Science.gov

Sample records for a431 epidermoid carcinoma

  1. Purification of high-molecular-weight subfraction from porcine skin inhibiting proliferation of A431 human carcinoma epidermoid cells.

    PubMed

    Belova, O V; Sergienko, V I; Arion, V Ya; Lukanidina, T A; Moskvina, S N; Zimina, I V; Borisenko, G G; Lutsenko, G V; Grechikhina, M V; Kovaleva, E V; Klyuchnikova, Zh I

    2014-07-01

    Subfraction with a molecular weight >250 kDa isolated from porcine skin and inhibiting the proliferation of A431 human carcinoma epidermoid cells was purified by DEAE 32 anion exchange chromatography with NaCl concentration step-gradient. The effects of the initial subfraction and fractions obtained by separation in DEAE 32 on the proliferation of A431 human carcinoma epidermoid cells were studied in vitro in two tests (MTT and fluorescent test). The more sensitive fluorescent test showed the highest inhibitory activity of fraction No. 2 released from the column at 0.15 M NaCl. One major protein component and a series of minor protein components were detected in this fraction by vertical PAAG-SDS electrophoresis.

  2. The growth of human fibroblasts and A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells on gamma-irradiated human amnion collagen substrata.

    PubMed

    Liu, B; Harrell, R; Lamb, D J; Dresden, M H; Spira, M

    1989-10-15

    Human fibroblasts and A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells were cultured on gamma-irradiated human amnion collagen as well as on plastic dishes and non-irradiated collagen coated dishes. The morphology, attachment, growth and short-term cytotoxicity of these culture conditions have been determined. Both irradiated and non-irradiated amnion collagen enhanced the attachment and proliferation of fibroblasts as compared to the plastic dishes. No differences in these properties were observed for A431 cells cultured on irradiated collagen when compared with culture on non-irradiated collagen substrates. Cytotoxicity assays showed that irradiated and non-irradiated collagens were not cytotoxic for either fibroblasts or A431 cells. The results demonstrated that amnion collagen irradiated at doses of 0.25-2.0 Mrads is optimal for cell growth.

  3. Anticancer effects of cantharidin in A431 human skin cancer (Epidermoid carcinoma) cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Chi-Chuan; Yu, Fu-Shun; Fan, Ming-Jen; Chen, Ya-Yin; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Chou, Yu-Cheng; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Tang, Nou-Ying; Peng, Shu-Fen; Huang, Wen-Wen; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2017-03-01

    Cantharidin (CTD), a potential anticancer agent of Traditional Chinese Medicine has cytotxic effects in different human cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic effects of CTD on A431 human skin cancer (epidermoid carcinoma) cells in vitro and in A431 cell xenograft mouse model were examined. In vitro, A431 human skin cell were treated with CTD for 24 and 48 h. Cell phase distribution, ROS production, Ca 2+ release, Caspase activity and the level of apoptosis associated proteins were measured. In vivo, A431 cell xenograft mouse model were examined. CTD-induced cell morphological changes and decreased percentage of viable A431 cells via G0/G1 phase arrest and induced apoptosis. CTD-induced G0/G1 phase arrest through the reduction of protein levels of cyclin E, CDK6, and cyclin D in A431 cells. CTD-induced cell apoptosis of A431 cells also was confirm by DNA gel electrophoresis showed CTD-induced DNA fragmentation. CTD reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential and stimulated release of cytochrome c, AIF and Endo G in A431 cells. Flow cytometry demonstrated that CTD increased activity of caspase-8, -9 and -3. However, when cells were pretreated with specific caspase inhibitors activity was reduced and cell viability increased. CTD increased protein levels of death receptors such as DR4, DR5, TRAIL and levels of the active form of caspase-8, -9 and -3 in A431 cells. AIF and Endo G proteins levels were also enhanced by CTD. In vivo studies showed that CTD significantly inhibited A431 cell xenograft tumors in mice. Taken together, these in vitro and in vivo results provide insight into the mechanisms of CTD on cell growth and tumor production. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 723-738, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Toxicity of dimethylmonothioarsinic acid toward human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Naranmandura, Hua; Ibata, Kenji; Suzuki, Kazuo T

    2007-08-01

    Chronic ingestion of arsenic-contaminated drinking water induces skin lesions and urinary bladder cancer in humans. It is now recognized that thioarsenicals such as dimethylmonothioarsinic acid (DMMTA (V)) are commonly excreted in the urine of humans and animals and that the production of DMMTA (V) may be a risk factor for the development of the diseases caused by arsenic. The toxicity of DMMTA (V) was compared with that of related nonthiolated arsenicals with respect to cell viability, uptake ability, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cell cycle progression of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells, arsenate (iAs (V)), arsenite (iAs (III)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA (V)), and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA (III)) being used as reference nonthiolated arsenicals. DMMTA (V) (LC 50 = 10.7 microM) was shown to be much more cytotoxic than iAs (V) (LC 50 = 571 microM) and DMA (V) (LC 50 = 843 microM), and its potency was shown to be close to that of trivalent arsenicals iAs (III) (LC 50 = 5.49 microM) and DMA (III) (LC 50 = 2.16 microM). The greater cytotoxicity of DMMTA (V) was associated with greater cellular uptake and distribution, and the level of intracellular ROS remarkably increased in A431 cells upon exposure to DMMTA (V) compared to that after exposure to other trivalent arsenicals at the respective LC 50. Exposure of DMMTA (V) to cells for 24 h induced cell cycle perturbation. Namely, the percentage of cells residing in S and G2/M phases increased from 10.2 and 15.6% to 46.5 and 20.8%, respectively. These results suggest that although DMMTA (V) is a pentavalent arsenical, it is taken up efficiently by cells and causes various levels of toxicity, in a manner different from that of nonthiolated pentavalent arsenicals, demonstrating that DMMTA (V) is one of the most toxic arsenic metabolites. The high cytotoxicity of DMMTA (V) was explained and/or proposed by (1) efficient uptake by cells followed by (2) its transformation to DMA (V), (3) producing ROS

  5. Flurbiprofen benzyl nitrate (NBS-242) inhibits the growth of A-431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells and targets β-catenin.

    PubMed

    Nath, Niharika; Liu, Xiaoping; Jacobs, Lloydine; Kashfi, Khosrow

    2013-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin/T cell factor (TCF) signaling pathway is important in the development of nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). Nitric-oxide-releasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NO-NSAIDs) are chemopreventive agents consisting of a traditional NSAID attached to an NO-releasing moiety through a chemical spacer. Previously we showed that an aromatic spacer enhanced the potency of a particular NO-NSAID compared to an aliphatic spacer. We synthesized an NO-releasing NSAID with an aromatic spacer (flurbiprofen benzyl nitrate, NBS-242), and using the human skin cancer cell line A-431, we evaluated its effects on cell kinetics, Wnt/β-catenin, cyclin D1, and caspase-3. NBS-242 inhibited the growth of A-431 cancer cells, being ~15-fold more potent than flurbiprofen and up to 5-fold more potent than NO-flurbiprofen with an aliphatic spacer, the half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for growth inhibition being 60 ± 4 μM, 320 ± 20 μM, and 880 ± 65 μM for NBS-242, NO-flurbiprofen, and flurbiprofen, respectively. This effect was associated with inhibition of proliferation, accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, and an increase in apoptotic cell population. NBS-242 cleaved β-catenin both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of A-431 cells. NBS-242 activated caspase-3 whose activation was reflected in the cleavage of procaspase-3. To test the functional consequence of β-catenin cleavage, we determined the expression of cyclin D1, a Wnt-response gene. NBS-242 reduced cyclin D1 levels in a concentration dependent manner. These findings establish a strong inhibitory effect of NBS-242 in A-431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. NBS-242 modulates parameters that are important in determining cellular mass.

  6. Regulation of apoptosis by resveratrol through JAK/STAT and mitochondria mediated pathway in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Madan, Esha; Prasad, Sahdeo; Roy, Preeti

    2008-12-26

    Resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenolic phytoalexin present mainly in grapes, red wine and berries, is known to possess strong chemopreventive and anticancer properties. Here, we demonstrated the anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities of resveratrol in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Resveratrol has cytotoxic effects through inhibiting cellular proliferation of A431 cells, which leads to the induction of apoptosis, as evident by an increase in the fraction of cells in the sub-G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle and Annexin-V binding of externalized phosphatidylserine. Results revealed that inhibition of proliferation is associated with regulation of the JAK/STAT pathway, where resveratrol prevents phosphorylation ofmore » JAK, thereby inhibiting STAT1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, resveratrol treatment actively stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Consequently, an imbalance in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio triggered the caspase cascade and subsequent cleavage of PARP, thereby shifting the balance in favor of apoptosis. These observations indicate that resveratrol treatment inhibits JAK/STAT-mediated gene transcription and induce the mitochondrial cell death pathway.« less

  7. Fisetin inhibits growth, induces G2/M arrest and apoptosis of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells: Role of mitochondrial membrane potential disruption and consequent caspases activation

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Harish C.; Sharma, Samriti; Elmets, Craig A.; Athar, Mohammad; Afaq, Farrukh

    2013-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) one of the most common neoplasms causes serious morbidity and mortality. Therefore, identification of non-toxic phytochemicals for prevention/treatment of NMSCs is highly desirable. Fisetin (3,3′,4′,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), a dietary flavonoid, present in fruits and vegetables possesses anti-oxidant and anti-proliferative properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemotherapeutic potential of fisetin in cultured human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Treatment of A431 cells with fistein (5-80 μM) resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Employing clonogenic assay, we found that fisetin treatment significantly reduced colony formation in A431 cells. Fisetin treatment of A431 cells resulted in G2/M arrest and induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, treatment of A431 cells with fisetin resulted in (i) decreased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl2, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1), (ii) increased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, Bak and Bad), (iii) disruption of mitochondrial potential, (iv) release of cytchrome c and Smac/DIABLO from mitochondria, (v) activation of caspases, and (vi) cleavage of PARP protein. Pretreatment of A431 cells with the pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) blocked fisetin-induced cleavage of caspases and PARP. Taken together, these data provide evidence that fisetin possesses chemotherapeutic potential against human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Overall, these results suggest that fisetin could be developed as a novel therapeutic agent for the management of NMSCs. PMID:23800058

  8. Resveratrol enhances ultraviolet B-induced cell death through nuclear factor-{kappa}B pathway in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Preeti; Kalra, Neetu; Nigam, Nidhi

    Resveratrol has been reported to suppress cancer progression in several in vivo and in vitro models, whereas ultraviolet B (UVB), a major risk for skin cancer, is known to induce cell death in cancerous cells. Here, we investigated whether resveratrol can sensitize A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells to UVB-induced cell death. We examined the combined effect of UVB (30 mJ/cm{sup 2}) and resveratrol (60 {mu}M) on A431 cells. Exposure of A431 carcinoma cells to UVB radiation or resveratrol can inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. However, the combination of resveratrol and UVB exposure was associated with increased proliferation inhibition ofmore » A431 cells compared with either agent alone. Furthermore, results showed that resveratrol and UVB treatment of A431 cells disrupted the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-{kappa}B) pathway by blocking phosphorylation of serine 536 and inactivating NF-{kappa}B and subsequent degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, which regulates the expression of survivin. Resveratrol and UVB treatment also decreased the phosphorylation of tyrosine 701 of the important transcription factor signal transducer activator of transcription (STAT1), which in turn inhibited translocation of phospho-STAT1 to the nucleus. Moreover, resveratrol/UVB also inhibited the metastatic protein LIMK1, which reduced the motility of A431 cells. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the combination of resveratrol and UVB act synergistically against skin cancer cells. Thus, resveratrol is a potential chemotherapeutic agent against skin carcinogenesis.« less

  9. Induction of apoptosis by lupeol in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells through regulation of mitochondrial, Akt/PKB and NFkappaB signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Madan, Esha; Nigam, Nidhi; Roy, Preeti; George, Jasmine; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2009-09-01

    The rising incidence of skin cancer in humans makes it equivalent to malignancies of organs. Therefore, it is necessary to intensify our efforts for better understanding and development of novel treatment and preventive approaches for skin cancer. Fruits and other plant derived products have gained considerable attention as they can reduce the risk of several cancer types. Lupeol, a triterpene, present in many fruits and medicinal plants, has been shown to possess many pharmacological properties including anti-cancer effect in both in vitro and in vivo assay systems. In the present study, apoptosis inducing effects of lupeol were studied in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Cell cycle analysis showed that lupeol treatment induces apoptosis (14-37%) in a dose-dependent manner as evident by an increased sub G(1) cell population. The RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that lupeol-induced apoptosis was associated with caspase dependent mitochondrial cell death pathway through activation of Bax, caspases, Apaf1, decrease in Bcl-2 expression and subsequent cleavage of PARP. Lupeol treatment also inhibited Akt/PKB signaling pathway by inhibition of Bad (Ser136) phosphorylation and 14-3-3 expression. In addition, lupeol treatment inhibited cell survival by inactivation of NFkappaB through upregulation of its inhibitor Ikappabetaalpha. The Caspase mediated apoptosis was noticed by decrease in lupeol induced apoptosis by Caspase inhibitors as well as increase in reactive oxygen species generation and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. These results suggest that lupeol could be an effective anti-cancer agent and merits further investigation.

  10. Bromelain inhibits nuclear factor kappa-B translocation, driving human epidermoid carcinoma A431 and melanoma A375 cells through G(2)/M arrest to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bhui, Kulpreet; Tyagi, Shilpa; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Singh, Madhulika; Roy, Preeti; Singh, Richa; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2012-03-01

    Bromelain, obtained from pineapple, is already in use clinically as adjunct in chemotherapy. Our objective was to test its ability to act as a sole anti-cancer agent. Therefore, we describe its anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and subsequent anti-cancer effects in vitro, against human epidermoid carcinoma-A431 and melanoma-A375 cells. Bromelain exhibited reduction in proliferation of both these cell-lines and suppressed their potential for anchorage-independent growth. Further, suppression of inflammatory signaling by bromelain was evident by inhibition of Akt regulated-nuclear factor-kappaB activation via suppression of inhibitory-kappaBα phosphorylation and concomitant reduction in cyclooxygenase-2. Since, the inflammatory cascade is well-known to be closely allied to cancer; we studied the effect of bromelain on events/molecules central to it. Bromelain caused depletion of intracellular glutathione and generation of reactive oxygen-species followed by mitochondrial membrane depolarization. This led to bromelain-induced cell-cycle arrest at G(2)/M phase which was mediated by modulation of cyclin B1, phospho-cdc25C, Plk1, phospho-cdc2, and myt1. This was subsequently followed by induction of apoptosis, indicated by membrane-blebbing, modulation of Bax-Bcl-2 ratio, Apaf-1, caspase-9, and caspase-3; chromatin-condensation, increase in caspase-activity and DNA-fragmentation. Bromelain afforded substantial anti-cancer potential in these settings; hence we suggest it as a potential prospect for anti-cancer agent besides only an additive in chemotherapy. Copyright ©2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Biologically synthesised silver nanoparticles from three diverse family of plant extracts and their anticancer activity against epidermoid A431 carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Debasis; Pradhan, Sonali; Ashe, Sarbani; Rauta, Pradipta Ranjan; Nayak, Bismita

    2015-11-01

    Biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles is a cost effective natural process where the phytochemicals specifically phenols, flavonoids and terpenoids present in the plant extracts act as capping and reducing agent. Due to their nano size regime the silver nanoparticles may directly bind to the DNA of the pathogenic bacterial strains leading to higher antimicrobial activity. In the current study silver nanoparticles were synthesised using plant extracts from different origin Cucurbita maxima (petals), Moringa oleifera (leaves) and Acorus calamus (rhizome). The synthesised nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (Fe-SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Highly crystalline, roughly spherical and cuboidal silver nanoparticles of 30-70 nm in size were synthesised. The nanoparticles provided strong antimicrobial activity against pathogenic strains. The effect of the synthesised nanoparticles against A431 skin cancer cell line was tested for their toxicity by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye. The IC50 values of 82.39±3.1, 83.57±3.9 and 78.58±2.7 μg/ml were calculated for silver nanoparticles synthesised by C. maxima, M. oleifera and A. calamus respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Alpha-santalol, a chemopreventive agent against skin cancer, causes G2/M cell cycle arrest in both p53-mutated human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells and p53 wild-type human melanoma UACC-62 cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background α-Santalol, an active component of sandalwood oil, has shown chemopreventive effects on skin cancer in different murine models. However, effects of α-santalol on cell cycle have not been studied. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate effects of α-santalol on cell cycle progression in both p53 mutated human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells and p53 wild-type human melanoma UACC-62 cells to elucidate the mechanism(s) of action. Methods MTT assay was used to determine cell viability in A431 cells and UACC-62; fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of propidium iodide staining was used for determining cell cycle distribution in A431 cells and UACC-62 cells; immunoblotting was used for determining the expression of various proteins and protein complexes involved in the cell cycle progression; siRNA were used to knockdown of p21 or p53 in A431 and UACC-62 cells and immunofluorescence microscopy was used to investigate microtubules in UACC-62 cells. Results α-Santalol at 50-100 μM decreased cell viability from 24 h treatment and α-santalol at 50 μM-75 μM induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest from 6 h treatment in both A431 and UACC-62 cells. α-Santalol altered expressions of cell cycle proteins such as cyclin A, cyclin B1, Cdc2, Cdc25c, p-Cdc25c and Cdk2. All of these proteins are critical for G2/M transition. α-Santalol treatment up-regulated the expression of p21 and suppressed expressions of mutated p53 in A431 cells; whereas, α-santalol treatment increased expressions of wild-type p53 in UACC-62 cells. Knockdown of p21 in A431 cells, knockdown of p21 and p53 in UACC-62 cells did not affect cell cycle arrest caused by α-santalol. Furthermore, α-santalol caused depolymerization of microtubules similar to vinblastine in UACC-62 cells. Conclusions This study for the first time identifies effects of α-santalol in G2/M phase arrest and describes detailed mechanisms of G2/M phase arrest by this agent, which might be

  13. Interference of silibinin with IGF-1R signalling pathways protects human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells from UVB-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Weiwei; Otkur, Wuxiyar; Li, Lingzhi

    Highlights: ► Silibinin protects A431 cells from UVB irradiation-induced apoptosis. ► Up-regulation of the IGF-1R-JNK/ERK pathways by UVB induces cell apoptosis. ► Silibinin inhibits IGF-1R pathways to repress caspase-8-mediated apoptosis. -- Abstract: Ultraviolet B (UVB) from sunlight is a major cause of cutaneous lesion. Silibinin, a traditional hepatic protectant, elicits protective effects against UVB-induced cellular damage. In A431 cells, the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) was markedly up-regulated by UVB irradiation. The activation of the IGF-1R signalling pathways contributed to apoptosis of the cells rather than rescuing the cells from death. Up-regulated IGF-1R stimulated downstream mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), suchmore » as c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). The subsequent activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 led to apoptosis. The activation of IGF-1R signalling pathways is the cause of A431 cell death. The pharmacological inhibitors and the small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting IGF-1R suppressed the downstream activation of JNK/ERK-caspases to help the survival of the UVB-irradiated A431 cells. Indeed, silibinin treatment suppressed the IGF-1R-JNK/ERK pathways and thus protected the cells from UVB-induced apoptosis.« less

  14. Induction of Apoptosis and Antiproliferative Activity of Naringenin in Human Epidermoid Carcinoma Cell through ROS Generation and Cell Cycle Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Jafri, Asif; Ahmad, Sheeba; Afzal, Mohammad; Arshad, Md

    2014-01-01

    A natural predominant flavanone naringenin, especially abundant in citrus fruits, has a wide range of pharmacological activities. The search for antiproliferative agents that reduce skin carcinoma is a task of great importance. The objective of this study was to analyze the anti-proliferative and apoptotic mechanism of naringenin using MTT assay, DNA fragmentation, nuclear condensation, change in mitochondrial membrane potential, cell cycle kinetics and caspase-3 as biomarkers and to investigate the ability to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) initiating apoptotic cascade in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Results showed that naringenin exposure significantly reduced the cell viability of A431 cells (p<0.01) with a concomitant increase in nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation in a dose dependent manner. The intracellular ROS generation assay showed statistically significant (p<0.001) dose-related increment in ROS production for naringenin. It also caused naringenin-mediated epidermoid carcinoma apoptosis by inducing mitochondrial depolarization. Cell cycle study showed that naringenin induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase of cell cycle and caspase-3 analysis revealed a dose dependent increment in caspase-3 activity which led to cell apoptosis. This study confirms the efficacy of naringenin that lead to cell death in epidermoid carcinoma cells via inducing ROS generation, mitochondrial depolarization, nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and caspase-3 activation. PMID:25330158

  15. Identification of specific gravity sensitive signal transduction pathways in human A431 carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijken, P. J.; de Groot, R. P.; Kruijer, W.; de Laat, S. W.; Verkleij, A. J.; Boonstra, J.

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) activates a well characterized signal transduction cascade in human A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells. The influence of gravity on EGF-induced EGF-receptor clustering and early gene expression as well as on actin polymerization and actin organization have been investigated. Different signalling pathways induced by the agents TPA, forskolin and A23187 that activate gene expression were tested for sensitivity to gravity. EGF-induced c-fos and c-jun expression were decreased in microgravity. However, constitutive β-2 microglobulin expression remained unaltered. Under simulated weightlessness conditions EGF- and TPA-induced c-fos expression was decreased, while forskolin- and A23187-induced c-fos expression was independent of the gravity conditions. These results suggest that gravity affects specific signalling pathways. Preliminary results indicate that EGF-induced EGF-receptor clustering remained unaltered irrespective of the gravity conditions. Furthermore, the relative filamentous actin content of steady state A431 cells was enhanced under microgravity conditions and actin filament organization was altered. Under simulated weightlessness actin filament organization in steady state cells as well as in EGF-treated cells was altered as compared to the 1 G reference experiment. Interestingly the microtubule and keratin organization in untreated cells showed no difference with the normal gravity samples. This indicates that gravity may affect specific components of the signal transduction circuitry.

