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Sample records for a431 epidermoid carcinoma

  1. Pheophorbide a mediated photodynamic therapy against human epidermoid carcinoma cells (A431)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Li, Wen-Tyng

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the death mechanism of human epidermoid carcinoma cells (A431) triggered by photodynamic therapy (PDT) with pheophorbide a. First of all, significant inhibition on the survival of A431 cells (< 20 %) was observed when an irradiation dose of 5.1 J/cm2 combined with 125 ng/ml of pheophorbide a was applied. Survival rate of human keratinocyte cells was over 70 % under the same PDT parameters, suggesting that pheophorbide a killed cancer cells selectively. Mitochondria were the main target sites where pheophorbide a accumulated. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected after PDT. Addition of antioxidant N-Acetyl cysteine prevented ROS production and increased cell survival thereafter. The decrease in cellular ATP level was also observed at 6 hrs after PDT. Typical apoptotic cellular morphology and a collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential occurred after PDT. The loss of mitochondrial membrane potential led to the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol, followed by activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. The activation of caspase-3 resulted in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage in A431 cells, followed by DNA fragmentation. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that pheophorbide a possessed photodynamic action against A431 cells, mainly through apoptosis mediated by mitochondrial intrinsic pathway triggered by ROS.

  2. Blue light activates phase 2 response proteins and slows growth of a431 epidermoid carcinoma xenografts.

    PubMed

    Patel, Alpesh D; Rotenberg, Shaun; Messer, Regina L W; Wataha, John C; Ogbureke, Kalu U E; McCloud, Veronica V; Lockwood, Petra; Hsu, Stephen; Lewis, Jill B

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that light in the UVA range (320-400 nm) activates signaling pathways that are anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and play a critical role in protection against cancer. These effects have been attributed to NF-E2-related factor (NRF2)-mediated up-regulation of 'phase 2' genes that neutralize oxidative stress and metabolize electrophiles. We had previously shown that small doses of blue light (400-500 nm) had selective toxicity for cultured oral tumor cells and increased levels of peroxiredoxin phase 2 proteins, which led to our hypothesis that blue light activates NRF2 signaling. A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells were treated in culture and as nude mouse xenografts with doses of blue light. Cell lysates and tumor samples were tested for NRF2 activation, and for markers of proliferation and oxidative stress. Blue light activated the phase 2 response in cultured A431 cells and reduced their viability dose dependently. Light treatment of tumors reduced tumor growth, and levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and oxidized proteins. Cellular responses to these light energies are worth further study and may provide therapeutic interventions for inflammation and cancer. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  3. Density-dependent induction of 92-kd type IV collagenase activity in cultures of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Xie, B.; Bucana, C. D.; Fidler, I. J.

    1994-01-01

    We examined the in vitro regulation of the production of two type IV collagenases, MMP-2 and MMP-9, by A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. The A431 cells were cultured under sparse or confluent conditions. The addition of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) or phorbolester-TPA to sparse cultures induced low levels of MMP-9 secretion, whereas in confluent cultures only TGF-beta produced this effect. Neither treatment altered the level of constitutive secretion of MMP-2. Treatment of sparse, actively growing cultures but not confluent stationary cultures with both TGF-beta and TPA produced synergistic induction of MMP-9 but did not affect MMP-2. A431 cells were grown as discrete large monolayer colonies. Radiolabeling with [3H]leucine or [3H]thymidine followed by autoradiography revealed that all the A431 cells in the colonies were metabolically active and only those on the periphery were dividing. Only these dividing A431 cells stained positive by anti-MMP-9 antibodies. Our results demonstrate that the synergistic induction of MMP-9 secretion in A431 cells occurs subsequent to stimulation by external signals in only noncontact-inhibited dividing tumor cells. These regulatory mechanisms may account for the in vivo finding that many proteinases are localized at the invasion front of a neoplasm where tumor cells are dividing and accessible to various environmental signals. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8178929

  4. Regulation of apoptosis by resveratrol through JAK/STAT and mitochondria mediated pathway in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Madan, Esha; Prasad, Sahdeo; Roy, Preeti; George, Jasmine; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2008-12-26

    Resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenolic phytoalexin present mainly in grapes, red wine and berries, is known to possess strong chemopreventive and anticancer properties. Here, we demonstrated the anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities of resveratrol in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Resveratrol has cytotoxic effects through inhibiting cellular proliferation of A431 cells, which leads to the induction of apoptosis, as evident by an increase in the fraction of cells in the sub-G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle and Annexin-V binding of externalized phosphatidylserine. Results revealed that inhibition of proliferation is associated with regulation of the JAK/STAT pathway, where resveratrol prevents phosphorylation of JAK, thereby inhibiting STAT1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, resveratrol treatment actively stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Consequently, an imbalance in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio triggered the caspase cascade and subsequent cleavage of PARP, thereby shifting the balance in favor of apoptosis. These observations indicate that resveratrol treatment inhibits JAK/STAT-mediated gene transcription and induce the mitochondrial cell death pathway.

  5. Chelidonium majus L. extract induces apoptosis through caspase activity via MAPK-independent NF-κB signaling in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung-Won; Kim, Seong Ryul; Kim, Youngchul; Lee, Jang-Hoon; Woo, Hong-Jung; Yoon, Yeo-Kwang; Kim, Young Il

    2015-01-01

    Chelidonium majus L. (C. majus L.) is known to possess certain biological properties such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral and antitumor activities. We investigated the effects of C. majus L. extract on human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells through multiple mechanisms, including induction of cell cycle arrest, activation of the caspase-dependent pathway, blocking of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and involvement in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. C. majus L. inhibited the proliferation of A431 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, increased the percentage of apoptotic cells, significantly decreased the mRNA levels of cyclin D1, Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and survivin and increased p21 and Bax expression. Exposure of A431 cells to C. majus L. extract enhanced the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9, while co-treatment with C. majus L., the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK and the caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVE-FMK increased the proliferation of A431 cells. C. majus L. extract not only inhibited NF-κB activation, but it also activated p38 MAPK and MEK/ERK signaling. Taken together, these results demonstrate that C. majus L. extract inhibits the proliferation of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells by inducing apoptosis through caspase activation and NF-κB inhibition via MAPK-independent pathway.

  6. Fisetin inhibits growth, induces G₂ /M arrest and apoptosis of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells: role of mitochondrial membrane potential disruption and consequent caspases activation.

    PubMed

    Pal, Harish C; Sharma, Samriti; Elmets, Craig A; Athar, Mohammad; Afaq, Farrukh

    2013-07-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), one of the most common neoplasms, cause serious morbidity and mortality. Therefore, identification of non-toxic phytochemicals for prevention/treatment of NMSCs is highly desirable. Fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone), a dietary flavonoid, present in fruits and vegetables possesses anti-oxidant and antiproliferative properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemotherapeutic potential of fisetin in cultured human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Treatment of A431 cells with fisetin (5-80 μm) resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Employing clonogenic assay, we found that fisetin treatment significantly reduced colony formation in A431 cells. Fisetin treatment of A431 cells resulted in G₂ /M arrest and induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, treatment of A431 cells with fisetin resulted in (i) decreased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl2; Bcl-xL and Mcl-1); (ii) increased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, Bak and Bad); (iii) disruption of mitochondrial potential; (iv) release of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO from mitochondria; (v) activation of caspases; and (vi) cleavage of Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein. Pretreatment of A431 cells with the pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) blocked fisetin-induced cleavage of caspases and PARP. Taken together, these data provide evidence that fisetin possesses chemotherapeutic potential against human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Overall, these results suggest that fisetin could be developed as a novel therapeutic agent for the management of NMSCs. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Fisetin inhibits growth, induces G2/M arrest and apoptosis of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells: Role of mitochondrial membrane potential disruption and consequent caspases activation

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Harish C.; Sharma, Samriti; Elmets, Craig A.; Athar, Mohammad; Afaq, Farrukh

    2013-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) one of the most common neoplasms causes serious morbidity and mortality. Therefore, identification of non-toxic phytochemicals for prevention/treatment of NMSCs is highly desirable. Fisetin (3,3′,4′,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), a dietary flavonoid, present in fruits and vegetables possesses anti-oxidant and anti-proliferative properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemotherapeutic potential of fisetin in cultured human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Treatment of A431 cells with fistein (5-80 μM) resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Employing clonogenic assay, we found that fisetin treatment significantly reduced colony formation in A431 cells. Fisetin treatment of A431 cells resulted in G2/M arrest and induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, treatment of A431 cells with fisetin resulted in (i) decreased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl2, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1), (ii) increased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, Bak and Bad), (iii) disruption of mitochondrial potential, (iv) release of cytchrome c and Smac/DIABLO from mitochondria, (v) activation of caspases, and (vi) cleavage of PARP protein. Pretreatment of A431 cells with the pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) blocked fisetin-induced cleavage of caspases and PARP. Taken together, these data provide evidence that fisetin possesses chemotherapeutic potential against human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Overall, these results suggest that fisetin could be developed as a novel therapeutic agent for the management of NMSCs. PMID:23800058

  8. Resveratrol enhances ultraviolet B-induced cell death through nuclear factor-{kappa}B pathway in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Preeti; Kalra, Neetu; Nigam, Nidhi; George, Jasmine; Ray, Ratan Singh; Hans, Rajendra K.; Prasad, Sahdeo; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2009-06-26

    Resveratrol has been reported to suppress cancer progression in several in vivo and in vitro models, whereas ultraviolet B (UVB), a major risk for skin cancer, is known to induce cell death in cancerous cells. Here, we investigated whether resveratrol can sensitize A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells to UVB-induced cell death. We examined the combined effect of UVB (30 mJ/cm{sup 2}) and resveratrol (60 {mu}M) on A431 cells. Exposure of A431 carcinoma cells to UVB radiation or resveratrol can inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. However, the combination of resveratrol and UVB exposure was associated with increased proliferation inhibition of A431 cells compared with either agent alone. Furthermore, results showed that resveratrol and UVB treatment of A431 cells disrupted the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-{kappa}B) pathway by blocking phosphorylation of serine 536 and inactivating NF-{kappa}B and subsequent degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, which regulates the expression of survivin. Resveratrol and UVB treatment also decreased the phosphorylation of tyrosine 701 of the important transcription factor signal transducer activator of transcription (STAT1), which in turn inhibited translocation of phospho-STAT1 to the nucleus. Moreover, resveratrol/UVB also inhibited the metastatic protein LIMK1, which reduced the motility of A431 cells. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the combination of resveratrol and UVB act synergistically against skin cancer cells. Thus, resveratrol is a potential chemotherapeutic agent against skin carcinogenesis.

  9. Involvement of retinoblastoma (Rb) and E2F transcription factors during photodynamic therapy of human epidermoid carcinoma cells A431.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, N; Gupta, S; Mukhtar, H

    1999-03-11

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a promising new therapeutic modality for the management of a variety of solid malignancies and many non-malignant diseases, is a bimodal therapy using a porphyrin based photosensitizing chemical and visible light. The proper understanding of the mechanism of PDT-mediated cancer cell-kill may result in improving the efficacy of this treatment modality. Earlier we have shown (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA; 95: 6977-6982, 1998) that silicon phthalocyanine (Pc4)-PDT results in an induction of the cyclin kinase inhibitor WAF1/CIP1/p21 which, by inhibiting cyclins (E and D1) and cyclin dependent kinases (cdk2 and cdk6), results in a G0/G1-phase arrest followed by apoptosis in human epidermoid carcinoma cells A431. We have also demonstrated the generation of nitric oxide during PDT-mediated apoptosis (Cancer Res.; 58: 1785-1788, 1998). Retinoblastoma (pRb) and E2F family transcription factors are important proteins, which regulate the G1-->S transition in the cell cycle. Here, we provide evidence for the involvement of pRb-E2F/DP machinery as an important contributor of PDT-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Western blot analysis demonstrated a decrease in the hyper-phosphorylated form of pRb at 3, 6 and 12 h post-PDT with a relative increase in hypo-phosphorylated pRb. Western blot analysis also revealed that PDT-caused decrease in phosphorylation of pRb occurs at serine-780. The ELISA data demonstrated a time dependent accumulation of hypo-phosphorylated pRb by PDT. This response was accompanied with down-regulation in the protein expression of all five E2F (1-5) family transcription factors, and their heterodimeric partners DP1 and DP2. These results suggest that Pc4-PDT of A431 cells results in a down regulation of hyper-phosphorylated pRb protein with a relative increase in hypo-phosphorylated pRb that, in turn, compromises with the availability of free E2F. We suggest that these events result in a stoppage of the cell cycle

  10. Hydroxyl radical (·OH) played a pivotal role in oridonin-induced apoptosis and autophagy in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Fan, Si Miao; Song, Jun Ke; Tashiro, Shin-ichi; Onodera, Satoshi; Ikejima, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Oridonin, a diterpenoid compound extracted and purified from Rabdosia rubescen, has been reported to induce tumor cell apoptosis through tyrosine kinase pathway. To further examine the mechanism of oridonin, we selected human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cell as a test object. Besides apoptosis, oridonin also induced A431 cell autophagy, and this autophagy antagonized apoptosis and played a protective role for A431 cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) played a pivotal role in induction of cytotoxicity. Therefore, a ROS scavenger, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) combined with oridonin was appiled. Results of morphologic observation, flow cytometric analysis and Western blot analysis showed that NAC could significantly reverse both ROS generation and down-regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential in oridonin treated cells. NAC inhibited oridonin induced apoptosis through both the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. NAC effectively inhibited both oridonin-induced apoptosis and autophagy by reducing intracellular oxidative stress. To further examine the mechanism of ROS, exogenous enzyme antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT)) and non-enzyme antioxidants (glutathione (GSH)) were applied to detect the effect of oridonin on ROS generation. Only GSH exerted a similar role with NAC, suggesting that hydroxyl radical (·OH) played the major role in oridonin-induced cell death. Oridonin could decrease the GSH level in A431 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, after treatment with ·OH donor, Fenton reagent, the changes in A431cells were similar to the results of oridonin treatment. All the results proved that ·OH played the pivotal role in oridonin induced apoptosis and autophagy in A431 cells.

  11. Extracellular polymeric substance from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xing; Lv, Ying; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Xiaolan; Zhao, Youhong; Zhang, Lili; Xu, Shiyuan

    2015-09-01

    Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) is a substance secreted during algal growth, which has been found to have numerous health-promoting effects. In the present study, A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells were selected as target cells and cultivated in vitro as an experimental model to investigate the anti-cancer effect of extracellular polymeric substances from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (EPS-A) and the possible underlying mechanism. Apoptosis- and cell cycle-associated molecules as well as the mitochondrial membrane potential of the cells were quantified using flow cytometry (FCM). FCM showed that EPS-A induced cell cycle arrest, which led to a loss of mitochondrial function of the A431 cells and an increase in necrotic and late apoptotic cells. In order to evaluate the apoptosis and cell viability, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining was used, morphological changes were observed using fluorescence microscopy and typical apoptotic characteristics were observed. Following treatment with a high dose of EPS-A, transmission electron microscopy showed nuclear fragmentation, chromosome condensation, cell shrinkage and expansion of the endoplasmic reticulum; apoptotic bodies were also observed. In conclusion, EPS-A caused cell cycle arrest, stimulated cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway and exhibited important anti-cancer activity.

  12. Extracellular polymeric substance from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    XUE, XING; LV, YING; LIU, QING; ZHANG, XIAOLAN; ZHAO, YOUHONG; ZHANG, LILI; XU, SHIYUAN

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) is a substance secreted during algal growth, which has been found to have numerous health-promoting effects. In the present study, A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells were selected as target cells and cultivated in vitro as an experimental model to investigate the anti-cancer effect of extracellular polymeric substances from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (EPS-A) and the possible underlying mechanism. Apoptosis- and cell cycle-associated molecules as well as the mitochondrial membrane potential of the cells were quantified using flow cytometry (FCM). FCM showed that EPS-A induced cell cycle arrest, which led to a loss of mitochondrial function of the A431 cells and an increase in necrotic and late apoptotic cells. In order to evaluate the apoptosis and cell viability, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining was used, morphological changes were observed using fluorescence microscopy and typical apoptotic characteristics were observed. Following treatment with a high dose of EPS-A, transmission electron microscopy showed nuclear fragmentation, chromosome condensation, cell shrinkage and expansion of the endoplasmic reticulum; apoptotic bodies were also observed. In conclusion, EPS-A caused cell cycle arrest, stimulated cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway and exhibited important anti-cancer activity. PMID:26622416

  13. Recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alpha does not potentiate cell killing after photodynamic therapy with a silicon phthalocyanine in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Azizuddin, K; Kalka, K; Chiu, S M; Ahmad, N; Mukhtar, H; Separovic, D

    2001-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a novel cancer treatment utilizing a photosensitizer, visible light and oxygen. PDT with the silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4, a new photosensitizer, is highly effective in cancer cell destruction and tumor ablation. The mechanisms underlying cancer cell killing by PDT are not fully understood. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) is a multifunctional cytokine that has been implicated in photocytotoxicity. We asked whether recombinant human TNF (rhTNF) affects Pc 4-PDT cytotoxicity in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. Co-treatment of A431 cells with various doses of Pc 4-PDT and a sub-lethal rhTNF dose led to a sub-additive reduction in cell survival. In addition, in the presence of Pc 4-PDT or rhTNF, caspase-3 activity and apoptosis were induced. The combined treatment, however, did not potentiate either caspase-3 activity or apoptosis. Similar to previous findings we observed that Pc 4-PDT initiated a time-dependent extracellular TNF accumulation. The data suggest that: a) PDT and rhTNF induce cancer cell killing through different mechanisms; and b) Pc 4-PDT-induced TNF production is a stress response that may not directly affect photocytotoxicity.

  14. Evaluating the promiscuous nature of tyrosine kinase inhibitors assessed in A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells by both chemical- and phosphoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Giansanti, Piero; Preisinger, Christian; Huber, Kilian V M; Gridling, Manuela; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Bennett, Keiryn L; Heck, Albert J R

    2014-07-18

    Deregulation of protein tyrosine kinase signaling has been linked to many diseases, most notably cancer. As a consequence, small molecule inhibitors of protein tyrosine kinases may provide powerful strategies for treatment. Following the successful introduction of imatinib in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia, such drugs are also now evaluated for other types of cancer. However, many developed kinase inhibitors are not very target-specific and therefore may induce side effects. The importance of such side effects is certainly cell-proteome dependent. Understanding the all-inclusive action of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor on each individual cell-type entails the identification of potential targets, combined with monitoring the downstream effects revealing the signaling networks involved. Here, we explored a multilevel quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomic strategy to identify the direct targets and downstream signaling effect of four tyrosine kinase inhibitors (imatinib, dasatinib, bosutinib, and nilotinib) in epidermoid carcinoma cells, as a model system for skin-cancer. More than 25 tyrosine kinases showed affinity to the drugs, with imatinib and nilotinib displaying a high specificity, especially when compared to dasatinib and bosutinib. Consequently, the latter two drugs showed a larger effect on downstream phosphotyrosine signaling. Many of the proteins affected are key regulators in cell adhesion and invasion. Our data represents a multiplexed view on the promiscuous action of certain tyrosine kinase inhibitors that needs to be taking into consideration prior to the application of these drugs in the treatment of different forms of cancer.

  15. Fumonisin B1 does not prevent apoptosis in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells after photosensitization with a silicon phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Nagy, B; Chiu, S M; Separovic, D

    2000-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy with the phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 (Pc 4-PDT), an apoptosis inducer, is associated with accumulation of ceramide in various cell lines. The role of ceramide in Pc 4-PDT-induced apoptosis was investigated in A431 cells. Caspase-3 (casp-3) was activated and TUNEL positive cells began to appear 30 and 60 min post-Pc 4-PDT, respectively. A rapid increase (10 min) in cellular ceramide levels was observed after Pc 4-PDT. Induced ceramide accumulation was maintained over 60 min, Acid sphingomyelinase, a ceramide-generating enzyme, was inhibited after photosensitization with Pc 4, suggesting that the enzyme was not required for stimulated ceramide accumulation. Co-treatment of A431 cells with fumonisin B1, a ceramide synthase inhibitor, and Pc 4-PDT led to a decrease in ceramide levels without any effect on induced casp-3 activity or apoptosis. In the presence of zVAD, a pan-caspase inhibitor, apoptosis was abolished, while ceramide levels remained elevated after Pc 4-PDT. Exposure of A431 cells to exogenous C6-ceramide for 22 h, led to induction of apoptosis, and the process was abrogated by zVAD. In conclusion, C6-ceramide-, like Pc 4-PDT-induced apoptosis, is zVAD-sensitive. Furthermore, Pc 4 photosensitization can lead to apoptosis without FB-sensitive elevation in ceramide levels upstream of caspases.

  16. Differential responses of skin cancer-chemopreventive agents silibinin, quercetin, and epigallocatechin 3-gallate on mitogenic signaling and cell cycle regulators in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, N; Agarwal, C; Agarwal, R

    2001-01-01

    Silibinin, quercetin, and epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) have been shown to be skin cancer-preventive agents, albeit by several different mechanisms. Here, we assessed whether these agents show their cancer-preventive potential by a differential effect on mitogenic signaling molecules and cell cycle regulators. Treatment of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells with these agents inhibited the activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and the downstream adapter protein Shc, but only silibinin showed a marked inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2 activation. In terms of cell cycle regulators, silibinin treatment showed an induction of Cip1/p21 and Kip1/p27 together with a significant decrease in cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-4, CDK2, and cyclin D1. Quercetin treatment, however, resulted in a moderate increase in Cip1/p21 with no change in Kip1/p27 and a decrease in CDK4 and cyclin D1. EGCG treatment also led to an induction of Cip1/p21 but no change in Kip1/27, CDK2, and cyclin D1 and a decrease in CDK4 only at low doses. Treatment of cells with these agents resulted in a strong dose- and time-dependent cell growth inhibition. A high dose of silibinin and low and high doses of quercetin and EGCG also led to cell death by apoptosis, suggesting that a lack of their inhibitory effect on mitogen-activated protein kinase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2 activation possibly "turns on" an apoptotic cell death response associated with their cancer-preventive and anticarcinogenic effects. Together, these results suggest that silibinin, quercetin, and EGCG exert their cancer-preventive effects by differential responses on mitogenic signaling and cell cycle regulators.

  17. Bromelain inhibits nuclear factor kappa-B translocation, driving human epidermoid carcinoma A431 and melanoma A375 cells through G(2)/M arrest to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bhui, Kulpreet; Tyagi, Shilpa; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Singh, Madhulika; Roy, Preeti; Singh, Richa; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2012-03-01

    Bromelain, obtained from pineapple, is already in use clinically as adjunct in chemotherapy. Our objective was to test its ability to act as a sole anti-cancer agent. Therefore, we describe its anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and subsequent anti-cancer effects in vitro, against human epidermoid carcinoma-A431 and melanoma-A375 cells. Bromelain exhibited reduction in proliferation of both these cell-lines and suppressed their potential for anchorage-independent growth. Further, suppression of inflammatory signaling by bromelain was evident by inhibition of Akt regulated-nuclear factor-kappaB activation via suppression of inhibitory-kappaBα phosphorylation and concomitant reduction in cyclooxygenase-2. Since, the inflammatory cascade is well-known to be closely allied to cancer; we studied the effect of bromelain on events/molecules central to it. Bromelain caused depletion of intracellular glutathione and generation of reactive oxygen-species followed by mitochondrial membrane depolarization. This led to bromelain-induced cell-cycle arrest at G(2)/M phase which was mediated by modulation of cyclin B1, phospho-cdc25C, Plk1, phospho-cdc2, and myt1. This was subsequently followed by induction of apoptosis, indicated by membrane-blebbing, modulation of Bax-Bcl-2 ratio, Apaf-1, caspase-9, and caspase-3; chromatin-condensation, increase in caspase-activity and DNA-fragmentation. Bromelain afforded substantial anti-cancer potential in these settings; hence we suggest it as a potential prospect for anti-cancer agent besides only an additive in chemotherapy.

  18. Biologically synthesised silver nanoparticles from three diverse family of plant extracts and their anticancer activity against epidermoid A431 carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Debasis; Pradhan, Sonali; Ashe, Sarbani; Rauta, Pradipta Ranjan; Nayak, Bismita

    2015-11-01

    Biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles is a cost effective natural process where the phytochemicals specifically phenols, flavonoids and terpenoids present in the plant extracts act as capping and reducing agent. Due to their nano size regime the silver nanoparticles may directly bind to the DNA of the pathogenic bacterial strains leading to higher antimicrobial activity. In the current study silver nanoparticles were synthesised using plant extracts from different origin Cucurbita maxima (petals), Moringa oleifera (leaves) and Acorus calamus (rhizome). The synthesised nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (Fe-SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Highly crystalline, roughly spherical and cuboidal silver nanoparticles of 30-70 nm in size were synthesised. The nanoparticles provided strong antimicrobial activity against pathogenic strains. The effect of the synthesised nanoparticles against A431 skin cancer cell line was tested for their toxicity by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye. The IC50 values of 82.39±3.1, 83.57±3.9 and 78.58±2.7 μg/ml were calculated for silver nanoparticles synthesised by C. maxima, M. oleifera and A. calamus respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Grape seed proanthocyanidins promote apoptosis in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells through alterations in Cdki-Cdk-cyclin cascade, and caspase-3 activation via loss of mitochondrial membrane potential.

    PubMed

    Meeran, Syed M; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2007-05-01

    Dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) prevent photocarcinogenesis in mice. Here, we report that in vitro treatment of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells with GSPs inhibited cellular proliferation (13-89%) and induced cell death (1-48%) in a dose (5-100 mug/ml)- and time (24, 48 and 72 h)-dependent manner. GSP-induced inhibition of cell proliferation was associated with an increase in G1-phase arrest at 24 h, which was mediated through the inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk) Cdk2, Cdk4, Cdk6 and cyclins D1, D2 and E and simultaneous increase in protein expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (Cdki), Cip1/p21 and Kip1/p27, and enhanced binding of Cdki-Cdk. The treatment of A431 cells with GSPs (20-80 mug/ml) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in apoptotic cell death (26-58%), which was associated with an increased protein expression of proapoptotic Bax, decreased expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP. Pretreatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) blocked the GSP-induced apoptosis in A431 cells suggesting that GSP-induced apoptosis is associated primarily with the caspase-3-dependent pathway. Together, our study suggests that GSPs possess chemotherapeutic potential against human epidermoid carcinoma cells in vitro, further in vivo mechanistic studies are required to verify the chemotherapeutic effect of GSPs in skin cancers.

  20. Accelerated degradation of 160 kDa epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor precursor by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin A in the endoplasmic reticulum of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Y; Mizuno, S; Uehara, Y

    1994-01-01

    The effect of herbimycin A on the biosynthesis of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor was examined in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Cells were pulse-labelled with [35S]methionine, and EGF receptor biosynthesis was quantified by immunoprecipitation using a monoclonal anti-(EGF receptor) antibody. In the presence of herbimycin A, an immature 160 kDa EGF receptor precursor accumulated in 1 h and disappeared completely in 4 h. Pulse-labelled 160 kDa receptor precursor in the absence of herbimycin A, however, was converted normally into a 170 kDa one by chase with herbimycin A. Herbimycin A affected neither the synthesis of the secreted form of EGF receptor devoid of cytoplasmic domain, nor that of the transferrin receptor in A431 cells. The herbimycin A-induced degradation of 160 kDa EGF receptor precursor was not inhibited by an inhibitor of lysosomal enzymes, NH4Cl. Endoglycosidase H digestion of the 160 kDa precursor converted it into the deglycosylated 130 kDa precursor peptide. These results suggested that herbimycin A selectively acted on the EGF receptor precursor during the synthesis of the 160 kDa form, probably on the cytoplasmic domain, to form an aberrant molecule which was subjected to rapid degradation in the endoplasmic reticulum. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8037692

  1. Interference of silibinin with IGF-1R signalling pathways protects human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells from UVB-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Weiwei; Otkur, Wuxiyar; Li, Lingzhi; Wang, Qiong; He, Hao; Zang, Linghe; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Tashiro, Shin-ichi; Onodera, Satoshi; Xia, Mingyu; Ikejima, Takashi

    2013-03-08

    Highlights: ► Silibinin protects A431 cells from UVB irradiation-induced apoptosis. ► Up-regulation of the IGF-1R-JNK/ERK pathways by UVB induces cell apoptosis. ► Silibinin inhibits IGF-1R pathways to repress caspase-8-mediated apoptosis. -- Abstract: Ultraviolet B (UVB) from sunlight is a major cause of cutaneous lesion. Silibinin, a traditional hepatic protectant, elicits protective effects against UVB-induced cellular damage. In A431 cells, the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) was markedly up-regulated by UVB irradiation. The activation of the IGF-1R signalling pathways contributed to apoptosis of the cells rather than rescuing the cells from death. Up-regulated IGF-1R stimulated downstream mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). The subsequent activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 led to apoptosis. The activation of IGF-1R signalling pathways is the cause of A431 cell death. The pharmacological inhibitors and the small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting IGF-1R suppressed the downstream activation of JNK/ERK-caspases to help the survival of the UVB-irradiated A431 cells. Indeed, silibinin treatment suppressed the IGF-1R-JNK/ERK pathways and thus protected the cells from UVB-induced apoptosis.

  2. Purification and properties of the alpha-3/4-L-fucosyltransferase released into the culture medium during the growth of the human A431 epidermoid carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Johnson, P H; Donald, A S; Watkins, W M

    1993-04-01

    A soluble alpha-3/4-fucosyltransferase secreted into the growth medium of the human A431 epidermoid carcinoma cell line has been purified 700,000 fold by a series of steps involving chromatography on Phenyl Sepharose 4B, CM-Sephadex C-50 and GDP-hexanolamine Sepharose 4B. The untreated spent culture medium transferred almost ten times more fucose to the subterminal N-acetylglucosamine residue in the Type 1 (Gal beta 1-3GlcNAc) disaccharide than to the subterminal sugar in the Type 2 (Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc) disaccharide; the relative activity with these two substrates remained virtually unchanged throughout the purification procedure. At no stage was any alpha-3-fucosyltransferase species acting solely on N-acetylglucosamine residues in Type 2 chains separated from the bulk of the alpha-3/4-fucosyltransferase activity. The purified enzyme preparation showed insignificant activity with glycoprotein substrates having N-linked oligosaccharide chains with terminal Type 2 sequences but transferred fucose to a mucin-type glycoprotein with O-linked oligosaccharide chains with terminal Type 1 structures. Lactose was a poor substrate but the activity of the enzyme was influenced by the presence of substituents on the terminal beta-galactosyl residue and 2'-fucosyllactose was almost as good an acceptor as the Type 1 disaccharide. The properties of the purified enzyme with regard to specificity, divalent cation requirements, pH optimum, and M(r), closely resembled those of the Lewis-blood-group gene associated alpha-3/4-fucosyltransferase isolated from human milk.

  3. Honokiol, a chemopreventive agent against skin cancer, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human epidermoid A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Chilampalli, Chandeshwari; Guillermo, Ruth; Kaushik, Radhey S; Young, Alan; Chandrasekher, Gudiseva; Fahmy, Hesham; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

    2011-11-01

    Honokiol is a plant lignan isolated from bark and seed cones of Magnolia officinalis. Recent studies from our laboratory indicated that honokiol pretreatment decreased ultraviolet B-induced skin cancer development in SKH-1 mice. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effects of honokiol on human epidermoid squamous carcinoma A431 cells and to elucidate possible mechanisms involved in preventing skin cancer. A431 cells were pretreated with different concentrations of honokiol for a specific time period and investigated for effects on apoptosis and cell cycle analysis. Treatment with honokiol significantly decreased cell viability and cell proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Honokiol pretreatment at 50 μmol/L concentration induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest significantly (P < 0.05) and decreased the percentage of cells in the S and G2/M phase. Honokiol down-regulated the expression of cyclin D1, cyclin D2, Cdk2, Cdk4 and Cdk6 proteins and up-regulated the expression of Cdk's inhibitor proteins p21 and p27. Pretreatment of A431 cells with honokiol leads to induction of apoptosis and DNA fragmentation. These findings indicate that honokiol provides its effects in squamous carcinoma cells by inducing cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis.

  4. Control of cell motility by interaction of gangliosides, tetraspanins, and epidermal growth factor receptor in A431 versus KB epidermoid tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung-Yeol; Yoon, Seon-Joo; Freire-de-Lima, Leonardo; Kim, Jung-Hoe; Hakomori, Sen-itiroh

    2009-08-17

    Growth of epidermoid carcinoma cell lines, A431 and KB, has been known to be controlled by the interaction of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor (EGFR) with tyrosine kinase. Ganglioside GM3 was previously found to interact with EGFR and to inhibit EGFR tyrosine kinase. However, motility of these cells, controlled by EGFR and ganglioside, was not studied. The present study is focused on the control mechanism of the motility of these cells through interaction of ganglioside, tetraspanin (TSP), and EGFR. Key results are as follows: (i) The level of EGFR expressed in A431 cells is approximately 6 times higher than that expressed in KB cells, and motility of A431 cells is also much higher than that of KB cells, yet growth of A431 cells is either not affected or is inhibited by EGF. In contrast, growth of KB cells is enhanced by EGF. (ii) Levels of TSPs (CD9, CD82, and CD81) expressed in A431 cells are much higher than those expressed in KB cells, and TSPs expressed in A431 cells are reduced by treatment of cells with EtDO-P4, which inhibits the synthesis of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) and gangliosides. (iii) These TSPs are co-immunoprecipitated with EGFR in both A431 and KB cells, indicating that TSPs are closely associated with EGFR. (iv) High motility of A431 cells is greatly reduced, while low motility of KB cells is not affected, by treatment of cells with EtDO-P4. These results, taken together, suggest that there is a close correlation between high motility of A431 cells and high expression of EGFR and TSPs, and between ganglioside GM3/GM2 and TSP. A similar correlation was suggested between the low motility of KB cells and low levels of EGFR and TSP. The correlation between high motility and high level of EGFR with the ganglioside-TSP complex in A431 cells is unique. This is in contrast to our previous studies that indicate that motility of many types of tumor cells is inhibited by a high level of CD9 or CD82, together with growth factor receptors and

  5. [Initial pretherapeutic assessment of anal epidermoid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    de Parades, Vincent; Bauer, Pierre; Benbunan, Jean-Louis; Bouillet, Thierry; Cottu, Paul-Henri; Cuenod, Charles-André; Durdux, Catherine; Fléjou, Jean-François; Atienza, Patrick

    2007-02-01

    Anal epidermoid carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor, comprising less than 5% of all carcinomas of the colon, rectum, and anus. The primary therapy now includes radiotherapy, often in combination with chemotherapy. Radical surgery is now rarely indicated. Therapeutic indications are based on locoregional staging, the presence of visceral metastases and an evaluation of the medical history. Anorectal endosonography is helpful in evaluating locoregional extension. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography scanning and inguinal sentinel lymph node procedure should play a role in a more selective approach in patients with anal carcinoma.

  6. Identification of specific gravity sensitive signal transduction pathways in human A431 carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijken, P. J.; de Groot, R. P.; Kruijer, W.; de Laat, S. W.; Verkleij, A. J.; Boonstra, J.

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) activates a well characterized signal transduction cascade in human A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells. The influence of gravity on EGF-induced EGF-receptor clustering and early gene expression as well as on actin polymerization and actin organization have been investigated. Different signalling pathways induced by the agents TPA, forskolin and A23187 that activate gene expression were tested for sensitivity to gravity. EGF-induced c-fos and c-jun expression were decreased in microgravity. However, constitutive β-2 microglobulin expression remained unaltered. Under simulated weightlessness conditions EGF- and TPA-induced c-fos expression was decreased, while forskolin- and A23187-induced c-fos expression was independent of the gravity conditions. These results suggest that gravity affects specific signalling pathways. Preliminary results indicate that EGF-induced EGF-receptor clustering remained unaltered irrespective of the gravity conditions. Furthermore, the relative filamentous actin content of steady state A431 cells was enhanced under microgravity conditions and actin filament organization was altered. Under simulated weightlessness actin filament organization in steady state cells as well as in EGF-treated cells was altered as compared to the 1 G reference experiment. Interestingly the microtubule and keratin organization in untreated cells showed no difference with the normal gravity samples. This indicates that gravity may affect specific components of the signal transduction circuitry.

  7. Induction of Apoptosis and Antiproliferative Activity of Naringenin in Human Epidermoid Carcinoma Cell through ROS Generation and Cell Cycle Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Jafri, Asif; Ahmad, Sheeba; Afzal, Mohammad; Arshad, Md

    2014-01-01

    A natural predominant flavanone naringenin, especially abundant in citrus fruits, has a wide range of pharmacological activities. The search for antiproliferative agents that reduce skin carcinoma is a task of great importance. The objective of this study was to analyze the anti-proliferative and apoptotic mechanism of naringenin using MTT assay, DNA fragmentation, nuclear condensation, change in mitochondrial membrane potential, cell cycle kinetics and caspase-3 as biomarkers and to investigate the ability to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) initiating apoptotic cascade in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Results showed that naringenin exposure significantly reduced the cell viability of A431 cells (p<0.01) with a concomitant increase in nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation in a dose dependent manner. The intracellular ROS generation assay showed statistically significant (p<0.001) dose-related increment in ROS production for naringenin. It also caused naringenin-mediated epidermoid carcinoma apoptosis by inducing mitochondrial depolarization. Cell cycle study showed that naringenin induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase of cell cycle and caspase-3 analysis revealed a dose dependent increment in caspase-3 activity which led to cell apoptosis. This study confirms the efficacy of naringenin that lead to cell death in epidermoid carcinoma cells via inducing ROS generation, mitochondrial depolarization, nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and caspase-3 activation. PMID:25330158

  8. ALA-PpIX variability quantitatively imaged in A431 epidermoid tumors using in vivo ultrasound fluorescence tomography and ex vivo assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DSouza, Alisha V.; Flynn, Brendan P.; Gunn, Jason R.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Anand, Sanjay; Maytin, Edward V.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2014-03-01

    Treatment monitoring of Aminolevunilic-acid (ALA) - Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) of basal-cell carcinoma (BCC) calls for superficial and subsurface imaging techniques. While superficial imagers exist for this purpose, their ability to assess PpIX levels in thick lesions is poor; additionally few treatment centers have the capability to measure ALA-induced PpIX production. An area of active research is to improve treatments to deeper and nodular BCCs, because treatment is least effective in these. The goal of this work was to understand the logistics and technical capabilities to quantify PpIX at depths over 1mm, using a novel hybrid ultrasound-guided, fiber-based fluorescence molecular spectroscopictomography system. This system utilizes a 633nm excitation laser and detection using filtered spectrometers. Source and detection fibers are collinear so that their imaging plane matches that of ultrasound transducer. Validation with phantoms and tumor-simulating fluorescent inclusions in mice showed sensitivity to fluorophore concentrations as low as 0.025μg/ml at 4mm depth from surface, as presented in previous years. Image-guided quantification of ALA-induced PpIX production was completed in subcutaneous xenograft epidermoid cancer tumor model A431 in nude mice. A total of 32 animals were imaged in-vivo, using several time points, including pre-ALA, 4-hours post-ALA, and 24-hours post-ALA administration. On average, PpIX production in tumors increased by over 10-fold, 4-hours post-ALA. Statistical analysis of PpIX fluorescence showed significant difference among all groups; p<0.05. Results were validated by exvivo imaging of resected tumors. Details of imaging, analysis and results will be presented to illustrate variability and the potential for imaging these values at depth.

  9. Effect of transforming growth factor-alpha on inositol phospholipid metabolism in human epidermoid carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.; Takenawa, T.; Twardzik, D.R.

    1988-08-01

    Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) stimulates (in a dose-dependent manner) the incorporation of (/sup 32/P)Pi into phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP), phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), and phosphatidic acid (PA) in the human epidermoid carcinoma cell line (A431). The effect of TGF-alpha on the incorporation was found to be similar to that of EGF. On the other hand, a striking difference in the activation of diacylglycerol (DG) kinase activity was seen between TGF-alpha and EGF. At least 100 times more TGF-alpha was required to achieve maximal stimulation of DG kinase activity relative to EGF. These results suggest that the activation of DG kinase by TGF-alpha may involve a mechanism independent from or subsequent to activation of the EGF receptor.

  10. Epidermoid carcinoma of the skin mimicking breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Melo Neto, Baltasar; Oliveira, Giuliano da Paz; Vieira, Sabas Carlos; Leal, Livio Rodrigues; Melo Junior, José Andrade de Carvalho; Vieira, Cyro Franklin

    2013-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer is the most frequent cancer in the world. Squamous cell cancer often occurs in sun-exposed areas, such as the head and neck. When it involves the breast and ulce-rates, invading the glandular parenchyma, it may mimic breast cancer. Confirmation by means of histopathological examination, combined with clinical examination, is a critical instrument for the accuracy of the diagnosis. We report a case of an epidermoid carcinoma located on the breast skin, initially diagnosed as breast cancer.

  11. Knockdown of asparagine synthetase by RNAi suppresses cell growth in human melanoma cells and epidermoid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zhou, Fusheng; Du, Wenhui; Dou, Jinfa; Xu, Yu; Gao, Wanwan; Chen, Gang; Zuo, Xianbo; Sun, Liangdan; Zhang, Xuejun; Yang, Sen

    2016-05-01

    Melanoma, the most aggressive form of skin cancer, causes more than 40,000 deaths each year worldwide. And epidermoid carcinoma is another major form of skin cancer, which could be studied together with melanoma in several aspects. Asparagine synthetase (ASNS) gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the glutamine- and ATP-dependent conversion of aspartic acid to asparagine, and its expression is associated with the chemotherapy resistance and prognosis in several human cancers. The present study aims to explore the potential role of ASNS in melanoma cells A375 and human epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431. We applied a lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) system to study its function in cell growth of both cells. The results revealed that inhibition of ASNS expression by RNAi significantly suppressed the growth of melanoma cells and epidermoid carcinoma cells, and induced a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in melanoma cells. Knockdown of ASNS in A375 cells remarkably downregulated the expression levels of CDK4, CDK6, and Cyclin D1, and upregulated the expression of p21. Therefore, our study provides evidence that ASNS may represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of melanoma.

  12. [Alpha-lipoic acid triggers elimination of cells with abnormal nuclei in human carcinoma epidermoid cell line].

    PubMed

    Kisurina-Evgen'eva, O P; Onishchenko, G E

    2010-01-01

    The skin is usually exposed to adverse environmental conditions that may cause pathological cell proliferation and cellular transformations leading to the formation of malignant cells. Antioxidants may affect these processes and induce the elimination of transformed cell. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of alfa-lipoic acid on human carcinoma epidermoid cell line A431. Our results showed that alfa-lipoic acid induced inhibition of cell proliferation or stimulated apoptotic cell death. Cells with abnormal nuclei were eliminated by apoptosis. Electron microscopy showed that survived cells had typical for control cells shape and organization of the nuclei, organization of the cytoplasm and organelles. Thus, alfa-lipoic acid not only triggered apoptosis of carcinoma cells, but it may also activate the mechanism of elimination of cells with abnormal chromosome number.

  13. Inhibitory effect of berberine on human skin squamous cell carcinoma A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, D X; Zhang, J; Zhang, Y; Zhao, P W; Yang, L M

    2015-09-08

    Berberine (BBR) is a natural alkaloid with significant anti-tumor activity against many types of cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms employed by BBR to repress the proliferation and growth of skin squamous cell carcinoma A431 cells. Berberine was reported to inhibit the proliferation of A431 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and was observed to induce a series of biochemical events, including the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome-c to cytosol, induction of proteins of the Bcl-2 family and caspases, and the cleavage of poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase. This suggested its ability to induce apoptosis. The results of a wound healing test revealed that berberine inhibited the migration of A431 cells. Ezrin was transfected into A431 cells by RNA interference. The level of expression of Ezrin in the transfected A431 cells was observed to decrease with berberine treatment, which suggested that berberine might inhibit the invasion of A431 cells through Ezrin. The results of this study demonstrated that berberine could potentially inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, and inhibit the invasion of A431 cells.

  14. Baicalein mediates inhibition of migration and invasiveness of skin carcinoma through Ezrin in A431 cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ezrin is highly expressed in skin cancer and promotes tumor metastasis. Ezrin serves as a promising target for anti-metastasis therapy. The aim of this study is to determine if the flavonoid bacailein inhibits the metastasis of skin cancer cells through Ezrin. Methods Cells from a cutaneous squamous carcinoma cell line, A431, were treated with baicalein at 0-60 μM to establish the non-cytotoxic concentration (NCC) range for baicalein. Following treatment with baicalein within this range, total Ezrin protein (both phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms) and phosphorylated-Ezrin (phos-Ezrin) were detected by western blotting, and Ezrin RNA was detected in A431 cells using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Thereafter, the motility and invasiveness of A431 cells following baicalein treatment were determined using wound-healing and Boyden chamber invasion assays. Short-interfering RNA (si-RNA) specifically targeting Ezrin was transfected into A431 cells, and a si-RNA Ezrin-A431 cell line was established by G418 selection. This stable cell line was transiently transfected with Ezrin and mutant Ezrin plasmids, and its motilityand invasiveness was subsequently determined to clarify whether bacailein inhibits these processes through Ezrin. Results We determined the range of NCCs for baicalein to be 2.5-40 μM in A431 cells. Baicalein displayed a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of expressions of total Ezrin and phos-Ezrin within this range NCCs. In addition, it exerted this inhibitory effect through the reduction of Ezrin RNA transcript. Baicalein also inhibited the motility and invasiveness of A431 skin carcinoma cells within the range of NCCs, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. A431 cell motility and invasiveness were inhibited by 73% and 80% respectively when cells were treated with 20 μM baicalein. However, the motility and invasiveness of A431 cells containing the Ezrin mutant were not effectively inhibited by baicalein

  15. Natural flavonoid derivatives as oral human epidermoid carcinoma cell inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Gunda, Shravan Kumar; Kongaleti, Sofia Florence; Shaik, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Natural flavonoid derivatives against cancer for selective KB cell lines (oral human epidermoid carcinoma) are analysed to determine the relationship between biological activities and structural properties of these molecules. Molecular alignment was performed for 88 natural flavonoid derivatives; out of these 88 molecules, 69 molecules were taken into training set and rest of the 19 molecules were used in test set prediction. We describe our elucidation of their structure activity relation (SAR) using three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models. A predictive comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) model of q² = 0.888 and r² = 0.940 was obtained and a comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) model q² = 0.778 and r² = 0.971 was used to describe the non-linearly combined affinity of each functional group in the inhibitors. The contour maps obtained from 3D-QSAR studies were evaluated for the activity trends of the molecules analysed.

  16. Turmeric toxicity in A431 epidermoid cancer cells associates with autophagy degradation of anti-apoptotic and anti-autophagic p53 mutant.

    PubMed

    Thongrakard, Visa; Titone, Rossella; Follo, Carlo; Morani, Federica; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Tencomnao, Tewin; Isidoro, Ciro

    2014-12-01

    The keratinocyte-derived A431 Squamous Cell Carcinoma cells express the p53R273H mutant, which has been reported to inhibit apoptosis and autophagy. Here, we show that the crude extract of turmeric (Curcuma longa), similarly to its bioactive component Curcumin, could induce both apoptosis and autophagy in A431 cells, and these effects were concomitant with degradation of p53. Turmeric and curcumin also stimulated the activity of mTOR, which notoriously promotes cell growth and acts negatively on basal autophagy. Rapamycin-mediated inhibition of mTOR synergized with turmeric and curcumin in causing p53 degradation, increased the production of autophagosomes and exacerbated cell toxicity leading to cell necrosis. Small-interference mediated silencing of the autophagy proteins BECLIN 1 or ATG7 abrogated the induction of autophagy and largely rescued p53 stability in Turmeric-treated or Curcumin-treated cells, indicating that macroautophagy was mainly responsible for mutant p53 degradation. These data uncover a novel mechanism of turmeric and curcumin toxicity in chemoresistant cancer cells bearing mutant p53.

  17. Selective apoptotic effect of Zelkova serrata twig extract on mouth epidermoid carcinoma through p53 activation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hoe-Jin; Jang, Young-Joo

    2012-06-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death plays an essential role in chemotherapy-induced tumor cell killing, and inducers of apoptosis are commonly used in cancer therapy. Treatment with Zelkova serrata extracts was performed in human gingival fibroblast (HGF), mouth epidermoid carcinoma cell (KB), lower gingival squamous cancer cell (YD38) and tongue mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells (YD15). We observed that extract prepared from Zelkova serrata twig selectively inhibited proliferation of various oral cancer cells, but not normal gingival fibroblasts, in a dose-dependent manner. Caspase-8-mediated apoptosis was induced by treatment with the extract only in mouth epidermoid carcinoma and not in other types of cancer cells, including lower gingival squamous cell carcinoma. The selective apoptotic effect of Zelkova serrata twig extract in mouth epidermoid carcinoma was dependent on normal p53 status. Apoptosis was not remarkably induced by treatment with the extract in either lower gingival squamous or tongue mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells, both of which contain abnormalities of p53. Upon treatment with Zelkova serrata twig extract, mouth epidermoid carcinoma cells accumulated in S phase by activation of p21. These data indicate that Zelkova serrata twig extract exerted a cancer type-specific, p53-dependent apoptotic effect and disturbed the cell cycle, which suggests that herbal medicine could be a treatment for specific types of cancers.

  18. The new esters derivatives of betulin and betulinic acid in epidermoid squamous carcinoma treatment - In vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Drąg-Zalesińska, Małgorzata; Wysocka, Teresa; Borska, Sylwia; Drąg, Marcin; Poręba, Marcin; Choromańska, Anna; Kulbacka, Julita; Saczko, Jolanta

    2015-05-01

    Betulinic acid and betulin are triterpenes with documented cytotoxic properties toward various cell lines. Unfortunately both betulinic acid and its metabolic precursor, betulin, are very poorly soluble in aqueous buffers, thus their bioavailability and bio-distribution are insufficient in terms of medical applications. To investigate the specific anticancer role of the newly synthesized betulin derivatives in human epidermoid carcinoma cells. In the present study we synthesized five amino acid esters of betulin. For the synthesis we selected alanine (Boc-l-Ala-OH, negative control) and four basic amino acids - natural lysine (Boc-l-Lys(Boc)-OH) and three its unnatural derivatives (Boc-l-Dap(Boc)-OH, Boc-l-Dab(Boc)-OH, and Boc-l-Orn(Boc)-OH). Boc-protected amino acids were most convenient for the synthesis. All new esters have one (betulin-l-Ala-NH2) or two free amino groups which significantly increase their solubility in water and facilitate their transport through the cell membrane. It is worth noting that the biological activity of new esters of betulin is positive correlated with the length of the side chain of l-amino acid. The highest biological activity displayed compound containing lysine side chain (Lys, -CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-NH2). Considering the biological activity, other derivatives can be set in the following series: Orn (-CH2-CH2-CH2-NH2)>Dab (-CH2-CH2-NH2)>Dap (-CH2-NH2)>Ala (CH3)>betulin. New betulin esters were tested in normal human keratinocytes (HaCaT) and human epidermoid carcinoma cells (A431). To assess cytotoxicity, MTT test was performed after 24, 48 and 72h of incubation with the test compounds at a concentration range of 0.75-100μM. In case of apoptotic activity, a TUNEL method and comet assay were performed. Additionally expression of caspase-3 and PARP1 was evaluated immunocytochemically. The highest cytotoxicity in cells induced skin cancer new compounds, particularly compound containing a lysine side chain (IC50=7μM) and ornithine (IC50

  19. Comparative study of cell alterations in oral lichen planus and epidermoid carcinoma of the mouth mucosa.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Fernando Augusto Cervantes Garcia de; Paradella, Thaís Cachuté; Brandão, Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck; Rosa, Luiz Eduardo Blumer

    2009-01-01

    Currently, much is discussed regarding the pre-malignant nature of mouth mucosa lichen planus. The present study aims at analyzing the alterations found in the epithelial cells present in the oral cavity lichen planus, comparing them to those found in epidermoid carcinoma. Histological cross-sections of oral lichen planus and epidermoid carcinoma, dyed by hematoxylineosin, were analyzed through light microscopy. The most frequently found alterations in oral lichen planus were: an increase in the nucleus/cytoplasm relation (93.33%), nucleus membrane thickness (86.67%) and bi-nucleus or multinucleous (86.67%). The Student t test (alpha=5%) revealed a statistically significant difference between the average number of cell alterations in oral lichen planus (5.87+/-1.57) and in epidermoid carcinoma (7.60+/-1.81). As to the types of alterations, the chi-squared test also revealed statistically significant differences among the lesions assessed in relation to the following cell alterations: nuclear excess chromatism, atypical mitoses, cellular pleomorphism and abnormal cell differentiation (p<0.05). Despite the fact that in some cases, some pathologists may make mistakes in the histopathological diagnosis of oral lichen planus, the results obtained in this study show that the alterations present in oral lichen planus differ considerably from those seen in epidermoid carcinoma, thus showing how distinct these two diseases are.

  20. Photodynamic therapy-induced apoptosis in epidermoid carcinoma cells. Reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial inner membrane permeabilization.

    PubMed

    Lam, M; Oleinick, N L; Nieminen, A L

    2001-12-14

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a novel and promising cancer treatment that employs a combination of a photosensitizing chemical and visible light, induces apoptosis in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. However, the precise mechanism of PDT-induced apoptosis is not well characterized. To dissect the pathways of PDT-induced apoptosis, we investigated the involvement of mitochondrial damage by examining a second generation photosensitizer, the silicon phthalocyanine 4 (Pc 4). By using laser-scanning confocal microscopy, we found that Pc 4 localized to cytosolic membranes primarily, but not exclusively, in mitochondria. Formation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected within minutes when cells were exposed to Pc 4 and 670-675 nm light. This was followed by mitochondrial inner membrane permeabilization, depolarization and swelling, cytochrome c release, and apoptotic death. Desferrioxamine prevented mitochondrial ROS production and the events thereafter. Cyclosporin A plus trifluoperazine, blockers of the mitochondrial permeability transition, inhibited mitochondrial inner membrane permeabilization and depolarization without affecting mitochondrial ROS generation. These data indicate that the mitochondrial ROS are critical in initiating mitochondrial inner membrane permeabilization, which leads to mitochondrial swelling, cytochrome c release to the cytosol, and apoptotic death during PDT with Pc 4.

  1. Several types of sodium-conducting channel in human carcinoma A-431 cells.

    PubMed

    Negulyaev YuA; Vedernikova, E A; Mozhayeva, G N

    1994-08-24

    Patch clamp method in outside-out configuration was used to search for cation channels which possibly mediate sodium influx through plasma membrane in A-431 carcinoma cells. We found four types of nonvoltage-gated Na-conducting channel. The first of 9-10 pS conductance (145 mM Na+, 30 degrees C) seems to be Na-selective; three others were characterized with conductance values of 24, 35 and 65 pS and lower selectivity among cations. Na-selective channels (9-10 pS) were not blocked by tetrodotoxin (1 microM). External application of amiloride (0.1-2 mM) resulted in a reversible inhibition of single currents through Na-selective channels.

  2. Treatment of oral and oropharyngeal epidermoid carcinomas by means of CO2 laser.

    PubMed

    Villarreal Renedo, Pedro M; Monje Gil, Florencio; Junquera Gutiérrez, Luis M; De Vicente Rodríguez, Juan C; Morillo Sánchez, Antonio J

    2004-01-01

    The effect of the wide long-wave CO2 laser is the thermal vaporization of the tissues, getting a maximum energy concentration with a minimum of tissue penetration. In oral surgery, it is generally used for the treatment of oral and oropharyngeal small mucous tumors, due to the scarce morbidity that takes place and the absence of reconstructive necessity. To analyze the postoperative evolution, in the patients treated by oral and oropharyngeal epidermoid carcinomas, after CO2 laser resection. To compare it with that of the patients treated by means of conventional surgical methods, achieving the reconstruction through direct suture or the employment of local, regional or distance flaps. A prospective study was designed including 70 patients treated by oral and oropharyngeal epidermoid carcinomas. Thirty-five patients were treated by means of CO2 laser, in 10 cases direct wound-closure was realized, and in the remaining 25 patients some local, regional or distance flap were used. There were analysed the presence of postoperative pain, the degree of cicatricial retraction, and the speech and swallowing functional results. We obtained a smaller painful degree and postoperative cicatricial retraction by the employment of CO2 laser. It permits minimizing the functional speech sequels (better words articulation) and swallowing (effective and precocious functional recovery). CO2 laser resection has become the elective treatment for small oral and oropharyngeal epidermoid carcinomas. The reasons are the absence of reconstructive surgery necessity, the scarce cicatricial retraction, and the excellent postoperative evolution.

  3. Divalent lead cations induce cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression by epidermal growth factor receptor/nuclear factor-kappa B signaling in A431carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chou, Yii-Her; Woon, Peng-Yeong; Huang, Wan-Chen; Shiurba, Robert; Tsai, Yao-Ting; Wang, Yu-Shiuan; Hsieh, Tusty-Jiuan; Chang, Wen-Chang; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Chang, Wei-Chiao

    2011-06-10

    Divalent lead cations (Pb²+) are toxic metal pollutants that may contribute to inflammatory diseases in people and animals. Human vascular smooth muscle cells in culture respond to low concentrations of Pb²+ ions by activating mediators of inflammation via the plasma membrane epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). These include cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and cytosolic phospholipase A₂ as well as the hormone-like lipid compound prostaglandin E₂. To further clarify the mechanism by which Pb²+ induces such mediators of inflammation, we tested human epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431 that expresses high levels of EGFR. Reverse transcription PCR and western blots confirmed A431 cells treated with a low concentration (1 μM) of Pb²+ in the form of lead (II) nitrate increased expression of COX-2 mRNA and its encoded protein in a time-dependent manner. Promoter deletion analysis revealed the transcription factor known as nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) was a necessary component of the COX-2 gene response. NF-κB inhibitor BAY 11-7082 suppressed Pb²+-induced COX-2 mRNA expression, and EGFR inhibitors AG1478 and PD153035 as well as EGFR small interfering RNA reduced the coincident nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Our findings support the hypothesis that low concentrations of Pb²+ ions incite inflammation by inducing COX-2 gene expression via the EGFR/NF-κB signal transduction pathway. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Malignant Transformation of an Intracranial Extradural Epidermoid Cyst into Squamous Cell Carcinoma Presented with Cerebrospinal Fluid Leakage

    PubMed Central

    Seif, Bahram; Pourkhalili, Reza; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmad; Mahzouni, Parvin

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of malignant transformation of an intracranial extradural epidermoid cyst into squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), that presented with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage at the time of recurrence. Intracranial epidermoid cysts are histologically benign and slow-growing neoplasms. They are congenital lesions that develop from ectodermal remnants during neuroembryogenesis. Malignant transformation of epidermoid cysts into SCC is very rare. Various clinical presentations of these tumors after malignant transformation are mentioned in the literature. None of the previous cases, presented with CSF leakage as the recent case did. In cases of malignant transformation, surgical resection and then adjuvant radiation therapy are highly recommended. PMID:28299308

  5. [Analysis of epidermoid carcinomas using panoramic radiography and computerized tomography].

    PubMed

    Pereira, A C; Cavalcanti, M G; Tossato, P S; Guida, F J; Duaik, M C; Kuroishi, M

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare radiographic findings, such as localization and extension of tumors toward the bone and soft tissues, in panoramic radiography and computed tomography (CT). Four radiologists assessed the radiographic findings of 48 patients with the histopathological diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma in different sites of the maxillofacial region. Panoramic radiographs and computed tomographs were obtained at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, at FUNDECTO-USP and at the hospital of the University of São Paulo (USP). We observed a considerable limitation of the panoramic radiography in determining the localization and extension of tumors, since it revealed unclear delimitations. Regarding CT, better results were obtained: it was possible to observe the invasion of the tumor toward adjacent soft tissues, as well as the extension of bone destruction and the depth of the lesion, which were confirmed by surgical findings. We concluded that computed tomography demonstrated to be a sensitive radiographic technique for the detection of the involvement of bone and soft tissues, contributing for a more precise diagnosis, surgical planning and intervention. On the other hand, panoramic radiography was considered less sensitive and less efficient than CT, since it shows only unclear borders of the lesions and is not able to assess the involvement of soft tissues.

  6. Sentinel lymph node procedure in patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal: early experience.

    PubMed

    Damin, Daniel C; Rosito, Mario A; Gus, Pedro; Spiro, Bernardo L; Amaral, Beatriz B; Meurer, Luise; Cartel, Andre; Schwartsmann, Gilberto

    2003-08-01

    This study was conducted to assess the feasibility of the sentinel lymph node procedure in patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal. Between February 2001 and November 2002, 14 patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal and no clinical evidence of inguinal involvement were prospectively enrolled in the study. The sentinel lymph node procedure consisted of a combination of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy with technetium 99m dextran 500 injected around the tumor and intraoperative detection of the sentinel node with a gamma probe. Patent blue V dye was also injected at the periphery of the tumor to facilitate direct identification of the blue-stained lymph node. After removal, the sentinel node was studied by hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry for pancytokeratins (antigen A1 and A3). Detection and removal of sentinel lymph nodes was possible in all patients. There was no correlation between tumor size and pattern of lymphatic drainage to the groin. Tumors located in the midline of the anal canal gave rise to bilateral sentinel nodes in eight of nine cases. In total, 23 sentinel lymph nodes were removed. One patient (7.1 percent) had a node identified as positive for metastatic carcinoma on immunohistochemical staining. Surgical complications were minimal. The standardized technique was safe and highly effective in sampling inguinal sentinel lymph nodes in carcinoma of the anal canal. It also proved to be useful as an instrument to detect micrometastatic deposits in clinically normal nodes. Our early results suggest the sentinel lymph node procedure may have a role in guiding a more selective approach for patients with anal cancer. Additional studies in a larger patient population to determine the sensitivity and specificity of this method are warranted.

  7. Corticotropin-releasing factor induces phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma at tyrosine residues via its receptor 2beta in human epidermoid A-431 cells.

    PubMed

    Kiang, J G; Ding, X Z; Gist, I D; Jones, R R; Tsokos, G C

    1998-12-18

    This laboratory previously reported that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) increased intracellular free calcium concentrations, cellular cAMP, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, protein kinase C activity, and protein phosphorylation in human A-431 cells. The increase was blocked by CRF receptor antagonist. In this study, we identified the type of CRF receptors present and investigated whether CRF induced tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma via CRF receptors. Using novel primers in reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, we determined the CRF receptor type to be that of 2beta. The levels of the CRF receptor type 2beta were not altered in cells treated with activators of protein kinase C, Ca2+ ionophore, or cells overexpressing heat shock protein 70 kDa. Cells treated with CRF displayed increases in protein tyrosine phosphorylation approximately at 150 kDa as detected by immunoblotting using an antibody against phosphotyrosine. Immunoprecipitation with antibodies directed against phospholipase C-beta3, -gamma1, or -gamma2 isoforms (which have molecular weights around 150 kDa) followed by Western blotting using an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody showed that only phospholipase C-gamma1 and -gamma2 were phosphorylated. The increase in phospholipase C-gamma phosphorylation was concentration-dependent with an EC50 of 4.2+/-0.1 pM. The maximal phosphorylation by CRF at 1 nM occurred by 5 min. The CRF-induced phosphorylation was inhibited by the protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein and herbimycin A, suggesting that CRF activates protein tyrosine kinases. Treatment of cells with CRF receptor antagonist, but not pertussis toxin, prior to treatment with CRF inhibited the CRF-induced phosphorylation, suggesting it is mediated by the CRF receptor type 2beta that is not coupled to pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins. Treatment with 1,2-bis(2iminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid attenuated the phospholipase C-gamma phosphorylation. In summary

  8. Novel Gefitinib Formulation with Improved Oral Bioavailability in Treatment of A431 Skin Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Godugu, Chandraiah; Doddapaneni, Ravi; Patel, Apurva R; Singh, Rakesh; Mercer, Roger; Singh, Mandip

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Oral administration of anticancer agents presents a series of advantages for patients. However, most of the anti-cancer drugs have poor water solubility leading to low bioavailability. Methods Controlled released spray dried matrix system of Gefitinib with hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin, chitosan, hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose, vitamin E TPGS, succinic acid were used for the design of formulations to improve the oral absorption of Gefitinib. Spray drying with a customized spray gun which allows simultaneous/pulsatile flow of two different liquid systems through single nozzle was used to prepare Gefitinib spray dried formulations (Gef-SD). Formulation was characterized by in vitro drug release and Caco-2 permeability studies. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed in Sprague Dawley rats. Efficacy of Gef-SD was carried out in A431 xenografts models in nude mice. Results In Gef-SD group 9.14-fold increase in the AUC was observed compared to free Gef. Improved pharmacokinetic profile of Gef-SD translated into increase (1.75 fold compared to Gef free drug) in anticancer effects. Animal survival was significantly increased in Gef formulation treated groups, with superior reduction in the tumor size (1.48-fold) and volumes (1.75-fold) and also increase in the anticancer effects (TUNEL positive apoptotic cells) was observed in Gef-SD treated groups. Further, western blot, immunohistochemical and proteomics analysis demonstrated the increased pharmacodynamic effects of Gef-SD formulations in A431 xenograft tumor models. Conclusion Our studies suggested that Gefitinib can be successfully incorporated into control release microparticles based oral formulation with enhanced pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic activity. This study demonstrates the novel application of Gef in A431 tumor models. PMID:26286185

  9. Radiation therapy for epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal, clinical and treatment factors associated with outcome.

    PubMed

    Myerson, R J; Kong, F; Birnbaum, E H; Fleshman, J W; Kodner, I J; Picus, J; Ratkin, G A; Read, T E; Walz, B J

    2001-10-01

    In recent years, treatment with combined chemotherapy and radiation has become the standard of care for epidermoid carcinoma of the anus. However, optimal radiotherapy techniques and doses are not well established. During the period 1975-1997, 106 patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal underwent radiation therapy. Treatment policies evolved from radiation therapy alone or with surgery, to combined chemotherapy and radiation followed by surgery, to combined chemotherapy and radiation. Overall 74% of patients were NED (no evidence of disease) at last follow-up. The most important clinical correlate with ultimate freedom from disease (includes the contribution of salvage surgery) was extent of disease. The 5-year ultimate freedom from disease was 87+/-5% for T1/T2N0, 78+/-10% for T3N0 (15% salvaged by surgery), and 43+/-10% for either T4N0 or any N+ lesions (P<0.001, Tarone-Ware). There was no difference between planned vs. expectant surgery (5-year ultimate NED: 67+/-11% planned surgery vs. 73+/-5% expectant surgery). The most important correlate with late toxicity was a history of major pelvic surgery (surgical vs. non-surgical group: P=0.013, Fisher's exact test, two-tailed summation). Thirty-three additional malignancies have been seen in 26 patients. The most common additional malignancies were gynecologic (nine cases), head and neck (six cases), and lung cancer (five cases). For T1/T2N0 disease, moderate doses of radiation combined with chemotherapy provided adequate treatment. T4N0 and N+ lesions are the most appropriate candidates for investigational protocols evaluating dose intensification. T3N0 tumors may also be appropriate for investigation; however, dose intensification may ultimately prove counterproductive if the cure rate is not improved and salvage surgery is rendered more difficult. The volume of irradiated small bowel should be minimized for patients who have a past history of major pelvic surgery or who (because of locally advanced

  10. Vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor attenuates epidermoid squamous cell carcinoma growth by dampening mTOR signaling pathway in a human xenograft murine model

    SciTech Connect

    Kurundkar, Deepali; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Chaudhary, Sandeep C.; Ballestas, Mary E.; Kopelovich, Levy; Elmets, Craig A.; Athar, Mohammad

    2013-01-15

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are potent anticancer agents and show efficacy against various human neoplasms. Vorinostat is a potent HDAC inhibitor and has shown potential to inhibit growth of human xenograft tumors. However, its effect on the growth of skin neoplasm remains undefined. In this study, we show that vorinostat (2 μM) reduced expression of HDAC1, 2, 3, and 7 in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Consistently, it increased acetylation of histone H3 and p53. Vorinostat (100 mg/kg body weight, IP) treatment reduced human xenograft tumor growth in highly immunosuppressed nu/nu mice. Histologically, the vorinostat-treated tumor showed features of well-differentiation with large necrotic areas. Based on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining and expression of cyclins D1, D2, E, and A, vorinostat seems to impair proliferation by down-regulating the expression of these proteins. However, it also induced apoptosis. The mechanism by which vorinostat blocks proliferation and makes tumor cells prone to apoptosis, involved inhibition of mTOR signaling which was accompanied by reduction in cell survival AKT and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Our data provide a novel mechanism-based therapeutic intervention for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Vorinostat may be utilized to cure skin neoplasms in organ transplant recipient (OTR). These patients have high morbidity and surgical removal of these lesions which frequently develop in these patients, is difficult. -- Highlights: ► Vorinostat reduces SCC growth in a xenograft murine model. ► Vorinostat dampens proliferation and induces apoptosis in tumor cells. ► Diminution in mTOR, Akt and ERK signaling underlies inhibition in proliferation. ► Vorinostat by inhibiting HDACs inhibits epithelial–mesenchymal transition.

