-SCRIPT was detected in barramundi cells by Stellaris mRNA FISH, in combination with MHCII expression when exposed to bacterial derived peptidoglycan, suggesting the presence of DCs in L. calcarifer. Moreover, morphological identification was achieved by light microscopy of cytospins prepared from these cultures. The cultured cells were morphologically similar to mammalian and trout DCs. Migration assays determined that these cells have the ability to move towards pathogens and pathogen associated molecular patterns, with a preference for peptidoglycans over lipopolysaccharides. The cells were also strongly phagocytic, engulfing bacteria and rapidly breaking them down. Barramundi DCs induced significant proliferation of responder populations of T-lymphocytes, supporting their role as antigen presenting cells. DC-SCRIPT expression in head kidney was higher 6 and 24 h following intraperitoneal challenge with peptidoglycan and

  4. Chemo-spectroscopic sensor for carboxyl terminus overexpressed in carcinoma cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Stanca, Sarmiza E; Matthäus, Christian; Neugebauer, Ute; Nietzsche, Sandor; Fritzsche, Wolfgang; Dellith, Jan; Heintzmann, Rainer; Weber, Karina; Deckert, Volker; Krafft, Christoph; Popp, Jürgen

    2015-10-01

    Certain carboxyl groups of the plasma membrane are involved in tumorgenesis processes. A gold core-hydroxyapatite shell (AuHA) nanocomposite is introduced as chemo-spectroscopic sensor to monitor these carboxyl groups of the cell membrane. Hydroxyapatite (HA) plays the role both of a chemical detector and of a biocompatible Raman marker. The principle of detection is based on chemical interaction between the hydroxyl groups of the HA and the carboxyl terminus of the proteins. The AuHA exhibits a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal at 954 cm(-1) which can be used for its localization. The bio-sensing capacity of AuHA towards human skin epidermoid carcinoma (A431) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines is investigated using Raman microspectroscopic imaging. The localization of AuHA on cells is correlated with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and structured illumination fluorescence microscopy. This qualitative approach is a step towards a quantitative study of the proteins terminus. This method would enable further studies on the molecular profiling of the plasma membrane, in an attempt to provide accurate cell identification. Using a gold core-hydroxyapatite shell (AuHA) nanocomposite, the authors in this paper showed the feasibility of detecting and differentiating cell surface molecules by surface enhanced Raman scattering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of stable reference genes in differentiating human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Holmgren, Gustav; Ghosheh, Nidal; Zeng, Xianmin; Bogestål, Yalda; Sartipy, Peter; Synnergren, Jane

    2015-06-01

    Reference genes, often referred to as housekeeping genes (HKGs), are frequently used to normalize gene expression data based on the assumption that they are expressed at a constant level in the cells. However, several studies have shown that there may be a large variability in the gene expression levels of HKGs in various cell types. In a previous study, employing human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) subjected to spontaneous differentiation, we observed that the expression of commonly used HKG varied to a degree that rendered them inappropriate to use as reference genes under those experimental settings. Here we present a substantially extended study of the HKG signature in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC), including nine global gene expression datasets from both hESC and human induced pluripotent stem cells, obtained during directed differentiation toward endoderm-, mesoderm-, and ectoderm derivatives. Sets of stably expressed genes were compiled, and a handful of genes (e.g., EID2, ZNF324B, CAPN10, and RABEP2) were identified as generally applicable reference genes in hPSCs across all cell lines and experimental conditions. The stability in gene expression profiles was confirmed by reverse transcription quantitative PCR analysis. Taken together, the current results suggest that differentiating hPSCs have a distinct HKG signature, which in some aspects is different from somatic cell types, and underscore the necessity to validate the stability of reference genes under the actual experimental setup used. In addition, the novel putative HKGs identified in this study can preferentially be used for normalization of gene expression data obtained from differentiating hPSCs. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Recovery of infectious pariacoto virus from cDNA clones and identification of susceptible cell lines.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K N; Ball, L A

    2001-12-01

    Pariacoto virus (PaV) is a nodavirus that was recently isolated in Peru from the Southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania. Virus particles are non enveloped and about 30 nm in diameter and have T=3 icosahedral symmetry. The 3.0-A crystal structure shows that about 35% of the genomic RNA is icosahedrally ordered, with the RNA forming a dodecahedral cage of 25-nucleotide (nt) duplexes that underlie the inner surface of the capsid. The PaV genome comprises two single-stranded, positive-sense RNAs: RNA1 (3,011 nt), which encodes the 108-kDa catalytic subunit of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and RNA2 (1,311 nt), which encodes the 43-kDa capsid protein precursor alpha. In order to apply molecular genetics to the structure and assembly of PaV, we identified susceptible cell lines and developed a reverse genetic system for this virus. Cell lines that were susceptible to infection by PaV included those from Spodoptera exigua, Helicoverpa zea and Aedes albopictus, whereas cells from Drosophila melanogaster and Spodoptera frugiperda were refractory to infection. To recover virus from molecular clones, full-length cDNAs of PaV RNAs 1 and 2 were cotranscribed by T7 RNA polymerase in baby hamster kidney cells that expressed T7 RNA polymerase. Lysates of these cells were infectious both for cultured cells from Helicoverpa zea (corn earworm) and for larvae of Galleria mellonella (greater wax moth). The combination of infectious cDNA clones, cell culture infectivity, and the ability to produce milligram amounts of virus allows the application of DNA-based genetic methods to the study of PaV structure and assembly.

  7. Recovery of Infectious Pariacoto Virus from cDNA Clones and Identification of Susceptible Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Karyn N.; Ball, L. Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Pariacoto virus (PaV) is a nodavirus that was recently isolated in Peru from the Southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania. Virus particles are non enveloped and about 30 nm in diameter and have T=3 icosahedral symmetry. The 3.0-Å crystal structure shows that about 35% of the genomic RNA is icosahedrally ordered, with the RNA forming a dodecahedral cage of 25-nucleotide (nt) duplexes that underlie the inner surface of the capsid. The PaV genome comprises two single-stranded, positive-sense RNAs: RNA1 (3,011 nt), which encodes the 108-kDa catalytic subunit of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and RNA2 (1,311 nt), which encodes the 43-kDa capsid protein precursor α. In order to apply molecular genetics to the structure and assembly of PaV, we identified susceptible cell lines and developed a reverse genetic system for this virus. Cell lines that were susceptible to infection by PaV included those from Spodoptera exigua, Helicoverpa zea and Aedes albopictus, whereas cells from Drosophila melanogaster and Spodoptera frugiperda were refractory to infection. To recover virus from molecular clones, full-length cDNAs of PaV RNAs 1 and 2 were cotranscribed by T7 RNA polymerase in baby hamster kidney cells that expressed T7 RNA polymerase. Lysates of these cells were infectious both for cultured cells from Helicoverpa zea (corn earworm) and for larvae of Galleria mellonella (greater wax moth). The combination of infectious cDNA clones, cell culture infectivity, and the ability to produce milligram amounts of virus allows the application of DNA-based genetic methods to the study of PaV structure and assembly. PMID:11711613