  16. ALA-PpIX variability quantitatively imaged in A431 epidermoid tumors using in vivo ultrasound fluorescence tomography and ex vivo assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DSouza, Alisha V.; Flynn, Brendan P.; Gunn, Jason R.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Anand, Sanjay; Maytin, Edward V.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2014-03-01

    Treatment monitoring of Aminolevunilic-acid (ALA) - Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) of basal-cell carcinoma (BCC) calls for superficial and subsurface imaging techniques. While superficial imagers exist for this purpose, their ability to assess PpIX levels in thick lesions is poor; additionally few treatment centers have the capability to measure ALA-induced PpIX production. An area of active research is to improve treatments to deeper and nodular BCCs, because treatment is least effective in these. The goal of this work was to understand the logistics and technical capabilities to quantify PpIX at depths over 1mm, using a novel hybrid ultrasound-guided, fiber-based fluorescence molecular spectroscopictomography system. This system utilizes a 633nm excitation laser and detection using filtered spectrometers. Source and detection fibers are collinear so that their imaging plane matches that of ultrasound transducer. Validation with phantoms and tumor-simulating fluorescent inclusions in mice showed sensitivity to fluorophore concentrations as low as 0.025μg/ml at 4mm depth from surface, as presented in previous years. Image-guided quantification of ALA-induced PpIX production was completed in subcutaneous xenograft epidermoid cancer tumor model A431 in nude mice. A total of 32 animals were imaged in-vivo, using several time points, including pre-ALA, 4-hours post-ALA, and 24-hours post-ALA administration. On average, PpIX production in tumors increased by over 10-fold, 4-hours post-ALA. Statistical analysis of PpIX fluorescence showed significant difference among all groups; p<0.05. Results were validated by exvivo imaging of resected tumors. Details of imaging, analysis and results will be presented to illustrate variability and the potential for imaging these values at depth.

  17. PKI 166 induced redox signalling and apoptosis through activation of p53, MAP kinase and caspase pathway in epidermoid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Das, Subhasis; Dey, Kaushik Kumar; Bharti, Rashmi; MaitiChoudhury, Sujata; Maiti, Sukumar; Mandal, Mahitosh

    2012-01-01

    Cellular redox changes have emerged as a pivotal and proximal event in cancer. PKI 166 is used to determine the effects of redox sensitive inhibition of EGFR, metastasis and apoptosis in epidermoid carcinoma. Cytotoxicity study of PKI 166 (IC50 1.0 microM) treated A431 cells were performed by MTT assay for 48 and 72 hrs. Morphological analysis of PKI 166 treated A431 cells for 48 hrs. revealed the cell shrinkage, loss of filopodia and lamellipodia by phase contrast and SEM images in dose dependent manner. It has cytotoxic effects through inhibiting cellular proliferation, leads to the induction of apoptosis, as increased fraction of sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle, chromatin condensation and DNA ladder. It inhibited cyclin-D1 and cyclin-E expression and induced p53, p21 expression in dose dependent manner. Consequently, an imbalance of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio triggered caspase cascade and subsequent cleavage of PARP, thereby shifting the balance in favour of apoptosis. PKI 166 treatment actively stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. It inhibited some metastatic properties of A431 cells supressing colony formation by soft agar assay and inhibition of MMP 9 activity by gelatin zymography and western blot analysis. PKI 166 inhibited growth factor induced phosphorylation of EGFR, Akt, MAPK, JNK and colony formation in A431 cells. Thus the inhibition of proliferation was associated with redox regulation of the caspase cascade, EGFR, Akt/PI3K, MAPK/ ERK and JNK pathway. On the other hand, increased antioxidant activity leads to decreased ROS generation inhibit the anti-proliferative and apoptotic properties of PKI 166 in A431 cells. These observations indicated PKI 166 induced redox signalling dependent inhibition of cell proliferation, metastatic properties and induction of apoptotic potential in epidermoid carcinoma.

  18. A large epidermoid cyst of breast mimicking carcinoma: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Debnath, Debasish; Taribagil, Savita; Al-Janabi, Khalid J.S.; Inwang, Reggie

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Triple assessment of a suspicious breast lesion may not always provide a definite diagnosis. We report a case of epidermoid cyst of breast, which caused diagnostic dilemma in spite of a thorough triple assessment and entailed mastectomy. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 69-year-old woman presented with a large painful retroareolar left breast mass. Clinical examination, ultrasound and mammography were highly suspicious of malignancy. However, core biopsy suggested a benign lesion. Due to size of the lesion and diagnostic uncertainty, various options were discussed with the patient. She opted for a simple mastectomy. The histology confirmed a large epidermoid cyst. DISCUSSION It is rare for an epidermoid cyst to present as such an advanced lesion, mimicking carcinoma. Excision of such a large retroareolar ‘benign’ lesion, however, may sometime entail mastectomy. This is the first reported case of an epidermoid cyst of breast necessitating mastectomy. CONCLUSION Diagnostic dilemma while dealing with a suspected breast cancer is not rare. Involvement of multidisciplinary team as well as patient is important in the decision-making. The report illustrates a rare presentation of a deep seated large epidermoid cyst of breast, which mimicked carcinoma, caused diagnostic confusion and entailed mastectomy. We strongly advocate the option of breast reconstruction in such cases. PMID:22705938

  19. Comparative study of cell alterations in oral lichen planus and epidermoid carcinoma of the mouth mucosa.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Fernando Augusto Cervantes Garcia de; Paradella, Thaís Cachuté; Brandão, Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck; Rosa, Luiz Eduardo Blumer

    2009-01-01

    Currently, much is discussed regarding the pre-malignant nature of mouth mucosa lichen planus. The present study aims at analyzing the alterations found in the epithelial cells present in the oral cavity lichen planus, comparing them to those found in epidermoid carcinoma. Histological cross-sections of oral lichen planus and epidermoid carcinoma, dyed by hematoxylineosin, were analyzed through light microscopy. The most frequently found alterations in oral lichen planus were: an increase in the nucleus/cytoplasm relation (93.33%), nucleus membrane thickness (86.67%) and bi-nucleus or multinucleous (86.67%). The Student t test (alpha=5%) revealed a statistically significant difference between the average number of cell alterations in oral lichen planus (5.87+/-1.57) and in epidermoid carcinoma (7.60+/-1.81). As to the types of alterations, the chi-squared test also revealed statistically significant differences among the lesions assessed in relation to the following cell alterations: nuclear excess chromatism, atypical mitoses, cellular pleomorphism and abnormal cell differentiation (p<0.05). Despite the fact that in some cases, some pathologists may make mistakes in the histopathological diagnosis of oral lichen planus, the results obtained in this study show that the alterations present in oral lichen planus differ considerably from those seen in epidermoid carcinoma, thus showing how distinct these two diseases are.

  20. Morphologic expression of glandular differentiation in the epidermoid nasal carcinomas induced by phenylglycidyl ether inhalation.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K. P.; Schneider, P. W.; Trochimowicz, H. J.

    1983-01-01

    Charles River-CD Sprague-Dawley rats in 3 equal groups of 100 males and 100 females each were exposed to 12, 1, and 0 ppm of phenylglycidyl ether vapor for 24 months. Nasal tumors were first detected after 621 days' exposure at 12 ppm with an incidence of 11% in males and 4.4% in females. No nasal tumors were found at 1 ppm in rats exposed for 24 months. The nasal tumors, mostly epidermoid carcinomas, were derived from the respiratory epithelium and nasal glands, both of which revealed squamous metaplasia or dysplasia in the anterior nasal cavity. Most nasal tumors were confined to the anterior nasal cavity and occasionally invaded the dorsonasal bones and posterior nasal cavity. The undifferentiated glandular cells appear to differentiate to neoplastic squamous cells, because the ultrastructure of epidermoid carcinoma revealed traits of glandular cell differentiation in the neoplastic squamous cells. The features of glandular cell differentiation in the neoplastic squamous cells were intercellular or intracellular glandular lumens, secretory vesicles, mucus droplets, and intermediate cells showing both glandular and squamous differentiation. Squamous cells in the well-differentiated epidermoid carcinomas revealed abundant tonofibrils, desmosomes, glycogen particulates, and interdigitated cytoplasmic processes. These markers of squamous-cell differentiation were markedly reduced in the undifferentiated epidermoid carcinomas. The spindle-cell squamous carcinoma showed both squamous and fibroblastic-like differentiations. Some spindle cells had only fibroblastic-like differentiation, suggesting spindle-cell metaplasia of the squamous cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:6846500

  1. Pulmonary epidermoid carcinoma in a patient with acromegaly: a rare entity

    PubMed Central

    El Aziz, Siham; Chadli, Asma; Obbiba, Atika; El Ghomari, Hassan; Farouqi, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    A 56-years-old woman was referred to our unit for partially treated acromegaly. She had a high level of insulin growth factor. She did not complain of any pulmonary symptoms and was a non-smoker. Physical examination revealed clinical features of acromegaly. She had a 13 mm pituitary adenoma and was proposed for surgical intervention. Her chest X-ray showed a right paracardiac tumor. Computed tomography scan revealed a large right-sided fowler tumor. Pituitary surgery was cancelled and lobectomy after biopsy with lymph nodes excision was performed through thoracotomy. Histological study of the tumor revealed a medium differentiated epidermoid carcinoma with positive lymph nodes and extension to pleura. She was referred to chemotherapy protocol. Association between carcinoma and acromegaly has previously been reported. Most common tumors are colorectal and thyroid neoplasia. As we see in this case report, we need to consider other carcinomas in acromegalic patients like pulmonary carcinoma, despite their rarity in women. PMID:22891085

  2. A green approach toward quinoxalines and bis-quinoxalines and their biological evaluation against A431, human skin cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Debasish; Cruz, Jessica; Morales, Liza D; Arman, Hadi D; Cuate, Erica; Lee, Young S; Banik, Bimal K; Kim, Dae J

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a practical green procedure to synthesize quinoxalines and bis-quinoxalines and evaluate their inhibitory effects on the viability of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. A series of quinoxaline and bis-quinoxaline derivatives have been designed and synthesized following a microwave-assisted and bismuth nitrate-catalyzed eco-friendly route. A detailed comparison has been made between microwave-induced protocol with the reactions occurred at room temperature. The structure of the compounds have been elucidated by various spectroscopic methods and finally confirmed by x-ray crystallographic analyses. Two quinoxaline derivatives, compounds 6 and 12 have demonstrated inhibitory effects on the viability of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells when compared with HaCaT nontumorigenic human keratinocyte cells. Notably, compound 6 inhibits Stat3 phosphorylation/activation in A431 skin cancer cells.

  3. Vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor attenuates epidermoid squamous cell carcinoma growth by dampening mTOR signaling pathway in a human xenograft murine model

    SciTech Connect

    Kurundkar, Deepali; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Chaudhary, Sandeep C.

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are potent anticancer agents and show efficacy against various human neoplasms. Vorinostat is a potent HDAC inhibitor and has shown potential to inhibit growth of human xenograft tumors. However, its effect on the growth of skin neoplasm remains undefined. In this study, we show that vorinostat (2 μM) reduced expression of HDAC1, 2, 3, and 7 in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Consistently, it increased acetylation of histone H3 and p53. Vorinostat (100 mg/kg body weight, IP) treatment reduced human xenograft tumor growth in highly immunosuppressed nu/nu mice. Histologically, the vorinostat-treated tumor showed features of well-differentiation withmore » large necrotic areas. Based on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining and expression of cyclins D1, D2, E, and A, vorinostat seems to impair proliferation by down-regulating the expression of these proteins. However, it also induced apoptosis. The mechanism by which vorinostat blocks proliferation and makes tumor cells prone to apoptosis, involved inhibition of mTOR signaling which was accompanied by reduction in cell survival AKT and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Our data provide a novel mechanism-based therapeutic intervention for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Vorinostat may be utilized to cure skin neoplasms in organ transplant recipient (OTR). These patients have high morbidity and surgical removal of these lesions which frequently develop in these patients, is difficult. -- Highlights: ► Vorinostat reduces SCC growth in a xenograft murine model. ► Vorinostat dampens proliferation and induces apoptosis in tumor cells. ► Diminution in mTOR, Akt and ERK signaling underlies inhibition in proliferation. ► Vorinostat by inhibiting HDACs inhibits epithelial–mesenchymal transition.« less

  4. Design and optimization of non-clogging counter-flow microconcentrator for enriching epidermoid cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tran-Minh, Nhut; Dong, Tao; Su, Qianhua; Yang, Zhaochu; Jakobsen, Henrik; Karlsen, Frank

    2011-02-01

    Clogging failure is common for microfilters in living cells concentration; for instance, the CaSki Cell-lines (Epidermoid cervical carcinoma cells) utilizing the flat membrane structure. In order to avoid the clogging, counter-flow concentration units with turbine blade-like micropillar are proposed in microconcentrator design. Due to the unusual geometrical-profiles and extraordinary microfluidic performance, the cells blocking does not occur even at permeate entrances. A counter-flow microconcentrator was designed, with both processing layer and collecting layer arranged in terms of the fractal based honeycomb structure. The device was optimized by coupling Artificial Neuron Network (ANN) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The excellent concentration ratio of a final microconcentrator was presented in numerical results.

  5. Icotinib, a potent and specific EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, inhibits growth of squamous cell carcinoma cell line A431 through negatively regulating AKT signaling.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenzhen; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Xiaohua; Cai, Peifen; Fang, Xianying; Xu, Qiang; Sun, Yang; Gu, Yanhong

    2013-06-01

    Icotinib is a potent and specific epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. In this study, we reported that icotinib had the antitumor activity on human squamous cell carcinoma cell line A431 in vitro. Meanwhile, adhesion to fibronectin and expression of integrin α3 and β1 were significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner after the treatment of icotinib. Moreover, icotinib induced cell cycle arrested and affected expression of various cell cycle related proteins in squamous cancer cell line A431, whereas it did not cause apoptosis. Furthermore, icotinib remarkably down-regulated phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) though blocking the interaction between 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) and AKT in A431 cells. Taken together, it is shown that the small molecular compound, icotinib, has an anti-squamous cell carcinoma activity in vitro and its antitumor mechanism is associated with the blockage of the interaction between PDK1 and AKT. These results provide a novel strategy for anti-squamous cell carcinoma therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Combinatorial effects of geopropolis produced by Melipona fasciculata Smith with anticancer drugs against human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma (HEp-2) cells.

    PubMed

    Bartolomeu, Ariane Rocha; Frión-Herrera, Yahima; da Silva, Livia Matsumoto; Romagnoli, Graziela Gorete; de Oliveira, Deilson Elgui; Sforcin, José Maurício

    2016-07-01

    The identification of natural products exerting a combined effect with therapeutic agents could be an alternative for cancer treatment, reducing the concentration of the drugs and side effects. Geopropolis (Geo) is produced by some stingless bees from a mixture of vegetable resins, gland secretions of the bees and soil. It has been used popularly as an antiseptic agent and to treat respiratory diseases and dermatosis. To determine whether Geo enhances the anticancer effect of carboplatin, methotrexate and doxorubicin (DOX), human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma (HEp-2) cells were treated with Geo alone or in combination with each drug. Cell growth, cytotoxicity and apoptosis were evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and flow cytometry. Scratch assay was used to analyze cell migration and transmission electron microscopy to observe morphologic alterations. The influence of Geo on drug resistance was also investigated assessing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) action. Geo inhibited cell proliferation and migration. The combination Geo+DOX led to the highest cytotoxic activity and induced apoptosis, leading to loss of membrane integrity. Geo had no effect on P-gp-mediated efflux of DOX. Data indicate that Geo combined with DOX could be a potential clinical chemotherapeutic approach for laryngeal cancer treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Primary epidermoid carcinoma of the breast presenting as a breast abscess and sepsis.

    PubMed

    Damin, Andrea Pires; Nascimento, Fernanda Costa; Andreola, João Batista; Cerutti, Talita Haubert; Roehe, Adriana; Damin, Daniel Carvalho

    2011-12-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the breast is an extremely rare form of cancer, accounting for approximately 0.04% of all malignant breast tumors. To date, only a limited number of cases of SCC of the breast have been reported, and most of them presented like the usual breast carcinomas. A 39-year-old woman presented with a large breast abscess and signs of sepsis. After surgical debridement of the lesion, histopathological examination of the abscess capsule revealed the presence of SCC of the breast. The definitive treatment for the tumor consisted of modified radical mastectomy with resection of the residual lesion in the right breast. This unusual case illustrates how an apparently benign disorder such as a breast abscess might be related to a clinically occult malignancy. A review of the literature on SCC of the breast is presented.

  8. Effective multimodality treatment for advanced epidermoid carcinoma of the female genital tract

    SciTech Connect

    Kalra, J.; Cortes, E.; Chen, S.

    1985-07-01

    Fifteen patients with advanced or recurrent squamous-cell carcinoma of the cervix, vulva, vagina, and urethra were treated with simultaneous combination chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil infusion and mitomycin C) and radiotherapy (3,000 rad for a period of three weeks). Three to four weeks after completion of radiotherapy, 13 of 15 patients achieved partial or complete tumor shrinkage. Nine of 15 patients are alive, eight of whom (at a median follow-up time of 24 months) have no evidence of disease. The longest survival time was 45 + months. There was minimal toxicity associated with this therapy. The results of this pilot study suggest thatmore » the simultaneous administration of radiation and chemotherapy is an effective method of treatment of advanced female genital tract carcinoma.« less

  9. [Chronic ulceration of the hand in a mechanic: epidermoid carcinoma should be suspected].

    PubMed

    Naciri, Ilhame; Hassam, Baderddine

    2017-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is a malignant tumor developed from the epidermis or the squamous mucosa. It may occur de novo or, most often, on precancerous lesions, including actinic keratoses. This tumor can sometimes be secondary to physical or chemical hazardous conditions encountered during the professional activity. We here report the case of a 40-year old mechanic presenting with ulceration of the dorsal side of his right wrist, evolving over 6 months. The lesion had first appeared as a small keratosic lesion that had transformed into an erosion and then into an ulceration increasing rapidly in size. The patient had no initial trauma and he had no particular previous history except the handling of chemicals (fuels, mineral oil, paint) without gloves for about the last 30 years. Physical examination showed a large sized ulcero-budding tumor (5 × 6 cm) on the dorsal side of his right wrist (A), associated with diffuse multiple actinic keratosis lesions on his two forearms and on the back of his hands (B). The patient also had two painless hard mobile adenopathies measuring 1.5 cm in diameter, on the ipsilateral epitrochlear and axillary regions. The remainder of the clinical examination was normal. Viral hepatitis serology test, treponemal test and retrovirus (HIV) test were negative. Histological examination of a biopsy sample confirmed the diagnosis of well differentiated and infiltrating squamous cell carcinoma. The biopsy of the axillary adenopathy objectified ganglionic metastasis with capsular break-in and extension to the periganglionar tissue. The remainder of the staging was without abnormalities. The patient underwent wide resection of the lesion with lymph node dissection followed by radiation therapy. Patient's evolution was marked by early local recurrence (two months later) requiring reoperation. The postoperative course was uneventful.

  10. Designed Synthesis of Nanostructured Magnetic Hydroxyapatite Based Drug Nanocarrier for Anti-Cancer Drug Delivery toward the Treatment of Human Epidermoid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Govindan, Bharath; Swarna Latha, Beeseti; Nagamony, Ponpandian; Ahmed, Faheem; Saifi, Muheet Alam; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Alwasel, Saleh; Mansour, Lamjed; Alsharaeh, Edreese H.

    2017-01-01

    Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles on hydroxyapatite nanorod based nanostructures (Fe3O4/HAp) were synthesized using hydrothermal techniques at 180 °C for 12 h and were used as drug delivery nanocarriers for cancer cell therapeutic applications. The synthesized Fe3O4/HAp nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET)-analysis, and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The morphologies of the Fe3O4/HAp nanocomposites show 15 nm Fe3O4 nanoparticles dispersed in the form of rods. The BET result shows that the synthesized samples have a high specific surface area of 80 m2 g−1 with mesoporous structures. Magnetic measurements revealed that the sample has high saturation magnetization of 18 emu/g with low coercivity. The Fe3O4/HAp nanocomposites had a large specific surface area (SSA), high mesoporous volume, and good magnetic property, which made it a suitable nanocarrier for targeted drug delivery systems. The chemotherapeutic agent, andrographolide, was used to investigate the drug delivery behavior of the Fe3O4/HAp nanocomposites. The human epidermoid skin cancer cells (A431) were used as the model targeting cell lines by treating with andrographolide loaded Fe3O4/HAp nanosystems and were further evaluated for their antiproliferative activities and the induction of apoptosis. Also, the present nanocomposite shows better biocompatibility, therefore it can be used as suitable drug vehicle for cancer therapy applications. PMID:28587317

  11. Binding of fluoresceinated epidermal growth factor to A431 cell sub-populations studied using a model-independent analysis of flow cytometric fluorescence data.

    PubMed Central

    Chatelier, R C; Ashcroft, R G; Lloyd, C J; Nice, E C; Whitehead, R H; Sawyer, W H; Burgess, A W

    1986-01-01

    A method is developed for determining ligand-cell association parameters from a model-free analysis of data obtained with a flow cytometer. The method requires measurement of the average fluorescence per cell as a function of ligand and cell concentration. The analysis is applied to data obtained for the binding of fluoresceinated epidermal growth factor to a human epidermoid carcinoma cell line, A431. The results indicate that the growth factor binds to two classes of sites on A431 cells: 4 X 10(4) sites with a dissociation constant (KD) of less than or equal to 20 pM, and 1.5 X 10(6) sites with a KD of 3.7 nM. A derived plot of the average fluorescence per cell versus the average number of bound ligands per cell is used to construct binding isotherms for four sub-populations of A431 cells fractionated on the basis of low-angle light scatter. The four sub-populations bind the ligand with equal affinity but differ substantially in terms of the number of binding sites per cell. We also use this new analysis to critically evaluate the use of 'Fluorotrol' as a calibration standard in flow cytometry. PMID:3015587

  12. In vitro motility of cells from human epidermoid carcinomas. A study by phase-contrast and reflection-contrast cinematography.

    PubMed

    Haemmerli, G; Sträuli, P

    1981-05-15

    The motile behavior of six cell lines derived from human squamous carcinomas (two from the larynx, four from the tongue) was studied by cinematography under phase- and reflection-contrast illumination. The recorded cell activities consist in spreading, stationary and translocation motility, and aggregate formation. Within this common pattern, quantitative modifications ("sub-pattern") are stable properties of the individual cells lines. Such modifications are particularly evident with regard to the dynamic texture of the aggregates which ranges from loose, netlike structures to compact islands with smooth borders. Accordingly, the intensity of cell traffic within and around the aggregates varies considerably. It is discussed to what extent the in vitro motility of the carcinoma cell populations reflects their behavior in the organism and thus the significance of cell movements for invasion.

