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Sample records for a431 cells overexpressing

  1. Diosmin reduces cell viability of A431 skin cancer cells through apoptotic induction.

    PubMed

    Buddhan, Rajamanickam; Manoharan, Shanmugam

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic potential of the diosmin in A431 skin cancer cells. The cytotoxic (anti-cell proliferative) potential of diosmin in A431 cells was assessed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay (cell viability), dual staining (apoptotic induction), dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate assay (reactive oxygen species [ROS] generation), DNA fragmentation study, Western blotting analysis (apoptotic markers expression) and flow cytometry (cell cycle arrest). Diosmin reduced the cell viability of A431 cells in a dose-dependent fashion and the inhibitory concentration 50% value was attained at 45 μg/ml using MTT assay. Diosmin at a concentration of 45 μg/ml generated excessive ROS in A431 cells, as compared to untreated cells. Diosmin treated A431 cells also revealed multiple DNA fragments than the untreated cells. Diosmin upregulated the expression of p53, caspases 3 and 9 and downregulated the expression of Bcl-2, matrix metalloproteinases-2 and 9 in A431 cells. The cytotoxic or anti-cell proliferative potential of diosmin is due to its ROS-mediated apoptotic induction potential, as well as due to its role in the inhibition of invasion in the A431 cells.

  2. Anticancer effects of cantharidin in A431 human skin cancer (Epidermoid carcinoma) cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Chi-Chuan; Yu, Fu-Shun; Fan, Ming-Jen; Chen, Ya-Yin; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Chou, Yu-Cheng; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Tang, Nou-Ying; Peng, Shu-Fen; Huang, Wen-Wen; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2017-03-01

    Cantharidin (CTD), a potential anticancer agent of Traditional Chinese Medicine has cytotxic effects in different human cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic effects of CTD on A431 human skin cancer (epidermoid carcinoma) cells in vitro and in A431 cell xenograft mouse model were examined. In vitro, A431 human skin cell were treated with CTD for 24 and 48 h. Cell phase distribution, ROS production, Ca 2+ release, Caspase activity and the level of apoptosis associated proteins were measured. In vivo, A431 cell xenograft mouse model were examined. CTD-induced cell morphological changes and decreased percentage of viable A431 cells via G0/G1 phase arrest and induced apoptosis. CTD-induced G0/G1 phase arrest through the reduction of protein levels of cyclin E, CDK6, and cyclin D in A431 cells. CTD-induced cell apoptosis of A431 cells also was confirm by DNA gel electrophoresis showed CTD-induced DNA fragmentation. CTD reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential and stimulated release of cytochrome c, AIF and Endo G in A431 cells. Flow cytometry demonstrated that CTD increased activity of caspase-8, -9 and -3. However, when cells were pretreated with specific caspase inhibitors activity was reduced and cell viability increased. CTD increased protein levels of death receptors such as DR4, DR5, TRAIL and levels of the active form of caspase-8, -9 and -3 in A431 cells. AIF and Endo G proteins levels were also enhanced by CTD. In vivo studies showed that CTD significantly inhibited A431 cell xenograft tumors in mice. Taken together, these in vitro and in vivo results provide insight into the mechanisms of CTD on cell growth and tumor production. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 723-738, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Identification of specific gravity sensitive signal transduction pathways in human A431 carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijken, P. J.; de Groot, R. P.; Kruijer, W.; de Laat, S. W.; Verkleij, A. J.; Boonstra, J.

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) activates a well characterized signal transduction cascade in human A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells. The influence of gravity on EGF-induced EGF-receptor clustering and early gene expression as well as on actin polymerization and actin organization have been investigated. Different signalling pathways induced by the agents TPA, forskolin and A23187 that activate gene expression were tested for sensitivity to gravity. EGF-induced c-fos and c-jun expression were decreased in microgravity. However, constitutive β-2 microglobulin expression remained unaltered. Under simulated weightlessness conditions EGF- and TPA-induced c-fos expression was decreased, while forskolin- and A23187-induced c-fos expression was independent of the gravity conditions. These results suggest that gravity affects specific signalling pathways. Preliminary results indicate that EGF-induced EGF-receptor clustering remained unaltered irrespective of the gravity conditions. Furthermore, the relative filamentous actin content of steady state A431 cells was enhanced under microgravity conditions and actin filament organization was altered. Under simulated weightlessness actin filament organization in steady state cells as well as in EGF-treated cells was altered as compared to the 1 G reference experiment. Interestingly the microtubule and keratin organization in untreated cells showed no difference with the normal gravity samples. This indicates that gravity may affect specific components of the signal transduction circuitry.

  4. The growth of human fibroblasts and A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells on gamma-irradiated human amnion collagen substrata.

    PubMed

    Liu, B; Harrell, R; Lamb, D J; Dresden, M H; Spira, M

    1989-10-15

    Human fibroblasts and A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells were cultured on gamma-irradiated human amnion collagen as well as on plastic dishes and non-irradiated collagen coated dishes. The morphology, attachment, growth and short-term cytotoxicity of these culture conditions have been determined. Both irradiated and non-irradiated amnion collagen enhanced the attachment and proliferation of fibroblasts as compared to the plastic dishes. No differences in these properties were observed for A431 cells cultured on irradiated collagen when compared with culture on non-irradiated collagen substrates. Cytotoxicity assays showed that irradiated and non-irradiated collagens were not cytotoxic for either fibroblasts or A431 cells. The results demonstrated that amnion collagen irradiated at doses of 0.25-2.0 Mrads is optimal for cell growth.

  5. Establishment of A431 cell membrane chromatography-RPLC method for screening target components from Radix Caulophylli.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaofang; Wang, Sicen; Hou, Jingjing; He, Langchong

    2011-03-01

    We describe here an analytical method of A431 cell membrane chromatography (A431/CMC) (CMC, cell membrane chromatography) combined with RPLC for recognition, separation, and identification of target components from traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) Radix Caulophylli. The A431 cells with high expressed epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were used to prepare the stationary phase in the CMC model. Retention fractions on the A431-CMC model were collected using an automated fraction collection and injection module (FC/I). Each fraction was analyzed by RPLC under the optimized conditions. Gefitinib and erlotinib were used as standard compounds to investigate the suitability and reliability of the A431 cell membrane chromatography-RPLC method prior to screening target component from Radix Caulophylli total alkaloids. The results indicated that caulophine and taspine were the target component acting on the epidermal growth factor receptor. This method could be an efficient way in drug discovery using natural medicinal herbs as a source of novel compounds. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Lysosomal Signaling Enhances Mitochondria-Mediated Photodynamic Therapy in A431 Cancer Cells: Role of Iron

    PubMed Central

    Saggu, Shalini; Hung, Hsin-I; Quiogue, Geraldine; Lemasters, John J.; Nieminen, Anna-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    In photodynamic therapy (PDT), light activates a photosensitizer added to a tissue, resulting in singlet oxygen formation and cell death. The photosensitizer phthalocyanine 4 (Pc 4) localizes primarily to mitochondrial membranes in cancer cells, resulting in mitochondria-mediated cell death. The aim of this study was to determine how lysosomes contribute to PDT-induced cell killing by mitochondria-targeted photosensitizers such as Pc 4. We monitored cell killing of A431 cells after Pc 4-PDT in the presence and absence of bafilomycin, an inhibitor of the vacuolar proton pump of lysosomes and endosomes. Bafilomycin was not toxic by itself, but greatly enhanced Pc 4-PDT-induced cell killing. To investigate whether iron loading of lysosomes affects bafilomycin-induced killing, cells were incubated with ammonium ferric citrate (30 μm) for 30 h prior to PDT. Ammonium ferric citrate enhanced Pc 4 plus bafilomycin-induced cell killing without having toxicity by itself. Iron chelators (desferrioxamine and starch-desferrioxamine) and the inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium (and ferrous iron) uniporter, Ru360, protected against Pc 4 plus bafilomycin toxicity. These results support the conclusion that chelatable iron stored in the lysosomes enhances the efficacy of bafilomycin-mediated PDT and that lysosomal disruption augments PDT with Pc 4. PMID:22220628

  7. Toxicity of dimethylmonothioarsinic acid toward human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Naranmandura, Hua; Ibata, Kenji; Suzuki, Kazuo T

    2007-08-01

    Chronic ingestion of arsenic-contaminated drinking water induces skin lesions and urinary bladder cancer in humans. It is now recognized that thioarsenicals such as dimethylmonothioarsinic acid (DMMTA (V)) are commonly excreted in the urine of humans and animals and that the production of DMMTA (V) may be a risk factor for the development of the diseases caused by arsenic. The toxicity of DMMTA (V) was compared with that of related nonthiolated arsenicals with respect to cell viability, uptake ability, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cell cycle progression of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells, arsenate (iAs (V)), arsenite (iAs (III)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA (V)), and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA (III)) being used as reference nonthiolated arsenicals. DMMTA (V) (LC 50 = 10.7 microM) was shown to be much more cytotoxic than iAs (V) (LC 50 = 571 microM) and DMA (V) (LC 50 = 843 microM), and its potency was shown to be close to that of trivalent arsenicals iAs (III) (LC 50 = 5.49 microM) and DMA (III) (LC 50 = 2.16 microM). The greater cytotoxicity of DMMTA (V) was associated with greater cellular uptake and distribution, and the level of intracellular ROS remarkably increased in A431 cells upon exposure to DMMTA (V) compared to that after exposure to other trivalent arsenicals at the respective LC 50. Exposure of DMMTA (V) to cells for 24 h induced cell cycle perturbation. Namely, the percentage of cells residing in S and G2/M phases increased from 10.2 and 15.6% to 46.5 and 20.8%, respectively. These results suggest that although DMMTA (V) is a pentavalent arsenical, it is taken up efficiently by cells and causes various levels of toxicity, in a manner different from that of nonthiolated pentavalent arsenicals, demonstrating that DMMTA (V) is one of the most toxic arsenic metabolites. The high cytotoxicity of DMMTA (V) was explained and/or proposed by (1) efficient uptake by cells followed by (2) its transformation to DMA (V), (3) producing ROS

  8. Flurbiprofen benzyl nitrate (NBS-242) inhibits the growth of A-431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells and targets β-catenin.

    PubMed

    Nath, Niharika; Liu, Xiaoping; Jacobs, Lloydine; Kashfi, Khosrow

    2013-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin/T cell factor (TCF) signaling pathway is important in the development of nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). Nitric-oxide-releasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NO-NSAIDs) are chemopreventive agents consisting of a traditional NSAID attached to an NO-releasing moiety through a chemical spacer. Previously we showed that an aromatic spacer enhanced the potency of a particular NO-NSAID compared to an aliphatic spacer. We synthesized an NO-releasing NSAID with an aromatic spacer (flurbiprofen benzyl nitrate, NBS-242), and using the human skin cancer cell line A-431, we evaluated its effects on cell kinetics, Wnt/β-catenin, cyclin D1, and caspase-3. NBS-242 inhibited the growth of A-431 cancer cells, being ~15-fold more potent than flurbiprofen and up to 5-fold more potent than NO-flurbiprofen with an aliphatic spacer, the half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for growth inhibition being 60 ± 4 μM, 320 ± 20 μM, and 880 ± 65 μM for NBS-242, NO-flurbiprofen, and flurbiprofen, respectively. This effect was associated with inhibition of proliferation, accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, and an increase in apoptotic cell population. NBS-242 cleaved β-catenin both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of A-431 cells. NBS-242 activated caspase-3 whose activation was reflected in the cleavage of procaspase-3. To test the functional consequence of β-catenin cleavage, we determined the expression of cyclin D1, a Wnt-response gene. NBS-242 reduced cyclin D1 levels in a concentration dependent manner. These findings establish a strong inhibitory effect of NBS-242 in A-431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. NBS-242 modulates parameters that are important in determining cellular mass.

  9. Proteolytic cleavage and activation of PAK2 during UV irradiation-induced apoptosis in A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, T K; Chang, W C; Chan, W H; Yang, S D; Ni, M H; Yu, J S

    1998-09-15

    Exposure of mammalian cells to ultraviolet (UV) light elicits a cellular response and can also lead to apoptotic cell death. In this report, we show that a 36-kDa myelin basic protein (MBP) kinase detected by an in-gel kinase assay can be dramatically activated during the early stages of UV irradiation-triggered apoptosis of A431 cells. Immunoblot analysis revealed that this 36-kDa MBP kinase could be recognized by an antibody against the C-terminal regions of a family of p21Cdc42/Rac-activated kinases (PAKs). By using this antibody and a PAK2-specific antibody against the N-terminal region of PAK2 as studying tools, we further demonstrated that UV irradiation caused cleavage of PAK2 to generate a 36-kDa C-terminal catalytic fragment and a 30-kDa N-terminal fragment in A431 cells. The appearance of the 36-kDa C-terminal catalytic fragment of PAK2 matched exactly with the activation of the 36-kDa MBP kinase in A431 cells upon UV irradiation. In addition, UV irradiation also led to activation of CPP32/caspase-3, but not ICH-1L/caspase-2 and ICE/caspase-1, in A431 cells and the kinetics of activation of CPP32/caspase-3 appeared to correlate well with that of DNA fragmentation and of cleavage/activation of PAK2, respectively. Moreover, blockage of activation of CPP32/caspase-3 by pretreating the cells with two specific tetrapeptidic inhibitors for caspases (Ac-DEVD-cho and Ac-YVAD-cmk) could significantly attenuate the extent of cleavage/activation of PAK2 induced by UV irradiation. Collectively, the results demonstrate that cleavage and activation of PAK2 can be induced during the early stages of UV irradiation-triggered apoptosis and indicate the involvement of CPP32/caspase-3 in this process.

  10. Purification of high-molecular-weight subfraction from porcine skin inhibiting proliferation of A431 human carcinoma epidermoid cells.

    PubMed

    Belova, O V; Sergienko, V I; Arion, V Ya; Lukanidina, T A; Moskvina, S N; Zimina, I V; Borisenko, G G; Lutsenko, G V; Grechikhina, M V; Kovaleva, E V; Klyuchnikova, Zh I

    2014-07-01

    Subfraction with a molecular weight >250 kDa isolated from porcine skin and inhibiting the proliferation of A431 human carcinoma epidermoid cells was purified by DEAE 32 anion exchange chromatography with NaCl concentration step-gradient. The effects of the initial subfraction and fractions obtained by separation in DEAE 32 on the proliferation of A431 human carcinoma epidermoid cells were studied in vitro in two tests (MTT and fluorescent test). The more sensitive fluorescent test showed the highest inhibitory activity of fraction No. 2 released from the column at 0.15 M NaCl. One major protein component and a series of minor protein components were detected in this fraction by vertical PAAG-SDS electrophoresis.

  11. Resveratrol enhances ultraviolet B-induced cell death through nuclear factor-{kappa}B pathway in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Preeti; Kalra, Neetu; Nigam, Nidhi

    Resveratrol has been reported to suppress cancer progression in several in vivo and in vitro models, whereas ultraviolet B (UVB), a major risk for skin cancer, is known to induce cell death in cancerous cells. Here, we investigated whether resveratrol can sensitize A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells to UVB-induced cell death. We examined the combined effect of UVB (30 mJ/cm{sup 2}) and resveratrol (60 {mu}M) on A431 cells. Exposure of A431 carcinoma cells to UVB radiation or resveratrol can inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. However, the combination of resveratrol and UVB exposure was associated with increased proliferation inhibition ofmore » A431 cells compared with either agent alone. Furthermore, results showed that resveratrol and UVB treatment of A431 cells disrupted the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-{kappa}B) pathway by blocking phosphorylation of serine 536 and inactivating NF-{kappa}B and subsequent degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, which regulates the expression of survivin. Resveratrol and UVB treatment also decreased the phosphorylation of tyrosine 701 of the important transcription factor signal transducer activator of transcription (STAT1), which in turn inhibited translocation of phospho-STAT1 to the nucleus. Moreover, resveratrol/UVB also inhibited the metastatic protein LIMK1, which reduced the motility of A431 cells. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the combination of resveratrol and UVB act synergistically against skin cancer cells. Thus, resveratrol is a potential chemotherapeutic agent against skin carcinogenesis.« less

  12. Regulation of apoptosis by resveratrol through JAK/STAT and mitochondria mediated pathway in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Madan, Esha; Prasad, Sahdeo; Roy, Preeti

    2008-12-26

    Resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenolic phytoalexin present mainly in grapes, red wine and berries, is known to possess strong chemopreventive and anticancer properties. Here, we demonstrated the anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities of resveratrol in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Resveratrol has cytotoxic effects through inhibiting cellular proliferation of A431 cells, which leads to the induction of apoptosis, as evident by an increase in the fraction of cells in the sub-G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle and Annexin-V binding of externalized phosphatidylserine. Results revealed that inhibition of proliferation is associated with regulation of the JAK/STAT pathway, where resveratrol prevents phosphorylation ofmore » JAK, thereby inhibiting STAT1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, resveratrol treatment actively stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Consequently, an imbalance in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio triggered the caspase cascade and subsequent cleavage of PARP, thereby shifting the balance in favor of apoptosis. These observations indicate that resveratrol treatment inhibits JAK/STAT-mediated gene transcription and induce the mitochondrial cell death pathway.« less

  13. Fisetin inhibits growth, induces G2/M arrest and apoptosis of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells: Role of mitochondrial membrane potential disruption and consequent caspases activation

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Harish C.; Sharma, Samriti; Elmets, Craig A.; Athar, Mohammad; Afaq, Farrukh

    2013-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) one of the most common neoplasms causes serious morbidity and mortality. Therefore, identification of non-toxic phytochemicals for prevention/treatment of NMSCs is highly desirable. Fisetin (3,3′,4′,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), a dietary flavonoid, present in fruits and vegetables possesses anti-oxidant and anti-proliferative properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemotherapeutic potential of fisetin in cultured human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Treatment of A431 cells with fistein (5-80 μM) resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Employing clonogenic assay, we found that fisetin treatment significantly reduced colony formation in A431 cells. Fisetin treatment of A431 cells resulted in G2/M arrest and induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, treatment of A431 cells with fisetin resulted in (i) decreased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl2, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1), (ii) increased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, Bak and Bad), (iii) disruption of mitochondrial potential, (iv) release of cytchrome c and Smac/DIABLO from mitochondria, (v) activation of caspases, and (vi) cleavage of PARP protein. Pretreatment of A431 cells with the pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) blocked fisetin-induced cleavage of caspases and PARP. Taken together, these data provide evidence that fisetin possesses chemotherapeutic potential against human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Overall, these results suggest that fisetin could be developed as a novel therapeutic agent for the management of NMSCs. PMID:23800058

  14. A green approach toward quinoxalines and bis-quinoxalines and their biological evaluation against A431, human skin cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Debasish; Cruz, Jessica; Morales, Liza D; Arman, Hadi D; Cuate, Erica; Lee, Young S; Banik, Bimal K; Kim, Dae J

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a practical green procedure to synthesize quinoxalines and bis-quinoxalines and evaluate their inhibitory effects on the viability of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. A series of quinoxaline and bis-quinoxaline derivatives have been designed and synthesized following a microwave-assisted and bismuth nitrate-catalyzed eco-friendly route. A detailed comparison has been made between microwave-induced protocol with the reactions occurred at room temperature. The structure of the compounds have been elucidated by various spectroscopic methods and finally confirmed by x-ray crystallographic analyses. Two quinoxaline derivatives, compounds 6 and 12 have demonstrated inhibitory effects on the viability of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells when compared with HaCaT nontumorigenic human keratinocyte cells. Notably, compound 6 inhibits Stat3 phosphorylation/activation in A431 skin cancer cells.

  15. Icotinib, a potent and specific EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, inhibits growth of squamous cell carcinoma cell line A431 through negatively regulating AKT signaling.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenzhen; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Xiaohua; Cai, Peifen; Fang, Xianying; Xu, Qiang; Sun, Yang; Gu, Yanhong

    2013-06-01

    Icotinib is a potent and specific epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. In this study, we reported that icotinib had the antitumor activity on human squamous cell carcinoma cell line A431 in vitro. Meanwhile, adhesion to fibronectin and expression of integrin α3 and β1 were significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner after the treatment of icotinib. Moreover, icotinib induced cell cycle arrested and affected expression of various cell cycle related proteins in squamous cancer cell line A431, whereas it did not cause apoptosis. Furthermore, icotinib remarkably down-regulated phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) though blocking the interaction between 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) and AKT in A431 cells. Taken together, it is shown that the small molecular compound, icotinib, has an anti-squamous cell carcinoma activity in vitro and its antitumor mechanism is associated with the blockage of the interaction between PDK1 and AKT. These results provide a novel strategy for anti-squamous cell carcinoma therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Interference of silibinin with IGF-1R signalling pathways protects human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells from UVB-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Weiwei; Otkur, Wuxiyar; Li, Lingzhi

    Highlights: ► Silibinin protects A431 cells from UVB irradiation-induced apoptosis. ► Up-regulation of the IGF-1R-JNK/ERK pathways by UVB induces cell apoptosis. ► Silibinin inhibits IGF-1R pathways to repress caspase-8-mediated apoptosis. -- Abstract: Ultraviolet B (UVB) from sunlight is a major cause of cutaneous lesion. Silibinin, a traditional hepatic protectant, elicits protective effects against UVB-induced cellular damage. In A431 cells, the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) was markedly up-regulated by UVB irradiation. The activation of the IGF-1R signalling pathways contributed to apoptosis of the cells rather than rescuing the cells from death. Up-regulated IGF-1R stimulated downstream mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), suchmore » as c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). The subsequent activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 led to apoptosis. The activation of IGF-1R signalling pathways is the cause of A431 cell death. The pharmacological inhibitors and the small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting IGF-1R suppressed the downstream activation of JNK/ERK-caspases to help the survival of the UVB-irradiated A431 cells. Indeed, silibinin treatment suppressed the IGF-1R-JNK/ERK pathways and thus protected the cells from UVB-induced apoptosis.« less

  17. Binding of fluoresceinated epidermal growth factor to A431 cell sub-populations studied using a model-independent analysis of flow cytometric fluorescence data.

    PubMed Central

    Chatelier, R C; Ashcroft, R G; Lloyd, C J; Nice, E C; Whitehead, R H; Sawyer, W H; Burgess, A W

    1986-01-01

    A method is developed for determining ligand-cell association parameters from a model-free analysis of data obtained with a flow cytometer. The method requires measurement of the average fluorescence per cell as a function of ligand and cell concentration. The analysis is applied to data obtained for the binding of fluoresceinated epidermal growth factor to a human epidermoid carcinoma cell line, A431. The results indicate that the growth factor binds to two classes of sites on A431 cells: 4 X 10(4) sites with a dissociation constant (KD) of less than or equal to 20 pM, and 1.5 X 10(6) sites with a KD of 3.7 nM. A derived plot of the average fluorescence per cell versus the average number of bound ligands per cell is used to construct binding isotherms for four sub-populations of A431 cells fractionated on the basis of low-angle light scatter. The four sub-populations bind the ligand with equal affinity but differ substantially in terms of the number of binding sites per cell. We also use this new analysis to critically evaluate the use of 'Fluorotrol' as a calibration standard in flow cytometry. PMID:3015587

  18. Ebselen reduces the toxicity of mechlorethamine in A-431 cells via inhibition of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lulla, Anju; Pino, Maria A; Piętka-Ottlik, Magdalena; Młochowski, Jacek; Sparavalo, Oleksiy; Billack, Blase

    2013-06-01

    A series of test compounds were evaluated for an ability to reduce the toxicity of the nitrogen mustard mechlorethamine (HN2) in vitro. The test compounds included resveratrol, pterostilbene, vitamin C, ebselen, ebselen diselenide, and ebselen-sulfur. Among them, ebselen demonstrated the highest degree of protection against HN2 toxicity. To this end, pretreatment of the cells with ebselen offered protection against the toxicant whereas no protection was observed when cells were first incubated with HN2 and then treated with ebselen. Significant increases in caspase 3 and caspase 9 activities were observed in response to HN2, and ebselen was found to reduce these effects. Taken together, the data presented here indicate that ebselen is an effective countermeasure to nitrogen mustard in vitro, which is worthy of future investigation in vivo. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Alpha-santalol, a chemopreventive agent against skin cancer, causes G2/M cell cycle arrest in both p53-mutated human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells and p53 wild-type human melanoma UACC-62 cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background α-Santalol, an active component of sandalwood oil, has shown chemopreventive effects on skin cancer in different murine models. However, effects of α-santalol on cell cycle have not been studied. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate effects of α-santalol on cell cycle progression in both p53 mutated human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells and p53 wild-type human melanoma UACC-62 cells to elucidate the mechanism(s) of action. Methods MTT assay was used to determine cell viability in A431 cells and UACC-62; fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of propidium iodide staining was used for determining cell cycle distribution in A431 cells and UACC-62 cells; immunoblotting was used for determining the expression of various proteins and protein complexes involved in the cell cycle progression; siRNA were used to knockdown of p21 or p53 in A431 and UACC-62 cells and immunofluorescence microscopy was used to investigate microtubules in UACC-62 cells. Results α-Santalol at 50-100 μM decreased cell viability from 24 h treatment and α-santalol at 50 μM-75 μM induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest from 6 h treatment in both A431 and UACC-62 cells. α-Santalol altered expressions of cell cycle proteins such as cyclin A, cyclin B1, Cdc2, Cdc25c, p-Cdc25c and Cdk2. All of these proteins are critical for G2/M transition. α-Santalol treatment up-regulated the expression of p21 and suppressed expressions of mutated p53 in A431 cells; whereas, α-santalol treatment increased expressions of wild-type p53 in UACC-62 cells. Knockdown of p21 in A431 cells, knockdown of p21 and p53 in UACC-62 cells did not affect cell cycle arrest caused by α-santalol. Furthermore, α-santalol caused depolymerization of microtubules similar to vinblastine in UACC-62 cells. Conclusions This study for the first time identifies effects of α-santalol in G2/M phase arrest and describes detailed mechanisms of G2/M phase arrest by this agent, which might be

  20. Up-regulation of the tight-junction protein ZO-1 by substance P and IGF-1 in A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ji-Ae; Murata, Shizuka; Nishida, Teruo

    2009-08-01

    The formation of a barrier by tight junctions is important in epithelia of various tissues. Substance P (SP) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 synergistically promote barrier function in the corneal epithelium. We have now examined the effects of SP and IGF-1 on expression of the tight-junction protein zonula occludens (ZO)-1 in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunoblot analyses revealed that SP and IGF-1 increased the amounts of ZO-1 mRNA and protein in these cells in a concentration-dependent manner, with neither SP nor IGF-1 alone having such an effect. The SP- and IGF-1-induced up-regulation of ZO-1 was accompanied by phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and both of these effects were blocked by PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK activation. SP and IGF-1 also increased the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) (an indicator of barrier function) of an A431 cell monolayer in a manner sensitive to PD98059. Our results thus suggest that the synergistic induction of ZO-1 expression by SP and IGF-1 may promote barrier function in skin epithelial cells. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. A combined A431 cell membrane chromatography and online high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method for screening compounds from total alkaloid of Radix Caulophylli acting on the human EGFR.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meng; Ren, Jing; Du, Hui; Zhang, Yanmin; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Sicen; He, Langchong

    2010-10-15

    We have developed an online analytical method that combines A431 cell membrane chromatography (A431/CMC) with high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC/MS) for identifying active components from Radix Caulophylli acting on human EGFR. Retention fractions on A431/CMC model were captured onto an enrichment column and the components were directly analyzed by combining a 10-port column switcher with an LC/MS system for separation and preliminary identification. Using Sorafenib tosylate as a positive control, taspine and caulophine from Radix Caulophylli were identified as the active molecules which could act on the EGFR. This A431/CMC-online-LC/MS method can be applied for screening active components acting on EGFR from traditional Chinese medicines exemplified by Radix Caulophylli and will be of great utility in drug discovery using natural medicinal herbs as a source of novel compounds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Extracellular ATP is a mitogen for 3T3, 3T6, and A431 cells and acts synergistically with other growth factors.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, N; Wang, D J; Heppel, L A

    1989-01-01

    Extracellular ATP in concentrations of 5-50 microM displayed very little mitogenic activity by itself but it caused synergistic stimulation of [3H]thymidine incorporation in the presence of phorbol 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate, epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, insulin, adenosine, or 5'-(N-ethyl)carboxamidoadenosine. Cultures of Swiss 3T3, Swiss 3T6, A431, DDT1-MF2, and HFF cells were used. The percent of cell nuclei labeled with [3H]thymidine and cell number were also increased. ADP was equally mitogenic, while UTP and ITP were much less active. The effect of ATP was not due to hydrolysis by ectoenzymes to form adenosine, a known growth factor. Thus, the nonhydrolyzable analogue adenosine 5'-[beta, gamma-imido]triphosphate was mitogenic. In addition, it was found that ATP showed synergism in 3T6 and 3T3 cells when present for only the first hour of an incorporation assay, during which time no significant hydrolysis occurred. Furthermore, prolonged preincubation of cells with ATP reduced the mitogenic response to ATP but not to adenosine; preincubation with adenosine or N6-(R-phenylisopropyl)adenosine had the reverse effect. Finally, the effect of adenosine, but not of ATP, was inhibited by aminophylline. We conclude that extracellular ATP is a mitogen that interacts with P2 purinoceptors on the plasma membrane. PMID:2813367

  3. Production of a germline-humanized cetuximab scFv and evaluation of its activity in recognizing EGFR- overexpressing cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Banisadr, Arsham; Safdari, Yaghoub; Kianmehr, Anvarsadat; Pourafshar, Mahdieh

    2018-04-03

    The aim of this study was to produce a humanized single chain antibody (scFv) as a potential improved product design to target EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor) overexpressing cancer cells. To this end, CDR loops of cetuximab (an FDA-approved anti-EGFR antibody) were grafted on framework regions derived from type 3 (VH3 and VL3 kappa) human germline sequences to obtain recombinant VH and VL domainslinked together with a flexible linker [(Gly 4 Ser) 3 ] to form a scFv. Codon optimized synthetic gene encoding the scFv (with NH2-VH-linker-VL-COOH orientation) was expressed in E. coli Origami™ 2(DE3) cells and the resultant scFv purified by using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The scFv, called cet.Hum scFv, was evaluated in ELISA and immunoblot to determine whether it can recognize EGFR. The scFv was able to recognize EGFR over-expressing cancer cells (A-431) but failed to detect cancer cells with low levels of EGFR (MCF-7 cells). Although the affinity of the scFv forA-431 cells was 9 fold lower than that of cetuximab, it was strong enough to recognize these cells. Considering its ability to bind EGFR molecules, the scFv may exhibit a potential application for the detection of EGFR-overexpressing cancer cells.

  4. Induction of apoptosis by lupeol in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells through regulation of mitochondrial, Akt/PKB and NFkappaB signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Madan, Esha; Nigam, Nidhi; Roy, Preeti; George, Jasmine; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2009-09-01

    The rising incidence of skin cancer in humans makes it equivalent to malignancies of organs. Therefore, it is necessary to intensify our efforts for better understanding and development of novel treatment and preventive approaches for skin cancer. Fruits and other plant derived products have gained considerable attention as they can reduce the risk of several cancer types. Lupeol, a triterpene, present in many fruits and medicinal plants, has been shown to possess many pharmacological properties including anti-cancer effect in both in vitro and in vivo assay systems. In the present study, apoptosis inducing effects of lupeol were studied in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Cell cycle analysis showed that lupeol treatment induces apoptosis (14-37%) in a dose-dependent manner as evident by an increased sub G(1) cell population. The RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that lupeol-induced apoptosis was associated with caspase dependent mitochondrial cell death pathway through activation of Bax, caspases, Apaf1, decrease in Bcl-2 expression and subsequent cleavage of PARP. Lupeol treatment also inhibited Akt/PKB signaling pathway by inhibition of Bad (Ser136) phosphorylation and 14-3-3 expression. In addition, lupeol treatment inhibited cell survival by inactivation of NFkappaB through upregulation of its inhibitor Ikappabetaalpha. The Caspase mediated apoptosis was noticed by decrease in lupeol induced apoptosis by Caspase inhibitors as well as increase in reactive oxygen species generation and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. These results suggest that lupeol could be an effective anti-cancer agent and merits further investigation.

  5. Bromelain inhibits nuclear factor kappa-B translocation, driving human epidermoid carcinoma A431 and melanoma A375 cells through G(2)/M arrest to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bhui, Kulpreet; Tyagi, Shilpa; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Singh, Madhulika; Roy, Preeti; Singh, Richa; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2012-03-01

    Bromelain, obtained from pineapple, is already in use clinically as adjunct in chemotherapy. Our objective was to test its ability to act as a sole anti-cancer agent. Therefore, we describe its anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and subsequent anti-cancer effects in vitro, against human epidermoid carcinoma-A431 and melanoma-A375 cells. Bromelain exhibited reduction in proliferation of both these cell-lines and suppressed their potential for anchorage-independent growth. Further, suppression of inflammatory signaling by bromelain was evident by inhibition of Akt regulated-nuclear factor-kappaB activation via suppression of inhibitory-kappaBα phosphorylation and concomitant reduction in cyclooxygenase-2. Since, the inflammatory cascade is well-known to be closely allied to cancer; we studied the effect of bromelain on events/molecules central to it. Bromelain caused depletion of intracellular glutathione and generation of reactive oxygen-species followed by mitochondrial membrane depolarization. This led to bromelain-induced cell-cycle arrest at G(2)/M phase which was mediated by modulation of cyclin B1, phospho-cdc25C, Plk1, phospho-cdc2, and myt1. This was subsequently followed by induction of apoptosis, indicated by membrane-blebbing, modulation of Bax-Bcl-2 ratio, Apaf-1, caspase-9, and caspase-3; chromatin-condensation, increase in caspase-activity and DNA-fragmentation. Bromelain afforded substantial anti-cancer potential in these settings; hence we suggest it as a potential prospect for anti-cancer agent besides only an additive in chemotherapy. Copyright ©2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-mediated epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor transinactivation and EGF receptor-independent stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase by bradykinin in A431 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Graness, A; Hanke, S; Boehmer, F D; Presek, P; Liebmann, C

    2000-01-01

    Transactivation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) has been proposed to represent an essential link between G-protein-coupled receptors and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in various cell types. In the present work we report, in contrast, that in A431 cells bradykinin transinactivates the EGFR and stimulates MAPK activity independently of EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation. Both effects of bradykinin are mediated by a pertussis-toxin-insensitive G-protein. Three lines of evidence suggest the activation of a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) by bradykinin: (i) treatment of A431 cells with bradykinin decreases both basal and EGF-induced EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation, (ii) this effect of bradykinin can be blocked by two different PTP inhibitors, and (iii) bradykinin significantly increased the PTP activity in total A431 cell lysates when measured in vitro. The transmembrane receptor PTP sigma was identified as a putative mediator of bradykinin-induced downregulation of EGFR autophosphorylation. Activation of MAPK in response to bradykinin was insensitive towards AG 1478, a specific inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine kinase, but was blocked by wortmannin or bisindolylmaleimide, inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) and protein kinase C (PKC) respectively. These results also suggest that the bradykinin-induced activation of MAPK is independent of EGFR and indicate a pathway involving PI3-K and PKC. In addition, bradykinin evokes a rapid and transient increase in Src kinase activity. Although Src does not participate in bradykinin-induced stimulation of PTP activity, inhibition of Src by 4-amino-5-(4-methylphenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo(3,4-d)pyrimidine leads to an increase in MAPK activation by bradykinin. Our results suggest that in A431 cells the G(q/11)-protein-coupled bradykinin B(2) receptor may stimulate PTP activity and thereby transinactivate the EGFR, and may simultaneously activate MAPK by an alternative signalling pathway

  7. CD147 overexpression promotes tumorigenicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Yong, Yu-Le; Liao, Cheng-Gong; Wei, Ding; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Bian, Huijie

    2016-04-01

    CD147 overexpresses in many epithelium-originated tumors and plays an important role in tumor migration and invasion. Most studies aim at the role of CD147 in tumor progression using tumor cell models. However, the influence of abnormal overexpression of CD147 on neoplastic transformation of normal cells is unknown. Here, the role of CD147 in malignant phenotype transformation in CHO cells was investigated. Three CHO cell lines that stably overexpressed CD147 (CHO-CD147), EGFP-CD147 (CHO-EGFP-CD147), and EGFP (CHO-EGFP) were generated by transfection of plasmids containing human CD147, EGFP-human CD147, and EGFP genes into CHO cells. Cell migration and invasion were detected by wound healing and transwell matrix penetration assay. Trypan blue exclusion, MTT, cell cycle analysis, and BrdU cell proliferation assay were used to detect cell viability and cell proliferation. Annexin V-FITC analysis was performed to detect apoptosis. We found that CD147 overexpression promoted the migration and invasion of CHO cells. CD147 accelerated the G1 to S phase transition and enhanced the CHO cell proliferation. Overexpression of CD147 inhibited both early- and late-stages of apoptosis of CHO-CD147 cells, which is caused by serum deprivation. CHO-EGFP-CD147 cells showed an increased anchorage-independent growth compared with CHO-EGFP cells as detected by soft-agar colony formation assay. The tumors formed by CHO-CD147 cells in nude mice were larger and coupled with higher expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Ki-67 than that of CHO cells. In conclusion, human CD147 overexpression induces malignant phenotype in CHO cells. © 2015 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  8. Neuroglobin Overexpression Inhibits AMPK Signaling and Promotes Cell Anabolism

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Bin; Li, Wenjun; Mao, XiaoOu; Winters, Ali; Ryou, Myoung-Gwi; Liu, Ran; Greenberg, David A.; Wang, Ning; Jin, Kunlin; Yang, Shao-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a recently discovered globin with preferential localization to neurons. Growing evidence indicates that Ngb has distinct physiological functions separate from the oxygen storage and transport roles of other globins, such as hemoglobin and myoglobin. We found increased ATP production and decreased glycolysis in Ngb-overexpressing immortalized murine hippocampal cell line (HT-22), in parallel with inhibition of AMPK signaling and activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). In addition, lipid and glycogen content was increased in Ngb-overexpressing HT-22 cells. AMPK signaling was also inhibited in brain and heart from Ngb-overexpressing transgenic mice. Although Ngb overexpression did not change glycogen content in whole brain, glycogen synthase was activated in cortical neurons of Ngb overexpressing mouse brain and Ngb overexpression primary neurons. Moreover, lipid and glycogen content was increased in hearts derived from Ngb-overexpressing mice. These findings suggest that Ngb functions as a metabolic regulator and enhances cellular anabolism through the inhibition of AMPK signaling. PMID:25616953

  9. Neuroglobin Overexpression Inhibits AMPK Signaling and Promotes Cell Anabolism.

    PubMed

    Cai, Bin; Li, Wenjun; Mao, XiaoOu; Winters, Ali; Ryou, Myoung-Gwi; Liu, Ran; Greenberg, David A; Wang, Ning; Jin, Kunlin; Yang, Shao-Hua

    2016-03-01

    Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a recently discovered globin with preferential localization to neurons. Growing evidence indicates that Ngb has distinct physiological functions separate from the oxygen storage and transport roles of other globins, such as hemoglobin and myoglobin. We found increased ATP production and decreased glycolysis in Ngb-overexpressing immortalized murine hippocampal cell line (HT-22), in parallel with inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). In addition, lipid and glycogen content was increased in Ngb-overexpressing HT-22 cells. AMPK signaling was also inhibited in the brain and heart from Ngb-overexpressing transgenic mice. Although Ngb overexpression did not change glycogen content in whole brain, glycogen synthase was activated in cortical neurons of Ngb-overexpressing mouse brain and Ngb overexpression primary neurons. Moreover, lipid and glycogen content was increased in hearts derived from Ngb-overexpressing mice. These findings suggest that Ngb functions as a metabolic regulator and enhances cellular anabolism through the inhibition of AMPK signaling.

  10. Neuroligin-1 overexpression in newborn granule cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Eric; Bensen, Aesoon L; Washburn, Eric K; Westbrook, Gary L

    2012-01-01

    Adult-born dentate granule cells integrate into the hippocampal network, extend neurites and form synapses in otherwise mature tissue. Excitatory and inhibitory inputs innervate these new granule cells in a stereotyped, temporally segregated manner, which presents a unique opportunity to study synapse development in the adult brain. To examine the role of neuroligins as synapse-inducing molecules in vivo, we infected dividing neural precursors in adult mice with a retroviral construct that increased neuroligin-1 levels during granule cell differentiation. By 21 days post-mitosis, exogenous neuroligin-1 was expressed at the tips of dendritic spines and increased the number of dendritic spines. Neuroligin-1-overexpressing cells showed a selective increase in functional excitatory synapses and connection multiplicity by single afferent fibers, as well as an increase in the synaptic AMPA/NMDA receptor ratio. In contrast to its synapse-inducing ability in vitro, neuroligin-1 overexpression did not induce precocious synapse formation in adult-born neurons. However, the dendrites of neuroligin-1-overexpressing cells did have more thin protrusions during an early period of dendritic outgrowth, suggesting enhanced filopodium formation or stabilization. Our results indicate that neuroligin-1 expression selectively increases the degree, but not the onset, of excitatory synapse formation in adult-born neurons.

  11. 1,4-Naphthoquinone activates the HSP90/HSF1 pathway through the S-arylation of HSP90 in A431 cells: Negative regulation of the redox signal transduction pathway by persulfides/polysulfides.

    PubMed

    Abiko, Yumi; Sha, Liang; Shinkai, Yasuhiro; Unoki, Takamitsu; Luong, Nho Cong; Tsuchiya, Yukihiro; Watanabe, Yasuo; Hirose, Reiko; Akaike, Takaaki; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2017-03-01

    The current consensus is that environmental electrophiles activate redox signal transduction pathways through covalent modification of sensor proteins with reactive thiol groups at low concentrations, while they cause cell damage at higher concentrations. We previously exposed human carcinoma A431 cells to the atmospheric electrophile 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4-NQ) and found that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), a negative regulator of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), was a target of 1,4-NQ. In the study presented here, we determined whether 1,4-NQ activates HSF1. We also examined whether such redox signaling could be regulated by nucleophilic sulfur species. Exposure of A431 cells to 1,4-NQ covalently modified cellular HSP90, resulting in repression of the association between HSF1 with HSP90, thereby enhancing HSF1 translocation into the nuclei. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis with recombinant HSP90 revealed that the modifications site were Cys412 and Cys564. We found that HSF1 activation mediated by 1,4-NQ upregulated downstream genes, such as HSPA6. HSF1 knockdown accelerated 1,4-NQ-mediated cytotoxicity in the cells. While simultaneous treatment with reactive persulfide and polysulfide, Na 2 S 2 and Na 2 S 4 , blocked 1,4-NQ-dependent protein modification and HSF1 activation in A431 cells, the knockdown of Cys persulfide producing enzymes cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and/or cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) enhanced these phenomena. 1,4-NQ-thiol adduct and 1,4-NQ-S-1,4-NQ adduct were produced during the enzymatic reaction of recombinant CSE in the presence of 1,4-NQ. The results suggest that activation of the HSP90-HSF1 signal transduction pathway mediated by 1,4-NQ protects cells against 1,4-NQ and that per/polysulfides can diminish the reactivity of 1,4-NQ by forming sulfur adducts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fascin Overexpression Promotes Cholangiocarcinoma RBE Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haiying; Yang, Fuquan; Zhao, Wenyan; Zhang, Chunjv; Liu, Jingang

    2016-04-01

    Fascin is overexpressed in various tumor tissues and is closely related to tumor metastasis and invasion. However, the role of fascin in cholangiocarcinoma RBE cells has not been clearly reported. This study aimed to establish a cholangiocarcinoma cell line with stable and high expression of fascin to observe the effect of fascin on cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. A fascin overexpression vector, pcDNA3.1-Fascin, was constructed and transfected into the human cholangiocarcinoma RBE cell line. The results of real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunofluorescence indicated that fascin was steadily and highly expressed in RBE cells. The results of 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and colony formation assay indicated that upregulated fascin expression could enhance cholangiocarcinoma cell proliferation. The results of wound healing assay and transwell assay indicated that fascin could promote cholangiocarcinoma cell migration and invasion, and a further study found that the nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway was activated after upregulation of fascin, whereas E-cadherin expression in these cells was significantly decreased. Additionally, E-cadherin expression was significantly increased after inhibiting nuclear factor-κB activity using inhibitor or small interfering RNA, and E-cadherin expression was decreased by fascin overexpression after nuclear factor-κB inhibition, suggesting that nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway was not involved in the regulation of E-cadherin by fascin. In summary, the results of this study demonstrated that fascin effectively promoted cholangiocarcinoma RBE cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. This study provides evidence for fascin as a potential target in the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Overexpression of neurofilament H disrupts normal cell structure and function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szebenyi, Gyorgyi; Smith, George M.; Li, Ping; Brady, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    Studying exogenously expressed tagged proteins in live cells has become a standard technique for evaluating protein distribution and function. Typically, expression levels of experimentally introduced proteins are not regulated, and high levels are often preferred to facilitate detection. However, overexpression of many proteins leads to mislocalization and pathologies. Therefore, for normative studies, moderate levels of expression may be more suitable. To understand better the dynamics of intermediate filament formation, transport, and stability in a healthy, living cell, we inserted neurofilament heavy chain (NFH)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion constructs in adenoviral vectors with tetracycline (tet)-regulated promoters. This system allows for turning on or off the synthesis of NFH-GFP at a selected time, for a defined period, in a dose-dependent manner. We used this inducible system for live cell imaging of changes in filament structure and cell shape, motility, and transport associated with increasing NFH-GFP expression. Cells with low to intermediate levels of NFH-GFP were structurally and functionally similar to neighboring, nonexpressing cells. In contrast, overexpression led to pathological alterations in both filament organization and cell function. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Parkin overexpression protects retinal ganglion cells against glutamate excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xinxin; Dai, Yi; Sun, Xinghuai

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the role of parkin in regulating mitochondrial homeostasis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) under glutamate excitotoxicity. Rat RGCs were purified from dissociated retinal tissue with a modified two-step panning protocol. Cultured RGCs were transfected with parkin using an adenovirus system. The distribution and morphology of mitochondria in the RGCs were assessed with MitoTracker. The expression and distribution of parkin and optineurin proteins were measured with western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. Cytotoxicity of RGCs was evaluated by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. Mitochondrial membrane potential was determined with the JC-1 assay. The expression of Bax and Bcl-2 were measured with western blot analysis. In the presence of glutamate-induced excitotoxicity, the number of mitochondria in the axons of the RGCs was predominantly increased, and the mitochondrial membrane potential in RGCs was depolarized. The expression of the parkin and optineurin proteins was upregulated and distributed mostly in the axons of the RGCs. Overexpression of parkin stabilized the mitochondrial membrane potential of RGCs, decreased cytotoxicity and apoptosis, attenuated the expression of Bax, and promoted the expression of optineurin under glutamate excitotoxicity. Overexpression of parkin exerted a significant protective effect on cultured RGCs against glutamate excitotoxicity. Interventions to alter the parkin-mediated mitochondria pathway may be useful in protecting RGCs against excitotoxic RGC damage.

  15. Overexpression of Selenoprotein SelK in BGC-823 Cells Inhibits Cell Adhesion and Migration.

    PubMed

    Ben, S B; Peng, B; Wang, G C; Li, C; Gu, H F; Jiang, H; Meng, X L; Lee, B J; Chen, C L

    2015-10-01

    Effects of human selenoprotein SelK on the adhesion and migration ability of human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells using Matrigel adhesion and transwell migration assays, respectively, were investigated in this study. The Matrigel adhesion ability of BGC-823 cells that overexpressed SelK declined extremely significantly (p < 0.01) compared with that of the cells not expressing the protein. The migration ability of BGC-823 cells that overexpressed SelK also declined extremely significantly (p < 0.01). On the other hand, the Matrigel adhesion ability and migration ability of the cells that overexpressed C-terminally truncated SelK did not decline significantly. The Matrigel adhesion ability and migration ability of human embryonic kidney HEK-293 cells that overexpressed SelK did not show significant change (p > 0.05) with the cells that overexpressed the C-terminally truncated protein. In addition to the effect on Matrigel adhesion and migration, the overexpression of SelK also caused a loss in cell viability (as measured by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay) and induced apoptosis as shown by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. The cytosolic free Ca2+ level of these cells was significantly increased as detected by flow cytometry. But the overexpression of SelK in HEK-293 cells caused neither significant loss in cell viability nor apoptosis induction. Only the elevation of cytosolic free Ca2+ level in these cells was significant. Taken together, the results suggest that the overexpression of SelK can inhibit human cancer cell Matrigel adhesion and migration and cause both the loss in cell viability and induction of apoptosis. The release of intracellular Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum might be a mechanism whereby the protein exerted its impact. Furthermore, only the full-length protein, but not C-terminally truncated form, was capable of producing such impact. The embryonic cells were not influenced by the

  16. Wnt-11 overexpression promoting the invasion of cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Heng; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Shizhuo; Pang, Xiaoao; Zhang, Shulan

    2016-09-01

    Wnt-11 is a positive regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, which plays a crucial role in carcinogenesis. However, Wnt-11 expression in cervical cancer has not been well investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Wnt-11 in cervical tumor proliferation and invasion. This study examined 24 normal cervical squamous epithelia, 29 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and 78 cervical cancer samples. The expression of Wnt-11 was investigated by immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The expression of the high-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV) E6 oncoprotein was also investigated by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the expression of Wnt-11, HR-HPV E6, JNK-1, phosphorylated JNK-1(P-JNK1), and β-catenin was examined by western blot analysis following Wnt-11 knockdown or overexpression in HeLa or SiHa cells, respectively. The promotion of cervical cancer cell proliferation and invasion was investigated using the cell counting kit-8 and Matrigel invasion assay, respectively. Wnt-11 and HR-HPV E6 expression increased in a manner that corresponded with the progression of cervical cancer and was significantly correlated with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics cancer stage, lymph node metastasis, tumor size, and HPV infection. Wnt-11 protein expression was positively associated with HR-HPV E6 protein expression in all 78 cervical cancer samples (P < 0.001). Furthermore, Wnt-11 was positively associated with P-JNK1 expression and promoted cervical cancer cell proliferation and invasion. These observations suggest that the increased Wnt-11 expression observed in cervical cancer cells may lead to the phosphorylation and activation of JNK-1 and significantly promote tumor cell proliferation and cell migration/invasion through activation of the Wnt/JNK pathway. Consequently, Wnt-11 may serve as a novel target for cervical cancer therapy.

  17. Nrf2 mediates redox adaptation in NOX4-overexpressed non-small cell lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Qipeng; Yao, Bei; Li, Ning

    The redox adaptation mechanisms in cancer cells are very complex and remain largely unclear. Our previous studies have confirmed that NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) is abundantly expressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and confers apoptosis resistance on NSCLC cells. However, the comprehensive mechanisms for NOX4-mediated oxidative resistance of cancer cells remain still undentified. The present study found that NOX4-derived H{sub 2}O{sub 2} enhanced the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) stability via disruption of redox-dependent proteasomal degradation and stimulated its activity through activation of PI3K signaling. Specifically, the results showed that ectopic NOX4 expression did not induce apoptosismore » of A549 cells; however, inhibition of Nrf2 resulted in obvious apoptotic death of NOX4-overexpressed A549 cells, accompanied by a significant increase in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} level and decrease in GSH content. Besides, inhibition of Nrf2 could suppress cell growth and efficiently reverse the enhancement effect of NOX4 on cell growth. The in vivo data confirmed that inhibition of Nrf2 could interfere apoptosis resistance in NOX4-overexpressed A549 tumors and led to cell growth inhibition. In conclusion, these results reveal that Nrf2 is critically involved in redox adaptation regulation in NOX4-overexpressed NSCLC cells. Therefore, NOX4 and Nrf2 may be promising combination targets against malignant progression of NSCLC. - Highlights: • NOX4-derived H{sub 2}O{sub 2} upregulates Nrf2 expression and activity in NSCLC. • Nrf2 confers apoptosis resistance in NOX4-overexpressed NSCLC cells. • Inhibition of Nrf2 reverses the enhancement effect of NOX4 on cell growth.« less

  18. Attenuation of teratoma formation by p27 overexpression in induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Matsu-ura, Toru; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Okada, Motoi; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2016-02-15

    Pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells, have a great potential for regenerative medicine. Induced pluripotent stem cells, in particular, are suitable for replacement of tissue by autologous transplantation. However, tumorigenicity is a major risk in clinical application of both embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. This study explores the possibility of manipulating the cell cycle for inhibition of tumorigenicity. We genetically modified mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (miPSCs) to overexpress p27 tumor suppressor and examined their proliferation rate, gene expression, cardiac differentiation, tumorigenicity, and therapeutic potential in a mouse model of coronary artery ligation. Overexpression of p27 inhibited cell division of miPSCs, and that inhibition was dependent on the expression level of p27. p27 overexpressing miPSCs had pluripotency characteristics but lost stemness earlier than normal miPSCs during embryoid body and teratoma formation. These cellular characteristics led to none or smaller teratoma when the cells were injected into nude mice. Transplantation of both miPSCs and p27 overexpressing miPSCs into the infarcted mouse heart reduced the infarction size and improved left ventricular function. The overexpression of p27 attenuated tumorigenicity by reducing proliferation and earlier loss of stemness of miPSCs. The overexpression of p27 did not affect pluripotency and differentiation characteristics of miPSC. Therefore, regulation of the proliferation rate of miPSCs offers great therapeutic potential for repair of the injured myocardium.

  19. Effects of CASP5 gene overexpression on angiogenesis of HMEC-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan; Li, Yuzhen; Cai, Limin; Bai, Bingxue; Wang, Yanhua

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of gene overexpression of CASP5, a caspase family member, in angiogenesis in vitro and its mechanisms were clarified. Human full-length CASP5 gene was delivered into human microvascular endothelial HMEC-1 cells by recombinant lentivirus. The infection was estimated by green fluorescent protein. MTT method was used to analyze the efficacy of gene overexpression in cell proliferation ability, and Matrigel was used to estimate its effects in angiogenesis ability of cells. Meanwhile, Western blot was used to analyze the effects of CASP5 gene overexpression on the expression levels of angpt-1, angpt-2, Tie2 and VEGF-1 in the cells, which were signaling pathway factors related to angiogenesis. Recombinant lentivirus containing human full-length CASP5 gene was packed and purified successfully, with virus titer of 1×10(8) TU/ml. The recombinant lentivirus was used to infect HMEC-1 cells with MOI of 1, leading to a cell infection rate of 100%. There were no significant effects of CASP5 gene overexpression on both cell proliferation ability and the expression level of angpt-1. Meanwhile, expressions of angpt-2 and VEGF-1 were both enhanced, while Tie2 expression was inhibited. Results indicated that CASP5 gene overexpression promoted angiogenesis of HMEC-1 cells. CASP5 gene overexpression significantly promoted angiogenesis ability of HMEC-1 cells, which was probably achieved by inhibiting angpt-1/Tie2 and promoting VEGF-1 signal pathway.

  20. The production of nitric oxide in EL4 lymphoma cells overexpressing growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Robyn E; Weigent, Douglas A

    2003-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is produced by immunocompetent cells and has been implicated in the regulation of a multiplicity of functions in the immune system involved in growth and activation. However, the actions of endogenous or lymphocyte GH and its contribution to immune reactivity when compared with those of serum or exogenous GH are still unclear. In the present study, we overexpressed lymphocyte GH in EL4 lymphoma cells, which lack the GH receptor (GHR), to determine the role of endogenous GH in nitric oxide (NO) production and response to genotoxic stress. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the levels of GH increased approximately 40% in cells overexpressing GH (GHo) when compared with cells with vector alone. The results also show a substantial increase in NO production in cells overexpressing GH that could be blocked by N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), an L-arginine analogue that competitively inhibits all three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). No evidence was obtained to support an increase in peroxynitrite in cells overexpressing GH. Overexpression of GH increased NOS activity, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) promoter activity, and iNOS protein expression, whereas endothelial nitric oxide synthase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase protein levels were essentially unchanged. In addition, cells overexpressing GH showed increased arginine transport ability and intracellular arginase activity when compared with control cells. GH overexpression appeared to protect cells from the toxic effects of the DNA alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate. This possibility was suggested by maintenance of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential in cells overexpressing GH when compared with control cells that could be blocked by L-NMMA. Taken together, the data support the notion that lymphocyte GH, independently of the GH receptor, may play a key role in the survival of lymphocytes exposed to stressful stimuli via the production of NO.

  1. CCNG2 Overexpression Mediated by AKT Inhibits Tumor Cell Proliferation in Human Astrocytoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Danfeng; Wang, Chunhui; Li, Zhenxing; Li, Yiming; Dai, Dawei; Han, Kaiwei; Lv, Liquan; Lu, Yicheng; Hou, Lijun; Wang, Junyu

    2018-01-01

    The cyclin family protein CCNG2 has an important inhibitory role in cancer initiation and progression, but the exact mechanism is still unknown. In this study, we examined the relationship between CCNG2 and the malignancy of astrocytomas and whether the AKT pathway, which is upregulated in astrocytomas, may inhibit CCNG2 expression. CCNG2 expression was found to be negatively associated with the pathological grade and proliferative activity of astrocytomas, as the highest expression was found in control brain tissue ( N  = 31), whereas the lowest expression was in high-grade glioma tissue ( N  = 31). Additionally, CCNG2 overexpression in glioma cell lines, T98G and U251 inhibited proliferation and arrested cells in the G0/G1 phase. Moreover, CCNG2 overexpression could increase glioma cells apoptosis. In contrast, AKT activity increased in glioma cells that had low CCNG2 expression. Expression of CCNG2 was higher in cells treated with the AKT kinase inhibitor MK-2206 indicating that the presence of phosphorylated AKT may inhibit the expression of CCNG2. Inhibition of AKT also led to decreased colony formation in T98G and U251 cells and knocked down of CCNG2 reversed the result. Finally, overexpression of CCNG2 in glioma cells reduced tumor volume in a murine model. To conclude, low expression of CCNG2 correlated with the severity astrocytoma and CCNG2 overexpression could induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation. Inhibition of AKT activity increased the expression of CCNG2. The present study highlights the regulatory consequences of CCNG2 expression and AKT activity in astrocytoma tumorigenesis and the potential use of CCNG2 in anticancer treatment.

  2. Overexpression of Tet3 in donor cells enhances goat somatic cell nuclear transfer efficiency.

    PubMed

    Han, Chengquan; Deng, Ruizhi; Mao, Tingchao; Luo, Yan; Wei, Biao; Meng, Peng; Zhao, Lu; Zhang, Qing; Quan, Fusheng; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Yong

    2018-05-23

    Ten-eleven translocation 3 (TET3) mediates active DNA demethylation of paternal genomes during mouse embryonic development. However, the mechanism of DNA demethylation in goat embryos remains unknown. In addition, aberrant DNA methylation reprogramming prevalently occurs in embryos cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In this study, we reported that TET3 is a key factor in DNA demethylation in goat pre-implantation embryos. Knockdown of Tet3 hindered DNA demethylation at the two- to four-cell stage in goat embryos and decreased Nanog expression in blastocysts. Overexpression of Tet3 in somatic cells can initiate DNA demethylation, reduce 5-methylcytosine level, increase 5-hydroxymethylcytosine level and promote the expression of key pluripotency genes. After SCNT, overexpression of Tet3 in donor cells corrected abnormal DNA hypermethylation of cloned embryos and significantly enhanced in vitro and in vivo developmental rate (P < 0.05). We conclude that overexpression of Tet3 in donor cells significantly improves goat SCNT efficiency. © 2018 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  3. DKK3 Overexpression Increases the Malignant Properties of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Katase, Naoki; Nishimatsu, Shin-Ichiro; Yamauchi, Akira; Yamamura, Masahiro; Terada, Kumiko; Itadani, Masumi; Okada, Naoko; Hassan, Nur Mohammad Monsur; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi; Ikeda, Tohru; Nohno, Tsutomu; Fujita, Shuichi

    2018-01-19

    DKK3, a member of the dickkopf Wnt signaling pathway inhibitor family, is believed to be a tumor suppressor because of its reduced expression in cancer cells. However, our previous studies have revealed that DKK3 expression is predominantly observed in head and neck/oral squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC/OSCC). Interestingly, HNSCC/OSCC patients with DKK3 expression showed a high rate of metastasis and poorer survival, and siRNA-mediated knockdown of DKK3 in HNSCC-derived cancer cell lines resulted in reduced cellular migration and invasion. From these data, it was hypothesized that DKK3 might exert an oncogenic function specific to HNSCC. In the present research, the DKK3 overexpression model was established, and its influences were investigated, together with molecular mechanism studies. The DKK3 expression profile in cancer cell lines was investigated, including HNSCC/OSCC, esophageal, gastric, colorectal, pancreatic, prostatic, and lung cancers. DKK3 overexpression was performed in HNSCC-derived cells by transfection of expression plasmid. The effects of DKK3 overexpression were assessed on cellular proliferation, migration, invasion, and in vivo tumor growth. The molecular mechanism of DKK3 overexpression was investigated by Western blotting and microarray analysis. DKK3 overexpression significantly elevated cellular proliferation, migration, and invasion, as well as increased mRNA expression of cyclin D1 and c-myc. However, reporter assays did not show TCF/LEF activation, suggesting that the increased malignant property of cancer cells was not driven by the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. For the investigation of the pathways/molecules in DKK3-mediated signals, the Western blot analyses revealed that phosphorylation of Akt (S473) and c-Jun (Ser63) was elevated. The application of a PI3K kinase inhibitor, LY294002, on HSC-3 DKK3 cells significantly decreased tumor cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. From these results, we demonstrated that DKK3 might contribute

  4. [Effects of stable ANO1 overexpression on biological behaviors of human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma Hep-2 cells in vitro].

    PubMed

    Li, Yadong; Zhang, Jinsong; Yang, Kai; Zhang, Fujun; Chen, Rui; Chen, Dan

    2014-02-01

    To detect the effects of ANO1 overexpression on the biological behaviors of human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma Hep-2 cells. A Hep-2 cell line stably overexpressing ANO1 were examined with flow cytometry, soft agar assay, wound healing assay, siRNA experiments, and chloride channel block with DIDS to observe the effect of ANO1 overexpression on the growth, migration and invasion of the cells. Flow cytometry revealed a comparable cell percentage in G0/G1 phase between ANO1-overexpressing cells and the control cells (P>0.05). The two cells showed no significant difference in soft agar assay (P>0.05), but in wound healing experiments, ANO1-overexpressing cells showed significantly accelerated migration (P<0.05), whereas siRNA-mediated silencing of ANO1 significantly inhibited the cell migration (P<0.05). Treatment with DIDS resulted in an effective block of the ANO1 chloride channel activity and obviously decreased the migration speed of Hep-2 cells. ANO1 overexpression does not significantly affect the proliferation of cancer cells, but can enhance the migration ability of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, suggesting the value of ANO1 as a new gene therapy target for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

  5. Ameliorating replicative senescence of human bone marrow stromal cells by PSMB5 overexpression

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Li, E-mail: luli7300@126.com; Song, Hui-Fang; Wei, Jiao-Long

    2014-01-24

    Highlights: • PSMB5 overexpression restores the differentiation potential of aged hBMSCs. • PSMB5 overexpression enhances the proteasomal activity of late-stage hBMSCs. • PSMB5 overexpression inhibits replicative senescence and improved cell viability. • PSMB5 overexpression promotes cell growth by upregulating the Cyclin D1/CDK4 complex. - Abstract: Multipotent human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) potentially serve as a source for cell-based therapy in regenerative medicine. However, in vitro expansion was inescapably accompanied with cell senescence, characterized by inhibited proliferation and compromised pluripotency. We have previously demonstrated that this aging process is closely associated with reduced 20S proteasomal activity, with down-regulation of rate-limitingmore » catalytic β-subunits particularly evident. In the present study, we confirmed that proteasomal activity directly contributes to senescence of hBMSCs, which could be reversed by overexpression of the β5-subunit (PSMB5). Knocking down PSMB5 led to decreased proteasomal activity concurrent with reduced cell proliferation in early-stage hBMSCs, which is similar to the senescent phenotype observed in late-stage cells. In contrast, overexpressing PSMB5 in late-stage cells efficiently restored the normal activity of 20S proteasomes and promoted cell growth, possibly via upregulating the Cyclin D1/CDK4 complex. Additionally, PSMB5 could enhance cell resistance to oxidative stress, as evidenced by the increased cell survival upon exposing senescent hBMSCs to hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, PSMB5 overexpression retained the pluripotency of late-stage hBMSCs by facilitating their neural differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, our work reveals a critical role of PSMB5 in 20S proteasome-mediated protection against replicative senescence, pointing to a possible strategy for maintaining the integrity of culture-expanded hBMSCs by manipulating the expression of PSMB5.« less

  6. β-Cell-Specific Mafk Overexpression Impairs Pancreatic Endocrine Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Abdellatif, Ahmed M.; Oishi, Hisashi; Itagaki, Takahiro; Jung, Yunshin; Shawki, Hossam H.; Okita, Yukari; Hasegawa, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; El-Morsy, Salah E.; El-Sayed, Mesbah A.; Shoaib, Mahmoud B.; Sugiyama, Fumihiro; Takahashi, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    The MAF family transcription factors are homologs of v-Maf, the oncogenic component of the avian retrovirus AS42. They are subdivided into 2 groups, small and large MAF proteins, according to their structure, function, and molecular size. MAFK is a member of the small MAF family and acts as a dominant negative form of large MAFs. In previous research we generated transgenic mice that overexpress MAFK in order to suppress the function of large MAF proteins in pancreatic β-cells. These mice developed hyperglycemia in adulthood due to impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The aim of the current study is to examine the effects of β-cell-specific Mafk overexpression in endocrine cell development. The developing islets of Mafk-transgenic embryos appeared to be disorganized with an inversion of total numbers of insulin+ and glucagon+ cells due to reduced β-cell proliferation. Gene expression analysis by quantitative RT-PCR revealed decreased levels of β-cell-related genes whose expressions are known to be controlled by large MAF proteins. Additionally, these changes were accompanied with a significant increase in key β-cell transcription factors likely due to compensatory mechanisms that might have been activated in response to the β-cell loss. Finally, microarray comparison of gene expression profiles between wild-type and transgenic pancreata revealed alteration of some uncharacterized genes including Pcbd1, Fam132a, Cryba2, and Npy, which might play important roles during pancreatic endocrine development. Taken together, these results suggest that Mafk overexpression impairs endocrine development through a regulation of numerous β-cell-related genes. The microarray analysis provided a unique data set of differentially expressed genes that might contribute to a better understanding of the molecular basis that governs the development and function of endocrine pancreas. PMID:26901059

  7. Establishment of human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells with overexpressed human hepatocyte growth factor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan; Cheng, Hongjing; Liu, Jinyu; Zhang, Lei

    2017-06-01

    Chronic liver disease has become a major health problem that causes serious damage to human health. Since the existing treatment effect was not ideal, we need to seek new treatment methods. We utilized the gene recombination technology to obtain the human hair mesenchymal stem cells which overexpression of human hepatocyte growth factor (hHGF). Furthermore, we verified the property of transfected cells through detecting surface marker by flow cytometry. We show here establishment of the hHGF-overexpressing lentivirus vector, and successfully transfection to human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells. The verified experiments could demonstrate the human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells which have been transfected still have the properties of stem cells. We successfully constructed human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells which overexpression hHGF, and maintain the same properties compared with pro-transfected cells.

  8. S100A4 is frequently overexpressed in lung cancer cells and promotes cell growth and cell motility

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Na; Sato, Daisuke; Saiki, Yuriko

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • We observed frequent overexpression of S100A4 in lung cancer cell lines. • Knockdown of S100A4 suppressed proliferation in lung cancer cells. • Forced expression of S100A4 accelerated cell motility in lung cancer cells. • PRDM2 was found to be one of the downstream suppressed genes of S100A4. - Abstract: S100A4, a small calcium-binding protein belonging to the S100 protein family, is commonly overexpressed in a variety of tumor types and is widely accepted to associate with metastasis by regulating the motility and invasiveness of cancer cells. However, its biological role in lung carcinogenesis is largely unknown. In thismore » study, we found that S100A4 was frequently overexpressed in lung cancer cells, irrespective of histological subtype. Then we performed knockdown and forced expression of S100A4 in lung cancer cell lines and found that specific knockdown of S100A4 effectively suppressed cell proliferation only in lung cancer cells with S100A4-overexpression; forced expression of S100A4 accelerated cell motility only in S100A4 low-expressing lung cancer cells. PRDM2 and VASH1, identified as novel upregulated genes by microarray after specific knockdown of S100A4 in pancreatic cancer, were also analyzed, and we found that PRDM2 was significantly upregulated after S100A4-knockdown in one of two analyzed S100A4-overexpressing lung cancer cells. Our present results suggest that S100A4 plays an important role in lung carcinogenesis by means of cell proliferation and motility by a pathway similar to that in pancreatic cancer.« less

  9. RB mutation and RAS overexpression induce resistance to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity in glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Morales, Mario; Sánchez-García, Francisco Javier; Golán-Cancela, Irene; Hernández-Pedro, Norma; Costoya, Jose A; de la Cruz, Verónica Pérez; Moreno-Jiménez, Sergio; Sotelo, Julio; Pineda, Benjamín

    2015-01-01

    Several theories aim to explain the malignant transformation of cells, including the mutation of tumor suppressors and proto-oncogenes. Deletion of Rb (a tumor suppressor), overexpression of mutated Ras (a proto-oncogene), or both, are sufficient for in vitro gliomagenesis, and these genetic traits are associated with their proliferative capacity. An emerging hallmark of cancer is the ability of tumor cells to evade the immune system. Whether specific mutations are related with this, remains to be analyzed. To address this issue, three transformed glioma cell lines were obtained (Rb(-/-), Ras(V12), and Rb(-/-)/Ras(V12)) by in vitro retroviral transformation of astrocytes, as previously reported. In addition, Ras(V12) and Rb(-/-)/Ras(V12) transformed cells were injected into SCID mice and after tumor growth two stable glioma cell lines were derived. All these cells were characterized in terms of Rb and Ras gene expression, morphology, proliferative capacity, expression of MHC I, Rae1δ, and Rae1αβγδε, mult1, H60a, H60b, H60c, as ligands for NK cell receptors, and their susceptibility to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Our results show that transformation of astrocytes (Rb loss, Ras overexpression, or both) induced phenotypical and functional changes associated with resistance to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Moreover, the transfer of cell lines of transformed astrocytes into SCID mice increased resistance to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity, thus suggesting that specific changes in a tumor suppressor (Rb) and a proto-oncogene (Ras) are enough to confer resistance to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity in glioma cells and therefore provide some insight into the ability of tumor cells to evade immune responses.

  10. Overexpression of FOXA1 inhibits cell proliferation and EMT of human gastric cancer AGS cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mengxin; Pan, Jie; Chen, Qiang; Xu, Zongbin; Lin, Xiaoyan; Shi, Chunmei

    2018-02-05

    The lack of effective medical treatment for advanced stages of gastric cancer mainly contributes to the high mortality rate. The association of forkhead box protein A1 (FOXA1) with tumor progression has been reported in different human cancers. However, the function of FOXA1 in gastric cancer is largely unknown. In the present study, FOXA1 protein showed a significant reduction in gastric cancer samples comparing with matched control samples. In addition, the higher expression of FOXA1 in transcription level was observed in gastric cancer cell lines as compared with that in normal gastric cell line, while the contrary result was observed in protein level. Then we studied the effects of FOXA1 on gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo based on FOXA1-overexpression AGS cells. We found that up-regulation of FOXA1 was notably inhibited the cell proliferation and tumor formation, and induced cell apoptosis. Moreover, overexpression of FOXA1 was able to increase the E-cadherin protein level and decreased the Vimentin protein level, which implicates that FOXA1 probably plays as an inhibitor of epithelial mesenchymal transition. In conclusion, these data suggests that FOXA1 may function as a novel anti-oncogene in gastric cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of SOCS1 overexpression on RPE cell activation by proinflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Bazewicz, Magdalena; Draganova, Dafina; Makhoul, Maya; Chtarto, Abdel; Elmaleh, Valerie; Tenenbaum, Liliane; Caspers, Laure; Bruyns, Catherine; Willermain, François

    2016-09-06

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro effect of Suppressor Of Cytokine Signaling 1 (SOCS1) overexpression in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells on their activation by pro-inflammatory cytokines IFNγ, TNFα and IL-17. Retinal pigment epithelium cells (ARPE-19) were stably transfected with the control plasmid pIRES2-AcGFP1 or the plasmid pSOCS1-IRES2-AcGFP1. They were stimulated by IFNγ (150ng/ml), TNFα (30ng/ml) or IL-17 (100ng/ml). The levels of SOCS1 mRNA were measured by real-time PCR. Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 1 (STAT1) phosphorylation and IκBα expression were analysed by western Blot (WB). IL-8 secretion was analysed by ELISA and expression of MHCII molecules and ICAM-1/CD54 by flow cytometry. Our data show that SOCS1 mRNA overexpression in RPE cells prevents IFNγ-induced SOCS1 mRNA increase and IFNγ-mediated STAT1 phosphorylation. Moreover, SOCS1 overexpression in RPE cells inhibits IFNγ-induced decrease of IL-8 secretion and prevents IFNγ-induced MHC II and ICAM1/CD54 upregulation. However, SOCS1 overexpression does not affect TNFα-induced IκBα degradation nor block TNFα-induced or IL-17-induced IL-8 secretion. On the contrary, IL-17-induced secretion is increased by SOCS1 overexpression. In conclusion, SOCS1 overexpression in RPE cells inhibits some IFNγ-mediated responses that lead to uveitis development. This notion raises the possibility that SOCS1 overexpression could be a novel target for treating non-infectious uveitis. However, some proinflammatory effects of TNFα and IL-17 stimulation on RPE are not blocked by SOCS1 overexpression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. SHR overexpression induces the formation of supernumerary cell layers with cortex cell identity in rice.