  11. Cytotoxic Effect of Thymus caramanicus Jalas on Human Oral Epidermoid Carcinoma KB Cells.

    PubMed

    Fekrazad, Reza; Afzali, Mehrad; Pasban-Aliabadi, Hamzeh; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Aminizadeh, Maryam; Mostafavi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Identifying new chemotherapeutic agents with fewer side effects is a major concern for scientists today. Thymus caramanicus Jalas (Lamiaceae family) is one of the species of Thymus that grows wild in different regions of Iran. Traditionally, leaves of this plant are used in the treatment of diabetes, arthritis and cancer. Here was investigated the cytotoxic property of Thymus caramanicus essential oil and extract in human oral epidermoid carcinoma KB cells. Cell viability was measured by MTT and neutral red assays. The cells were exposed to different concentrations of essential oil (0.05-1 µL/mL) and extract (25-150 µg/mL) for 24 h. Doxorubicin was used as anticancer control drug. The data showed that the essential oil (IC50=0.44 µL/mL) and extract (IC50=105 µg/mL) induce potent cytotoxic property. Surprisingly, cytotoxic effects of essential oil and extract of this plant on KB cancer cells were greater than those on normal gingival HGF1-PI1 cell line. In addition, Thymus caramanicus could potentiate the effect of doxorubicin in sub-effective concentrations. The results of the present study indicate that essential oils and extracts of Thymus caramanicus have potential anti-proliferative property on KB cells and can be used as pharmaceutical case study for oral cancer treatments.

  12. Acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor in A431 squamous cell carcinoma xenografts is mediated by c-Kit pathway transduction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lixia; Yang, Xiaokun; Zhao, Bei; Cai, Zhen

    2015-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor inhibitors (EGFRIs), the first targeted cancer therapy, are currently an essential treatment for many advance-stage epithelial cancers. These agents have the superior ability to target cancers cells and better safety profile compared to conventional chemotherapies. However, all responding patients eventually developed acquired resistance to EGFRIs and the mechanisms of acquired resistance invariably develops. In the current study, we reported the tumor xenografts of the human A431 squamous cell carcinoma, after 25-week consecutive therapy with EGFR inhibitor (gefitinib) that developed resistance as a result of c-Kit overexpression. Moreover, combined therapeutic inhibition of EGFR and c-Kit may abrogate this acquired mechanism of drug resistance due to an enhanced apoptotic effect in gefitinib-resistant xenograft model. Taken together, the results suggest that at least in the A431 xenograft model displaying acquired resistance to gefitinib can emerge in vivo, at least in part, by mechanisms involving the c-Kit overexpression.

  13. Pineal epidermoid

    PubMed Central

    Senapati, Satya B.; Mishra, Sudhansu S.; Patnaik, Ashis; Patra, Sunil K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Tumors of pineal region are uncommon, accounting for ≤1% of intracranial tumors in adults and 3–8% of pediatric brain tumors. Epidermoid cysts account for 0.2–1% of all intracranial tumors. The majority occur in and around the cerebellopontine angle and suprasellar area. Getting an epidermoid in pineal region is very rare. Case Description: We report a case of pineal epidermoid, which was diagnosed correctly as epidermoid depending on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. Knowing its benign nature, we accordingly planned for its near-total removal. Conclusion: Most cases of pineal tumors present as obstructive hydrocephalus. They either require pre- or postoperative ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt. If properly planned, many benign pineal tumors may be successfully excised and, most importantly, postoperative VP shunt could be avoided. PMID:23226611

  14. In contrast to their murine counterparts, normal human keratinocytes and human epidermoid cell lines A431 and HaCaT fail to express IL-10 mRNA and protein

    PubMed Central

    TEUNISSEN, M B M; KOOMEN, C W; JANSEN, J; DE WAAL MALEFYT, R; SCHMITT, E; VAN DEN WIJNGAARD, R M J G J; DAS, P K; BOS, J D

    1997-01-01

    In mice, keratinocyte-derived IL-10 is up-regulated by ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation and plays a major role in UVB-induced immunosuppression. The present study was designed to examine whether a comparable phenomenon can be detected in man. Freshly isolated or cultured normal human keratinocytes (NHK) and keratinocyte cell lines A431 and HaCaT were stimulated with graded doses of UVB (up to 200 J/m2) or with a variety of other stimuli. RNA was extracted at various time points post-stimulation and analysed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using four different IL-10-specific primer pairs and RNA from monocytes or T cells as positive controls. We failed to detect IL-10 mRNA in NHK from 40 different donors (breast, abdomen, leg, scalp, foreskin) and in A431 and HaCaT cells, irrespective of the stimulation used and despite successful stimulation. Supernatants of NHK, A431 and HaCaT cultures were negative for IL-10 protein, as tested by four different ELISAs and a bioassay. Murine keratinocytes, stimulated under comparable conditions and tested by the same techniques, displayed a strong expression of IL-10 mRNA and protein. Remarkably, an IL-10 mRNA signal could be detected in NHK after a second round of PCR amplification. Because NHK suspensions are contaminated with Langerhans cells, melanocytes and possibly fibroblasts, we tested pure populations of each individual cell type to determine the origin of this IL-10 mRNA. Our results clearly indicate that NHK, Langerhans cells and fibroblasts fail to express IL-10 and that melanocytes are the principal source of IL-10 mRNA in normal human epidermis. PMID:9010278

  15. Inhibition of microRNA-21 upregulates the expression of programmed cell death 4 and phosphatase tensin homologue in the A431 squamous cell carcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    LI, XIAOHONG; HUANG, KAI; YU, JIANBIN

    2014-01-01

    microRNA-21 (miRNA/miR-21) is a well-known oncogenic miRNA that is overexpressed in various carcinomas. The tumor suppressor genes, programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) and phosphatase tensin homologue (PTEN), which target miR-21, are underexpressed in several types of cancer. However, the expression of miR-21 and its target genes, PDCD4 and PTEN, has not yet been reported in skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In the present study, anti-miR-21 was transfected into the A431 cell line, and the expression of miR-21, PDCD4 and PTEN and the level of cell apoptosis were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunocytochemistry and western blotting, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling, respectively. The expression levels of PDCD4 and PTEN in the A431 cell line transfected with anti-miR-21 were significantly increased (P<0.05) and the apoptotic ratio was significantly increased (P<0.05). The data indicate that miR-21 may play an oncogenic role in the cellular processes of SCC and represent a novel target for effective therapies. PMID:24959246

  16. Combinatorial effects of geopropolis produced by Melipona fasciculata Smith with anticancer drugs against human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma (HEp-2) cells.

    PubMed

    Bartolomeu, Ariane Rocha; Frión-Herrera, Yahima; da Silva, Livia Matsumoto; Romagnoli, Graziela Gorete; de Oliveira, Deilson Elgui; Sforcin, José Maurício

    2016-07-01

    The identification of natural products exerting a combined effect with therapeutic agents could be an alternative for cancer treatment, reducing the concentration of the drugs and side effects. Geopropolis (Geo) is produced by some stingless bees from a mixture of vegetable resins, gland secretions of the bees and soil. It has been used popularly as an antiseptic agent and to treat respiratory diseases and dermatosis. To determine whether Geo enhances the anticancer effect of carboplatin, methotrexate and doxorubicin (DOX), human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma (HEp-2) cells were treated with Geo alone or in combination with each drug. Cell growth, cytotoxicity and apoptosis were evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and flow cytometry. Scratch assay was used to analyze cell migration and transmission electron microscopy to observe morphologic alterations. The influence of Geo on drug resistance was also investigated assessing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) action. Geo inhibited cell proliferation and migration. The combination Geo+DOX led to the highest cytotoxic activity and induced apoptosis, leading to loss of membrane integrity. Geo had no effect on P-gp-mediated efflux of DOX. Data indicate that Geo combined with DOX could be a potential clinical chemotherapeutic approach for laryngeal cancer treatment.

  17. Cytotoxicity and apoptotic cell death induced by Vitis vinifera peel and seed extracts in A431 skin cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Grace Nirmala, J; Evangeline Celsia, S; Swaminathan, Akila; Narendhirakannan, R T; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2017-10-05

    Vitis vinifera. L is one of the most widely consumed fruits in the world and are rich in antioxidant abundant polyphenols. The present study was carried out to assess the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of Vitis vinifera peel and seed extracts in an in vitro model using human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cell lines. Vitis vinifera peel and seed extracts were incubated with A431 cells to evaluate the antiproliferative, apoptotic effects and the morphological apoptotic changes induced by the extracts. Mitochondrial membrane potential was also measured after incubating the cells with extracts. At the inhibitory concentration (IC50), grape seed extract (111.11 µg/mL) and grape peel extract (319.14 µg/mL) were incubated for 24 h with A431 cells. Vitis vinifera peel and seed extracts were able to impart cytotoxic effects, induced apoptosis and apoptotic morphological changes in A431 cells significantly (p < 0.01) and this effect is associated with the interference with mitochondrial membrane potential. This reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential probably initiated the apoptotic cascade in the extracts treated cells. Vitis vinifera peel and seed phytochemicals can selectively target cancer cells and the phytochemicals that are occluded can serve as potential anticancer agents providing better efficacy in killing cancer cells.

  18. High prevalence of human papillomavirus infection and possible association with betel quid chewing and smoking in oral epidermoid carcinomas in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, K W; Chang, C S; Lai, K S; Chou, M J; Choo, K B

    1989-05-01

    Seventeen oral epidermoid carcinomas, three oral papillomas, and 17 normal gingival tissues were tested for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16, and 18 sequences by Southern blot hybridization. Episomal HPV-16 sequences in various amounts were detected in 76.4% of the oral carcinomas and in all three cases of papilloma. However, only one of the 17 normal tissues was HPV positive with an unknown type. None of the samples contained HPV-6, -11, or -18 sequences. Examination of the habits of the patients showed that 59% of the patients were betel quid chewers and 82% were smokers. Thus, the concurrent incidence of HPV infection and betal quid chewing and/or smoking habits in oral carcinoma patients observed in Taiwan is consistent with the view that both viral and chemical factors may be involved in the process of carcinogenesis.

  19. Effective multimodality treatment for advanced epidermoid carcinoma of the female genital tract

    SciTech Connect

    Kalra, J.; Cortes, E.; Chen, S.; Krumholz, B.; Rovinsky, J.J.; Molho, L.; Seltzer, V.; Papantoniou, P.; Lee, J.Y.

    1985-07-01

    Fifteen patients with advanced or recurrent squamous-cell carcinoma of the cervix, vulva, vagina, and urethra were treated with simultaneous combination chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil infusion and mitomycin C) and radiotherapy (3,000 rad for a period of three weeks). Three to four weeks after completion of radiotherapy, 13 of 15 patients achieved partial or complete tumor shrinkage. Nine of 15 patients are alive, eight of whom (at a median follow-up time of 24 months) have no evidence of disease. The longest survival time was 45 + months. There was minimal toxicity associated with this therapy. The results of this pilot study suggest that the simultaneous administration of radiation and chemotherapy is an effective method of treatment of advanced female genital tract carcinoma.

  20. Mechanisms underlying the cytotoxic effect of propolis on human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Frión-Herrera, Yahima; Díaz-García, Alexis; Ruiz-Fuentes, Jenny; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Hermis; Maurício Sforcin, José

    2017-08-08

    Propolis has been used as a traditional remedy for centuries because of its beneficial effects, including anticancer properties. The aim of this study was to compare the cytotoxic mechanism of Cuban red propolis (CP) and Brazilian green propolis (BP) on human laryngeal carcinoma (HEp-2) cells. Cell viability, leakage of lactate dehydrogenase, fluorescence staining, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and the expression of pro/anti-apoptotic genes were assessed. Cell viability and cytotoxic assays suggested a dose-dependent effect of CP and BP extracts with a possible association of intracellular reactive oxygen species production and decreased ΔΨm. Both samples induced apoptosis via activation of TP53, CASP3, BAX, P21 signalling, and downregulation of BCL2 and BCL-XL. CP exerted a higher cytotoxic effect than BP extract. Our findings suggest further investigation of the main components of each propolis sample, what may lead to the development of strategies for the treatment of laryngeal cancer.

  1. Designed Synthesis of Nanostructured Magnetic Hydroxyapatite Based Drug Nanocarrier for Anti-Cancer Drug Delivery toward the Treatment of Human Epidermoid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Govindan, Bharath; Swarna Latha, Beeseti; Nagamony, Ponpandian; Ahmed, Faheem; Saifi, Muheet Alam; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Alwasel, Saleh; Mansour, Lamjed; Alsharaeh, Edreese H.

    2017-01-01

    Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles on hydroxyapatite nanorod based nanostructures (Fe3O4/HAp) were synthesized using hydrothermal techniques at 180 °C for 12 h and were used as drug delivery nanocarriers for cancer cell therapeutic applications. The synthesized Fe3O4/HAp nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET)-analysis, and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The morphologies of the Fe3O4/HAp nanocomposites show 15 nm Fe3O4 nanoparticles dispersed in the form of rods. The BET result shows that the synthesized samples have a high specific surface area of 80 m2 g−1 with mesoporous structures. Magnetic measurements revealed that the sample has high saturation magnetization of 18 emu/g with low coercivity. The Fe3O4/HAp nanocomposites had a large specific surface area (SSA), high mesoporous volume, and good magnetic property, which made it a suitable nanocarrier for targeted drug delivery systems. The chemotherapeutic agent, andrographolide, was used to investigate the drug delivery behavior of the Fe3O4/HAp nanocomposites. The human epidermoid skin cancer cells (A431) were used as the model targeting cell lines by treating with andrographolide loaded Fe3O4/HAp nanosystems and were further evaluated for their antiproliferative activities and the induction of apoptosis. Also, the present nanocomposite shows better biocompatibility, therefore it can be used as suitable drug vehicle for cancer therapy applications. PMID:28587317

  2. Giant Earlobe Epidermoid Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; Scilletta, Alessandra; Cabrera-Sánchez, Emilio; Rioja, Luis F; Perrotta, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts represent the most common cutaneous cysts. They are usually small and benign; however, sometimes they can grow to giant epidermoid cists, and occasionally malignancies develop. Giant epidermoid cysts at the earlobe have never been described but in other locations. We describe a case of a giant epidermoid cyst at the earlobe, a location where such a large cyst has never been reported before. The mass was completely resected and the wound of the pedunculated base was sutured with four stitches of nylon 5/0. Histopathology confirmed the presumptive diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst. Six months after the resection, the patient did not have any relapse of the epidermoid cyst. The earlobe is a potential location for giant epidermoid cysts. Although the clinical diagnosis could be enough, due to the possibility of malignancy and to ensure appropriate diagnosis, we consider that all cysts should be sent to the anatomic pathology laboratory for histological evaluation. PMID:22557855

  3. Combined gene expression and proteomic analysis of EGF induced apoptosis in A431 cells suggests multiple pathways trigger apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Alanazi, Ibrahim; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Hoffmann, Peter; Adelson, David L

    2013-11-01

    A431 cells, derived from epidermoid carcinoma, overexpress the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and when treated with a high dose of EGF will undergo apoptosis. We exploited microarray and proteomics techniques and network prediction to study the regulatory mechanisms of EGF-induced apoptosis in A431 cells. We observed significant changes in gene expression in 162 genes, approximately evenly split between pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes and identified 30 proteins from the proteomic data that had either pro or anti-apoptotic annotation. Our correlation analysis of gene expression and proteome modeled a number of distinct sub-networks that are associated with the onset of apoptosis, allowing us to identify specific pathways and components. These include components of the interferon signalling pathway, and down stream components, including cytokines and suppressors of cytokine signalling. A central component of almost all gene expression sub-networks identified was TP53, which is mutated in A431 cells, and was down regulated. This down regulation of TP53 appeared to be correlated with proteomic sub-networks of cytoskeletal or cell adhesion components that might induce apoptosis by triggering cytochrome C release. Of the only three genes also differentially expressed as proteins, only serpinb1 had a known association with apoptosis. We confirmed that up regulation and cleavage of serpinb1 into L-DNAaseII was correlated with the induction of apoptosis. It is unlikely that a single pathway, but more likely a combination of pathways is needed to trigger EGF induced apoptosis in A431cells.

  4. Induction of apoptosis in A431 skin cancer cells by Cissus quadrangularis Linn stem extract by altering Bax-Bcl-2 ratio, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and PARP cleavage.

    PubMed

    Bhujade, Arti; Gupta, G; Talmale, S; Das, S K; Patil, M B

    2013-02-01

    Skin is generally damaged through genetic and environmental factors such as smoking, exposure to xenobiotics, heat, hormonal changes, and ultraviolet light. These factors can cause skin diseases. Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (CQ) has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of skin diseases since ancient times. Taking in to consideration the medicinal properties exhibited by this genus, it was decided to investigate the anti-cancer activity of CQ. Extracts obtained from CQ and their phenolic contents were subjected to in vitro evaluation of anticancer activity by using A431 (skin epidermoid carcinoma, human) cell line. The A431 cells were treated with different extracts of CQ in a dose dependent manner. Out of five extracts, the acetone extract demonstrated significant anti-cancer activity in the A431 cell line. Hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts also exhibited cytotoxicity but to a comparatively lesser extent than the acetone extract. The GI(50) value of the acetone extract was found to be 8 μg mL(-1), whereas GI(50) value of purified fraction of acetone extract, termed as AFCQ (active acetone fraction of CQ) with respect to A431 cells, was found to be 4.8 μg mL(-1). Furthermore, the mechanism of anticancer activity exhibited by AFCQ was investigated by comparing its effect with the standard anticancer drug Doxorubicin (DOX) by evaluating the status of apoptotic markers after treatment of A431 cells with AFCQ and DOX. Bax-Bcl-2 ratio along with the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytoplasm, which is a hallmark of apoptosis, was also evaluated. Cleavage of PARP revealed that AFCQ induces apoptosis in A431 cells with reference to DOX.

  5. Physico-chemical comparison of betulinic acid, betulin and birch bark extract and in vitro investigation of their cytotoxic effects towards skin epidermoid carcinoma (A431), breast carcinoma (MCF7) and cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa) cell lines.

    PubMed

    Soica, Codruta M; Dehelean, Cristina A; Peev, Camelia; Aluas, Mihaela; Zupkó, I; Kása, P; Alexa, Ersilia

    2012-01-01

    Betulin and betulinic acid are pentacyclic triterpenes present in the bark of the birch tree and other vegetal sources. Quantitatively, in birch bark betulin is more significant than betulinic acid; therefore, birch can be a large and feasible source of raw material for betulin extraction. Betulin can be used as extracted or, after chemical modification, as a starting compound for its acid, betulinic acid, with both substances possessing various interesting pharmacological properties. The purpose of this study is to analyse the betulin and betulinic acid content of a birch tree bark extract, as well as its cytotoxic activity. The extraction was done using a Soxhlet extractor and chloroform/dichlormethane/methanol (1 : 1 : 1) as solvent. The betulin and betulinic acid content of the extract was estimated using standards of pure betulin and betulinic acid, by thermal analysis as opposed to pure substance (thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis). The extract and the main compounds were also analysed by NMR. The results indicated a high amount of betulin in the final extract (up to 50%), and an important quantity of betulinic acid: over 3%. The cytotoxic activity indicated a high proliferation inhibition for the birch tree extract but was still comparable with betulinic acid and betulin.

  6. In vitro motility of cells from human epidermoid carcinomas. A study by phase-contrast and reflection-contrast cinematography.

    PubMed

    Haemmerli, G; Sträuli, P

    1981-05-15

    The motile behavior of six cell lines derived from human squamous carcinomas (two from the larynx, four from the tongue) was studied by cinematography under phase- and reflection-contrast illumination. The recorded cell activities consist in spreading, stationary and translocation motility, and aggregate formation. Within this common pattern, quantitative modifications ("sub-pattern") are stable properties of the individual cells lines. Such modifications are particularly evident with regard to the dynamic texture of the aggregates which ranges from loose, netlike structures to compact islands with smooth borders. Accordingly, the intensity of cell traffic within and around the aggregates varies considerably. It is discussed to what extent the in vitro motility of the carcinoma cell populations reflects their behavior in the organism and thus the significance of cell movements for invasion.

  7. The effect of betel nut extract on cell growth and prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase in human epidermoid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, C Y; Meng, C L; van der Bijl, P; Lee, H K

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this study was to find out whether prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase (PHS) involves the action of betel nut extract (BNE) on the growth of oral cancers. Therefore, growth and PHS activity were examined in two human oral carcinoma cell lines (OEC-M1 and KB) and one normal fibroblast cell line (NF) in the presence of increasing BNE concentration. BNE at concentrations above 50 microg/ml significantly inhibited the cell growth of OEC-M1 after 72 h in culture, of KB and NF after 48 h in culture. The IC50 of BNE in OEC-M1, KB and NF at 24 h in culture was about 406, 37.5 and 140 microg/ml respectively. PHS activity in OEC-M1 was significantly increased by low BNE concentrations (50 microg/ml, 114%; 100 microg/ml, 33%; 150 microg/ml, 30%) but significantly reduced at higher BNE concentrations (300 microg/ml, 33%; 500 microg/ml, 61%). The PHS activity in KB was significantly inhibited by BNE and this effect was intensified as concentrations increased (50 microg/ml, 31%; 100 microg/ml, 24%; 150 microg/ml, 43%; 300 microg/ml, 60%; 500 microg/ml, 92%). Similar to that in OEC-M1, the PHS activity in NF was significantly increased at low BNE concentrations (50 microg/ml, 139%; 100 microg/ml, 87%;150 microg/ml, 77%) but reduced at higher concentrations (300 microg/ml, 55%; 500 microg/ml, 72%). The PHS activity in all cell lines was almost completely blocked by indomethacin (5 x 10(-6) M). We conclude that these findings suggest that PHS may be an important biochemical mediator of the effect of BNE on the growth of two human oral carcinoma cell lines.

  8. Oligomerization of epidermal growth factor receptors on A431 cells studied by time-resolved fluorescence imaging microscopy. A stereochemical model for tyrosine kinase receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The aggregation states of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on single A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells were assessed with two new techniques for determining fluorescence resonance energy transfer: donor photobleaching fluorescence resonance energy transfer (pbFRET) microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). Fluorescein-(donor) and rhodamine-(acceptor) labeled EGF were bound to the cells and the extent of oligomerization was monitored by the spatially resolved FRET efficiency as a function of the donor/acceptor ratio and treatment conditions. An average FRET efficiency of 5% was determined after a low temperature (4 degrees C) incubation with the fluorescent EGF analogs for 40 min. A subsequent elevation of the temperature for 5 min caused a substantial increase of the average FRET efficiency to 14% at 20 degrees C and 31% at 37 degrees C. In the context of a two-state (monomer/dimer) model for the EGFR, these FRET efficiencies were consistent with minimal average receptor dimerizations of 13, 36, and 69% at 4, 20, and 37 degrees C, respectively. A431 cells were pretreated with the monoclonal antibody mAb 2E9 that specifically blocks EGF binding to the predominant population of low affinity EGFR (15). The average FRET efficiency increased dramatically to 28% at 4 degrees C, indicative of a minimal receptor dimerization of 65% for the subpopulation of high affinity receptors. These results are in accordance with prior studies indicating that binding of EGF leads to a fast and temperature- dependent microclustering of EGFR, but suggest in addition that the high affinity functional subclass of receptors on quiescent A431 cells are present in a predimerized or oligomerized state. We propose that the transmission of the external ligand-binding signal to the cytoplasmic domain is effected by a concerted relative rotational rearrangement of the monomeric units comprising the dimeric receptor, thereby potentiating a mutual activation of

  9. EGF raises cytosolic Ca sup 2+ in A431 and Swiss 3T3 cells by a dual mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Pandiella, A.; Malgaroli, A.; Meldolesi, J.; Vicentini, L.M. )

    1987-05-01

    The changes in Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis and phosphoinositide hydrolysis induced by EGF were studied in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells both when attached to a substratum and after detachment and suspension. The cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} concentration was measured by the conventional fluorimetric technique, using the specific probe, quin2, as well as by a new microscopic technique in which single cells are investigated after loading with another probe, fura-2. EGF applied in the complete, Ca{sup 2+}-containing medium caused a rapid rise in the cytosolic {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} concentration, that remained elevated for several minutes. In Ca{sup 2+}-free, EGTA-containing medium, part of this response persisted, as revealed by quin2 results in suspended cells and microscopic results with fura-2. These results, as well as additional microscopic fura-2 results in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts, demonstrate that the Ca{sup 2+} signal elicited by EGF is due to two components: redistribution from an intracellular store and stimulated influx across the plasmalemma. This latter process was not detected in 3T3 cells treated with either PDGF or bombesin. It is therefore suggested that the {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} influx effect of EGF is under the control of a separate, as yet unidentified mechanism.

  10. Submental epidermoid cysts in children

    PubMed Central

    Zakrzewska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are lesions, which form as a result of implantation of the epidermis in the layers of the dermis or the mucous membrane. The lesions are rare in adults with 7% occurring in the head and neck area and most often located in the submental region. In children population submental epidermoid cysts are extremely rare. The differential diagnosis of the lesions is necessary as it affects the choice of treatment methods. Among the pathological conditions occurring in that region, salivary retention cyst (ranula), thyroglossal duct cyst, vascular lymphatic malformation (cystic hygroma), median neck cyst, lymphadenopathy, thyroid gland tumor, laryngeal cyst, epidermoid and dermoid cysts, submental abscess, sialolithiasis and salivary gland inflammation should be considered. The authors of the present report demonstrate two cases of submental epidermoid cysts in children. Differential diagnosis in case of suspected submental epidermoid cyst in a child with proposed clinical practice and literature review is provided.

  11. Splenic epidermoid cysts.

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, F G; Yellin, A E; Lingua, R W; Craig, J R; Turrill, F L; Mikkelsen, W P

    1978-01-01

    Four patients with splenic masses were operated upon and found to have epidermoid cysts of the spleen, a rare lesion comprising less than 10% of benign, nonparasitic splenic cysts. The patients were young and had vague, non-specific symptoms which were related to the size of the slowly enlarging splenic mass. Three patients had palpable masses. Contrast gastrointestinal studies and intravenous urography will help exclude mass lesions of the gastrointestinal or genitourinary tract. Sonar scan may confirm the cystic nature of the lesion and localize it to the spleen. A review of 42,327 autopsy records at the Los Angeles County--University of Southern California Medical Center revealed 32 benign splenic cysts found incidentally at autopsy. Hemorrhage, infection, rupture, and rarely, malignant change are complications of splenic cysts. Splenectomy is recommended to eliminate the symptoms produced by the cyst and prevent the potential complications. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:637577

  12. Brainstem epidermoid cyst: An update

    PubMed Central

    Patibandla, M. R.; Yerramneni, Vamsi Krishna; Mudumba, Vijaya S.; Manisha, Nukavarapu; Addagada, Gokul Chowdary

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of epidermoid tumors is between 1% and 2% of all intracranial tumors. The usual locations of epidermoid tumor are the parasellar region and cerebellopontine angle, and it is less commonly located in sylvian fissure, suprasellar region, cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres, and lateral and fourth ventricles. Epidermoid cysts located in the posterior fossa usually arise in the lateral subarachnoid cisterns, and those located in the brain stem are rare. These epidermoids contain cheesy and flaky white soft putty like contents. Epidermoid cysts are very slow growing tumors having a similar growth pattern of the epidermal cells of the skin and develop from remnants of epidermal elements during closure of the neural groove and disjunction of the surface ectoderm with neural ectoderm between the third and fifth weeks of embryonic life. We are presenting an interesting case of intrinsic brainstem epidermoid cyst containing milky white liquefied material with flakes in a 5-year-old girl. Diffusion-weighted imaging is definitive for the diagnosis. Ideal treatment of choice is removal of cystic components with complete resection of capsule. Although radical resection will prevent recurrence, in view of very thin firmly adherent capsule to brainstem, it is not always possible to do complete resection of capsule without any neurological deficits. PMID:27366244

  13. Betulin as an antitumor agent tested in vitro on A431, HeLa and MCF7, and as an angiogenic inhibitor in vivo in the CAM assay.

    PubMed

    Dehelean, Cristina Adriana; Feflea, Stefana; Molnár, Judit; Zupko, Istvan; Soica, Codruta

    2012-08-01

    Betulin, an important compound found in birch tree bark, can be converted to betulinic acid, an important pharmacological substance. Betulin has recently been reported as a cytotoxic agent for several tumor cell lines and as an apoptotic inductor. Angiogenesis is a key process involved in tumor metastasis and in developing tumor resistance to cytotoxic therapy. There are little data on betulin as an anti angiogenic agent. This preliminary study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of betulin on three cancer cell lines: HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma), MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma) and A431 (skin epidermoid carcinoma), and the apoptotic mechanism, as well as the implication in the capillary formation of the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane. The analysis consisted in the interpretation of the MTT assay and fluorescence double staining with Hoechst dye 33258 and propidium iodide, while the angiogenic effect was evaluated using morphological and immunohistochemical techniques. The antitumor activity is revealed by the double fluorescence staining, indicating that at higher concentrations, the cell membrane permeability is enhanced, while at lower concentrations there is evidence for nuclear fragmentation. In what concerns its effect on the process of blood vessel formation, betulin induced the reduction of newly formed capillaries, especially in the mesenchyme, possible through targeting the normal function of endothelial cells. In vitro results proved the superior specificity of betulin on cervical cancer cells, followed by skin cancer cells.

  14. Characterization of the interaction of 5'-p-fluorosulfonylbenzoyl adenosine with the epidermal growth factor receptor/protein kinase in A431 cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Buhrow, S A; Cohen, S; Garbers, D L; Staros, J V

    1983-06-25

    Treatment of membrane vesicles from A431 cells, a human epidermoid carcinoma line, with the affinity label 5'-p-fluorosulfonylbenzoyl [8-14C]adenosine (5'-p-FSO2Bz[14C]Ado) results in an inhibition of the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulable protein kinase and in the modification of proteins having the same molecular weight (Mr = 170,000 and 150,000) as the receptor for EGF (Buhrow, S. A., Cohen, S., and Staros, J. V. (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 4019-4022). Modification of the vesicles with 5'-p-FSO2BzAdo inhibits not only the EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of endogenous membrane proteins but also the EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of an exogenous synthetic tyrosine-containing peptide substrate. This indicates that the EGF-stimulable protein kinase is modified by 5'-p-FSO2BzAdo at a site affecting catalytic activity. Membrane vesicles were treated with 5'-p-FSO2Bz-[14C]Ado to affinity label the kinase, then the EGF receptor was purified by affinity chromatography on immobilized EGF. The EGF receptor thus purified contains the 5'-p-SO2Bz[14C]Ado moiety. These data strongly support our hypothesis that the EGF receptor and EGF-stimulable kinase are two parts of the same polypeptide chain.

  15. Recurrent craniospinal epidermoid: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Abhidha; Patil, Manoj; Goel, Atul

    2016-01-01

    We present a rare case of a fourth ventricular epidermoid cyst, which recurred 15 years after the initial radical tumor resection surgery. The recurrence of the tumor extended into the cervical spine. The patient was reoperated and a near-total excision of both the cranial and spinal components of the epidermoid was performed. Our literature search did not reveal any case where there was a simultaneous presence of both the cranial and spinal epidermoid tumors. The possible cause of extension of the cranial epidermoid into the spinal compartment is analyzed. PMID:27041888

  16. [Epidermoid cyst of the mouth floor].

    PubMed

    Sanjuán Rodríguez, S; Morán Penco, J M; Ruiz Orpez, A; Santamaria Ossorio, J I; Berchi García, F J

    2003-07-01

    The epidermoid cysts are frequent during childhood, however mouth floor location are very unusual, because of their more difficult diagnosis and therapeutic approach. We present a 5 years old male, symptoms free until a week before, when his parents noticed a well defined mass in the mouth floor. A physical examination leaded to the diagnosis of possible epidermoid cyst. The tumor was excised through an introral approach. A review of different diagnostic means and surgical management are undertaken.

  17. Epidermoid cysts of the velum interpositum.

    PubMed

    Bahuleyan, Biji; Daniel, Roy T; Chacko, Geeta; Chacko, Ari G

    2008-10-01

    The cistern of the velum interpositum is a space located between the corpus callosum dorsally and the roof of the third ventricle ventrally. Lesions located within the velum interpositum are rare and include meningiomas, pilocytic astrocytomas, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors and arachnoid cysts. Epidermoid cysts in this location have not been reported previously. We report the clinical and radiological features of two patients with epidermoid cysts located in the velum interpositum. The patients presented with gait difficulty and features of raised intracranial pressure and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated large tumors in the velum interpositum with intensities suggestive of epidermoid cysts. There was ventral displacement of the internal cerebral veins and dorsal displacement of the corpus callosum in keeping with a mass in the velum interpositum. Tumors of the third ventricle displace the internal cerebral veins dorsally. A transcallosal approach was used in both patients to effectively excise the tumors.

  18. Prolonged induction of p21Cip1/WAF1/CDK2/PCNA complex by epidermal growth factor receptor activation mediates ligand-induced A431 cell growth inhibition

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Proliferation of some cultured human tumor cell lines bearing high numbers of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors is paradoxically inhibited by EGF in nanomolar concentrations. In the present study, we have investigated the biochemical mechanism of growth inhibition in A431 human squamous carcinoma cells exposed to exogenous EGF. In parallel, we studied a selected subpopulation, A431-F, which is resistant to EGF-mediated growth inhibition. We observed a marked reduction in cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2) activity when A431 and A431-F cells were cultured with 20 nM EGF for 4 h. After further continuous exposure of A431 cells to EGF, the CDK2 activity remained at a low level and was accompanied by persistent G1 arrest. In contrast, the early reduced CDK2 activity and G1 accumulation in A431-F cells was only transient. We found that, at early time points (4-8 h), EGF induces p21Cip1/WAF1 mRNA and protein expression in both EGF-sensitive A431 cells and EGF-resistant A431-F cells. But only in A431 cells, was p21Cip1/WAF1 expression sustained at a significantly increased level for up to 5 d after addition of EGF. Induction of p21Cip1/WAF1 by EGF could be inhibited by a specific EGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, tyrphostin AG1478, suggesting that p21Cip1/WAF1 induction was a consequence of receptor tyrosine kinase activation by EGF. We also demonstrated that the increased p21Cip1/WAF1 was associated with both CDK2 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Taken together, our results demonstrate that p21Cip1/WAF1 is an important mediator of EGF-induced G1 arrest and growth inhibition in A431 cells. PMID:7559780

  19. Extensive Epidermoid Cyst and Breathing Difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Ciro Dantas; Gurgel, Alberto Costa; de Souza Júnior, Francisco de Assis; de Oliveira, Samila Neres; de Carvalho, Maria Goretti Freire; Oliveira, Hanieri Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are common cystic lesions in the skin, ovaries, and testicles, but their occurrence in the oral cavity is uncommon. They consist of cysts delimited by a fibrous capsule without cutaneous annexes and are lined by stratified squamous epithelium. The differential diagnosis includes ranula, dermoid cysts, and lingual thyroid. Despite their benign presentation, these cysts can cause functional limitations, requiring special clinical attention for extensive lesions located in regions that preserve vital structures. This paper aims to report a case of epidermoid cyst in patient with swallowing and breathing difficulty, highlighting the clinical and surgical planning. PMID:26180645

  20. Sublingual epidermoid cyst in a neonate

    PubMed Central

    Oginni, Fadekemi Olufunmilayo; Oladejo, Taoreed; Braimah, Ramat Oyebunmi; Adenekan, Anthony Taiwo

    2014-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts (EC) in the head and neck region could be considered a rare condition representing only 6.9% of all ECs occurring in the body. They occur rarely in children and neonates. We present a case of sublingual EC in a Nigerian neonate. PMID:24987608

  1. Epidermoid cyst of the pineal region

    PubMed Central

    Sambasivan, M.; Nayar, Ammu

    1974-01-01

    An epidermoid cyst in the pineal region is reported to underscore the feasibility of successful surgical excision of such lesions and the need to review the management of posterior third ventricular lesions. An interesting, but unexplained, feature in this patient was renal glycosuria which cleared after excision of the tumour. Images PMID:4448997

  2. Effect of Heat Shock, (Ca(2+))-i, and cAMP on Inositol Trisphosphate in Human Epidermoid A-431 Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    processes blocked the increasin InsP, resulting fro, heat exposure Both pertuasi tomi (30 ng/mL, 24 h), an inhibitor of (3 inhibitory protein, and cholen...lylimidodiphosphate stimulated that component of the InsP 3 those studies a mechanism(s) underlying the heat-in- increase due to G proteins. U-73122, an inhibitor ...heat exposure. Both pertussis toxin (30 ng/ml, 24 shock may directly stimulate PLC (23). On the other h), an inhibitor of G inhibitory protein, and

  3. Extensive epidermoid cyst of the submental region

    PubMed Central

    Utumi, Estevam Rubens; Araujo, Juliane Pirágine; Pedron, Irineu Gregnanin; Yonezaki, Frederico; Machado, Gustavo Grothe

    2016-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are malformations that are rarely observed in the submental region. Imaging has an important role in surgical planning according to the size and location of the cyst in relation to geniohyoid and mylohyoid muscles. This article reports the case of a 15-year-old female patient complaining of submental swelling. The differential diagnosis included infection, tumor, ranula, and abnormalities during embryonic development. The lesion was surgically excised using an extra-oral approach. The histopathological examination revealed a cyst wall lined with stratified squamous epithelium with the presence of several horny scales consistent with the diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst. No recurrences were found after 1 year of follow-up. PMID:27547744

  4. Isolated giant molluscum contagiosum mimicking epidermoid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Uzuncakmak, Tugba K.; Kuru, Burce C.; Zemheri, Ebru I.; Zindanci, Ilkin; Turkoglu, Zafer; Kavala, Mukaddes

    2016-01-01

    Molluscum contagiosum is a benign cutaneous viral infection which is caused by double- stranded DNA poxvirus. It affects mainly children and young adults and usually presents with single or multiple umblicated papules or nodules on face, arms, legs and anogenital regions. It may present in atypical size and clinical appearance in patients with altered or impaired immunity and rarely in immuncompetent patients. Herein we present an immuncompetent young adult patient with isolated giant molluscum contagiosum, which was mimicking epidermoid cyst clinically. PMID:27648389

  5. Epidermoid Cyst Arising in the Submandibular Region

    PubMed Central

    Kudoh, Masanori; Harada, Hiroyuki; Omura, Ken; Ishii, Yoshimasa

    2013-01-01

    Dermoid and epidermoid cysts in the oral cavity frequently develop in the midline or sublingual region of the floor of the mouth. Here, we report a rare case of an epidermoid cyst in the submandibular region. The patient was a 69-year-old man with a chief complaint of a mass in the right submandibular region. A mobile, elastic, relatively soft mass without tenderness was palpable in this region. The skin covering the mass was normal. MRI showed a cystic lesion measuring 3.5 × 3.0 cm under the platysma in the right submandibular region. Cystectomy was performed under general anesthesia. There was no adhesion to surrounding tissue and the right submandibular gland was preserved. The surgical specimen was cystic and contained soybean cord-like materials. Histopathologically, the cyst wall was lined by stratified squamous epithelium with no skin appendage, suggesting an epidermoid cyst. The postoperative course was uneventful and without recurrence after 28 months. PMID:24191161

  6. Giant sublingual epidermoid cyst resembling plunging ranula

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Sandeep; Kushwaha, Jitendra Kumar; Sonkar, A A; Kumar, Rahul; Gupta, Rajni

    2012-01-01

    Epidermoid and dermoid cysts represent less than 0.01% of all oral cavity cysts. We describe a rare case of large epidermoid cyst in floor of mouth, with an oral as well as submental component resembling plunging ranula reported in the literature from India. We present a case of a 16-year-old girl with complaints of a mass in sublingual region, difficulty chewing, and dysphagia for about 5 months. Fine-needle aspiration cytology showed keratin flakes and proteinaceous material. Contrast-enhanced CT oral cavity was done and showed 7.0 × 5 × 4.5 cm well-circumscribed non-enhancing cystic mass extending into the floor of the mouth. On examination, a firm swelling was noticed in the submental area, extending down to the thyroid notch. The patient underwent surgical removal of the mass. On histopathology, acidophilic stratum corneum and basophilic dot like staining of stratum granulosum, which is the hallmark of an epidermoid cyst, were seen. PMID:23833501

  7. Endoscopic Treatment of a Third Ventricular Epidermoid Cyst.

    PubMed

    Paz, Daniel de Araujo; da Costa, Marcos Devanir Silva; Rodrigues, Thiago Pereira; Riechelmann, Guilherme Salemi; Suriano, Ítalo Capraro; Zymberg, Samuel Tau

    2017-03-01

    Epidermoid cyst is a benign and congenital lesion of ectodermal origin. Traditionally, microsurgical techniques are used to treat these lesions, and their occurrence in the third ventricle is rare. Here, the authors report a case of epidermoid cyst in the third ventricle that presented with signs and symptoms of intracranial hypertension, which was treated safely and effectively using neuroendoscopic surgery.

  8. Efficacy of temoporfin-loaded invasomes in the photodynamic therapy in human epidermoid and colorectal tumour cell lines.

    PubMed

    Dragicevic-Curic, Nina; Gräfe, Susanna; Gitter, Burkhard; Fahr, Alfred

    2010-12-02

    In the case of cutaneous malignant or non-malignant diseases, topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) with a temoporfin (mTHPC)-containing formulation would be advantageous. Unfortunately, mTHPC is a highly hydrophobic drug with low percutaneous absorption and novel mTHPC-loaded invasomes for enhanced skin delivery were developed. The purpose of this study was to investigate photodynamic efficacy of mTHPC-loaded invasomes in vitro in two cell lines, i.e. the human colorectal tumour cell line HT29 and the epidermoid tumour cell line A431. Invasomes are vesicles containing besides phospholipids a mixture of terpenes or only one terpene and ethanol. Dark toxicity, phototoxicity and intracellular localization of mTHPC were studied. Laser scanning microscopy indicated perinuclear localization of mTHPC. Results revealed that mTHPC-invasomes and mTHPC-ethanolic solution used at a 2μM mTHPC-concentration and photoirradiation at 20J/cm(2) were able to reduce survival of HT29 cells and especially of A431 cells, being more sensitive to PDT. In contrast to HT29 cells, where there was not a significant difference between cytotoxicity of mTHPC-ethanolic solution and mTHPC-invasomes, in A431 cells mTHPC-invasomes were more cytotoxic. Survival of about 16% of A431 cells treated with mTHPC-invasomes is very promising, since it demonstrates invasomes' potential to be used in topical PDT of cutaneous malignant diseases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Epidermoid cyst of the uvula in a child

    PubMed Central

    Daram, Shiva; Ulualp, Seckin O; Uddin, Naseem

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Epidermoid cysts are rarely located in the uvula. To date, epidermoid cyst of the uvula has not been reported in a child at preschool age. We present clinical and histopathological characteristics of an epidermoid cyst in a child with uvula mass. Methods: Retrospective chart review. Results: A 5-year-old boy was seen in the pediatric otolaryngology clinic for assessment of a uvula mass. The mass was detected during a tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy performed for sleep-related breathing disorder. The mass was completely removed and the final diagnosis was epidermoid cyst. Conclusion: Pediatricians, otolaryngologists, and pathologists should be cognizant of the occurrence of uvular epidermoid cyst in preschool children. PMID:28382209

  10. Esophageal leukoplakia or epidermoid metaplasia: a clinicopathological study of 18 patients.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Aatur D; Arnold, Christina A; Crowder, Clinton D; Lam-Himlin, Dora M; Voltaggio, Lysandra; Montgomery, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Oral leukoplakia is a relatively common, painless disorder of the oral mucosa. It predominantly affects middle-aged to elderly men and has a strong association with tobacco smoking and alcohol intake. Concomitant histological findings of hyperorthokeratosis and a well-developed granular cell layer, termed orthokeratotic dysplasia, are often associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma. In contrast, analogous lesions within the esophagus, termed esophageal epidermoid metaplasia, are rarely encountered and poorly described in the literature. To better characterize the clinicopathological features of this entity, we have collected 25 cases from 18 patients. Patients ranged in age from 37 to 81 years (mean, 61.5 years), with a slight female predominance (10/18, 56%). On presentation, a majority of patients complained of dysphagia (10/18, 56%). Past medical history was significant for tobacco smoking or long history of second-hand smoke in 11 (61%) patients and alcohol intake in 7 (39%) patients. Seventeen (94%) patients with esophageal epidermoid metaplasia were located within the middle-to-distal esophagus. Histologically, all cases were sharply demarcated and characterized by epithelial hyperplasia, a thickened basal layer, acanthotic midzone, a prominent granular cell layer, and superficial hyperorthokeratosis. Adjacent high-grade squamous dysplasia and/or squamous cell carcinoma were seen in 3 out of 18 (17%) patients. Follow-up information was available for 13 out of 18 (72%) patients and ranged from 2 to 8.3 years (mean, 2.3 years). Seven of the 13 (54%) patients had persistent disease; however, none of them developed squamous dysplasia or squamous cell carcinoma. In an effort to assess the incidence of esophageal epidermoid metaplasia, 198 consecutive esophageal biopsies were prospectively surveyed over a 6-month period at three academic institutions. No cases were identified within this time frame. In summary, esophageal epidermoid metaplasia is a rare

  11. Acquired dorsal intraspinal epidermoid cyst in an adult female

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kulwant; Pandey, Sharad; Gupta, Praveen Kumar; Sharma, Vivek; Santhosh, Deepa; Ghosh, Amrita

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epidermoid and dermoid cyst comprise <1% of spinal tumors and may be congenital (hamartoma) or acquired (iatrogenic) in origin. Epidermoid cysts within the neuraxis are rare benign neoplasms that are most commonly located in the intracranial region. Case Description: Here, we report the a case of an acquired intradural extramedullary epidermoid cyst involving the thoracic region in an adult female who had no associated history of an accompanying congenital spinal deformity. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and immediate surgical intervention reduce patient morbidity. Near complete or subtotal excision of the cyst wall is warranted to prevent inadvertent injury to the spinal cord thus minimizing neurological morbidity. PMID:26904369

  12. Pineal epidermoid cyst: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Fahd Derkaoui; Bouchaouch, Abdelali; El Fatemi, Nizare; Gana, Rachid; El Abbadi, Najia; Maaqili, Moulay Rachid

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial epidermoid cysts are one of the rare tumors of all intracranial tumors. They represent 0,2 to 1% of intracranial tumors and 7% of tumors in the cerebellopontine angle. The pineal region is exceptionally subject to such kind of tumor. Cushing was the first to report the pineal localization of the epidermoid cyst in 1928. Up to now, 85 cases of pineal epidermoid cyst were cited in the literature. We report a clinical case concerning a 45 years old man who presented an intracranial hypertension during 18 months. The clinical examination found a hemiparesis with a facial hypoesthesis. The MRI showed a process of the pineal region. The patient underwent a surgery with a large resection. The histological examination confirms the epidermoid cyst. Many approaches were described in the literature. The outcome is related to this localization.

  13. Pineal epidermoid cyst: case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Hassani, Fahd Derkaoui; Bouchaouch, Abdelali; El Fatemi, Nizare; Gana, Rachid; El Abbadi, Najia; Maaqili, Moulay Rachid

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial epidermoid cysts are one of the rare tumors of all intracranial tumors. They represent 0,2 to 1% of intracranial tumors and 7% of tumors in the cerebellopontine angle. The pineal region is exceptionally subject to such kind of tumor. Cushing was the first to report the pineal localization of the epidermoid cyst in 1928. Up to now, 85 cases of pineal epidermoid cyst were cited in the literature. We report a clinical case concerning a 45 years old man who presented an intracranial hypertension during 18 months. The clinical examination found a hemiparesis with a facial hypoesthesis. The MRI showed a process of the pineal region. The patient underwent a surgery with a large resection. The histological examination confirms the epidermoid cyst. Many approaches were described in the literature. The outcome is related to this localization. PMID:25489364

  14. Epidermoid Cyst of the Sole - A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rajput, Santosh Singh; Gopinathan, Nayar Sajeeth

    2016-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are common benign subcutaneous lesion also termed as epidermal cysts. Epidermoid cyst are commonly seen in hairy regions of body like scalp, face and scrotum, can be single or multiple, but rarely can occur in glabrous skin of palm and sole. They are known to result from progressive cystic ectasia of the infundibular portion of hair follicle but the pathogenesis in palmo-plantar epidermoid cyst differs that is traumatic sequestration of epidermal elements into dermis. Here, we report a case of 30-year-old female presented with complaints of swelling in her left sole. On examination a palpable firm swelling was noted just below the 2nd web space left foot plantar region, on X-ray foot no osseous lesion or foreign body was detected. Swelling was excised and sent for histopathological examination which confirmed it as epidermoid cyst. PMID:28050432

  15. Study of the betulin enriched birch bark extracts effects on human carcinoma cells and ear inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pentacyclic triterpenes, mainly betulin and betulinic acid, are valuable anticancer agents found in the bark of birch tree. This study evaluates birch bark extracts for the active principles composition. Results New improved extraction methods were applied on the bark of Betula pendula in order to reach the maximum content in active principles. Extracts were analyzed by HPLC-MS, Raman, SERS and 13C NMR spectroscopy which revealed a very high yield of betulin (over 90%). Growth inhibiting effects were measured in vitro on four malignant human cell lines: A431 (skin epidermoid carcinoma), A2780 (ovarian carcinoma), HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma) and MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma), by means of MTT assay. All of the prepared bark extracts exerted a pronounced antiproliferative effect against human cancer cell lines. In vivo studies involved the anti-inflammatory effect of birch extracts on TPA-induced model of inflammation in mice. Conclusions The research revealed the efficacy of the extraction procedures as well as the antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of birch extracts. PMID:23158079

  16. Splenic epidermoid cyst - a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Rana, Amrit Pal Singh; Kaur, Manjit; Singh, Parvinder; Malhotra, Satish; Kuka, Amarjit Singh

    2014-02-01

    C Splenic epidermoid cysts are relatively uncommon. Most often, they are asymptomatic, but they may present with abdominal discomfort, predominantly at young ages. We are reporting a rare case of 12-years-old female child with history of dull intermittent pain, tender palpable mass in left hypochondrium on physical examination. Ultrasonography (USG) of abdomen showed large cyst in upper pole of spleen, and an X ray of chest revealed slightly raised left hemidiaphragm. Axial sections taken on computerized tomography of abdomen showed a large well defined cystic mass near upper pole of spleen, with a thin septum in it. On laparotomy, open total splenectomy was performed. Sections from cystic wall were processed and histopathological examination revealed fibrous tissue covered by stratified squamous epithelium. Although, now-a-days emphasis is being laid on minimal invasive operative procedures which preserve spleen. This case report favours total splenectomy, considering postoperative outcome. The final diagnosis always depends upon histopathological examination.

  17. Epidermoid cyst: Report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Puranik, Surekha R; Puranik, Rudrayya S; Prakash, Satya; Bimba, M

    2016-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts (ECs) are uncommon, benign cystic lesions derived from the entrapment of surface epithelium or more often from the aberrant healing of infundibular epithelium during an episode of follicular inflammation. ECs occur anywhere on the body, particularly along embryonic fusion lines, most commonly on the face, scalp, neck, chest and upper back. Head and neck ECs constitute only about 7%, whereas only 1.6% of ECs are reported in the oral cavity. They comprise <0.01% of all the oral cysts. Floor of the mouth, tongue, lips, palate, jaws, etc., are some of the reported sites of ECs in the oral cavity. Microscopically, ECs are lined with plain stratified squamous epithelium filled with laminated layers of keratin. Here, we report two rare cases of ECs, one occurring in the gingival aspect and other in the lower third of face. The cases are reported due to rarity of ECs in the head and neck region. PMID:27721628

  18. Pediatric epidermoid cysts masquerading as ranulas: A case series.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Abhita; Kreicher, Kathryn L; Patel, Neha A; Schantz, Stimson; Shinhar, Shai

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric neck masses represent a variety of differential diagnoses. A common pathology in pediatric cystic neck tumors include ranulas, mucus retention cysts due to salivary gland obstruction. Epidermoid cysts are lesions infrequently encountered in the pediatric population and may appear similarly to ranulas on computed tomography imaging. MRI more easily differentiates these masses, and should therefore be the preferred imaging modality. Due to their distinct intraoperative management, ranulas and epidermoid cysts should be distinguished preoperatively through proper workup.

  19. Epidermoid cyst in quadrigeminal cistern presenting with mutism

    PubMed Central

    Kawal, Priyanka; Kumar, Raj

    2010-01-01

    Epidermoid cyst of the quadrigeminal cistern is uncommon, and its presentation as mutism as the main clinical finding with no other neurological finding is very rare. We report a case where the epidermoid cyst presented with progressive symptoms of absolute mutism, which improved significantly following surgery. The possible causes and pathophysiological mechanism of mutism in the lesions of this region are discussed in this paper. PMID:21559169

  20. Epidermoid tumor within Meckel's cave--case report.

    PubMed

    Nadkarni, T; Dindorkar, K; Muzumdar, D; Goel, A

    2000-01-01

    A rare case of an epidermoid tumor lying within Meckel's cave is reported. A 27-year-old housewife presented with complaints of right facial hypesthesia for two and a half years. On examination she had partial loss of touch sensation in the right trigeminal nerve distribution. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a tumor located at the right petrous apex and cavernous sinus. The epidermoid tumor was excised through a lateral basal subtemporal approach. The symptoms resolved following surgery.

  1. Coexistence of intracranial epidermoid tumor and multiple cerebral aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Pei-Sen; Lin, Zhang-Ya; Zheng, Shu-Fa; Lin, Yuan-Xiang; Yu, Liang-Hong; Jiang, Chang-Zhen; Kang, De-Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: There were a few case reports concerning epidermoid tumor coexisted with multiple cerebral aneurysms. Here, we present one case of coexistence of intracranial epidermoid tumor and multiple cerebral aneurysms and performed a literature review. Patient concerns: A 42 years old male patient was admitted to our institution with complaints of headache and dizziness. Interventions: The radiological examinations showed a hypointense lesion in the right parasellar and petrous apex region and an ipsilateral saccular aneurysm originated from the M2–M3 junction of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) and a saccular aneurysm of the clinoid segment of right internal carotid artery (ICA). Interventions: The patients underwent a right frontotemporal approach for removal of the epidermoid tumor and clipping of the MCA aneurysm in one stage. The aneurysm located at the clinoid segment of ICA was invisible and untreated during operation. Outcomes: No postoperative complications were found in the patient. The patient's follow up after 5 years of surgical treatment was uneventful, and the untreated aneurysm remains stable. Lessons: The coexistence of intracranial epidermoid tumor and cerebral aneurysm is a rare event. The secondly inflammation in cerebral arterial wall may be responsible for the aneurysm formation. Surgical treatment of the intracranial epidermoid tumor and cerebral aneurysm repair may be an optimal scheme in one stage. PMID:28151901

  2. Nontraumatic Intradiploic Epidermoid Cyst and Older Age: Association or Causality?

    PubMed

    Turk, Okan; Ozdemir, Nuriye Guzin; Demirel, Nail; Atci, Ibrahim Burak; Kanat, Ayhan; Yolas, Coskun

    2017-09-25

    Intradiploic epidermoid cysts (IEC) are rare, benign lesions derived from ectodermal remnants during neural tube closure. Their origin is still debated or unknown. Analyzing of the patients with intradiploic epidermoid cysts operated in the authors' department. The patients with IEC who were operated in the authors' department between January 2014 and December 2015 were investigated from data file. Six patients with IEC were found, reviewed the literature, and noted that these cysts usually occur in adults. There are only 3 young cases that occurred after head injury. It was shown that the nontraumatic IEC are more frequent in older ages. In youngs, it can generally be embryologic or rarely of mechanical origin following trauma. Cranial trauma may be important for developing of IEC. Trauma may lead to inclusion of epidermal cells into the diploe of the skull and may be a reason of intradiploic epidermoid cyst in older age. The effect of older age, and gender difference on occurrence should be investigated.

  3. Sylvian fissure epidermoid cyst presenting with intention tremor

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Abhidha; Makkiyah, Feda; Goel, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Epidermoid tumors are benign tumors which contain keratin, cellular debris, and cholesterol, and are lined with stratified squamous epithelium. They grow in discreet silence sustained over a multitude of years. The tumors most commonly present with headache and seizures. We report the case of a 24-year-old male with a large sylvian fissure epidermoid tumor who presented with intention tremor. The patient was operated, and a near-total excision of the tumor was performed with a resolution of the tremor. PMID:27057232

  4. Chemo-spectroscopic sensor for carboxyl terminus overexpressed in carcinoma cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Stanca, Sarmiza E; Matthäus, Christian; Neugebauer, Ute; Nietzsche, Sandor; Fritzsche, Wolfgang; Dellith, Jan; Heintzmann, Rainer; Weber, Karina; Deckert, Volker; Krafft, Christoph; Popp, Jürgen

    2015-10-01

    Certain carboxyl groups of the plasma membrane are involved in tumorgenesis processes. A gold core-hydroxyapatite shell (AuHA) nanocomposite is introduced as chemo-spectroscopic sensor to monitor these carboxyl groups of the cell membrane. Hydroxyapatite (HA) plays the role both of a chemical detector and of a biocompatible Raman marker. The principle of detection is based on chemical interaction between the hydroxyl groups of the HA and the carboxyl terminus of the proteins. The AuHA exhibits a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal at 954 cm(-1) which can be used for its localization. The bio-sensing capacity of AuHA towards human skin epidermoid carcinoma (A431) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines is investigated using Raman microspectroscopic imaging. The localization of AuHA on cells is correlated with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and structured illumination fluorescence microscopy. This qualitative approach is a step towards a quantitative study of the proteins terminus. This method would enable further studies on the molecular profiling of the plasma membrane, in an attempt to provide accurate cell identification. Using a gold core-hydroxyapatite shell (AuHA) nanocomposite, the authors in this paper showed the feasibility of detecting and differentiating cell surface molecules by surface enhanced Raman scattering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Unusually Giant Sublingual Epidermoid Cyst: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Nishar, Chintan-C; Ambulgekar, Vijayalaxmi-K.; Gujrathi, Atish-B.; Chavan, Pravin-T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Epidermoid cysts are rare, slow‑growing, benign, developmental cysts, which are derived from abnormally situated ectodermal tissue. Epidermoid cysts of the floor of the mouth represent <0.01% of all oral cysts. So far, only a few cases have been reported. Case Report: Hereby, we present a case of a giant sublingual epidermoid cyst, which was completely asymptomatic upon presentation. However, due to its large size, it pushed the epiglottis posteriorly and created difficulty during intubation. The patient developed respiratory distress after its surgical excision and extubation, requiring tracheostomy post operatively. The patient recovered well and a successful weaning of tracheostomy was performed, giving the patient a healthy life. Conclusion: Epidermoid cyst is a rare differential diagnosis of sublingual swelling that should be kept in mind for large asymptomatic swellings in this region. The only symptom it can cause might be respiratory distress due to its large size. This can happen not only pre-operatively but also post-operatively and the surgeon should be ready for immediate tracheostomy. PMID:27602342

  6. Epidermoid cyst of the ileum in a miniature dachshund dog

    PubMed Central

    Shimamura, Shunsuke; Kainuma, Risa; Kimura, Ken; Okamura, Yasuhiko; Kobayashi, Saori; Katayama, Masaaki; Sato, Reeko; Yasuda, Jun

    2014-01-01

    A 13-year-old castrated male miniature dachshund dog was presented with chronic vomiting and diarrhea. Contrast radiography and surgical exploration revealed an ileal cyst, which was excised. A diagnosis of epidermoid cyst was made from a combination of the clinical findings and histological examination of the surgical specimen. PMID:24688137

  7. [Rare giant retroauricular epidermoid cyst: a case report].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Enhui; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Xiaocheng

    2016-03-01

    Epidermnoid cysts are henign, cutaneous cysts which commonly occur on face, neck and trunk. Retroauricular epidermoid cyst is rare reported which should be differentiated from auricle pseudocyst, lipoma, steatocystoma and fibroma. The hitopathological examination is a gold standard of diagnosis. Surgery of complete excision is the first choice of treatment methods.

  8. Lateral intraventricular epidermoid in a child with hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Aher, Rajendra B.; Singh, Daljit; Singh, Hukum; Saran, R. K.

    2012-01-01

    Lateral intraventricular tumors are uncommon. They grow linearly rather than exponentially and hence are slow-growing lesions without causing mass effects and hydrocephalus. We report a rare case of large bulky right intraventricular epidermoid tumor in a child. This tumor was associated with mass effect on the surrounding structures and hydrocephalus. PMID:23560010

  9. Subconjunctival epidermoid cysts in Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

    PubMed

    De Craene, S; Batteauw, A; Van Lint, M; Claerhout, I; Decock, C

    2014-08-01

    Epidermoid cysts are common benign cysts which occur particularly on the skin of the face, neck and upper trunk. Subconjunctival location of these cysts is very rare and, until today, only seen in patients with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome. Histopathological examination of these cysts show similarities with odontogenic keratocysts, a typical clinical manifestation of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

  10. Meckel's cave epidermoid with trigeminal neuralgia: CT findings.

    PubMed

    Kapila, A; Steinbaum, S; Chakeres, D W

    1984-12-01

    An epidermoid tumor of Meckel's cave was found in a middle-aged woman with trigeminal neuralgia. On CT the lesion had negative attenuation numbers of fat and extended from an expanded Meckel's cave through the porous trigeminus into the ambient and cerebellopontine angle cisterns. Surgical excision provided relief of the patient's trigeminal neuralgia.

  11. Cacospongionolide and scalaradial, two marine sesterterpenoids as potent apoptosis-inducing factors in human carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    De Stefano, Daniela; Tommonaro, Giuseppina; Malik, Shoaib Ahmad; Iodice, Carmine; De Rosa, Salvatore; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Carnuccio, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death, is a critical defence mechanism against the formation and progression of cancer and acts by eliminating potentially deleterious cells without causing such adverse effects, as inflammatory response and ensuing scar formation. Therefore, targeting apoptotic pathways becomes an intriguing strategy for the development of chemotherapeutic agents. In last decades, marine natural products, such as sesterterpenoids, have played an important role in the discovery and development of new drugs. Interestingly, many of these compounds have a strong potential as anticancer drugs by inhibiting cell proliferation and/or inducing cell death. In the present study, we investigated the effects of scalaradial and cacospongionolide, two sesterterpenoids from Cacospongia scalaris and Fasciospongia cavernosa marine sponges, on the apoptotic signalling pathway in three different human tumoral cells. Results were obtained by using DNA fragmentation, comet and viability assays, quantification of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and Western blot. The T47D (human breast carcinoma), A431 (human epidermoid carcinoma), HeLa (human cervix carcinoma) and HCT116 (human colon carcinoma) cells were incubated for 24 h with scalaradial or cacospongionolide. Treatment of T47D cells with scalaradial or cacospongionolide for 24 h brought about a significant increase in DNA migration as well as fragmentation. Moreover, incubation of HCT116 and HeLa cells with scalaradial or cacospongionolide for 24 h caused an increased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins. Furthermore, scalaradial or cacospongionolide, added to HCT116 and HeLa cells overnight, induced a significant and concentration-dependent loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, an early apoptosis signalling event. These effects paralleled with those achieved with p50 and p65, NF-κB subunits, nuclear level. In conclusion, scalaradial and cacospongionolide, by determining human cancer cell

  12. Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Increases Ca(2+)sub i via Receptor- Mediated Ca(2+) Channels in Human Epidermoid A-431 Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    8217 • r.006 O’c O"I4 1-s ".4 41 ww(". IRT OATE_- ’ 3 . REPOEr TYPE ANO DAY[S COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUIY171. S. FUNDING NUMBERS Corticotropin-releasing...ORGANIZATION NAM.E(S) AND ADOISES 3 EFRMN RANZTO Walter Reeed Army Institute of Research RIPORT NUMBER WashingtontoDC 20307-5100 9. SPONSORING/ MONITORING AGCNCv...of thetd NsiCd a11i.hamesO)alto• did am Moak the macs Is mC•n Tlacd by CR?. eRFI ab cumid [Cal He coels rate wi1*TMB-6oir Wsyanoim, kibbitaso

  13. [Paratrigeminal epidermoid originated in the meckel's cave (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Miyasaka, Y; Morii, S; Tachibana, S; Saito, T; Ohwada, T

    1976-05-01

    We have reported a case of paratrigeminal epidermoid originated in the Meckel's cave. A 30 years old man was admitted to the department of neurosurgery with chief complaints of continuous right facial pain and numbness of entire right side of the face of three years duration. The positive neurological findings were hypesthesia over the distribution of the right trigeminal nerve, absence of the right corneal reflex and nystagmus on left lateral gaze. Caloric response was absent on the right side, however the audiogram showed normal. Cerebrospinal fluid examination was within normal limit. Electromyography showed giant spike in the right masseter and temporal muscles. Radiogram of the skull revealed a bone-destroying lesion over the medial florr of the right middle fossa involving the apex of the petrous bone (Fig 1). Right carotid angiography showed straightening and forward displacement of C4- C5 portion of the carotid siphon in the lateral view, and vertebral angiography showed displacement of basilar artery to the left side, upward displacement of the right posterior cerebral and superior cerebellar artery in the frontal view (Fig. 2, 3). At the time of operation, an epidermoid was identified in the Meckel's cave and totally removed microsurgically. Small amount of the tumor extending into the posterior fossa was also removed (Fig. 4, 5, 6, 7). Postoperative course was uneventfull except for an episode of headache and high fever of short duration, suggesting the signs of meningial irritation. Two months postoperativelly patient was relived of facial pain and was discharged with sensory impairment of the right trigeminal nerve distribution. Only 11 cases of paratrigeminal epidermoid, including the cases localized in the Meckel's cave have been reported in the past literatures (Table 1). In this paper we have discussed about the symptomatology and clinical data of paratrigeminal epidermoid and compared with those of trigeminal neurinoma, and meningioma originated

  14. Novel Approach of Using Near-Infrared Responsive PEGylated Gold Nanorod Coated Poly(l-lactide) Microneedles to Enhance the Antitumor Efficiency of Docetaxel-Loaded MPEG-PDLLA Micelles for Treating an A431 Tumor.