  13. Up-regulation of the tight-junction protein ZO-1 by substance P and IGF-1 in A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ji-Ae; Murata, Shizuka; Nishida, Teruo

    2009-08-01

    The formation of a barrier by tight junctions is important in epithelia of various tissues. Substance P (SP) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 synergistically promote barrier function in the corneal epithelium. We have now examined the effects of SP and IGF-1 on expression of the tight-junction protein zonula occludens (ZO)-1 in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunoblot analyses revealed that SP and IGF-1 increased the amounts of ZO-1 mRNA and protein in these cells in a concentration-dependent manner, with neither SP nor IGF-1 alone having such an effect. The SP- and IGF-1-induced up-regulation of ZO-1 was accompanied by phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and both of these effects were blocked by PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK activation. SP and IGF-1 also increased the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) (an indicator of barrier function) of an A431 cell monolayer in a manner sensitive to PD98059. Our results thus suggest that the synergistic induction of ZO-1 expression by SP and IGF-1 may promote barrier function in skin epithelial cells. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Submental epidermoid cysts in children.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Rafal; Zakrzewska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are lesions, which form as a result of implantation of the epidermis in the layers of the dermis or the mucous membrane. The lesions are rare in adults with 7% occurring in the head and neck area and most often located in the submental region. In children population submental epidermoid cysts are extremely rare. The differential diagnosis of the lesions is necessary as it affects the choice of treatment methods. Among the pathological conditions occurring in that region, salivary retention cyst (ranula), thyroglossal duct cyst, vascular lymphatic malformation (cystic hygroma), median neck cyst, lymphadenopathy, thyroid gland tumor, laryngeal cyst, epidermoid and dermoid cysts, submental abscess, sialolithiasis and salivary gland inflammation should be considered. The authors of the present report demonstrate two cases of submental epidermoid cysts in children. Differential diagnosis in case of suspected submental epidermoid cyst in a child with proposed clinical practice and literature review is provided.

  15. Submental epidermoid cysts in children

    PubMed Central

    Zakrzewska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are lesions, which form as a result of implantation of the epidermis in the layers of the dermis or the mucous membrane. The lesions are rare in adults with 7% occurring in the head and neck area and most often located in the submental region. In children population submental epidermoid cysts are extremely rare. The differential diagnosis of the lesions is necessary as it affects the choice of treatment methods. Among the pathological conditions occurring in that region, salivary retention cyst (ranula), thyroglossal duct cyst, vascular lymphatic malformation (cystic hygroma), median neck cyst, lymphadenopathy, thyroid gland tumor, laryngeal cyst, epidermoid and dermoid cysts, submental abscess, sialolithiasis and salivary gland inflammation should be considered. The authors of the present report demonstrate two cases of submental epidermoid cysts in children. Differential diagnosis in case of suspected submental epidermoid cyst in a child with proposed clinical practice and literature review is provided. PMID:28352681

  16. Huge intradiploic epidermoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Turkoglu, Omer Faruk; Ozdol, Cagatay; Gurcan, Oktay; Gurcay, Ahmet Gurhan; Tun, Kagan; Cemil, Berker

    2010-01-01

    A 60-year-old man presented with an occipital mass under the scalp and complained of headache, nausea, and dizziness. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a well-defined mass in the occipital scalp extending from the scalp through the cranium and several centimetres into the posterior fossa. There were well-defined margins in the deep portion and the mass was totally removed. Histological examination showed that the cystic structure was lined by squamous epithelium containing laminated keratin material. The pathological findings were consistent with the diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst. The patient was discharged free of symptoms.

  17. [Giant intradiploic infratentorial epidermoid cyst].

    PubMed

    Alberione, F; Caire, F; Fischer-Lokou, D; Gueye, M; Moreau, J J

    2007-10-01

    Epidermoid cysts are benign, uncommon lesions (1% of all intracranial tumors). Their localization is intradiploic in 25% of cases, and exceptionally subtentorial. We report here a rare case of giant intradiploic infratentorial epidermoid cyst. A 74-year old patient presented with recent diplopia and sindrome cerebellar. CT scan and MR imaging revealed a giant osteolytic extradural lesion of the posterior fossa (5.2 cm x 3.8 cm) with a small area of peripheral enhancement after contrast injection. Retrosigmoid suboccipital craniectomy allowed a satisfactory removal of the tumor, followed by an acrylic cranioplasty. The outcome was good. Neuropathological examination confirmed an epidermoid cyst. We review the literature and discuss our case.

  18. Recurrent intramedullary epidermoid cyst of conus medullaris

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Christina; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; O’Sullivan, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Spinal intramedullary epidermoid cyst is a rare condition. Recurrent epidermoid cyst in the spine cord is known to occur. The authors describe a case of recurrent conus medullaris epidermoid cyst in a 24-year-old female. She initially presented at 7 years of age with bladder disturbance in the form of diurnal enuresis and recurrent urinary tract infection. MRI lumbar spine revealed a 4 cm conus medullaris epidermoid cyst. Since the initial presentation, the cyst had recurred seven times in the same location and she underwent surgical intervention in the form of exploration and debulking. This benign condition, owing to its anatomical location, has posed a surgical and overall management challenge. This occurrence is better managed in a tertiary-care centre requiring multi-disciplinary treatment approach. PMID:22669964

  19. An unusual encounter of an epidermoid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Sritharan, Kaji; Ghani, Yaser; Thompson, Hilary

    2014-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are extremely common and can occur in any hair-containing area. We present the case of a 20-year-old man with an epidermoid cyst in the perianal region. Epidermal cysts have been described in this area previously after haemorrhoidectomy, but cysts of the size seen in this case are rare in the absence of previous anal trauma. The diagnosis was confirmed by excision biopsy. PMID:24825558

  20. Epidermoid Cyst of Mandible Ramus: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Loxha, Mergime Prekazi; Salihu, Sami; Kryeziu, Kaltrina; Loxha, Sadushe; Agani, Zana; Hamiti, Vjosa; Rexhepi, Aida

    2016-06-01

    An epidermoid cyst is a benign cyst usually found on the skin. Bone cysts are very rare and if they appear in bone they usually appear in the distal phalanges of the fingers. Epidermoid cysts of the jaws are uncommon. We present a case, of a 41 year-old female patient admitted to our department because of pain and swelling in the parotid and masseteric region-left side. There was no trismus, pathological findings in skin, high body temperature level, infra-alveolar nerves anesthesia or lymphadenopathy present. The orthopantomography revealed a cystic lesion and a unilocular lesion that included mandibular ramus on the left side with 3 cm in diameter. Under total anesthesia, a cyst had been reached and was enucleated. Histopathologic findings showed that the pathologic lesion was an epidermoid cyst. Epidermoid and dermoid cysts are rare, benign lesions found throughout the body. Only a few cases in literature describe an intraossesus epidermoid cyst. Our case is an epidermoid cyst with a rare location in the region of the mandibular ramus. It is not associated with any trauma in this region except medical history reveals there was an operative removal of a wisdom tooth 12 years ago in the same side. These cysts are interesting from the etiological point of view. They should be considered in the differential diagnosis of other radiolucent lesions of the jaws. Surgically they have a very good prognosis, and are non-aggressive lesions.

  1. Epidermoid Cyst of Mandible Ramus: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Loxha, Mergime Prekazi; Salihu, Sami; Kryeziu, Kaltrina; Loxha, Sadushe; Agani, Zana; Hamiti, Vjosa; Rexhepi, Aida

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: An epidermoid cyst is a benign cyst usually found on the skin. Bone cysts are very rare and if they appear in bone they usually appear in the distal phalanges of the fingers. Epidermoid cysts of the jaws are uncommon. Case presentation: We present a case, of a 41 year-old female patient admitted to our department because of pain and swelling in the parotid and masseteric region–left side. There was no trismus, pathological findings in skin, high body temperature level, infra-alveolar nerves anesthesia or lymphadenopathy present. The orthopantomography revealed a cystic lesion and a unilocular lesion that included mandibular ramus on the left side with 3 cm in diameter. Under total anesthesia, a cyst had been reached and was enucleated. Histopathologic findings showed that the pathologic lesion was an epidermoid cyst. Discussion: Epidermoid and dermoid cysts are rare, benign lesions found throughout the body. Only a few cases in literature describe an intraossesus epidermoid cyst. Conclusion: Our case is an epidermoid cyst with a rare location in the region of the mandibular ramus. It is not associated with any trauma in this region except medical history reveals there was an operative removal of a wisdom tooth 12 years ago in the same side. These cysts are interesting from the etiological point of view. They should be considered in the differential diagnosis of other radiolucent lesions of the jaws. Surgically they have a very good prognosis, and are non-aggressive lesions. PMID:27594757

  2. Epidermoid cyst of the spleen

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Quoc Duy; Monnard, Etienne; Hoogewoud, Henri Marcel

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with a palpable mass and abdominal pain in the left upper quadrant. A physical examination revealed tenderness in this region. An ultrasound performed initially showed a large cystic structure. A CT examination revealed a large cyst originating in the spleen with loculations in its upper part and focal calcification in the wall. On MRI, the cystic mass showed high signal on T1-weighted and T2-weighted images. The carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) was measured at 88 U/ml (standard <37.1 mUI/l). According to the imaging examinations and laboratory tests performed, it was impossible to determine if the splenic cyst was parasitic or non-parasitic. Given the most important risks of complications encountered in parasitic cysts, it was decided to treat this splenic cyst as a parasitic cyst. For this reason, an elective laparoscopic splenectomy with preoperative embolisation of the splenic artery was performed. The histological diagnosis was a primary epidermoid splenic cyst with inner lining epithelial cells. PMID:23667225

  3. Atypical Intracranial Epidermoid Cysts: Rare Anomalies with Unique Radiological Features

    PubMed Central

    Law, Eric K. C.; Lee, Ryan K. L.; Ng, Alex W. H.; Siu, Deyond Y. W.; Ng, Ho-Keung

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are benign slow growing extra-axial tumours that insinuate between brain structures, while their occurrences in intra-axial or intradiploic locations are exceptionally rare. We present the clinical, imaging, and pathological findings in two patients with atypical epidermoid cysts. CT and MRI findings for the first case revealed an intraparenchymal epidermoid cyst that demonstrated no restricted diffusion. The second case demonstrated an aggressive epidermoid cyst that invaded into the intradiploic spaces, transverse sinus, and the calvarium. The timing of ectodermal tissue sequestration during fetal development may account for the occurrence of atypical epidermoid cysts. PMID:25667778

  4. Orbital dermoid and epidermoid cysts: case study.

    PubMed

    Veselinović, Dragan; Krasić, Dragan; Stefanović, Ivan; Veselinović, Aleksandar; Radovanović, Zoran; Kostić, Aleksandar; Cvetanović, Marija

    2010-01-01

    Dermoid and epidermoid cysts of the orbit belong to choristomas, tumours that originate from the aberrant primordial tissue. Clinically, they manifest as cystic movable formations mostly localized in the upper temporal quadrant of the orbit. They are described as both superficial and deep formations with most frequently slow intermittent growth. Apart from aesthetic effects, during their growth, dermoid and epidermoid cysts can cause disturbances in the eye motility, and in rare cases, also an optical nerve compression syndrome. In this paper, we described a child with a congenital orbital dermoid cyst localized in the upper-nasal quadrant that was showing signs of a gradual enlargement and progression. The computerized tomography revealed a cyst of 1.5-2.0 cm in size. At the Maxillofacial Surgery Hospital in Nis, the dermoid cyst was extirpated in toto after orbitotomy performed by superciliary approach. Postoperative course was uneventful, without inflammation signs, and after two weeks excellent functional and aesthetic effects were achieved. Before the decision to treat the dermoid and epidermoid cysts operatively, a detailed diagnostic procedure was necessary to be done in order to locate the cyst precisely and determine its size and possible propagation into the surrounding periorbital structures. Apart from cosmetic indications, operative procedures are recommended in the case of cysts with constant progressions, which cause the pressure to the eye lobe, lead to motility disturbances and indirectly compress the optical nerve and branches of the cranial nerves III, IV and VI.

  5. Hearing preservation in management of epidermoids of the cerebellopontine angle: CPA epidermoids and hearing preservation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mia E; Mastrodimos, Bill; Cueva, Roberto A

    2012-12-01

    Surgical approaches for epidermoid cysts of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) are dictated by tumor location. Previous reports have advocated the sacrifice of usable hearing to achieve maximal tumor resection in a single operation. The aim of the current study is to demonstrate the applicability of hearing preservation approaches in the neurotologic management of epidermoids of the CPA. Retrospective chart review. A search of archived surgical cases at a single institution between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2011, revealed 18 cases of epidermoid cysts involving the CPA. Eighteen patients with a mean age 40.9 years underwent surgery. Average tumor size was 4.47 cm, and presenting symptoms included headache, vertigo, cranial neuropathies, and seizures. Thirteen patients underwent a retrosigmoid approach, 2 translabyrinthine, 2 pterional, and 1 retrolabyrinthine/presigmoid. Complications included CSF leak, pseudomeningocele, meningitis, cranial nerve dysfunction, and persistent imbalance. All but 5 patients had long-term follow-up imaging to chronicle tumor residua/recurrence, varying from 6 to 149 months postoperatively. The average length of follow-up was 71.4 months, and residual tumor was common, with most patients demonstrating a focal or small area of residual tumor on follow-up imaging. Two patients had undergone previous surgery for epidermoid excision elsewhere. Two patients required reoperation for epidermoid regrowth, and the times between surgeries were 44 and 78 months. Of the patients who underwent a retrosigmoid approach, 9 had postoperative audiograms. All of these patients maintained hearing at or near their preoperative level except for 2 patients whose hearing declined and one whose hearing significantly improved. Hearing preservation approaches for epidermoids of the CPA is a feasible option for long-term control of these tumors. Resection from a retrosigmoid approach can provide years of useful hearing, and the majority of patients do not

  6. A clear cell variant of mucoepidermoid carcinoma harboring CRTC1-MAML2 fusion gene found in buccal mucosa: report of a case showing a large clear cell component and lacking typical epidermoid cells and intermediate cells.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Shogo; Namiki, Ichiro; Koda, Kenji

    2017-06-01

    The predominance of clear cells in mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC) is rare, and cases in which this occurs are termed clear cell variants of MEC. We present a case of a 70-year-old woman complaining of a right buccal mucosal mass, which had increased in size over 1 year. Histological examination revealed the mass to be composed predominantly of clear tumor cells, with mucin-containing cells and intermediate cell-like cells. Immunohistochemistry indicated that the tumor was positive for CK5/6 and p63, but negative for myoepithelial markers such as S-100 protein, αSMA, and calponin. These findings ruled out the possibility of a clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma, which is the most frequently observed type of salivary carcinoma composed predominantly of clear cells. However, it is difficult to distinguish between clear cell variants of MEC and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. Therefore, we performed fluorescence in situ hybridization to determine whether MAML2 rearrangement had occurred in this mass. Direct sequencing of the RT-PCR product demonstrated CRTC1-MAML2 fusion between exon 1 of CRTC1 and exon 2 of MAML2. Thus, the diagnosis of clear cell variant of MEC was confirmed. This is the first report of CRTC1-MAML2 fusion gene detection in a clear cell variant of MEC.

  7. Cerebellopontine angle epidermoid tumour presenting with bilateral gaze nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Han, I B; Huh, R; Chung, S S; Kim, O J

    2008-06-01

    Vestibular symptoms have been rarely described in cerebellopontine angle epidermoid tumours. We report a case of CPA epidermoid tumour presenting with subacute onset of vestibular symptoms such as vertigo, gait ataxia, and nystagmus masquerading as acute vestibular neuritis or central vertigo. The vestibular symptoms disappeared after excision of the tumour.

  8. Chemotherapeutic Effect of CD147 Antibody-labeled Micelles Encapsulating Doxorubicin Conjugate Targeting CD147-Expressing Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Tadashi; Yokoyama, Masayuki; Shiraishi, Koichi; Aoki, Katsuhiko; Ohkawa, Kiyoshi

    2018-03-01

    CD147 (basigin/emmprin) is expressed on the surface of carcinoma cells. For studying the efficacy of CD147-targeting medicine on CD147-expressing cells, we studied the effect of anti-CD147-labeled polymeric micelles (CD147ab micelles) that encapsulated a conjugate of doxorubicin with glutathione (GSH-DXR), with specific accumulation and cytotoxicity against CD147-expressing A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells, Ishikawa human endometrial adenocarcinoma cells, and PC3 human prostate carcinoma cells. By treatment of each cell type with CD147ab micelles for 1 h, a specific accumulation of CD147ab micelles in CD147-expressing cells was observed. In addition, the cytotoxicity of GSH-DXR-encapsulated micelles against each cell type was measured by treatment of the micelles for 1 h. The cytotoxic effect of CD147ab micelles carrying GSH-DXR was 3- to 10-fold higher for these cells than that of micelles without GSH-DXR. These results suggest that GSH-DXR-encapsulated CD147ab micelles could serve as an effective drug delivery system to CD147-expressing carcinoma cells. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  9. Purification and characterization of a membrane-associated 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine binding protein from a human carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, S Y; Hasumura, S; Willingham, M C; Pastan, I

    1986-01-01

    A membrane-associated binding protein for 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) was purified to apparent homogeneity from A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. A431 cells were specifically labeled with the N-bromoacetyl derivative of T3 labeled with 125I at the 3' position (BrAc[125I]T3) and were extracted with 3-[3-(cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS), a zwitterionic detergent. The solubilized BrAc[125I]T3-labeled protein was successively purified by chromatography on Sephadex G-200 and QAE-Sephadex followed by NaDod-SO4/PAGE. Approximately 0.2 mg of purified protein was obtained from 2.5 X 10(9) cells, which represents a 3000-fold purification. The membrane-associated T3 binding protein is an acidic protein with a pI of 5.1 and an apparent molecular mass of 55,000 daltons determined by NaDodSO4/PAGE. Polyclonal antibodies against the 55-kDa protein were prepared and used in indirect immunofluorescence to show that the 55-kDa protein was mainly found in the nuclear envelope and endoplasmic reticulum. Images PMID:3006034

  10. Epidermoid Cyst of the Sole - A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rajput, Santosh Singh; Gopinathan, Nayar Sajeeth

    2016-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are common benign subcutaneous lesion also termed as epidermal cysts. Epidermoid cyst are commonly seen in hairy regions of body like scalp, face and scrotum, can be single or multiple, but rarely can occur in glabrous skin of palm and sole. They are known to result from progressive cystic ectasia of the infundibular portion of hair follicle but the pathogenesis in palmo-plantar epidermoid cyst differs that is traumatic sequestration of epidermal elements into dermis. Here, we report a case of 30-year-old female presented with complaints of swelling in her left sole. On examination a palpable firm swelling was noted just below the 2nd web space left foot plantar region, on X-ray foot no osseous lesion or foreign body was detected. Swelling was excised and sent for histopathological examination which confirmed it as epidermoid cyst. PMID:28050432

  11. Periorbital epidermoid cyst in the medial canthus of three dogs.

    PubMed

    Davidson, H J; Blanchard, G L

    1991-01-15

    Periorbital epidermoid cyst in the medial canthus was identified ultrasonographically and confirmed histologically in 3 dogs. Surgical resection of the cysts, with reconstruction of the lacrimal canaliculi, was curative in all 3 cases.

  12. Twinkle artefact in the ultrasound diagnosis of superficial epidermoid cysts

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Richard; Suresh, Priya; Thomas, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the twinkle artefact is a valuable feature in the sonographic diagnosis of superficial epidermoid cysts. Materials and methods A retrospective search was undertaken of our institution’s Radiology Information System and pathology database to identify cases of superficial masses showing the twinkle artefact that proceeded to surgical excision. Results Eighteen superficial masses demonstrating the twinkle artefact were identified that were submitted for pathological analysis. Of these, 17 were confirmed to represent epidermoid cysts and only 1 case had an alternative diagnosis (proliferating trichilemmal cyst). Conclusion The presence of the twinkle artefact appears to be a specific and valuable ancillary sonographic feature for the diagnosis of superficial epidermoid cysts. PMID:27867407

  13. Pediatric epidermoid cysts masquerading as ranulas: A case series.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Abhita; Kreicher, Kathryn L; Patel, Neha A; Schantz, Stimson; Shinhar, Shai

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric neck masses represent a variety of differential diagnoses. A common pathology in pediatric cystic neck tumors include ranulas, mucus retention cysts due to salivary gland obstruction. Epidermoid cysts are lesions infrequently encountered in the pediatric population and may appear similarly to ranulas on computed tomography imaging. MRI more easily differentiates these masses, and should therefore be the preferred imaging modality. Due to their distinct intraoperative management, ranulas and epidermoid cysts should be distinguished preoperatively through proper workup. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Subconjunctival epidermoid cysts in Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

    PubMed

    De Craene, S; Batteauw, A; Van Lint, M; Claerhout, I; Decock, C

    2014-08-01

    Epidermoid cysts are common benign cysts which occur particularly on the skin of the face, neck and upper trunk. Subconjunctival location of these cysts is very rare and, until today, only seen in patients with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome. Histopathological examination of these cysts show similarities with odontogenic keratocysts, a typical clinical manifestation of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

  15. Gamma knife radiosurgery for cerebellopontine angle epidermoid tumors.

    PubMed

    El-Shehaby, Amr M N; Reda, Wael A; Abdel Karim, Khaled M; Emad Eldin, Reem M; Nabeel, Ahmed M

    2017-01-01

    Intracranial epidermoid tumors are commonly found in the cerebellopontine angle where they usually present with either trigeminal neuralgia or hemifacial spasm. Radiosurgery for these tumors has rarely been reported. The purpose of this study is to assess the safety and clinical outcome of the treatment of cerebellopontine epidermoid tumors with gamma knife radiosurgery. This is a retrospective study involving 12 patients harboring cerebellopontine angle epidermoid tumors who underwent 15 sessions of gamma knife radiosurgery. Trigeminal pain was present in 8 patients and hemifacial spasm in 3 patients. All cases with trigeminal pain were receiving medication and still uncontrolled. One patient with hemifacial spasm was medically controlled before gamma knife and the other two were not. Two patients had undergone surgical resection prior to gamma knife treatment. The median prescription dose was 11 Gy (10-11 Gy). The tumor volumes ranged from 3.7 to 23.9 cc (median 10.5 cc). The median radiological follow up was 2 years (1-5 years). All tumors were controlled and one tumor shrank. The median clinical follow-up was 5 years. The trigeminal pain improved or disappeared in 5 patients, and of these, 4 cases stopped their medication and one decreased it. The hemifacial spasm resolved in 2 patients who were able to stop their medication. Facial palsy developed in 1 patient and improved with conservative treatment. Transient diplopia was also reported in 2 cases. Gamma knife radiosurgery provides good clinical control for cerebellopontine angle epidermoid tumors.