    PubMed

    Henry, S; Dievart, A; Divol, F; Pauluzzi, G; Meynard, D; Swarup, R; Wu, S; Gallagher, K L; Périn, C

    2017-05-01

    The number of root cortex cell layers varies among plants, and many species have several cortical cell layers. We recently demonstrated that the two rice orthologs of the Arabidopsis SHR gene, OsSHR1 and OsSHR2, could complement the A. thaliana shr mutant. Moreover, OsSHR1 and OsSHR2 expression in A. thaliana roots induced the formation of extra root cortical cell layers. In this article, we demonstrate that the overexpression of AtSHR and OsSHR2 in rice roots leads to plants with wide and short roots that contain a high number of extra cortical cell layers. We hypothesize that SHR genes share a conserved function in the control of cortical cell layer division and the number of ground tissue cell layers in land plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Overexpression of phosphoserine aminotransferase PSAT1 stimulates cell growth and increases chemoresistance of colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Vié, Nadia; Copois, Virginie; Bascoul-Mollevi, Caroline; Denis, Vincent; Bec, Nicole; Robert, Bruno; Fraslon, Caroline; Conseiller, Emmanuel; Molina, Franck; Larroque, Christian; Martineau, Pierre; Del Rio, Maguy; Gongora, Céline

    2008-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common causes of cancer death throughout the world. In this work our aim was to study the role of the phosphoserine aminotransferase PSAT1 in colorectal cancer development. Results We first observed that PSAT1 is overexpressed in colon tumors. In addition, we showed that after drug treatment, PSAT1 expression level in hepatic metastases increased in non responder and decreased in responder patients. In experiments using human cell lines, we showed that ectopic PSAT1 overexpression in colon carcinoma SW480 cell line resulted in an increase in its growth rate and survival. In addition, SW480-PSAT1 cells presented a higher tumorigenic potential than SW480 control cells in xenografted mice. Moreover, the SW480-PSAT1 cell line was more resistant to oxaliplatin treatment than the non-transfected SW480 cell line. This resistance resulted from a decrease in the apoptotic response and in the mitotic catastrophes induced by the drug treatment. Conclusion These results show that an enzyme playing a role in the L-serine biosynthesis could be implicated in colon cancer progression and chemoresistance and indicate that PSAT1 represents a new interesting target for CRC therapy. PMID:18221502

  14. The relationship between cisplatin resistance and histone deacetylase isoform overexpression in epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Gyun; Pak, Jhang Ho; Choi, Won Ho; Park, Jeong-Yeol; Nam, Joo-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between cisplatin resistance and histone deacetylase (HDAC) isoform overexpression in ovarian cancer cell lines. Methods Expression of four HDAC isoforms (HDAC 1, 2, 3, and 4) in two ovarian cancer cell lines, SKOV3 and OVCAR3, exposed to various concentrations of cisplatin was examined by western blot analyses. Cells were transfected with plasmid DNA of each HDAC. The overexpression of protein and mRNA of each HDAC was confirmed by western blot and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses, respectively. The cell viability of the SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells transfected with HDAC plasmid DNA was measured using the cell counting kit-8 assay after treatment with cisplatin. Results The 50% inhibitory concentration of the SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells can be determined 15-24 hours after treatment with 15 µg/mL cisplatin. The expression level of acetylated histone 3 protein in SKOV3 cells increased after exposure to cisplatin. Compared with control cells at 24 hours after cisplatin exposure, the viability of SKOV3 cells overexpressing HDAC 1 and 3 increased by 15% and 13% (p<0.05), respectively. On the other hand, OVCAR3 cells that overexpressed HDAC 2 and 4 exhibited increased cell viability by 23% and 20% (p<0.05), respectively, compared with control cells 24 hours after exposure to cisplatin. Conclusion In SKOV3 and OVCAR3 epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines, the correlation between HDAC overexpression and cisplatin resistance was confirmed. However, the specific HDAC isoform associated with resistance to cisplatin varied depending on the ovarian cancer cell line. These results may suggest that each HDAC isoform conveys cisplatin resistance via different mechanisms. PMID:22808361

  15. Hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) overexpression downregulates MV3 melanoma cell proliferation, migration and adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Takabe, Piia, E-mail: piia.takabe@uef.fi; Bart, Geneviève; Ropponen, Antti

    2015-09-10

    Malignant skin melanoma is one of the most deadly human cancers. Extracellular matrix (ECM) influences the growth of malignant tumors by modulating tumor cells adhesion and migration. Hyaluronan is an essential component of the ECM, and its amount is altered in many tumors, suggesting an important role for hyaluronan in tumorigenesis. Nonetheless its role in melanomagenesis is not understood. In this study we produced a MV3 melanoma cell line with inducible expression of the hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) and studied its effect on the behavior of the melanoma cells. HAS3 overexpression expanded the cell surface hyaluronan coat and decreased melanomamore » cell adhesion, migration and proliferation by cell cycle arrest at G1/G0. Melanoma cell migration was restored by removal of cell surface hyaluronan by Streptomyces hyaluronidase and by receptor blocking with hyaluronan oligosaccharides, while the effect on cell proliferation was receptor independent. Overexpression of HAS3 decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation suggesting that inhibition of MAP-kinase signaling was responsible for these suppressive effects on the malignant phenotype of MV3 melanoma cells. - Highlights: • Inducible HAS3-MV3 melanoma cell line was generated using Lentiviral transduction. • HAS3 overexpression inhibits MV3 cell migration via hyaluronan–receptor interaction. • HAS3 overexpression decreases MV3 melanoma cell proliferation and adhesion. • ERK1/2 phosphorylation is downregulated by 50% in HAS3 overexpressing cells. • The results suggest that hyaluronan has anti-cancer like effects in melanoma.« less

  16. Amplification and overexpression of aurora kinase A (AURKA) in immortalized human ovarian epithelial (HOSE) cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, C M; Man, C; Jin, Y; Jin, C; Guan, X Y; Wang, Q; Wan, T S K; Cheung, A L M; Tsao, S W

    2005-07-01

    Immortalization is an early and essential step of human carcinogenesis. Amplification of chromosome 20q has been shown to be a common event in immortalized cells and cancers. We have previously reported that gain and amplification of chromosome 20q is a non-random and common event in immortalized human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) cells. The chromosome 20q harbors genes including TGIF2 (20q11.2-q12), AIB1 (20q12), PTPN1 (20q13.1), ZNF217 (20q13.2), and AURKA (20q13.2-q13.3), which were previously reported to be amplified and overexpressed in ovarian cancers. Some of these genes may be involved in immortalization of HOSE cells and represent crucial premalignant changes in ovarian surface epithelium. Investigation of the involvement of these genes was examined in four pairs of pre-crisis (preimmortalized) and post-crisis (immortalized) HOSE cells. Overexpression of AURKA (Aurora kinase A), also known as BTAK and STK15, by both real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-QPCR) and Western blotting was detected in all the four immortalized HOSE cells examined while overexpression of AIB1 and ZNF217 was observed in two of four immortalized HOSE cells examined. Overexpression of TGIF2 and PTPN1 was not significant in our immortalized HOSE cell systems. The degree of overexpression of AURKA was shown to be closely associated with the amplification of chromosome 20q in immortalized HOSE cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with labeled P1 artificial clone (PAC) confirmed the amplification of the chromosomal region (20q13.2-13.3) where AURKA resides. DNA amplification of AURKA was also confirmed using semi-quantitative PCR. Our study showed that amplification and overexpression of AURKA is a common and significant event during immortalization of HOSE cells and may represent an important premalignant change in ovarian carcinogenesis. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Overexpression of carbonic anhydrase IX induces cell motility by activating matrix metalloproteinase-9 in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jia-Sin; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Hsieh, Yi-Hsien; Chien, Ming-Hsien; Chuang, Chun-Yi; Yang, Shun-Fa

    2017-10-10

    Oral cancer is a solid malignant tumor that is prone to occur following hypoxia. There are no clear studies showing a link between hypoxia and oral carcinogenesis. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), which is a hypoxia-induced transmembrane protein, is highly expressed in various types of human cancer. However, the effects of CAIX on the metastasis of human oral cancer cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been clarified. In this study, we observed that CAIX overexpression increased the migratory and invasive abilities of SCC-9 and SAS cells. In addition, CAIX overexpression increased the mRNA and protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), steroid receptor coactivator (Src), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling proteins. CAIX overexpression also increased the binding capacity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), c-Jun, and c-Fos on the MMP-9 gene promoter. In addition, treatment with MMP-9 short hairpin RNA, an MMP inhibitor (GM6001), an FAK mutant, or an MEK inhibitor (U0126) inhibited CAIX-induced cell motility in SCC-9 cells. Moreover, data sets from The Cancer Genome Atlas demonstrated that CAIX expression was significantly associated with advanced progression and poor survival in oral cancer. In conclusion, it can be inferred that CAIX overexpression induces MMP-9 gene expression, which consequently induces the metastasis of oral cancer cells.

  18. Overexpression of carbonic anhydrase IX induces cell motility by activating matrix metalloproteinase-9 in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jia-Sin; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Hsieh, Yi-Hsien; Chien, Ming-Hsien; Chuang, Chun-Yi; Yang, Shun-Fa

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancer is a solid malignant tumor that is prone to occur following hypoxia. There are no clear studies showing a link between hypoxia and oral carcinogenesis. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), which is a hypoxia-induced transmembrane protein, is highly expressed in various types of human cancer. However, the effects of CAIX on the metastasis of human oral cancer cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been clarified. In this study, we observed that CAIX overexpression increased the migratory and invasive abilities of SCC-9 and SAS cells. In addition, CAIX overexpression increased the mRNA and protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), steroid receptor coactivator (Src), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling proteins. CAIX overexpression also increased the binding capacity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), c-Jun, and c-Fos on the MMP-9 gene promoter. In addition, treatment with MMP-9 short hairpin RNA, an MMP inhibitor (GM6001), an FAK mutant, or an MEK inhibitor (U0126) inhibited CAIX-induced cell motility in SCC-9 cells. Moreover, data sets from The Cancer Genome Atlas demonstrated that CAIX expression was significantly associated with advanced progression and poor survival in oral cancer. In conclusion, it can be inferred that CAIX overexpression induces MMP-9 gene expression, which consequently induces the metastasis of oral cancer cells. PMID:29137326

  19. Overexpression or absence of calretinin in mouse primary mesothelial cells inversely affects proliferation and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Blum, Walter; Pecze, László; Felley-Bosco, Emanuela; Schwaller, Beat

    2015-12-22

    The Ca(2+)-binding protein calretinin is currently used as a positive marker for identifying epithelioid malignant mesothelioma (MM) and reactive mesothelium, but calretinin's likely role in mesotheliomagenesis remains unclear. Calretinin protects immortalized mesothelial cells in vitro from asbestos-induced cytotoxicity and thus might be implicated in mesothelioma formation. To further investigate calretinin's putative role in the early steps of MM generation, primary mesothelial cells from calretinin knockout (CR-/-) and wildtype (WT) mice were compared. Primary mouse mesothelial cells from WT and CR-/- mice were investigated with respect to morphology, marker proteins, proliferation, cell cycle parameters and mobility in vitro. Overexpression of calretinin or a nuclear-targeted variant was achieved by a lentiviral expression system. CR-/- mice have a normal mesothelium and no striking morphological abnormalities compared to WT animals were noted. Primary mouse mesothelial cells from both genotypes show a typical "cobblestone-like" morphology and express mesothelial markers including mesothelin. In cells from CR-/- mice in vitro, we observed more giant cells and a significantly decreased proliferation rate. Up-regulation of calretinin in mesothelial cells of both genotypes increases the proliferation rate and induces a cobblestone-like epithelial morphology. The length of the S/G2/M phase is unchanged, however the G1 phase is clearly prolonged in CR-/- cells. They are also much slower to close a scratch in a confluent cell layer (2D-wound assay). In addition to a change in cell morphology, an increase in proliferation and mobility is observed, if calretinin overexpression is targeted to the nucleus. Thus, both calretinin and nuclear-targeted calretinin increase mesothelial cell proliferation and consequently, speed up the scratch-closure time. The increased rate of scratch closure in WT cells is the result of two processes: an increased proliferation rate and

  20. Novel 5-fluorouracil-resistant human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells with dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase overexpression

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Osamu; Ohashi, Shinya; Nakai, Yukie; Nakagawa, Shunsaku; Matsuoka, Kazuaki; Kobunai, Takashi; Takechi, Teiji; Amanuma, Yusuke; Yoshioka, Masahiro; Ida, Tomomi; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Okuno, Yasushi; Miyamoto, Shin’ichi; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Matsubara, Kazuo; Chiba, Tsutomu; Muto, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a key drug for the treatment of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC); however, resistance to it remains a critical limitation to its clinical use. To clarify the mechanisms of 5-FU resistance of ESCC, we originally established 5-FU-resistant ESCC cells, TE-5R, by step-wise treatment with continuously increasing concentrations of 5-FU. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of 5-FU showed that TE-5R cells were 15.6-fold more resistant to 5-FU in comparison with parental TE-5 cells. TE-5R cells showed regional copy number amplification of chromosome 1p including the DPYD gene, as well as high mRNA and protein expressions of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), an enzyme involved in 5-FU degradation. 5-FU treatment resulted in a significant decrease of the intracellular 5-FU concentration and increase of the concentration of α-fluoro-ureidopropionic acid (FUPA), a metabolite of 5-FU, in TE-5R compared with TE-5 cells in vitro. Conversely, gimeracil, a DPD inhibitor, markedly increased the intracellular 5-FU concentration, decreased the intracellular FUPA concentration, and attenuated 5-FU resistance of TE-5R cells. These results indicate that 5-FU resistance of TE-5R cells is due to the rapid degradation of 5-FU by DPD overexpression. The investigation of 5-FU-resistant ESCC with DPYD gene copy number amplification and consequent DPD overexpression may generate novel biological evidence to explore strategies against ESCC with 5-FU resistance. PMID:26396918

  1. Involvement of overexpressed wild-type BRAF in the growth of malignant melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Tanami, Hideaki; Imoto, Issei; Hirasawa, Akira; Yuki, Yasuhiro; Sonoda, Itaru; Inoue, Jun; Yasui, Kohichiro; Misawa-Furihata, Akiko; Kawakami, Yutaka; Inazawa, Johji

    2004-11-18

    Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) using 40 cell lines derived from malignant melanomas (MMs) revealed frequent amplification at 7q33-q34 containing BRAF gene, which often is mutated in MM. We found this gene to be amplified to a remarkable degree in the MM cell lines that exhibited high-level gains at 7q33-q34 in CGH. Among 40 cell lines, the eight lines that revealed neither BRAF nor NRAS mutations showed even higher levels of BRAF mRNA expression than the 32 mutated lines, although DNA amplification at 7q33-q34 was not detected in every lines overexpressing BRAF. MM cells that carried wild-type BRAF and NRAS showed constitutive overexpression of B-Raf protein and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), even after serum starvation. Not only downregulation of the endogenously overexpressed wild-type B-Raf by antisense oligonucleotide but also a treatment with an inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK, MEK) reduced phosphorylated ERK1/2 and cell growth, whereas the exogenously expressed wild-type B-Raf promoted cell growth in MM cells. Our results provide the evidence that overexpression of wild-type B-Raf, in part but not always as a result of gene amplification, is one of the mechanisms underlying constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway that stimulates growth of MM cells.

  2. Overexpression of microRNA-1288 in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, Vinod; Islam, Farhadul; Pillai, Suja; Tang, Johnny Cheuk-On; Tong, Daniel King-Hung; Law, Simon; Chan, Kwok-Wah; Lam, Alfred King-Yin

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to examine the expression profiles miR-1288 in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The cellular implications and target interactions of ESCC cells following miR-1288 overexpression was also examined. In total, 120 oesophageal tissues (90 primary ESCCs and 30 non-neoplastic tissues) were recruited for miR-1288 expression analysis using qRT-PCR. An exogenous miR-1288 mimic and its inhibitor were used to explore the in-vitro effects of miR-1288 on ESCC cells by performing cell proliferation, colony formation, cell invasion and migration assays. Localisation and modulatory changes of various miR-1288 regulated proteins such as FOXO1, p53, TAB3, BCL2 and kRAS was examined using immunofluorescence and western blot. Overexpression of miR-1288 was more often noted in ESCC tissues when compared to non-neoplastic oesophageal tissues. High expression was often noted in high grade carcinomas and with metastases. Patients with high levels of miR-1288 expression showed a slightly better survival compared to patients with low miR-1288 levels. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-1288 showed increased cell proliferation and colony formation, improved cell migration and enhanced cell invasion properties in ESCC cells. In addition, miR-1288 overexpression in ESCC cells showed repression of cytoplasmic tumour suppressor FOXO1 protein expression. Inversely, inhibition of miR-1288 expression exhibited remarkable upregulation of FOXO1 protein, while expressions of other tested proteins remain unchanged. Up regulation of miR-1288 expression in ESCC tissues and miR-1288 induced oncogenic features of ESCC cells in-vitro indicates the oncogenic roles of miR-1288 in ESCCs. Overexpression of miR-1288 play a key role in the pathogenesis of ESCCs and its modulation may have potential therapeutic value in patients with ESCC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Synergistic Effects of NDRG2 Overexpression and Radiotherapy on Cell Death of Human Prostate LNCaP Cells.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh Zarei, M; Takhshid, M A; Behzad Behbahani, A; Hosseini, S Y; Okhovat, M A; Rafiee Dehbidi, Gh R; Mosleh Shirazi, M A

    2017-09-01

    Radiation therapy is among the most conventional cancer therapeutic modalities with effective local tumor control. However, due to the development of radio-resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasis often occur following radiation therapy. In recent years, combination of radiotherapy and gene therapy has been suggested to overcome this problem. The aim of the current study was to explore the potential synergistic effects of N-Myc Downstream-Regulated Gene 2 (NDRG2) overexpression, a newly identified candidate tumor suppressor gene, with radiotherapy against proliferation of prostate LNCaP cell line. In this study, LNCaP cells were exposed to X-ray radiation in the presence or absence of NDRG2 overexpression using plasmid PSES- pAdenoVator-PSA-NDRG2-IRES-GFP. The effects of NDRG2 overexpression, X-ray radiation or combination of both on the cell proliferation and apoptosis of LNCaP cells were then analyzed using MTT assay and flow cytometery, respectively. Results of MTT assay showed that NDRG2 overexpression and X-ray radiation had a synergistic effect against proliferation of LNCaP cells. Moreover, NDRG2 overexpression increased apoptotic effect of X-ray radiation in LNCaP cells synergistically. Our findings suggested that NDRG2 overexpression in combination with radiotherapy may be an effective therapeutic option against prostate cancer.

  4. Matrix-Dependent Regulation of AKT in Hepsin-Overexpressing PC3 Prostate Cancer Cells12

    PubMed Central

    Wittig-Blaich, Stephanie M; Kacprzyk, Lukasz A; Eismann, Thorsten; Bewerunge-Hudler, Melanie; Kruse, Petra; Winkler, Eva; Strauss, Wolfgang S L; Hibst, Raimund; Steiner, Rudolf; Schrader, Mark; Mertens, Daniel; Sültmann, Holger; Wittig, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The serine-protease hepsin is one of the most prominently overexpressed genes in human prostate carcinoma. Forced expression of the enzyme in mice prostates is associated with matrix degradation, invasive growth, and prostate cancer progression. Conversely, hepsin overexpression in metastatic prostate cancer cell lines was reported to induce cell cycle arrest and reduction of invasive growth in vitro. We used a system for doxycycline (dox)-inducible target gene expression in metastasis-derived PC3 cells to analyze the effects of hepsin in a quantitative manner. Loss of viability and adhesion correlated with hepsin expression levels during anchorage-dependent but not anchorage-independent growth. Full expression of hepsin led to cell death and detachment and was specifically associated with reduced phosphorylation of AKT at Ser473, which was restored by growth on matrix derived from RWPE1 normal prostatic epithelial cells. In the chorioallantoic membrane xenograft model, hepsin overexpression in PC3 cells reduced the viability of tumors but did not suppress invasive growth. The data presented here provide evidence that elevated levels of hepsin interfere with cell adhesion and viability in the background of prostate cancer as well as other tissue types, the details of which depend on the microenvironment provided. Our findings suggest that overexpression of the enzyme in prostate carcinogenesis must be spatially and temporally restricted for the efficient development of tumors and metastases. PMID:21750652

  5. The inhibition of superoxide production in EL4 lymphoma cells overexpressing growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Robyn E; Weigent, Douglas A

    2003-05-01

    A substantial body of research exists to support the production of growth hormone by cells of the immune system. However, the function and mechanism of action of lymphocyte-derived growth hormone remain largely unelucidated. Since, it has been found that exogenous growth hormone (GH) primes neutrophils for the production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) and in particular superoxide (O2-), we investigated the role of GH on the production of O2- in T cells. Furthermore, we examined whether endogenous and exogenous GH act similarly. Our studies show that overexpression of GH in EL4, a T-cell lymphoma cell line, results in a decrease in the production of O2- compared to control cells, as detected using the fluorescent dye, dihydroethidium. O2- production in control cells was not affected by treatment with inhibitors of xanthine oxidase or a non-specific NADPH-oxidase inhibitor. However, treatment with diallyl sulfide, an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 2E1 mimicked the reduction in O2- production seen in cells overexpressing GH. Although no significant change could be detected in CYP2E1 protein levels, CYP2E1 activity was found to be greater in control EL4 than in cells overexpressing GH. Both the decrease in O2- production and the lower CYP2E1 activity in GH overexpressing cells could be abrogated by treatment with N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. The overexpression of GH protects cells from apoptosis induced by isoniazid, a CYP2E1 inducer, suggesting a role for nitric oxide as a mediator in the regulation of xenobiotic metabolism and apoptosis-protection by lymphocyte GH.

  6. Bmi1 overexpression in the cerebellar granule cell lineage of mice affects cell proliferation and survival without initiating medulloblastoma formation

    PubMed Central

    Behesti, Hourinaz; Bhagat, Heeta; Dubuc, Adrian M.; Taylor, Michael D.; Marino, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY BMI1 is a potent inducer of neural stem cell self-renewal and neural progenitor cell proliferation during development and in adult tissue homeostasis. It is overexpressed in numerous human cancers – including medulloblastomas, in which its functional role is unclear. We generated transgenic mouse lines with targeted overexpression of Bmi1 in the cerebellar granule cell lineage, a cell type that has been shown to act as a cell of origin for medulloblastomas. Overexpression of Bmi1 in granule cell progenitors (GCPs) led to a decrease in cerebellar size due to decreased GCP proliferation and repression of the expression of cyclin genes, whereas Bmi1 overexpression in postmitotic granule cells improved cell survival in response to stress by altering the expression of genes in the mitochondrial cell death pathway and of Myc and Lef-1. Although no medulloblastomas developed in ageing cohorts of transgenic mice, crosses with Trp53−/− mice resulted in a low incidence of medulloblastoma formation. Furthermore, analysis of a large collection of primary human medulloblastomas revealed that tumours with a BMI1high TP53low molecular profile are significantly enriched in Group 4 human medulloblastomas. Our data suggest that different levels and timing of Bmi1 overexpression yield distinct cellular outcomes within the same cellular lineage. Importantly, Bmi1 overexpression at the GCP stage does not induce tumour formation, suggesting that BMI1 overexpression in GCP-derived human medulloblastomas probably occurs during later stages of oncogenesis and might serve to enhance tumour cell survival. PMID:23065639

  7. Chemo-spectroscopic sensor for carboxyl terminus overexpressed in carcinoma cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Stanca, Sarmiza E; Matthäus, Christian; Neugebauer, Ute; Nietzsche, Sandor; Fritzsche, Wolfgang; Dellith, Jan; Heintzmann, Rainer; Weber, Karina; Deckert, Volker; Krafft, Christoph; Popp, Jürgen

    2015-10-01

    Certain carboxyl groups of the plasma membrane are involved in tumorgenesis processes. A gold core-hydroxyapatite shell (AuHA) nanocomposite is introduced as chemo-spectroscopic sensor to monitor these carboxyl groups of the cell membrane. Hydroxyapatite (HA) plays the role both of a chemical detector and of a biocompatible Raman marker. The principle of detection is based on chemical interaction between the hydroxyl groups of the HA and the carboxyl terminus of the proteins. The AuHA exhibits a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal at 954 cm(-1) which can be used for its localization. The bio-sensing capacity of AuHA towards human skin epidermoid carcinoma (A431) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines is investigated using Raman microspectroscopic imaging. The localization of AuHA on cells is correlated with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and structured illumination fluorescence microscopy. This qualitative approach is a step towards a quantitative study of the proteins terminus. This method would enable further studies on the molecular profiling of the plasma membrane, in an attempt to provide accurate cell identification. Using a gold core-hydroxyapatite shell (AuHA) nanocomposite, the authors in this paper showed the feasibility of detecting and differentiating cell surface molecules by surface enhanced Raman scattering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Overexpression of cyclin D1 induces the reprogramming of differentiated epidermal cells into stem cell-like cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Along; Yang, Leilei; Ma, Kui; Sun, Mengli; Li, Lei; Huang, Jin; Li, Yang; Zhang, Cuiping; Li, Haihong; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that Wnt/β-catenin is critical for dedifferentiation of differentiated epidermal cells. Cyclin D1 (CCND1) is a β-catenin target gene. In this study, we provide evidence that overexpression of CCND1 induces reprogramming of epidermal cells into stem cell-like cells. After introducing CCND1 gene into differentiated epidermal cells, we found that the large flat-shaped cells with a small nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio changed into small round-shaped cells with a large nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio. The expressions of CK10, β1-integrin, Oct4 and Nanog in CCND1 induced cells were remarkably higher than those in the control group (P < 0.01). In addition, the induced cells exhibited a high colony-forming ability and a long-term proliferative potential. When the induced cells were implanted into a wound of laboratory animal model, the wound healing was accelerated. These results suggested that overexpression of CCND1 induced the reprogramming of differentiated epidermal cells into stem cell-like cells. This study may also offer a new approach to yield epidermal stem cells for wound repair and regeneration.

  9. Overexpression of Hif-1α in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Affects Cell-Autonomous Angiogenic and Osteogenic Parameters.

    PubMed

    Lampert, F M; Kütscher, C; Stark, G B; Finkenzeller, G

    2016-03-01

    Reconstruction of large bone defects still represents a major medical challenge. In recent years tissue engineering has developed techniques based on adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that could represent an attractive therapeutical option to treat large bone defects in the future. It has been demonstrated in various animal models that ex vivo expanded MSCs are capable of promoting the regeneration of skeletal defects after implantation. However, for the efficient regeneration of bone in tissue engineering applications, a rapid vascularization of implanted grafts is essential to ensure the survival of cells in the early post-implantational phase. A promising strategy to enhance vascularization of MSC-containing implants could consist of overexpression of the angiogenic master transcription factor Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (Hif-1) in the MSCs in order to induce angiogenesis and support osteogenesis. In the present study, we overexpressed Hif-1α in MSCs by using recombinant adenoviruses and investigated cell-autonomous effects. Overexpression of Hif-1α enhanced proliferation, migration, cell survival and expression of pro-angiogenic genes. Other parameters such as expression of the osteogenic markers BMP-2 and RunX2 were decreased. Hif-1α overexpression had no effect on invasion, senescence and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Our experiments revealed multifarious effects of Hif-1α overexpression on cell-autonomous parameters. Therefore, Hif-1α overexpression may represent a therapeutic option to improve cellular functions of MSCs to treat critical sized bone defects. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. EMMPRIN overexpression in SVZ neural progenitor cells increases their migration towards ischemic cortex.

    PubMed

    Kanemitsu, Michiko; Tsupykov, Oleg; Potter, Gaël; Boitard, Michael; Salmon, Patrick; Zgraggen, Eloisa; Gascon, Eduardo; Skibo, Galina; Dayer, Alexandre G; Kiss, Jozsef Z

    2017-11-01

    Stimulation of endogenous neurogenesis and recruitment of neural progenitors from the subventricular zone (SVZ) neurogenic site may represent a useful strategy to improve regeneration in the ischemic cortex. Here, we tested whether transgenic overexpression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), the regulator of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression, in endogenous neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) could increase migration towards ischemic injury. For this purpose, we applied a lentivector-mediated gene transfer system. We found that EMMPRIN-transduced progenitors exhibited enhanced MMP-2 activity in vitro and showed improved motility in 3D collagen gel as well as in cortical slices. Using a rat model of neonatal ischemia, we showed that EMMPRIN overexpressing SVZ cells invade the injured cortical tissue more efficiently than controls. Our results suggest that EMMPRIN overexpression could be suitable approach to improve capacities of endogenous or transplanted progenitors to invade the injured cortex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. BAD overexpression inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis via mitochondrial-dependent pathway in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Luo, Man; Liu, Dan; Chen, Bojiang; Zhang, Wen; Mai, Lin; Zeng, Jing; Huang, Na; Huang, Yi; Mo, Xianming; Li, Weimin

    2013-06-01

    The pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein BAD initiated apoptosis in human cells and has been identified as a prognostic marker in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we aimed to explore the functions of BAD in NSCLC. Overexpression of BAD was performed by transfecting different NSCLC cell lines with wild-type BAD. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and invasion were characterized in vitro. Tumorigenicity was analyzed in vivo. Western blot was performed to determine the effects of BAD overexpression on the Bcl-2 family proteins and apoptosis-related proteins. Overexpression of BAD significantly inhibited cell proliferation in H1299, H292, and SPC-A1 but not in SK-MES-1 and H460 cell lines in vitro. BAD overexpression also reduced the tumorigenicity of H1299/SPC-A1 cell in vivo. However, no appreciable effects on cell cycle distribution and invasion were observed in all these cell lines. BAD overexpression also induced apoptosis in all cell types, in which process expression of mitochondrial cytochrom c (cyto-c) and caspase 3 were increased, whereas Bcl-xl, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase 8 expressions did not changed. These findings indicated that a mitochondrial pathway, in which process cyto-c was released from mitochondrial to activate caspase 3, was involved in BAD overexpression-mediated apoptosis. Our data suggested that increased expression of BAD enhance apoptosis and has negative influence on cell proliferation and tumor growth in NSCLC. Bad is a new potential target for tumor interventions.

  12. Overexpression of microRNA-21 strengthens stem cell-like characteristics in a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jinghang; Yang, Peipei; Guo, Zhe; Yang, Rirong; Yang, Haojie; Yang, Fuquan; Li, Lequn; Xiang, Bangde

    2016-10-28

    Liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs) have been shown to express higher levels of microRNA-21 (miR-21). Here, we examine the possible contributions of miR-21 to the phenotype of LCSCs in culture and in xenograft tumors in nude mice. The hepatocellular carcinoma cell line MHCC-97H was stably transformed with a retroviral vector to establish cells overexpressing miR-21, while a cell line transformed with empty vector served as a negative control. RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to evaluate the effects of miR-21 overexpression on the expression of various LCSC markers, a Transwell assay was used to assess the effects on cell migration and invasion, and a spheroid formation assay was used to examine the effects on clonogenesis. The effects of miR-21 overexpression were also examined in tumors in nude mice. An MHCC-97H cell line was constructed that stably overexpresses miR-21 at 7.78 ± 1.51-fold higher levels than the negative control cell line. Expression of the LCSC markers CD13, Ep-CAM, CD90, and OCT4 was significantly higher in the miR-21-overexpressing cell line than in the negative control at both mRNA and protein levels. The overexpressing cell line formed larger, tighter, and more numerous spheroids. Overexpression of miR-21 was associated with greater cell migration and invasion. Tumors of overexpressing cells in nude mice had a significantly larger mean volume after 34 days of growth (773.62 ± 163.46 mm 3 ) than tumors of negative control cells (502.79 ± 33.94 mm 3 , p = 0.048), as well as greater mean weight (0.422 ± 0.019 vs. 0.346 ± 0.006 g, p = 0.003). Overexpression of miR-21 strengthens the phenotype of LCSCs, facilitating invasion, migration, and tumorigenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

  13. Overexpression of AQP3 Modifies the Cell Cycle and the Proliferation Rate of Mammalian Cells in Culture.

    PubMed

    Galán-Cobo, Ana; Ramírez-Lorca, Reposo; Serna, Ana; Echevarría, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal AQP3 overexpression in tumor cells of different origins has been reported and a role for this enhanced AQP3 expression in cell proliferation and tumor processess has been indicated. To further understand the role AQP3 plays in cell proliferation we explore the effect that stable over expression of AQP3 produces over the proliferation rate and cell cycle of mammalian cells. The cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry with propidium iodide (PI) and the cell proliferation rate measured through cell counting and BrdU staining. Cells with overexpression of AQP3 (AQP3-o) showed higher proliferation rate and larger percentage of cells in phases S and G2/M, than wild type cells (wt). Evaluation of the cell response against arresting the cell cycle with Nocodazole showed that AQP3-o exhibited a less modified cell cycle pattern and lower Annexin V specific staining than wt, consistently with a higher resistance to apoptosis of AQP3-overexpressing cells. The cell volume and complexity were also larger in AQP3-o compared to wt cells. After transcriptomic analysis, RT-qPCR was performed to highlight key molecules implicated in cell proliferation which expression may be altered by overexpression of AQP3 and the comparative analysis between both type of cells showed significant changes in the expression of Zeb2, Jun, JunB, NF-kβ, Cxcl9, Cxcl10, TNF, and TNF receptors. We conclude that the role of AQP3 in cell proliferation seems to be connected to increments in the cell cycle turnover and changes in the expression levels of relevant genes for this process. Larger expression of AQP3 may confer to the cell a more tumor like phenotype and contributes to explain the presence of this protein in many different tumors.

  14. SIRT1 Overexpression Maintains Cell Phenotype and Function of Endothelial Cells Derived from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bin; Jen, Michele; Perrin, Louisiane; Wertheim, Jason A; Ameer, Guillermo A

    2015-12-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) that are differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be used in establishing disease models for personalized drug discovery or developing patient-specific vascularized tissues or organoids. However, a number of technical challenges are often associated with iPSC-ECs in culture, including instability of the endothelial phenotype and limited cell proliferative capacity over time. Early senescence is believed to be the primary mechanism underlying these limitations. Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) is an NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase involved in the regulation of cell senescence, redox state, and inflammatory status. We hypothesize that overexpression of the SIRT1 gene in iPSC-ECs will maintain EC phenotype, function, and proliferative capacity by overcoming early cell senescence. SIRT1 gene was packaged into a lentiviral vector (LV-SIRT1) and transduced into iPSC-ECs at passage 4. Beginning with passage 5, iPSC-ECs exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology, whereas iPSC-ECs overexpressing SIRT1 maintained EC cobblestone morphology. SIRT1 overexpressing iPSC-ECs also exhibited a higher percentage of canonical markers of endothelia (LV-SIRT1 61.8% CD31(+) vs. LV-empty 31.7% CD31(+), P < 0.001; LV-SIRT1 46.3% CD144(+) vs. LV-empty 20.5% CD144(+), P < 0.02), with a higher nitric oxide synthesis, lower β-galactosidase production indicating decreased senescence (3.4% for LV-SIRT1 vs. 38.6% for LV-empty, P < 0.001), enhanced angiogenesis, increased deacetylation activity, and higher proliferation rate. SIRT1 overexpressing iPSC-ECs continued to proliferate through passage 9 with high purity of EC-like characteristics, while iPSC-ECs without SIRT1 overexpression became senescent after passage 5. Taken together, SIRT1 overexpression in iPSC-ECs maintains EC phenotype, improves EC function, and extends cell lifespan, overcoming critical hurdles associated with the use of iPSC-ECs in translational research.

  15. Overexpression of mitochondrial sirtuins alters glycolysis and mitochondrial function in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    de Moura, Michelle Barbi; Uppala, Radha; Zhang, Yuxun; Van Houten, Bennett; Goetzman, Eric S

    2014-01-01

    SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT5 are mitochondrial deacylases that impact multiple facets of energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. SIRT3 activates several mitochondrial enzymes, SIRT4 represses its targets, and SIRT5 has been shown to both activate and repress mitochondrial enzymes. To gain insight into the relative effects of the mitochondrial sirtuins in governing mitochondrial energy metabolism, SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT5 overexpressing HEK293 cells were directly compared. When grown under standard cell culture conditions (25 mM glucose) all three sirtuins induced increases in mitochondrial respiration, glycolysis, and glucose oxidation, but with no change in growth rate or in steady-state ATP concentration. Increased proton leak, as evidenced by oxygen consumption in the presence of oligomycin, appeared to explain much of the increase in basal oxygen utilization. Growth in 5 mM glucose normalized the elevations in basal oxygen consumption, proton leak, and glycolysis in all sirtuin over-expressing cells. While the above effects were common to all three mitochondrial sirtuins, some differences between the SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT5 expressing cells were noted. Only SIRT3 overexpression affected fatty acid metabolism, and only SIRT4 overexpression altered superoxide levels and mitochondrial membrane potential. We conclude that all three mitochondrial sirtuins can promote increased mitochondrial respiration and cellular metabolism. SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT5 appear to respond to excess glucose by inducing a coordinated increase of glycolysis and respiration, with the excess energy dissipated via proton leak.

  16. Overexpression of IGF-I receptor in HeLa cells enhances in vivo radioresponse

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, Haruna; Yu, Dong; Miura, Masahiko

    2007-11-30

    Insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase whose activation strongly promotes cell growth and survival. We previously reported that IGF-IR activity confers intrinsic radioresistance in mouse embryo fibroblasts in vitro. However, it is still unclear whether tumor cells overexpressing IGF-IR exhibit radioresistance in vivo. For this purpose, we established HeLa cells that overexpress IGF-IR (HeLa-R), subcutaneously transplanted these cells into nude mice, and examined radioresponse in the resulting solid tumors. HeLa-R cells exhibited typical in vitro phenotypes generally observed in IGF-IR-overexpressing cells, as well as significant intrinsic radioresistance in vitro compared with parent cells. Asmore » expected, the transplanted HeLa-R tumors grew at a remarkably higher rate than parent tumors. Histological analysis revealed that HeLa-R tumors expressed more VEGF and had a higher density of tumor vessels. Unexpectedly, a marked growth delay was observed in HeLa-R tumors following 10 Gy of X-irradiation. Immunostaining of HeLa-R tumors for the hypoxia marker pimonidazole revealed a significantly lower level of hypoxic cells. Moreover, clamp hypoxia significantly increased radioresistance in HeLa-R tumors. Tumor microenvironments in vivo generated by the IGF-IR expression thus could be a major factor in determining the tumor radioresponse in vivo.« less

  17. Development of cytotoxicity-sensitive human cells using overexpression of long non-coding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Tani, Hidenori; Torimura, Masaki

    2015-05-01

    Biosensors using live cells are analytical devices that have the advantage of being highly sensitive for their targets. Although attention has primarily focused on reporter gene assays using functional promoters, cell viability assays are still efficient. We focus on long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) that are involved in the molecular mechanisms associated with responses to cellular stresses as a new biological material. Here we have developed human live cells transfected with lncRNAs that can be used as an intelligent sensor of cytotoxicity for a broad range of environmental stresses. We identified three lncRNAs (GAS5, IDI2-AS1, and SNHG15) that responded to cycloheximide in HEK293 cells. Overexpression of these lncRNAs sensitized human cells to cell death in response to various stresses (cycloheximide, ultraviolet irradiation, mercury II chloride, or hydrogen peroxide). In particular, dual lncRNA (GAS5 plus IDI2-AS1, or GAS5 plus SNHG15) overexpression sensitized cells to cell death by more cellular stresses. We propose a method for highly sensitive biosensors using overexpression of lncRNAs that can potentially measure the cytotoxicity signals of various environmental stresses. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Regulation of Id2 expression in EL4 T lymphoma cells overexpressing growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Weigent, Douglas A

    2009-01-01

    In previous studies, we have shown that overexpression of growth hormone (GH) in cells of the immune system upregulates proteins involved in cell growth and protects from apoptosis. Here, we report that overexpression of GH in EL4 T lymphoma cells (GHo) also significantly increased levels of the inhibitor of differentiation-2 (Id2). The increase in Id2 was suggested in both Id2 promoter luciferase assays and by Western analysis for Id2 protein. To identify the regulatory elements that mediate transcriptional activation by GH in the Id2 promoter, promoter deletion analysis was performed. Deletion analysis revealed that transactivation involved a 301-132bp region upstream to the Id2 transcriptional start site. The pattern in the human GHo Jurkat T lymphoma cell line paralleled that found in the mouse GHo EL4 T lymphoma cell line. Significantly less Id2 was detected in the nucleus of GHo EL4 T lymphoma cells compared to vector alone controls. Although serum increased the levels of Id2 in control vector alone cells, no difference was found in the total levels of Id2 in GHo EL4 T lymphoma cells treated with or without serum. The increase in Id2 expression in GHo EL4 T lymphoma cells measured by Id2 promoter luciferase expression and Western blot analysis was blocked by the overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of STAT5. The results suggest that in EL4 T lymphoma cells overexpressing GH, there is an upregulation of Id2 protein that appears to involve STAT protein activity.

  19. Overexpression of RBM5 induces autophagy in human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhenzhong; Wang, Ke; Li, Ranwei; Yin, Jinzhi; Hao, Yuqiu; Lv, Xuejiao; Li, Junyao; Zhao, Lijing; Du, Yanwei; Li, Ping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-02-29

    Dysfunctions in autophagy and apoptosis are closely interacted and play an important role in cancer development. RNA binding motif 5 (RBM5) is a tumor suppressor gene, which inhibits tumor cells' growth and enhances chemosensitivity through inducing apoptosis in our previous studies. In this study, we investigated the relationship between RBM5 overexpression and autophagy in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Human lung adenocarcinoma cancer (A549) cells were cultured in vitro and were transiently transfected with a RBM5 expressing plasmid (GV287-RBM5) or plasmid with scrambled control sequence. RBM5 expression was determined by semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot. Intracellular LC-3 I/II, Beclin-1, lysosome associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP1), Bcl-2, and NF-κB/p65 protein levels were detected by Western blot. Chemical staining with monodansylcadaverine (MDC) and acridine orange (AO) was applied to detect acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs). The ultrastructure changes were observed under transmission electron microscope (TEM). Then, transplanted tumor models of A549 cells on BALB/c nude mice were established and treated with the recombinant plasmids carried by attenuated Salmonella to induce RBM5 overexpression in tumor tissues. RBM5, LC-3, LAMP1, and Beclin1 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry staining in plasmids-treated A549 xenografts. Our study demonstrated that overexpression of RBM5 caused an increase in the autophagy-related proteins including LC3-I, LC3-II, LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, Beclin1, and LAMP1 in A549 cells. A large number of autophagosomes with double-membrane structure and AVOs were detected in the cytoplasm of A549 cells transfected with GV287-RBM5 at 24 h. We observed that the protein level of NF-κB/P65 was increased and the protein level of Bcl-2 decreased by RBM5 overexpression. Furthermore, treatment with an autophagy inhibitor, 3-MA, enhanced RBM5-induced cell death and

  20. GROα overexpression drives cell migration and invasion in triple negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Kruttika; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Wu, Yanyuan; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2017-07-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of highly aggressive breast cancer with poor prognosis. The main characteristic feature of TNBC is its lack of expression of ER, PR and HER2 receptors that are targets for treatments. Hence, it is imperative to identify novel therapeutic strategies to target TNBC. Our aim was to examine whether GROα is a specific marker for TNBC metastasis. For this we performed qPCR, ELISA, migration/invasion assays, western blotting, and siRNA transfections. Evaluation of baseline GROα expression in different breast cancer (BC) subtypes showed that it is significantly upregulated in breast tumor cells, specifically in TNBC cell line. On further evaluation in additional 17 TNBC cell lines we found that baseline GROα expression was significantly elevated in >50% of the cell lines validating GROα overexpression specifically in TNBC cells. Moreover, GROα-stimulation in MCF7 and SKBR3 cells and GROα‑knockdown in MDA-MB‑231 and HCC1937 cells elicited dramatic changes in migration and invasion abilities in vitro. Corresponding changes in EMT markers were also observed in phenotypically modified BC cells. Furthermore, mechanistic studies identified GROα regulating EMT markers and migration/invasion via MAPK pathway and specific inhibition using PD98059 resulted in the reversal of effects induced by GROα on BC cells. In conclusion, our study provides strong evidence to suggest that GROα is a critical modulator of TNBC migration/invasion and proposes GROα as a potential therapeutic target for treatment of TNBC metastasis.

  1. Limb-bud and Heart Overexpression Inhibits the Proliferation and Migration of PC3M Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qicai; Li, Ermao; Huang, Long; Cheng, Minsheng; Li, Li

    2018-01-01

    Background: The limb-bud and heart gene ( LBH ) was discovered in the early 21st century and is specifically expressed in the mouse embryonic limb and heart development. Increasing evidences have indicated that LBH not only plays an important role in embryo development, it is also closely correlated with the occurance and progression of many tumors. However, its function in prostate cancer (PCa) is still not well understood. Here, we explored the effects of LBH on the proliferation and migration of the PCa cell line PC3M. Methods: LBH expression in tissues and cell lines of PCa was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Lentivirus was used to transduct the LBH gene into the PC3M cells. Stable LBH-overexpressing PC3M-LBH cells and PC3M-NC control cells were obtained via puromycin screening. Cell proliferation was examined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis rate were investigated using flow cytometry. Cell migration was studied using the Transwell assay. Results: LBH expression level was down-regulated in 3 different PCa cell lines, especially in PC3M cells, compared with the normal prostate epithelial cells(RWPE-1). Cell lines of LBH-upregulated PC3M-LBH and PC3M-NC control were successfully constructed. Significantly increased LBH expression level and decreased cyclin D1 and cyclin E2 expression level was found in PC3M-LBH cells as compared to the PC3M-NC cells. The overexpression of LBH significantly inhibited PC3M cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in nude mice. LBH overexpression in PC3M cell, also induced cell cycle G0/G1 phase arrest and decreased the migration of PC3M cells. Conclusions : Our results reveal that LBH expression is down-regulated in the tissue and cell lines of PCa. LBH overexpression inhibits PC3M cell proliferation and tumor growth by inducing cell cycle arrest through down-regulating cyclin D1and cyclin E2 expression. LBH might

  2. CRKL overexpression suppresses in vitro proliferation, invasion and migration of murine hepatocarcinoma Hca-P cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiuyue; Sun, Ming-Zhong; Guo, Chunmei; Shi, Ji; Chen, Xin; Liu, Shuqing

    2015-02-01

    The signal adaptor CRK family protein play important roles in cancer cell progression, proliferation, migration and invasion. Previously, we showed that CRK was involved in lymphatic metastatic potential of murine hepatocarcinoma cells. In current work, as a member of CRK family, chicken tumour virus number 10 regulator of kinase-like protein (CRKL) was revealed to be associated with malignant behaviors of Hca-P, a murine HCC cell with lymph node metastatic (LNM) rate of ∼25%. CRKL overexpression in Hca-P by a constructed eukaryotic expression vector of pcDNA3.1/V5-HisB-CRKL significantly ameliorated its malignant biological properties. CCK-8 and soft agar colony formation assays indicated CRKL overexpression significantly inhibits the cell proliferation and colony formation abilities of Hca-P. Additionally, transwell assays indicated that the Hca-P cell migration and invasion capacities were apparently reduced following CRKL overexpression. As Hca-P is an ideal hepatocarcinoma cell model with low (initial) LNM potential, CRKL is shown to act as a potential suppressor and to provide new insight for both the malignant behaviors of hepatocarcinoma cells and lymphatic metastasis mechanism of hepatocarcinoma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Overexpression of secretagogin promotes cell apoptosis and inhibits migration and invasion of human SW480 human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiang-Yi; Liu, Qiao-Rui; Wu, Li-Ming; Zheng, Xu-Lei; Ma, Cong; Na, Ri-Su

    2018-05-01

    In order to investigate the effect of secretagogin (SCGN) on colorectal cancer (CRC) cells apoptosis, invasion and migration in vitro. Expression of SCGN in CRC tissues and the paired adjacent non-tumorous tissues (n = 36) and four human CRC cell lines (HT29, HCT116, SW480 and SW620) were detected. SW480 cells were transfected with the SCGN overexpression plasmid (eGFP-SCGN), si-SCGN-773, and the corresponding negative controls (NCs). Then, cell-cycle distribution, cell apoptosis, migration, invasion and expression of apoptosis- and metastasis-related proteins were detected. SCGN was significantly downregulated in CRC tissues as compared with the adjacent non-tumorous tissues. The expression of SCGN in HT29 and SW480 cells were lower than those in HT116 and SW620 cells. We transfected SW480 cells with SCGN overexpression plasmid eGFP-SCGN and found the increased cell apoptosis, with cell arresting at G0/G1 phase. SW480 cells with SCGN overexpression showed wider wound width and fewer invaded cells than control and blank cells, with upregulated Bax, cleaved Caspase 3 and E-cadherin, and downregulated Bcl-2 and Vimentin. We also transfected SW480 cells with si-SCGN-773 and found si-SCGN increased cell migration and invasion, but did not affect cell apoptosis and expression of related proteins. We concluded that the overexpression of SCGN in SW480 cells promoted cell apoptosis and inhibited cell migration and invasion. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Overexpression of Mps1 in colon cancer cells attenuates the spindle assembly checkpoint and increases aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Ling, Youguo; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Bai, Yuanyuan; Li, Ping; Wei, Congwen; Song, Ting; Zheng, Zirui; Guan, Kai; Zhang, Yanhong; Zhang, Buchang; Liu, Xuedong; Ma, Runlin Z; Cao, Cheng; Zhong, Hui; Xu, Quanbin

    2014-08-08

    The spindle assembly checkpoint kinase Mps1 is highly expressed in several types of cancers, but its cellular involvement in tumorigenesis is less defined. Herein, we confirm that Mps1 is overexpressed in colon cancer tissues. Further, we find that forced expression of Mps1 in the colon cancer cell line SW480 enables cells to become resistant to both Mps1 inhibition-induced checkpoint depletion and cell death. Overexpression of Mps1 also increases genome instability in tumor cells owing to a weakened spindle assembly checkpoint. Collectively, our findings suggest that high levels of Mps1 contribute to tumorigenesis by attenuating the spindle assembly checkpoint. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Overexpression of Transcription Factor Sp1 Leads to Gene Expression Perturbations and Cell Cycle Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Deniaud, Emmanuelle; Baguet, Joël; Chalard, Roxane; Blanquier, Bariza; Brinza, Lilia; Meunier, Julien; Michallet, Marie-Cécile; Laugraud, Aurélie; Ah-Soon, Claudette; Wierinckx, Anne; Castellazzi, Marc; Lachuer, Joël; Gautier, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Background The ubiquitous transcription factor Sp1 regulates the expression of a vast number of genes involved in many cellular functions ranging from differentiation to proliferation and apoptosis. Sp1 expression levels show a dramatic increase during transformation and this could play a critical role for tumour development or maintenance. Although Sp1 deregulation might be beneficial for tumour cells, its overexpression induces apoptosis of untransformed cells. Here we further characterised the functional and transcriptional responses of untransformed cells following Sp1 overexpression. Methodology and Principal Findings We made use of wild-type and DNA-binding-deficient Sp1 to demonstrate that the induction of apoptosis by Sp1 is dependent on its capacity to bind DNA. Genome-wide expression profiling identified genes involved in cancer, cell death and cell cycle as being enriched among differentially expressed genes following Sp1 overexpression. In silico search to determine the presence of Sp1 binding sites in the promoter region of modulated genes was conducted. Genes that contained Sp1 binding sites in their promoters were enriched among down-regulated genes. The endogenous sp1 gene is one of the most down-regulated suggesting a negative feedback loop induced by overexpressed Sp1. In contrast, genes containing Sp1 binding sites in their promoters were not enriched among up-regulated genes. These results suggest that the transcriptional response involves both direct Sp1-driven transcription and indirect mechanisms. Finally, we show that Sp1 overexpression led to a modified expression of G1/S transition regulatory genes such as the down-regulation of cyclin D2 and the up-regulation of cyclin G2 and cdkn2c/p18 expression. The biological significance of these modifications was confirmed by showing that the cells accumulated in the G1 phase of the cell cycle before the onset of apoptosis. Conclusion This study shows that the binding to DNA of overexpressed Sp1

  6. Glucose Limitation Alters Glutamine Metabolism in MUC1-Overexpressing Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Gebregiworgis, Teklab; Purohit, Vinee; Shukla, Surendra K; Tadros, Saber; Chaika, Nina V; Abrego, Jaime; Mulder, Scott E; Gunda, Venugopal; Singh, Pankaj K; Powers, Robert

    2017-10-06

    Pancreatic cancer cells overexpressing Mucin 1 (MUC1) rely on aerobic glycolysis and, correspondingly, are dependent on glucose for survival. Our NMR metabolomics comparative analysis of control (S2-013.Neo) and MUC1-overexpressing (S2-013.MUC1) cells demonstrates that MUC1 reprograms glutamine metabolism upon glucose limitation. The observed alteration in glutamine metabolism under glucose limitation was accompanied by a relative decrease in the proliferation of MUC1-overexpressing cells compared with steady-state conditions. Moreover, glucose limitation induces G1 phase arrest where S2-013.MUC1 cells fail to enter S phase and synthesize DNA because of a significant disruption in pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. Our metabolomics analysis indicates that glutamine is the major source of oxaloacetate in S2-013.Neo and S2-013.MUC1 cells, where oxaloacetate is converted to aspartate, an important metabolite for pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. However, glucose limitation impedes the flow of glutamine carbons into the pyrimidine nucleotide rings and instead leads to a significant accumulation of glutamine-derived aspartate in S2-013.MUC1 cells.

  7. Bcl-2 inhibitors potentiate the cytotoxic effects of radiation in Bcl-2 overexpressing radioresistant tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, Takamitsu; Omura-Minamisawa, Motoko; Chao Cheng

    Purpose: Bcl-2, an inhibitor of apoptosis frequently shows elevated expression in human tumors, thus resulting in resistance to radiation therapy. Therefore, inhibiting Bcl-2 function may enhance the radiosensitivity of tumor cells. Tetrocarcin A (TC-A) and bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotides exhibit antitumor activity by inhibiting Bcl-2 function and transcription, respectively. We investigated whether these antitumor agents would enhance the cytotoxic effects of radiation in tumor cells overexpressing Bcl-2. Methods and materials: We used HeLa/bcl-2 cells, a stable Bcl-2-expressing cell line derived from wild-type HeLa (HeLa/wt) cells. Cells were incubated with TC-A and bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotides for 24 h after irradiation, and cellmore » viability was then determined. Apoptotic cells were quantified by flow cytometric assay. Results: The HeLa/bcl-2 cells were more resistant to radiation than HeLa/wt cells. At concentrations that are not inherently cytotoxic, both TC-A and bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotides increased the cytotoxic effects of radiation in HeLa/bcl-2 cells, but not in HeLa/wt cells. However, in HeLa/bcl-2 cells, additional treatment with TC-A in combination with radiation did not significantly increase apoptosis. Conclusions: The present results suggest that TC-A and bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotides reduce radioresistance of tumor cells overexpressing Bcl-2. Therefore, a combination of radiotherapy and Bcl-2 inhibitors may prove to be a useful therapeutic approach for treating tumors that overexpress Bcl-2.« less

  8. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma overexpression suppresses proliferation of human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukahara, Tamotsu, E-mail: ttamotsu@shinshu-u.ac.jp; Haniu, Hisao

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined the correlation between PPAR{gamma} expression and cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPAR{gamma} overexpression reduces cell viability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show the synergistic effect of cell growth inhibition by a PPAR{gamma} agonist. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) plays an important role in the differentiation of intestinal cells and tissues. Our previous reports indicate that PPAR{gamma} is expressed at considerable levels in human colon cancer cells. This suggests that PPAR{gamma} expression may be an important factor for cell growth regulation in colon cancer. In this study, we investigated PPAR{gamma} expression in 4 human colon cancer cell lines, HT-29, LOVO,more » DLD-1, and Caco-2. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analysis revealed that the relative levels of PPAR{gamma} mRNA and protein in these cells were in the order HT-29 > LOVO > Caco-2 > DLD-1. We also found that PPAR{gamma} overexpression promoted cell growth inhibition in PPAR{gamma} lower-expressing cell lines (Caco-2 and DLD-1), but not in higher-expressing cells (HT-29 and LOVO). We observed a correlation between the level of PPAR{gamma} expression and the cells' sensitivity for proliferation.« less

  9. Overexpression of nucleolin in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells induces stabilization of bcl2 mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Otake, Yoko; Soundararajan, Sridharan; Sengupta, Tapas K.; Kio, Ebenezer A.; Smith, James C.; Pineda-Roman, Mauricio; Stuart, Robert K.; Spicer, Eleanor K.

    2007-01-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by the accumulation of clonal B cells that are resistant to apoptosis as a result of bcl2 oncogene overexpression. Studies were done to determine the mechanism for the up-regulation of bcl-2 protein observed in CD19+ CLL cells compared with CD19+ B cells from healthy volunteers. The 11-fold higher level of bcl-2 protein in CLL cells was positively correlated with a 26-fold elevation in the cytosolic level of nucleolin, a bcl2 mRNA–stabilizing protein. Measurements of the bcl2 heterogeneous nuclear/bcl2 mRNA (hnRNA)/mRNA ratios and the rates of bcl2 mRNA decay in cell extracts indicated that the 3-fold higher steady-state level of bcl2 mRNA in CLL cells was the result of increased bcl2 mRNA stability. Nucleolin was present throughout the nucleus and cytoplasm of CLL cells, whereas in normal B cells nucleolin was only detected in the nucleus. The addition of recombinant human nucleolin to extracts of normal B cells markedly slowed the rate of bcl2 mRNA decay. SiRNA knockdown of nucleolin in MCF-7 cells resulted in decreased levels of bcl2 mRNA and protein but no change in β-actin. These results indicate that bcl-2 overexpression in CLL cells is related to stabilization of bcl2 mRNA by nucleolin. PMID:17179226

  10. [Overexpression of liver kinase B1 inhibits the proliferation of lung cancer cells].

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Libin; Wang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of overexpressed liver kinase B1(LKB1) on the proliferation of lung cancer cell lines. Methods The expression levels of LKB1 and PTEN in A549, NCI-H23, NCI-H157, XWLC-05, NCI-H446 lung cancer cells were detected by immunocytochemistry (ICC) and Western blotting. Plasmid pcDNA3.1 + -LKB1 and empty vector pcDNA3.1 + -null were separately transfected into the above five cell lines, and then the expression of LKB1 mRNA and protein were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Finally, CCK-8 assay was used to analyze the proliferation ability of the transfected cells. Results LKB1 and PTEN were positive in NCI-H23 cells; LKB1 was negative while PTEN was positive in A549 and NCI-H446 cells; both LKB1 and PTEN were negative in NCI-H157 and XWLC-05 cells. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting showed that the expression level of LKB1 significantly increased in the above cell lines transfected with plasmid pcDNA3.1 + -LKB1 compared with the ones with empty vector pcDNA3.1 + -null. Besides, CCK-8 assay showed that the overexpression of LKB1 in the lung cancer cells transfected with pcDNA3.1 + -LKB1 had an obvious inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. Conclusion The expression of LKB1 is down-regulated in most of the lung cell lines to different extent and the over-expression of LKB1 can remarkably inhibit the proliferation ability of lung cancer cell lines.

  11. IL-10-overexpressing B cells regulate innate and adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Stanic, Barbara; van de Veen, Willem; Wirz, Oliver F; Rückert, Beate; Morita, Hideaki; Söllner, Stefan; Akdis, Cezmi A; Akdis, Mübeccel

    2015-03-01

    Distinct human IL-10-producing B-cell subsets with immunoregulatory properties have been described. However, the broader spectrum of their direct cellular targets and suppressive mechanisms has not been extensively studied, particularly in relation to direct and indirect IL-10-mediated functions. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of IL-10 overexpression on the phenotype and immunoregulatory capacity of B cells. Primary human B cells were transfected with hIL-10, and IL-10-overexpressing B cells were characterized for cytokine and immunoglobulin production by means of specific ELISA and bead-based assays. Antigen presentation, costimulation capacity, and transcription factor signatures were analyzed by means of flow cytometry and quantitative RT-PCR. Effects of IL-10-overexpresing B cells on Toll-like receptor-triggered cytokine release from PBMCs, LPS-triggered maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells, and tetanus toxoid-induced PBMC proliferation were assessed in autologous cocultures. IL-10-overexpressing B cells acquired a prominent immunoregulatory profile comprising upregulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP), the IL-2 receptor α chain (CD25), and programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1). Concurrently, their secretion profile was characterized by a significant reduction in levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-8, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α) and augmented production of anti-inflammatory IL-1 receptor antagonist and vascular endothelial growth factor. Furthermore, IL-10 overexpression was associated with a decrease in costimulatory potential. IL-10-overexpressing B cells secreted less IgE and potently suppressed proinflammatory cytokines in PBMCs, maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (rendering their profile to regulatory phenotype), and antigen-specific proliferation in vitro. Our data demonstrate an essential role for IL-10 in inducing an

  12. Cyclopamine and jervine induce COX-2 overexpression in human erythroleukemia cells but only cyclopamine has a pro-apoptotic effect

    SciTech Connect

    Ghezali, Lamia; Leger, David Yannick; Limami, Youness

    2013-04-15

    Erythroleukemia is generally associated with a very poor response and survival to current available therapeutic agents. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been described to play a crucial role in the proliferation and differentiation of leukemia cells, this enzyme seems to play an important role in chemoresistance in different cancer types. Previously, we demonstrated that diosgenin, a plant steroid, induced apoptosis in HEL cells with concomitant COX-2 overexpression. In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of cyclopamine and jervine, two steroidal alkaloids with similar structures, on HEL and TF1a human erythroleukemia cell lines and, for the first time, their effectmore » on COX-2 expression. Cyclopamine, but not jervine, inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in these cells. Both compounds induced COX-2 overexpression which was responsible for apoptosis resistance. In jervine-treated cells, COX-2 overexpression was NF-κB dependent. Inhibition of NF-κB reduced COX-2 overexpression and induced apoptosis. In addition, cyclopamine induced apoptosis and COX-2 overexpression via PKC activation. Inhibition of the PKC pathway reduced both apoptosis and COX-2 overexpression in both cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the p38/COX-2 pathway was involved in resistance to cyclopamine-induced apoptosis since p38 inhibition reduced COX-2 overexpression and increased apoptosis in both cell lines. - Highlights: ► Cyclopamine alone but not jervine induces apoptosis in human erythroleukemia cells. ► Cyclopamine and jervine induce COX-2 overexpression. ► COX-2 overexpression is implicated in resistance to cyclopamine-induced apoptosis. ► Apoptotic potential of jervine is restrained by NF-κB pathway activation. ► PKC is involved in cyclopamine-induced apoptosis and COX-2 overexpression.« less

  13. CENPI is overexpressed in colorectal cancer and regulates cell migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Ding, Na; Li, Rongxin; Shi, Wenhao; He, Cui

    2018-06-21

    Centromere protein I (CENPI),an important member of centromere protein family, has been suggest to serve as a oncogene in breast cancer, but the clinical significance and biological function of CENPI in colorectal cancer (CRC) is still unclear. In our results, we found CENPI was overexpressed in CRC tissues and cells, and associated with clinical stage, tumor depth, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and differentiation in CRC patients. However, there was no significant association between CENPI protein expression and overall survival time in colon cancer patients and rectal cancer patients through analyzing TCGA survival data. Moreover, CENPI mRNA and protein were increased in metastatic lymph nodes compared with primary CRC tissues. Down-regulation of CENPI expression suppresses CRC cell migration, invasion and epithelial mesenchymal transition process. In conclusion, CENPI is overexpressed in CRC and functions as oncogene in modulating CRC cell migration, invasion and EMT process. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing IL10 attenuates cardiac impairments in rats with myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xin; Li, Jianping; Yu, Ming; Yang, Jian; Zheng, Minjuan; Zhang, Jinzhou; Sun, Chao; Liang, Hongliang; Liu, Liwen

    2018-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) has been well known to exert therapeutic potential for patients with myocardial infarction (MI). In addition, interleukin-10 (IL10) could attenuate MI through suppressing inflammation. Thus, the combination of MSC implantation with IL10 delivery may extend health benefits to ameliorate cardiac injury after MI. Here we established overexpression of IL10 in bone marrow-derived MSC through adenoviral transduction. Cell viability, apoptosis, and IL10 secretion under ischemic challenge in vitro were examined. In addition, MSC was transplanted into the injured hearts in a rat model of MI. Four weeks after the MI induction, MI, cardiac functions, apoptotic cells, and inflammation cytokines were assessed. In response to in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), IL10 overexpression in MSC (Ad.IL10-MSC) enhanced cell viability, decreased apoptosis, and increased IL10 secretion. Consistently, the implantation of Ad.IL10-MSCs into MI animals resulted in more reductions in myocardial infarct size, cardiac impairment, and cell apoptosis, compared to the individual treatments of either MSC or IL10 administration. Moreover, the attenuation of both systemic and local inflammations was most prominent for Ad.IL10-MSC treatment. IL10 overexpression and MSC may exert a synergistic anti-inflammatory effect to alleviate cardiac injury after MI. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. KAI1 overexpression promotes apoptosis and inhibits proliferation, cell cycle, migration, and invasion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zheng; Wang, Yili; Yang, Jing; Zhong, Jinghua; Liu, Xia; Xu, Mingjun

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the effect of KAI1 overexpression on the biological behavior of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a highly malignant tumor with a high rate of incidence in China. Currently, there are no ideal therapeutic options for patients with NPC, but a targeted therapy would have great potential for treating it. Therefore, there is an urgent need for novel therapeutic targets to provide new options for treating NPC. The KAI1 gene was originally identified as a metastasis suppressor gene for advanced human cancer. In NPC cell lines and tissues, the expression of KAI1 decreased as the metastatic potential of cells increased, but its potential as a therapeutic target has not been elucidated. Non-transformed nasopharyngeal epithelium cell NP69 and NPC cell line C666-1 were cultured and KAI1 expression in these cells was detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot. After the transfection of KAI1-pCDNA3.1 to NP69 and C666-1, the KAI1 expression in these cells was detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot, the proliferation was performed by MTS, the cell cycle and apoptosis were performed by flow cytometry, the migration and invasion were examined by transwell. Our results showed that KAI1 was significantly upregulated in C666-1 cells compared to that in NP69 cells. In addition, KAI1 overexpression significantly inhibited the proliferation, cell cycle, migration, and invasion, and promoted apoptosis of C666-1 cells, but had no significant effect on NP69 cells. Our findings suggest that KAI1 overexpression promotes apoptosis and inhibits proliferation, cell cycle, migration, and invasion in NPC cells. We hypothesize that KAI1 overexpression could be a potential therapeutic target for NPC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prostate stem cell antigen is overexpressed in human transitional cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Amara, N; Palapattu, G S; Schrage, M; Gu, Z; Thomas, G V; Dorey, F; Said, J; Reiter, R E

    2001-06-15

    , showing a dramatic increase in PSCA mRNA expression in two of five muscle-invasive transitional cell tumors when compared with normal samples. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that PSCA expression in TCC is confined to the cell surface. These data demonstrate that PSCA is overexpressed in a majority of human TCCs, particularly CIS and superficial tumors, and may be a useful target for bladder cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  17. Overexpressed PTOV1 associates with tumorigenesis and progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong; Leng, Ai-Min; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Hu, Ting-Zi; Zhang, Lin-Fang; Li, Ming; Jiang, Xiao-Xia; Zhou, Yan-Wu; Xu, Can-Xia

    2017-06-01

    PTOV1 has been demonstrated to play an extensive role in many types of cancers. This study takes the first step to clarify the potential relationship between esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and PTOV1 expression and highlight the link between PTOV1 and the tumorigenesis, progression, and prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. PTOV1 expression was detected by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting or immunohistochemical staining in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma tissues, and its paired adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Moreover, we have analyzed the relationship between PTOV1 expression and clinicopathological features of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Survival analysis and Cox regression analysis were used to assess its prognostic significance. We found that PTOV1 expression was significantly higher in the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and tissues at messenger RNA level (p < 0.001) and protein level (p < 0.001). Gender, tumor size, or differentiation was tightly associated with the PTOV1 expression. Lymph node involvement (p < 0.001) and TNM stage (p < 0.001) promoted a high PTOV1 expression. A prognostic significance of PTOV1 was also found by Log-rank method, and the overexpression of PTOV1 was related to a shorter OS and DFS. Multiple Cox regression analysis indicated overexpressed PTOV1 as an independent indicator for adverse prognosis. In conclusion, this study takes the lead to demonstrate that the overexpressed PTOV1 plays a vital role in the tumorigenesis and progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and it is potentially a valuable prognostic predicator and new chemotherapeutic target for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

  18. cFLIP overexpression in T cells in thymoma-associated myasthenia gravis

    PubMed Central

    Belharazem, Djeda; Schalke, Berthold; Gold, Ralf; Nix, Wilfred; Vitacolonna, Mario; Hohenberger, Peter; Roessner, Eric; Schulze, Torsten J; Saruhan-Direskeneli, Güher; Yilmaz, Vuslat; Ott, German; Ströbel, Philipp; Marx, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Objective The capacity of thymomas to generate mature CD4+ effector T cells from immature precursors inside the tumor and export them to the blood is associated with thymoma-associated myasthenia gravis (TAMG). Why TAMG(+) thymomas generate and export more mature CD4+ T cells than MG(−) thymomas is unknown. Methods Unfixed thymoma tissue, thymocytes derived thereof, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), T-cell subsets and B cells were analysed using qRT-PCR and western blotting. Survival of PBMCs was measured by MTT assay. FAS-mediated apoptosis in PBMCs was quantified by flow cytometry. NF-κB in PBMCs was inhibited by the NF-κB-Inhibitor, EF24 prior to FAS-Ligand (FASLG) treatment for apoptosis induction. Results Expression levels of the apoptosis inhibitor cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) in blood T cells and intratumorous thymocytes were higher in TAMG(+) than in MG(−) thymomas and non-neoplastic thymic remnants. Thymocytes and PBMCs of TAMG patients showed nuclear NF-κB accumulation and apoptosis resistance to FASLG stimulation that was sensitive to NF-κB blockade. Thymoma removal reduced cFLIP expression in PBMCs. Interpretation We conclude that thymomas induce cFLIP overexpression in thymocytes and their progeny, blood T cells. We suggest that the stronger cFLIP overexpression in TAMG(+) compared to MG(−) thymomas allows for the more efficient generation of mature CD4+ T cells in TAMG(+) thymomas. cFLIP overexpression in thymocytes and exported CD4+ T cells of patients with TAMG might contribute to the pathogenesis of TAMG by impairing central and peripheral T-cell tolerance. PMID:26401511

  19. Overexpression of SASH1 Inhibits the Proliferation, Invasion, and EMT in Hepatocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    He, Ping; Zhang, Hong-Xia; Sun, Chang-Yu; Chen, Chun-Yong; Jiang, He-Qing

    2016-01-01

    The SASH1 (SAM- and SH3-domain containing 1) gene, a member of the SLY (SH3 domain containing expressed in lymphocytes) family of signal adapter proteins, has been implicated in tumorigenesis of many types of cancers. However, the role and mechanism of SASH1 in the invasion and metastasis of hepatocarcinoma are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role and mechanism of SASH1 in the invasion and metastasis of hepatocarcinoma. Our results showed that SASH1 was lowly expressed in hepatocarcinoma cell lines. The in vitro experiments showed that overexpression of SASH1 inhibited the proliferation and migration/invasion of hepatocarcinoma cells, as well as the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) progress. Furthermore, overexpression of SASH1 suppressed the expression of Shh as well as Smo, Ptc, and Gli-1 in hepatocarcinoma cells. Taken together, these results suggest that overexpression of SASH1 inhibited the proliferation and invasion of hepatocarcinoma cells through the inactivation of Shh signaling pathway. Therefore, these findings reveal that SASH1 may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of hepatocarcinoma.

  20. Overexpression of Rac1 in leukemia patients and its role in leukemia cell migration and growth

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jiying; Rao, Qing, E-mail: raoqing@gmail.com; Wang, Min

    2009-09-04

    Rac1 belongs to the Rho family that act as critical mediators of signaling pathways controlling cell migration and proliferation and contributes to the interactions of hematopoietic stem cells with their microenvironment. Alteration of Rac1 might result in unbalanced interactions and ultimately lead to leukemogenesis. In this study, we analyze the expression of Rac1 protein in leukemia patients and determine its role in the abnormal behaviours of leukemic cells. Rac1 protein is overexpressed in primary acute myeloid leukemia cells as compared to normal bone marrow mononuclear cells. siRNA-mediated silencing of Rac1 in leukemia cell lines induced inhibition of cell migration, proliferation,more » and colony formation. Additionally, blocking Rac1 activity by an inhibitor of Rac1-GTPase, NSC23766, suppressed cell migration and growth. We conclude that overexpression of Rac1 contributes to the accelerated migration and high proliferation potential of leukemia cells, which could be implicated in leukemia development and progression.« less

  1. Monitoring in real time the effect of TLX overexpression on proliferation and migration of C6 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, G L; Fang, S H; Xu, B

    2017-01-01

    Orphan nuclear receptor TLX has been shown to play an essential role in regulating the self-renewal and proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs). However, TLX overexpression in NSCs induces long-term NSC expansion and further leads to glioma initiation in mouse when combined with p53 mutations. Whether overexpression of TLX plays a role in glioma stem cell (GSC) proliferation and migration still remains largely unknown. In this study, we infected C6 cells, a special glioma cell line which is mainly composed of cancer stem cells(CSCs), with lentiviruses expressing GFP(LV-GFP) or GFP-T2A-TLX(LV-TLX) and then monitored cell proliferation and migration using the real-time analyzer system (RTCA, xCELLigence, Roche). We found that the cell index (CI) observed for the TLX overexpressing C6 cells showed a lower value than that of the LV-GFP transduced cells. And the MTT results correlated highly with the RTCA proliferation assessments. Furthermore, the expression of p21 was decreased while other downstream genes PTEN and p53 were not significantly changed in TLX overexpressing C6 cells . These findings strongly indicate that TLX overexpression has the ability to decrease the proliferating and migratory properties of C6 cells by targeting p21. Further, our results suggest that TLX overexpression may also have a similar inhibitory effect on GSC proliferation and migration.