    PubMed

    Hao, Ying; Dong, MingLing; Zhang, TaoYe; Peng, JinRong; Jia, YanPeng; Cao, YiPing; Qian, ZhiYong

    2017-05-10

    The combination of chemotherapy and photothermal therapy (PTT) plays a significant role in synergistic tumor therapy. However, a high dosage of chemotherapy drugs or photothermal agents may cause series side effects. To overcome these challenges, we designed a near-infrared (NIR) responsive PEGylated gold nanorod (GNR-PEG) coated poly(l-lactide) microneedle (PLLA MN) system (GNR-PEG@MN) to enhance antitumor efficiency of docetaxel-loaded MPEG-PDLLA (MPEG-PDLLA-DTX) micelles for treating an A431 tumor. The as-made GNR-PEG@MNs contained only 31.83 ± 1.22 μg of GNR-PEG per patch and exhibited excellent heating efficacy both in vitro and in vivo. Meanwhile, GNR-PEG@MN with the height of 480 μm had good skin insertion ability and was harmless to the skin. On the other hand, GNR-PEG@MN had good heating transfer ability in vivo, and the tumor sites could reach 50 °C within 5 min. In comparison with chemotherapy and PTT alone, the combination of low dosage MPEG-PDLLA-DTX micelles (5 mg/kg) and GNR-PEG@MNs completely eradicated the A431 tumor without recurrence in vivo, demonstrating a remarkable synergetic effect. Hence, GNR-PEG@MN could be a promising carrier to enhance the antitumor effect of MPEG-PDLLA-DTX micelles for treating superficial tumors and is expected to have a great potential in clinical translation for human epidermoid cancer therapy.

  15. Intramedullary spinal epidermoid cyst of the cervicodorsal region: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok; Singh, Pritish; Jain, Pramod; Badole, C M

    2010-01-01

    Intramedullary spinal epidermoid cysts are rare, with only few cases having been reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of a 10-year-old female child who presented with symptoms of meningitis with progressive paraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed an intramedullary epidermoid cyst from C6 to D5. Near-total excision of the tumor was performed. Histopathological report confirmed the diagnosis of epidermoid cyst. The patient showed progressive recovery.

  16. Epidermoid cyst of the floor of the mouth

    PubMed Central

    Baliga, Mohan; Shenoy, Nandita; Poojary, Dharnappa; Mohan, Ram; Naik, Ramdas

    2014-01-01

    Dermoid cysts are malformations that are rarely seen in the oral cavity. An intraoral dermoid cyst grows slowly, but may enlarge and interfere with deglutition and speech, or can pose a critical risk to the airway and therefore require immediate surgical intervention. Dermoid cysts may develop above or below the mylohyoid muscle, causing a submental or submandibular swelling. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice and recurrence is rare. An intraoral approach for the treatment of large lesions presenting above the mylohyoid muscle provides good cosmetic and functional results. We report a case of a 26-year-old female who developed an epidermoid cyst presenting as a large sublingual swelling causing speech and swallowing difficulties. The lesion was surgically excised using an intraoral approach. Microscopic examination revealed a dermoid cyst of the epidermoid type. This case shows that dermoid cysts may be successfully diagnosed and managed using a series of simple yet effective clinical procedure. PMID:25298725

  17. Craniopharyngioma and epidermoid tumour in same child: a rare association

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Deepak Kumar; Singh, Neha; Parihar, Anit; Singh, Ragini

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous occurrence of histologically different primary brain tumours is rare, and its preoperative diagnosis is still challenging. The explanations for the simultaneous occurrence of different primary intracranial tumours in the absence of phacomatoses or prior radiation exposure are at present hypothetical, and these tumours could be simply coincidental. Herein, we report a case of a boy presenting with features of raised intracranial pressure and right-sided sensorineural hearing loss. Brain MRI revealed two different neoplastic pathologies at different sites: an intrasellar and suprasellar craniopharyngioma and a right cerebello-pontine angle epidermoid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in literature of a craniopharyngioma coexisting with an epidermoid, in the same individual. PMID:23737578

  18. Sublingual Epidermoid Cyst Presenting with Distinctive Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Naohiro; Kodama, Kozue; Iino, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    A case of sublingual epidermoid cyst presenting distinctive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings is described. A 39-year-old man presented to our hospital with a three months progressive left submandibular swelling, difficulty moving his tongue, and snoring. Preoperative evaluation with MRI and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) revealed that the heterogeneous cystic lesion contained the squamous cells, which is compatible with ectodermal tissue. The mass was located above the mylohyoid muscle and spread to the pharyngeal space. By considering the size, infection history, patient age, and location, the cyst was completely resected under general anesthesia via cervical approach without any complication. Histopathologically, the cyst wall was lined by stratified squamous epithelium with no skin appendage, suggesting an epidermoid cyst. Ultrasound (US), MRI and FNAC were very useful of the preoperative diagnosis for oral and sublingual lesion. The postoperative course was uneventful and without recurrence after 24 months. This case showed that epidermoid cysts formed the rarely heterogeneous cystic tumor and it underlined usefulness of preoperative diagnosis, such as US, MRI and FNAC for oral and sublingual tumor. PMID:25332766

  19. Eldecalcitol (ED-71), an analog of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 as a potential anti-cancer agent for oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Shintani, T; Rosli, S N Z; Takatsu, F; Choon, Y F; Hayashido, Y; Toratani, S; Usui, E; Okamoto, T

    2016-11-01

    We have previously reported that 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibits NF-κB activity and thus inhibits growth of OSCC cells in serum-free culture and down-regulates HBp17/FGFBP-1 expression, which is important for cancer cell growth and angiogenesis. Here, we have investigated the effects of ED-71, an analog of vitamin D3 (VD) on OSCC cell lines in serum-free culture. It is known that ED-71 has a stronger inhibitory effect on bone resorption compared to VD and other VD analogs. To the best of our knowledge, there was no report examining the potential of ED-71 as an anti-cancer agent for OSCC. We found that ED-71 is able to inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines at a concentration of hundred times lower than calcitriol. As Cyp24A1 was reportedly induced in cancer cells, we measured the expression of CYP24A1 in OSCC cell lines (NA and UE), A431 epidermoid carcinoma and normal fibroblast cell (gfi) in serum-free culture. As a result, CYP24A1 mRNA and the protein expression in the OSCC cells treated with ED-71 increased in a dose-dependent manner. However, in vivo experiment, in which the A431 cells were implanted in mice, tumor formation was reduced by the ED-71 treatment with no significant difference between Cyp24A1 expression in the tumors of ED-71-treated and control group, as analyzed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. These results suggest that ED-71 is a potential anti-cancer agent for OSCC.

  20. The Transcription Factor AP-1 Is Required for EGF-induced Activation of Rho-like GTPases, Cytoskeletal Rearrangements, Motility, and In Vitro Invasion of A431 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Malliri, Angeliki; Symons, Marc; Hennigan, Robert F.; Hurlstone, Adam F.L.; Lamb, Richard F.; Wheeler, Tricia; Ozanne, Bradford W.

    1998-01-01

    Human squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) frequently express elevated levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). EGFR overexpression in SCC-derived cell lines correlates with their ability to invade in an in vitro invasion assay in response to EGF, whereas benign epidermal cells, which express low levels of EGFR, do not invade. EGF-induced invasion of SCC-derived A431 cells is inhibited by sustained expression of the dominant negative mutant of c-Jun, TAM67, suggesting a role for the transcription factor AP-1 (activator protein-1) in regulating invasion. Significantly, we establish that sustained TAM67 expression inhibits growth factor–induced cell motility and the reorganization of the cytoskeleton and cell-shape changes essential for this process: TAM67 expression inhibits EGF-induced membrane ruffling, lamellipodia formation, cortical actin polymerization and cell rounding. Introduction of a dominant negative mutant of Rac and of the Rho inhibitor C3 transferase into A431 cells indicates that EGF-induced membrane ruffling and lamellipodia formation are regulated by Rac, whereas EGF-induced cortical actin polymerization and cell rounding are controlled by Rho. Constitutively activated mutants of Rac or Rho introduced into A431 or A431 cells expressing TAM67 (TA cells) induce equivalent actin cytoskeletal rearrangements, suggesting that the effector pathways downstream of Rac and Rho required for these responses are unimpaired by sustained TAM67 expression. However, EGF-induced translocation of Rac to the cell membrane, which is associated with its activation, is defective in TA cells. Our data establish a novel link between AP-1 activity and EGFR activation of Rac and Rho, which in turn mediate the actin cytoskeletal rearrangements required for cell motility and invasion. PMID:9817764

  1. Intracranial epidermoid tumor; microneurosurgical management: An experience of 23 cases

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Forhad Hossain; Haque, Mohammod Raziul; Sarker, Mainul Haque

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: An intracranial epidermoid tumor is relatively a rare tumor, accounting for approximately 0.1% of all intracranial space occupying lesions. These are also known as pearly tumor due to their pearl like appearance. In this series, the localization of the tumor, presenting age and symptoms, imaging criteria for diagnosis, surgical management strategy with completeness of excision and overall outcome were studied prospectively. Here, we report our short experience of intracranial epidermoid as a whole. Materials and Methods: Between January 2006 to December 2010, 23 cases of intracranial epidermoid were diagnosed preoperatively with almost certainty by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain in plain, contrast and other relevant studies. All of them underwent operation in Dhaka Medical College Hospital and in some Private Hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. All patients were followed-up routinely by clinical examination and neuroimaging. Average follow-up was 39 (range-71-11months) months. Patients of the series were prospectively studied. Results: Supratentorial epidermoids were 04 cases and infratemporal epidermoids were 19 cases. Clinical features and surgical strategy varies according to the location and extension of the tumors. Age range was 19-71 years (37.46 years). Common clinical features were headache, cerebellar features, seizure, vertigo, hearing impairment and features of raised intracranial pressure (ICP). Investigation was CT scan or/+ MRI of brain in all cases. Pre-operative complete excision was 20 cases, but post-operative images showed complete excision in 17 cases. Content of tumor was pearly white/white material in all cases except one, where content was putty material. Re-operation for residual/recurrent tumor was nil. Complications included pre-operative mortality one case, persisted sixth nerve palsy in one case, transient memory disturbance one case, and extra dural hematoma one case. One senior patient

  2. Tubulopapillary mammary carcinoma in a brown bear (Ursus arctos).

    PubMed

    Nak, Deniz; Cangul, I Taci; Nak, Yavuz; Cihan, Huseyin; Celimli, Nureddin

    2008-04-01

    A 28-yr-old, nulliparous female brown bear (Ursus arctos) at the Karacabey Ovakurusu Bear Sanctuary presented with an enlargement of the mammary gland. Three other nodules were also noted in the proximity of the mammary gland and over the vulva. Clinical, hematologic, ultrasonographic, and radiologic examinations were performed; the enlarged mammary gland was removed and the other masses were also excised. Histopathologic examination revealed tubulopapillary carcinoma of the mammary gland, and the other masses were diagnosed as epidermoid cysts. This is the first reported case of tubulopapillary mammary carcinoma accompanied by epidermoid cysts in a bear.

  3. Incidental frontal lobe mixed density epidermoid tumor in a patient of head injury: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pankaj; Mittal, Radheyshyam; Gandhi, Ashok; Sharma, Achal; Gandhi, Sapna

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of the epidermoid tumor is approximately 0.2-1.8% of all intracranial tumors. Epidermoid tumors are typically intradural, but extra-axial in location and only rarely found within the brain substance. We are reporting the first case of incidental mixed density frontal epidermoid tumor in a patient of head injury. Difficulty in the preoperative diagnosis and uncommon presentation of the intracranial epidermoid tumor prompted us to report this case.

  4. Incidental frontal lobe mixed density epidermoid tumor in a patient of head injury: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pankaj; Mittal, Radheyshyam; Gandhi, Ashok; Sharma, Achal; Gandhi, Sapna

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of the epidermoid tumor is approximately 0.2–1.8% of all intracranial tumors. Epidermoid tumors are typically intradural, but extra-axial in location and only rarely found within the brain substance. We are reporting the first case of incidental mixed density frontal epidermoid tumor in a patient of head injury. Difficulty in the preoperative diagnosis and uncommon presentation of the intracranial epidermoid tumor prompted us to report this case. PMID:26425171

  5. [Epidermoid cysts in the pineal region--analysis of four cases and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Laleva, M; Uzunov, K; Gabrovski, N; abrovski, St

    2009-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts represent 0.2-1% of all intracranial tumours. Extremely rare they are found in the pineal region. We present four patients with epidermoid cysts located in the pineal region observed and operated by the senior author (S.G.) during a period of twenty years and review of the literature.

  6. Clinical Characteristics of Idiopathic Epidermoid and Dermoid Cysts of the Ear

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yesun; Lee, Dong-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Epidermoid and dermoid cysts are benign cystic lesions, lined by ectodermal squamous epithelium. They are not common in the head and neck areas, which constitute ~7% of all cases of epidermoid and dermoid cysts. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of epidermoid and dermoid cysts that developed around the ear. Subjects and Methods The clinical records were retrospectively reviewed for patients confirmed histologically as idiopathic epidermoid and dermoid cysts of the ear from January 2011 to December 2015. Results Total 15 cases consisted of 14 epidermoid cysts and only 1 dermoid cyst. There were 11 males and 4 females (mean age of 37.8±16.8 years old). Right side was 7 cases and left was 8. The cyst was located at the lobule in 4 cases, at the ear canal in 4 cases, at the preauricular area in 4 cases, and at the postauricular area in 3 cases. In cases of epidermoid cysts, there was no significant difference in age, sex, and size according to the location. Patients with cysts on helix were younger than others. Conclusions This study demonstrated that most cutaneous cysts developing around the ear were epidermoid cysts and there was no site preference for occurrence of epidermoid cysts. PMID:28704893

  7. Case study: Epidermoid cyst following percutaneous Topaz coblation for plantar fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Kim; Thomson, Allan George; Moir, John Stuart

    2012-03-01

    An epidermoid cyst is formed when there is proliferation of epidermal cells within an area of the dermis. They may be formed by the traumatic implantation of epidermal cells within the dermis as well as many other mechanisms. We present a case of epidermoid cyst formation following Topaz coblation for plantar fasciitis; a complication we believe is yet to be reported in the literature.

  8. Mood Disorder as an Early Presentation of Epidermoid of Quadrigeminal Cistern.

    PubMed

    Kar, Sujita Kumar; Das, Kuntal Kanti; Jaiswal, Awadhesh Kumar; Jaiswal, Sushila

    2017-01-01

    Intracranial epidermoids are space-occupying lesions of rare variant. Although cerebropontine angle and parasellar region are common sites of occurrence, it has been reported in various other parts of the intracranial cavity. Headache and features of increased intracranial tension are the common clinical manifestation. Report of psychiatric symptoms as the initial presentation of epidermoid is not known in literature except a single case report, which describes mutism to be the manifestation of intracranial epidermoid. We present here the case of a young male, who presented with long depressive episode persisting for 3 years with subsequent switch to mania, which persisted for more than 3 years. An episode of unconsciousness warranted neuroimaging, which revealed a large epidermoid of the quadrigeminal cistern. Surgical resection of the epidermoid was done. Persisting mood symptoms had responded to mood stabilizer and antipsychotic treatment.

  9. Epidermoid Cyst Arising in the Buccal Mucosa: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel; Chaves, Filipe Nobre; de Almeida, Stephanie; Alves, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes; Patrocínio, Régia Maria do Socorro Vidal; Sousa, Fabrício Bitu; Pereira, Karuza Maria Alves

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are benign subcutaneous lesions, and the large majority of these cysts affect the floor of the mouth; however, the buccal mucosa is not a usual site of occurrence. To date, only 5 articles have been published with 6 cases of epidermoid cysts arising in the buccal mucosa. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical features of a case of epidermoid cyst located in the buccal mucosa. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an oral epidermoid cyst describing an intense foreign body gigantocellular inflammatory reaction against epithelial keratin component. Although the usual diagnosis for epidermoid cysts is based on histopathological findings, this case report addresses novel information regarding to the immunohistochemical pattern that may be found in these lesions. PMID:27688388

  10. [Epidermoid neoplasm of the fourth ventricle. Report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Santos-Franco, Jorge Arturo; Vallejo-Moncada, Cristóbal; Collado-Arce, Griselda; Villalpando-Navarrete, Edgar; Sandoval-Balanzario, M

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: los tumores epidermoides representan 1 % de las neoplasias intracraneales; el ángulo pontocerebeloso es la localización más frecuente y en el cuarto ventrículo son raros. Casos clínicos: caso 1: mujer de 22 años de edad con cefalea intensa de tres meses de evolución. Al ingreso se identificó hipertensión endocraneana. La tomografía mostró hidrocefalia con aumento del volumen del cuarto ventrículo. La paciente fue tratada con derivación ventrículo-peritoneal; posteriormente se extirpó tumoración encapsulada de aspecto perlado. El estudio histológico indicó tumor epidermoide en el cuarto ventrículo. Caso 2: mujer de 44 años de edad con vértigo ocasional de cinco años de evolución, así como con diploplía y disfagia intermitentes de tres años de evolución. Al ingresó se identificó paresia bilateral de los nervios craneales VI y VII. La tomografía computarizada y la resonancia magnética mostraron lesión en el cuatro ventrículo. El manejo fue quirúrgico. Conclusiones: la resonancia magnética es el estudio diagnóstico específico para el diagnóstico del tumor epidermoide del cuarto ventrículo que, sin embargo, puede confundirse con neurocisticercosis. Están indicados la exéresis del quiste y el tratamiento de la hidrocefalia.

  11. Neurofibroma and epidermoid cyst: unexpected findings after first foreskin retraction.

    PubMed

    Ballouhey, Quentin; Longis, Bernard; Couvrat-Carcauzon, Véronique; Gardic, Solène; Piguet, Christophe; Berenguer, Daniel; Fourcade, Laurent

    2013-12-01

    We report here 2 unusual cases of tumor of the glans penis in children. Abnormal findings were found on a 12-year-old and a 13-year-old boy soon after their first foreskin retraction. Initial medical examination suggested inclusions of smegma and they were referred to our Department of Pediatric Urology. Complete resection was performed under general anesthesia. Histologic examination revealed an epidermoid cyst in the first patient and a solitary neurofibroma in the second. These patients represent respectively the third and the second cases of such entities described in the pediatric age group. Cautious examination is required for persistent inclusions of smegma.

  12. [A case of epidermoid tumor inside the Meckel's cave].

    PubMed

    Ohta, H; Ottomo, M; Nakamura, T; Yokota, A

    1997-10-01

    An epidermoid tumor inside the Meckel's cave is rare. The symptoms caused by this tumor include trigeminal neuralgia, facial hypesthesia and paresis of the 3rd, 4th and 6th nerves. A case of epidermoid tumor inside Meckel's cave was presented. A 54-year-old female who had complained of 3rd nerve palsy with right facial hypesthesia since 3 years before was referred to our clinic. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed the tumor at Meckel's cave. The tumor removal was performed using the orbito-zygomatic approach. To avoid injury of the internal carotid artery and nerves inside the cavernous sinus, removal of the tumor inside the capsule was carried out leaving the capsule. Postoperatively, the tumor removal was confirmed by MRI and improvement of the 3rd and the 5th nerve palsy was obtained three months after surgery. This case suggests that the capsule of the tumor inside the Meckel's cave should be allowed to remain to avoid injury of the adjacent 4th, 5th and 6th nerves and of the internal carotid artery.

  13. GPR87 mediates lysophosphatidic acid-induced colony dispersal in A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Shoichi; Furuta, Daisuke; Sugita, Kazuya; Taniura, Hideo; Fujita, Norihisa

    2013-09-05

    We have previously reported that an orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR87 was activated by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and that it induced an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) levels in the CHO cells genetically engineered to express GPR87-Gα16 fusion protein. Because the Ca(2+) response was blocked by the LPA receptor antagonist Ki16425, GPR87 was suggested to be a putative LPA receptor. However, further studies are required to confirm whether GPR87 is an LPA receptor. A previous study showed that colonies of A431 cells treated with LPA showed rapid and synchronized dissociation. Because A431 cells have been shown to express GPR87, we used these cells to examine whether GPR87 acted as an LPA receptor. When A431 cells were treated with gpr87-specific siRNA, the expression of GPR87 was decreased and LPA-induced colony dispersal was significantly reduced. Treatment of the cells with lpa1 siRNA had an additive effect in decrease in the colony dispersal. Studies on the LPA-mediated signaling pathway in A431 cells indicated that transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by LPA led to cell scattering. PD153035, an inhibitor of tyrosine-kinase of EGFR, and BB94, an inhibitor of metalloprotease which produces a ligand for EGFR, significantly prevented the LPA-induced scattering of A431 cells pretreated with lpa1 or gpr87-siRNA. These results strongly suggested that GPR87 acts as an LPA receptor and induces colony dispersal via the transactivation of EGFR in A431 cells. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva; Almeida, Maria Carolina Leal; Costa, Alessandra Scorse; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Serrano, Rodrigo Lorenzetti; Machado Filho, Carlos D'Apparecida Santos

    2016-01-01

    Background Heparanase is an enzyme that cleaves heparan sulfate chains. Oligosaccharides generated by heparanase induce tumor progression. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma comprise types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Objectives Evaluate the glycosaminoglycans profile and expression of heparanase in two human cell lines established in culture, immortalized skin keratinocyte (HaCaT) and squamous cell carcinoma (A431) and also investigate the expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and eyelid skin of individuals not affected by the disease (control). Methods Glycosaminoglycans were quantified by electrophoresis and indirect ELISA method. The heparanase expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRTPCR). Results The A431 strain showed significant increase in the sulfated glycosaminoglycans, increased heparanase expression and decreased hyaluronic acid, comparing to the HaCaT lineage. The mRNA expression of heparanase was significantly higher in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma compared with control skin samples. It was also observed increased heparanase expression in squamous cell carcinoma compared to the Basal cell carcinoma. Conclusion The glycosaminoglycans profile, as well as heparanase expression are different between HaCaT and A431 cell lines. The increased expression of heparanase in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma suggests that this enzyme could be a marker for the diagnosis of such types of non-melanoma cancers, and may be useful as a target molecule for future alternative treatment. PMID:27828631

  15. Expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva; Almeida, Maria Carolina Leal; Costa, Alessandra Scorse; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Serrano, Rodrigo Lorenzetti; Machado, Carlos D'Apparecida Santos

    2016-01-01

    Heparanase is an enzyme that cleaves heparan sulfate chains. Oligosaccharides generated by heparanase induce tumor progression. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma comprise types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Evaluate the glycosaminoglycans profile and expression of heparanase in two human cell lines established in culture, immortalized skin keratinocyte (HaCaT) and squamous cell carcinoma (A431) and also investigate the expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and eyelid skin of individuals not affected by the disease (control). Glycosaminoglycans were quantified by electrophoresis and indirect ELISA method. The heparanase expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRTPCR). The A431 strain showed significant increase in the sulfated glycosaminoglycans, increased heparanase expression and decreased hyaluronic acid, comparing to the HaCaT lineage. The mRNA expression of heparanase was significantly higher in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma compared with control skin samples. It was also observed increased heparanase expression in squamous cell carcinoma compared to the Basal cell carcinoma. The glycosaminoglycans profile, as well as heparanase expression are different between HaCaT and A431 cell lines. The increased expression of heparanase in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma suggests that this enzyme could be a marker for the diagnosis of such types of non-melanoma cancers, and may be useful as a target molecule for future alternative treatment.

  16. Unusually large submandibular epidermoid cyst: A case report, differential diagnosis and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Passi, Deepak; Singh, Geeta; Mehta, Gagan; Singhal, Deepika

    2014-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are rare, slow-growing, benign, and developmental cysts that are derived from abnormally situated ectodermal tissue. Epidermoid cysts may grow anywhere on the body and about 7% of them are located in the head and neck. These cysts arise from traumatic implantation of epithelium or entrapment of epithelial remnants during embryonic fusion. Histopathologically, they are lined by stratified squamous epithelium and lumen without any skin appendages. Here, we present a case of large epidermoid cyst occurring in submandibular region. PMID:24963258

  17. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) sensitive phosphorylation of calmodulin (CAM) in A431 cell membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, P.H.; Selinfreund, R.; Wharton, W.

    1986-05-01

    A431, a transformed cell line, is known to contain a high concentration of EGF receptors (EGFR). Exogenous CAM, when combined with purified membrane from A431 is strongly phosphorylated in the presence of EGF. The EGF-dependent phosphorylation of CAM did not alter the normal profile of the A431 EGFR autophosphorylation, as demonstrated by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. In addition to its EGF dependency, the presence of divalent cations is also critical for CAM phosphorylation. The presence of a divalent cation chelator, such as EGTA, caused a complete inhibition of CAM phosphorylation, which can be reversed with cations in the following order of effectiveness: Mg/sup + +/ > Mn/sup + +/ > Ca/sup + +/. Divalent cations also break up CAM into four co-migrating bands as indicated by Coomassie Blue stained gels and the corresponding autoradiograms. Double antibody precipitation followed by phospho-amino acid analysis revealed that the EGF-sensitive CAM phosphorylation occurs exclusively on the serine residue. Using radioimmunoassay, purified A431 membrane was shown to contain a significant amount of endogenous CAM. The implications of the EGF-sensitive CAM phosphorylation are currently under investigation.

  18. Multiple epidermoid cysts located in the pineal and extracranial regions treated by neuroendoscopy.

    PubMed

    Kurosaki, Kunikazu; Hayashi, Nakamasa; Hamada, Hideo; Hori, Emiko; Kurimoto, Masanori; Endo, Shunro

    2005-04-01

    A 22-year-old woman presented with a rare case of multiple epidermoid cysts located in the pineal and extracranial regions. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed a lesion in the pineal region as hypointense on the T(1)-weighted image and hyperintense on the T(2)-weighted image, without enhancement. Neuroendoscopic treatment was performed under a diagnosis of pineal cyst. However, the cyst wall was too thick to perforate, although third ventriculostomy was performed. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging demonstrated the lesions in the pineal and extracranial regions as marked hyperintensity. The diagnosis was epidermoid cyst. Subsequently, neuroendoscopic treatment of the pineal epidermoid cyst was performed. Careful preoperative diagnosis of epidermoid cysts based on diffusion-weighted MR imaging is required.

  19. Intraosseous epidermoid cyst of the distal phalanx reconstructed with synthetic bone graft.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hiromi; Nagano, Satoshi; Shimada, Hirofumi; Nakashima, Takayuki; Yokouchi, Masahiro; Ishidou, Yasuhiro; Setoguchi, Takao; Komiya, Setsuro

    2017-01-01

    Intraosseous epidermoid cysts are exceedingly rare. Known as pseudotumors, not true neoplasms, intraosseous epidermoid cysts usually involve the phalanges, the skull, and the toes. Intraosseous epidermoid cysts typically present as destructive osteolytic lesions on X-ray, mimicking malignant bone tumors. Here, we present two cases of an intraosseous epidermoid cyst in the distal phalanx treated with curettage and synthetic bone graft, followed by a review of the relevant literature. In both cases, the patient presented with a painful enlargement of the fingertip following a minor trauma. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated lesions involving the distal phalanx that had a low signal on T1-weighted imaging (WI) and a high intensity on T2-WI. In both cases, the lesions were not enhanced by gadolinium. Good remodeling and functional recoveries were obtained. For physically active patients with substantial bone defects, synthetic bone graft may be recommended.

  20. Epidermoid cysts: an exclusive palatal presentation and a case series.

    PubMed

    Ravindranath, Abhilash Pasare; Ramalingam, Karthikeyan; Natesan, Anuja; Ramani, Pratibha; Premkumar, Priya; Thiruvengadam, Chandrasekar

    2009-04-01

    Epidermoid cysts (EC) can occur anywhere in the body. In the head and neck region, they more often present in the midline between the submental region and the supra sternal notch. EC in the oral cavity are extremely rare and present as benign, slow growing lesions. Records from College of Dental Surgery, Saveetha University, from 2002 to 2006 were searched for cases coded as EC. The study included 13 cases within the oral and maxillofacial region. Of the 13 cases, 11 occurred in male patients and 2 in female patients. Specific anatomic locations included posterior auricular region (n = 2), forehead region (n = 2), lateral side of the face (n = 3), chin (n = 1), gingiva (n = 3), intraosseous within the anterior maxilla (n = 1), and hard palate (n = 1). Besides the previously reported locations, we present the first case occurring in the hard palate, measuring 5 x 3 cm in size along with melanin pigmentation.

  1. Development of an ErbB-overexpressing A-431 Optical Reporting Tumor Xenograft Model to Assess Targeted Photodynamic Therapy Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Savellano, Mark D.; Owusu-Brackett, Nicci; Son, Ji; Callier, Thierri; Savellano, Dagmar Högemann

    2010-01-01

    To better assess the efficacy of erbB-targeted therapies, it would help to have optical reporting human tumor xenograft models that abundantly express erbB receptors. A-431 cells have frequently been used in erbB1-targeting studies, but a well-characterized optical reporting version of the cell line has not been readily available. In this study, optical reporting A-431 clones were developed that express both a fluorescent protein reporter (green, GFP; or red, RFP) and a bioluminescent reporter, firefly luciferase. Reporter genes were transduced into cells using commercial lentiviral vectors, and clonal selection was carried out using a series of procedures. A number of clones were isolated for further characterization. A GFP/luciferase clone, A-431/D4, and an RFP/luciferase clone, A-431/G4, were obtained that exhibit erbB1 expression levels and tumor growth kinetics similar to the parental cells. To demonstrate the utility of the optical reporting clones, A-431/G4 tumors were grown subcutaneously in nude mice and treated with vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (PDT), which targets the angiogenic consequences of erbB signaling. The A-431/G4 tumor model permitted highly sensitive longitudinal monitoring of PDT treatment response using optical imaging. A-431/D4 and A-431/G4 optical reporting tumor models should also prove useful for assessing therapies that directly target the erbB1 receptor. PMID:20880229

  2. S100A7 induction is repressed by YAP via the Hippo pathway in A431 cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junhao; Hu, Enze; Wang, Rui; Liu, Jin; Xiao, Qianqian; Zhang, Weiqing; He, Dacheng; Xiao, Xueyuan

    2016-01-01

    YAP is an oncogenic transcriptional co-activator and is inhibited by the Hippo pathway. Recent studies have revealed that YAP is also a sensor of cell morphology and cell density and can be phosphorylated by cytoskeleton reorganization. Our previous study demonstrated that S100A7 was upregulated in several squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) specimens and was dramatically induced in SCC cells by suspension and dense culture as well as in xenografts. However, little is known about how S100A7 induction occurs in cancer cells. Here, we identify that S100A7 induction is accompanied by YAP phosphorylation in both suspended and dense A431 cells. This correlation reverses after recovery of cell attachment or relief from dense culture. Further examination finds that S100A7 induction is repressed by nuclear YAP, which is further validated by activation or inhibition of the Hippo pathway via loss- and/or gain-of- LATS1 and MST1 function. Strikingly, disruption of the F-actin promotes S100A7 expression via YAP by activation of the Hippo pathway. Furthermore, we demonstrate that repression of S100A7 by YAP required TEAD1 transcriptional factor. Taken together, our findings demonstrate for the first time that S100A7 is repressed by YAP via the Hippo pathway. PMID:27203549

  3. The implication of tumor biomarker CA19-9 in the diagnosis of intracranial epidermoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjie; Yan, Wei; Wu, Qun; Chen, Gao; Zhang, Jianmin

    2017-01-10

    The diagnosis of intracranial epidermoid cyst (IEC) relies solely on MRI, which is time and money consuming. The application of tumor biomarkers in IEC has never been systematically studied. Here we screened a group of commonly used tumor biomarkers to assess their diagnostic value in IEC. Serum tumor biomarkers were assessed in 42 IECs and 42 paired healthy controls. Only serum CA19-9 level was significantly higher in the IEC group (median 20.3U/ml vs. 6.5U/ml, p < 0.001). Area under curve for CA19-9 was 0.806 (95% CI 0.700-0.912), with cutoff value of 13.15 U/ml (sensitivity 71.4%, specificity 97.6%). Tumor size was significantly different between CA19-9 positive and CA19-9 negative groups(64.14 ± 67.91cm3 vs. 19.43 ± 13.76 cm3, p = 0.04) and linear regression analysis revealed a positive correlation. Neither the extent of resection nor recurrence rate showed any significant difference between the two groups. This is a retrospective study of IEC patients treated between 2009 and 2014. We analyzed the expression of common serum tumor biomarkers, including carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen125 and squamous cell carcinoma in both IEC and healthy control group. Receiver operating characterisitics curves were constructed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. Our data indicated that for serum CA19-9 level higher than 13.15U/ml, after excluding the possibility of gastrointestinal system tumor, lung cancer, inflammation and other related diseases, the existence of IEC should be considered. Further prospective study is needed to gain more understanding of the value of CA19- 9 in postoperative evaluation and surveillance.

  4. [Two types of store-operated channels in A431 cells].

    PubMed

    Gusev, K O; Zubov, A N; Kaznacheeva, E V; Mozhaeva, G N

    2004-01-01

    Activation of phospholipase C-coupled receptors leads to the release of Ca2+ from Ca2+ stores, and subsequent activation of store-operated cation (SOC) channels, promoting sustained Ca2+ influx. The most studied SOC channels are CRAC ("calcium-release activated calcium") channels exhibiting a very high selectivity for Ca2+. However, there are many SOC channels permeable for Ca2+ but having a lower selectivity. And while Ca2+ influx is important for many biological processes, little is known about the types of SOC channels and mechanisms of SOC channel activation. Previously, we described store-operated Imin channels in A431 cells. Here, by whole-cell recordings, we demonstrated that the store depletion activates two types of current in A431 cells--highly selective for divalent cations (presumably, ICRAC), and moderately selective (ISOC supported by Imin channels). These currents can be registered separately and have different developing time and amplitude. Coexisting of two different types of SOC channels in A431 cells seems to facilitate the control of intracellular Ca(2+)-dependent processes.

  5. Intracranial germinoma in the pineal region arising after subtotal resection of epidermoid cyst: case report.

    PubMed

    Walker, Amanda J; Huynh-Le, Minh-Phuong; Nauen, David; Malayeri, Ashkan A; Jallo, George; Terezakis, Stephanie A

    2014-05-01

    We present an unusual case of a germinoma of the pineal region arising adjacent to an epidermoid cyst in a 16-year-old male. Initial imaging findings were classic for epidermoid cyst. The patient underwent two partial resections at an outside institution, each specimen demonstrating pure epidermoid cyst. Follow-up imaging over a period of 24 months showed an area of progressive contrast enhancement adjacent to the initial lesion, suggesting the development of a neoplasm. Given the area of contrast enhancement in addition to worsening headaches and visual changes, he underwent a third and final resection at our institution. Pathology revealed a mixed germ cell tumor with prominent germinoma component in addition to a well-differentiated epidermoid cyst. Details of his imaging and pathologic findings are presented, and possible explanations for these findings are explored, the most likely of which is lack of complete resection at the onset failed to identify the whole of the neoplasm. We conclude that pediatric epidermoid cysts of the pineal region should always receive close follow-up, particularly when total resection is not performed.

  6. Treatment of epidermoid tumors with gamma knife radiosurgery: Case series

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Javier A. Jacobo; Fonnegra, Julio R.; Diez, Juan C.; Fonnegra, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epidermoid tumors (ETs) are benign lesions that are treated mainly by means of surgical resection, with overall good results. External beam radiotherapy is an alternative treatment for those recurrent tumors, in which a second surgery might not be the best choice for the patient. A little information exists about the effectiveness of gamma knife radiosurgery for the treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent ETs. We present three cases of ETs treated with gamma knife radiosurgery. Case Description: Case 1 is a 21-year-old female with an ET located in the left cerebellopontine angle (CPA) with symptoms related to VIII cranial nerve dysfunction. Symptom control was achieved and maintained after single session radiosurgery with gamma knife. Case 2 is a 59-year-old female patient with the history of trigeminal neuralgia secondary to a recurrent ET located in the left CPA. Significant pain improvement was achieved after treatment with gamma knife radiosurgery. Case 3 is a 29-year-old male patient with a CPA ET causing long lasting trigeminal neuralgia, pain relief was achieved in this patient after gamma knife radiosurgery. Conclusion: Long-term symptom relief was achieved in all three cases proving that gamma knife radiosurgery is a good and safe alternative for patients with recurrent or nonsurgically treated ETs. PMID:26958427

  7. Treatment of epidermoid tumors with gamma knife radiosurgery: Case series.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Javier A Jacobo; Fonnegra, Julio R; Diez, Juan C; Fonnegra, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Epidermoid tumors (ETs) are benign lesions that are treated mainly by means of surgical resection, with overall good results. External beam radiotherapy is an alternative treatment for those recurrent tumors, in which a second surgery might not be the best choice for the patient. A little information exists about the effectiveness of gamma knife radiosurgery for the treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent ETs. We present three cases of ETs treated with gamma knife radiosurgery. Case 1 is a 21-year-old female with an ET located in the left cerebellopontine angle (CPA) with symptoms related to VIII cranial nerve dysfunction. Symptom control was achieved and maintained after single session radiosurgery with gamma knife. Case 2 is a 59-year-old female patient with the history of trigeminal neuralgia secondary to a recurrent ET located in the left CPA. Significant pain improvement was achieved after treatment with gamma knife radiosurgery. Case 3 is a 29-year-old male patient with a CPA ET causing long lasting trigeminal neuralgia, pain relief was achieved in this patient after gamma knife radiosurgery. Long-term symptom relief was achieved in all three cases proving that gamma knife radiosurgery is a good and safe alternative for patients with recurrent or nonsurgically treated ETs.

  8. Vulvar Epidermoid Cyst and Type 2 Radical Genital Mutilation

    PubMed Central

    Birge, Ozer; Ozbey, Ertugrul Gazi; Arslan, Deniz; Erkan, Mustafa Melih; Demir, Feyza; Akgor, Utku

    2015-01-01

    About 100 million women are estimated to be circumcised globally. Various rates of complications have been encountered, especially after circumcision, such as bleeding, infection, shock, menstrual irregularity, difficulty in urination or common urinary tract infections, inguinal pain, difficulty in sexual intercourse, and genital circumcision scar especially at the vulvar region, and cystic or solid character mass in short and long term. Furthermore, the maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality increase due to bleeding and fistula, which develop after prolonged labor, travail, and difficult labors. Our aim in this paper was to discuss a 42-year-old multiparous female case who had undergone type 2 radical genital mutilation (circumcision) when she was 7 years of age, along with the literature, which has been evaluated for the gradually growing mass at the left inguinal canal region in the last 10 years and diagnosed as epidermoid inclusion cyst developing secondary to postcircumcision surgical ground trauma, since there was no other case found in the literature search that had been circumcised at such an early age and developing after circumcision at such advanced age, and, therefore, this is suggested to be the first case on this subject. PMID:26682078

  9. Acquired Encephalocele With Hydrocephalus and Pineal Region Epidermoid Cyst.

    PubMed

    Toktaş, Zafer Orkun; Yilmaz, Baran; Ekşi, Murat Şakir; Bayoumi, Ahmed B; Akakin, Akin; Yener, Yasin; Demir, Mustafa Kemal; Kiliç, Türker

    2016-07-01

    A combination of trauma and a missed inflammatory response (nasal operation) concomitant with hydrocephalus and tumor in secondary encephalocele has not been described in the English literature yet. A 38-year-old man was admitted to the clinic with rhinorrhea that started 3 months ago. In his medical history, nothing abnormal was present except a nasal operation performed 1 year ago. Brain magnetic resonance imaging depicted left frontal encephalocele concomitant with obstructive hydrocephalus caused by an epidermoid cyst originated from the pineal region. A 2-staged surgery was planned. In the first stage, a ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion was conveyed successfully. In the second-stage surgery, the herniated brain tissue was excised, and the frontal sinus was cleansed with serum saline combined with antibiotic. The bony defect and the dura defect were repaired. The patient's presenting complaint recovered fully, and he was discharged to home in a well condition. Acquired encephalocele is a rare entity. In case of rhinorrhea and encephalocele, even in the presence of prior history of nasal surgery, intracranial evaluation should be conveyed to exclude the presence of hydrocephalus and/or tumor. The cranial defect should be repaired to prevent future infections and brain tissue damage.

  10. Unusual Intraparenchymal Pontomedullary Epidermoid Cyst in a 2-Year-Old Child: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Shtaya, Anan; Dabbous, Bassam; Fanou, Evgenia; Bridges, Leslie; Hettige, Samantha

    2017-08-01

    Intrinsic brainstem epidermoid cysts are rare, benign, slow-growing lesions. Their eloquence precludes complete excision; however, subtotal resection often will result in prolonged or sometimes permanent relief of presenting symptoms and signs. We describe an unusual case and review the literature of this pathology in the pediatric population. We report an intra-axial pontine epidermoid cyst in a 2-year-old girl who presented with developmental delay, multiple cranial nerve palsies, and pneumonia. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an intrinsic pontine lesion with partial restricted diffusion and an enhancing plaque, the latter not typically seen in congenital lesions like epidermoid. However, gross surgical inspection and histopathology confirmed an epidermoid. Our case, supported by the literature, shows that brain stem epidermoid cysts may have atypical radiologic characteristics and that near-total resection remains safe and can improve outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Congenital Epidermoid Cyst of the Oral Cavity: Prenatal Diagnosis by Sonography

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung Wan; Chae, Soo Ahn; Yoo, Byoung Hoon; Kim, Gwang Jun; Lee, Sei Young

    2013-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are benign developmental anomalies that are rarely observed in the oral cavity of neonate. If large in size, especially in the developing fetus or newborn infant, they can cause swallowing difficulty and occasionally respiratory difficulty. We report a case of epidermoid cyst in the oral cavity detected prenatal sonography. The sonographic finding was large cystic mass, measuring 30×25 mm. In this case, supplies and equipment for an emergency tracheostomy were made available prior to the delivery. However, the infant did not require intervention to secure the airway. The lesion was surgically excised, and histologic diagnosis was epidermoid cyst. After 6 months of follow up, the cyst had not recurred. This case illustrates the value of accurate prenatal diagnosis and planned perinatal management using a team approach. PMID:24069525

  12. Unusual site and uncommon presentation of epidermoid cyst: a rare case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Manash Ranjan; Gowda, Manoj S; Behera, Syam Sundar

    2013-01-01

    Epidermoid cyst of gastrointestinal tract is very rare, and only a few cases of epidermoid cyst of the caecum have been reported in the literature. We report the first case of epidermoid cyst of the caecum in an elderly man, mimicking mesenteric cyst clinically. It was treated by laparoscopic excision of the cyst. The cyst was spherical, extending from and expanding the serosal surface of the caecum with no communication through the muscularis wall. Histologically, the inner lining of the cyst was composed of benign, mature, keratinised and stratified squamous epithelium with a well-formed granular layer. On opening, the cyst contained pultaceous cheesy material. No calcification, hair, teeth or bone elements were detected. PMID:23302551

  13. [Primary thymic carcinomas. Three cases and a review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Ayadi-Kaddour, A; Bacha, D; Smati, B; Kilani, T; El Mezni, F

    2009-04-01

    Thymic carcinoma is a very rare malignancy. In 1999, a World Health Organization committee published histologic criteria for distinct thymoma entities (labelled as type A, AB, B1, B2, B3 thymomas) and for the heterogeneous group of thymic carcinomas, collectively called type C tumour. Thymic carcinoma differs from thymoma in that it displays cytologically malignant features, extensive local invasion, and a substantial potential for metastasis. It constitutes a heterogeneous group of tumours that display different biological behaviours and prognoses. The majority of thymic carcinomas are either squamous carcinomas or lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas. This study included three male patients aged 20, 46 and 19years respectively with histologically proven thymic carcinoma diagnosed at the author's institution. All of the patients presented a large mass of the anterior mediastinum. Histological examination of the different tumours revealed three distinct variants of thymic carcinoma, namely: epidermoid carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma and lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma.

  14. Leech therapy for epidermoid cysts and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Rasi, Abbas; Faghihi, Alireza; Jalali, Mirhadi Aziz; Zamanian, Abbas; Ghaffarpour, Gholamhossein

    2014-01-01

    Hirudo medicinalis sucks blood directly through the external mammalian skin. We recently observed a healthy 64-year-old Iranian man, who presented with numerous asymptomatic multilobular oval-to-round well-defined 0.5 to 1.5 cm cystic lesions with central umbilication (central black eschar) over the upper portion of his chest. We made the diagnosis of epidermoid cyst, giant comedone and leech bite on the basis of the constellation of clinical features. The patient was treated with oral ciprofloxacin at a dose of 2 g daily, and 2% topical erythromycin solution. Despite improvement, the evidence of cystic lesions persisted. There was no history of similar lesions in any other family member. There was no history of trauma. The patient was not using any topical or systemic medication. Two weeks before his visit, he had a history of leech therapy under the supervision of a general practitioner. His medical history was significant for leech therapy of the lesions, five days previously. He was followed up for another two weeks and after disappearance of the inflammation, with the patient under local anesthesia, the well-circumscribed mass was completely evacuated with a sharp curette and comedone extractor. The patient was subsequently lost to follow-up. Conclusion: Considering the efficacy of leeches, it would be favorable to breed a germ-free leech. In Iran, the use of the leeches in surgery, in recent years, has been infrequent. It appears that the positive effects of this ancient remedy may now be explained through scientific methods, promising potentially even more uses of this admirable creature in medicine. PMID:24804186

  15. Effects of epidermal growth factor on glycolysis in A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Baulida, J; Onetti, R; Bassols, A

    1992-03-31

    A431 cells were treated with epidermal growth factor (EGF) to study the mechanism by which this factor accelerates the glycolytic flux. After EGF treatment, fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) levels rose up to 2-fold. This change correlated with an increase in phosphofructokinase-2 activity, which was not due to a change in the transcription or translation of the enzyme, neither in the amount of enzyme. PK-C does not appear to be involved in the signalling mechanism since EGF was equally potent in PK-C depleted cells than in control cells. The increase in Fru-2,6-P2 levels was lower and more transient in cells treated with EGF in a calcium-free medium than in the presence of the cation, and it was restored by the addition of calcium to the medium. These results suggest a possible role for calcium-mediated pathways in the control of Fru-2,6-P2 levels in A431 cells.

  16. Case report of complicated epidermoid cyst of the floor of the mouth: Radiology-histopathology correlation

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Salman; Fadl, Shaima; Napaki, Sarbar; Abualruz, AbdulRahman

    2014-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts, true dermoid cysts and teratoid cysts compose the spectrum of cystic teratomas, which are defined as neoplasms whose tissue are derivatives of more than one germ layer, foreign to that part of the body from which the tumor arises. Epidermoid cysts of the floor of the mouth are rare lesions and are much less common than dermoid cysts in the head and neck. This case reports a 43-year-old male patient who presented with a longstanding midline swelling in the submental region. Initial imaging was done using ultrasound followed by computed tomography (CT) scan. Biopsy was taken and revealed a cyst wall lined with epidermal squamous epithelium along with areas of focal ulceration suggesting chronic inflammatory changes of the wall of the epidermoid cyst. There are characteristic and even pathognomonic imaging features of epidermoid cysts at the floor of the mouth in ultrasound and CT scan. Imaging has an important role in the surgical management plan according to the size and location of the cyst in relation to geniohyoid and mylohyoid muscles. PMID:25320687

  17. The radionuclide scintigraphic appearance in a rare case of epidermoid cyst of the testis.

    PubMed

    Garty, I; Chaimovitch, G; Wajsman, S; Sudarsky, M

    1984-10-01

    A rare case of epidermoid cyst of the testis, represented scintigraphically by an area of avascularity in the affected testicle, is described. The differential diagnosis from epididymitis and torsion of testis, and the diagnostic value fo the scintigraphic method to rule out malignant (vascular) testicular tumors, is emphasized.

  18. A case of epidermoid median raphe cyst traversing the corpora cavernosa

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Alice; Capolicchio, John-Paul

    2017-01-01

    Median raphe cysts are congenital lesions that typically have a superficial appearance. We present a very unusual case of a deep perineal mass in a six-year-old boy. The lesion extends into the corpus cavernosum, suggesting that the anomaly was an early embryological event. Histopathological features are consistent with an epidermoid type of median raphe cyst. PMID:28360959

  19. Epidermoid cyst of the coronal sulcus mimicking penile cancer: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Epidermoid cysts represent common benign tumors occurring anywhere in the body but very rarely in the penis. Only a few cases of penile localization have been reported in the literature so far, most of them being congenital and/or idiopathic, usually presenting in children as slow-growing, solitary, well-delimited cystic lesions. Here, we describe the case of a patient with a penile epidermoid cyst presenting as an ulcerated lesion of the coronal sulcus, thus mimicking penile cancer. Case presentation A 36-year-old Caucasian man presented with a three-month history of a rapidly growing asymptomatic ulcerated lesion in the ventral portion of the penile coronal sulcus. At surgical exploration, the area under the ulcerated lesion had a well-demarcated cystic shape; following its wide excision, an intraoperative histological examination revealed an epidermoid cyst. No recurrence had occurred at nine years of follow-up. Conclusions Rare benign tumors of the penis, like the described epidermoid cyst, may mimic cancer. Nevertheless, penile ulcerated lesions should always be surgically explored as wide excision and intraoperative histological examination remain the only means of obtaining a precise disease definition and, consequently, administering the appropriate treatment. PMID:24906506

  20. Formation of coated vesicles from coated pits in broken A431 cells

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Biochemical and morphological techniques were used to demonstrate the early steps in the endocytosis of transferrin in broken A431 cells. After binding 125I-transferrin, the cells were broken by scraping and then warmed. 125I-transferrin became inaccessible to exogenous anti- transferrin antibody providing a measure of the internalization process. Parallel morphological experiments using transferrin coupled to horseradish peroxidase confirmed internalization in broken cells. The process was characterized and compared with endocytosis in intact cells and showed many similar features. The system was used to show that both the appearance of new coated pits and the scission of coated pits to form coated vesicles were dependent on the addition of cytosol and ATP whereas invagination of pits was dependent on neither. PMID:2564003

  1. [Moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma associated pilonidal cyst].

    PubMed

    Cruz-Mendoza, Irma; Hernández-Jesús, Bernal; López-Pérez, Eva; Flores-Cobos, Ada Elisa; García-Rodríguez, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la degeneración maligna es una complicación rara, observada principalmente en enfermedad pilonidal crónica recurrente y se asocia con muy mal pronóstico. En la bibliografía mundial se encuentra como una entidad poco frecuente. En España se revisaron 367 pacientes afectados de quiste pilonidal, simple o complicado. Entre ellos se encontraron tres casos (0.81%) de carcinoma epidermoide con quiste pilonidal. Caso clínico: paciente masculino de 60 años de edad, con cuadro clínico de 50 años de evolución de un tumor sacro. Luego de la exéresis el reporte histopatológico fue de quiste pilonidal; la evolución fue tórpida en la cicatrización, con bordes necróticos que se resecaron y el reporte fue: carcinoma epidermoide. Conclusión: el carcinoma epidermoide de sinus pilonidal es una enfermedad infrecuente asociada con muy mal pronóstico.

  2. [Bronchial mucoepidermoid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Bregante, J I; Rituerto, B; Font de Mora, F; Alonso, F; Andreu, M J; Figuerola, J; Mulet, J F

    1998-07-01

    We submit the case of a child afflicted with a mucoepidermoid bronchial tumor. The patient is a boy, aged seven, who after undergoing antibiotic treatment for six weeks because of a fever and atelectasia-condensation in the right lower lobe showed no signs of clinical improvement and was sent to our department to undergo further study and treatment. A bronchoscopy performed shows a polypoid mass that partially blocks the main bronchial tube a few milimiters under the access to the right upper lobe. A biopsy is carried out and the anatomopathological test shows there is a low degree epidermoid carcinoma. We decide to perform a lobectomy which for the tumor location and the lung condition has to be medium and lower right. We proceed to remove the adenopaty of hilium not affected by the tumor. The postoperative period develops without incidents. A check-up bronchoscopy performed three months later shows two polypoid masses in the right bronchial tube which, once a biopsy is performed, proved to be granulation tissue. Twelve months after undergoing surgery, the patient's condition is good, there is no evidence of tumor relapse and the breathing capacity is adequate, though there is an obstructive restrictive pattern in the espirometry. Even taking into consideration that lung tumors are extremely unusual, the epidermoid carcinoma is the one which most frequently occurs. The tumor's low malignancy is a sign that points to a good prognosis. Performing conservative surgery by means of bronchoplasty should be taken into account so as to keep the sequelae on the lung condition to a minimum, even though in this case the tumor location made it impossible.

  3. A431 cell variants lacking the blood group A antigen display increased high affinity epidermal growth factor-receptor number, protein-tyrosine kinase activity, and receptor turnover

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) of human A431 cells bears an antigenic determinant that is closely related to the human blood group A carbohydrate structure. Labeling studies with blood group A reactive anti-EGF-R monoclonal antibodies and various lectins revealed that A431 cultures are heterogeneous with respect to blood group A expression. We have isolated clonal variants of these cells that either express (A431A+ cells) or completely lack (A431A- cells) the blood group A specific N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc) residue. We show that this difference is due to the absence of a UDP-GalNAc:Gal transferase activity in A431A- cells. Subsequently, we have compared EGF-R functioning in these cell lines. Scatchard analysis of EGF- binding shows that in A431A- cells 6.3% of the EGF-R belongs to a high affinity subclass (Kd = 0.4 nM) while in A431A+ this subclass represents only 3.2% of the total receptor pool. The elevated level of high affinity receptors in A431A- cells is accompanied by a parallel increase in receptor protein- tyrosine kinase activity. In membrane preparations of A431A- cells, receptor autophosphorylation as well as phosphorylation of a tyrosine-containing peptide substrate is 2-3-fold higher as compared with A431A+ cells. In intact A431A-cells, the difference in receptor activity is measured as a 2-3-fold elevated level of receptor phosphorylation and a 2-3-fold higher abundance of phosphotyrosine in total cellular protein in A431A- cells. In addition, [35S]methionine pulse-chase experiments showed a ligand-independent increase in turnover of EGF-R in A431A- cells: the receptor's half life in these cells is 10 h as compared with 17 h in A431A+ cells. Our results suggest a possible involvement of GalNAc residue(s) in determining EGF-R affinity, protein-tyrosine kinase activity and turnover in A431 cells. Furthermore, our results indicate that high affinity EGF-R are the biologically active species with respect to protein-tyrosine kinase

  4. Epidermoid Cyst in the Floor of the Mouth of a 3-Year-Old

    PubMed Central

    Pascual Dabán, Rossana; García Díez, Eloy; González Navarro, Beatriz; López-López, José

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are a rare entity in the oral cavity and are even less frequent in the floor of the mouth, representing less than 0.01% of all the cases. We present the case of a 3-year-old girl with a growth in the floor of the mouth with 2 months of evolution and without changes since it was discovered by her parents. The lesion was asymptomatic; it did not cause dysphagia, dyspnea, or any other alteration. A CT scan with contrast was done which revealed the location and exact size of the lesion, allowing an intraoral approach for its excision. The histological examination confirmed the clinical speculation of an epidermoid cyst. PMID:25694831

  5. Gardner syndrome associated with multiple osteomas, intestinal polyposis, and epidermoid cysts.

    PubMed

    Koh, Kwang-Joon; Park, Ha-Na; Kim, Kyoung-A

    2016-12-01

    Gardner syndrome is known as a variant of familial adenomatous polyposis. This syndrome is characterized by multiple intestinal polyposes, osteomas, and epidermoid cysts. In addition, dental abnormalities include an increased frequency of multiple odontomas, as well as supernumerary and impacted teeth. The authors report the case of a 7-year-old male patient with Gardner syndrome. Radiographic findings revealed multiple osteomas in both sides of the maxilla, multiple diffuse enostoses in both jaws, and a complex odontoma in the left mandibular body. Two years later, multiple epidermoid cysts on the scalp were found. Since this patient was suspected to have Gardner syndrome, the authors recommended gastrointestinal endoscopy to check for intestinal polyposis. Gastrointestinal endoscopic examination revealed multiple polyposes in the upper gastrointestinal tract and fundus of the stomach. As a result, the final diagnosis was Gardner syndrome.

  6. Gardner syndrome associated with multiple osteomas, intestinal polyposis, and epidermoid cysts

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ha-Na; Kim, Kyoung-A

    2016-01-01

    Gardner syndrome is known as a variant of familial adenomatous polyposis. This syndrome is characterized by multiple intestinal polyposes, osteomas, and epidermoid cysts. In addition, dental abnormalities include an increased frequency of multiple odontomas, as well as supernumerary and impacted teeth. The authors report the case of a 7-year-old male patient with Gardner syndrome. Radiographic findings revealed multiple osteomas in both sides of the maxilla, multiple diffuse enostoses in both jaws, and a complex odontoma in the left mandibular body. Two years later, multiple epidermoid cysts on the scalp were found. Since this patient was suspected to have Gardner syndrome, the authors recommended gastrointestinal endoscopy to check for intestinal polyposis. Gastrointestinal endoscopic examination revealed multiple polyposes in the upper gastrointestinal tract and fundus of the stomach. As a result, the final diagnosis was Gardner syndrome. PMID:28035305

  7. Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome Associated with Epidermoid Tumour and Arachnoid Cyst: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Menekşe, Güner; Özsoy, Kerem Mazhar; Ateş, Tuncay; Ökten, Ali İhsan; Güzel, Aslan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome (DDMS) is a rarely seen clinical entity which is characterised by cerebral hemiatrophy, contralateral hemiparesis and epilepsy. Radiological features are typical, such as unilateral atrophy of the cerebral hemisphere and associated compensatory bone changes in the skull, like thickening, enlargement of the paranasal sinuses and mastoid air cells. Case Report: In this article, we report the first case of DDMS associated with epidermoid tumour and arachnoid cyst, who underwent operation for an epidermoid tumour in the inter-hemispheric region. To our knowledge, this is the first report of DDMS associated with multiple intracranial pathologies and this association has not been previously described in the literature. Conclusion: Any patient who receives DDMS in the light of clinical and radiological findings should be investigated for concomitant pathologies. Different sequences of MRI may be useful in the diagnosis of other intracranial lesions. PMID:25207154

  8. Dyke-davidoff-masson syndrome associated with epidermoid tumour and arachnoid cyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Menekşe, Güner; Ozsoy, Kerem Mazhar; Ateş, Tuncay; Okten, Ali İhsan; Güzel, Aslan

    2013-12-01

    Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome (DDMS) is a rarely seen clinical entity which is characterised by cerebral hemiatrophy, contralateral hemiparesis and epilepsy. Radiological features are typical, such as unilateral atrophy of the cerebral hemisphere and associated compensatory bone changes in the skull, like thickening, enlargement of the paranasal sinuses and mastoid air cells. In this article, we report the first case of DDMS associated with epidermoid tumour and arachnoid cyst, who underwent operation for an epidermoid tumour in the inter-hemispheric region. To our knowledge, this is the first report of DDMS associated with multiple intracranial pathologies and this association has not been previously described in the literature. Any patient who receives DDMS in the light of clinical and radiological findings should be investigated for concomitant pathologies. Different sequences of MRI may be useful in the diagnosis of other intracranial lesions.

  9. Huge splenic epidermoid cyst with elevation of serum CA19-9 level.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Sayo; Mori, Toshifumi; Miyoshi, Jinsei; Imoto, Yoshitaka; Shinomiya, Hirohiko; Wada, Satoshi; Nakao, Toshihiro; Shinohara, Hisamitsu; Yoshida, Sadahiro; Izumi, Keisuke; Okazaki, Jun; Muguruma, Naoki; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2015-01-01

    A 30-year-old female was referred to our hospital for further examination of liver dysfunction. A huge, soft mass was noted in her left upper quadrant on physical examination. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed a huge cystic tumor of 20 cm in the hilus of the spleen. Serum CA19-9 was 491 U/ml, and splenectomy was performed under suspicion of a malignant cystic tumor. The inner surface of the cyst was lined by squamous epithelial cells that were immunohistochemically positive for CA19-9. Serum CA19-9 level was normalized after the surgery. Our case of a very rare, huge epidermoid cyst of the spleen suggests that measurement of the serum CA19-9 level is useful for evaluating therapeutic efficacy of a splenic epidermoid cyst.

  10. Epidermoid tumors of Meckel's cave: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, N; Yamazaki, H; Wakao, T; Nukui, H

    1989-12-01

    Lesions of Meckel's cave are extremely uncommon and difficult to diagnose. The symptoms and signs are variable, and the lesions may not appear on routine roentgenographic or computed tomographic examination. A patient with a small epidermoid tumor of Meckel's cave that was diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging is herein reported. The epidermoid appeared as a low-intensity mass on the T1-weighted image and as a high-intensity mass on the T2-weighted image. Coronal sections defined the anatomic relationship to the trigeminal nerve. Preoperative recordings of the trigeminal sensory evoked response may be predictive of postoperative recovery of neurological deficits. Furthermore, intraoperative recording was extremely useful in avoiding inadvertent neurological injury. Review of the literature confirms the rarity of this lesion and the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosing it, although based on a limited number of cases.

  11. Trigeminal Neuralgia Due to a Small Meckel's Cave Epidermoid Tumor: Surgery Using an Extradural Corridor.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Sunil V; Hegde, Alangar S

    2009-09-01

    Tumors at the petrous apex are associated with a variety of symptoms, which most often involve the trigeminal nerve. The authors present a rare case of a small epidermoid tumor in Meckel's cave that caused medically refractory trigeminal neuralgia. The surgical challenge associated with approaches to such lesions is discussed. The skull base tumor was excised completely through a small temporal craniotomy. The practicality of neuronavigation in reaching the petrous apex using a small extradural window is presented.

  12. A case of cerebellopontine angle epidermoid cyst presenting as trigeminal neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Muzammil, Sadat; Leong, King Sun

    2009-05-01

    We present the case of a 35-year-old female who had paraesthesia and numbness on the left side of her face. Initially the ophthalmic division and maxillary divisions on the trigeminal nerve were involved, but later involved the mandibular division as well. On MRI, a cerebellopontine angle (CPA) epidermoid cyst was detected. After 18 months of follow up, her symptoms remain stable and she is being managed conservatively.

  13. Isolated thoracic (D5) intramedullary epidermoid cyst without spinal dysraphism: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Sudhansu Sekhar; Satapathy, Mani Charan; Deo, Rama Chandra; Tripathy, Soubhagya Ranjan; Senapati, Satya Bhusan

    2015-01-01

    Spinal epidermoid cyst, congenital or acquired, is mainly congenital associated with spinal dysraphism, rarely in isolation. Intramedullary epidermoid cysts (IECs) are rare with less than 60 cases reported so far; isolated variety (i.e., without spinal dysraphism) is still rarer. Complete microsurgical excision is the dictum of surgical treatment. A 14-year-old boy presented with 4-month history of upper backache accompanied with progressive descending paresthesia with paraparesis with early bladder and bowel involvement. His condition deteriorated rapidly making him bedridden. Neurological examination revealed upper thoracic myeloradiculopathy probably of neoplastic origin with sensory localization to D5 spinal level. Digital X-ray revealed no feature suggestive of spinal dysraphism. Contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics clinched the presumptive diagnosis. Near-total microsurgical excision was done leaving behind a small part of the calcified capsule densely adhered to cord. Histopathological features were confirmative of an epidermoid cyst. Postoperatively, he improved significantly with a gain of motor power sufficient to walk without support within a span of 6 months. Spinal IECs, without any specific clinical presentation, are often diagnosed based upon intraoperative and histopathological findings, however early diagnosis is possible on complete MRI valuation. Complete microsurgical excision, resulting in cessation of clinical progression and remission of symptoms, has to be limited to sub-total or near-total excision if cyst is adherent to cord or its confines. PMID:26167216

  14. Epidermoid cyst in Meckel's cave with unusual computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Case report.

    PubMed

    Arai, Atsushi; Sasayama, Takashi; Koyama, Junji; Fujita, Atsushi; Hosoda, Kohkichi; Kohmura, Eiji

    2010-01-01

    A 27-year-old woman presented with headache and occasional numbness over her right face. Computed tomography revealed a hypodense mass in the middle cranial fossa and another adjacent hyperdense mass in the posterior fossa with erosion of the right petrous apex. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the lesion in the middle cranial fossa as iso- to hypointense on T(1)-weighted and hyperintense on T(2)-weighted imaging, with peripheral enhancement after gadolinium administration, and the adjacent lesion in the posterior fossa as hyperintense on T(1)-weighted and hypointense on T(2)-weighted imaging. During surgery, these lesions mimicking two adjacent distinct tumors were revealed to connect through Meckel's cave. The hypodense lesion in the middle cranial fossa consisted of pearly-like solid contents, and the hyperdense lesion in the posterior cranial fossa consisted of viscid dark-green materials. The tumors were gross totally resected with endoscopic assistance. Histological examination confirmed that the tumor was an epidermoid cyst. The present case cyst indicates that although the diffusion-weighted imaging sequence is useful for detection of intracranial epidermoid cysts, epidermoid cysts including viscous materials with unusual radiological findings could complicate the preoperative diagnosis.

  15. Lysosomal Signaling Enhances Mitochondria-Mediated Photodynamic Therapy in A431 Cancer Cells: Role of Iron

    PubMed Central

    Saggu, Shalini; Hung, Hsin-I; Quiogue, Geraldine; Lemasters, John J.; Nieminen, Anna-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    In photodynamic therapy (PDT), light activates a photosensitizer added to a tissue, resulting in singlet oxygen formation and cell death. The photosensitizer phthalocyanine 4 (Pc 4) localizes primarily to mitochondrial membranes in cancer cells, resulting in mitochondria-mediated cell death. The aim of this study was to determine how lysosomes contribute to PDT-induced cell killing by mitochondria-targeted photosensitizers such as Pc 4. We monitored cell killing of A431 cells after Pc 4-PDT in the presence and absence of bafilomycin, an inhibitor of the vacuolar proton pump of lysosomes and endosomes. Bafilomycin was not toxic by itself, but greatly enhanced Pc 4-PDT-induced cell killing. To investigate whether iron loading of lysosomes affects bafilomycin-induced killing, cells were incubated with ammonium ferric citrate (30 μm) for 30 h prior to PDT. Ammonium ferric citrate enhanced Pc 4 plus bafilomycin-induced cell killing without having toxicity by itself. Iron chelators (desferrioxamine and starch-desferrioxamine) and the inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium (and ferrous iron) uniporter, Ru360, protected against Pc 4 plus bafilomycin toxicity. These results support the conclusion that chelatable iron stored in the lysosomes enhances the efficacy of bafilomycin-mediated PDT and that lysosomal disruption augments PDT with Pc 4. PMID:22220628

  16. Direct visualization of the phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor during its internalization in A-431 cells

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) rapidly stimulates receptor autophosphorylation in A-431 cells. After 1 min the phosphorylated receptor can be identified at the plasma membrane using an anti- phosphotyrosine antibody. With further incubation at 37 degrees C, approximately 50% of the phosphorylated EGF receptor was internalized (t1/2 = 5 min) and associated with the tubulovesicular system and later with multivesicular bodies, but not the nucleus. During this period, there was no change in the extent or sites of phosphorylation. At all times the phosphotyrosine remained on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane, opposite to the EGF ligand identified by anti-EGF antibody. These data indicate that (a) the tyrosine-phosphorylated EGF receptor is internalized in its activated form providing a mechanism for translocation of the receptor kinase to substrates in the cell interior; (b) the internalized receptor remains intact for at least 60 min, does not associate with the nucleus, and does not generate any tyrosine-phosphorylated fragments; and (c) tyrosine phosphorylation alone is not the signal for receptor internalization. PMID:2447100

  17. Carcinoma of the cervix with extensive endometrial and myometrial involvement.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, M; Tang, W; Sadjadi, M; Belmonte, A H; Poon, T P

    1990-02-01

    Verrucous carcinoma is a rare variant of epidermoid carcinoma with distinct clinical and histopathologic features. To date, 31 cases have been reported in the cervix. They are typically slow-growing, locally invasive tumors with low potential for lymphatic metastasis and appear to be radioresistant. We report a case which is unusual in having endometrial and deep myometrial invasion. Electron microscopy, immunohistochemical stains, and DNA in situ hybridization studies failed to detect human papilloma virus particles but the oncogenic potential of the virus is not excluded.