  16. Gamma knife radiosurgery for cerebellopontine angle epidermoid tumors

    PubMed Central

    El-Shehaby, Amr M. N.; Reda, Wael A.; Abdel Karim, Khaled M.; Emad Eldin, Reem M.; Nabeel, Ahmed M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Intracranial epidermoid tumors are commonly found in the cerebellopontine angle where they usually present with either trigeminal neuralgia or hemifacial spasm. Radiosurgery for these tumors has rarely been reported. The purpose of this study is to assess the safety and clinical outcome of the treatment of cerebellopontine epidermoid tumors with gamma knife radiosurgery. Methods: This is a retrospective study involving 12 patients harboring cerebellopontine angle epidermoid tumors who underwent 15 sessions of gamma knife radiosurgery. Trigeminal pain was present in 8 patients and hemifacial spasm in 3 patients. All cases with trigeminal pain were receiving medication and still uncontrolled. One patient with hemifacial spasm was medically controlled before gamma knife and the other two were not. Two patients had undergone surgical resection prior to gamma knife treatment. The median prescription dose was 11 Gy (10–11 Gy). The tumor volumes ranged from 3.7 to 23.9 cc (median 10.5 cc). Results: The median radiological follow up was 2 years (1–5 years). All tumors were controlled and one tumor shrank. The median clinical follow-up was 5 years. The trigeminal pain improved or disappeared in 5 patients, and of these, 4 cases stopped their medication and one decreased it. The hemifacial spasm resolved in 2 patients who were able to stop their medication. Facial palsy developed in 1 patient and improved with conservative treatment. Transient diplopia was also reported in 2 cases. Conclusion: Gamma knife radiosurgery provides good clinical control for cerebellopontine angle epidermoid tumors. PMID:29184709

  17. Giant Vulvar Epidermoid Cyst in an Adolescent Girl

    PubMed Central

    Karaman, Erbil; Çim, Numan; Akdemir, Zülküf; Elçi, Erkan; Akdeniz, Hüseyin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Vulvar cyst in adolescent girls is very uncommon. Epidermoid cyst can be seen in many sites including face, trunk, and extremities but its occurrence in vulva is uncommon. This is the first case of epidermoid cyst of vulva reported in an adolescent girl. Case. A 17-year-old, adolescent girl admitted to our gynecology outpatient clinic with a complaint of painful and palpable mass in her vulva. On examination, a giant mass located in left vulva and labia majora with 11 cm in diameter was seen. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a well-defined cystic mass without contrast enhancement. The surgery was advised to the patient and the pathologic examination of mass revealed vulvar epidermoid cyst. Discussion. Vulvar cysts generally grow slowly and the main etiologies are vulvar trauma and surgical interventions including episiotomy and female circumcision in some culture. The exact treatment is total surgical excision and pathologic examination. MRI is an important imaging modality for detection of extension to deep perineal tissue and localization of mass in vulva especially in giant ones. Conclusion. Although vulvar mass in adolescents is rare, the epidermoid cyst with benign origin should be kept in mind. PMID:25949839

  18. Chemo-spectroscopic sensor for carboxyl terminus overexpressed in carcinoma cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Stanca, Sarmiza E; Matthäus, Christian; Neugebauer, Ute; Nietzsche, Sandor; Fritzsche, Wolfgang; Dellith, Jan; Heintzmann, Rainer; Weber, Karina; Deckert, Volker; Krafft, Christoph; Popp, Jürgen

    2015-10-01

    Certain carboxyl groups of the plasma membrane are involved in tumorgenesis processes. A gold core-hydroxyapatite shell (AuHA) nanocomposite is introduced as chemo-spectroscopic sensor to monitor these carboxyl groups of the cell membrane. Hydroxyapatite (HA) plays the role both of a chemical detector and of a biocompatible Raman marker. The principle of detection is based on chemical interaction between the hydroxyl groups of the HA and the carboxyl terminus of the proteins. The AuHA exhibits a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal at 954 cm(-1) which can be used for its localization. The bio-sensing capacity of AuHA towards human skin epidermoid carcinoma (A431) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines is investigated using Raman microspectroscopic imaging. The localization of AuHA on cells is correlated with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and structured illumination fluorescence microscopy. This qualitative approach is a step towards a quantitative study of the proteins terminus. This method would enable further studies on the molecular profiling of the plasma membrane, in an attempt to provide accurate cell identification. Using a gold core-hydroxyapatite shell (AuHA) nanocomposite, the authors in this paper showed the feasibility of detecting and differentiating cell surface molecules by surface enhanced Raman scattering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sublingual epidermoid cyst presenting with distinctive magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Naohiro; Kodama, Kozue; Iino, Yukiko

    2014-06-18

    A case of sublingual epidermoid cyst presenting distinctive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings is described. A 39-year-old man presented to our hospital with a three months progressive left submandibular swelling, difficulty moving his tongue, and snoring. Preoperative evaluation with MRI and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) revealed that the heterogeneous cystic lesion contained the squamous cells, which is compatible with ectodermal tissue. The mass was located above the mylohyoid muscle and spread to the pharyngeal space. By considering the size, infection history, patient age, and location, the cyst was completely resected under general anesthesia via cervical approach without any complication. Histopathologically, the cyst wall was lined by stratified squamous epithelium with no skin appendage, suggesting an epidermoid cyst. Ultrasound (US), MRI and FNAC were very useful of the preoperative diagnosis for oral and sublingual lesion. The postoperative course was uneventful and without recurrence after 24 months. This case showed that epidermoid cysts formed the rarely heterogeneous cystic tumor and it underlined usefulness of preoperative diagnosis, such as US, MRI and FNAC for oral and sublingual tumor.

  20. [The extended endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach in surgery for epidermoid cysts of the chiasmatic region].

    PubMed

    Fomichev, D V; Kalinin, P L; Kutin, M A; Sharipov, O I; Chernov, I V

    Surgical treatment for epidermoid cysts of the chiasmatic region is a challenge because of the tendency to a massive spread of epidermoid masses through the cerebrospinal fluid pathways and a significant lesion deviation from the midline. To analyze capabilities of the extended endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach in surgery for epidermoid cysts. The study included 6 patients with epidermoid cysts of the chiasmatic region who were operated on using the extended anterior endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach at the Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute in the past 5 years. Epidermoid masses were completely removed in 5 patients; in none of the cases, complete removal of the epidermoid cyst capsule was achieved. There were no cases of vision deterioration and the development of new focal neurological symptoms. One female patient developed hypopituitary disorders in the postoperative period. There was no recurrence of epidermoid cysts during follow-up. Removal of epidermoid cysts of the chiasmatic region using the extended anterior endoscopic transsphenoidal approach may be an alternative to transcranial microsurgery.

  1. Diosmin reduces cell viability of A431 skin cancer cells through apoptotic induction.

    PubMed

    Buddhan, Rajamanickam; Manoharan, Shanmugam

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic potential of the diosmin in A431 skin cancer cells. The cytotoxic (anti-cell proliferative) potential of diosmin in A431 cells was assessed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay (cell viability), dual staining (apoptotic induction), dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate assay (reactive oxygen species [ROS] generation), DNA fragmentation study, Western blotting analysis (apoptotic markers expression) and flow cytometry (cell cycle arrest). Diosmin reduced the cell viability of A431 cells in a dose-dependent fashion and the inhibitory concentration 50% value was attained at 45 μg/ml using MTT assay. Diosmin at a concentration of 45 μg/ml generated excessive ROS in A431 cells, as compared to untreated cells. Diosmin treated A431 cells also revealed multiple DNA fragments than the untreated cells. Diosmin upregulated the expression of p53, caspases 3 and 9 and downregulated the expression of Bcl-2, matrix metalloproteinases-2 and 9 in A431 cells. The cytotoxic or anti-cell proliferative potential of diosmin is due to its ROS-mediated apoptotic induction potential, as well as due to its role in the inhibition of invasion in the A431 cells.

  2. Intrinsic epidermoid of the brain stem: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Singh, Saraj K; Jain, Kapil; Jain, Vijendra Kumar

    2018-03-19

    Purely cystic brain stem epidermoid is a rare diagnosis among all brainstem cystic lesions. Further, it is very rare in pediatric age group. Here, we are reporting a rare case of completely cystic brain stem epidermoid in a child. The patient presented with clinical features of brain stem involvement. MRI brain was suggestive of cystic brain stem lesion. Patient went through surgical procedure. Final diagnosis of epidermoid cyst was confirmed on histopathological report. With the help of various advanced sequences of MRI like diffusion and ADC, diagnosis of epidermoid cyst can be established at unusual intracranial site also. Surgical resection of epidermoid cyst at brain stem should be attempted judiciously utilizing all modern tools of neurosurgery.

  3. Epidermoid cyst of the breast: Mammography, ultrasound, MRI.

    PubMed

    Wynne, Elisabeth; Louie, Adeline

    2011-01-01

    Epidermal cysts are common cysts located cutaneously or subcutaneously in the head, neck, and trunk. However, deep epidermal cysts of the breast are very rare, and are frequently associated with traumatic implantation. We present the case of a 62-year-old woman with a palpable mass in the right breast. The patient was evaluated using mammography, ultrasound, and MRI, which uniquely characterized the mass and revealed a second mass. Histological analysis revealed fragments of an epidermoid cyst. The origin of the cysts and location deep within the breast tissue likely were due to a previous bilateral-reduction mammoplasty.

  4. Cis-diamminedichloride platinum II (DDP) in the treatment of penile carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sklaroff, R B; Yagoda, A

    1979-11-01

    Cis-diamminedichloride platinum II (DDP) was administered to eight patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the penis. Three of six adequately treated patients had an objective response: one patient achieved complete remission of 7 months duration and 2 patients had partial remissions of 8 and 2 months, respectively. DDP appears to be an active agent in the treatment of penile carcinoma.

  5. Surgical treatment of parapontine epidermoid cysts presenting with trigeminal neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhilin; Ouyang, Huoniu; Cheng, Zhihua

    2011-03-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the management of 49 patients with parapontine epidermoid cyst presenting with trigeminal neuralgia, emphasizing the importance of fully removing the tumor to relieve the trigeminal neuralgia. Clinical symptoms, MRI, the operative approach, and post-operative results were examined. Trigeminal neuralgia was noted in all patients. The mean duration from onset of symptoms to surgery was 18 months. Total removal was achieved in 23 patients, near-total removal in 21, and subtotal removal in five patients. However, all tumor capsule that adhered to the trigeminal nerve was completely removed. After the operation, 33 patients developed facial hypoesthesia, three complained of double vision, and two developed acute hydrocephalus. At six months of follow-up, all patients had recovered and returned to their normal lives. At 2 years of follow-up, one patient experienced pain recurrence and underwent another operation. Parapontine epidermoid cysts either encase cranial nerve (CN) V but with intact arachnoid between the capsule and the nerve, or compress and distort the nerve with tumor capsule adherent or attached to the nerve surface. Resecting the tumor capsule's attachment to CN V is critical in relieving pain, even though this method may damage the nerve. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Eldecalcitol (ED-71), an analog of 1α,25(OH)2D3, inhibits the growth of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells in vitro and in vivo by down-regulating expression of heparin-binding protein 17/fibroblast growth factor-binding protein-1 (HBp17/FGFBP-1) and FGF-2.

    PubMed

    Shintani, T; Takatsu, F; Rosli, S N Z; Usui, E; Hamada, A; Sumi, K; Hayashido, Y; Toratani, S; Okamoto, Tetsuji

    2017-10-01

    Heparin-binding protein 17 (HBp17)/fibroblast growth factor-binding protein-1 (FGFBP-1) was first purified from medium conditioned by A431 cells for its capacity to bind to fibroblast growth factors 1 and 2 (FGF-1 and -2). Among FGF family members, FGF-2 is a potent mitogen for various cell types, including vascular endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and cancer cells such as oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. Besides being well known in bone metabolism, the active form of vitamin D 3 , i.e., 1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 (1,25D 3 ), was reported to have protective effects for heart disease and cancer. Previously, we reported that 1,25D 3 inhibited HBp17/FGFBP-1 expression in OSCC cell lines through NF-κB inhibition (IκBα activation) and resulted in the inactivation of FGF-2. In this study, we examined the potential anti-tumor effect of ED-71, an analog of 1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 , for squamous cell carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. The cell lines used were OSCC cell lines (NA-HO-1-n-1 and UE-HO-1-u-1), established from oral cancer patients in our laboratory, and an epidermoid carcinoma/SCC cell line (A431). The growth assay in serum-free culture revealed that ED-71 inhibited the growth of the cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, ED-71 suppressed HBp17/FGFBP-1 expression by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway as did 1,25D 3 . Furthermore, a luciferase reporter assay revealed that the promoter activity of HBp17/FGFBP-1 (region between -217 and +61) was down-regulated by ED-71. Oral administration of ED-71 significantly inhibited the growth of A431-derived tumors in athymic nude mice. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the expression of HBp17/FGFBP-1, FGF-2, CD31, and Ki-67 in the tumors of ED71-treated group was down-regulated in comparison to control. These results suggest that ED-71 possesses potential anti-tumor activity for SCCs both in vitro and in vivo. This compound may act directly on the tumor cells or on endothelial cells by modulating the

  7. Molluscum Contagiosum Involving an Epidermoid Cyst - A Rare Association and Potential Source of Clinical Misdiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Prithwijit; Saha, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a viral infection of skin and mucous membrane commonly affecting the adolescents and young adults. Extensive lesions are usually common in immunocompromised patients. We herein report a rare case of molluscum contagiosum in an epidermoid cyst (EC) in a 24-year-old immunocompetent male. The provisional clinical diagnosis was inflammed epidermoid cyst or lipoma. On histopathological examination, the lesion displayed a unilocular epidermoid cyst in deep dermis, the lining of which was infected by molluscum contagiosum virus with characteristic inclusions. The overlying epidermis was absolutely normal having no attachment with the cyst.

  8. Expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva; Almeida, Maria Carolina Leal; Costa, Alessandra Scorse; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Serrano, Rodrigo Lorenzetti; Machado, Carlos D'Apparecida Santos

    2016-01-01

    Heparanase is an enzyme that cleaves heparan sulfate chains. Oligosaccharides generated by heparanase induce tumor progression. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma comprise types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Evaluate the glycosaminoglycans profile and expression of heparanase in two human cell lines established in culture, immortalized skin keratinocyte (HaCaT) and squamous cell carcinoma (A431) and also investigate the expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and eyelid skin of individuals not affected by the disease (control). Glycosaminoglycans were quantified by electrophoresis and indirect ELISA method. The heparanase expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRTPCR). The A431 strain showed significant increase in the sulfated glycosaminoglycans, increased heparanase expression and decreased hyaluronic acid, comparing to the HaCaT lineage. The mRNA expression of heparanase was significantly higher in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma compared with control skin samples. It was also observed increased heparanase expression in squamous cell carcinoma compared to the Basal cell carcinoma. The glycosaminoglycans profile, as well as heparanase expression are different between HaCaT and A431 cell lines. The increased expression of heparanase in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma suggests that this enzyme could be a marker for the diagnosis of such types of non-melanoma cancers, and may be useful as a target molecule for future alternative treatment.

  9. Intranasal epidermoid cyst causing upper airway obstruction in three brachycephalic dogs.

    PubMed

    Murgia, D; Pivetta, M; Bowlt, K; Volmer, C; Holloway, A; Dennis, R

    2014-08-01

    This case report describes three brachycephalic dogs with intranasal epidermoid cysts that were causing additional upper airway obstruction. Although epidermoid cysts have been described in several locations in dogs, to the authors' knowledge intranasal epidermoid cysts have not been previously reported. All dogs had mucopurulent to haemorrhagic nasal discharge. Magnetic resonance imaging of the head revealed the presence of unilateral or bilateral intranasal cystic lesions obstructing the nasal cavities partially or completely, with atrophy of the ipsilateral nasal turbinates. The cystic lesions were surgically excised in all dogs using a modified lateral alveolar mucosal approach to the affected nasal cavity. Aerobic, anaerobic and fungal culture of the cystic contents were negative and histology of the excised tissue was consistent with a benign intranasal epidermoid cyst in each dog. Upper airway obstruction was clinically improved in two dogs. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  10. Laparoscopic excision of an epidermoid cyst arising from the deep abdominal wall.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Hajime; Nakai, Takuya; Ueda, Kazuki; Haji, Seiji; Takeyama, Yoshifumi; Ohyanagi, Harumasa

    2009-10-01

    Epidermoid cysts are the most common type of cutaneous cyst. However, their occurrence in the deep abdominal wall has not yet been reported. Here, we present the case of a 60-year-old woman who developed an epidermoid cyst in the deep abdominal wall, which was resected laparoscopically. The patient presented with right upper quadrant abdominal pain on admission to our hospital. Computed tomography revealed cholecystolithiasis and an incidentally identified well-defined hypoattenuating mass (62 x 47 x 65 mm) in the deep abdominal wall on the left side of the navel. We performed laparoscopic complete resection of the abdominal wall tumor followed by cholecystectomy. The excised specimen was a cyst covered with a smooth thin membrane and contained sludge. Histopathologic examination revealed an epidermoid cyst. This is a very rare case with no previous reports on a similar type of epidermoid cyst.

  11. A rare case of congenital epidermoid cyst of the hard palate

    PubMed Central

    Montebugnoli, Lucio; Tiberio, Cristiana; Venturi, Mattia

    2011-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are benign conditions that are thought to derive from abnormally situated ectodermal inclusions in the oral cavity. They are generally found in hands, fingers, feet, ovaries and testicles but in oral cavity they represent a very rare event. This is the first case of an intraosseous epidermoid cyst situated in the hard palate. Healing was uneventful and there was no sign of recurrence in 2-years follow-up. PMID:22675054

  12. Choroidal metastasis of mixed carcinoma of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Pinilla, I; Abecia, E; Oliván, J M; Honrubia, F M

    1997-08-01

    A case of mixed carcinoma of the parotid gland (an epidermoid carcinoma located in a pleomorphic adenoma) metastatic to the choroid is presented. The histopathology of the tumor is discussed. A 65-year-old man was admitted complaining of blurred vision in his right eye for 1 day. He underwent parotidectomy for mixed carcinoma of the parotid gland (an epidermoid carcinoma located in a pleomorphic adenoma that was completely excised) 6 months before. Funduscopic examination showed a nasal retinal detachment, with gray-whitish, minimally elevated nodular choroidal lesions. Fluorescein angiography and contact B-scan ultrasonography confirmed the presence of an underlying mass. The right eye was enucleated and an epidermoid infiltrating carcinoma was identified. Metastatic tumors are the most common intraocular malignancies, and the choroid is by far the most common location for intraocular metastases. There are few cases reported of parotid tumors metastatic to the orbit. To the best of our knowledge, no histological examination of an ocular metastatic mixed carcinoma of the parotid gland has yet been reported.

  13. Methotrexate in the treatment of penile carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sklaroff, R B; Yagoda, A

    1980-01-15

    Eight patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the penis received methotrexate, five with high-dose methotrexate, 250--1500 mg/m2 with citrovorum rescue Q 2--4 weeks, and three with low-dose methotrexate, 0.5--3.0 mg/kg weekly. Three (38%) patients achieved a complete or partial remission which persisted for 11, 3 and 2 months, respectively. Methotrexate appears to be an active agent in the treatment of advanced penile cancer.

  14. Vulvar Epidermoid Cyst and Type 2 Radical Genital Mutilation

    PubMed Central

    Birge, Ozer; Ozbey, Ertugrul Gazi; Arslan, Deniz; Erkan, Mustafa Melih; Demir, Feyza; Akgor, Utku

    2015-01-01

    About 100 million women are estimated to be circumcised globally. Various rates of complications have been encountered, especially after circumcision, such as bleeding, infection, shock, menstrual irregularity, difficulty in urination or common urinary tract infections, inguinal pain, difficulty in sexual intercourse, and genital circumcision scar especially at the vulvar region, and cystic or solid character mass in short and long term. Furthermore, the maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality increase due to bleeding and fistula, which develop after prolonged labor, travail, and difficult labors. Our aim in this paper was to discuss a 42-year-old multiparous female case who had undergone type 2 radical genital mutilation (circumcision) when she was 7 years of age, along with the literature, which has been evaluated for the gradually growing mass at the left inguinal canal region in the last 10 years and diagnosed as epidermoid inclusion cyst developing secondary to postcircumcision surgical ground trauma, since there was no other case found in the literature search that had been circumcised at such an early age and developing after circumcision at such advanced age, and, therefore, this is suggested to be the first case on this subject. PMID:26682078

  15. Treatment of epidermoid tumors with gamma knife radiosurgery: Case series.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Javier A Jacobo; Fonnegra, Julio R; Diez, Juan C; Fonnegra, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Epidermoid tumors (ETs) are benign lesions that are treated mainly by means of surgical resection, with overall good results. External beam radiotherapy is an alternative treatment for those recurrent tumors, in which a second surgery might not be the best choice for the patient. A little information exists about the effectiveness of gamma knife radiosurgery for the treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent ETs. We present three cases of ETs treated with gamma knife radiosurgery. Case 1 is a 21-year-old female with an ET located in the left cerebellopontine angle (CPA) with symptoms related to VIII cranial nerve dysfunction. Symptom control was achieved and maintained after single session radiosurgery with gamma knife. Case 2 is a 59-year-old female patient with the history of trigeminal neuralgia secondary to a recurrent ET located in the left CPA. Significant pain improvement was achieved after treatment with gamma knife radiosurgery. Case 3 is a 29-year-old male patient with a CPA ET causing long lasting trigeminal neuralgia, pain relief was achieved in this patient after gamma knife radiosurgery. Long-term symptom relief was achieved in all three cases proving that gamma knife radiosurgery is a good and safe alternative for patients with recurrent or nonsurgically treated ETs.