  2. Overexpression of Peroxiredoxin 6 Protects Neoplastic Cells against Apoptosis in Canine Haemangiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Sh; Yanai, T; Sakai, H

    2016-07-01

    Canine haemangiosarcoma (HSA), like human angiosarcoma, is an uncommon malignant vascular endothelial cell tumour associated with a poor prognosis. The peroxiredoxin (PRDX) family of peroxidases, which comprises six members in mammals (PRDX1-6), might contribute to cancer cell survival in the face of oxidative stress as these proteins exhibit frequent upregulation in cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the expression levels of PRDX6 in spontaneously arising primary canine HSAs by immunohistochemical analysis, identifying marked expression of this protein. Both PRDX6 mRNA and protein were overexpressed in HSA cell lines compared with normal canine endothelial cells, although some variation was observed between the different HSA cell lines. Small interfering RNA-induced downregulation of PRDX6 promoted apoptosis in the HSA cell lines. The observation that PRDX6 suppression increased the cytotoxicity of these cells suggests that PRDX6 might play an important cytoprotective role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Over-expression of angiotensin II type 2 receptor gene induces cell death in lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pickel, Lara; Matsuzuka, Takaya; Doi, Chiyo; Ayuzawa, Rie; Maurya, Dharmendra Kumar; Xie, Sheng-Xue; Berkland, Cory; Tamura, Masaaki

    2010-02-01

    The endogenous angiotensin II (Ang II) type 2 receptor (AT 2) has been shown to mediate apoptosis in cardiovascular tissues. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the anti-cancer effect of AT 2 over-expression on lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro using adenoviral (Ad), FuGENE, and nanoparticle vectors. All three gene transfection methods efficiently transfected AT 2 cDNA into lung cancer cells but caused minimal gene transfection in normal lung epithelial cells. Ad-AT 2 significantly attenuated multiple human lung cancer cell growth (A549 and H358) as compared to the control viral vector, Ad-LacZ, when cell viability was examined by direct cell count. Examination of annexin V by flow cytometry revealed the activation of the apoptotic pathway via AT 2 over-expression. Western Blot analysis confirmed the activation of caspase-3. Similarly, poly (lactide-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) biodegradable nanoparticles encapsulated AT 2 plasmid DNA were shown to be effectively taken up into the lung cancer cell. Nanoparticle-based AT 2 gene transfection markedly increased AT 2 expression and resultant cell death in A549 cells. These results indicate that AT 2 over-expression effectively attenuates growth of lung adenocarcinoma cells through intrinsic apoptosis. Our results also suggest that PLGA nanoparticles can be used as an efficient gene delivery vector for lung adenocarcinoma targeted therapy.

  4. Radiosensitivity in HeLa cervical cancer cells overexpressing glutathione S-transferase π 1

    PubMed Central

    YANG, LIANG; LIU, REN; MA, HONG-BIN; YING, MING-ZHEN; WANG, YA-JIE

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of overexpressed exogenous glutathione S-transferase π 1 (GSTP1) gene on the radiosensitivity of the HeLa human cervical cancer cell line and conduct a preliminarily investigation into the underlying mechanisms of the effect. The full-length sequence of human GSTP1 was obtained by performing a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers based on the GenBank sequence of GSTP1. Subsequently, the gene was cloned into a recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmid, and the resulting construct was confirmed by restriction analysis and DNA sequencing. A HeLa cell line that was stably expressing high levels of GSTP1 was obtained through stable transfection of the constructed plasmids using lipofectamine and screening for G418 resistance, as demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR. Using the transfected HeLa cells, a colony formation assay was conducted to detect the influence of GSTP1 overexpression on the cell radiosensitivity. Furthermore, flow cytometry was used to investigate the effect of GSTP1 overexpression on cell cycle progression, with the protein expression levels of the cell cycle regulating factor cyclin B1 detected using western blot analysis. Colony formation and G2/M phase arrest in the GSTP1-expressing cells were significantly increased compared with the control group (P<0.01). In addition, the expression of cyclin B1 was significantly reduced in the GSTP1-expressing cells. These results demonstrated that increased expression of GSTP1 inhibits radiosensitivity in HeLa cells. The mechanism underlying this effect may be associated with the ability of the GSTP1 protein to reduce cyclin B1 expression, resulting in significant G2/M phase arrest. PMID:26622693

  5. Radiosensitivity in HeLa cervical cancer cells overexpressing glutathione S-transferase π 1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liang; Liu, Ren; Ma, Hong-Bin; Ying, Ming-Zhen; Wang, Ya-Jie

    2015-09-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of overexpressed exogenous glutathione S-transferase π 1 ( GSTP1 ) gene on the radiosensitivity of the HeLa human cervical cancer cell line and conduct a preliminarily investigation into the underlying mechanisms of the effect. The full-length sequence of human GSTP1 was obtained by performing a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers based on the GenBank sequence of GSTP1. Subsequently, the gene was cloned into a recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmid, and the resulting construct was confirmed by restriction analysis and DNA sequencing. A HeLa cell line that was stably expressing high levels of GSTP1 was obtained through stable transfection of the constructed plasmids using lipofectamine and screening for G418 resistance, as demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR. Using the transfected HeLa cells, a colony formation assay was conducted to detect the influence of GSTP1 overexpression on the cell radiosensitivity. Furthermore, flow cytometry was used to investigate the effect of GSTP1 overexpression on cell cycle progression, with the protein expression levels of the cell cycle regulating factor cyclin B1 detected using western blot analysis. Colony formation and G 2 /M phase arrest in the GSTP1 -expressing cells were significantly increased compared with the control group (P<0.01). In addition, the expression of cyclin B1 was significantly reduced in the GSTP1 -expressing cells. These results demonstrated that increased expression of GSTP1 inhibits radiosensitivity in HeLa cells. The mechanism underlying this effect may be associated with the ability of the GSTP1 protein to reduce cyclin B1 expression, resulting in significant G 2 /M phase arrest.

  6. Hyaluronic acid modified mesoporous carbon nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to CD44-overexpressing cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Long; Jiao, Jian; Cui, Yu; Guo, Jingwen; Han, Ning; Di, Donghua; Chang, Di; Wang, Pu; Jiang, Tongying; Wang, Siling

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, hyaluronic acid (HA) functionalized uniform mesoporous carbon spheres (UMCS) were synthesized for targeted enzyme responsive drug delivery using a facile electrostatic attraction strategy. This HA modification ensured stable drug encapsulation in mesoporous carbon nanoparticles in an extracellular environment while increasing colloidal stability, biocompatibility, cell-targeting ability, and controlled cargo release. The cellular uptake experiments of fluorescently labeled mesoporous carbon nanoparticles, with or without HA functionalization, demonstrated that HA-UMCS are able to specifically target cancer cells overexpressing CD44 receptors. Moreover, the cargo loaded doxorubicin (DOX) and verapamil (VER) exhibited a dual pH and hyaluronidase-1 responsive release in the tumor microenvironment. In addition, VER/DOX/HA-UMCS exhibited a superior therapeutic effect on an in vivo HCT-116 tumor in BALB/c nude mice. In summary, it is expected that HA-UMCS will offer a new method for targeted co-delivery of drugs to tumors overexpressing CD44 receptors.

  7. Effects of CD44 and E-cadherin overexpression on the proliferation, adhesion and invasion of ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mao, Meiya; Zheng, Xiaojiao; Jin, Bohong; Zhang, Fubin; Zhu, Linyan; Cui, Lining

    2017-12-01

    CD44 is a prognostic indicator of shorter survival time in ovarian cancer. E-cadherin fragmentation promotes the progression of ovarian cancer. However, the effects of CD44 and E-cadherin overexpression on ovarian cancer cells have remained elusive. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of overexpression of CD44 and E-cadherin on cell proliferation, adhesion and invasion of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells. Overexpression of CD44 and E-cadherin was achieved by transfecting SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells with viruses carrying the CD44 or E-cadherin gene, respectively. Expression of CD44 and E-cadherin was detected by western blot analysis. The proliferation of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells was measured by a Cell Counting Kit-8 at 0, 24 and 48 h after viral transfection. The adhesion ability of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells to the endothelial layer was detected. A Transwell invasion assay was utilized to assess the invasion ability of the cells. Overexpression of CD44 and E-cadherin in SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells was confirmed by western blot. Compared with the blank or negative control groups, the CD44 overexpression groups of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells exhibited an increased cell proliferation rate at 24 and 48 h, whereas overexpression of E-cadherin did not alter the proliferation of these cells. Furthermore, compared with the blank and negative control groups, the cell adhesion and invasion ability in the CD44 overexpression groups of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells was markedly higher. There were no significant differences in adhesion ability between the E-cadherin overexpression group and the blank/negative control group. Of note, overexpression of E-cadherin decreased the invasive ability of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells. In conclusion, Overexpression of CD44 increased the proliferation, adhesion and invasion of ovarian cancer cells, while overexpression of E-cadherin decreased the invasion of ovarian cancer cells.

  8. Generation and characteristics of human Sertoli cell line immortalized by overexpression of human telomerase

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Liping; Yuan, Qingqing; Sun, Min; Niu, Minghui; Wang, Hong; Fu, Hongyong; Zhou, Fan; Yao, Chencheng; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Zheng; He, Zuping

    2017-01-01

    Sertoli cells are required for normal spermatogenesis and they can be reprogrammed to other types of functional cells. However, the number of primary Sertoli cells is rare and human Sertoli cell line is unavailable. In this study, we have for the first time reported a stable human Sertoli cell line, namely hS1 cells, by overexpression of human telomerase. The hS1 cells expressed a number of hallmarks for human Sertoli cells, including SOX9, WT1, GDNF, SCF, BMP4, BMP6, GATA4, and VIM, and they were negative for 3β-HSD, SMA, and VASA. Higher levels of AR and FSHR were observed in hS1 cells compared to primary human Sertoli cells. Microarray analysis showed that 70.4% of global gene profiles of hS1 cells were similar to primary human Sertoli cells. Proliferation assay demonstrated that hS1 cells proliferated rapidly and they could be passaged for more than 30 times in 6 months. Neither Y chromosome microdeletion nor tumorgenesis was detected in this cell line and 90% normal karyotypes existed in hS1 cells. Collectively, we have established the first human Sertoli cell line with phenotype of primary human Sertoli cells, an unlimited proliferation potential and high safety, which could offer sufficient human Sertoli cells for basic research as well as reproductive and regenerative medicine. PMID:28152522

  9. Immunoliposomal delivery of doxorubicin can overcome multidrug resistance mechanisms in EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Mamot, Christoph; Ritschard, Reto; Wicki, Andreas; Küng, Willy; Schuller, Jan; Herrmann, Richard; Rochlitz, Christoph

    2012-06-01

    Immunoliposomes (ILs) can be constructed to target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to provide efficient intracellular drug delivery in tumor cells. We hypothesized that this approach might be able to overcome drug resistance mechanisms, which remain an important obstacle to better outcomes in cancer therapy. ILs were evaluated in vitro and in vivo against EGFR-overexpressing pairs of human cancer cells (HT-29 and MDA-MB-231) that either lack or feature the multidrug resistance (mdr) phenotype. In multidrug-resistant cell lines, ILs loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) produced 19-216-fold greater cytotoxicity than free DOX, whereas in nonresistant cells, immunoliposomal cytotoxicity of DOX was comparable with that of the free drug. In intracellular distribution studies, free DOX was efficiently pumped out of the multidrug-resistant tumor cells, whereas immunoliposomal DOX leads to 3.5-8 times higher accumulation of DOX in the cytoplasm and 3.5-4.9 times in the nuclei compared with the free drug. Finally, in vivo studies in the MDA-MB-231 Vb100 xenograft model confirmed the ability of anti-EGFR ILs-DOX to efficiently target multidrug-resistant cells and showed impressive antitumor effects, clearly superior to all other treatments. In conclusion, ILs provide efficient and targeted drug delivery to EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells and are capable of completely reversing the multidrug-resistant phenotype of human cancer cells.

  10. Overexpression of FOXO4 induces apoptosis of clear-cell renal carcinoma cells through downregulation of Bim.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Pang-Hu; Hu, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Forkhead box O4 (FOXO4) has been reported to be a novel tumor suppressor gene in gastrointestinal cancers; however, its role in clear‑cell renal carcinoma cells (ccRCC) has remained largely elusive. The present study assessed the expression levels of FOXO4 in RCC tissues and cells. Furthermore, the effects of vector‑mediated overexpression of FOXO4 on the apoptotic rate of the 786‑0 and Caki‑1 cell lines and the role of Bim in this process were investigated. The results demonstrated that the protein and mRNA expression levels of FOXO4 were decreased in renal cancer tissues and cell lines compared with those in normal tissues and cell lines. FOXO4 overexpression significantly increased the apoptotic rate of ccRCC cells in vitro, along with increased protein expression levels of Bim, cleaved‑caspase 3, B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2)‑associated X protein (Bax) and cytochrome c, as well as a decrease in Bcl‑2 expression. Of note, the apoptotic effects of FOXO4 overexpression in 786‑0 cells were inhibited by small interfering RNA‑mediated knockdown of Bim. The results of the present study indicated that FOXO4 has an inhibitory effect in ccRCC, at least in part through inducing apoptosis via upregulation of Bim in the mitochondria-dependent pathway.

  11. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Overexpression Restores the Efficiency of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell-Based Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mees, Barend; Récalde, Alice; Loinard, Céline; Tempel, Dennie; Godinho, Marcia; Vilar, José; van Haperen, Rien; Lévy, Bernard; de Crom, Rini; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) enhance postischemic neovascularization, and their therapeutic use is currently under clinical investigation. However, cardiovascular risk factors, including diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia, lead to the abrogation of BMMNCs proangiogenic potential. NO has been shown to be critical for the proangiogenic function of BMMNCs, and increased endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity promotes vessel growth in ischemic conditions. We therefore hypothesized that eNOS overexpression could restore both the impaired neovascularization response and decreased proangiogenic function of BMMNCs in clinically relevant models of diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Transgenic eNOS overexpression in diabetic, atherosclerotic, and wild-type mice induced a 1.5- to 2.3-fold increase in postischemic neovascularization compared with control. eNOS overexpression in diabetic or atherosclerotic BMMNCs restored their reduced proangiogenic potential in ischemic hind limb. This effect was associated with an increase in BMMNC ability to differentiate into cells with endothelial phenotype in vitro and in vivo and an increase in BMMNCs paracrine function, including vascular endothelial growth factor A release and NO-dependent vasodilation. Moreover, although wild-type BMMNCs treatment resulted in significant progression of atherosclerotic plaque in ischemic mice, eNOS transgenic atherosclerotic BMMNCs treatment even had antiatherogenic effects. Cell-based eNOS gene therapy has both proangiogenic and antiatherogenic effects and should be further investigated for the development of efficient therapeutic neovascularization designed to treat ischemic cardiovascular disease. PMID:21224043

  12. The inhibition of apoptosis in EL4 lymphoma cells overexpressing growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Robyn E; Weigent, Douglas A

    2004-01-01

    The antiapoptotic action of exogenous growth hormone (GH) has been reported for several lymphoid cell lines; however, the potential role of endogenous GH in apoptosis has not been thoroughly investigated. This study was designed to investigate the effects of endogenous GH on apoptosis induced by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) in a T cell lymphoma overexpressing GH (GHo). The results of these experiments have shown that in EL4 lymphoma cells, overexpression of GH sustained viability after exposure to MMS compared to control cells. The extent of DNA fragmentation measured by ladder formation on agarose gels was reduced in GHo cells following treatment with MMS, when compared to control cells. Adding exogenous GH to control cells and treatment of GHo cells with antibodies to GH had no effect on MMS-induced DNA ladder formation. In further studies, DNA microarray analysis suggested a marked decrease in the constitutive expression of bax, BAD, and caspases 3, 8, and 9 in GHo cells compared to controls. In addition, after treatment with MMS, the activities of caspases 2, 3, 6, 8, and 9 were all lower than control in GHo cells. Western blot analysis detected an increase in Bcl-2 while the levels of nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) remained unchanged in GHo cells. Treatment of EL4 cells with antisense deoxyoligonucleotides to GH and specific inhibitors of NFkappaB (SN-50) increased DNA fragmentation. GHo cells show increased levels of phosphorylated Akt and GSK-3, suggesting inactivation of this proapoptotic protein. The results, taken together with our previous data which showed increased nitric oxide formation in GHo cells, suggest a possible mechanism for the antiapoptotic effects of endogenous GH through the production of nitric oxide and support the idea that endogenous GH may play an important role in the survival of lymphocytes exposed to stressful stimuli. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha improves immunomodulation by dental mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Victor G; Ontoria-Oviedo, Imelda; Ricardo, Carolina P; Harding, Sian E; Sacedon, Rosa; Varas, Alberto; Zapata, Agustin; Sepulveda, Pilar; Vicente, Angeles

    2017-09-29

    Human dental mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as highly accessible and attractive MSCs for use in regenerative medicine, yet some of their features are not as well characterized as other MSCs. Hypoxia-preconditioning and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) alpha overexpression significantly improves MSC therapeutics, but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. In the present study, we characterize immunomodulatory properties of dental MSCs and determine changes in their ability to modulate adaptive and innate immune populations after HIF-1 alpha overexpression. Human dental MSCs were stably transduced with green fluorescent protein (GFP-MSCs) or GFP-HIF-1 alpha lentivirus vectors (HIF-MSCs). A hypoxic-like metabolic profile was confirmed by mitochondrial and glycolysis stress test. Capacity of HIF-MSCs to modulate T-cell activation, dendritic cell differentiation, monocyte migration, and polarizations towards macrophages and natural killer (NK) cell lytic activity was assessed by a number of functional assays in co-cultures. The expression of relevant factors were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). While HIF-1 alpha overexpression did not modify the inhibition of T-cell activation by MSCs, HIF-MSCs impaired dendritic cell differentiation more efficiently. In addition, HIF-MSCs showed a tendency to induce higher attraction of monocytes, which differentiate into suppressor macrophages, and exhibited enhanced resistance to NK cell-mediated lysis, which supports the improved therapeutic capacity of HIF-MSCs. HIF-MSCs also displayed a pro-angiogenic profile characterized by increased expression of CXCL12/SDF1 and CCL5/RANTES and complete loss of CXCL10/IP10 transcription. Immunomodulation and expression of trophic factors by dental MSCs make them perfect candidates for cell therapy. Overexpression of HIF-1 alpha enhances these features and increases their resistance to allogenic NK

  14. Overexpression of isocitrate dehydrogenase mutant proteins renders glioma cells more sensitive to radiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Sichen; Chou, Arthur P; Chen, Weidong; Chen, Ruihuan; Deng, Yuzhong; Phillips, Heidi S; Selfridge, Julia; Zurayk, Mira; Lou, Jerry J; Everson, Richard G; Wu, Kuan-Chung; Faull, Kym F; Cloughesy, Timothy; Liau, Linda M; Lai, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) or 2 (IDH2) are found in a subset of gliomas. Among the many phenotypic differences between mutant and wild-type IDH1/2 gliomas, the most salient is that IDH1/2 mutant glioma patients demonstrate markedly improved survival compared with IDH1/2 wild-type glioma patients. To address the mechanism underlying the superior clinical outcome of IDH1/2 mutant glioma patients, we investigated whether overexpression of the IDH1(R132H) protein could affect response to therapy in the context of an isogenic glioma cell background. Stable clonal U87MG and U373MG cell lines overexpressing IDH1(WT) and IDH1(R132H) were generated, as well as U87MG cell lines overexpressing IDH2(WT) and IDH2(R172K). In vitro experiments were conducted to characterize baseline growth and migration and response to radiation and temozolomide. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured under various conditions. U87MG-IDH1(R132H) cells, U373MG-IDH1(R132H) cells, and U87MG-IDH2(R172K) cells demonstrated increased sensitivity to radiation but not to temozolomide. Radiosensitization of U87MG-IDH1(R132H) cells was accompanied by increased apoptosis and accentuated ROS generation, and this effect was abrogated by the presence of the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine. Interestingly, U87MG-IDH1(R132H) cells also displayed decreased growth at higher cell density and in soft agar, as well as decreased migration. Overexpression of IDH1(R132H) and IDH2(R172K) mutant protein in glioblastoma cells resulted in increased radiation sensitivity and altered ROS metabolism and suppression of growth and migration in vitro. These findings provide insight into possible mechanisms contributing to the improved outcomes observed in patients with IDH1/2 mutant gliomas.

  15. PAQR3 overexpression suppresses the aggressive phenotype of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells via inhibition of ERK signaling.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ge; Chu, Jianhu; Eli, Mayinur; Bao, Yongxing; Wen, Hao

    2017-10-01

    Progestin and adipoQ receptor family member 3 (PAQR3) has exhibited anticancer activity in multiple malignancies. However, its expression and function in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is still elusive. In this work, we examined the expression of PAQR3 in 40 surgically resected ESCC specimens and their adjacent normal tissues. The expression of PAQR3 in ESCC cell lines was measured after treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR). The effects of overexpression of PAQR3 on cell proliferation, colony formation, invasion, and tumorigenesis were investigated. It was found that the PAQR3 mRNA level was significantly lower in ESCC than that in adjacent normal tissues (P=0.0318). Low PAQR3 expression was significantly associated with more advanced TNM stage (P=0.0093) and absent lymph node involvement (P=0.0324). Compared to normal esophageal epithelial cells, ESCC cells had significantly lower levels of PAQR3. 5-Aza-CdR treatment led to an induction of PAQR3 in ESCC cells. Enforced expression of PAQR3 significantly inhibited ESCC cell proliferation, colony formation and invasion. Moreover, PAQR3 overexpression blocked cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase, which was associated with induction of p27 and p21 and reduction of cyclin D1, CDK4, and CDK2. Mechanistically, overexpression of PAQR3 suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in ESCC cells. In vivo tumorigenic studies confirmed that PAQR3 overexpression retarded the growth of ECA-109 xenograft tumors and inhibited the activation of ERK signaling. Taken together, PAQR3 is epigenetically silenced in ESCC and restoration of PAQR3 suppresses the aggressive phenotype of ESCC cells. Therefore, PAQR3 may represent a potential target for the treatment of ESCC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Overexpression of IL-7R alpha provides a competitive advantage during early T-cell development.

    PubMed

    Laouar, Yasmina; Crispe, I Nicholas; Flavell, Richard A

    2004-03-15

    Critical checkpoints controlling early thymic T-cell development and homeostasis are set by the proper signaling function of the interleukin 7 receptor (IL-7R) and the pre-T-cell antigen receptor. Although alpha beta T-cell development is observed in IL-7- and IL-7R alpha-deficient mice, the number of thymocytes is significantly reduced, implying a role for the IL-7R in controlling the size of the thymic T-cell compartment. Here, we report the overexpression of IL-7R alpha that occurs in the early T-cell compartment from AKR/J mice, animals that are highly susceptible to the spontaneous development of thymoma. Increased IL-7R alpha was revealed by surface staining, and increased IL-7R alpha mRNA was documented by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). This resulted in increased survival of AKR/J early thymocytes, shown by the decreased frequency of TUNEL(+) (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate [dUTP]-fluorescein nick end labeling) cells. In an in vivo thymocyte repopulation model, AKR/J thymocytes had a selective advantage over healthy thymocytes. This advantage occurred at early stages of T-cell development. Our findings support the model that overexpression of growth factor receptors can contribute to proliferation and malignancy.

  17. Overexpression of stathmin plays a pivotal role in the metastasis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Han, Gaijing; Wu, Zongyong; Zhao, Nan; Zhou, Lanping; Liu, Fang; Niu, Fangfei; Xu, Yang; Zhao, Xiaohang

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a serious malignant tumor that affects human health. We analyzed the correlation between serum stathmin level and ESCC and elucidated the molecular mechanisms of stathmin's promotion of ESCC cell invasion and metastasis. Methods Stathmin level in ESCC and healthy control serum were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the clinical parameters were analyzed. We established ESCC cells with stathmin overexpression or knockdown and then evaluated the effects of stathmin on invasion and metastasis in ESCC. Differentially expressed genes were analyzed by Human Transcriptome Array and confirmed by RT-PCR. The expression levels of the integrin family, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were detected by immunoblotting. Results Serum levels of stathmin were significantly higher in ESCC than in control serum and associated with lymph node metastasis, tumor stage and size. Furthermore, we found that stathmin promoted migration and invasion of ESCC cells in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we confirmed that the activation of the integrinα5β1/FAK/ERK pathway is increased in stathmin-overexpression cells and accelerates cell motility by enhancing cell adhesion ability. Conclusion Stathmin may predict a potential metastasis biomarker for ESCC. PMID:28977901

  18. Overexpression of xeroderma pigmentosum group C decreases the chemotherapeutic sensitivity of colorectal carcinoma cells to cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Cao, Jia; Meng, Yanni; Qu, Chunying; Shen, Feng; Xu, Leiming

    2018-05-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) is a DNA-damage-recognition gene active at the early stage of DNA repair. XPC also participates in regulation of cell-cycle checkpoint and DNA-damage-induced apoptosis. In the present study, the expression levels of genes involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER) were assessed in human colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue. This analysis revealed that expression of XPC mRNA significantly increased in colorectal carcinoma tissues compared with matched normal controls. Expression of XPC gradually increased along with the degree of progression of CRC. In vitro , an XTT assay demonstrated that small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting XPC significantly increased the sensitivity of CRC SW480 cells to cisplatin, whereas cells transfected with a XPC-overexpression plasmid became more resistant to cisplatin. Furthermore, flow cytometry revealed that the proportion of apoptotic cells significantly increased in XPC-knockdown cells upon cisplatin treatment. However, the overexpression XPC significantly increased the resistance of cells to cisplatin. In vivo , tumor growth was significantly reduced in tumor-bearing mice when the XPC gene was knocked down. Upregulation of the expression of pro-apoptotic Bcl-associated X and downregulation of the anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 proteins was observed in the implanted tumor tissue. In conclusion, XPC serves a key role in chemotherapeutic sensitivity of CRC to cisplatin, meaning that it may be a potential target for chemotherapy of CRC.

  19. Overexpression of xeroderma pigmentosum group C decreases the chemotherapeutic sensitivity of colorectal carcinoma cells to cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Cao, Jia; Meng, Yanni; Qu, Chunying; Shen, Feng; Xu, Leiming

    2018-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) is a DNA-damage-recognition gene active at the early stage of DNA repair. XPC also participates in regulation of cell-cycle checkpoint and DNA-damage-induced apoptosis. In the present study, the expression levels of genes involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER) were assessed in human colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue. This analysis revealed that expression of XPC mRNA significantly increased in colorectal carcinoma tissues compared with matched normal controls. Expression of XPC gradually increased along with the degree of progression of CRC. In vitro, an XTT assay demonstrated that small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting XPC significantly increased the sensitivity of CRC SW480 cells to cisplatin, whereas cells transfected with a XPC-overexpression plasmid became more resistant to cisplatin. Furthermore, flow cytometry revealed that the proportion of apoptotic cells significantly increased in XPC-knockdown cells upon cisplatin treatment. However, the overexpression XPC significantly increased the resistance of cells to cisplatin. In vivo, tumor growth was significantly reduced in tumor-bearing mice when the XPC gene was knocked down. Upregulation of the expression of pro-apoptotic Bcl-associated X and downregulation of the anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 proteins was observed in the implanted tumor tissue. In conclusion, XPC serves a key role in chemotherapeutic sensitivity of CRC to cisplatin, meaning that it may be a potential target for chemotherapy of CRC. PMID:29616110

  20. STIM1 Overexpression Promotes Colorectal Cancer Progression, Cell Motility and COX-2 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jaw-Yuan; Sun, Jianwei; Huang, Ming-Yii; Wang, Yu-Shiuan; Hou, Ming-Feng; Sun, Yan; He, Huifang; Krishna, Niveditha; Chiu, Siou-Jin; Lin, Shengchen; Yang, Shengyu; Chang, Wei-Chiao

    2014-01-01

    Tumor metastasis is the major cause of death among cancer patients, with more than 90% of cancer-related death attributable to the spreading of metastatic cells to secondary organs. Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is the predominant Ca2+ entry mechanism in most cancer cells, and STIM1 is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ sensor for store-operated channels (SOC). Here we reported that the STIM1 was overexpressed in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. STIM1 overexpression in CRC was significantly associated with tumor size, depth of invasion, lymphnode metastasis status and serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen. Furthermore, ectopic expression of STIM1 promoted CRC cell motility, while depletion of STIM1 with shRNA inhibited CRC cell migration. Our data further suggested that STIM1 promoted CRC cell migration through increasing the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Importantly, ectopically expressed COX-2 or exogenous PGE2 were able to rescue migration defect in STIM1 knockdown CRC cells, and inhibition of COX-2 with ibuprofen and indomethacin abrogated STIM1-mediated CRC cell motility. In short, our data provided clinicopathological significance for STIM1 and store-operated Ca2+ entry in CRC progression, and implicated a role for COX-2 in STIM1-mediated CRC metastasis. Our studies also suggested a new approach to inhibit STIM1-mediated metastasis with COX-2 inhibitors. PMID:25381814

  1. Germinal center reentries of BCL2-overexpressing B cells drive follicular lymphoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Sungalee, Stéphanie; Mamessier, Emilie; Morgado, Ester; Grégoire, Emilie; Brohawn, Philip Z.; Morehouse, Christopher A.; Jouve, Nathalie; Monvoisin, Céline; Menard, Cédric; Debroas, Guilhaume; Faroudi, Mustapha; Mechin, Violaine; Navarro, Jean-Marc; Drevet, Charlotte; Eberle, Franziska C.; Chasson, Lionel; Baudimont, Fannie; Mancini, Stéphane J.; Tellier, Julie; Picquenot, Jean-Michel; Kelly, Rachel; Vineis, Paolo; Ruminy, Philippe; Chetaille, Bruno; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Schiff, Claudine; Hardwigsen, Jean; Tice, David A.; Higgs, Brandon W.; Tarte, Karin; Nadel, Bertrand; Roulland, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that memory B cells can reenter and reengage germinal center (GC) reactions, opening the possibility that multi-hit lymphomagenesis gradually occurs throughout life during successive immunological challenges. Here, we investigated this scenario in follicular lymphoma (FL), an indolent GC-derived malignancy. We developed a mouse model that recapitulates the FL hallmark t(14;18) translocation, which results in constitutive activation of antiapoptotic protein B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) in a subset of B cells, and applied a combination of molecular and immunofluorescence approaches to track normal and t(14;18)+ memory B cells in human and BCL2-overexpressing B cells in murine lymphoid tissues. BCL2-overexpressing B cells required multiple GC transits before acquiring FL-associated developmental arrest and presenting as GC B cells with constitutive activation–induced cytidine deaminase (AID) mutator activity. Moreover, multiple reentries into the GC were necessary for the progression to advanced precursor stages of FL. Together, our results demonstrate that protracted subversion of immune dynamics contributes to early dissemination and progression of t(14;18)+ precursors and shapes the systemic presentation of FL patients. PMID:25384217

  2. Tetracycline-inducible protein expression in pancreatic cancer cells: Effects of CapG overexpression

    PubMed Central

    Tonack, Sarah; Patel, Sabina; Jalali, Mehdi; Nedjadi, Taoufik; Jenkins, Rosalind E; Goldring, Christopher; Neoptolemos, John; Costello, Eithne

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To establish stable tetracycline-inducible pancreatic cancer cell lines. METHODS: Suit-2, MiaPaca-2, and Panc-1 cells were transfected with a second generation reverse tetracycline-controlled transactivator protein (rtTA2S-M2), under the control of either a cytomegalovirus (CMV) or a chicken β-actin promoter, and the resulting clones were characterised. RESULTS: Use of the chicken (β-actin) promoter proved superior for both the production and maintenance of doxycycline-inducible cell lines. The system proved versatile, enabling transient inducible expression of a variety of genes, including GST-P, CYP2E1, S100A6, and the actin capping protein, CapG. To determine the physiological utility of this system in pancreatic cancer cells, stable inducible CapG expressors were established. Overexpressed CapG was localised to the cytoplasm and the nuclear membrane, but was not observed in the nucleus. High CapG levels were associated with enhanced motility, but not with changes to the cell cycle, or cellular proliferation. In CapG-overexpressing cells, the levels and phosphorylation status of other actin-moduating proteins (Cofilin and Ezrin/Radixin) were not altered. However, preliminary analyses suggest that the levels of other cellular proteins, such as ornithine aminotransferase and enolase, are altered upon CapG induction. CONCLUSION: We have generated pancreatic-cancer derived cell lines in which gene expression is fully controllable. PMID:21528072

  3. Overexpression of HIF-1α in mesenchymal stem cells contributes to repairing hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Deju; Zhou, Liping; Wang, Biao; Liu, Lizhen; Cong, Li; Hu, Chuanqin; Ge, Tingting; Yu, Qin

    2017-01-01

    Preclinical researches on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation, which is used to treat hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain damage, have received inspiring achievements. However, the insufficient migration of active cells to damaged tissues has limited their potential therapeutic effects. There are some evidences that hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) promotes the viability and migration of the cells. Here, we aim to investigate whether overexpression of HIF-1α in MSCs could improve the viability and migration capacity of cells, and its therapeutic efficiency on HI brain damage. In the study, MSCs with HIF-1α overexpression was achieved by recombinant lentiviral vector and transplanted to the rats subsequent to HI. Our data indicated that overexpression of HIF-1α promoted the viability and migration of MSCs, HIF-1α overexpressed MSCs also had a stronger therapeutic efficiency on HI brain damaged treatment by mitigating the injury on behavioral and histological changes evoked by HI insults, accompanied with more MSCs migrating to cerebral damaged area. This study demonstrated that HIF-1α overexpression could increase the MSCs' therapeutic efficiency in HI and the promotion of the cells' directional migration to cerebral HI area by overexpression may be responsible for it, which showed that transplantation of MSCs with HIF-1α overexpression is an attractive therapeutic option to treat HI-induced brain injury in the future. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Nrf2-Dependent Induction of NQO1 in Mouse Aortic Endothelial Cells Overexpressing Catalase

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xinghua; Yang, Hong; Zhou, LiChun; Guo, ZhongMao

    2011-01-01

    Overexpression of catalase has been shown to accelerate benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) detoxification in mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs ). NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase1 (NQO1) is an enzyme that catalyzes BaP-quinone detoxification. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) are transcription factors that control NQO1 expression. Here, we investigated the effect of catalase overexpression on NQO1, Nrf2 and AhR expressions. The levels of NQO1 mRNA and protein were comparable in MAECs isolated from wild-type and transgenic mice that overexpress human catalase (hCatTg). BaP treatment increased NQO1 mRNA and protein levels in both groups, with a significantly greater induction in hCatTg MAECs than in wild-type cells. BaP-induced NQO1 promoter activity was dramatically higher in hCatTg MAECs than in wild-type cells. Our data also showed that the basal level of AhR and the BaP-induced level of Nrf2 were significantly higher in hCatTg MAECs than in wild-type cells. Inhibition of specificity protein-1 (Sp1) binding to the AhR promoter region by mithramycin A reversed the enhanced effect of catalase overexpression on AhR expression. Knockdown of AhR by RNA interference diminished BaP-induced expression of Nrf2 and NQO1. Knockdown of Nrf2 significantly decreased NQO1 mRNA and protein levels in cells with or without BaP treatment. NQO1 promoter activity was abrogated by mutation of the Nrf2-binding site in this promoter. In contrast, mutation of the AhR-binding site in NQO1 promoter did not affect the promoter activity. These results suggest that catalase overexpression upregulates BaP-induced NQO1 expression via enhancing the Sp1-AhR-Nrf2 signaling cascade. PMID:21569840

  5. EpCAM overexpression prolongs proliferative capacity of primary human breast epithelial cells and supports hyperplastic growth

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM) has been shown to be strongly expressed in human breast cancer and cancer stem cells and its overexpression has been supposed to support tumor progression and metastasis. However, effects of EpCAM overexpression on normal breast epithelial cells have never been studied before. Therefore, we analyzed effects of transient adenoviral overexpression of EpCAM on proliferation, migration and differentiation of primary human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs). Methods HMECs were transfected by an adenoviral system for transient overexpression of EpCAM. Thereafter, changes in cell proliferation and migration were studied using a real time measurement system. Target gene expression was evaluated by transcriptome analysis in proliferating and polarized HMEC cultures. A Chicken Chorioallantoic Membrane (CAM) xenograft model was used to study effects on in vivo growth of HMECs. Results EpCAM overexpression in HMECs did not significantly alter gene expression profile of proliferating or growth arrested cells. Proliferating HMECs displayed predominantly glycosylated EpCAM isoforms and were inhibited in cell proliferation and migration by upregulation of p27KIP1 and p53. HMECs with overexpression of EpCAM showed a down regulation of E-cadherin. Moreover, cells were more resistant to TGF-β1 induced growth arrest and maintained longer capacities to proliferate in vitro. EpCAM overexpressing HMECs xenografts in chicken embryos showed hyperplastic growth, lack of lumen formation and increased infiltrates of the chicken leukocytes. Conclusions EpCAM revealed oncogenic features in normal human breast cells by inducing resistance to TGF-β1-mediated growth arrest and supporting a cell phenotype with longer proliferative capacities in vitro. EpCAM overexpression resulted in hyperplastic growth in vivo. Thus, we suggest that EpCAM acts as a prosurvival factor counteracting terminal differentiation processes in normal mammary glands

  6. SPARC Overexpression Inhibits Cell Proliferation in Neuroblastoma and Is Partly Mediated by Tumor Suppressor Protein PTEN and AKT

    PubMed Central

    Bhoopathi, Praveen; Gorantla, Bharathi; Sailaja, G. S.; Gondi, Christopher S.; Gujrati, Meena; Klopfenstein, Jeffrey D.; Rao, Jasti S.

    2012-01-01

    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is also known as BM-40 or Osteonectin, a multi-functional protein modulating cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions. In cancer, SPARC is not only linked with a highly aggressive phenotype, but it also acts as a tumor suppressor. In the present study, we sought to characterize the function of SPARC and its role in sensitizing neuroblastoma cells to radio-therapy. SPARC overexpression in neuroblastoma cells inhibited cell proliferation in vitro. Additionally, SPARC overexpression significantly suppressed the activity of AKT and this suppression was accompanied by an increase in the tumor suppressor protein PTEN both in vitro and in vivo. Restoration of neuroblastoma cell radio-sensitivity was achieved by overexpression of SPARC in neuroblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo. To confirm the role of the AKT in proliferation inhibited by SPARC overexpression, we transfected neuroblastoma cells with a plasmid vector carrying myr-AKT. Myr-AKT overexpression reversed SPARC-mediated PTEN and increased proliferation of neuroblastoma cells in vitro. PTEN overexpression in parallel with SPARC siRNA resulted in decreased AKT phosphorylation and proliferation in vitro. Taken together, these results establish SPARC as an effector of AKT-PTEN-mediated inhibition of proliferation in neuroblastoma in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22567126

  7. B-cell translocation gene 3 overexpression inhibits proliferation and invasion of colorectal cancer SW480 cells via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Mao, D; Qiao, L; Lu, H; Feng, Y

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidences have shown that B-cell translocation gene 3 (BTG3) inhibits metastasis of multiple cancer cells. However, the role of BTG3 in colorectal cancer (CRC) and its possible mechanism have not yet been reported. In our study, we evaluated BTG3 expression in several CRC cell lines. Then, pcDNA3.1-BTG3 was transfected into SW480 cells. We found that BTG3 was upregulated in SW480 cells after overexpression plasmid transfection. BTG3 overexpression significantly inhibited cell growth and decreased PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) and Ki67 levels. BTG3 overexpression markedly downregulated Cyclin D1 and Cyclin E1 levels, whereas elevated p27. Overexpression of BTG3 arrested the cell cycle at G1 phase, which was abrogated by p27 silencing. Furthermore, migration, invasion and EMT of SW480 cells were significantly suppressed by BTG3 overexpression. Further investigations showed the inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We then used GSK3β specific inhibitor SB-216763 to activate the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We found that Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activation reversed the effect of BTG3 overexpression on cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, invasion and EMT. In conclusion, BTG3 overexpression inhibited cell growth, induced cell cycle arrest and suppressed the metastasis of SW480 cells via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. BTG3 may be considered as a therapeutic target in CRC treatment.

  8. Overexpression of SAMD9 suppresses tumorigenesis and progression during non small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Qing; Yu, Tao; Ren, Yao-Yao

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • SAMD9 is down-regulated in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). • Knockdown of SAMD9 expression is increased the invasion, migration and proliferation in H1299 cells in vitro. • Overexpression of SAMD9 suppressed proliferation and invasion in A549 cells in vitro. • Depletion of SAMD9 increases tumor formation in vivo. - Abstract: The Sterile Alpha Motif Domain-containing 9 (SAMD9) gene has been recently emphasized during the discovery that it is expressed at a lower level in aggressive fibromatosis and some cases of breast and colon cancer, however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we found that SAMD9 ismore » down-regulated in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Furthermore, knockdown of SAMD9 expression is increased the invasion, migration and proliferation in H1299 cells in vitro and overexpression of SAMD9 suppressed proliferation and invasion in A549 cells. Finally, depletion of SAMD9 increases tumor formation in vivo. Our results may provide a strategy for blocking NSCLC tumorigenesis and progression.« less

  9. RNA interference as a key to knockdown overexpressed cyclooxygenase-2 gene in tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    Strillacci, A; Griffoni, C; Spisni, E; Manara, M C; Tomasi, V

    2006-01-01

    Silencing those genes that are overexpressed in cancer and contribute to the survival and progression of tumour cells is the aim of several researches. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is one of the most intensively studied genes since it is overexpressed in most tumours, mainly in colon cancer. The use of specific COX-2 inhibitors to treat colon cancer has generated great enthusiasm. Yet, the side effects of some inhibitors emerging during long-term treatment have caused much concern. Genes silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) has led to new directions in the field of experimental oncology. In this study, we detected sequences directed against COX-2 mRNA, that potently downregulate COX-2 gene expression and inhibit phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced angiogenesis in vitro in a specific, nontoxic manner. Moreover, we found that the insertion of a specific cassette carrying anti-COX-2 short hairpin RNA sequence into a viral vector (pSUPER.retro) greatly increased silencing potency in a colon cancer cell line (HT29) without activating any interferon response. Phenotypically, COX-2 deficient HT29 cells showed a significant impairment of their in vitro malignant behaviour. Thus, the retroviral approach enhancing COX-2 knockdown, mediated by RNAi, proved to be an useful tool to better understand the role of COX-2 in colon cancer. Furthermore, the higher infection efficiency we observed in tumour cells, if compared to normal endothelial cells, may disclose the possibility to specifically treat tumour cells without impairing endothelial COX-2 activity. PMID:16622456

  10. VCC-1 over-expression inhibits cisplatin-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Zhitao; Lu, Xiao; Zhu, Ping

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VCC-1 is hypothesized to be associated with carcinogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Levels of VCC-1 are increased significantly in HCC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Over-expression of VCC-1 could promotes cellular proliferation rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Over-expression of VCC-1 inhibit the cisplatin-provoked apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VCC-1 plays an important role in control the tumor growth and apoptosis. -- Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor-correlated chemokine 1 (VCC-1), a recently described chemokine, is hypothesized to be associated with carcinogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms by which aberrant VCC-1 expression determines poor outcomes of cancers are unknown. In this study, we found that VCC-1 was highly expressed in hepatocellularmore » carcinoma (HCC) tissue. It was also associated with proliferation of HepG2 cells, and inhibition of cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Conversely, down-regulation of VCC-1 in HepG2 cells increased cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells. In summary, these results suggest that VCC-1 is involved in cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells, and also provides some evidence for VCC-1 as a potential cellular target for chemotherapy.« less

  11. Magmas Overexpression Inhibits Staurosporine Induced Apoptosis in Rat Pituitary Adenoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Gentilin, Erica; Minoia, Mariella; Molè, Daniela; delgi Uberti, Ettore C.; Zatelli, Maria Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Magmas is a nuclear gene that encodes for the mitochondrial import inner membrane translocase subunit Tim16. Magmas is overexpressed in the majority of human pituitary adenomas and in a mouse ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma cell line. Here we report that Magmas is highly expressed in two out of four rat pituitary adenoma cell lines and its expression levels inversely correlate to the extent of cellular response to staurosporine in terms of apoptosis activation and cell viability. Magmas over-expression in rat GH/PRL-secreting pituitary adenoma GH4C1 cells leads to an increase in cell viability and to a reduction in staurosporine-induced apoptosis and DNA fragmentation, in parallel with the increase in Magmas protein expression. These results indicate that Magmas plays a pivotal role in response to pro-apoptotic stimuli and confirm and extend the finding that Magmas protects pituitary cells from staurosporine-induced apoptosis, suggesting its possible involvement in pituitary adenoma development. PMID:24069394

  12. Overexpression of Cks1 increases the radiotherapy resistance of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Chun; Tian, Li-Li; Tian, Jin; Li, DeGuan; Wang, YueYing; Wu, HongYing; Zheng, Hang; Meng, Ai-Min

    2012-01-01

    The Cks1 protein is a member of the highly conserved family of Cks/Suc1 proteins, which interact with Cdks, and was found to be an essential cofactor for efficient Skp2-dependent ubiquitination of p27. The present study was undertaken to examine the expression status of Cks1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and its significance. The expression of Cks1 in 140 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients was examined by immunohistochemistry. The correlations between Cks1 expression and tumor clinicopathologic features were analyzed. The effects of Cks1 expression on radiotherapy results were also examined. In the present study, we found that Cks1 is overexpressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma tissues. Elevated expression of Cks1 correlates significantly with tumor stage and positive lymph node metastasis (p < 0.05). Moreover, a significant negative correlation was found between Cks1 expression and the survival of patients who received radiotherapy (p < 0.05). At the molecular level, forced expression of Cks1 promotes the radio-resistance ability of EC9706 cells. Knockdown of Cks1 expression sensitizes cancer cells to radiation, and a wobble mutant of Cks1 that is resistant to Cks1 siRNA can rescue this effect. These results demonstrate for the first time that overexpression of Cks1 correlates with the increased radiotherapy resistance of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

  13. O-GlcNAcase overexpression reverses coronary endothelial cell dysfunction in type 1 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Makino, Ayako; Dai, Anzhi; Han, Ying; Youssef, Katia D; Wang, Weihua; Donthamsetty, Reshma; Scott, Brian T; Wang, Hong; Dillmann, Wolfgang H

    2015-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetes, and endothelial dysfunction is commonly seen in these patients. Increased O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) protein modification is one of the central pathogenic features of diabetes. Modification of proteins by O-GlcNAc (O-GlcNAcylation) is regulated by two key enzymes: β-N-acetylglucosaminidase [O-GlcNAcase (OGA)], which catalyzes the reduction of protein O-GlcNAcylation, and O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), which induces O-GlcNAcylation. However, it is not known whether reducing O-GlcNAcylation can improve endothelial dysfunction in diabetes. To examine the effect of endothelium-specific OGA overexpression on protein O-GlcNAcylation and coronary endothelial function in diabetic mice, we generated tetracycline-inducible, endothelium-specific OGA transgenic mice, and induced OGA by doxycycline administration in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice. OGA protein expression was significantly decreased in mouse coronary endothelial cells (MCECs) isolated from diabetic mice compared with control MCECs, whereas OGT protein level was markedly increased. The level of protein O-GlcNAcylation was increased in diabetic compared with control mice, and OGA overexpression significantly decreased the level of protein O-GlcNAcylation in MCECs from diabetic mice. Capillary density in the left ventricle and endothelium-dependent relaxation in coronary arteries were significantly decreased in diabetes, while OGA overexpression increased capillary density to the control level and restored endothelium-dependent relaxation without changing endothelium-independent relaxation. We found that connexin 40 could be the potential target of O-GlcNAcylation that regulates the endothelial functions in diabetes. These data suggest that OGA overexpression in endothelial cells improves endothelial function and may have a beneficial effect on coronary vascular complications in diabetes. Copyright © 2015 the

  14. Calpastatin overexpression impairs postinfarct scar healing in mice by compromising reparative immune cell recruitment and activation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Feng; Letavernier, Emmanuel; Le Saux, Claude Jourdan; Houssaini, Amal; Abid, Shariq; Czibik, Gabor; Sawaki, Daigo; Marcos, Elisabeth; Dubois-Rande, Jean-Luc; Baud, Laurent; Adnot, Serge; Derumeaux, Geneviève; Gellen, Barnabas

    2015-12-01

    The activation of the calpain system is involved in the repair process following myocardial infarction (MI). However, the impact of the inhibition of calpain by calpastatin, its natural inhibitor, on scar healing and left ventricular (LV) remodeling is elusive. Male mice ubiquitously overexpressing calpastatin (TG) and wild-type (WT) controls were subjected to an anterior coronary artery ligation. Mortality at 6 wk was higher in TG mice (24% in WT vs. 44% in TG, P < 0.05) driven by a significantly higher incidence of cardiac rupture during the first week post-MI, despite comparable infarct size and LV dysfunction and dilatation. Calpain activation post-MI was blunted in TG myocardium. In TG mice, inflammatory cell infiltration and activation were reduced in the infarct zone (IZ), particularly affecting M2 macrophages and CD4(+) T cells, which are crucial for scar healing. To elucidate the role of calpastatin overexpression in macrophages, we stimulated peritoneal macrophages obtained from TG and WT mice in vitro with IL-4, yielding an abrogated M2 polarization in TG but not in WT cells. Lymphopenic Rag1(-/-) mice receiving TG splenocytes before MI demonstrated decreased T-cell recruitment and M2 macrophage activation in the IZ day 5 after MI compared with those receiving WT splenocytes. Calpastatin overexpression prevented the activation of the calpain system after MI. It also impaired scar healing, promoted LV rupture, and increased mortality. Defective scar formation was associated with blunted CD4(+) T-cell and M2-macrophage recruitment. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Enhanced migration of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase overexpressing hepatoma cells is attributed to gelatinases: Relevance to intracellular signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Roeb, Elke; Bosserhoff, Anja-Katrin; Hamacher, Sabine; Jansen, Bettina; Dahmen, Judith; Wagner, Sandra; Matern, Siegfried

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of gelatinases (especially MMP-9) on migration of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) overexpressing hepatoma cells. METHODS: Wild type HepG2 cells, cells stably transfected with TIMP-1 and TIMP-1 antagonist (MMP-9-H401A, a catalytically inactive matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) which still binds and neutralizes TIMP-1) were incubated in Boyden chambers either with or without Galardin (a synthetic inhibitor of MMP-1, -2, -3, -8, -9) or a specific inhibitor of gelatinases. RESULTS: Compared to wild type HepG2 cells, the cells overexpressing TIMP-1 showed 115% migration (P<0.05) and the cells overexpressing MMP-9-H401A showed 62% migration (P<0.01). Galardin reduced cell migration dose dependently in all cases. The gelatinase inhibitor reduced migration in TIMP-1 overexpressing cells predominantly. Furthermore, we examined intracellular signal transduction pathways of TIMP-1-dependent HepG2 cells. TIMP-1 deactivates cell signaling pathways of MMP-2 and MMP-9 involving p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Specific blockade of the ERK pathway suppresses gelatinase expression either in the presence or absence of TIMP-1. CONCLUSION: Overexpressing functional TIMP-1- enhanced migration of HepG2-TIMP-1 cells depends on enhanced MMP-activity, especially MMP-9. PMID:15754388

  16. Insulin-like Growth Factor 2 Overexpression Induces β-Cell Dysfunction and Increases Beta-cell Susceptibility to Damage.

    PubMed

    Casellas, Alba; Mallol, Cristina; Salavert, Ariana; Jimenez, Veronica; Garcia, Miquel; Agudo, Judith; Obach, Mercè; Haurigot, Virginia; Vilà, Laia; Molas, Maria; Lage, Ricardo; Morró, Meritxell; Casana, Estefania; Ruberte, Jesús; Bosch, Fatima

    2015-07-03

    The human insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and insulin genes are located within the same genomic region. Although human genomic studies have demonstrated associations between diabetes and the insulin/IGF2 locus or the IGF2 mRNA-binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2), the role of IGF2 in diabetes pathogenesis is not fully understood. We previously described that transgenic mice overexpressing IGF2 specifically in β-cells (Tg-IGF2) develop a pre-diabetic state. Here, we characterized the effects of IGF2 on β-cell functionality. Overexpression of IGF2 led to β-cell dedifferentiation and endoplasmic reticulum stress causing islet dysfunction in vivo. Both adenovirus-mediated overexpression of IGF2 and treatment of adult wild-type islets with recombinant IGF2 in vitro further confirmed the direct implication of IGF2 on β-cell dysfunction. Treatment of Tg-IGF2 mice with subdiabetogenic doses of streptozotocin or crossing these mice with a transgenic model of islet lymphocytic infiltration promoted the development of overt diabetes, suggesting that IGF2 makes islets more susceptible to β-cell damage and immune attack. These results indicate that increased local levels of IGF2 in pancreatic islets may predispose to the onset of diabetes. This study unravels an unprecedented role of IGF2 on β-cells function. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Insulin-like Growth Factor 2 Overexpression Induces β-Cell Dysfunction and Increases Beta-cell Susceptibility to Damage*

    PubMed Central

    Casellas, Alba; Mallol, Cristina; Salavert, Ariana; Jimenez, Veronica; Garcia, Miquel; Agudo, Judith; Obach, Mercè; Haurigot, Virginia; Vilà, Laia; Molas, Maria; Lage, Ricardo; Morró, Meritxell; Casana, Estefania; Ruberte, Jesús; Bosch, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    The human insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and insulin genes are located within the same genomic region. Although human genomic studies have demonstrated associations between diabetes and the insulin/IGF2 locus or the IGF2 mRNA-binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2), the role of IGF2 in diabetes pathogenesis is not fully understood. We previously described that transgenic mice overexpressing IGF2 specifically in β-cells (Tg-IGF2) develop a pre-diabetic state. Here, we characterized the effects of IGF2 on β-cell functionality. Overexpression of IGF2 led to β-cell dedifferentiation and endoplasmic reticulum stress causing islet dysfunction in vivo. Both adenovirus-mediated overexpression of IGF2 and treatment of adult wild-type islets with recombinant IGF2 in vitro further confirmed the direct implication of IGF2 on β-cell dysfunction. Treatment of Tg-IGF2 mice with subdiabetogenic doses of streptozotocin or crossing these mice with a transgenic model of islet lymphocytic infiltration promoted the development of overt diabetes, suggesting that IGF2 makes islets more susceptible to β-cell damage and immune attack. These results indicate that increased local levels of IGF2 in pancreatic islets may predispose to the onset of diabetes. This study unravels an unprecedented role of IGF2 on β-cells function. PMID:25971976

  18. TROP2 overexpression promotes proliferation and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zanhua; The Chest Hospital of Jiangxi Province Department of Respiration; Jiang, Xunsheng

    2016-01-29

    Recent studies suggest that the human trophoblast cell-surface antigen TROP2 is highly expressed in a number of tumours and is correlated with poor prognosis. However, its role in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) remains largely unknown. Here we examined TROP2 expression by immunohistochemistry in a series of 68 patients with adenocarcinoma (ADC). We found significantly elevated TROP2 expression in ADC tissues compared with normal lung tissues (P < 0.05), and TROP2 overexpression was significantly associated with TNM (tumour, node, metastasis) stage (P = 0.012), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.038), and histologic grade (P = 0.013). Kaplan–Meier survival analysis revealed that high TROP2 expression correlated with poor prognosismore » (P = 0.046). Multivariate analysis revealed that TROP2 expression was an independent prognostic marker for overall survival of ADC patients. Moreover, TROP2 overexpression enhanced cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in the NSCLC cell line A549, whereas knockdown of TROP2 induced apoptosis and impaired proliferation, migration, and invasion in the PC-9 cells. Altogether, our data suggest that TROP2 plays an important role in promoting ADC and may represent a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for the disease.« less

  19. WASH overexpression enhances cancer stem cell properties and correlates with poor prognosis of esophageal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lan; Lian, Jingyao; Chen, Xinfeng; Qin, Guohui; Zheng, Yujia; Zhang, Yi

    2017-12-01

    There is increasing evidence that cytoskeleton remodeling is involved in cancer progression. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family represents a key regulator of actin cytoskeleton remodeling. However, the underlying mechanism of the WASP family in cancer progression remains elusive. Here, we studied the role of WASP and SCAR Homolog (WASH), a recently identified WASP family member, in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Using three human ESCC cell lines, we found that WASH expression was significantly elevated in cancer stem-like cells enriched by sphere formation assay. WASH knockdown decreased the sphere-forming capacity of esophageal cancer cells whereas WASH over-expression exhibited the opposite effect. Mechanistically, we identified interleukin-8 (IL-8) as a key downstream target of WASH. IL-8 knockdown completely attenuated tumor sphere formation induced by WASH overexpression. WASH knockdown also delayed the growth of human ESCC xenografts in BALB/c nude mice. Importantly, high WASH levels were associated with poor clinical prognosis in a total of 145 human ESCC tissues. Collectively, our results suggest an essential role of the WASH/IL-8 pathway in human ESCC by maintaining the stemness of cancer cells. Hence, targeting this pathway might represent a promising strategy to control human esophageal carcinoma. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  20. Overexpression of SKP2 promotes the radiation resistance of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Chun; Tian, Li-Li; Tian, Jing; Jiang, Xiao-Yan

    2012-01-01

    SKP2 is the substrate recognition subunit of the SCF(SKP2) ubiquitin ligase complex. It is implicated in ubiquitin-mediated degradation of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27(KIP1) and positively regulates the G(1)/S transition. Overexpression of SKP2 has been found in many kinds of tumors. In the present study, we found that SKP2 expression levels increased in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma tissues. Elevated expression of SKP2 correlated significantly with tumor stage and positive lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). Moreover, a significantly negative correlation was found between SKP2 expression and the survival of patients who received radiotherapy (P < 0.05). At the molecular level, induced expression of SKP2 promoted the radioresistance of EC9706 cells. Knockdown of SKP2 expression sensitized cancer cells to radiation, and a wobble mutant of SKP2 that was resistant to SKP2 siRNA was able to rescue this effect. Increased or decreased expression levels of SKP2 had effects on Rad51 expression after irradiation. These results demonstrate for the first time that overexpression of SKP2 was correlated with the increased radioresistance of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Elevated expression of SKP2 promoted the radioresistance of cancer cells, and this effect was mediated at least in part by the Rad51 pathway.

  1. Overexpression of Hiwi Inhibits the Cell Growth of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia K562 Cells and Enhances Their Chemosensitivity to Daunomycin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yalin; Jiang, Yan; Bian, Cuicui; Dong, Yi; Ma, Chao; Hu, Xiaolin; Liu, Ziling

    2015-09-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal disorder characterized by excessive accumulation of myeloid cells in the peripheral blood. In the present study, to investigate the role of Hiwi in leukemogenesis, lentivirus-mediated Hiwi overexpression was performed in a CML cell line, K562 cells. Our data revealed that Hiwi protein expression was undetectable in K562 cells, and its overexpression suppressed cell proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 and G2/M phases, and promoted apoptosis in K562 cells in vitro. Expression of anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, was decreased in cells expressing Hiwi, whereas that of pro-apoptotic proteins, Bax, activated caspase-3, -9, and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase were increased. Additionally, Hiwi upregulation enhanced the chemosensitivity of CML cells to daunomycin. Our study illustrates that expression deletion of Hiwi may be involved in the pathogenesis of human CML and suggests a possible role of Hiwi in regulating the cell growth, cell cycle, and apoptosis of CML cells in vitro.

  2. [Overexpression of inhibitor of β-catenin and T cell factor (ICAT) promotes proliferation and migration of cervical cancer Caski cells].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yayun; Wang, Ting; Wang, Jinshu; Xia, Jing; Gou, Liyao; Liu, Mengyao; Zhang, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of overexpressed inhibitor of β-catenin and T cell factor (ICAT) on the proliferation and migration of human cervical cancer Caski cells. Methods Caski cells were transfected with ICAT recombinant adenovirus (AdICAT). The levels of ICAT mRNA and protein were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting, respectively. Effect of ICAT overexpression on proliferation, cell cycle and migration in Caski cells was respectively evaluated by MTT assay, flow cytometry and Transwell TM migration assays. Results The expression of ICAT remarkably increased in Caski cells after AdICAT infection. Overexpression of ICAT promoted Caski cells' proliferation, arrested the cell cycle in the S phase and enhanced cell migration. Conclusion Overexpression of ICAT can promote the proliferation and migration of Caski cervical cancer cells.

  3. LncRNA CCAT2 promotes tumorigenesis by over-expressed Pokemon in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhihong; Wang, Ju; Wang, Shengfa; Chang, Hao; Zhang, Tiewa; Qu, Junfeng

    2017-03-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains one of the most important death-related diseases, with poor effective diagnosis and less therapeutic biomarkers. LncRNA colon cancer-associated transcript 2 (CCAT2) was identified as an oncogenic lncRNA and over-expressed in many tumor cells. The aims of this study were to detect the correlation between CCAT2 and its regulatory genes and then explore the potential mechanism between them in NSCLC. In this study, qRT-PCR was used to detect CCAT2, Pokemon and p21 expression. Western-blot was used to detect protein levels of Pokemon and p21. CCK-8 assay and Transwell chambers were used to assess cell viability and invasion. CCAT2 and Pokemon were over-expressed in NSCLC tissue and cells. In NSCLC cells, CCAT2 knockdown significantly decreased cell viability and invasion as well as Pokemon expression, but increased the expression of p21; then CCAT2 overexpression revealed an opposite result. In addition, over-expressed Pokemon reversed the results that induced by si-CCAT2, while down-regulation of Pokemon significantly reversed the results that induced by CCAT2 overexpression. The results indicated that CCAT2 promotes tumorigenesis by over-expression of Pokemon, and the potential mechanism might relate to the Pokemon related gene p21. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Overexpression of PHRF1 attenuates the proliferation and tumorigenicity of non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yadong; Wang, Haiyu; Pan, Teng; Li, Li; Li, Jiangmin; Yang, Haiyan

    2016-09-27

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of PHRF1 in lung tumorigenesis. Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of proteins. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, soft agar assay and tumor formation assay in nude mice were applied. Cell cycle distribution was analyzed by flow cytometry. The lower level of PHRF1 mRNA was observed in human lung cancer tissues than that in paracancerous tissues. The decreased expression of PHRF1 protein was observed in H1299 and H1650 cell lines than that in 16HBE and BEAS-2B cell lines. The decreased expression of PHRF1 protein was observed in malignant 16HBE cells compared to control cells. The reduced expression of PHRF1 protein was observed in mice lung tissues treated with BaP than that in control group. Overexpression of PHRF1 inhibited H1299 cell proliferation, colony formation in vitro and growth of tumor xenograft in vivo, and arrested cell cycle in G1 phase. The decreased expression of TGIF and c-Myc proteins and the increased expression of p21 protein were observed in H1299-PHRF1 cells compared with H1299-pvoid cells. In conclusion, our findings suggest that overexpression of PHRF1 attenuated the proliferation and tumorigenicity of non-small cell lung cancer cell line of H1299.

  5. Overexpressed human heme Oxygenase-1 decreases adipogenesis in pigs and porcine adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Jung; Koo, Ok Jae; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2015-11-27

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSC) are multipotent, which means they are able to differentiate into several lineages in vivo and in vitro under proper conditions. This indicates it is possible to determine the direction of differentiation of ADSC by controlling the microenvironment. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), a type of antioxidant enzyme, attenuates adipogenicity and obesity. We produced transgenic pigs overexpressing human HO-1 (hHO-1-Tg), and found that these animals have little fatty tissue when autopsied. To determine whether overexpressed human HO-1 suppresses adipogenesis in pigs, we analyzed body weight increases of hHO-1-Tg pigs and wild type (WT) pigs of the same strain, and induced adipogenic differentiation of ADSC derived from WT and hHO-1-Tg pigs. The hHO-1-Tg pigs had lower body weights than WT pigs from 16 weeks of age until they died. In addition, hHO-1-Tg ADSC showed reduced adipogenic differentiation and expression of adipogenic molecular markers such as PPARγ and C/EBPα compared to WT ADSC. These results suggest that HO-1 overexpression reduces adipogenesis both in vivo and in vitro, which could support identification of therapeutic targets of obesity and related metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Over-expression of tetraspanin 8 in malignant glioma regulates tumor cell progression

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Si-Jian; Wu, Yue-Bing; Cai, Shang

    Tumor cell invasion and proliferation remain the overwhelming causes of death for malignant glioma patients. To establish effective therapeutic methods, new targets implied in these processes have to be identified. Tetraspanin 8 (Tspn8) forms complexes with a large variety of trans-membrane and/or cytosolic proteins to regulate several important cellular functions. In the current study, we found that Tspn8 was over-expressed in multiple clinical malignant glioma tissues, and its expression level correlated with the grade of tumors. Tspn8 expression in malignant glioma cells (U251MG and U87MG lines) is important for cell proliferation and migration. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Tspn8 markedly reduced in vitromore » proliferation and migration of U251MG and U87MG cells. Meanwhile, Tspn8 silencing also increased the sensitivity of temozolomide (TMZ), and significantly increased U251MG or U87MG cell death and apoptosis by TMZ were achieved with Tspn8 knockdown. We observed that Tspn8 formed a complex with activated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in both human malignant glioma tissues and in above glioma cells. This complexation appeared required for FAK activation, since Tspn8 knockdown inhibited FAK activation in U251MG and U87MG cells. These results provide evidence that Tspn8 contributes to the pathogenesis of glioblastoma probably by promoting proliferation, migration and TMZ-resistance of glioma cells. Therefore, targeting Tspn8 may provide a potential therapeutic intervention for malignant glioma. - Highlights: • Tspn8 is over-expressed in multiple clinical malignant glioma tissues. • Tspn8 expression is correlated with the grade of malignant gliomas. • Tspn8 knockdown suppresses U251MG/U87MG proliferation and in vitro migration. • Tspn8 knockdown significantly increases TMZ sensitivity in U251MG/U87MG cells. • Tspn8 forms a complex with FAK, required for FAK activation.« less

  7. HOXB4 overexpression mediates very rapid stem cell regeneration and competitive hematopoietic repopulation.

    PubMed

    Antonchuk, J; Sauvageau, G; Humphries, R K

    2001-09-01

    Hox transcription factors have emerged as important regulators of hematopoiesis. In particular, we have shown that overexpression of HOXB4 in mouse bone marrow can greatly enhance the level of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) regeneration achieved at late times (> 4 months) posttransplantation. The objective of this study was to resolve if HOXB4 increases the rate and/or duration of HSC regeneration, and also to see if this enhancement was associated with impaired production of end cells or would lead to competitive reconstitution of all compartments. Retroviral vectors were generated with the GFP reporter gene +/- HOXB4 to enable the isolation and direct tracking of transduced cells in culture or following transplantation. Stem cell recovery was measured by limit dilution assay for long-term competitive repopulating cells (CRU). HOXB4-overexpressing cells have enhanced growth in vitro, as demonstrated by their rapid dominance in mixed cultures and their shortened population doubling time. Furthermore, HOXB4-transduced cells have a marked competitive repopulating advantage in vivo in both primitive and mature compartments. CRU recovery in HOXB4 recipients was extremely rapid, reaching 25% of normal by 14 days posttransplant or some 80-fold greater than control transplant recipients, and attaining normal numbers by 12 weeks. Mice transplanted with even higher numbers of HOXB4-transduced CRU regenerated up to but not beyond the normal CRU levels. HOXB4 is a potent enhancer of primitive hematopoietic cell growth, likely by increasing self-renewal probability but without impairing homeostatic control of HSC population size or the rate of production and maintenance of mature end cells.

  8. Adenoviral overexpression of Lhx2 attenuates cell viability but does not preserve the stem cell like phenotype of hepatic stellate cells

    SciTech Connect

    Genz, Berit; Thomas, Maria; Pützer, Brigitte M.

    2014-11-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are well known initiators of hepatic fibrosis. After liver cell damage, HSC transdifferentiate into proliferative myofibroblasts, representing the major source of extracellular matrix in the fibrotic organ. Recent studies also demonstrate a role of HSC as progenitor or stem cell like cells in liver regeneration. Lhx2 is described as stem cell maintaining factor in different organs and as an inhibitory transcription factor in HSC activation. Here we examined whether a continuous expression of Lhx2 in HSC could attenuate their activation and whether Lhx2 could serve as a potential target for antifibrotic gene therapy. Therefore, we evaluatedmore » an adenoviral mediated overexpression of Lhx2 in primary HSC and investigated mRNA expression patterns by qRT-PCR as well as the activation status by different in vitro assays. HSC revealed a marked increase in activation markers like smooth muscle actin alpha (αSMA) and collagen 1α independent from adenoviral transduction. Lhx2 overexpression resulted in attenuated cell viability as shown by a slightly hampered migratory and contractile phenotype of HSC. Expression of stem cell factors or signaling components was also unaffected by Lhx2. Summarizing these results, we found no antifibrotic or stem cell maintaining effect of Lhx2 overexpression in primary HSC. - Highlights: • We performed adenoviral overexpression of Lhx2 in primary hepatic stellate cells. • Hepatic stellate cells expressed stem cell markers during cultivation. • Cell migration and contractility was slightly hampered upon Lhx2 overexpression. • Lhx2 overexpression did not affect stem cell character of hepatic stellate cells.« less

  9. Overexpression of Catalase in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Prevents the Formation of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Parastatidis, Ioannis; Weiss, Daiana; Joseph, Giji; Taylor, W Robert

    2013-01-01

    Objective Elevated levels of oxidative stress have been reported in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), but which reactive oxygen species (ROS) promotes the development of AAA remains unclear. Here we investigate the effect of the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) degrading enzyme catalase on the formation of AAA. Approach and Results AAA were induced with the application of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on mouse infrarenal aortas. The administration of PEG-catalase, but not saline, attenuated the loss of tunica media and protected against AAA formation (0.91±0.1 mm vs. 0.76±0.09 mm). Similarly, in a transgenic mouse model, catalase over-expression in the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) preserved the thickness of tunica media and inhibited aortic dilatation by 50% (0.85±0.14 mm vs. 0.57±0.08 mm). Further studies showed that injury with CaCl2 decreased catalase expression and activity in the aortic wall. Pharmacologic administration or genetic over-expression of catalase restored catalase activity and subsequently decreased matrix metalloproteinase activity. In addition, a profound reduction in inflammatory markers and VSMC apoptosis was evident in aortas of catalase over-expressing mice. Interestingly, as opposed to infusion of PEG-catalase, chronic over-expression of catalase in VSMC did not alter the total aortic H2O2 levels. Conclusions The data suggest that a reduction in aortic wall catalase activity can predispose to AAA formation. Restoration of catalase activity in the vascular wall enhances aortic VSMC survival and prevents AAA formation primarily through modulation of matrix metalloproteinase activity. PMID:23950141

  10. Notch3 overexpression causes arrest of cell cycle progression by inducing Cdh1 expression in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Fa; Dou, Xiao-Wei; Liang, Yuan-Ke; Lin, Hao-Yu; Bai, Jing-Wen; Zhang, Xi-Xun; Wei, Xiao-Long; Li, Yao-Chen; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Uncontrolled cell proliferation, genomic instability and cancer are closely related to the abnormal activation of the cell cycle. Therefore, blocking the cell cycle of cancer cells has become one of the key goals for treating malignancies. Unfortunately, the factors affecting cell cycle progression remain largely unknown. In this study, we have explored the effects of Notch3 on the cell cycle in breast cancer cell lines by 3 methods: overexpressing the intra-cellular domain of Notch3 (N3ICD), knocking-down Notch3 by RNA interference, and using X-ray radiation exposure. The results revealed that overexpression of Notch3 arrested the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase, and inhibited the proliferation and colony-formation rate in the breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231. Furthermore, overexpressing N3ICD upregulated Cdh1 expression and resulted in p27(Kip) accumulation by accelerating Skp2 degradation. Conversely, silencing of Notch3 in the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, caused a decrease in expression levels of Cdh1 and p27(Kip) at both the protein and mRNA levels, while the expression of Skp2 only increased at the protein level. Correspondingly, there was an increase in the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase and an elevated proliferative ability and colony-formation rate, which may be caused by alterations of the Cdh1/Skp2/p27 axis. These results were also supported by exposing MDA-MB-231 cells or MCF-7 treated with siN3 to X-irradiation at various doses. Overall, our data showed that overexpression of N3ICD upregulated the expression of Cdh1 and caused p27(Kip) accumulation by accelerating Skp2 degradation, which in turn led to cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, in the context of proliferating breast cancer cell lines. These findings help to illuminate the precision therapy targeted to cell cycle progression, required for cancer treatment.