  8. A human lung mast cell chymotrypsin-like enzyme. Identification and partial characterization.

    PubMed

    Wintroub, B U; Kaempfer, C E; Schechter, N M; Proud, D

    1986-01-01

    We have used a high performance liquid chromatography assay, which detects chymotryptic cleavage of the phe8-his9 bond of angiotensin I to yield angiotensin II, in order to examine human lung mast cells for the presence of chymotryptic activity. Mast cells, purified from human lung by enzymatic dispersion, countercurrent elutriation, and Percoll gradient centrifugation, were lysed or challenged with goat anti-human IgE. In multiple experiments angiotensin II-converting activity was detected in lysates of 10-99% pure mast cell preparations. Regression analysis of net percent release values of histamine and the angiotensin I-converting activity from dose-response experiments demonstrated a correlation between the two parameters, indicating that the chymotrypsin-like enzyme is a constituent of the mast cell secretory granule. The chymotryptic activity was completely inhibited by 10(-3) M phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride but not by 10(-3) M Captopril, and the pH optimum of activity was 7.5-9.5. Gel filtration of released material separated the activity from tryptase and demonstrated an approximate molecular weight of 30-35,000. The mast cell enzyme, like a human skin chymotrypsin-like proteinase, can be distinguished from leukocyte cathepsin G by lack of susceptibility to inhibition by bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. Thus, an enzyme with limited chymotryptic specificity is present in human lung mast cells. The Michaelis constant of the enzyme for angiotensin I of 6.0 X 10(-5) M is similar to that of endothelial cell angiotensin-converting enzyme and is consistent with a reaction of physiologic importance.

  9. Identification of a Calcium Signalling Pathway of S-[6]-Gingerol in HuH-7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Hong; McGrath, Kristine C Y; Tran, Van H; Li, Yi-Ming; Mandadi, Sravan; Duke, Colin C; Heather, Alison K; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2013-01-01

    Calcium signals in hepatocytes control cell growth, proliferation, and death. Members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel superfamily are candidate calcium influx channels. NF κ B activation strictly depends on calcium influx and often induces antiapoptotic genes favouring cell survival. Previously, we reported that S-[6]-gingerol is an efficacious agonist of the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) in neurones. In this study, we tested the effect of S-[6]-gingerol on HuH-7 cells using the Fluo-4 calcium assay, RT-qPCR, transient cell transfection, and luciferase measurements. We found that S-[6]-gingerol induced a transient rise in [Ca(2+)] i in HuH-7 cells. The increase in [Ca(2+)] i induced by S-[6]-gingerol was abolished by preincubation with EGTA and was also inhibited by the TRPV1 channel antagonist capsazepine. Expression of TRPV1 in HuH-7 cells was confirmed by mRNA analysis as well as a test for increase of [Ca(2+)] i by TRPV1 agonist capsaicin and its inhibition by capsazepine. We found that S-[6]-gingerol induced rapid NF κ B activation through TRPV1 in HuH-7 cells. Furthermore, S-[6]-gingerol-induced NF κ B activation was dependent on the calcium gradient and TRPV1. The rapid NF κ B activation by S-[6]-gingerol was associated with an increase in mRNA levels of NF κ B-target genes: cIAP-2, XIAP, and Bcl-2 that encode antiapoptotic proteins.

  10. Identification and pharmacological characterization of native, functional human urotensin-II receptors in rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Stephen A; Naselsky, Diane; Ao, Zhaohui; Disa, Jyoti; Herold, Christopher L; Lynch, Frank; Aiyar, Nambi V

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to identify endogenous, native mammalian urotensin-II (U-II) receptors (UT), a diverse range of human, primate and rodent cell lines (49 in total) were screened for the presence of detectable [125I]hU-II binding sites. UT mRNA (Northern blot, PCR) and protein (immunocytochemistry) were evident in human skeletal muscle tissue and cells. [125I]hU-II bound to a homogenous population of high-affinity, saturable (Kd 67.0±11.8 pM, Bmax 9687±843 sites cell−1) receptors in the skeletal muscle (rhabdomyosarcoma) cell line SJRH30. Radiolabel was characteristically slow to dissociate (⩽15% dissociation 90 min). A lower density of high-affinity U-II binding sites was also evident in the rhabdomyosarcoma cell line TE671 (1667±165 sites cell−1, Kd 74±8 pM). Consistent with the profile recorded in human recombinant UT-HEK293 cells, [125I]hU-II binding to SJRH30 cells was selectively displaced by both mammalian and fish U-II isopeptides (Kis 0.5±0.1–1.2±0.3 nM) and related analogues (hU-II[4-11]>[Cys5,10]Acm hU-II; Kis 0.4±0.1 and 864±193 nM, respectively). U-II receptor activation was functionally coupled to phospholipase C-mediated [Ca2+]i mobilization (EC50 6.9±2.2 nM) in SJRH30 cells. The present study is the first to identify the presence of ‘endogenous' U-II receptors in SJRH30 and TE671 cells. SJRH30 cells, in particular, might prove to be of utility for (a) investigating the pharmacological properties of hU-II and related small molecule antagonists at native human UT and (b) delineating the role of this neuropeptide in the (patho)physiological regulation of mammalian neuromuscular function. PMID:15210573

  11. Identification of Four Mouse Diabetes Candidate Genes Altering β-Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Kluth, Oliver; Matzke, Daniela; Kamitz, Anne; Jähnert, Markus; Vogel, Heike; Scherneck, Stephan; Schulze, Matthias; Staiger, Harald; Machicao, Fausto; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Joost, Hans-Georg; Schürmann, Annette

    2015-09-01

    Beta-cell apoptosis and failure to induce beta-cell regeneration are hallmarks of type 2-like diabetes in mouse models. Here we show that islets from obese, diabetes-susceptible New Zealand Obese (NZO) mice, in contrast to diabetes-resistant C57BL/6J (B6)-ob/ob mice, do not proliferate in response to an in-vivo glucose challenge but lose their beta-cells. Genome-wide RNAseq based transcriptomics indicated an induction of 22 cell cycle-associated genes in B6-ob/ob islets that did not respond in NZO islets. Of all genes differentially expressed in islets of the two strains, seven mapped to the diabesity QTL Nob3, and were hypomorphic in either NZO (Lefty1, Apoa2, Pcp4l1, Mndal, Slamf7, Pydc3) or B6 (Ifi202b). Adenoviral overexpression of Lefty1, Apoa2, and Pcp4l1 in primary islet cells increased proliferation, whereas overexpression of Ifi202b suppressed it. We conclude that the identified genes in synergy with obesity and insulin resistance participate in adaptive islet hyperplasia and prevention from severe diabetes in B6-ob/ob mice.