  16. β-sitosterol induces G1 arrest and causes depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential in breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds It is suggested that dietary phytosterols, such as β-sitosterol (ST), have cancer chemopreventive effects; however, studies are limited to support such claims. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of ST on three different human cancer cell lines including skin epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells, lung epithelial carcinoma A549 cells and breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231. Methods Cell growth assay, cell cycle analysis, FACS, JC-1 staining, annexin V staining and immunoblotting were used to study the efficacy of ST on cancer cells. Results ST (30–90 μM) treatments for 48 h and 72 h did not show any significant effect on cell growth and death in A431 cells. Whereas similar ST treatments moderately inhibited the growth of A549 cells by up to 13% (p ≤ 0.05) in 48 h and 14% (p ≤ 0.05-0.0001) in 72 h. In MDA-MB-231 cells, ST caused a significant dose-dependent cell growth inhibition by 31- 63% (p ≤ 0.0001) in 48 h and 40-50% (p ≤ 0.0001) in 72 h. While exploring the molecular changes associated with strong ST efficacy in breast cancer cells, we observed that ST induced cell cycle arrest as well as cell death. ST caused G0/G1 cell cycle arrest which was accompanied by a decrease in CDK4 and cyclin D1, and an increase in p21/Cip1and p27/Kip1 protein levels. Further, cell death effect of ST was associated with induction of apoptosis. ST also caused the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and increased Bax/Bcl-2 protein ratio. Conclusions These results suggest prominent in vitro anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of ST in MDA-MB-231 cells. This study provides valuable insight into the chemopreventive efficacy and associated molecular alterations of ST in breast cancer cells whereas it had only moderate efficacy on lung cancer cells and did not show any considerable effect on skin cancer cells. These findings would form the basis for further studies to understand the mechanisms and assess the potential utility of ST as a cancer

  17. Epidermoid cyst of the external auditory canal in children: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aziz, Mosaad

    2011-07-01

    Epidermoid cyst of the external auditory canal (EAC) is rarely encountered in the clinical practice, but when it occurs, it may cause obstruction of the meatus that necessitates surgical excision. The aims of this study were to present 9 pediatric patients with epidermoid cysts of the EAC and to evaluate the outcome of the surgical technique that has been used in excision. Surgical removal of the cyst was carried out through a simple transmeatal approach, a medially based rectangular skin flap was elevated and the cyst was completely removed. No complications or recurrence have been reported. Epidermoid cyst should be listed in the differential diagnosis of EAC masses; it appears on computed tomography as a cystic mass in the outer cartilaginous part of EAC that is usually limited to the soft tissue with no bone erosion. It can be removed easily through simple transmeatal approach with high success rate and no morbidity.

  18. Inpatient Rehabilitation of Cerebellopontine Angle Epidermoid Cysts: Report of 3 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jack Brian; Nelson, Megan Bale; Bruera, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Objective Demonstrate the inpatient rehabilitation potential of cerebellopontine angle epidermoid cyst patients. Due to their location, symptoms may present with a complex combination of headache, cerebellar dysfunction, and cranial nerve deficits affecting functional status. Methods This report describes the cases of 3 patients with cerebellopontine angle epidermoid cysts who underwent neurosurgical resection followed by inpatient rehabilitation. All 3 patients experienced gait instability and cranial nerve deficits before surgery, and 2 of the patients had mild cognitive deficits. A customized rehabilitation program for these patients can address these deficits. Results Each patient showed demonstrable gains in function with inpatient rehabilitation and good outcomes at discharge. Conclusion When rehabilitating epidermoid cyst patients, the clinician must be aware of a higher likelihood of cranial neuropathies, need for increased psychosocial support, and the need for more vigilant long term medical monitoring to detect recurrence. PMID:25328367

  19. Malignant transformation of a residual cerebellopontine angle epidermoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Pikis, Stylianos; Margolin, Emil

    2016-11-01

    Malignant transformation is a rare but devastating complication following partial resection of an intracranial epidermoid cyst (EC). Time to malignant transformation is highly variable and optimal management is unclear. A literature search from 1965 to January 2016 identified manuscripts discussing clinical presentation, management, and outcome of malignant transformation of a remnant intracranial EC. One male patient diagnosed with malignant transformation of a remnant intracranial EC in our institution was also included in the study. There were 21 patients with malignant transformation of a remnant intracranial EC, including the current patient. Mean age was 51.4years (range 36 to 77) and there was a female predominance (12 women, 9 men, ratio 1.33:1). The mean time interval from partial resection of a benign intracranial EC to malignant transformation was 7.74years (range from 3months to 33years). Surgical resection of the tumor alone was the treatment of choice in 10 patients with one of them requiring a second operation and radiotherapy 2months following the first operation. Adjuvant treatment modalities were employed in 11 patients and included radiotherapy (n=4), stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) (n=3), chemotherapy (n=1), chemotherapy combined with SRS (n=1) and with radiotherapy (n=1) and radiotherapy combined with SRS and followed by a second tumor resection (n=1). Follow-up period ranged from 1 day to 5years and 11/19 patients (57.8%) were reported dead on follow-up. Prospective studies are required to define the optimal management of malignant transformation of remnant intracranial EC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Septic disruption of lactiferous ducts with heterogeneous carcinoma of the breast in a lactating woman.

    PubMed

    Naim, Mohammed; John, Vanesa T; Gaur, Kavita; Anees, Afzal

    2010-08-06

    This report documents the diagnostic histopathological features of heterogeneous breast carcinoma following sepsis and disruption of the lactiferous ducts in a lactating woman and discusses the pathogenesis. Sections from the nipple revealed disrupted collecting lactiferous ducts presenting with intraduct precarcinoma and carcinoma of the epidermoid type, and attached reparative sprouts lined by lactiferous cells. Breast lobules showed generalised benign adenotic change with various foci of carcinoma microscopically identifiable as intraduct primitive lactiferal ectodermal carcinoma, lactating carcinoma, primitive neuroendocrine carcinoma and myoepithelioid granulomatous carcinoma. The findings led to the conclusion that the lactiferous ducts are susceptible to sepsis and disruption, which may predispose a patient to breast carcinoma. The pattern of carcinoma suggested that lactiferous epithelial cells behaved colonially, with different metaplastic changes, precarcinoma and carcinoma.

  1. [Epidermoid cancer of the thoracic esophagus following mediastinal irradiation].

    PubMed

    Fékété, F; Mosnier, H; Sogni, P; Belghiti, J; Molas, G

    1986-03-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus induced by radiation therapy is a rare entity. We report 4 cases observed during the past 4 years. Three women and one man aged from 47 to 78 years developed squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus 8 to 11 years after radiation therapy. The 3 women had been irradiated for breast cancer and the man for Hodgkin's disease with 40 to 57.5 Gy. Three patients were operated on and the immediate postoperative course was uneventful. Culling data from this report and from the literature we reviewed the different steps concerning the diagnosis and the treatment of this complication of radiation therapy. We suggest that diagnostic and therapeutic modalities should follow the same guidelines as in other esophageal cancers.

  2. [Giant epidermoid cyst of the skull with extra and intracranial extension. A case report].

    PubMed

    Akhaddar, A; Gazzaz, M; El Mostarchid, B; Kadiri, B; Lrhezzioui, J; Boucetta, M

    2002-09-01

    Intradiploic epidermoid cyst of the skull is a rare clinical entity that can exceptionally grow to a large size with intracranial extension. The authors report the case of a 38-year-old man with a giant epidermoid cyst of the parietal bone with extra and intracranial extension, presenting with focal neurological symptoms. The diagnosis was suggested at imaging (skull radiographs, CT and MRI), and confirmed at histology. Complete removal of the cyst and its capsule was performed followed by cranioplasty. Postoperatively, the patient was discharged free of symptoms. CT scan provides good evaluation of the bony lesion and may suggest intracranial extension. MRI is superior for evaluation of cerebral compression. The pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic management of these rare lesions are reviewed.

  3. A giant intradiploic epidermoid cyst with perforation of the dura and brain parenchymal involvement.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jong-Ho; Jung, Tae-Young; Kim, In-Young; Jung, Shin; Kang, Sam-Suk; Kim, Soo-Han

    2007-05-01

    A patient with a long-standing intradiploic epidermoid cyst with perforation of the dura and brain parenchymal involvement is reported. A 69-year-old man, who had previously presented with a subcutaneous mass on the left frontoparietal scalp, developed a sudden grand mal seizure. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a well-defined mass in the frontoparietal scalp with destruction of the skull. Penetration of the dura allowed for communication with the intracranial structures. Surgical resection and cranioplasty were performed. There were no well-defined margins in the deep portion and the mass was subtotally removed. Histological examination showed that the cystic structure was lined by squamous epithelium containing laminated keratin material. The pathologic findings were consistent with the diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst.

  4. Establishment of A431 cell membrane chromatography-RPLC method for screening target components from Radix Caulophylli.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaofang; Wang, Sicen; Hou, Jingjing; He, Langchong

    2011-03-01

    We describe here an analytical method of A431 cell membrane chromatography (A431/CMC) (CMC, cell membrane chromatography) combined with RPLC for recognition, separation, and identification of target components from traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) Radix Caulophylli. The A431 cells with high expressed epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were used to prepare the stationary phase in the CMC model. Retention fractions on the A431-CMC model were collected using an automated fraction collection and injection module (FC/I). Each fraction was analyzed by RPLC under the optimized conditions. Gefitinib and erlotinib were used as standard compounds to investigate the suitability and reliability of the A431 cell membrane chromatography-RPLC method prior to screening target component from Radix Caulophylli total alkaloids. The results indicated that caulophine and taspine were the target component acting on the epidermal growth factor receptor. This method could be an efficient way in drug discovery using natural medicinal herbs as a source of novel compounds. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Epidermoid cyst in Meckel's cave with unusual computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Case report.

    PubMed

    Arai, Atsushi; Sasayama, Takashi; Koyama, Junji; Fujita, Atsushi; Hosoda, Kohkichi; Kohmura, Eiji

    2010-01-01

    A 27-year-old woman presented with headache and occasional numbness over her right face. Computed tomography revealed a hypodense mass in the middle cranial fossa and another adjacent hyperdense mass in the posterior fossa with erosion of the right petrous apex. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the lesion in the middle cranial fossa as iso- to hypointense on T(1)-weighted and hyperintense on T(2)-weighted imaging, with peripheral enhancement after gadolinium administration, and the adjacent lesion in the posterior fossa as hyperintense on T(1)-weighted and hypointense on T(2)-weighted imaging. During surgery, these lesions mimicking two adjacent distinct tumors were revealed to connect through Meckel's cave. The hypodense lesion in the middle cranial fossa consisted of pearly-like solid contents, and the hyperdense lesion in the posterior cranial fossa consisted of viscid dark-green materials. The tumors were gross totally resected with endoscopic assistance. Histological examination confirmed that the tumor was an epidermoid cyst. The present case cyst indicates that although the diffusion-weighted imaging sequence is useful for detection of intracranial epidermoid cysts, epidermoid cysts including viscous materials with unusual radiological findings could complicate the preoperative diagnosis.

  6. Follicular hybrid cyst: a combination of bullous pilomatricoma and epidermoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Sanusi, Tutyana; Qu, Xiaoying; Li, Yanqiu; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Ming; Zhao, Yun; Yang, Zhen; An, Xiangjie; Qian, Yue; Wang, Chunsen; Chen, Hongxiang; Chen, Siyuan; Huang, Changzheng

    2013-01-01

    The follicular hybrid is composed of more than two components of pilosebaceous unit. There are several studies of hybrid cyst, combination of trichilemmal and epidermoid cyst was the most frequently reported. In this paper, we reported one case of hybrid cyst composed of bullous pilomatricoma and epidermoid cyst. A 14-year-old girl was complaint of a solitary flesh-colored to erythematous nodule with flaccid appearance sized 3.2 × 1.8 cm in diameter on her right upper back for one year. The histologic findings showed there were edema and proliferation of capillaries in the superficial dermis, a cyst in the middle to deep dermis. There were laminated keratins in the cystic space. The cyst wall was composed of two different components, one was composed of epithelial cells containing of granular layer, and another consisted of basophilic cells, transient cells and shadow cells. The cyst not related with Gardner's syndrome. Hybrid cyst such as trichilemmal cyst, epidermoid and pilomatricoma cysts maybe have same clinical features or mimicking each others, but we can distinguish them from histopathology evaluation.

  7. Follicular hybrid cyst: a combination of bullous pilomatricoma and epidermoid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Sanusi, Tutyana; Qu, Xiaoying; Li, Yanqiu; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Ming; Zhao, Yun; Yang, Zhen; An, Xiangjie; Qian, Yue; Wang, Chunsen; Chen, Hongxiang; Chen, Siyuan; Huang, Changzheng

    2013-01-01

    The follicular hybrid is composed of more than two components of pilosebaceous unit. There are several studies of hybrid cyst, combination of trichilemmal and epidermoid cyst was the most frequently reported. In this paper, we reported one case of hybrid cyst composed of bullous pilomatricoma and epidermoid cyst. A 14-year-old girl was complaint of a solitary flesh-colored to erythematous nodule with flaccid appearance sized 3.2×1.8 cm in diameter on her right upper back for one year. The histologic findings showed there were edema and proliferation of capillaries in the superficial dermis, a cyst in the middle to deep dermis. There were laminated keratins in the cystic space. The cyst wall was composed of two different components, one was composed of epithelial cells containing of granular layer, and another consisted of basophilic cells, transient cells and shadow cells. The cyst not related with Gardner’s syndrome. Hybrid cyst such as trichilemmal cyst, epidermoid and pilomatricoma cysts maybe have same clinical features or mimicking each others, but we can distinguish them from histopathology evaluation. PMID:24294394

  8. Dwarfism, occult spinal dysraphism, and presacral myxopapillary ependymoma with an epidermoid cyst in a child.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, R S; Kelly, D R; Mroczek-Musulman, E C; Braune, K; Reddy, A; Georgeson, K; Grabb, P A; Oakes, W J

    2005-03-01

    The authors present a case of a child with dwarfism that was noted to be developmentally delayed. Imaging revealed atlantoaxial instability, occult spinal dysraphism, and a presacral mass. Histopathology of the presacral lesion was that of a myxopapillary ependymoma with epidermoid cyst. We believe this to be the first report in the extant medical literature of this constellation of findings in the same patient. However, there are rare reports indicating a possible association of occult spinal dysraphism and the simultaneous occurrence of spinal ependymomas. Further case reports are necessary to discern whether these pathological entities are true low rate associations that the clinician should consider in their evaluation of these patients.

  9. Subtotal resection and omentoplasty of the epidermoid splenic cyst: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Spahija, Gazmend S; Hashani, Shemsedin I; Osmani, Eshref A; Hoxha, Sejdullah A; Hamza, Astrit H; Gashi-Luci, Lumturije H

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Nonparasitic splenic cysts are uncommon clinical entity and because of it, there is no information regarding their optimal surgical treatment. Case presentation A 41-years-old female with incidentally diagnosed nonparasitic splenic cyst which initially was asymptomatic. After two years of follow up, the patient underwent surgery; subtotal cystectomy and omentoplasty as an additional procedure. Postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion Short and mid term results showed that near total cystectomy with omentoplasty was a safe successful procedure for treatment of epidermoid splenic cyst. PMID:19829799

  10. Lysosomal Signaling Enhances Mitochondria-Mediated Photodynamic Therapy in A431 Cancer Cells: Role of Iron

    PubMed Central

    Saggu, Shalini; Hung, Hsin-I; Quiogue, Geraldine; Lemasters, John J.; Nieminen, Anna-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    In photodynamic therapy (PDT), light activates a photosensitizer added to a tissue, resulting in singlet oxygen formation and cell death. The photosensitizer phthalocyanine 4 (Pc 4) localizes primarily to mitochondrial membranes in cancer cells, resulting in mitochondria-mediated cell death. The aim of this study was to determine how lysosomes contribute to PDT-induced cell killing by mitochondria-targeted photosensitizers such as Pc 4. We monitored cell killing of A431 cells after Pc 4-PDT in the presence and absence of bafilomycin, an inhibitor of the vacuolar proton pump of lysosomes and endosomes. Bafilomycin was not toxic by itself, but greatly enhanced Pc 4-PDT-induced cell killing. To investigate whether iron loading of lysosomes affects bafilomycin-induced killing, cells were incubated with ammonium ferric citrate (30 μm) for 30 h prior to PDT. Ammonium ferric citrate enhanced Pc 4 plus bafilomycin-induced cell killing without having toxicity by itself. Iron chelators (desferrioxamine and starch-desferrioxamine) and the inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium (and ferrous iron) uniporter, Ru360, protected against Pc 4 plus bafilomycin toxicity. These results support the conclusion that chelatable iron stored in the lysosomes enhances the efficacy of bafilomycin-mediated PDT and that lysosomal disruption augments PDT with Pc 4. PMID:22220628

  11. Intraparenchymal epidermoid cyst: proper surgical management may lead to satisfactory outcome.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian; Wang, Chun; Liu, Fengqiang

    2018-03-12

    Intraparenchymal epidermoid cysts (IECs) are rare lesions, thus the preoperative diagnosis and proper surgical management are still a challenge. We searched the database at our institution and performed a search of English literature in PubMed and Google Scholar. Keywords used were as follows: "intraparenchymal"; "intracerebral"; "intraaxial"; "epidermoid cyst"; "brainstem"; "cholesteatoma"; "pearly tumor". Only cases that were true intraparenchymally located and contained adequate clinical information were included. Six cases of IECs were recorded at our institution. Total removal was achieved in all the six patients with good outcomes. 29 cases meeting the above criteria were found in the literature. Including ours, a total of 35 patients were analyzed. Females were more frequently affected (F/M ratio, 1.9:1). Most of them were located in the brainstem (42.9%) and temporal lobe (22.9%). While in children, all were located in the brainstem. 45.2% showed subtle peripheral enhancement on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and all appeared hyperintense on Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI). In the subgroup of cerebral lobes and cerebellums, total resection was achieved in 89.5%, and they all showed good outcomes. While in the subgroup of brainstem, 46.7% (seven cases) underwent total resection and 50% (three cases) of them died postoperatively. MRI with DWI is helpful in the preoperative diagnosis. Total resection should be achieved for the IECs located in cerebral lobes and cerebellums, while subtotal resection is a wise and safe strategy for the IECs located in the brainstem.

  12. [Epidermoid cyst of the testis difficult to make a preoperative diagnosis on the echoic examination: a case report].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Keisuke; Takada, Tsuyoshi; Momohara, Chikahiro; Komori, Kazuhiko; Honda, Masahito; Fujioka, Hideki

    2003-04-01

    A case of epidermoid cyst of the testis is presented. The patient was a 64-year-old man who complained of a painless mass in the left scrotum. Physical examination revealed a hen-egg sized enlargement of the left scrotal contents. The ultrasonographic appearance did not show a hyperechoic partition, which is called echogenic rim, a characteristic of this tumor on the echoic examination, and was homogeneous, almost similar to that of a normal testis. Because malignant testicular tumors could not be excluded preoperatively, excisional biopsy of the left testis was performed first. Histological diagnosis was an epidermoid cyst of the testis. As the left testis was almost completely occupied by the tumor and no normal testicular tissue was recognized, we performed orchiectomy additionally. Epidermoid cyst of the testis is a rare benign tumor that accounts for about 1 percent of all testicular tumors. It clinically resembles malignant testicular tumors, and orchiectomy is often performed for treatment. About 154 cases of testicular epidermoid cyst have been reported in the Japanese literature and are reviewed briefly here.

  13. Proteolytic cleavage and activation of PAK2 during UV irradiation-induced apoptosis in A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, T K; Chang, W C; Chan, W H; Yang, S D; Ni, M H; Yu, J S

    1998-09-15

    Exposure of mammalian cells to ultraviolet (UV) light elicits a cellular response and can also lead to apoptotic cell death. In this report, we show that a 36-kDa myelin basic protein (MBP) kinase detected by an in-gel kinase assay can be dramatically activated during the early stages of UV irradiation-triggered apoptosis of A431 cells. Immunoblot analysis revealed that this 36-kDa MBP kinase could be recognized by an antibody against the C-terminal regions of a family of p21Cdc42/Rac-activated kinases (PAKs). By using this antibody and a PAK2-specific antibody against the N-terminal region of PAK2 as studying tools, we further demonstrated that UV irradiation caused cleavage of PAK2 to generate a 36-kDa C-terminal catalytic fragment and a 30-kDa N-terminal fragment in A431 cells. The appearance of the 36-kDa C-terminal catalytic fragment of PAK2 matched exactly with the activation of the 36-kDa MBP kinase in A431 cells upon UV irradiation. In addition, UV irradiation also led to activation of CPP32/caspase-3, but not ICH-1L/caspase-2 and ICE/caspase-1, in A431 cells and the kinetics of activation of CPP32/caspase-3 appeared to correlate well with that of DNA fragmentation and of cleavage/activation of PAK2, respectively. Moreover, blockage of activation of CPP32/caspase-3 by pretreating the cells with two specific tetrapeptidic inhibitors for caspases (Ac-DEVD-cho and Ac-YVAD-cmk) could significantly attenuate the extent of cleavage/activation of PAK2 induced by UV irradiation. Collectively, the results demonstrate that cleavage and activation of PAK2 can be induced during the early stages of UV irradiation-triggered apoptosis and indicate the involvement of CPP32/caspase-3 in this process.

  14. Epidermoid cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... your provider should examine you for signs of skin cancer. Some skin cancers look like cystic nodules, so have any new ... and pits. In: Patterson JW, ed. Weedon's Skin Pathology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2015: ...

  15. 1,4-Naphthoquinone activates the HSP90/HSF1 pathway through the S-arylation of HSP90 in A431 cells: Negative regulation of the redox signal transduction pathway by persulfides/polysulfides.

    PubMed

    Abiko, Yumi; Sha, Liang; Shinkai, Yasuhiro; Unoki, Takamitsu; Luong, Nho Cong; Tsuchiya, Yukihiro; Watanabe, Yasuo; Hirose, Reiko; Akaike, Takaaki; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2017-03-01

    The current consensus is that environmental electrophiles activate redox signal transduction pathways through covalent modification of sensor proteins with reactive thiol groups at low concentrations, while they cause cell damage at higher concentrations. We previously exposed human carcinoma A431 cells to the atmospheric electrophile 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4-NQ) and found that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), a negative regulator of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), was a target of 1,4-NQ. In the study presented here, we determined whether 1,4-NQ activates HSF1. We also examined whether such redox signaling could be regulated by nucleophilic sulfur species. Exposure of A431 cells to 1,4-NQ covalently modified cellular HSP90, resulting in repression of the association between HSF1 with HSP90, thereby enhancing HSF1 translocation into the nuclei. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis with recombinant HSP90 revealed that the modifications site were Cys412 and Cys564. We found that HSF1 activation mediated by 1,4-NQ upregulated downstream genes, such as HSPA6. HSF1 knockdown accelerated 1,4-NQ-mediated cytotoxicity in the cells. While simultaneous treatment with reactive persulfide and polysulfide, Na 2 S 2 and Na 2 S 4 , blocked 1,4-NQ-dependent protein modification and HSF1 activation in A431 cells, the knockdown of Cys persulfide producing enzymes cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and/or cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) enhanced these phenomena. 1,4-NQ-thiol adduct and 1,4-NQ-S-1,4-NQ adduct were produced during the enzymatic reaction of recombinant CSE in the presence of 1,4-NQ. The results suggest that activation of the HSP90-HSF1 signal transduction pathway mediated by 1,4-NQ protects cells against 1,4-NQ and that per/polysulfides can diminish the reactivity of 1,4-NQ by forming sulfur adducts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Laparoscopic resection of an epidermoid cyst within an intrapancreatic accessory spleen: a case report and review article.