  11. Heparanase overexpression down-regulates syndecan-1 expression in a gallbladder carcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hao; Yang, Song; Cao, Hai-ming

    2017-01-01

    Objective To discuss the relevance of heparanase and syndecan-1 and regulation of the heparanase-syndecan1 axis in the invasiveness of gallbladder carcinoma cells. Methods 1. Generation of a gallbladder cancer cell line overexpressing a heparanase (GBD-SD) transgene. 2. Western blot analysis of syndecan-1 levels of GBD-SD and control gallbladder carcinoma (GBC-SD) cells. 3. RT-PCR analysis of syndecan-1 mRNA levels of GBD-SD and GBC-SD. 4. Evaluation of invasion and migration of GBD-SD and GBC-SD cells. Results 1. Heparanase expression in GBD-SD cells was significantly increased. 2. The syndecan-1 mRNA level of GBD-SD cells was significantly lower compared with that of GBC-SD cells. 3. The syndecan-1 DNA copy number in GBD-SD cells was significantly lower compared with that of GBC-SD. 4. The invasiveness and migration of GBD-SD cells were significantly higher compared with GBC-SD cells. Conclusions 1. The expression of heparanase negatively correlated with that of syndecan-1 in a gallbladder carcinoma cell line. 2. The expression of heparanase and syndecan-1 in gallbladder carcinomas negatively correlated, similar to other tumours. 3. The heparanase/syndecan1 axis in gallbladder carcinoma plays an important role in the invasion and metastasis, thus providing a new therapeutic target. 4. Further research is required to identify the detailed mechanisms. PMID:28351285

  12. Changes in Cell Wall Properties Coincide with Overexpression of Extensin Fusion Proteins in Suspension Cultured Tobacco Cells

    DOE PAGES

    Tan, Li; Pu, Yunqiao; Pattathil, Sivakumar; ...

    2014-12-23

    Extensins are one subfamily of the cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins, containing characteristic SerHyp4 glycosylation motifs and intermolecular cross-linking motifs such as the TyrXaaTyr sequence. Extensins are believed to form a cross-linked network in the plant cell wall through the tyrosine-derivatives isodityrosine, pulcherosine, and di-isodityrosine. Overexpression of three synthetic genes encoding different elastin-arabinogalactan protein-extensin hybrids in tobacco suspension cultured cells yielded novel cross-linking glycoproteins that shared features of the extensins, arabinogalactan proteins and elastin. The cell wall properties of the three transgenic cell lines were all changed, but in different ways. One transgenic cell line showed decreased cellulose crystallinity and increasedmore » wall xyloglucan content; the second transgenic cell line contained dramatically increased hydration capacity and notably increased cell wall biomass, increased di-isodityrosine, and increased protein content; the third transgenic cell line displayed wall phenotypes similar to wild type cells, except changed xyloglucan epitope extractability. In conclusion, these data indicate that overexpression of modified extensins may be a route to engineer plants for bioenergy and biomaterial production.« less

  13. Changes in cell wall properties coincide with overexpression of extensin fusion proteins in suspension cultured tobacco cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Li; Pu, Yunqiao; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Avci, Utku; Qian, Jin; Arter, Allison; Chen, Liwei; Hahn, Michael G; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Kieliszewski, Marcia J

    2014-01-01

    Extensins are one subfamily of the cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins, containing characteristic SerHyp4 glycosylation motifs and intermolecular cross-linking motifs such as the TyrXaaTyr sequence. Extensins are believed to form a cross-linked network in the plant cell wall through the tyrosine-derivatives isodityrosine, pulcherosine, and di-isodityrosine. Overexpression of three synthetic genes encoding different elastin-arabinogalactan protein-extensin hybrids in tobacco suspension cultured cells yielded novel cross-linking glycoproteins that shared features of the extensins, arabinogalactan proteins and elastin. The cell wall properties of the three transgenic cell lines were all changed, but in different ways. One transgenic cell line showed decreased cellulose crystallinity and increased wall xyloglucan content; the second transgenic cell line contained dramatically increased hydration capacity and notably increased cell wall biomass, increased di-isodityrosine, and increased protein content; the third transgenic cell line displayed wall phenotypes similar to wild type cells, except changed xyloglucan epitope extractability. These data indicate that overexpression of modified extensins may be a route to engineer plants for bioenergy and biomaterial production.

  14. Elastin overexpression by cell-based gene therapy preserves matrix and prevents cardiac dilation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shu-Hong; Sun, Zhuo; Guo, Lily; Han, Mihan; Wood, Michael F G; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Alex Vitkin, I; Weisel, Richard D; Li, Ren-Ke

    2012-01-01

    After a myocardial infarction, thinning and expansion of the fibrotic scar contribute to progressive heart failure. The loss of elastin is a major contributor to adverse extracellular matrix remodelling of the infarcted heart, and restoration of the elastic properties of the infarct region can prevent ventricular dysfunction. We implanted cells genetically modified to overexpress elastin to re-establish the elastic properties of the infarcted myocardium and prevent cardiac failure. A full-length human elastin cDNA was cloned, subcloned into an adenoviral vector and then transduced into rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). In vitro studies showed that BMSCs expressed the elastin protein, which was deposited into the extracellular matrix. Transduced BMSCs were injected into the infarcted myocardium of adult rats. Control groups received either BMSCs transduced with the green fluorescent protein gene or medium alone. Elastin deposition in the infarcted myocardium was associated with preservation of myocardial tissue structural integrity (by birefringence of polarized light; P < 0.05 versus controls). As a result, infarct scar thickness and diastolic compliance were maintained and infarct expansion was prevented (P < 0.05 versus controls). Over a 9-week period, rats implanted with BMSCs demonstrated better cardiac function than medium controls; however, rats receiving BMSCs overexpressing elastin showed the greatest functional improvement (P < 0.01). Overexpression of elastin in the infarcted heart preserved the elastic structure of the extracellular matrix, which, in turn, preserved diastolic function, prevented ventricular dilation and preserved cardiac function. This cell-based gene therapy provides a new approach to cardiac regeneration. PMID:22435995

  15. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase overexpression restores the efficiency of bone marrow mononuclear cell-based therapy.

    PubMed

    Mees, Barend; Récalde, Alice; Loinard, Céline; Tempel, Dennie; Godinho, Marcia; Vilar, José; van Haperen, Rien; Lévy, Bernard; de Crom, Rini; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) enhance postischemic neovascularization, and their therapeutic use is currently under clinical investigation. However, cardiovascular risk factors, including diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia, lead to the abrogation of BMMNCs proangiogenic potential. NO has been shown to be critical for the proangiogenic function of BMMNCs, and increased endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity promotes vessel growth in ischemic conditions. We therefore hypothesized that eNOS overexpression could restore both the impaired neovascularization response and decreased proangiogenic function of BMMNCs in clinically relevant models of diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Transgenic eNOS overexpression in diabetic, atherosclerotic, and wild-type mice induced a 1.5- to 2.3-fold increase in postischemic neovascularization compared with control. eNOS overexpression in diabetic or atherosclerotic BMMNCs restored their reduced proangiogenic potential in ischemic hind limb. This effect was associated with an increase in BMMNC ability to differentiate into cells with endothelial phenotype in vitro and in vivo and an increase in BMMNCs paracrine function, including vascular endothelial growth factor A release and NO-dependent vasodilation. Moreover, although wild-type BMMNCs treatment resulted in significant progression of atherosclerotic plaque in ischemic mice, eNOS transgenic atherosclerotic BMMNCs treatment even had antiatherogenic effects. Cell-based eNOS gene therapy has both proangiogenic and antiatherogenic effects and should be further investigated for the development of efficient therapeutic neovascularization designed to treat ischemic cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. NDRG2 overexpression suppresses hepatoma cells survival during metabolic stress through disturbing the activation of fatty acid oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Tao; Xi'an Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province; Zhang, Mei

    Because of the high nutrient consumption and inadequate vascularization, solid tumor constantly undergoes metabolic stress during tumor development. Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes participated in cancer cells' metabolic reprogramming. N-Myc downstream regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is a recently identified tumor suppressor gene, but its function in cancer metabolism, particularly during metabolic stress, remains unclear. In this study, we found that NDRG2 overexpression significantly reduced hepatoma cell proliferation and enhanced cell apoptosis under glucose limitation. Moreover, NDRG2 overexpression aggravated energy imbalance and oxidative stress by decreasing the intracellular ATP and NADPH generation and increasing ROS levels. Strikingly, NDRG2 inhibited the activationmore » of fatty acid oxidation (FAO), which preserves ATP and NADPH purveyance in the absence of glucose. Finally, mechanistic investigation showed that NDRG2 overexpression suppressed the glucose-deprivation induced AMPK/ACC pathway activation in hepatoma cells, whereas the expression of a constitutively active form of AMPK abrogated glucose-deprivation induced AMPK activation and cell apoptosis. Thus, as a negative regulator of AMPK, NDRG2 disturbs the induction of FAO genes by glucose limitation, leading to dysregulation of ATP and NADPH, and thus reduces the tolerance of hepatoma cells to glucose limitation. - Highlights: • NDRG2 overexpression reduces the tolerance of hepatoma cells to glucose limitation. • NDRG2 overexpression aggravates energy imbalance and oxidative stress under glucose deprivation. • NDRG2 overexpression disturbs the activation of FAO in hepatoma cells under glucose limitation. • NDRG2 overexpression inhibits the activation of AMPK/ACC pathway in hepatoma cells during glucose starvation.« less

  17. Overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha improves vasculogenesis-related functions of endothelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Kütscher, Christian; Lampert, Florian M; Kunze, Mirjam; Markfeld-Erol, Filiz; Stark, G Björn; Finkenzeller, Günter

    2016-05-01

    Postnatal vasculogenesis is mediated by mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from bone marrow and homing to ischemic tissues. This feature emphasizes this cell type for cell-based therapies aiming at the improvement of neovascularization in tissue engineering applications and regenerative medicine. In animal models, it was demonstrated that implantation of EPCs from cord blood (cbEPCs) led to the formation of a complex functional neovasculature, whereas EPCs isolated from adult peripheral blood (pbEPCs) showed a limited vasculogenic potential, which may be attributed to age-related dysfunction. Recently, it was demonstrated that activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α) improves cell functions of progenitor cells of mesenchymal and endothelial origin. Thus, we hypothesized that overexpression of Hif-1α may improve the vasculogenesis-related phenotype of pbEPCs. In the present study, we overexpressed Hif-1α in pbEPCs and cbEPCs by using recombinant adenoviruses and investigated effects on stem cell- and vasculogenesis-related cell parameters. Overexpression of Hif-1α enhanced proliferation, invasion, cell survival and in vitro capillary sprout formation of both EPC populations. Migration was increased in cbEPCs upon Hif-1α overexpression, but not in pbEPCs. Cellular senescence was decreased in pbEPCs, while remained in cbEPCs, which showed, as expected, intrinsically a dramatically lower senescent phenotype in relation to pbEPCs. Similarly, the colony-formation capacity was much higher in cbEPCs in comparison to pbEPCs and was further increased by Hif-1α overexpression, whereas Hif-1α transduction exerted no significant influence on colony formation of pbEPCs. In summary, our experiments illustrated multifarious effects of Hif-1α overexpression on stem cell and vasculogenic parameters. Therefore, Hif-1α overexpression may represent a therapeutic option to improve cellular functions of adult as well as postnatal EPCs. Copyright

  18. TRIM29 Overexpression Promotes Proliferation and Survival of Bladder Cancer Cells through NF-κB Signaling.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shu-Tao; Liu, Sheng-Ye; Wu, Bin

    2016-10-01

    TRIM29 overexpression has been reported in several human malignancies and showed correlation with cancer cell malignancy. The aim of the current study is to examine its clinical significance and biological roles in human bladder cancer tissues and cell lines. A total of 102 cases of bladder cancer tissues were examined for TRIM29 expression by immunohistochemistry. siRNA and plasmid transfection were performed in 5637 and BIU-87 cell lines. Cell Counting Kit-8, flow cytometry, western blot, and real-time polymerase chain reaction were performed to examine its biological roles and mechanism in bladder cancer cells. We found that TRIM29 overexpression showed correlation with invading depth (p=0.0087). Knockdown of TRIM29 expression in bladder cancer cell line 5637 inhibited cell growth rate and cell cycle transition while its overexpression in BIU-87 cells accelerated cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. TRIM29 overexpression also inhibited cell apoptosis induced by cisplatin. In addition, we demonstrated that TRIM29 depletion decreased while its overexpression led to upregulated expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, and Bcl-2. We also showed that TRIM29 knockdown inhibited protein kinase C (PKC) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling while its overexpression stimulated the PKC and NF-κB pathways. BAY 11-7082 (NF-κB inhibitor) partly attenuated the effect of TRIM29 on expression of cyclin and Bcl-2. Treatment with PKC inhibitor staurosporine resulted in ameliorated TRIM29 induced activation of NF-κB. The current study demonstrated that TRIM29 upregulates cyclin and Bcl family proteins level to facilitate malignant cell growth and inhibit drug-induced apoptosis in bladder cancer, possibly through PKC-NF-κB signaling pathways.

  19. Overexpression of an archaeal geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase in Escherichia coli cells.

    PubMed

    Ohto, C; Nakane, H; Hemmi, H; Ohnuma, S; Obata, S; Nishino, T

    1998-06-01

    An archaeal geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase was overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells as fusion proteins. These fusion proteins retained their thermostability and had higher specific activity than did a partially purified native enzyme Previously reported. We purified 24.3 mg of MBP (maltose-binding protein)-fusion protein and 5.4 mg of GST (glutathione S-transferase)-fusion protein from a one-liter culture of E. coli. The MBP-fusion proteins existed in dimer, tetramer, octamer, or dodecamer form, and their product specificities were altered according to the oligomerization. The MBP-fusion protein has protease-sensitive sites in the portion corresponding to geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase.

  20. Overexpression of TRPV3 Correlates with Tumor Progression in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaolei; Zhang, Qianhui; Fan, Kai; Li, Baiyan; Li, Huifeng; Qi, Hanping; Guo, Jing; Cao, Yonggang; Sun, Hongli

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: Transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 (TRPV3) is a member of the TRP channels family of Ca2+-permeant channels. The proteins of some TRP channels are highly expressed in cancer cells. This study aimed to assess the clinical significance and biological functions of TRPV3 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); (2) Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of TRPV3 in NSCLC tissues and adjacent noncancerous lung tissues. Western blot was used to detect the protein expressions of TRPV3, CaMKII, p-CaMKII, CyclinA, CyclinD, CyclinE1, CDK2, CDK4, and P27. Small interfering RNA was used to deplete TRPV3 expression. A laser scanning confocal microscope was used to measure intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell cycle; (3) Results: TRPV3 was overexpressed in 65 of 96 (67.7%) human lung cancer cases and correlated with differentiation (p = 0.001) and TNM stage (p = 0.004). Importantly, TRPV3 expression was associated with short overall survival. In addition, blocking or knockdown of TRPV3 could inhibit lung cancer cell proliferation. Moreover, TRPV3 inhibition could decrease [Ca2+]i of lung cancer cells and arrest cell cycle at the G1/S boundary. Further results revealed that TRPV3 inhibition decreased expressions of p-CaMKII, CyclinA, CyclinD1, CyclinE, and increased P27 level; (4) Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that TRPV3 was overexpressed in NSCLC and correlated with lung cancer progression. TRPV3 activation could promote proliferation of lung cancer cells. TRPV3 might serve as a potential companion drug target in NSCLC. PMID:27023518

  1. Overexpression of TRPV3 Correlates with Tumor Progression in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolei; Zhang, Qianhui; Fan, Kai; Li, Baiyan; Li, Huifeng; Qi, Hanping; Guo, Jing; Cao, Yonggang; Sun, Hongli

    2016-03-24

    (1) BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 (TRPV3) is a member of the TRP channels family of Ca(2+)-permeant channels. The proteins of some TRP channels are highly expressed in cancer cells. This study aimed to assess the clinical significance and biological functions of TRPV3 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); (2) METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of TRPV3 in NSCLC tissues and adjacent noncancerous lung tissues. Western blot was used to detect the protein expressions of TRPV3, CaMKII, p-CaMKII, CyclinA, CyclinD, CyclinE1, CDK2, CDK4, and P27. Small interfering RNA was used to deplete TRPV3 expression. A laser scanning confocal microscope was used to measure intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell cycle; (3) RESULTS: TRPV3 was overexpressed in 65 of 96 (67.7%) human lung cancer cases and correlated with differentiation (p = 0.001) and TNM stage (p = 0.004). Importantly, TRPV3 expression was associated with short overall survival. In addition, blocking or knockdown of TRPV3 could inhibit lung cancer cell proliferation. Moreover, TRPV3 inhibition could decrease [Ca(2+)]i of lung cancer cells and arrest cell cycle at the G1/S boundary. Further results revealed that TRPV3 inhibition decreased expressions of p-CaMKII, CyclinA, CyclinD1, CyclinE, and increased P27 level; (4) CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that TRPV3 was overexpressed in NSCLC and correlated with lung cancer progression. TRPV3 activation could promote proliferation of lung cancer cells. TRPV3 might serve as a potential companion drug target in NSCLC.

  2. Overexpression of angiotensin II type 2 receptor promotes apoptosis and impairs insulin secretion in rat insulinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Jing, Danqing; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yu; Yin, Shinan

    2015-02-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II), the major effector hormone of renin-angiotensin system, acts as a promoter of insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus type 2 pathogenesis. Activation of Ang II type 2 receptor (AT2R) has been examined as a potential therapeutic strategy. However, there are conflicting findings regarding the role of AT2R. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of overexpressing AT2R by viral vector transduction on the apoptosis and function of pancreatic β-islet cells. The rat insulinoma cell line, INS-1, was transduced with a recombinant adenoviral vector expressing AT2R (Ad-G-AT2R-EGFP). AT2R overexpression resulted in significantly reduced cell viability and subsequently impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) function in INS-1 cells. Down-regulated expressions of GSIS pathway components, insulin, glucose transporter 2, and glucokinase were associated with AT2R overexpression. Further analysis determined that overexpression of AT2R induced G1-phase cell cycle arrest and Ang II-independent apoptotic cell death as indicated by increased Annexin V staining. To understand the apoptosis signaling triggered by AT2R overexpression, levels of caspase proteins were measured. Overexpression of AT2R significantly induced caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3 cleavage, and decreased Bcl-2, pAkt, and pERK expression levels. AT2R-induced cell apoptosis was successfully blocked by the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK. Our findings suggested that AT2R overexpression triggers the apoptosis of INS-1 cells and dysfunction in insulin secretion. In conclusion, more careful design and consideration are required when applying AT2R-related therapies in treating diabetes.

  3. Overexpression of the erythropoietin receptor in RAMA 37 breast cancer cells alters cell growth and sensitivity to tamoxifen.

    PubMed

    Ilkovičová, Lenka; Trošt, Nina; Szentpéteriová, Erika; Solár, Peter; Komel, Radovan; Debeljak, Nataša

    2017-08-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is the main regulator of erythropoiesis, and its receptor (EPOR) is expressed in various tissues, including tumors. Expression of EPOR in breast cancer tissue has been shown to correlate with expression of the estrogen receptor (ER). However, EPOR promotes proliferation in an EPO-independent manner. In patients with breast cancer, EPOR is associated with impaired tamoxifen response in ER-positive tumors, but not in ER-negative tumors. Furthermore, a positive correlation between EPOR/ER status and increased local cancer recurrence has been demonstrated, and EPOR expression is associated with G-protein coupled ER (GPER). Herein, we assessed the effects of EPOR on cell physiology and tamoxifen response in the absence of EPO stimulation using two cell lines that differ only in their EPOR expression status: RAMA 37 cells (low EPOR expression) and RAMA 37-28 cells (high EPOR expression). Alterations in cell growth, morphology, response to tamoxifen cytotoxicity, and EPOR-activated signal transduction were observed. RAMA 37 cells showed higher proliferation capacity without tamoxifen treatment, while RAMA 37-28 cells were more resistant to tamoxifen and proliferated more rapidly in the presence of tamoxifen. EPOR overexpression induced cell-morphology changes upon tamoxifen treatment, which resulted in the production of cell protrusions and subsequent cell death. Short-term treatment with tamoxifen (6 h) prompted RAMA 37 cells to acquired longer protrusions than RAMA 37-28 cells, which indicated a pre-apoptotic stage. Furthermore, prolonged treatment with tamoxifen (72 h) caused a greater reduction in RAMA 37 cell numbers, which indicated a higher rate of cell death. RAMA 37-28 cells showed prolonged activation of AKT signaling. We propose sustained AKT phosphorylation in EPOR-overexpressing cells as a mechanism that can lead to EPOR-induced tamoxifen resistance.

  4. HCN4-Overexpressing Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Generate a New Rapid Rhythm in Rats with Bradycardia.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yukihiro; Nakamura, Kazufumi; Yoshida, Masashi; Sugiyama, Hiroki; Takano, Makoto; Nagase, Satoshi; Morita, Hiroshi; Kusano, Kengo F; Ito, Hiroshi

    2018-05-30

    A biological pacemaker is expected to solve the persisting problems of an artificial cardiac pacemaker including short battery life, lead breaks, infection, and electromagnetic interference. We previously reported HCN4 overexpression enhances pacemaking ability of mouse embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (mESC-CMs) in vitro. However, the effect of these cells on bradycardia in vivo has remained unclear. Therefore, we transplanted HCN4-overexpressing mESC-CMs into bradycardia model animals and investigated whether they could function as a biological pacemaker. The rabbit Hcn4 gene was transfected into mouse embryonic stem cells and induced HCN4-overexpressing mESC-CMs. Non-cardiomyocytes were removed under serum/glucose-free and lactate-supplemented conditions. Cardiac balls containing 5 × 10 3 mESC-CMs were made by using the hanging drop method. One hundred cardiac balls were injected into the left ventricular free wall of complete atrioventricular block (CAVB) model rats. Heart beats were evaluated using an implantable telemetry system 7 to 30 days after cell transplantation. The result showed that ectopic ventricular beats that were faster than the intrinsic escape rhythm were often observed in CAVB model rats transplanted with HCN4-overexpressing mESC-CMs. On the other hand, the rats transplanted with non-overexpressing mESC-CMs showed sporadic single premature ventricular contraction but not sustained ectopic ventricular rhythms. These results indicated that HCN4-overexpressing mESC-CMs produce rapid ectopic ventricular rhythms as a biological pacemaker.

  5. Stomatin-like protein 2 is overexpressed in cervical cancer and involved in tumor cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Huan; Deng, Yongjian; Liu, Feiye; Chen, Jie; Li, Zheng; Zhao, Kelei; Guan, Xiaoqian; Liang, Weijiang

    2017-01-01

    Stomatin-like protein 2 (SLP-2) is overexpressed in numerous types of human cancer and previous studies revealed that SLP-2 may function in mitochondria. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the expression of SLP-2 in cervical cancer and the association between SLP-2 expression and clinical features, in addition to investigating the role of SLP-2 in the apoptosis of cervical cancer cells. The expression profile of SLP-2 was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. The effect of SLP-2 on cell apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutics in cervical cancer cells was evaluated using Annexin V staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays. The results indicated that SLP-2 expression in cervical cancer was significantly upregulated at the mRNA and protein levels, compared with that in normal cervical tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed significant correlation between SLP-2 protein expression and clinical characteristics, including the squamous cell carcinoma antigen (P=0.003), deep stromal invasion (P=0.021), lymphovascular space involvement (P=0.044) and pelvic lymph node metastasis (P<0.001), which served as independent prognostic factors for predicting the shortening of overall survival time in patients with early-stage cervical cancer. In addition, TUNEL and Annexin V binding assays revealed that silencing SLP-2 expression significantly enhanced the sensitivity of cervical cancer cells to apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutics. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that SLP-2 may be a progressive gene in the development of cervical cancer. Overexpression of SLP-2 serves an important role in the apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells. PMID:29181097

  6. Identification of a Novel Topoisomerase Inhibitor Effective in Cells Overexpressing Drug Efflux Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Fayad, Walid; Fryknäs, Mårten; Brnjic, Slavica; Olofsson, Maria Hägg; Larsson, Rolf; Linder, Stig

    2009-01-01

    Background Natural product structures have high chemical diversity and are attractive as lead structures for discovery of new drugs. One of the disease areas where natural products are most frequently used as therapeutics is oncology. Method and Findings A library of natural products (NCI Natural Product set) was screened for compounds that induce apoptosis of HCT116 colon carcinoma cells using an assay that measures an endogenous caspase-cleavage product. One of the apoptosis-inducing compounds identified in the screen was thaspine (taspine), an alkaloid from the South American tree Croton lechleri. The cortex of this tree is used for medicinal purposes by tribes in the Amazonas basin. Thaspine was found to induce conformational activation of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bak and Bax, mitochondrial cytochrome c release and mitochondrial membrane permeabilization in HCT116 cells. Analysis of the gene expression signature of thaspine-treated cells suggested that thaspine is a topoisomerase inhibitor. Inhibition of both topoisomerase I and II was observed using in vitro assays, and thaspine was found to have a reduced cytotoxic effect on a cell line with a mutated topoisomerase II enzyme. Interestingly, in contrast to the topoisomerase II inhibitors doxorubicin, etoposide and mitoxantrone, thaspine was cytotoxic to cell lines overexpressing the PgP or MRP drug efflux transporters. We finally show that thaspine induces wide-spread apoptosis in colon carcinoma multicellular spheroids and that apoptosis is induced in two xenograft mouse models in vivo. Conclusions The alkaloid thaspine from the cortex of Croton lechleri is a dual topoisomerase inhibitor effective in cells overexpressing drug efflux transporters and induces wide-spread apoptosis in multicellular spheroids. PMID:19798419

  7. Identification of a novel topoisomerase inhibitor effective in cells overexpressing drug efflux transporters.

    PubMed

    Fayad, Walid; Fryknäs, Mårten; Brnjic, Slavica; Olofsson, Maria Hägg; Larsson, Rolf; Linder, Stig

    2009-10-02

    Natural product structures have high chemical diversity and are attractive as lead structures for discovery of new drugs. One of the disease areas where natural products are most frequently used as therapeutics is oncology. A library of natural products (NCI Natural Product set) was screened for compounds that induce apoptosis of HCT116 colon carcinoma cells using an assay that measures an endogenous caspase-cleavage product. One of the apoptosis-inducing compounds identified in the screen was thaspine (taspine), an alkaloid from the South American tree Croton lechleri. The cortex of this tree is used for medicinal purposes by tribes in the Amazonas basin. Thaspine was found to induce conformational activation of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bak and Bax, mitochondrial cytochrome c release and mitochondrial membrane permeabilization in HCT116 cells. Analysis of the gene expression signature of thaspine-treated cells suggested that thaspine is a topoisomerase inhibitor. Inhibition of both topoisomerase I and II was observed using in vitro assays, and thaspine was found to have a reduced cytotoxic effect on a cell line with a mutated topoisomerase II enzyme. Interestingly, in contrast to the topoisomerase II inhibitors doxorubicin, etoposide and mitoxantrone, thaspine was cytotoxic to cell lines overexpressing the PgP or MRP drug efflux transporters. We finally show that thaspine induces wide-spread apoptosis in colon carcinoma multicellular spheroids and that apoptosis is induced in two xenograft mouse models in vivo. The alkaloid thaspine from the cortex of Croton lechleri is a dual topoisomerase inhibitor effective in cells overexpressing drug efflux transporters and induces wide-spread apoptosis in multicellular spheroids.

  8. [Overexpressed miRNA-134b inhibits proliferation and invasion of CD133+ U87 glioma stem cells].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yifeng; Zhang, Baochao; Wen, Changming; Wen, Gongling; Zhou, Guoping; Zhang, Jingwei; He, Haifa; Wang, Ning; Li, Wei

    2017-05-01

    Objective To investigate the role of microRNA-134b (miR-134b) in the tumorigenesis of glioma stem cells (GSCs) and the possible molecular mechanism. Methods Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to evalate the expression of miR-134b in CD133 + and CD133 - U87 GSCs. A lentiviral vector overexpressing miR-134b in U87 GSCs was constructed, and the effect of miR-134b overexpression on matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9 and MMP-12 expressions at both mRNA and protein levels were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Transwell TM assay was performed to determine the effect of miR-134b overexpression on GSCs invasion ability. Tumor xenograft models in nude mice were established to evaluate the effect of miR-134b overexpression on tumorgenesis in vivo. Results The qRT-PCR showed that, compared with CD133 - cells, miR-134b was significantly down-regulated in CD133 + cells. Cell line over-expressing miR-134b was successfully established, and miR-134b was up-regulated significantly compared with empty vector control. Overexpression of miR-134b remarkably inhibited the invasion of U87 GSCs and the expression of MMP-12. However, overexpression of miR-134b did not affect MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions. miR-134b also suppressed U87 GSCs xenograft growth in vivo. Tumor volume in tumor xenograft model group was significantly lower than that in control group, and tumor weight decreased by 42% in the former group. Conclusion Overexpression of miR-134b inhibits the growth and invasion of CD133 + GSCs.

  9. Over-expression of mammalian sialidase NEU3 reduces Newcastle disease virus entry and propagation in COS7 cells.

    PubMed

    Anastasia, Luigi; Holguera, Javier; Bianchi, Anna; D'Avila, Francesca; Papini, Nadia; Tringali, Cristina; Monti, Eugenio; Villar, Enrique; Venerando, Bruno; Muñoz-Barroso, Isabel; Tettamanti, Guido

    2008-03-01

    The paramyxovirus Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) binds to sialic acid-containing glycoconjugates, sialoglycoproteins and sialoglycolipids (gangliosides) of host cell plasma membrane through its hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (sialidase) HN glycoprotein. We hypothesized that the modifications of the cell surface ganglioside pattern determined by over-expression of the mammalian plasma-membrane associated, ganglioside specific, sialidase NEU3 would affect the virus-host cell interactions. Using COS7 cells as a model system, we observed that over-expression of the murine MmNEU3 did not affect NDV binding but caused a marked reduction in NDV infection and virus propagation through cell-cell fusion. Moreover, since GD1a was greatly reduced in COS7 cells following NEU3-over-expression, we added [(3)H]-labelled GD1a to COS7 cells under conditions that block intralysosomal metabolic processing, and we observed a marked increase of GD1a cleavage to GM1 during NDV infection, indicating a direct involvement of the virus sialidase and host cell GD1a in NDV infectivity. Therefore, the decrease of GD1a in COS7 cell membrane upon MmNEU3 over-expression is likely to be instrumental to NDV reduced infection. Evidence was also provided for the preferential association of NDV-HN at 4 degrees C to detergent resistant microdomains (DRMs) of COS7 cells plasma membranes.

  10. Overexpression of {alpha}-catenin increases osteoblastic differentiation in mouse mesenchymal C3H10T1/2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dohee; Yang, Jae-Yeon; Shin, Chan Soo, E-mail: csshin@snu.ac.kr

    2009-05-15

    {alpha}- and {beta}-Catenin link cadherins to the actin-based cytoskeleton at adherens junctions and regulate cell-cell adhesion. Although roles of cadherins and canonical Wnt-/{beta}-catenin-signaling in osteoblastic differentiation have been extensively studied, the role of {alpha}-catenin is not known. Murine embryonic mesenchymal stem cells, C3H10T1/2 cells, were transduced with retrovirus encoding {alpha}-catenin (MSCV-{alpha}-catenin-HA-GFP). In the presence of Wnt-3A conditioned medium or osteogenic medium ({beta}-glycerol phosphate and ascorbic acid), cells overexpressing {alpha}-catenin showed enhanced osteoblastic differentiation as measured by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and ALP activity assay compared to cells transduced with empty virus (MSCV-GFP). In addition, mRNA expression of osteocalcin and Runx2more » was significantly increased compared to control. Cell aggregation assay revealed that {alpha}-catenin overexpression has significantly increased cell-cell aggregation. However, cellular {beta}-catenin levels (total, cytoplasmic-nuclear ratio) and {beta}-catenin-TCF/LEF transcriptional activity did not change by overexpression of {alpha}-catenin. Knock-down of {alpha}-catenin using siRNA decreased osteoblastic differentiation as measured by ALP assay. These results suggest that {alpha}-catenin overexpression increases osteoblastic differentiation by increasing cell-cell adhesion rather than Wnt-/{beta}-catenin-signaling.« less

  11. Overexpression of P-glycoprotein induces acquired resistance to imatinib in chronic myelogenous leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xing-Xiang; Tiwari, Amit K.; Wu, Hsiang-Chun; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Imatinib, a breakpoint cluster region (BCR)-Abelson murine leukemia (ABL) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), has revolutionized the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). However, development of multidrug resistance (MDR) limits the use of imatinib. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the mechanisms of cellular resistance to imatinib in CML. Therefore, we established an imatinib-resistant human CML cell line (K562-imatinib) through a stepwise selection process. While characterizing the phenotype of these cells, we found that K562-imatinib cells were 124.6-fold more resistant to imatinib than parental K562 cells. In addition, these cells were cross-resistant to second- and third-generation BCR-ABL TKIs. Western blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) demonstrated that P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and MDR1 mRNA levels were increased in K562-imatinib cells. In addition, accumulation of [14C]6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) was decreased, whereas the ATP-dependent efflux of [14C] 6-MP and [3H]methotrexate transport were increased in K562-imatinib cells. These data suggest that the overexpression of P-gp may play a crucial role in acquired resistance to imatinib in CML K562-imatinib cells. PMID:22098951

  12. Overexpression of SASH1 Inhibits TGF-β1-Induced EMT in Gastric Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Zong, Wei; Yu, Chen; Wang, Ping; Dong, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is considered to be one of the critical steps in gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis. SAM- and SH3-domain containing 1 (SASH1), a member of the SLY family of signal adapter proteins, is a candidate for tumor suppression in several cancers. However, the biological role of SASH1 in gastric cancer remains largely unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of SASH1 on the biological behavior of gastric cancer cells treated with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. In the current study, we provide evidence that SASH1 was lowly expressed in human gastric cancer cells, and TGF-β1 also inhibited the expression of SASH1 in TSGH cells. We found that SASH1 inhibited TGF-β1-mediated EMT in TSGH cells, as well as cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, SASH1 obviously inhibited the phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt in TGF-β1-stimulated TSGH cells. In summary, our study is the first to show that overexpression of SASH1 inhibits TGF-β1-induced EMT in gastric cancer cells through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. These results suggest that SASH1 may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  13. Agrin Signalling Contributes to Cell Activation and Is Overexpressed in T Lymphocytes from Lupus Patients1

    PubMed Central

    Jury, Elizabeth C.; Eldridge, Jillian; Isenberg, David A.; Kabouridis, Panagiotis S.

    2008-01-01

    It is shown in this study that the heparan sulfate proteoglycan agrin is overexpressed in T cells isolated from patients with the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Freshly isolated CD4+ and CD8+ subpopulations both exhibited higher expression over healthy controls, which however, gradually declined when cells were cultured in vitro. Agrin expression was induced following in vitro activation of cells via their Ag receptor, or after treatment with IFN-α, a cytokine shown to be pathogenic in lupus. Furthermore, serum from SLE patients with active disease was able to induce agrin expression when added to T cells from healthy donors, an increase that was partially blocked by neutralizing anti-IFN-α Abs. Cross-linking agrin with mAbs resulted in rapid reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, activation of the ERK MAPK cascade, and augmentation of anti-CD3-induced proliferation and IL-10 production, indicating that agrin is a functional receptor in T cells. These results demonstrate that agrin expression in human T cells is regulated by cell activation and IFN-α, and may have an important function during cell activation with potential implications for autoimmunity. PMID:18025246

  14. Hydrogen peroxide production regulates the mitochondrial function in insulin resistant muscle cells: effect of catalase overexpression.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Marina R; Sampaio, Igor H; Teodoro, Bruno G; Sousa, Thais A; Zoppi, Claudio C; Queiroz, André L; Passos, Madla A; Alberici, Luciane C; Teixeira, Felipe R; Manfiolli, Adriana O; Batista, Thiago M; Cappelli, Ana Paula Gameiro; Reis, Rosana I; Frasson, Danúbia; Kettelhut, Isis C; Parreiras-e-Silva, Lucas T; Costa-Neto, Claudio M; Carneiro, Everardo M; Curi, Rui; Silveira, Leonardo R

    2013-10-01

    The mitochondrial redox state plays a central role in the link between mitochondrial overloading and insulin resistance. However, the mechanism by which the ROS induce insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells is not completely understood. We examined the association between mitochondrial function and H2O2 production in insulin resistant cells. Our hypothesis is that the low mitochondrial oxygen consumption leads to elevated ROS production by a mechanism associated with reduced PGC1α transcription and low content of phosphorylated CREB. The cells were transfected with either the encoded sequence for catalase overexpression or the specific siRNA for catalase inhibition. After transfection, myotubes were incubated with palmitic acid (500μM) and the insulin response, as well as mitochondrial function and fatty acid metabolism, was determined. The low mitochondrial oxygen consumption led to elevated ROS production by a mechanism associated with β-oxidation of fatty acids. Rotenone was observed to reduce the ratio of ROS production. The elevated H2O2 production markedly decreased the PGC1α transcription, an effect that was accompanied by a reduced phosphorylation of Akt and CREB. The catalase transfection prevented the reduction in the phosphorylated level of Akt and upregulated the levels of phosphorylated CREB. The mitochondrial function was elevated and H2O2 production reduced, thus increasing the insulin sensitivity. The catalase overexpression improved mitochondrial respiration protecting the cells from fatty acid-induced, insulin resistance. This effect indicates that control of hydrogen peroxide production regulates the mitochondrial respiration preventing the insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells by a mechanism associated with CREB phosphorylation and β-oxidation of fatty acids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhibition of STAT-3 Results in Radiosensitization of Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, James A.; Trummell, Hoa Q.; Willey, Christopher D.; Plants, Brian A.; Raisch, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription – 3 (STAT-3) is a downstream component of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFr) signaling process that may facilitate the resistance of tumor cells to conventional cancer treatments. Studies were performed to determine if inhibition of this downstream protein may produce radiosensitization. Methods/Results A431 cells (human squamous cell carcinoma cells with EGFr overexpression) were found to be sensitized to radiation after treatment with STAT-3 small interfering RNA (siRNA). Therefore, a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against STAT-3 was designed and cloned into a pBABE vector system modified for shRNA expression. Following transfection, clone 2.1 was selected for further study as it showed a dramatic reduction of STAT-3 protein (and mRNA) when compared to A431 parental cells or a negative control shRNA cell line (transfected with STAT-3 shRNA with 2 base pairs mutated). A431 2.1 showed doubling times of 25-31 h as compared to 18-24 h for the parental cell line. The A431 shRNA knockdown STAT-3 cells A431 were more sensitive to radiation than A431 parental or negative STAT-3 control cells. Conclusion A431 cells stably transfected with shRNA against STAT-3 resulted in enhanced radiosensitivity. Further work will be necessary to determine whether inhibition of STAT-3 phosphorylation is a necessary step for the radiosensitization that is induced by inhibition of EGFr. PMID:19616333

  16. Anti-cell death engineering of CHO cells: co-overexpression of Bcl-2 for apoptosis inhibition, Beclin-1 for autophagy induction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Seong; Ha, Tae Kwang; Park, Jin Hyoung; Lee, Gyun Min

    2013-08-01

    Genetic engineering approaches to inhibit cell death in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell cultures have been limited primarily to anti-apoptosis engineering. Recently, autophagy has received attention as a new anti-cell death engineering target in addition to apoptosis. In order to achieve a more efficient protection of cells from the stressful culture conditions, the simultaneous targeting of anti-apoptosis and pro-autophagy in CHO cells (DG44) was attempted by co-overexpressing an anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, and a key regulator of autophagy pathway, Beclin-1, respectively. Co-overexpression of Bcl-2 and Beclin-1 exhibited a longer culture period as well as higher viability during serum-free suspension culture, compared with the control (without co-overexpression of Bcl-2 and Beclin-1) and Bcl-2 overexpression only. In addition to the efficient inhibition of apoptosis by Bcl-2 overexpression, Beclin-1 overexpression successfully induced the increase in the autophagic marker protein, LC3-II, and autophagosome formation with the decrease in mTOR activity. Co-immunoprecipitation and qRT-PCR experiments revealed that the enforced expression of Beclin-1 increased Ulk1 expression and level of free-Beclin-1 that did not bind to the Bcl-2 despite the Bcl-2 overexpression. Under other stressful culture conditions such as treatment with sodium butyrate and hyperosmolality, co-overexpression of Bcl-2 and Beclin-1 also protected the cells from cell death more efficiently than Bcl-2 overexpression only, implying the potential of autophagy induction. Taken together, the data obtained here provide the evidence that pro-autophagy engineering together with anti-apoptosis engineering yields a synergistic effect and successfully enhances the anti-cell death engineering of CHO cells. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Overexpression of a novel cell cycle regulator ecdysoneless in breast cancer: a marker of poor prognosis in HER2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiangshan; Mirza, Sameer; Alshareeda, Alaa; Zhang, Ying; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah Basavaraju; Bele, Aditya; Kim, Jun Hyun; Mohibi, Shakur; Goswami, Monica; Lele, Subodh M; West, William; Qiu, Fang; Ellis, Ian O; Rakha, Emad A; Green, Andrew R; Band, Hamid; Band, Vimla

    2012-07-01

    Uncontrolled proliferation is one of the hallmarks of breast cancer. We have previously identified the human Ecd protein (human ortholog of Drosophila Ecdysoneless, hereafter called Ecd) as a novel promoter of mammalian cell cycle progression, a function related to its ability to remove the repressive effects of Rb-family tumor suppressors on E2F transcription factors. Given the frequent dysregulation of cell cycle regulatory components in human cancer, we used immunohistochemistry of paraffin-embedded tissues to examine Ecd expression in normal breast tissue versus tissues representing increasing breast cancer progression. Initial studies of a smaller cohort without outcomes information showed that Ecd expression was barely detectable in normal breast tissue and in hyperplasia of breast, but high levels of Ecd were detected in benign breast hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDCs) of the breast. In this cohort of 104 IDC patients, Ecd expression levels showed a positive correlation with higher grade (P=0.04). Further analyses of Ecd expression using a larger, independent cohort (954) confirmed these results, with a strong positive correlation of elevated Ecd expression with higher histological grade (P=0.013), mitotic index (P=0.032), and Nottingham Prognostic Index score (P=0.014). Ecd expression was positively associated with HER2/neu (P=0.002) overexpression, a known marker of poor prognosis in breast cancer. Significantly, increased Ecd expression showed a strong positive association with shorter breast cancer specific survival (BCSS) (P=0.008) and disease-free survival (DFS) (P=0.003) in HER2/neu overexpressing patients. Taken together, our results reveal Ecd as a novel marker for breast cancer progression and show that levels of Ecd expression predict poorer survival in Her2/neu overexpressing breast cancer patients.

  18. Neuroprotective effects of Bcl-2 overexpression on nerve cells of rats with acute cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H R; Peng, J H; Zhu, G Y; Xu, R X

    2015-07-13

    We aimed to investigate the influence of lentiviral-mediated Bcl-2 overexpression in cerebral tissues of rats with acute cerebral infarction. Forty-five rats were randomly divided into sham, model, and treatment groups. The sham and model groups were administered a control lentiviral vector via the intracranial arteries 10 days before surgery, while the treatment group received lentivirus encoding a Bcl-2 overexpression vector. We induced cerebral artery infarction using a suture-occlusion method and analyzed the cerebral expression levels of apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3, Bax), total cerebral apoptosis, range of cerebral tissue infarction, and changes in nerve cell function after 72 h. The Bcl-2-encoding lentivirus was well expressed in rat cerebral tissues. The treatment group had significantly higher expression levels of Bcl-2 than the other two groups. After cerebral infarction, the model group had significantly increased expression levels of caspase-3 and Bax protein in cerebral tissues than the sham (P < 0.05). Expression of these apoptosis-related proteins in the treatment group was obviously lower than that in the model group (P < 0.05), but significantly higher than in the sham group (P < 0.05). Compared to sham, neuronal apoptosis levels and infarction range of cerebral tissues was increased in the model and treatment groups; however, these values in the treatment group were significantly lower than that in the model group (P < 0.05). Importantly, the treatment group had significantly decreased neurological impairment scores (P < 0.05). In conclusion, Bcl-2 over-expression can decrease neuronal apoptosis in rat cerebral tissue, and thus is neuroprotective after cerebral ischemia.

  19. Homeobox B9 is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinomas and promotes tumor cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Fangyi; Dong, Lei, E-mail: dlleidong@126.com; Xing, Rong

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • HOXB9 is overexpressed in human HCC samples. • HOXB9 over expression had shorter survival time than down expression. • HOXB9 stimulated the proliferation of HCC cells. • Activation of TGF-β1 contributes to HOXB9-induced proliferation in HCC cells. - Abstract: HomeoboxB9 (HOXB9), a nontransforming transcription factor that is overexpressed in multiple tumor types, alters tumor cell fate and promotes tumor progression. However, the role of HOXB9 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development has not been well studied. In this paper, we found that HOXB9 is overexpressed in human HCC samples. We investigated HOXB9 expression and its prognostic value for HCC.more » HCC surgical tissue samples were taken from 89 HCC patients. HOXB9 overexpression was observed in 65.2% of the cases, and the survival analysis showed that the HOXB9 overexpression group had significantly shorter overall survival time than the HOXB9 downexpression group. The ectopic expression of HOXB9 stimulated the proliferation of HCC cells; whereas the knockdown of HOXB9 produced an opposite effect. HOXB9 also modulated the tumorigenicity of HCC cells in vivo. Moreover, we found that the activation of TGF-β1 contributes to HOXB9-induced proliferation activities. The results provide the first evidence that HOXB9 is a critical regulator of tumor growth factor in HCC.« less

  20. Overexpression of TRIM44 is related to invasive potential and malignant outcomes in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Tsutomu; Komatsu, Shuhei; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Hirajima, Shoji; Nishimura, Yukihisa; Konishi, Hirotaka; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Kazuma; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Otsuji, Eigo

    2017-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that some members of the tripartite motif-containing protein family function as important regulators for carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated whether tripartite motif-containing protein 44 acts as a cancer-promoting gene through its overexpression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. We analyzed esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines to evaluate malignant potential and also analyzed 68 primary tumors to evaluate clinical relevance of tripartite motif-containing protein 44 protein in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients. Expression of the tripartite motif-containing protein 44 protein was detected in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (8/14 cell lines; 57%) and primary tumor samples of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (39/68 cases; 57%). Knockdown of tripartite motif-containing protein 44 expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells using several specific small interfering RNAs inhibited cell migration and invasion, but not cell proliferation. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the overexpression of the tripartite motif-containing protein 44 protein in the tumor infiltrated region was associated with the status of lymph node metastasis ( p = 0.049), and the overall survival rates were significantly worse among patients with tripartite motif-containing protein 44-overexpressing tumors than those with non-expressing tumors ( p = 0.029). Moreover, multivariate Cox regression model identified that overexpression of the tripartite motif-containing protein 44 protein was an independent worse prognostic factor (hazard ratio = 2.815; p = 0.041), as well as lymphatic invasion (hazard ratio = 2.735; p = 0.037). These results suggest that tripartite motif-containing protein 44 protein could play a crucial role in tumor invasion through its overexpression and highlight its usefulness as a predictor and potential therapeutic target in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

  1. Thioredoxin (Trxo1) interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and its overexpression affects the growth of tobacco cell culture.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Aingeru; Ortiz-Espín, Ana; Iglesias-Fernández, Raquel; Carbonero, Pilar; Pallardó, Federico Vicente; Sevilla, Francisca; Jiménez, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Thioredoxins (Trxs), key components of cellular redox regulation, act by controlling the redox status of many target proteins, and have been shown to play an essential role in cell survival and growth. The presence of a Trx system in the nucleus has received little attention in plants, and the nuclear targets of plant Trxs have not been conclusively identified. Thus, very little is known about the function of Trxs in this cellular compartment. Previously, we studied the intracellular localization of PsTrxo1 and confirmed its presence in mitochondria and, interestingly, in the nucleus under standard growth conditions. In investigating the nuclear function of PsTrxo1 we identified proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) as a PsTrxo1 target by means of affinity chromatography techniques using purified nuclei from pea leaves. Such protein-protein interaction was corroborated by dot-blot and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays, which showed that both proteins interact in the nucleus. Moreover, PsTrxo1 showed disulfide reductase activity on previously oxidized recombinant PCNA protein. In parallel, we studied the effects of PsTrxo1 overexpression on Tobacco Bright Yellow-2 (TBY-2) cell cultures. Microscopy and flow-cytometry analysis showed that PsTrxo1 overexpression increases the rate of cell proliferation in the transformed lines, with a higher percentage of the S phase of the cell cycle at the beginning of the cell culture (days 1 and 3) and at the G2/M phase after longer times of culture (day 9), coinciding with an upregulation of PCNA protein. Furthermore, in PsTrxo1 overexpressed cells there is a decrease in the total cellular glutathione content but maintained nuclear GSH accumulation, especially at the end of the culture, which is accompanied by a higher mitotic index, unlike non-overexpressing cells. These results suggest that Trxo1 is involved in the cell cycle progression of TBY-2 cultures, possibly through its link with cellular PCNA

  2. [Effect of LPXN Overexpression on the Proliferation, Adhesion and Invasion of THP-1 Cells and Its Mechamisms].

    PubMed

    Dai, Hai-Ping; Zhu, Guo-Hua; Wu, Li-Li; Wang, Qian; Yao, Hong; Wang, Qin-Rong; Wen, Li-Jun; Qiu, Hui-Ying; Shen, Qun; Chen, Su-Ning; Wu, De-Pei

    2017-06-01

    To explore the effect of LPXN overexpression on the proliferation, adhesion and invasion of THP-1 cells and its possible mechanism. A THP-1 cell line with stable overexpression of LPXN was constucted by using a lentivirus method, CCK-8 was used to detect the proliferation of cells, adhesion test was used to evaluate adhesion ablity of cells to Fn. Transwell assay was used to detect the change of invasion capability. Western blot was used to detect expression of LPXN, ERK, pERK and integrin α4, α5, β1, the Gelatin zymography was applied to detect activity of MMP2/MMP9 secreted by the THP-1 cells. Successful establishment of THP-1 cells with LPXN overexpression (THP-1 LPXN) was confirmed with Western blot. THP-1 LPXN cells were shown to proliferate faster than the control THP-1 vector cells. Adhesion to Fn and expression of ERK, integrin α4, α5 and β1 in the THP-1 LPXN cells were higher than that in the control cells. Invasion across matrigel and enhanced activity of MMP2 could be detected both in the THP-1 LPXN cells as compared with the control cells. Ectopically ovexpression of LPXN may promote proliferation of THP-1 cells through up-regulation of ERK; promote adhesion of THP-1 cells through up-regulating the integrin α4/β1 as well as integrin α5/β1 complex; promote invasion of THP-1 cells through activating MMP2.

  3. Inactivation of CDK2 is synthetically lethal to MYCN over-expressing cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Molenaar, Jan J.; Ebus, Marli E.; Geerts, Dirk; Koster, Jan; Lamers, Fieke; Valentijn, Linda J.; Westerhout, Ellen M.; Versteeg, Rogier; Caron, Huib N.

    2009-01-01

    Two genes have a synthetically lethal relationship when the silencing or inhibiting of 1 gene is only lethal in the context of a mutation or activation of the second gene. This situation offers an attractive therapeutic strategy, as inhibition of such a gene will only trigger cell death in tumor cells with an activated second oncogene but spare normal cells without activation of the second oncogene. Here we present evidence that CDK2 is synthetically lethal to neuroblastoma cells with MYCN amplification and over-expression. Neuroblastomas are childhood tumors with an often lethal outcome. Twenty percent of the tumors have MYCN amplification, and these tumors are ultimately refractory to any therapy. Targeted silencing of CDK2 by 3 RNA interference techniques induced apoptosis in MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cell lines, but not in MYCN single copy cells. Silencing of MYCN abrogated this apoptotic response in MYCN-amplified cells. Inversely, silencing of CDK2 in MYCN single copy cells did not trigger apoptosis, unless a MYCN transgene was activated. The MYCN induced apoptosis after CDK2 silencing was accompanied by nuclear stabilization of P53, and mRNA profiling showed up-regulation of P53 target genes. Silencing of P53 rescued the cells from MYCN-driven apoptosis. The synthetic lethality of CDK2 silencing in MYCN activated neuroblastoma cells can also be triggered by inhibition of CDK2 with a small molecule drug. Treatment of neuroblastoma cells with roscovitine, a CDK inhibitor, at clinically achievable concentrations induced MYCN-dependent apoptosis. The synthetically lethal relationship between CDK2 and MYCN indicates CDK2 inhibitors as potential MYCN-selective cancer therapeutics. PMID:19525400

  4. Convergence of miR-143 overexpression, oxidative stress and cell death in HCT116 human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Sofia E; Pereira, Diane M; Roma-Rodrigues, Catarina; Fernandes, Alexandra R; Borralho, Pedro M; Rodrigues, Cecília M P

    2018-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate a wide variety of biological processes, including tumourigenesis. Altered miRNA expression is associated with deregulation of signalling pathways, which in turn cause abnormal cell growth and de-differentiation, contributing to cancer. miR-143 and miR-145 are anti-tumourigenic and influence the sensitivity of tumour cells to chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Comparative proteomic analysis was performed in HCT116 human colon cancer cells stably transduced with miR-143 or miR-145. Immunoblotting analysis validated the proteomic data in stable and transient miRNA overexpression conditions in human colon cancer cells. We show that approximately 100 proteins are differentially expressed in HCT116 human colon cancer cells stably transduced with miR-143 or miR-145 compared to Empty control cells. Further, Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analysis indicated that proteins involved in specific cell signalling pathways such as cell death, response to oxidative stress, and protein folding might be modulated by these miRNAs. In particular, antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) was downregulated by stable expression of either miR-143 or miR-145. Further, SOD1 gain-of-function experiments rescued cells from miR-143-induced oxidative stress. Moreover, miR-143 overexpression increased oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis associated with reactive oxygen species generation, which was abrogated by genetic and pharmacological inhibition of oxidative stress. Overall, miR-143 might circumvent resistance of colon cancer cells to oxaliplatin via increased oxidative stress in HCT116 human colon cancer cells.

  5. Overexpression of GATA-3 in T cells accelerates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Midori; Yoh, Keigyou; Ojima, Masami; Morito, Naoki; Takahashi, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease, and its pathogenesis includes genetic, environmental, and immunological factors, such as T helper cells and their secreted cytokines. T helper cells are classified as Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells. However, it is unclear which T helper cells are important in UC. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis is a commonly used model of UC. In this study, we induced DSS colitis in Th1 dominant (T-bet transgenic (Tg)) mice, Th2 dominant (GATA-3 Tg) mice, and Th17 dominant (RORγt Tg) mice to elucidate the roles of T helper cell in DSS colitis. The results showed that GATA-3 Tg mice developed the most severe DSS colitis compared with the other groups. GATA-3 Tg mice showed a significant decreased in weight from day 1 to day 7, and an increased high score for the disease activity index compared with the other groups. Furthermore, GATA-3 Tg mice developed many ulcers in the colon, and many neutrophils and macrophages were detected on day 4 after DSS treatment. Measurement of GATA-3-induced cytokines demonstrated that IL-13 was highly expressed in the colon from DSS-induced GATA-3 Tg mice. In conclusion, GATA-3 overexpression in T-cells and IL-13 might play important roles in the development of DSS colitis.

  6. TGF-beta1 expression in EL4 lymphoma cells overexpressing growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Farmer, John T; Weigent, Douglas A

    2006-03-01

    Our previous studies show that growth hormone overexpression (GHo) upregulates the expression of the IGF-1R and IGF-2R resulting in the protection of the EL4 lymphoma cell line from apoptosis. In this study, we report that GHo also increases TGF-beta1 protein expression measured by luciferase promoter assay, Western analysis, and ELISA. Further, the data show that antibody to TGF-betaR2 decreases TGF-beta1 promoter activity to the level of vector alone control cells. GHo cells treated with (125)I-rh-latent TGF-beta1 showed increased activation of latent TGF-beta1 as measured by an increase in the active 24kDa, TGF-beta1 compared to vector alone control cells. The ability of endogenous GH to increase TGF-beta1 expression is blocked in EL4 cells by antisense but not sense oligodeoxynucleotides or in cells cultured with antibody to growth hormone (GH). The data suggest that endogenous GH may protect from apoptosis through the IGF-1R receptor while limiting cellular growth through increased expression and activation of TGF-beta1.

  7. Cyclophilin A Is Overexpressed in Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Is Associated with the Cell Cycle.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhaohua; Chi, Cheng; Huang, Xiaojuan; Chu, Hongjin; Wang, Jiahui; Du, Fengcai; Jiang, Lixin; Chen, Jian

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the expression of cyclophilin A (CypA) in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and explore the effects of CypA on the cell cycle in HCC. CypA expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 48 cases of HCC tissues and paired adjacent tissues. CypA plasmid was transfected into HCC cells and the cell cycle was analyzed. Positivity for CypA was higher in HCC tissues than in adjacent tissues (79.1% vs. 12.5%, p<0.05). Positivity for CypA was significantly higher in stage III and IV HCC than in stage I and II (p<0.05). Elevated CypA induced an increase of the percentage of S-phase cells (from 34.79% to 42.14%) and a decrease of G 0 -G 1 phase cells (from 58.10% to 50.64%). CypA is overexpressed in HCC and is associated with TNM stage. CypA also appears to promote the transition of the cell cycle from G 1 to S phase. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  8. Ectopic overexpression of the cell wall invertase gene CIN1 leads to dehydration avoidance in tomato.

    PubMed

    Albacete, Alfonso; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Großkinsky, Dominik K; Arias, Cintia L; Balibrea, María Encarnación; Bru, Roque; Fragner, Lena; Ghanem, Michel E; González, María de la Cruz; Hernández, Jose A; Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; van der Graaff, Eric; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Zellnig, Günther; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Roitsch, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Drought stress conditions modify source-sink relations, thereby influencing plant growth, adaptive responses, and consequently crop yield. Invertases are key metabolic enzymes regulating sink activity through the hydrolytic cleavage of sucrose into hexose monomers, thus playing a crucial role in plant growth and development. However, the physiological role of invertases during adaptation to abiotic stress conditions is not yet fully understood. Here it is shown that plant adaptation to drought stress can be markedly improved in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) by overexpression of the cell wall invertase (cwInv) gene CIN1 from Chenopodium rubrum. CIN1 overexpression limited stomatal conductance under normal watering regimes, leading to reduced water consumption during the drought period, while photosynthetic activity was maintained. This caused a strong increase in water use efficiency (up to 50%), markedly improving water stress adaptation through an efficient physiological strategy of dehydration avoidance. Drought stress strongly reduced cwInv activity and induced its proteinaceous inhibitor in the leaves of the wild-type plants. However, the CIN1-overexpressing plants registered 3- to 6-fold higher cwInv activity in all analysed conditions. Surprisingly, the enhanced invertase activity did not result in increased hexose concentrations due to the activation of the metabolic carbohydrate fluxes, as reflected by the maintenance of the activity of key enzymes of primary metabolism and increased levels of sugar-phosphate intermediates under water deprivation. The induced sink metabolism in the leaves explained the maintenance of photosynthetic activity, delayed senescence, and increased source activity under drought stress. Moreover, CIN1 plants also presented a better control of production of reactive oxygen species and sustained membrane protection. Those metabolic changes conferred by CIN1 overexpression were accompanied by increases in the concentrations of the

  9. Overexpression of Activin Receptor-like Kinase 7 in Breast Cancer Cells Is Associated with Decreased Cell Growth and Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tingting; Su, Fengxi; Jiang, Wenguo; Dart, D Alwyn

    2017-07-01

    To examine the expression and function of activin receptor-like kinase 7 (ALK7) in breast cancer, its association with disease prognosis, and its impact on breast cancer cell function. A cohort of patients with breast cancer were examined for ALK7 expression in association with pathological and clinical aspects. In vitro cell assays of ALK7 were investigated using an expression plasmid. Overall higher levels of ALK7 transcripts were seen in the breast cancer samples vs. normal tissue. However, within the cancer cohort, lower levels of ALK7 transcript were associated with poor prognosis. Patients with lower expression of ALK7 also had shorter survival. Overexpression of ALK7 reduced proliferation and adhesion of breast cancer cells in vitro. We found that overexpressed ALK7 had complex effects on the MCF-7 cell sensitivity to chemotherapy drugs. Decreased expression of ALK7 in breast cancer is correlated with poor prognosis. ALK7 is a negative regulator of adhesion and proliferation of breast cancer cells. This suggests that ALK7 is a potential tumor suppressor in breast cancer. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  10. Glutathione peroxidase 4 overexpression inhibits ROS-induced cell death in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Kinowaki, Yuko; Kurata, Morito; Ishibashi, Sachiko; Ikeda, Masumi; Tatsuzawa, Anna; Yamamoto, Masahide; Miura, Osamu; Kitagawa, Masanobu; Yamamoto, Kouhei

    2018-02-20

    Regulation of oxidative stress and redox systems has important roles in carcinogenesis and cancer progression, and for this reason has attracted much attention as a new area of cancer therapeutic targets. Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), an antioxidant enzyme, has biological important functions such as signaling cell death by suppressing peroxidation of membrane phospholipids. However, few studies exist on the expression and clinical relevance of GPX4 in malignant lymphomas such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. In this study, we assessed the expression of GPX4 immunohistochemically. GPX4 was expressed in 35.5% (33/93) cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The GPX4-positive group had poor overall survival (P = 0.0032) and progression-free survival (P = 0.0004) compared with those of the GPX4-negative group. In a combined analysis of GPX4 and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), an oxidative stress marker, there was a negative correlation between GPX4 and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (P = 0.0009). The GPX4-positive and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine-negative groups had a significantly worse prognosis than the other groups in both overall survival (P = 0.0170) and progression-free survival (P = 0.0005). These results suggest that the overexpression of GPX4 is an independent prognostic predictor in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Furthermore, in vitro analysis demonstrated that GPX4-overexpressing cells were resistant to reactive oxygen species-induced cell death (P = 0.0360). Conversely, GPX4-knockdown cells were sensitive to reactive oxygen species-induced cell death (P = 0.0111). From these data, we conclude that GPX4 regulates reactive oxygen species-induced cell death. Our results suggest a novel therapeutic strategy using the mechanism of ferroptosis, as well as a novel prognostic predictor of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

  11. Injected Human Muscle Precursor Cells Overexpressing PGC-1α Enhance Functional Muscle Regeneration after Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Haralampieva, Deana; Salemi, Souzan; Betzel, Thomas; Dinulovic, Ivana; Krämer, Stefanie D.; Schibli, Roger; Sulser, Tullio; Ametamey, Simon M.

    2018-01-01

    While many groups demonstrated new muscle tissue formation after muscle precursor cell (MPC) injection, the capacity of these cells to heal muscle damage, for example, sphincter in stress urinary incontinence, in long-term is still limited. Therefore, the first goal of our project was to optimize the functional regenerative potential of hMPC by genetic modification to overexpress human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (hPGC-1α), key regulator of exercise-mediated adaptation. Moreover, we aimed at establishing a feasible methodology for noninvasive PET visualization of implanted cells and their microenvironment in muscle crush injury model. PGC-1α-bioengineered muscles showed enhanced marker expression for myogenesis (α-actinin, MyHC, and Desmin), vascularization (VEGF), neuronal (ACHE), and mitochondrial (COXIV) activity. Consistently, use of hPGC-1α_hMPCs produced significantly increased contractile force one to three weeks postinjury. PET imaging showed distinct differences in radiotracer signals ([18F]Fallypride and [11C]Raclopride (both targeting dopamine 2 receptors (D2R)) and [64Cu]NODAGA-RGD (targeting neovascularization)) between GFP_hMPCs and hD2R_hPGC-1α_hMPCs. After muscle harvesting, inflammation levels were in parallel to radiotracer uptake amount, with significantly lower uptake in hPGC-1α overexpressing samples. In summary, we facilitated early functional muscle tissue regeneration, introducing a novel approach to improve skeletal muscle regeneration. Besides successful tracking of hMPCs in muscle crush injuries, we showed that in high-inflammation areas, the specificity of radioligands might be significantly reduced, addressing a possible bottleneck of neovascularization PET imaging. PMID:29531537

  12. Muscle cell atrophy induced by HSP gene silencing was counteracted by HSP overexpression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Inho; Lee, Joo-Hee; Nikawa, Takeshi; Gwag, Taesik; Park, Kyoungsook; Park, Junsoo

    Heat shock proteins (HSP), as molecular chaperones, are known to assist protein quality control under various stresses. Although overexpression of HSP70 was found to contribute to muscle size retention under an unloading condition, it remains largely unclarified whether muscle atrophy is induced by active suppression of HSP expression. In this study, we pre-treated Hsp70 siRNA to rat L6 cells for the HSP gene silencing, and determined myotube diameter, HSP72 expression and anabolic and catabolic signaling activities in the absence or presence of triterpene celastrol (CEL), the HSP70 inducer. Relative to a negative control (NC), muscle cell diameter was reduced 0.89-fold in the siRNA-treated group, increased 1.2-fold in the CEL-treated group and retained at the size of NC in the siRNA+CEL group. HSP72 expression was decreased 0.35-fold by siRNA whereas the level was increased 6- to 8-fold in the CEL and siRNA+CEL groups. Expression of FoxO3 and atrogin-1 was increased 1.8- to 4.8-fold by siRNA, which was abolished by CEL treatment. Finally, phosphorylation of Akt1, S6K and ERK1/2 was not affected by siRNA, but was elevated 2- to 6-fold in the CEL and siRNA+CEL groups. Taken together, HSP downregulation by Hsp gene silencing led to muscle cell atrophy principally via increases in catabolic activities and that such anti-atrophic effect was counteracted by HSP overexpression.

  13. Overexpression of the growth arrest-specific homeobox gene Gax inhibits proliferation, migration, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis in serum-induced vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, H; Xue, S; Hu, Z L; Shan, J G; Yang, W G

    2014-03-24

    The Gax gene has been implicated in a variety of cell-developmental and biological processes, and aberrant Gax expression is linked to many diseases. In this study, to provide important insights for Gax-based gene therapy in vein graft restenosis and its anti-restenotic mechanism, we used rabbit vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to investigate the effects of Gax overexpression on proliferation, migration, cell cycle, and apoptosis in a serum-stimulated culture. Rabbit VSMC lines that stably overexpressed Gax were established by transfection with recombinant adenoviral vector Ad5-Gax. The effect of Gax overexpression on in vitro serum-induced VSMCs proliferation, migration, cell cycle, and apoptosis was assessed by MTT, wound healing, and flow cytometry assays, respectively. To investigate the effect of Gax overexpression on PCNA and MMP-2 in serum-induced VSMCs, immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR, and gelatin zymography were performed. The results clearly showed that Gax overexpression decreases PCNA expression in serum-induced VSMCs. Gax overexpression also significantly inhibited cell proliferation by blocking entry into the S-phase of the cell cycle, promoted cell apoptosis, and reduced cell migration activity by downregulating MMP-2 release and activity. These findings indicate that Gax would be an optimal target gene for gene therapy to treat vein graft restenosis.

  14. Overexpression of amyloid precursor protein increases copper content in HEK293 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Suazo, Miriam; Hodar, Christian; Morgan, Carlos

    2009-05-15

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a transmembrane glycoprotein widely expressed in mammalian tissues and plays a central role in Alzheimer's disease. However, its physiological function remains elusive. Cu{sup 2+} binding and reduction activities have been described in the extracellular APP135-156 region, which might be relevant for cellular copper uptake and homeostasis. Here, we assessed Cu{sup 2+} reduction and {sup 64}Cu uptake in two human HEK293 cell lines overexpressing APP. Our results indicate that Cu{sup 2+} reduction increased and cells accumulated larger levels of copper, maintaining cell viability at supra-physiological levels of Cu{sup 2+} ions. Moreover, wild-type cells exposed to bothmore » Cu{sup 2+} ions and APP135-155 synthetic peptides increased copper reduction and uptake. Complementation of function studies in human APP751 transformed Fre1 defective Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells rescued low Cu{sup 2+} reductase activity and increased {sup 64}Cu uptake. We conclude that Cu{sup 2+} reduction activity of APP facilitates copper uptake and may represent an early step in cellular copper homeostasis.« less

  15. Overexpression of TRIM25 in Lung Cancer Regulates Tumor Cell Progression.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ying; Cui, He; Zhang, Hua

    2016-10-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although great efforts and progressions have been made in the study of the lung cancer in the recent decades, the mechanism of lung cancer formation remains elusive. To establish effective therapeutic methods, new targets implied in lung cancer processes have to be identified. Tripartite motif-containing 25 has been associated with ovarian and breast cancer and is thought to positively promote cell growth by targeting the cell cycle. However, whether tripartite motif-containing 25 has a function in lung cancer development remains unknown. In this study, we found that tripartite motif-containing 25 was overexpressed in human lung cancer tissues. Expression of tripartite motif-containing 25 in lung cancer cells is important for cell proliferation and migration. Knockdown of tripartite motif-containing 25 markedly reduced proliferation of lung cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo and reduced migration of lung cancer cells in vitro Meanwhile, tripartite motif-containing 25 silencing also increased the sensitivity of doxorubicin and significantly increased death and apoptosis of lung cancer cells by doxorubicin were achieved with knockdown of tripartite motif-containing 25. We also observed that tripartite motif-containing 25 formed a complex with p53 and mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) in both human lung cancer tissues and in lung cancer cells and tripartite motif-containing 25 silencing increased the expression of p53. These results provide evidence that tripartite motif-containing 25 contributes to the pathogenesis of lung cancer probably by promoting proliferation and migration of lung cancer cells. Therefore, targeting tripartite motif-containing 25 may provide a potential therapeutic intervention for lung cancer. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. [The effect of Foxc2 overexpression on the osteogenic properties of C3H10T1/2 cells].

    PubMed

    Wang, Min-Jiao; Si, Jia-Wen; Li, Hong-Liang; Ouyang, Ning-Juan; Shen, Guo-Fang

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effect of Foxc2 overexpression on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of C3H10T1/2 cells. C3H10T1/2 cells were transfected with plenti-Foxc2 and selected with puromycin for stable clones. The expression of Foxc2 was determined by real-time PCR and Western blot. Cell proliferation was detected by CCK-8 kit. Cell cycle and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry. The level of osteogenic biomarkers Runx2, OPN, OCN and adipogenic biomarker PPARγ were quantified by real-time PCR and Western blot. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and oil red staining were conducted to evaluate the effect of Foxc2 overexpression on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 17.0 software package. C3H10T1/2-Foxc2 cell line was successfully constructed and verified by direct sequencing and Foxc2 overexpression in vitro. Cell proliferation was reduced and cell cycle was blocked in G1/G0 phase. Enhanced ALP staining and reduced oil red staining were observed in C3H10T1/2-Foxc2 cells as compared with the control. Foxc2 overexpression up-regulated Runx2, OPN, OCN during osteogenic differentiation and down-regulated PPARγduring adipogenic differentiation. C3H10T1/2 cell line stably expressing Foxc2 gene was successfully established, cell proliferation was reduced, osteogenesis biomarkers were up-regulated during the osteogenesis by overexpression Foxc2, PPARγwas down-regulated during adipogenesis.

  17. Mic60/Mitofilin Overexpression Alters Mitochondrial Dynamics and Attenuates Vulnerability of Dopaminergic Cells to Dopamine and Rotenone

    PubMed Central

    Van Laar, Victor S.; Berman, Sarah B.; Hastings, Teresa G.

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in Parkinson’s disease (PD) neuropathology. Mic60, also known as mitofilin, is a protein of the inner mitochondrial membrane and a key component of the mitochondrial contact site and cristae junction organizing system (MICOS). Mic60 is critical for maintaining mitochondrial membrane structure and function. We previously demonstrated that mitochondrial Mic60 protein is susceptible to both covalent modification and loss in abundance following exposure to dopamine quinone. In this study, we utilized neuronally-differentiated SH-SY5Y and PC12 dopaminergic cell lines to examine the effects of altered Mic60 levels on mitochondrial function and cellular vulnerability in response to PD-relevant stressors. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of endogenous Mic60 protein in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells significantly potentiated dopamine-induced cell death, which was rescued by co-expressing shRNA-insensitive Mic60. Conversely, in PC12 and SH-SY5Y cells, Mic60 overexpression significantly attenuated both dopamine- and rotenone-induced cell death as compared to controls. Mic60 overexpression in SH-SY5Y cells was also associated with increased mitochondrial respiration, and, following rotenone exposure, increased spare respiratory capacity. Mic60 knockdown cells exhibited suppressed respiration and, following rotenone treatment, decreased spare respiratory capacity. Mic60 overexpression also affected mitochondrial fission/fusion dynamics. PC12 cells overexpressing Mic60 exhibited increased mitochondrial interconnectivity. Further, both PC12 cells and primary rat cortical neurons overexpressing Mic60 displayed suppressed mitochondrial fission and increased mitochondrial length in neurites. These results suggest that altering levels of Mic60 in dopaminergic neuronal cells significantly affects both mitochondrial homeostasis and cellular vulnerability to the PD-relevant stressors dopamine and rotenone, carrying implications for PD

  18. Effects of angiotensin II type 2 receptor overexpression on the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongyan; Liang, Zhibing; Zhang, Yanling; Jie, Feilong; Li, Jinlong; Fei, Yang; Huang, Zhi; Pei, Nana; Wang, Suihai; Li, Andrew; Chen, Baihong; Zhang, Yi; Sumners, Colin; Li, Ming; Li, Hongwei

    2013-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in tumorigenesis. The interaction between Angiotensin II (AngII) and angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) may have a pivotal role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and therefore, AT1R blocker and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of hepatic cancer. Although the involvement of AT1R has been well explored, the role of the angiotensin II Type 2 receptor (AT2R) in HCC progression remains poorly understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the effects of AT2R overexpression on HCC cells in vitro and in mouse models of human HCC. An AT2R recombinant adenoviral vector (Ad-G-AT2R-EGFP) was transduced into HCC cell lines and orthotopic tumor grafts. The results indicate that the high dose of Ad-G-AT2R-EGFP-induced overexpression of AT2R in transduced HCC cell lines produced apoptosis. AT2R overexpression in SMMC7721 cells inhibited cell proliferation with a significant reduction of S-phase cells and an enrichment of G1-phase cells through changing expression of CDK4 and cyclinD1. The data also indicate that overexpression of AT2R led to apoptosis via cell death signaling pathway that is dependent on activation of p38 MAPK, pJNK, caspase-8 and caspase-3 and inactivation of pp42/44 MAPK (Erk1/2). Finally, we demonstrated that moderately increasing AT2R expression could increase the growth of HCC tumors and the proliferation of HCC cells in vivo. Our findings suggest that AT2R overexpression regulates proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo, and the precise mechanisms of this phenomenon are yet to be fully determined.