  18. Two Concurrent Large Epidermoid Cysts in Sublingual and Submental Region Resembling Plunging Ranula: Report of a Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Ranjan Kumar; Sahoo, Pradyumna Kumar; Mohapatra, Debahuti; Subudhi, Santosh

    2017-01-01

    An elderly female patient presented to surgical outpatient clinic with complaint of gradual onset of painless submental and sublingual midline swellings for 6 months of duration. The swellings were noncompressible, nontranslucent, nonpulsatile, and nontender on palpation. Clinical diagnosis was plunging ranula or dermoid cysts. Ultrasound examination of sublingual swelling showed cystic lesion with particulate content. Submental swelling showed cystic swelling with few echogenic floating lobules inside suggesting possibility of epidermoid/dermoid cyst. Magnetic resonance imaging of the face showed homogeneous fluid content within the sublingual cystic lesion and heterogeneous fluid content with few floating nodules within submental swelling. Both cystic lesions were noncommunicative and were showing diffusion restriction and no fat signal. Radiological diagnosis was sublingual and submental epidermoid cysts. She was operated under general anesthesia, and two separate cystic masses were excised with intact capsule. Histopathological diagnosis of masses confirms epidermoid cyst. Several literature have reported isolated sublingual or submandibular epidermoid cyst. However, concurrent sublingual and submental epidermoid cysts with different imaging appearance are rarely reported. PMID:28713758

  19. Two Cases of an Epidermoid Cyst Developing in an Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen Identified during Laparoscopic Distal Pancreatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Masakuni; Yoshioka, Masao; Shiode, Junji

    2016-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts presenting within an intrapancreatic accessory spleen are rare non-neoplastic cysts typically occurring in the pancreatic tail. This entity is difficult to diagnose given there are many types of pancreatic neoplastic cysts. We herein describe two cases of an epidermoid cyst within an intrapancreatic accessory spleen for which we performed a resection by laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy. Epidermoid cysts in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic tail cystic lesions. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy can be a useful, minimally invasive surgical approach for treating these cysts as well as for the treatment of benign or low-grade malignant tumors located in the pancreatic body or tail. PMID:27803407

  20. Epidermoid cyst of the clitoris: an unusual cause of clitoromegaly in a patient without history of previous female circumcision.

    PubMed

    Anderson-Mueller, Breanne E; Laudenschlager, Mark D; Hansen, Keith A

    2009-10-01

    To describe a rare cause of clitoromegaly. University Medical Center. Patient. Magnetic resonance imaging, surgical resection of the cyst, clitoroplasty. Clitoroplasty with removal of the intradermal cyst and resolution of pain. A 17-year-old immigrant female presented with clitoral pain associated with clitoromegaly. Epidermoid cysts are usually solitary, asymptomatic, slow-growing, proliferations of epidermal cells that are commonly present on the neck, scalp, face, or trunk. There have only been four reported cases of epidermoid cysts of the clitoris not associated with female genital mutilation. The cyst in this case was removed by local excision, and the patient's pain has resolved.

  1. [A case of cavernous sinus epidermoid: anatomical classification and surgical approach].

    PubMed

    Kuroi, Yasuhiro; Yoshimura, Chika; Yokosako, Suguru; Arai, Naoyuki; Ohbuchi, Hidenori; Hirota, Kengo; Sasahara, Atsushi; Hagiwara, Shinji; Tani, Shigeru; Fujibayashi, Mariko; Kubo, Osami; Kasuya, Hidetoshi

    2014-02-01

    Epidermoid rarely appears in the cavernous sinus. We encountered a 41-year-old man with left abducens nerve palsy. A round-shaped, low-density lesion on CT was located lateral to the left cavernous sinus with a compressed and thinned lateral wall of the sphenoid sinus. We could not identify cranial nerves in the cavernous sinus, which was found to be packed with a non-enhanced, high-intensity tumor on both T1 and T2 MRI. Part of the tumor capsule and its pearly contents were removed with an intradural subtemporal approach, and an inner membranous layer with cranial nerves and a tumor capsule were seen at the bottom of the tumor cavity. Postoperatively, complete cure was achieved. Reviewing similar cases, we found 18 cavernous sinus epidermoids:extracavernous type in 5;interdural in 10;and intracavernous in 3. The interdural type could be further divided into two subtypes:superficial cavernous sinus and inner membranous types. The present case belongs to the former. Frontotemporal and subtemporal procedures via both intra- and extradural approaches are relatively safe for lesions except for the intracavernous type, because cranial nerves are not located in the lateral wall of the tumor. MRI provides more useful information on cranial nerves and aid in choosing a better treatment strategy.

  2. The apoptosis effect of hispolon from Phellinus linteus (Berkeley & Curtis) Teng on human epidermoid KB cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; He, Fei-Yu; Li, Yong-Quan

    2006-04-21

    Phellinus linteus (Berkeley & Curtis) Teng, a well-known fungus of the genus Phellinus in the family of Hymenochaetaceae, is being increasingly used to treat a wide variety of disease processes such as oral ulcer, gastroenteric disorder, inflammation, lymphatic disease, and various cancers. However, the mechanism underlying its anti-oral cancer effect is poorly understood. In the present study, we prepared the ethanol extract of Phellinus linteus as a crude drug, and then obtained the active component hispolon by bioassay-guided isolation. Hispolon showed a dose-dependent inhibition of human epidermoid KB cell proliferation with IC50 of 4.62+/-0.16 microg/ml. Furthermore, it was revealed that hispolon could induce human epidermoid KB cell apoptosis with the characteristic of a DNA ladder, and with a significant increase of sub-G1. This process was accompanied by the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, the release of cytochrome c and the activation of Caspase-3. These results demonstrated that hispolon induced the death of KB cells through a mitochondria mediated apoptotic pathway. We propose that Phellinus linteus and its effective components could be used as an anti-oral cancer drug for future studies.

  3. Ki-67 and p53 correlation prognostic value in squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and tongue.

    PubMed

    Motta, Rafael Da Ros; Zettler, Claudio Galeano; Cambruzzi, Eduardo; Jotz, Geraldo Pereira; Berni, Renata Brutti

    2009-01-01

    Epidermoid carcinomas represent from 90% to 95% of oral cavity malignant neoplasias, making up 13,470 cases/year. To correlate p53 and Ki-67 expressions in mouth and tongue carcinomas with lymph node status, gender, histological grade, tumor volume and pathological stage. We carried out a retrospective study of 28 cases of mouth and tongue epidermoid carcinomas. They were submitted to immunohistochemical study in order to check the expression of p53 and Ki-67 antibodies and statistically compare them in terms of lymph node status, gender, histological grade, tumor volume and pathological staging. The individually analyzed p53 proved to have statistical significance (p<0.05) when compared to tumor volume (p=0.029). Despite a strong tendency, the p53/tumor volume relation was not significant. When p53 + Ki67 were analyzed, tumor volume had p < 0.05 (p = 0.029). Literature shows that the expression of p53 and Ki-67 is related to the presence of metastasis to lymph nodes and a worse prognosis. In oral cavity and tongue epidermoid carcinomas, p53 and Ki-67 are related to larger tumors, metastasis to lymph nodes and very likely to a worse prognosis.

  4. Epidermoid tumour (tumor perlée, cholesteatoma) of the fourth ventricle: case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Michael

    1974-01-01

    The history, clinical course, and the 17 year follow-up after surgery are reported in a patient who had an epidermoid tumour removed from the fourth ventricle. The gross appearance of the contents of the tumour showed multiple tissue aggregates, with the classical pearl-like appearance. Previous cases reported in the literature are collated. Images PMID:4448996

  5. Unusual coexistence of an epidermoid cyst with an atypical meningioma: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Karekezi, Claire; El Fatemi, Nizare; Egu, Komi; Ibrahimi, Mohamed; El Maaqili, Moulay Rachid; El Abbadi, Najia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Coexistence of multiple primary intracranial tumors of different cell types has rarely been documented; the association of a meningioma and a glioma has been reported as the most common combination. Hereby, we report an unusual case of a temporal epidermoid cyst coexisting with an atypical meningioma. Case Presentation: A 37-year-old male presented with progressive symptoms of raised intracranial progression with progressive loss of vision without any neurological deficit. On admission, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a right frontal lesion appearing hypointense T1, hyperintense T2 slightly enhanced after gadolinium and a second right temporal, isointense T1, hyperintense T2 non-enhancing lesion. A right frontotemporal craniotomy was performed that revealed two distinct lesions: The whitish temporal lesion with the pearl appearance reminding of an epidermoid cyst, the second lesion was extraaxial fibrous lesion arising from the falx. Pathology confirmed an atypical meningioma WHO Grade II and an epidermoid cyst. Conclusion: The simultaneous occurrence of primary intracranial tumors of different cell types is rare. Epidermoid cysts are slow growing lesions believed to arise from inclusion of ectodermal elements during neural tube closure, while meningiomas arise from arachnoidal cells; their association has rarely been reported previously. PMID:27069741

  6. 1,4-Naphthoquinone activates the HSP90/HSF1 pathway through the S-arylation of HSP90 in A431 cells: Negative regulation of the redox signal transduction pathway by persulfides/polysulfides.

    PubMed

    Abiko, Yumi; Sha, Liang; Shinkai, Yasuhiro; Unoki, Takamitsu; Luong, Nho Cong; Tsuchiya, Yukihiro; Watanabe, Yasuo; Hirose, Reiko; Akaike, Takaaki; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2017-03-01

    The current consensus is that environmental electrophiles activate redox signal transduction pathways through covalent modification of sensor proteins with reactive thiol groups at low concentrations, while they cause cell damage at higher concentrations. We previously exposed human carcinoma A431 cells to the atmospheric electrophile 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4-NQ) and found that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), a negative regulator of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), was a target of 1,4-NQ. In the study presented here, we determined whether 1,4-NQ activates HSF1. We also examined whether such redox signaling could be regulated by nucleophilic sulfur species. Exposure of A431 cells to 1,4-NQ covalently modified cellular HSP90, resulting in repression of the association between HSF1 with HSP90, thereby enhancing HSF1 translocation into the nuclei. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis with recombinant HSP90 revealed that the modifications site were Cys412 and Cys564. We found that HSF1 activation mediated by 1,4-NQ upregulated downstream genes, such as HSPA6. HSF1 knockdown accelerated 1,4-NQ-mediated cytotoxicity in the cells. While simultaneous treatment with reactive persulfide and polysulfide, Na2S2 and Na2S4, blocked 1,4-NQ-dependent protein modification and HSF1 activation in A431 cells, the knockdown of Cys persulfide producing enzymes cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and/or cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) enhanced these phenomena. 1,4-NQ-thiol adduct and 1,4-NQ-S-1,4-NQ adduct were produced during the enzymatic reaction of recombinant CSE in the presence of 1,4-NQ. The results suggest that activation of the HSP90-HSF1 signal transduction pathway mediated by 1,4-NQ protects cells against 1,4-NQ and that per/polysulfides can diminish the reactivity of 1,4-NQ by forming sulfur adducts.

  7. Ruptured pediatric cerebellopontine angle epidermoid cyst: a case report detailing radiographic evolution and clinical course.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zhe; Hollon, Todd; Bentley, J Nicole; Garton, Hugh J L

    2015-08-21

    Epidermoid cysts (ECs) are uncommon pediatric tumors that often occur in the cerebellopontine angle. Although cyst rupture is a recognized complication, the radiographic evolution of an EC following rupture and the resultant parenchymal brainstem edema have not been reported. The authors present the case of a 13-year-old female with a newly diagnosed cerebellopontine angle EC who presented with worsening headaches, photophobia, and emesis. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated significant pericystic brainstem edema and mass effect with effacement of the fourth ventricle. Refractory symptoms prompted repeat imaging, revealing cyst enlargement and dense rim enhancement. Resection of the EC resolved both her symptoms and the brainstem edema. This case documents the radiographic evolution of EC rupture and subsequent clinical course.

  8. Distributive shock, cardiac arrhythmias and multiple organ failure following surgery of a fourth ventricular epidermoid.

    PubMed

    Bercker, Sven; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Laudi, Sven; Renner, Christof

    2016-03-31

    A 33-years-old male patient presented with cardiac arrhythmias, acute shock and multiple organ dysfunction after the surgical removal of a massive epidermoid posterior to the brainstem. The patient initially presented with paraesthesia along the right C6 dermatome due to a big tumour at the brain stem. Surgical removal was performed without adverse events and he was transferred to our intensive care unit (ICU) immediately after the operation. Though initially showing a stable postsurgical course he developed cardiac arrhythmias and a state of acute distributive shock with consecutive multi organ failure. Extensive diagnostic measures could not identify a specific cause for this rapid deterioration. However, under carefully monitored symptomatic therapy the patient improved quickly, was extubated 72 h after admission and discharged from the ICU 6 days later. The follow-up did not show any persisting neurological deficits and no evidence of a residual tumour in the MRI-study. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. Case Report: Delayed presentation of penile epidermoid cyst following reconstruction for Peyronie’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Harrison, Luriel I.; Farhi, Jacques; Costabile, Raymond A.; Smith, Ryan P.

    2015-01-01

    Penile masses are a concerning finding for both patient and clinician upon initial presentation. There is a wide differential for penile masses from the benign (fibrous plaques, cysts, ulcerative lesions, benign penile pearly papules, etc.) to more concerning malignant lesions. A proper history and physical is the first step to determining the etiology of the mass and any future clinical interventions. In this paper, we review a case of a 73-year-old male who is found to have an enlarging mass during work-up for possible placement of inflatable penile prosthesis. Fortunately, the mass was determined to be a benign epidermoid cyst presenting thirty years after reconstruction for Peyronie’s disease using dermal penile skin graft. With this unique presentation we review the scant literature on penile mass formation following Peyronie’s repair. PMID:26835001

  10. Complete endoscopic resection of a pituitary stalk epidermoid cyst using a combined infrasellar interpituitary and suprasellar endonasal approach: case report.

    PubMed

    Nakassa, Ana C I; Chabot, Joseph D; Snyderman, Carl H; Wang, Eric W; Gardner, Paul A; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C

    2017-04-14

    Intracranial epidermoid cysts are benign lesions of epithelial origin that most frequently present with symptoms of mass effect. Although they are often associated with a high rate of residual tumor and recurrence, maximal safe resection usually leads to good outcomes. The authors report a complete resection of an uncommon pituitary stalk epidermoid cyst with intrasellar extension using a combined suprasellar and infrasellar interpituitary, endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach. The patient, a 54-year-old woman, presented with headache, visual disturbance, and diabetes insipidus. Postoperatively, she reported improvement in her visual symptoms and well-controlled diabetes insipidus using 0.1 mg of desmopressin at bedtime and normal anterior pituitary gland function. One year later, she continues to receive the same dosage of desmopressin and is also taking 50 mcg of levothyroxine daily after developing primary hypothyroidism unrelated to the surgical procedure. A combined infrasellar interpituitary and suprasellar approach to this rare location for an epidermoid cyst can lead to a safe and complete resection with good clinical outcomes.

  11. [Gangliosides in the serum in lung carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Fumić, K; Vladović-Relja, T; Karada, J; Kracun, I; Stavljenić, A; Kubat, M; Cosović, C; Oberman, B

    1990-01-01

    In this study, tumor and serum gangliosides were analyzed in patients bearing lung planocellular carcinoma (LPC) before and after operative therapy. Tumor tissue, pathohistologically characterized as carcinoma planocellulare corneum (Ca. epidermoide, type 8070/3, WHO, Geneva, 1981), showed an elevated concentration of gangliosides in comparison to normal tung tissue. The composition of gangliosides in LPC tissue varied from one tumor sample to another, however, two general features were observed. First, LPC contained an increased amount of GM3 and a decreased amount of GD3 gangliosides. Second, an elevated proportion of gangliosides migrating as polysialogangliosides (x3, x5, x6) characterized the majority of LPC tissues. On the other hand, serum of patients with LPC contained an elevated amount of gangliosides (15.8 +/- 0.3 mumols/L) in comparison to control serum (6.1 +/- 0.8 mumols/L) (P less than 0.01). However, analyzing the composition of serum gangliosides by thin-layer chromatography, all serum gangliosides were more or less elevated. By day 21 after the surgical removal of LPC, serum gangliosides dropped by approximately 50% approaching the normal values. It seems that elevated serum gangliosides in LPC patients were secreted from carcinoma cells, because they normalized after surgical removal of LPC. Thus, serum gangliosides might be a useful biochemical tool for diagnosis and therapy monitoring of this carcinoma.

  12. A rapidly growing epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen treated by laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy: Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Yusuke; Kaizu, Takashi; Tajima, Hiroshi; Kubo, Hidefumi; Nishiyama, Ryo; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2015-06-02

    Epidermoid cysts arising in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen are exceedingly rare, furthermore the natural course of them is hardly known. We report a case correctly diagnosed with epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen, followed by 1 year observation, finally underwent surgical treatment. The patient presented with diarrhea. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed a pancreatic cyst 20 mm in diameter, surrounded by a solid component showing the same enhancement as the spleen, suggesting the presence of an epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen. One year later, back discomfort developed, and a CT scan revealed that the cyst had grown to 38 mm in diameter. To obtain a definitive diagnosis, we performed a laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy. The histopathological diagnosis was compatible with an epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen, which is benign. The postoperative course was uneventful. This case demonstrates that an epidermoid cyst arising in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen can rapidly grow, even if it is benign. Laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy can be a useful procedure, with the advantages of low invasiveness and organ preservation, for the treatment of benign or low-grade malignant tumors located in the pancreatic body or tail.

  13. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma in odontogenic keratocyst: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Chitrapriya; Aggarwal, Pooja; Wadhwan, Vijay; Bansal, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from the wall of an odontogenic cyst (also known as primary intraosseous carcinoma) is a rare tumor which occurs only in jaw bones. This tumor was first described by Loos in 1913 as a central epidermoid carcinoma of the jaw. Primary intraosseous carcinomas (PIOC) may theoretically arise from the lining of an odontogenic cyst or de novo from presumed odontogenic cell rests. According to the new histological classification of tumors of the World Health Organization, odontogenic keratocyst is nowadays considered a specific odontogenic tumor and the PIOC derived from it is considered as a specific entity which is different from other PIOCs derived from the odontogenic cysts. The following report describes a case of such extremely rare entity that is primary intraosseous SCC of the mandible derived from an OKC in a 60-year-old male patient with brief review of literature. PMID:26980976

  14. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma in odontogenic keratocyst: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Chitrapriya; Aggarwal, Pooja; Wadhwan, Vijay; Bansal, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from the wall of an odontogenic cyst (also known as primary intraosseous carcinoma) is a rare tumor which occurs only in jaw bones. This tumor was first described by Loos in 1913 as a central epidermoid carcinoma of the jaw. Primary intraosseous carcinomas (PIOC) may theoretically arise from the lining of an odontogenic cyst or de novo from presumed odontogenic cell rests. According to the new histological classification of tumors of the World Health Organization, odontogenic keratocyst is nowadays considered a specific odontogenic tumor and the PIOC derived from it is considered as a specific entity which is different from other PIOCs derived from the odontogenic cysts. The following report describes a case of such extremely rare entity that is primary intraosseous SCC of the mandible derived from an OKC in a 60-year-old male patient with brief review of literature.

  15. Effects of luteolin and quercetin, inhibitors of tyrosine kinase, on cell growth and metastasis-associated properties in A431 cells overexpressing epidermal growth factor receptor

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Y -T; Hwang, J -J; Lee, P -P; Ke, F -C; Huang, J -H; Huang, C -J; Kandaswami, C; Middleton, E; Lee, M -T

    1999-01-01

    Flavonoids display a wide range of pharmacological properties including anti-inflammatory. Anti-mutagenic, anti-carcinogenic and anti-cancer effects. Here, we evaluated the effects of eight flavonoids on the tumour cell proliferation, cellular protein phosphorylation, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) secretion.Of the flavonoids examined, luteolin (Lu) and quercetin (Qu) were the two most potent agents, and significantly inhibited A431 cell proliferation with IC50 values of 19 and 21 μM, respectively.The epidermal growth factor (EGF) (10 nM) promoted growth of A431 cells (+25±4.6%) and mediated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase activity and autophosphorylation of EGFR were inhibited by Lu and Qu. At concentration of 20 μM, both Lu and Qu markedly decreased the levels of phosphorylation of A431 cellular proteins, including EGFR.A431 cells treated with Lu or Qu exhibited protuberant cytoplasmic blebs and progressive shrinkage morphology. Lu and Qu also time-dependently induced the appearance of a ladder pattern of DNA fragmentation, and this effect was abolished by EGF treatment.The addition of EGF only marginally diminished the inhibitory effect of luteolin and quercetin on the growth rate of A431 cells, treatment of cellular proteins with EGF and luteolin or quercetin greatly reduced protein phosphorylation, indicating Lu and Qu may act effectively to inhibit a wide range of protein kinases, including EGFR tyrosine kinase.EGF increased the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), while Lu and Qu appeared to suppress the secretion of these two MMPs in A431 cells.Examination of the relationship between the chemical structure and inhibitory effects of eight flavonoids reveal that the double bond between C2 and C3 in ring C and the OH groups on C3′ and C4′ in ring B are critical for the biological activities.This study demonstrates that the inhibitory effects of Lu and Qu, and the

  16. Epidermoid cyst at a rare location, as a content of inguinal hernia: A case report with a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Meher, Sadananda; Baijal, Manish; Soni, Vandana; Sharma, Anil; Khullar, Rajesh; Chowbey, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts can occur in a variety of locations including the face, trunk, neck, extremities, and scalp. No case of epidermoid cyst as content of inguinal hernia has been reported so far; however, cases with dermoid, teratoma, lipoma, lymphangioma and leiomyoma as content of inguinal canal have been reported. A 29-year-old female presented with a lump in the left inguinal region that was clinically diagnosed as left inguinal hernia. The patient was planned for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair after routine investigation. Intraoperatively, a cystic mass was found to be attached to the left round ligament that was excised completely. Histopathological report was consistent with epidermal inclusion cyst. Inguinal epidermoid cyst mimicking inguinal hernia is a rare entity. If such a cyst is encountered during operation, it should be completely excised. PMID:27279405

  17. A case-control study of carcinomas of the nose and paranasal sinuses in the woolen textile manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Magnani, C; Comba, P; Ferraris, F; Ivaldi, C; Meneghin, M; Terracini, B

    1993-01-01

    A population-based case-control study was conducted in Biella, which is located in northwestern Italy, to investigate the reported association between sinonasal carcinomas and woolen fabrics production. The study included 33 cases diagnosed during 1976-1988 (14 adenocarcinomas, 11 epidermoid carcinomas, 3 other specified carcinomas, 1 unspecified carcinoma, and 4 cases without histologic confirmation) and 131 controls. No association was found with smoking. As reported previously, excess risks were observed in wood and furniture workers (odds ratio [OR] = 4.4, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.41-13.4) and in the leather industry (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 0.6-20.3). Odds ratios in the wood and furniture industry were 22.0 (95% CI = 4.4-124.0) for adenocarcinomas and 0.9 (95% CI = 0.4-8.3) for epidermoid carcinomas. No association was found with the woolen textile or garment industries (OR = 0.8, 95% CI = 0.2-2.8), nor with farming, construction, metal works, and transport. Odds ratios for the textile industry did not vary with length of exposure or histologic type. Power for detecting an odds ratio of 3.0 at the 95% level of significance was 40%.

  18. [Condylomas, cervical dysplasias and carcinoma of the cervix (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    de Brux, J; Ionesco, M; Cochard, B; Masson, M F; Kaeding, H

    1980-01-01

    Because the greater number of viral cervical lesions, the authors recall their cytological and pathological pictures. In 30% of the causes, they have observed relations between flat condylomas and cervical severe dysplasias and carcinoma in situ. But in these last lesions, the cytological characters of the viral infestations are not visuable. The relationship between condyloma and carcinoma in situ is explained by the virus modifications on the germinative cells genoma which enhance great multiplication of these cells and inhibit the epidermoid differentiation. When the virus are not very active, or the host responses sufficient, the cell differentiation and maturation permit the replication of the virus and its appearance in the cytoplasm of the superficial cells. The authors stress on the complete destruction of the viral cervical lesions and the later control of the cervix.

  19. Epidermoid Cyst in an Intrapancreatic Accessory Spleen: Case Report and Literature Review of the Preoperative Imaging Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Shin; Mori, Hideki; Zakimi, Moriya; Yamada, Koki; Chinen, Kenji; Arashiro, Masayuki; Shinoura, Susumu; Kikuchi, Kaoru; Murakami, Takahiro; Kunishima, Fumihito

    2016-01-01

    An epidermoid cyst arising within an intrapancreatic accessory spleen (ECIAS) is rare, and also difficult to correctly diagnose before surgery. It is mostly misdiagnosed as a cystic tumor, such as a mucinous cystic neoplasm or as a solid tumor with cystic degeneration, such as a neuro endocrine tumor. We herein report a case of ECIAS and also perform a literature review of 35 reports of ECIAS. Although the preoperative diagnosis of ECIAS using conventional imaging is relatively difficult to make, careful preoperative examinations of the features on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging could lead to a correct preoperative diagnosis of ECIAS which might thereby reduce the number of unnecessary resections. PMID:27904107

  20. Bispecific designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins) targeting epidermal growth factor receptor inhibit A431 cell proliferation and receptor recycling.

    PubMed

    Boersma, Ykelien L; Chao, Ginger; Steiner, Daniel; Wittrup, K Dane; Plückthun, Andreas

    2011-12-02

    The EGF receptor (EGFR) has been implicated in the development and progression of many tumors. Although monoclonal antibodies directed against EGFR have been approved for the treatment of cancer in combination with chemotherapy, there are limitations in their clinical efficacy, necessitating the search for robust targeting molecules that can be equipped with new effector functions or show a new mechanism of action. Designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins) may provide the targeting component for such novel reagents. Previously, four DARPins were selected against EGFR with (sub)nanomolar affinity. As any targeting module should preferably be able to inhibit EGFR-mediated signaling, their effect on A431 cells overexpressing EGFR was examined: three of them were shown to inhibit proliferation by inducing G(1) arrest, as seen for the Food and Drug Administration-approved antibody cetuximab. To understand this inhibitory mechanism, we mapped the epitopes of the DARPins using yeast surface display. The epitopes for the biologically active DARPins overlapped with the EGF-binding site, whereas the fourth DARPin bound to a different domain, explaining the lack of a biological effect. To optimize the biological activity of the DARPins, we combined two DARPins binding to different epitopes with a flexible linker or with a leucine zipper, leading to a homodimer. The latter DARPin was able to reduce surface EGFR by inhibiting receptor recycling, leading to a dramatic decrease in cell viability. These results indicate that multispecific EGFR-specific DARPins are superior to cetuximab and may form the basis of new opportunities in tumor targeting and tumor therapy.

  1. Enhanced antitumor activity in A431 cells via encapsulation of 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3 in PLGA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaozhi; Liu, Jiwei; Ge, Baojian; Du, Meiling; Fu, Li; Fu, Yushan; Yan, Qiu

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the encapsulation of 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3 (20(R)-Rg3) using polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and promotion for its antitumor activity. Preparation and evaluation of the antitumor efficacy of 20(R)-Rg3-loaded PLGA nanoparticles were the first reported. The data will be helpful to apply 20(R)-Rg3 efficiently and broadly in new drug form development and clinical cancer treatment. The nanoparticles were prepared using emulsion and solvent evaporation methods. The uniform particle size and good dispersion were further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was applied to detect cell proliferation after 20(R)-Rg3-loaded PLGA nanoparticles treatment. Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining were used for observation of key proteins related with proliferation and apoptosis. Cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometer technology. The results showed that the size of 20(R)-Rg3-loaded PLGA was 97.5 nm in diameter, and zeta potential was -28 mV detected by Malvern particle size analyzer. The encapsulation efficiency was 97.5%, and drug loading was 70.2% measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The in vitro study showed that the encapsulated 20(R)-Rg3 was consecutively released and the release ratio reached to the highest value (19.36%) at the time point of 96 h. The encapsulated 20(R)-Rg3 significantly inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis in A431 cancer cells compared with the unencapsulated 20(R)-Rg3, control and PLGA alone. 20(R)-Rg3-loaded PLGA nanoparticles was well prepared and characterized. The antitumor activity was increased after PLGA encapsulation. The data will be beneficial to the development of new dosage forms of 20(R)-Rg3 and extensive application.

  2. Downregulated AP-1 activity is associated with inhibition of Protein-Kinase-C-dependent CD44 and ezrin localisation and upregulation of PKC theta in A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Genevieve; Malliri, Angeliki; Ozanne, Bradford W

    2002-07-01

    Progression to an invasive, metastatic tumour requires the coordinated expression and function of a number of gene products, as well as their regulation in the context of invasion. The transcription factor AP-1 regulates expression of many of those genes necessary for implementation of the invasion programme. Two such gene products, CD44 and ezrin, are both upregulated in fibroblasts transformed by v-fos and are commonly implicated in cell motility and invasion. Here we report that CD44 and ezrin colocalise to membrane ruffles and microvilli of A431 cells after treatment with EGF. However, A431 cells expressing dominant-negative c-Jun (TAM67), and which as a consequence fail to invade in response to EGF, also fail to correctly localise CD44 and ezrin. CD44 and ezrin are both substrates for Protein Kinase C, and we show that their EGF-dependent colocalisation requires Protein Kinase C activity. Associated with TAM67 expression and disrupted CD44 and ezrin colocalisation is the increased expression and activation of the novel PKC theta isoform. Expression of PKC theta in A431 cells results in the inhibition of cell motility and disrupted localisation of CD44 and ezrin. We propose that AP-1 regulates the integrity of Protein Kinase C signalling and identifies PKC theta as a potential suppressor of the invasion programme.

  3. NON-METASTATIC SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA WITHIN A RATHKE’S CLEFT CYST

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Brian T.; Segkos, Konstantinos; Kasper, Ekkehard M.; Pallotta, Johanna A.

    2015-01-01

    Primary intracranial and sellar squamous cell carcinoma is an extremely rare entity, usually caused by malignant transformation of epidermoid cysts, or very rarely other non-malignant epithelial cysts. Malignant transformation of a Rathke’s cleft cyst has never been described. We present a 49-year-old male patient who presented with a 3-month history of progressive frontotemporal headaches. Imaging revealed a 1.2 cm cystic pituitary mass consistent with a hemorrhagic Rathke’s cleft cyst. The patient underwent trans-sphenoidal resection of the pituitary cyst, and pathologic analysis revealed a squamous cell carcinoma lining a Rathke’s cleft cyst. Extensive imaging and otorhinolaryngologic evaluation revealed no primary source for metastasis. We feel this represents the first case of a patient with a pituitary lesion in which presentation and MRI imaging were consistent with Rathke’s cleft cyst, yet histology revealed squamous cell carcinoma in situ. PMID:25715776

  4. Expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein confers malignant potential to mucoepidermoid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    NAGAMINE, KYOSUKE; KITAMURA, TETSUYA; YANAGAWA-MATSUDA, AYA; OHIRO, YOICHI; TEI, KANCHU; HIDA, KYOKO; HIGASHINO, FUMIHIRO; TOTSUKA, YASUNORI; SHINDOH, MASANOBU

    2013-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is known to induce bone resorption by activating RANKL as well as PTH. PTHrP plays a central role in humoral hypercalcemia, and its expression has been reported to be closely associated with bone metastasis of breast carcinoma. PTHrP expression in oral squamous carcinoma cell lines was investigated, and PTHrP was expressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines similar to that in a prostate carcinoma cell line. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the most common malignant salivary gland tumor composed of different types of cells including a squamous component. Its clinical behavior is highly variable and ranges from slow-growing and indolent to locally aggressive and highly metastatic. We examined the PTHrP expression in mucoepidermoid carcinoma and assessed the significance of its correlation with clinicopathological features. Immunohistochemical detection of PTHrP was carried out in 21 cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma in the head and neck region. PTHrP was highly detectable in intermediate and epidermoid cells, and abundant expression of PTHrP in intermediate cells had a significant association with cancer malignancy, including lymph node metastasis and/or tumor recurrence. These results suggest that PTHrP expression can be used as a prognostic factor for mucoepidermoid carcinoma. PMID:23588777

  5. Lgr5-positive cells are cancer stem cells in skin squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shunli; Gong, Zhenyu; Chen, Mingrui; Liu, Benli; Bian, Donghui; Wu, Kai

    2014-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) in most human tumors are commonly identified and enriched using similar strategies for identifying normal stem cells, including flow cytometry assays for side population, high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, and CD133 positivity. Thus, development of a method for isolating a specific cancer using cancer-specific characteristic appears to be potentially important. Here, we reported extremely high Lgr5 levels in the specimen from skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in patients. Using SCC cell line A431, we detected high Lgr5 and CD133 levels in ALDH-high or side population from these cancer cells. To figure out whether Lgr5 is a marker of CSCs in SCC, we transfected A431 cells with a Lgr5-creERT-2A-DTR/Cag-Loxp-GFP-STOP-Loxp-RFP plasmid and purified transfected cells (tA431) based on GFP by flow cytometry. 4-Hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) was given to label Lgr5-positive cells with RFP, for comparison to GFP-positive Lgr5-negative cells. Lgr5-positive cells grew significantly faster than Lgr5-negative cells, and the fold increase in growth of Lgr5-positive vs Lgr5-negative cells is significantly higher than SP vs non-SP, or ALDH-high vs ALDH-low, or CD133-positive vs CD133-negative cells. Moreover, in Lgr5-negative population, Lgr5-positive re-appeared in culture with time, suggesting that Lgr5-positive cells can be regenerated from Lgr5-negative cells. Furthermore, the growth of tA431 cells significantly decreased upon a single dose of diphtheria toxin (DT)/4-OHT to eliminate Lgr5-positive cell lineage, while multiple doses of DT/4-OHT nearly completely inhibited tA431 cell growth. Taken together, our data provide compelling data to demonstrate that Lgr5-positive cells are CSCs in skin SCC.

  6. Long-term evaluation of asymptomatic patients operated on for intracranial epidermoid cysts. Comparison of the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging and computer-assisted cisternography for detection of cholesterin fragments.

    PubMed

    Lunardi, P; Fortuna, A; Cantore, G; Missori, P

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or computer-assisted cisternography (CAc) assessment of latent late recurrences in long-term asymptomatic patients surgically treated for intracranial epidermoid cyst is here presented. MRI was exclusively utilized in one patient; CAc was exclusively employed in three patients with metalic operative clips; both CAc and MRI were employed in another four patients. CAc appears to be more reliable than MRI in detecting cholesterin fragments in asymptomatic patients operated on for intracranial epidermoid cyst.

  7. The endocytosis of epidermal growth factor in A431 cells: A pH of microenvironment and the dynamics of receptor complex dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Sorkin, A.D.; Teslenko, L.V.; Nikolsky, N.N. )

    1988-03-01

    The endocytosis and intracellular fate of epidermal growth factor (EGF) were studied in A431 cells. After 15-20 min of internalization at 37{degree}C, rhodomaine-labeled ({sup 125}-I) EGF (EGR-Rh) accumulated into large juxtanuclear compartment consisting of closely related vesicles. This structure was shown to be localized in the para-Golgi region. Fluorescein-labeled transferrin (Tr-FITC) was observed in the same region when added to the cell simultaneously with EGF-Rh. Using microscopy spectrofluorometer, the authors determined that the Tr-FITC-containing para-Golgi structures have a pH of 6.1{plus minus}0.3 while lysosomes containing dextran-fluorescein have a pH of 5.0{plus minus}0.2. To study the dynamics of EGF-receptor dissociation during endocytosis a mild detergent treatment of living cells was used for extraction of an intracellular receptor-unbound EGF. These results suggest that EGF remains associated with receptors during endocytosis in A431 cells until it is transferred to lysosomes where the pH of the EGF microenvironment is dropped to 5. A prolonged presence of EGF-receptor complexes in the para-Golgi region might be of importance in mitotic signaling.

  8. Primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma. Case series 1991-2012.

    PubMed

    Campillo, Ramón; Gil-Carcedo, Elisa; Alonso, David; Vallejo, Luis A; Oñate, Juan M; Gil-Carcedo, Luis M

    2013-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma was first described by Toker in 1972. It is an uncommon, primary neuroendocrine skin carcinoma which appears in the dermoepidermic area, grows fast, is very aggressive and has a poor prognosis. The aim of this work is to highlight the importance of this tumour, which develops mainly in the skin of the head and neck area, and whose prevalence has increased in recent years. We gathered data on 16 patients suffering cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma treated at our hospital between September 12, 1991 and July 13, 2012. We indicated the age and gender of patients. We described the area where the tumour was located, indicating the size in millimetres, according to the major axis of the lesion. Most of the patients studied were over 70 years old, except for one who was 55. The highest frequency of cases appeared among patients aged over 80 years. In the cases studied, when the tumour appeared in the head and neck region (10/16), its location could be nasal-lateronasal, cheek-malar, upper eyelid, frontal or mandibular. The major axis of the lesion ranged between 7 and 35 mm. Unlike with epidermoid or basocellular carcinomas, recurrence and ganglionar metastases were common. Immunohistochemical (CK20) tests are essential for a correct diagnosis. Treatment is usually surgical and occasionally followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This carcinoma is not a very common skin tumour. It appears in old age, in the head and neck region in 50% of cases and often leads to exitus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Adrenocortical carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001663.htm Adrenocortical carcinoma To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a cancer of the adrenal glands . ...

  10. Chronic sun exposure-related fusion oncogenes EGFR-PPARGC1A in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Egashira, Sho; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Ajino, Manami; Shimozono, Naoki; Okamoto, Sayo; Tasaki, Yukino; Hirano, Ayaka; Ide, Maho; Kajihara, Ikko; Aoi, Jun; Harada, Miho; Igata, Toshikatsu; Masuguchi, Shinichi; Fukushima, Satoshi; Ihn, Hironobu

    2017-10-04

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) differs from SCC of other organs in its strong association with chronic sun exposure. However, the specific driver mutations in cSCC remain unknown. Fusion genes in established cSCC cell lines (A431 and DJM-1) were predicted by transcriptome sequence, and validated by Sanger sequence, fluorescence in situ hybridization and G-banding. By transcriptome sequencing, we identified fusion gene EGFR-PPARGC1A in A431, which were expressed in 31 of 102 cSCCs. The lesions harboring the fusion gene tended to be located in sun-exposed areas. In vivo cutaneous implantation of EGFR-PPARGC1A-expressing NIH3T3 induced tumors resembling human cSCC, indicating its potent tumorigenicity. NIH3T3 transfected with EGFR-PPARGC1A as well as A431 showed increased cell proliferation activity. With regard to underlying mechanism, EGFR-PPARGC1A protein causes constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation, and induces the phosphorylation of wild-type full-length epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by dimerization. Conversely, the RNAi-mediated attenuation of EGFR or CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockdown of the fusion gene in A431 led to a decrease in the cell number, and may have therapeutic value. Our findings advance the knowledge concerning genetic causes of cSCC and the function of EGFR, with potential implications for new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

  11. Anal carcinoma and HIV infection: is it time for screening?

    PubMed

    Herranz-Pinto, P; Sendagorta-Cudós, E; Bernardino-de la Serna, J I; Peña-Sánchez de Rivera, J M

    2014-03-01

    A 38-year-old white man had a 10-year history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (A3), with no episodes of opportunistic diseases and in good immunologic recovery (CD4 cell count: 450 and indetectable HIV viral load) while on HAART. He presented with a two-month history of mild anal symptoms, including pruritus and episodic bleeding. He referred past episodes of anal warts, self-treated with several topical compounds, all proven unsuccessful. Perianal examination showed erythema and scratching. A 0.5cm sized tumor, with infiltration at the base was detected on digital exam, located at 15mm from the anal margin. Local biopsy driven by high-resolution anuscopy (AAR) yielded a final diagnosis of infiltrative epidermoid carcinoma. Might that neoplasia have been prevented?

  12. Histopathologic, immunophenotypic and cytogenetic features of pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Roden, Anja C; García, Joaquín J; Wehrs, Rebecca N; Colby, Thomas V; Khoor, Andras; Leslie, Kevin O; Chen, Longwen

    2014-11-01

    Pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma is an uncommon but distinctive manifestation of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma occurs in adults and children and can cause diagnostic problems, especially in small biopsies. Few studies have characterized the histologic and immunophenotypic features of pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma. t(11;19)(q21;p13) is considered disease-defining for mucoepidermoid carcinoma; its significance in pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma warrants further study. Forty three pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinomas were re-reviewed and graded according to the Brandwein grading system for mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Four cases were excluded because of a split opinion between pathology report and re-review. These cases were negative for MAML2 rearrangement by FISH. TTF-1, napsin A, p40 and p63 immunostains were scored: 0 (negative), 1 (1-25% tumor cells), 2 (26-50%), 3 (51-75%) or 4 (>75%). FISH to detect MAML2 rearrangement used a MAML2-11q21 break-apart probe. Thirty nine pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma (4 low, 30 intermediate, 5 high grade) contained mucous, epidermoid and intermediate cells and lacked keratinization and in situ carcinoma of the overlying epithelium. All cases with available gross description (n=22) had a central/endo- or peribronchial location. All 25 cases tested for immunohistochemistry were positive (scores 1-4) for p63; 23 also expressed p40. In six cases, the p63 score was higher than p40. TTF-1 and napsin were uniformly negative in all 25 cases. MAML2 rearrangement was identified by FISH in each of the 24 cases tested (3 low, 19 intermediate, 2 high grade). Clinical history was available in 29 patients (15 men) (median age, 48 years) with follow-up in 24 (median, 8.4 years). Five patients died of unrelated causes; one developed metastatic pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma. In conclusion, features helpful in distinguishing pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma from other lung cancers include its central

  13. [Carcinoma of the esophagus. Palliative treatment with endoscopic prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Sala, T; Pertejo, V; Linares, M; Del Val, A

    1990-08-01

    The efficacy and safety of endoscopically inserted esophageal prosthesis was evaluated in 33 patients with non-operable carcinoma involving the esophagus. In 30 cases, the origin of the tumor was esophageal, and in 3 cases, bronchopulmonary. Esophago-pulmonary fistula was present in 9 patients. Histologic exam of the tumors revealed 11 adenocarcinomas and 22 epidermoid carcinomas. In every case, Atkinson prosthesis was used and previous esophageal dilatation was needed in 21 patients. Normal oral feeding was achieved in 29 patients. Mean hospital stay after insertion of the prosthesis was 5 days. Survival rate was 84.8% at one month, 63.6% at 4-6 months, 42.4% survived more than 6 months, and 21.2% were still alive one year after the procedure. Complications occurred in 3 patients (9%) -esophageal perforation in two cases, and pneumonia in one case. One patient died. In conclusion, in patients with advanced carcinoma involving the esophagus, palliative therapy with endoscopically inserted esophageal prosthesis is effective, relatively safe and cheap.

  14. Pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma with prominent tumor-associated lymphoid proliferation.

    PubMed

    Shilo, Konstantin; Foss, Robert D; Franks, Teri J; DePeralta-Venturina, Mariza; Travis, William D

    2005-03-01

    We report 6 cases of low-grade pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma displaying a striking lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. All six tumors had a typical pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma presentation as a polypoid endobronchial mass involving the proximal bronchi. The patients were 3 females and 3 males with a mean age of 33 years (range, 5-61 years). Half of the patients were asymptomatic, while half experienced mild symptoms of pneumonia, asthma-like symptoms, or hemoptysis. No tumor-related deaths were observed, with a mean follow-up of 51 months. The tumor size ranged from 2.1 to 3.4 cm (mean, 2.9 cm). The tumors characteristically displayed an elaborate tubulocystic epithelial component composed of intermediate, epidermoid, and mucus-producing cells, and variable numbers of clear cells, multinucleated giant cells, columnar cells, and oncocytic cells. The tumors' lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with occasional Russell bodies was sufficiently intense to raise concern of a low-grade lymphoma. All tested tumors were immunoreactive with CK7 while nonreactive with TTF-1 and CK20. Recognition of this histologic variant is important for a correct diagnosis of low-grade pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate is similar to that previously described in salivary glands as tumor-associated lymphoid proliferation.

  15. Ultrastructure of Pericystic or Intracystic Blood Vessels in Epidermoid Cysts-A Transmission Electron Microscopy Study: Laboratory Investigation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiao-Hui; Ma, Jun; Zeng, Chun; Sun, Yi-Lin; Lin, Song

    2017-07-01

    Recently, we reported a tendency toward spontaneous hemorrhage in both the preoperative and postoperative periods in patients with intracranial epidermoid cyst (EC). According to our experience, this tendency for spontaneous hemorrhage was partly caused by the pathologic blood vessels adjacent to the EC. This study was designed to testify this hypothesis. Twenty-three removable pericystic or intracystic blood vessels from 17 patients with EC were collected during surgery and were then examined by transmission electron microscopy. The microvascular structure in gliomas was chosen as the control. Under electron microscopy, variant pathologic changes of vessels were found in all patients with EC. In the tunicae intima, we found vacuolization, apoptosis, necrosis, and intralumenal protrusion of endothelial cells, as well as swollen basement and highly flexed and discontinued elastic plate. In the tunicae media, vacuolization and swollen mitochondria were found in muscular cells. In the tunicae adventitia, extravascular erythrocytes, edema or apoptosis of pericytes, collagen predominance, and inflammatory cell infiltration and destruction were found. Neuron denature and necrosis were found in the peripheral brain tissue. In the microvascular structure of 5 glioma specimens, we found enlargement and hyperplasia of endothelial cells, swollen basement membrane, swollen pericytes, and astrocytic hyperplasia and neuron denature in adjacent brain tissues. Our findings provide strong evidence for the hypothesis that intracystic or pericystic vascular degeneration or destruction accounts for the spontaneous hemorrhage tendency before and after surgical resection of ECs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, G A

    1999-05-01

    Hepatitis C infection is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, and progress has been made in a number of areas. Transgenic mice lines expressing the hepatitis C core protein develop hepatic steatosis, adenomas, and hepatocellular carcinomas, with no significant hepatitis or fibrosis. This implies that hepatitis C can lead directly to malignant transformation. A new lesion, irregular regeneration, has been described in chronic hepatitis C infection and is associated with a 15-fold increase in the relative risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma. A minority of patients with hepatitis C-related hepatocellular carcinoma have intense lymphocytic infiltration of the cancer, a feature associated with a better prognosis. Several studies have confirmed the association between large cell dysplasia and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, large cell dysplasia may not be a premalignant lesion and instead may be a marker for premalignant alterations elsewhere in the liver. Oral contraceptives previously have been linked to an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. A large multicenter European case-control study has shown minimal increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma with use of steroidal contraception. Tamoxifen had shown promise in the management of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. However, a randomized placebo-controlled study of 477 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma found no benefit from tamoxifen. In a preliminary study, however, octreotide has shown improved survival and quality of life in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Finally, interferon treatment continues to be linked to a reduced risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with hepatitis C. These studies generally are not randomized, and a randomized prospective study is required to address this issue.

  17. [Combined radiochemotherapy in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Daniilidis, J; Constantinidis, J; Fountzilas, G

    2001-09-01

    Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is a tumor of epidermoid origin with an entirely different biological behavior than other carcinoma of the head and neck region. A retrospective analysis was performed in 93 cases with locally advanced NPC treated with induction chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy (RT; 79 patients) or concomitant RT and chemotherapy. Totally 66 patients (71%) achieved a complete response (CR), 68% of the patients treated with induction chemotherapy followed by RT, 86% with concomitant chemoradiotherapy. After a median follow-up of 5.5 years 28 out of these 66 relapsed, 25 of them locoregionally. Median time to progression was 22.5 months, median overall survival (OS) 45 months, 5-year actuarial survival was 41.5%. Age, T and N classification, histological type and type of chemotherapy were independent significant factors for OS. Combined chemotherapy and RT in patients with locally advanced NPC result in a high CR rate. The main problem remains the locoregional control. Randomized studies are needed in order to define the optimal use of chemotherapy in combination with RT.

  18. Childhood Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Sara O

    2010-09-01

    Carcinoma in children differs from that occurring in adults. It is far rarer and represents only a small fraction of all pediatric cancer diagnoses. Pediatric sarcomas were among the first tumors in which recurrent chromosomal aberrations were discovered. Once defined, these recurrent aberrations, many of them translocations, became incorporated into the pathologist's diagnostic armamentarium. In the past several years, defining chromosomal rearrangements have been identified in pediatric carcinomas as well, and this has become a new frontier in pathologic diagnosis. This article provides an overview of pediatric carcinoma as well as a detailed review of selected types of carcinoma that in particular can present diagnostic difficulty to the practicing pathologist and illustrate new and emerging concepts in pediatric carcinoma.

  19. Effect of resection on local failure in irradiated non-oat cell carcinoma of the lung

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, H.R.

    1983-12-01

    From January 1969 through December 1979, 171 patients completed a course of high dose definitive radiotherapy alone for non-oat cell carcinoma of the lung. During the same period, 53 patients completed a course of definitive postoperative radiotherapy after undergoing resection of the primary tumor. The two groups were otherwise very similar with regard to patient related and tumor related variables. A detailed analysis of the incidence of clinically documented local (in-field) failure on the basis of clinical T and N stages was performed. A comparison of the incidence of local failure as the first site of failure for patients with T/sub 1-2/ tumors demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in local failure in patients whose primary tumors were resected. Histology (epidermoid vs. non-epidermoid) had no apparent effect on the frequency of local failure, either with or without resection. A review of past experience indicates that local failure is common after definitive irradiation alone, and is due to a low rate of sterilization of the primary tumor, even with tolerance doses of irradiation. Data are presented to support a reappraisal of the role of combined resection and irradiation in future clinical trials, to reduce the present unacceptably high rate of local failure in potentially curable patients treated by irradiation alone.

  20. [Brachytherapy in the management of the initial stage of the mobile tongue carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Bolner, A; Campolongo, F; Segatta, P; Fellin, G; Bauer, M; Nocini, P F

    1999-04-01

    From 1986 to 1994, 61 patients with oral tongue epidermoid carcinoma were treated using low dose rate iridium brachytherapy. Eleven patients treated with combined external beam and brachytherapy and 8 with nodal metastases at presentation were excluded from the study. The results in 42 fully evaluable and regularly followed patients here retrospectively reviewed. In 22 cases clinical stage was T1 greater than 1 cm and in the remaining 20 T2, N0 M0; all were cases of epidermoid carcinoma. The patients received definitive brachytherapy to the primary site using plastic tube technique at a dose of 5067 Gy (median 60 Gy) at reference isodose. The dose rate ranged from 35 cGy/h to 80 cGy/h (median 53 cGy/h). Elective neck dissection was performed in 24 patients, whereas a surveillance protocol was adopted in the remaining 18 cases. After an average follow-up of 40 months, 5 year absolute and disease specific survival (Kaplan Meier) was 61% and 88% respectively. Two patients failed at the primary site (local control probability 96%). Nodal metastases were found in 6 of 24 electively dissected patients and developed subsequently in 3 of 18 pN0 cases and in 4 of 18 non dissected patients. Four patients died of uncontrolled neck disease (regional control probability 76%). A severe necrosis developed in 9 patients (soft tissue in 4 and bone in 5 patients), but only 3 cases required surgery. This study confirms brachytherapy as an effective treatment modality for the early stage of oral tongue carcinoma.

  1. Recombinant human IgG antibodies recognizing distinct extracellular domains of EGF receptor exhibit different degrees of growth inhibitory effects on human A431 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chialun; Takayanagi, Atsushi; Yoshida, Tetsuhiko; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi

    2013-05-01

    Recently, we isolated 4 distinct kinds of single chain antibody against human EGF receptor (EGFR) after screening the Keio phage display scFv library by using two methods of target-guided proximity labeling. In the current study, these monovalent scFv antibodies were converted to bivalent IgGs of humanized forms (hIgGs) by recombinant technology using the specially designed expression vectors followed by protein production in CHO cells. The resulting recombinant hIgGs were examined for their binding specificity using several different transformed human BJ cell lines that express deletion mutants of EGFR, each lacking one of 4 distinct extracellular domains (L1, L2, C1 and C2). Immuno-fluorescent microscopy and immuno-precipitation assay on these cells indicated that 4 distinct kinds of hIgGs bind to one of 3 different domains (L1, C1 and C2). Then, these hIgGs were further examined for biological effects on human A431 cancer cells, which overexpress EGFR. The results indicated that hIgG38 binding to L1 and hIgG45 binding to C2 substantially suppressed the EGF-induced phosphorylation of EGFR, resulting in the growth inhibition of A431 cancer cells. On the contrary, hIgG40 binding to C1 and hIgG42 binding to another site (epitope) of C2 exhibited no such inhibitory effects. Thus, the newly produced four recombinant hIgG antibodies recognize 4 different sites (epitopes) in 3 different extracellular domains of EGFR and exhibit different biological effects on cancer cells. These characteristics are somewhat different from the currently utilized therapeutic anti-EGFR antibodies. Hence, these hIgG antibodies will be invaluable as a research tool for the detailed molecular analysis of the EGFR-mediated signal transduction mechanism and more importantly a possible application as new therapeutic agents to treat certain types of cancers.

  2. Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia of thyroid gland in a male patient: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chi-Yun; Chao, Tzu-Chieh; Lin, Jen-Der; Hsueh, Chuen

    2015-01-01

    Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia (SMECE) was first described by Chan et al in 1991. It is characterized by nest or strands of epidermoid tumor cells with squamous differentiation, rare mucous cells, prominent sclerotic stroma, eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, and a background of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in the non-neoplastic thyroid gland. It is important to recognize SMECE of thyroid and differentiate it from squamous cell carcinoma or other neoplasms with squamous differentiation/metaplasia. In published cases, the SMECE of thyroid gland predominantly occurs in women. We report a case of SMECE of thyroid in a 45-year-old male patient. All cases in male patients were Caucasian described in English literature, and our case is the first one in Asian.

  3. Preliminary in vitro evaluation of genistein chemopreventive capacity as a result of esterification and cyclodextrin encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Danciu, Corina; Soica, Codruta; Dehelean, Cristina; Zupko, Istvan; Csanyi, Erzsebet; Pinzaru, Iulia

    2015-01-01

    The present study focuses on the synthesis and analysis of a genistein ester derivative with myristic acid followed by beta cyclodextrin encapsulation; physicochemical analysis using consecrated techniques such as FTIR, MS, DSC, and SEM revealed both a successful esterification and inclusion inside the cyclodextrin cavity. Cytotoxic effects were measured in vitro on three human cell lines: HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma), A2780 (ovary carcinoma), and A431 (skin epidermoid carcinoma). The in vitro biological analysis exhibited rather poor antiproliferative results on all three tested cancer cell lines, behavior that may be due to the high stability of the complex within the in vitro environment.

  4. Hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, T.; Kojiro, M.

    1986-01-01

    With the remarkable recent diagnostic and therapeutic advances and the discovery of a possible pathogenetic role of hepatitis B virus, the study and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma are entering a new era. Parallel developments in the pathological study of this malignancy are also to be expected. To coincide with this new era, this book presents the authors' accumulated pathomorphological knowledge of hepatocellular carcinoma. The detailed coverage is based on the examination findings of 439 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma autopsied at the authors' department in the last twenty years.

  5. Single cell time-lapse analysis reveals that podoplanin enhances cell survival and colony formation capacity of squamous cell carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Miyashita, Tomoyuki; Higuchi, Youichi; Kojima, Motohiro; Ochiai, Atsushi; Ishii, Genichiro

    2017-01-01

    Tumor initiating cells (TICs) are characterized by high clonal expansion capacity. We previously reported that podoplanin is a TIC-specific marker for the human squamous cell carcinoma cell line A431. The aim of this study is to explore the molecular mechanism underlying the high clonal expansion potential of podoplanin-positive A431cells using Fucci imaging. Single podoplanin-positive cells created large colonies at a significantly higher frequency than single podoplanin-negative cells, whereas no difference was observed between the two types of cells with respect to cell cycle status. Conversely, the cell death ratio of progenies derived from podoplanin-positive single cell was significantly lower than that of cells derived from podoplanin-negative cells. Single A431 cells, whose podoplanin expression was suppressed by RNA interference, exhibited increased cell death ratios and decreased frequency of large colony forming. Moreover, the frequency of large colony forming decreased significantly when podoplanin-positive single cells was treated with a ROCK (Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase) inhibitor, whereas no difference was observed in single podoplanin-negative cells. Our current study cleared that high clonal expansion capacity of podoplanin-positive TICs populations was the result of reduced cell death by podoplanin-mediated signaling. Therefore, podoplanin activity may be a therapeutic target in the treatment of squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:28059107

  6. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in children: review of 16 cases

    SciTech Connect

    Jereb, B.; Huvos, A.G.; Steinherz, P.; Unal, A.

    1980-04-01

    Of fifty two children with nasopharyngeal tumors who were registered and treated a Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), from 1961 through 1977, 16 had carcinoma. The results of retrospective analysis of these patients are presented here. There were 7 girls and 9 boys between 12 and 16 years of age. One patient had a Stage I tumor; one had a Stage II tumor and 14 had Stage IV tumors. The histology was poorly differentiated epidermoid carcinoma in all patients. All patients had radiotherapy to the primary site. Six patients received chemotherapy for distant metastases, and 2 had adjuvant chemotherapy. Of the 13 patients who were treated initially with radiation alone, 2 were alive and free of disease at 12 and 14 years respectively. Of the 3 patients who had chemotherapy at initial treatment, one was alive and free of disease 18 months from diagnosis and one patient died of treatment without tumor. Bone was the common site of distant metastases. While radiation therapy alone appears to be adequate treatment for early tumors, adjuvant chemotherapy should be tried to improve results in advanced tumors.

  7. MicroRNAs Are Part of the Regulatory Network that Controls EGF Induced Apoptosis, Including Elements of the JAK/STAT Pathway, in A431 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Ibrahim; Hoffmann, Peter; Adelson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    MiRNAs are known to regulate gene expression and in the context of cancer have been shown to regulate metastasis, cell proliferation and cell death. In this report we describe potential miRNA regulatory roles with respect to induction of cell death by pharmacologic dose of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF). Our previous work suggested that multiple pathways are involved in the induction of apoptosis, including interferon induced genes, cytokines, cytoskeleton and cell adhesion and TP53 regulated genes. Using miRNA time course expression profiling of EGF treated A431 cells and coupling this to our previous gene expression and proteomic data, we have been able to implicate a number of additional miRNAs in the regulation of apoptosis. Specifically we have linked miR-134, miR-145, miR-146b-5p, miR-432 and miR-494 to the regulation of both apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes expressed as a function of EGF treatment. Whilst additional miRNAs were differentially expressed, these had the largest number of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic targets. We found 5 miRNAs previously implicated in the regulation of apoptosis and our results indicate that an additional 20 miRNAs are likely to be involved based on their correlated expression with targets. Certain targets were linked to multiple miRNAs, including PEG10, BTG1, ID1, IL32 and NCF2. Some miRNAs that target the interferon pathway were found to be down regulated, consistent with a novel layer of regulation of interferon pathway components downstream of JAK/STAT. We have significantly expanded the repertoire of miRNAs that may regulate apoptosis in cancer cells as a result of this work. PMID:25781916

  8. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma: A yet unreported cancer associated with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Cazorla, Arnault; Viennet, Gabriel; Uro-Coste, Emmanuelle; Valmary-Degano, Séverine

    2014-04-01

    Turcot's syndrome is a rare clinical syndrome, characterized by the association between familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and a primary central nervous system tumour. Gardner's syndrome is characterized by the association between FAP and several tumour types such as multiple osteomas, fibromas, epidermoid cysts and desmoid tumours. We report here the case of a twenty-six year-old woman with a history of both Turcot's and Gardner syndromes. She had a family history of adenomatous polyposis with a mutation in the APC (Adenomatous Polyposis Coli) gene. At the age of 26, she presented a mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the right parotid gland in which the MECT1-MAML2 fusion was showed. We discuss the possible addition of this latter cancer type in the definition of Gardner's syndrome. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Differentiation patterns in two- and three-dimensional culture systems of human squamous carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Knuechel, R.; Keng, P.; Hofstaedter, F.; Langmuir, V.; Sutherland, R. M.; Penney, D. P.

    1990-01-01

    Relative quantification of the pattern of differentiation of two squamous carcinoma cell lines of the female genital tract, A431 and CaSki, was studied in various experimental tissue culture states that are frequently used to evaluate drug and radiation effects on human tumors. Two- and three-dimensional in vitro cultures, ie, monolayers and multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS), and nude mice-xenograft tumors as in vivo tumor models were compared. In addition, epidermal growth factor (EGF) was used comparatively in the in vitro studies. Morphologic signs of epithelial differentiation could be recognized in both cell lines gradually increasing from monolayers to MCTS to xenograft tumors. Cytokeratin (CK) expression is described as stable in A431 cells. Using immunohistochemistry, however, partial masking of CK antigens was found when applying the antibody 8.12 on monolayer cells and could be quantified by flow cytometric measurements. Fundamental cellular changes were found in a CaSki xenograft tumor, which showed newly established features of a keratinizing carcinoma after late onset of tumor growth. Epidermal growth factor caused reduction of both intercellular contacts and later onset of necrosis in MCTS, leading to an increased viability of the spheroids. Significant differences in differentiation of the tumor model systems indicates that the characterization of differentiation with immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry is necessary to assist interpretation of data obtained with these different tumor models. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1698031

  10. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid. Initial assessment and follow-up using (18)F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Caballero Gullón, L; Carmona González, E; Martínez Estévez, A; Gómez Camarero, M P; Corral, J J; Borrego Dorado, I

    Squamous cell carcinoma of thyroid is an uncommon, very aggressive neoplasm, having a poor prognosis and poor response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Surgery is the initial treatment of choice, although it often presents as a widespread disease at the time of diagnosis, usually with cervical swelling that causes most of the symptoms due to local infiltration or metastasis. Local infiltration from adjacent tumour and metastatic disease needs to be excluded from other primary epidermoid carcinomas, in order to make a correct diagnosis. This also requires the typical cytokeratin pattern seen in histological studies. The case is presented of a 53 year-old man with a medical history of hepatocarcinoma, with a cervical hypermetabolic lesion detected in an (18)F-FDG PET/CT performed to exclude widespread disease. The follow-up of this lesion with this technique and its usefulness is also described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  11. Rosiglitazone elevates sensitization of drug-resistant oral epidermoid carcinoma cells to vincristine by G2/M-phase arrest, independent of PPAR-γ pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Yuan; Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Yue; Lu, Yu-Yin; Wang, Wen-Fang; Xin, Ming; Guo, Xiu-Li

    2016-10-01

    Rosiglitazone (ROSI), an oral antidiabetic agent, has been reported the anti-cancer properties recent years. In this paper, the potency of ROSI as a synergistic drug for vincristine (VCR) on resistant oral cancer cells was investigated. We found that ROSI potently enhanced the susceptibility of KB cells or KB/V cells to VCR in a dose manner and the synergy in KB/V cells was much more prominent than that in KB cells. The synergistic anti-proliferative effect of ROSI and VCR was associated with inhibition on tubulin polymerization, cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase and cell apoptosis induction, but has no effect on drug efflux-protein P-gp and was independent with PPARγ. The combination treatment of ROSI and VCR could regulate the PTEN/PI3K/AKT survival pathway with an upregulation of PTEN and down-regulation of p-AKT. The effect of G2/M phase arrest was associated with the upregulation of cyclin B1 and downregulation of p-cdc2. The apoptosis induction of ROSI and VCR was partly due to an upregulation of cleaved PARP and downregulation of Bcl-2/Bax ratio. In addition, combination treatment of ROSI and VCR had also shown anti-angiogenic effect by suppressing the migration and blocking the capillary tube formation of HUVECs. More importantly, this combination treatment induced an acceptably weak cytotoxicity in human normal HL-7702 cells, GES-1 cells and HUVECs. Taken together, ROSI may be used as a potential compound for combinatorial therapy or as a complement to VCR for treatment on oral cancer, especially on that have acquired resistance to VCR therapy.

  12. Leea indica Ethyl Acetate Fraction Induces Growth-Inhibitory Effect in Various Cancer Cell Lines and Apoptosis in Ca Ski Human Cervical Epidermoid Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yau Hsiung, Wong; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

    2011-01-01

    The anticancer potential of Leea indica, a Chinese medicinal plant was investigated for the first time. The crude ethanol extract and fractions (ethyl acetate, hexane, and water) of Leea indica were evaluated their cytotoxicity on various cell lines (Ca Ski, MCF 7, MDA-MB-435, KB, HEP G2, WRL 68, and Vero) by MTT assay. Leea indica ethyl acetate fraction (LIEAF) was found showing the greatest cytotoxic effect against Ca Ski cervical cancer cells. Typical apoptotic morphological changes such as DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation were observed in LIEAF-treated cells. Early signs of apoptosis such as externalization of phosphatidylserine and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential indicated apoptosis induction. This was further substantiated by dose- and time-dependent accumulation of sub-G1 cells, depletion of intracellular glutathione, and activation of caspase-3. In conclusion, these results suggested that LIEAF inhibited cervical cancer cells growth by inducing apoptosis and could be developed as potential anticancer drugs. PMID:21423690

  13. Leea indica Ethyl Acetate Fraction Induces Growth-Inhibitory Effect in Various Cancer Cell Lines and Apoptosis in Ca Ski Human Cervical Epidermoid Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Yau Hsiung, Wong; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

    2011-01-01

    The anticancer potential of Leea indica, a Chinese medicinal plant was investigated for the first time. The crude ethanol extract and fractions (ethyl acetate, hexane, and water) of Leea indica were evaluated their cytotoxicity on various cell lines (Ca Ski, MCF 7, MDA-MB-435, KB, HEP G2, WRL 68, and Vero) by MTT assay. Leea indica ethyl acetate fraction (LIEAF) was found showing the greatest cytotoxic effect against Ca Ski cervical cancer cells. Typical apoptotic morphological changes such as DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation were observed in LIEAF-treated cells. Early signs of apoptosis such as externalization of phosphatidylserine and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential indicated apoptosis induction. This was further substantiated by dose- and time-dependent accumulation of sub-G(1) cells, depletion of intracellular glutathione, and activation of caspase-3. In conclusion, these results suggested that LIEAF inhibited cervical cancer cells growth by inducing apoptosis and could be developed as potential anticancer drugs.