    PubMed

    Harris, Andrew Charles; Chaudry, Mohammed Asif; Menzies, Donald; Conn, Paul Chandler

    2012-08-01

    We report a case of an epidermoid cyst within an intrapancreatic accessory spleen that was treated by laparoscopic excision. A 39-year-old man with no abdominal symptoms was incidentally found to have a cystic pancreatic lesion on computed tomography scan undertaken for suspected deep vein thrombosis. Further computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed similar findings and the laparoscopic resection of the distal pancreas and spleen was undertaken as malignancy could not be excluded. Microscopic analysis revealed a well-circumscribed epidermoid cyst within a thin splenic rim in the tail of the pancreas. Such histologic diagnoses are extremely rare, and this is the 26th case report to our knowledge in English language journals. These lesions should be treated surgically to exclude malignancy. This is the first case reported in the United Kingdom and the first to be excised by pure laparoscopic means, which we believe provides effective and successful surgical management.

  17. Inhibition of STAT-3 Results in Radiosensitization of Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, James A.; Trummell, Hoa Q.; Willey, Christopher D.; Plants, Brian A.; Raisch, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription – 3 (STAT-3) is a downstream component of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFr) signaling process that may facilitate the resistance of tumor cells to conventional cancer treatments. Studies were performed to determine if inhibition of this downstream protein may produce radiosensitization. Methods/Results A431 cells (human squamous cell carcinoma cells with EGFr overexpression) were found to be sensitized to radiation after treatment with STAT-3 small interfering RNA (siRNA). Therefore, a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against STAT-3 was designed and cloned into a pBABE vector system modified for shRNA expression. Following transfection, clone 2.1 was selected for further study as it showed a dramatic reduction of STAT-3 protein (and mRNA) when compared to A431 parental cells or a negative control shRNA cell line (transfected with STAT-3 shRNA with 2 base pairs mutated). A431 2.1 showed doubling times of 25-31 h as compared to 18-24 h for the parental cell line. The A431 shRNA knockdown STAT-3 cells A431 were more sensitive to radiation than A431 parental or negative STAT-3 control cells. Conclusion A431 cells stably transfected with shRNA against STAT-3 resulted in enhanced radiosensitivity. Further work will be necessary to determine whether inhibition of STAT-3 phosphorylation is a necessary step for the radiosensitization that is induced by inhibition of EGFr. PMID:19616333

  18. Radiation therapy of primary vaginal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nori, D.; Hilaris, B.S.; Stanimir, G.

    1983-10-01

    Primary carcinoma of the vagina is rare, constituting only 1 to 2% of all neoplasms arising in the female genital tract. From 1950-1974, 36 patients with carcinoma of the vagina were treated with radiation at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC); 35 (96%) had epidermoid carcinoma and one patient (4%) had adenocarcinoma. These patients were staged according to FIGO. Fourteen patients (39%) were Stage I; six patients (17%) were Stage II; three patients (8%) were Stage III; and 13 patients (36%) were Stage IV. Nine patients (25%) were treated with external radiation and interstitial implant; seven patients (20%) were treated withmore » interstitial implant alone; nine patients (25%) were treated with external radiation alone and 11 patients (30%) with external radiation and intracavitary radiation. The five year NED survival was 71% in Stage I, 66% in Stage II, 33% in Stage III and 0% in Stage IV. This paper discusses radiotherapy management of primary carcinoma of the vagina.« less

  19. Balancing the shortcomings of microscope and endoscope: endoscope-assisted technique in microsurgical removal of recurrent epidermoid cysts in the posterior fossa.

    PubMed

    Ebner, F H; Roser, F; Thaher, F; Schittenhelm, J; Tatagiba, M

    2010-10-01

    We report about endoscope-assisted surgery of epidermoid cysts in the posterior fossa focusing on the application of neuro-endoscopy and the clinical outcome in cases of recurrent epidermoid cysts. 25 consecutively operated patients with an epidermoid cyst in the posterior fossa were retrospectively analysed. Surgeries were performed both with an operating microscope (OPMI Pentero or NC 4, Zeiss Company, Oberkochen, Germany) and endoscopic equipment (4 mm rigid endoscopes with 30° and 70° optics; Karl Storz Company, Tuttlingen, Germany) under continuous intraoperative monitoring. Surgical reports and DVD-recordings were evaluated for identification of adhesion areas and surgical details. 7 (28%) of the 25 patients were recurrences of previously operated epidermoid cysts. Mean time to recurrence was 17 years (8-22 years). In 5 cases the endoscope was used as an adjunctive tool for inspection/endoscope-assisted removal of remnants. The effective time of use of the endoscope was limited to the end stage of the procedure, but was very effective. In a modern operative setting and with the necessary surgical experience recurrent epidermoid cysts may be removed with excellent clinical results. The combined use of microscope and endoscope offers relevant advantages in demanding anatomic situations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma in odontogenic keratocyst: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Chitrapriya; Aggarwal, Pooja; Wadhwan, Vijay; Bansal, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from the wall of an odontogenic cyst (also known as primary intraosseous carcinoma) is a rare tumor which occurs only in jaw bones. This tumor was first described by Loos in 1913 as a central epidermoid carcinoma of the jaw. Primary intraosseous carcinomas (PIOC) may theoretically arise from the lining of an odontogenic cyst or de novo from presumed odontogenic cell rests. According to the new histological classification of tumors of the World Health Organization, odontogenic keratocyst is nowadays considered a specific odontogenic tumor and the PIOC derived from it is considered as a specific entity which is different from other PIOCs derived from the odontogenic cysts. The following report describes a case of such extremely rare entity that is primary intraosseous SCC of the mandible derived from an OKC in a 60-year-old male patient with brief review of literature. PMID:26980976

  1. Unusual mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the liver misdiagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma by intraoperative histological examination

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    As rare condition, mucoepidermoid carcinoma may occur in liver although its etiology and pathogenesis is still unclear. We report here a case of intrahepatic mucoepidermoid carcinoma misdiagnosed as cholangiocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma by preoperative radiologic and intraoperative histological examinations, respectively. A 60-year-old woman presented with a 1-month history of progressive jaundice, epigastric discomfort, and weight loss with slightly increased carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9). Computed tomography (CT) showed a large tumor, 8.0 cm in diameter, in the left lobe of the liver. A preliminary diagnosis of a cholangiocarcinoma of the liver was made. In the intraoperative histological examination, a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma was made based on predominantly invasive epidermoid cells with abundant keratinization and absence of mucin-producing cell component. However, postoperative histological diagnosis of the lesion was mucoepidermiod carcinoma of liver by thoroughly microscopical inspection and the presence of mucin-producing cells confirmed by Alcian blue staining. Despite surgical excision and chemotherapy, the tumor showed very aggressive malignancy with tumor recurrence. The patient died shortly afterward, surviving 6 months after surgery. Due to its rarity and distinct morphological features, mucoepidermoid carcinoma might be erroneously interpreted as squamous cell carcinoma by those who were not familiar with this condition in unusual locations. Therefore, removal of sufficient tissue from different portions of the lesion is essential for the surgeons and pathologists to make a precise diagnosis in the intraoperative histological examination. Virtual slide The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/4956311271136060 PMID:24475740

  2. [Bowen's disease and squamous cell carcinoma in Haber's syndrome: two cases].

    PubMed

    Legoupil, D; Lemasson, G; Davaine, A-C; Misery, L

    2007-01-01

    Haber's syndrome is a rare form of autosomal dominant genodermatosis. Clinically, it is associated with rosaceiform dermatosis of the face that begins in childhood, and profuse keratotic lesions resembling seborrheic keratoses, seen predominantly on the trunk, the tops of the limbs and the scalp. We report two cases of Bowen's disease and cutaneous epidermoid carcinoma in Haber's syndrome patients. A 67 year-old woman with Haber's syndrome and with a familial history consulted for a budding lesion on the abdomen, histological examination of which confirmed epidermoid carcinoma. A 77 year-old woman presented a clinical picture consistent with Haber's syndrome, with three infiltrated erythematosquamous abdominal lesions. Histological examination of a biopsy sample confirmed the clinical diagnosis of Bowen's disease. The patient was successfully treated with imiquimod. These two cases appear to indicate the existence of an association between Haber's syndrome and the presence of cutaneous carcinomatous lesions. We propose the hypothesis of transformation of the keratoses seen in seborrheic keratosis. These lesions may be considered as pre-cancerous. Association with skin carcinomas requires regular monitoring of these patients. The use of imiquimod to treat lesions in patients with Bowen's disease resulted in complete cure.

  3. A combined A431 cell membrane chromatography and online high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method for screening compounds from total alkaloid of Radix Caulophylli acting on the human EGFR.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meng; Ren, Jing; Du, Hui; Zhang, Yanmin; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Sicen; He, Langchong

    2010-10-15

    We have developed an online analytical method that combines A431 cell membrane chromatography (A431/CMC) with high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC/MS) for identifying active components from Radix Caulophylli acting on human EGFR. Retention fractions on A431/CMC model were captured onto an enrichment column and the components were directly analyzed by combining a 10-port column switcher with an LC/MS system for separation and preliminary identification. Using Sorafenib tosylate as a positive control, taspine and caulophine from Radix Caulophylli were identified as the active molecules which could act on the EGFR. This A431/CMC-online-LC/MS method can be applied for screening active components acting on EGFR from traditional Chinese medicines exemplified by Radix Caulophylli and will be of great utility in drug discovery using natural medicinal herbs as a source of novel compounds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma. Case series 1991-2012.

    PubMed

    Campillo, Ramón; Gil-Carcedo, Elisa; Alonso, David; Vallejo, Luis A; Oñate, Juan M; Gil-Carcedo, Luis M

    2013-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma was first described by Toker in 1972. It is an uncommon, primary neuroendocrine skin carcinoma which appears in the dermoepidermic area, grows fast, is very aggressive and has a poor prognosis. The aim of this work is to highlight the importance of this tumour, which develops mainly in the skin of the head and neck area, and whose prevalence has increased in recent years. We gathered data on 16 patients suffering cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma treated at our hospital between September 12, 1991 and July 13, 2012. We indicated the age and gender of patients. We described the area where the tumour was located, indicating the size in millimetres, according to the major axis of the lesion. Most of the patients studied were over 70 years old, except for one who was 55. The highest frequency of cases appeared among patients aged over 80 years. In the cases studied, when the tumour appeared in the head and neck region (10/16), its location could be nasal-lateronasal, cheek-malar, upper eyelid, frontal or mandibular. The major axis of the lesion ranged between 7 and 35 mm. Unlike with epidermoid or basocellular carcinomas, recurrence and ganglionar metastases were common. Immunohistochemical (CK20) tests are essential for a correct diagnosis. Treatment is usually surgical and occasionally followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This carcinoma is not a very common skin tumour. It appears in old age, in the head and neck region in 50% of cases and often leads to exitus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. Anal carcinoma and HIV infection: is it time for screening?

    PubMed

    Herranz-Pinto, P; Sendagorta-Cudós, E; Bernardino-de la Serna, J I; Peña-Sánchez de Rivera, J M

    2014-03-01

    A 38-year-old white man had a 10-year history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (A3), with no episodes of opportunistic diseases and in good immunologic recovery (CD4 cell count: 450 and indetectable HIV viral load) while on HAART. He presented with a two-month history of mild anal symptoms, including pruritus and episodic bleeding. He referred past episodes of anal warts, self-treated with several topical compounds, all proven unsuccessful. Perianal examination showed erythema and scratching. A 0.5cm sized tumor, with infiltration at the base was detected on digital exam, located at 15mm from the anal margin. Local biopsy driven by high-resolution anuscopy (AAR) yielded a final diagnosis of infiltrative epidermoid carcinoma. Might that neoplasia have been prevented? Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Lgr5-positive cells are cancer stem cells in skin squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shunli; Gong, Zhenyu; Chen, Mingrui; Liu, Benli; Bian, Donghui; Wu, Kai

    2014-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) in most human tumors are commonly identified and enriched using similar strategies for identifying normal stem cells, including flow cytometry assays for side population, high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, and CD133 positivity. Thus, development of a method for isolating a specific cancer using cancer-specific characteristic appears to be potentially important. Here, we reported extremely high Lgr5 levels in the specimen from skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in patients. Using SCC cell line A431, we detected high Lgr5 and CD133 levels in ALDH-high or side population from these cancer cells. To figure out whether Lgr5 is a marker of CSCs in SCC, we transfected A431 cells with a Lgr5-creERT-2A-DTR/Cag-Loxp-GFP-STOP-Loxp-RFP plasmid and purified transfected cells (tA431) based on GFP by flow cytometry. 4-Hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) was given to label Lgr5-positive cells with RFP, for comparison to GFP-positive Lgr5-negative cells. Lgr5-positive cells grew significantly faster than Lgr5-negative cells, and the fold increase in growth of Lgr5-positive vs Lgr5-negative cells is significantly higher than SP vs non-SP, or ALDH-high vs ALDH-low, or CD133-positive vs CD133-negative cells. Moreover, in Lgr5-negative population, Lgr5-positive re-appeared in culture with time, suggesting that Lgr5-positive cells can be regenerated from Lgr5-negative cells. Furthermore, the growth of tA431 cells significantly decreased upon a single dose of diphtheria toxin (DT)/4-OHT to eliminate Lgr5-positive cell lineage, while multiple doses of DT/4-OHT nearly completely inhibited tA431 cell growth. Taken together, our data provide compelling data to demonstrate that Lgr5-positive cells are CSCs in skin SCC.

  7. Ultrastructure of Pericystic or Intracystic Blood Vessels in Epidermoid Cysts-A Transmission Electron Microscopy Study: Laboratory Investigation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiao-Hui; Ma, Jun; Zeng, Chun; Sun, Yi-Lin; Lin, Song

    2017-07-01

    Recently, we reported a tendency toward spontaneous hemorrhage in both the preoperative and postoperative periods in patients with intracranial epidermoid cyst (EC). According to our experience, this tendency for spontaneous hemorrhage was partly caused by the pathologic blood vessels adjacent to the EC. This study was designed to testify this hypothesis. Twenty-three removable pericystic or intracystic blood vessels from 17 patients with EC were collected during surgery and were then examined by transmission electron microscopy. The microvascular structure in gliomas was chosen as the control. Under electron microscopy, variant pathologic changes of vessels were found in all patients with EC. In the tunicae intima, we found vacuolization, apoptosis, necrosis, and intralumenal protrusion of endothelial cells, as well as swollen basement and highly flexed and discontinued elastic plate. In the tunicae media, vacuolization and swollen mitochondria were found in muscular cells. In the tunicae adventitia, extravascular erythrocytes, edema or apoptosis of pericytes, collagen predominance, and inflammatory cell infiltration and destruction were found. Neuron denature and necrosis were found in the peripheral brain tissue. In the microvascular structure of 5 glioma specimens, we found enlargement and hyperplasia of endothelial cells, swollen basement membrane, swollen pericytes, and astrocytic hyperplasia and neuron denature in adjacent brain tissues. Our findings provide strong evidence for the hypothesis that intracystic or pericystic vascular degeneration or destruction accounts for the spontaneous hemorrhage tendency before and after surgical resection of ECs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibition of Phosphatidylcholine-Specific Phospholipase C Interferes with Proliferation and Survival of Tumor Initiating Cells in Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Renata; Mercurio, Laura; Canevari, Silvana; Podo, Franca; Miotti, Silvia; Iorio, Egidio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The role of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC), the enzyme involved in cell differentiation and proliferation, has not yet been explored in tumor initiating cells (TICs). We investigated PC-PLC expression and effects of PC-PLC inhibition in two adherent (AD) squamous carcinoma cell lines (A431 and CaSki), with different proliferative and stemness potential, and in TIC-enriched floating spheres (SPH) originated from them. Results Compared with immortalized non-tumoral keratinocytes (HaCaT) A431-AD cells showed 2.5-fold higher PC-PLC activity, nuclear localization of a 66-kDa PC-PLC isoform, but a similar distribution of the enzyme on plasma membrane and in cytoplasmic compartments. Compared with A431-AD, A431-SPH cells showed about 2.8-fold lower PC-PLC protein and activity levels, but similar nuclear content. Exposure of adherent cells to the PC-PLC inhibitor D609 (48h) induced a 50% reduction of cell proliferation at doses comprised between 33 and 50 μg/ml, without inducing any relevant cytotoxic effect (cell viability 95±5%). In A431-SPH and CaSki-SPH D609 induced both cytostatic and cytotoxic effects at about 20 to 30-fold lower doses (IC50 ranging between 1.2 and 1.6 μg/ml). Furthermore, D609 treatment of A431-AD and CaSki-AD cells affected the sphere-forming efficiency, which dropped in both cells, and induced down-modulation of stem-related markers mRNA levels (Oct4, Nestin, Nanog and ALDH1 in A431; Nestin and ALDH1 in CaSki cells). Conclusions These data suggest that the inhibition of PC-PLC activity may represent a new therapeutic approach to selectively target the most aggressive and tumor promoting sub-population of floating spheres originated from squamous cancer cells possessing different proliferative and stemness potential. PMID:26402860

  9. Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia of thyroid gland in a male patient: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chi-Yun; Chao, Tzu-Chieh; Lin, Jen-Der; Hsueh, Chuen

    2015-01-01

    Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia (SMECE) was first described by Chan et al in 1991. It is characterized by nest or strands of epidermoid tumor cells with squamous differentiation, rare mucous cells, prominent sclerotic stroma, eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, and a background of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in the non-neoplastic thyroid gland. It is important to recognize SMECE of thyroid and differentiate it from squamous cell carcinoma or other neoplasms with squamous differentiation/metaplasia. In published cases, the SMECE of thyroid gland predominantly occurs in women. We report a case of SMECE of thyroid in a 45-year-old male patient. All cases in male patients were Caucasian described in English literature, and our case is the first one in Asian.

  10. Extracellular ATP is a mitogen for 3T3, 3T6, and A431 cells and acts synergistically with other growth factors.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, N; Wang, D J; Heppel, L A

    1989-01-01

    Extracellular ATP in concentrations of 5-50 microM displayed very little mitogenic activity by itself but it caused synergistic stimulation of [3H]thymidine incorporation in the presence of phorbol 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate, epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, insulin, adenosine, or 5'-(N-ethyl)carboxamidoadenosine. Cultures of Swiss 3T3, Swiss 3T6, A431, DDT1-MF2, and HFF cells were used. The percent of cell nuclei labeled with [3H]thymidine and cell number were also increased. ADP was equally mitogenic, while UTP and ITP were much less active. The effect of ATP was not due to hydrolysis by ectoenzymes to form adenosine, a known growth factor. Thus, the nonhydrolyzable analogue adenosine 5'-[beta, gamma-imido]triphosphate was mitogenic. In addition, it was found that ATP showed synergism in 3T6 and 3T3 cells when present for only the first hour of an incorporation assay, during which time no significant hydrolysis occurred. Furthermore, prolonged preincubation of cells with ATP reduced the mitogenic response to ATP but not to adenosine; preincubation with adenosine or N6-(R-phenylisopropyl)adenosine had the reverse effect. Finally, the effect of adenosine, but not of ATP, was inhibited by aminophylline. We conclude that extracellular ATP is a mitogen that interacts with P2 purinoceptors on the plasma membrane. PMID:2813367

  11. CELL CARCINOMA].

    PubMed

    Drvar, D Ledić; Lipozenčić, J; Mokos, Z Bukvić; Ilić, I; Knežević, F

    2015-01-01

    An increase in the incidence of cancer, in particular skin cancer, has been observed in the last few decades. Skin cancer represents a significant public health problem in Croatia and worldwide. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is a malignant tumor arising in epidermal keratinocytes. Together with basal cell carcinoma it belongs to non-melanoma skin cancers, which are the most common cancers in humans. The lifetime risk of cSCC development in Caucasian population is nowadays estimated to about 15%, which makes it double compared to 20 years ago. The most probable causes are increased ultraviolet light (UV) exposure (exposure to artificial UV sources in suntan parlors, spending more time outdoors, changes in fashion, as well as ozone holes), and longer life expectancy. In its etiopathogenesis, important risk factors include genetic factors, fair-skin phototype, UV exposure, chronic degenerative and inflammatory conditions, chemical factors, oncogenic viruses, immunosuppression, ionizing radiation, as well as habitual risk factors. Human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family is involved in the control of multiple signal pathways. Their dysregulation is associated with development of many cancers such as breast carcinoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, carcinoma of pancreas, head and neck carcinoma, as well as glioblastoma. The objective of our investigation was to establish if there is association of the skin phototype and UV exposure with the expression of HER receptors, Ki67 and p53 in patients with cSCC. Study group included 101 cSCC patients. Inclusion criteria were age >50, both sexes, histopathologically confirmed cSCC, no previous therapy, specimens sufficient for immunohistochemistry, and complete clinical data collected by a questionnaire. Material obtained by excisional biopsy was completely histopathologically evaluated and additional tissue slices were immunohistochemically analyzed. Statistical analysis of the sample

  12. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Sophia C; Riaz, Nadeem; Lee, Nancy

    2015-07-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is uncommon in the United States, with only 0.2 to 0.5 cases per 100,00 people; this is in contrast to southern China and Hong Kong, where the incidence is 25 to 50 per 100,000 people. There is a potential link between Epstein-Barr virus and the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Radiotherapy alone as a single modality leads to similar 10-year survival rates in United States, Denmark, and Hong Kong (34%, 37%, and 43%, respectively). Multiple studies have shown an advantage to concurrent chemoradiation in the treatment of advanced disease. Radiation therapy remains the mainstay of salvage therapy, and modern techniques have allowed clinicians to achieve adequate local control without excessive toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Alex C.; Sabolch, Aaron; Raymond, Victoria M.; Kandathil, Asha; Caoili, Elaine M.; Jolly, Shruti; Miller, Barbra S.; Giordano, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy, often with an unfavorable prognosis. Here we summarize the knowledge about diagnosis, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and therapy of ACC. Over recent years, multidisciplinary clinics have formed and the first international treatment trials have been conducted. This review focuses on evidence gained from recent basic science and clinical research and provides perspectives from the experience of a large multidisciplinary clinic dedicated to the care of patients with ACC. PMID:24423978

  14. Thyroid sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia distinct from the salivary type.

    PubMed

    Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Takada, Nami; Abe, Hideyuki; Suzuki, Ayana; Higuchi, Miyoko; Miya, Akihiro; Hayashi, Toshitetsu; Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Kawahara, Akihiko; Miyauchi, Akira

    2018-04-26

    We report three cases of thyroid sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia (SMECE), which is an extremely rare variant of mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC). The aims of this report were to describe the clinicopathological findings, including results from immunohistochemical and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of thyroid SMECE, as well as to discuss the distinction between thyroid SMECE and its salivary counterpart. The cases included a 63-year-old female, a 44-year-old male, and a 66-year-old female, with all patients presenting with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Nodal metastasis was not found in any of the three cases. Neither regional recurrences nor distant metastases were found in any patient during the follow-up, which was 20 years, 3 years, and 18 months, respectively. Histologically, tumors were composed of epidermoid carcinoma cells, intermediate type carcinoma cells, and goblet cell-type mucus-secreting carcinoma cells, with all tumors displaying a sclerotic stroma with eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration. The formation of eosinophilic abscess in the tumor nests that might be a novel characteristic finding of SMECE was observed. Immunohistochemically, the carcinoma cells were positive for cytokeratin 34βE12, TTF-1, and PAX8, but negative for thyroglobulin. In two cases, increased IgG4-positive plasma cells were observed. Mastermind-like transcriptional coactivator 2 (MAML2), according to fluorescence in situ hybridization, was intact in all cases. In conclusion, thyroid SMECE has favorable outcomes and seems to be genetically different from salivary MEC. This is the first report to describe the presence of increased IgG4-positive plasma cells in the stroma of SMECE.