  19. Overexpression of TGF-β1 enhances chondrogenic differentiation and proliferation of human synovium-derived stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yong Il; Ryu, Jae-Sung; Yeo, Jee Eun

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Continuous TGF-β1 overexpression in hSD-MSCs did not influence their phenotypes. • Retroviral-mediated transduction of TGFB1 in hSD-MSCs enhances cell proliferation. • TGF-β1 overexpression did not effect to adipo- or osteogenic potential of hSD-MSCs. • TGF-β1 overexpression in hSD-MSCs could stimulate and accelerate chondrogenesis. - Abstract: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily proteins play a critical role in proliferation, differentiation, and other functions of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). During chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs, TGF-β up-regulates chondrogenic gene expression by enhancing the expression of the transcription factor SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box9 (Sox9). In this study, we investigated the effect of continuousmore » TGF-β1 overexpression in human synovium-derived MSCs (hSD-MSCs) on immunophenotype, differentiation potential, and proliferation rate. hSD-MSCs were transduced with recombinant retroviruses (rRV) encoding TGF-β1. The results revealed that continuous overexpression of TGF-β1 did not affect their phenotype as evidenced by flow cytometry and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). In addition, continuous TGF-β1 overexpression strongly enhanced cell proliferation of hSD-MSCs compared to the control groups. Also, induction of chondrogenesis was more effective in rRV-TGFB-transduced hSD-MSCs as shown by RT-PCR for chondrogenic markers, toluidine blue staining and glycosaminoglycan (GAG)/DNA ratio. Our data suggest that overexpression of TGF-β1 positively enhances the proliferation and chondrogenic potential of hSD-MSCs.« less

  20. Assessing somatic hypermutation in Ramos B cells after overexpression or knockdown of specific genes.

    PubMed

    Upton, Dana C; Unniraman, Shyam

    2011-11-01

    -activated cell scanning (FACS) provides a quick read-out for the level of SHM. A more quantitative measurement of SHM can be obtained by directly sequencing the antibody genes. Since Ramos cells are difficult to transfect, we produce stable derivatives that have increased or lowered expression of an individual gene by infecting cells with retroviral or lentiviral constructs that contain either an overexpression cassette or a short hairpin RNA (shRNA), respectively. Here, we describe how we infect Ramos cells and then use these cells to investigate the role of specific genes on SHM (Figure 1).

  1. Ribosomal protein L19 overexpression activates the unfolded protein response and sensitizes MCF7 breast cancer cells to endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Hong, Mina; Kim, HyungRyong; Kim, Inki

    2014-07-18

    Although first identified for their roles in protein synthesis, certain ribosomal proteins exert pleiotropic physiological functions in the cell. Ribosomal protein L19 is overexpressed in breast cancer cells by amplification and copy number variation. In this study, we examined the novel pro-apoptotic role of ribosomal protein L19 in the breast cancer cell line MCF7. Overexpression of RPL19 sensitized MCF7 cells to endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cell death. RPL19 overexpression itself was not cytotoxic; however, cell death induction was enhanced when RPL19 overexpressing cells were incubated with endoplasmic reticulum stress-inducing agents, and this sensitizing effect was specific to MCF7 cells. Examination of the cell signaling pathways that mediate the unfolded protein response (UPR) revealed that overexpression of RPL19 induced pre-activation of the UPR, including phosphorylation of pERK-like ER kinase (PERK), phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α), and activation of p38 MAPK-associated stress signaling. Our findings suggest that upregulation of RPL19 induces ER stress, resulting in increased sensitivity to ER stress and enhanced cell death in MCF7 breast cancer cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Overexpressed HDAC8 in cervical cancer cells shows functional redundancy of tubulin deacetylation with HDAC6.

    PubMed

    Vanaja, G R; Ramulu, Hemalatha Golaconda; Kalle, Arunasree M

    2018-05-02

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are involved in epigenetic gene regulation via deacetylation of acetylated lysine residues of both histone and non-histone proteins. Among the 18 HDACs identified in humans, HDAC8, a class I HDAC, is best understood structurally and enzymatically. However, its precise subcellular location, function in normal cellular physiology, its protein partners and substrates still remain elusive. The subcellular localization of HDAC8 was studied using immunofluorescence and confocal imaging. The binding parterns were identified employing immunoprecipitation (IP) followed by MALDI-TOF analysis and confirmed using in-silico protein-protein interaction studies, HPLC-based in vitro deacetylation assay, intrinsic fluorescence spectrophotometric analysis, Circular dichroism (CD) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). Functional characterization of the binding was carried out using immunoblot and knockdown by siRNA. Using one way ANOVA statistical significance (n = 3) was determined. Here, we show that HDAC8 and its phosphorylated form (pHDAC8) localized predominantly in the cytoplasm in cancerous, HeLa, and non-cancerous (normal), HEK293T, cells, although nucleolar localization was observed in HeLa cells. The study identified Alpha tubulin as a novel interacting partner of HDAC8. Further, the results indicated binding and deacetylation of tubulin at ac-lys40 by HDAC8. Knockdown of HDAC8 by siRNA, inhibition of HDAC8 and/or HDAC6 by PCI-34051 and tubastatin respectively, cell-migration, cell morphology and cell cycle analysis clearly explained HDAC8 as tubulin deacetylase in HeLa cells and HDAC6 in HEK 293 T cells. HDAC8 shows functional redundancy with HDAC6 when overexpressed in cervical cancer cells, HeLa, and deacetylaes ac-lys40 of alpha tubulin leading to cervical cancer proliferation and progression.

  3. Predictive value of EGFR overexpression and gene amplification on icotinib efficacy in patients with advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qingxia; Lu, Ping; Ma, Changwu; Liu, Wei; Liu, Ying; Li, Weiwei; Hu, Shaoxuan; Ling, Yun; Guo, Lei; Ying, Jianming; Huang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to search for a molecular marker for targeted epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor Icotinib by analyzing protein expression and amplification of EGFR proto-oncogene in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. Immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to assess EGFR expression and gene amplification status in 193 patients with ESCC. We also examined the association between EGFR overexpression and the efficacy of a novel EGFR TKI, icotinib, in 62 ESCC patients. Of the 193 patients, 95 (49.2%) patients showed EGFR overexpression (3+), and 47(24.4%) patients harbored EGFR FISH positivity. EGFR overexpression was significantly correlated with clinical stage and lymph node metastasis (p<0.05). In addition, EGFR overexpression was significantly correlated with EGFR FISH positivity (p<0.001). Among the 62 patients who received icotinib, the response rate was 17.6% for patients with high EGFR-expressing tumors, which was markedly higher than the rate (0%) for patients with low to moderate EGFR-expressing tumors (p=0.341). Furthermore, all cases responded to icotinib showed EGFR overexpression. In conclusion, our study suggests that EGFR overexpression might potentially be used in predicting the efficacy in patients treated with Icotinib. These data have implications for both clinical trial design and therapeutic strategies. PMID:27013591

  4. Predictive value of EGFR overexpression and gene amplification on icotinib efficacy in patients with advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Niu, Haitao; Fan, Qingxia; Lu, Ping; Ma, Changwu; Liu, Wei; Liu, Ying; Li, Weiwei; Hu, Shaoxuan; Ling, Yun; Guo, Lei; Ying, Jianming; Huang, Jing

    2016-04-26

    This study aimed to search for a molecular marker for targeted epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor Icotinib by analyzing protein expression and amplification of EGFR proto-oncogene in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients.Immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to assess EGFR expression and gene amplification status in 193 patients with ESCC. We also examined the association between EGFR overexpression and the efficacy of a novel EGFR TKI, icotinib, in 62 ESCC patients.Of the 193 patients, 95 (49.2%) patients showed EGFR overexpression (3+), and 47(24.4%) patients harbored EGFR FISH positivity. EGFR overexpression was significantly correlated with clinical stage and lymph node metastasis (p<0.05). In addition, EGFR overexpression was significantly correlated with EGFR FISH positivity (p<0.001). Among the 62 patients who received icotinib, the response rate was 17.6% for patients with high EGFR-expressing tumors, which was markedly higher than the rate (0%) for patients with low to moderate EGFR-expressing tumors (p=0.341). Furthermore, all cases responded to icotinib showed EGFR overexpression.In conclusion, our study suggests that EGFR overexpression might potentially be used in predicting the efficacy in patients treated with Icotinib. These data have implications for both clinical trial design and therapeutic strategies.

  5. MicroRNA-29c overexpression inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis and differentiation in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming; Chen, Yumei; Song, Guixian; Chen, Bin; Wang, Lihua; Li, Xing; Kong, Xiangqing; Shen, Yahui; Qian, Lingmei

    2016-01-15

    Compared to healthy controls, microRNA-29c (miR-29c) is highly expressed in the heart during progression towards ventricular septal defect. However, studies on miR-29c function in heart development are scarce. We investigated the role of miR-29c in P19 cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation and the underlying mechanisms. We evaluated proliferation and cell cycle progression, detected morphological changes; apoptosis rate; BAX, BCL2, GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4), cardiac troponin T (cTnT), and myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C) expression; and caspase-3, -8, and -9 activity in miR-29c-overexpressing P19 cells, and investigated whether WNT4 was a miR-29c target. MiR-29c-overexpressing cells had decreased proliferation, increased G1 cells, and significantly higher apoptotic rate than the controls. Expression of the apoptosis-related BAX and BCL2 genes and caspase-3, -8, and -9 activity were significantly increased in miR-29c-overexpressing cells. Expression of the cardiac-specific markers GATA4, cTnT, and MEF2C revealed promoted differentiation in miR-29c-overexpressing cells compared to the controls. Luciferase assay confirmed that WNT4 is a miR-29c target. Wnt4 and β-catenin expression was decreased in miR-29c-overexpressing cells. MiR-29c inhibits P19 cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis and differentiation, possibly by suppressing Wnt4 signaling, whose deregulation contributes to congenital heart disease development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Induced overexpression of protein kinase D1 stimulates mitogenic signaling in human pancreatic carcinoma PANC-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Kisfalvi, Krisztina; Hurd, Cliff; Guha, Sushovan; Rozengurt, Enrique

    2010-05-01

    Neurotensin (NT) stimulates protein kinase D1 (PKD1), extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK), and DNA synthesis in the human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line PANC-1. To determine the effect of PKD1 overexpression on these biological responses, we generated inducible stable PANC-1 clones that express wild-type (WT) or kinase-dead (K618N) forms of PKD1 in response to the ecdysone analog ponasterone-A (PonA). NT potently stimulated c-Jun Ser(63) phosphorylation in both wild type and clonal derivatives of PANC-1 cells. PonA-induced expression of WT, but not K618N PKD1, rapidly blocked NT-mediated c-Jun Ser(63) phosphorylation either at the level of or upstream of MKK4, a dual-specificity kinase that leads to JNK activation. This is the first demonstration that PKD1 suppresses NT-induced JNK/cJun activation in PANC-1 cells. In contrast, PKD1 overexpression markedly increased the duration of NT-induced ERK activation in these cells. The reciprocal influence of PKD1 signaling on pro-mitogenicERK and pro-apopotic JNK/c-Jun pathways prompted us to examine whether PKD1 overexpression promotes DNA synthesis and proliferation of PANC-1 cells. Our results show that PKD1 overexpression increased DNA synthesis and cell numbers of PANC-1 cells cultured in regular dishes or in polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate [Poly-(HEMA)]-coated dishes to eliminate cell adhesion (anchorage-independent growth). Furthermore, PKD1 overexpression markedly enhanced DNA synthesis induced by NT (1-10 nM). These results indicate that PKD1 mediates mitogenic signaling in PANC-1 and suggests that this enzyme could be a novel target for the development of therapeutic drugs that restrict the proliferation of these cells.

  7. Let-7c overexpression inhibits dengue virus replication in human hepatoma Huh-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Escalera-Cueto, Manuel; Medina-Martínez, Ingrid; del Angel, Rosa M; Berumen-Campos, Jaime; Gutiérrez-Escolano, Ana Lorena; Yocupicio-Monroy, Martha

    2015-01-22

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute an important class of non-coding RNA implicated in gene expression regulation. More than 1900 miRNA molecules have been identified in humans and their modulation during viral infection and it is recognized to play a role in latency regulation or in establishing an antiviral state. The liver cells are targets during DENV infection, and alteration of liver functions contributes to severe disease. In this work the miRNAs expression profile of the human hepatoma cell line, Huh-7, infected with DENV-2 was determined using microarray and real-time PCR. Let-7c is one of the miRNAs up-regulated during DENV infection in the hepatic Huh-7 as well as in the macrophage-monocytic cell line U937-DC-SIGN. Let-7c overexpression down-regulates both DENV-2 and DENV-4 infection. Additionally, we found that the transcription factor BACH1, a let-7c target, is also down-regulated during DENV infection. In accordance with this finding, HO-1, the main responsive factor of BACH1 was found up-regulated. The up-regulation of HO-1 may contribute to the stress oxidative response in infected cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Neuroprotective effects of overexpressed cyclophilin B against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yoojung; Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Yeonghwan; Jin, Jizi; Jin, Byung Kwan; Jahng, Geon-Ho; Jung, Min Hyung; Park, Chan; Kang, Insug; Ha, Joohun; Choe, Wonchae

    2011-08-15

    Accumulated amyloid-β (Aβ) is a well-known cause of neuronal apoptosis in Alzheimer disease and functions in part by generating oxidative stress. Our previous work suggested that cyclophilin B (CypB) protects against endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Therefore, in this study we examined the ability of CypB to protect against Aβ toxicity. CypB is present in the neurons of rat and mouse brains, and treating neural cells with Aβ(25-35) mediates apoptotic cell death. Aβ(25-35)-induced neuronal toxicity was inhibited by the overexpression of CypB as measured by cell viability, apoptotic morphology, sub-G1 cell population, intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation, activated caspase-3, PARP cleavage, Bcl-2 proteins, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI-3-K) activation. CypB/R95A PPIase mutants did not reduce Aβ(25-35) toxicity. We showed that Aβ(25-35)-induced apoptosis is more severe in a CypB knockdown model, confirming that CypB protects against Aβ(25-35)-induced toxicity. Consequently, these findings suggest that CypB may protect against Aβ toxicity by its antioxidant properties, by regulating MAPK and PI-3-K signaling, and through the ER stress pathway. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. P21 cip-Overexpression in the Mouse β Cells Leads to the Improved Recovery from Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Sun, Xiaoning; Han, Yuhua; Ding, Mingxiao; Shi, Yan; Deng, Hongkui

    2009-01-01

    Under normal conditions, the regeneration of mouse β cells is mainly dependent on their own duplication. Although there is evidence that pancreatic progenitor cells exist around duct, whether non-β cells in the islet could also potentially contribute to β cell regeneration in vivo is still controversial. Here, we developed a novel transgenic mouse model to study the pancreatic β cell regeneration, which could specifically inhibit β cell proliferation by overexpressing p21 cip in β cells via regulation of the Tet-on system. We discovered that p21 overexpression could inhibit β-cell duplication in the transgenic mice and these mice would gradually suffer from hyperglycemia. Importantly, the recovery efficiency of the p21-overexpressing mice from streptozotocin-induced diabetes was significantly higher than control mice, which is embodied by better physiological quality and earlier emergence of insulin expressing cells. Furthermore, in the islets of these streptozotocin-treated transgenic mice, we found a large population of proliferating cells which expressed pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1) but not markers of terminally differentiated cells. Transcription factors characteristic of early pancreatic development, such as Nkx2.2 and NeuroD1, and pancreatic progenitor markers, such as Ngn3 and c-Met, could also be detected in these islets. Thus, our work showed for the first time that when β cell self-duplication is repressed by p21 overexpression, the markers for embryonic pancreatic progenitor cells could be detected in islets, which might contribute to the recovery of these transgenic mice from streptozotocin-induced diabetes. These discoveries could be important for exploring new diabetes therapies that directly promote the regeneration of pancreatic progenitors to differentiate into islet β cells in vivo. PMID:20020058

  10. Overexpression of Polysialylated Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule Improves the Migration Capacity of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Oligodendrocyte Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Czepiel, Marcin; Leicher, Lasse; Becker, Katja; Boddeke, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Cell replacement therapy aiming at the compensation of lost oligodendrocytes and restoration of myelination in acquired or congenital demyelination disorders has gained considerable interest since the discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Patient-derived iPSCs provide an inexhaustible source for transplantable autologous oligodendrocyte precursors (OPCs). The first transplantation studies in animal models for demyelination with iPSC-derived OPCs demonstrated their survival and remyelinating capacity, but also revealed their limited migration capacity. In the present study, we induced overexpression of the polysialylating enzyme sialyltransferase X (STX) in iPSC-derived OPCs to stimulate the production of polysialic acid-neuronal cell adhesion molecules (PSA-NCAMs), known to promote and facilitate the migration of OPCs. The STX-overexpressing iPSC-derived OPCs showed a normal differentiation and maturation pattern and were able to downregulate PSA-NCAMs when they became myelin-forming oligodendrocytes. After implantation in the demyelinated corpus callosum of cuprizone-fed mice, STX-expressing iPSC-derived OPCs demonstrated a significant increase in migration along the axons. Our findings suggest that the reach and efficacy of iPSC-derived OPC transplantation can be improved by stimulating the OPC migration potential via specific gene modulation. PMID:25069776

  11. Tyrosinase overexpression promotes ATM-dependent p53 phosphorylation by quercetin and sensitizes melanoma cells to dacarbazine.

    PubMed

    Thangasamy, Thilakavathy; Sittadjody, Sivanandane; Limesand, Kirsten H; Burd, Randy

    2008-01-01

    Dacarbazine (DTIC) has been used for the treatment of melanoma for decades. However, monotherapy with this chemotherapeutic agent results only in moderate response rates. To improve tumor response to DTIC current clinical trials in melanoma focus on combining a novel targeted agent with chemotherapy. Here, we demonstrate that tyrosinase which is commonly overexpressed in melanoma activates the bioflavonoid quercetin (Qct) and promotes an ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent DNA damage response. This response sensitizes melanoma cells that overexpress tyrosinase to DTIC. In DB-1 melanoma cells that overexpress tyrosinase (Tyr(+) cells), the threshold for phosphorylation of ATM and p53 at serine 15 was observed at a low dose of Qct (25 microM) when compared to the mock transfected pcDNA3 cells, which required a higher dose (75 microM). Both pcDNA3 and Tyr(+) DB-1 cells demonstrated similar increases in phosphorylation of p53 at other serine sites, but in the Tyr(+) cells, DNApk expression was found to be reduced compared to control cells, indicating a shift towards an ATM-mediated response. The DB-1 control cells were resistant to DTIC, but were sensitized to apoptosis with high dose Qct, while Tyr(+) cells were sensitized to DTIC with low or high dose Qct. Qct also sensitized SK Mel 5 (p53 wildtype) and 28 (p53 mutant) cells to DTIC. However, when SK Mel 5 cells were transiently transfected with tyrosinase and treated with Qct plus DTIC, SK Mel 5 cells demonstrated a more than additive induction of apoptosis. Therefore, this study demonstrates that tyrosinase overexpression promotes an ATM-dependent p53 phosphorylation by Qct treatment and sensitizes melanoma cells to dacarbazine. In conclusion, these results suggest that Qct or Qct analogues may significantly improve DTIC response rates in tumors that express tyrosinase.

  12. Tyrosinase Overexpression Promotes ATM-Dependent p53 Phosphorylation by Quercetin and Sensitizes Melanoma Cells to Dacarbazine

    PubMed Central

    Thangasamy, Thilakavathy; Sittadjody, Sivanandane; H. Limesand, Kirsten; Burd, Randy

    2008-01-01

    Dacarbazine (DTIC) has been used for the treatment of melanoma for decades. However, monotherapy with this chemotherapeutic agent results only in moderate response rates. To improve tumor response to DTIC current clinical trials in melanoma focus on combining a novel targeted agent with chemotherapy. Here, we demonstrate that tyrosinase which is commonly overexpressed in melanoma activates the bioflavonoid quercetin (Qct) and promotes an ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent DNA damage response. This response sensitizes melanoma cells that overexpress tyrosinase to DTIC. In DB-1 melanoma cells that overexpress tyrosinase (Tyr cells), the threshold for phosphorylation of ATM and p53 at serine 15 was observed at a low dose of Qct (25 μM) when compared to the mock transfected pcDNA3 cells, which required a higher dose (75 μM). Both pcDNA3 and Tyr DB-1 cells demonstrated similar increases in phosphorylation of p53 at other serine sites, but in the Tyr cells, DNApk expression was found to be reduced compared to control cells, indicating a shift towards an ATM-mediated response. The DB-1 control cells were resistant to DTIC, but were sensitized to apoptosis with high dose Qct, while Tyr cells were sensitized to DTIC with low or high dose Qct. Qct also sensitized SK Mel 5 (p53 wildtype) and 28 (p53 mutant) cells to DTIC. However, when SK Mel 5 cells were transiently transfected with tyrosinase and treated with Qct plus DTIC, SK Mel 5 cells demonstrated a more than additive induction of apoptosis. Therefore, this study demonstrates that tyrosinase overexpression promotes an ATM-dependent p53 phosphorylation by Qct treatment and sensitizes melanoma cells to dacarbazine. In conclusion, these results suggest that Qct or Qct analogues may significantly improve DTIC response rates in tumors that express tyrosinase. PMID:18791269

  13. Overexpression of Pax6 results in microphthalmia, retinal dysplasia and defective retinal ganglion cell axon guidance

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, Martine; Pratt, Thomas; Liu, Min; Jeffery, Glen; Price, David J

    2008-01-01

    Background The transcription factor Pax6 is expressed by many cell types in the developing eye. Eyes do not form in homozygous loss-of-function mouse mutants (Pax6Sey/Sey) and are abnormally small in Pax6Sey/+ mutants. Eyes are also abnormally small in PAX77 mice expressing multiple copies of human PAX6 in addition to endogenous Pax6; protein sequences are identical in the two species. The developmental events that lead to microphthalmia in PAX77 mice are not well-characterised, so it is not clear whether over- and under-expression of Pax6/PAX6 cause microphthalmia through similar mechanisms. Here, we examined the consequences of over-expression for the eye and its axonal connections. Results Eyes form in PAX77+/+ embryos but subsequently degenerate. At E12.5, we found no abnormalities in ocular morphology, retinal cell cycle parameters and the incidence of retinal cell death. From E14.5 on, we observed malformations of the optic disc. From E16.5 into postnatal life there is progressively more severe retinal dysplasia and microphthalmia. Analyses of patterns of gene expression indicated that PAX77+/+ retinae produce a normal range of cell types, including retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). At E14.5 and E16.5, quantitative RT-PCR with probes for a range of molecules associated with retinal development showed only one significant change: a slight reduction in levels of mRNA encoding the secreted morphogen Shh at E16.5. At E16.5, tract-tracing with carbocyanine dyes in PAX77+/+ embryos revealed errors in intraretinal navigation by RGC axons, a decrease in the number of RGC axons reaching the thalamus and an increase in the proportion of ipsilateral projections among those RGC axons that do reach the thalamus. A survey of embryos with different Pax6/PAX6 gene dosage (Pax6Sey/+, Pax6+/+, PAX77+ and PAX77+/+) showed that (1) the total number of RGC axons projected by the retina and (2) the proportions that are sorted into the ipsilateral and contralateral optic tracts at the

  14. Ultrastructural and Molecular Analyses Reveal Enhanced Nucleolar Activity in Medicago truncatula Cells Overexpressing the MtTdp2α Gene

    PubMed Central

    Macovei, Anca; Faè, Matteo; Biggiogera, Marco; de Sousa Araújo, Susana; Carbonera, Daniela; Balestrazzi, Alma

    2018-01-01

    The role of tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (Tdp2) involved in the repair of 5′-end-blocking DNA lesions is still poorly explored in plants. To gain novel insights, Medicago truncatula suspension cultures overexpressing the MtTdp2α gene (Tdp2α-13C and Tdp2α-28 lines, respectively) and a control (CTRL) line carrying the empty vector were investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed enlarged nucleoli (up to 44% expansion of the area, compared to CTRL), the presence of nucleolar vacuoles, increased frequency of multinucleolate cells (up to 4.3-fold compared to CTRL) and reduced number of ring-shaped nucleoli in Tdp2α-13C and Tdp2α-28 lines. Ultrastructural data suggesting for enhanced nucleolar activity in MtTdp2α-overexpressing lines were integrated with results from bromouridine incorporation. The latter revealed an increase of labeled transcripts in both Tdp2α-13C and Tdp2α-28 cells, within the nucleolus and in the extra-nucleolar region. MtTdp2α-overexpressing cells showed tolerance to etoposide, a selective inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase II, as evidenced by DNA diffusion assay. TEM analysis revealed etoposide-induced rearrangements within the nucleolus, resembling the nucleolar caps observed in animal cells under transcription impairment. Based on these findings it is evident that MtTdp2α-overexpression enhances nucleolar activity in plant cells. PMID:29868059

  15. Expression of insulin-like growth factor-2 receptors on EL4 lymphoma cells overexpressing growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Farmer, John T; Weigent, Douglas A

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we report the upregulation of functional IGF-2Rs in cells overexpressing growth hormone (GH). EL4 lymphoma cells stably transfected with an rGH cDNA overexpression vector (GHo) exhibited an increase in the binding of (125)I-IGF-2 with no change in the binding affinity compared to vector alone controls. An increase in the expression of the insulin-like growth factor-2 receptor (IGF-2R) in cells overexpressing GH was confirmed by Western blot analysis and IGF-2R promoter luciferase assays. EL4 cells produce insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2) as detected by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); however, no IGF-2 protein was detected by Western analysis. The increase in the expression of the IGF-2R resulted in greater levels of IGF-2 uptake in GHo cells compared to vector alone controls. The data suggest that one of the consequences of the overexpression of GH is an increase in the expression of the IGF-2R.

  16. Generation of Osteosarcomas from a Combination of Rb Silencing and c‐Myc Overexpression in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jir‐You; Wu, Po‐Kuei; Chen, Paul Chih‐Hsueh; Lee, Chia‐Wen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Osteosarcoma (OS) was a malignant tumor occurring with unknown etiology that made prevention and early diagnosis difficult. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which were found in bone marrow, were claimed to be a possible origin of OS but with little direct evidence. We aimed to characterize OS cells transformed from human MSCs (hMSCs) and identify their association with human primary OS cells and patient survival. Genetic modification with p53 or retinoblastoma (Rb) knockdown and c‐Myc or Ras overexpression was applied for hMSC transformation. Transformed cells were assayed for proliferation, differentiation, tumorigenecity, and gene expression profile. Only the combination of Rb knockdown and c‐Myc overexpression successfully transformed hMSCs derived from four individual donors, with increasing cell proliferation, decreasing cell senescence rate, and increasing ability to form colonies and spheres in serum‐free medium. These transformed cells lost the expression of certain surface markers, increased in osteogenic potential, and decreased in adipogenic potential. After injection in immunodeficient mice, these cells formed OS‐like tumors, as evidenced by radiographic analyses and immunohistochemistry of various OS markers. Microarray with cluster analysis revealed that these transformed cells have gene profiles more similar to patient‐derived primary OS cells than their normal MSC counterparts. Most importantly, comparison of OS patient tumor samples revealed that a combination of Rb loss and c‐Myc overexpression correlated with a decrease in patient survival. This study successfully transformed human MSCs to OS‐like cells by Rb knockdown and c‐Myc overexpression that may be a useful platform for further investigation of preventive and target therapy for human OS. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:512–526 PMID:28191765

  17. Overexpression of pro-gastrin releasing peptide promotes the cell proliferation and progression in small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Zhiyun; Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032; Lu, Renquan

    Pro-gastrin releasing peptide (ProGRP) plays the role of oncogene in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). In this study, we aim to explore the biological function of ProGRP in SCLC cells and its potential mechanism. Expression of ProGRP in SCLC tissues and cell lines were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis, respectively. The transduced cell lines with ProGRP down-regulation were established using RNA interference technology. Cell viability, cologenic, apoptosis-associated assay and the biomarker levels determination for cell supernatant were performed in the transduced cells to elucidate the biological functions and mechanisms of ProGRP in SCLC cells. Our data showed thatmore » ProGRP protein was demonstrated a higher level in SCLC tissues and cells compared with the control, and its diagnostic efficiency was better than NSE, further, the higher levels of ProGRP were detected in the patients with extensive disease stage (P < 0.05), were also the unfavorable factor to the prognosis of SCLC patients. Additionally, the concentration of serum ProGRP is a useful biomarker in disease-monitoring of the patients with SCLC. Down-regulation of ProGRP significantly reduced SCLC cell growth, repressed colony formation, but increased cancer cell apoptosis. Additionally, repression of ProGRP also induced change in the cell cycle and output of NSE. Our data indicated that ProGRP serve as the useful biomarker in the management of SCLC and might be a potential therapeutic target. - Highlights: • ProGRP is overexpressed in the tissues and sera of the patients with SCLC. • Down-regulation of ProGRP inhibited cell proliferation. • Inhibition of ProGRP altered cell cycle distribution and triggers the apoptosis of lung cancer cells.« less

  18. Overexpression of ROCK1 and ROCK2 inhibits human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junbo; He, Xue; Ma, Yueying; Liu, Yanli; Shi, Huaiyin; Guo, Weiwei; Liu, Liangfa

    2015-01-01

    Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK) over-expression has been implicated in the progression of many tumor types. The aim of this study was to explore the roles of ROCK1 and ROCK2 in human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). ROCK1 and ROCK2 expression levels were examined in 50 cases of human LSCC samples by immunohistochemistry. Effects of ROCK1 and ROCK2 on LSCC cell proliferation and motility were investigated in the presence of the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632. The results showed that ROCK1 expression was positively correlated with tumor size and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05); ROCK2 positively correlated with tumor size (P < 0.05). Inhibition of ROCK1 and ROCK2 by Y-27632 significantly inhibits proliferation, migration, and invasion of LSCC cells. Our data indicate that expression of ROCK1 and ROCK2 are closely associated with tumor growth and lymph node metastasis of LSCC. Thus, these two ROCK isoforms may be useful as molecular makers for LSCC diagnosis and may be useful therapeutic targets as well. PMID:25755711

  19. HDAC8 overexpression in mesenchymal stromal cells from JAK2+ myeloproliferative neoplasms: a new therapeutic target?

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Teresa L.; Sánchez-Abarca, Luis Ignacio; Redondo, Alba; Hernández-Hernández, Ángel; Almeida, Antonio M.; Puig, Noemí; Rodríguez, Concepción; Ortega, Rebeca; Preciado, Silvia; Rico, Ana; Muntión, Sandra; González Porras, José Ramón; Cañizo, Consuelo Del; Sánchez-Guijo, Fermín

    2017-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are involved in epigenetic modulation and their aberrant expression has been demonstrated in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). HDAC8 inhibition has been shown to inhibit JAK2/STAT5 signaling in hematopoietic cells from MPN. Nevertheless, the role of HDAC8 expression in bone marrow-mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSC) has not been assessed. In the current work we describe that HDAC8 is significantly over-expressed in MSC from in JAK-2 positive MPN compared to those from healthy-donors (HD-MSC). Using a selective HDAC8 inhibitor (PCI34051), we verified that the subsequent decrease in the protein and mRNA expression of HDAC8 is linked with an increased apoptosis of malignant MSC whereas it has no effects on normal MSC. In addition, HDAC8 inhibition in MPN-MSC also decreased their capacity to maintain neoplastic hematopoiesis, by increasing the apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest and colony formation of JAK2+-hematopoietic cells. Mechanistic studies using different MPN cell lines revealed that PCI34051 induced their apoptosis, which is enhanced when were co-cultured with JAK2V617F-MSC, decreased their colony formation and the phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT5. In summary, we show for the first time that the inhibition of HDAC8 in MSC from JAK2+ MPN patients selectively decreases their hematopoietic-supporting ability, suggesting that HDAC8 may be a potential therapeutic target in this setting by acting not only on hematopoietic cells but also on the malignant microenvironment. PMID:28390197

  20. Overexpression of the VSSC-associated CAM, β-2, enhances LNCaP cell metastasis associated behavior.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Keith H; Lynch, Jill E; Lepori-Bui, Nadia; Czymmek, Kirk J; Duncan, Randall L; Sikes, Robert A

    2012-07-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second-leading cause of cancer death in American men. This is due largely to the "silent" nature of the disease until it has progressed to a highly metastatic and castrate resistant state. Voltage sensitive sodium channels (VSSCs) are multimeric transmembrane protein complexes comprised of a pore-forming α subunit and one or two β subunits. The β-subunits modulate surface expression and gating kinetics of the channels but also have inherent cell adhesion molecule (CAM) functions. We hypothesize that PCa cells use VSSC β-subunits as CAMs during PCa progression and metastasis. We overexpressed the beta-2 isoform as a C-terminal fusion protein with enhanced cyan fluorescence protein (ECFP) in the weakly metastatic LNCaP cells. The effect of beta-2 overexpression on cell morphology was examined using confocal microscopy while metastasis-associated behavior was tested by performing several in vitro metastatic functional assays and in vivo subcutaneous tumor studies. We found that cells overexpressing beta-2 (2BECFP) converted to a bipolar fibroblastic morphology. 2BECFP cells were more adhesive than control (ECFP) to vitronectin (twofold) and Matrigel® (1.3-fold), more invasive through Matrigel® (3.6-fold in 72 hr), and had enhanced migration (2.1-fold in 96 hr) independent of proliferation in wound-healing assays. In contrast, 2BECFP cells have a reduced tumor-take and tumor volume in vivo even though the overexpression of beta-2 was maintained. Functional overexpression of VSSC β-subunits in PCa may be one mechanism leading to increased metastatic behavior while decreasing the ability to form localized tumor masses. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Adenovirus‑mediated overexpression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator enhances invasiveness and motility of serous ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiao; Lin, Liangbo; Yong, Min; Dong, Xiaojing; Yu, Tinghe; Hu, Lina

    2016-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) belongs to the adenosine triphosphate‑binding cassette transporter family, members of which are involved in several types of cancer. Previous studies by our group reported that CFTR was highly expressed in serous ovarian cancer (SOC) tissues, and that knockdown of CFTR suppressed the proliferation of ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo. Thus, the aim of the present study was to construct a recombinant adenoviral vector for the expression of the human CFTR gene in order to study the role of CFTR overexpression in the malignant invasion and migration of SOC cells in vitro. The present study then focused on the mechanisms of the role of CFTR in the migratory and invasive malignant properties of SOC cells. The CFTR gene was inserted into an adenoviral vector by using the AdEasy system in order to obtain the Ad‑CFTR overexpression vector, which was used to transfect the A2780 SOC cell line. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, western blot analysis and immunofluorescence were performed to detect the expression and localization of CFTR. Cell invasion and motility of the transfected cells compared with those of control cells were observed using Transwell and wound healing assays. A ~4,700 bp fragment of the CFTR gene was confirmed to be correctly cloned in the adenoviral vector and amplification of Ad‑CFTR was observed in HEK293 cells during package. After 48 h of transfection with Ad‑CFTR, ~90% of A2780 cells were red fluorescence protein‑positive. Immunofluorescence showed that following transfection, CFTR expression was increased and CFTR was located in the cell membrane and cytoplasm. CFTR overexpression was shown to enhance the invasion and motility of A2780 cells in vitro. Furthermore, the effects of CFTR overexpression on the activation c‑Src signaling were observed by western blot analysis. CFTR overexpressing cells showed the lowest activity of phospho‑Src (Tyr530

  2. Over-expression of Trxo1 increases the viability of tobacco BY-2 cells under H2O2 treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Espín, Ana; Locato, Vittoria; Camejo, Daymi; Schiermeyer, Andreas; De Gara, Laura; Sevilla, Francisca; Jiménez, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially hydrogen peroxide, play a critical role in the regulation of plant development and in the induction of plant defence responses during stress adaptation, as well as in plant cell death. The antioxidant system is responsible for controlling ROS levels in these processes but redox homeostasis is also a key factor in plant cell metabolism under normal and stress situations. Thioredoxins (Trxs) are ubiquitous small proteins found in different cell compartments, including mitochondria and nuclei (Trxo1), and are involved in the regulation of target proteins through reduction of disulphide bonds, although their role under oxidative stress has been less well studied. This study describes over-expression of a Trxo1 for the first time, using a cell-culture model subjected to an oxidative treatment provoked by H2O2. Methods Control and over-expressing PsTrxo1 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells were treated with 35 mm H2O2 and the effects were analysed by studying the growth dynamics of the cultures together with oxidative stress parameters, as well as several components of the antioxidant systems involved in the metabolism of H2O2. Analysis of different hallmarks of programmed cell death was also carried out. Key Results Over-expression of PsTrxo1 caused significant differences in the response of TBY-2 cells to high concentrations of H2O2, namely higher and maintained viability in over-expressing cells, whilst the control line presented a severe decrease in viability and marked indications of oxidative stress, with generalized cell death after 3 d of treatment. In over-expressing cells, an increase in catalase activity, decreases in H2O2 and nitric oxide contents and maintenance of the glutathione redox state were observed. Conclusions A decreased content of endogenous H2O2 may be responsible in part for the delayed cell death found in over-expressing cells, in which changes in oxidative parameters and

  3. Over-expression of Trxo1 increases the viability of tobacco BY-2 cells under H2O2 treatment.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Espín, Ana; Locato, Vittoria; Camejo, Daymi; Schiermeyer, Andreas; De Gara, Laura; Sevilla, Francisca; Jiménez, Ana

    2015-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially hydrogen peroxide, play a critical role in the regulation of plant development and in the induction of plant defence responses during stress adaptation, as well as in plant cell death. The antioxidant system is responsible for controlling ROS levels in these processes but redox homeostasis is also a key factor in plant cell metabolism under normal and stress situations. Thioredoxins (Trxs) are ubiquitous small proteins found in different cell compartments, including mitochondria and nuclei (Trxo1), and are involved in the regulation of target proteins through reduction of disulphide bonds, although their role under oxidative stress has been less well studied. This study describes over-expression of a Trxo1 for the first time, using a cell-culture model subjected to an oxidative treatment provoked by H2O2. Control and over-expressing PsTrxo1 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells were treated with 35 mm H2O2 and the effects were analysed by studying the growth dynamics of the cultures together with oxidative stress parameters, as well as several components of the antioxidant systems involved in the metabolism of H2O2. Analysis of different hallmarks of programmed cell death was also carried out. Over-expression of PsTrxo1 caused significant differences in the response of TBY-2 cells to high concentrations of H2O2, namely higher and maintained viability in over-expressing cells, whilst the control line presented a severe decrease in viability and marked indications of oxidative stress, with generalized cell death after 3 d of treatment. In over-expressing cells, an increase in catalase activity, decreases in H2O2 and nitric oxide contents and maintenance of the glutathione redox state were observed. A decreased content of endogenous H2O2 may be responsible in part for the delayed cell death found in over-expressing cells, in which changes in oxidative parameters and antioxidants were less extended after the oxidative

  4. Overexpression of B7-H3 augments anti-apoptosis of colorectal cancer cells by Jak2-STAT3.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Jiang, Bo; Zou, Shi-Tao; Liu, Fen; Hua, Dong

    2015-02-14

    To investigate the role of the overexpression of B7-H3 in apoptosis in colorectal cancer cell lines and the underlying molecular mechanisms. SW620 cells that highly overexpressed B7-H3 (SW620-B7-H3-EGFP) and HCT8 cells stably transfected with B7-H3 shRNA (HCT8-shB7-H3) were previously constructed in our laboratory. Cells transfected with pIRES2-EGFP were used as negative controls (SW620-NC and HCT8-NC). Real-time PCR and western blotting analysis were used to detect the mRNA and protein expressions of the apoptosis regulator proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xl and Bax. A cell proliferation assay was used to evaluate the survival rate and drug sensitivity of the cells. The effect of drug resistance was detected by a cell cycle assay. Active caspase-3 western blotting was used to reflect the anti-apoptotic ability of cells. Western blotting was also performed to determine the expression of proteins associated with the Jak2-STAT3 signaling pathway and the apoptosis regulator proteins after the treatment with AG490, a Jak2 specific inhibitor, in B7-H3 overexpressing cells. The data were analyzed by GraphPad Prism 6 using a non-paired t-test. Whether by overexpression in SW620 cells or downregulation in HCT8, B7-H3 significantly affected the expression of anti- and pro-apoptotic proteins, at both the transcriptional and translational levels, compared with the negative control (P < 0.05). A cell proliferation assay revealed that B7-H3 overexpression increased the drug resistance of cells and resulted in a higher survival rate (P < 0.05). In addition, the results of cell cycle and active caspase-3 western blotting proved that B7-H3 overexpression inhibited apoptosis in colorectal cancer cell lines (P < 0.05). B7-H3 overexpression improved Jak2 and STAT3 phosphorylation and, in turn, increased the expression of the downstream anti-apoptotic proteins B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-xl, based on western blotting (P < 0.05). After treating B7-H3 overexpressing cells with the Jak2

  5. Overexpression of mutated IkappaBalpha inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and intimal hyperplasia formation.

    PubMed

    Zuckerbraun, Brian S; McCloskey, Carol A; Mahidhara, Raja S; Kim, Peter K M; Taylor, Bradley S; Tzeng, Edith

    2003-10-01

    Vascular injury and inflammation are associated with elaboration of a number of cytokines that signal through multiple pathways to act as smooth muscle cell (SMC) mitogens. Activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) transcription factor is essential for SMC proliferation in vitro and is activated by vascular injury in vivo. Activation of NF-kappaB is controlled by several upstream regulators, including the inhibitors of kappa B (IkappaB). These proteins bind to and keep NF-kappaB inactivated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adenoviral gene transfer of a mutated IkappaBalpha super-repressor (AdIkappaBalphaSR) could inhibit development of intimal hyperplasia in vivo and to investigate how over-expression of this construct influences in vitro SMC proliferation and cell cycle regulatory proteins. A rat carotid injury model was used to study prevention of intimal hyperplasia. Arteries were assayed 14 days after injury and infection with AdIkappaBalphaSR or adenoviral beta-galactosidase (AdLacZ). Untreated SMC or SMC infected with AdLacZ or AdIkappaBalphaSR were stimulated with 10% fetal bovine serum, interleukin-1beta, or tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays were used to assay for NF-kappaB activation. Protein levels of IkappaBalpha and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21(Cip1/Waf1) and p27(Kip1) were determined with Western blot analysis. Proliferation was measured with (3)H-thymidine incorporation assays. AdIkappaBalphaSR inhibited the development of intimal hyperplasia by 49% (P <.05). Infection with AdIkappaBalphaSR significantly suppressed in vitro SMC proliferation when stimulated with serum, interleukin 1, or tumor necrosis factor alpha, and did not result in cell death. Inhibition of proliferation was associated with increased p21(Cip1/Waf1) and p27(Kip1) protein levels. Gene transfer of IkappaBalpha super-repressor inhibited development of intimal hyperplasia in vivo and SMC proliferation in vitro

  6. Overexpression of adhesion molecules and barrier molecules is associated with differential infiltration of immune cells in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chae, Young Kwang; Choi, Wooyoung M; Bae, William H; Anker, Jonathan; Davis, Andrew A; Agte, Sarita; Iams, Wade T; Cruz, Marcelo; Matsangou, Maria; Giles, Francis J

    2018-01-18

    Immunotherapy is emerging as a promising option for lung cancer treatment. Various endothelial adhesion molecules, such as integrin and selectin, as well as various cellular barrier molecules such as desmosome and tight junctions, regulate T-cell infiltration in the tumor microenvironment. However, little is known regarding how these molecules affect immune cells in patients with lung cancer. We demonstrated for the first time that overexpression of endothelial adhesion molecules and cellular barrier molecule genes was linked to differential infiltration of particular immune cells in non-small cell lung cancer. Overexpression of endothelial adhesion molecule genes is associated with significantly lower infiltration of activated CD4 and CD8 T-cells, but higher infiltration of activated B-cells and regulatory T-cells. In contrast, overexpression of desmosome genes was correlated with significantly higher infiltration of activated CD4 and CD8 T-cells, but lower infiltration of activated B-cells and regulatory T-cells in lung adenocarcinoma. This inverse relation of immune cells aligns with previous studies of tumor-infiltrating B-cells inhibiting T-cell activation. Although overexpression of endothelial adhesion molecule or cellular barrier molecule genes alone was not predictive of overall survival in our sample, these genetic signatures may serve as biomarkers of immune exclusion, or resistance to T-cell mediated immunotherapy.

  7. Adenoviral overexpression of Lhx2 attenuates cell viability but does not preserve the stem cell like phenotype of hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Genz, Berit; Thomas, Maria; Pützer, Brigitte M; Siatkowski, Marcin; Fuellen, Georg; Vollmar, Brigitte; Abshagen, Kerstin

    2014-11-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are well known initiators of hepatic fibrosis. After liver cell damage, HSC transdifferentiate into proliferative myofibroblasts, representing the major source of extracellular matrix in the fibrotic organ. Recent studies also demonstrate a role of HSC as progenitor or stem cell like cells in liver regeneration. Lhx2 is described as stem cell maintaining factor in different organs and as an inhibitory transcription factor in HSC activation. Here we examined whether a continuous expression of Lhx2 in HSC could attenuate their activation and whether Lhx2 could serve as a potential target for antifibrotic gene therapy. Therefore, we evaluated an adenoviral mediated overexpression of Lhx2 in primary HSC and investigated mRNA expression patterns by qRT-PCR as well as the activation status by different in vitro assays. HSC revealed a marked increase in activation markers like smooth muscle actin alpha (αSMA) and collagen 1α independent from adenoviral transduction. Lhx2 overexpression resulted in attenuated cell viability as shown by a slightly hampered migratory and contractile phenotype of HSC. Expression of stem cell factors or signaling components was also unaffected by Lhx2. Summarizing these results, we found no antifibrotic or stem cell maintaining effect of Lhx2 overexpression in primary HSC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. RAC1b overexpression stimulates proliferation and NF-kB-mediated anti-apoptotic signaling in thyroid cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Márcia; Matos, Paulo; Pereira, Teresa; Cabrera, Rafael; Cardoso, Bruno A.; Bugalho, Maria João

    2017-01-01

    Overexpression of tumor-associated RAC1b has been recently highlighted as one of the most promising targets for therapeutic intervention in colon, breast, lung and pancreatic cancer. RAC1b is a hyperactive variant of the small GTPase RAC1 and has been recently shown to be overexpressed in a subset of papillary thyroid carcinomas associated with unfavorable outcome. Using the K1 PTC derived cell line as an in vitro model, we observed that both RAC1 and RAC1b were able to induce a significant increase on NF-kB and cyclin D1 reporter activity. A clear p65 nuclear localization was found in cells transfected with RAC1b-WT, confirming NF-kB canonical pathway activation. Consistently, we observed a RAC1b-mediated decrease in IκBα (NF-kB inhibitor) protein levels. Moreover, we show that RAC1b overexpression stimulates G1/S progression and protects thyroid cells against induced apoptosis, the latter through a process involving the NF-kB pathway. Present data support previous findings suggesting an important role for RAC1b in the development of follicular cell-derived thyroid malignancies and point out NF-kB activation as one of the molecular mechanisms associated with the pro-tumorigenic advantage of RAC1b overexpression in thyroid carcinomas. PMID:28234980

  9. Overexpression of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Enhanced the Osteogenic Capability of Aging Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Yun; Tseng, Kuo-Yun; Lai, Yen-Liang; Chen, Yo-Shen; Lin, Feng-Huei; Lin, Shankung

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have indicated that loss of the osteoblastogenic potential in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs) is the major component in the etiology of the aging-related bone deficit. But how the bmMSCs lose osteogenic capability in aging is unclear. Using 2-dimentional cultures, we examined the dose response of human bmMSCs, isolated from adult and aged donors, to exogenous insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), a growth factor regulating bone formation. The data showed that the mitogenic activity and the osteoblastogenic potential of bmMSCs in response to IGF-1 were impaired with aging, whereas higher doses of IGF-1 increased the proliferation rate and osteogenic potential of aging bmMSCs. Subsequently, we seeded IGF-1-overexpressing aging bmMSCs into calcium-alginate scaffolds and incubated in a bioreactor with constant perfusion for varying time periods to examine the effect of IGF-1 overexpression to the bone-forming capability of aging bmMSCs. We found that IGF-1 overexpression in aging bmMSCs facilitated the formation of cell clusters in scaffolds, increased the cell survival inside the cell clusters, induced the expression of osteoblast markers, and enhanced the biomineralization of cell clusters. These results indicated that IGF-1 overexpression enhanced cells' osteogenic capability. Thus, our data suggest that the aging-related loss of osteogenic potential in bmMSCs can be attributed in part to the impairment in bmMSCs' IGF-1 signaling, and support possible application of IGF-1-overexpressing autologous bmMSCs in repairing bone defect of the elderly and in producing bone graft materials for repairing large scale bone injury in the elderly.

  10. Astroglia overexpressing heme oxygenase-1 predispose co-cultured PC12 cells to oxidative injury.

    PubMed

    Song, Linyang; Song, Wei; Schipper, Hyman M

    2007-08-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and pathologic iron deposition in the substantia nigra pars compacta of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) remain unclear. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the oxidative degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide, and biliverdin, is upregulated in affected PD astroglia and may contribute to abnormal mitochondrial iron sequestration in these cells. To determine whether glial HO-1 hyper-expression is toxic to neuronal compartments, we co-cultured dopaminergic PC12 cells atop monolayers of human (h) HO-1 transfected, sham-transfected, or non-transfected primary rat astroglia. We observed that PC12 cells grown atop hHO-1 transfected astrocytes, but not the astroglia themselves, were significantly more susceptible to dopamine (1 microM) + H(2)O(2) (1 microM)-induced death (assessed by nuclear ethidium monoazide bromide staining and anti-tyrosine hydroxylase immunofluorescence microscopy) relative to control preparations. In the experimental group, PC12 cell death was attenuated significantly by the administration of the HO inhibitor, SnMP (1.5 microM), the antioxidant, ascorbate (200 microM), or the iron chelators, deferoxamine (400 microM), and phenanthroline (100 microM). Exposure to conditioned media derived from HO-1 transfected astrocytes also augmented PC12 cell killing in response to dopamine (1 microM) + H(2)O(2) (1 microM) relative to control media. In PD brain, overexpression of HO-1 in nigral astroglia and accompanying iron liberation may facilitate the bioactivation of dopamine to neurotoxic free radical intermediates and predispose nearby neuronal constituents to oxidative damage. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. ETV5 transcription factor is overexpressed in ovarian cancer and regulates cell adhesion in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Llauradó, Marta; Abal, Miguel; Castellví, Josep; Cabrera, Sílvia; Gil-Moreno, Antonio; Pérez-Benavente, Asumpció; Colás, Eva; Doll, Andreas; Dolcet, Xavier; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Vazquez-Levin, Mónica; Reventós, Jaume; Ruiz, Anna

    2012-04-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy and the fifth leading cause of cancer deaths in women in the Western world. ETS transcription factors are known to act as positive or negative regulators of the expression of genes that are involved in various biological processes, including those that control cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, tissue remodeling, angiogenesis and transformation. ETV5 belongs to the PEA3 subfamily. PEA3 subfamily members are able to activate the transcription of proteases, matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases, which is central to both tumor invasion and angiogenesis. Here, we examined the role of the ETV5 transcription factor in epithelial ovarian cancer and we found ETV5 was upregulated in ovarian tumor samples compared to ovarian tissue controls. The in vitro inhibition of ETV5 decreased cell proliferation in serum-deprived conditions, induced EMT and cell migration and decreased cell adhesion to extracellular matrix components. ETV5 inhibition also decreased cell-cell adhesion and induced apoptosis in anchorage-independent conditions. Accordingly, upregulation of ETV5 induced the expression of cell adhesion molecules and enhanced cell survival in a spheroid model. Our findings suggest that the overexpression of ETV5 detected in ovarian cancer cells may contribute to ovarian tumor progression through the ability of ETV5 to enhance proliferation of ovarian cancer cells. In addition, upregulation of ETV5 would play a role in ovarian cancer cell dissemination and metastasis into the peritoneal cavity by protecting ovarian cancer cells from apoptosis and by increasing the adhesion of ovarian cancer cells to the peritoneal wall through the regulation of cell adhesion molecules. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  12. Overexpression of Robo2 causes defects in the recruitment of metanephric mesenchymal cells and ureteric bud branching morphogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Jiayao; Medical College of NanKai University, Tianjin; Li, Qinggang

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of Robo2 caused reduced UB branching and glomerular number. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fewer MM cells surrounding the UB after overexpression of Robo2 in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No abnormal Epithelial Morphology of UB or apoptosis of mm cells in the kidney. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of Robo2 affected MM cells migration and caused UB deficit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reduced glomerular number can also be caused by fewer MM cells. -- Abstract: Roundabout 2 (Robo2) is a member of the membrane protein receptor family. The chemorepulsive effect of Slit2-Robo2 signaling plays vital roles in nervous system development and neuron migration. Slit2-Robo2 signaling is also importantmore » for maintaining the normal morphogenesis of the kidney and urinary collecting system, especially for the branching of the ureteric bud (UB) at the proper site. Slit2 or Robo2 mouse mutants exhibit multilobular kidneys, multiple ureters, and dilatation of the ureter, renal pelvis, and collecting duct system, which lead to vesicoureteral reflux. To understand the effect of Robo2 on kidney development, we used microinjection and electroporation to overexpress GFP-Robo2 in an in vitro embryonic kidney model. Our results show reduced UB branching and decreased glomerular number after in vitro Robo2 overexpression in the embryonic kidneys. We found fewer metanephric mesenchymal (MM) cells surrounding the UB but no abnormal morphology in the branching epithelial UB. Meanwhile, no significant change in MM proliferation or apoptosis was observed. These findings indicate that Robo2 is involved in the development of embryonic kidneys and that the normal expression of Robo2 can help maintain proper UB branching and glomerular morphogenesis. Overexpression of Robo2 leads to reduced UB branching caused by fewer surrounding MM cells, but MM cell apoptosis is not involved in this effect. Our study demonstrates

  13. Overexpression of p42.3 promotes cell growth and tumorigenicity in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Dong, Wei-Wei; Mao, Lin-Lin; Li, Wen-Mei; Cui, Jian-Tao; Xing, Rui; Lu, You-Yong

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association of p42.3 expression with clinicopathological characteristics and the biological function of p42.3 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: We used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative real-time RT-PCR and western blotting to detect p42.3 mRNA and protein expression in hepatic cell lines. We examined primary HCC samples and matched adjacent normal tissue by immunohistochemistry to investigate the correlation between p42.3 expression and clinicopathological features. HepG2 cells were transfected with a pIRES2-EGFP-p42.3 expression vector to examine the function of the p42.3 gene. Transfected cells were analyzed for their viability and malignant transformation abilities by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, colony formation assay, and tumorigenicity assay in nude mice. RESULTS: p42.3 is differentially expressed in primary HCC tumors and cell lines. Approximately 69.6% (96/138) of cells were p42.3-positive in hepatic tumor tissues, while 30.7% (35/114) were p42.3-positive in tumor-adjacent normal tissues. Clinicopathological characteristics of the HCC specimens revealed a significant correlation between p42.3 expression and tumor differentiation (P = 0.031). However, p42.3 positivity was not related to tumor tumor-node-metastasis classification, hepatitis B virus status, or hepatoma type. Regarding p42.3 overexpression in stably transfected HepG2 cells, we discovered significant enhancement of cancer cell growth and colony formation in vitro, and significantly enhanced tumorigenicity in nude mice. Western blot analysis of cell cycle proteins revealed that enhanced p42.3 levels promote upregulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclin B1 and mitotic arrest deficient 2. CONCLUSION: p42.3 promotes tumorigenicity and tumor growth in HCC and may be a potential target for future clinical cancer therapeutics. PMID:23704824

  14. SLP-2 overexpression is associated with tumour distant metastasis and poor prognosis in pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chang, Dong; Ma, Kai; Gong, Min; Cui, Yong; Liu, Zhi-hua; Zhou, Xiao-ge; Zhou, Chuan-nong; Wang, Tian-you

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the role of stomatin-like protein 2 (SLP-2), a novel cancer-related gene, in pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) and its implications. Immunohistochemical detection of SLP-2 was performed on 96 cases of PSCC with a tissue microarray. SLP-2 was overexpressed in lung cancer compared with normal lung tissue (p <0.001). High-level SLP-2 expression was significantly correlated with distant metastasis (p = 0.025), decreased overall survival (p = 0.018) and disease-free survival (p = 0.017). SLP-2 overexpression was an independent prognostic factor in multivariate analysis using the Cox regression model (p <0.05). SLP-2 overexpression is associated with tumour distant metastasis and poor prognosis in PSCC. SLP-2 could be regarded as a new significant prognostic biomarker for patients with PSCC.

  15. Overexpression of Apg-2 increases cell proliferation and protects from oxidative damage in BaF3-BCR/ABL cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunli; Liu, Dingbin; Yuan, Ying; Huang, Shifeng; Shi, Meng; Tao, Kun; Feng, Wenli

    2010-04-01

    Apg-2, a mammalian heat-shock protein belonging to the heat-shock protein 110 (Hsp110) family, was previously found to be overexpressed in BaF3-BCR/ABL cells that were treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) through our comparative proteomics study. The expression of Apg-2 in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells and its role have not been investigated, forming the basis for this study. BaF3-MIGR1 and BaF3-BCR/ABL cell lines stably overexpressing Apg-2 were established and exposed to 50 microM H2O2 for 10 min. Western blot analysis of Apg-2 expression confirmed that H2O2 treatment significantly up-regulated Apg-2 expression. Apg-2 overexpression elevated BaF3-BCR/ABL cell proportions in S and G2/M phase, increased cell proliferation and colony formation in vitro. Moreover, BaF3-MIGR1 and BaF3-BCR/ABL cells were exposed to 50 microM H2O2 in the absence or presence of Apg-2 overexpression and induction of H2AX phosphorylation, the reporters of DNA damage were assessed by Western blot and immunofluorescence. Results showed that exposure to H2O2 induced H2AX phosphorylation in BaF3-MIGR1 cells, but no increase was observed in BaF3-BCR/ABL cells. Together, the data indicate that Apg-2 is overexpressed and overexpression of Apg-2 in BaF3-BCR/ABL cells increases cell proliferation and protects cells from oxidative damage, which may play an important role in CML carcinogenesis and progression.

  16. Overexpression of AtABCG25 enhances the abscisic acid signal in guard cells and improves plant water use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kuromori, Takashi; Fujita, Miki; Urano, Kaoru; Tanabata, Takanari; Sugimoto, Eriko; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2016-10-01

    In addition to improving drought tolerance, improvement of water use efficiency is a major challenge in plant physiology. Due to their trade-off relationships, it is generally considered that achieving stress tolerance is incompatible with maintaining stable growth. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key phytohormone that regulates the balance between intrinsic growth and environmental responses. Previously, we identified AtABCG25 as a cell-membrane ABA transporter that export ABA from the inside to the outside of cells. AtABCG25-overexpressing plants showed a lower transpiration phenotype without any growth retardation. Here, we dissected this useful trait using precise phenotyping approaches. AtABCG25 overexpression stimulated a local ABA response in guard cells. Furthermore, AtABCG25 overexpression enhanced drought tolerance, probably resulting from maintenance of water contents over the common threshold for survival after drought stress treatment. Finally, we observed enhanced water use efficiency by overexpression of AtABCG25, in addition to drought tolerance. These results were consistent with the function of AtABCG25 as an ABA efflux transporter. This unique trait may be generally useful for improving the water use efficiency and drought tolerance of plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Detergent solubilization of the EGF receptor from A431 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayanidhi, R.; Rintoul, D. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Functional reconstitution of purified preparations of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) requires dissociation of the protein from its plasma membrane lipid environment. Solubilization of membrane proteins in this manner requires the use of detergents, which are known to disrupt plasma membrane lipid/protein interactions. We have investigated the ability of three nonionic detergents to solubilize the human EGFR selectively, and have also analyzed the effect of these various treatments on the intrinsic tyrosyl kinase activity of the receptor. The nonionic detergent known as n-octyl glucoside (n-octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside) was found to give the best combination of selectivity, yield, and maintenance of enzymatic activity of the human EGFR.

  18. Overexpression of Klotho suppresses liver cancer progression and induces cell apoptosis by negatively regulating wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huidong; Gao, Yanchao; Lu, Kemei; Zhao, Guimei; Li, Xuehua; Li, Zhu; Chang, Hong

    2015-10-24

    Klotho is a discovered aging suppressor gene, and its overexpression in mice extends the life span of the animal. Recently, Klotho is also identified as a tumor suppressor gene in variety of tumors; however, the potential role and the antitumor mechanism remain unclarified in liver cancers. RT-PCR and western blotting analysis were used to detect the expression of Klotho, β-catenin, C-myc, and Cyclin D1. MTT assay was used to detect the survival rates of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells. Colony formation assay was used to test the proliferation ability in Klotho transfected cells. FACS was used to detect the cell apoptosis rate in different groups. The results showed that lower expression of Klotho were found in liver cancer cell lines than the immortalized liver cell L02. Also, MTT assay results found that overexpression or recombinant Klotho administration suppressed the proliferation of liver cancer cells HepG2 and SMMC-7721. Moreover, the colony formation assay results showed that the number of colonies was significantly lower in the cells with transfection with pCMV-Klotho than the controls. Thus, functional analysis demonstrated that Klotho expression inhibited the proliferation of liver cancer cells and Klotho worked as an important antitumor gene in tumor progression. Next, the mechanism was partly clarified that Klotho expression induced cell apoptosis in HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells, and this phenomenon was mainly involved in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. The western blotting analysis revealed that overexpression or recombinant administration of Klotho obviously decreased the expression levels of β-catenin, C-myc, and Cyclin D1 in HepG2 cells. Most importantly, the antitumor mechanism for Klotho due to that overexpression of Klotho not only decreased the endogenous β-catenin levels but also inhibited the nuclear translocation of β-catenin to delay the cell cycle progression. Klotho was a tumor suppressor gene, and overexpression of Klotho suppressed the

  19. TC-1 Overexpression Promotes Cell Proliferation in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer that Can Be Inhibited by PD173074

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Na; Bai, Guangzhen; Zhong, Daixing; Su, Kai; Liu, Boya; Li, Xiaofei; Wang, Yunjie; Wang, Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid cancer-1 (TC-1), a natively disordered protein, is widely expressed in vertebrates and overexpressed in many kinds of tumors. However, its exact role and regulation mechanism in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are still unclear. In the present study, we found that TC-1 is highly expressed in NSCLC and that its aberrant expression is strongly associated with NSCLC cell proliferation. Exogenous TC-1 overexpression promotes cell proliferation, accelerates the cell G1-to-S-phase transition, and reduces apoptosis in NSCLC. The knockdown of TC-1, however, inhibits NSCLC cell proliferation, cycle transition, and apoptosis resistance. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that PD173074, which functions as an inhibitor of the TC-1 in NSCLC, decreases the expression of TC-1 and inhibits TC-1 overexpression mediated cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Nevertheless, the inhibition function of PD173074 on NSCLC cell proliferation was eliminated in cells with TC-1 knockdown. These results suggest that PD173074 plays a significant role in TC-1 overexpression mediated NSCLC cell proliferation and may be a potential intervention target for the prevention of cell proliferation in NSCLC. PMID:24941347

  20. Overexpression of CYP3A4 in a COLO 205 Colon Cancer Stem Cell Model in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Olszewski, Ulrike; Liedauer, Richard; Ausch, Christoph; Thalhammer, Theresia; Hamilton, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) seem to constitute a subpopulation of tumor cells that escape from chemotherapy and cause recurrent disease. Low proliferation rates, protection in a stem cell niche and overexpression of drug resistance proteins are considered to confer chemoresistance. We established an in vitro colon CSC-like model using the COLO 205 cell line, which revealed transiently increased expression of CD133 when transferred to serum-free stem cell culture medium. Assessment of global gene expression of COLO 205 cells under these conditions identified a set of upregulated genes including cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1), as confirmed by real-time qPCR. ALDH1A1 is a CSC marker for certain tumor entities and confers resistance to cyclophosphamide. CYP3A4 is expressed in liver and colon and its overexpression seems particularly relevant in colon cancer, since it inactivates irinotecan and other xenobiotics, such as taxols and vinca alkaloids. In conclusion, this COLO 205 model provides evidence for CD133 induction concomitant with overexpression of CYP3A4, which, together with ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G, member 2 (ABCG2) and others, may have a role in chemoresistant colon CSCs and a negative impact on disease-free survival in colon cancer patients. PMID:24212669

  1. Rescue of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)-mediated Sertoli cell injury by overexpression of gap junction protein connexin 43

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Mruk, Dolores D.; Chen, Haiqi; Wong, Chris K. C.; Lee, Will M.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is an environmental toxicant used in developing countries, including China, as a stain repellent for clothing, carpets and draperies, but it has been banned in the U.S. and Canada since the late 2000s. PFOS perturbed the Sertoli cell tight junction (TJ)-permeability barrier, causing disruption of actin microfilaments in cell cytosol, perturbing the localization of cell junction proteins (e.g., occluden-ZO-1, N-cadherin-ß-catenin). These changes destabilized Sertoli cell blood-testis barrier (BTB) integrity. These findings suggest that human exposure to PFOS might induce BTB dysfunction and infertility. Interestingly, PFOS-induced Sertoli cell injury associated with a down-regulation of the gap junction (GJ) protein connexin43 (Cx43). We next investigated if overexpression of Cx43 in Sertoli cells could rescue the PFOS-induced cell injury. Indeed, overexpression of Cx43 in Sertoli cells with an established TJ-barrier blocked the disruption in PFOS-induced GJ-intercellular communication, resulting in the re-organization of actin microfilaments, which rendered them similar to those in control cells. Furthermore, cell adhesion proteins that utilized F-actin for attachment became properly distributed at the cell-cell interface, resealing the disrupted TJ-barrier. In summary, Cx43 is a good target that might be used to manage PFOS-induced reproductive dysfunction. PMID:27436542

  2. Rescue of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)-mediated Sertoli cell injury by overexpression of gap junction protein connexin 43

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nan; Mruk, Dolores D.; Chen, Haiqi; Wong, Chris K. C.; Lee, Will M.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2016-07-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is an environmental toxicant used in developing countries, including China, as a stain repellent for clothing, carpets and draperies, but it has been banned in the U.S. and Canada since the late 2000s. PFOS perturbed the Sertoli cell tight junction (TJ)-permeability barrier, causing disruption of actin microfilaments in cell cytosol, perturbing the localization of cell junction proteins (e.g., occluden-ZO-1, N-cadherin-ß-catenin). These changes destabilized Sertoli cell blood-testis barrier (BTB) integrity. These findings suggest that human exposure to PFOS might induce BTB dysfunction and infertility. Interestingly, PFOS-induced Sertoli cell injury associated with a down-regulation of the gap junction (GJ) protein connexin43 (Cx43). We next investigated if overexpression of Cx43 in Sertoli cells could rescue the PFOS-induced cell injury. Indeed, overexpression of Cx43 in Sertoli cells with an established TJ-barrier blocked the disruption in PFOS-induced GJ-intercellular communication, resulting in the re-organization of actin microfilaments, which rendered them similar to those in control cells. Furthermore, cell adhesion proteins that utilized F-actin for attachment became properly distributed at the cell-cell interface, resealing the disrupted TJ-barrier. In summary, Cx43 is a good target that might be used to manage PFOS-induced reproductive dysfunction.

  3. Ursodeoxycholic acid inhibits overexpression of P-glycoprotein induced by doxorubicin in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Komori, Yuki; Arisawa, Sakiko; Takai, Miho; Yokoyama, Kunihiro; Honda, Minako; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Katano, Yoshiaki; Goto, Hidemi; Ueyama, Jun; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Wakusawa, Shinya

    2014-02-05

    The hepatoprotective action of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) was previously suggested to be partially dependent on its antioxidative effect. Doxorubicin (DOX) and reactive oxygen species have also been implicated in the overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which is encoded by the MDR1 gene and causes antitumor multidrug resistance. In the present study, we assessed the effects of UDCA on the expression of MDR1 mRNA, P-gp, and intracellular reactive oxygen species levels in DOX-treated HepG2 cells and compared them to those of other bile acids. DOX-induced increases in reactive oxygen species levels and the expression of MDR1 mRNA were inhibited by N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, and the DOX-induced increase in reactive oxygen species levels and DOX-induced overexpression of MDR1 mRNA and P-gp were inhibited by UDCA. Cells treated with UDCA showed improved rhodamine 123 uptake, which was decreased in cells treated with DOX alone. Moreover, cells exposed to DOX for 24h combined with UDCA accumulated more DOX than that of cells treated with DOX alone. Thus, UDCA may have inhibited the overexpression of P-gp by suppressing DOX-induced reactive oxygen species production. Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) also exhibited these effects, whereas deoxycholic acid and litocholic acid were ineffective. In conclusion, UDCA and CDCA had an inhibitory effect on the induction of P-gp expression and reactive oxygen species by DOX in HepG2 cells. The administration of UDCA may be beneficial due to its ability to prevent the overexpression of reactive oxygen species and acquisition of multidrug resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Overexpression of neuromedin U is correlated with regional metastasis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Chen, Chen; Li, Fen; Hua, Qing-Quan; Chen, Shiming; Xiao, Bokui; Dai, Mengyuan; Li, Man; Zheng, Anyuan; Yu, Di; Hu, Zhang Wei; Tao, Zezhang

    2016-01-01

    Regional metastasis is an important prognostic factor for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Neuromedin U (Nmu) is a secreted neuropeptide, named due to its potent uterine contraction-inducing activity. The aim of the present study was to analyze the significance of Nmu in the regional metastasis of HNSCC. The characteristics of 240 patients recruited from the Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University (Wuhan, China) were summarized retrospectively. The positive rate of neck dissection was analyzed according to the material. The expression levels of Nmu in human tumor samples were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Subsequently, the expression of Nmu was investigated using a tissue microassay to analyze the association between Nmu protein expression and Tumor Node Metastasis (TNM) status. The positive rate of neck dissection was 51.4% in the study sample. The expression levels of Nmu in primary tumors with regional metastasis were higher, compared with those without metastasis. There was increased protein expression of Nmu in the advanced tumor tissues. The data obtained in the present study demonstrated that the expression of Nmu was correlated with regional metastasis and TNM status. Overexpression of Nmu may be involved in the process of regional metastasis of HNSCC, and may serve as a novel and valuable biomarker for predicting regional metastasis in patients with HNSCC. PMID:27279246

  5. Over-expression of IQGAP1 indicates poor prognosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cong-Cong; Li, Hao; Xiao, Yao; Yang, Lei-Lei; Chen, Lei; Deng, Wei-Wei; Wu, Lei; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Sun, Zhi-Jun

    2018-05-30

    IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) is associated with the development and progression of many human cancers. We aimed to investigate the expression and clinicopathological significances of IQGAP1 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In this study, immunohistochemical staining of IQGAP1, co-inhibitory immune checkpoint molecules and macrophage markers were performed in human HNSCC samples to analyze the expression and correlation with clinicopathological characteristics. Immunoreactivity of IQGAP1 was also detected in immunocompetent mouse HNSCC tissue. We found that IQGAP1 expression level was significantly increased in human HNSCC compared with dysplasia and normal mucosa, and the expression of IQGAP1 in HNSCC was positively associated with advanced lymph node status. Besides, our data indicated that patients with higher IQGAP1 expression exhibited poor overall survival compared with patients with lower IQGAP1 expression. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that IQGAP1 expression was positively associated with TIM3, Galectin-9 (TIM3 ligand), B7H4, macrophage markers CD68 and CD163. In conclusion, these findings suggest that over-expression of IQGAP1 in human HNSCC may indicate poor prognosis.

  6. Transplantation of PDGF-AA-Overexpressing Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Promotes Recovery in Rat Following Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zong-Feng; Wang, Ying; Lin, Yu-Hong; Wu, Yan; Zhu, An-You; Wang, Rui; Shen, Lin; Xi, Jin; Qi, Qi; Jiang, Zhi-Quan; Lü, He-Zuo; Hu, Jian-Guo

    2017-01-01

    Our previous study showed that Schwann cells (SCs) promote survival, proliferation and migration of co-transplanted oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and neurological recovery in rats with spinal cord injury (SCI). A subsequent in vitro study confirmed that SCs modulated OPC proliferation and migration by secreting platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF)-2. We also found that PDGF-AA stimulated OPC proliferation and their differentiation into oligodendrocytes (OLs) at later stages. We therefore speculated that PDGF-AA administration can exert the same effect as SC co-transplantation in SCI repair. To test this hypothesis, in this study we investigated the effect of transplanting PDGF-AA-overexpressing OPCs in a rat model of SCI. We found that PDGF-AA overexpression in OPCs promoted their survival, proliferation, and migration and differentiation into OLs in vivo . OPCs overexpressing PDGF-AA were also associated with increased myelination and tissue repair after SCI, leading to the recovery of neurological function. These results indicate that PDGF-AA-overexpressing OPCs may be an effective treatment for SCI.