  14. Enhancement of Tumor Immunotherapy by Blockade of a Prostate Tumor Derived Immunosuppressive Factor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    suppresses the growth of human prostate tumor Du145, fibrosarcoma HT1080 and epidermoid tumor A431 cells in an anchorage independent way. Further...of Slit2 had any effect on tumor development. Human fibrosarcoma HT1080 , prostate tumor Du145, and epidermoid tumor line A431 do not express Slit2...lung metastasis in animal models. REPROTABLE OUTCOMES Three stable Slit2 transfectants of human tumor cell lines , HT1080 , Du145 and A431 have

  15. β -[18F]Fluoro Azomycin Arabinoside (β -[18F]FAZA): Synthesis, Radiofluorination and Preliminary PET Imaging of Murine A431 Tumors.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Piyush; Roselt, Peter; Reischl, Gerald; Cullinane, Carlene; Beiki, Davood; Ehrlichmann, Walter; Binns, David; Naimi, Ebrahim; Yang, Jennifer; Hicks, Rodney; Machulla, Hans-Juergen; Wiebe, Leonard I

    2017-01-01

    1-α-D-(5-Deoxy-5-[18F]fluoroarabinofuranosyl)-2-nitroimidazole([18F] FAZA) is a PET radiotracer that demonstrates excellent potential in imaging regional hypoxia, and is clinically used in diagnosing a wide range of solid tumors in cancer patients. [18F]FAZA, however, is radiofluorinated in only moderate recovered radiochemical yield (rRCY, ~12%). It is postulated that the relative stability of the C1' β-anomeric bond at C5' will make 1-β-D-(5-fluoro-5-deoxyarabinofuranosyl)-2-nitroimidazole (β-FAZA), the β-conformer of FAZA, an attractive candidate for clinical hypoxia imaging. The principle goals were to synthesize β-FAZA and β-Ac2TsAZA, the radiofluorination precursor, to establish the radiofluorination chemistry leading to β-[18F]FAZA, and to investigate the biodistribution of β-[18F]FAZA in an animal tumor-bearing model using PET imaging. The appropriately-protected furanose sugar was coupled with 2-nitroimidazole to afford 1-β-D-(2,3-di-O-acetylarabinofuranosyl)-2-nitroimidazole (β-Ac2AZA). Fluorination of β-Ac2AZA with DAST, followed by alkaline hydrolysis, afforded β-FAZA (21%). The radiolabeling synthon, 1-β-D-(5-O-toluenesulfonyl-2,3-di-O-acetylarabinofuranosyl)-2-nitroimidazole (β-Ac2TsAZA), on radiofluorination using the 18F/K222 complex under various reaction conditions, followed by base-catalyzed deacetylation, afforded β-[18F]FAZA. β-[18F]FAZA was radiochemically stable for at least 8 h when stored in aqueous ethanol (8%) at 22 °C. A preliminary PET imaging-based biodistribution study of β-[18F]FAZA was performed in A431 tumor-bearing nude mice. β-FAZA and β-Ac2TsAZA were synthesized in satisfactory yield. Radiochemistry of [18F]FAZA was established. PET images showed strong uptake in hypoxic regions of the tumor. The synthesis of β-FAZA and β-[18F]FAZA are reported. Radiofluorination of β-Ac2TsAZA and the deprotection of β-Ac2[18F]FAZA were facile, but led to a more complex mixture of radiofluorinated by-products than

  16. [Metachronous cancers after treatment for undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Boussen, H; Kochbati, L; Oueslati, Z; Gritli, S; Daoud, J; Gammoudi, A; Besbes, M; Bouaouina, N; Benna, F; Ladgham, A; Maalej, M

    2004-11-01

    To collect second cancers occurring in the head and neck area after treatment by chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Tunisia. This is a retrospective study of patients developing second cancers after treatment for nasopharyngeal UCNT by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. To be retained in this study, second tumour had to be histologically different from the initial UCNT, localised in the irradiated area and occurring after a minimal delay of 3 years. We collect 11 cases of second cancers occurring among 2346 patients treated from 1984 to 2001 in Tunisia (0.46%). Patients have been treated for nasopharyngeal UCNT mainly advanced T3-T4 (72%) or N2-N3 (63%). Median age was 20 years (11 to 48) with a sex-ratio of 0.3 (3 M/8 F). Treatment protocol included primary chemotherapy in 4 cases (adriamycin-cisplatin) or adjuvant (in 4) associated to the loco-regional irradiation at a mean dose of 72 Gy (70 to 75). Median delay of second cancer occurrence was 9 years (3 to 17). Tumors were epidermoid carcinomas in 4 cases, fibrosarcomas (2), osteosarcomas (2), glioblastoma (1) and basocellular carcinomas in 2. Second tumors have been treated by surgery alone in 4 cases and chemotherapy alone in 7 patients. No patient have been reirradiated. Median survival was 17 months, 4 patients died and 7 are still alive including 4 in complete remission (24+, 36, 36 and 48+ months) and 3 with progressing disease (8, 16 and 18 months). Even very rare, second cancers after treatment for UCNT need to be detected and have a poor prognosis.

  17. Pituitary Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cusimano, Michael D.; Ohori, Paul; Martinez, A. Julio; Jungreis, Charles; Wright, Donald C.

    1994-01-01

    The presence of distant metastases may be asymptomatic in patients who present with symptoms and signs due to the local mass effects of an invasive pituitary adenoma. A case of pituitary carcinoma in a 54-year-old man who presented with widespread asymptomatic distant metastases 12 years after initial diagnosis is reviewed. The long course and asymptomatic metastases suggested a relatively slow-growing malignancy. The factors that played a role in the pathogenesis of the metastasis are unknown. A review of the literature on pituitary carcinoma suggests that accurate diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach to management of such lesions emphasizing surgery, radiotherapy, and hormonal manipulation may provide these patients with the longest and best quality of survival. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3p48-bFigure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:17170926

  18. Bronchiolar Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, J. J.; Schaffner, V. D.; Hiltz, J. E.

    1966-01-01

    Bronchiolar carcinoma is a malignant tumour which apparently arises in a terminal bronchiole from which it spreads either by bronchial embolization or by lymphogenous and/or hematogenous dissemination. It is not a common neoplasm. Histologically, the tumour bears a striking resemblance to the disease of sheep, jagziekte, which is of virus etiology. A very common finding in reported cases is preexisting pulmonary fibrosis. At the Nova Scotia Sanatorium, Kentville, 80 cases of primary lung cancer have been encountered within the past 25 years. Six of these were bronchiolar carcinomas. Five patients had co-existing chronic pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis in one and tuberculosis in four. One patient died of a rapidly progressive bilateral lesion and five were explored. Lobectomy was done in all five, but in one for palliation only. Three patients are alive and well three, six and 14 years, respectively, after their operations. PMID:4285258

  19. [De novo (type 3) primary intraosseous carcinoma of the jaws].

    PubMed

    Ray, A C; Foletti, J M; Graillon, N; Guyot, L; Chossegros, C

    2016-12-01

    Primary intraosseous carcinoma (PIOC) of the jaws is a rare epidermoid carcinoma from epithelial origin and initially strictly localized within the bone. Histologically, type 3 PIOC (PIOC3) is a de novo primary intraosseous carcinoma. Because of the rarity of this illness, we propose an analysis of a personal case and a revue of the literature. Two search engines (Pubmed(®), Sciencedirect(®)) were questioned over the period 1976-February 2016 by using following keywords carcinoma, intraosseous, jaws, squamous cell carcinoma. Articles reporting proven PIOC3 and mentioning a precise treatment were selected. Thirty articles concerning 54 patients (sex ratio: 2.4; mean age: 56.8; extreme: 24-78) met the inclusion criterions. The most common symptoms were swelling (53%), pain (44.9%) and infra-alveolar nerve paresthesia (30.6%). The time to diagnosis was 13 weeks. Classification of Zwetyenga et al. showed more than 80% of T2 and T3 stages. The lesions were predominantly mandibular (85.2%) and posterior. Less than a third of patients had lymph node and 10% had distant metastasis. Treatment consisted mostly in a combination of surgery and radiotherapy. With a mean follow-up of 74.8 months, 70.8% were in remission with no evidence of recurrence. We report the case of a 58-year-old patient, with no medical history, complaining since several months about periodontitis with teeth mobility in the right mandibular area. The panoramic X-ray showed a bone lysis at the place of tooth No. 46. In the absence of alveolar healing after extraction and antibiotherapy, a biopsy was made that diagnosed a differentiated keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma. CT scan and MRI showed a mandibular cortical bone loss with involvement of adjacent structures and lymphadenopathy in the ipsilateral IB area. The patient was treated with a combination of chemotherapy and surgery. Postoperative chemo- and radiotherapy is still going on. The PIOC3 is a rare tumor, mainly arising in males around 50

  20. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, J.H.C.

    1985-07-01

    In this editorial comment, the author presents a review of recent achievements in the diagnosis and treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx. The value of the use of CT scans for differentiating between cranial nerve involvement by recurring tumors and irradiation neuropathy, and between temporal lobe irradiation encephalopathy and other nonneoplastic neurologic disorders and meningeal metastasis is discussed. Magnetic resonance imaging is said to be superior to CT for finding soft tissue involvement or abnormalities in the brain. 13 references.

  1. Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Alex C.; Sabolch, Aaron; Raymond, Victoria M.; Kandathil, Asha; Caoili, Elaine M.; Jolly, Shruti; Miller, Barbra S.; Giordano, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy, often with an unfavorable prognosis. Here we summarize the knowledge about diagnosis, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and therapy of ACC. Over recent years, multidisciplinary clinics have formed and the first international treatment trials have been conducted. This review focuses on evidence gained from recent basic science and clinical research and provides perspectives from the experience of a large multidisciplinary clinic dedicated to the care of patients with ACC. PMID:24423978

  2. Development of a highly sensitive fluorescence probe for hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Abo, Masahiro; Urano, Yasuteru; Hanaoka, Kenjiro; Terai, Takuya; Komatsu, Toru; Nagano, Tetsuo

    2011-07-13

    Hydrogen peroxide is believed to play a role in cellular signal transduction by reversible oxidation of proteins. Here, we report the design and synthesis of a novel fluorescence probe for hydrogen peroxide, utilizing a photoinduced electron transfer strategy based on benzil chemistry to control the fluorescence. The practical value of this highly sensitive and selective fluorescence probe, NBzF, was confirmed by its application to imaging of hydrogen peroxide generation in live RAW 264.7 macrophages. NBzF was also employed for live cell imaging of hydrogen peroxide generated as a signaling molecule in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells.

  3. Localization of keratin mRNA in human tracheobronchial epithelium and bronchogenic carcinomas by in situ hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Obara, T.; Baba, M.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Fuchs, E.; Resau, J. H.; Trump, B. F.; Klein-Szanto, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    An in situ hybridization technique was applied to detect expression of keratin mRNAs in xenotransplanted human tracheobronchial epithelium and lung carcinomas. Tissues from eight tracheas repopulated with cells from five different noncancerous donors and 15 squamous cell carcinomas were used. Using a K6 (56 kd) human keratin cDNA (KA-1) and a K14 (50 kd) cDNA (KB-2) as probes, radiolabeled by nick-translation with 3H-dATP/TTP, the specificity and significant differences in the levels of silver grains on various epithelial lesions in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections were demonstrated. In situ hybridization with either KA-1 or KB-2 probe showed similar localization of silver grains in all histologic types in consecutive tissue sections. In xenotransplanted tracheobronchial epithelia, very few grains were seen over cells of simple, pseudostratified, or stratified epithelia two to three cell layers thick. Nonkeratinizing stratified hyperplastic epithelia of more than three cell layers showed uniform localization of numerous grains throughout the lesions. In contrast, epidermoid metaplasias exhibited a dense and localized pattern of grains on the basal and parabasal cell layers with a decrease in grain density toward the surface layers. Carcinoma cells from bronchogenic squamous cell carcinomas showed a higher density and more uniform localization of grains. Well-differentiated carcinoma cells contained more keratin mRNAs than moderately to poorly differentiated carcinoma cells. This evidence obtained with the KA-1 and KB-2 probes demonstrates the different localization patterns of keratin mRNAs in different epithelial lesions. In addition, the levels of mRNA expressed show a positive correlation with the degree of squamous differentiation. It was of particular interest that an ordered program of keratin mRNA expression proportional to the level of cellular differentiation was observed in epidermoid metaplasias. Both of these probes serve as

  4. Oral Rigosertib for Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-18

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  5. Increased EGF receptors on human squamous carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Cowley, G. P.; Smith, J. A.; Gusterson, B. A.

    1986-01-01

    Characterisation and quantitation of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) have been carried out on eight human squamous carcinoma cell lines and the results compared with those from simian virus transformed keratinocytes and normal keratinocytes grown under similar conditions. All cells tested possess both high and low affinity receptors with dissociation constants ranging from 2.4 X 10(-10) M to 5.4 X 10(-9) M. When epidermal growth factor (EGF) binds to its receptor it is internalised and degraded and the receptor is down regulated. Malignant cells and virally transformed cells possess 5-50 times more EGF receptors than normal keratinocytes and one cell line LICR-LON-HN-5 possesses up to 1.4 X 10(7) receptors per cell, which is the highest number yet reported for a cell line. These results are discussed in the context of recent data that suggest that the increased expression of EGF receptors in epidermoid malignancies may be an important component of the malignant phenotype in these tumours. PMID:2420349

  6. [Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma in young women with HPV negative].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Alarcon, A; Gómez-García, M T; García-de la-Torre, J P; Del Valle-Morón, M; Arones-Collantes, M A; González-de Merlo, G

    2016-03-01

    The vulvar cancer is the fourth more frequent neoplasia after the endometrial, cervix and ovarian cancer. Normally, it has been related to old women of ages from 70 to 80 years old. Rarely, it has been detected cases in adult or young women. However, its incidence has been increased in the last years and in more early years. It is for this change in the incidence and its appearance in early years why a possible etiology has been looked for, opening different hypothesis that go from that related to the HPV to those that study an inflammatory chronic process as the basis for the carcinogenesis. In this article, it has been presented the case of a woman who is 34 years old with negative VPH that made her debut with epidermoid carcinoma of the vulva moderately different and on purpose of the case, we do a revision of the literature existent. Vulvar cancer diagnosed in young women as in older, but with different trends, risk factors and natural history. The case reported here escapes the theories studied so far so needed new lines of inquiry to investigate this form of presentation young woman, without HPV infection.

  7. Proanthocyanidins inhibit mitogenic and survival-signaling in vitro and tumor growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Meeran, Syed Musthapa; Katiyar, Santosh Kumar

    2008-01-01

    We have previously shown that treatment of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells with grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) induces apoptosis of A431 cells. Here, we report that treatment of A431 cells with GSPs inhibits constitutive as well as EGF-induced higher levels of phosphorylated proteins of MAPK family in a dose-dependent manner. This effect is associated with the reactivation of MAP kinase phosphatases. Western blot analysis reveals that GSPs decrease: (i) the levels of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and the phosphorylation of Akt at ser473, and (ii) the constitutive activation of NF-kappaB/p65. As NF-kappaB-targeted genes play crucial roles in tumor cell proliferation and differentiation, we assessed the effect of GSPs on proteins encoded by these genes. Treatment with GSPs results in inhibition of the expression of COX-2, iNOS, PCNA, cyclin D1 and MMP-9 in A431 cells compared with non-GSPs-treated controls. Treatment of athymic nude mice with GSPs by oral gavage (50 or 100 mg/kg body weight/mouse) reduces the growth of A431-xenografts in mice, which is associated with the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation in xenografts as indicated by the inhibition of mRNA expression of PCNA and cyclin D1, and of NF-kappaB activity. Together, the data suggest that GSPs might be effective in the treatment of skin cancers.

  8. Topical phospho-sulindac (OXT-328) is effective in the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ka Wing; Mattheolabakis, George; Wong, Chi C; Ouyang, Nengtai; Huang, Liqun; Constantinides, Panayiotis P; Rigas, Basil

    2012-10-01

    Phospho-sulindac (P-S, OXT-328), a novel sulindac derivative, has shown superior anticancer efficacy and safety compared to sulindac. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of topical P-S hydrogel in the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer in preclinical models. P-S is a potent inhibitor of A431 epidermoid carcinoma in vitro and achieves this effect by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. The anticancer efficacy of topical and oral P-S was further evaluated in mice bearing A431 intradermal xenografts. Compared to the controls, topical P-S hydrogel inhibited the A431 xenografts by 70.5% (p<0.01), while oral P-S inhibited it by 43.4% (p<0.05), being significantly less effective than topical P-S (p=0.017). Topical P-S hydrogel generated significant levels (>500 nmol/g tumor tissue) of intact P-S in the tumors, accounting for 92.5% of the total metabolites in the A431 xenografts. This local delivery of high levels of intact P-S to the A431 xenografts is an important contributor to the potent activity of topical P-S and no local or systemic side effects were noted in the treatment group. Thus, topical P-S is a promising treatment modality against non-melanoma skin cancer and merits further evaluation.

  9. Carcinoma gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Biswas, P K

    2010-07-01

    Carcinoma gallbladder (CaGb) is a rare disease. The aetiology of CaGb is yet not known. However the risk of CaGb is increased in anomalous pancreaticobiliary duct junction (APBDJ), gall stones, xanthogranulomatus cholecystitis, calcified or porcelain gallbladder, cholelithiasis with typhoid carriers, gallbladder adenoma, red meat consumption and tobacco uses. There are protective effects of vegetables on CaGb. Most of the cases present with advanced disease. In early carcinoma of a gallbladder sign and symptoms mimic benign disease. The diagnosis is established by ultrasonography, computerized tomography and guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Biochemical tests are of very little value in making a diagnosis. The treatment depends on the clinical stage at presentation. Surgery offers the best chance of cure. In stage T1a, laparoscopic or open cholecystectomy alone is curative, and in T1b, cholecystectomy with hepatoduodenal lymph node dissection without combined resection of an adjacent organ is required. Segment S4a+5 hepatectomy combined with extrahepatic bile duct resection (BDR) and D2 lymph node dissection is a highly recommended operation for the treatment of T2 and T3 CaGb. The dye injection method is useful in determining the appropriate extent of hepatic resection for advanced CaGb. Resurgery is required only in those cases where tumour has invaded the serosa and/ or adjacent structures when diagnosed postoperatively. Biliary bypass is required for palliation. Prognosis depends on early diagnosis and appropriate surgical excision.

  10. [Bronchoalveolar carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Wislez, Marie; Cadranel, Jacques; Milleron, Bernard

    2003-04-01

    Bronchoalveolar carcinoma is one of the four histologic subtypes of adenocarcinoma and its incidence is increasing. It grows in a lepidic fashion along the alveolar septa without invasive growth. The lack of invasive growth is an essential criterion based on data indicating that patients may be curable by surgical resection. The revised definition seems to be suitable for its solitary nodular form but less for multifocal or pneumonic-type form. High-resolution lung CT-scan is necessary to evaluate pulmonary involvement because of the high frequency of multifocal disease at initial presentation and because of the presence of ground glass opacity that could be one of the first manifestation of cancer bronchiolo-alvéolaireon CT. Therapeutic management does not differ from the one of non small cell lung cancer. Solitary nodules are treated by surgical resection with a good prognosis while multifocal and/or pneumonic forms are treated by systemic chemotherapy with a worse prognosis.

  11. Insulin binding properties of normal and transformed human epidermal cultured keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Verrando, P.; Ortonne, J.P.

    1985-10-01

    Insulin binding to its receptors was studied in cultured normal and transformed (A431 line) human epidermal keratinocytes. The specific binding was a temperature-dependent, saturable process. Normal keratinocytes possess a mean value of about 80,000 receptors per cell. Fifteen hours exposure of the cells to insulin lowered their receptor number (about 65% loss in available sites); these reappeared when the hormone was removed from the culture medium. In the A431 epidermoid carcinoma cell line, there is a net decrease in insulin binding (84% of the initial bound/free hormone ratio in comparison with normal cells) essentially related to a loss in receptor affinity for insulin. Thus, cultured human keratinocytes which express insulin receptors may be a useful tool in understanding skin pathology related to insulin disorders.

  12. Characterization of tissue plasminogen activator binding proteins isolated from endothelial cells and other cell types

    SciTech Connect

    Beebe, D.P.; Wood, L.L.; Moos, M. )

    1990-07-15

    Human tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) was shown to bind specifically to human osteosarcoma cells (HOS), and human epidermoid carcinoma cells (A-431 cells). Crosslinking studies with DTSSP demonstrated high molecular weight complexes (130,000) between {sup 125}I-t-PA and cell membrane protein on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), HOS, and A-431 cells. A 48-65,000 molecular weight complex was demonstrated after crosslinking t-PA peptide (res. 7-20) to cells. Ligand blotting of cell lysates which had been passed over a t-PA affinity column revealed binding of t-PA to 54,000 and 95,000 molecular weight proteins. Several t-PA binding proteins were identified in immunopurified cell lysates, including tubulin beta chain, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and single chain urokinase.

  13. Treatment of recurrent carcinoma at the base of the skull with carbon dioxide laser.

    PubMed

    Rontal, M; Rontal, E

    1983-10-01

    The extension of carcinoma to the cribriform plate is a poor prognostic finding. Two extremes of treatment approach have been advocated. On the one hand, patients may be abandoned to palliative chemotherapy. On the other hand, heroic and aggressive resections may be advocated including combined neurosurgical transdural and otolaryngologic facial-orbital resection. Armed with the surgical microscope and the CO2 laser there may be a place for a middle ground of therapy. We present our experience with recurrent tumor after full course radiation therapy and maxilloethmoidectomy. The biopsy proven recurrences were found at the cribriform plate but could not be shown to have crossed into the anterior cranial fossa by polytomography or high resolution CT scanning. The CO2 surgical laser delivered through the surgical microscope was used with repeated applications. Recurrent epidermoid carcinoma found to be confined to the nasal side of the cribriform plate can be controlled by careful microscopic stripping of soft tissue from the cribriform plate with a surgical laser.

  14. Carcinoma cuniculatum: not a verrucous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kubik, M J; Rhatigan, R M

    2012-12-01

    Carcinoma cuniculatum and verrucous carcinoma are both very well differentiated forms of squamous carcinoma and thus difficult to separate histologically from pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia. The diagnosis of each often requires clinical-pathologic correlation. We reviewed the literature on cases reported as carcinoma cuniculatum and compared these to the cases originally reported by Aird et al. In addition, we report an additional case of this entity that we encountered in our practice. In reviewing the literature it is evident that most authors consider carcinoma cuniculatum and verrucous carcinoma to be synonymous even though Aird's original two cases had no verrucous features. The lack of a clear conceptual distinction between these two entities may cause diagnostic confusion. The purpose of this report is to record a case of carcinoma cuniculatum which the authors believe to be similar to those reported by Aird et al., to emphasize the differences between carcinoma cuniculatum and verrucous carcinoma, and to explain how the lack of a clear conceptual distinction between these two tumors can lead to further delay in an already difficult diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Correlation between TNM classification and malignancy histological feature of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Costa, Antonio de L L; Araújo Júnior, Raimundo F de; Ramos, Carlos C F

    2005-01-01

    Histological staging of deep invasive margin of oral squamous cell carcinoma has a significant influence on survival of patients since the tumor cells are more poorly differentiated in this area and have high prognostic value. The purpose of the present study is to correlate TNM clinical classification with histopathologic characteristics (degree of keratinization, nuclear pleomorphism, invasion pattern and lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate) and histologic malignancy scores in 38 cases of oral epidermoid carcinoma in the lesion's deepest areas. STUDY FORM: Retrospective clinical study. This is a retrospective study based on histological review of 38 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma selected from the medical files of Hospital Dr. Luis Antonio, Natal--Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. TNM clinical classification data were obtained from the analysis of the medical records. Two pathologists performed histological malignancy staging on routine 3 microm-thick sections of invasive tumor areas stained with hematoxylin and eosin. For statistical analysis, parametric (ANOVA) and non-parametric tests (Tukey; Pearson; Chi2) were employed. We found significant correlation between TNM clinical staging and malignancy mean score (p= 0.001) and histopathologic parameters, such as nuclear pleomorphism (p= 0.016) and degree of keratinization (p= 0.025). Furthermore, there were also statistically significant correlations between lymphocytic infiltration (p= 0.016) and nuclear pleomorphism (p= 0.004) with TNM classification when grouped in two series: TNM I/II and III/IV. TNM classification, as well as malignancy mean score, had statistically significant correlation with degree of keratinization, nuclear pleomorphism and lymphocytic infiltration. These highly significant results indicated that histologically invasive areas may be primarily responsible for the clinical behavior of the tumor, and this may be important for the therapy of choice for oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  16. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... in children and adults. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less likely to be caused by ...

  17. Identification of potential glycan cancer markers with sialic acid attached to sialic acid and up-regulated fucosylated galactose structures in epidermal growth factor receptor secreted from A431 cell line.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shiaw-Lin; Taylor, Allen D; Lu, Qiaozhen; Hanash, Samir M; Im, Hogune; Snyder, Michael; Hancock, William S

    2013-05-01

    We have used powerful HPLC-mass spectrometric approaches to characterize the secreted form of epidermal growth factor receptor (sEGFR). We demonstrated that the amino acid sequence lacked the cytoplasmic domain and was consistent with the primary sequence reported for EGFR purified from a human plasma pool. One of the sEGFR forms, attributed to the alternative RNA splicing, was also confirmed by transcriptional analysis (RNA sequencing). Two unusual types of glycan structures were observed in sEGFR as compared with membrane-bound EGFR from the A431 cell line. The unusual glycan structures were di-sialylated glycans (sialic acid attached to sialic acid) at Asn-151 and N-acetylhexosamine attached to a branched fucosylated galactose with N-acetylglucosamine moieties (HexNAc-(Fuc)Gal-GlcNAc) at Asn-420. These unusual glycans at specific sites were either present at a much lower level or were not observable in membrane-bound EGFR present in the A431 cell lysate. The observation of these di-sialylated glycan structures was consistent with the observed expression of the corresponding α-N-acetylneuraminide α-2,8-sialyltransferase 2 (ST8SiA2) and α-N-acetylneuraminide α-2,8-sialyltransferase 4 (ST8SiA4), by quantitative real time RT-PCR. The connectivity present at the branched fucosylated galactose was also confirmed by methylation of the glycans followed by analysis with sequential fragmentation in mass spectrometry. We hypothesize that the presence of such glycan structures could promote secretion via anionic or steric repulsion mechanisms and thus facilitate the observation of these glycan forms in the secreted fractions. We plan to use this model system to facilitate the search for novel glycan structures present at specific sites in sEGFR as well as other secreted oncoproteins such as Erbb2 as markers of disease progression in blood samples from cancer patients.

  18. Hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tang, Z Y

    2000-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has ranked second in cancer mortality in China since the 1990s and is increasing in frequency among males in many countries. Hepatitis B and C viruses, aflatoxin and algal toxin in the contaminated drinking water remain major aetiological factors and hepatitis G virus and transfusion-transmitted virus can not be excluded. A prospective randomized control trial screening for HCC in a high-risk population using alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and ultrasonography has demonstrated a decrease in HCC mortality. Rapidly progressing medical imaging has continuously contributed to the improving treatment results. Surgical resection still plays a major role in influencing prognosis of HCC. Studies on recurrence and metastasis after curative resection have become a key issue for further improvement of the surgical outcome. Regional cancer therapies are progressing rapidly, based on the advances in early diagnosis. The advantages and disadvantages of these are noted. Multimodality combination and sequential treatment has been accepted as an important approach for unresectable HCC and cytoreduction and sequential resection have attracted attention. Conformal radiotherapy has shown important potential for HCC treatment. Intra-arterial chemotherapy has been repeatedly proved effective; however, systemic chemotherapy for HCC remains disappointing. The effects of tamoxifen are questionable, whereas alpha-interferon has been shown to have significant potential, particularly in prevention of recurrence. All of these treatments have resulted in continuing improvement of HCC prognosis in some centres.

  19. Nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Klink, B.K.; Karulf, R.E.; Maimon, W.N.; Peoples, J.B. )

    1991-07-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare clinical entity accounting for only 4 per cent of all cases of parathyroid neoplasia. Nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma is even rarer. Previously, virtually all patients with these lesions were treated for a nonspecific neck mass. However, in the present case, a preoperative diagnosis of nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma was made based on the technetium pertechnetate/thallium 201 subtraction scan. The authors report on the 14th case of nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma, a review of the literature, and guidelines for the preoperative and operative evaluation of neck masses suspected to be parathyroid carcinoma.22 references.

  20. Squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Maria Isabel Ramos; Vieira, Marcella Amaral Horta Barbosa; Portocarrero, Larissa Karine Leite; Fraga, Rafael Cavanellas; Kakizaki, Priscila; Valente, Neusa Yuriko Sakai

    2016-01-01

    Squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma is an eccrine carcinoma subtype, and only twelve cases have been reported until now. It is a rare tumor and its histopathological diagnosis is difficult. Almost half of patients are misdiagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma by the incisional biopsy. We report the thirteenth case of squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma. Female patient, 72 years old, in the last 6 months presenting erythematous, keratotic and ulcerated papules on the nose. The incisional biopsy diagnosed squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma. After excision, histopathology revealed positive margins. A wideningmargins surgery and grafting were performed, which again resulted in positive margins. The patient was then referred for radiotherapy. After 25 sessions, the injury reappeared. After another surgery, although the intraoperative biopsy showed free surgical margins, the product of resection revealed persistent lesion. Distinction between squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma is important because of the more aggressive nature of the first, which requires wider margins surgery to avoid recurrence.

  1. Squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Saraiva, Maria Isabel Ramos; Vieira, Marcella Amaral Horta Barbosa; Portocarrero, Larissa Karine Leite; Fraga, Rafael Cavanellas; Kakizaki, Priscila; Valente, Neusa Yuriko Sakai

    2016-01-01

    Squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma is an eccrine carcinoma subtype, and only twelve cases have been reported until now. It is a rare tumor and its histopathological diagnosis is difficult. Almost half of patients are misdiagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma by the incisional biopsy. We report the thirteenth case of squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma. Female patient, 72 years old, in the last 6 months presenting erythematous, keratotic and ulcerated papules on the nose. The incisional biopsy diagnosed squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma. After excision, histopathology revealed positive margins. A wideningmargins surgery and grafting were performed, which again resulted in positive margins. The patient was then referred for radiotherapy. After 25 sessions, the injury reappeared. After another surgery, although the intraoperative biopsy showed free surgical margins, the product of resection revealed persistent lesion. Distinction between squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma is important because of the more aggressive nature of the first, which requires wider margins surgery to avoid recurrence. PMID:28099603

  2. Adenoid squamous carcinoma of the conjunctiva—a clinicopathological study of 14 cases

    PubMed Central

    Mauriello, J.; Abdelsalam, A.; McLean, I.

    1997-01-01

    AIMS—In order to determine the clinicopathological features and optimum management of a series of patients with adenoid squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva, all cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the conjunctiva and cornea on file in the registry of the ophthalmic pathology at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology were reviewed.
METHODS—On histopathological examination, a predominant adenoid or pseudoglandular pattern due to islands of neoplastic squamous or epidermoid cells surrounded by acantholytic cells was necessary for inclusion in the study. Histochemical and transmission electron microscopic studies (TEM) were performed. Clinical features of all the patients were extracted from the charts.
RESULTS—The anatomical location of the 14 tumours was corneoscleral limbus (seven patients) and bulbar conjunctiva (seven patients). Eight patients presented with inflammatory signs and irritation (red eye, tearing, foreign body sensation), while six patients developed a slowly growing, painless mass. Histochemical and TEM studies showed extracellular hyaluronic acid and no intracellular mucin. Of the two patients initially treated by enucleation, one was free of disease after 2 years while the second patient had recurrence in the socket and died of brain metastases despite wide orbital excision and radiotherapy. All five patients with recurrent tumours initially had irritated red eyes and two required enucleation. One such patient, after orbital exenteration and radiotherapy, died of unrelated disease.
CONCLUSION—The study demonstrates that adenoid SCC of the conjunctiva often presents with inflammatory signs. The tumour is locally aggressive and may metastasise and should, therefore, be histopathologically differentiated from the less aggressive conventional squamous cell carcinoma. Optimum treatment includes wide excision with documented histological clear margins of resection on permanent sections and frequent follow up.

 PMID

  3. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma in the Skull of an Orange-winged Amazon Parrot (Amazona amazonica).

    PubMed

    Nau, Melissa R; Carpenter, James W; Lin, Denise; Narayanan, Sanjeev; Hallman, Mackenzie

    2017-09-01

    A 33-year-old female intact orange-winged Amazon parrot (Amazona amazonica) presented for a slowly growing mass over the right eye. A computed tomography scan performed with and without intravenous contrast revealed a heterogeneous mixed soft tissue and mineral-dense mass with a small area of non-contrast-enhancing fluid density located between the orbits at the caudal aspect of the nasal passages, with associated lysis of the right caudal nasal passage and the right frontal bone. Following euthanasia, the mass was found to consist of soft tissue between the right eye and nostril over the right frontal bone. Lysis of the underlying bone resulted in a bony defect leading into the infraorbital sinus along the dorsorostral aspect of the right eye. Histopathology revealed an unencapsulated, poorly demarcated, highly cellular neoplasm composed of islands and trabeculae of neoplastic cells embedded in abundant loose fibrovascular stroma which completely obliterated the cortical bone and sinuses of the rostral skull and infiltrated the surrounding muscle and soft tissue. Histologically, the tumor was consistent with a high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, characterized by the presence of epidermoid, intermediate, and mucous-producing cell types. No evidence of metastasis was identified. The tissue of origin was suspected to be salivary or nasal mucous glands, but was difficult to confirm due to distortion of normal tissue architecture as a result of the tumor. Although mucoepidermoid carcinomas are a common salivary gland tumor in human medicine, they are not well recognized in avian species, and no specific case reports exist describing this pathology in an Amazon parrot. Despite the lack of distinct salivary glands in most avian species, mucoepidermoid carcinomas can occur, can cause significant clinical disease, and should be included as a differential diagnosis for avian patients presenting with similar lesions.

  4. Pilomatrix carcinoma of the clitoris.

    PubMed

    Gazic, Barbara; Sramek-Zatler, Simona; Repse-Fokter, Alenka; Pizem, Joze

    2011-12-01

    Pilomatrix carcinoma, a malignant counterpart of pilomatrixoma, is a rare skin neoplasm composed of basaloid and shadow cells that characterize differentiation toward the hair matrix. The authors present a case of pilomatrix carcinoma of the clitoris, a very unusual location not previously reported. Diagnostic criteria and differential diagnoses are discussed. Pilomatrix carcinoma should be differentiated from benign pilomatrixoma and other carcinomas with shadow cells, including basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation and metastases of visceral carcinomas with shadow cells.

  5. Chromophobe cell renal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Megumi, Y; Nishimura, K

    1998-01-01

    Chromophobe cell renal carcinoma is a recently established subtype of renal cell carcinoma. Herein we report a case of chromophobe cell renal carcinoma in a 67-year-old male patient who occasionally underwent computed tomography. In a microscopic study with hematoxylin and eosin stain, clear eosinophilic cytoplasm, and a moderately atypical nucleus were observed. And it was stained positively by Hale's colloidal iron. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasm was filled with numerous microvesicles. From these results, this tumor was pathologically diagnosed as chromophobe cell renal carcinoma.

  6. [Radiotherapy of oropharynx carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Servagi Vernat, S; Tochet, F; Vieillevigne, L; Pointreau, Y; Maingon, P; Giraud, P

    2016-09-01

    Indication, doses, technique of radiotherapy and concomitant chemotherapy for oropharynx carcinoma are presented. The recommendations for delineation of the target volumes and organs at risk are detailed.

  7. Electromagnetic fields at mobile phone frequency induce apoptosis and inactivation of the multi-chaperone complex in human epidermoid cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Caraglia, Michele; Marra, Monica; Mancinelli, Fabrizio; D'Ambrosio, Guglielmo; Massa, Rita; Giordano, Antonio; Budillon, Alfredo; Abbruzzese, Alberto; Bismuto, Ettore

    2005-08-01

    The exposure to non-thermal microwave electromagnetic field (MW-EMF) at 1.95 MHz, a frequency used in mobile communication, affects the refolding kinetics of eukaryotic proteins (Mancinelli et al., 2004). On these basis we have evaluated the in vivo effect of MW-EMF in human epidermoid cancer KB cells. We have found that MW-EMF induces time-dependent apoptosis (45% after 3 h) that is paralleled by an about 2.5-fold decrease of the expression of ras and Raf-1 and of the activity of ras and Erk-1/2. Although also the expression of Akt was reduced its activity was unchanged likely as a consequence of the increased expression of its upstream activator PI3K. In the same experimental conditions an about 2.5-fold increase of the ubiquitination of ras and Raf-1 was also found and the addition for 12 h of proteasome inhibitor lactacystin at 10 microM caused an accumulation of the ubiquitinated isoforms of ras and Raf-1 and counteracted the effects of MW-EMF on ras and Raf-1 expression suggesting an increased proteasome-dependent degradation induced by MW-EMF. The exposure of KB cells to MW-EMF induced a differential activation of stress-dependent pathway with an increase of JNK-1 activity and HSP70 and 27 expression and with a reduction of p38 kinase activity and HSP90 expression. The overexpression of HSP90 induced by transfection of KB cells with a plasmid encoding for the factor completely antagonized the apoptosis and the inactivation of the ras --> Erk-dependent survival signal induced by MW-EMF. Conversely, the inhibition of Erk activity induced by 12 h exposure to 10 mM Mek-1 inhibitor U0126 antagonized the effects induced by HSP90 transfection on apoptosis caused by MW-EMF. In conclusion, these results demonstrate for the first time that MW-EMF induces apoptosis through the inactivation of the ras --> Erk survival signaling due to enhanced degradation of ras and Raf-1 determined by decreased expression of HSP90 and the consequent increase of proteasome dependent

  8. [Breast carcinoma in men].

    PubMed

    Zigić, B; Balvanović, D; Rac, S; Bilbija, S

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe 8 cases of carcinoma of the male breast treated at the Clinic of Surgery, Clinical Medical Center Banja Luka in the period 1968-1988. In their discussion, the authors review contemporary findings concerning the genesis, evolution and treatment of this carcinoma.

  9. Pyrazolo-pyrimidine-derived c-Src inhibitor reduces angiogenesis and survival of squamous carcinoma cells by suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor production and signaling.

    PubMed

    Donnini, Sandra; Monti, Martina; Castagnini, Cinzia; Solito, Raffaella; Botta, Maurizio; Schenone, Silvia; Giachetti, Antonio; Ziche, Marina

    2007-03-01

    Src tyrosine kinase family cooperates with activated growth factor receptors to regulate growth, invasion and metastasis. The authors examined the influence of a novel c-Src inhibitor, 1l, derived from 4-amino-substituted-pyrazolo-pyrimidines, on tumor angiogenesis and on the angiogenic output of squamous carcinoma cells, A431 and SCC-4. The effect of 1l was assessed on growth and microvessel density in A431 tumors and its effect compared with the established c-Src inhibitor PP-1. The effects of c-Src inhibition were investigated on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and activity in tumor cells grown in vivo and in vitro, as well as on VEGF mediated signaling and on endothelial cell functions. Nanomolar concentrations of 1l decreased tumor volume promoted by A431 implanted in nude mice, without affecting in vitro cell tumor survival. This effect was related to 1l inhibition of VEGF production, and secondary to an effect on tumor microvessel density. The rabbit cornea assay confirmed that 1l markedly decreased neovessel growth induced by VEGF. In cultured endothelial cells, 1l inhibited the VEGF-induced phosphorylation on tyr416 of c-Src, resulting in a reduced cell proliferation and invasion. Consistently, 1l dowregulated endothelial nitric oxide synthase, MAPK-extracellular receptor kinase 1-2 (ERK1-2) activity and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2/MMP-9), while the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP2/TIMP-1) were upregulated. These results demonstrate that nM concentrations of c-Src kinase inhibitors (1l and PP-1), by reducing the production of VEGF released by tumor cell and its endothelial cell responses, have a highly selective antiangiogenesis effect, which might be useful in combination therapies.

  10. Tetraspanin CD151 plays a key role in skin squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qinglin; Yang, Xiuwei H.; Xu, Fenghui; Sharma, Chandan; Wang, Hong-Xing; Knoblich, Konstantin; Rabinovitz, Isaac; Granter, Scott R.; Hemler, Martin E.

    2012-01-01

    Here we provide the first evidence that tetraspanin CD151 can support de novo carcinogenesis. During two-stage mouse skin chemical carcinogenesis, CD151 reduces tumor lag time and increases incidence, multiplicity, size, and progression to malignant squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), while supporting both cell survival during tumor initiation and cell proliferation during the promotion phase. In human skin SCC, CD151 expression is selectively elevated compared to other skin cancer types. CD151 support of keratinocyte survival and proliferation may depend on activation of transcription factor STAT3, a regulator of cell proliferation and apoptosis. CD151 also supports PKCα-α6β4 integrin association and PKC-dependent β4 S1424 phosphorylation, while regulating α6β4 distribution. CD151-PKCα effects on integrin β4 phosphorylation and subcellular localization are consistent with epithelial disruption to a less polarized, more invasive state. CD151 ablation, while minimally affecting normal cell and normal mouse functions, markedly sensitized mouse skin and epidermoid cells to chemicals/drugs including DMBA (mutagen) and camptothecin (topoisomerase inhibitor), as well as to agents targeting EGFR, PKC, Jak2/Tyk2, and STAT3. Hence, CD151 ‘co-targeting’ may be therapeutically beneficial. These findings not only support CD151 as a potential tumor target, but also should apply to other cancers utilizing CD151-laminin-binding integrin complexes. PMID:22824799

  11. Keratin proteins in human lung carcinomas. Combined use of morphology, keratin immunocytochemistry, and keratin immunoprecipitation.

    PubMed Central

    Banks-Schlegel, S. P.; McDowell, E. M.; Wilson, T. S.; Trump, B. F.; Harris, C. C.

    1984-01-01

    Light-microscopic immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy demonstrated that adenocarcinomas (AC) and squamous cell (epidermoid) carcinomas (SCCs) of human lung contained keratin proteins in the form of tonofilament bundles. However, moderately differentiated (md) SCCs contained abundant keratin, whereas poorly differentiated (pd) SCCs and all ACs contained lesser amounts. Lung tumors with the diagnosis of AC or SCC, as defined by WHO criteria, were also analyzed by immunoprecipitation techniques for the presence of keratin proteins. Regardless of the degree of tumor differentiation, SCCs contained a 44 kd keratin which was lacking in ACs. Interestingly, normal bronchial epithelium also contained the same 44 kd keratin. In addition, as SCCs became more differentiated, they exhibited even greater differences in the profile of synthesized keratins. Specifically, the relative abundance of the intermediate-sized keratins (57 and 59 kd) was increased in the md SCCs. Although keratin protein patterns appear to be a valuable adjunct in distinguishing AC from SCC, their usefulness as a diagnostic tool will require survey of a larger number of poorly differentiated tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:6198920

  12. [Medullary thyroid carcinoma and other rare types of thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Obara, Takao

    2007-11-01

    Among 4 major traditional groups of thyroid carcinoma, papillary and follicular carcinomas are most common, and other forms, anaplastic and medullary carcinomas, are relatively rare. The 2003 WHO histological classification of thyroid tumor separated 7 other malignant thyroid tumors into distinct pathological entities, such as poorly differentiated, squamous cell, mucinous carcinomas, carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE), etc. Although they are also extremely rare, recognition of their clinicopathologic features are very important. In this review, not only diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for the rare forms of thyroid carcinomas, specifically focussed on medullary carcinoma and CASTLE, but also their histogenetic abnormalities were discussed.

  13. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Todd M; Parekh, Vishwas

    2016-09-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor that shares the same histologic appearance and ETV6 gene (12p13) rearrangement as secretory carcinoma of the breast. Prior to its recognition, MASC cases were commonly labeled acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. Despite distinctive histologic features, MASC may be difficult to distinguish from other salivary gland tumors, in particular zymogen-poor acinic cell carcinoma and low-grade salivary duct carcinoma. Although characteristic morphologic and immunohistochemical features form the basis of a diagnosis of MASC, the presence of an ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion is confirmatory. Given its recent recognition the true prognostic import of MASC is not yet clearly defined.

  14. Accessory Breast Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Hyun Jo; Jung, Sung Hoo

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background Ectopic breast tissue usually develops along the mammary ridges, and the incidence has been reported to be 2–6% of the general population. Occurrence of primary carcinoma in ectopic breast tissue is rare. Case Report We report the case of 59-year-old woman with accessory breast carcinoma in her left axilla. Conclusion Because an accessory areola or nipple is often missing and awareness of physicians and patients about these unsuspicious masses is lacking, clinical diagnosis of accessory breast carcinoma is frequently delayed. Therefore, a mass along the ‘milk line’ should be examined carefully, and any suspicious lesions should be evaluated. PMID:20847887

  15. Targeting PI3K-AKT-mTOR by LY3023414 inhibits human skin squamous cell carcinoma cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ying; Ge, Minggai; Wang, Xuemin

    2017-08-19

    Abnormal activation of PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling is detected in human skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). LY3023414 is a novel, potent, and orally bio-available PI3K-AKT-mTOR inhibitor. Its activity against human skin SCC cells was tested. We demonstrated that LY3023414 was cytotoxic when added to established (A431 line) and primary (patient-derived) human skin SCC cells. LY3023414 induced G0/1-S arrest and inhibited proliferation of skin SCC cells. Moreover, LY3023414 induced activation of caspase-3/-9 and apoptosis in skin SCC cells. Intriguingly, LY3023414 was yet non-cytotoxic nor pro-apoptotic to normal human skin cells (melanocytes, keratinocytes and fibroblasts). At the molecular level, LY3023414 blocked PI3K-AKT-mTOR activation in skin SCC cells, as it dephosphorylated PI3K-AKT-mTOR substrates: P85, AKT and S6K1. In vivo studies showed that oral administration of LY3023414 at well-tolerated doses inhibited A431 xenograft tumor growth in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. AKT-mTOR activation in LY3023414-treated tumors was also largely inhibited. Together, these results suggest that targeting PI3K-AKT-mTOR by LY3023414 inhibits human skin SCC cell growth in vitro and in vivo, establishing the rationale for further clinical testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Iridium 192 implantation of T1 and T2 carcinomas of the mobile tongue

    SciTech Connect

    Mazeron, J.J.; Crook, J.M.; Benck, V.; Marinello, G.; Martin, M.; Raynal, M.; Haddad, E.; Peynegre, R.; Le Bourgeois, J.P.; Walop, W. )

    1990-12-01

    Between 1970 and 1986, 166 patients with T1 or T2 epidermoid carcinomas of the mobile tongue were treated by iridium 192 implantation (70 T1N0, 83 T2N0, 13 T1-2 N1-3). Five-year actuarial survival was 52% for T1N0, 44% for T2aN0, and 8% for or T1-2 N1-3. Cause specific survivals were 90%, 71%, and 46%, respectively. Local control was 87% for both T1N0 and T2N0, and 69% for T1-2 N1-3. Seven of 23 failures were salvaged by surgery, increasing local control to 96% for T1 and 90% for T2. Thirty-six patients developed a minor or moderate necrosis (16% T1, 28% T2). Half of these involved bone but only five required surgical intervention. Both local control (LC) and necrosis (nec) increased with increasing dose but improvement beyond 65 Gy is minimal (less than or equal to 60 Gy: LC = 78% nec = 13%; 65 Gy: LC = 90% nec = 29%; greater than or equal to 70 Gy: LC = 94% nec = 23%). For N0 patients, neck management consisted of surveillance (n = 78), elective neck dissection followed with external irradiation for pathologically positive nodes (n = 72), or irradiation (n = 3). Clinically positive nodes (13 patients) were managed by either neck dissection followed by external irradiation if pathologically positive (n = 10) or irradiation alone (n = 3). Regional control was 79% for N0 patients, improving to 88% after surgical salvage, and was 9/13 for N1-3 patients. We recommend that T1 and T2 carcinomas of the mobile tongue be treated by iridium 192 implantation to deliver 65 Gy. Mandibular necrosis should be reduced by using an intra-oral lead-lined dental mold.

  17. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides targeting ATM strengthen apoptosis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma grown in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jun; Zou, Jian; Li, Li; Zhao, Yongsheng; Liu, Shixi

    2011-04-17

    To conserve laryngeal function and elevate living quality of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) patients, we designed antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AS-ODNs) to reduce expression of ATM and to enhance the apoptosis of hep-2 (Human epidermoid laryngeal carcinoma) cells to radiation in vitro and in vivo. The expression of ATM mRNA and protein in hep-2 cells were examined by real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting respectively. Clonogenic survival assay was carried out to detect the survival ability of hep-2 cells after irradiation, and analyzed the cell apoptosis by flow cytometry. The volume of solid tumors was measured, while TUNEL assay and western blotting used to analyze cell apoptosis and protein expression after irradiation. The relative ATM mRNA and protein expression in hep-2 cells treated with ATM AS-ODNs were decreased to 11.03 ± 2.51% and 48.14 ± 5.53% of that in untreated cells respectively (P <0.05). After irradiation, the survival fraction (SF) of cells treated with ATM AS-ODNs was lower than that of other groups at the same dose of radiation (P < 0.05). The inhibition rate in hep-2 cells solid tumor exposed to X-ray alone was 5.95 ± 4.52%, while it was 34.28 ± 2.43% in the group which irradiated in combination with the treatment of ATM AS-ODNs (P < 0.05). The apoptotic index for the group irradiated in combination with ATM AS-ODNs injection was 17.12 ± 4.2%, which was significantly higher than that of others (P < 0.05). AS-ODNs of ATM reduce ATM expression and enhance hep-2 cells apoptosis to radiation in vitro and in vivo.

  18. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lanoue, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly occurring cancer in the world and overall incidence is still on the rise. While typically a slow-growing tumor for which metastases is rare, basal cell carcinoma can be locally destructive and disfiguring. Given the vast prevalence of this disease, there is a significant overall burden on patient well-being and quality of life. The current mainstay of basal cell carcinoma treatment involves surgical modalities, such as electrodessication and curettage, excision, cryosurgery, and Mohs micrographic surgery. Such methods are typically reserved for localized basal cell carcinoma and offer high five-year cure rates, but come with the risk of functional impairment, disfigurement, and scarring. Here, the authors review the evidence and indications for nonsurgical treatment modalities in cases where surgery is impractical, contraindicated, or simply not desired by the patient. PMID:27386043

  19. Breast carcinoma metastases.

    PubMed

    Bodzin, G A; Staren, E D; Faber, L P

    1998-02-01

    With careful selection of patients, complete resection of pulmonary metastases from breast carcinoma may be a useful therapeutic option. Such a treatment appears to offer a significant survival benefit when compared with medical treatment alone, or with incomplete resection.

  20. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    The radiographs of 136 patients with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma were reviewed. The varied radiographic manifestations were a result of the characteristic peripheral location of the tumor, its tendency to infiltrate the local airways with mucus production and desmoplasia, and its variable aggressiveness resulting in a wide variation in rate of intrathoracic and extrathoracic spread. In the absence of surgical intervention, a localized lesion progressed to diffuse disease in every patient. The findings supported the concept of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma as a distinct clinical entity.

  1. [Multiple primary pulmonary carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Guitart, A C; Gómez, G; Estrada, G; Rodríguez, C; León, C; Cornudella, R

    1991-02-01

    Three cases of multiple simultaneous primary lung carcinomas are presented, in which diagnosis was established by post-surgery pathological exam. In all three cases, chest X-ray showed pulmonary masses suggestive or clinical malignancy, and pre-surgery pathological diagnosis or squamous lung carcinoma. During thoracotomy or in the resected segment, a second lesion we confirmed which made resection necessary being this second lesion classified as lung adenocarcinoma.

  2. [Etiopathogenesis of colorectal carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Reichlin, B

    1980-09-20

    There are a small group of colonic carcinomas of known etiology and large group of unknown etiology. In the latter group epidemiology, metabolic epidemiology, and animal experiments suggest a correlation between the fat content of the diet and the incidence of colonic carcinoma. Burkitt's postulate of a protective value of high fibre intake receives backing from 3 epidemiological studies from Israel, Scandinavia, and San Francisco.

  3. Colorectal carcinoma: Pathologic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Matthew; Ravula, Sreelakshmi; Tatishchev, Sergei F.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the United States. Pathologic examination of biopsy, polypectomy and resection specimens is crucial to appropriate patient managemnt, prognosis assessment and family counseling. Molecular testing plays an increasingly important role in the era of personalized medicine. This review article focuses on the histopathology and molecular pathology of colorectal carcinoma and its precursor lesions, with an emphasis on their clinical relevance. PMID:22943008

  4. [Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Antoine, Martine; Vieira, Thibault; Fallet, Vincent; Hamard, Cécile; Duruisseaux, Michael; Cadranel, Jacques; Wislez, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas are a rare group of tumors accounting for about one percent of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In 2015, the World Health Organization classification united under this name all the carcinomas with sarcomatous-like component with spindle cell or giant cell appearance, or associated with a sarcomatous component sometimes heterologous. There are five subtypes: pleomorphic carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, giant cell carcinoma, carcinosarcoma and pulmonary blastoma. Clinical characteristics are not specific from the other subtypes of NSCLC. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition pathway may play a key role. Patients, usually tobacco smokers, are frequently symptomatic. Tumors are voluminous more often peripherical than central, with strong fixation on FDG TEP CT. Distant metastases are frequent with atypical visceral locations. These tumors have poorer prognosis than the other NSCLC subtypes because of great aggressivity, and frequent chemoresistance. Here we present pathological description and a review of literature with molecular features in order to better describe these tumors and perhaps introduce new therapeutics.

  5. Transplantable pancreatic acinar carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.R.; Reddy, J.K.

    1981-03-15

    Fragments of the nafenopin-induced pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma of rat have been examined in vitro for patterns of intracellular protein transport and carbamylcholine-induced protein discharge. Continuous incubation of the fragments with (3H)-leucine for 60 minutes resulted in labeling of rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi cisternae, and mature zymogen granules, revealed by electron microscope autoradiography. This result indicates transport of newly synthesized protein from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to mature zymogen granules in approximately 60 minutes. The secretagogue carbamylcholine induced the discharge of radioactive protein by carcinoma fragments pulse-chase labeled with (3H)-leucine. A maximal effective carbamylcholine concentration of 10(-5) M was determined. The acinar carcinoma resembles normal exocrine pancreas in the observed rate of intracellular protein transport and effective secretagogue concentration. However, the acinar carcinoma fragments demonstrated an apparent low rate of carbamylcholine-induced radioactive protein discharge as compared with normal pancreatic lobules or acinar cells. It is suggested that the apparent low rate of radioactive protein discharge reflects functional immaturity of the acinar carcinoma. Possible relationships of functional differentiation to the heterogeneous cytodifferentiation of the pancreatic acinar carcinoma are discussed.

  6. Incidental carcinoma of the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Pezzolla, Angela; Marzaioli, Rinaldo; Lattarulo, Serafina; Docimo, Giovanni; Conzo, Giovanni; Ciampolillo, Anna; Barile, Graziana; Anelli, Ferdinando Massimiliano; Madaro, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of incidental thyroid carcinoma in patients submitted to thyroidectomy for a benign disease is quite frequent. A retrospective analysis was performed on 455 patients submitted to surgical intervention in order to establish the incidence of this kind of carcinoma. Two hundred fifty-six patients (56%) were affected by benign disease (176 multinodular goiter, 12 uninodular goiter, 1 Plummer disease and 67 Basedow disease) and 202 (44%) by carcinoma. In 28 of 256 patients (11%), affected by benign disease, occurred a histological diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma, (10 papillary carcinoma, 1 follicular carcinoma, 29 papillary carcinoma follicular variant). In this study it's considered incidental thyroid carcinoma the one occurred in patients who never underwent Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) and there were no suspicious features in all exams that may suggest the presence of carcinoma. Twenty-three of the 40 incidental carcinoma (57.5%) were microcarcinomas. Ten patients had a sincronous carcinoma. Actually, these patients are still in a follow up program and no recurrency of disease is occasionally observed. This study shows that the only way to put doubts on the real benignity of the disease is the fine needle aspiration; there are no other instruments that could identify the occurrence of the carcinoma. Moreover in the majority of cases the incidental carcinoma is a microcarcinoma, it doesn't reach significant volume, may be not centered by a FNA, but in most cases it's not really biologically aggressive.

  7. Burn scar carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Yuan; Feng, Chung-Ho; Hsiao, Yen-Chang; Chuang, Shiow Shuh; Yang, Jui-Yung

    2010-11-01

    Since Jean-Nicolas Marjolin reported carcinoma arising in post-traumatic scars in 1828, the term 'Marjolin ulcer' has been applied to malignant changes in burn scars. Although many papers have been published already in this field, there are few reports from Oriental people. From 1989 to 2008, there were 11 cases noted as burn scar carcinoma in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. Ten were reported as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and the one was verrucous carcinoma. Most of the cases occurred in the extremities (10/11). Ten cases underwent an operation initially with wide excision and skin graft or local flap for coverage. Forefoot amputation was performed in one patient. One patient received above-knee amputation and adjuvant therapy because recurrent verrucous carcinoma occurred 2 years later. One patient suffered from a new lesion 8 years later and another case had inguinal lymph node metastasis 8 months later. Five patients were lost to follow-up and six cases were tumor-free during the follow-up period. Most scar malignancies are SCC while other cell types are rarer. The casual association between burn injuries and a later risk of basal cell carcinoma is questionable. Owing to poor prognosis in advanced scar cancer, the best treatment for scar carcinoma is to prevent the scar from developing repeated ulceration by performing aggressive initial burn wound care: early grafting by surgeons and daily scar care with regular follow-up for patients. This may be why a lower incidence has been noted in recent years.

  8. Isolation, Cytotoxicity Evaluation and HPLC-Quantification of the Chemical Constituents from Prangos pabularia

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Saleem; Shakeel-u-Rehman; Dangroo, Nisar Ahmad; Priya, Dev; Banday, Javid Ahmad; Sangwan, Pyare Lal; Qurishi, Mushtaq Ahmad; Koul, Surrinder; Saxena, Ajit Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Phytochemical analysis of the dichloromethane:methanol (1∶1) extract of root parts of Prangos pabularia led to the isolation of twelve cytotoxic constituents, viz., 6-hydroxycoumarin (1), 7-hydroxycoumarin (2), heraclenol-glycoside (3), xanthotoxol (4), heraclenol (5), oxypeucedanin hydrate (6), 8-((3,3-dimethyloxiran-2-yl)methyl)-7-methoxy-2H-chromen-2-one (7), oxypeucedanin hydrate monoacetate (8), xanthotoxin (9), 4-((2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-3-en-1-yl)oxy)-7H-furo[3,2-g]chromen-7-one (10), imperatorin (11) and osthol (12). The isolates were identified using spectral techniques in the light of literature. 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity screening of the isolated constituents was carried out against six human cancer cell lines including lung (A549 and NCI-H322), epidermoid carcinoma (A431), melanoma (A375), prostate (PC-3) and Colon (HCT-116) cell lines. Osthol (12) exhibited the highest cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 3.2, 6.2, 10.9, 14.5, 24.8, and 30.2 µM against epidermoid carcinoma (A431), melanoma (A375), lung (NCI-H322), lung (A549), prostate (PC-3) and colon (HCT-116) cell lines respectively. Epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431 was sensitive to most of the compounds followed by lung (A549) cancer cell line. Finally a simple and reliable HPLC method was developed (RP-HPLC-DAD) and validated for the simultaneous quantification of these cytotoxic constituents in Prangos pabularia. The extract was analyzed using a reversed-phase Agilent ZORBAX eclipse plus column C18 (4.6×250 mm, 5 µm) at 250 nm wavelength using a gradient water-methanol solvent system at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min. The RP-HPLC method is validated in terms of recovery, linearity, accuracy and precision (intra and inter-day validation). This method, because of shorter analysis time, makes it valuable for the commercial quality control of Prangos pabularia extracts and its future pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:25314269

  9. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    NBCC syndrome; Gorlin-Goltz syndrome; Basal cell nevus syndrome; BCNS; Basal cell cancer - nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome ... Nevoid basal cell carcinoma nevus syndrome is a rare genetic condition. The gene linked to the syndrome is known as PTCH (" ...

  10. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis reveals system-wide signaling pathways regulated by site-specific phosphorylation on Keratin-8 in skin squamous cell carcinoma derived cell- line.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Richa; Sahu, Indrajit; Soni, Bihari Lal; Sathe, Gajanan J; Datta, Keshava K; Thapa, Pankaj; Sinha, Shruti; Vadivel, Chella Krishna; Dhaka, Bharti; Gowda, Harsha; Vaidya, Milind M

    2017-02-07

    Keratin 8/18, a simple epithelia specific keratin pair, is often aberrantly expressed in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) where its expression is correlated with increased invasion and poor prognosis. Majority of Keratin 8 (K8) functions are governed by its phosphorylation at Serine(73) (head-domain) and Serine(431) (tail-domain) residues. Although, deregulation of K8 phosphorylation is associated with progression of different carcinomas, its role in skin-SCC and the underlying mechanism is obscure. In this direction, we performed TMT-based quantitative phosphoproteomics by expressing K8 wild type, phosphodead and phosphomimetic mutants in K8-deficient A431 cells. Further analysis of our phosphoproteomics data showed a significant proportion of total phosphoproteome associated with migratory, proliferative and invasive potential of these cells to be differentially phosphorylated. Differential phosphorylation of CDK1(T14,Y15) , EIF4EBP1(T46,T50) , EIF4B(S422) , AKT1S1T246,S247, CTTN1(T401,S405,) Y421 & CAP1(S307/309) in K8-S73A/D mutant and CTTN1(T401,S405,Y421) , BUB1B(S1043) & CARHSP1(S30,S32) in K8-S431A/D mutants as well as some anonymous phosphosites including MYC(S176) , ZYX(S344) and PNN(S692) could be potential candidates associated with K8 phosphorylation mediated tumorigenicity. Biochemical validation followed by phenotypic analysis further confirmed our quantitative phosphoproteomics data. In conclusion, our study provides the first global picture of K8 site- specific phosphorylation function in neoplastic progression of A431 cells and suggests various potential starting points for further mechanistic studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. [Elements of epidemiology and initiation of carcinogenesis in carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract. Future therapeutic consequence?].

    PubMed

    Dolivet, G; Colosetti, P; Merlin, J L; Depardieu, C; Lapeyre, M; Wattel, E; Sarini, J; Ton Van, J; Geoffrois, L; Lagarde, P

    1999-01-01

    The study of epidemiology and of the carcinogenesis in epidermoid carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract shows that their occurrence is not random. Tobacco abuse plays a major role, especially because of benzopyrene, mutagen of the P53 gene, however it is associated with many other potentiating factors: alcohol, metals, hydrocarbures, virus, food, climate, genetic fragility that create genetic lesions at the origin of carcinogenesis. The latter occurs as "field cancerization" with multiple alterations of the mucosa and general attack of the control systems of the differentiation, growth and cell apoptosis which usually protect the cell against the phenomena of carcinogenesis. The P53 protein gene, retinoid receptors as well as the system of detoxifying glutathion S transferase are modified at the very early stage of these diseases, these abnormalities can be logically related to epidemiological data. These data lead us therefore to imagine complementary specific reverting therapies of induced genetic abnormalities, through the reexpression of non mutated gene encoding P53 protein and the use of retinoid. These various modalities are reported hereafter.

  12. Diagnostic and pathogenetic role of café-au-lait macules in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Café au lait spots (CALS) are common dermatologic findings that can at the same time arise in a variety of pathologic conditions such as Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), together with numerous hereditary syndromes for which they represent either diagnostic criteria or associated elements (McCune Albright, Silver-Russell, LEOPARD, Ataxia-Telangiectasia). A review of the literature also revealed two cases of association with NBCCS. We report here the case of a female proband with CALS associated to Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) with known PTCH1 germline mutation (C.1348-2A>G) who had been misdiagnosed with NF1 in her childhood because of 5 CALS and cutaneous nodules. The patient presented a giant cell tumor of the skin, palmar and calcaneal epidermoidal cystic nodules, odontogenic keratocystic tumors and deformity of the jaw profile. Her family history brought both her brother and father to our attention because of the presence of KCOTs diagnosed at early age: after genetic testing, the same PTCH1 germline mutation was identified in the three family members. Clinical criteria are used for discerning NF1 diagnosis (size, number and onset age), while there are no definite guidelines concerning CALS except for their presence. In our experience, we have noted an association of CALS with NBCCS; this seems interesting because we already know clinical criteria are a dynamic entity and can be modified by epidemiologic evidences. PMID:23107377

  13. Subungual squamous cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Padilha, Carolina Barbosa de Sousa; Balassiano, Laila Klotz de Almeida; Pinto, Julyana Calegari; de Souza, Flávia Crespo Schueler; Kac, Bernard Kawa; Treu, Curt Mafra

    2016-01-01

    Although subungual squamous cell carcinoma is rare, it is the most common primary malignant neoplasms in this location. The higher incidence occurs in the fingernails, but involvement of the toenails is also possible. Subungual squamous cell carcinoma often looks like other more common benign lesions, such as fungal infection, onychomycosis, or viral wart. These factors, together with a general lack of awareness of this disease among physicians, often result in delayed diagnosis. Therefore, it is underdiagnosed, with few reports in the literature. The authors present a case of a man with a diagnosis of subungual squamous cell carcinoma in the hallux, without bone involvement, which was submitted to the appropriate surgical treatment. PMID:28099608

  14. [Imaging renal cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Bazan, F; Busto, M

    2014-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is the eighth most common malignancy in adults and the most common malignancy in the kidney. It is thus a very common disease for radiologists. This review aims to provide a general overview of the imaging techniques used to diagnose, characterize, and help plan the treatment of renal cell carcinoma as well as to review basic aspects related to staging, imaging-guided percutaneous treatment, and follow-up in the most common clinical scenarios. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Anti-metastatic effect of rhodomyrtone from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa on human skin cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tayeh, Malatee; Nilwarangoon, Sirinun; Mahabusarakum, Wilawan; Watanapokasin, Ramida

    2017-03-01

    This study focused on the inhibitory effect of rhodomyrtone, a bioactive compound isolated from the leaves of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk., on cancer metastasis in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells and on the verification of the underlying related molecular mechanisms of this event. We demonstrated that rhodomyrtone at the subcytotoxic concentration (0.5 and 1.5 µg/ml) exhibited pronounced inhibition of cancer metastasis by reducing cell migration, cell adhesive ability and cell invasion of A431 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Data demonstrated that rhodomyrtone could inhibit the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT), c-Raf, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 MAPK involved in the downregulation the enzyme activities and protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9. Moreover, we found that rhodomyrtone increased the expression of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, which are inhibitors of MMP-9 and MMP-2, respectively. Rhodomyrtone also inhibited the expression of NF-κB and phosphorylation of NF-κB in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggested that rhodomyrtone inhibited A431 cell metastasis by reducing MMP-2/9 activities and expression through inhibiting ERK1/2, p38 and FAK/Akt signaling pathways via NF-κB activities. This finding suggested that rhodomyrtone may be a novel antimetastasis agent for treatment of skin cancer cells.

  16. MRI assessment of changes in tumor oxygenation post hypoxia-targeted therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Shubhangi; Vidya Shankar, Rohini; Inge, Landon J.; Kodibagkar, Vikram

    2015-03-01

    In the tumor microenvironment, the combination of compromised oxygen supply and high demand results in formation of regions of acute and chronic hypoxia, which promotes metastasis, proliferation, resistance to chemo and radiotherapy and poor prognosis. Targeted, non-invasive in vivo imaging of hypoxia has the potential to determine regions with poor oxygenation in the target and differentiate between normoxic vs hypoxic tissues. MRI provides a powerful platform for generating quantitative maps of hypoxia with the use of a novel pO2 measuring technique PISTOL (Proton imaging of siloxanes to map tissue oxygenation levels) which could impact the therapeutic choices. In the present study, PISTOL was used to determine the changes in oxygenation of tumor in pre-clinical models of NSCLC (H1975) and epidermoid carcinoma (A431) in response to tirapzamine (TPZ), a hypoxia activated chemotherapeutic. The tumor volume measurements indicate that tirapazamine was more effective in slowing the tumor growth in H1975 as compared to A431 tumors, even though lower baseline pO2 was observed in A431 as compared to H1975 tumors. These results indicate that other factors such as tumor perfusion (essential for delivering TPZ) and relative expression of nitroreductases (essential for activating TPZ) may play an important role in conjunction with pO2.