  15. Protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-mediated epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor transinactivation and EGF receptor-independent stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase by bradykinin in A431 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Graness, A; Hanke, S; Boehmer, F D; Presek, P; Liebmann, C

    2000-01-01

    Transactivation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) has been proposed to represent an essential link between G-protein-coupled receptors and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in various cell types. In the present work we report, in contrast, that in A431 cells bradykinin transinactivates the EGFR and stimulates MAPK activity independently of EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation. Both effects of bradykinin are mediated by a pertussis-toxin-insensitive G-protein. Three lines of evidence suggest the activation of a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) by bradykinin: (i) treatment of A431 cells with bradykinin decreases both basal and EGF-induced EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation, (ii) this effect of bradykinin can be blocked by two different PTP inhibitors, and (iii) bradykinin significantly increased the PTP activity in total A431 cell lysates when measured in vitro. The transmembrane receptor PTP sigma was identified as a putative mediator of bradykinin-induced downregulation of EGFR autophosphorylation. Activation of MAPK in response to bradykinin was insensitive towards AG 1478, a specific inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine kinase, but was blocked by wortmannin or bisindolylmaleimide, inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) and protein kinase C (PKC) respectively. These results also suggest that the bradykinin-induced activation of MAPK is independent of EGFR and indicate a pathway involving PI3-K and PKC. In addition, bradykinin evokes a rapid and transient increase in Src kinase activity. Although Src does not participate in bradykinin-induced stimulation of PTP activity, inhibition of Src by 4-amino-5-(4-methylphenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo(3,4-d)pyrimidine leads to an increase in MAPK activation by bradykinin. Our results suggest that in A431 cells the G(q/11)-protein-coupled bradykinin B(2) receptor may stimulate PTP activity and thereby transinactivate the EGFR, and may simultaneously activate MAPK by an alternative signalling pathway

  16. Oral Rigosertib for Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-06-22

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  17. [Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma in young women with HPV negative].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Alarcon, A; Gómez-García, M T; García-de la-Torre, J P; Del Valle-Morón, M; Arones-Collantes, M A; González-de Merlo, G

    2016-03-01

    The vulvar cancer is the fourth more frequent neoplasia after the endometrial, cervix and ovarian cancer. Normally, it has been related to old women of ages from 70 to 80 years old. Rarely, it has been detected cases in adult or young women. However, its incidence has been increased in the last years and in more early years. It is for this change in the incidence and its appearance in early years why a possible etiology has been looked for, opening different hypothesis that go from that related to the HPV to those that study an inflammatory chronic process as the basis for the carcinogenesis. In this article, it has been presented the case of a woman who is 34 years old with negative VPH that made her debut with epidermoid carcinoma of the vulva moderately different and on purpose of the case, we do a revision of the literature existent. Vulvar cancer diagnosed in young women as in older, but with different trends, risk factors and natural history. The case reported here escapes the theories studied so far so needed new lines of inquiry to investigate this form of presentation young woman, without HPV infection.

  18. Carcinoma of the cervix, stage III. Results of radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Montana, G S; Fowler, W C; Varia, M A; Walton, L A; Mack, Y; Shemanski, L

    1986-01-01

    From April 1969 through December 1980, 203 patients with Stage III epidermoid carcinoma of the cervix were treated with radiation therapy with curative intent. The disease-free survival at 2, 5, and 10 years was 50%, 33%, and 27%, respectively. The survival was better for patients with Stage IIIB disease than for those with Stage IIIA disease. Eighty-eight patients were treated with external beam therapy only, and 115 received external beam and brachytherapy. The disease-free survival was better for the combination therapy group initially, but this difference was not sustained beyond 5 years. One hundred eight patients experienced recurrence within the irradiated field, for a locoregional recurrence rate of 53%. Twenty-seven patients had complications (13%). The complications were mild in 13 patients, moderate in 4 patients, and severe in 10 patients. A study was made of the relationship of the dose to Point A and the occurrence of complications. Similar analyses were made of the bladder and rectal doses and the subsequent occurrence of urinary and intestinal complications. In these analyses, the mean dose to Point A and the critical organs was higher for the groups of patients with complications than for those patients without complications. This relationship was also observed when the patients were stratified for treatment with either external beam plus brachytherapy or external beam therapy alone.

  19. Carcinoma gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Biswas, P K

    2010-07-01

    Carcinoma gallbladder (CaGb) is a rare disease. The aetiology of CaGb is yet not known. However the risk of CaGb is increased in anomalous pancreaticobiliary duct junction (APBDJ), gall stones, xanthogranulomatus cholecystitis, calcified or porcelain gallbladder, cholelithiasis with typhoid carriers, gallbladder adenoma, red meat consumption and tobacco uses. There are protective effects of vegetables on CaGb. Most of the cases present with advanced disease. In early carcinoma of a gallbladder sign and symptoms mimic benign disease. The diagnosis is established by ultrasonography, computerized tomography and guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Biochemical tests are of very little value in making a diagnosis. The treatment depends on the clinical stage at presentation. Surgery offers the best chance of cure. In stage T1a, laparoscopic or open cholecystectomy alone is curative, and in T1b, cholecystectomy with hepatoduodenal lymph node dissection without combined resection of an adjacent organ is required. Segment S4a+5 hepatectomy combined with extrahepatic bile duct resection (BDR) and D2 lymph node dissection is a highly recommended operation for the treatment of T2 and T3 CaGb. The dye injection method is useful in determining the appropriate extent of hepatic resection for advanced CaGb. Resurgery is required only in those cases where tumour has invaded the serosa and/ or adjacent structures when diagnosed postoperatively. Biliary bypass is required for palliation. Prognosis depends on early diagnosis and appropriate surgical excision.

  20. Metastasis suppressor proteins in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bozdogan, Onder; Vargel, Ibrahim; Cavusoglu, Tarik; Karabulut, Ayse A; Karahan, Gurbet; Sayar, Nilufer; Atasoy, Pınar; Yulug, Isik G

    2016-07-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCCs) are common human carcinomas. Despite having metastasizing capacities, they usually show less aggressive progression compared to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of other organs. Metastasis suppressor proteins (MSPs) are a group of proteins that control and slow-down the metastatic process. In this study, we established the importance of seven well-defined MSPs including NDRG1, NM23-H1, RhoGDI2, E-cadherin, CD82/KAI1, MKK4, and AKAP12 in cSCCs. Protein expression levels of the selected MSPs were detected in 32 cSCCs, 6 in situ SCCs, and two skin cell lines (HaCaT, A-431) by immunohistochemistry. The results were evaluated semi-quantitatively using the HSCORE system. In addition, mRNA expression levels were detected by qRT-PCR in the cell lines. The HSCOREs of NM23-H1 were similar in cSCCs and normal skin tissues, while RGHOGDI2, E-cadherin and AKAP12 were significantly downregulated in cSCCs compared to normal skin. The levels of MKK4, NDRG1 and CD82 were partially conserved in cSCCs. In stage I SCCs, nuclear staining of NM23-H1 (NM23-H1nuc) was significantly lower than in stage II/III SCCs. Only nuclear staining of MKK4 (MKK4nuc) showed significantly higher scores in in situ carcinomas compared to invasive SCCs. In conclusion, similar to other human tumors, we have demonstrated complex differential expression patterns for the MSPs in in-situ and invasive cSCCs. This complex MSP signature warrants further biological and experimental pathway research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Arenberg, Douglas

    2011-02-01

    This review focuses on aspects of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) in which it differs importantly from other forms of non-small-cell lung cancer. BAC is a form of adenocarcinoma with unique clinical, radiological, and epidemiological features. With the notable exception of a lower likelihood of a positive positron-emission tomographic (PET) scan in BAC, staging, diagnosis, and treatment are largely the same as for other histological subtypes of lung cancer. However, additional treatment options exist that are equivalent, if not more effective, for many patients with BAC. The diagnosis of BAC should be reserved for those tumors meeting the 1999/2004 criteria set forth by the World Health Organization. Revised nomenclature proposed by an expert consensus panel may change how this disease is viewed. Additional clinical trials are needed on patients with BAC, employing strict definitions and enrollment criteria to allow the results to be applied to appropriate patient populations. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  2. [Bronchoalveolar carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Wislez, Marie; Cadranel, Jacques; Milleron, Bernard

    2003-04-01

    Bronchoalveolar carcinoma is one of the four histologic subtypes of adenocarcinoma and its incidence is increasing. It grows in a lepidic fashion along the alveolar septa without invasive growth. The lack of invasive growth is an essential criterion based on data indicating that patients may be curable by surgical resection. The revised definition seems to be suitable for its solitary nodular form but less for multifocal or pneumonic-type form. High-resolution lung CT-scan is necessary to evaluate pulmonary involvement because of the high frequency of multifocal disease at initial presentation and because of the presence of ground glass opacity that could be one of the first manifestation of cancer bronchiolo-alvéolaireon CT. Therapeutic management does not differ from the one of non small cell lung cancer. Solitary nodules are treated by surgical resection with a good prognosis while multifocal and/or pneumonic forms are treated by systemic chemotherapy with a worse prognosis.

  3. Pathology of Endometrial Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lax, Sigurd F

    2017-01-01

    On a clinicopathological and molecular level, two distinctive types of endometrial carcinoma, type I and type II, can be distinguished. Endometrioid carcinoma, the typical type I carcinoma, seems to develop through an estrogen-driven "adenoma carcinoma" pathway from atypical endometrial hyperplasia/endometrioid intraepithelial neoplasia (AEH/EIN). It is associated with elevated serum estrogen and high body mass index and expresses estrogen and progesterone receptors. They are mostly low grade and show a favorable prognosis. A subset progresses into high-grade carcinoma which is accompanied by loss of receptor expression and accumulation of TP53 mutations and behaves poorly. Other frequently altered genes in type I carcinomas are K-Ras, PTEN, and ß-catenin. Another frequent feature of type I carcinomas is microsatellite instability mainly caused by methylation of the MLH1 promoter. In contrast, the typical type II carcinoma, serous carcinoma, is not estrogen related since it usually occurs in a small uterus with atrophic endometrium. It is often associated with a flat putative precursor lesion called serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (SEIC). The molecular pathogenesis of serous carcinoma seems to be driven by TP53 mutations, which are present in SEIC. Other molecular changes in serous carcinoma detectable by immunohistochemistry involve cyclin E and p16. Since many of the aforementioned molecular changes can be demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, they are useful ancillary diagnostic tools and may further contribute to a future molecular classification of endometrial carcinoma as recently suggested based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data.

  4. Interstitial and external radiotherapy in carcinoma of the soft palate and uvula

    SciTech Connect

    Esche, B.A.; Haie, C.M.; Gerbaulet, A.P.

    1988-09-01

    Forty-three patients, all male, with limited epidermoid carcinoma of the soft palate and uvula were treated by interstitial implant usually associated with external radiotherapy. Most patients received 50 Gy external irradiation to the oropharynx and neck followed by 20-35 Gy by interstitial iridium-192 wires using either guide gutters or a plastic tube technique. Twelve primary tumors and two recurrences after external irradiation alone had implant only for 65-75 Gy. Total actuarial local control is 92% with no local failures in 34 T1 primary tumors. Only one serious complication was seen. Overall actuarial survival was 60% at 3 years and 37%more » at 5 years but cause-specific survivals were 81% and 64%. The leading cause of death was other aerodigestive cancer, with an actuarial rate of occurrence of 10% per year after treatment of a soft palate cancer. Interstitital brachytherapy alone or combined with external irradiation is safe, effective management for early carcinoma of the soft palate and uvula but second malignancy is a serious problem.« less

  5. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... in children and adults. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less likely to be caused by ...

  6. Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Setia, Namrata; Barletta, Justine A

    2014-12-01

    Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) has been recognized for the past 30 years as an entity showing intermediate differentiation and clinical behavior between well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas (ie, papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma) and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma; however, there has been considerable controversy around the definition of PDTC. In this review, the evolution in the definition of PDTC, current diagnostic criteria, differential diagnoses, potentially helpful immunohistochemical studies, and molecular alterations are discussed with the aim of highlighting where the diagnosis of PDTC currently stands. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma in the Skull of an Orange-winged Amazon Parrot (Amazona amazonica).

    PubMed

    Nau, Melissa R; Carpenter, James W; Lin, Denise; Narayanan, Sanjeev; Hallman, Mackenzie

    2017-09-01

    A 33-year-old female intact orange-winged Amazon parrot (Amazona amazonica) presented for a slowly growing mass over the right eye. A computed tomography scan performed with and without intravenous contrast revealed a heterogeneous mixed soft tissue and mineral-dense mass with a small area of non-contrast-enhancing fluid density located between the orbits at the caudal aspect of the nasal passages, with associated lysis of the right caudal nasal passage and the right frontal bone. Following euthanasia, the mass was found to consist of soft tissue between the right eye and nostril over the right frontal bone. Lysis of the underlying bone resulted in a bony defect leading into the infraorbital sinus along the dorsorostral aspect of the right eye. Histopathology revealed an unencapsulated, poorly demarcated, highly cellular neoplasm composed of islands and trabeculae of neoplastic cells embedded in abundant loose fibrovascular stroma which completely obliterated the cortical bone and sinuses of the rostral skull and infiltrated the surrounding muscle and soft tissue. Histologically, the tumor was consistent with a high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, characterized by the presence of epidermoid, intermediate, and mucous-producing cell types. No evidence of metastasis was identified. The tissue of origin was suspected to be salivary or nasal mucous glands, but was difficult to confirm due to distortion of normal tissue architecture as a result of the tumor. Although mucoepidermoid carcinomas are a common salivary gland tumor in human medicine, they are not well recognized in avian species, and no specific case reports exist describing this pathology in an Amazon parrot. Despite the lack of distinct salivary glands in most avian species, mucoepidermoid carcinomas can occur, can cause significant clinical disease, and should be included as a differential diagnosis for avian patients presenting with similar lesions.

  8. Inefficient differentiation response to cell cycle stress leads to genomic instability and malignant progression of squamous carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Lecue, Pilar; de Pedro, Isabel; Coulon, Vincent; Molinuevo, Rut; Lorz, Corina; Segrelles, Carmen; Ceballos, Laura; López-Aventín, Daniel; García-Valtuille, Ana; Bernal, José M; Mazorra, Francisco; Pujol, Ramón M; Paramio, Jesús; Ramón Sanz, J; Freije, Ana; Toll, Agustí; Gandarillas, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or epidermoid cancer is a frequent and aggressive malignancy. However in apparent paradox it retains the squamous differentiation phenotype except for very dysplastic lesions. We have shown that cell cycle stress in normal epidermal keratinocytes triggers a squamous differentiation response involving irreversible mitosis block and polyploidisation. Here we show that cutaneous SCC cells conserve a partial squamous DNA damage-induced differentiation response that allows them to overcome the cell division block. The capacity to divide in spite of drug-induced mitotic stress and DNA damage made well-differentiated SCC cells more genomically instable and more malignant in vivo. Consistently, in a series of human biopsies, non-metastatic SCCs displayed a higher degree of chromosomal alterations and higher expression of the S phase regulator Cyclin E and the DNA damage signal γH2AX than the less aggressive, non-squamous, basal cell carcinomas. However, metastatic SCCs lost the γH2AX signal and Cyclin E, or accumulated cytoplasmic Cyclin E. Conversely, inhibition of endogenous Cyclin E in well-differentiated SCC cells interfered with the squamous phenotype. The results suggest a dual role of cell cycle stress-induced differentiation in squamous cancer: the resulting mitotic blocks would impose, when irreversible, a proliferative barrier, when reversible, a source of genomic instability, thus contributing to malignancy. PMID:28661481

  9. The effect of L-cysteine and N-acetylcysteine on porphyrin/heme biosynthetic pathway in cells treated with 5-aminolevulinic acid and exposed to radiation.

    PubMed

    He, D; Behar, S; Roberts, J E; Lim, H W

    1996-10-01

    The effects of L-cysteine (LC) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on porphyrin accumulation in a human dermal microvascular endothelial cell line (HMEC-1) and a human epidermoid carcinoma cell line (A431) loaded with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and exposed to ultraviolet A (UVA) and blue light radiation were determined. Porphyrin accumulation was decreased in the presence of 0.1-7.5 mM LC (24.8%-31.4% suppression in HMEC-1 cell; 35.8%-48.9% suppression in A431 cells), and in the presence of 0.1-10.0 mM NAC (30.9%-58.0% suppression in HMEC-1 cells; 8.5%-45.3% in A431 cells). The suppression occurred in a LC or NAC dose-dependent fashion. The above was associated with partial reversal of suppression of ferrochelatase (FeC) activity in HMEC-1 cells and in A431 cells. As compared to FeC activity in cells treated with ALA and irradiation, enzyme activity was higher (by 31.9%-62.1%) in the presence of LC (1.0 mM or 5.0 mM) and in the presence of NAC (1.0 mM or 5.0 mM). These data indicate that LC and NAC have protective effects on porphyrin- and irradiation-induced diminution of FeC activity in HMEC-1 cells and A341 cells in vitro.

  10. Incidence of breast carcinoma in women with thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vassilopoulou-Sellin, R; Palmer, L; Taylor, S; Cooksley, C S

    1999-02-01

    Breast carcinoma and differentiated thyroid carcinoma(the most common endocrine malignancy) occur predominantly in women. An association between the two tumors has been suggested by some investigators, but the potential impact of treatment of one of these diseases on the development of the other remains unclear. The authors examined the relation between the occurrence of these two tumors. There were 41,686 patients with breast carcinoma and 3662 with thyroid carcinoma who registered at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center between March 1944 and April 1997. Women who received both diagnoses since 1976 were identified and incidence rates and relative risks of secondary tumor development were calculated. Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program data on the age-adjusted incidences of these diseases during the same time period were used for the expected incidences in the same population. Among 18,931 women with a diagnosis of breast carcinoma since 1976, 11 developed differentiated thyroid carcinoma > or = 2 years after the diagnosis of breast carcinoma. These breast carcinoma patients contributed 129,336 person-years of follow-up; the observed incidence of thyroid carcinoma in this group was not different from that in a similar age group of women in the SEER database. Among 1013 women with a diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma since 1976, 24 developed breast carcinoma > or = 2 years after the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma. These thyroid carcinoma patients contributed 8380 person-years of follow-up; the observed incidence of breast carcinoma in women ages 40-49 years was significantly higher than the expected incidence for women in the same age group in the SEER database. Breast carcinoma developing after thyroid carcinoma was diagnosed more frequently than expected in young adult women seen at the study institution since 1976. This potential association and plausible mechanisms of breast carcinoma development after thyroid carcinoma should

  11. Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000331.htm Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma To use the sharing features on ... the lower neck. Causes About 80% of all thyroid cancers diagnosed in the United States are the papillary ...

  12. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lanoue, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly occurring cancer in the world and overall incidence is still on the rise. While typically a slow-growing tumor for which metastases is rare, basal cell carcinoma can be locally destructive and disfiguring. Given the vast prevalence of this disease, there is a significant overall burden on patient well-being and quality of life. The current mainstay of basal cell carcinoma treatment involves surgical modalities, such as electrodessication and curettage, excision, cryosurgery, and Mohs micrographic surgery. Such methods are typically reserved for localized basal cell carcinoma and offer high five-year cure rates, but come with the risk of functional impairment, disfigurement, and scarring. Here, the authors review the evidence and indications for nonsurgical treatment modalities in cases where surgery is impractical, contraindicated, or simply not desired by the patient. PMID:27386043

  13. [Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Antoine, Martine; Vieira, Thibault; Fallet, Vincent; Hamard, Cécile; Duruisseaux, Michael; Cadranel, Jacques; Wislez, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas are a rare group of tumors accounting for about one percent of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In 2015, the World Health Organization classification united under this name all the carcinomas with sarcomatous-like component with spindle cell or giant cell appearance, or associated with a sarcomatous component sometimes heterologous. There are five subtypes: pleomorphic carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, giant cell carcinoma, carcinosarcoma and pulmonary blastoma. Clinical characteristics are not specific from the other subtypes of NSCLC. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition pathway may play a key role. Patients, usually tobacco smokers, are frequently symptomatic. Tumors are voluminous more often peripherical than central, with strong fixation on FDG TEP CT. Distant metastases are frequent with atypical visceral locations. These tumors have poorer prognosis than the other NSCLC subtypes because of great aggressivity, and frequent chemoresistance. Here we present pathological description and a review of literature with molecular features in order to better describe these tumors and perhaps introduce new therapeutics. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Targeting PI3K-AKT-mTOR by LY3023414 inhibits human skin squamous cell carcinoma cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ying; Ge, Minggai; Wang, Xuemin

    2017-08-19

    Abnormal activation of PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling is detected in human skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). LY3023414 is a novel, potent, and orally bio-available PI3K-AKT-mTOR inhibitor. Its activity against human skin SCC cells was tested. We demonstrated that LY3023414 was cytotoxic when added to established (A431 line) and primary (patient-derived) human skin SCC cells. LY3023414 induced G0/1-S arrest and inhibited proliferation of skin SCC cells. Moreover, LY3023414 induced activation of caspase-3/-9 and apoptosis in skin SCC cells. Intriguingly, LY3023414 was yet non-cytotoxic nor pro-apoptotic to normal human skin cells (melanocytes, keratinocytes and fibroblasts). At the molecular level, LY3023414 blocked PI3K-AKT-mTOR activation in skin SCC cells, as it dephosphorylated PI3K-AKT-mTOR substrates: P85, AKT and S6K1. In vivo studies showed that oral administration of LY3023414 at well-tolerated doses inhibited A431 xenograft tumor growth in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. AKT-mTOR activation in LY3023414-treated tumors was also largely inhibited. Together, these results suggest that targeting PI3K-AKT-mTOR by LY3023414 inhibits human skin SCC cell growth in vitro and in vivo, establishing the rationale for further clinical testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Arnoux, V; Lechevallier, E; Pamela, A; Long, J-A; Rambeaud, J-J

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to perform a systematic review of literature concerning epidemiology, clinical and biological data, prognosis and therapy of sarcomatoid renal cell carcinomas. Data on sarcomatoid renal cell carcinomas have been sought by querying the server Medline with MeSH terms following or combination of them: "renal carcinoma", "renal cell carcinoma," "renal cancer", "sarcomatoid" "sarcomatoid transformation" and "sarcomatoid differentiation." The articles obtained were selected according to their methodology, the language in English or French, the relevance and the date of publication. Twenty papers were selected. According to the literature, a sarcomatoid contingent can be observed in all subtypes of renal cell carcinomas, with a frequency of 1 to 15% of cases. The median age at diagnosis was 60 years with a majority of symptomatic patients (90%), mainly with abdominal pain and hematuria. These tumors were often found in patients with locally advanced or metastatic (45-77%). The imaging was not specific for the diagnosis and biopsy had a low sensitivity for identifying a sarcomatoid contingent. The treatment was based on a combination of maximal surgical resection whenever possible and systemic therapy for metastastic disease. Pathological data often showed large tumors, Furhman 4 grades, combined biphasic carcinomatous contingent (clear cell carcinoma in most cases) and sarcomatoid. Genetically, there was no specific abnormality but a complex association of chromosomal additions and deletions. The prognosis was pejorative with a specific median survival of 5 to 19 months without any impact of the sarcomatoid contingent rate. Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma is a form not to ignore despite its rarity. Mainly symptomatic and discovered at an advanced stage, it has a poor prognosis, requiring multidisciplinary management quickly and correctly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Stages of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Merkel Cell Carcinoma Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  17. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    NBCC syndrome; Gorlin-Goltz syndrome; Basal cell nevus syndrome; BCNS; Basal cell cancer - nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome ... Nevoid basal cell carcinoma nevus syndrome is a rare genetic condition. The gene linked to the syndrome is known as PTCH (" ...