  7. Chorein interacts with α-tubulin and histone deacetylase 6, and overexpression preserves cell viability during nutrient deprivation in human embryonic kidney 293 cells.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Natsuki; Nakamura, Masayuki; Kodama, Akiko; Urata, Yuka; Shiokawa, Nari; Hayashi, Takehiro; Sano, Akira

    2016-11-01

    The autophagy pathway has recently been implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, it was reported that chorein-depleted cells showed accumulation of autophagic markers and impaired autophagic flux. Here, we demonstrate that chorein overexpression preserves cell viability from starvation-induced cell death in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. Subsequent coimmunoprecipitation and reverse coimmunoprecipitation assays using extracts from chorein that stably overexpressed HEK293 cells revealed that chorein interacts with α-tubulin and histone deacetylase 6, a known α-tubulin deacetylater and central component of basal autophagy. Indeed, acetylated α-tubulin immunoreactivity was significantly decreased in chorein that stably overexpressed HEK293 cells. These results suggest that chorein/histone deacetylase 6/α-tubulin interactions may play an important role in starvation-induced cell stress, and their disruption may be one of the molecular pathogenic mechanisms of chorea-acanthocytosis.-Sasaki, N., Nakamura, M., Kodama, A., Urata, Y., Shiokawa, N., Hayashi, T., Sano, A. Chorein interacts with α-tubulin and histone deacetylase 6, and overexpression preserves cell viability during nutrient deprivation in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. © FASEB.

  8. Overexpression of SDF-1 activates the NF-κB pathway to induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell-like phenotypes of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingxin; Guo, Sufen; Liu, Chunfeng; Zhao, Yiling; Feng, Chong; Liu, Yunshuang; Wang, Tao; Li, Caijuan

    2016-03-01

    The formation of EMT and EMT-induced CSC-like phenotype is crucial for the metastasis of tumor cells. The stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is upregulated in various human carcinomas, which is closely associated with proliferation, migration, invasion and prognosis of malignancies. However, limited attention has been directed towards the effect of SDF-1 on epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) or cancer stem cell (CSC)-like phenotype formation in breast cancer cells and the related mechanism. In the present study, we screened MCF-7 cells with low SDF-1 expression level for the purpose of evaluating whether SDF-1 is involved in EMT and CSC-like phenotype formation in MCF-7 cells. The pEGFP-N1-SDF-1 plasmid was transfected into MCF-7 cells, and the stably overexpressed SDF-1 in MCF-7 cells was confirmed by real-time PCR and western blot analysis. Colony formation assay, MTT, wound healing assay and Transwell invasion assay demonstrated that overexpression of SDF-1 significantly boosted the proliferation, migration and invasion of MCF-7 cells compared with parental (P<0.05). Flow cytometry analysis revealed a notable increase of CD44+/CD24- subpopulation in SDF-1 overexpressing MCF-7 cells (P<0.001), accompanied by the apparently elevated ALDH activity and the upregulation of the stem cell markers OCT-4, Nanog, and SOX2 compared with parental (P<0.01). Besides, western blot analysis and immunofluorescence assay observed the significant decreased expression of E-cadherin and enhanced expression of slug, fibronectin and vimentin in SDF-1 overexpressed MCF-7 cells in comparison with parental (P<0.01). Further study found that overexpression of SDF-1 induced the activation of NF-κB pathway in MCF-7 cells. Conversely, suppressing or silencing p65 expression by antagonist or RNA interference could remarkably increase the expression of E-cadherin in SDF-1 overexpressed MCF-7 cells (P<0.001). Overall, the above results indicated that overexpression of SDF-1 enhanced

  9. Nanoparticle engineered TRAIL-overexpressing adipose-derived stem cells target and eradicate glioblastoma via intracranial delivery

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xinyi; Fitch, Sergio; Wang, Christine; Wilson, Christy; Li, Jianfeng; Grant, Gerald A.; Yang, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most intractable of human cancers, principally because of the highly infiltrative nature of these neoplasms. Tracking and eradicating infiltrating GBM cells and tumor microsatellites is of utmost importance for the treatment of this devastating disease, yet effective strategies remain elusive. Here we report polymeric nanoparticle-engineered human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) overexpressing tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) as drug-delivery vehicles for targeting and eradicating GBM cells in vivo. Our results showed that polymeric nanoparticle-mediated transfection led to robust up-regulation of TRAIL in hADSCs, and that TRAIL-expressing hADSCs induced tumor-specific apoptosis. When transplanted in a mouse intracranial xenograft model of patient-derived glioblastoma cells, hADSCs exhibited long-range directional migration and infiltration toward GBM tumor. Importantly, TRAIL-overexpressing hADSCs inhibited GBM growth, extended survival, and reduced the occurrence of microsatellites. Repetitive injection of TRAIL-overexpressing hADSCs significantly prolonged animal survival compared with single injection of these cells. Taken together, our data suggest that nanoparticle-engineered TRAIL-expressing hADSCs exhibit the therapeutically relevant behavior of “seek-and-destroy” tumortropic migration and could be a promising therapeutic approach to improve the treatment outcomes of patients with malignant brain tumors. PMID:27849590

  10. Development of a Stable Cell Line, Overexpressing Human T-cell Immunoglobulin Mucin 1

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Mina; Kazemi, Tohid; Ganjalikhani-hakemi, Mazdak; Majidi, Jafar; khanahmad, Hossein; Rahimmanesh, Ilnaz; Homayouni, Vida; Kohpayeh, Shirin

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent researches have demonstrated that human T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 1 (TIM-1) glycoprotein plays important roles in regulation of autoimmune and allergic diseases, as well as in tumor immunity and response to viral infections. Therefore, targeting TIM-1 could be a potential therapeutic approach against such diseases. Objectives In this study, we aimed to express TIM-1 protein on Human Embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cell line in order to have an available source of the TIM-1 antigen. Materials and Methods The cDNA was synthesized after RNA extraction from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and TIM-1 cDNA was amplified by PCR with specific primers. The PCR product was cloned in pcDNA™3.1/Hygro (+) and transformed in Escherichia coli TOP 10 F’. After cloning, authenticity of DNA sequence was checked and expressed in HEK 293T cells. Finally, expression of TIM-1 was analyzed by flow cytometry and real-time PCR. Results The result of DNA sequencing demonstrated correctness of TIM-1 DNA sequence. The flow cytometry results indicated that TIM-1 was expressed in about 90% of transfected HEK 293T cells. The real-time PCR analysis showed TIM-1 mRNA expression increased 195-fold in transfected cells compared with un-transfected cells. Conclusions Findings of present study demonstrated the successful cloning and expression of TIM-1 on HEK 293T cells. These cells could be used as an immunogenic source for production of specific monoclonal antibodies, nanobodies and aptamers against human TIM-1. PMID:28959306

  11. Empowering human cardiac progenitor cells by P2Y14 nucleotide receptor overexpression.

    PubMed

    Khalafalla, Farid G; Kayani, Waqas; Kassab, Arwa; Ilves, Kelli; Monsanto, Megan M; Alvarez, Roberto; Chavarria, Monica; Norman, Benjamin; Dembitsky, Walter P; Sussman, Mark A

    2017-12-01

    Autologous cardiac progenitor cell (CPC) therapy is a promising approach for treatment of heart failure (HF). There is an unmet need to identify inherent deficits in aged/diseased human CPCs (hCPCs) derived from HF patients in the attempts to augment their regenerative capacity prior to use in the clinical setting. Here we report significant functional correlations between phenotypic properties of hCPCs isolated from cardiac biopsies of HF patients, clinical parameters of patients and expression of the P2Y 14 purinergic receptor (P2Y 14 R), a crucial detector for extracellular UDP-sugars released during injury/stress. P2Y 14 R is downregulated in hCPCs derived from HF patients with lower ejection fraction or diagnosed with diabetes. Augmenting P2Y 14 R expression levels in aged/diseased hCPCs antagonizes senescence and improves functional responses. This study introduces purinergic signalling modulation as a potential strategy to rejuvenate and improve phenotypic characteristics of aged/functionally compromised hCPCs prior to transplantation in HF patients. Autologous cardiac progenitor cell therapy is a promising alternative approach to current inefficient therapies for heart failure (HF). However, ex vivo expansion and pharmacological/genetic modification of human cardiac progenitor cells (hCPCs) are necessary interventions to rejuvenate aged/diseased cells and improve their regenerative capacities. This study was designed to assess the potential of improving hCPC functional capacity by targeting the P2Y 14 purinergic receptor (P2Y 14 R), which has been previously reported to induce regenerative and anti-senescence responses in a variety of experimental models. c-Kit + hCPCs were isolated from cardiac biopsies of multiple HF patients undergoing left ventricular assist device implantation surgery. Significant correlations existed between the expression of P2Y 14 R in hCPCs and clinical parameters of HF patients. P2Y 14 R was downregulated in hCPCs derived from

  12. Overexpression of soluble ADAM33 promotes a hypercontractile phenotype of the airway smooth muscle cell in rat

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Yiyuan; Long, Jiaoyue; Chen, Jun

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 33 (ADAM33) has been identified as a susceptibility gene for asthma, but details of the causality are not fully understood. We hypothesize that soluble ADAM33 (sADAM33) overexpression can alter the mechanical behaviors of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) via regulation of the cell's contractile phenotype, and thus contributes to airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in asthma. To test this hypothesis, we either overexpressed or knocked down the sADAM33 in rat ASMCs by transfecting the cells with sADAM33 coding sequence or a small interfering RNA (siRNA) that specifically targets the ADAM33 disintegrin domain, and subsequently assessed the cells formore » stiffness, contractility and traction force, together with the expression level of contractile and proliferative phenotype markers. We also investigated whether these changes were dependent on Rho/ROCK pathway by culturing the ASMCs either in the absence or presence of ROCK inhibitor (H1152). The results showed that the ASMCs with sADAM33 overexpression were stiffer and more contractile, generated greater traction force, exhibited increased expression levels of contractile phenotype markers and markedly enhanced Rho activation. Furthermore these changes were largely attenuated when the cells were cultured in the presence of H-1152. However, the knock-down of ADAM33 seemed insufficient to influence majority of the mechanical behaviors of the ASMCs. Taken together, we demonstrated that sADAM33 overexpression altered the mechanical behaviors of ASMCs in vitro, which was most likely by promoting a hypercontractile phenotype transition of ASMCs through Rho/ROCK pathway. This revelation may establish the previously missing link between ADAM33 expression and AHR, and also provide useful insight for targeting sADAM33 in asthma prevention and therapy. - Highlights: • sADAM33 overexpression enhances the stiffness, traction force and contractility of ASMCs. • sADAM33 overexpression

  13. MicroRNA-133 overexpression promotes the therapeutic efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells on acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yueqiu; Zhao, Yunfeng; Chen, Weiqian; Xie, Lincen; Zhao, Zhen-Ao; Yang, Junjie; Chen, Yihuan; Lei, Wei; Shen, Zhenya

    2017-11-25

    Our study aim was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and mechanisms of miR-133-overexpressing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on acute myocardial infarction. Rat MSCs were isolated and purified by whole bone marrow adherent culturing. After transfection with the agomir or antagomir of miR-133, MSCs were collected for assay of cell vitality, apoptosis, and cell cycle progression. At the same time, exosomes were isolated from the supernatant to analyze the paracrine miR-133. For in-vivo studies, constitutive activation of miR-133 in MSCs was achieved by lentivirus-mediated miR-133 overexpression. A rat myocardial infarction model was created by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery, while control MSCs (vector-MSCs) or miR-133-overexpressed MSCs (miR-133-MSCs) were injected into the zone around the myocardial infarction. Subsequently, myocardial function was evaluated by echocardiography on days 7 and 28 post infarction. Finally the infarcted hearts were collected on days 7 and 28 for myocardial infarct size measurement and detection of snail 1 expression. Hypoxia-induced apoptosis of MSCs obviously reduced, along with enhanced expression of total poly ADP-ribose polymerase protein, after miR-133 agomir transfection, while the apoptosis rate increased in MSCs transfected with miR-133 antagomir. However, no change in cell viability and cell-cycle distribution was observed in control, miR-133-overexpressed, and miR-133-interfered MSCs. Importantly, rats transplanted with miR-133-MSCs displayed more improved cardiac function after acute myocardial infarction, compared with those that received vector-MSC injection. Further studies indicated that cardiac expression of snail 1 was significantly repressed by adjacent miR-133-overexpressing MSCs, and both the inflammatory level and the infarct size decreased in miR-133-MSC-injected rat hearts. miR-133-MSCs obviously improved cardiac function in a rat model of myocardial infarction. Transplantation of miR-133

  14. SDF-1 overexpression by mesenchymal stem cells enhances GAP-43-positive axonal growth following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Andrew Nathaniel; Matyas, Jessica Jane; Welchko, Ryan Matthew; Goldsmith, Alison Delanie; Zeiler, Sarah Elizabeth; Hochgeschwender, Ute; Lu, Ming; Nan, Zhenhong; Rossignol, Julien; Dunbar, Gary Leo

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing genetic overexpression of trophic molecules in cell populations has been a promising strategy to develop cell replacement therapies for spinal cord injury (SCI). Over-expressing the chemokine, stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1α), which has chemotactic effects on many cells of the nervous system, offers a promising strategy to promote axonal regrowth following SCI. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of human SDF-1α, when overexpressed by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), on axonal growth and motor behavior in a contusive rat model of SCI. Using a transwell migration assay, the paracrine effects of MSCs, which were engineered to secrete human SDF-1α (SDF-1-MSCs), were assessed on cultured neural stem cells (NSCs). For in vivo analyses, the SDF-1-MSCs, unaltered MSCs, or Hanks Buffered Saline Solution (vehicle) were injected into the lesion epicenter of rats at 9-days post-SCI. Behavior was analyzed for 7-weeks post-injury, using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scale of locomotor functions. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate major histopathological outcomes, including gliosis, inflammation, white matter sparing, and cavitation. New axonal outgrowth was characterized using immunohistochemistry against the neuron specific growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43). The results of these experiments demonstrate that the overexpression of SDF-1α by MSCs can enhance the migration of NSCs in vitro. Although only modest functional improvements were observed following transplantation of SDF-1-MSCs, a significant reduction in cavitation surrounding the lesion, and an increased density of GAP-43-positive axons inside the SCI lesion/graft site were found. The results from these experiments support the potential role for utilizing SDF-1α as a treatment for enhancing growth and regeneration of axons after traumatic SCI.

  15. SPARC ectopic overexpression inhibits growth and promotes programmed cell death in acute myeloid leukemia transformed from myelodysplastic syndrome cells, alone and in combination with Ara-C treatment.

    PubMed

    Nian, Qing; Chi, Jianxiang; Xiao, Qing; Wei, Chunmei; Costeas, Paul; Yang, Zesong; Liu, Lin; Wang, Li

    2015-09-01

    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) has a complex and pleiotropic biological role in cell life during disease. The role of SPARC in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is not yet fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of SPARC protein overproduction in the proliferation and apoptosis of SKM-1 cells, an acute myeloid leukemia cell line transformed from MDS. SKM-1 cells were infected with the pGC-GV-SPARC vector. The cells were then assessed for proliferation and cell death following treatment with low-dose cytosine arabinoside (Ara‑C). The microarray analysis results revealed that samples from SPARC‑overexpressed cells compared to SPARC protein, in SKM-1 cells led to proliferation inhibition and promoted programmed cell death and these effects were greater when treated with Ara-C. The mRNA and protein expression levels of SPARC were detected by SPARC overexpression in cells treated with Ara-C resulting in a significant upregulation of the mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) gene expression and five other genes. The results showed that the necrotic signaling pathway may play a role when the two conditions were combined via the upregulation of the MLKL protein. MLKL upregulation in SPARC overexpressed cells treated with Ara-C, indicates necrosis as a possible cell death process for the SKM-1 cells under these stringent conditions.

  16. Disrupting CCT-β : β-tubulin selectively kills CCT-β overexpressed cancer cells through MAPKs activation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan-Jin; Kumar, Vathan; Lin, Yuan-Feng; Liang, Po-Huang

    2017-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated the ability of I-Trp to disrupt the protein–protein interaction of β-tubulin with chaperonin-containing TCP-1β (CCT-β). This caused more severe apoptosis in multidrug-resistant MES-SA/Dx5, compared to MES-SA, due to its higher CCT-β overexpression. In this study, we screened a panel of cancer cell lines, finding CCT-β overexpression in the triple-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, colorectal cancer cell lines Colo205 and HCT116, and a gastric cancer cell line MKN-45. Thus, I-Trp killed these cancers with sub- to low-μM EC50, whereas it was non-toxic to MCF-10A. We then synthesized analogs of I-Trp and evaluated their cytotoxicity. Furthermore, apoptotic mechanism investigations revealed the activation of both protein ubiquitination/degradation and ER-associated protein degradation pathways. These pathways proceeded through activation of MAPKs at the onset of CCT-β : β-tubulin complex disruption. We thus establish an effective strategy to treat CCT-β overexpressed cancers by disrupting the CCT-β : β-tubulin complex. PMID:28906489

  17. Enhanced tenogenic differentiation and tendon-like tissue formation by CHIP overexpression in tendon-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Weifeng; Chen, Lei; Liu, Junpeng; Guo, Ai

    2017-04-01

    The carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP, also known as STUB1) plays critical roles in the proliferation and differentiation of many types of cells. The potential function of CHIP in tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) remains largely unknown at present. Here, we investigated the effects of CHIP on tenogenic differentiation of TDSCs via lentivirus-mediated overexpression. Forced expression of CHIP induced morphological changes and significantly enhanced cell proliferation, as well as tendon differentiation in vitro. Upon stimulation with differentiation induction medium, CHIP-overexpressing TDSCs displayed significant inhibition of differentiation into osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. Subsequent implantation of TDSCs overexpressing CHIP with collagen sponges into nude mice induced a marked increase in ectopic tendon formation in vivo, compared with the control group. Our findings collectively suggest that CHIP is an important contributory factor to tenogenic tissue formation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Effects of miRNA-197 overexpression on proliferation, apoptosis and migration in levonorgestrel treated uterine leiomyoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoli; Ling, Jing; Fu, Ziyi; Ji, Chenbo; Wu, Jiangping; Xu, Qing

    2015-04-01

    Uterine leiomyoma is the ahead benign tumor of the female genital tract, which resulted in menstrual abnormalities, recurrent pregnancy loss, and other serious gynecological disorders in women. Recently, as the process of exploring the brief molecular mechanisms of tumorgenesis, microRNAs (miRNAs) have attracted much more attention. In this study, we first confirmed that microRNA-197 (miR-197) was down-regulated significantly in human uterus leiomyoma by quantity real-time polymerase chain reaction, compared to normal uterus myometrium. Then we observed the potential effects of miR-197 overexpression on human uterus leiomyoma cells by cell counting kit 8, wound healing assay, and flow cytometric assessment separately. The data showed that miR-197 could inhibit cell proliferation, induce cell apoptosis, and block cell migration in vitro. Coincidently, levonorgestrel (LNG), a well-known uterus leiomyoma therapy, could induce miR-197 expression in human uterus leiomyoma cells, and over-expression of miR-197 showed a synergy effect on human uterus leiomyoma cell proliferation and apoptosis with LNG. In this study, the data showed that miR-197 could play an anti-oncogenic role in human uterus leiomyoma cells, and cooperate with LNG on the cell proliferation and apoptosis, which suggested that miR-197 might be a potential target and provided database for clinical treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Doxorubicin induces ZAKα overexpression with a subsequent enhancement of apoptosis and attenuation of survivability in human osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chien-Yao; Tseng, Yan-Shen; Chen, Ming-Cheng; Hsu, Hsi-Hsien; Yang, Jaw-Ji; Tu, Chuan-Chou; Lin, Yueh-Min; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2018-02-01

    Human osteosarcoma (OS) is a malignant cancer of the bone. It exhibits a characteristic malignant osteoblastic transformation and produces a diseased osteoid. A previous study demonstrated that doxorubicin (DOX) chemotherapy decreases human OS cell proliferation and might enhance the relative RNA expression of ZAK. However, the impact of ZAKα overexpression on the OS cell proliferation that is inhibited by DOX and the molecular mechanism underlying this effect are not yet known. ZAK is a protein kinase of the MAPKKK family and functions to promote apoptosis. In our study, we found that ZAKα overexpression induced an apoptotic effect in human OS cells. Treatment of human OS cells with DOX enhanced ZAKα expression and decreased cancer cell viability while increasing apoptosis of human OS cells. In the meantime, suppression of ZAKα expression using shRNA and inhibitor D1771 both suppressed the DOX therapeutic effect. These findings reveal a novel molecular mechanism underlying the DOX effect on human OS cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that ZAKα enhances the apoptotic effect and decreases cell viability in DOX-treated human OS cells. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Optimization of a Nanomedicine-based Pc 4-PDT Strategy for Targeted Treatment of EGFR-Overexpressing Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Master, Alyssa M.; Livingston, Megan; Oleinick, Nancy L.; Gupta, Anirban Sen

    2012-01-01

    The current clinical mainstays for cancer treatment, namely, surgical resection, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, can cause significant trauma, systemic toxicity, and functional/cosmetic debilitation of tissue, especially if repetitive treatment becomes necessary due to tumor recurrence. Hence there is significant clinical interest in alternate treatment strategies like photodynamic therapy (PDT) which can effectively and selectively eradicate tumors and can be safely repeated if needed. We have previously demonstrated that the second-generation photosensitizer Pc 4 can be formulated within polymeric micelles, and these micelles can be specifically targeted to EGFR-overexpressing cancer cells using GE11 peptide ligands, to enhance cell-specific Pc 4 delivery and internalization. In the current study, we report on the in vitro optimization of the EGFR-targeting, Pc 4 loading of the micellar nanoformulation, along with optimization of the corresponding photoirradiation conditions to maximize Pc 4 delivery, internalization and subsequent PDT-induced cytotoxicity in EGFR-overexpressing cells in vitro. In our studies, absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to monitor the cell-specific uptake of the GE11-decorated Pc 4-loaded micelles and the cytotoxic singlet oxygen production from the micelle-encapsulated Pc 4, to determine the optimum ligand density and Pc 4 loading. It was found that the micelle formulations bearing 10 mole% of GE11-modified polymer component resulted in the highest cellular uptake in EGFR-overexpressing A431 cells within the shortest incubation periods. Also, the loading of ~50 μg Pc 4 per mg of polymer in these micellar formulations resulted in the highest levels of singlet oxygen production. When formulations bearing these optimized parameters were tested in vitro on A431 cells for PDT effect, a formulation dose containing 400 nM Pc 4 and photoirradiation duration of 400 seconds at a fluence of 200 mJ/cm2 yielded close to 100% cell

  1. Enhancement of the p27Kip1-mediated antiproliferative effect of trastuzumab (Herceptin) on HER2-overexpressing tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Marches, Radu; Uhr, Jonathan W

    2004-11-10

    The oncogenic activity of the overexpressed HER2 tyrosine kinase receptor requires its localization in the plasma membrane. The antitumor effect of anti-HER2 antibodies (Abs) is mainly dependent on receptor downregulation and comprises p27Kip1-mediated G1 cell cycle arrest. However, one major limitation of anti-HER2 therapy is the reversibility of tumor growth inhibition after discontinuation of treatment caused by the mitogenic signaling associated with cell surface receptor re-expression. We found that the level of p27Kip1 upregulation, inhibition of Cdk2 activity and magnitude of G1 arrest induced by the humanized Ab trastuzumab (Herceptin, HCT) on BT474 and SKBr3 HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells correlates with the level of cell surface receptor. Thus, continuous exposure of cells to HCT for 72 hr results in downregulation of the cell surface receptor and a concurrent increase in the level of p27Kip1 protein. Discontinuation of Ab exposure after the first 8 hr results in failure to upregulate p27Kip1 and arrest of cell cycle progression. We show that the lysosomotropic amine chloroquine (CQ) augments receptor internalization in HER2-overexpressing cells either pretreated or continuously treated with HCT and leads to an increased and sustained inhibitory effect. The enhanced CQ-dependent loss of functional HER2 from the cell surface resulted in sustained inactivation of the serine/threonine kinase Akt, upregulation of p27Kip1 protein and inhibition of cyclin E/Cdk2 activity. Potentiation of the inhibitory effect of HCT by CQ was directly related to loss of HER2 from the plasma membrane since prevention of Ab-mediated receptor endocytosis by engagement of the receptor with immobilized HCT abrogated the effect of CQ.

  2. MicroRNA-142-5p Overexpression Inhibits Cell Growth and Induces Apoptosis by Regulating FOXO in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Lou, Kexin; Chen, Ning; Li, Zhihong; Zhang, Bei; Wang, Xiuli; Chen, Ye; Xu, Haining; Wang, Dongwei; Wang, Hao

    2017-01-02

    Abnormal expression of microRNA (miR)-142-5p has been reported in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, little information is available regarding the functional role of miR-142-5p in HCC. We aimed to explore the effects of miR-142-5p aberrant expression on HCC cell growth and cell apoptosis, as well as the underlying mechanism. Human HCC cell lines HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells were transfected with miR-142-5p mimic, inhibitor, or a corresponding negative control. Cell viability, cell cycle distribution, and cell apoptosis were then analyzed. In addition, protein expression of Forkhead box, class O (FOXO) 1 and 3, a Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death (Bim), procaspase 3, and activated caspase 3 was measured. After transfection with miR-142-5p inhibitor, FOXO1 and FOXO3 were overexpressed, and then the cell viability and cell apoptosis were determined again. The relative cell viability in both HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells was significantly reduced by miR-142-5p overexpression (p < 0.05). miR-142-5p overexpression displayed a significant blockage at the G1/S transition and significantly increased the percentages of G0/G1 phase. Moreover, the results showed that miR-142-5p overexpression significantly induced cell apoptosis and statistically elevated the protein expression levels of FOXO1, FOXO3, Bim, procaspase 3, and activated caspase 3. However, the cells transfected with miR-142-5p inhibitor showed contrary results. Additionally, the effects of miR-142-5p inhibitor on cell viability and apoptosis were reversed by overexpression of FOXO. In conclusion, our results suggest that miR-142-5p overexpression shows an important protective role in HCC by inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis. These effects might be by regulating FOXO expression in HCC cells.

  3. Detection of Her2-overexpressing cancer cells using keyhole shaped chamber array employing a magnetic droplet-handling system.

    PubMed

    Okochi, Mina; Koike, Shinji; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2017-07-15

    An on-chip gene expression analysis compartmentalized in droplets was developed for detection of cancer cells at a single-cell level. The chip consists of a keyhole-shaped reaction chamber with hydrophobic modification employing a magnetic bead-droplet-handling system with a gate for bead separation. Using three kinds of water-based droplets in oil, a droplet with sample cells, a lysis buffer with magnetic beads, and RT-PCR buffer, parallel magnetic manipulation and fusion of droplets were performed using a magnet-handling device containing small external magnet patterns in an array. The actuation with the magnet offers a simple system for droplet manipulation that allows separation and fusion of droplets containing magnetic beads. After reverse transcription and amplification by thermal cycling, fluorescence was obtained for detection of overexpressing genes. For clinical detection of gastric cancer cells in peritoneal washing, the Her2-overexpressing gastric cancer cells spiked within normal cells was detected by gene expression analysis of droplets containing an average of 2.5 cells. Our developed droplet-based cancer detection system manipulated by external magnetic force without pumps or valves offers a simple and flexible set-up for transcriptional detection of cancer cells, and will be greatly advantageous for less-invasive clinical diagnosis and prognostic prediction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Overexpression of Striated Muscle Activator of Rho Signaling (STARS) Increases C2C12 Skeletal Muscle Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Marita A; Della Gatta, Paul A; Ahmad Mir, Bilal; Kowalski, Greg M; Kloehn, Joachim; McConville, Malcom J; Russell, Aaron P; Lamon, Séverine

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle growth and regeneration depend on the activation of satellite cells, which leads to myocyte proliferation, differentiation and fusion with existing muscle fibers. Skeletal muscle cell proliferation and differentiation are tightly coordinated by a continuum of molecular signaling pathways. The striated muscle activator of Rho signaling (STARS) is an actin binding protein that regulates the transcription of genes involved in muscle cell growth, structure and function via the stimulation of actin polymerization and activation of serum-response factor (SRF) signaling. STARS mediates cell proliferation in smooth and cardiac muscle models; however, whether STARS overexpression enhances cell proliferation and differentiation has not been investigated in skeletal muscle cells. We demonstrate for the first time that STARS overexpression enhances differentiation but not proliferation in C2C12 mouse skeletal muscle cells. Increased differentiation was associated with an increase in the gene levels of the myogenic differentiation markers Ckm, Ckmt2 and Myh4, the differentiation factor Igf2 and the myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) Myf5 and Myf6. Exposing C2C12 cells to CCG-1423, a pharmacological inhibitor of SRF preventing the nuclear translocation of its co-factor MRTF-A, had no effect on myotube differentiation rate, suggesting that STARS regulates differentiation via a MRTF-A independent mechanism. These findings position STARS as an important regulator of skeletal muscle growth and regeneration.

  5. Calmodulin-mediated activation of Akt regulates survival of c-Myc-overexpressing mouse mammary carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Deb, Tushar B; Coticchia, Christine M; Dickson, Robert B

    2004-09-10

    c-Myc-overexpressing mammary epithelial cells are proapoptotic; their survival is strongly promoted by epidermal growth factor (EGF). We now demonstrate that EGF-induced Akt activation and survival in transgenic mouse mammary tumor virus-c-Myc mouse mammary carcinoma cells are both calcium/calmodulin-dependent. Akt activation is abolished by the phospholipase C-gamma inhibitor U-73122, by the intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA-AM, and by the specific calmodulin antagonist W-7. These results implicate calcium/calmodulin in the activation of Akt in these cells. In addition, Akt activation by serum and insulin is also inhibited by W-7. EGF-induced and calcium/calmodulin-mediated Akt activation occurs in both tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic mouse and human mammary epithelial cells, independent of their overexpression of c-Myc. These results imply that calcium/calmodulin may be a common regulator of Akt activation, irrespective of upstream receptor activator, mammalian species, and transformation status in mammary epithelial cells. However, only c-Myc-overexpressing mouse mammary carcinoma cells (but not normal mouse mammary epithelial cells) undergo apoptosis in the presence of the calmodulin antagonist W-7, indicating the vital selective role of calmodulin for survival of these cells. Calcium/calmodulin-regulated Akt activation is mediated directly by neither calmodulin kinases nor phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3 kinase). Pharmacological inhibitors of calmodulin kinase kinase and calmodulin kinases II and III do not inhibit EGF-induced Akt activation, and calmodulin antagonist W-7 does not inhibit phosphotyrosine-associated PI-3 kinase activation. Akt is, however, co-immunoprecipitated with calmodulin in an EGF-dependent manner, which is inhibited by calmodulin antagonist W-7. We conclude that calmodulin may serve a vital regulatory function to direct the localization of Akt to the plasma membrane for its activation by PI-3 kinase.

  6. Multiepitope HER2 targeting enhances photoimmunotherapy of HER2-overexpressing cancer cells with pyropheophorbide-a immunoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Savellano, Mark D; Pogue, Brian W; Hoopes, P Jack; Vitetta, Ellen S; Paulsen, Keith D

    2005-07-15

    Multi-targeting strategies improve the efficacy of antibody and immunotoxin therapies but have not yet been thoroughly explored for HER2-based cancer treatments. We investigated multi-epitope HER2 targeting to boost photosensitizer immunoconjugate uptake as a way of enhancing photoimmunotherapy. Photoimmunotherapy may allow targeted photodynamic destruction of malignancies and may also potentiate anticancer antibodies. However, one obstacle preventing its clinical use is the delivery of enough photosensitizer immunoconjugates to target cells. Anti-HER2 photosensitizer immunoconjugates were constructed from two monoclonal antibodies (mAb), HER50 and HER66, using a novel method originally developed to label photosensitizer immunoconjugates with the photosensitizer, benzoporphyrin derivative verteporfin. Photosensitizer immunoconjugates were labeled instead with a promising alternative photosensitizer, pyropheophorbide-a (PPa), which required only minor changes to the conjugation procedure. Uptake and phototoxicity experiments using human cancer cells were conducted with the photosensitizer immunoconjugates and, for comparison, with free PPa. SK-BR-3 and SK-OV-3 cells served as HER2-overexpressing target cells. MDA-MB-468 cells served as HER2-nonexpressing control cells. Photosensitizer immunoconjugates with PPa/mAb molar ratios up to approximately 10 specifically targeted and photodynamically killed HER2-overexpressing cells. On a per mole basis, photosensitizer immunoconjugates were less phototoxic than free PPa, but photosensitizer immunoconjugates were selective for target cells whereas free PPa was not. Multiepitope targeted photoimmunotherapy with a HER50 and HER66 photosensitizer immunoconjugate mixture was significantly more effective than single-epitope targeted photoimmunotherapy with a single anti-HER2 photosensitizer immunoconjugate, provided photosensitizer immunoconjugate binding was saturated. This study shows that multiepitope targeting enhances HER2

  7. CPT1{alpha} over-expression increases long-chain fatty acid oxidation and reduces cell viability with incremental palmitic acid concentration in 293T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jambor de Sousa, Ulrike L.; Koss, Michael D.; Fillies, Marion

    2005-12-16

    To test the cellular response to an increased fatty acid oxidation, we generated a vector for an inducible expression of the rate-limiting enzyme carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1{alpha} (CPT1{alpha}). Human embryonic 293T kidney cells were transiently transfected and expression of the CPT1{alpha} transgene in the tet-on vector was activated with doxycycline. Fatty acid oxidation was measured by determining the conversion of supplemented, synthetic cis-10-heptadecenoic acid (C17:1n-7) to C15:ln-7. CPT1{alpha} over-expression increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation about 6-fold. Addition of palmitic acid (PA) decreased viability of CPT1{alpha} over-expressing cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Both, PA and CPT1{alpha} over-expression increased cell death. Interestingly,more » PA reduced total cell number only in cells over-expressing CPT1{alpha}, suggesting an effect on cell proliferation that requires PA translocation across the mitochondrial inner membrane. This inducible expression system should be well suited to study the roles of CPT1 and fatty acid oxidation in lipotoxicity and metabolism in vivo.« less

  8. Overexpression of sialomucin complex, a rat homologue of MUC4, inhibits tumor killing by lymphokine-activated killer cells.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, M; Yee, L; Carraway, K L

    1999-05-01

    Sialomucin complex (SMC) is a large heterodimeric glycoprotein complex composed of a mucin subunit ascites sialoglycoprotein-1 and a transmembrane subunit ascites sialoglycoprotein-2. It is a rat homologue of human mucin gene MUC4 and is abundantly expressed on the cell surface of highly metastatic ascites 13762 rat mammary adenocarcinoma cells. Because of their extended and rigid structures, mucin-type glycoproteins are suggested to have suppressing effects on cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. During the metastatic process, these effects presumably cause tumor cell detachment from the primary tumor mass and facilitate escape of the tumor cells from immunosurveillance. Analyses of human breast cancer cells in solid tumors and tumor effusions showed that the more aggressive cells in effusions are stained with polyclonal antibodies against SMC more frequently than cells in solid tumors, suggesting a role for MUC4/SMC in tumor progression and metastasis. Previously, we generated recombinant cDNAs for SMC that vary in the number of mucin repeats to study the putative functions of SMC in tumor metastasis. These cDNAs were transfected into human cancer cell lines and tested for the effect of the expression of this gene. Here, using a tetracycline-responsive inducible expression system, we demonstrate that overexpression of SMC masks the surface antigens on target tumor cells and effectively suppresses tumor cell killing by cytotoxic lymphocytes. This effect results from the ability of SMC to block killer cell binding to the tumor cells and is dependent on both overexpression of the mucin and the number of mucin repeats in the expressed SMC. These results provide an explanation for the proposed role of SMC/MUC4 in tumor progression.

  9. Overexpression of B-cell lymphoma 6 alters gene expression profile in a myeloma cell line and is associated with decreased DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Kenichi; Takizawa, Makiko; Yamane, Arito; Osaki, Yohei; Ishizaki, Takuma; Mitsui, Takeki; Yokohama, Akihiko; Saitoh, Takayuki; Tsukamoto, Norifumi; Matsumoto, Morio; Murakami, Hirokazu; Nojima, Yoshihisa; Handa, Hiroshi

    2017-08-01

    B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) attenuates DNA damage response (DDR) through gene repression and facilitates tolerance to genomic instability during immunoglobulin affinity maturation in germinal center (GC) B cells. Although BCL6 expression is repressed through normal differentiation of GC B cells into plasma cells, a recent study showed the ectopic expression of BCL6 in primary multiple myeloma (MM) cells. However, the functional roles of BCL6 in MM cells are largely unknown. Here, we report that overexpression of BCL6 in a MM cell line, KMS12PE, induced transcriptional repression of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a DDR signaling kinase, which was associated with a reduction in γH2AX formation after DNA damage. In contrast, transcription of known targets of BCL6 in GC B cells was not affected, suggesting a cell type-specific function of BCL6. To further investigate the effects of BCL6 overexpression on the MM cell line, we undertook mRNA sequence analysis and found an upregulation in the genomic mutator activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) with alteration in the gene expression profile, which is suggestive of de-differentiation from plasma cells. Moreover, interleukin-6 exposure to KMS12PE led to upregulation of BCL6 and AID, downregulation of ATM, and attenuation of DDR, which were consistent with the effects of BCL6 overexpression in this MM cell line. Taken together, these results indicated that overexpression of BCL6 alters gene expression profile and confers decreased DDR in MM cells. This phenotypic change could be reproduced by interleukin-6 stimulation, suggesting an important role of external stimuli in inducing genomic instability, which is a hallmark of MM cells. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  10. Cortactin is a prognostic marker for oral squamous cell carcinoma and its overexpression is involved in oral carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Ching; Ho, Heng-Chien; Lee, Miau-Rong; Yeh, Chung-Min; Tseng, Hsien-Chang; Lin, Yung-Chang; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2017-03-01

    EMS1 (chromosome eleven, band q13, mammary tumor and squamous cell carcinoma-associated gene 1) gene amplification and the concomitant cortactin overexpression have been reported to associate with poor prognosis and tumor metastasis. In this study, we examined cortactin expression by immunohistochemistry in human oral tumors and murine tongue tumors which were induced by the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO). The immunostaining results show over- to moderate expression of cortactin in 85% (104/122) of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissues and in all 15 leukoplakia tissues examined. Further, statistical analysis indicates that cortactin overexpression appears to be a predictor for shorter survival and poorer prognosis in OSCC patients. In an animal model, cortactin is shown to upregulate in infiltrating squamous cell carcinoma, papilloma, and epithelia with squamous hyperplasia, indicating that cortactin induction is an early event during oral carcinogenesis. It is suggested that cortactin expression is mediated in the progression of pre-malignancy to papilloma, based on earlier cortactin induction in pre-malignancy preceding cyclin D1 in papilloma. In conclusion, cortactin overexpression is frequently observed in human OSCC and mouse tongue tumors. Thus, cortactin may have an important role in the development of oral tumors in human and mice. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 799-812, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Overexpression of Gremlin1 in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improves Hindlimb Ischemia in Mice by Enhancing Cell Survival.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Qiuling; Hong, Dongxi; Liao, Yan; Cao, Yong; Liu, Muyun; Pang, Jun; Zhou, Junjie; Wang, Guang; Yang, Renhao; Wang, Maosheng; Xiang, Andy Peng

    2017-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising cell resource for the treatment of ischemic diseases, partially through paracrine effects. One of the major obstacles of MSC treatment is the poor survival rate and low efficiency of transplanted stem cells due to ischemic or inflammatory environments. Gremlin1 (GREM1), a regulator of growth, differentiation and development, has been identified as a novel proangiogenic factor. However, the role and mechanism of GREM1 in MSCs remains unclear. Therefore, we assessed the putative beneficial effects of GREM1 on MSC-based therapy for hindlimb ischemia. The lentiviral vector, EF1a-GREM1, was constructed using the Multisite Gateway System and used to transduce MSCs. In vitro studies demonstrated increased survival of GREM1-MSCs exposed to H 2 O 2 , which is consistent with the activation of caspase-3. Conditional medium from GREM1-MSCs (GREM1-MSC-CM) increased the anti-apoptotic effects of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and this effect was attenuated by treatment with the PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitor LY294002. MSCs modified with GREM1 could significantly increase blood perfusion of the ischemic hindlimb in vivo in a mouse model, which was correlated to improved MSC survival. This study demonstrates that overexpression of GREM1 in MSCs have greater therapeutic effects against ischemia compared with wild-type MSCs by enhancing the survival of MSCs and ECs, which may provide new tools for studies investigating the treatment of ischemic diseases. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 996-1007, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. MUC4 overexpression augments cell migration and metastasis through EGFR family proteins in triple negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Lakshmanan, Imayavaramban; Ponnusamy, Moorthy P; Chakraborty, Subhankar; Jain, Maneesh; Pai, Priya; Smith, Lynette M; Lele, Subodh M; Batra, Surinder K

    2013-01-01

    Current studies indicate that triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), an aggressive breast cancer subtype, is associated with poor prognosis and an early pattern of metastasis. Emerging evidence suggests that MUC4 mucin is associated with metastasis of various cancers, including breast cancer. However, the functional role of MUC4 remains unclear in breast cancers, especially in TNBCs. In the present study, we investigated the functional and mechanistic roles of MUC4 in potentiating pathogenic signals including EGFR family proteins to promote TNBC aggressiveness using in vitro and in vivo studies. Further, we studied the expression of MUC4 in invasive TNBC tissue and normal breast tissue by immunostaining. MUC4 promotes proliferation, anchorage-dependent and-independent growth of TNBC cells, augments TNBC cell migratory and invasive potential in vitro, and enhances tumorigenicity and metastasis in vivo. In addition, our studies demonstrated that MUC4 up-regulates the EGFR family of proteins, and augments downstream Erk1/2, PKC-γ, and FAK mediated oncogenic signaling. Moreover, our studies also showed that knockdown of MUC4 in TNBC cells induced molecular changes suggestive of mesenchymal to epithelial transition. We also demonstrated in this study, for the first time, that knockdown of MUC4 was associated with reduced expression of EGFR and ErbB3 (EGFR family proteins) in TNBC cells, suggesting that MUC4 uses an alternative to ErbB2 mechanism to promote aggressiveness. We further demonstrate that MUC4 is differentially over-expressed in invasive TNBC tissues compared to normal breast tissue. MUC4 mucin expression is associated with TNBC pathobiology, and its knockdown reduced aggressiveness in vitro, and tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo. Overall, our findings suggest that MUC4 mucin promotes invasive activities of TNBC cells by altering the expression of EGFR, ErbB2, and ErbB3 molecules and their downstream signaling.

  13. MUC4 Overexpression Augments Cell Migration and Metastasis through EGFR Family Proteins in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Lakshmanan, Imayavaramban; Ponnusamy, Moorthy P.; Chakraborty, Subhankar; Jain, Maneesh; Pai, Priya; Smith, Lynette M.; Lele, Subodh M.; Batra, Surinder K.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Current studies indicate that triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), an aggressive breast cancer subtype, is associated with poor prognosis and an early pattern of metastasis. Emerging evidence suggests that MUC4 mucin is associated with metastasis of various cancers, including breast cancer. However, the functional role of MUC4 remains unclear in breast cancers, especially in TNBCs. Method In the present study, we investigated the functional and mechanistic roles of MUC4 in potentiating pathogenic signals including EGFR family proteins to promote TNBC aggressiveness using in vitro and in vivo studies. Further, we studied the expression of MUC4 in invasive TNBC tissue and normal breast tissue by immunostaining. Results MUC4 promotes proliferation, anchorage-dependent and-independent growth of TNBC cells, augments TNBC cell migratory and invasive potential in vitro, and enhances tumorigenicity and metastasis in vivo. In addition, our studies demonstrated that MUC4 up-regulates the EGFR family of proteins, and augments downstream Erk1/2, PKC-γ, and FAK mediated oncogenic signaling. Moreover, our studies also showed that knockdown of MUC4 in TNBC cells induced molecular changes suggestive of mesenchymal to epithelial transition. We also demonstrated in this study, for the first time, that knockdown of MUC4 was associated with reduced expression of EGFR and ErbB3 (EGFR family proteins) in TNBC cells, suggesting that MUC4 uses an alternative to ErbB2 mechanism to promote aggressiveness. We further demonstrate that MUC4 is differentially over-expressed in invasive TNBC tissues compared to normal breast tissue. Conclusions MUC4 mucin expression is associated with TNBC pathobiology, and its knockdown reduced aggressiveness in vitro, and tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo. Overall, our findings suggest that MUC4 mucin promotes invasive activities of TNBC cells by altering the expression of EGFR, ErbB2, and ErbB3 molecules and their downstream signaling. PMID

  14. CYP2E1 overexpression inhibits microsomal Ca2+-ATPase activity in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Caro, Andres A; Evans, Kerry L; Cederbaum, Arthur I

    2009-01-31

    Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is a microsomal enzyme that generates reactive oxygen species during its catalytic cycle. We previously found an important role for calcium in CYP2E1-potentiated injury in HepG2 cells. The possibility that CYP2E1 may oxidatively damage and inactivate the microsomal Ca2+-ATPase in intact liver cells was evaluated, in order to explain why calcium is elevated during CYP2E1 toxicity. Microsomes were isolated by differential centrifugation from two liver cell line: E47 cells (HepG2 cells transfected with the pCI neo expression vector containing the human CYP2E1 cDNA, which overexpress active microsomal CYP2E1), and control C34 cells (HepG2 cells transfected with the pCI neo expression vector alone, which do not express significantly any cytochrome P450). The Ca2+-dependent ATPase activity was determined by measuring the accumulation of inorganic phosphate from ATP hydrolysis. CYP2E1 overexpression produced a 45% decrease in Ca2+-dependent ATPase activity (8.6 nmol Pi/min/mg protein in C34 microsomes versus 4.7 nmol Pi/min/mg protein in microsomes). Saturation curves with Ca2+ or ATP showed that CYP2E1 overexpression produced a decrease in Vmax but did not affect the Km for either Ca2+ or ATP. The decrease in activity was not associated with a decrease in SERCA protein levels. The ATP-dependent microsomal calcium uptake was evaluated by fluorimetry using fluo-3 as the fluorogenic probe. Calcium uptake rate in E47 microsomes was 28% lower than in C34 microsomes. Treatment of E47 cells with 2mM N-acetylcysteine prevented the decrease in microsomal Ca2+-ATPase found in E47 cells. These results suggest that CYP2E1 overexpression produces a decrease in microsomal Ca2+-ATPase activity in HepG2 cells mediated by reactive oxygen species. This may contribute to elevated cytosolic calcium and to CYP2E1-potentiated injury.

  15. Overexpression of nucleostemin contributes to an advanced malignant phenotype and a poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, R; Nakayama, H; Nagata, M; Hirosue, A; Tanaka, T; Kawahara, K; Nakagawa, Y; Matsuoka, Y; Sakata, J; Arita, H; Hiraki, A; Shinohara, M; Ito, T

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nucleostemin (NS) is essential for the maintenance of stem cell properties, the functions of which remain poorly understood in cancer cells. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of NS on malignancy and its clinical significance in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. Methods: We investigated the effects of NS on the proliferation and invasion of OSCC using NS-overexpressing or -knockdown OSCC cells. We assessed the activation of the STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) signalling pathway and the downstream targets in the cells with different expression levels of NS. An immunohistochemical analysis of NS was also performed in 54 OSCC patients who were treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy and surgery. Results: The overexpression of NS significantly enhanced the proliferation and invasive potential of OSCC cells. On the other hand, downregulation of NS suppressed the invasiveness of the cells. The alterations of these malignant phenotypes were associated with the activation of STAT3 signalling and its downstream targets. An immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that a high NS tumour expression level significantly correlated with an advanced T-stage and N-stage. Furthermore, a Cox regression analysis revealed that the NS status (hazard ratio, 9.09; P=0.002) was a significant progression factor for OSCC patients. Conclusions: Our results suggest that targeting NS may provide a promising treatment for highly malignant OSCC. PMID:25314067

  16. BCOR Overexpression Is a Highly Sensitive Marker in Round Cell Sarcomas With BCOR Genetic Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yu-Chien; Sung, Yun-Shao; Zhang, Lei; Jungbluth, Achim A; Huang, Shih-Chiang; Argani, Pedram; Agaram, Narasimhan P; Zin, Angelica; Alaggio, Rita; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2016-12-01

    With the advent of next-generation sequencing, an increasing number of novel gene fusions and other abnormalities have emerged recently in the spectrum of EWSR1-negative small blue round cell tumors (SBRCTs). In this regard, a subset of SBRCTs harboring either BCOR gene fusions (BCOR-CCNB3, BCOR-MAML3), BCOR internal tandem duplications (ITD), or YWHAE-NUTM2B share a transcriptional signature including high BCOR mRNA expression, as well as similar histologic features. Furthermore, other tumors such as clear cell sarcoma of kidney (CCSK) and primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy also demonstrate BCOR ITDs and high BCOR gene expression. The molecular diagnosis of these various BCOR genetic alterations requires an elaborate methodology including custom BAC fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. As these tumors show high level of BCOR overexpression regardless of the genetic mechanism involved, either conventional gene fusion or ITD, we sought to investigate the performance of an anti-BCOR monoclonal antibody clone C-10 (sc-514576) as an immunohistochemical marker for sarcomas with BCOR gene abnormalities. Thus we assessed the BCOR expression in a pathologically and genetically well-characterized cohort of 25 SBRCTs, spanning various BCOR-related fusions and ITDs and YWHAE-NUTM2B fusion. In addition, we included related pathologic entities such as 8 CCSKs and other sarcomas with BCOR gene fusions. As a control group we included 20 SBRCTs with various (non-BCOR) genetic abnormalities, 10 fusion-negative SBRCTs, 74 synovial sarcomas, 29 rhabdomyosarcomas, and other sarcoma types. In addition, we evaluated the same study group for SATB2 immunoreactivity, as these tumors also showed SATB2 mRNA upregulation. All SBRCTs with BCOR-MAML3 and BCOR-CCNB3 fusions, as well as most with BCOR ITD (93%), and all CCSKs showed strong and diffuse nuclear BCOR immunoreactivity. Furthermore, all SBRCTs with

  17. Overexpression of PhEXPA1 increases cell size, modifies cell wall polymer composition and affects the timing of axillary meristem development in Petunia hybrida.

    PubMed

    Zenoni, Sara; Fasoli, Marianna; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Dal Santo, Silvia; Sanson, Andrea; de Groot, Peter; Sordo, Sara; Citterio, Sandra; Monti, Francesca; Pezzotti, Mario

    2011-08-01

    • Expansins are cell wall proteins required for cell enlargement and cell wall loosening during many developmental processes. The involvement of the Petunia hybrida expansin A1 (PhEXPA1) gene in cell expansion, the control of organ size and cell wall polysaccharide composition was investigated by overexpressing PhEXPA1 in petunia plants. • PhEXPA1 promoter activity was evaluated using a promoter-GUS assay and the protein's subcellular localization was established by expressing a PhEXPA1-GFP fusion protein. PhEXPA1 was overexpressed in transgenic plants using the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and chemical analysis were used for the quantitative analysis of cell wall polymers. • The GUS and GFP assays demonstrated that PhEXPA1 is present in the cell walls of expanding tissues. The constitutive overexpression of PhEXPA1 significantly affected expansin activity and organ size, leading to changes in the architecture of petunia plants by initiating premature axillary meristem outgrowth. Moreover, a significant change in cell wall polymer composition in the petal limbs of transgenic plants was observed. • These results support a role for expansins in the determination of organ shape, in lateral branching, and in the variation of cell wall polymer composition, probably reflecting a complex role in cell wall metabolism. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. [Effects of icotinib hydrochloride on the proliferation and apoptosis of human lung cancer cell lines].

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Han, Xiao-hong; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Jian-fei; Shi, Yuan-kai

    2012-09-25

    To explore the effects of icotinib on the proliferation and apoptosis of various lung cancer cell lines. Human lung cancer cell lines HCC827, H1650, H1975, A549 and human epidermal cancer cell line A431 were treated in vitro with icotinib or gefitinib at a concentration gradient of 0 - 40 µmol/L. Their proliferation effects were analyzed by the thiazolyl blue (MTT) assay and the apoptotic effects detected by flow cytometer. The downstream signaling proteins were detected by Western blot. The median inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of icotinib for A431 and HCC827 cell lines were (0.04 ± 0.02) and (0.15 ± 0.06) µmol/L respectively. No significant differences existed between the inhibitions of gefitinib and icotinib on A431, HCC827, H1650, H1975 and A549 cell lines (all P > 0.05). Compared with H1650, H1975 and A549 cell lines, icotinib significantly inhibited A431 (P = 0.009, 0.005 and 0.000) and HCC827 (P = 0.001, 0.001 and 0.000) cell lines. And it lowered the expressions of p-AKT, p-ERK and survivin protein expression through the inhibited activity of p-EGFR protein. Icotinib can arrest the proliferation of lung adenocarcinoma cells with EGFR mutation or over-expression by inhibiting the signal pathways of AKT-ERK and survivin.

  19. PTEN Overexpression Cooperates With Lithium to Reduce the Malignancy and to Increase Cell Death by Apoptosis via PI3K/Akt Suppression in Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Wallace Martins; Robbs, Bruno Kaufmann; Bastos, Lilian G; de Souza, Waldemir F; Vidal, Flávia C B; Viola, João P B; Morgado-Diaz, Jose A

    2016-02-01

    Lithium is a well-established non-competitive inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), a kinase that is involved in several cellular processes related to cancer progression. GSK-3β is regulated upstream by PI3K/Akt, which is negatively modulated by PTEN. The role that lithium plays in cancer is controversial because lithium can activate or inhibit survival signaling pathways depending on the cell type. In this study, we analyzed the mechanisms by which lithium can modulate events related to colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and evaluated the role that survival signaling pathways such as PI3K/Akt and PTEN play in this context. We show that the administration of lithium decreased the proliferative potential of CRC cells in a GSK-3β-independent manner but induced the accumulation of cells in G2/M phase. Furthermore, high doses of lithium increased apoptosis, which was accompanied by decreased proteins levels of Akt and PTEN. Then, cells that were induced to overexpress PTEN were treated with lithium; we observed that low doses of lithium strongly increased apoptosis. Additionally, PTEN overexpression reduced proliferation, but this effect was minor compared with that in cells treated with lithium alone. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PTEN overexpression and lithium treatment separately reduced cell migration, colony formation, and invasion, and these effects were enhanced when lithium treatment and PTEN overexpression were combined. In conclusion, our findings indicate that PTEN overexpression and lithium treatment cooperate to reduce the malignancy of CRC cells and highlight lithium and PTEN as potential candidates for studies to identify new therapeutic approaches for CRC treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Pancreatic β-cell overexpression of the glucagon receptor gene results in enhanced β-cell function and mass

    PubMed Central

    Gelling, Richard W.; Vuguin, Patricia M.; Du, Xiu Quan; Cui, Lingguang; Rømer, John; Pederson, Raymond A.; Leiser, Margarita; Sørensen, Heidi; Holst, Jens J.; Fledelius, Christian; Johansen, Peter B.; Fleischer, Norman; McIntosh, Christopher H. S.; Nishimura, Erica; Charron, Maureen J.

    2009-01-01

    In addition to its primary role in regulating glucose production from the liver, glucagon has many other actions, reflected by the wide tissue distribution of the glucagon receptor (Gcgr). To investigate the role of glucagon in the regulation of insulin secretion and whole body glucose homeostasis in vivo, we generated mice overexpressing the Gcgr specifically on pancreatic β-cells (RIP-Gcgr). In vivo and in vitro insulin secretion in response to glucagon and glucose was increased 1.7- to 3.9-fold in RIP-Gcgr mice compared with controls. Consistent with the observed increase in insulin release in response to glucagon and glucose, the glucose excursion resulting from both a glucagon challenge and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was significantly reduced in RIP-Gcgr mice compared with controls. However, RIP-Gcgr mice display similar glucose responses to an insulin challenge. β-Cell mass and pancreatic insulin content were also increased (20 and 50%, respectively) in RIP-Gcgr mice compared with controls. When fed a high-fat diet (HFD), both control and RIP-Gcgr mice developed similar degrees of obesity and insulin resistance. However, the severity of both fasting hyperglycemia and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) were reduced in RIP-Gcgr mice compared with controls. Furthermore, the insulin response of RIP-Gcgr mice to an IPGTT was twice that of controls when fed the HFD. These data indicate that increased pancreatic β-cell expression of the Gcgr increased insulin secretion, pancreatic insulin content, β-cell mass, and, when mice were fed a HFD, partially protected against hyperglycemia and IGT. PMID:19602585

  1. PKCepsilon overexpression, irrespective of genetic background, sensitizes skin to UVR-induced development of squamous-cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Sand, Jordan M; Aziz, Moammir H; Dreckschmidt, Nancy E; Havighurst, Thomas C; Kim, KyungMann; Oberley, Terry D; Verma, Ajit K

    2010-01-01

    Chronic exposure to UVR is the major etiologic factor in the development of human skin cancers including squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC). We have previously shown that protein Kinase C epsilon (PKCepsilon) transgenic mice on FVB/N background, which overexpress PKCepsilon protein approximately eightfold over endogenous levels in epidermis, exhibit about threefold more sensitivity than wild-type littermates to UVR-induced development of SCC. To determine whether it is PKCepsilon and not the mouse genetic background that determines susceptibility to UVR carcinogenesis, we cross-bred PKCepsilon FVB/N transgenic mice with SKH-1 hairless mice to generate PKCepsilon-overexpressing SKH-1 hairless mice. To evaluate the susceptibility of PKCepsilon SKH-1 hairless transgenic mice to UVR carcinogenesis, the mice were exposed to UVR (1-2 KJ m(-2)) three times weekly from a bank of six kodacel-filtered FS40 sunlamps. As compared with the wild-type hairless mice, PKCepsilon overexpression in SKH-1 hairless mice decreased the latency (12 weeks), whereas it increased the incidence (twofold) and multiplicity (fourfold) of SCC. The SKH hairless transgenic mice were observed to be as sensitive as FVB/N transgenic mice to UVR-induced development of SCC and expression of proliferative markers (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, signal transducers and activators of transcription 3, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2). The results indicate that PKCepsilon level dictates susceptibility, irrespective of genetic background, to UVR carcinogenesis.

  2. GILZ overexpression attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated cell death via the activation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    André, Fanny; Corazao-Rozas, Paola; Idziorek, Thierry

    The Glucocorticoïd-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) protein has profound anti-inflammatory activities in haematopoietic cells. GILZ regulates numerous signal transduction pathways involved in proliferation and survival of normal and neoplastic cells. Here, we have demonstrated the potential of GILZ in alleviating apoptosis induced by ER stress inducers. Whereas the glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, protects from tunicamycin-induced cell death, silencing endogeneous GILZ in dexamethasone-treated cancer cells alter the capacity of glucocorticoids to protect from tunicamycin-mediated apoptosis. Under ER stress conditions, overexpression of GILZ significantly reduced activation of mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis by maintaining Bcl-xl level. GILZ protein affects the UPR signaling shifting the balance towardsmore » pro-survival signals as judged by down-regulation of CHOP, ATF4, XBP1s mRNA and increase in GRP78 protein level. Interestingly, GILZ sustains high mitochondrial OXPHOS during ER stress and cytoprotection mediated by GILZ is abolished in cells depleted of mitochondrial DNA, which are OXPHOS-deficient. These findings reveal a new role of GILZ, which acts as a cytoprotector against ER stress through a pathway involving mitochondrial OXPHOS. - Highlights: • GILZ attenuates apoptotic cell death induced by ER stress conditions. • GILZ promotes pro-survival signaling of the UPR. • GILZ overexpression sustains high mitochondrial activity under ER stress. • Mitochondrial OXPHOX is required for GILZ protective effects against ER stress-mediated apoptosis.« less

  3. Inducible overexpression of RUNX1b/c in human embryonic stem cells blocks early hematopoiesis from mesoderm.

    PubMed

    Chen, B; Teng, Jiawen; Liu, Hongwei; Pan, X; Zhou, Y; Huang, Shu; Lai, Mowen; Bian, Guohui; Mao, Bin; Sun, Wencui; Zhou, Qiongxiu; Yang, Shengyong; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Ma, Feng

    2017-08-01

    RUNX1 is absolutely required for definitive hematopoiesis, but the function of RUNX1b/c, two isoforms of human RUNX1, is unclear. We established inducible RUNX1b/c-overexpressing human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines, in which RUNX1b/c overexpression prevented the emergence of CD34+ cells from early stage, thereby drastically reducing the production of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Simultaneously, the expression of hematopoiesis-related factors was downregulated. However, such blockage effect disappeared from day 6 in hESC/AGM-S3 cell co-cultures, proving that the blockage occurred before the generation of hemogenic endothelial cells. This blockage was partially rescued by RepSox, an inhibitor of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling pathway, indicating a close relationship between RUNX1b/c and TGF-β pathway. Our results suggest a unique inhibitory function of RUNX1b/c in the development of early hematopoiesis and may aid further understanding of its biological function in normal and diseased models. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Overexpression of Polygalacturonase in Transgenic Apple Trees Leads to a Range of Novel Phenotypes Involving Changes in Cell Adhesion1

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Ross G.; Schröder, Roswitha; Hallett, Ian C.; Cohen, Daniel; MacRae, Elspeth A.

    2002-01-01

    Polygalacturonases (PGs) cleave runs of unesterified GalUA that form homogalacturonan regions along the backbone of pectin. Homogalacturonan-rich pectin is commonly found in the middle lamella region of the wall where two adjacent cells abut and its integrity is important for cell adhesion. Transgenic apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv Royal Gala) trees were produced that contained additional copies of a fruit-specific apple PG gene under a constitutive promoter. In contrast to previous studies in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) where PG overexpression had no effect on the plant (K.W. Osteryoung, K. Toenjes, B. Hall, V. Winkler, A.B. Bennett [1990] Plant Cell 2: 1239–1248), PG overexpression in transgenic apple led to a range of novel phenotypes. These phenotypes included silvery colored leaves and premature leaf shedding due to reduced cell adhesion in leaf abscission zones. Mature leaves had malformed and malfunctioning stomata that perturbed water relations and contributed to a brittle leaf phenotype. Chemical and ultrastructural analyses were used to relate the phenotypic changes to pectin changes in the leaf cell walls. The modification of apple trees by a single PG gene has offered a new and unexpected perspective on the role of pectin and cell wall adhesion in leaf morphology and stomatal development. PMID:12011344

  5. Bile acid receptor TGR5 overexpression is associated with decreased intestinal mucosal injury and epithelial cell proliferation in obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chen-Guang; Xie, Xiao-Li; Yin, Jie; Qi, Wei; Chen, Lei; Bai, Yun; Wang, Na; Zhao, Dong-Qiang; Jiang, Xiao-Yu; Jiang, Hui-Qing

    2017-04-01

    Bile acids stimulate intestinal epithelial proliferation in vitro. We sought to investigate the role of the bile acid receptor TGR5 in the protection of intestinal epithelial proliferation in obstructive jaundice. Intestinal tissues and serum samples were obtained from patients with malignant obstructive jaundice and from bile duct ligation (BDL) rats. Intestinal permeability and morphological changes in the intestinal mucosa were observed. The functions of TGR5 in cell proliferation in intestinal epithelial injury were determined by overexpression or knockdown studies in Caco-2 and FHs 74 Int cells pretreated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Internal biliary drainage was superior to external biliary drainage in recovering intestinal permeability and mucosal histology in patients with obstructive jaundice. In BDL rats, feeding of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) decreased intestinal mucosa injury. The levels of PCNA, a marker of proliferation, increased in response to CDCA feeding and were paralleled by elevated TGR5 expression. CDCA upregulated TGR5 expression and promoted proliferation in Caco-2 and FHs 74 Int cells pretreated with LPS. Overexpression of TGR5 resulted in increased PCNA, cell viability, EdU incorporation, and the proportion of cells in S phase, whereas knockdown of TGR5 had the opposite effect. Our data indicate that bile acids promote intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and decrease mucosal injury by upregulating TGR5 expression in obstructive jaundice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Overexpressed ubiquitin ligase Cullin7 in breast cancer promotes cell proliferation and invasion via down-regulating p53

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Hongsheng; Wu, Fenping; Wang, Yan

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Cullin7 is overexpressed in human breast cancer samples. • Cullin7 stimulated proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells. • Inhibition of p53 contributes to Cullin7-induced proliferation and invasion. - Abstract: Ubiquitin ligase Cullin7 has been identified as an oncogene in some malignant diseases such as choriocarcinoma and neuroblastoma. However, the role of Cullin7 in breast cancer carcinogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we compared Cullin7 protein levels in breast cancer tissues with normal breast tissues and identified significantly higher expression of Cullin7 protein in breast cancer specimens. By overexpressing Cullin7 in breast cancer cells HCC1937, we found thatmore » Cullin7 could promote cell growth and invasion in vitro. In contrast, the cell growth and invasion was inhibited by silencing Cullin7 in breast cancer cell BT474. Moreover, we demonstrated that Cullin7 promoted breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion via down-regulating p53 expression. Thus, our study provided evidence that Cullin7 functions as a novel oncogene in breast cancer and may be a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer management.« less

  7. Overexpression of KCNJ3 gene splice variants affects vital parameters of the malignant breast cancer cell line MCF-7 in an opposing manner.

    PubMed

    Rezania, S; Kammerer, S; Li, C; Steinecker-Frohnwieser, B; Gorischek, A; DeVaney, T T J; Verheyen, S; Passegger, C A; Tabrizi-Wizsy, N Ghaffari; Hackl, H; Platzer, D; Zarnani, A H; Malle, E; Jahn, S W; Bauernhofer, T; Schreibmayer, W

    2016-08-12

    Overexpression the KCNJ3, a gene that encodes subunit 1 of G-protein activated inwardly rectifying K(+) channel (GIRK1) in the primary tumor has been found to be associated with reduced survival times and increased lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients. In order to survey possible tumorigenic properties of GIRK1 overexpression, a range of malignant mammary epithelial cells, based on the MCF-7 cell line that permanently overexpress different splice variants of the KCNJ3 gene (GIRK1a, GIRK1c, GIRK1d and as a control, eYFP) were produced. Subsequently, selected cardinal neoplasia associated cellular parameters were assessed and compared. Adhesion to fibronectin coated surface as well as cell proliferation remained unaffected. Other vital parameters intimately linked to malignancy, i.e. wound healing, chemoinvasion, cellular velocities / motilities and angiogenesis were massively affected by GIRK1 overexpression. Overexpression of different GIRK1 splice variants exerted differential actions. While GIRK1a and GIRK1c overexpression reinforced the affected parameters towards malignancy, overexpression of GIRK1d resulted in the opposite. Single channel recording using the patch clamp technique revealed functional GIRK channels in the plasma membrane of MCF-7 cells albeit at very low frequency. We conclude that GIRK1d acts as a dominant negative constituent of functional GIRK complexes present in the plasma membrane of MCF-7 cells, while overexpression of GIRK1a and GIRK1c augmented their activity. The core component responsible for the cancerogenic action of GIRK1 is apparently presented by a segment comprising aminoacids 235-402, that is present exclusively in GIRK1a and GIRK1c, but not GIRK1d (positions according to GIRK1a primary structure). The current study provides insight into the cellular and molecular consequences of KCNJ3 overexpression in breast cancer cells and the mechanism upon clinical outcome in patients suffering from breast cancer.

  8. Overexpression of the Cell Cycle Inhibitor p16INK4a Promotes a Prothrombotic Phenotype Following Vascular Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, Jessica C.; Owens, A. Phillip; Krishnamurthy, Janakiraman; Sharpless, Norman E.; Whinna, Herbert C.; Church, Frank C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Age-associated cellular senescence is thought to promote vascular dysfunction. p16INK4a is a cell cycle inhibitor that promotes senescence and is upregulated during normal aging. In this study, we examine the contribution of p16INK4a overexpression on venous thrombosis. Methods and Results Mice overexpressing p16INK4a were studied with four different vascular injury models: (1) ferric chloride (FeCl3) and (2) Rose Bengal to induce saphenous vein thrombus formation; (3) FeCl3 and vascular ligation to examine thrombus resolution; and (4) LPS administration to initiate inflammation-induced vascular dysfunction. p16INK4a transgenic mice had accelerated occlusion times (13.1 ± 0.4 min) compared to normal controls (19.7 ± 1.1 min) in the FeCl3 model and 12.7 ± 2.0 and 18.6 ± 1.9, respectively in the Rose Bengal model. Moreover, overexpression of p16INK4a delayed thrombus resolution compared to normal controls. In response to LPS treatment, the p16INK4a transgenic mice showed enhanced thrombin generation in plasma-based calibrated automated thrombography (CAT) assays. Finally, bone marrow transplantation studies suggested increased p16INK4a expression in hematopoietic cells contributes to thrombosis, demonstrating a role for p16INK4a expression in venous thrombosis. Conclusions Venous thrombosis is augmented by overexpression of the cellular senescence gene p16INK4a. PMID:21233453

  9. SIRT1 overexpression protects non-small cell lung cancer cells against osteopontin-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition by suppressing NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuejiao; Jiang, Zhongxiu; Li, Xiangmin; Zhang, Xiaoye

    2018-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a promoter for tumor progression. It has been reported to promote non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) progression via the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling. As the increased acetylation of NF-κB p65 is linked to NF-κB activation, the regulation of NF-κB p65 acetylation could be a potential treatment target for OPN-induced NSCLC progression. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a deacetylase, and the role of SIRT1 in tumor progression is still controversial. The effect and mechanism of SIRT1 on OPN-induced tumor progression remains unknown. The results presented in this research demonstrated that OPN inhibited SIRT1 expression and promoted NF-κB p65 acetylation in NSCLC cell lines (A549 and NCI-H358). In this article, overexpression of SIRT1 was induced by infection of SIRT1-overexpressing lentiviral vectors. The overexpression of SIRT1 protected NSCLC cells against OPN-induced NF-κB p65 acetylation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), as indicated by the reduction of OPN-induced changes in the expression levels of EMT-related markers and cellular morphology. Furthermore, SIRT1 overexpression significantly attenuated OPN-induced cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Moreover, overexpression of SIRT1 inhibited OPN-induced NF-κB activation. As OPN induced NSCLC cell EMT through activation of NF-κB signaling, OPN-induced SIRT1 downregulation may play an important role in NSCLC cell EMT via NF-κB signaling. The results suggest that SIRT1 could be a tumor suppressor to attenuate OPN-induced NSCLC progression through the regulation of NF-κB signaling.