  17. Tumor regression after intravenous administration of targeted vesicles entrapping the vitamin E α-tocotrienol.

    PubMed

    Karim, Reatul; Somani, Sukrut; Al Robaian, Majed; Mullin, Margaret; Amor, Rumelo; McConnell, Gail; Dufès, Christine

    2017-01-28

    The therapeutic potential of tocotrienol, a member of the vitamin E family of compounds with potent in vitro anti-cancer properties, is limited by its inability to specifically reach tumors following intravenous administration. The purpose of this study is to determine whether a novel tumor-targeted vesicular formulation of tocotrienol would suppress the growth of A431 epidermoid carcinoma and B16-F10 melanoma in vitro and in vivo. In this work, we demonstrated that novel transferrin-bearing multilamellar vesicles entrapping α-T3 resulted in a dramatically improved (by at least 52-fold) therapeutic efficacy in vitro on A431 cell line, compared to the free drug. In addition, the intravenous administration of tocotrienol entrapped in transferrin-bearing vesicles resulted in tumor suppression for 30% of A431 and 60% of B16-F10 tumors, without visible toxicity. Mouse survival was enhanced by >13days compared to controls administered with the drug solution only. This tumor-targeted, tocotrienol-based nanomedicine therefore significantly improved the therapeutic response in cancer treatment.

  18. Low-dose methotrexate enhances aminolevulinate-based photodynamic therapy in skin carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Anand, Sanjay; Honari, Golara; Hasan, Tayyaba; Elson, Paul; Maytin, Edward V

    2009-05-15

    To improve treatment efficacy and tumor cell selectivity of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) via pretreatment of cells and tumors with methotrexate to enhance intracellular photosensitizer levels. Skin carcinoma cells, in vitro and in vivo, served as the model system. Cultured human SCC13 and HEK1 cells, normal keratinocytes, and in vivo skin tumor models were preconditioned with methotrexate for 72 h and then incubated with ALA for 4 h. Changes in protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) levels and cell survival after light exposure were assessed. Methotrexate preconditioning of monolayer cultures preferentially increased intracellular PpIX levels 2- to 4-fold in carcinoma cells versus normal keratinocytes. Photodynamic killing was synergistically enhanced by the combined therapy compared with PDT alone. Methotrexate enhancement of PpIX levels was achieved over a broad methotrexate concentration range (0.0003-1.0 mg/L; 0.6 nmol/L-2 mmol/L). PpIX enhancement correlated with changes in protein expression of key porphyrin pathway enzymes, approximately 4-fold increase in coproporphyrinogen oxidase and stable or slightly decreased expression of ferrochelatase. Differentiation markers (E-cadherin, involucrin, and filaggrin) were also selectively induced by methotrexate in carcinoma cells. In vivo relevance was established by showing that methotrexate preconditioning enhances PpIX accumulation in three models: (a) organotypic cultures of immortalized keratinocytes, (b) chemically induced skin tumors in mice; and (c) human A431 squamous cell tumors implanted subcutaneously in mice. Combination therapy using short-term exposure to low-dose methotrexate followed by ALA-PDT should be further investigated as a new combination modality to enhance efficacy and selectivity of PDT for epithelial carcinomas.

  19. Clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with stage III esophageal carcinoma: a single-center experience from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ugur, Vahide I; Kara, Sakire P; Kucukplakci, Bulent; Demirkasimoglu, Taciser; Misirlioglu, Cem; Ozgen, Aytul; Elgin, Yesim; Sanri, Ergun; Altundag, Kadri; Ozdamar, Nadi

    2008-01-01

    Esophageal carcinoma is an extremely deadly disease, and prognosis is poor. We retrospectively evaluated stage III esophageal carcinoma patients in our center. Median age of the patients was 52. Men to women ratio were 3/1. Epidermoid carcinoma was the major histology. Incidence of esophageal carcinoma was higher in the distal and middle third of the esophagus. In 19 patients tumor size was more than 5 cm. In total of 17 of the patients were operated. About 58 patients were irradiated. About 45 of the patients were irradiated with curative intent, 31 of them were primarily irradiated and 14 of them were irradiated postoperatively. Only 13 of the patients received concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Overall 1, 2, 3, and 4 year survival rates were 38.9%, 11.1%, 5.6%, and %1.9, respectively and median survival was 12 months. Median survival for tumors located in cervical esophageal, middle esophagus, and distal esophagus were 23, 8, and 14 months, respectively. One, 2, 3, 4 year survival rates of operated patients were 58.8%, 29.4%, 17.6%, 5.9%, respectively and median survival was 23 months. For inoperable patients 1 and 2 year survival rates were 29.7% and 2.7% and median survival was 8 months. Differences between operable and inoperable patients were statistically significant (P: 0.0003). One, 2, 3, 4 years survival results of patients treated with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy was 62.5%, 25%, 12.5%, 12.5% and median survival was 21 months, 1, 2, 3, 4 years survival results of patients treated with surgery and concurrent chemoradiotherapy was 55.6%, 33.3%, 22.2%, and 0% and median survival was 27 months. There was no statistically significant difference between groups (P: 0.5390). During the therapy, disphagia was the major side effect observed in seven patients. Fatigue, pain, and mild weight loss were the other side effects. Three patients could not tolerate the treatment and left the therapy. We demonstrated that stage III esophageal carcinoma is an extremely

  20. Radiation-induced bladder carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Uyama, T.; Nakamura, S.; Moriwaki, S.

    1981-01-01

    Two cases are presented of radiation-induced bladder carcinoma which followed prior irradiation for cervical carcinoma of the uterus. One was a sixty-eight-year-old woman with bladder carcinoma fourteen years after irradiation (total dose of 4,500 rad) for cervical carcinoma of the uterus. The other was a sixty-four-year-old woman with bladder carcinoma twenty-five years after irradiation with 150-K volt apparatus for cervical carcinoma of the uterus. From the late radiation change of the skin, it was estimated that the total dose of prior radiation might be 4,000 rad or more. Both had high-grade, high-stage transitional cell bladder carcinoma, and the former was with marked mucus-forming adenomatous metaplasia.

  1. HDR brachytherapy decreases proliferation rate and cellular progression of a radioresistant human squamous cell carcinoma in vitro.

    PubMed

    Geraldo, Jony M; Scalzo, Sérgio; Reis, Daniela S; Leão, Thiago L; Guatimosim, Silvia; Ladeira, Luiz O; Andrade, Lídia M

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the effects of high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy on cellular progression of a radioresistant human squamous cell carcinoma in vitro, based on clinical parameters. An acrylic platform was designed to attach tissue culture flasks and assure source positioning during irradiation. At exponential phase, A431cells, a human squamous cell carcinoma, were irradiated twice up to 1100 cGy. Cellular proliferation was assessed by Trypan blue exclusion assay and survival fraction was calculated by clonogenic assay. DNA content analysis and cell cycle phases were assessed by flow cytometry and gel electrophoresis, respectively. Cellular death patterns were measured by HOPI double-staining method. Significant decreasing cellular proliferation rate (p < 0.05) as well as reduced survival fraction (p < 0.001) in irradiated cells were observed. Moreover, increased percentage of cells arrested in the G2/M phase (32.3 ± 1.5%) in the irradiated group as compared with untreated cells (8.22 ± 1.2%) was detected. Also, a significant (p < 0.0001) nuclei shrinking in irradiated cells without evidence of necrosis or apoptosis was found. HDR brachytherapy led to a decreased proliferation rate and cell survival and also hampered cellular progression to mitosis suggesting that tumor cell death mainly occurred due to mitotic death and G2/M cell cycle arrest.

  2. Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1) in the Pathogenesis of UVB-induced Murine Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Byekova, Yevgeniya A.; Herrmann, Jennifer L.; Xu, Jianmin; Elmets, Craig A.; Athar, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    LKB1, a known tumor suppressor, is mutated in Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS). It is responsible for the enhanced cancer risk in patients with PJS. Dysregulation of LKB1-dependent signaling also occurs in various epithelial cancers. UVB alters the expression of LKB1, though its role in the pathogenesis of skin cancer is unknown. Here we describe upregulation of LKB1 expression in UVB-induced murine basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and in human skin tumor keratinocytes. AMP-kinase and acetyl Co-A carboxylase, the downstream LKB1 targets, are also enhanced in this neoplasm. In addition, p-Akt, a kinase which inactivates GSK3β by its phosphorylation, is enhanced in BCCs. Consistently, an accumulation of p-GSK3β and an increase in activated nuclear β-catenin are found. mTOR signaling, which is also inhibited by LKB1, remains upregulated in BCCs. However, a marked decrease in the expression of sestrins, which function as potent negative regulators of mTOR is observed. Metformin, a known chemical inducer of this pathway, was found effective in immortalized HaCaT keratinocytes, but failed to activate the LKB1-dependent signaling in human carcinoma A431 cells. Thus, our data show that the LKB1/AMPK axis fails to regulate mTOR pathway, and a complex regulatory mechanism exists for the persistent mTOR activation in murine BCCs. PMID:21272562

  3. [Markers of prostatic carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Safarík, L

    1998-08-31

    Author gives the survey of markers at prostate carcinoma, that has been known so far, their origin and the use in experiment and clinical praxis. He discusses their sensitivity and specificity and shows the perspective of new markers discovered and used in the praxis on basis of molecular genetics.

  4. Carcinoma of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Orovan, W. L.; DeMaria, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    Prostatic carcinoma is the third most common cause of death from cancer among males. Selection of appropriate therapy and evaluation of results is often difficult, since patients present at different stages of the disease. Methods of staging, diagnosis, treatment of localized tumor, radiation, surgery and treatment of metastases are described. PMID:21274084

  5. Potential role of the OVOL1-OVOL2 axis and c-Myc in the progression of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takamichi; Tsuji, Gaku; Ohno, Fumitaka; Nakahara, Takeshi; Uchi, Hiroshi; Furue, Masutaka

    2017-03-24

    OVOL1 and OVOL2 are ubiquitously conserved genes encoding C2H2 zinc-finger transcription factors in mammals. They promote epithelial cell proliferation, differentiation, and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition, coordinately mediated via the Wnt signaling pathway. We previously reported that human OVOL1 and OVOL2 were preferentially expressed in the normal epidermis and hair follicles as well as their tumors, and found that OVOL1 is upregulated in Bowen's disease and downregulated in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. The aims of this study were to elucidate the potential role of the OVOL1-OVOL2 axis in Bowen's disease and squamous cell carcinoma, and to reveal the relationship between OVOL and c-Myc, a proto-oncogene that plays a pivotal role in the malignancy of epithelial tumors. We investigated 20 Bowen's disease and 20 squamous cell carcinoma clinical samples and a human squamous cell carcinoma cell line (A431) using immunohistochemical staining and molecular biological approaches. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that OVOL1 was upregulated in Bowen's disease and markedly downregulated in squamous cell carcinoma; conversely, c-Myc was downregulated in Bowen's disease and upregulated in squamous cell carcinoma. OVOL2 was markedly upregulated in the nucleus of Bowen's disease cells, but the distribution of OVOL2 expression in squamous cell carcinoma varied widely; OVOL2 was typically expressed in the cytoplasm, but only sporadically in the nucleus. Furthermore, knockdown of OVOL1 using a specific small interfering RNA increased the mRNA and protein levels of c-Myc and OVOL2. Knockdown of OVOL2 did not significantly affect the mRNA and protein levels of either c-Myc or OVOL1. These results suggest that OVOL1 is an upstream suppressor of c-Myc and OVOL2, and the OVOL1-OVOL2 axis is a modulator of c-Myc, coordinately regulating the invasiveness of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Taken together, this study suggests that the OVOL1-OVOL2 axis is a key

  6. Fallacious Carcinoma- Spindle Cell Variant of Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Radhika M; Govinda, Girish; Muniswamappa, Sudhakara; Venugopal, Reshma

    2016-01-01

    Spindle cell carcinoma is a unique, rare and peculiar biphasic tumour of head and neck which is not frequently observed in the oral cavity. This variant of squamous cell carcinoma although of monophasic epithelial origin, simulates a sarcoma and is an aggressive carcinoma with high frequency of recurrence and metastasis. A correct and timely diagnosis is of paramount importance. Most of the tumours require an Immunohistochemistry (IHC) panel for confirmation or diagnosis. We report a case of spindle cell carcinoma with varied histopathological morphology and clinical presentation in a middle aged female with a brief review of literature. PMID:27630965

  7. Evaluation of Mannosidase and Trypsin Enzymes Effects on Biofilm Production of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Burn Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Banar, Maryam; Emaneini, Mohammad; Satarzadeh, Mhboubeh; Abdellahi, Nafiseh; Beigverdi, Reza; van Leeuwen, Willem B.; Jabalameli, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    Biofilm is an important virulence factor in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and has a substantial role in antibiotic resistance and chronic burn wound infections. New therapeutic agents against P. aeruginosa, degrading biofilms in burn wounds and improving the efficacy of current antimicrobial agents, are required. In this study, the effects of α-mannosidase, β-mannosidase and trypsin enzymes on the degradation of P. aeruginosa biofilms and on the reduction of ceftazidime minimum biofilm eliminating concentrations (MBEC) were evaluated. All tested enzymes, destroyed the biofilms and reduced the ceftazidime MBECs. However, only trypsin had no cytotoxic effect on A-431 human epidermoid carcinoma cell lines. In conclusion, since trypsin had better features than mannosidase enzymes, it can be a promising agent in combatting P. aeruginosa burn wound infections. PMID:27736961

  8. Imaging EGFR distribution using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, L.; Chen, X. K.; Smith, A.; Korbelik, M.; Zeng, H.; Lee, P. W. K.; Hewitt, K. C.

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the feasibility of using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) to image the distribution of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) in cells. To accomplish this task, 30 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) tagged with antibodies to EGFR (1012 per ml) are incubated with cells (106 per ml) of the A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cell line and normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. Using the 632.8 nm excitation line of a He-Ne laser, Raman spectroscopy measurements are performed using a point mapping scheme. SERS signals are observed with an overall enhancement of 4-7 orders of magnitude. Raman intensity maps of the 1480 and 1583 cm-1 peaks correlate well with the expected distribution of AuNPs and EGFR. Normal cells show little to no enhancement. The results therefore present a simple yet effective means to image EGFR over-expression.

  9. Novel cytotoxic chalcones from Litsea rubescens and Litsea pedunculata.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Zhao, Xing-Tang; Luo, Yi-Ping; Zhao, Jing-Feng; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Bing

    2011-12-15

    Two novel flavonoids with chalcone skeleton, together with seven known flavonoids, were isolated from the stem barks of Litsea rubescens and Litsea pedunculata. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectral methods including IR, UV, 1D and 2D NMR. The new chalcones were found to contain the rare epoxy or ethylidenedioxy group. This is the first report on the presence of chalcone in the plant genus Litsea. The cytotoxic potential of two new chalcones was evaluated in vitro against three human tumor cell lines. Both new chalcones displayed potent cytotoxic activities against myeloid leukaemia (HL-60) and epidermoid carcinoma (A431) cell lines and more active than cisplatin (DDP). Interestingly, compound 1 exhibited cytotoxic activity against HL-60 with IC(50) value 2.1-fold more sensitive to DDP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization and in vitro evaluation of nimotuzumab conjugated with cisplatin-loaded liposomes.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Becerra, Héctor; Pérez-Cárdenas, Enrique; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Izquierdo-Sánchez, Vanessa; Medina, Luis Alberto

    2016-07-21

    In this paper, we report the conjugation of the humanized monoclonal antibody nimotuzumab with cisplatin-loaded liposomes and the in vitro evaluation of its affinity for tumor cells. The conjugation procedure was performed through derivatization of nimotuzumab with N-succinimidyl S-acetylthioacetate (SATA) followed by a covalent attachment with maleimide groups at the end of PEG-DSPE chains located at the membrane of pre-formed liposomes. Confocal microscopy was performed to evaluate the immunoliposome affinity for EGFR antigens from human epidermoid carcinoma (A-431) and normal lung (MRC-5) cell lines. Results showed that the procedures implemented in this work do not affect the capability of the nimotuzumab-immunoliposomes to recognize the tumor cells, which overexpress the EGFR antigens.

  11. Understanding the Antifungal Mechanism of Ag@ZnO Core-shell Nanocomposites against Candida krusei

    PubMed Central

    Das, Bhaskar; Khan, Md. Imran; Jayabalan, R.; Behera, Susanta K.; Yun, Soon-Il; Tripathy, Suraj K.; Mishra, Amrita

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, facile synthesis of Ag@ZnO core-shell nanocomposites is reported where zinc oxide is coated on biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using Andrographis paniculata and Aloe vera leaf extract. Structural features of as synthesized nanocomposites are characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD, and FTIR. Morphology of the above core-shell nanocomposites is investigated by electron microscopy. As synthesized nanocomposite material has shown antimicrobial activity against Candida krusei, which is an opportunistic pathogen known to cause candidemia. The possible mode of activity of the above material has been studied by in-vitro molecular techniques. Our investigations have shown that surface coating of biogenic silver nanoparticles by zinc oxide has increased its antimicrobial efficiency against Candida krusei, while decreasing its toxicity towards A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cell lines. PMID:27812015

  12. Rational Design of a Dephosphorylation-Resistant Reporter Enables Single-Cell Measurement of Tyrosine Kinase Activity.

    PubMed

    Turner, Abigail H; Lebhar, Michael S; Proctor, Angela; Wang, Qunzhao; Lawrence, David S; Allbritton, Nancy L

    2016-02-19

    Although peptide-based reporters of protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity have been used to study PTK enzymology in vitro, the application of these reporters to intracellular conditions is compromised by their dephosphorylation, preventing PTK activity measurements. Nonproteinogenic amino acids may be utilized to rationally design selective peptidic ligands by accessing greater chemical and structural diversity than is available using the native amino acids. We describe a peptidic reporter that, upon phosphorylation by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), is resistant to dephosphorylation both in vitro and in cellulo. The reporter contains a conformationally constrained phosphorylatable moiety (7-(S)-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid) in the place of L-tyrosine and is efficiently phosphorylated in A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells. Dephosphorylation of the reporter occurs 3 orders of magnitude more slowly compared with that of the conventional tyrosine-containing reporter.

  13. A transcription factor active on the epidermal growth factor receptor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Kageyama, R; Merlino, G T; Pastan, I

    1988-01-01

    We have developed an in vitro transcription system for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) oncogene by using nuclear extracts of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells, which overproduce EGFR. We found that a nuclear factor, termed EGFR-specific transcription factor (ETF), specifically stimulated EGFR transcription by 5- to 10-fold. In this report, ETF, purified by using sequence-specific oligonucleotide affinity chromatography, is shown by renaturing material eluted from a NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel to be a protein with a molecular mass of 120 kDa. ETF binds to the promoter region, as measured by DNase I "footprinting" and gel-mobility-shift assays, and specifically stimulates the transcription of the EGFR gene in a reconstituted in vitro transcription system. These results suggest that ETF could play a role in the overexpression of the cellular oncogene EGFR. Images PMID:3393529

  14. Size-dependant cellular uptake of dendritic polyglycerol.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Stephanie; Welker, Pia; Calderón, Marcelo; Khandare, Jayant; Mangoldt, Dorothea; Licha, Kai; Kainthan, Rajesh K; Brooks, Donald E; Haag, Rainer

    2011-03-21

    To study the mechanism of cellular internalization, hyperbranched polyether derivatives consisting of amino-bearing hyperbranched polyglycerols (HPGs) of varied molecular mass and size range are designed and synthesized. HPGs were further fluorescently labelled by conjugating maleimido indocarbocyanine dye (ICC-mal). The conjugates are characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, fluorescence profile, zeta potential, and dynamic light scattering. The uptake mechanism is studied by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis, fluorescence spectroscopy, and confocal microscopy with human lung cancer cells A549, human epidermoid carcinoma cells A431, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) cells. For the first time, the results suggest that the higher-molecular-weight HPGs (40-870 kDa) predominantly accumulate in the cytoplasm much better than their low-molecular-weight counterparts (2-20 kDa). The HPG nanocarriers discussed here have many biomedical implications, particularly for delivering drugs to the targeted site.

  15. Discovery of novel selective inhibitors for EGFR-T790M/L858R.

    PubMed

    Bai, Fang; Liu, Hongyan; Tong, Linjiang; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Li; Zhao, Zhenjiang; Liu, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Hualiang; Wang, Xicheng; Xie, Hua; Li, Honglin

    2012-02-01

    Through a receptor-based and ligand-based combined virtual screening protocol, 21 novel compounds covering 15 scaffolds were identified as novel inhibitors for EGFR-T790M/L858R, among which, 12 of them were identified as selective inhibitors for EGFR-T790M/L858R to wild-type EGFR, and 5 of them exhibited 'dual-effective' to wild-type and mutant EGFR. Meanwhile, their antiproliferative effects toward EGFR high-expressing human lung cancer cell (A549), epidermoid carcinoma cell (A431), and the mutant EGFR-dependent cell (NCI-H1975) were also evaluated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. In vivo anticancer evaluation of the hyperthermic efficacy of anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted PEG-based nanocarrier containing magnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Giovanni; Ravagli, Costanza; Mazzantini, Filippo; Loudos, George; Adan, Jaume; Masa, Marc; Psimadas, Dimitrios; Fragogeorgi, Eirini A; Locatelli, Erica; Innocenti, Claudia; Sangregorio, Claudio; Comes Franchini, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles with targeting moieties containing magnetic nanoparticles as theranostic agents have considerable potential for the treatment of cancer. Here we report the chemical synthesis and characterization of a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-based nanocarrier containing iron oxide nanoparticles and human epithelial growth factor receptor on the outer shell. The nanocarrier was also radiolabeled with 99mTc and tested as a theranostic nanomedicine, ie, it was investigated for both its diagnostic ability in vivo and its therapeutic hyperthermic effects in a standard A431 human tumor cell line. Following radiolabeling with 99mTc, the biodistribution and therapeutic hyperthermic effects of the nanosystem were studied noninvasively in vivo in tumor-bearing mice. A substantial decrease in tumor size correlated with an increase in both nanoparticle concentration and local temperature was achieved, confirming the possibility of using this multifunctional nanosystem as a therapeutic tool for epidermoid carcinoma. PMID:25028545

  17. Photodynamic therapy with the silicon phthalocyanine pc 4 induces apoptosis in mycosis fungoides and sezary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lam, Minh; Lee, Yoojin; Deng, Min; Hsia, Andrew H; Morrissey, Kelly A; Yan, Chunlin; Azzizudin, Kashif; Oleinick, Nancy L; McCormick, Thomas S; Cooper, Kevin D; Baron, Elma D

    2010-01-01

    Our current focus on the effects of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) using silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4 photosensitizer on malignant T lymphocytes arose due to preclinical observations that Jurkat cells, common surrogate for human T cell lymphoma, were more sensitive to Pc 4-PDT-induced killing than epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Mycosis fungoides (MF) as well as Sezary syndrome (SS) are variants of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) in which malignant T-cells invade the epidermis. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity of Pc 4-PDT in peripheral blood cells obtained from patients with SS and in skin biopsies of patients with MF. Our data suggest that Pc 4-PDT preferentially induces apoptosis of CD4(+)CD7(-) malignant T-lymphocytes in the blood relative to CD11b(+) monocytes and nonmalignant T-cells. In vivo Pc 4-PDT of MF skin also photodamages the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2.

  18. Iontophoresis Improved Growth Reduction of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Topical Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Camila Nunes; de Souza, Joel Gonçalves; Simão, Patrícia Sper; Lopez, Renata Fonseca Vianna

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the potential of iontophoresis in topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) of human invasive squamous cells carcinomas (SCC). SCC was induced in nude BALB/c mice by subcutaneous injection of A431 cells. Tumor penetration and distribution of the photosensitizer tetrasulfonated zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPcS4) was investigated after 10 and 30 min of in vivo iontophoresis of a gel containing ZnPcS4. PDT was performed immediately after iontophoresis using laser at 660 nm with a dose of irradiation of 100 J/cm2 and irradiance of 48 mW/cm2 while tumor growth was measured for 30 days. Iontophoresis increased ZnPcS4 penetration into tumors by 6-fold after 30 min when compared with passive delivery. Confocal microscopy analysis showed that ZnPcS4 was homogeneous distributed within deep regions of the tumor after iontophoresis. Irradiation of the tumors immediately after iontophoresis showed reduction in tumor size by more than 2-fold when compared to non-treated tumors. Iontophoretic-PDT treated tumors presented large areas of necrosis. The study concluded that iontophoretic delivery of photosensitizers could be a valuable strategy for topical PDT of invasive SCC. PMID:26752697

  19. Oblimersen in Treating Patients With Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Recurrent Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage I Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage II Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage III Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage IV Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin

  20. Secretory Carcinoma of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Aktepe, Fatma; Sarsenov, Dauren; Özmen, Vahit

    2016-01-01

    Secretory carcinoma is a very rare subtype of breast carcinoma. These tumors are generally associated with a favorable prognosis, although having triple-negative phenotype (estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) negative and c-erbB2 (HER2) negative). In this presentation, a rare secretory carcinoma of the breast in a woman aged 24 years is discussed and the literature is reviewed. PMID:28331758

  1. Recurrent fusion oncogenes in carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Manuel R

    2006-12-01

    Chromosome structural aberrations giving rise to fusion oncogenes is one of the most common mechanisms in oncogenesis. Although this type of gene rearrangement has long been recognized as a fundamental pathogenetic mechanism in hematologi-cal malignancies and soft-tissue tumors, it has until recently only rarely been described in the common carcinomas. In this review, the existing information on recurrent fusion oncogenes characterizing carcinomas is summarized, namely, the RET and NTRK1 fusion oncogenes in papillary thyroid carcinoma, PAX8-PPARG in follicular thyroid carcinoma, MECT1-MAML2 in mucoepidermoid carcinoma, the TFE3 and TFEB fusion oncogenes in kidney carcinomas, BRD4-NUT in midline carcinomas, ETV6-NTRK3 in secretory breast carcinomas, and TMPRSS2-ETS fusion oncogenes in prostate carcinomas. As in hematological and soft-tissue malignancies, the most common types of genes involved in fusion oncogenes in carcinomas are transcription factors and tyrosine kinases. With a few exceptions, most fusion oncogenes are tumor type specific in carcinomas, as in other cancers. The mechanisms behind the relative specificity of this type of somatic mutation involve the cellular environment influencing the selection of oncogenic fusions, and the oncogenic fusions in turn driving differentiation programs that may alter the cellular environment. The data summarized on different types of carcinomas characterized by fusion oncogenes indicate that the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in epithelial carcino-genesis may be similar to those known to operate in hematological and soft-tissue malignancies, and further anticipates that many more fusion oncogenes await identification in the most common types of human cancer.

  2. Primary pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Avila Martínez, Régulo José; Marrón Fernández, Carmen; Hermoso Alarza, Fátima; Zuluaga Bedoya, Mauricio; Meneses Pardo, José Carlos; Gámez García, A Pablo

    2013-09-01

    To describe the characteristics and the result of surgical treatment in a series of patients with primary pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma (PSC). A descriptive study of 11 patients with primary PSC who were treated by the Thoracic Surgery Department at the Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre in Madrid (Spain) between 2005 and 2009. We analyzed age, gender, histologic type, pathological stage, type of surgery and survival (in months). Ten patients were male and 11 were smokers; mean age of was 55. The pathologic stages were: 4 stage IIA, 3 stage IIB, 2 stage IB and 2 stage IA. The most frequent histologic type was pleomorphic carcinoma, which was found in 5 cases. Complete resection was performed in 10 cases, and 7 received adjuvant therapy. Seven are disease-free after a mean follow-up period of 49 months. Complete surgery in the initial stages of primary PSC can improve survival. Copyright © 2012 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Database.

    PubMed

    Pua, K C; Khoo, A S B; Yap, Y Y; Subramaniam, S K; Ong, C A; Gopala Krishnan, G; Shahid, H

    2008-09-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a cancer which is common in Asia. We report the establishment and early results of a multi-institutional prospective study of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, which seeks to systematically collect data as well as blood and tumour tissue samples from patients diagnosed with nasopharyngeal cancer at six centres in Malaysia. A total of 484 confirmed NPC cases were reported from the six participating centres between 1st July 2007 and 29th February 2008. Of these, 225 were newly diagnosed cases, 53 were recurrent cases and 206 were in remission at the time of reporting. Amongst the newly diagnosed cases, the most common presenting symptom was the presence of neck lumps (42%). Ophthalmo-neurologic symptoms were the presenting symptoms of 11% of the new cases. The majority of cases (75%) presented at stage III/IV.

  4. Biomarkers for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Behne, Tara; Copur, M. Sitki

    2012-01-01

    The hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors and carries a poor survival rate. The management of patients at risk for developing HCC remains challenging. Increased understanding of cancer biology and technological advances have enabled identification of a multitude of pathological, genetic, and molecular events that drive hepatocarcinogenesis leading to discovery of numerous potential biomarkers in this disease. They are currently being aggressively evaluated to establish their value in early diagnosis, optimization of therapy, reducing the emergence of new tumors, and preventing the recurrence after surgical resection or liver transplantation. These markers not only help in prediction of prognosis or recurrence but may also assist in deciding appropriate modality of therapy and may represent novel potential targets for therapeutic interventions. In this paper, a summary of most relevant available data from published papers reporting various tissue and serum biomarkers involved in hepatocellular carcinoma was presented. PMID:22655201

  5. Prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kew, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Because of its frequency and grave prognosis, preventing hepatocellular carcinoma is an urgent priority. Prevention should be possible because environmental carcinogens-chronic hepatitis B and C virus infections, dietary exposure to aflatoxins, and iron overload-cause the great majority of these tumors. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection accounts for 55% of global hepatocellular carcinomas and 80% of those in the high-incidence Asia Pacific and sub-Saharan African regions. In these regions the infection that becomes chronic is predominantly acquired very early in life. A safe and effective vaccine against this virus is available and its universal inclusion in the immunization of infants has already resulted in a marked reduction of chronic infection and a 70% decrease in the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in those immunized. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is the major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in industrialized countries. The infection is mainly acquired in adulthood and, until a vaccine becomes available, prevention will consist mainly of identifying, counselling, and treating chronically infected individuals, preventing spread of the virus by the use of safe injection practices (particularly in intravenous drug abusers), and screening all donated blood for the presence of the virus. 4.5 billion of the world.s population are exposed to dietary aflatoxins. Prevention involves treating susceptible crops to prevent fungal contamination, and handling the foodstuffs in such a way as to prevent contamination during storage. Iron overload in hereditary hemochromatosis can be prevented by repeated venesection and in African dietary iron overload by fermenting the home-brewed beer in iron-free containers.

  6. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: clinical trends.

    PubMed

    Indudharan, R; Valuyeetham, K A; Kannan, T; Sidek, D S

    1997-08-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most difficult diseases to diagnose at an early stage. The clinical presentation of 122 patients with confirmed NPC is described and the findings analysed. The common modes of presentation and cases where detailed nasopharyngeal examination need to be performed are highlighted. We emphasize the importance of health education and training for primary care physicians for early detection of these cases.

  7. Megakaryocytes mimicking metastatic breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hoda, Syed A; Resetkova, Erika; Yusuf, Yasmin; Cahan, Anthony; Rosen, Paul P

    2002-05-01

    False-positive diagnosis of lymph nodes occurs when a benign element in a lymph node, or in its capsule, is interpreted as metastatic carcinoma. This report describes a patient with breast carcinoma who had megakaryocytes in axillary sentinel lymph nodes mimicking metastatic carcinoma. The patient had no history of a hematologic disease, and we found no evidence of a concurrent hematopoietic disorder. The megakaryocytes were reactive for CD31, CD61, and von Willebrand factor, but not for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3). Megakaryocytes should be added to the list of benign histologic abnormalities that may simulate metastatic carcinoma in a sentinel lymph node.

  8. [Radiotherapy for primary lung carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Giraud, P; Lacornerie, T; Mornex, F

    2016-09-01

    Indication, doses, technique of radiotherapy and concomitant chemotherapy, for primary lung carcinoma are presented. The recommendations for delineation of the target volumes and organs at risk are detailed.

  9. Vismodegib in basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Amaria, R N; Bowles, D W; Lewis, K D; Jimeno, A

    2012-07-01

    Vismodegib is a novel, small-molecule inhibitor of smoothened, a key component of the hedgehog signaling pathway. Increased hedgehog pathway signaling is critical in the development of hereditary and spontaneous basal cell carcinomas of the skin, and has been implicated in the development of a number of other tumors. In preclinical models, vismodegib demonstrated potent antitumor activity in hedgehog-dependent tumors, particularly basal cell carcinomas. Clinically, phase I and II studies showed dramatic anticancer activity in patients with advanced basal cell carcinomas. In January 2012, vismodegib was approved by the FDA for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic basal cell carcinomas of the skin.

  10. Merkel cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Koljonen, Virve

    2006-01-01

    Background Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an unusual primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. MCC is a fatal disease, and patients have a poor chance of survival. Moreover, MCC lacks distinguishing clinical features, and thus by the time the diagnosis is made, the tumour usually have metastasized. MCC mainly affects sun-exposed areas of elderly persons. Half of the tumours are located in the head and neck region. Methods MCC was first described in 1972. Since then, most of the cases reported, have been in small series of patients. Most of the reports concern single cases or epidemiological studies. The present study reviews the world literature on MCC. The purpose of this article is to shed light on this unknown neuroendocrine carcinoma and provide the latest information on prognostic markers and treatment options. Results The epidemiological studies have revealed that large tumour size, male sex, truncal site, nodal/distant disease at presentation, and duration of disease before presentation, are poor prognostic factors. The recommended initial treatment is extensive local excision. Adjuvant radiation therapy has recently been shown to improve survival. Thus far, no chemotherapy protocol have achieved the same objective. Conclusion Although rare, the fatality of this malignancy makes is important to understand the etiology and pathophysiology. During the last few years, the research on MCC has produced prognostic markers, which can be translated into clinical patient care. PMID:16466578

  11. Hypopharyngeal carcinoma after radiation for tuberculosis: radiation-induced carcinoma.

    PubMed

    van der Putten, Lisa; de Bree, Remco; Kuik, Dirk J; Rietveld, Derek H F; Langendijk, Johannes A; Leemans, C René

    2010-09-01

    Radiation may cause radiation-induced cancers after a long latency period. In a group of 111 patients surgically treated for hypopharyngeal carcinoma, patients previously treated with radiotherapy for tuberculosis in the neck were compared to patients without previous radiotherapy. Seven patients (7.4%) underwent radiotherapy (median age 15 years) and developed a hypopharyngeal carcinoma (median age 70 years, median latency period 54.4 year). Considering this long latency period and the localisation in the previous radiation field these tumours can be classified as potentially radiation-induced carcinomas. Patients with potentially radiation-induced carcinomas were significantly older when the hypopharyngeal carcinoma was diagnosed (p=0.048), were more frequently females (p=0.05) and had a worse 5-year regional control rate (p=0.048). When radiotherapy is considered in young patients the risk of induction of tumours has to be kept in mind. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Growth inhibition of human lung adenocarcinoma cells by antibodies against epidermal growth factor receptor and by ganglioside GM3: involvement of receptor-directed protein tyrosine phosphatase(s).

    PubMed

    Suarez Pestana, E; Greiser, U; Sánchez, B; Fernández, L E; Lage, A; Perez, R; Böhmer, F D

    1997-01-01

    Growth of the EGF receptor-expressing non-small-cell lung carcinoma cell line H125 seems to be at least partially driven by autocrine activation of the resident EGF receptors. Thus, the possibility of an EGF receptor-directed antiproliferative treatment was investigated in vitro using a monoclonal antibody (alpha EGFR ior egf/r3) against the human EGF receptor and gangliosides which are known to possess antiproliferative and anti-tyrosine kinase activity. The moderate growth-inhibitory effect of alpha EGFR ior egf/r3 was strongly potentiated by the addition of monosialoganglioside GM3. Likewise, the combination of alpha EGFR ior egf/r3 and GM3 inhibited EGF receptor autophosphorylation activity in H125 cells more strongly than either agent alone. A synergistic inhibition of EGF receptor autophosphorylation by alpha EGFR ior egf/r3 and GM3 was also observed in the human epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431. In both cell lines, the inhibition of EGF receptor autophosphorylation by GM3 was prevented by pretreatment of the cells with pervanadate, a potent inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases). Also, GM3 accelerated EGF receptor dephosphorylation in isolated A431 cell membranes. These findings indicate that GM3 has the capacity to activate EGF receptor-directed PTPase activity and suggest a novel possible mechanism for the regulation of cellular PTPases.

  13. Growth inhibition of human lung adenocarcinoma cells by antibodies against epidermal growth factor receptor and by ganglioside GM3: involvement of receptor-directed protein tyrosine phosphatase(s).

    PubMed Central

    Suarez Pestana, E.; Greiser, U.; Sánchez, B.; Fernández, L. E.; Lage, A.; Perez, R.; Böhmer, F. D.

    1997-01-01

    Growth of the EGF receptor-expressing non-small-cell lung carcinoma cell line H125 seems to be at least partially driven by autocrine activation of the resident EGF receptors. Thus, the possibility of an EGF receptor-directed antiproliferative treatment was investigated in vitro using a monoclonal antibody (alpha EGFR ior egf/r3) against the human EGF receptor and gangliosides which are known to possess antiproliferative and anti-tyrosine kinase activity. The moderate growth-inhibitory effect of alpha EGFR ior egf/r3 was strongly potentiated by the addition of monosialoganglioside GM3. Likewise, the combination of alpha EGFR ior egf/r3 and GM3 inhibited EGF receptor autophosphorylation activity in H125 cells more strongly than either agent alone. A synergistic inhibition of EGF receptor autophosphorylation by alpha EGFR ior egf/r3 and GM3 was also observed in the human epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431. In both cell lines, the inhibition of EGF receptor autophosphorylation by GM3 was prevented by pretreatment of the cells with pervanadate, a potent inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases). Also, GM3 accelerated EGF receptor dephosphorylation in isolated A431 cell membranes. These findings indicate that GM3 has the capacity to activate EGF receptor-directed PTPase activity and suggest a novel possible mechanism for the regulation of cellular PTPases. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9010029

  14. Lobomycosis and squamous cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Lisiane; Rodrigues, Luciana; Rodrigues, Carlos Alberto Chirano; Santos, Mônica; Talhari, Sinésio; Talhari, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    The occurence of squamous cell carcinoma on long-lasting ulcers is classic. Malignant transformation may occur on burn scars and chronic ulcers of varying etiology, including infectious agents. Transformation of old lobomycosis lesion scars into squamous cell carcinoma has been rarely reported. Careful and long-term follow-up of such patients is important to avoid carcinomatous transformation. PMID:23739701

  15. Tubulocystic carcinoma of the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Adair, Carol F.; Zhang, Haiying

    2015-01-01

    Tubulocystic carcinoma (TCC) of the kidney is a unique, rare, and recently recognized neoplasm. Although originally considered a low-grade collecting duct carcinoma, TCC is now considered to be a distinct entity. TCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic renal neoplasms. We report a case of TCC arising in the left kidney. PMID:26130898

  16. Targeting Ovarian Carcinoma Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    expertise with expertise in gynecologic oncology /ovarian carcinoma and in animal models of cancer this proposal will: 1) Identify, isolate, and...more numerous differentiated progeny characterizing the malignancy . Although the clinical significance of these cancer stem cells (CSC) has been...the dramatic initial response rates in ovarian carcinoma represent therapeutic effectiveness against the differentiated cancer cells making up the

  17. Spindle cell carcinoma in maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Soumi; Sreelatha, S V; Hegde, Nidarsh; Nair, Preeti P

    2013-01-01

    Spindle cell carcinomas (sarcomatoid carcinomas) are rare tumours. It is a variant of squamous cell carcinoma which has spindled tumour cells, which simulate a true sarcoma, but are epithelial in origin. They are extremely uncommon in the head and neck region. Only five cases with maxillary origin have been discussed in the literature. As compared to squamous cell carcinoma of maxilla, this variant is associated with poor diagnosis and advanced disease at presentation, as is demonstrated in the case presented. There are no standard recommendations for management owing to the rarity of this histology. Surgery and radiotherapy form the mainstays of treatment. We report a rare case of spindle cell carcinoma involving the maxilla. PMID:23632620

  18. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the conjunctiva.

    PubMed

    Gamel, J W; Eiferman, R A; Guibor, P

    1984-05-01

    A 73-year-old man had a limbal nodule that, on histopathologic examination, proved to be mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the conjunctiva. Despite radiation therapy and extensive corneoscleral lamellar resection, widespread invasion of the lids and orbit ultimately led to exenteration. Although mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the conjunctiva resembles squamous cell carcinoma clinically and histopathologically, it pursues a more rapid and destructive clinical course. Intraepithelial invasion often leads to tumor involvement of conjunctiva and skin that seem normal on clinical examination. Special stains and a high level of suspicion are required for diagnosis of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the conjunctiva, and proper initial management demands more aggressive surgical resection than is usually indicated for squamous cell carcinoma.

  19. [Adrenal carcinoma induced hypoglycemia].

    PubMed

    Soutelo, Jimena; Saban, Melina; Borghi Torzillo, Florencia; Lutfi, Ruben; Leal Reyna, Mariela

    2013-01-01

    Adrenal carcinoma is a rare malignancy of poor prognosis. The most common clinical presentation is secondary to hormone production, while the development of symptomatic hypoglycemia is exceptional. We report the case of a 37 year old-woman admitted to hospital with severe hypoglycemia, hypertension, hypokalemia and amenorrhea. In the laboratory we found hypoglycemia, with low insulin levels, and androgen levels in tumor range. CT of abdomen and pelvis showed a heterogeneous lesion of solid appearance without a cleavage plane relative to liver parenchyma, and intense contrast enhancement. Retroperitoneal mass was removed, and the patient evolved without complications, blood glucose and potassium were normalized, blood pressure stabilized and menstrual cycles recovered.

  20. Endomandibular acinic cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bondi, R; Nardi, P; Urso, C

    1989-01-01

    A rare case of endomandibular acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) in a white woman aged 79 is reported. Radiologic examination revealed an osteolytic area within the jaw, extending from the left molar region to the ascending branch. The tumor was located within a cavity of the mandible and did not seem to infiltrate the bone. Histologically, it was composed of large epithelial cells with granular cytoplasm, arranged in solid nests, sometimes displaying microcystic spaces. ACC generally occurs in salivary glands. In the reported case, the tumor was considered to arise from ectopic salivary tissue enclosed in the jaw, as no lesion was found in minor salivary glands.

  1. [Vascularization of hepatoceliular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Tumanova, U N; Shchegolev, A I

    2015-01-01

    The paper gives the data available in the literature on vascularization of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Sinusoidal capillarization and unpaired arteries are shown to play an important role in the development and progression of HCC. The density of microvessels detected by immunohistochemical techniques is a morphological indicator of the degree of angiogenic processes. Higher-grade HCC is followed by changes in its vascularization and concurrent with a progressive increase in the proportion of blood entering along the hepatic artery. The morphological indicators of microvessel density are recommended to use as addi- tional criteria for determining the prognosis of the disease, designing targeted anti-angiogenic drugs, and evaluating the efficiency of performed therapy.

  2. Squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Webb, Julie L; Burns, Rachel E; Brown, Holly M; LeRoy, Bruce E; Kosarek, Carrie E

    2009-03-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a relatively common, malignant neoplasm of dogs and cats that can arise in a variety of locations. The gross appearance of SCC can be variable and nonspecific, so definitive diagnosis requires microscopic examination of the tissue (cytology or histology). Several treatment modalities exist, but surgical excision, if possible, is regarded as the best treatment option. Early diagnosis and treatment of SCC are key because small, early-stage tumors are the most amenable to treatment and carry the best prognosis.

  3. [Basal cell carcinoma and rare form variants].

    PubMed

    Liersch, J; Schaller, J

    2014-09-01

    Basal cell carcinomas are the most common primary cutaneous malignant neoplasms. The diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma represents a common and routine task for pathologists and dermatopathologists. The aim of this review is the clinical and histopathological presentation of the most common subtypes of basal cell carcinoma. Furthermore, the rare variants of basal cell carcinoma and their differential diagnoses are also discussed.

  4. Composite encapsulated papillary carcinoma and solid papillary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaoyan; Wei, Shi

    2015-03-01

    Encapsulated papillary carcinoma (EPC) and solid papillary carcinoma (SPC) are distinctive variants of intraductal papillary carcinomas, each accounting for <1% of breast carcinomas. Here we report a composite carcinoma consisting of EPC and SPC. A 73-year-old woman was found to have a high density mass in the left breast on mammogram. A biopsy showed intermediate to high grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Gross examination of the lumpectomy specimen revealed a solid, multinodular mass. Microscopic examination demonstrated two morphologically distinct intraductal carcinomas intermingled with each other. One had delicate papillae in multi-cystic spaces surrounded by thick fibrous capsule, consistent with EPC. The other had solid tumor nests with delicate fibrovascular cores. The cells were monotonous with round nuclei and salt and pepper-like chromatin, characteristic of SPC. The lack of myoepithelial cells within the papillae and at the periphery of the lesion was confirmed by immunostaining for p63 and CK5/6. Neuroendocrine differentiation of SPC was demonstrated by neuron specific enolase staining. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of composite EPC and SPC. It raises an interesting question as to a possible common pathway of carcinogenesis of these two rare variants.

  5. The expression of miR-124 increases in aged skin to cause cell senescence and it decreases in squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Harada, Miho; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Wang, Zhongzhi; Hirano, Ayaka; Tomizawa, Yukiko; Kira, Tomomi; Igata, Toshikatsu; Masuguchi, Shinichi; Fukushima, Satoshi; Ihn, Hironobu

    2017-01-16

    Skin senescence is induced by various factors including intrinsic aging and extrinsic aging. The current study compared the expression of microRNAs in young facial skin and senescent facial skin, and this study identified skin aging-related microRNAs. According to the results from a microRNA PCR Array, miR-124 was the microRNA that increased the most in senescent skin compared to young skin. Real-time PCR with a greater number of samples indicated that the increase in miR-124 levels in senescent facial skin was statistically significant. In situ hybridization was performed, and results indicated that the signal for miR-124 was evident in keratinocytes of senescent skin but not in those of young skin. The morphology of cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) transfected with a miR-124 mimic changed to an enlarged and irregular shape. In addition, the number of NHEKs positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) increased significantly as a result of the overexpression of the miR-124 mimic. The expression of miR-124 increased in UVB-irradiated NHEKs compared to controls in a dose-dependent manner. Expression of miR-124 in A431, a human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell line, decreased significantly compared to that in NHEKs. Forced overexpression of miR-124 as a result of the transfection of a miR-124 mimic in A431 resulted in the significant suppression of the proportion of cancer cells. The current results indicated that miR-124 increases as a result of cell senescence and that it decreases during tumorigenesis. The effect of supplementation of miR-124 in an SCC cell line suggests that senescence induction therapy with microRNA may be a new therapeutic approach for treatment of SCC.

  6. Apigenin induces apoptosis via tumor necrosis factor receptor- and Bcl-2-mediated pathway and enhances susceptibility of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma to 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Chan, Leong-Perng; Chou, Tzung-Han; Ding, Hsiou-Yu; Chen, Pin-Ru; Chiang, Feng-Yu; Kuo, Po-Lin; Liang, Chia-Hua

    2012-07-01

    Apigenin, a natural plant flavone, may have chemopreventive and therapeutic potentials for anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-cancer. Nevertheless, the anti-tumor effect of apigenin on human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is not fully understood. The antioxidant capacity and protective effects of apigenin against oxidative stress in murine normal embryonic liver BNLCL2 cells are examined. Cell viability, morphologic change, clonogenic survival, cell cycle distribution, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione formation, and death receptors- and Bcl-2-mediated caspase pathways of HNSCC SCC25 cells and A431 cells with apigenin are investigated. Apigenin inhibits the growth of SCC25 and A431 cells and induces cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. Apigenin has an antioxidant capacity as well as the ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation. It protects BNLCL2 cells against oxidative damage, and is potentially able to prevent cancer. Apigenin increases intracellular ROS levels and reduces levels of glutathione; it also induces cell apoptosis via tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R)-, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor (TRAIL-R)-, and Bcl-2-mediated caspase-dependent cell death pathways in SCC25 cells. The combination of apigenin with 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) or cisplatin induces the dramatic death of SCC25 cells. Apigenin induces SCC25 cell apoptosis via the up-regulation of both TNF-R and TRAIL-R signaling pathways, and has a synergistic effect on the inhibition of cell proliferation in combination with 5-Fu or cisplatin. These analytical findings suggest that apigenin may be a good therapeutic agent against HNSCC cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Low-dose Methotrexate Enhances Aminolevulinate-based Photodynamic Therapy in Skin Carcinoma Cells In-vitro and In-vivo

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Sanjay; Honari, Golara; Hasan, Tayyaba; Elson, Paul; Maytin, Edward V.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To improve treatment efficacy and tumor cell selectivity of δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-based photodynamic therapy (PDT), via pretreatment of cells and tumors with methotrexate (MTX) to enhance intracellular photosensitizer levels. Experimental Design Skin carcinoma cells, in-vitro and in-vivo, served as the model system. Cultured human SCC13 and HEK1 cells, normal keratinocytes, and in-vivo skin tumor models (see below) were preconditioned with MTX for 72 h, then incubated with ALA for 4 h. Changes in PpIX levels and in cell survival after light exposure were assessed. Results MTX-preconditioning of monolayer cultures preferentially raised intracellular PpIX levels 2- to 4-fold in carcinoma cells versus normal keratinocytes. Photodynamic killing was synergistically enhanced by the combined therapy, compared to PDT alone. MTX enhancement of PpIX levels was achieved over a broad MTX concentration range (0.0003 – 1.0 mg/L; 0.6 nM – 2 mM). PpIX enhancement correlated with changes in protein expression of key porphyrin pathway enzymes, i.e. ~4-fold increase in coproporphyrinogen oxidase, and stable or slightly decreased expression of ferrochelatase. Differentiation markers (E-cadherin, involucrin, filaggrin) were also selectively induced by MTX in carcinoma cells. In-vivo relevance was established by showing that MTX preconditioning enhances PpIX accumulation in three models: (1) organotypic cultures of immortalized keratinocytes; (2) chemically-induced skin tumors in mice; and (3) human A431 squamous cell tumors implanted subcutaneously in mice. Conclusion Combination therapy using short-term exposure to low-dose MTX followed by ALA-PDT should be further investigated as a new combination modality to enhance efficacy and selectivity of PDT for epithelial carcinomas. PMID:19447864

  8. Histopathology of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Schlageter, Manuel; Terracciano, Luigi Maria; D’Angelo, Salvatore; Sorrentino, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is currently the sixth most common type of cancer with a high mortality rate and an increasing incidence worldwide. Its etiology is usually linked to environmental, dietary or life-style factors. HCC most commonly arises in a cirrhotic liver but interestingly an increasing proportion of HCCs develop in the non-fibrotic or minimal fibrotic liver and a shift in the underlying etiology can be observed. Although this process is yet to be completely understood, this changing scenario also has impact on the material seen by pathologists, presenting them with new diagnostic dilemmas. Histopathologic criteria for diagnosing classical, progressed HCC are well established and known, but with an increase in detection of small and early HCCs due to routine screening programs, the diagnosis of these small lesions in core needle biopsies poses a difficult challenge. These lesions can be far more difficult to distinguish from one another than progressed HCC, which is usually a clear cut hematoxylin and eosin diagnosis. Furthermore lesions thought to derive from progenitor cells have recently been reclassified in the WHO. This review summarizes recent developments and tries to put new HCC biomarkers in context with the WHOs reclassification. Furthermore it also addresses the group of tumors known as combined hepatocellular-cholangiocellular carcinomas. PMID:25473149

  9. Immunotherapy of pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Märten, Angela

    2008-05-01

    Patients with carcinoma of the exocrine pancreas have especially poor prognosis with a five-year survival rate of <1% and a median survival of 4-6 months. Pancreatic carcinoma is a systemic disease, insensitive to radiotherapy and mostly to chemotherapy. Accordingly, new treatment modalities are worth being investigated. One of the promising approaches is immunotherapy. Several phase I/II trials that have been published show interesting results, whereupon antibody-based strategies seem to fail and unspecific stimulation or vaccination with peptides look encouraging. Furthermore, phase II trials dealing with combination therapies are highly promising. One of them, a combination of chemoradiotherapy plus interferon-alpha is currently tested in a randomized phase III trial. As most of the trials had enrolled only limited numbers of patients and most of the trials were not conducted and/or reported according to the new standards it is difficult to draw final conclusions from the discussed trials. Immuno-monitoring was performed only in 40% of the discussed publications. In all cases immune responses were observed and correlation with the clinical outcome is discussed. Immunotherapy of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and especially combination therapies including immunotherapy is an up-and-coming approach and needs to be investigated in well conducted phase III randomized controlled trials accompanied by appropriate immuno-monitoring.

  10. Etiopathogenesis of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Makazlieva, Tanja; Vaskova, Olivija; Majstorov, Venjamin

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Thyroid malignomas are a heterogeneous group of neoplasm consisting of most frequent differentiated encountered carcinomas, papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma, then medullary thyroid carcinoma originating from neuroendocrine calcitonin-producing C-cells and rare forms of thyroid lymphomas arising from intrathyroidal lymphatic tissue, thyroid sarcomas and poorly differentiated anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. There are increasing numbers of epidemiological studies and publications that have suggested increased incidence rate of thyroid carcinomas. We have read, analysed and compare available reviews and original articles investigating different etiological factors in the development of thyroid carcinomas through Google Scholar and PubMed Database. DISCUSSION: Aetiology involved in the development of thyroid carcinomas is multifactorial and includes external influences, as well as constitutional predispositions and genetic etiological factors. The actual effect of environmental and constitutional factors is on promoting genetic and epigenetic alterations which result in cell proliferation and oncogenesis. Until now are identified numerous genetic alterations, assumed to have an important role in oncogenesis, with MAPK and PI3K-AKT as crucial signalling networks regulating growth, proliferation, differentiation and cell survival/apoptosis. CONCLUSION: This new molecular insight could have a crucial impact on diagnosis and also on improving and selecting an appropriate treatment to the patients with thyroid malignancies. PMID:27703585

  11. Simultaneous development of renal cell carcinoma and multifocal urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Heng-Chang; Chuang, Cheng-Keng; Ng, Kwai-Fong

    2008-01-01

    Simultaneous occurrence of multifocal urothelial carcinoma (UC) and ipsilateral renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rare. We report a 67-year-old woman with multifocal, infiltrating urothelial carcinoma and unilateral renal cell carcinoma. She was referred to our department because of painless gross hematuria. Cystoscopy, computed tomography and retrograde pyelography studies revealed bladder, bilateral renal and ureter UC. She was treated with transurethral resection of the bladder tumor followed by bilateral nephroureterectomy. The pathological diagnosis was high-grade UC over the bladder and both renal pelves and ureters. A second tumor in the upper pole of the right kidney was reported as clear cell RCC. The patient was alive and still under careful surveillance at this writing.

  12. Is Invasive Micropapillary Serous Carcinoma a Low-grade Carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Ohishi, Yoshihiro; Imamura, Hiroko; Aman, Murasaki; Shida, Kaai; Kaku, Tsunehisa; Kato, Kiyoko; Oda, Yoshinao

    2016-01-01

    "Invasive micropapillary serous carcinoma" has been proposed as a synonym for low-grade serous carcinoma by some expert pathologists. In contrast, Singer and colleagues reported that some serous carcinomas with conspicuous invasive micropapillary pattern (SC-IMPs) can show high-grade nuclear atypia. However, the molecular features of such tumors have not been well documented. The aim of this study was to demonstrate and emphasize the fact that high-grade serous carcinoma confirmed by immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis can show conspicuous invasive micropapillary pattern. We selected 24 "SC-IMPs" and investigated: (1) their morphologic features; (2) the immunostaining pattern of p53 protein; and (3) KRAS/BRAF/TP53 gene mutations. The 24 SC-IMPs were subdivided into low-grade and high-grade tumors based primarily on the nuclear atypia, with the mitotic rate used as a secondary feature: low grade (n=5) and high grade (n=19). Low-grade SC-IMPs were characterized by low-mitotic activity, absence of abnormal mitosis, presence of serous borderline tumor, occasional BRAF mutation, and infrequent TP53 mutation. High-grade SC-IMPs were characterized by high-mitotic activity, presence of abnormal mitosis, conventional high-grade serous carcinoma, frequent TP53 mutation, and lack of KRAS/BRAF mutation. We demonstrated that high-grade serous carcinoma confirmed by aberrant p53 immunostaining and molecular analysis can show conspicuous invasive micropapillary pattern, validating Singer and colleague's report. Serous carcinoma with conspicuous invasive micropapillary pattern should not be readily regarded as low-grade serous carcinoma. Nuclear grade is the most important diagnostic feature in the SC-IMPs.

  13. The Characteristic of S100A7 Induction by the Hippo-YAP Pathway in Cervical and Glossopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Enze; Wang, Rui; Wang, Junhao; Liu, Jin; Zhang, Jinsan; He, Dacheng; Xiao, Xueyuan

    2016-01-01

    S100A7 is expressed in many squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Our previous study revealed that S100A7 was dramatically induced in several SCC cells and activation of the Hippo pathway significantly promoted S100A7 in epidermoid carcinoma cells. However, whether the Hippo pathway regulates S100A7 expression in SCCs remains largely unknown. Here, we uncover that S100A7 induction by the Hippo-YAP pathway displays different characteristic in cervical and glossopharyngeal SCC. In well differentiated HCC94 cervical cells and FaDu pharyngeal cells, S100A7 is easily induced by both suspension and dense culture, which is accompanied by an increase in YAP phosphorylation and a decrease in nuclear YAP. Strikingly, these correlations of S100A7 and YAP reverse after recovery of cell attachment or relief from dense culture. Further examination finds that S100A7 induction is significantly repressed by nuclear YAP, which is validated by activation or inhibition of the Hippo pathway via loss- and/or gain-of- LATS1 and MST1 function. Subsequently, we prove that TEAD1 is required for YAP transcriptional repression of S100A7. However, S100A7 is hardly induced in poorly differentiated SiHa cervical cells and NCI-H226 pulmonary cells even in suspension or activation of the Hippo pathway. More importantly, cervical and lingual SCC tissues array analyses show that S100A7 expression displays the positive correlation with pYAP-S127 and the negative correlation with nuclear YAP in the majority of well differentiated but not in poorly differentiated tissues. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that the different induction of S100A7 toward activation of the Hippo pathway mainly depends on the degree of cell differentiation in cervical and glossopharyngeal SCC. PMID:27907036

  14. Prevention of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Schütte, Kerstin; Balbisi, Fathi; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has significantly changed throughout the past decade and will continue to do so in the future as a consequence of effective primary prevention and treatment of virus-related liver diseases. However, other risk factors for HCC are constantly on the rise, including alcoholic liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The knowledge on these and further risk factors associated with an increased risk of HCC provide the opportunity and chance for the development and implementation of successful preventive strategies to decrease the worldwide burden of HCC. This mini-review gives a short overview on current strategies in primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of HCC. PMID:27722155

  15. Medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Leboulleux, Sophie; Baudin, Eric; Travagli, Jean-Paul; Schlumberger, Martin

    2004-09-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) arises from parafollicular or C cells that produce calcitonin (CT), and accounts for 5-10% of all thyroid cancers. MTC is hereditary in about 25% of cases. The discovery of a MTC in a patient has several implications: disease extent should be evaluated, phaeochromocytoma and hyperparathyroidism should be screened for and whether the MTC is sporadic or hereditary should be determined by a direct analysis of the RET proto-oncogene. In this review, pathological characteristics, tumour markers and genetic abnormalities in MTC are discussed. The diagnostic and therapeutic modalities applied to patients with clinical MTC and those identified with preclinical disease through familial screening are also described. Progresses concerning genetics, initial treatment, follow-up, screening and treatment of pheochromocytoma have permitted an improvement in the long-term outcome. However, there is no effective treatment for distant metastases, and new therapeutic modalities are urgently needed.

  16. [Radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Maingon, P; Blanchard, P; Bidault, F; Calmels, L

    2016-09-01

    Nasapharyngeal carcinoma is a rare disease. Oftenly, the diagnostic is made for advanced disease. Localized tumors, T1 or T2 NO observed a good prognosis and are locally controlled in more than 90 % of the cases by radiotherapy alone. The standard treatment of locally advanced disease is combined chemoradiation. A special vigilance of fast decrease of the volume of the pathological lymph nodes, sometimes associated to loss of weight might indicate an adaptive dosimetric revision. The treatment of recurrent disease is of great importance. Surgical indications are limited but should be discussed in multidisciplinary tumor board when possible. Surgical nodal sampling has to be proposed for nodal recurrence as well as reirradiation, which could be indicated according to the technical issues.

  17. Perianal Pagetoid Intraepithelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sisodia, Suanga; Boushey, Robin; Lee, Goo; Marginean, Celia; Gomes, Marcio M.; Bhattacharya, Gaurav; dennis, Kristopher

    2017-01-01

    Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) involving the perianal region is rare and challenging to manage. Primary EMPD involves stand-alone noninvasive lesions within the epidermis, while secondary EMPD involves phenotypically similar lesions derived from separate underlying malignancies. Differentiating between primary and secondary EMPD is challenging when no underlying malignancies are detected during workup. Continued reporting of perianal EMPD cases is encouraged so that risk stratification can be improved and patients can be managed with an appropriate level of aggressiveness. Herein, we report the case of a 74-year-old woman who chose aggressive surgical management after being diagnosed with perianal pagetoid intraepithelial carcinoma from a suspected occult underlying primary colorectal tumor. PMID:28611562

  18. Angiotropic syringomatous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Eri; Saruta, Hiroshi; Nanri, Aya; Nakama, Takekuni; Ohata, Chika

    2017-01-11

    Syringomatous carcinoma (SC) is a slow-growing malignant skin tumor that usually affects the face or scalp. An 83-year-old female developed SC on the sole, a rare location. Histopathologically, numerous ducts with few keratinizing cysts were seen in the upper dermis, and cords, strands and nests with sclerotic stroma were seen in the deep dermis and subcutis. In addition to the perineural and intraneural invasion of the tumor, the tumor cells had also invaded the vessel walls. There was no intravasation of tumor cells or interruption of the endothelium. Because melanoma with vascular wall invasion without intravasation of melanoma cells or interruption of the endothelium has been called angiotropic melanoma, we termed the present tumor angiotropic SC. Tumor cells showed wide local invasion.

  19. Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered to be one of the most common malignancies worldwide, and the most common one in Africa and Asia. Over the last decade, a rising incidence of up to 10-15/100,000 per population has been seen in the Western world, with an estimate of 250,000 deaths and more than a million worldwide per year. By the year 2010, the World Health Organization expects that HCC will be the leading cause of cancer mortality surpassing lung cancer. This increasing incidence is most likely related to an increasing prevalence of chronic hepatitis C (HC) and B (HB) virus infections and other diseases inducing chronic inflammation (Befeler and Di Bisceglie 2002; Llovet et al. 2003).

  20. Surgery and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Cillo, Umberto; Cucchetti, Alessandro; Donadon, Matteo; Pinna, Antonio Daniele; Torzilli, Guido; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    The optimal surgical strategy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is under active debate. Bio-markers of the liver functional reserve as well as volumetric analysis of the future liver remnant are essential for safe liver resection of HCC. The present algorithms applied to surgical strategies for HCC are not ideal because many patients who could potentially undergo safe resection are deemed liver transplant candidates in Western countries, whereas the opposite is the case in Eastern countries. In addition, there is too much focus on expanded criteria for patients with HCC to undergo liver transplantation. The transplantation benefit for patients with HCC should be considered based not only on the individual's benefit, but also on the effect of other patients waiting for LT for other indications. PMID:27995087

  1. Diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Di Bisceglie, Adrian M.

    2005-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is responsible for a large proportion of cancer deaths worldwide. HCC is frequently diagnosed after the development of clinical deterioration at which time survival is measured in months. Long-term survival requires detection of small tumors, often present in asymptomatic individuals, which may be more amenable to invasive therapeutic options. Surveillance of high-risk individuals for HCC is commonly performed using the serum marker alfa-fetoprotein (AFP) often in combination with ultrasonography. Various other serologic markers are currently being tested to help improve surveillance accuracy. Diagnosis of HCC often requires more sophisticated imaging modalities such as CT scan and MRI, which have multiphasic contrast enhancement capabilities. Serum AFP used alone can be helpful if levels are markedly elevated, which occurs in fewer than half of cases at time of diagnosis. Confirmation by liver biopsy can be performed under circumstances when the diagnosis of HCC remains unclear. PMID:18333158

  2. Immunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pardee, Angela D.; Butterfield, Lisa H.

    2012-01-01

    Current therapies for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are marginally effective and exacerbate underlying liver disease. The ability of immunotherapy to elicit nontoxic, systemic, long-lived anti-tumor activity makes it particularly well-suited for use in the setting of HCC. While therapeutic benefit has been achieved in early clinical trials, the efficacy of immune-based therapies is limited by several unique properties of HCC, most notably the inherently tolerogenic character of the liver in both healthy and diseased (chronically-infected or tumor-bearing) states. Therapeutic regimens that both counteract these immunosuppressive mechanisms and amplify tumor-specific immunity are expected to profoundly improve clinical outcomes for HCC patients. PMID:22720211

  3. General Information about Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... that forms in the adrenal medulla is called pheochromocytoma and is not discussed in this summary. See the PDQ summary on Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma for more information. Adrenocortical carcinoma and ...

  4. Stages of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... other organs . Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can affect the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma. ... ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy for psoriasis . Having an immune system weakened by disease, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...

  5. Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Echanique, Kristen A; Desai, Stuti V; Marchiano, Emily; Spinazzi, Eleonora F; Strojan, Primož; Baredes, Soly; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2017-01-01

    Objective Laryngeal verrucous carcinoma (LVC) is a rare, locally invasive neoplasm comprising 1% to 3.4% of laryngeal carcinomas. Management strategies are a topic of ongoing conversation, and no definitive treatment protocol based on T stage and presentation exists. This review examines characteristics, treatment modalities, and patient outcomes of LVC. Data Sources PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science. Methods Databases were searched through October 29, 2015, for literature detailing individual patient cases of LVC. Variables analyzed included patient demographics, tumor characteristics, tumor size, treatment, and outcomes. Results Thirty-seven articles with 369 cases were included. LVC was found more commonly in males (13.8:1), at an average age of 58.7 years, and located in the glottis (74.0%). Most patients had local disease at presentation (94.9%). The most common presenting symptom was hoarseness (92.3%). The most common primary treatment was surgery alone (72.3%), with local excision as the most common technique (56.8%). In patients with data available on both surgical modality and T stage, most patients who presented as T1 and were managed surgically underwent local excision (79.2%). Surgical treatment alone led to high rates of disease-free survival at follow-up (86.8%). A large number of patients presenting with T1 disease were disease free at follow-up (88.6%). Overall survival was 80.3%. Conclusion LVC is most often managed surgically. The extent of surgical resection may be guided by T stage, with smaller tumors resected via local excision and larger tumors via partial or total laryngectomy. Regardless of T stage or therapy, LVC has a good posttreatment prognosis.

  6. Multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Velasquez, G.; Glass, T.A.; D'Souza, V.J.; Formanek, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Renal oncocytoma, although rare, is being diagnosed more frequently, and criteria to differentiate it from other tumors have been described. Multiple oncocytomas have been reported, but an association between multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma in the same kidney has not been described. The authors report a case with two oncocytomas and a renal carcinoma in the right kidney as well as a right adrenal adenoma.