  12. Identification of Four Mouse Diabetes Candidate Genes Altering β-Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Kamitz, Anne; Jähnert, Markus; Vogel, Heike; Scherneck, Stephan; Schulze, Matthias; Staiger, Harald; Machicao, Fausto; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Joost, Hans-Georg; Schürmann, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Beta-cell apoptosis and failure to induce beta-cell regeneration are hallmarks of type 2-like diabetes in mouse models. Here we show that islets from obese, diabetes-susceptible New Zealand Obese (NZO) mice, in contrast to diabetes-resistant C57BL/6J (B6)-ob/ob mice, do not proliferate in response to an in-vivo glucose challenge but lose their beta-cells. Genome-wide RNAseq based transcriptomics indicated an induction of 22 cell cycle-associated genes in B6-ob/ob islets that did not respond in NZO islets. Of all genes differentially expressed in islets of the two strains, seven mapped to the diabesity QTL Nob3, and were hypomorphic in either NZO (Lefty1, Apoa2, Pcp4l1, Mndal, Slamf7, Pydc3) or B6 (Ifi202b). Adenoviral overexpression of Lefty1, Apoa2, and Pcp4l1 in primary islet cells increased proliferation, whereas overexpression of Ifi202b suppressed it. We conclude that the identified genes in synergy with obesity and insulin resistance participate in adaptive islet hyperplasia and prevention from severe diabetes in B6-ob/ob mice. PMID:26348837

  13. Identification of senescence-associated genes in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Eunsook; Hong, Su; Kang, Jaeku

    2008-07-04

    Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs) are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into several specialized cell types, including bone, cartilage, and fat cells. The proliferative capacity of hBMMSCs paves the way for the development of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. However, long-term in vitro culture of hBMMSCs leads to a reduced life span of the cells due to senescence, which leads eventually to growth arrest. To investigate the molecular mechanism behind the cellular senescence of hBMMSCs, microarray analysis was used to compare the expression profiles of early passage hBMMSCs, late passage hBMMSCs and hBMMSCs ectopically expressing human telomerasemore » reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Using an intersection analysis of 3892 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) out of 27,171 total genes analyzed, we identified 338 senescence-related DEGs. GO term categorization and pathway network analysis revealed that the identified genes are strongly related to known senescence pathways and mechanisms. The genes identified using this approach will facilitate future studies of the mechanisms underlying the cellular senescence of hBMMSCs.« less

  14. On the cutting edge of organ renewal: Identification, regulation, and evolution of incisor stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kuang-Hsien Hu, Jimmy; Mushegyan, Vagan; Klein, Ophir D

    2014-02-01

    The rodent incisor is one of a number of organs that grow continuously throughout the life of an animal. Continuous growth of the incisor arose as an evolutionary adaptation to compensate for abrasion at the distal end of the tooth. The sustained turnover of cells that deposit the mineralized dental tissues is made possible by epithelial and mesenchymal stem cells residing at the proximal end of the incisor. A complex network of signaling pathways and transcription factors regulates the formation, maintenance, and differentiation of these stem cells during development and throughout adulthood. Research over the past 15 years has led to significant progress in our understanding of this network, which includes FGF, BMP, Notch, and Hh signaling, as well as cell adhesion molecules and micro-RNAs. This review surveys key historical experiments that laid the foundation of the field and discusses more recent findings that definitively identified the stem cell population, elucidated the regulatory network, and demonstrated possible genetic mechanisms for the evolution of continuously growing teeth. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. On the cutting edge of organ renewal: identification, regulation and evolution of incisor stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jimmy Kuang-Hsien; Mushegyan, Vagan; Klein, Ophir D.

    2014-01-01

    The rodent incisor is one of a number of organs that grow continuously throughout the life of an animal. Continuous growth of the incisor arose as an evolutionary adaptation to compensate for abrasion at the distal end of the tooth. The sustained turnover of cells that deposit the mineralized dental tissues is made possible by epithelial and mesenchymal stem cells residing at the proximal end of the incisor. A complex network of signaling pathways and transcription factors regulates the formation, maintenance, and differentiation of these stem cells during development and throughout adulthood. Research over the past 15 years has led to significant progress in our understanding of this network, which includes FGF, BMP, Notch, and Hh signaling, as well as cell adhesion molecules and microRNAs. This review surveys key historical experiments that laid the foundation of the field and discusses more recent findings that definitively identified the stem cell population, elucidated the regulatory network, and demonstrated possible genetic mechanisms for the evolution of continuously growing teeth. PMID:24307456

  16. High-Throughput Identification of Combinatorial Ligands for DNA Delivery in Cell Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svahn, Mathias G.; Rabe, Kersten S.; Barger, Geoffrey; EL-Andaloussi, Samir; Simonson, Oscar E.; Didier, Boturyn; Olivier, Renaudet; Dumy, Pascal; Brandén, Lars J.; Niemeyer, Christof M.; Smith, C. I. Edvard

    2008-10-01

    Finding the optimal combinations of ligands for tissue-specific delivery is tedious even if only a few well-established compounds are tested. The cargo affects the receptor-ligand interaction, especially when it is charged like DNA. The ligand should therefore be evaluated together with its cargo. Several viruses have been shown to interact with more than one receptor, for efficient internalization. We here present a DNA oligonucleotide-based method for inexpensive and rapid screening of biotin labeled ligands for combinatorial effects on cellular binding and uptake. The oligonucleotide complex was designed as a 44 bp double-stranded DNA oligonucleotide with one central streptavidin molecule and a second streptavidin at the terminus. The use of a highly advanced robotic platform ensured stringent processing and execution of the experiments. The oligonucleotides were fluorescently labeled and used for detection and analysis of cell-bound, internalized and intra-cellular compartmentalized constructs by an automated line-scanning confocal microscope, IN Cell Analyzer 3000. All possible combinations of 22 ligands were explored in sets of 2 and tested on 6 different human cell lines in triplicates. In total, 10 000 transfections were performed on the automation platform. Cell-specific combinations of ligands were identified and their relative position on the scaffold oligonucleotide was found to be of importance. The ligands were found to be cargo dependent, carbohydrates were more potent for DNA delivery whereas cell penetrating peptides were more potent for delivery of less charged particles.