  10. Migration-stimulating factor (MSF) is over-expressed in non-small cell lung cancer and promotes cell migration and invasion in A549 cells over-expressing MSF

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Xuefeng, E-mail: dengxfdoctor@hotmail.com; Department of Cardio-thoracic Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Academy of Military Medical Sciences; Ma, Qunfeng

    Migration-stimulating factor (MSF), an oncofetal truncated isoform of fibronectin, is a potent stimulator of cell invasion. However, its distribution and motogenic role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have never been identified. In this study, real-time PCR and immunohistochemical staining (IHC) were performed to detect MSF mRNA and protein levels in tumor tissues and matched adjacent tumor-free tissues. Furthermore, to examine the effect of MSF on invasiveness, MSF was upregulated in A549 cells. The invasiveness and viability of A549 cells were then determined using a transwell migration assay and the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) viability assays, respectively. The expression level ofmore » MSF in NSCLC tissue was markedly higher than in matched adjacent tumor-free tissue. Additionally, the level of MSF protein expression in stage III and IV NSCLC samples was higher than in stage I and II NSCLC samples. More importantly, we also demonstrated that migration and invasion of A549 cells increased substantially after upregulating MSF, although proliferation remained unchanged. Meanwhile, we found no correlation between increasing motility and invasiveness of MSF-overexpressing cells and expression levels and activities of matrix metalloprotease MMP-2 and MMP-9. Our current study shows that MSF plays a role in migration and invasion of A549 cells and suggests that MSF may be a potential biomarker of NSCLC progression. - Highlights: • MSF expression was upregulated in NSCLC and correlated with TNM stages. • MSF may be a new biomarker for NSCLC progression. • MSF promoted migration and invasion in A549 cells, independent of MMP-2/MMP-9 expression.« less

  11. RGD peptide-mediated chitosan-based polymeric micelles targeting delivery for integrin-overexpressing tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Cai, Li-Li; Liu, Ping; Li, Xi; Huang, Xuan; Ye, Yi-Qing; Chen, Feng-Ying; Yuan, Hong; Hu, Fu-Qiang; Du, Yong-Zhong

    2011-01-01

    Solid tumors need new blood vessels to feed and nourish them as well as to allow tumor cells to escape into the circulation and lodge in other organs, which is termed "angiogenesis." Some tumor cells within solid tumors can overexpress integrins α(v)β(3) and α(v)β(5), which can specifically recognize the peptide motif Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD). Thus, the targeting of RGD-modified micelles to tumor vasculature is a promising strategy for tumor-targeting treatment. RGD peptide (GSSSGRGDSPA) was coupled to poly(ethylene glycol)-modified stearic acid-grafted chitosan (PEG-CS-SA) micelles via chemical reaction in the presence of N,N'-Disuccinimidyl carbonate. The critical micelle concentration of the polymeric micelles was determined by measuring the fluorescence intensity of pyrene as a fluorescent probe. The micelle size, size distribution, and zeta potential were measured by light scattering and electrophoretic mobility. Doxorubicin (DOX) was chosen as a model anticancer drug to investigate the drug entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug-release profile, and in vitro antitumor activities of drug-loaded RGD-PEG-CS-SA micelles in cells that overexpress integrins (α(ν)β(3) and α(ν)β(5)) and integrin-deficient cells. Using DOX as a model drug, the drug encapsulation efficiency could reach 90%, and the in vitro drug-release profiles suggested that the micelles could be used as a controlled-release carrier for the hydrophobic drug. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of cellular uptake indicated that RGD-modified micelles could significantly increase the DOX concentration in integrin-overexpressing human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (BEL-7402), but not in human epithelial carcinoma cell line (Hela). The competitive cellular-uptake test showed that the cellular uptake of RGD-modified micelles in BEL-7402 cells was significantly inhibited in the presence of excess free RGD peptides. In vitro cytotoxicity tests demonstrated DOX-loaded RGD-modified micelles could

  12. Enhanced cell survival and paracrine effects of mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing hepatocyte growth factor promote cardioprotection in myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Liyan; Liu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yuelin

    Poor cell survival post transplantation compromises the therapeutic benefits of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in myocardial infarction (MI). Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is an important cytokine for angiogenesis, anti-inflammation and anti-apoptosis. This study aimed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of MSCs overexpressing HGF in a mouse model of MI. The apoptosis of umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) and HGF-UC-MSCs under normoxic and hypoxic conditions was detected. The conditioned medium (CdM) of UC-MSCs and HGF-UC-MSCs under a hypoxic condition was harvested and its protective effect on neonatal cardiomyocytes (NCMs) exposed to a hypoxic challenge was examined. UC-MSCs and HGF-UC-MSCs were transplanted intomore » the peri-infarct region in mice following MI and heart function assessed 4 weeks post transplantation. The apoptosis of HGF-UC-MSCs under hypoxic conditions was markedly decreased compared with that of UC-MSCs. NCMs treated with HGF-UC-MSC hypoxic CdM (HGF-UC-MSCs-hy-CdM) exhibited less cell apoptosis in response to hypoxic challenge than those treated with UC-MSC hypoxic CdM (UC-MSCs-hy-CdM). HGF-UC-MSCs-hy-CdM released the inhibited p-Akt and lowered the enhanced ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 induced by hypoxia in the NCMs. HGF-UC-MSCs-hy-CdM expressed higher levels of HGF, EGF, bFGF and VEGF than UC-MSCs-hy-CdM. Transplantation of HGF-UC-MSCs or UC-MSCs greatly improved heart function in the mouse model of MI. Compared with UC-MSCs, transplantation of HGF-UC-MSCs was associated with less cardiomyocyte apoptosis, enhanced angiogenesis and increased proliferation of cardiomyocytes. This study may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for MSC-based therapy in cardiovascular disease.« less

  13. Targeted and controlled drug delivery system loading artersunate for effective chemotherapy on CD44 overexpressing cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tuan Hiep; Nguyen, Tuan Duc; Van Nguyen, Han; Nguyen, Hanh Thuy; Kim, Jong Oh; Yong, Chul Soon; Nguyen, Chien Ngoc

    2016-05-01

    Poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles with negative surface charge were reversed to positive by cationic surfactant-DDAB before being coated with an anionic polymer, hyaluronic acid, to improve their site-specific intracellular delivery against CD44 receptor overexpressing cancer cells. Incorporating artesunate (ART)-a promising anticancer drug into PLGA/HA nanoparticles, is expected not only to overcome its poor aqueous solubility and stability but also enhance the activities. The obtained particles were characterized by dynamic light scattering, zeta potential measurements, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cancer cell internalization of the NPs was evaluated by flow cytometry and cytotoxicity of the NPs was tested by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. PLGA/HA nanoparticles showed greater extent of cellular uptake to SCC-7 and MCF-7 cells, indicating their affinity with CD44 receptor-mediated endocytosis. Almost 60 % of ART was released into the outer media after 48 h. In vitro fluorescence sorting demonstrated that PLGA/HA had highly efficient targeting and accumulation into CD44 receptor overexpression cells. The significant reduction in cell viability as well as greater induction of apoptosis suggested a potential in anticancer therapy of ART loaded PLGA/HA.

  14. BRCA1/p220 loss triggers BRCA1-IRIS overexpression via mRNA stabilization in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Yoshiko; Mullins, Nicole; Blanchard, Zannel; ElShamy, Wael M.

    2012-01-01

    BRCA1/p220-assocaited and triple negative/basal-like (TN/BL) tumors are aggressive and incurable breast cancer diseases that share among other features the no/low BRCA1/p220 expression. Here we show that BRCA1/p220 silencing in normal human mammary epithelial (HME) cells reduces expression of two RNA-destabilizing proteins, namely AUF1 and pCBP2, both proteins bind and destabilize BRCA1-IRIS mRNA. BRCA1-IRIS overexpression in HME cells triggers expression of several TN/BL markers, e.g., cytokeratins 5 and 17, p-cadherin, EGFR and cyclin E as well as expression and activation of the pro-survival proteins; AKT and survivin. BRCA1-IRIS silencing in the TN/BL cell line, SUM149 or restoration of BRCA1/p220 expression in the mutant cell line, HCC1937 reduced expression of TN/BL markers, AKT, survivin, and induced cell death. Collectively, we propose that BRCA1/p220 loss of expression or function triggers BRCA1-IRIS overexpression through a post-transcriptional mechanism, which in turn promotes formation of aggressive and invasive breast tumors by inducing expression of TN/BL and survival proteins. PMID:22431556

  15. Characterization of genetically engineered mouse hepatoma cells with inducible liver functions by overexpression of liver-enriched transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hideaki; Tonello, Jane Marie; Sambuichi, Takanori; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Ito, Akira; Kamihira, Masamichi

    2018-01-01

    New cell sources for the research and therapy of organ failure could significantly alleviate the shortage of donor livers that are available to patients who suffer from liver disease. Liver carcinoma derived cells, or hepatoma cells, are the ideal cells for developing bioartificial liver systems. Such cancerous liver cells are easy to prepare in large quantities and can be maintained over long periods under standard culture conditions, unlike primary hepatocytes. However, hepatoma cells possess only a fraction of the functions of primary hepatocytes. In a previous study, by transducing cells with liver-enriched transcription factors that could be inducibly overexpressed-hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)1α, HNF1β, HNF3β [FOXA2], HNF4α, HNF6, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)α, C/EBPβ and C/EBPγ-we created mouse hepatoma cells with high liver-specific gene expression called the Hepa/8F5 cell line. In the present study, we performed functional and genetic analyses to characterize the Hepa/8F5 cell line. Further, in three-dimensional cultures, the function of these cells improved significantly compared to parental cells. Ultimately, these cells might become a new resource that can be used in basic and applied hepatic research. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Human CD3+ T-Cells with the Anti-ERBB2 Chimeric Antigen Receptor Exhibit Efficient Targeting and Induce Apoptosis in ERBB2 Overexpressing Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Munisvaradass, Rusheni; Kumar, Suresh; Govindasamy, Chandramohan; Alnumair, Khalid S; Mok, Pooi Ling

    2017-09-08

    Breast cancer is a common malignancy among women. The innate and adaptive immune responses failed to be activated owing to immune modulation in the tumour microenvironment. Decades of scientific study links the overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ERBB2) antigen with aggressive tumours. The Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) coding for specific tumour-associated antigens could initiate intrinsic T-cell signalling, inducing T-cell activation, and cytotoxic activity without the need for major histocompatibility complex recognition. This renders CAR as a potentially universal immunotherapeutic option. Herein, we aimed to establish CAR in CD3+ T-cells, isolated from human peripheral blood mononucleated cells that could subsequently target and induce apoptosis in the ERBB2 overexpressing human breast cancer cell line, SKBR3. Constructed CAR was inserted into a lentiviral plasmid containing a green fluorescent protein tag and produced as lentiviral particles that were used to transduce activated T-cells. Transduced CAR-T cells were then primed with SKBR3 cells to evaluate their functionality. Results showed increased apoptosis in SKBR3 cells co-cultured with CAR-T cells compared to the control (non-transduced T-cells). This study demonstrates that CAR introduction helps overcome the innate limitations of native T-cells leading to cancer cell apoptosis. We recommend future studies should focus on in vivo cytotoxicity of CAR-T cells against ERBB2 expressing tumours.

  17. Human CD3+ T-Cells with the Anti-ERBB2 Chimeric Antigen Receptor Exhibit Efficient Targeting and Induce Apoptosis in ERBB2 Overexpressing Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Munisvaradass, Rusheni; Kumar, Suresh; Govindasamy, Chandramohan; Alnumair, Khalid S.; Mok, Pooi Ling

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is a common malignancy among women. The innate and adaptive immune responses failed to be activated owing to immune modulation in the tumour microenvironment. Decades of scientific study links the overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ERBB2) antigen with aggressive tumours. The Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) coding for specific tumour-associated antigens could initiate intrinsic T-cell signalling, inducing T-cell activation, and cytotoxic activity without the need for major histocompatibility complex recognition. This renders CAR as a potentially universal immunotherapeutic option. Herein, we aimed to establish CAR in CD3+ T-cells, isolated from human peripheral blood mononucleated cells that could subsequently target and induce apoptosis in the ERBB2 overexpressing human breast cancer cell line, SKBR3. Constructed CAR was inserted into a lentiviral plasmid containing a green fluorescent protein tag and produced as lentiviral particles that were used to transduce activated T-cells. Transduced CAR-T cells were then primed with SKBR3 cells to evaluate their functionality. Results showed increased apoptosis in SKBR3 cells co-cultured with CAR-T cells compared to the control (non–transduced T-cells). This study demonstrates that CAR introduction helps overcome the innate limitations of native T-cells leading to cancer cell apoptosis. We recommend future studies should focus on in vivo cytotoxicity of CAR-T cells against ERBB2 expressing tumours. PMID:28885562

  18. Disruption of alpha beta but not of gamma delta T cell development by overexpression of the helix-loop-helix protein Id3 in committed T cell progenitors.

    PubMed Central

    Blom, B; Heemskerk, M H; Verschuren, M C; van Dongen, J J; Stegmann, A P; Bakker, A Q; Couwenberg, F; Res, P C; Spits, H

    1999-01-01

    Enforced expression of Id3, which has the capacity to inhibit many basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, in human CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells that have not undergone T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements inhibits development of the transduced cells into TCRalpha beta and gamma delta cells in a fetal thymic organ culture (FTOC). Here we document that overexpression of Id3, in progenitors that have initiated TCR gene rearrangements (pre-T cells), inhibits development into TCRalpha beta but not into TCRgamma delta T cells. Furthermore, Id3 impedes expression of recombination activating genes and downregulates pre-Talpha mRNA. These observations suggest possible mechanisms by which Id3 overexpression can differentially affect development of pre-T cells into TCRalpha beta and gamma delta cells. We also observed that cell surface CD4(-)CD8(-)CD3(-) cells with rearranged TCR genes developed from Id3-transduced but not from control-transduced pre-T cells in an FTOC. These cells had properties of both natural killer (NK) and pre-T cells. These findings suggest that bHLH factors are required to control T cell development after the T/NK developmental checkpoint. PMID:10329625

  19. Pleiotropic effect of sigE over-expression on cell morphology, photosynthesis and hydrogen production in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Osanai, Takashi; Kuwahara, Ayuko; Iijima, Hiroko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Sato, Mayuko; Tanaka, Kan; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Saito, Kazuki; Hirai, Masami Yokota

    2013-11-01

    Over-expression of sigE, a gene encoding an RNA polymerase sigma factor in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, is known to activate sugar catabolism and bioplastic production. In this study, we investigated the effects of sigE over-expression on cell morphology, photosynthesis and hydrogen production in this cyanobacterium. Transmission electron and scanning probe microscopic analyses revealed that sigE over-expression increased the cell size, possibly as a result of aberrant cell division. Over-expression of sigE reduced respiration and photosynthesis activities via changes in gene expression and chlorophyll fluorescence. Hydrogen production under micro-oxic conditions is enhanced in sigE over-expressing cells. Despite these pleiotropic phenotypes, the sigE over-expressing strain showed normal cell viability under both nitrogen-replete and nitrogen-depleted conditions. These results provide insights into the inter-relationship among metabolism, cell morphology, photosynthesis and hydrogen production in this unicellular cyanobacterium. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Overexpression of plasma membrane H+-ATPase in guard cells promotes light-induced stomatal opening and enhances plant growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin; Noguchi, Ko; Ono, Natsuko; Inoue, Shin-ichiro; Terashima, Ichiro; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2014-01-07

    Stomatal pores surrounded by a pair of guard cells in the plant epidermis control gas exchange between plants and the atmosphere in response to light, CO2, and the plant hormone abscisic acid. Light-induced stomatal opening is mediated by at least three key components: the blue light receptor phototropin (phot1 and phot2), plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, and plasma membrane inward-rectifying K(+) channels. Very few attempts have been made to enhance stomatal opening with the goal of increasing photosynthesis and plant growth, even though stomatal resistance is thought to be the major limiting factor for CO2 uptake by plants. Here, we show that transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing H(+)-ATPase using the strong guard cell promoter GC1 showed enhanced light-induced stomatal opening, photosynthesis, and plant growth. The transgenic plants produced larger and increased numbers of rosette leaves, with ∼42-63% greater fresh and dry weights than the wild type in the first 25 d of growth. The dry weights of total flowering stems of 45-d-old transgenic plants, including seeds, siliques, and flowers, were ∼36-41% greater than those of the wild type. In addition, stomata in the transgenic plants closed normally in response to darkness and abscisic acid. In contrast, the overexpression of phototropin or inward-rectifying K(+) channels in guard cells had no effect on these phenotypes. These results demonstrate that stomatal aperture is a limiting factor in photosynthesis and plant growth, and that manipulation of stomatal opening by overexpressing H(+)-ATPase in guard cells is useful for the promotion of plant growth.

  1. The proangiogenic phenotype of tumor-derived endothelial cells is reverted by the overexpression of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase.

    PubMed

    Doublier, Sophie; Ceretto, Monica; Lupia, Enrico; Bravo, Stefania; Bussolati, Benedetta; Camussi, Giovanni

    2007-10-01

    We previously reported that human tumor-derived endothelial cells (TEC) have an angiogenic phenotype related to the autocrine production of several angiogenic factors. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether an enhanced synthesis of platelet-activating factor (PAF) might contribute to the proangiogenic characteristics of TEC and whether its inactivation might inhibit angiogenesis. To address the potential role of PAF in the proangiogenic characteristics of TEC, we engineered TEC to stably overexpress human plasma PAF-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), the major PAF-inactivating enzyme, and we evaluated in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis. TECs were able to synthesize a significantly enhanced amount of PAF compared with normal human microvascular endothelial cells when stimulated with thrombin, vascular endothelial growth factor, or soluble CD154. Transfection of TEC with PAF-AH (TEC-PAF-AH) significantly inhibited apoptosis resistance and spontaneous motility of TEC. In addition, PAF and vascular endothelial growth factor stimulation enhanced the motility and adhesion of TEC but not of TEC-PAF-AH. In vitro, TEC-PAF-AH lost the characteristic ability of TEC to form vessel-like structures when plated on Matrigel. Finally, when cells were injected s.c. within Matrigel in severe combined immunodeficiency mice or coimplanted with a renal carcinoma cell line, the overexpression of PAF-AH induced a significant reduction of functional vessel formation. These results suggest that inactivation of PAF, produced by TEC, by the overexpression of plasma PAF-AH affects survival, migration, and the angiogenic response of TEC both in vitro and in vivo.

  2. Overexpression of protein kinase C ɛ improves retention and survival of transplanted mesenchymal stem cells in rat acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    He, H; Zhao, Z-H; Han, F-S; Liu, X-H; Wang, R; Zeng, Y-J

    2016-01-21

    We assessed the effects of protein kinase C ɛ (PKCɛ) for improving stem cell therapy for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Primary mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were harvested from rat bone marrow. PKCɛ-overexpressed MSCs and control MSCs were transplanted into infarct border zones in a rat AMI model. MSCs and PKCɛ distribution and expression of principal proteins involved in PKCɛ signaling through the stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1)/CXC chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) axis and the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway were analyzed by immunofluorescence and western blot 1 day after transplantation. Echocardiographic measurements and histologic studies were performed at 4 weeks after transplantation, and MSC survival, expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), von Willebrand factor (vWF), smooth muscle actin (SMA) and factor VIII and apoptosis in infarct border zones were assessed. Rat heart muscles retained more MSCs and SDF-1, CXCR4, PI3K and phosphorylated AKT increased with PKCɛ overexpression 1 day after transplantation. MSC survival and VEGF, bFGF, TGFβ, cTnI, vWF, SMA and factor VIII expression increased in animals with PKCɛ-overexpressed MSCs at 4 weeks after transplantation and cardiac dysfunction and remodeling improved. Infarct size and apoptosis decreased as well. Inhibitory actions of CXCR4 or PI3K partly attenuated the effects of PKCɛ. Activation of PKCɛ may improve retention, survival and differentiation of transplanted MSCs in myocardia. Augmentation of PKCɛ expression may enhance the therapeutic effects of stem cell therapy for AMI.

  3. Effect of DJ-1 overexpression on the proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and migration of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma SNU-46 cells through PI3K/AKT/mTOR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Qin, Hao; Wang, Yuejian; Chen, Weixiong; Luo, Jie; Zhu, Xiaolin; Wen, Weiping; Lei, Wenbin

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of DJ-1-mediated PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway on the proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, migration and other tumor biological characteristics of laryngeal squamous cell SNU-46, through stable transfection and overexpression of the DJ-1 gene. Retrovirus carrying DJ-1 gene was used to stabilize transfected human laryngeal squamous carcinoma SNU-46 cell line, and monoclonal cell line of stably overexpressed DJ-1 protein was screened out by G418. DJ-1 protein expression was determined by western blotting, and changes of p-AKT, p-mTOR and PTEN protein content were detected, followed by the detection of changes in proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, migration and other tumor biological characteristics of laryngeal squamous carcinoma cell line with stably transfected DJ-1 protein overexpression by flow cytometry, CCK-8 method and Transwell. We successfully constructed a laryngeal squamous carcinoma cell line of stably overexpressed DJ-1 protein and termed it SNU-46-DJ-1. After overexpression of DJ-1 protein, the levels of PTEN expression in laryngeal squamous cell SNU-46 decreased and p-AKT and p-mTOR protein expression levels increased. Compared to the untreated SNU-46 cells, the proliferation rate of SNU-46-DJ-1 cells increased (0.834±0.336 vs. 0.676±0.112; p<0.001); invasiveness was enhanced (165.7±13.6 vs. 100.0±17.4; p=0.001), the migration ability was enhanced (207.3±13.1 vs. 175.3±13.3; p=0.036), and the apoptosis rate decreased (3.533±5.167 vs. 16.397±5.447%; p=0.019). The overexpression of DJ-1 protein in laryngeal squamous carcinoma SNU-46 cells can accelerate proliferation rate, increase the invasion and migration capacity, and reduce apoptosis, by activating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway.

  4. Srs2 overexpression reveals a helicase-independent role at replication forks that requires diverse cell functions

    PubMed Central

    León Ortiz, Ana María; Reid, Robert J. D.; Dittmar, John C.; Rothstein, Rodney; Nicolas, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Srs2 is a 3’ to 5’ DNA helicase that regulates many aspects of DNA metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It is best known for its ability to counteract homologous recombination by dismantling Rad51 filaments, but is also involved in checkpoint activation, adaptation and recovery, and in resolution of late recombination intermediates. To further address its biological roles and uncover new genetic interactions, we examined the consequences of overexpressing SRS2 as well as two helicase-dead mutants, srs2-K41A and srs2-K41R, in the collection of 4827 yeast haploid deletion mutants. We identified 274 genes affecting a large variety of cellular functions that are required for cell growth when SRS2 or its mutants are overexpressed. Further analysis of these interactions reveals that Srs2 acts independently of its helicase function at replication forks likely through its recruitment by the sumoylated PCNA replication clamp. This helicase-independent function is responsible for the negative interactions with DNA metabolism genes and for the toxicity of SRS2 overexpression in many of the diverse cellular pathways revealed in our screens. PMID:21459050

  5. The relation between Ring Box-1 protein overexpression and tumor grade and stage in bladder urothelial cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Celik, Zeliha Esin; Kaynar, Mehmet; Karabagli, Pinar; Gergerlioglu, Nursadan; Goktas, Serdar

    2017-12-06

    Ring Box Protein-1 (RBX-1), a component of SCF E3 ubiquitin ligases, has a crucial role in bladder urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) carcinogenesis and progression. In the present study, it is aimed to determine the expression of RBX-1 protein in bladder UCC and the association between tumor grade, stage and RBX-1 expression. Ninety UCC samples and 20 samples containing foci of normal bladder urothelium were recruited and analyzed immunohistochemically in terms of RBX-1 expression. Immuno-reactivity scoring system (IRS) was used to determine RBX-1 expression levels. RBX-1 overexpression was associated with high tumor grade (p= 0.001) and advanced stage (p= 0.001). pT1 tumors showed higher RBX-1 expression than pTa tumors. pT2 tumors showed not only higher expression than pTa tumors but also higher expression than the total of pTa and pT1 groups combined. There was no statistically significant relation between RBX-1 expression and patient gender (p= 0.116) or age (p= 0.191). In bladder UCC, RBX-1 overexpression is associated with high tumor grade and advanced stage and represents biological potential of invasiveness and aggressive disease. Results of the present study have to be supported with further studies to reveal clinical and therapeutic implications of RBX-1 overexpression in bladder UCC.

  6. Prognostic significance of CCND1 (cyclin D1) overexpression in primary resected non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Betticher, D. C.; Heighway, J.; Hasleton, P. S.; Altermatt, H. J.; Ryder, W. D.; Cerny, T.; Thatcher, N.

    1996-01-01

    Amplification of the CCDN1 gene encoding cyclin D1 was examined by Southern blotting and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and occurred in 8 of 53 patients (15%) with primary resected non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). These tumours and 17 additional tumours with a normal gene copy number showed overexpression of cyclin D1 (25/53, 47%), as assessed by immunostaining using a monoclonal antibody. In 22/25 cases, cyclin D1 was localised in the cytoplasm, but some (7/25) had simultaneous nuclear staining. This result is in marked contrast to that reported in breast, hepatocellular and colorectal carcinoma studies where immunostaining was invariably nuclear. Examination of a restriction fragment length polymorphic (RFLP) site within the 3'untranslated region of the cDNA following reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR (29/53 informative cases) showed a strong association between cytoplasmic staining and imbalance in allele-specific message levels. Cyclin D1 overexpression was associated with a poorly differentiated histology (P = 0.04), less lymphocytic infiltration of the tumour (P = 0.02) and a reduction in local relapse rate (P = 0.01). The relative risk of local relapse was 9.1 in tumours without cyclin D1 overexpression (P = 0.01, Cox regression analysis). We conclude that genetic alteration of cyclin D1 is a key abnormality in lung carcinogenesis and may have diagnostic and prognostic importance in the treatment of resectable NSCLC. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8562333

  7. [Overexpression of SEPP1 inhibits the proliferation and induces cell cycle G2/M arrest of 786-O and 769-P human renal carcinoma cells].

    PubMed

    Liu, Kan; Zhao, Chaofei; Chen, Jianwen; Wu, Shengpan; Yao, Yuanxin; Wu, Chong; Luo, Guoxiong; Zhang, Xu

    2016-06-01

    Objective To establish selenoprotein P, plasma 1 (SEPP1) gene recombinant lentiviral vector and investigate the effect of SEPP1 on the proliferation of human clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) cells. Methods cDNA sequence of SEPP1 was cloned from the total cDNA of HEK293T cells by PCR. Then, the cDNA fragment was combined with the pLV-EGFP(2A)Puro vector and the constructed plasmid pLV-EGFP(2A)Puro-SEPP1 was transfected into HEK293T cells for packaging the virus. Forty-eight hours after transfected with the virus supernatant, the level of SEPP1 protein in 769-P and 786-O cells were tested by Western blotting. Cells were divided into recombinant lentivirus-infected cells, empty vector lentivirus-infected cells and the blank control cells. Cell proliferation rate was detected by MTS assay, colony forming ability was evaluated by plate clony formation assay and cell cycle change was assayed by flow cytometry after transfected with pLV-EGFP(2A)Puro-SEPP1 or empty pLV-EGFP(2A)Puro vector. Results Enzyme digestion analysis and DNA sequencing showed that the recombinant plasmid pLV-EGFP(2A)Puro-SEPP1 was constructed successfully. After being infected by the virus supernatant, the 786-O and 769-P cells expressed EGFP. Compared with the empty vector group and the blank control group, expression level of SEPP1 in the experimental group was much higher. The cell proliferative ability was inhibited in the cells overexpressing SEPP1, and the colony forming ability of SEPP1-overexpressed cells evidently decreased. Cell cycle was arrested in G2/M phase in 786-O cells overexpressing SEPP1. Conclusion The recombinant plasmid pLV-EGFP(2A)Puro-SEPP1 has been constructed successfully. Overexpression of SEPP1 could significantly reduce the proliferation rate of 786-O and 769P cells, and cause G2/M phase arrest of 786-O cells.

  8. [Overexpression of tumor metastasis suppressor gene 1 suppresses proliferation and invasion, but enhances apoptosis of human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 cells].

    PubMed

    Su, Jing; You, Jiang-feng; Wang, Jie-liang; Cui, Xiang-lin; Fang, Wei-gang; Zheng, Jie

    2007-10-01

    To investigate the effects of tumor metastasis suppressor gene 1 (TMSG-1) overexpression on the proliferation, invasion and apoptosis of breast cancer cells and to determine possible correlations of TMSG-1 and metastasis of breast cancer. Full-length human TMSG-1 coding sequences were cloned into plasmid pcDNA3.0-FLAG. The recombinant plasmids constructs were transfeced into MDA-MB-231, a highly malignant breast cancer cell line. Parental, vector-only stable transfectant and TMSG-1 stable transfectant clones were tested by MTT, soft agar colony formation and Boyden chamber assays. At twenty-four hours and forty-eight hours post transient transfection, double staining with Annexin-V-FITC and PI were employed to distinguish apoptotic cells from living cells by flow cytometry analysis. Three TMSG-1 overexpression clones were selected. Compared with the control cells, TMSG-1 overexpression MDA-MB-231 cells showed strong inhibition of proliferation and decreased clonogenicity in soft agar (P<0.05). Transfection of TMSG-1 into MDA-MB-231 cells significantly suppressed the cell invasion ability in vitro (decreased numbers of cells trespassing the matrigel in three experiments: 72.3+/-8.1, 85.0+/-4.2, and 73.5+/-7.8) in comparison with nave cells without transfection (187.5+/-2.1) and cells transfected with the control vector (162.3+/-6.8) (P<0.01). Transient transfection of TMSG-1 into MDA-MB-231 cells could promote cell apoptosis at 24 and 48 hours after transfection (P<0.05). TMSG-1 protein may have multiple functions in the regulation of proliferation, invasion and apoptosis of metastatic breast cancer cells, likely as a metastasis suppressor gene.

  9. Parkin Overexpression Ameliorates PrP106-126-Induced Neurotoxicity via Enhanced Autophagy in N2a Cells.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sher Hayat; Zhao, Deming; Shah, Syed Zahid Ali; Hassan, Mohammad Farooque; Zhu, Ting; Song, Zhiqi; Zhou, Xiangmei; Yang, Lifeng

    2017-05-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are caused by the accumulation of the abnormal prion protein scrapie (PrP Sc ). Prion protein aggregation, misfolding, and cytotoxicity in the brain are the major causes of neuronal dysfunction and ultimate neurodegeneration in all TSEs. Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, has been studied extensively in all major protein misfolding aggregating diseases, especially Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, but the role of parkin in TSEs remains unknown. Here we investigated the role of parkin in a prion disease cell model in which neuroblastoma2a (N2a) cells were treated with prion peptide PrP106-126. We observed a gradual decrease in the soluble parkin level upon treatment with PrP106-126 in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, endogenous parkin colocalized with FITC-tagged prion fragment106-126. Overexpression of parkin in N2a cells via transfection repressed apoptosis by enhancing autophagy. Parkin-overexpressing cells also showed reductions in apoptotic BAX translocation to the mitochondria and cytochrome c release to the cytosol, which ultimately inhibited activation of proapoptotic caspases. Taken together, our findings reveal a parkin-mediated cytoprotective mechanism against PrP106-126 toxicity, which is a novel potential therapeutic target for treating prion diseases.

  10. Arylsulfatase B Mediates the Sulfonation-Transport Interplay in Human Embryonic Kidney 293 Cells Overexpressing Sulfotransferase 1A3.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mengjing; Wang, Shuai; Li, Feng; Dong, Dong; Wu, Baojian

    2016-09-01

    Elucidating the intricate relationships between metabolic and transport pathways contributes to improved predictions of in vivo drug disposition and drug-drug interactions. Here we reported that inhibited excretion of conjugative metabolites [i.e., hesperetin 3'-O-sulfate (H3'S) and hesperetin 7-O-sulfate (H7S)] by MK-571 led to reduced metabolism of hesperetin (a maximal 78% reduction) in human embryonic kidney 293 cells overexpressing sulfotransferase 1A3 (named SULT293 cells). The strong dependence of cellular sulfonation on the efflux transport of generated sulfated metabolites revealed an interplay of sulfonation metabolism with efflux transport (or sulfonation-transport interplay). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analyses demonstrated that SULT293 cells expressed multiple sulfatases such as arylsulfatase A (ARSA), ARSB, and ARSC. Of these three desulfonation enzymes, only ARSB showed significant activities toward hesperetin sulfates. The intrinsic clearance values for the hydrolysis of H3'S and H7S were estimated at 0.6 and 0.5 μl/h/mg, respectively. Furthermore, knockdown of ARSB attenuated the regulatory effect of efflux transporter on cellular sulfonation, whereas overexpression of ABSB enhanced the transporter effect. Taken together, the results indicated that ARSB mediated the sulfonation-transport interplay in SULT293 cells. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  11. Overexpression of miR-133 decrease primary endothelial cells proliferation and migration via FGFR1 targeting.

    PubMed

    Zomorrod, Mina Soufi; Kouhkan, Fatemeh; Soleimani, Masoud; Aliyan, Amir; Tasharrofi, Nooshin

    2018-03-30

    Angiogenesis is one of the essential hallmarks of cancer that is controlled by the balance between positive and negative regulators. FGFR1 signaling is crucial for the execution of bFGF-induced proliferation, migration, and tube formation of endothelial cells (ECs) and onset of angiogenesis on tumors. The purpose of this study is to identify whether or not miR-133 regulates FGFR1 expression and accordingly hypothesize if it plays a crucial role in modulating bFGF/FGFR1 activity in ECs and blocking tumor angiogenesis through targeting FGFR1. The influences of miR-133 overexpression on bFGF stimulated endothelial cells were assessed by cell growth curve, MTT assaying, tube formation, and migration assays. Forced expression of miR-133 caused significant reductions in bFGF-induced proliferation and migratory ability of ECs. MiR-133 Expression was negatively correlated with both mRNA and protein levels of FGFR1 in the transfected ECs isolated from peripheral blood. Moreover, overexpression of miR-133 drastically reduced the rate of cell division and disturbed capillary network formation of transfected ECs. These findings suggest that miR-133 plays an important function in bFGF-induced angiogenesis processes in ECs and provides a rationale for new therapeutic approaches to suppress tumor angiogenesis and cancer. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Transgenic Overexpression of the Transcription Factor Nkx6.1 in β-Cells of Mice Does Not Increase β-Cell Proliferation, β-Cell Mass, or Improve Glucose Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Schaffer, Ashleigh E.; Yang, Almira J.; Thorel, Fabrizio; Herrera, Pedro L.

    2011-01-01

    The loss or dysfunction of the pancreatic endocrine β-cell results in diabetes. Recent innovative therapeutic approaches for diabetes aim to induce β-cell proliferation in vivo by pharmacological intervention. Based on the finding that overexpression of the transcription factor Nkx6.1 in islets in vitro increases β-cell proliferation while maintaining β-cell function, Nkx6.1 has been proposed as a potential target for diabetes therapy. However, it is unknown whether elevated Nkx6.1 levels in β-cells in vivo have similar effects as observed in isolated islets. To this end, we sought to investigate whether overexpression of Nkx6.1 in β-cells in vivo could increase β-cell mass and/or improve β-cell function in normal or β-cell-depleted mice. Using a bigenic inducible Cre-recombinase-based transgenic model, we analyzed the effects of Nkx6.1 overexpression on β-cell proliferation, β-cell mass, and glucose metabolism. We found that mice overexpressing Nkx6.1 in β-cells displayed similar β-cell proliferation rates and β-cell mass as control mice. Furthermore, after partial β-cell ablation, Nkx6.1 overexpression was not sufficient to induce β-cell regeneration under either nondiabetic or diabetic conditions. Together these results demonstrate that sustained Nkx6.1 overexpression in vivo does not stimulate β-cell proliferation, expand β-cell mass, or improve glucose metabolism in either normal or β-cell-depleted pancreata. Thus, raising cellular Nkx6.1 levels in β-cells in vivo is unlikely to have a positive impact on type 2 diabetes. PMID:21964593

  13. Overexpressed cyclophilin B suppresses aldosterone-induced proximal tubular cell injury both in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Lin, Lilu; Wang, Haidong; Guo, Honglei; Gu, Yong; Ding, Wei

    2016-10-25

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is overactivated in patients with chronic kidney disease. Oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) are two major mechanisms responsible for aldosterone-induced kidney injury. Cyclophilin (CYP) B is a chaperone protein that accelerates the rate of protein folding through its peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity. We report that overexpression of wild-type CYPB attenuated aldosterone-induced oxidative stress (evidenced by reduced production of reactive oxygen species and improved mitochondrial dysfunction), ERS (indicated by reduced expression of the ERS markers glucose-regulated protein 78 [GRP78] and C/-EBP homologous protein [CHOP]), and tubular cell apoptosis in comparison with aldosterone-induced human kidney-2 (HK-2) cells. The in vivo study also yielded similar results. Hence, CYPB performs a crucial function in protecting cells against aldosterone-induced oxidative stress, ERS, and tubular cell injury via its PPIase activity.

  14. Overexpressed cyclophilin B suppresses aldosterone-induced proximal tubular cell injury both in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haidong; Guo, Honglei; Gu, Yong; Ding, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is overactivated in patients with chronic kidney disease. Oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) are two major mechanisms responsible for aldosterone-induced kidney injury. Cyclophilin (CYP) B is a chaperone protein that accelerates the rate of protein folding through its peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity. We report that overexpression of wild-type CYPB attenuated aldosterone-induced oxidative stress (evidenced by reduced production of reactive oxygen species and improved mitochondrial dysfunction), ERS (indicated by reduced expression of the ERS markers glucose-regulated protein 78 [GRP78] and C/-EBP homologous protein [CHOP]), and tubular cell apoptosis in comparison with aldosterone-induced human kidney-2 (HK-2) cells. The in vivo study also yielded similar results. Hence, CYPB performs a crucial function in protecting cells against aldosterone-induced oxidative stress, ERS, and tubular cell injury via its PPIase activity. PMID:27732567

  15. Overexpression of Prox1 Induces the Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells into Lymphatic Endothelial-Like Cells In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jingcheng; Dai, Tingting; Sun, Yiyu; Zhang, Qi; Jiang, Zhaohua; Li, Shengli; Cao, Weigang

    2017-02-01

    Constant levels of homeobox transcription factor Prox1 expression are required throughout the life of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) to maintain their differentiated identity. Recent studies have demonstrated that using human LECs for cell transplantation therapy may improve secondary lymphedema in a nude rat model. However, the application is currently limited by the low yield of LECs. In this study, Prox1 was overexpressed in human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hADSCs) by using the transfection of lentiviral vectors to induce the differentiation of hADSCs to LECs. After 14 days of Prox1 overexpression, flow cytometry analysis found that the expression of LEC-specific markers such as Podoplanin and VEGFR3, along with the endothelial cell (EC) marker CD31, on Prox1-overexpressed hADSCs was significantly increased; however, the expression of mesenchymal stem cell markers, such as CD29, CD44, and CD90, was substantially reduced. In addition, the mRNA levels of the LEC-specific markers, such as Prox1, Podoplanin, LYVE1, and VEGFR3, in Prox1-overexpressed hADSCs were significantly increased at day 7 and maintained a continuously increased expression level for 28 observation days, according to real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction results. Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining results further confirmed that overexpression of Prox1 in hADSCs significantly increased the protein levels of Podoplanin, LYVE1, and VEGFR3, as well as those of the EC markers such as VWF and CD144, at day 14. Moreover, these differentiated cells were found to form tube-like structures in matrigel, measured by the tube formation assay. These findings suggested that overexpression of Prox1 in hADSCs successfully induced the differentiation of hADSCs into stable lymphatic endothelial-like cells. This study achieved a long-lasting expression of Prox1 in lymphatic endothelial-like cells, and it provided a potentially useful approach for developing novel

  16. Hoxb4 overexpression in CD4 memory phenotype T cells increases the central memory population upon homeostatic proliferation.

    PubMed

    Frison, Héloïse; Giono, Gloria; Thébault, Paméla; Fournier, Marilaine; Labrecque, Nathalie; Bijl, Janet J

    2013-01-01

    Memory T cell populations allow a rapid immune response to pathogens that have been previously encountered and thus form the basis of success in vaccinations. However, the molecular pathways underlying the development and maintenance of these cells are only starting to be unveiled. Memory T cells have the capacity to self renew as do hematopoietic stem cells, and overlapping gene expression profiles suggested that these cells might use the same self-renewal pathways. The transcription factor Hoxb4 has been shown to promote self-renewal divisions of hematopoietic stem cells resulting in an expansion of these cells. In this study we investigated whether overexpression of Hoxb4 could provide an advantage to CD4 memory phenotype T cells in engrafting the niche of T cell deficient mice following adoptive transfer. Competitive transplantation experiments demonstrated that CD4 memory phenotype T cells derived from mice transgenic for Hoxb4 contributed overall less to the repopulation of the lymphoid organs than wild type CD4 memory phenotype T cells after two months. These proportions were relatively maintained following serial transplantation in secondary and tertiary mice. Interestingly, a significantly higher percentage of the Hoxb4 CD4 memory phenotype T cell population expressed the CD62L and Ly6C surface markers, characteristic for central memory T cells, after homeostatic proliferation. Thus Hoxb4 favours the maintenance and increase of the CD4 central memory phenotype T cell population. These cells are more stem cell like and might eventually lead to an advantage of Hoxb4 T cells after subjecting the cells to additional rounds of proliferation.

  17. High level over-expression of different NCX isoforms in HEK293 cell lines and primary neuronal cultures is protective following oxygen glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Cross, Jane L; Boulos, Sherif; Shepherd, Kate L; Craig, Amanda J; Lee, Sharon; Bakker, Anthony J; Knuckey, Neville W; Meloni, Bruno P

    2012-07-01

    In this study we have assessed sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX) protein over-expression on cell viability in primary rat cortical neuronal and HEK293 cell cultures when subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). In cortical neuronal cultures, NCX2 and NCX3 over-expression was achieved using adenoviral vectors, and following OGD increased neuronal survival from ≈20% for control vector treated cultures to ≈80% for both NCX isoforms. In addition, we demonstrated that NCX2 and NCX3 over-expression in cortical neuronal cultures enables neurons to maintain intracellular calcium at significantly lower levels than control vector treated cultures when exposed to high (9mM) extracellular calcium challenge. Further assessment of NCX activity during OGD was performed using HEK293 cell lines generated to over-express NCX1, NCX2 or NCX3 isoforms. While it was shown that NCX isoform expression differed considerably in the different HEK293 cell lines, high levels of NCX over-expression was associated with increased resistance to OGD. Taken together, our findings show that high levels of NCX over-expression increases neuronal and HEK293 cell survival following OGD, improves calcium management in neuronal cultures and provides additional support for NCX as a therapeutic target to reduce ischemic brain injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Overexpression of microRNA-194 suppresses the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in targeting stem cell transcription factor Sox3 in endometrial carcinoma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, Baolan; Yue, Yan; Wang, Renxiao; Zhang, Yi; Jin, Quanfang; Zhou, Xi

    2017-06-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition is the key process driving cancer metastasis. MicroRNA-194 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition in several cancers and its downregulation indicates a poor prognosis in human endometrial carcinoma. Self-renewal factor Sox3 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition at gastrulation and is also involved epithelial-mesenchymal transition in several cancers. We intended to determine the roles of Sox3 in inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition in endometrial cancer stem cells and the possible role of microRNA-194 in controlling Sox3 expression. Firstly, we found that Sox3 and microRNA-194 expressions were associated with the status of endometrial cancer stem cells in a panel of endometrial carcinoma tissue, the CD133+ cell was higher in tumorsphere than in differentiated cells, and overexpression of microRNA-194 would decrease CD133+ cell expression. Silencing of Sox3 in endometrial cancer stem cell upregulated the epithelial marker E-cadherin, downregulated the mesenchymal marker vimentin, and significantly reduced cell invasion in vitro; overexpression of Sox3 reversed these phenotypes. Furthermore, we discovered that the expression of Sox3 was suppressed by microRNA-194 through direct binding to the Sox3 3'-untranslated region. Ectopic expression of microRNA-194 in endometrial cancer stem cells induced a mesenchymal-epithelial transition by restoring E-cadherin expression, decreasing vimentin expression, and inhibiting cell invasion in vitro. Moreover, overexpression of microRNA-194 inhibited endometrial cancer stem cell invasion or metastasis in vivo by injection of adenovirus microRNA-194. These findings demonstrate the novel mechanism by which Sox3 contributes to endometrial cancer stem cell invasion and suggest that repression of Sox3 by microRNA-194 may have therapeutic potential to suppress endometrial carcinoma metastasis. The cancer stem cell marker, CD133, might be the surface marker of endometrial cancer stem

  19. Pomegranate Polyphenols Downregulate Expression of Androgen Synthesizing Genes in Human Prostate Cancer Cells Overexpressing the Androgen Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Mee Young; Seeram, Navindra P.; Heber, David

    2008-01-01

    Prostate cancer is dependent on circulating testosterone in its early stages and is treatable with radiation and surgery. However, recurrent prostate tumors advance to an androgen-independent state where they progress in the absence of circulating testosterone leading to metastasis and death. During the development of androgen independence, prostate cancer cells are known to increase intracellular testosterone synthesis which maintains cancer cell growth in the absence of significant amounts of circulating testosterone. Overexpression of the androgen receptor (AR) occurs in androgen-independent prostate cancer and has been proposed as another mechanism promoting the development of androgen independence. The LNCaP-AR cell line is engineered to overexpress AR but is otherwise similar to the widely studied LNCaP cell line. We have previously shown that pomegranate extracts inhibit both androgen-dependent and androgen-independent prostate cancer cell growth. In the present study, we examined the effects of pomegranate polyphenols, ellagitannin-rich extract and whole juice extract on the expression of genes for key androgen synthesizing enzymes and the AR. We measured expression of the HSD3B2, AKR1C3 and SRD5A1 genes for the respective androgen synthesizing enzymes in LNCaP, LNCaP-AR, and DU-145 human prostate cancer cells. A two-fold suppression of gene expression was considered statistically significant. Pomegranate polyphenols inhibited gene expression and AR most consistently in the LNCaP-AR cell line (P =.05). Therefore, inhibition by pomegranate polyphenols of gene expression involved in androgen synthesis enzymes and the AR may be of particular importance in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells and the subset of human prostate cancers where AR is upregulated. PMID:18479901

  20. Overexpression of VMAT-2 and DT-diaphorase protects substantia nigra-derived cells against aminochrome neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Patricia; Paris, Irmgard; Sanders, Laurie H.; Greenamyre, J. Timothy; Segura-Aguilar, Juan

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that both VMAT-2 and DT-diaphorase are an important cellular defense against aminochrome-dependent neurotoxicity during dopamine oxidation. A cell line with VMAT-2 and DT-diaphorase over-expressed was created. The transfection of RCSN-3 cells with a bicistronic plasmid coding for VMAT-2 fused with GFP-IRES-DT-diaphorase cDNA induced a significant increase in protein expression of VMAT-2 (7-fold; P<0.001) and DT-diaphorase (9-fold; P<0.001), accompanied by a 4- and 5.5-fold significant increase in transport and enzyme activity, respectively. Studies with synaptic vesicles from rat substantia nigra revealed that VMAT-2 uptake of 3H-aminochrome 6.3 ± 0.4nmol/min/mg was similar to dopamine uptake 6.2 ± 0.3 nmol/min/mg that which were dependent on ATP. Interestingly, aminochrome uptake was inhibited by 2 μM lobeline but not reserpine (1 and 10 μM). Incubation of cells overexpressing VMAT-2 and DT-diaphorase with 20 μM aminochrome resulted in (i) a significant decrease in cell death (6-fold, P<0.001); (ii) normal ultra structure determined by transmission electron microscopy contrasting with a significant increase of autophagosome and a dramatic remodeling of the mitochondrial inner membrane in wild type cells; (iii) normal level of ATP (256 ± 11 μM) contrasting with a significant decrease in wild type cells (121 ± 11 μM, P<0.001); and (iv) a significant decrease in DNA laddering (21 ± 8 pixels, P<0.001) cells in comparison with wild type cells treated with 20 μM aminochrome (269 ± 9). These results support our hypothesis that VMAT-2 and DT-diaphorase are an important defense system against aminochrome formed during dopamine oxidation. PMID:22483869

  1. A receptor tyrosine kinase, UFO/Axl, and other genes isolated by a modified differential display PCR are overexpressed in metastatic prostatic carcinoma cell line DU145.

    PubMed

    Jacob, A N; Kalapurakal, J; Davidson, W R; Kandpal, G; Dunson, N; Prashar, Y; Kandpal, R P

    1999-01-01

    We have used a modified differential display PCR protocol for isolating 3' restriction fragments of cDNAs specifically expressed or overexpressed in metastatic prostate carcinoma cell line DU145. Several cDNA fragments were identified that matched to milk fat globule protein, UFO/Axl, a receptor tyrosine kinase, human homologue of a Xenopus maternal transcript, laminin and laminin receptor, human carcinoma-associated antigen, and some expressed sequence tags. The transcript for milk fat globule protein, a marker protein shown to be overexpressed in breast tumors, was elevated in DU145 cells. The expression of UFO/Axl, a receptor tyrosine kinase, was considerably higher in DU145 cells as compared to normal prostate cells and prostatic carcinoma cell line PC-3. The overexpression of UFO oncogene in DU145 cells is discussed in the context of prostate cancer metastasis.

  2. Evaluation and identification of hepatitis B virus entry inhibitors using HepG2 cells overexpressing a membrane transporter NTCP.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Masashi; Watashi, Koichi; Tsukuda, Senko; Aly, Hussein Hassan; Fukasawa, Masayoshi; Fujimoto, Akira; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Aizaki, Hideki; Ito, Takayoshi; Koiwai, Osamu; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Wakita, Takaji

    2014-01-17

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) entry has been analyzed using infection-susceptible cells, including primary human hepatocytes, primary tupaia hepatocytes, and HepaRG cells. Recently, the sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) membrane transporter was reported as an HBV entry receptor. In this study, we established a strain of HepG2 cells engineered to overexpress the human NTCP gene (HepG2-hNTCP-C4 cells). HepG2-hNTCP-C4 cells were shown to be susceptible to infection by blood-borne and cell culture-derived HBV. HBV infection was facilitated by pretreating cells with 3% dimethyl sulfoxide permitting nearly 50% of the cells to be infected with HBV. Knockdown analysis suggested that HBV infection of HepG2-hNTCP-C4 cells was mediated by NTCP. HBV infection was blocked by an anti-HBV surface protein neutralizing antibody, by compounds known to inhibit NTCP transporter activity, and by cyclosporin A and its derivatives. The infection assay suggested that cyclosporin B was a more potent inhibitor of HBV entry than was cyclosporin A. Further chemical screening identified oxysterols, oxidized derivatives of cholesterol, as inhibitors of HBV infection. Thus, the HepG2-hNTCP-C4 cell line established in this study is a useful tool for the identification of inhibitors of HBV infection as well as for the analysis of the molecular mechanisms of HBV infection. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Overexpression of Keap1 inhibits the cell proliferation and metastasis and overcomes the drug resistance in human lung cancer A549 cells].

    PubMed

    Weng, X; Yan, Y Y; Tong, Y H; Fan, Y; Zeng, J M; Wang, L L; Lin, N M

    2016-06-23

    To investigate the effect of Keap1-Nrf2 pathway on cell proliferation, metastasis and drug resistance of human lung cancer A549 cell line. A549-Keap1 cell line, constantly expressing wild type Keap1, was established by lentiviral transfection. Real-time RT-PCR and western blot were used to determine the expression of Nrf2 and its target gene in A549 cells. Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay, flow cytometry, colony formation assay, transwell assay, and cell wound-healing assay were performed to explore the effect of wild type Keap1 expression on the proliferation, invasion, migration and drug resistance of A549 cells. Over-expressed Keap1 decreased the expression of Nrf2 protein and the mRNA level of its downstream target genes and inhibited the ability of cell proliferation and clone formation of A549 cells. Keap1 overexpression induced G0/G1 phase arrest. The percentage of A549-Keap1 cells in G0/G1 phase was significantly higher than that of A549-GFP cells (80.2±5.9)% vs. (67.1±0.9%)(P<0.05). Compared with the invasive A549-Keap1 cells (156.33±17.37), the number of invasive A549-GFP cells was significantly higher (306.67±22.19) in a high power field. Keap1 overexpression significantly enhanced the sensitivity of A549 cells to carboplatin and gemcitabine (P<0.01). The IC50s of carboplatin in A549-Keap1 and A549-GFP cells were (52.1±3.3) μmol/L and (107.8±12.9) μmol/L, respectively. The IC50s of gemcitabine in A549-Keap1 and A549-GFP cells were (6.8±1.2) μmol/L and (9.9±0.5) μmol/L, respectively. Keap1 overexpression significantly inhibits the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream target genes, suppresses tumor cell proliferation and metastasis, and enhances the sensitivity of A549 cells to anticancer drugs.

  4. GP88 (PC-Cell Derived Growth Factor, progranulin) stimulates proliferation and confers letrozole resistance to aromatase overexpressing breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Aromatase inhibitors (AI) that inhibit breast cancer cell growth by blocking estrogen synthesis have become the treatment of choice for post-menopausal women with estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. However, some patients display de novo or acquired resistance to AI. Interactions between estrogen and growth factor signaling pathways have been identified in estrogen-responsive cells as one possible reason for acquisition of resistance. Our laboratory has characterized an autocrine growth factor overexpressed in invasive ductal carcinoma named PC-Cell Derived Growth Factor (GP88), also known as progranulin. In the present study, we investigated the role GP88 on the acquisition of resistance to letrozole in ER+ breast cancer cells Methods We used two aromatase overexpressing human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7-CA cells and AC1 cells and their letrozole resistant counterparts as study models. Effect of stimulating or inhibiting GP88 expression on proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, survival and letrozole responsiveness was examined. Results GP88 induced cell proliferation and conferred letrozole resistance in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. Conversely, naturally letrozole resistant breast cancer cells displayed a 10-fold increase in GP88 expression when compared to letrozole sensitive cells. GP88 overexpression, or exogenous addition blocked the inhibitory effect of letrozole on proliferation, and stimulated survival and soft agar colony formation. In letrozole resistant cells, silencing GP88 by siRNA inhibited cell proliferation and restored their sensitivity to letrozole. Conclusion Our findings provide information on the role of an alternate growth and survival factor on the acquisition of aromatase inhibitor resistance in ER+ breast cancer. PMID:21658239

  5. Adenovirus-mediated truncated Bid overexpression induced by the Cre/LoxP system promotes the cell apoptosis of CD133+ ovarian cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Long, Qifang; Yang, Ru; Lu, Weixian; Zhu, Weipei; Zhou, Jundong; Zheng, Cui; Zhou, Dongmei; Yu, Ling; Wu, Jinchang

    2017-01-01

    Cancer stem cells are a small subset of cancer cells that contribute to cancer progression, metastasis, chemoresistance and recurrence. CD133-positive (CD133+) ovarian cancer cells have been identified as ovarian cancer stem cells. Adenovirus-mediated gene therapy is an innovative therapeutic method for cancer treatment. In the present study, we aimed to develop a new gene therapy to specifically eliminate CD133+ ovarian cancer stem cells by targeting CD133. We used the Cre/LoxP system to augment the selective expression of the truncated Bid (tBid) gene as suicide gene therapy in CD133+ ovarian cancer stem cells. The adenovirus (Ad)-CD133-Cre expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the CD133 promoter and Ad-CMV-LoxP-Neo-LoxP-tBid expressing tBid under the control of the CMV promoter were successfully constructed using the Cre/LoxP switching system. The co-infection of Ad-CMV-LoxP-Neo-LoxP-tBid and Ad-CD133-Cre selectively induced tBid overexpression, which inhibited cell growth and triggered the cell apoptosis of CD133+ ovarian cancer stem cells. The Cre/LoxP system-mediated tBid overexpression activated the pro-apoptotic signaling pathway and augmented the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin in CD133+ ovarian cancer stem cells. Furthermore, in xenograft experiments, co-infection with the two recombinant adenoviruses markedly suppressed tumor growth in vivo and promoted cell apoptosis in tumor tissues. Taken together, the present study provides evidence that the adenovirus-mediated tBid overexpression induced by the Cre/LoxP system can effectively eliminate CD133+ ovarian cancer stem cells, representing a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

  6. Androgen receptor is overexpressed in boys with severe hypospadias, and ZEB1 regulates androgen receptor expression in human foreskin cells

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Liang; Tasian, Gregory E.; Zhang, Haiyang; Cao, Mei; Ferretti, Max; Cunha, Gerald R.; Baskin, Laurence S.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION ZEB1 is overexpressed in patients with severe hypospadias. We examined the interaction between ZeB1 and the androgen receptor (AR) in vitro and the expression of AR in boys with hypospadias. RESULTS ZEB1 and AR colocalize to the nucleus. Estrogen upregulated ZEB1 and AR expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) demonstrated that ZEB1 binds to an E-box sequence in the AR gene promoter. AR expression is higher in subjects with severe hypospadias than those with mild hypospadias and control subjects (P < 0.05). ZEB1 physically interacts with AR in human foreskin cells. DISCUSSION AR is overexpressed in patients with severe hypospadias. Environmental estrogenic compounds may increase the risk of hypospadias by facilitating the interaction between ZEB1 and AR. METHODS Hs68 cells, a fibroblast cell line derived from neonatal human foreskin, were exposed to 0, 10, and 100 nmol/l of estrogen, after which the cellular localization of ZEB1 and AR was assessed using immunocytochemistry. To determine if ZEB1 interacted with the AR gene, ChIP was performed using ZEB1 antibody and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for AR. Second, AR expression was quantified using real-time PcR and western blot in normal subjects (n = 32), and subjects with mild (n = 16) and severe hypospadia (n = 16). PMID:22391641

  7. Overexpressed KDM5B is associated with the progression of glioma and promotes glioma cell growth via downregulating p21

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Bin; Hu, Zhiqiang, E-mail: zhiqhutg@126.com; Huang, Hui

    Highlights: • KDM5B is overexpressed in glioma samples. • KDM5B stimulated proliferation of glioma cells. • Inhibition of p21contributes to KDM5B-induced proliferation. - Abstract: Epigenetic alterations such as aberrant expression of histone-modifying enzymes have been implicated in tumorigenesis. Upregulation of lysine (K)-specific demethylase 5B (KDM5B) has been reported in a variety of malignant tumors. However, the impact of KDM5B in glioma remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression and prognostic value of KDM5B in glioma. In clinical glioma samples, we found that KDM5B expression was significantly upregulated in cancer lesions compared with normal brain tissues.more » Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that patients with glioma and higher KDM5B expression tend to have shorter overall survival time. By silencing or overexpressing KDM5B in glioma cells, we found that KDM5B could promote cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we demonstrated that KDM5B promoted glioma proliferation partly via regulation of the expression of p21. Our study provided evidence that KDM5B functions as a novel tumor oncogene in glioma and may be a potential therapeutic target for glioma management.« less

  8. Overexpression of membrane sialic acid-specific sialidase Neu3 inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Sung-Kwon; Cho, Seung-Hak; Kim, Kyung-Woon

    2007-05-11

    The ganglioside-specific sialidase Neu3 has been suggested to participate in cell growth, migration, and differentiation. Recent reports suggest that sialidase may be involved in intimal thickening, an early stage in the development of atherosclerosis. However, the role of the Neu3 gene in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) responses has not yet been elucidated. To determine whether a Neu3 is able to modulate VSMC growth, the effect of overexpression of the Neu3 gene on cell proliferation was examined. However, the results show that the overexpression of this gene has no effect on DNA synthesis and ERK phosphorylation in cultured VSMC inmore » the presence of TNF-{alpha}. Because atherogenic effects need not be limited to proliferation, we decided to examine whether Neu3 exerted inhibitory effects on matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity in TNF-{alpha}-induced VSMC. The expression of the Neu3 gene led to the inhibition of TNF-{alpha}-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression in VSMC as determined by zymography and immunoblot. Furthermore, Neu3 gene expression strongly decreased MMP-9 promoter activity in response to TNF-{alpha}. This inhibition was characterized by the down-regulation of MMP-9, which was transcriptionally regulated at NF-{kappa}B and activation protein-1 (AP-1) sites in the MMP-9 promoter. These findings suggest that the Neu3 gene represents a physiological modulator of VSMC responses that may contribute to plaque instability in atherosclerosis.« less

  9. Stem Cell Therapy with Overexpressed VEGF and PDGF Genes Improves Cardiac Function in a Rat Infarct Model

    PubMed Central

    Das, Hiranmoy; George, Jon C.; Joseph, Matthew; Das, Manjusri; Abdulhameed, Nasreen; Blitz, Anna; Khan, Mahmood; Sakthivel, Ramasamy; Mao, Hai-Quan; Hoit, Brian D.; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Pompili, Vincent J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Therapeutic potential was evaluated in a rat model of myocardial infarction using nanofiber-expanded human cord blood derived hematopoietic stem cells (CD133+/CD34+) genetically modified with VEGF plus PDGF genes (VIP). Methods and Findings Myocardial function was monitored every two weeks up to six weeks after therapy. Echocardiography revealed time dependent improvement of left ventricular function evaluated by M-mode, fractional shortening, anterior wall tissue velocity, wall motion score index, strain and strain rate in animals treated with VEGF plus PDGF overexpressed stem cells (VIP) compared to nanofiber expanded cells (Exp), freshly isolated cells (FCB) or media control (Media). Improvement observed was as follows: VIP>Exp> FCB>media. Similar trend was noticed in the exercise capacity of rats on a treadmill. These findings correlated with significantly increased neovascularization in ischemic tissue and markedly reduced infarct area in animals in the VIP group. Stem cells in addition to their usual homing sites such as lung, spleen, bone marrow and liver, also migrated to sites of myocardial ischemia. The improvement of cardiac function correlated with expression of heart tissue connexin 43, a gap junctional protein, and heart tissue angiogenesis related protein molecules like VEGF, pNOS3, NOS2 and GSK3. There was no evidence of upregulation in the molecules of oncogenic potential in genetically modified or other stem cell therapy groups. Conclusion Regenerative therapy using nanofiber-expanded hematopoietic stem cells with overexpression of VEGF and PDGF has a favorable impact on the improvement of rat myocardial function accompanied by upregulation of tissue connexin 43 and pro-angiogenic molecules after infarction. PMID:19809493

  10. Overexpression of CD147 is associated with poor prognosis, tumor cell migration and ERK signaling pathway activation in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Wenjing; Zhao, Shufen; Shen, Fangzhen; Liang, Jun; Chen, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. The aim of the present study was to reveal the prognostic significance of CD147 and to preliminarily explore the molecular mechanisms involved. Blood and tumor tissue specimens were obtained from 133 HCC patients. All patients were followed up for 4 years. The serum and tissue levels of CD147 were analyzed using ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The SMMC-7721 hepatoma carcinoma cell line was transfected with CD147 overexpression vector and cell migration was evaluated using a wound healing assay. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor UO126 was applied to study the role of the ERK pathway in cell migration. CD147 expression in HCC tissue was associated with poor prognosis of patients [odds ratio (OR): 3.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.52–6.43], and patients with no CD147 expression had a significantly survival advantage (P=0.016). However, serum CD147 levels had no such prognostic significance (OR: 1.94, 95% CI: 0.96–3.91; P=0.097). In the wound healing assay, the wound distance in the non-transfected cell group was wider than that in the transfected cell group without UO126 treatment (178.0±31.1 vs. 106.0±20.7 µm; P=0.003), but similar to that in the transfected cell group with 10 µM UO126 treatment (170.4±13.2 µm; P=0.629). The present study revealed that the expression of CD147 in HCC tissue is an independent prognostic indicator. In addition CD147 overexpression may be associated with tumor cell migration and ERK signaling pathway activation. PMID:28962206

  11. Overexpression of PPARγ specifically in pancreatic β-cells exacerbates obesity-induced glucose intolerance, reduces β-cell mass, and alters islet lipid metabolism in male mice.

    PubMed

    Hogh, K-Lynn N; Craig, Michael N; Uy, Christopher E; Nygren, Heli; Asadi, Ali; Speck, Madeline; Fraser, Jordie D; Rudecki, Alexander P; Baker, Robert K; Orešič, Matej; Gray, Sarah L

    2014-10-01

    The contribution of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ agonism in pancreatic β-cells to the antidiabetic actions of thiazolidinediones has not been clearly elucidated. Genetic models of pancreatic β-cell PPARγ ablation have revealed a potential role for PPARγ in β-cell expansion in obesity but a limited role in normal β-cell physiology. Here we overexpressed PPARγ1 or PPARγ2 specifically in pancreatic β-cells of mice subjected to high-fat feeding using an associated adenovirus (β-PPARγ1-HFD and β-PPARγ2-HFD mice). We show β-cell-specific PPARγ1 or PPARγ2 overexpression in diet-induced obese mice exacerbated obesity-induced glucose intolerance with decreased β-cell mass, increased islet cell apoptosis, and decreased plasma insulin compared with obese control mice (β-eGFP-HFD mice). Analysis of islet lipid composition in β-PPARγ2-HFD mice revealed no significant changes in islet triglyceride content and an increase in only one of eight ceramide species measured. Interestingly β-PPARγ2-HFD islets had significantly lower levels of lysophosphatidylcholines, lipid species shown to enhance insulin secretion in β-cells. Gene expression profiling revealed increased expression of uncoupling protein 2 and genes involved in fatty acid transport and β-oxidation. In summary, transgenic overexpression of PPARγ in β-cells in diet-induced obesity negatively impacts whole-animal carbohydrate metabolism associated with altered islet lipid content, increased expression of β-oxidative genes, and reduced β-cell mass.

  12. Overexpression of Lin28 inhibits the proliferation, migration and cell cycle progression and induces apoptosis of BGC-823 gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Hu; Xu, Wei; Song, Jun; Liang, Yong; Fu, Wei; Zhu, Xiao-Cheng; Li, Chao; Peng, Jun-Sheng; Zheng, Jun-Nian

    2015-02-01

    Lin28 plays important roles in the development, maintenance of pluripotency and progression of various types of cancers. Lin28 represses the biogenesis of let-7 microRNAs and is implicated in both development and tumorigenesis. Oncogenic regulation of let-7 microRNAs has been demonstrated in several human malignancies, yet their correlation with Lin28 has not yet been studied in gastric cancer. Therefore, in the present study, we explored the possible mechanisms involved in the effects by Lin28 on the proliferation, migration, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in gastric cancer cells via alteration of let-7 miRNA. The expression levels of Lin28 and let-7 were detected by real-time PCR in gastric cancer cell lines in vitro. Lin28 was overexpressed in the BGC-823 cells via lentiviral transfection, and let-7 expression was assessed. Cell proliferation and migration capabilities were investigated by MTT and Transwell assays, while cell cycle distribution and the apoptosis rate were detected using flow cytometry. The expression of Lin28 was moderately expressed in the GES cells while underexpressed in the BGC-823, SGC-7901 and HGC-27 cells. Let-7a miRNA was highly expressed in the GES, BGC-823, SGC-7901 and HGC-27 cells. Overexpression of Lin28 was inversely correlated with the downregulated expression of let-7a, and markedly suppressed the proliferation, migration, cell cycle progression and induced apoptosis in the BGC-823 cells. These findings demonstrated that overexpression of Lin28 can suppress the biological behavior of gastric cancer in vitro, and let-7 miRNA may play an important role in the process. We suggest that Lin28 may be a candidate predictor or an anticancer therapeutic target for gastric cancer patients.

  13. MicroRNA-1 overexpression increases chemosensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer cells by inhibiting autophagy related 3-mediated autophagy.

    PubMed

    Hua, Li; Zhu, Guirong; Wei, Jianguo

    2018-05-30

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a major type of lung cancer. Drug resistance is a enormous obstacle for cancer treatment. Copious microRNAs (miRNAs) have been demonstrated to be implicated in drug resistance in NSCLC. In the present study, RT-qPCR assay revealed that microRNA-1 (miR-1) expression was downregulated in DDP resistant NSCLC tissues and cells. Western blot assay presented a remarkable increase of LC3B-II/LC3B-I ratio and a notable decline of p62 level in DDP resistant NSCLC cells, while these effects were weakened by miR-1. GFP-LC3 puncta experiment showed that ectopic expression of miR-1 induced a noticeable downregulation of GFP-LC3 positive cell percentage in DDP resistant NSCLC cells. Bioinformatical analysis and luciferase assay revealed that autophagy related 3 (ATG3) was a target of miR-1. Also, western blot and RT-qPCR assays manifested that ATG3 was highly expressed in DDP resistant NSCLC tissues and cells. Additionally, miR-1 inhibited ATG3 expression and ATG3 upregulation abolished miR-1-meidated autophagy inhibition in DDP resistant NSCLC cells. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay showed that the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) of cisplatin (DDP) was reduced in miR-1-enforced DDP resistant NSCLC cells, but was restored following the overexpression of ATG3. Flow cytometry experiments further showed that miR-1 overexpression induced a significant upregulation of apoptotic rate and ATG3 restoration weakened miR-1-induced apoptosis in DDP resistant NSCLC cells. Collectively, our study validated that miR-1 overexpression improved DDP sensitivity of NSCLC cells by inhibiting ATG3-mediated autophagy, providing a potential therapeutic target for easing chemoresistance of anti-tumor drugs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Silencing overexpression of FXYD3 protein in breast cancer cells amplifies effects of doxorubicin and γ-radiation on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and cell survival.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Chi; Teh, Rachel; Mozar, Christine A; Baxter, Robert C; Rasmussen, Helge H

    2016-01-01

    FXYD3, also known as mammary tumor protein 8, is overexpressed in several common cancers, including in many breast cancers. We examined if such overexpression might protect Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and cancer cells against the high levels of oxidative stress characteristic of many tumors and often induced by cancer treatments. We measured FXYD3 expression, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and glutathionylation of the β1 subunit of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, a reversible oxidative modification that inhibits the ATPase, in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 cells. Expression of FXYD3 was suppressed by transfection with FXYD3 siRNA. A colorimetric end-point assay was used to estimate cell viability. Apoptosis was estimated by caspase 3/7 (DEVDase) activation using a Caspase fluorogenic substrate kit. Expression of FXYD3 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells was ~eightfold and ~twofold higher than in non-cancer MCF-10A cells and MDA-MB-468 cancer cells, respectively. A ~50 % reduction in FXYD3 expression increased glutathionylation of the β1 Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase subunit and reduced Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity by ~50 %, consistent with the role of FXYD3 to facilitate reversal of glutathionylation of the β1 subunit of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and glutathionylation-induced inhibition of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Treatment of MCF-7 and MDA-MB- 468 cells with doxorubicin or γ-radiation decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis. The treatments upregulated FXYD3 expression in MCF-7 but not in MDA-MB-468 cells and suppression of FXYD3 in MCF-7 but not in MDA-MB-468 cells amplified effects of treatments on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and treatment-induced cell death and apoptosis. Overexpression of FXYD3 may be a marker of resistance to cancer treatments and a potentially important therapeutic target.

  15. Overexpression of hTERT increases stem-like properties and decreases spontaneous differentiation in human mesenchymal stem cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    To overcome loss of stem-like properties and spontaneous differentiation those hinder the expansion and application of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), we have clonally isolated permanent and stable human MSC lines by ectopic overexpression of primary cell cultures of hMSCs with HPV 16 E6E7 and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) genes. These cells were found to have a differentiation potential far beyond the ordinary hMSCs. They expressed trophoectoderm and germline specific markers upon differentiation with BMP4 and retinoic acid, respectively. Furthermore, they displayed higher osteogenic and neural differentiation efficiency than primary hMSCs or hMSCs expressed HPV16 E6E7 alone with a decrease in methylation level as proven by a global CpG island methylation profile analysis. Notably, the demethylated CpG islands were highly associated with development and differentiation associated genes. Principal component analysis further pointed out the expression profile of the cells converged toward embryonic stem cells. These data demonstrate these cells not only are a useful tool for the studies of cell differentiation both for the mesenchymal and neurogenic lineages, but also provide a valuable source of cells for cell therapy studies in animal models of skeletal and neurological disorders. PMID:20670406

  16. Targeted Delivery of Pulmonary Arterial Endothelial Cells Overexpressing Interleukin-8 Receptors Attenuates Monocrotaline-Induced Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jinyan; Chen, Yiu-Fai; Zhao, Xiangmin; Creighton, Judy; Guo, Yuan-Yuan; Hage, Fadi G.; Oparil, Suzanne; Xing, Daisy D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Interleukin-8 (IL8) receptors IL8RA and IL8RB (ILRA/B) on neutrophil membranes bind to IL8 with high affinity and play a critical role in neutrophil recruitment to sites of injury and/or inflammation. This study tested the hypothesis that administration of rat pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (ECs) overexpressing IL8RA/B can accelerate the adhesion of ECs to the injured lung and inhibit monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary inflammation, arterial thickening and hypertension, and right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy. Approach and Results The treatment groups included 10-wk-old ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats that received s.c. injection of phosphate-buffered-saline (Vehicle); a single injection of MCT (MCT alone, 60 mg/kg, s.c.); MCT followed by i.v. transfusion of ECs transduced with the empty adenoviral vector (Null-EC); and MCT followed by i.v. transfusion of ECs overexpressing IL8RA/B (IL8RA/B-EC, 1.5×106 cells/rat). Two days or 4 wks after MCT treatment, eNOS, iNOS, CINC-2β (IL8 equivalent in rat) and MCP-1 expression; neutrophil and macrophage infiltration into pulmonary arterioles, and arteriolar and alveolar morphology were measured by histological and immunohistochemical techniques. Pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine protein levels were measured by Multiplexed rat specific magnetic beads based sandwich immunoassay in total lung homogenates. Transfusion of IL8RA/B-ECs significantly reduced MCT-induced neutrophil infiltration and pro-inflammatory mediator (IL-8, MCP-1, iNOS, CINC and MIP-2) expression in lungs and pulmonary arterioles and alveoli, pulmonary artery pressure, and pulmonary arteriole and RV hypertrophy and remodeling. Conclusion These provocative findings suggest that targeted delivery of ECs overexpressing IL8RA/B is effective in repairing the injured pulmonary vasculature. PMID:24790141

  17. Differential chemosensitization of P-glycoprotein overexpressing K562/Adr cells by withaferin A and Siamois polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle in cancer treatment and is often the result of overexpression of the drug efflux protein, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), as a consequence of hyperactivation of NFκB, AP1 and Nrf2 transcription factors. In addition to effluxing chemotherapeutic drugs, P-gp also plays a specific role in blocking caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways. One feature that cytotoxic treatments of cancer have in common is activation of the transcription factor NFκB, which regulates inflammation, cell survival and P-gp expression and suppresses the apoptotic potential of chemotherapeutic agents. As such, NFκB inhibitors may promote apoptosis in cancer cells and could be used to overcome resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Results Although the natural withanolide withaferin A and polyphenol quercetin, show comparable inhibition of NFκB target genes (involved in inflammation, angiogenesis, cell cycle, metastasis, anti-apoptosis and multidrug resistance) in doxorubicin-sensitive K562 and -resistant K562/Adr cells, only withaferin A can overcome attenuated caspase activation and apoptosis in K562/Adr cells, whereas quercetin-dependent caspase activation and apoptosis is delayed only. Interestingly, although withaferin A and quercetin treatments both decrease intracellular protein levels of Bcl2, Bim and P-Bad, only withaferin A decreases protein levels of cytoskeletal tubulin, concomitantly with potent PARP cleavage, caspase 3 activation and apoptosis, at least in part via a direct thiol oxidation mechanism. Conclusions This demonstrates that different classes of natural NFκB inhibitors can show different chemosensitizing effects in P-gp overexpressing cancer cells with impaired caspase activation and attenuated apoptosis. PMID:20438634

  18. Overexpression of p35 in Min6 pancreatic beta cells induces a stressed neuron-like apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ya-Li; Hu, Ya-Fang; Zhang, Aiping; Wang, Wei; Li, Bo; Amin, Niranjana; Grant, Philip; Pant, Harish C

    2010-12-15

    Cdk5 activity has been implicated in brain development and the regulation of many neuronal processes. Recently, the expression of p35 and Cdk5 activity has been reported in pancreatic beta cells. Decreased Cdk5 activity enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. This suggests that Cdk5 may play an important role in the regulation of insulin secretion. To further understand how Cdk5 regulates insulin secretion in glucose-stimulated pancreatic β cells, we first confirmed the presence of a low level of p35 in pancreatic Min6 cells. Next, in a time-course experiment in high glucose (25 mM) we showed that endogenous p35 increased gradually accompanied by a 3-fold increase in Cdk5 activity by 16 h. Insulin secretion, however, doubled after 2 h followed by progressive downregulation, negatively correlated with Cdk5 activity. On the other hand, overexpression of p35 in these cells resulted in more than a three-fold increase in Cdk5 activity within 2 h coupled to a 50% reduction in insulin secretion in both high and low (3 mM) glucose. Most significantly, cells overexpressing p35, treated with high glucose for 4 h, showed induction of p25, the p35-derived truncated fragment which hyperactivates Cdk5 in neurons. As a result, insulin secretion was inhibited and cells became apoptotic. Roscovitine or co-infection of dominant negative Cdk5 (dnCdk5) with p35 increased insulin secretion and inhibited apoptosis. These results suggest that the model for deregulation and hyperactivation of Cdk5 in neurodegeneration may apply to the pathology seen in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). It is consistent with the view that Alzheimer's disease and T2DM are linked metabolically and pathologically by Cdk5 in a number of ways. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. c-Myc dependent expression of pro-apoptotic Bim renders HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells dependent on anti-apoptotic Mcl-1.