  7. Targeting against epidermal growth factor receptors. Cellular processing of astatinated EGF after binding to cultured carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Orlova, Anna; Sjöstrom, Anna; Lebeda, Ondrej; Lundqvist, Hans; Carlsson, Jorgen; Tolmachev, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    The alpha-emitting nuclide 211At is of great interest for radionuclide therapy when coupled to a tumor-targeting biomolecule, e.g. epidermal growth factor (EGF) the receptors of which are overexpressed in many malignancies. However, almost no information concerning the cellular processing of astatinated targeting agents is available. We indirectly astatinated EGF ([211At]-benzoate-EGF) and studied its cellular processing in A-431 carcinoma cells in comparison with data concerning [125I]-benzoate-EGF. The biological half-life of astatine (3.5 h) was longer than the half-life of the iodine label (1.5 h). The increase of the half-life was due to longer retention of the internalised astatine radioactivity. The maximum accumulation for the astatine label occurred later (4-6h) than that for the iodine label (2-4h), indicating a slower excretion of astatine that was confirmed in experiment with 211At/1251-benzoate-EGF. The long retention of astatine might be advantageous for radionuclide therapy.

  8. [Influence of clinical and pathomorphological parameters on prognosis in colon carcinoma and rectal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Xu, Fang-ying; Di, Mei-juan; Dong, Jian-kang; Wang, Feng-juan; Jin, Yi-sen; Zhu, Yi-min; Lai, Mao-de

    2006-05-01

    To investigate the effects of clinical and pathomorphological parameters on the prognosis of colon carcinoma and rectal carcinoma. Univariate and multivariate COX proportional hazard models were used to study the effects of the clinical and pathomorphological factors on the prognosis in 101 cases of colon carcinoma, 219 of rectal carcinoma and 137 of rectal carcinoma under curative resections. By using univariate analysis, we identified that lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis were the common prognostic factors for both colon carcinoma and rectal carcinoma. Smoking, deep infiltration, chemotherapy and serum albumin concentration were the uncertain prognostic factors for colon carcinoma. Signet-ring cell carcinoma, larger tumor size (>6 cm), deep infiltration, lack of radical surgery, and advanced TNM stage were the exclusive adverse prognostic factors for rectal carcinoma. Further studies showed that the adverse prognostic factors for the rectal carcinoma under curative resection included deep infiltration, lymph node metastasis, vessel invasion, less of peritumoral lymphocyte infiltration, lack of Crohn's like reactivity, high level of tumor budding, advanced TNM stage and positive urine glucose. By using multivariate analysis based on a COX proportional hazard model, it was identified that smoking, lymph node metastasis and serum albumin concentration were independent prognostic factors for colon carcinoma; advanced TNM stage, distant metastasis and palliative surgery for rectal carcinoma; and vessel invasion, lymph node metastasis and urine glucose for rectal carcinoma under curative resections. The various clinical and pathomorphological parameters show different prognostic value for colon carcinoma, rectal carcinoma and rectal carcinoma under curative resections.

  9. Cytological detection of a peripheral lung carcinoma in a coke oven worker

    SciTech Connect

    Teplitz, R.L.; Belman, M.J.; Nathwani, B.; Valco, Z.; Yokota, S.

    1980-06-01

    OSHA mandated programs of pulmonary cytology among coke oven workers have resulted in detection of a number of unsuspected tumors. While it is too early to determine the eventual impact of these programs, this report describes the detection of a 0.3 cm peripheral lesion, believed to be the smallest identified by cytology. In addition to being diminutive, the tumor proved to be of the epidermoid type, unusual for the location. Further investigation is required to determine whether peripheral epidermoid neoplasms are associated with exposure to coke vapors.

  10. Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the sublingual gland.

    PubMed

    Lee, D H; Kim, J H; Lee, J K; Lim, S C

    2017-10-01

    Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary gland is a rare subtype of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The most common site of sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands is the parotid gland, followed by the submandibular gland, and the minor salivary glands. Here we report the first case of sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the sublingual gland. Clinicians should consider sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma in the differential diagnosis of salivary gland neoplasm. Surgical excision with clear margins seems to be a sufficient initial treatment option for sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary gland. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The distribution of the therapeutic monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and trastuzumab within solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Carol M; Tannock, Ian F

    2010-06-03

    Poor distribution of some anticancer drugs in solid tumors may limit their anti-tumor activity. Here we used immunohistochemistry to quantify the distribution of the therapeutic monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and trastuzumab in relation to blood vessels and to regions of hypoxia in human tumor xenografts. The antibodies were injected into mice implanted with human epidermoid carcinoma A431 or human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 transfected with ERBB2 (231-H2N) that express high levels of ErbB1 and ErbB2 respectively, or wild-type MDA-MB-231, which expresses intermediate levels of ErbB1 and low levels of ErbB2. The distribution of cetuximab in A431 xenografts and trastuzumab in 231-H2N xenografts was time and dose dependent. At early intervals after injection of 1 mg cetuximab into A431 xenografts, the concentration of cetuximab decreased with increasing distance from blood vessels, but became more uniformly distributed at later times; there remained however limited distribution and binding in hypoxic regions of tumors. Injection of lower doses of cetuximab led to heterogeneous distributions. Similar results were observed with trastuzumab in 231-H2N xenografts. In MDA-MB-231 xenografts, which express lower levels of ErbB1, homogeneity of distribution of cetuximab was achieved more rapidly. Cetuximab and trastuzumab distribute slowly, but at higher doses achieve a relatively uniform distribution after about 24 hours, most likely due to their long half-lives in the circulation. There remains poor distribution within hypoxic regions of tumors.

  12. Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition Enhances the Antitumor Effect of Radiation in the Treatment of Squamous Carcinoma Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Cardnell, Robert J. G.; Mikkelsen, Ross B.

    2011-01-01

    This study tests whether the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), combines favorably with ionizing radiation (IR) in controlling squamous carcinoma tumor growth. Animals bearing FaDu and A431 xenografts were treated with L-NNA in the drinking water. IR exposure was 10 Gy for tumor growth and survival studies and 4 Gy for ex vivo clonogenic assays. Cryosections were examined immunohistochemically for markers of apoptosis and hypoxia. Blood flow was assayed by fluorescent microscopy of tissue cryosections after i.v. injection of fluorospheres. Orally administered L-NNA for 24 hrs reduces tumor blood flow by 80% (p<0.01). Within 24 hrs L-NNA treatment stopped tumor growth for at least 10 days before tumor growth again ensued. The growth arrest was in part due to increased cell killing since a combination of L-NNA and a single 4 Gy IR caused 82% tumor cell killing measured by an ex vivo clonogenic assay compared to 49% by L-NNA or 29% by IR alone. A Kaplan-Meyer analysis of animal survival revealed a distinct survival advantage for the combined treatment. Combining L-NNA and IR was also found to be at least as effective as a single i.p. dose of cisplatin plus IR. In contrast to the in vivo studies, exposure of cells to L-NNA in vitro was without effect on clonogenicity with or without IR. Western and immunochemical analysis of expression of a number of proteins involved in NO signaling indicated that L-NNA treatment enhanced arginase-2 expression and that this may represent vasculature remodeling and escape from NOS inhibition. For tumors such as head and neck squamous carcinomas that show only modest responses to inhibitors of specific angiogenic pathways, targeting NO-dependent pro-survival and angiogenic mechanisms in both tumor and supporting stromal cells may present a potential new strategy for tumor control. PMID:21647438

  13. Department of Clinical Investigation Annual Research Progress Report, Fiscal Year 1984. Volume 2,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    Chemotherapy for Stage III or IV 287 Operable Epidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity, Oropharynx, Hypopharynx, or Larynx , Phase III. (0) SWOG 8017 5...Postoperative Reductive Chemotherapy for Stage III or IV Operable *Epidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity, Oropharynx, Hypopharynx, or Larynx

  14. Treatment Options for Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of thymoma and thymic carcinoma include a cough and chest pain. Thymoma and thymic carcinoma may ... if you have any of the following: A cough that doesn't go away. Chest pain. Trouble ...

  15. General Information about Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of thymoma and thymic carcinoma include a cough and chest pain. Thymoma and thymic carcinoma may ... if you have any of the following: A cough that doesn't go away. Chest pain. Trouble ...

  16. Stages of Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of thymoma and thymic carcinoma include a cough and chest pain. Thymoma and thymic carcinoma may ... if you have any of the following: A cough that doesn't go away. Chest pain. Trouble ...

  17. Potential targets for lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have identified potential therapeutic targets in lung squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of lung cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network study comprehensively characterized the lung squamous cell carcinoma gen

  18. Renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, James J; Purdue, Mark P; Signoretti, Sabina; Swanton, Charles; Albiges, Laurence; Schmidinger, Manuela; Heng, Daniel Y; Larkin, James; Ficarra, Vincenzo

    2017-03-09

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) denotes cancer originated from the renal epithelium and accounts for >90% of cancers in the kidney. The disease encompasses >10 histological and molecular subtypes, of which clear cell RCC (ccRCC) is most common and accounts for most cancer-related deaths. Although somatic VHL mutations have been described for some time, more-recent cancer genomic studies have identified mutations in epigenetic regulatory genes and demonstrated marked intra-tumour heterogeneity, which could have prognostic, predictive and therapeutic relevance. Localized RCC can be successfully managed with surgery, whereas metastatic RCC is refractory to conventional chemotherapy. However, over the past decade, marked advances in the treatment of metastatic RCC have been made, with targeted agents including sorafenib, sunitinib, bevacizumab, pazopanib and axitinib, which inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor (VEGFR), and everolimus and temsirolimus, which inhibit mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), being approved. Since 2015, agents with additional targets aside from VEGFR have been approved, such as cabozantinib and lenvatinib; immunotherapies, such as nivolumab, have also been added to the armamentarium for metastatic RCC. Here, we provide an overview of the biology of RCC, with a focus on ccRCC, as well as updates to complement the current clinical guidelines and an outline of potential future directions for RCC research and therapy.

  19. Endometrial carcinoma stage I.

    PubMed

    Baram, A; Ron, I; Kupferminc, M; Inbar, M

    1997-01-01

    Standard staging and therapeutic approach to endometrial cancer involves lymph node sampling (LNS) at the time of total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO). Lymphadenectomy prolongs time of surgery and increases the risk of morbidity; where other predictors are available, it may not contribute important supplementary information. 185/247 women with stage I endometrial carcinoma underwent the standard surgery while 62 underwent TAH+BSO. Recurrence and survival were monitored for a mean of 6.5 years and retrospectively reviewed: the rates for groups with and without known lymph node status were alike [13.5% (25/185) recurrence for the former and 12.9% (8/62) for the latter, and 5-year survival rates of 75.7% (140/185) for the former and 74.2 (46/62) for the latter]. Myometrial invasion and histological grade appeared to have been highly accurate predictors without lymph node information. Because information on histological grade is available early and is highly predictive, its use could be incorporated into a revised management algorithm for stage I endometrial cancer which would depend upon ensuring lymphadenectomy for women with low grade histopathology and omitting it for those with high grades on the grounds that no further information is necessary to act appropriately.

  20. Pediatric Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Starenki, Dmytro; Park, Jong-In

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), which originates from thyroid parafollicular C cells, accounts for 3 to 5% of thyroid malignancies. MTC occurs either sporadically or in an inherited autosomal dominant manner. Hereditary MTC occurs as a familial MTC or as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A and B syndromes. A strong genotype-phenotype correlation has been observed between hereditary MTC and germ-line "gain of function" mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. Most cases of pediatric MTC are hereditary whereas sporadic MTC is rare in children and is usually diagnosed in adults. Therefore, MTC in children is most often diagnosed in the course of a familial genetic investigation. The standard treatment of MTC mainly requires surgery involving total thyroidectomy and central neck node dissection before extrathyroidal extension occurs. To prevent MTC development in hereditary syndromes, prophylactic thyroidectomy is performed in presymptomatic patients. An appropriate age at which the surgery should take place is determined based upon the data from genotyping, serum calcitonin measurements, and ultrasonography. For the treatment of advanced MTC cases, the broad spectrum receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors vandetanib and cabozantinib, which also inhibit RET, are used although they are not always effective.

  1. Basal cell carcinoma: pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Chatterjee, Kingshuk; Pandhi, Deepika; Khurana, Ananta

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer in humans, which typically appears over the sun-exposed skin as a slow-growing, locally invasive lesion that rarely metastasizes. Although the exact etiology of BCC is unknown, there exists a well-established relationship between BCC and the pilo-sebaceous unit, and it is currently thought to originate from pluri-potential cells in the basal layer of the epidermis or the follicle. The patched/hedgehog intracellular signaling pathway plays a central role in both sporadic BCCs and nevoid BCC syndrome (Gorlin syndrome). This pathway is vital for the regulation of cell growth, and differentiation and loss of inhibition of this pathway is associated with development of BCC. The sonic hedgehog protein is the most relevant to BCC; nevertheless, the Patched (PTCH) protein is the ligand-binding component of the hedgehog receptor complex in the cell membrane. The other protein member of the receptor complex, smoothened (SMO), is responsible for transducing hedgehog signaling to downstream genes, leading to abnormal cell proliferation. The importance of this pathway is highlighted by the successful use in advanced forms of BCC of vismodegib, a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug, that selectively inhibits SMO. The UV-specific nucleotide changes in the tumor suppressor genes, TP53 and PTCH, have also been implicated in the development of BCC.

  2. [The colorectal carcinoma risk factors].

    PubMed

    Sobczak, Andrzej; Wawrzyn-Sobczak, Katarzyna; Sobaniec-Lotowska, Maria

    2005-12-01

    Colorectal carcinoma constitutes the second, as for the rate, death cause due to a malignant disease both in the western countries and in Poland. Despite deep knowledge concerning morphogenesis and spread of colorectal carcinoma as well as vast achievements in surgery, chemo- and radiotherapy, the percentage of 5-year-survivals still reaches 40%. According to most authors there are 4 risk factor categories: epidemiological, intestinal, dietetic, and mixed. It is well-known that colorectal carcinoma, like neoplasms localized in other organs and systems, is a disease, in which genetic mutations of somatic cells are the molecular base/source of the disease. The inner innervation of the colon seems to play an important role in carcinoma pathogenesis and spread. At present, 80% of colorectal carcinomas are diagnosed in the advanced stage, with infiltration exceeding the intestinal wall or spreading to neighboring organs, which gives full clinical symptoms. The prognosis as to survival and disease progression is usually poor. Therefore, the ways of early diagnosis, monitoring, and the knowledge of etiological factors are so important in medical practice.

  3. Id3 induces an Elk-1-caspase-8-dependent apoptotic pathway in squamous carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, You-Shin; Aubee, Joseph; DiVito, Kyle A; Zhou, Hengbo; Zhang, Weiyi; Chou, Fen-Pi; Simbulan-Rosenthal, Cynthia M; Rosenthal, Dean S

    2015-06-01

    Inhibitor of differentiation/DNA-binding (Id) proteins are helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factors. The Id protein family (Id1-Id4) mediates tissue homeostasis by regulating cellular processes including differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Ids typically function as dominant negative HLH proteins, which bind other HLH proteins and sequester them away from DNA promoter regions. Previously, we have found that Id3 induced apoptosis in immortalized human keratinocytes upon UVB exposure, consistent with its role as a tumor suppressor. To investigate the role of Id3 in malignant squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells (A431), a tetracycline-regulated inducible system was used to induce Id3 in cell culture and mouse xenograft models. We found that upon Id3 induction, there was a decrease in cell number under low serum conditions, as well as in soft agar. Microarray, RT-PCR, immunoblot, siRNA, and inhibitor studies revealed that Id3 induced expression of Elk-1, an E-twenty-six (ETS)-domain transcription factor, inducing procaspase-8 expression and activation. Id3 deletion mutants revealed that 80 C-terminal amino acids, including the HLH, are important for Id3-induced apoptosis. In a mouse xenograft model, Id3 induction decreased tumor size by 30%. Using immunofluorescent analysis, we determined that the tumor size decrease was also mediated through apoptosis. Furthermore, we show that Id3 synergizes with 5-FU and cisplatin therapies for nonmelanoma skin cancer cells. Our studies have shown a molecular mechanism by which Id3 induces apoptosis in SCC, and this information can potentially be used to develop new treatments for SCC patients.

  4. Barium inhibits arsenic-mediated apoptotic cell death in human squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Ichiro; Uemura, Noriyuki; Nizam, Saika; Khalequzzaman, Md; Thang, Nguyen D; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Akhand, Anwarul A; Shekhar, Hossain U; Nakajima, Tamie; Kato, Masashi

    2012-06-01

    Our fieldwork showed more than 1 μM (145.1 μg/L) barium in about 3 μM (210.7 μg/L) arsenic-polluted drinking well water (n = 72) in cancer-prone areas in Bangladesh, while the mean concentrations of nine other elements in the water were less than 3 μg/L. The types of cancer include squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). We hypothesized that barium modulates arsenic-mediated biological effects, and we examined the effect of barium (1 μM) on arsenic (3 μM)-mediated apoptotic cell death of human HSC-5 and A431 SCC cells in vitro. Arsenic promoted SCC apoptosis with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and JNK1/2 and caspase-3 activation (apoptotic pathway). In contrast, arsenic also inhibited SCC apoptosis with increased NF-κB activity and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) expression level and decreased JNK activity (antiapoptotic pathway). These results suggest that arsenic bidirectionally promotes apoptotic and antiapoptotic pathways in SCC cells. Interestingly, barium in the presence of arsenic increased NF-κB activity and XIAP expression and decreased JNK activity without affecting ROS production, resulting in the inhibition of the arsenic-mediated apoptotic pathway. Since the anticancer effect of arsenic is mainly dependent on cancer apoptosis, barium-mediated inhibition of arsenic-induced apoptosis may promote progression of SCC in patients in Bangladesh who keep drinking barium and arsenic-polluted water after the development of cancer. Thus, we newly showed that barium in the presence of arsenic might inhibit arsenic-mediated cancer apoptosis with the modulation of the balance between arsenic-mediated promotive and suppressive apoptotic pathways.

  5. Aggregation of nanoparticles in endosomes and lysosomes produces surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Leanne J.; Chen, Xiaoke K.; Smith, Aaron J.; Korbelik, Mladen; Zeng, Haishan; Lee, Patrick W. K.; Hewitt, Kevin Cecil

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the use of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to image the distribution of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in cells. To accomplish this task, 30-nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) tagged with antibodies to EGFR (1012 per mL) were incubated with cells (106 per mL) of the A431 human epidermoid carcinoma and normal human bronchial epithelial cell lines. Using the 632.8-nm excitation line of a He-Ne laser, Raman spectroscopy measurements were performed using a point mapping scheme. Normal cells show little to no enhancement. SERS signals were observed inside the cytoplasm of A431 cells with an overall enhancement of 4 to 7 orders of magnitude. Raman intensity maps of the 1450 and 1583 cm-1 peaks correlate well with the expected distribution of EGFR and AuNPs, aggregated following uptake by endosomes and lysosomes. Spectral features from tyrosine and tryptophan residues dominate the SERS signals.

  6. Control of EGF receptor function by protein kinase C

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteley, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    Treatment of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells with nanomolar concentrations of the potent tumor promotor, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), is shown to attentuate the ability of epidermal growth factor (EGF) or serum to activate Na/sup +//H/sup +/ exchange, which is measured as an amiloride-inhibitable pH/sub i/ increase or /sup 22/Na/sup +/ uptake. The ability of PMA to directly activate Na/sup +//H/sup +/ exchange is also reported, but PMA-induced pH/sub i/ increases are modest with respect to those of EGF or serum and require relatively high concentrations of PMA. The effects of PMA on mitogen receptor-stimulated Na/sup +//H/sup +/ exchange were examined in the mouse fibroblast NR6 cell line using platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). The results were similar to those in A431 cells, except that PMA in NR6 cells causes pH/sub i/ increases at lower concentrations. Phorbol diester action is mediated by the activity of the enzyme protein kinase C. The results summarized above support the hypothesis that PMA-induced protein kinase C activity opposes mitogenic stimulation. The presumed endogenous PMA analog is diacylglycerol, which is generated by phosphoinositide hydrolysis and has been reported to be produced in response to the mitogens, EGF and PDGF.

  7. Simultaneous measurement of Ca2+ and pH by laser cytometry using fluo-3 and SNARF-1.

    PubMed

    Atsumi, T; Sugita, K; Kohno, M; Takahashi, T; Ueha, T

    1996-06-01

    We present a new convenient method for simultaneous measurement of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and intracellular pH (pHi) using laser cytometry with a mixture of fluo-3 (for [Ca2+]i) and SNARF-1 (for pHi), with iso excitation (488 nm)-dual emission (530 nm for fluo-3 and > 630 nm for SNARF-1). By using this technique, we measured the changes in [Ca2+]i and pHi in A-431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells and HSG human salivary gland cells stimulated by ATP. We found that alkalization in A-431 cell occurred with the elevation of [Ca2+]i; in contrast, alkalization in HSG cells did not occur at all, even though the elevation of [Ca2+]i was observed. Using BAPTA (a chelating agent of Ca2+) and amiloride (an inhibitor of the Na+/H+ exchanger), we found that the elevation of pHi requires the elevation of [Ca2+]i but that the elevation of [Ca2+]i does not always require a rise in pHi. From our results we conclude that elevation of [Ca2+]i takes precedence over the elevation of pHi in ATP-stimulated signal transduction.

  8. Signaling from lysosomes to mitochondria sensitizes cancer cells to photodynamic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Hsin-I.; Quiogue, Geraldine; Lemasters, John J.; Nieminen, Anna-Liisa

    2011-02-01

    Previously, we showed that photosensitizers that localize to lysosomes are more effective in killing cancer cells than ones directed to mitochondria after photodynamic treatment (PDT). The photosensitizer, phthalocyanine 4 (Pc 4), localizes primarily to mitochondrial membranes in cancer cells, resulting in mitochondria-mediated cell death. However, analogues of Pc 4 (e.g., Pc 181) that primarily target lysosomes still produce mitochondria-mediated cell death, although the time course is slower compared to Pc 4-PDT. In A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells, these new analogues preferentially localized in lysosomes were highly efficient in inducing apoptotic cell death. To assess further how lysosomes contribute to PDT, we monitored cell killing of A431 cells after Pc 4-PDT in the presence and absence of bafilomycin, an inhibitor of the acidic vacuolar proton pump that collapses the pH gradient of the lysosomal/endosomal compartment. Bafilomycin by itself was not toxic but greatly enhanced Pc 4-PDT-induced mitochondrial depolarization and cell killing. Both depolarization and cell killing were substantially prevented by iron chelators. The fact that Pc 4-PDT plus bafilomycin treatment did not induce lysosomal membrane damage prior to mitochondrial depolarization suggests that bafilomycin instead induced release of redox active iron from lysosomes into the cytosol that further translocated into mitochondria, where iron-mediated free radical formation occurred. In conclusion, agents that disturb lysosomal function could potentially be used as adjuvants with mitochondrion-targeted photosensitizers to enhance phototoxicity.

  9. Akt Inhibitor MK2206 in Treating Patients With Progressive, Recurrent, or Metastatic Adenoid Cyst Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-14

    Recurrent Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

  10. Transitional cell bladder carcinoma with presentation mimicking ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Erickson, D R; Dabbs, D J; Olt, G J

    1996-05-01

    In the case described here, the patient's initial presentation suggested ovarian carcinoma. She had recurrent ascites, a pelvic mass, elevated CA-125, and extensive peritoneal carcinomatosis with transitional cell histology. The presence of hematuria prompted a cystoscopy, which revealed the true site of origin to be the urinary bladder rather than ovaries. This presentation is extremely rare for bladder cancer. Since transitional cell tumors from the bladder have a much worse prognosis than those of ovarian origin, it is important to identify the primary site correctly. Therefore, cystoscopy is essential for patients with hematuria, and should be considered in cases of apparent primary peritoneal carcinoma with transitional cell histology.

  11. Antioxidant enzymes in oral verrucous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ting-Ying; Tsai, Meng-Han; Wang, Jyh-Seng; Ger, Luo-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma is a non-metastasizing variant of welldifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma, which has been associated with reactive oxygen species generated by betel quid chewing. Salivary antioxidant systems have been suggested to play a protective role in reducing the oxidative damage. Herein, we investigated the difference of the enzymatic antioxidant system expressions in oral verrucous carcinoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma. The enzymatic antioxidant system expressions, including manganese superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in a series of 202 surgically resected oral squamous cell carcinoma and 20 oral verrucous carcinoma specimens, using tissue microarray slides. The immuno-staining intensities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were strongest in the oral squamous cell carcinoma group than in verrucous carcinoma. The catalase expression showed no difference between different pathological groups. The different degrees of superoxide dismutase and glutathione expressions in verrucous carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma may be helpful for pathologists to differentiate these two entities, especially between oral verrucous carcinoma and well differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Superficial carcinoma of the stomach.

    PubMed Central

    Machado, G; Davies, J D; Tudway, A J; Salmon, P R; Read, A E

    1976-01-01

    Nine cases of superficial gastric carcinoma have been detected with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in Bristol in the past two years. This contrasted with only six cases found from postoperative gastrectomy specimens examined in the previous eight years. It is often difficult to distinguish a superficial carcinoma from a benign ulcer, and endoscopic diagnosis is effective only if multiple biopsy specimens are taken. Endoscopy should also be repeated and multiple specimens taken until the lesion has healed; even malignant ulcers may heal, and any healed area that is depressed with interrupted mucosal folds should be suspected of malignancy. The endoscopic and histological appearances, the age of the patients, and the clinical behaviour of the disease resembled descriptions of the disease, principally from Japan. Superficial gastric carcinoma is probably under-diagnosed in Britain. PMID:1276819

  13. Aflibercept in epithelial ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Moroney, John W; Sood, Anil K; Coleman, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a hallmark of malignant transformation. With improved understanding of angiogenic signaling in both the normal and malignant state, there have been a number of agents developed that target VEGF signaling. These targeted agents can affect downstream VEGF signal transduction via unique mechanisms at different cellular and extracellular locations. The aflibercept, or VEGF-Trap, molecule is the subject of this article. Its molecular structure, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile, and preclinical and early clinical data in epithelial ovarian carcinoma is reviewed. For comparison, other anti-angiogenic agents that have been or are currently being studied in epithelial ovarian carcinoma are also summarized. Finally, the anticipated role of aflibercept in the treatment of epithelial ovarian carcinoma is also discussed. PMID:19519199

  14. Sorafenib in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Davoudi, Ehsan Taghizadeh; bin-Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Javar, Hamid Akbari; Kadivar, Ali; Sabeti, Bahare

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is among most important causes of death in recent decades. Whoever the renal cell carcinoma incidence is low but it seems it is more complicated than the other cancers in terms of pathophysiology and treatments. The purpose of this work is to provide an overview and also deeper insight to renal cell carcinoma and the steps which have been taken to reach more specific treatment and target therapy, in this type of cancer by developing most effective agents such as Sorafenib. To achieve this goal hundreds of research paper and published work has been overviewed and due to limitation of space in a paper just focus in most important points on renal cell carcinoma, treatment of RCC and clinical development of Sorafenib. The information presented this paper shows the advanced of human knowledge to provide more efficient drug in treatment of some complicated cancer such as RCC in promising much better future to fight killing disease.

  15. Genetic heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Unsal, H.; Isselbacher, K.J. ); Yakicier, C.; Marcais, C.; Ozturk, M. ); Kew, M. ); Volkmann, M. ); Zentgraf, H. )

    1994-01-18

    The authors studied 80 hepatocellular carcinomas from three continents for p53 gene (TP53) mutations and hepatitis B virus (HBV) sequences. p53 mutations were frequent in tumors from Mozambique but not in tumors from South Africa, China, and Germany. Independent of geographic origin, most tumors were positive for HBV sequences. X gene coding sequences of HBV were detected in 78% of tumors, whereas viral sequences in the surface antigen- and core antigen-encoding regions were present in less than 35% of tumors. These observations indicate that hepatocellular carcinomas are genetically heterogeneous. Mozambican-types of hepatocellular carcinomas are characterized by a high incidence of p53 mutations related to aflatoxins. In other tumors, the rarity of p53 mutations combined with the frequent presence of viral X gene coding sequences suggests a possible interference of HBV with the wild-type p53 function.

  16. Squamous carcinoma of the nasopharynx

    SciTech Connect

    Moloy, P.J.; Chung, Y.T.; Krivitsky, P.B.; Kim, R.C.

    1985-07-01

    Nasophryngeal carcinoma is an unusual neoplasm among squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. The tumor is rare in most parts of the world but is strikingly common in several Asian subpopulations, notably Chinese in Hong Kong and Guangdong Province. The Epstein-Barr virus is intimately related to the disease and elicits the formation of antibodies that are useful for diagnosis and follow-up study. The virus has not been conclusively shown to cause nasopharyngeal cancer, however. Histologically, nasopharyngeal carcinoma is anaplastic in 75% of cases and better differentiated in 25% of patients. All tumors are treated by high-dose radiation to the primary site and both sides of the neck. Surgical treatment, in the neck only, is reserved for irradiation failures. The prognosis is better in patients younger than 40 years, in patients without clinical cervical nodal involvement and, unexpectedly, in patients with anaplastic tumors. 18 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  17. Basosquamous carcinoma: appearance and reality

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Rakesh L.; Collins, Damian; Chapman, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Basosquamous carcinoma (BsC) is a controversial entity and both a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. BsC has mixed histopathological characteristics of both basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). BCC and SCC display characteristic histopathology and behaviour; on the other hand, BsC is a rare tumour, which has variable morphology and displays less predictable behaviour. An early diagnosis of BsC is important due to the particularly aggressive nature of the tumour, the increased likelihood of recurrence and the potential for metastasis. Here, we present a case of BsC presenting as an extensive ulcer on the back. The case highlights the aggressive nature of the tumour and variation in appearance. It is important for all clinicians to be aware of this diagnosis so that the urgency of adequate biopsy in specialist clinics is not underestimated. PMID:28058108

  18. Treatment of thyroid follicular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Antonio; Rodríguez, José M; Parrilla, Pascual

    2015-12-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma includes 2 different tumor types, papillary (PC) and follicular carcinoma (FC), and although similar, their prognosis is different. FC is uncommon, and this has led to it often being analyzed together with PC, and therefore the true reality of this tumor is difficult to know. As a result, the diagnostic and therapeutic management and the prognostic factors in differentiated carcinoma are more predictive of PC than FC. In this review we analyze the current state of many of the therapeutic aspects of this pathology. The best surgical technique and the usefulness of associated lymphadenectomy is also analyzed. Regarding post-surgical ablation with 131I, the indications, doses and usefulness are discussed. For the remaining therapies we analyze the few indications for radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and of new drugs such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

  19. Radioimmune localization of occult carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Duda, R.B.; Zimmer, A.M.; Rosen, S.T.; Gilyon, K.A.; Webber, D.; Spies, S.; Spies, W.; Merchant, B. )

    1990-07-01

    Patients with a rising serum carcinoembryonic antigen level and no clinical or roentgenographic evidence of recurrent or metastatic cancer present a treatment dilemma. Eleven such patients, 10 with a previously treated colorectal carcinoma and 1 with a previously treated breast carcinoma, received an injection of the anticarcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody ZCE-025 labeled with the radioisotope indium 111. Nuclear scintigraphy was performed on days 3 and 5 through 7 to detect potential sites of tumor recurrence. The monoclonal antibody scan accurately predicted the presence or absence of occult malignancy in 7 (64%) patients. Second-look laparotomy confirmed the monoclonal antibody scan results in the patients with colorectal cancer, and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed metastatic breast cancer. This study demonstrates that In-ZCE-025 can localize occult carcinoma and may assist the surgeon in facilitating the operative exploration. In-ZCE-025 assisted in the initiation of adjuvant therapy for the patient with breast cancer.

  20. Hepatocellular carcinoma: a review

    PubMed Central

    Balogh, Julius; Victor, David; Asham, Emad H; Burroughs, Sherilyn Gordon; Boktour, Maha; Saharia, Ashish; Li, Xian; Ghobrial, R Mark; Monsour, Howard P

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy and is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In the United States, HCC is the ninth leading cause of cancer deaths. Despite advances in prevention techniques, screening, and new technologies in both diagnosis and treatment, incidence and mortality continue to rise. Cirrhosis remains the most important risk factor for the development of HCC regardless of etiology. Hepatitis B and C are independent risk factors for the development of cirrhosis. Alcohol consumption remains an important additional risk factor in the United States as alcohol abuse is five times higher than hepatitis C. Diagnosis is confirmed without pathologic confirmation. Screening includes both radiologic tests, such as ultrasound, computerized tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, and serological markers such as α-fetoprotein at 6-month intervals. Multiple treatment modalities exist; however, only orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) or surgical resection is curative. OLT is available for patients who meet or are downstaged into the Milan or University of San Francisco criteria. Additional treatment modalities include transarterial chemoembolization, radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation, percutaneous ethanol injection, cryoablation, radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy, and molecularly targeted therapies. Selection of a treatment modality is based on tumor size, location, extrahepatic spread, and underlying liver function. HCC is an aggressive cancer that occurs in the setting of cirrhosis and commonly presents in advanced stages. HCC can be prevented if there are appropriate measures taken, including hepatitis B virus vaccination, universal screening of blood products, use of safe injection practices, treatment and education of alcoholics and intravenous drug users, and initiation of antiviral therapy. Continued improvement in both surgical and nonsurgical approaches has demonstrated

  1. Leptin in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shen-Nien; Lee, King Teh; Ker, Chen-Guo

    2010-01-01

    The risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development have been established, and include chronic hepatitis B and C, heavy alcohol consumption, and aflatoxins. In fact, 5%-30% of patients with HCC still lack a readily identifiable risk factor. It has been reported that the majority of ‘‘cryptogenic’’ HCC may be attributed to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the hepatic presentation of the metabolic syndrome (MS). Obesity is associated with the development of the MS. Recently, adipose tissue has been considered as an endocrine organ because of its capacity to secrete a variety of cytokines, which are collectively known as the adipokines. Leptin, the product of the obese gene, is mainly produced by adipose tissue. Since leptin was first characterized in 1994, accumulated literature has demonstrated the involvement of this adipokine in several areas of human physiology. After binding to its receptor, leptin initiates a cascade of signaling events and subsequent cellular effects. In addition to being the regulatory mediator of energy homeostasis, several in vitro studies have demonstrated the fibrogenic role of leptin in the liver. Furthermore, the deregulated expression of leptin and its receptor have been demonstrated to be associated with a variety of metabolic disorders as well as human cancers. Most importantly, direct evidence supporting the inhibitory and/or activating role of leptin in the process of carcinogenesis and progression of human HCC has been accumulating rapidly. This review aims to provide important insights into the potential mechanisms of leptin in the development of HCC. Hopefully, further investigations will shed light on a new therapeutic target in HCC. PMID:21155000

  2. Update in adrenocortical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fassnacht, Martin; Kroiss, Matthias; Allolio, Bruno

    2013-12-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an orphan malignancy that has attracted increasing attention during the last decade. Here we provide an update on advances in the field since our last review published in this journal in 2006. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway and IGF-2 signaling have been confirmed as frequently altered signaling pathways in ACC, but recent data suggest that they are probably not sufficient for malignant transformation. Thus, major players in the pathogenesis are still unknown. For diagnostic workup, comprehensive hormonal assessment and detailed imaging are required because in most ACCs, evidence for autonomous steroid secretion can be found and computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (if necessary, combined with functional imaging) can differentiate benign from malignant adrenocortical tumors. Surgery is potentially curative in localized tumors. Thus, we recommend a complete resection including lymphadenectomy by an expert surgeon. The pathology report should demonstrate the adrenocortical origin of the lesion (eg, by steroidogenic factor 1 staining) and provide Weiss score, resection status, and quantitation of the proliferation marker Ki67 to guide further treatment. Even after complete surgery, recurrence is frequent and adjuvant mitotane treatment improves outcome, but uncertainty exists as to whether all patients benefit from this therapy. In advanced ACC, mitotane is still the standard of care. Based on the FIRM-ACT trial, mitotane plus etoposide, doxorubicin, and cisplatin is now the established first-line cytotoxic therapy. However, most patients will experience progress and require salvage therapies. Thus, new treatment concepts are urgently needed. The ongoing international efforts including comprehensive "-omic approaches" and next-generation sequencing will improve our understanding of the pathogenesis and hopefully lead to better therapies.

  3. [Primary orbital squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Campos Arbulú, Ana L; Sadava, Emmanuel E; Sánchez Ruiz, Alejandro; Fernández Vila, Juan M; Dillon, Horacio S; Mezzadri, Norberto A

    2017-01-01

    Primary orbital squamous cell carcinoma is a rare entity. There is little published literature. We report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the orbital soft tissues. Surgical resection offered the best treatment for the patient. Complete resection of the lesion was achieved. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy due to the proximity of the lesion to the surgical margins. Surgical treatment is feasible and should be considered as part of the surgeon's arsenal. However, therapeutic decisions must be made on a case-by-case basis.

  4. Imaging of Renal Medullary Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Faiella, Eliodoro; Santucci, Domiziana; Mallio, Carlo Augusto; Nezzo, Marco; Quattrocchi, Carlo Cosimo; Beomonte Zobel, Bruno; Grasso, Rosario Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is a rare, highly aggressive tumor recognized as an independent pathological entity. African-descent adolescents and young adults with sickle cell hemoglobinopathy are the most affected groups. This rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma has its own morphogenetic and pathological characteristics. The major clinical manifestations include gross hematuria, abdominal or flank pain, and weight loss. The prognosis is very poor, with 95% of cases diagnosed at an advanced stage of the disease. In this review, we summarize the morphologic and dynamic characteristics of RMC under various imaging modalities such as ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance. Differential diagnosis and management strategies are also discussed. PMID:28405543

  5. [Laparoscopic colectomy for colorectal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Konishi, F; Kojima, M; Hoshino, T; Kanzaki, M

    2000-08-01

    Laparoscopic-assisted colectomy is considered to be a less invasive technique, and patients experience less pain and more rapid postoperative recovery. This operation has been indicated for large sessile adenomas or for early invasive carcinomas in Japan. The indications for this procedure in more advanced colorectal carcinomas is controversial. However, based on our experience with 130 cases, laparoscopic-assisted colectomy can be as curative as open colectomy provided that the patients are properly selected. In this review, the technical difficulties of this procedure are also discussed.

  6. Interferon prophylaxis of hepatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Voiosu, R; Dimitriu, L; Dragomir, P; Eremia, L

    1999-01-01

    The present article reveals the importance of hepatic carcinoma among the other diseases in digestive oncology, and also the importance of a correct designation of these cases. Epidemiology and actual hypothesis on the mechanisms of oncogenesis are discussed. There are reviewed some studies in the literature concerning infection with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, coinfection (B and C viruses, B and D viruses), the role of interferon prophylaxis in such cases. Also there is present a statistics on chronic viral hepatits, cirrhosis of viral etiology and hepatic carcinoma, diagnosed in patients in "N.Gh.Lupu" Hospital, over two decades.

  7. [Lactobacilli and colon carcinoma--A review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shumei; Zhang, Lanwei; Shan, Yujuan

    2015-06-04

    Epidemiological studies showed that incidence of colon carcinoma is increased in the world. There are many difficulties to inhibit colon carcinoma because the causes of inducing colon carcinoma were various and interactive each other. Previous evidence supported the balance of the colonic microflora was critical in inhibiting colon carcinoma and the protection by colonic microflora could be improved by ingesting lactobacilli. Therefore, the biological functions and anticancer effects of lactobacilli attract attention of researchers. In this review we discussed the causes of colon carcinoma; the anticancer mechanisms of lactobacilli on the basis of our own studies. Eventually, we summarized the effects of anticancer of different components and metabolic products extracted from lactobacilli.

  8. Synchronous papillary thyroid carcinoma and breast ductal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jinjing; Lei, Jianyong; Jiang, Ke; Li, Zhihui; Gong, Rixiang; Zhu, Jingqiang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The incidences of both thyroid cancer and breast cancer have been rising in recent years; however, it is very rare to find a single person with both of these cancers. Only a few cases of synchronous thyroid and breast cancer have been published, and even fewer cases have been reported in older patients (>60 years). Case summary: The current study presents a case of synchronous papillary thyroid carcinoma and breast ductal carcinoma in an elderly patient. The patient first underwent a mastectomy and axillary lymphadenectomy in our department, followed by a total thyroidectomy and lymphadenectomy of the left lateral region of the neck 1 month later. Postoperative pathological examination identified invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Over almost half a year of follow-up, the patient has exhibited no evidence of recurrence or metastasis, as demonstrated by careful ultrasound examinations. Herein, we not only report this case but also present a systematic review of the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of synchronous breast and thyroid cancer. Conclusion: Although synchronous primary tumors of the thyroid and breast are very rare, they remain a possibility; therefore, more attention should be paid to these cases. PMID:28207532

  9. Intrathoracic impedance monitor alarm in a patient with cardiac resynchronisation therapy and advanced lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cvijić, Marta; Zižek, David; Antolič, Bor; Zupan, Igor

    2013-01-01

    The intrathoracic impedance monitor system measures impedance between the device case and the right ventricular coil and reflects intrathoracic fluid status. It is used to detect early volume overload in patients with chronic heart failure. We report a case of inappropriate activation of the intrathoracic impedance monitor alarm in a patient with epidermoid lung cancer and pleural carcinosis.

  10. Amebiasis complicating carcinomas: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Mhlanga, B R; Lanoie, L O; Norris, H J; Lack, E E; Connor, D H

    1992-06-01

    Two black African women and one black American man had carcinomas of cervix, perineum, and sigmoid colon, respectively. In each of these patients, trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica had invaded the surface of the tumor, and in some areas had invaded more deeply into the stroma between the tumor cells. Although it is well known that cutaneous amebiasis of anus, penis, vulva, and cervix can mimic squamous cell carcinoma, it may be, perhaps, less well known that carcinomas at these sites may be colonized by trophozoites of E. histolytica. In patients with amebiasis but without an associated carcinoma, a correct diagnosis of amebiasis spares the patient unnecessary and sometimes mutilating surgery. But a diagnosis of amebiasis, when there is an unrecognized underlying carcinoma, delays effective treatment of the carcinoma. A smear that establishes a diagnosis of cutaneous amebiasis, therefore, should be followed by biopsy to exclude or confirm an underlying carcinoma.

  11. Radiotherapy T1 glottic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zablow, A.I.; Erba, P.S.; Sanfillippo, L.J.

    1989-11-01

    From 1970 to 1985, curative radiotherapy was administered to 63 patients with stage I carcinoma of the true vocal cords. Precision radiotherapeutic technique yields cure rates comparable to surgical results. Good voice quality was preserved in a high percentage of patients.

  12. Undifferentiated carcinoma of parotid gland.

    PubMed Central

    López, J I; Alfaro, J; Ballestin, C

    1991-01-01

    Two cases of undifferentiated carcinomas of the major salivary glands were studied using immunohistochemical techniques. Results showed that this entity was a high grade malignant neoplasm arising from the excretory duct. Despite the undifferentiated appearance multiple immunophenotypes were evident in both cases. PMID:2045506

  13. Transrectal Ultrasound of Prostatic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Daniel J.; Cooperberg, Peter L.; Goldenberg, S. Larry; Toi, Ants

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the indications for transrectal ultrasound; to briefly describe the sonographic technique; to describe the sonographic findings of prostatic carcinoma; to review the indications for transrectal sonographic-guided biopsy; and to discuss the controversles of routine screening and staging. ImagesFigures 1-3 PMID:21229044

  14. Occult Carcinoma of the Bronchus

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, F. G.; Thompson, D. W.

    1966-01-01

    The term “occult carcinoma” is applied to those patients with carcinoma of the bronchus at an in situ or early invasive stage who have carcinoma cells in their sputum but have no recognizable evidence of tumour in the chest radiograph. In eight such patients at the Toronto General Hospital, the lesion was localized and treatment instituted. Our experience with these eight patients can be compared with that of 27 patients described in two similar studies. The lesions were commonly symptomatic. Localization, although sometimes difficult, was accomplished using information obtained during bronchoscopy and bronchography. The prognosis following adequate resection appeared excellent. No patient died of carcinoma during the post-treatment follow-up period, which was continued for a minimum of 18 months. Pathological evidence indicates that bronchial carcinoma at this occult stage can be diagnosed cytologically, is rarely multifocal and, as a localized neoplasm, is amenable to curative therapy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13 PMID:5929532

  15. [Primary radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Rübe, C; Grevers, G; Grimminger, H; Wendt, T; Rohloff, R

    1995-02-01

    One hundred twenty-one patients treated for nasopharyngeal carcinoma with radiation therapy were analyzed; 85 were male, 36 were female. Twenty-one percent had tumour stage T0/T1; 32.5%, T2; 27.5%, T3; and 19%, T4. In 75% of the cases, the lymph nodes were involved. Twelve patients underwent a neck dissection. Histology showed squamous cell carcinoma in 38%, lymphoepitheloid carcinoma in 41.4%, undifferentiated carcinoma in 19%, and adenocarcinoma in 2%. Beginning in 1980, a modified radiation technique with large portals and an increase of the dose from 57.1 Gy to 61.5 Gy targe volume dose was used. Five year overall survival was 32.1%, recurrence-free survival, 30.7%; and local recurrence free survival, 45.8%. Age, sex, and T stage had no significant influence on survival. Multivariate analysis (Cox model) showed that involvement of the lymph nodes, histology, and the new irradiation technique with the higher total dose significantly influenced survival.

  16. Myofibroblasts reaction in urothelial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Alexa, Aurora; Baderca, Flavia; Lighezan, Rodica; Izvernariu, D

    2009-01-01

    The myofibroblast is a connective tissue cell with intermediate features between the fibroblast and the smooth muscle cell and unknown origin, which normally is present in only a few organs, but with increased incidence in malignancies. The patterns of myofibroblastic reaction may be synchronous, metachronous and mixed. The presence of the myofibroblasts has been demonstrated into the stroma of breast carcinomas, particularly in firm, retracted tumors with no inflammatory infiltrate. The present literature lacks data regarding the presence and the behavior of the myofibroblasts in urothelial carcinomas. Fifty-nine urothelial carcinoma specimens from patients admitted into the Urology Clinic of the Emergency County Hospital of Timisoara between 1999 and 2004 were stained with usual HE stain for the morphological diagnosis and immunohistochemically stained with smooth muscle actin, vimentin, and desmin for the detection of myofibroblasts. In biopsies sampled from normal urinary bladder and in urothelial carcinomas of the superior urinary tract Ta, we have not noticed any cells with myofibroblast morphology or immunophenotype. In Ta tumors, no matter the differentiation grade, we have not noticed myofibroblasts neither between the tumor cells nor at distance. The myofibroblasts were identified in seven of the 26 (26.92%) tumors in T1 stage. In T2 and T3 stage tumors the number of myofibroblasts differs from case to case, being significantly higher in tumors with high differentiation grade, G3.

  17. Epidemiology of basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chinem, Valquiria Pessoa; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant neoplasm in humans and its incidence has increased over the last decades. Its high frequency significantly burdens the health system, making the disease a public health issue. Despite the low mortality rates and the rare occurrence of metastases, the tumor may be locally invasive and relapse after treatment, causing significant morbidity. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is the main environmental risk factor associated with its cause. However, other elements of risk are described, such as light skin phototypes, advanced age, family history of skin carcinoma, light eyes and blond hair, freckles in childhood and immunosuppression. Behavioral aspects such as occupational sun exposure, rural labor and sunburns at a young age also play a role. Between 30% and 75% of the sporadic cases are associated with patched hedgehog gene mutation, but other genetic changes are also described. The tumor is commonly found in concomitance with skin lesions related to chronic sun exposure, such as actinic keratoses, solar lentigines and facial telangiectasia. The prevention of basal cell carcinoma is based on the knowledge of risk factors, early diagnosis and treatment, as well as on the adoption of specific measures, particularly in susceptible populations. The authors present a review of the epidemiology of basal cell carcinoma.

  18. Papillary carcinoma of breast: Minireview

    PubMed Central

    Ingle, Sachin B; Murdeshwar, Hemant G; Siddiqui, Saleha

    2016-01-01

    The term “intracystic papillary ductal carcinoma in situ” constitutes only 0.5% to 1% of all breast cancers. It is usually seen in postmenopausal age group. Herein, we are presenting a minireview about this unusual breast malignancy usually difficult to diagnose on clinical grounds and highlighting modalities of diagnosis and management. PMID:26798627

  19. Sclerosing ductal carcinoma of the clitoris with microcystic adnexal carcinoma-like features.

    PubMed

    DuPont, Nefertiti C; Mabuchi, Seiji; Ries, Savita; Berman, Michael L

    2009-03-01

    Primary clitoral malignancies are rare and most are invasive squamous cell carcinomas. Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) is an indolent, rare dermatologic carcinoma that typically affects the head and neck region. A 23-year-old nulligravid Hispanic female presented with a 9-month history of an enlarging periclitoral mass. After surgical resection, the mass was diagnosed as a MAC. MAC is a cutaneous carcinoma rarely found on the vulva. It is a slow growing but locally aggressive carcinoma that is best treated with surgical resection. Sclerosing ductal carcinomas may have MAC-like features, and the diagnosis and management of one case is provided here.

  20. Frequent CCNE1 amplification in endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma and uterine serous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Elisabetta; Bahadirli-Talbott, Asli; Shih, Ie-Ming

    2014-07-01

    Uterine serous carcinoma accounts for only 10% of all uterine epithelial cancers, but is the leading cause of death among them. The pathogenesis of this aggressive neoplasm has been largely elusive until recently, when comprehensive genome-wide analyses of uterine serous carcinoma have been performed. Among amplified cancer-related genes, CCNE1, encoding for cyclin E1, is frequently amplified in uterine serous carcinoma. In the current study we applied fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to determine CCNE1 copy number in uterine serous carcinoma and concurrent endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma, the noninvasive component of uterine serous carcinoma, and the results were correlated with clinicopathological and molecular features. We found that 20 (45%) of 44 uterine serous carcinomas and 11 (41%) of 27 endometrial intraepithelial carcinomas showed CCNE1 amplification. Overall, we found high concordance in CCNE1 copy number in concurrent uterine serous carcinoma and endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma pairs (P-value=0.0003). No correlation was observed between CCNE1 copy number and clinicopathological features, as well as common mutations previously reported in uterine serous carcinoma. In summary, we confirm that amplification of CCNE1 is a frequent molecular genetic change in uterine serous carcinoma. Moreover, the identification of CCNE1 amplification in many endometrial intraepithelial carcinomas suggests that this genetic event occurs early during tumor progression.

  1. Monitoring of gefitinib sensitivity with radioiodinated PHY based on EGFR expression.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Mitsuyoshi; Hirata, Masahiko; Kanai, Yasukazu; Naka, Sadahiro; Nishii, Ryuichi; Kagawa, Shinya; Kawai, Keiichi; Ohmomo, Yoshiro

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is attractive target for tumor diagnosis and therapy, as it is specifically and abundantly expressed in tumor cells. EGFR-tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitors such as gefitinib and erlotinib are widely used in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we investigated whether radioiodinated 4-(3-iodo-phenoxy)-6,7-diethoxy-quinazoline (PHY), which is a candidate EGFR-TK imaging agent for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is able to predict gefitinib sensitivity. We used four NSCLC cell lines-A549 (wild-type EGFR), H1650 (mutant EGFR; del E746_A750), H1975 (mutant EGFR; L858R, T790M) and H3255 (mutant EGFR; L858R)-and one epidermoid carcinoma cell line, A431 (wild-type EGFR). Cell proliferation assay and Western blotting revealed that A431 and H3255 with high EGFR expression showed high sensitivity to gefitinib. On the other hand, A549, H1650 and H1975 showed much lower sensitivity to gefitinib. The blocking study revealed that gefitinib decreased tumor uptake in (125)I-PHY in A431-bearing mice. Moreover, in vivo tumor uptake of (125)I-PHY was correlated with the IC50 of gefitinib for cell proliferation. In the present study, tumor uptake of (125)I-PHY was correlated with the gefitinib sensitivity and this uptake was based on expression levels of EGFR, but not on mutation status. Although the mutation status is the most important factor for predicting gefitinib sensitivity, the abundant expression of EGFR is essential for therapy with EGFR-TK inhibitors. Therefore, radioiodinated PHY is a potential imaging agent to predict gefitinib sensitivity based on EGFR expression levels though further modifications of the imaging agent is needed to accurately estimate the mutation status.

  2. In vitro and in vivo inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase pathway by photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, N; Kalka, K; Mukhtar, H

    2001-04-26

    PDT, a new therapeutic procedure for the management of many malignant conditions including skin cancer, involves the administration of a photosensitizing compound followed by illumination of the lesion with visible light. We earlier showed an involvement of: (i) WAF1/p21-cyclins (D1 and E)-cdk (2 and 6) network; and (ii) Rb/E2F-DP machinery during silicon phthalocyanine (Pc4)-PDT-mediated cell cycle dysregulation and apoptosis of human epidermoid carcinoma (A431) cells. Here, we investigated the involvement of EGFR-pathway during antiproliferative responses of Pc4-PDT in A431 cells and during ablation of murine skin papillomas. Pc4-PDT of A431 cells was found to result in a time-dependent down-modulation of the protein expression and phosphorylation of EGFR and Shc (an immediate downstream molecule in EGFR-pathway), during progressive increase in apoptotic response. To establish the relevance of these in vitro findings to in vivo situations, we subjected chemically- as well as ultraviolet B radiation-induced squamous papillomas in SENCAR and SKH-1 hairless mice, respectively, to Pc4-PDT, and assessed its effect on EGFR-pathway during ablation of these tumors. Pc4-PDT was found to result in a time-dependent: (i) inhibition of protein expressions of EGFR; and (ii) tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR and Shc; and (iii) induction of apoptosis, during the regression of these tumors. These data suggest the involvement of EGFR-pathway during the antiproliferative effects of PDT. It is tempting to speculate that inhibitors of EGFR could enhance the therapeutic efficacy of PDT.

  3. A Case of Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the External Auditory Canal Previously Treated for Verrucous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Soo Jung; Yang, Chan Joo

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma in the external auditory canal (EAC) is a rare malignancy with an annual incidence of one per one million people, accounting for less than 0.2% of all head and neck cancers. The most common histopathological type of EAC cancer is squamous cell carcinoma. Verrucous carcinoma is a well-differentiated, low-grade variant of squamous cell carcinoma. It is a locally destructive, invasive, and slow growing tumor that rarely metastasizes. Verrucous carcinoma occurs predominantly in the oral cavity and larynx, and its occurrence in the EAC is extremely rare. In this report, we present a histologically confirmed case of verrucous carcinoma in the EAC and temporal bone, which for several years had been classified as epithelial hyperplasia. Two-and-a-half years after diagnosis of verrucous carcinoma, a recurrent mass was found and the lesion was then confirmed to be squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:27942606

  4. A Case of Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the External Auditory Canal Previously Treated for Verrucous Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nam, Soo Jung; Yang, Chan Joo; Chung, Jong Woo

    2016-12-01

    Carcinoma in the external auditory canal (EAC) is a rare malignancy with an annual incidence of one per one million people, accounting for less than 0.2% of all head and neck cancers. The most common histopathological type of EAC cancer is squamous cell carcinoma. Verrucous carcinoma is a well-differentiated, low-grade variant of squamous cell carcinoma. It is a locally destructive, invasive, and slow growing tumor that rarely metastasizes. Verrucous carcinoma occurs predominantly in the oral cavity and larynx, and its occurrence in the EAC is extremely rare. In this report, we present a histologically confirmed case of verrucous carcinoma in the EAC and temporal bone, which for several years had been classified as epithelial hyperplasia. Two-and-a-half years after diagnosis of verrucous carcinoma, a recurrent mass was found and the lesion was then confirmed to be squamous cell carcinoma.

  5. Undifferentiated sinonasal carcinoma in a patient with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sobota, Amy; Pena, Maria; Santi, Mariarita; Ali Ahmed, Atif

    2007-07-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome is an autosomal dominant multisystem disorder characterized by developmental anomalies and occurrence of multiple basal cell carcinomas and other tumors in early childhood. In this article, the authors report a case of a 19-year-old African American male with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome and a history of medulloblastoma at age 2, meningioma at age 14, thyroid follicular adenomas with papillary carcinoma at age 15, and 2 basal cell carcinomas at ages 16 and 18. Recently, he developed sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC). The radiology and pathology of the sinonasal carcinoma are presented in this report. Review of the literature reveals that this is the first case of SNUC occurring in a patient with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

  6. In vitro perforation of human epithelial carcinoma cell with antibody-conjugated biodegradable microspheres illuminated by a single 80 femtosecond near-infrared laser pulse.

    PubMed

    Terakawa, Mitsuhiro; Tsunoi, Yasuyuki; Mitsuhashi, Tatsuki

    2012-01-01

    Pulsed laser interaction with small metallic and dielectric particles has been receiving attention as a method of drug delivery to many cells. However, most of the particles are attended by many risks, which are mainly dependent upon particle size. Unlike other widely used particles, biodegradable particles have advantages of being broken down and eliminated by innate metabolic processes. In this paper, the perforation of cell membrane by a focused spot with transparent biodegradable microspheres excited by a single 800 nm, 80 fs laser pulse is demonstrated. A polylactic acid (PLA) sphere, a biodegradable polymer, was used. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran and short interfering RNA were delivered into many human epithelial carcinoma cells (A431 cells) by applying a single 80 fs laser pulse in the presence of antibody-conjugated PLA microspheres. The focused intensity was also simulated by the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method. Perforation by biodegradable spheres compared with other particles has the potential to be a much safer phototherapy and drug delivery method for patients. The present method can open a new avenue, which is considered an efficient adherent for the selective perforation of cells which express the specific antigen on the cell membrane.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions head and neck squamous cell carcinoma head and neck squamous cell carcinoma Printable PDF Open All Close ... body cavities such as the airways and intestines. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) develops in the mucous ...

  8. Sonographic features of medullary thyroid carcinomas according to tumor size: comparison with papillary thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liguang; Chen, Bo; Zhao, Miaoqing; Zhang, Huawei; Liang, Bo

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in sonographic features of medullary thyroid carcinomas according to nodule size and compared with findings for papillary thyroid carcinomas. This study included 38 medullary thyroid carcinoma nodules and 91 papillary thyroid carcinoma nodules, which were confirmed by pathologic examination between May 2008 and September 2013. Nodules were divided into those that were greater than 10 mm (large nodules) and 10 mm or less (small nodules). The differences in sonographic features (composition, echogenicity, margin, calcifications, and shape) between groups were analyzed with a χ(2) test. Large medullary thyroid carcinomas more frequently showed an ovoid-to-round shape and a smooth margin; small medullary thyroid carcinomas more frequently showed a taller-than-wide shape and a spiculated margin; the differences were statistically significant between the groups (P < .05). Compared with papillary thyroid carcinomas, large medullary thyroid carcinomas tended to have an ovoid-to-round shape, a smooth margin, and macrocalcifications and were more frequently diagnosed as indeterminate nodules (P < .05); however, there were no significant differences in the internal composition, calcifications, echogenicity, margin, and shape between small medullary thyroid carcinomas and small papillary thyroid carcinomas (P > .05). Our data indicate that the sonographic features of medullary thyroid carcinomas are associated with tumor size; furthermore, the sonographic features of medullary thyroid carcinomas are similar to those of small papillary thyroid carcinomas but greatly different from those of large papillary thyroid carcinomas. Large medullary thyroid carcinomas are more commonly diagnosed as indeterminate nodules by sonography than large papillary thyroid carcinomas, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy or serum calcitonin measurement may be helpful. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  9. Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Medullary Carcinoma of Thyroid.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, S; Chakrabarti, S; Mandal, P K; Das, S

    2014-01-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) has been found to be associated with lymphoma, papillary carcinoma and Hürthle cell neoplasms of thyroid. In contrast, there are only a few reports of co-existence of HT with medullary carcinoma of thyroid. An overall prevalence of medullary carcinoma of only 0.35% has been reported in HT patients. Such a rare combination is being presented here. A 33 year old female presented with history of goiter for one year. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the swelling revealed cytological features suggestive of medullary carcinoma of thyroid. Histopathological examination of total thyroidectomy specimen revealed Hashimoto's thyroiditis along with medullary carcinoma of thyroid. Although Hashimoto's thyroiditis can uncommonly co-exist with thyroid neoplasm, its association with medullary carcinoma is extremely rare and hence being presented.

  10. Renal cell carcinoma: Evolving and emerging subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Crumley, Suzanne M; Divatia, Mukul; Truong, Luan; Shen, Steven; Ayala, Alberto G; Ro, Jae Y

    2013-01-01

    Our knowledge of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rapidly expanding. For those who diagnose and treat RCC, it is important to understand the new developments. In recent years, many new renal tumors have been described and defined, and our understanding of the biology and clinical correlates of these tumors is changing. Evolving concepts in Xp11 translocation carcinoma, mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma, multilocular cystic clear cell RCC, and carcinoma associated with neuroblastoma are addressed within this review. Tubulocystic carcinoma, thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of kidney, acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, and clear cell papillary RCC are also described. Finally, candidate entities, including RCC with t(6;11) translocation, hybrid oncocytoma/chromophobe RCC, hereditary leiomyomatosis and RCC syndrome, and renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor are reviewed. Knowledge of these new entities is important for diagnosis, treatment and subsequent prognosis. This review provides a targeted summary of new developments in RCC. PMID:24364021

  11. NUT Midline Carcinoma: A Rare Malignancy.

    PubMed

    Al Diffalha, Sameer; Al Aukla, Nidal; Hasan, Saleh; Dickinson, Shohreh; Khalil, Farah

    2017-04-01

    Nuclear protein of the testis (NUT) midline carcinoma can present in the head, neck, and mediastinum. In general, it presents in young adult men and has a poor prognosis. We report on a case of NUT midline carcinoma of the mediastinum in a man 27 years of age without any prior malignancy. Due to the location of the tumor, mediastinal lymphoma and germ cell tumor were initially considered; however, immunohistochemistry was performed using NUT antibody that revealed it to be NUT midline carcinoma. Although guidelines exist for squamous cell carcinoma of the head, neck, and mediastinum, no such specific guidelines are available for NUT midline carcinoma, which looks morphologically similar to squamous cell carcinoma but behaves more aggressively and carries a poor prognosis.

  12. Basosquamous Carcinoma: Controversy, Advances, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Tan, Caroline Z; Rieger, Kerri E; Sarin, Kavita Y

    2017-01-01

    Basosquamous carcinoma is a rare cutaneous neoplasm that has caused considerable controversy as to its classification, pathogenesis, and management. To review and summarize current literature on the definition, pathogenesis, incidence, and management of basosquamous carcinoma. Through December 2015, an electronic search of the Pubmed database was performed using combinations of basosquamous carcinoma and metatypical basal cell carcinoma as search terms. A selection of 39 publications including case reports and series, retrospective studies, and systematic reviews of the literature were included. Descriptions of the definition of basosquamous carcinoma, clinical behavior, histopathological characteristics, current treatment therapies, and future advances are summarized. This systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of the current understanding of basosquamous carcinoma. Further study is required to elucidate the mechanisms driving the formation of this aggressive tumor.

  13. Detergent solubilization of the EGF receptor from A431 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayanidhi, R.; Rintoul, D. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Functional reconstitution of purified preparations of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) requires dissociation of the protein from its plasma membrane lipid environment. Solubilization of membrane proteins in this manner requires the use of detergents, which are known to disrupt plasma membrane lipid/protein interactions. We have investigated the ability of three nonionic detergents to solubilize the human EGFR selectively, and have also analyzed the effect of these various treatments on the intrinsic tyrosyl kinase activity of the receptor. The nonionic detergent known as n-octyl glucoside (n-octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside) was found to give the best combination of selectivity, yield, and maintenance of enzymatic activity of the human EGFR.

  14. Detergent solubilization of the EGF receptor from A431 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayanidhi, R.; Rintoul, D. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Functional reconstitution of purified preparations of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) requires dissociation of the protein from its plasma membrane lipid environment. Solubilization of membrane proteins in this manner requires the use of detergents, which are known to disrupt plasma membrane lipid/protein interactions. We have investigated the ability of three nonionic detergents to solubilize the human EGFR selectively, and have also analyzed the effect of these various treatments on the intrinsic tyrosyl kinase activity of the receptor. The nonionic detergent known as n-octyl glucoside (n-octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside) was found to give the best combination of selectivity, yield, and maintenance of enzymatic activity of the human EGFR.

  15. Molecular genetic heterogeneity in undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Rosa-Rosa, Juan M; Leskelä, Susanna; Cristóbal-Lana, Eva; Santón, Almudena; López-García, Ma Ángeles; Muñoz, Gloria; Pérez-Mies, Belen; Biscuola, Michele; Prat, Jaime; Esther, Oliva E; Soslow, Robert A; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Palacios, Jose

    2016-11-01

    Undifferentiated and dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas are rare and highly aggressive subtypes of uterine cancer, not well characterized at a molecular level. To investigate whether dedifferentiated carcinomas carry molecular genetic alterations similar to those of pure undifferentiated carcinomas, and to gain insight into the pathogenesis of these tumors, we selected a cohort of 18 undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas, 8 of them with a well-differentiated endometrioid carcinoma component (dedifferentiated endometrioid carcinomas), and studied them by immunohistochemistry and massive parallel and Sanger sequencing. Whole-exome sequencing of the endometrioid and undifferentiated components, as well as normal myometrium, was also carried out in one case. According to The Cancer Genome Atlas classification, we distributed 95% of the undifferentiated carcinomas in this series as follows: (a) hypermutated tumors with loss of any mismatch repair protein expression and microsatellite instability (eight cases, 45%); (b) ultramutated carcinomas carrying mutations in the exonuclease domain of POLE (two cases, 11%); (c) high copy number alterations (copy-number high) tumors group exhibiting only TP53 mutations and high number of alterations detected by FISH (two cases, 11%); and (d) low copy number alterations (copy-number low) tumors with molecular alterations typical of endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (five cases, 28%). Two of the latter cases, however, also had TP53 mutations and higher number of alterations detected by FISH and could have progressed to a copy-number high phenotype. Most dedifferentiated carcinomas belonged to the hypermutated group, whereas pure undifferentiated carcinomas shared molecular genetic alterations with copy-number low or copy-number high tumors. These results indicate that undifferentiated and dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas are molecularly heterogeneous tumors, which may have prognostic value.

  16. Merkel cell carcinoma in an immunosuppressed patient*

    PubMed Central

    Góes, Heliana Freitas de Oliveira; Lima, Caren dos Santos; Issa, Maria Cláudia de Almeida; Luz, Flávio Barbosa; Pantaleão, Luciana; da Paixão, José Gabriel Miranda

    2017-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is an uncommon neuroendocrine carcinoma with a rising incidence and an aggressive behavior. It predominantly occurs in older patients, with onset occurring at a mean age of 75-80 years. Recognized risk factors are ultraviolet sunlight exposure, immunosuppression, and, more recently, Merkel cell polyomavirus. We report a case of Merkel cell carcinoma in a young HIV positive patient with Merkel Cell polyomavirus detected in the tumor.

  17. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Peris, Ketty

    2015-11-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy is an effective and safe noninvasive treatment for low-risk basal cell carcinoma, with the advantage of an excellent cosmetic outcome. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy in basal cell carcinoma is supported by substantial research and clinical trials. In this article, we review the procedure, indications and clinical evidences for the use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

  18. [Synchronous carcinoma of the colorectum].

    PubMed

    Pisciotta, M; Gulotta, G; Profita, G; Amoroso, S; Mineo, R; Rodolico, V

    1991-06-30

    The incidence of synchronous carcinoma of the large intestine is rising in relation to a greater oncogenic environmental charge and increased average life expectancy. There is also a constant risk of not recognising the disease, especially in the case of small carcinoma and, to a greater extent, in patients operated during the occlusive phase. Having underlined the diagnostic value of a correct preparation of the colon prior to instrumental tests, the authors emphasise the importance of a careful intraoperative exploration of the viscera, its preliminary confinement in occluded subjects and repeated surgery in the event of doubts regarding the monolocation of the tumour. Lastly, they underline the importance of postoperative radiological and endoscopic controls since these tests mark both the successful outcome of treatment and the start of follow-up.