  17. Identification and characterization of secondary neural tube-derived embryonic neural stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Mohammed R; Kim, Joo Yeon; Kim, Hyun; Sun, Woong

    2015-05-15

    Secondary neurulation is an embryonic progress that gives rise to the secondary neural tube, the precursor of the lower spinal cord region. The secondary neural tube is derived from aggregated Sox2-expressing neural cells at the dorsal region of the tail bud, which eventually forms rosette or tube-like structures to give rise to neural tissues in the tail bud. We addressed whether the embryonic tail contains neural stem cells (NSCs), namely secondary NSCs (sNSCs), with the potential for self-renewal in vitro. Using in vitro neurosphere assays, neurospheres readily formed at the rosette and neural-tube levels, but less frequently at the tail bud tip level. Furthermore, we identified that sNSC-generated neurospheres were significantly smaller in size compared with cortical neurospheres. Interestingly, various cell cycle analyses revealed that this difference was not due to a reduction in the proliferation rate of NSCs, but rather the neuronal commitment of sNSCs, as sNSC-derived neurospheres contain more committed neuronal progenitor cells, even in the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). These results suggest that the higher tendency for sNSCs to spontaneously differentiate into progenitor cells may explain the limited expansion of the secondary neural tube during embryonic development.

  18. Identification of an "Exceptional Responder" Cell Line to MEK1 Inhibition: Clinical Implications for MEK-Targeted Therapy | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    The identification of somatic genetic alterations that confer sensitivity to pharmacologic inhibitors has led to new cancer therapies. To identify mutations that confer an exceptional dependency, shRNA-based loss-of-function data were analyzed from a dataset of numerous cell lines to reveal genes that are essential in a small subset of cancer cell lines. Once these cell lines were determined, detailed genomic characterization from these cell lines was utilized to ascertain the genomic aberrations that led to this extreme dependency.

  19. Identification of microbes from the surfaces of food-processing lines based on the flow cytometric evaluation of cellular metabolic activity combined with cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Juzwa, W; Duber, A; Myszka, K; Białas, W; Czaczyk, K

    2016-09-01

    In this study the design of a flow cytometry-based procedure to facilitate the detection of adherent bacteria from food-processing surfaces was evaluated. The measurement of the cellular redox potential (CRP) of microbial cells was combined with cell sorting for the identification of microorganisms. The procedure enhanced live/dead cell discrimination owing to the measurement of the cell physiology. The microbial contamination of the surface of a stainless steel conveyor used to process button mushrooms was evaluated in three independent experiments. The flow cytometry procedure provided a step towards monitoring of contamination and enabled the assessment of microbial food safety hazards by the discrimination of active, mid-active and non-active bacterial sub-populations based on determination of their cellular vitality and subsequently single cell sorting to isolate microbial strains from discriminated sub-populations. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.97; p < 0.05) between the bacterial cell count estimated by the pour plate method and flow cytometry, despite there being differences in the absolute number of cells detected. The combined approach of flow cytometric CRP measurement and cell sorting allowed an in situ analysis of microbial cell vitality and the identification of species from defined sub-populations, although the identified microbes were limited to culturable cells.

  20. Interleukin-13 conjugated quantum dots for identification of glioma initiating cells and their extracellular vesicles.

    PubMed

    Madhankumar, A B; Mrowczynski, Oliver D; Patel, Suhag R; Weston, Cody L; Zacharia, Brad E; Glantz, Michael J; Siedlecki, Christopher A; Xu, Li-Chong; Connor, James R

    2017-08-01

    Cadmium selenide (CdSe) based quantum dots modified with polyethylene glycol and chemically linked to interleukin-13 (IL13) were prepared with the aim of identifying the high affinity receptor (IL13Rα2) which is expressed in glioma stem cells and exosomes secreted by these cancer stem cells. IL13 conjugated quantum dots (IL13QD) were thoroughly characterized for their physicochemical properties including particle size and surface morphology. Furthermore, the specific binding of the IL13QD to glioma cells and to glioma stem cells (GSC) was verified using a competitive binding study. The exosomes were isolated from the GSC conditioned medium and the expression of IL13Rα2 in the GSC and exosomes was verified. The binding property of IL13QD to the tumor associated exosomes was initially confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The force of attraction between the quantum dots and U251 glioma cells and the exosomes was investigated by atomic force microscopy, which indicated a higher force of binding interaction between the IL13QD and IL13Rα2 expressing glioma cells and exosomes secreted by glioma stem cells. Flow cytometry of the IL13QD and exosomes from the culture media and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with glioma tumors indicated a distinctly populated complex pattern different from that of non-targeted quantum dots and bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugated quantum dots confirming specific binding potential of the IL13QD to the tumor associated exosomes. The results of this study demonstrate that IL13QD can serve as an ex vivo marker for glioma stem cells and exosomes that can inform diagnosis and prognosis of patients harboring malignant disease. Functionalized quantum dots are flexible semiconductor nanomaterials which have an immense application in biomedical research. In particular, when they are functionalized with biomolecules like proteins or antibodies, they have the specialized ability to detect the expression of receptors and antigens in

  1. Identification of Maturation-Specific Proteins by Single-Cell Proteomics of Human Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Virant-Klun, Irma; Leicht, Stefan; Hughes, Christopher; Krijgsveld, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Oocytes undergo a range of complex processes via oogenesis, maturation, fertilization, and early embryonic development, eventually giving rise to a fully functioning organism. To understand proteome composition and diversity during maturation of human oocytes, here we have addressed crucial aspects of oocyte collection and proteome analysis, resulting in the first proteome and secretome maps of human oocytes. Starting from 100 oocytes collected via a novel serum-free hanging drop culture system, we identified 2,154 proteins, whose function indicate that oocytes are largely resting cells with a proteome that is tailored for homeostasis, cellular attachment, and interaction with its environment via secretory factors. In addition, we have identified 158 oocyte-enriched proteins (such as ECAT1, PIWIL3, NLRP7)1 not observed in high-coverage proteomics studies of other human cell lines or tissues. Exploiting SP3, a novel technology for proteomic sample preparation using magnetic beads, we scaled down proteome analysis to single cells. Despite the low protein content of only ∼100 ng per cell, we consistently identified ∼450 proteins from individual oocytes. When comparing individual oocytes at the germinal vesicle (GV) and metaphase II (MII) stage, we found that the Tudor and KH domain-containing protein (TDRKH) is preferentially expressed in immature oocytes, while Wee2, PCNA, and DNMT1 were enriched in mature cells, collectively indicating that maintenance of genome integrity is crucial during oocyte maturation. This study demonstrates that an innovative proteomics workflow facilitates analysis of single human oocytes to investigate human oocyte biology and preimplantation development. The approach presented here paves the way for quantitative proteomics in other quantity-limited tissues and cell types. Data associated with this study are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD004142. PMID:27215607