    PubMed

    Campone, Mario; Noël, Bélinda; Couriaud, Cécile; Grau, Morgan; Guillemin, Yannis; Gautier, Fabien; Gouraud, Wilfried; Charbonnel, Catherine; Campion, Loïc; Jézéquel, Pascal; Braun, Frédérique; Barré, Benjamin; Coqueret, Olivier; Barillé-Nion, Sophie; Juin, Philippe

    2011-09-07

    Anti-apoptotic signals induced downstream of HER2 are known to contribute to the resistance to current treatments of breast cancer cells that overexpress this member of the EGFR family. Whether or not some of these signals are also involved in tumor maintenance by counteracting constitutive death signals is much less understood. To address this, we investigated what role anti- and pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, key regulators of cancer cell survival, might play in the viability of HER2 overexpressing breast cancer cells. We used cell lines as an in vitro model of HER2-overexpressing cells in order to evaluate how anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1, and pro-apoptotic Puma and Bim impact on their survival, and to investigate how the constitutive expression of these proteins is regulated. Expression of the proteins of interest was confirmed using lysates from HER2-overexpressing tumors and through analysis of publicly available RNA expression data. We show that the depletion of Mcl-1 is sufficient to induce apoptosis in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. This Mcl-1 dependence is due to Bim expression and it directly results from oncogenic signaling, as depletion of the oncoprotein c-Myc, which occupies regions of the Bim promoter as evaluated in ChIP assays, decreases Bim levels and mitigates Mcl-1 dependence. Consistently, a reduction of c-Myc expression by inhibition of mTORC1 activity abrogates occupancy of the Bim promoter by c-Myc, decreases Bim expression and promotes tolerance to Mcl-1 depletion. Western blot analysis confirms that naïve HER2-overexpressing tumors constitutively express detectable levels of Mcl-1 and Bim, while expression data hint on enrichment for Mcl-1 transcripts in these tumors. This work establishes that, in HER2-overexpressing tumors, it is necessary, and maybe sufficient, to therapeutically impact on the Mcl-1/Bim balance for efficient induction of cancer cell death.

  20. Bone morphogenetic protein and activin membrane-bound inhibitor overexpression inhibits gastric tumor cell invasion via the transforming growth factor-β/epithelial-mesenchymal transition signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chun-Ling; Liang, Rong; Liu, Zhi-Hui; Li, Yong-Qiang; Luo, Xiao-Ling; Ye, Jia-Zhou; Lin, Yan

    2018-06-01

    Gastric carcinoma is one of the most common human malignancies and remains the second leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. Gastric carcinoma is characterized by early-stage metastasis and is typically diagnosed in the advanced stage. Previous results have indicated that bone morphogenetic protein and activin membrane-bound inhibitor (BAMBI) overexpression has been demonstrated to inhibit growth and metastasis of gastric cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of the BAMBI-mediated signaling pathway in the progression of gastric cancer are poorly understood. In the present study, to assess whether BAMBI overexpression inhibited the growth and aggressiveness of gastric carcinoma cells through regulation of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) signaling pathway, the growth and metastasis of gastric carcinoma cells were analyzed following BAMBI overexpression and knockdown in vitro and in vivo . Molecular changes in the TGF-β/EMT signaling pathway were studied in gastric carcinoma cells following BAMBI overexpression and knockdown. DNA methylation of the gene regions encoding the TGF-β/EMT signaling pathway was investigated in gastric carcinoma cells. Tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice was analyzed after mice were subjected to endogenous overexpression of BAMBI. Results indicated that BAMBI overexpression significantly inhibited gastric carcinoma cell growth and aggressiveness, whereas knockdown of BAMBI significantly promoted its growth and metastasis compared with the control (P<0.01). The TGF-β/EMT signaling pathway was downregulated in BAMBI-overexpressed gastric carcinoma cells; however, signaling was promoted following BAMBI knockdown. In addition, it was observed that BAMBI overexpression significantly downregulated the DNA methylation of the gene regions encoding the TGF-β/EMT signaling pathway (P<0.01). Furthermore, RNA interference-mediated BAMBI overexpression also promoted apoptosis in

  1. [Promoting effect of cyclin D1 overexpression on proliferation and epithelial mesenchymal transition of cervical squamous cell carcinoma SiHa cells].

    PubMed

    Wang, P; Liu, S; Cheng, B; Wu, X Z; Ding, S S; Xu, L; Liu, Y; Duan, L; Sun, S Z

    2017-03-08

    Objective: To study effects of cyclin D1 overexpression on the proliferation and differentiation of cervical squamous cell carcinoma SiHa cells and to investigate related signaling molecules. Methods: Primers were designed to amplify the full length of cyclin D1 gene and cyclin D1 gene was amplified by PCR for constructing pcDNA3.1 plasmid vector. The construct was then transfected into SiHa cells, and the cells with stable overexpression of cyclin D1 were established, cyclin D1 gene and protein expression were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Cell growth curve was documented by MTT assay. CK7, E-cadherin, vimentin, Snail gene and protein expression in transfected cells were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. RT-PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of proliferation and differentiation-related genes like CDK4, CDK2, p21, p27, cyclin E, Rb, E2F, E6/E7 and Ki-67. After synchronization of cells, RT-PCR was used to detect of cyclin D1 and p21 mRNA expression at different time points of the cell cycle. Results: The G-3 cells with cyclin D1 overexpression were successfully established. The growth curve and Ki-67 mRNA expression accelerated in G-3 cells.Vimentin and Snail expression significantly increased at both gene and protein levels, while E-cadherin, CK7 gene and protein expression significantly decreased, indicating epithelial mesenchymal transitionoccurred in G-3 cells.Meanwhile, mRNA expression of cyclin D1, CDK4, CDK2, p21, p27, cyclin E, E2F and Rb increased, while E6/E7 and p16 showed no significant change. The expression trends of p21 and cyclin D1 were almost identical with fluctuation at different time points in the cell cycle. Conclusions: Overexpression of cyclin D1 induced by gene transfection promotes proliferation and epithelial mesenchymal transition in SiHa cells.The process is accompanied by up-regulation of CDK4, CDK2, p21, p27 and cyclin E genes.p21 expression increases synchronously with cyclin D1, suggesting a regulatory

  2. Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) Overexpression in BaF3 Cells Contributes to Cell Proliferation Promotion, Apoptosis Resistance and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Yan, Chao; Xin, Miaomiao; Han, Li; Zhang, Yunqing; Sun, Mingshu

    2017-03-27

    BACKGROUND B lymphocyte hyperactivity is a main characteristic of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and B lymphocytes play a prominent pathogenic role in the development and progression of SLE. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) in B lymphocytes. MATERIAL AND METHODS Mouse B lymphocytes BaF3 was transfected with Sirt1 vector or shRNA against Sirt1. Then the transfected cells viability and apoptosis were respectively determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry. In addition, the mRNA levels of three pro-inflammatory cytokines and p53 were detected by RT-PCR. Furthermore, the expression levels of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway proteins were measured by Western blot. RESULTS Overexpression of Sirt1 significantly increased cell proliferation (p<0.05 or p<0.01) and significantly suppressed apoptosis (p<0.05). The mRNA level expressions of interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were significantly upregulated (p<0.05 or p<0.01), whereas p53 was significantly downregulated (p<0.05) by Sirt1 overexpression. In addition, the inhibitory subunit of NF-κB (IκBα) and p65 were significantly activated and phosphorylated (p<0.01 or p<0.001), and B-Cell CLL/Lymphoma 3 (Bcl-3) was significantly upregulated (p<0.05) by Sirt1 overexpression. CONCLUSIONS These results suggested that Sirt1 overexpression could promote BaF3 cell proliferation, inhibit apoptosis, and upregulate pro-inflammatory cytokines. The NF-κB pathway might be involved in these effects of Sirt1 on BaF3 cells, and Sirt1 might be a potential risk factor of SLE.

  3. Msh homeobox 1 (Msx1)- and Msx2-overexpressing bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells resemble blastema cells and enhance regeneration in mice.

    PubMed

    Taghiyar, Leila; Hesaraki, Mahdi; Sayahpour, Forough Azam; Satarian, Leila; Hosseini, Samaneh; Aghdami, Naser; Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza

    2017-06-23

    Amputation of the proximal region in mammals is not followed by regeneration because blastema cells (BCs) and expression of regenerative genes, such as Msh homeobox ( Msx ) genes, are absent in this animal group. The lack of BCs and positional information in other cells is therefore the main obstacle to therapeutic approaches for limb regeneration. Hence, this study aimed to create blastema-like cells (BlCs) by overexpressing Msx1 and Msx2 genes in mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (mBMSCs) to regenerate a proximally amputated digit tip. We transduced mBMSCs with Msx1 and Msx2 genes and compared osteogenic activity and expression levels of several Msx -regulated genes ( Bmp4 , Fgf8 , and keratin 14 ( K14 )) in BlC groups, including MSX1, MSX2, and MSX1/2 (in a 1:1 ratio) with those in mBMSCs and BCs in vitro and in vivo following injection into the amputation site. We found that Msx gene overexpression increased expression of specific blastemal markers and enhanced the proliferation rate and osteogenesis of BlCs compared with mBMSCs and BCs via activation of Fgf8 and Bmp4 Histological analyses indicated full regrowth of digit tips in the Msx -overexpressing groups, particularly in MSX1/2, through endochondral ossification 6 weeks post-injection. In contrast, mBMSCs and BCs formed abnormal bone and nail. Full digit tip was regenerated only in the MSX1/2 group and was related to boosted Bmp4, Fgf8 , and K14 gene expression and to limb-patterning properties resulting from Msx1 and Msx2 overexpression. We propose that Msx -transduced cells that can regenerate epithelial and mesenchymal tissues may potentially be utilized in limb regeneration. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Genetic modification of mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing CCR1 increases cell viability, migration, engraftment, and capillary density in the injured myocardium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Zhang, Zhiping; Guo, Jian; Ni, Aiguo; Deb, Arjun; Zhang, Lunan; Mirotsou, Maria; Pratt, Richard E; Dzau, Victor J

    2010-06-11

    Although mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation has been shown to promote cardiac repair in acute myocardial injury in vivo, its overall restorative capacity appears to be restricted mainly because of poor cell viability and low engraftment in the ischemic myocardium. Specific chemokines are upregulated in the infarcted myocardium. However the expression levels of the corresponding chemokine receptors (eg, CCR1, CXCR2) in MSCs are very low. We hypothesized that this discordance may account for the poor MSC engraftment and survival. To determine whether overexpression of CCR1 or CXCR2 chemokine receptors in MSCs augments their cell survival, migration and engraftment after injection in the infarcted myocardium. Overexpression of CCR1, but not CXCR2, dramatically increased chemokine-induced murine MSC migration and protected MSC from apoptosis in vitro. Moreover, when MSCs were injected intramyocardially one hour after coronary artery ligation, CCR1-MSCs accumulated in the infarcted myocardium at significantly higher levels than control-MSCs or CXCR2-MSCs 3 days postmyocardial infarction (MI). CCR1-MSC-injected hearts exhibited a significant reduction in infarct size, reduced cardiomyocytes apoptosis and increased capillary density in injured myocardium 3 days after MI. Furthermore, intramyocardial injection of CCR1-MSCs prevented cardiac remodeling and restored cardiac function 4 weeks after MI. Our results demonstrate the in vitro and in vivo salutary effects of genetic modification of stem cells. Specifically, overexpression of chemokine receptor enhances the migration, survival and engraftment of MSCs, and may provide a new therapeutic strategy for the injured myocardium.

  5. Overexpression of the ADP (E3-11.6K) protein increases cell lysis and spread of adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Doronin, Konstantin; Toth, Karoly; Kuppuswamy, Mohan; Krajcsi, Peter; Tollefson, Ann E; Wold, William S M

    2003-01-20

    Adenoviruses replicate in the nucleus and induce lytic cell death. We have shown previously that efficient cell lysis and release of adenovirus from infected cells requires an 11.6-kDa protein named Adenovirus Death Protein (ADP). The adp gene is located in the early E3 transcription unit, but the gene is expressed primarily at very late stages of infection. The putative function of ADP was discerned previously from the use of virus mutants that lack functional ADP. Here we describe two adenovirus mutants, named VRX-006 and VRX-007, that overexpress ADP. VRX-006 lacks all other genes in the E3 region, and VRX-007 lacks all other E3 genes except 12.5K. VRX-006 and VRX-007 display the phenotype predicted by the proposed function for ADP: they produce early cytopathic effect, early cell lysis, large plaques, and increased cell-to-cell spread. They grow as well in cultured cells as does adenovirus type 5. These results are consistent with the conclusion that ADP functions in adenovirus infections to promote virus release from cells at the culmination of infection.

  6. A decrease in ubiquitination and resulting prolonged life-span of KIT underlies the KIT overexpression-mediated imatinib resistance of KIT mutation-driven canine mast cell tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masato; Kuroki, Shiori; Kurita, Sena; Miyamoto, Ryo; Tani, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Kyoichi; Bonkobara, Makoto

    2017-10-01

    Overexpression of KIT is one of the mechanisms that contributes to imatinib resistance in KIT mutation-driven tumors. Here, the mechanism underlying this overexpression of KIT was investigated using an imatinib-sensitive canine mast cell tumor (MCT) line CoMS, which has an activating mutation in KIT exon 11. A KIT-overexpressing imatinib-resistant subline, rCoMS1, was generated from CoMS cells by their continuous exposure to increasing concentrations of imatinib. Neither a secondary mutation nor upregulated transcription of KIT was detected in rCoMS1 cells. A decrease in KIT ubiquitination, a prolonged KIT life-span, and KIT overexpression were found in rCoMS1 cells. These events were suppressed by withdrawal of imatinib and were re-induced by re‑treatment with imatinib. These findings suggest that imatinib elicited overexpression of KIT via suppression of its ubiquitination. These results also indicated that imatinib-induced overexpression of KIT in rCoMS1 cells was not a permanently acquired feature but was a reversible response of the cells. Moreover, the pan deubiquitinating enzyme inhibitor PR619 prevented imatinib induction of KIT overexpression, suggesting that the imatinib-induced decrease in KIT ubiquitination could be mediated by upregulation and/or activation of deubiquitinating enzyme(s). It may be possible that a similar mechanism of KIT overexpression underlies the acquisition of imatinib resistance in some human tumors that are driven by KIT mutation.

  7. Overexpression of miR-9 in mast cells is associated with invasive behavior and spontaneous metastasis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While microRNA (miRNA) expression is known to be altered in a variety of human malignancies contributing to cancer development and progression, the potential role of miRNA dysregulation in malignant mast cell disease has not been previously explored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential contribution of miRNA dysregulation to the biology of canine mast cell tumors (MCTs), a well-established spontaneous model of malignant mast cell disease. Methods We evaluated the miRNA expression profiles from biologically low-grade and biologically high-grade primary canine MCTs using real-time PCR-based TaqMan Low Density miRNA Arrays and performed real-time PCR to evaluate miR-9 expression in primary canine MCTs, malignant mast cell lines, and normal bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). Mouse mast cell lines and BMMCs were transduced with empty or pre-miR-9 expressing lentiviral constructs and cell proliferation, caspase 3/7 activity, and invasion were assessed. Transcriptional profiling of cells overexpressing miR-9 was performed using Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Gene 2.0 ST arrays and real-time PCR was performed to validate changes in mRNA expression. Results Our data demonstrate that unique miRNA expression profiles correlate with the biological behavior of primary canine MCTs and that miR-9 expression is increased in biologically high grade canine MCTs and malignant cell lines compared to biologically low grade tumors and normal canine BMMCs. In transformed mouse malignant mast cell lines expressing either wild-type (C57) or activating (P815) KIT mutations and mouse BMMCs, miR-9 overexpression significantly enhanced invasion but had no effect on cell proliferation or apoptosis. Transcriptional profiling of normal mouse BMMCs and P815 cells possessing enforced miR-9 expression demonstrated dysregulation of several genes, including upregulation of CMA1, a protease involved in activation of matrix metalloproteases and extracellular matrix

  8. CD54+ rabbit adipose-derived stem cells overexpressing HIF-1α facilitate vascularized fat flap regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhi-Jie; Huang, Min-Hong; Peng, Qi-Liu; Zou, Dong-Hua; Gu, Rong-He; Xu, Fang-Tian; Gao, Hui; Chen, Zhen-Dong; Chi, Guang-Yi; Wei, Zhong-Heng; Chen, Li; Li, Hong-Mian

    2017-01-01

    Fat flap transplantation is frequently performed in patients suffering from soft tissue defects resulting from disease or trauma. This study explored the feasibility of constructing vascularized fat flaps using rabbit adipose-derived stem cells (rASCs) and collagen scaffolds in a rabbit model. We evaluated rASCs proliferation, paracrine function, adipogenesis, vascularization, and CD54 expression, with or without HIF-1α transfection in vitro and in vivo. We observed that adipogenic differentiation potential was greater in rASCs with high CD54 expression (CD54+rASCs) than in those with low expression (CD54–rASCs), both in vitro and in vivo. HIF-1α overexpression not only augmented this effect, but also enhanced cell proliferation and paracrine function in vitro. We also demonstrated that HIF-1α-transfected CD54+rASCs showed enhanced paracrine function and adipogenic capacity, and that paracrine function increases expression of angiogenesis-related markers. Thus, CD54+rASCs overexpressing HIF-1α enhanced large volume vascularized fat flap regeneration in rabbits, suggesting CD54 may be an ideal candidate marker for ASCs adipogenic differentiation. PMID:28423354

  9. Genetic modification to induce CXCR2 overexpression in mesenchymal stem cells enhances treatment benefits in radiation-induced oral mucositis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zongshan; Wang, Jiancheng; Huang, Qiting; Shi, Yue; Wei, Zhewei; Zhang, Xiaoran; Qiu, Yuan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Yi; Qin, Wei; Huang, Shuheng; Huang, Yinong; Liu, Xin; Xia, Kai; Zhang, Xinchun; Lin, Zhengmei

    2018-02-14

    Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects patient quality of life and reduces tolerance to cancer therapy. Unfortunately, traditional treatments are insufficient for the treatment of mucositis and might elicit severe side effects. Due to their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, the transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a potential therapeutic strategy for mucositis. However, systemically infused MSCs rarely reach inflamed sites, impacting their clinical efficacy. Previous studies have demonstrated that chemokine axes play an important role in MSC targeting. By systematically evaluating the expression patterns of chemokines in radiation/chemical-induced oral mucositis, we found that CXCL2 was highly expressed, whereas cultured MSCs negligibly express the CXCL2 receptor CXCR2. Thus, we explored the potential therapeutic benefits of the transplantation of CXCR 2 -overexpressing MSCs (MSCs CXCR2 ) for mucositis treatment. Indeed, MSCs CXCR2 exhibited enhanced targeting ability to the inflamed mucosa in radiation/chemical-induced oral mucositis mouse models. Furthermore, we found that MSC CXCR2 transplantation accelerated ulcer healing by suppressing the production of pro-inflammatory chemokines and radiogenic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Altogether, these findings indicate that CXCR2 overexpression in MSCs accelerates ulcer healing, providing new insights into cell-based therapy for radiation/chemical-induced oral mucositis.

  10. CtBP2 overexpression promotes tumor cell proliferation and invasion in gastric cancer and is associated with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Dai, Faxiang; Xuan, Yi; Jin, Jie-Jie; Yu, Shengjia; Long, Zi-Wen; Cai, Hong; Liu, Xiao-Wen; Zhou, Ye; Wang, Ya-Nong; Chen, Zhong; Huang, Hua

    2017-04-25

    C-terminal binding protein-2 (CtBP2), a transcriptional corepressor, has been reported to correlate with tumorigenesis and progression and predict a poor prognosis in several human cancers. However, few studies on CtBP2 in gastric cancer (GC) have been performed. In this research, we evaluated the correlations between CtBP2 expression and the clinicopathological characteristics, as well as prognosis of GC patients. The effects of silencing CtBP2 expression on GC cells biology activity were also assessed. The results showed that CtBP2 was overexpressed in GC tissues and closely correlated with poor differentiation, advanced tumor stage and poor prognosis in GC patients. CtBP2 induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and repressed PTEN to increase proliferation rate, migration, and invasion in GC cells. Silencing CtBP2 inhibited GC growth in nude mice model. In conclusion, CtBP2 is overexpressed in GC and may accelerate GC tumorigenesis and metastasis, which could represent an independent prognostic marker and promising therapeutic target for GC.

  11. Overexpression of DJ-1/PARK7, the Parkinson's disease-related protein, improves mitochondrial function via Akt phosphorylation on threonine 308 in dopaminergic neuron-like cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Gong, Xiao-Gang; Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Sun, Hong-Mei; Guo, Zhen-Yu; Hu, Jing-Hong; Ma, Ling; Li, Ping; Chen, Nai-Hong

    2016-05-01

    DJ-1/PARK7, the Parkinson's disease-related protein, plays an important role in mitochondrial function. However, the mechanisms by which DJ-1 affects mitochondrial function are not fully understood. Akt is a promoter of neuron survival and is partly involved in the neurodegenerative process. This research aimed at investigating a possible relationship between DJ-1 and Akt signalling in regulating mitochondrial function in the dopaminergic neuron-like cells SH-SY5Y and PC-12. Overexpression of DJ-1 was firstly validated at both the transcriptional and translational levels after transit transfection with plasmid pcDNA3-Flag-DJ-1. Confocal fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that overexpression of DJ-1 increased the mitochondrial mass, but did not disrupt the mitochondrial morphology. In addition, mitochondrial complex I activity was raised in DJ-1-overexpressing cells, and this rise occurred with an increase in cellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate content. Moreover, immunoblotting demonstrated that the levels of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and the total Akt were not altered in DJ-1-overexpressing cells, and nor was the Akt phosphorylation on serine 473 changed. By contrast, Akt phosphorylation on threonine 308 was significantly augmented by overexpression of DJ-1, and the expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta, a downstream effector of Akt, was suppressed. In summary, these results suggest that overexpression of DJ-1 improves the mitochondrial function, at least in part, through a mechanism involving Akt phosphorylation on threonine 308. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Inhibitory effect of turmeric curcuminoids on FLT3 expression and cell cycle arrest in the FLT3-overexpressing EoL-1 leukemic cell line.

    PubMed

    Tima, Singkome; Ichikawa, Hideki; Ampasavate, Chadarat; Okonogi, Siriporn; Anuchapreeda, Songyot

    2014-04-25

    Leukemia is a hematologic malignancy with a frequent incidence and high mortality rate. Previous studies have shown that the FLT3 gene is overexpressed in leukemic blast cells, especially in acute myeloid leukemia. In this study, a commercially available curcuminoid mixture (1), pure curcumin (2), pure demethoxycurcumin (3), and pure bisdemethoxycurcumin (4) were investigated for their inhibitory effects on cell growth, FLT3 expression, and cell cycle progression in an FLT3-overexpressing EoL-1 leukemic cell line using an MTT assay, Western blotting, and flow cytometry, respectively. The mixture (1) and compounds 2-4 demonstrated cytotoxic effects with IC50 values ranging from 6.5 to 22.5 μM. A significant decrease in FLT3 protein levels was found after curcuminoid treatment with IC20 doses, especially with mixture 1 and compound 2. In addition, mixture 1 and curcumin (2) showed activity on cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase and decreased the FLT3 and STAT5A protein levels in a dose-dependent manner. Compound 2 demonstrated the greatest potential for inhibiting cell growth, cell cycle progression, and FLT3 expression in EoL-1 cells. This investigation has provided new findings regarding the effect of turmeric curcuminoids on FLT3 expression in leukemic cells.

  13. Adenovirally mediated p53 overexpression diversely influence the cell cycle of HEp-2 and CAL 27 cell lines upon cisplatin and methotrexate treatment.

    PubMed

    Kraljević Pavelić, Sandra; Marjanović, Marko; Poznić, Miroslav; Kralj, Marijeta

    2009-12-01

    p53 gene plays a crucial role in the response to therapy. Since it is inactivated in the majority of human cancers, it is strongly believed that the p53 mutations confer resistance to therapeutics. In this paper we analyzed the influence of two mechanistically diverse antitumor agents--cisplatin and methotrexate on the proliferation and cell cycle of two head and neck squamous cancer cell lines HEp-2 (wild type p53 gene, but HPV 18/E6-inactivated protein) and CAL 27 (mutated p53 gene), along with the influence of adenovirally mediated p53 overexpression in modulation of cisplatin and methoterexate effects, whereby subtoxic vector/compound concentrations were employed. p53 gene was introduced into tumor cells using adenoviral vector (AdCMV-p53). The cell cycle perturbations were measured by two parameter flow cytometry. The expression of p53, p21(WAF1/CIP1) and cyclin B1 proteins was examined using immunocytochemistry and western blot methods. In CAL 27 cells overexpression of p53 completely abrogated high S phase content observed in methotrexate-treated cells into a G1 and slight G2 arrest, while it sustained G2 arrest of the cells treated with cisplatin, along with the reduction of DNA synthesis and cyclin B1 expression. On the other hand, in HEp-2 cell line p53 overexpression slightly slowed down the progression through S phase in cells treated with methotrexate, decreased the cyclin B1 expression only after 24 h, and failed to sustain the G2 arrest after treatment with cisplatin alone. Instead, it increased the population of S phase cells that were not actively synthesizing DNA, sustained cyclin B1 expression and allowed the G2 cells to progress through mitosis. This study demonstrates that adenovirally mediated p53 overexpression at sub-cytotoxic levels enhanced the activity of low doses of cisplatin and methotrexate in HEp-2 and CAL 27 cells through changes in the cell cycle. However, the mechanisms of these effects differ depending on the genetic context and

  14. Paracrine Engineering of Human Explant-Derived Cardiac Stem Cells to Over-Express Stromal-Cell Derived Factor 1α Enhances Myocardial Repair.

    PubMed

    Tilokee, Everad L; Latham, Nicholas; Jackson, Robyn; Mayfield, Audrey E; Ye, Bin; Mount, Seth; Lam, Buu-Khanh; Suuronen, Erik J; Ruel, Marc; Stewart, Duncan J; Davis, Darryl R

    2016-07-01

    First generation cardiac stem cell products provide indirect cardiac repair but variably produce key cardioprotective cytokines, such as stromal-cell derived factor 1α, which opens the prospect of maximizing up-front paracrine-mediated repair. The mesenchymal subpopulation within explant derived human cardiac stem cells underwent lentiviral mediated gene transfer of stromal-cell derived factor 1α. Unlike previous unsuccessful attempts to increase efficacy by boosting the paracrine signature of cardiac stem cells, cytokine profiling revealed that stromal-cell derived factor 1α over-expression prevented lv-mediated "loss of cytokines" through autocrine stimulation of CXCR4+ cardiac stem cells. Stromal-cell derived factor 1α enhanced angiogenesis and stem cell recruitment while priming cardiac stem cells to readily adopt a cardiac identity. As compared to injection with unmodified cardiac stem cells, transplant of stromal-cell derived factor 1α enhanced cells into immunodeficient mice improved myocardial function and angiogenesis while reducing scarring. Increases in myocardial stromal-cell derived factor 1α content paralleled reductions in myocyte apoptosis but did not influence long-term engraftment or the fate of transplanted cells. Transplantation of stromal-cell derived factor 1α transduced cardiac stem cells increased the generation of new myocytes, recruitment of bone marrow cells, new myocyte/vessel formation and the salvage of reversibly damaged myocardium to enhance cardiac repair after experimental infarction. Stem Cells 2016;34:1826-1835. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  15. Drp-1 dependent mitochondrial fragmentation and protective autophagy in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing alpha-synuclein.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Jimena Hebe; Alaimo, Agustina; Gorojod, Roxana Mayra; Porte Alcon, Soledad; Fuentes, Federico; Coluccio Leskow, Federico; Kotler, Mónica Lidia

    2018-04-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative movement disorder caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons from substantia nigra. It is characterized by the accumulation of aggregated α-synuclein as the major component of the Lewy bodies. Additional common features of this disease are the mitochondrial dysfunction and the activation/inhibition of autophagy both events associated to the intracellular accumulation of α-synuclein. The mechanism by which these events contribute to neural degeneration remains unknown. In the present work we investigated the effect of α-synuclein on mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy/mitophagy in SH-SY5Y cells, an in vitro model of Parkinson disease. We demonstrated that overexpression of wild type α-synuclein causes moderated toxicity, ROS generation and mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, α-synuclein induces the mitochondrial fragmentation on a Drp-1-dependent fashion. Overexpression of the fusion protein Opa-1 prevented both mitochondrial fragmentation and cytotoxicity. On the other hand, cells expressing α-synuclein showed activated autophagy and particularly mitophagy. Employing a genetic strategy we demonstrated that autophagy is triggered in order to protect cells from α-synuclein-induced cell death. Our results clarify the role of Opa-1 and Drp-1 in mitochondrial dynamics and cell survival, a controversial α-synuclein research issue. The findings presented point to the relevance of mitochondrial homeostasis and autophagy in the pathogenesis of PD. Better understanding of the molecular interaction between these processes could give rise to novel therapeutic methods for PD prevention and amelioration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhibition of connective tissue growth factor overexpression decreases growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiao-Qin; Cheng, Hai-Qing; Li, Hong; Zhu, Yan; Li, Yu-Hua; Feng, Zhen-Qing; Zhang, Jian-Ping

    2011-11-01

    We have previously found that connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is highly expressed in a rat model of liver cancer. Here, we examined expression of CTGF in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and its effect on cell growth. Real-time PCR was used to observe expression of CTGF in human HCC cell lines HepG2, SMMC-7721, MHCC-97H and LO2. siRNA for the CTGF gene was designed, synthesized and cloned into a Plk0.1-GFP-SP6 vector to construct a lentivirus-mediated shRNA/CTGF. CTGF mRNA and protein expression in HepG2 cells treated by CTGF-specific shRNA was evaluated by real-time PCR and Western blotting. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was utilized to evaluate the growth effect, and a colony formation assay was used for observing clonogenic growth. In vivo, tumor cell proliferation was evaluated in a nude mouse model of xenotransplantation. Statistical significance was determined by t test for comparison between two groups, or analysis of variance (ANOVA) for multiple groups. Immunohistochemical staining of CTGF was seen in 35 of 40 HCC samples (87.5%). CTGF was overexpressed 5-fold in 20 HCC tissues, compared with surrounding non-tumor liver tissue. CTGF mRNA level was 5 - 8-fold higher in HepG2, SMMC-7721 and MHCC-97H than in LO2 cells. This indicated that the inhibition rate of cell growth was 43% after knockdown of CTGF expression (P < 0.05). Soft agar colony formation assay showed that siRNA mediated knockdown of CTGF inhibited colony formation in soft agar of HepG2 cells (P < 0.05). The volume of tumors from CTGF-shRNA-expressing cells only accounted for 35% of the tumors from the scrambled control-infected HepG2 cells (P < 0.05). CTGF was overexpressed in human HCC cells and downregulation of CTGF inhibited HCC growth in vitro and in vivo. Knockdown of CTGF may be a potential therapeutic strategy for treatment of HCC.

  17. Overexpression of miR-202 resensitizes imatinib resistant chronic myeloid leukemia cells through targetting Hexokinase 2

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yingjun; Li, Xin; Feng, Jinxin; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2018-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disease which uniquely expresses a constitutively active tyrosine kinase, BCR/ABL. As a specific inhibitor of the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase, imatinib becomes the first choice for the treatment of CML due to its high efficacy and low toxicity. However, the development of imatinib resistance limits the long-term treatment benefits of it in CML patients. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the roles of miR-202 in the regulation of imatinib sensitivity in CML cell lines and the possible mechanisms involved in this process. We found miR-202 was down-regulated in seven CML cell lines by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. Overexpression of miR-202 significantly suppressed proliferation rates of CML cells. By establishing imatinib resistant cell lines originating from K562 and KU812 cells, we observed expressions of miR-202 were down-regulated by imatinib treatments and imatinib resistant CML cell lines exhibited lower level of miR-202. On the contrary, imatinib resistant CML cell lines displayed up-regulated glycolysis rate than sensitive cells with the evidence that glucose uptake, lactate production, and key glycolysis enzymes were elevated in imatinib resistant cells. Importantly, the imatinib resistant CML cell lines were more sensitive to glucose starvation and glycolysis inhibitors. In addition, we identified Hexokinase 2 (HK2) as a direct target of miR-202 in CML cell lines. Overexpression of miR-202 sensitized imatinib resistant CML through the miR-202-mediated glycolysis inhibition by targetting HK2. Finally, we provided the clinical relevance that miR-202 was down-regulated in CML patients and patients with lower miR-202 expression displayed higher HK2 expression. The present study will provide new aspects on the miRNA-modulated tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) sensitivity in CML, contributing to the development of new therapeutic anticancer drugs. PMID:29559564

  18. Aberrant IL-4 production by SOCS3-over-expressing T cells during infection with Leishmania major exacerbates disease manifestations.

    PubMed

    Nakaya, Mako; Hamano, Shinjiro; Kawasumi, Miyuri; Yoshida, Hiroki; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Kobayashi, Takashi

    2011-03-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 3 is a major negative feedback regulator of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3-activating cytokines. Studies using T-cell-specific SOCS3-deficient mice indicate that the absence of SOCS3 in T cells results in exacerbation of disease progression after infection by Leishmania major due to skewing of the T(h)3 cell phenotype accompanied by hyper-production of IL-10 and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β). Here we show that transgenic mice over-expressing the SOCS3 gene in T cells (Lck-SOCS3 Tg mice) are also susceptible to infection by L. major. Forced expression of SOCS3 in T cells did not affect the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β or that of the protective T(h)1 type cytokine IFN-γ, which is required for parasite clearance. CD4(+) T cells isolated from infected-Lck-SOCS3 Tg mice produced much higher levels of IL-4 when they were re-stimulated with L. major antigen in vitro. Exacerbation of disease progression in Lck-SOCS3 Tg mice was completely reversed by administration of a neutralizing antibody against IL-4. These data suggest that tight regulation of SOCS3 expression in T(h) cells is crucial for disease control during infection by L. major.

  19. 15-Lipoxygenase-1 Production is Lost in Pancreatic Cancer and Overexpression of the Gene Inhibits Tumor Cell Growth1

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, René; Kehl, Timo; Noor, Seema; Ding, Xian-Zhong; Rao, Sambasiva M; Bergmann, Frank; Fürstenberger, Gerhard; Büchler, Markus W; Friess, Helmut; Krieg, Peter; Adrian, Thomas E

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer patients have an abysmal prognosis because of late diagnosis and lack of therapeutic options. Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs), the precursor lesions, are a potential target for chemoprevention. Targeting eicosanoid pathways is an obvious choice because 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) has been suggested as a tumor promoter in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Here we provide evidence that 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) expression and activity may exert antitumorigenic effects in pancreatic cancer. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis showed absence or very weak expression of 15-LOX-1 in all pancreatic cancer cell lines tested. 15-LOX-1 was strongly stained in normal ductal cells, tubular complexes, and centroacinar cells, but no staining was seen in islets, cancer cells, PanIN lesions, or in tumor cells in lymph node metastases, indicating that 15-LOX-1 expression is lost during tumor development in human pancreas. Overexpression of 15-LOX-1 in pancreatic tumor cells or treatment with its arachidonic acid-derived metabolite resulted in decreased cell growth. These findings provide evidence that loss of 15-LOX-1 may play an important role in pancreatic carcinogenesis, possibly as a tumor suppressor gene. Thus, induction of 15-LOX-1 expression may be an attractive option for the prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:18030360

  20. Reduction of the tumorigenic potential of human retinoblastoma cell lines by TFF1 overexpression involves p53/caspase signaling and miR-18a regulation.

    PubMed

    Busch, Maike; Große-Kreul, Jan; Wirtz, Janina Jasmin; Beier, Manfred; Stephan, Harald; Royer-Pokora, Brigitte; Metz, Klaus; Dünker, Nicole

    2017-08-01

    Trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides have been shown to play a pivotal role in oncogenic transformation, tumorigenesis and metastasis by changing cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion behavior of various cancer cell lines. In the study presented, we investigated the effect of TFF1 overexpression on cell growth, viability, migration and tumorigenicity of different retinoblastoma (RB) cell lines. Transient TFF1 overexpression significantly increases RB cell apoptosis levels. Stable, lentiviral TFF1 overexpression likewise decreases RB cell viability, proliferation and growth and significantly increases apoptosis as revealed by WST-1 assays, BrdU and DAPI cell counts. TFF1-induced apoptosis is executed via cleaved caspase-3 activation as revealed by caspase blockage experiments and caspase-3 immunocytochemistry. Results from pG13-luciferase reporter assays and Western blot analyses indicate that TFF1-induced apoptosis is mediated through transcriptional activity of p53 with concurrently downregulated miR-18a expression. In ovo chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays revealed that TFF1 overexpression significantly decreases the size of tumors forming from Y79 and RB355 cells and reduces the migration potential of RB355 cells. Differentially expressed genes and pathways involved in cancer progression were identified after TFF1 overexpression in Y79 cells by gene expression array analysis, underlining the effects on reduced tumorigenicity. TFF1 knockdown in RBL30 cells revealed caspase-3/7-independent apoptosis induction, but no changes on cell proliferation level. In summary, the in vitro and in vivo data demonstrate for the first time a tumor suppressor function of TFF1 in RB cells which is at least partly mediated by p53 activation and miR-18a downregulation. © 2017 UICC.

  1. Effect of G Protein–Coupled Receptor Kinase 1 (Grk1) Overexpression on Rod Photoreceptor Cell Viability

    PubMed Central

    Whitcomb, Tiffany; Sakurai, Keisuke; Brown, Bruce M.; Young, Joyce E.; Sheflin, Lowell; Dlugos, Cynthia; Craft, Cheryl M.; Kefalov, Vladimir J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Photoreceptor rhodopsin kinase (Rk, G protein–dependent receptor kinase 1 [Grk1]) phosphorylates light-activated opsins and channels them into an inactive complex with visual arrestins. Grk1 deficiency leads to human retinopathy and heightened susceptibility to light-induced photoreceptor cell death in the mouse. The goal of this study was to determine whether excess Grk1 activity is protective against photoreceptor cell death. Methods. Grk1-overexpressing transgenic mice (Grk1+) were generated by using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) construct containing mouse Grk1, along with its flanking sequences. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, immunoblot analysis, immunostaining, and activity assays were combined with electrophysiology and morphometric analysis, to evaluate Grk1 overexpression and its effect on physiologic and morphologic retinal integrity. Morphometry and nucleosome release assays measured differences in resistance to photoreceptor cell loss between control and transgenic mice exposed to intense light. Results. Compared with control animals, the Grk1+ transgenic line had approximately a threefold increase in Grk1 transcript and immunoreactive protein. Phosphorylated opsin immunochemical staining and in vitro phosphorylation assays confirmed proportionately higher Grk1 enzyme activity. Grk1+ mice retained normal rod function, normal retinal appearance, and lacked evidence of spontaneous apoptosis when reared in cyclic light. In intense light, Grk1+ mice showed photoreceptor damage, and their susceptibility was more pronounced than that of control mice with prolonged exposure times. Conclusions. Enhancing visual pigment deactivation does not appear to protect against apoptosis; however, excess flow of opsin into the deactivation pathway may actually increase susceptibility to stress-induced cell death similar to some forms of retinal degeneration. PMID:19834036

  2. Systematic analysis of gene expression pattern in has-miR-197 over-expressed human uterine leiomyoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jing; Wu, Xiaoli; Fu, Ziyi; Tan, Jie; Xu, Qing

    2015-10-01

    Our previous study showed that the expression of miR-197 in leiomyoma was down-regulated compared with myometrium. Further, miR-197 has been identified to affect uterine leiomyoma cell proliferation, apoptosis, and metastasis ability, though the responsible molecular mechanism has not been well elucidated. In this study, we sought to determine the expression patterns of miR-197 targeted genes and to explore their potential functions, participating Pathways and the networks that are involved in the biological behavior of human uterine leiomyoma. After transfection of human uterine leiomyoma cells with miR-197, we confirmed the expression level of miR-197 using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and we detected the gene expression profiles after miR-197 over-expression through DNA microarray analysis. Further, we performed GO and Pathway analysis. The dominantly dys-regulated genes, which were up- or down-regulated by more than 10-fold, compared with parental cells, were confirmed using qRT-PCR technology. Compared with the control group, miR-197 was up-regulated by 30-fold after miR-197 lentiviral transfection. The microarray data showed that 872 genes were dys-regulated by more than 2-fold in human uterine leiomyoma cells after miR-197 overexpression, including 537 up-regulated and 335 down-regulated genes. The GO analysis indicated that the dys-regulated genes were primarily involved in response to stimuli, multicellular organ processes, and the signaling of biological progression. Further, Pathway analysis data showed that these genes participated in regulating several signaling Pathways, including the JAK/STAT signaling Pathway, the Toll-like receptor signaling Pathway, and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction. The qRT-PCR results confirmed that 17 of the 66 selected genes, which were up- or down-regulated more than 10-fold by miR-197, were consistent with the microarray results, including tumorigenesis-related genes, such as DRT7, SLC549, SFMBT2, FLJ37956

  3. Overexpression of poplar xylem sucrose synthase in tobacco leads to a thickened cell wall and increased height.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhigang; Qu, Zanshuang; Zhang, Lijie; Zhao, Shuanjing; Bi, Zhihong; Ji, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiaowen; Wei, Hairong

    2015-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (SuSy) is considered the first key enzyme for secondary growth because it is a highly regulated cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of sucrose and UDP into UDP-glucose and fructose. Although SuSy enzymes preferentially functions in the direction of sucrose cleavage at most cellular condition, they also catalyze the synthetic reaction. We isolated a gene that encodes a SuSy from Populus simonii×Populus nigra and named it PsnSuSy2 because it shares high similarity to SuSy2 in Populus trichocarpa. RT-PCR revealed that PsnSuSy2 was highly expressed in xylem, but lowly expressed in young leaves. To characterize its functions in secondary growth, multiple tobacco overexpression transgenic lines of PnsSuSy2 were generated via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The PsnSuSy2 expression levels and altered wood properties in stem segments from the different transgenic lines were carefully characterized. The results demonstrated that the levels of PsnSuSy2 enzyme activity, chlorophyll content, total soluble sugars, fructose and glucose increased significantly, while the sucrose level decreased significantly. Consequently, the cellulose content and fiber length increased, whereas the lignin content decreased, suggesting that PsnSuSy2 plays a significant role in cleaving sucrose into UDP-glucose and fructose to facilitate cellulose biosynthesis and that promotion of cellulose biosynthesis suppresses lignin biosynthesis. Additionally, the noticeable increase in the lodging resistance in transgenic tobacco stem suggested that the cell wall characteristics were altered by PsnSuSy2 overexpression. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to study the cell wall morphology of stem, and surprisingly, we found that the secondary cell wall was significantly thicker in transgenic tobacco. However, the thickened secondary cell wall did not negatively affect the height of the plants because the PsnSuSy2- overexpressing lines grew taller than the

  4. Overexpression of Poplar Xylem Sucrose Synthase in Tobacco Leads to a Thickened Cell Wall and Increased Height

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhigang; Qu, Zanshuang; Zhang, Lijie; Zhao, Shuanjing; Bi, Zhihong; Ji, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiaowen; Wei, Hairong

    2015-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (SuSy) is considered the first key enzyme for secondary growth because it is a highly regulated cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of sucrose and UDP into UDP-glucose and fructose. Although SuSy enzymes preferentially functions in the direction of sucrose cleavage at most cellular condition, they also catalyze the synthetic reaction. We isolated a gene that encodes a SuSy from Populus simonii×Populus nigra and named it PsnSuSy2 because it shares high similarity to SuSy2 in Populus trichocarpa. RT-PCR revealed that PsnSuSy2 was highly expressed in xylem, but lowly expressed in young leaves. To characterize its functions in secondary growth, multiple tobacco overexpression transgenic lines of PnsSuSy2 were generated via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The PsnSuSy2 expression levels and altered wood properties in stem segments from the different transgenic lines were carefully characterized. The results demonstrated that the levels of PsnSuSy2 enzyme activity, chlorophyll content, total soluble sugars, fructose and glucose increased significantly, while the sucrose level decreased significantly. Consequently, the cellulose content and fiber length increased, whereas the lignin content decreased, suggesting that PsnSuSy2 plays a significant role in cleaving sucrose into UDP-glucose and fructose to facilitate cellulose biosynthesis and that promotion of cellulose biosynthesis suppresses lignin biosynthesis. Additionally, the noticeable increase in the lodging resistance in transgenic tobacco stem suggested that the cell wall characteristics were altered by PsnSuSy2 overexpression. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to study the cell wall morphology of stem, and surprisingly, we found that the secondary cell wall was significantly thicker in transgenic tobacco. However, the thickened secondary cell wall did not negatively affect the height of the plants because the PsnSuSy2- overexpressing lines grew taller than the

  5. Overexpression of HSPA1A enhances the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells via activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Xue, Deting; Yin, Houfa; Wang, Shengdong; Li, Chao; Chen, Erman; Hu, Dongcai; Tao, Yiqing; Yu, Jiawei; Zheng, Qiang; Gao, Xiang; Pan, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    HSPA1A, which encodes cognate heat shock protein 70, plays important roles in various cellular metabolic pathways. To investigate its effects on osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), its expression level was compared between undifferentiated and differentiated BMSCs. Rat HSPA1A overexpression in BMSCs increased osteoblast-specific gene expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineral deposition in vitro. Moreover, it upregulated β-catenin and downregulated DKK1 and SOST. The enhanced osteogenesis due to HSPA1A overexpression was partly rescued by a Wnt/β-catenin inhibitor. Additionally, using a rat tibial fracture model, a sheet of HSPA1A-overexpressing BMSCs improved bone fracture healing, as determined by imaging and histological analysis. Taken together, these findings suggest that HSPA1A overexpression enhances osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, partly through Wnt/β-catenin. PMID:27279016

  6. Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase1 overexpression promotes oral squamous cell carcinoma progression via enhanced biosynthesis of platelet-activating factor.

    PubMed

    Shida-Sakazume, Tomomi; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Unozawa, Motoharu; Fukumoto, Chonji; Shimada, Ken; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Ogawara, Katsunori; Yokoe, Hidetaka; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase1 (LPCAT1), a cytosolic enzyme in the remodeling pathway of phosphatidylcholine metabolism, in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is unknown. We investigated LPCAT1 expression and its functional mechanism in OSCCs. We analyzed LPCAT1 mRNA and protein expression levels in OSCC-derived cell lines. Immunohistochemistry was performed to identify correlations between LPCAT1 expression levels and primary OSCCs clinicopathological status. We established LPCAT1 knockdown models of the OSCC-derived cell lines (SAS, Ca9-22) for functional analysis and examined the association between LPCAT1 expression and the platelet-activating factor (PAF) concentration and PAF-receptor (PAFR) expression. LPCAT1 mRNA and protein were up-regulated significantly (p<0.05) in OSCC-derived cell lines compared with human normal oral keratinocytes. Immunohistochemistry showed significantly (p<0.05) elevated LPCAT1 expression in primary OSCCs compared with normal counterparts and a strong correlation between LPCAT1-positive OSCCs and tumoral size and regional lymph node metastasis. In LPCAT1 knockdown cells, cellular proliferation and invasiveness decreased significantly (p<0.05); cellular migration was inhibited compared with control cells. Down-regulation of LPCAT1 resulted in a decreased intercellular PAF concentration and PAFR expression. LPCAT1 was overexpressed in OSCCs and correlated with cellular invasiveness and migration. LPCAT1 may contribute to tumoral growth and metastasis in oral cancer.

  7. Overexpression of Annexin A1 Suppresses Pro-Inflammatory Factors in PC12 Cells Induced by 1-Methyl-4-Phenylpyridinium

    PubMed Central

    Kiani-Esfahani, Abbas; Kazemi Sheykhshabani, Sedigheh; Peymani, Maryam; Hashemi, Motahare-Sadat; Ghaedi, Kamran; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is suggested to have anti-inflammatory function. However, the precise function of ANXA1 has remained unclear. In this study, we therefore examined the potency of ANXA1 in regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and suppressing pro-inflammatory responses in PC12 cells induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). Materials and Methods In this experimental study, cDNA of ANXA1 was cloned and inserted to the PGL268 pEpi-FGM18F vector to produce a recombinant PGL/ANXA1 vector for transfection into the PC12 cells. ANXA1 transfected cells were then treated with MPP+. Apoptosis and the content of pro-inflammatory factors including ROS, Interlukin-6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) were assessed by flow-cytometry, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot in ANXA1-transfected cells and the data were compared with those obtained from mock and control cells. Results Data revealed that overexpression of ANXA1 is associated with decreased levels of ROS and expression level of IL-6 and iNOS transcripts, and NF-κB protein in MPP+ treated PC12 cells. Conclusion ANXA1 may be considered as an agent for prevention of neurodegenerative or inflammatory conditions. PMID:27540524

  8. Overexpression of Annexin A1 Suppresses Pro-Inflammatory Factors in PC12 Cells Induced by 1-Methyl-4-Phenylpyridinium.

    PubMed

    Kiani-Esfahani, Abbas; Kazemi Sheykhshabani, Sedigheh; Peymani, Maryam; Hashemi, Motahare-Sadat; Ghaedi, Kamran; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is suggested to have anti-inflammatory function. However, the precise function of ANXA1 has remained unclear. In this study, we therefore examined the potency of ANXA1 in regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and suppressing pro-inflammatory responses in PC12 cells induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). In this experimental study, cDNA of ANXA1 was cloned and inserted to the PGL268 pEpi-FGM18F vector to produce a recombinant PGL/ANXA1 vector for transfection into the PC12 cells. ANXA1 transfected cells were then treated with MPP+. Apoptosis and the content of pro-inflammatory factors including ROS, Interlukin-6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) were assessed by flow-cytometry, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot in ANXA1-transfected cells and the data were compared with those obtained from mock and control cells. Data revealed that overexpression of ANXA1 is associated with decreased levels of ROS and expression level of IL-6 and iNOS transcripts, and NF-κB protein in MPP+ treated PC12 cells. ANXA1 may be considered as an agent for prevention of neurodegenerative or inflammatory conditions.

  9. Overexpression of Nitrogen Permease Regulator Like-2 (NPRL2) Enhances Sensitivity to Irinotecan (CPT-11) in Colon Cancer Cells by Activating the DNA Damage Checkpoint Pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shasha; Liu, Bingrong

    2018-03-09

    BACKGROUND Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide, making it is a serious threat to human health. It is imperative to develop new therapeutics to improve the CRC treatment efficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of NPRL2 in improving sensitivity to CPT-11 in colon cancer cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS NPRL2 overexpression was established by transfecting the recombinant lentivirus-encoding NPRL2 gene into HCT116 colon cancer cells. Cell proliferation was identified using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) assay. Cell cycle and apoptosis were examined by flow cytometry. An immunofluorescence staining assay was conducted to examine the expression of γ-H2AX. Wound-healing and Transwell assays were utilized to show cell migration and invasion capability. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins (cleaved caspase-3, caspase-9, cleaved PARP, BAX, and Bcl-2), invasion-related proteins (MMP2, MMP9, p-PI3K, and p-AKT), and DNA damage checkpoint pathway proteins (p-ATM, p-Chk2, Cdc25C, Cdc2, and Cyclin B1) were quantified by Western blotting. RESULTS A CCK8 assay revealed that the overexpression of NPRL2 improved the sensitivity of CPT-11 in HCT116 cells (P<0.05). Functionally, NPRL2 overexpression elevated the sensitivity of CPT-11 by preventing colon cancer cell proliferation, cell movement, and invasion, and promoting cell apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest. Mechanistically, NPRL2 overexpression enhanced CPT-11 sensitivity by activating the DNA damage checkpoint pathway. CONCLUSIONS NPRL2 overexpression enhances sensitivity to CPT-11 treatment in colon cancer cells, and it may serve as a molecular therapeutic agent to treat patients with CRC.

  10. Overexpression of miR-183/-96/-182 triggers neuronal cell fate in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial (hRPE) cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Davari, Maliheh; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Samiei, Shahram; Sharifi, Zohreh; Pirmardan, Ehsan Ranaei

    2017-01-29

    miR-183 cluster, composed of miR-183/-96/-182 genes, is highly expressed in the adult retina, particularly in photoreceptors. It involves in development, maturation and normal function of neuroretina. Ectopic overexpression of miR-183/-96/-182 genes was performed to assess reprogramming of hRPE cells. They were amplified from genomic DNA and cloned independently or in tandem configuration into pAAV.MCS vector. hRPE cells were then transfected with the recombinant constructs. Real-Time PCR was performed to measure the expression levels of miR-183/-96/-182 and that of several retina-specific neuronal genes such as OTX2, NRL, PDC and DCT. The transfected cells also were immunocytochemically examined for retina-specific neuronal markers, including Rhodopsin, red opsin, CRX, Thy1, CD73, recoverin and PKCα, to determine the cellular fate of the transfected hRPE cells. Data showed that upon miR-183/-96/-182 overexpression in hRPE cultures, the expression of neuronal genes including OTX2, NRL, PDC and DCT was also upregulated. Moreover, miR-183 cluster-treated hRPE cells were immunoreactive for neuronal markers such as Rhodopsin, red opsin, CRX and Thy1. Both transcriptional and translational upregulation of neuronal genes in miR-183 cluster-treated hRPE cells suggests that in vitro overexpression of miR-183 cluster could trigger reprogramming of hRPE cells to retinal neuron fate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Glucose uptake and lactate production in cells exposed to CoCl(2) and in cells overexpressing the Glut-1 glucose transporter.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Daw-Yang; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz

    2002-03-15

    Glut-1-mediated glucose transport is augmented in response to a variety of conditions and stimuli. In this study we examined the metabolic fate of glucose in cells in which glucose transport is stimulated by exposure to CoCl(2), an agent that stimulates the expression of a set of hypoxia-responsive genes including several glycolytic enzymes and the Glut-1 glucose transporter. Similarly, we determined the metabolic fate of glucose in stably transfected cells overexpressing Glut-1. Exposure of Clone 9 liver cell line, 3T3-L1 fibroblasts, and C(2)C(12) myoblasts to CoCl(2) resulted in an increase glucose uptake and in the activity of glucose phosphorylation ("hexokinase") and lactate dehydrogenase. In cells treated with CoCl(2), the net increase in glucose taken up was accounted for by its near-complete conversion to lactate. Cells stably transfected to overexpress Glut-1 also exhibited enhanced net uptake of glucose with the near-complete conversion of the increased glucose taken up to lactate; however, the effect in these cells was observed in the absence of any change in the activity of two glycolytic enzymes examined. These findings suggest that in cells in which glucose transport is rate-limiting for glucose metabolism, enhancement of the glucose entry step per se results in a near-complete conversion of the extra glucose to lactate.

  12. The BTK Inhibitor Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) Overcomes Paclitaxel Resistance in ABCB1- and ABCC10-Overexpressing Cells and Tumors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Patel, Atish; Wang, Yi-Jun; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Kathawala, Rishil J; Qiu, Long-Hui; Patel, Bhargav A; Huang, Li-Hua; Shukla, Suneet; Yang, Dong-Hua; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Fu, Li-Wu; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2017-06-01

    Paclitaxel is one of the most widely used antineoplastic drugs in the clinic. Unfortunately, the occurrence of cellular resistance has limited its efficacy and application. The ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1/P-glycoprotein) and subfamily C member 10 (ABCC10/MRP7) are the major membrane protein transporters responsible for the efflux of paclitaxel, constituting one of the most important mechanisms of paclitaxel resistance. Here, we demonstrated that the Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, ibrutinib, significantly enhanced the antitumor activity of paclitaxel by antagonizing the efflux function of ABCB1 and ABCC10 in cells overexpressing these transporters. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the ABCB1 or ABCC10 protein expression was not altered after treatment with ibrutinib for up to 72 hours using Western blot analysis. However, the ATPase activity of ABCB1 was significantly stimulated by treatment with ibrutinib. Molecular docking analysis suggested the binding conformation of ibrutinib within the large cavity of the transmembrane region of ABCB1. Importantly, ibrutinib could effectively enhance paclitaxel-induced inhibition on the growth of ABCB1- and ABCC10-overexpressing tumors in nude athymic mice. These results demonstrate that the combination of ibrutinib and paclitaxel can effectively antagonize ABCB1- or ABCC10-mediated paclitaxel resistance that could be of great clinical interest. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(6); 1021-30. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Overexpression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule protein is associated with favorable prognosis in an unselected cohort of ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Battista, Marco Johannes; Cotarelo, Cristina; Jakobi, Sina; Steetskamp, Joscha; Makris, Georgios; Sicking, Isabel; Weyer, Veronika; Schmidt, Marcus

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic influence of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) in an unselected cohort of ovarian cancer (OC) patients. Expression of EpCAM was determined by immunohistochemistry in an unselected cohort of 117 patients with OC. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses adjusted for age, tumor stage, histological grading, histological subtype, postoperative tumor burden and completeness of chemotherapy were performed in order to determine the prognostic influence of EpCAM. The Kaplan-Meier method is used to estimate survival rates. Univariable Cox regression analysis showed that overexpression of EpCAM is associated with favorable prognosis in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) (p = 0.011) and disease-specific survival (DSS) (p = 0.003). In multivariable Cox regression analysis, overexpression of EpCAM retains its significance independent of established prognostic factors for longer PFS [hazard ratios (HR) 0.408, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.197-0.846, p = 0.003] but not for PFS (HR 0.666, 95 % CI 0.366-1.212, p = 0.183). Kaplan-Meier plots demonstrate an influence on 5-year PFS rates (0 vs. 27.6 %, p = 0.048) and DSS rates (11.8 vs. 54.0 %, p = 0.018). These findings support the hypothesis that the expression of EpCAM is associated with favorable prognosis in OC.

  14. Cytoplasmic Overexpression of CD95L in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells Overcomes Resistance to CD95-Mediated Apoptosis1

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Gregory A; Naran, Sanjay; Zhang, Xinglu; Stang, Michael T; Queiroz de Oliveira, Pierre E; Hughes, Steven J

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The CD95/CD95L pathway plays a critical role in tissue homeostasis and immune system regulation; however, the function of this pathway in malignancy remains poorly understood. We hypothesized that CD95L expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma confers advantages to the neoplasm other than immune privilege. Methods CD95L expression was characterized in immortalized squamous esophagus (HET-1A) and Barrett esophagus (BAR-T) cells; adenocarcinoma cell lines FLO-1, SEG-1, and BIC-1, and MDA468 (- control); and KFL cells (+ control). Analyses included reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblots of whole cell and secretory vesicle lysates, FACScan analysis, laser scanning confocal microscopy of native proteins and fluorescent constructs, and assessment of apoptosis and ERK1/2 pathways. Results Cleaved, soluble CD95L is expressed at both the RNA and protein levels in these cell lines derived from esophageal adenocarcinoma and other human tissues. CD95L was neither trafficked to the cell membrane nor secreted into the media or within vesicles, rather the protein seems to be sequestered in the cytoplasm. CD95 and CD95L colocalize by immunofluorescence, but an interaction was not proven by immunoprecipitation. Overexpression of CD95L in the adenocarcinoma cell lines induced robust apoptosis and, under conditions of pan-caspase inhibition, resulted in activation of ERK signaling. Conclusions CD95L localization in EA cells is inconsistent with the conference of immune privilege and is more consistent with a function that promotes tumor growth through alternative CD95 signaling. Reduced cell surface expression of CD95 affects cell sensitivity to extracellular apoptotic signals more significantly than alterations in downstream modulators of apoptosis. PMID:21390183

  15. [Effect of Ech1 overexpression on biological behavior of mouse hepatocarcinoma Hca-P cells in vitro].

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Song, Bo; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Jun; Tang, Jian-wu

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the effect of enoyl coenzyme A hydratase-1 (Ech1) on the proliferation and invasion ability of mouse hepatocarcinoma Hca-P cells in vitro. Recombinant pcDNA3.1(+)-Ech1 gene and pcDNA3.1(+) were transfected into Hca-P cells by cationic liposomes introduction. Clone of PEch1 cells that stably expressing Ech1 and clone of control Pvector cells were screened by G418. The Ech1 expression was identified subsequently by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The malignant behaviors of the cell lines were compared by proliferation, invasion and migration test. The cell line Hca-P cells stably expressing Ech1 gene was constructed. The relative expression of Ech1 mRNA in the PEch1 group was 3.21 ± 0.43 and in the Pvector group was 1.44 ± 0.03, with a significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.029). The results of ELISA revealed that the expression of Ech1 protein was 0.140 ± 0.005 in the PEch1 group, 0.088 ± 0.003 in the Pvector group, and 0.078 ± 0.006 in the Hca-P group, showing a significant difference between the PEch1 group and the Pvector and Hca-P groups (P < 0.05). Transwell migration test showed that the number of penetrated cells in the PEch1 group was 143.00 ± 7.25 cells, significantly higher than that of the Pvector group (95.73 ± 3.88 cells) and un-treated Hca-1 group (106.67 ± 3.54 cells, both P < 0.05). The Transwell invasion assay showed that the number of penetrated cells was 77.20 ± 5.46 cells in the PEch1 group, significantly higher than 46.34 ± 4.35 cells in the Pvector group and 49.80 ± 5.21 cells in the un-treated Hca-1 group (both P < 0.05). The results showed that overexpressed Ech1 in Hca-P cells may significantly increase the cell proliferation in a time-dependent manner. The up-regulation of Ech1 may increase to some extent the migration and invasion capacity of Hca-P cells. The efforts aiming at up-regulation of Ech1 expression may

  16. Overexpression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells enhance the expression of induced endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are capable of differentiating into endothelial cells in vitro and acquire major characteristics of mature endothelial-like expression of vWF and CD31. SFAs and lipid oxidation products have been linked with postprandial endothelial dysfunction. Consumption of SFAs impairs arterial endothelial function, while a Mediterranean-type MUFA-diet has a beneficial effect on endothelial function by producing a decrease in levels of vWF, TFPI and PAI-1. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), which converts SFA to MUFA, is involved in the cellular biosynthesis of MUFAs from SFA substrates. High expression of SCD1 is corresponded with low rates of fatty acid oxidation, therefore it might reduce inflammatory responses and be beneficial for the growth of induced endothelial cells. Overexpression of SCD1 in BM-MSCs might increase the growth of induced endothelial cells. The goal of this research is to study the relationship between overexpression of SCD1 and the expression of induced endothelial cells in BM-MSCs in vitro. Methods The gene SCD1 was integrated into a lentiviral vector, and then 293 T cells were transfected by the connected product to produce a packaged virus. BM-MSCs were infected by the packaged virus. Cell culture and endothelial induction were performed. Fluorescent quantitative PCR of CD31, vWF and VE-cad was performed after 1 week and 2 weeks to test the growth of induced endothelial cells. Results The mRNA amount of CD31, vWF and VE-cad of the SCD1 overexpressed group was statistically higher than that of the empty vector (EV) group and that of the normal group after 1 week and 2 weeks, respectively (p < 0.05). Immunocytochemical staining of CD31 or vWF was detected by visualizing red color. Conclusions This study suggested that overexpression of SCD1 in BM-MSCs could increase the expression of induced endothelial cells in vitro. PMID:24650127

  17. Dual blockade of HER2 in HER2-overexpressing tumor cells does not completely eliminate HER3 function.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Joan T; Sutton, Cammie R; Kuba, María Gabriela; Cook, Rebecca S; Arteaga, Carlos L

    2013-02-01

    Dual blockade of HER2 with trastuzumab and lapatinib or with pertuzumab is a superior treatment approach compared with single-agent HER2 inhibitors. However, many HER2-overexpressing breast cancers still escape from this combinatorial approach. Inhibition of HER2 and downstream phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT causes a transcriptional and posttranslational upregulation of HER3 which, in turn, counteracts the antitumor action of the HER2-directed therapies. We hypothesized that suppression of HER3 would synergize with dual blockade of HER2 in breast cancer cells sensitive and refractory to HER2 antagonists. Inhibition of HER2/HER3 in HER2(+) breast cancer cell lines was evaluated by Western blotting. We analyzed drug-induced apoptosis and two- and three-dimensional growth in vitro. Growth inhibition of PI3K was examined in vivo in xenografts treated with combinations of trastuzumab, lapatinib, and the HER3-neutralizing monoclonal antibody U3-1287. Treatment with U3-1287 blocked the upregulation of total and phosphorylated HER3 that followed treatment with lapatinib and trastuzumab and, in turn, enhanced the antitumor action of the combination against trastuzumab-sensitive and -resistant cells. Mice bearing HER2(+) xenografts treated with lapatinib, trastuzumab, and U3-1287 exhibited fewer recurrences and better survival than mice treated with lapatinib and trastuzumab. Dual blockade of HER2 with trastuzumab and lapatinib does not eliminate the compensatory upregulation of HER3. Therapeutic inhibitors of HER3 should be considered as part of multidrug combinations aimed at completely and rapidly disabling the HER2 network in HER2-overexpressing breast cancers.

  18. Overexpression of HOXA4 and HOXA9 genes promotes self-renewal and contributes to colon cancer stem cell overpopulation.

    PubMed

    Bhatlekar, Seema; Viswanathan, Vignesh; Fields, Jeremy Z; Boman, Bruce M

    2018-02-01

    Because HOX genes encode master regulatory transcription factors that regulate stem cells (SCs) during development and aberrant expression of HOX genes occurs in various cancers, our goal was to determine if dysregulation of HOX genes is involved in the SC origin of colorectal cancer (CRC). We previously reported that HOXA4 and HOXD10 are expressed in the colonic SC niche and are overexpressed in CRC. HOX gene expression was studied in SCs from human colon tissue and CRC cells (CSCs) using qPCR and immunostaining. siRNA-mediated knockdown of HOX expression was used to evaluate the role of HOX genes in modulating cancer SC (CSC) phenotype at the level of proliferation, SC marker expression, and sphere formation. All-trans-retinoic-acid (ATRA), a differentiation-inducing agent was evaluated for its effects on HOX expression and CSC growth. We found that HOXA4 and HOXA9 are up-regulated in CRC SCs. siRNA knockdown of HOXA4 and HOXA9 reduced: (i) proliferation and sphere-formation and (ii) gene expression of known SC markers (ALDH1, CD166, LGR5). These results indicate that proliferation and self-renewal ability of CRC SCs are reduced in HOXA4 and HOXA9 knockdown cells. ATRA decreased HOXA4, HOXA9, and HOXD10 expression in parallel with reduction in ALDH1 expression, self-renewal, and proliferation. Overall, our findings indicate that overexpression of HOXA4 and HOXA9 contributes to self-renewal and overpopulation of SCs in CRC. Strategies designed to modulate HOX expression may provide ways to target malignant SCs and to develop more effective therapies for CRC. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. hERG1 channels are overexpressed in glioblastoma multiforme and modulate VEGF secretion in glioblastoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Masi, A; Becchetti, A; Restano-Cassulini, R; Polvani, S; Hofmann, G; Buccoliero, A M; Paglierani, M; Pollo, B; Taddei, G L; Gallina, P; Di Lorenzo, N; Franceschetti, S; Wanke, E; Arcangeli, A

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have led to considerable advancement in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the relentless cell growth and invasiveness of human gliomas. Partial understanding of these mechanisms has (1) improved the classification for gliomas, by identifying prognostic subgroups, and (2) pointed to novel potential therapeutic targets. Some classes of ion channels have turned out to be involved in the pathogenesis and malignancy of gliomas. We studied the expression and properties of K+ channels in primary cultures obtained from surgical specimens: human ether a gò-gò related (hERG)1 voltage-dependent K+ channels, which have been found to be overexpressed in various human cancers, and human ether a gò-gò-like 2 channels, that share many of hERG1's biophysical features. The expression pattern of these two channels was compared to that of the classical inward rectifying K+ channels, IRK, that are widely expressed in astrocytic cells and classically considered a marker of astrocytic differentiation. In our study, hERG1 was found to be specifically overexpressed in high-grade astrocytomas, that is, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). In addition, we present evidence that, in GBM cell lines, hERG1 channel activity actively contributes to malignancy by promoting vascular endothelial growth factor secretion, thus stimulating the neoangiogenesis typical of high-grade gliomas. Our data provide important confirmation for studies proposing the hERG1 channel as a molecular marker of tumour progression and a possible target for novel anticancer therapies. PMID:16175187

  20. Overexpression of LLT1 (OCIL, CLEC2D) on prostate cancer cells inhibits NK cell-mediated killing through LLT1-NKRP1A (CD161) interaction.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Stephen O; Chaudhary, Pankaj; Powers, Sheila B; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K; Mathew, Porunelloor A

    2016-10-18

    Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer diagnosed and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in American men. Natural Killer (NK) cells are the first line of defense against cancer and infections. NK cell function is regulated by a delicate balance between signals received through activating and inhibitory receptors. Previously, we identified Lectin-like transcript-1 (LLT1/OCIL/CLEC2D) as a counter-receptor for the NK cell inhibitory receptor NKRP1A (CD161). Interaction of LLT1 expressed on target cells with NKRP1A inhibits NK cell activation. In this study, we have found that LLT1 was overexpressed on prostate cancer cell lines (DU145, LNCaP, 22Rv1 and PC3) and in primary prostate cancer tissues both at the mRNA and protein level. We further showed that LLT1 is retained intracellularly in normal prostate cells with minimal cell surface expression. Blocking LLT1 interaction with NKRP1A by anti-LLT1 mAb on prostate cancer cells increased the NK-mediated cytotoxicity of prostate cancer cells. The results indicate that prostate cancer cells may evade immune attack by NK cells by expressing LLT1 to inhibit NK cell-mediated cytolytic activity through LLT1-NKRP1A interaction. Blocking LLT1-NKRP1A interaction will make prostate cancer cells susceptible to killing by NK cells and therefore may be a new therapeutic option for treatment of prostate cancer.

  1. Overexpression of Lhx2 suppresses proliferation of human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia-derived cells, partly by reducing LMO2 protein levels.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Kazuya; Kitajima, Kenji; Goyama, Susumu; Kitamura, Toshio; Hara, Takahiko

    2018-01-15

    T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a malignant cancer with poor prognosis. The transcriptional co-factor LIM domain only 2 (LMO2) and its target gene HHEX are essential for self-renewal of T cell precursors and T-ALL etiology. LMO2 directly associates with LDB1 in a large DNA-containing nuclear complex and controls the transcription of T-ALL-related genes. Recently, we reported that overexpression of the LIM-homeodomain transcription factor, Lhx2, results in liberation of the Lmo2 protein from the Lmo2-Ldb1 complex, followed by ubiquitin proteasome mediated degradation. Here, we found that proliferation of five human T-ALL-derived cell lines, including CCRF-CEM, was significantly suppressed by retroviral overexpression of Lhx2. The majority of Lhx2-transduced CCRF-CEM cells arrested in G 0 phase and subsequently underwent apoptosis. Expression of LMO2 protein as well as HHEX, ERG, HES1 and MYC genes was repressed in CCRF-CEM cells by transduction with Lhx2. Lhx2-mediated growth inhibition was partially rescued by simultaneous overexpression of Lmo2; however, both the C-terminal LIM domain and the homeodomain of Lhx2 were required for its growth-suppressive activity. These data indicate that Lhx2 is capable of blocking proliferation of T-ALL-derived cells by both LMO2-dependent and -independent means. We propose Lhx2 as a new molecular tool for anti-T-ALL drug development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Overexpression of miR-206 suppresses glycolysis, proliferation and migration in breast cancer cells via PFKFB3 targeting

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Xin; Lyu, Pengwei; Cao, Zhang

    miRNAs, sorting as non-coding RNAs, are differentially expressed in breast tumor and act as tumor promoters or suppressors. miR-206 could suppress the progression of breast cancer, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The study here was aimed to investigate the effect of miR-206 on human breast cancers. We found that miR-206 was down-regulated while one of its predicted targets, 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFKFB3) was up-regulated in human breast carcinomas. 17β-estradiol dose-dependently decreased miR-206 expression as well as enhanced PFKFB3 mRNA and protein expression in estrogen receptor α (ERα) positive breast cancer cells. Furthermore, we identified that miR-206 directly interacted with 3′-untranslated regionmore » (UTR) of PFKFB3 mRNA. miR-206 modulated PFKFB3 expression in MCF-7, T47