  19. Endometrioid carcinoma of the oviduct.

    PubMed

    Seraj, I M; Chase, D R; King, A

    1991-05-01

    Endometrioid carcinoma is a malignant tumor which microscopically resembles endometrial adenocarcinoma, but arises from extrauterine sites, most commonly the ovary. Although its association with endometriosis has received considerable discussion, it appears that most of the malignant endometrioid tumors arise de novo. We present a case of endometrioid carcinoma which is outstanding for its primary site in the oviduct and for its histologic appearance, which incorporated a close interplay between both stromal and epithelial elements. The neoplasm was found incidentally, when the woman presented with postmenopausal bleeding due to adenomatous hyperplasia of the endometrium. The patient presented with a stage I, grade I tumor which did not invade the wall of the oviduct. Twelve years following a TAH-BSO and postoperative radiation, the tumor recurred, requiring additional surgery and chemotherapy. The patient is currently disease free, 2 years from her recurrence.

  20. Cervical carcinoma: an experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Cowan, M E; Skinner, G R

    1988-01-01

    A mouse model system was used to investigate the preventive efficacy of a subunit herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccine on the development of HSV induced cervical carcinoma. Ten groups of mice were vaccinated before receiving repeated intravaginal exposure to HSV-type 2 inactivated by ultraviolet irradiation. At 20 months postvaccination, neutralizing antibody activity to herpes simplex viruses was detected in the sera of the mice which had received the highest vaccine dose. Although three experimental mice and one control mouse developed cervical tumours and five mice developed preinvasive malignant changes, 87% of cervices were of normal or koilocytotic appearance on histological examination. There was therefore no evidence from this study that repeated exposure of mouse cervices to inactivated HSV-2 induced a significant incidence of preinvasive or invasive cervical carcinoma.

  1. Cutaneous metastatic pigmented breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gaitan-Gaona, Francisco; Said, Mirra C; Valdes-Rodriguez, Rodrigo

    2016-03-16

    A 66-year-old woman presented with a 3 cm black, ulcerated nodule located on the skin of the upper abdomen, just below the breast. The lesion was painful to the touch, but the patient reported no other associated symptoms and was otherwise healthy. A 4-mm punch biopsy of the affected skin was obtained and the histological diagnosis was cutaneous metastatic pigmented breast carcinoma.

  2. BRAF in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lanzilotta, Salvatore Giovanni; Grammatica, Luciano; Paradiso, Angelo; Simone, Gianni

    2007-01-01

    Novel genetic findings about papillary thyroid carcinoma identify BRAF gene as a subject of great interest. Involvement of BRAF gene in pathogenesis of PTC, diagnostic value and the putative prognostic significance of its T1799A mutation are summarized in this article. Furthermore, a particular attention is focused to the role of pre-operative detection of BRAF mutation in the FNAB specimens of thyroid nodules and to the use of this gene as target for an effective cancer therapy. PMID:17641411

  3. Anaplastic giant cell thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wallin, G; Lundell, G; Tennvall, J

    2004-01-01

    Anaplastic (giant cell) thyroid carcinoma (ATC), is one of the most aggressive malignancies in humans with a median survival time after diagnosis of 3-6 months. Death from ATC was earlier seen because of local growth and suffocation. ATC is uncommon, accounting for less than 5 % of all thyroid carcinomas. The diagnosis can be established by means of multiple fine needle aspiration biopsies, which are neither harmful nor troublesome for the patient. The cytological diagnosis of this high-grade malignant tumour is usually not difficult for a well trained cytologist. The intention to treat patients with ATC is cure, although only few of them survive. The majority of the patients are older than 60 years and treatment must be influenced by their high age. We have by using a combined modality regimen succeeded in achieving local control in most patients. Every effort should be made to control the primary tumour and thereby improve the quality of remaining life and it is important for patients, relatives and the personnel to know that cure is not impossible. Different treatment combinations have been used since 30 years including radiotherapy, cytostatic drugs and surgery, when feasible. In our latest combined regimen, 22 patients were treated with hyper fractionated radiotherapy 1.6Gy x 2 to a total target dose of 46 Gy given preoperatively, 20 mg doxorubicin was administered intravenously once weekly and surgery was carried out 2-3 weeks after the radiotherapy. 17 of these 22 patients were operated upon and none of these 17 patients got a local recurrence. In the future we are awaiting the development of new therapeutic approaches to this aggressive type of carcinoma. Inhibitors of angiogenesis might be useful. Combretastatin has displayed cytotoxicity against ATC cell lines and has had a positive effect on ATC in a patient. Sodium iodide symporter (NIS) genetherapy is also being currently considered for dedifferentiated thyroid carcinomas with the ultimate aim of

  4. Feminizing Adrenocortical Carcinoma with Distinct Histopathological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, Masako; Takenaka, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Ikuo; Homma, Keiko; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Sasano, Hisanobu; Awata, Takuya; Katayama, Shigehiro

    2016-01-01

    We herein present a 60-year-old man with adrenocortical carcinoma who had gynecomastia. An endocrinological examination revealed increased levels of serum estradiol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) and reduced levels of free testosterone. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an adrenal tumor with heterogeneous intensity. Iodine-131 adosterol scintigraphy showed an increased uptake at the same site. Because feminizing adrenocortical carcinoma was suspected, right adrenalectomy was performed; the pathological diagnosis was adrenocortical carcinoma. The results of immunostaining indicated a virilizing tumor. Aromatase activity was identified on RT-PCR. As disorganized steroidogenesis is pathologically present in adrenocortical carcinoma, this diagnosis should be made with caution. PMID:27853073

  5. Pathogenesis and Nomenclature of Odontogenic Carcinomas: Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Swagatika; Sahoo, Sujit Ranjan; Srivastav, Gunjan; Padhiary, Subrat; Dhull, Kanika Singh; Aggarwal, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Odontogenic carcinoma is rare group of malignant epithelial odontogenic neoplasms with characteristic clinical behavior and histological features, which requires an aggressive surgical approach. The pathogenesis of this rare group remains still controversial and there have been many varied opinions over the classification of this rare group of lesions. As there have not been many reviews on odontogenic carcinoma, the existing knowledge is mostly derived from the published case reports. This review is discussing the pathogenetic mechanisms and is updating the knowledge on nomenclature system of less explored odontogenic carcinomas. This review might throw light on the pathogenesis and nomenclature system of odontogenic carcinoma and this knowledge may be applied therapeutically. PMID:24799899

  6. Warty Carcinoma Penis: An Uncommon Variant

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arnab; Shrestha, Santosh; Ghartimagar, Dilasma; Narasimhan, Raghavan; Talwar, OP

    2017-01-01

    Penile carcinoma frequency varies widely in different parts of the world and comprises 1–10% of all the malignancies in males. Majority of the cases of penile carcinoma are squamous cell carcinoma of penis comprising 60% to 70% of all cases. Warty carcinoma of penis is an unusual neoplasm and a variant of penile squamous cell carcinoma comprising 5%–10% of all the variants. The other histological variants include basaloid, verrucous, papillary, sarcomatous, mixed, and adenosquamous carcinoma. The various histological entities with an exophytic papillary lesions including warty carcinoma are together referred to as the “verruciform” group of neoplasms. The warty carcinoma has to be differentiated from these lesions and is typically distinguished by histological features of hyperkeratosis, arborescent papillomatosis, acanthosis, and prominent koilocytosis with nuclear pleomorphism. We present a case of 65-year-old male with growth measuring 6 × 4 cm in the penis who underwent total penectomy and was diagnosed as warty carcinoma penis. PMID:28154768

  7. Small cell carcinoma of the bladder

    PubMed Central

    Calado, Bruno Nagel; Maron, Paulo Eduardo Goulart; Vedovato, Bruno César; Barrese, Tomas Zecchini; Fernandes, Roni de Carvalho; Perez, Marjo Deninson Cardenuto

    2015-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is an extremely aggressive and rare tumor. Even though small cell carcinoma most commonly arises from the lungs there are several reports of small cell carcinoma in extrapulmonary sites. Due to its low frequency there is no well-established management for this disease. We report the case of a 61 year-old man with small cell carcinoma of the bladder who underwent radical cystectomy following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We also reviewed the literature for the optimal treatment strategy. PMID:25517085

  8. Biomarkers of renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Tin C; Wood, Christopher G; Karam, Jose A

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has increased steadily in past few decades and is partially attributable to the increased utilization of cross-sectional imaging. Many of these carcinomas are small incidental discoveries, although a subset leads to locally advanced or distant disease. Although its molecular pathophysiology is not completely understood, knowledge of hereditary RCCs has shed light on some of the pathways involved. More recently, the rapid advances in genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics have allowed for a deeper and more nuanced understanding of the genetic aberrations that lead up to and result from the transformation of a renal tubular epithelial cell into a carcinoma. These discoveries have allowed for the development of novel therapeutics that target these pathways. They have also led to the development of diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers that could radically change the way RCC is diagnosed and treated. Although some of the current investigations are nascent and it remains to be seen which biomarkers will become clinically available, many candidate biomarkers show promise and require external validation. Ultimately, biomarkers may allow for cost-effective screening of high-risk patients, the identification of aggressive cancers among small renal masses, the identification of high-risk patients, the detection of recurrences postoperatively with minimal imaging, and the ability to choose appropriate targeted therapies for patients with metastatic disease.

  9. Vitamin C protects against UV irradiation-induced apoptosis through reactivating silenced tumor suppressor genes p21 and p16 in a Tet-dependent DNA demethylation manner in human skin cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jin-ran; Qin, Hai-hong; Wu, Wen-yu; He, Shu-juan; Xu, Jin-hua

    2014-08-01

    DNA methylation plays important roles in various kinds of carcinogenesis. Vitamin C could induce Tet-dependent DNA demethylation in embryonic stem cells. Therefore, the antagonizing activity of vitamin C on ultraviolet (UV)-induced apoptosis was investigated in this study. Apoptosis of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells and p16-knockout (KO) or p21-KO fibroblasts was assessed by a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. Real-time PCR and western blot were used to determine the relative expression levels of p12, p21, and Tet1/2/3 genes. The global DNA methylation levels were determined using MethylFlash Methylated DNA Quantification Kit in A431 cells with or without vitamin C treatment. To examine the DNA demethylation activity of vitamin C, DNA immunoprecipitation (DIP)-qPCR was performed to determine the relative levels of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) or 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in p16 and p21 promoter regions containing cytosine-phosphorothiolated guanine (CpG) islands. The increasing apoptosis of A431 cells under prolonged UV irradiation was remarkably decreased by the combination of vitamin C treatment, suggesting that vitamin C protects against UV-induced apoptosis. Concurrently, vitamin C induced a significant reduction of global DNA methylation in a time- and dose-dependent manner in A431 cells. Vitamin C also reactivated the expression of p16 and p21 at mRNA and protein levels. Mechanistically, about 27% 5hmC-positive cells were observed in vitamin C-treated A431 cells, and the 5hmC enrichment at p16 and p21 promoter regions was also largely increased by vitamin C. Moreover, the expression of p16 and p21 was decreased in Tet1/2 double-knockdown cells, in which the inhibitory effect of vitamin C on UV-induced apoptosis was dismissed. Furthermore, the inhibition of UV-induced apoptosis on vitamin C treatment nearly disappeared in p16- or p21-knockout primary cultured fibroblasts. These results demonstrate that vitamin C effectively antagonizes UV

  10. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, and mimickers: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Todd M; Kovalovsky, Andra O; Velosa, Claudia; Shi, Qiuying; Dai, Qian; Owen, Randall P; Bell, Walter C; Wei, Shi; Althof, Pamela A; Sanmann, Jennifer N; Sweeny, Larissa; Carroll, William R; Siegal, Gene P; Bullock, Martin J; Brandwein-Gensler, Margaret

    2015-08-01

    Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently recognized low-grade salivary carcinoma characterized by a specific ETV6 rearrangement. We describe 14 new MASCs and examine their immunophenotypic and genetic profiles in the context of look-alikes, namely, low-and high-grade salivary duct carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. ETV6 rearrangement, and robust expression of mammaglobin and S100, were demonstrated in 11/11, 14/14, and 12/14 MASCs, respectively. All low-grade salivary duct carcinomas coexpressed S100/mammaglobin (6/6); none harbored ETV6 rearrangements (0/5). Given that S100/mammaglobin coexpression and absence of zymogen granules are features of both MASC and low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, these two are best distinguished histologically. The former is predominantly an extraductal neoplasm with bubbly pink cytoplasm, whereas the latter is a distinct intraductal micropapillary and cribriform process. Querying ETV6 gene status may be necessary for difficult cases. No acinic cell carcinoma expressed mammaglobin (0/13) or harbored an ETV6 rearrangement (0/7); only 1/13 acinic cell carcinomas weakly expressed S100. DOG1 expression was limited or absent among all tumor types, except acinic cell carcinoma which expressed DOG1 diffusely in a canalicular pattern. Therefore, histology and immunohistochemistry (mammaglobin, S100, DOG1) suffices in distinguishing acinic cell carcinoma from both MASC and low-grade salivary duct carcinoma. HER2 (ERBB2) amplification was detected in only 1/10 acinic cell carcinomas, but none of the MASCs or low-grade salivary duct carcinomas tested. High-grade salivary duct carcinomas frequently expressed mammaglobin (11/18) and harbored HER2 amplifications (13/15); none harbored ETV6 rearrangements (0/12). High-grade salivary duct carcinomas can easily be distinguished from these other entities by histology and HER2 amplification.

  11. [Hepatocellular carcinoma. Part 2. Treatment].

    PubMed

    Conte, V P

    2000-01-01

    Recent improvements on the therapeutical management of hepatocellular carcinoma are revised with special attention to evaluate the role of surgery for the disease. Considering that definitive surgical intervention is not feasible in most cases because of extreme tumor extension, multiplicity of tumor foci, and associated advanced liver cirrhosis at the time of diagnosis, others forms of treatment are listed, such as transcatheterarterial chemoembolization, percutaneous ethanol and acetic acid injections, and chemotherapy only to a small portion of patients with no indication for standard treatments. The emerging role of retinoic acid metabolism blocking agents, was examined and may offer a significant new potential treatment for cancer, inclusive the possibility of combining other anticancer drugs with exogenous retinoids or modulation of endogenous retinoids as a real opportunity to advance our ability to treat or prevent human cancer effectively Octreotide, nitrosamine and other drugs are analyzed and is concluded that improves survival and is a valuable alternative in the treatment of inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma. The potential role of intersticial laser coagulation for patients with irresectable hepatic tumors was investigated, and in terms of experience, it has now been developed sufficiently to study its effect on these patients survival. The homeostatic control of angiogenesis and its influences on the tumor growth and for migration of metastatic cells, was focused in this concise review, given that hepatocytes are the source of much of the precursor pool, regulation of angiogenesis may be regarded as a new liver function with important consequences for tissue repair and cancer. Early hepatocellular carcinoma and its recognition in routine clinical practice contributes to improved patients survival. Recombinant-Interferon-alpha therapy surely prevents, the development of cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma in about one-third of patients, with

  12. Mixed primary squamous cell carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A case report.

    PubMed

    Dong, Su; Song, Xue-Song; Chen, Guang; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland is rare, and mixed squamous cell and follicular carcinoma is even rarer still, with only a few cases reported in the literature. The simultaneous presentation of three primary cancers of the thyroid has not been reported previously. Here we report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid, follicular thyroid carcinoma, and micropapillary thyroid carcinoma. A 62-year-old female patient presented with complaints of pain and a 2-month history of progressively increased swelling in the anterior region of the neck. Fine-needle-aspiration cytology of both lobes indicated the possibility of the presence of a follicular neoplasm. Total thyroidectomy with left-sided modified radical neck dissection was performed. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma with squamous cell carcinoma and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy with l-thyroxine was administered. Radioiodine and radiotherapy also were recommended, but the patient did not complete treatment as scheduled. The patient remained alive more than 9 months after operation. The present case report provides an example of the coexistence of multiple distinct malignancies in the thyroid.

  13. Mucinous carcinoma occurring in the male breast.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Mitsuaki; Umeda, Tomoko; Kawai, Yuki; Mori, Tsuyoshi; Kubota, Yoshihiro; Abe, Hajime; Iwai, Muneo; Yoshida, Keiko; Kagotani, Akiko; Tani, Tohru; Okabe, Hidetoshi

    2014-02-01

    Male breast carcinoma is an uncommon neoplasm, accounting for 0.6% of all breast carcinomas. Invasive ductal carcinoma of no special type is the most common type of male breast carcinoma, and mucinous carcinoma occurring in the male breast is extremely rare. In the present study, we report a case of mucinous carcinoma of the male breast and discuss the clinicopathological features of this type of tumor. A 63-year-old Japanese male presented with a gradually enlarged nodule in the right breast. The resected breast specimen revealed pure mucinous carcinoma and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that tumor cells were positive for estrogen receptor (ER), but negative for progesterone receptor (PgR). In addition, HER2 expression was not amplified. Pure mucinous carcinoma is generally associated with a low incidence of lymph node or distant metastases, and excellent disease-free survival in females. However, certain cases of this type of tumor with axillary lymph node metastasis in the male breast have been reported. In addition, the immunoprofiles of mucinous carcinoma in males are fundamentally the same as those in females. More than 90% of cases show positive immunoreactivity for ER and/or PgR, and HER2 expression is not amplified. However, it has been reported that breast cancer in males is more frequently positive for ER than in females, and has less HER2 overexpression. The high rate of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in males is considered to be due to similar conditions as those in breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The pathogenesis of male breast carcinoma, including mucinous carcinoma, remains unclear; therefore, additional clinicopathological studies are required.

  14. Hep par-1: a novel immunohistochemical marker for differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma from metastatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Razia; Mansoor, Samina

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic utility of Hep par-1 in differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma from metastatic carcinoma taking histopathology as a gold standard. Comparative cross-sectional study. Pathology Department, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, from April 2007 to February 2008. Hep par-1 immunohistochemical stain was performed on 60 cases of liver carcinoma, 30 cases each of metastatic and hepatocellular carcinoma. Information regarding patient age, gender, sign and symptoms, radiographic findings, histological grade of tumour, and expression of Hep par-1 on hepatocellular and metastatic carcinoma were recorded on proforma sheet. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of Hep par-1 were calculated using the formulas. Hep par-1 expression was noted in 25 out of 30 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (83%). Out of 30 cases of metastatic carcinoma, only one case expressed staining in < 5% tumour cells and remaining 29 cases showed no reactivity. The age of the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma ranged from 40 to 76 years with a median age of 60.5 years and 40 - 75 years for metastatic carcinomas with a median age of 57.5 years. Hep par-1 is a reliable immunohistochemical marker for cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It can be used along with other markers in morphologically difficult cases when differential diagnosis lies between poorly differentiated HCC and metastatic carcinoma of liver.

  15. The diagnostic utility of the minimal carcinoma triple stain in breast carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Ross, Dara S; Liu, Yi-Fang; Pipa, Jennifer; Shin, Sandra J

    2013-01-01

    Pathologists are expected to accurately diagnose increasingly smaller breast carcinomas. Correct classification (ie, lobular vs ductal or in situ vs invasive) directly affects subsequent management, especially when the focus is near a surgical margin or present in a needle core biopsy and is further challenging if the lesion is morphologically ambiguous. We assessed the diagnostic utility of a multiplex, trichromogen immunostain of 3 commonly employed antibodies (CK7, p63, and E-cadherin) developed in our laboratory to evaluate these small lesions. Of the 147 specimens containing minimal (defined as ≤3 mm in size) invasive carcinoma, 81 also contained in situ carcinoma. In each case, the Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain was prepared with a parallel H&E-stained slide. Observations of staining characteristics in the focus of interest were recorded. The Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain was diagnostically useful in all but 1 case. In a case of invasive lobular carcinoma in an excisional biopsy, the Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain stained only the surrounding breast tissue (appropriately) and not the focus of interest. Also, a subset of 29 of 81 excisional biopsies had minimal invasive carcinoma located 2 mm or less from the inked surgical margin, in which in all cases the Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain was fully interpretable despite morphologic distortion due to concomitant cautery artifact and tissue disruption in some cases. The Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain offers an accurate and tissue-conserving method to diagnose small, morphologically problematic foci of breast carcinoma while ideally leaving more tissue for additional adjunctive studies.

  16. Monitoring the progression from intraductal carcinoma to invasive ductal carcinoma based on multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yan; Fu, Fangmeng; Lian, Yuane; Nie, Yuting; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Wang, Chuan; Chen, Jianxin

    2015-09-01

    Intraductal carcinoma is a precancerous lesion of the breast and the immediate precursor of invasive ductal carcinoma. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) was used to monitor the progression from intraductal carcinoma to invasive ductal carcinoma, which can improve early detection of precursor lesions and halt progression to invasive neoplastic disease. It was found that MPM has the capability to reveal the qualitative changes in features of cells, structure of basement membranes, and architecture of collagens during the development from intraductal carcinoma to invasive ductal carcinoma, as well as the quantitative alterations in nuclear area, circle length of basement membrane, and collagen density. Combined with intra-fiberoptic ductoscopy or transdermal biopsy needle, MPM has the potential to provide immediate histological diagnosis of tumor progression in the field of breast carcinoma.

  17. Identification of the zinc finger 216 (ZNF216) in human carcinoma cells: a potential regulator of EGFR activity

    PubMed Central

    Mincione, Gabriella; Di Marcantonio, Maria Carmela; Tarantelli, Chiara; Savino, Luca; Ponti, Donatella; Marchisio, Marco; Lanuti, Paola; Sancilio, Silvia; Calogero, Antonella; Di Pietro, Roberta; Muraro, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), a member of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) proteins, is aberrantly expressed or deregulated in tumors and plays pivotal roles in cancer onset and metastatic progression. ZNF216 gene has been identified as one of Immediate Early Genes (IEGs) induced by RTKs. Overexpression of ZNF216 protein sensitizes 293 cell line to TNF-α induced apoptosis. However, ZNF216 overexpression has been reported in medulloblastomas and metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinomas. Thus, the role of this protein is still not clearly understood. In this study, the inverse correlation between EGFR and ZNF216 expression was confirmed in various human cancer cell lines differently expressing EGFR. EGF treatment of NIH3T3 cells overexpressing both EGFR and ZNF216 (NIH3T3-EGFR/ZNF216), induced a long lasting activation of EGFR in the cytosolic fraction and an accumulation of phosphorylated EGFR (pEGFR) more in the nuclear than in the cytosolic fraction compared to NIH3T3-EGFR cells. Moreover, EGF was able to stimulate an increased expression of ZNF216 in the cytosolic compartment and its nuclear translocation in a time-dependent manner in NIH3T3-EGFR/ZNF216. A similar trend was observed in A431 cells endogenously expressing the EGFR and transfected with Znf216. The increased levels of pEGFR and ZNF216 in the nuclear fraction of NIH3T3-EGFR/ZNF216 cells were paralleled by increased levels of phospho-MAPK and phospho-Akt. Surprisingly, EGF treatment of NIH3T3-EGFR/ZNF216 cells induced a significant increase of apoptosis thus indicating that ZNF216 could sensitize cells to EGF-induced apoptosis and suggesting that it may be involved in the regulation and effects of EGFR signaling. PMID:27732953

  18. Coexistence of papillary carcinoma and Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Matesa-Anić, Dubravka; Matesa, Neven; Dabelić, Nina; Kusić, Zvonko

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of coexistence of papillary carcinoma and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in cytologic material. Cytologic findings were collected from 10508 patients that underwent ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the thyroid. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was found in 2156 (20.5%) and papillary carcinoma in 269 (2.6%) of 10508 patients with FNAC, whereas both Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma were present in 42 (0.4%) patients. Among patients with FNAC diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, the prevalence of papillary carcinoma was 1.9%. Among patients with FNAC diagnosis of papillary carcinoma, the prevalence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis was 15.6%. There was no statistically significant association between the presence of papillary carcinoma and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in patients undergoing FNAC (p=0.0522). In conclusion, in a large series of patients, the incidence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma coexistence in cytologic material was 0.4%. There was no statistically significant relationship between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma in cytologic material.

  19. Clinical presentation of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Suzina, S A; Hamzah, M

    2003-10-01

    The poor prognosis for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma is principally due to its advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. The symptoms and clinical findings at presentation of 56 patients with confirmed nasopharyngeal carcinoma is described and analysed. Recognising the common modes of presentation is essential to diagnose the disease at an early stage.

  20. Orbital Involvement by NUT Midline Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Jill N; Notz, Gregory; Bogdasarian, Ronald N; Cognetti, David M; Curry, Joseph M; Rosen, Marc R; Tuluc, Madalina; Evans, James J; Bilyk, Jurij R

    2015-01-01

    A 32-year-old female presented with a sino-orbital lesion that proved to be a NUT midline carcinoma. This is only the third case of orbital involvement by this aggressive lesion. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features of NUT midline carcinoma are discussed, as well as its management options.

  1. A rare case of NUT midline carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ball, Allison; Bromley, Amy; Glaze, Sarah; French, Christopher A; Ghatage, Prafull; Köbel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    ► NUT midline carcinoma is a rare and aggressive cancer arising in midline structures and is of squamous cell lineage. ► Diagnosis by use of molecular tests is possible with clinical suspicion. ► NUT midline carcinoma is refractory to conventional treatments, but understanding of molecular alterations may lead to an effective therapy.

  2. Occult carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Arellano, L; Ibarra, A

    1984-09-01

    Ten occult carcinomas of the thyroid gland were found in 274 unselected autopsies at the Pathology Service, Hospital José Joaquín Aguirre, between December 1980 and March 1983. This is the lowest incidence among the most recent published series. The present results suggest that environmental factors play an important role in the etiology of this type of carcinoma.

  3. Secondary mucinous carcinoma of the skin.

    PubMed

    Frances, Laura; Cuesta, Laura; Leiva-Salinas, Maria; Bañuls, Jose

    2014-04-16

    We report a case of a woman who presented with a cystic-appearing nodule on her left nipple. After cutaneous biopsy and gynecological staging study, she was diagnosed with skin invasion of mucinous carcinoma of the breast. We describe the main features of this rare tumor and the controversies in its diagnosis because primary and metastatic mucinous carcinomas in skin are histologically indistinguishable.

  4. Bilateral Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Orbit.

    PubMed

    Branson, Sara V; McClintic, Elysa; Yeatts, R Patrick

    A 41-year-old woman with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the left lacrimal gland underwent extended left orbital exenteration and postoperative external beam radiation therapy. She presented 1 year postoperatively with contralateral right orbital involvement. The authors report a rare case of adenocystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland with bilateral orbital involvement.

  5. Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma and Tonsil Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Marcotullio, Dario; Iannella, Giannicola; Zelli, Melissa; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is the most common renal tumor in adults. Clear cell carcinoma represents 85% of all histological subtypes. In February 2012 a 72-year-old woman came to our department due to the appearance of massive hemoptysis and pharyngodinia. Previously, this patient was diagnosed with a renal cell carcinoma treated with left nephrectomy. We observed an exophytic, grayish, and ulcerated mass in the left tonsillar lodge and decided to subject the patient to an immediate tonsillectomy. Postoperative histology showed nests of cells with highly hyperchromatic nuclei and clear cytoplasm. These features enabled us to make the diagnosis of renal clear cell carcinoma metastasis. Only few authors described metastasis of renal cell carcinoma in this specific site. PMID:24455373

  6. Renal clear cell carcinoma and tonsil metastasis.

    PubMed

    Marcotullio, Dario; Iannella, Giannicola; Macri, Gian Franco; Marinelli, Caterina; Zelli, Melissa; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is the most common renal tumor in adults. Clear cell carcinoma represents 85% of all histological subtypes. In February 2012 a 72-year-old woman came to our department due to the appearance of massive hemoptysis and pharyngodinia. Previously, this patient was diagnosed with a renal cell carcinoma treated with left nephrectomy. We observed an exophytic, grayish, and ulcerated mass in the left tonsillar lodge and decided to subject the patient to an immediate tonsillectomy. Postoperative histology showed nests of cells with highly hyperchromatic nuclei and clear cytoplasm. These features enabled us to make the diagnosis of renal clear cell carcinoma metastasis. Only few authors described metastasis of renal cell carcinoma in this specific site.

  7. Peritoneal carcinoma in a male patient.

    PubMed

    Jermann, Monika; Vogt, Peter; Pestalozzi, Bernhard C

    2003-01-01

    Peritoneal carcinoma is a rare primary tumor, described in the literature almost exclusively in women. This report describes our clinicopathological findings in a 51-year-old male patient with peritoneal carcinoma and ascites. Pathologic studies included routine histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy on biopsy and autopsy tumor tissue. After chemotherapy, the patient achieved a complete remission twice, lasting for 14 months and 8 months, respectively, and died after 3 years. His clinical course was similar to that of female patients with peritoneal carcinoma or advanced ovarian cancer. Our case confirms the existence of primary peritoneal carcinoma in males. In addition, it shows that this entity responds to the same chemotherapy as used for ovarian cancer and primary peritoneal carcinoma in females.

  8. [Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast: rare form carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Maksimović, Sinisa

    2009-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare form of breast carcinoma. Incidence is reported to be 0.1-3.6%. We report a case of a young woman, 37-year-old, with history of a lump in the upper outer quadrant of the left breast with ulceration of the skin surface. Menarche occurred at age of 12. The patient was married, had two deliveries and had her first child at age of 26. She did not use contraceptive pills. Diagnosis of the tumour of the breast was made at the Department of surgery in General Hospital in Bijeljina in September 2007. Clinical examination, mammography and ultrasonography were performed. Physical examination revealed a circumscribed and firm mass measuring 60 x 60 x 80 mm. Mammogram showed a round, high-density mass with almost regular but partially irregular margin. Ultrasonogram of the left breast tumor identified an irregularly shaped hypoechoic lesion. After clinical staging of the disease, we performed incision biopsy of the skin and tumour of the left breast with histopathology examination (standard hematoxylin and eosin). Patient had estrogen and progesteron receptors negative and was HER2/neu negative. After histopathology, patient's case was presented to the working group for breast tumors which decided to start with the neoadjuvant chemotherapy using platinum. After six cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, regression of breast tumor was confirmed. Working group decided that radical mastectomy of left breast should be performed.

  9. [Conservative surgery for renal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    González Martín, M; Alvarez Castelo, L M; Chantada Abal, V; Rodríguez-Rivera, J; Sánchez Merino, J M; Gómez Veiga, F

    1999-05-01

    To report on our experience in conservative surgery for renal cell carcinoma, pointing at indications, surgical techniques and results. We also make a review of the literature. From 1975 until 1997, 231 patients underwent surgical treatment of renal cell carcinoma. In 17 cases conservative surgery was done. 11 patients were male and 6 female, with age range 33-78 years. Polar nephrectomy was done in 4 cases and tumorectomy in 13 cases. The indication was elective in 10 cases, and imperative in 7 due to: 4 bilateral carcinomas, 1 chronic renal failure, 1 von Hippel Lindau disease and 1 tumor associated with surgical lithiasis of the kidney. 58.8% of the patients did not have clinical symptoms and the diagnose was incidental. The average size of the tumors was 3.8 cm. The pathological stage was: 3 cases T1N0M0 and 12 T2N0M0. All the T1 cases had an incidental diagnose. The complications were: 1 urinary fistula, 1 haematoma, and 1 case of postoperative fever. All these complications were solved in a conservative way. We had tumoral recurrence in one patient affected with von Hippel Lindau disease. It appeared 4 years after the surgical procedure and required radical nephrectomy. One patient died 24 months after surgery because of causes not related with renal tumor. The rest of the patients are alive, with no tumoral recurrence, within an average follow-up of 49.6 months. None of the patients needed dialysis. Our experience, though not great is enough to demonstrate the benefits of conservative surgery for renal cell carcinoma. Partial nephrectomy in selected patients and with the appropriate surgical technique offers short-term results similar to those obtained with radical nephrectomy. It is indispensable to make the resection and intraoperative pathological study of a margin of renal parenchyma surrounding the tumor, and also to examine the whole surface of the kidney to search for satellite tumoral nodules. It is very important to do a close follow up of these

  10. Management of large hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Amarapurkar, D N

    2004-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer in the world. There is increasing incidence of HCC in India. More than 70% of HCC are not suitable for curative treatment. Majority of the HCCs are large when diagnosed all over the world. There is no standard treatment for large HCCs. Different palliative treatments like arterial embolization/chemoembolization, intraarterial lipoidol chemotherapy, hormonal compounds like tamoxifene, octerotide systemic chemotherapy, immuno therapy with interferon, internal radiation with 131I or 99Yttrium. Arterial chemoembolization is the treatment of choice with proved efficacy in selected group of patients. The newer modalities and strategies need to be tried in controlled randomized trials.

  11. Prostatic carcinoma in two cats.

    PubMed

    Caney, S M; Holt, P E; Day, M J; Rudorf, H; Gruffydd-Jones, T J

    1998-03-01

    Clinical, radiological and pathological features of two cats with prostatic carcinoma are reported. In both cats the presenting history included signs of lower urinary tract disease with haematuria and dysuria. Prostatomegaly was visible radiographically in one cat; an irregular intraprostatic urethra was seen on retrograde contrast urethrography in both cats. In one of the cats, neoplasia was suspected on the basis of a transurethral catheter biopsy. Following a poor response to palliative treatment in both cases, euthanasia was performed with histological confirmation of the diagnosis.

  12. Oncogenic viruses and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ben Ari, Ziv; Weitzman, Ella; Safran, Michal

    2015-05-01

    About 80% of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections especially in the setting of established cirrhosis or advanced fibrosis, making HCC prevention a major goal of antiviral therapy. HCC tumors are highly complex and heterogeneous resulting from the aberrant function of multiple molecular pathways. The roles of HCV or HBV in promoting HCC development are still either directly or indirectly are still speculative, but the evidence for both effects is compelling. In patients with chronic hepatitis viral infection, cirrhosis is not a prerequisite for tumorigenesis.

  13. Transhemangioma Ablation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Pua, Uei

    2012-12-15

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a well-established treatment modality in the treatment of early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [1]. Safe trajectory of the RFA probe is crucial in decreasing collateral tissue damage and unwarranted probe transgression. As a percutaneous technique, however, the trajectory of the needle is sometimes constrained by the available imaging plane. The presence of a hemangioma beside an HCC is uncommon but poses the question of safety related to probe transgression. We hereby describe a case of transhemangioma ablation of a dome HCC.

  14. The efficiency of single agent docetaxel in patients with platinum-refractory non-small cell lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Uygun, Kazim; Aksu, Gorkem; Cicin, Irfan; Karagol, Hakan; Kocak, Zafer; Fayda, Merdan; Binici, Ahmet; Uzunoglu, Fernaz

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of docetaxel as second line chemotherapy in patients with platinum-refractory non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Fifty-two patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC who had platinum-refractory disease (progressed through or within 3 months of completion of first line therapy) and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance (ECOG) status 0-2 were treated with second-line chemotherapy consisting of single agent docetaxel (100 mg/m(2), intravenously, on day 1 of a 21-day cycle). The median number of treatment cycles was 4 (2-6). Disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS), response rates and toxicity were evaluated. The median progression-free survival of patients was 3 months (95% CI: 0.01-5.99) and overall survival was 7.2 months (95% CI: 2.2-9.5). One-year overall survival rate was 29%. Disease control (complete response, partial response, or stable disease) was achieved in 25 patients (48%) and overall response rate was 13% (7 patients). There were no complete responses. Seventeen patients (33%) had stable disease and twenty-seven patients (52%) had progressive disease. Age, gender, stage at diagnosis (IIIB vs. IV), performance status at initiation of second-line therapy (0-1 vs. 2) histopathological type (epidermoid vs. others), grade, LDH, albumin, weight loss were evaluated as prognostic factors; however, none of these had a significant affect on survivals. The protocol was well tolerated and there were no toxic deaths. Grade III-IV anemia was present in 8 patients (15%) and thrombopenia in 12 (23%) patients. The most frequent grade 3-4 toxicities were leucopenia (52%) and neutropenia (48%). Febril neutropenia occurred in 14 patients (26%). No patients experienced grade III-IV mucositis and diarrhea. Totally, the need of a dose reduction was about 25% and treatment delay (4-9 days) occurred in 5 patients (10%) and 7 patients (13%), respectively, because of toxicity. Second-line chemotherapy with single

  15. GATA-3 and FOXA1 expression is useful to differentiate breast carcinoma from other carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Davis, Drew G; Siddiqui, Momin T; Oprea-Ilies, Gabriela; Stevens, Keith; Osunkoya, Adeboye O; Cohen, Cynthia; Li, Xiaoxian Bill

    2016-01-01

    GATA-3, a member of the GATA family of zinc-finger DNA binding proteins, and FOXA1, a member of the forkhead transcription factor family, are both associated with estrogen receptor expression. Both GATA-3 and FOXA1 are useful markers for breast carcinoma, but their expression in the different breast cancer subtypes and other neoplasms has not been thoroughly evaluated. We examined the expression of GATA-3 and FOXA1 in estrogen receptor-positive, Her2/neu-positive, and triple-negative breast carcinomas as well as in 10 other common carcinomas, including hepatocellular, colonic, pancreatic, gastric, endometrial (endometrioid), lung, prostatic, renal cell, urothelial, and ovarian serous carcinomas. Primary and metastatic melanomas and mesotheliomas were also evaluated. GATA-3 and FOXA1 staining of estrogen receptor-positive breast carcinomas was seen in 96.6% and 96.2%, respectively. In triple-negative breast carcinomas, GATA-3 and FOXA1 staining was seen in 21.6% and 15.9%, respectively. Among the other tumors, GATA-3 staining was only seen in urothelial carcinoma (70.9%) and FOXA1 staining was only seen in prostatic (87.5%), urothelial (5.1%) carcinomas, and mesotheliomas (40.0%). In conclusion, GATA-3 and FOXA1 are excellent breast carcinoma markers; however, their utility is limited in the triple-negative subtype. The utility of FOXA1 in diagnosing prostatic carcinoma and mesothelioma warrants further investigation.

  16. Inflammation and Cancer: Role of Annexin A1 and FPR2/ALX in Proliferation and Metastasis in Human Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gastardelo, Thaís Santana; Cunha, Bianca Rodrigues; Raposo, Luís Sérgio; Maniglia, José Victor; Cury, Patrícia Maluf; Lisoni, Flávia Cristina Rodrigues; Tajara, Eloiza Helena; Oliani, Sonia Maria

    2014-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory protein annexin A1 (ANXA1) has been associated with cancer progression and metastasis, suggesting its role in regulating tumor cell proliferation. We investigated the mechanism of ANXA1 interaction with formylated peptide receptor 2 (FPR2/ALX) in control, peritumoral and tumor larynx tissue samples from 20 patients, to quantitate the neutrophils and mast cells, and to evaluate the protein expression and co-localization of ANXA1/FPR2 in these inflammatory cells and laryngeal squamous cells by immunocytochemistry. In addition, we performed in vitro experiments to further investigate the functional role of ANXA1/FPR2 in the proliferation and metastasis of Hep-2 cells, a cell line from larynx epidermoid carcinoma, after treatment with ANXA12–26 (annexin A1 N-terminal-derived peptide), Boc2 (antagonist of FPR) and/or dexamethasone. Under these treatments, the level of Hep-2 cell proliferation, pro-inflammatory cytokines, ANXA1/FPR2 co-localization, and the prostaglandin signalling were analyzed using ELISA, immunocytochemistry and real-time PCR. An influx of neutrophils and degranulated mast cells was detected in tumor samples. In these inflammatory cells of peritumoral and tumor samples, ANXA1/FPR2 expression was markedly exacerbated, however, in laryngeal carcinoma cells, this expression was down-regulated. ANXA12–26 treatment reduced the proliferation of the Hep-2 cells, an effect that was blocked by Boc2, and up-regulated ANXA1/FPR2 expression. ANXA12–26 treatment also reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and affected the expression of metalloproteinases and EP receptors, which are involved in the prostaglandin signalling. Overall, this study identified potential roles for the molecular mechanism of the ANXA1/FPR2 interaction in laryngeal cancer, including its relationship with the prostaglandin pathway, providing promising starting points for future research. ANXA1 may contribute to the regulation of tumor growth and

  17. Basosquamous cell carcinoma: a survey of 76 patients and a comparative analysis of basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Betti, Roberto; Crosti, Carlo; Ghiozzi, Simona; Cerri, Amilcare; Moneghini, Laura; Menni, Silvano

    2013-01-01

    Basosquamous carcinoma (BSC) is a rare epithelial tumor with a still confusing terminology. Since 2005 a more comprehensive and broader classification has existed. To retrospectively review our cases of BSC according to the new WHO definition and to re-evaluate their clinical and demographic characteristics and the margin involvement after traditional surgical excision. The data were compared with the same results obtained by basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Histologically confirmed carcinomas observed in our Department during a sixteen-year period (1994-2011) were studied. Surgical excision was evaluated following the international guidelines. Histopathologic subtypes of BSC were classified in accordance with accepted criteria. Seventy-six patients had a BSC, 305 a SCC, 3,643 a BCC. There were significant differences among the median age of BSCs, the total BCCs and Non-Aggressive BCCs (74.7, 68.8 and 68.3 years respectively; p<0.05). BSC was more significantly located on head-neck region than Non-Aggressive BCC (p<0.04), and less on trunk than Mixed Histology BCC (p<0.01) and Non-Aggressive BCC (p<0.005). BSC has higher prevalence of positive margins after excision than total (p<0.03) and Non-Aggressive BCC (p<0.001). Basosquamous carcinoma fits to a tumor type with a different behavior pattern from non-aggressive basal cell carcinoma and more similar to squamous cell carcinoma or aggressive variants of basal cell carcinoma. Its infiltrative growth and the stromal reaction patterns give enough evidence to support the notion of considering basosquamous carcinoma as a relatively aggressive tumor.

  18. Sarcomatoid Carcinoma of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Açıkgöz, Onur; Gazel, Eymen; Zengin, Neslihan İnci; Kasap, Yusuf; Çamtosun, Ahmet; Yazıcıoğlu, Ahmet Hamdi

    2013-01-01

    Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the prostate is among the rarest malignant neoplasm types and has been well known for its aggressive clinical course. Patient was admitted with the symptoms of lower urinary tract. Transurethral resection of prostate (TUR-P) was carried out. Revealing Gleason 5 + 3 = 8 prostate adenocarcinoma in TUR-P material. Thereby, a Radical Prostatectomy procedure was planned. In operation, frozen examination revealed adenocarcinoma metastasis to the obturator lymph node. The operation was terminated. In the postoperative 3rd month, the patient was re-admitted with acute urinary system symptoms. A cystoscopy performed and complete resection of the mass was performed. The pathological examination reported that the tumor was compatible with undifferentiated adenocarcinoma owing to presence of poorly differentiated tumoral cells and detection of adenocarcinoma in a relatively small (<1%) focus. 4 month after the operation, the patient underwent another cyctoscopic examination which revealed the prostatic lounge and most of the bladder lumen to be filled with tumoral tissue. The tumoral tissues was resected incompletely. This material was diagnosed to be “Sarcomatoid Malignant Tumor” upon the new evidences of progressive dedifferentiation and predominant sarcomatoid appearance, compared with the former TUR-P materials. Subsequent PET-CT scan depicted multiple metastasis. The patient was referred to oncology department. In conclusion, sarcomatoid carcinoma is a malignant variant that brings along diagnostic and treatment difficulties. PMID:23691427

  19. Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Açıkgöz, Onur; Gazel, Eymen; Zengin, Neslihan İnci; Kasap, Yusuf; Camtosun, Ahmet; Yazıcıoğlu, Ahmet Hamdi

    2013-01-01

    Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the prostate is among the rarest malignant neoplasm types and has been well known for its aggressive clinical course. Patient was admitted with the symptoms of lower urinary tract. Transurethral resection of prostate (TUR-P) was carried out. Revealing Gleason 5 + 3 = 8 prostate adenocarcinoma in TUR-P material. Thereby, a Radical Prostatectomy procedure was planned. In operation, frozen examination revealed adenocarcinoma metastasis to the obturator lymph node. The operation was terminated. In the postoperative 3rd month, the patient was re-admitted with acute urinary system symptoms. A cystoscopy performed and complete resection of the mass was performed. The pathological examination reported that the tumor was compatible with undifferentiated adenocarcinoma owing to presence of poorly differentiated tumoral cells and detection of adenocarcinoma in a relatively small (<1%) focus. 4 month after the operation, the patient underwent another cyctoscopic examination which revealed the prostatic lounge and most of the bladder lumen to be filled with tumoral tissue. The tumoral tissues was resected incompletely. This material was diagnosed to be "Sarcomatoid Malignant Tumor" upon the new evidences of progressive dedifferentiation and predominant sarcomatoid appearance, compared with the former TUR-P materials. Subsequent PET-CT scan depicted multiple metastasis. The patient was referred to oncology department. In conclusion, sarcomatoid carcinoma is a malignant variant that brings along diagnostic and treatment difficulties.

  20. Carcinoma arising in pilonidal sinuses.

    PubMed Central

    Pilipshen, S J; Gray, G; Goldsmith, E; Dineen, P

    1981-01-01

    Pilonidal carcinoma is an infrequent complication of pilonidal disease. The surgeon's suspicion should be raised in cases of longstanding pilonidal inflammation. The disease occurs most frequently in men. The lesion is often a well-differentiated squamous carcinoma. Wide excisions at the initial procedure following a brief period of local wound care, is the optimum treatment and increases the chances for a five-year survival. Definitive closure of the defect is delayed and accomplished by rotational flaps or skin grafts. It palpable nodes are present in the inguinal region they should be biopsied even though this does not necessarily connote metastasis. When inguinal node metastasis is present, this is associated with a poor prognosis. The incidence of occult node metastasis is not known because no prophylactic groin dissections were performed. Staged groin dissections were not associated with any long-term survivals. The series was too small to determine its palliative potential. Radiation therapy may palliate local bone or soft tissue recurrences. Re-excisions of local soft tissue recurrences can provide, in some instances, long disease-free intervals. Both topical and systemic chemotherapy were administered in more recent cases with poor results, but this series is not large enough to form conclusions for this modality of treatment. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:7212813

  1. HPV Carcinomas in Immunocompromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    Reusser, Nicole M.; Downing, Christopher; Guidry, Jacqueline; Tyring, Stephen K.

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide and can result in pre-malignancies or overt malignancies of the skin and mucosal surfaces. HPV-related illnesses are an important personal and public health problem causing physical, mental, sexual and financial detriments. Moreover, this set of malignancies severely affects the immunosuppressed population, particularly HIV-positive patients and organ-transplant recipients. There is growing incidence of HPV-associated anogenital malignancies as well as a decrease in the average age of affected patients, likely related to the rising number of high-risk individuals. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of HPV-related malignancy. Current treatment options for HPV infection and subsequent disease manifestations include imiquimod, retinoids, intralesional bleomycin, and cidofovir; however, primary prevention with HPV vaccination remains the most effective strategy. This review will discuss anogenital lesions in immunocompromised patients, cutaneous warts at nongenital sites, the association of HPV with skin cancer in immunocompromised patients, warts and carcinomas in organ-transplant patients, HIV-positive patients with HPV infections, and the management of cutaneous disease in the immunocompromised patient. PMID:26239127

  2. Estrogen receptors in breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huaman, A

    1979-11-01

    On the basis of estrogen receptor assays, breast carcinomas are presently classified as estrogen-dependent tumors, which respond to endocrine therapy, and autonomous tumors, for which endocrine therapy is useless. This paper presents a short review of the biochemical principles of estrogen dependence, the procedures used to determine estrogen receptors, and the clinical applications of the findings of these assay procedures. Biobhemically, the estroogen dependence of normal breast cells is explained as a biochemical reaction occurring between the circulating estradiol and the breast cell, which occurs in 3 steps: 1) circulating estradiol penetrates the cellular membrane by passive diffusion, followed by 2) combining of estradiol with the estrogen-binding protein (estrophilin) and formation of an estrogen receptor complex which undergoes activation and translocation into the nucleus, to result in 3) the activated steroid receptor which combines with the nuclear charomatin and stimulates ribonucleic acid synthesis for the formation of estradiol binding proteins or estradiol receptors. The cytosol method of Wittliff et al. is described in brief and entails radioactive competitive analysis; the other available laboratory procedure is immunofluorescence of tumor sections. Quantification of estrogen receptor content can be used clinically to decide on ablative endocrine therapy, to determine the effectiveness of anti-estrogen administration, to determine the primary site of metastatic carcinoma, and as a screenng device.

  3. Identification of Prognostic Biomarkers for Progression of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-19

    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Carcinoma, Squamous; Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Neoplasms; Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Lung Cancer; Neoplasms, Lung; Neoplasms, Pulmonary; Pulmonary Cancer; Pulmonary Neoplasms

  4. Neoadjuvant Intravesical Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Bladder Carcinoma Who Are Undergoing Cystectomy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-22

    Bladder Adenocarcinoma; Bladder Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Recurrent Bladder Carcinoma; Stage I Bladder Cancer; Stage II Bladder Cancer; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Cancer

  5. Surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gualdi, G; Monari, P; Apalla, Z; Lallas, A

    2015-08-01

    Non melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) are the most common human neoplasms, encompassing basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), but also cutaneous lymphomas, adnexal tumors, merckel cell carcinoma and other rare tumors. The incidence of BCC and SCC varies significantly among different populations, and the overall incidence of both tumors has increased over the last decades. Although generally associated with a favorable prognosis, recent evidence suggests that the mortality rates of SCC might have been underestimated up-to-date.1 According to Medicare data, NMSC is the fifth most expensive cancer for health care systems. This increased economic burden is not associated with the cost of treating an individual patient, but with the large number of affected patients and the recurrence rates.2 Therefore, the adequate management of the primary tumor with a complete excision becomes a priority not only for the patient but also for the public health systems. Multiple treatment modalities are currently usedin clinicalpractice for the treatment of NMSC. While surgical excision (SE) remains the gold standard of care, non-surgical techniques have gained appreciation due to lower morbidity and better cosmetic results. The optimal management of treatment includes a complete tumor clearance, preservation of the normal tissue function, and the best possible cosmetic outcome.3 Surgery with a predefined excision margin is the treatment of choice for most NMSCs, with Mohs micrographic surgery being recommended for tumors considered to be at a higher recurrence risk or those developing on cosmetically sensitive areas.4, 5 Therefore, the surgical approach of a NMSC consists with three different and equally important steps. First the preoperative clinical assessment of the tumor margins, which can be facilitated by the use of dermoscopy. Second, the definition of the surgical margins depending on the tumor subtype and its biological behavior. Finally, the surgical

  6. Gene Expression Patterns in Ovarian Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Schaner, Marci E.; Ross, Douglas T.; Ciaravino, Giuseppe; Sørlie, Therese; Troyanskaya, Olga; Diehn, Maximilian; Wang, Yan C.; Duran, George E.; Sikic, Thomas L.; Caldeira, Sandra; Skomedal, Hanne; Tu, I-Ping; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Johnson, Steven W.; O'Dwyer, Peter J.; Fero, Michael J.; Kristensen, Gunnar B.; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Hastie, Trevor; Tibshirani, Robert; van de Rijn, Matt; Teng, Nelson N.; Longacre, Teri A.; Botstein, David; Brown, Patrick O.; Sikic, Branimir I.

    2003-01-01

    We used DNA microarrays to characterize the global gene expression patterns in surface epithelial cancers of the ovary. We identified groups of genes that distinguished the clear cell subtype from other ovarian carcinomas, grade I and II from grade III serous papillary carcinomas, and ovarian from breast carcinomas. Six clear cell carcinomas were distinguished from 36 other ovarian carcinomas (predominantly serous papillary) based on their gene expression patterns. The differences may yield insights into the worse prognosis and therapeutic resistance associated with clear cell carcinomas. A comparison of the gene expression patterns in the ovarian cancers to published data of gene expression in breast cancers revealed a large number of differentially expressed genes. We identified a group of 62 genes that correctly classified all 125 breast and ovarian cancer specimens. Among the best discriminators more highly expressed in the ovarian carcinomas were PAX8 (paired box gene 8), mesothelin, and ephrin-B1 (EFNB1). Although estrogen receptor was expressed in both the ovarian and breast cancers, genes that are coregulated with the estrogen receptor in breast cancers, including GATA-3, LIV-1, and X-box binding protein 1, did not show a similar pattern of coexpression in the ovarian cancers. PMID:12960427

  7. Clear cell carcinoma of ovary and uterus.

    PubMed

    Glasspool, Rosalind M; McNeish, Iain A

    2013-12-01

    Clear cell carcinomas of the female genital tract are rare tumours with a fearsome reputation for having poor responses to conventional platinum-based chemotherapy and poor prognosis. However, it is now clear that early-stage ovarian clear cell carcinoma has an excellent prognosis and may not require any adjuvant therapy. In addition, radiotherapy may also have a key role to play in adjuvant management of clear cell tumours. Identification of patients who truly do not need adjuvant chemotherapy is important. The past 3 years has seen a significant improvement in our understanding of clear cell carcinoma biology-in particular, the role of mutations in the chromatin remodelling gene ARID1A as key drivers that are common to clear cell carcinomas of ovarian and endometrial origin. Moreover, gynaecological clear cell carcinomas appear to share many features with renal clear cell tumours, suggesting a common pathogenesis. This raises the possibility of clinical trials that include patients with clear cell tumours from different organs of origin. Dissecting the role of disordered chromatin organisation in clear cell carcinoma pathogenesis is a key priority. Finally, the role of endometriosis and the attendant chronic inflammation are recognised. The inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 appears to play a key role in clear cell carcinoma biology and is an excellent potential therapeutic target.

  8. Erythrocyte autoantibodies, autoimmune haemolysis, and carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Sokol, R J; Booker, D J; Stamps, R

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To examine a large series of patients in whom both red cell autoantibodies and carcinoma are present; and to determine whether this rare occurrence is a true association or a chance event. METHODS--The laboratory records of 160 patients (76 men, 84 women; mean age 68 years) with erythrocyte autoantibodies and confirmed carcinoma were examined for site of tumour origin and clinical and immunohematological findings. To test whether the concomitant occurrence of autoantibodies and carcinoma was fortuitous, data on total population and carcinoma incidence were included in a chi 2 analysis. RESULTS--The association was significant (chi 2 = 97.5, p < 0.0005); erythrocyte autoantibodies and carcinoma were found together 12-13 times more often than expected from their relative frequencies. Autoantibodies occurred with a variety of carcinomas, particularly those of breast, lung, colon, rectum, and prostate; this largely reflected tumour incidence. Adenocarcinoma, squamous, anaplastic, and transitional cell types were all represented. Warm, cold, and mixed autoantibodies were not associated with particular tumour sites or histology. Eighty six patients had haemolysis of varying severity, 37 had metastatic disease, and 28 died within a few months of presentation. CONCLUSIONS--The presence of erythrocyte autoantibodies and carcinoma in the same patient is a true association and probably reflects a fundamental disturbance in immune homeostasis. It tends to occur with a large tumour mass and metastatic disease, and generally indicates a poor prognosis. PMID:8027372

  9. PET imaging of epidermal growth factor receptor expression in tumours using 89Zr-labelled ZEGFR:2377 affibody molecules.

    PubMed

    Garousi, Javad; Andersson, Ken G; Mitran, Bogdan; Pichl, Marie-Louise; Ståhl, Stefan; Orlova, Anna; Löfblom, John; Tolmachev, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor, which is overexpressed in many types of cancer. The use of EGFR-targeting monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine-kinase inhibitors improves significantly survival of patients with colorectal, non-small cell lung cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Detection of EGFR overexpression provides important prognostic and predictive information influencing management of the patients. The use of radionuclide molecular imaging would enable non-invasive repeatable determination of EGFR expression in disseminated cancer. Moreover, positron emission tomography (PET) would provide superior sensitivity and quantitation accuracy in EGFR expression imaging. Affibody molecules are a new type of imaging probes, providing high contrast in molecular imaging. In the present study, an EGFR-binding affibody molecule (ZEGFR:2377) was site-specifically conjugated with a deferoxamine (DFO) chelator and labelled under mild conditions (room temperature and neutral pH) with a positron-emitting radionuclide (89)Zr. The (89)Zr-DFO-ZEGFR:2377 tracer demonstrated specific high affinity (160 ± 60 pM) binding to EGFR-expressing A431 epidermoid carcinoma cell line. In mice bearing A431 xenografts, (89)Zr-DFO-ZEGFR:2377 demonstrated specific uptake in tumours and EGFR-expressing tissues. The tracer provided tumour uptake of 2.6 ± 0.5% ID/g and tumour-to-blood ratio of 3.7 ± 0.6 at 24 h after injection. (89)Zr-DFO-ZEGFR:2377 provides higher tumour-to-organ ratios than anti-EGFR antibody (89)Zr-DFO-cetuximab at 48 h after injection. EGFR‑expressing tumours were clearly visualized by microPET using (89)Zr-DFO-ZEGFR:2377 at both 3 and 24 h after injection. In conclusion, 8(9)Zr-DFO-ZEGFR:2377 is a potential probe for PET imaging of EGFR-expression in vivo.

  10. Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma of the head and face.

    PubMed

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Kramer, B; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    2016-02-05

    Ultraviolet light (UV) is an important risk factor for cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin. These cancers most commonly affect persons with fair skin and blue eyes who sunburn rather than suntan. However, each of these cancers appears to be associated with a different pattern of UV exposure and to be mediated by different intracellular molecular pathways.Some melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants play a direct role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma apart from their role in determining a cancer-prone pigmentory phenotype (fair skin, red hair, blue eyes) through their interactions with other genes regulating immuno-inflammatory responses, DNA repair or apoptosis.In this short review we focus on the aetiological role of UV in cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin, and on some associated biopathological events.

  11. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma: Brazilian survey

    PubMed Central

    Cotrim, Helma P.; Oliveira, Claudia P.; Coelho, Henrique Sérgio M.; Alvares-da-Silva, Mario R.; Nabuco, Leticia; Parise, Edison Roberto; Ivantes, Claúdia; Martinelli, Ana LC; Galizzi-Filho, João; Carrilho, Flair J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The majority of cases of hepatocellular carcinoma have been reported in individuals with cirrhosis due to chronic viral hepatitis and alcoholism, but recently, the prevalence has become increasingly related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis around the world. The study aimed to evaluate the clinical and histophatological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma in Brazilians' patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis at the present time. METHODS: Members of the Brazilian Society of Hepatology were invited to complete a survey regarding patients with hepatocellular carcinoma related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Patients with a history of alcohol intake (>20 g/day) and other liver diseases were excluded. Hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis was performed by liver biopsy or imaging methods according to the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases' 2011 guidelines. RESULTS: The survey included 110 patients with a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease from nine hepatology units in six Brazilian states (Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul). The mean age was 67±11 years old, and 65.5% were male. Obesity was observed in 52.7% of the cases; diabetes, in 73.6%; dyslipidemia, in 41.0%; arterial hypertension, in 60%; and metabolic syndrome, in 57.2%. Steatohepatitis without fibrosis was observed in 3.8% of cases; steatohepatitis with fibrosis (grades 1-3), in 27%; and cirrhosis, in 61.5%. Histological diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was performed in 47.2% of the patients, with hepatocellular carcinoma without cirrhosis accounting for 7.7%. In total, 58 patients with cirrhosis had their diagnosis by ultrasound confirmed by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Of these, 55% had 1 nodule; 17%, 2 nodules; and 28%, ≥3 nodules. CONCLUSIONS: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is a relevant risk factor associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with and

  12. Prevalence of Glomerulopathies in Canine Mammary Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and prevalence of paraneoplastic glomerulopathy, especially associated with carcinoma, are a matter of debate and the causal link between cancer and glomerular diseases remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate renal biopsies of selected bitches with spontaneous mammary gland carcinoma. We hypothesized that dogs with mammary carcinomas would show histologic evidence of glomerular pathology. A prospective study was performed in dogs with naturally occurring mammary carcinoma that were undergoing tumor resection and ovariohysterectomy. We evaluated renal biopsies of 32 bitches with spontaneous mammary gland carcinoma and 11 control dogs without mammary gland neoplasia. Samples were obtained from the left kidney and the biopsy material was divided for light microscopy (LM), immunofluorescence (IF) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Light microscopy abnormalities were identified in 78.1% of dogs with mammary carcinoma (n = 25) and in none of the dogs in the control group. Focal glomerular mesangial matrix expansion was the most common alteration (n = 15, 60.0%), but mesangial cell proliferation (n = 9, 36.0%) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (n = 9, 36.0%), synechiae (n = 7, 28.0%), and globally sclerotic glomeruli (n = 6, 24.0%) were also frequent in dogs with malignancy. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed strong IgM staining was demonstrated in 64.3% (n = 18) of carcinoma dogs. Transmission electron microscopy from dogs with carcinoma revealed slight changes, the most frequent of which was faint sub-endothelial and mesangial deposits of electron-dense material (78%). Mesangial cell interpositioning and segmental effacement of podocyte foot processes were identified in some specimens (45%). Changes in the glomerulus and proteinuria are common in dogs with naturally occurring mammary carcinoma and this condition appears to provide an excellent large animal model for cancer-associated glomerulopathy in humans. PMID:27764139

  13. Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Mechanistic Distinction From Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Riggle, Kevin M.; Turnham, Rigney; Scott, John D.; Yeung, Raymond S.

    2016-01-01

    Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL‐HCC) has historically been classified as a rare subtype of HCC. However, unlike “classic” HCC, it occurs in children and young adults without underlying liver disease. The recent discovery of a deletion mutation in all FL‐HCCs represented a major advancement in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. This deletion results in the fusion of the genes encoding a heat shock protein (DNAJB1) and the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKA, PRKACA), and overexpression of PRKACA and enhanced cAMP‐dependent PKA activity. This review summarizes recent advancements in FL‐HCC pathogenesis and characteristics of the HSP40‐PKA C protein. PMID:26990031

  14. An atypical presentation of infiltrating ductal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Kunal Kishor; Gupta, Suresh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    A 64-year-old African-American female presented with nonbloody nipple discharge. Clinical and cytological examination of the discharge was normal. The mammography suggested pleomorphic calcification in the left breast. A stereotactic biopsy showed ductal carcinoma in situ and her estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-neu receptor were negative. We removed the tumor tissue through lumpectomy and found that the mass was invasive ductal carcinoma. This case report highlights invasive ductal carcinoma, presenting with unilateral nipple discharge.

  15. [Acinar cell carcinoma of submaxillary gland].

    PubMed

    Comeche, C; Calabuig, C; Barona, R

    1997-01-01

    Although acine cell neoplasms have for a long time been regarded as benign tumors, they are presently considered to represent the carcinomas. These rare tumors mainly affect the parotid glands, and only exceptionally involve other salivary glands. Clinically, acic cell carcinoma present as isolated tumors simulating a pleomorphic adenoma. The diagnosis is histopathological, and complete surgical removal of the tumor is the treatment of choice, with cervical lymphatic voiding and/or postoperative radiotherapy in selected cases. A prolonged patient follow-up is required, for the tumor may recur many years after surgery. We report a case of acinic cell carcinoma in submaxillary gland.

  16. [Basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation].

    PubMed

    Goldman-Lévy, Gabrielle; Frouin, Eric; Soubeyran, Isabelle; Maury, Géraldine; Guillot, Bernard; Costes, Valérie

    2015-04-01

    Basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation is a very rare variant of basal cell carcinoma. To our knowledge, less than 30 cases have been reported. This tumor is composed of basaloid lobules showing a differentiation toward the pilar matrix cells. Recently, it has been demonstrated that beta-catenin would interfer with physiopathogenesis of matrical tumors, in particular pilomatricomas, but also basal cell carcinomas with matrical differentiation. This is a new case, with immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of beta-catenin, in order to explain its histogenesis.

  17. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid transformation.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, Neil A; Ayala, Alberto G; Czerniak, Bogdan

    2003-10-01

    We present a rare case of a chromophobe renal cell carcinoma that progressed to a high-grade spindle cell sarcoma. The tumor affected a 50-year-old man who had presented with right upper quadrant discomfort and hematuria and subsequently underwent a right radical nephrectomy. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of two distinct components, a chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and a sarcomatoid component. The sarcomatoid component had exhibited aggressive behavior by spreading to a regional lymph node. This case report shows that chromophobe carcinoma can develop a sarcomatoid transformation with a high propensity for invasive growth and metastasis.

  18. Myoepithelial carcinoma of palate: case report.

    PubMed

    Thayumanavan, Balakrishnan; Vani, Nandimandalam Venkata

    2014-01-01

    Myoepithelial carcinoma is an uncommon malignant salivary gland neoplasm with a predilection for parotid gland. However, its occurrence in minor salivary glands is considerably less with only 28 cases being reported in the literature. We report a case of myoepithelial carcinoma of palate in a 50-year-old woman. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed an extensive lesion in the palate. Microscopically, the tumor exhibited a wide spectrum of cytomorphologic features that overlap with other salivary gland tumors. Immunohistochemistry served as an adjunct in the diagnosis of the lesion. Clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic correlation along with immunohistochemical profile enabled to arrive at a diagnosis of myoepithelial carcinoma.

  19. Definitive Chemoradiotherapy for Advanced Pulmonary Sarcomatoid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Kazuya; Matsushita, Haruo; Kubozono, Masaki; Tanabe, Takaya; Ishikawa, Yojiro; Yamamoto, Takaya; Kozumi, Maiko; Takahashi, Noriyoshi; Katagiri, Yu; Tasaka, Shun; Fukui, Katsuya; Takeda, Ken; Fujishima, Fumiyoshi; Ichinose, Masakazu; Jingu, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma is a rare subtype of non-small cell lung cancer with a poor prognosis. We herein report on a case of pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma that was treated successfully by concurrent chemoradiotherapy. A 65-year-old man was diagnosed to have pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma (clinical T4N2M0 stage IIIB). He received concurrent chemoradiotherapy (60 Gy of radiotherapy in 30 fractionations and two courses of chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel). After chemoradiotherapy, a significant reduction of the tumor size was observed. Two courses of adjuvant chemotherapy were performed. He is currently alive at 15 months after the first treatment without any recurrence or metastasis. PMID:27853077

  20. Detection and imaging of aggressive cancer cells using an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted filamentous plant virus-based nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Chariou, Paul L; Lee, Karin L; Wen, Amy M; Gulati, Neetu M; Stewart, Phoebe L; Steinmetz, Nicole F

    2015-02-18

    Molecular imaging approaches and targeted drug delivery hold promise for earlier detection of diseases and treatment with higher efficacy while reducing side effects, therefore increasing survival rates and quality of life. Virus-based nanoparticles are a promising platform because their scaffold can be manipulated both genetically and chemically to simultaneously display targeting ligands while carrying payloads for diagnosis or therapeutic intervention. Here, we displayed a 12-amino-acid peptide ligand, GE11 (YHWYGYTPQNVI), on nanoscale filaments formed by the plant virus potato virus X (PVX). Bioconjugation was used to produce fluorescently labeled PVX-GE11 filaments targeted toward the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Cell detection and imaging was demonstrated using human skin epidermoid carcinoma, colorectal adenocarcinoma, and triple negative breast cancer cell lines (A-431, HT-29, MDA-MB-231), all of which upregulate EGFR to various degrees. Nonspecific uptake in ductal breast carcinoma (BT-474) cells was not observed. Furthermore, co-culture experiments with EGFR(+) cancer cells and macrophages indicate successful targeting and partitioning toward the cancer cells. This study lays a foundation for the development of EGFR-targeted filaments delivering contrast agents for imaging and diagnosis, and/or toxic payloads for targeted drug delivery.