  2. Identification of chemicals inducing cardiomyocyte proliferation in developmental stage-specific manner with pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Uosaki, Hideki; Magadum, Ajit; Seo, Kinya; Fukushima, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Ayako; Nakagawa, Yasuaki; Moyes, Kara White; Narazaki, Genta; Kuwahara, Koichiro; Laflamme, Michael; Matsuoka, Satoshi; Nakatsuji, Norio; Nakao, Kazuwa; Kwon, Chulan; Kass, David A; Engel, Felix B; Yamashita, Jun K

    2013-12-01

    The proliferation of cardiomyocytes is highly restricted after postnatal maturation, limiting heart regeneration. Elucidation of the regulatory machineries for the proliferation and growth arrest of cardiomyocytes is imperative. Chemical biology is efficient to dissect molecular mechanisms of various cellular events and often provides therapeutic potentials. We have been investigating cardiovascular differentiation with pluripotent stem cells. The combination of stem cell and chemical biology can provide novel approaches to investigate the molecular mechanisms and manipulation of cardiomyocyte proliferation. To identify chemicals that regulate cardiomyocyte proliferation, we performed a screening of a defined chemical library based on proliferation of mouse pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and identified 4 chemical compound groups: inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and activators of extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Several appropriate combinations of chemicals synergistically enhanced proliferation of cardiomyocytes derived from both mouse and human pluripotent stem cells, notably up to a 14-fold increase in mouse cardiomyocytes. We also examined the effects of identified chemicals on cardiomyocytes in various developmental stages and species. Whereas extracellular signal-regulated kinase activators and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitors showed proliferative effects only on cardiomyocytes in early developmental stages, glycogen synthase kinase-3 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors substantially and synergistically induced re-entry and progression of cell cycle in neonatal but also as well as adult cardiomyocytes. Our approach successfully uncovered novel molecular targets and mechanisms controlling cardiomyocyte proliferation in distinct developmental stages and offered pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes

  3. Identification of EloR (Spr1851) as a regulator of cell elongation in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Stamsås, Gro Anita; Straume, Daniel; Ruud Winther, Anja; Kjos, Morten; Frantzen, Cyril Alexander; Håvarstein, Leiv Sigve

    2017-09-01

    In a screen for mutations suppressing the lethal loss of PBP2b in Streptococcus pneumoniae we identified Spr1851 (named EloR), a cytoplasmic protein of unknown function whose inactivation removed the requirement for PBP2b as well as RodA. It follows from this that EloR and the two elongasome proteins must be part of the same functional network. This network also includes StkP, as this serine/threonine kinase phosphorylates EloR on threonine 89 (T89). We found that ΔeloR cells, and cells expressing the phosphoablative form of EloR (EloR T89A ), are significantly shorter than wild-type cells. Furthermore, the phosphomimetic form of EloR (EloR T89E ) is not tolerated unless the cell in addition acquires a truncated MreC or non-functional RodZ protein. By itself, truncation of MreC as well as inactivation of RodZ gives rise to less elongated cells, demonstrating that the stress exerted by the phosphomimetic form of EloR is relieved by suppressor mutations that reduce or abolish the activity of the elongasome. Of note, it was also found that loss of elongasome activity caused by truncation of MreC elicits increased StkP-mediated phosphorylation of EloR. Together, the results support a model in which phosphorylation of EloR stimulates cell elongation, while dephosphorylation has an inhibitory effect. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Identification and Characterization of a Dendritic Cell Precursor in Parenchymal Lung Tissue.

    PubMed

    von Garnier, Christophe; Blank, Fabian; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Goethert, Joachim R; Holt, Patrick G; Stumbles, Philip A; Strickland, Deborah H

    2017-03-01

    The pulmonary parenchymal and mucosal microenvironments are constantly exposed to the external environment and thus require continuous surveillance to maintain steady-state immunological homeostasis. This is achieved by a mobile network of pulmonary dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages (mø) that constantly sample and process microenvironmental antigens into signals that can initiate or dampen inflammation, either locally or after onward migration to draining lymph nodes. The constant steady-state turnover of pulmonary DC and mø requires replenishment from bone marrow precursors; however, the nature of the pulmonary precursor cell (PC) remains unclear, although recent studies suggest that subsets of pulmonary DC may derive from circulating monocytic precursors. In the current study, we describe a population of cells in steady-state mouse lung tissue that has the surface phenotypic and ultrastructural characteristics of a common DC progenitor. Irradiation and reconstitution studies confirmed the bone marrow origins of this PC and showed that it had rapid depletion and reconstitution kinetics that were similar to those of DC, with a 50% repopulation by donor-derived cells by Days 7-9 after reconstitution. This was significantly faster than the rates observed for mø, which showed 50% repopulation by donor-derived cells beyond Days 16-21 after reconstitution. Purified PC gained antigen-presenting function and a cell surface phenotype similar to that of pulmonary DC after maturation in vitro, with light and electron microscopy confirming a myeloid DC morphology. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to describe a PC for DC in lung tissue; the findings have implications for the restoration of pulmonary immunological homeostasis after bone marrow transplant.

  5. Systems-level identification of PKA-dependent signaling in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Kiyoshi; Jung, Hyun Jun; Yang, Chin-Rang; Claxton, J'Neka; Sandoval, Pablo; Burg, Maurice B; Raghuram, Viswanathan; Knepper, Mark A

    2017-10-17

    G protein stimulatory α-subunit (G αs )-coupled heptahelical receptors regulate cell processes largely through activation of protein kinase A (PKA). To identify signaling processes downstream of PKA, we deleted both PKA catalytic subunits using CRISPR-Cas9, followed by a "multiomic" analysis in mouse kidney epithelial cells expressing the G αs -coupled V2 vasopressin receptor. RNA-seq (sequencing)-based transcriptomics and SILAC (stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture)-based quantitative proteomics revealed a complete loss of expression of the water-channel gene Aqp2 in PKA knockout cells. SILAC-based quantitative phosphoproteomics identified 229 PKA phosphorylation sites. Most of these PKA targets are thus far unannotated in public databases. Surprisingly, 1,915 phosphorylation sites with the motif x-(S/T)-P showed increased phosphooccupancy, pointing to increased activity of one or more MAP kinases in PKA knockout cells. Indeed, phosphorylation changes associated with activation of ERK2 were seen in PKA knockout cells. The ERK2 site is downstream of a direct PKA site in the Rap1GAP, Sipa1l1, that indirectly inhibits Raf1. In addition, a direct PKA site that inhibits the MAP kinase kinase kinase Map3k5 (ASK1) is upstream of JNK1 activation. The datasets were integrated to identify a causal network describing PKA signaling that explains vasopressin-mediated regulation of membrane trafficking and gene transcription. The model predicts that, through PKA activation, vasopressin stimulates AQP2 exocytosis by inhibiting MAP kinase signaling. The model also predicts that, through PKA activation, vasopressin stimulates Aqp2 transcription through induction of nuclear translocation of the acetyltransferase EP300, which increases histone H3K27 acetylation of vasopressin-responsive genes (confirmed by ChIP-seq).

  6. Identification of unique expression signatures and therapeutic targets in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the predominant histological subtype of esophageal cancer, is characterized by high mortality. Previous work identified important mRNA expression differences between normal and tumor cells; however, to date there are limited ex vivo studies examining expression changes occurring during normal esophageal squamous cell differentiation versus those associated with tumorigenesis. In this study, we used a unique tissue microdissection strategy and microarrays to measure gene expression profiles associated with cell differentiation versus tumorigenesis in twelve cases of patient-matched normal basal squamous epithelial cells (NB), normal differentiated squamous epithelium (ND), and squamous cell cancer. Class comparison and pathway analysis were used to compare NB versus tumor in a search for unique therapeutic targets. Results As a first step towards this goal, gene expression profiles and pathways were evaluated. Overall, ND expression patterns were markedly different from NB and tumor; whereas, tumor and NB were more closely related. Tumor showed a general decrease in differentially expressed genes relative to NB as opposed to ND that exhibited the opposite trend. FSH and IgG networks were most highly dysregulated in normal differentiation and tumorigenesis, respectively. DNA repair pathways were generally elevated in NB and tumor relative to ND indicating involvement in both normal and pathological growth. PDGF signaling pathway and 12 individual genes unique to the tumor/NB comparison were identified as therapeutic targets, and 10 associated ESCC gene-drug pairs were identified. We further examined the protein expression level and the distribution patterns of four genes: ODC1, POSTN, ASPA and IGF2BP3. Ultimately, three genes (ODC1, POSTN, ASPA) were verified to be dysregulated in the same pattern at both the mRNA and protein levels. Conclusions These data reveal insight into genes and molecular pathways mediating

  7. Identification of a Novel Topoisomerase Inhibitor Effective in Cells Overexpressing Drug Efflux Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Fayad, Walid; Fryknäs, Mårten; Brnjic, Slavica; Olofsson, Maria Hägg; Larsson, Rolf; Linder, Stig

    2009-01-01

    Background Natural product structures have high chemical diversity and are attractive as lead structures for discovery of new drugs. One of the disease areas where natural products are most frequently used as therapeutics is oncology. Method and Findings A library of natural products (NCI Natural Product set) was screened for compounds that induce apoptosis of HCT116 colon carcinoma cells using an assay that measures an endogenous caspase-cleavage product. One of the apoptosis-inducing compounds identified in the screen was thaspine (taspine), an alkaloid from the South American tree Croton lechleri. The cortex of this tree is used for medicinal purposes by tribes in the Amazonas basin. Thaspine was found to induce conformational activation of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bak and Bax, mitochondrial cytochrome c release and mitochondrial membrane permeabilization in HCT116 cells. Analysis of the gene expression signature of thaspine-treated cells suggested that thaspine is a topoisomerase inhibitor. Inhibition of both topoisomerase I and II was observed using in vitro assays, and thaspine was found to have a reduced cytotoxic effect on a cell line with a mutated topoisomerase II enzyme. Interestingly, in contrast to the topoisomerase II inhibitors doxorubicin, etoposide and mitoxantrone, thaspine was cytotoxic to cell lines overexpressing the PgP or MRP drug efflux transporters. We finally show that thaspine induces wide-spread apoptosis in colon carcinoma multicellular spheroids and that apoptosis is induced in two xenograft mouse models in vivo. Conclusions The alkaloid thaspine from the cortex of Croton lechleri is a dual topoisomerase inhibitor effective in cells overexpressing drug efflux transporters and induces wide-spread apoptosis in multicellular spheroids. PMID:19798419

  8. Identification of a novel topoisomerase inhibitor effective in cells overexpressing drug efflux transporters.

    PubMed

    Fayad, Walid; Fryknäs, Mårten; Brnjic, Slavica; Olofsson, Maria Hägg; Larsson, Rolf; Linder, Stig

    2009-10-02

    Natural product structures have high chemical diversity and are attractive as lead structures for discovery of new drugs. One of the disease areas where natural products are most frequently used as therapeutics is oncology. A library of natural products (NCI Natural Product set) was screened for compounds that induce apoptosis of HCT116 colon carcinoma cells using an assay that measures an endogenous caspase-cleavage product. One of the apoptosis-inducing compounds identified in the screen was thaspine (taspine), an alkaloid from the South American tree Croton lechleri. The cortex of this tree is used for medicinal purposes by tribes in the Amazonas basin. Thaspine was found to induce conformational activation of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bak and Bax, mitochondrial cytochrome c release and mitochondrial membrane permeabilization in HCT116 cells. Analysis of the gene expression signature of thaspine-treated cells suggested that thaspine is a topoisomerase inhibitor. Inhibition of both topoisomerase I and II was observed using in vitro assays, and thaspine was found to have a reduced cytotoxic effect on a cell line with a mutated topoisomerase II enzyme. Interestingly, in contrast to the topoisomerase II inhibitors doxorubicin, etoposide and mitoxantrone, thaspine was cytotoxic to cell lines overexpressing the PgP or MRP drug efflux transporters. We finally show that thaspine induces wide-spread apoptosis in colon carcinoma multicellular spheroids and that apoptosis is induced in two xenograft mouse models in vivo. The alkaloid thaspine from the cortex of Croton lechleri is a dual topoisomerase inhibitor effective in cells overexpressing drug efflux transporters and induces wide-spread apoptosis in multicellular spheroids.

  9. Identification of new human pregnane X receptor ligands among pesticides using a stable reporter cell system.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Géraldine; Mnif, Wissem; Pascussi, Jean-Marc; Pillon, Arnaud; Rabenoelina, Fanja; Fenet, Hélène; Gomez, Elena; Casellas, Claude; Nicolas, Jean-Claude; Cavaillès, Vincent; Duchesne, Marie-Josèphe; Balaguer, Patrick

    2006-06-01

    Pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) is activated by various chemically unrelated compounds, including environmental pollutants and drugs. We proceeded here to in vitro screening of 28 pesticides with a new reporter system that detects human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) activators. The cell line was obtained by a two-step stable transfection of cervical cancer HeLa cells. The first transfected cell line, HG5LN, contained an integrated luciferase reporter gene under the control of a GAL4 yeast transcription factor-binding site. The second cell line HGPXR was derived from HG5LN and stably expressed hPXR ligand-binding domain fused to GAL4 DNA-binding domain (DBD). The HG5LN cells were used as a control to detect nonspecific activities. Pesticides from various chemical classes were demonstrated, for the first time, to be hPXR activators: (1) herbicides: pretilachlor, metolachlor, and alachlor chloracetanilides, oxadiazon oxiconazole, and isoproturon urea; (2) fungicides: bupirimate and fenarimol pyrimidines, propiconazole, fenbuconazole, prochloraz conazoles, and imazalil triazole; and (3) insecticides: toxaphene organochlorine, permethrin pyrethroid, fipronil pyrazole, and diflubenzuron urea. Pretilachlor, metolachlor, bupirimate, and oxadiazon had an affinity for hPXR equal to or greater than the positive control rifampicin. Some of the newly identified hPXR activators were also checked for their ability to induce cytochrome P450 3A4 expression in a primary culture of human hepatocytes. HGPXR, with HG5LN as a reference, was grafted onto nude mice to assess compound bioavailability through in vivo quantification of hPXR activation. Altogether, our data indicate that HGPXR cells are an efficient tool for identifying hPXR ligands and establishing pesticides as hPXR activators.

  10. Identification of potentially cytotoxic lesions induced by UVA photoactivation of DNA 4-thiothymidine in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Reelfs, Olivier; Macpherson, Peter; Ren, Xiaolin; Xu, Yao-Zhong; Karran, Peter; Young, Antony R.

    2011-01-01

    Photochemotherapy—in which a photosensitizing drug is combined with ultraviolet or visible radiation—has proven therapeutic effectiveness. Existing approaches have drawbacks, however, and there is a clinical need to develop alternatives offering improved target cell selectivity. DNA substitution by 4-thiothymidine (S4TdR) sensitizes cells to killing by ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation. Here, we demonstrate that UVA photoactivation of DNA S4TdR does not generate reactive oxygen or cause direct DNA breakage and is only minimally mutagenic. In an organotypic human skin model, UVA penetration is sufficiently robust to kill S4TdR-photosensitized epidermal cells. We have investigated the DNA lesions responsible for toxicity. Although thymidine is the predominant UVA photoproduct of S4TdR in dilute solution, more complex lesions are formed when S4TdR-containing oligonucleotides are irradiated. One of these, a thietane/S5-(6-4)T:T, is structurally related to the (6-4) pyrimidine:pyrimidone [(6-4) Py:Py] photoproducts induced by UVB/C radiation. These lesions are detectable in DNA from S4TdR/UVA-treated cells and are excised from DNA more efficiently by keratinocytes than by leukaemia cells. UVA irradiation also induces DNA interstrand crosslinking of S4TdR-containing duplex oligonucleotides. Cells defective in repairing (6-4) Py:Py DNA adducts or processing DNA crosslinks are extremely sensitive to S4TdR/UVA indicating that these lesions contribute significantly to S4TdR/UVA cytotoxicity. PMID:21890905

  11. Identification of Site-Specific Adaptations Conferring Increased Neural Cell Tropism during Human Enterovirus 71 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Schibler, Manuel; Martinez, Yannick; Gerlach, Daniel; van Belle, Sandra; Turin, Lara; Zdobnov, Evgeny; Kaiser, Laurent; Tapparel, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the most virulent enteroviruses, but the specific molecular features that enhance its ability to disseminate in humans remain unknown. We analyzed the genomic features of EV71 in an immunocompromised host with disseminated disease according to the different sites of infection. Comparison of five full-length genomes sequenced directly from respiratory, gastrointestinal, nervous system, and blood specimens revealed three nucleotide changes that occurred within a five-day period: a non-conservative amino acid change in VP1 located within the BC loop (L97R), a region considered as an immunogenic site and possibly important in poliovirus host adaptation; a conservative amino acid substitution in protein 2B (A38V); and a silent mutation in protein 3D (L175). Infectious clones were constructed using both BrCr (lineage A) and the clinical strain (lineage C) backgrounds containing either one or both non-synonymous mutations. In vitro cell tropism and competition assays revealed that the VP197 Leu to Arg substitution within the BC loop conferred a replicative advantage in SH-SY5Y cells of neuroblastoma origin. Interestingly, this mutation was frequently associated in vitro with a second non-conservative mutation (E167G or E167A) in the VP1 EF loop in neuroblastoma cells. Comparative models of these EV71 VP1 variants were built to determine how the substitutions might affect VP1 structure and/or interactions with host cells and suggest that, while no significant structural changes were observed, the substitutions may alter interactions with host cell receptors. Taken together, our results show that the VP1 BC loop region of EV71 plays a critical role in cell tropism independent of EV71 lineage and, thus, may have contributed to dissemination and neurotropism in the immunocompromised patient. PMID:22910880

  12. Identification of integrin heterodimers functioning on the surface of undifferentiated porcine primed embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hwa-Young; Baek, Song; Han, Na Rae; Lee, Eunsong; Park, Choon-Keun; Lee, Seung Tae

    2018-05-29

    In vitro expansion of undifferentiated porcine primed embryonic stem (ES) cells is facilitated by use of non-cellular niches that mimic three-dimensional (3D) microenvironments enclosing an inner cell mass of porcine blastocysts. Therefore, we investigated the integrin heterodimers on the surface of undifferentiated porcine primed ES cells for the purpose of developing a non-cellular niche to support in vitro maintenance of the self-renewal ability of porcine primed ES cells. Immunocytochemistry and a fluorescence immunoassay were performed to assess integrin α and β subunit levels, and attachment and antibody inhibition assays were used to evaluate the function of integrin heterodimers. The integrin α 3 , α 5 , α 6 , α 9 , α V , and β 1 subunits, but not the α 1 , α 2 , α 4 , α 7 , and α 8 subunits, were identified on the surface of undifferentiated porcine primed ES cells. Subsequently, significant increase of their adhesion to fibronectin, tenascin C and vitronectin were observed and functional blocking of integrin heterodimer α 5 β 1 , α 9 β 1 , or α V β 1 showed significantly inhibited adhesion to fibronectin, tenascin C, or vitronectin. No integrin α 6 β 1 heterodimer?mediated adhesion to laminin was detected. These results demonstrate that active α 5 β 1 , α 9 β 1 , and α V β 1 integrin heterodimers are present on the surface of undifferentiated porcine primed ES cells, together with inactive integrin α 3 (presumed) and α 6 subunits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of Maturation-Specific Proteins by Single-Cell Proteomics of Human Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Virant-Klun, Irma; Leicht, Stefan; Hughes, Christopher; Krijgsveld, Jeroen

    2016-08-01

    Oocytes undergo a range of complex processes via oogenesis, maturation, fertilization, and early embryonic development, eventually giving rise to a fully functioning organism. To understand proteome composition and diversity during maturation of human oocytes, here we have addressed crucial aspects of oocyte collection and proteome analysis, resulting in the first proteome and secretome maps of human oocytes. Starting from 100 oocytes collected via a novel serum-free hanging drop culture system, we identified 2,154 proteins, whose function indicate that oocytes are largely resting cells with a proteome that is tailored for homeostasis, cellular attachment, and interaction with its environment via secretory factors. In addition, we have identified 158 oocyte-enriched proteins (such as ECAT1, PIWIL3, NLRP7)(1) not observed in high-coverage proteomics studies of other human cell lines or tissues. Exploiting SP3, a novel technology for proteomic sample preparation using magnetic beads, we scaled down proteome analysis to single cells. Despite the low protein content of only ∼100 ng per cell, we consistently identified ∼450 proteins from individual oocytes. When comparing individual oocytes at the germinal vesicle (GV) and metaphase II (MII) stage, we found that the Tudor and KH domain-containing protein (TDRKH) is preferentially expressed in immature oocytes, while Wee2, PCNA, and DNMT1 were enriched in mature cells, collectively indicating that maintenance of genome integrity is crucial during oocyte maturation. This study demonstrates that an innovative proteomics workflow facilitates analysis of single human oocytes to investigate human oocyte biology and preimplantation development. The approach presented here paves the way for quantitative proteomics in other quantity-limited tissues and cell types. Data associated with this study are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD004142. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

  14. Investigation of triamterene as an inhibitor of the TGR5 receptor: identification in cells and animals.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingxiao; Cheng, Kai Chun; Niu, Chiang-Shan; Lo, Shih-Hsiang; Cheng, Juei-Tang; Niu, Ho-Shan

    2017-01-01

    G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1, also known as TGR5) has been shown to participate in glucose homeostasis. In animal models, a TGR5 agonist increases incretin secretion to reduce hyperglycemia. Many agonists have been developed for clinical use. However, the effects of TGR5 blockade have not been studied extensively, with the exception of studies using TGR5 knockout mice. Therefore, we investigated the potential effect of triamterene on TGR5. We transfected the TGR5 gene into cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1 cells) to express TGR5. Then, we applied a fluorescent indicator to examine the glucose uptake of these transfected cells. In addition, NCI-H716 cells that secrete incretin were also evaluated. Fura-2, a fluorescence indicator, was applied to determine the changes in calcium concentrations. The levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) were estimated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Moreover, rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1-like diabetes were used to investigate the effects in vivo. Triamterene dose dependently inhibits the increase in glucose uptake induced by TGR5 agonists in CHO-K1 cells expressing the TGR5 gene. In cultured NCI-H716 cells, TGR5 activation also increases GLP-1 secretion by increasing calcium levels. Triamterene inhibits the increased calcium levels by TGR5 activation through competitive antagonism. Moreover, the GLP-1 secretion and increased cAMP levels induced by TGR5 activation are both dose dependently reduced by triamterene. However, treatment with KB-R7943 at a dose sufficient to block the Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger (NCX) failed to modify the responses to TGR5 activation in NCI-H716 cells or CHO-K1 cells expressing TGR5. Therefore, the inhibitory effects of triamterene on TGR5 activation do not appear to be related to NCX inhibition. Blockade of TGR5 activation by triamterene was further characterized in vivo using the STZ-induced diabetic rats

  15. Identification of a selective small molecule inhibitor of breast cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Germain, Andrew R; Carmody, Leigh C; Morgan, Barbara; Fernandez, Cristina; Forbeck, Erin; Lewis, Timothy A; Nag, Partha P; Ting, Amal; VerPlank, Lynn; Feng, Yuxiong; Perez, Jose R; Dandapani, Sivaraman; Palmer, Michelle; Lander, Eric S; Gupta, Piyush B; Schreiber, Stuart L; Munoz, Benito

    2012-05-15

    A high-throughput screen (HTS) with the National Institute of Health-Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository (NIH-MLSMR) compound collection identified a class of acyl hydrazones to be selectively lethal to breast cancer stem cell (CSC) enriched populations. Medicinal chemistry efforts were undertaken to optimize potency and selectivity of this class of compounds. The optimized compound was declared as a probe (ML239) with the NIH Molecular Libraries Program and displayed greater than 20-fold selective inhibition of the breast CSC-like cell line (HMLE_sh_Ecad) over the isogenic control line (HMLE_sh_GFP). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Testicular germ line cell identification, isolation, and transplantation in two North American catfish species.

    PubMed

    Shang, Mei; Su, Baofeng; Perera, Dayan A; Alsaqufi, Ahmed; Lipke, Elizabeth A; Cek, Sehriban; Dunn, David A; Qin, Zhenkui; Peatman, Eric; Dunham, Rex A

    2018-04-01

    Our aim was to transplant blue catfish germ line stem cells into blastulae of triploid channel catfish embryos to produce interspecific xenogenic catfish. The morphological structure of the gonads of blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) in ~ 90- to 100-day-old juveniles, two-year-old juveniles, and mature adults was studied histologically. Both oogonia (12-15 μm, diameter with distinct nucleus 7-8 μm diameter) and spermatogonia (12-15 μm, with distinct nucleus 6-7.5 μm diameter) were found in all ages of fish. The percentage of germ line stem cells was higher in younger blue catfish of both sexes. After the testicular tissue was trypsinized, a discontinuous density gradient centrifugation was performed using 70, 45, and 35% Percoll to enrich the percentage of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Four distinct cell bands were generated after the centrifugation. It was estimated that 50% of the total cells in the top band were type A spermatogonia (diameter 12-15 μm) and type B spermatogonia (diameter 10-11 μm). Germ cells were confirmed with expression of vasa. Blastula-stage embryos of channel catfish (I. punctatus) were injected with freshly dissociated blue catfish testicular germ cells as donor cells for transplantation. Seventeen days after the transplantation, 33.3% of the triploid channel catfish fry were determined to be xenogenic catfish. This transplantation technique was efficient, and these xenogenic channel catfish need to be grown to maturity to verify their reproductive capacity and to verify that for the first time SSCs injected into blastulae were able to migrate to the genital ridge and colonize. These results open the possibility of artificially producing xenogenic channel catfish males that can produce blue catfish sperm and mate with normal channel catfish females naturally. The progeny would be all C × B hybrid catfish, and the efficiency of hybrid catfish production could be improved tremendously in the catfish industry.

  17. Global Transcriptome Analysis of Primary Cerebrocortical Cells: Identification of Genes Regulated by Triiodothyronine in Specific Cell Types.

    PubMed

    Gil-Ibañez, Pilar; García-García, Francisco; Dopazo, Joaquín; Bernal, Juan; Morte, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid hormones, thyroxine, and triiodothyronine (T3) are crucial for cerebral cortex development acting through regulation of gene expression. To define the transcriptional program under T3 regulation, we have performed RNA-Seq of T3-treated and untreated primary mouse cerebrocortical cells. The expression of 1145 genes or 7.7% of expressed genes was changed upon T3 addition, of which 371 responded to T3 in the presence of cycloheximide indicating direct transcriptional regulation. The results were compared with available transcriptomic d