  18. Lobular Carcinoma In Situ (LCIS)

    MedlinePlus

    Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) Overview Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is an uncommon condition in which abnormal cells form in the ... of developing invasive breast cancer. Symptoms Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) doesn't cause signs or symptoms. Rather, ...

  19. Merkel Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pulitzer, Melissa

    2017-06-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) encompasses neuroendocrine carcinomas primary to skin and occurs most commonly in association with clonally integrated Merkel cell polyomavirus with related retinoblastoma protein sequestration or in association with UV radiation-induced alterations involving the TP53 gene and mutations, heterozygous deletion, and hypermethylation of the Retinoblastoma gene. Molecular genetic signatures may provide therapeutic guidance. Morphologic features, although patterned, are associated with predictable diagnostic pitfalls, usually resolvable by immunohistochemistry. Therapeutic options for MCC, traditionally limited to surgical intervention and later chemotherapy and radiation, are growing, given promising early results of immunotherapeutic regimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Screening for cutaneous carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Beani, J C

    1996-09-01

    Skin carcinoma is the most frequent of all cancers. The main risk factor is represented by solar exposition and, so, individuals with special risk are xeroderma pigmento sum (enzymatic defect of DNA repair), light phototype person, sun-seekers, outdoor-workers and patients treated with high doses of PUVA. X-rays, mineral oils, tar and arsenic are also known skin carcinogens. HPV can also participate to skin carcinogenis alone or associated with UV particularly in immunosupressed sujets. Subjects with predisposition for skin carcinoma can be pointed out and cautioned. Detection of preepitheliomatous lesions is easy; actinic keratosis are the main signs.

  1. Diagnostic and pathogenetic role of café-au-lait macules in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Café au lait spots (CALS) are common dermatologic findings that can at the same time arise in a variety of pathologic conditions such as Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), together with numerous hereditary syndromes for which they represent either diagnostic criteria or associated elements (McCune Albright, Silver-Russell, LEOPARD, Ataxia-Telangiectasia). A review of the literature also revealed two cases of association with NBCCS. We report here the case of a female proband with CALS associated to Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) with known PTCH1 germline mutation (C.1348-2A>G) who had been misdiagnosed with NF1 in her childhood because of 5 CALS and cutaneous nodules. The patient presented a giant cell tumor of the skin, palmar and calcaneal epidermoidal cystic nodules, odontogenic keratocystic tumors and deformity of the jaw profile. Her family history brought both her brother and father to our attention because of the presence of KCOTs diagnosed at early age: after genetic testing, the same PTCH1 germline mutation was identified in the three family members. Clinical criteria are used for discerning NF1 diagnosis (size, number and onset age), while there are no definite guidelines concerning CALS except for their presence. In our experience, we have noted an association of CALS with NBCCS; this seems interesting because we already know clinical criteria are a dynamic entity and can be modified by epidemiologic evidences. PMID:23107377

  2. Conditioned media from a renal cell carcinoma cell line demonstrates the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor.

    PubMed

    Mydlo, J H; Zajac, J; Macchia, R J

    1993-09-01

    In a previous report, we demonstrated the isolation and purification of a heparin binding growth factor from human renal carcinoma, and suggested that this growth factor may play a role in the neovascularity and growth of the tumor. In this report, we demonstrate that the growth of the renal cell carcinoma cell line RC29 is stimulated by the addition of exogenous fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha). Also, media conditioned by this cell line was able to stimulate growth of the A431 vulvar tumor cell line, known for its high concentration of EGF receptors, 3T3 fibroblasts, human umbilical vein (HUV) cells and RC29 cells. Using heparin-sepharose chromatography and then SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), we were able to demonstrate several proteins in the conditioned media of the RC29 cell line. Using Western blot analysis, we detected that at least one of the proteins expressed in this conditioned media was FGF and that it belongs to the basic, not acidic, family of fibroblast growth factors. These findings suggest that renal tumors may express growth factors that may play a direct role in maintaining their unrestricted proliferation.

  3. [Thyroid carcinoma--differentiated, poorly differentiated and anaplastic carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Kakudo, Kennichi; Bai, Yanhua; Li, Yaqiong; Wakasa, Tomoko; Mori, Ichiro

    2007-11-01

    The poorly differentiated carcinoma was first added as a new member in the lists of classification of thyroid carcinomas in the WHO 2004 edition. However its histological criteria include necrosis and increased mitoses in addition to the original definition by Sakamoto's proposal, solid, trabecular and schirrhous growth. This modification creates a significant change in the incidence and prognosis of this carcinoma. This carcinoma, defined by the new WHO classification, is about 1-5% of all thyroid malignancy and has more aggressive outcome than the previous definition.

  4. Tumor regression after intravenous administration of targeted vesicles entrapping the vitamin E α-tocotrienol.

    PubMed

    Karim, Reatul; Somani, Sukrut; Al Robaian, Majed; Mullin, Margaret; Amor, Rumelo; McConnell, Gail; Dufès, Christine

    2017-01-28

    The therapeutic potential of tocotrienol, a member of the vitamin E family of compounds with potent in vitro anti-cancer properties, is limited by its inability to specifically reach tumors following intravenous administration. The purpose of this study is to determine whether a novel tumor-targeted vesicular formulation of tocotrienol would suppress the growth of A431 epidermoid carcinoma and B16-F10 melanoma in vitro and in vivo. In this work, we demonstrated that novel transferrin-bearing multilamellar vesicles entrapping α-T3 resulted in a dramatically improved (by at least 52-fold) therapeutic efficacy in vitro on A431 cell line, compared to the free drug. In addition, the intravenous administration of tocotrienol entrapped in transferrin-bearing vesicles resulted in tumor suppression for 30% of A431 and 60% of B16-F10 tumors, without visible toxicity. Mouse survival was enhanced by >13days compared to controls administered with the drug solution only. This tumor-targeted, tocotrienol-based nanomedicine therefore significantly improved the therapeutic response in cancer treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Oblimersen in Treating Patients With Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Recurrent Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage I Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage II Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage III Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage IV Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin

  6. Pheochromocytoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Tariq; Qari, Faiza

    2009-08-01

    A 53-year-old woman presented with labile and difficult to control hypertension on 3 different anti-hypertensive medications. Abdominal computed tomography and ultrasonography of the thyroid gland showed a 1.8 cm thyroid nodule. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid nodule revealed papillary thyroid carcinoma. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone and free thyroxine, calcitonin, carcinoembryonic antigen, intact parathyroid hormone, and calcium levels were within normal limits. A 24-hour urine metanephrine showed significant elevation in urine metanephrine of approximately 3 times the upper limit of normal, and the result of 131I-metaiodobenzyleguanjdjne (131I-MIBG) scintigraphy confirmed that the adrenal mass was pheochromocytoma. Right adrenalectomy and total thyroidectomy were performed. The final pathology was pheochromocytoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. An analysis of c-ret porto-oncogene mutation yielded a negative result. This unusual association of 2 tumors represents a new entity.

  7. Analysis of results of radiation therapy for Stage II carcinoma of the cervix.

    PubMed

    Montana, G S; Fowler, W C; Varia, M A; Walton, L A; Mack, Y

    1985-03-01

    From April 1969 through December 1980, 251 patients with invasive, epidermoid carcinoma of the cervix received radical radiation therapy consisting of a combination of external beam and intracavitary therapy designed to deliver 7000 to 8000 rad to Point A and 6000 to 6500 rad to the pelvic lymph nodes. The disease-free survival at 2, 5, and 10 years for patients with Stage IIA disease was 90%, 76%, and 76%, respectively, whereas for patients with Stage IIB disease it was 77%, 62%, and 59%, respectively. The survival for the entire group at 2, 5, and 10 years was 80%, 65%, and 62%, respectively. Sixty-eight patients had a recurrence within the irradiated volume, for a locoregional recurrence rate of 27% (68/251). In 49 patients complications developed for an overall complication rate of 19.5% (49/251). An analysis of the complications and their degree of severity revealed a correlation with the dose of intracavitary plus external beam therapy given to Point A and to the rectum. The mean dose to Point A for patients with and without complications were 7877 rad (standard error [SE] +/- 95) and 7593 rad (SE +/- 67), respectively. The mean rectal dose for patients with and without intestinal complications were 6767 rad (SE +/- 157) and 6426 rad (SE +/- 78), respectively. The dose difference between patients with and without complications was statistically significant for Point A (P = to 0.0163) but not for the rectal dose (P = to 0.0887). There was no correlation between the bladder dose and urinary complications. Other treatment methods as well as patient and tumor parameters, are being currently analyzed to identify which factors, singly or in combination, may contribute to the development of treatment failures or complications.

  8. Analysis of results of radiation therapy for stage IB carcinoma of the cervix.

    PubMed

    Montana, G S; Fowler, W C; Varia, M A; Walton, L A; Mack, Y

    1987-11-01

    From April of 1969 through December of 1980, 197 patients with Stage IB, invasive, epidermoid carcinoma of the cervix received radical radiation therapy. The treatment consisted of external beam and intracavitary therapy designed to deliver 7000 to 8000 rad to Point A and 5000 to 5500 rad to the pelvic lymph nodes. The 2-, 5-, and 10-year, disease-free survival rates were 87%, 83%, and 81%, respectively. Thirty-six patients developed recurrent and/or metastatic disease. The sites that failed to remain disease-free were: locoregional in five patients (3%), locoregional with distant metastases in 15 patients (8%), and distant metastases only in 14 patients (7%). In addition, there were two patients (1%) who are considered to have died of disease but the site or sites of recurrence could not be determined. Thirty-nine patients developed complications. The complications were mild and self-limiting--Grade I--in 24 patients (12%) and of moderate severity--Grade II--in eight patients (4%). Seven patients (4%) developed severe--Grade III--complications. A correlation was found between the dose to Point A, the bladder, and the rectum and the complications. The mean dose to Point A for patients without and with complications were 7453 rad (SE +/- 91) and 7737 (SE +/- 124), respectively, with a P value of .05. The mean dose to the bladder for patients without and with urinary complications was 5590 rad (SE +/- 103) and 6335 rad (SE +/- 411), respectively, with a P value of 0.14. The mean dose to the rectum for patients without and with intestinal complications was 5837 rad (SE +/- 103) and 6810 rad (SE +/- 236), respectively, with a P value of 0.001. No correlation was found between the dose to Point A and locoregional recurrences.

  9. Therapy of vulvar carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Haberthür, F; Almendral, A C; Ritter, B

    1993-01-01

    83 vulvar carcinoma patients were originally treated in the period between 1970 and 1990. 82 patients presented with squamous cell carcinoma. 70% of the patients were in Stage I or II. It was originally possible to operate on 74 of the 83 patients. A simple or partial vulvectomy was applied 17 times. A bilateral inguinal lymph node excision additionally took place in 6 cases. 51 patients were subjected to radical vulvectomy with inguinofemoral lymph node excision. In 13 cases, pelvic lymph node extirpation was also performed. A posterior pelvic exenteration was performed in 6 cases presenting extensive carcinoma involvement of the vulva. In the remaining 9 patients, either it was not possible to operate, or a nonradical operation could be performed. The primary morbidity, consisting of wound healing disturbances and infections, amounted to 50% in our group. We observed lymphedema in 47% of the cases, although it was clinically important in only 10%. We did not have any primary surgical mortality. The 5-year survival rate was 82% in our patients without inguinofemoral lymph node involvement and only 40% in lymph node metastatic cases. The absolute 5-year cure rate was 66%, or 69% corrected. To be able to give increased preference to less invasive methods an improved prevention and clarification procedure for physicians and patients is necessary.

  10. [Solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid gland carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Zivaljevic, V; Zivic, R; Diklic, A; Krgovic, K; Kalezic, N; Vekic, B; Stevanovic, D; Paunovic, I

    2011-08-01

    Thyroid gland carcinomas usually appear as afunctional and hypofunctional lesions on thyroid scintigrams, but some rare cases of thyroid carcinoma with scintigraphic hyperfunctional lesions have also been reported. The aim of our retrospective study was to elucidate the frequency of carcinomas in patients operated for solitary hyperfunctional thyroid nodules and to represent their demographic and clinical features. During one decade (1997/2006), 308 patients were operated for solitary hyperfunctional thyroid nodules in the Centre for Endocrine Surgery in Belgrade. Malignancy was revealed in 9 cases (about 3 %) by histopathological examination. In 6 cases papillary microcarcinomas were found adjacent to dominant hyperfunctional adenomas, while in 3 cases (about 1 %) real hyperfunctional carcinomas were confirmed. Follicular carcinoma was diagnosed in 2 cases and papillary carcinoma in one. All 3 patients were preoperatively hyperthyroid. In both patients with follicular carcinoma we performed lobectomies. In the third case we carried out a total thyroidectomy considering the intraoperative frozen section finding of a papillary carcinoma. According to our results the frequency of solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinomas is about 1 %, so that the possibility that a hyperfunctional nodule is malignant should be considered in the treatment of such lesions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart ˙ New York.

  11. Brain Metastases from Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Piura, Ettie; Piura, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    This paper will focus on knowledge related to brain metastases from endometrial carcinoma. To date, 115 cases were documented in the literature with an incidence of 0.6% among endometrial carcinoma patients. The endometrial carcinoma was usually an advanced-stage and high-grade tumor. In most patients (~90%), brain metastasis was detected after diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma with a median interval from diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma to diagnosis of brain metastases of 17 months. Brain metastasis from endometrial carcinoma was either an isolated disease limited to the brain only (~50%) or part of a disseminated disease involving also other parts of the body (~50%). Most often, brain metastasis from endometrial carcinoma affected the cerebrum (~75%) and was solitary (~60%). The median survival after diagnosis of brain metastases from endometrial carcinoma was 5 months; however, a significantly better survival was achieved with multimodal therapy including surgical resection or stereotactic radiosurgery followed by whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and/or chemotherapy compared to WBRT alone. It is suggested that brain imaging studies should be considered in the routine follow up of patients with endometrial carcinoma and that the search for a primary source in females with brain metastases of unknown primary should include endometrial biopsy. PMID:22523707

  12. Photosensitizer adhered to cell culture microplates induces phototoxicity in carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Verena; Kiesslich, Tobias; Krammer, Barbara; Plaetzer, Kristjan

    2013-01-01

    In vitro experiments in plastic receptacles are the basis of characterization of new photosensitizers (PSs) for the photodynamic therapy. We recently reported that lipophilic PSs adhere to cell culture microplates in a kinetic-like manner (Engelhardt et al., 2011). In the current study, we examined the interaction and phototoxic effects of the microplate-adhered PS in cancer cells. Therefore, we preloaded microplates with hypericin, Foscan, PVP-hypericin, or aluminum (III) phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate chloride (AlPCS4) for 24 hours and measured the PS distribution after addition of A431 human carcinoma cells: following another 24 hours up to 68% of hypericin were detected in the cell fraction. The hydrophilic PVP-hypericin and AlPCS4 also diffused into the cells, but the quantities of PS adherence were considerably lower. Microplate-adhered Foscan appeared not to be redistributed. In contrast to the hydrophilic PSs, the cellular phototoxicity of microplate-adhered lipophilic PS was high, independent of whether the PS (i) was pre-loaded onto microplates or (ii) added simultaneously with the cells or (iii) one day after cell seeding. Based on these results, we suggest testing lipophilic PS dyes for their adherence to microplates. Furthermore, the ability of plastic materials to (reversibly) store PSs might represent a new approach for the PS delivery or the development of antimicrobial coatings.

  13. Photosensitizer Adhered to Cell Culture Microplates Induces Phototoxicity in Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Verena; Kiesslich, Tobias; Krammer, Barbara; Plaetzer, Kristjan

    2013-01-01

    In vitro experiments in plastic receptacles are the basis of characterization of new photosensitizers (PSs) for the photodynamic therapy. We recently reported that lipophilic PSs adhere to cell culture microplates in a kinetic-like manner (Engelhardt et al., 2011). In the current study, we examined the interaction and phototoxic effects of the microplate-adhered PS in cancer cells. Therefore, we preloaded microplates with hypericin, Foscan, PVP-hypericin, or aluminum (III) phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate chloride (AlPCS4) for 24 hours and measured the PS distribution after addition of A431 human carcinoma cells: following another 24 hours up to 68% of hypericin were detected in the cell fraction. The hydrophilic PVP-hypericin and AlPCS4 also diffused into the cells, but the quantities of PS adherence were considerably lower. Microplate-adhered Foscan appeared not to be redistributed. In contrast to the hydrophilic PSs, the cellular phototoxicity of microplate-adhered lipophilic PS was high, independent of whether the PS (i) was pre-loaded onto microplates or (ii) added simultaneously with the cells or (iii) one day after cell seeding. Based on these results, we suggest testing lipophilic PS dyes for their adherence to microplates. Furthermore, the ability of plastic materials to (reversibly) store PSs might represent a new approach for the PS delivery or the development of antimicrobial coatings. PMID:23509741

  14. Evaluation of Mannosidase and Trypsin Enzymes Effects on Biofilm Production of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Burn Wound Infections.

    PubMed

    Banar, Maryam; Emaneini, Mohammad; Satarzadeh, Mhboubeh; Abdellahi, Nafiseh; Beigverdi, Reza; Leeuwen, Willem B van; Jabalameli, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    Biofilm is an important virulence factor in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and has a substantial role in antibiotic resistance and chronic burn wound infections. New therapeutic agents against P. aeruginosa, degrading biofilms in burn wounds and improving the efficacy of current antimicrobial agents, are required. In this study, the effects of α-mannosidase, β-mannosidase and trypsin enzymes on the degradation of P. aeruginosa biofilms and on the reduction of ceftazidime minimum biofilm eliminating concentrations (MBEC) were evaluated. All tested enzymes, destroyed the biofilms and reduced the ceftazidime MBECs. However, only trypsin had no cytotoxic effect on A-431 human epidermoid carcinoma cell lines. In conclusion, since trypsin had better features than mannosidase enzymes, it can be a promising agent in combatting P. aeruginosa burn wound infections.

  15. Imaging of immunolabeled membrane receptors in uncoated SEM specimens.

    PubMed

    Heinzmann, U; Reninger, A; Autrata, R; Höfler, H

    1994-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) were labeled with 10 nm immunogold and examined on uncoated specimens of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. A field emission gun and a high-sensitivity YAG ring detector were used to demonstrate the affinity labeling simultaneously in the secondary-electron (SE) and backscattered-electron (BSE) modes with a low accelerating voltage (Vo). At Vo = 2 kV, the SE and BSE signals were too weak to identify all markers, while at Vo = 3-7 kV labeling was observed unambiguously in both the SE and BSE modes with smaller and higher working distances. Increasing the Vo to above 7 kV sometimes provokes instability of the specimens. A Vo of > or = 10 kV produces charging artifacts in the SE image, but permits a BSE image of the gold markers providing additional topographic information. In conclusion, immunogold labeling can be used with good results for uncoated specimens.

  16. Understanding the Antifungal Mechanism of Ag@ZnO Core-shell Nanocomposites against Candida krusei.

    PubMed

    Das, Bhaskar; Khan, Md Imran; Jayabalan, R; Behera, Susanta K; Yun, Soon-Il; Tripathy, Suraj K; Mishra, Amrita

    2016-11-04

    In the present paper, facile synthesis of Ag@ZnO core-shell nanocomposites is reported where zinc oxide is coated on biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using Andrographis paniculata and Aloe vera leaf extract. Structural features of as synthesized nanocomposites are characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD, and FTIR. Morphology of the above core-shell nanocomposites is investigated by electron microscopy. As synthesized nanocomposite material has shown antimicrobial activity against Candida krusei, which is an opportunistic pathogen known to cause candidemia. The possible mode of activity of the above material has been studied by in-vitro molecular techniques. Our investigations have shown that surface coating of biogenic silver nanoparticles by zinc oxide has increased its antimicrobial efficiency against Candida krusei, while decreasing its toxicity towards A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cell lines.

  17. [Pleural metastases of renal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Giigoruk, O G; Lazarev, A F; Doroshenko, V S

    2007-01-01

    Metastases in renal carcinoma are diagnosed at initial diagnosis in 25% examinees. Traditional renal carcinoma has higher metastatic potential, is associated with worse survival of the patients compared to papillary cancer. We studied cytological characteristics of renal carcinoma metastases to the pleura in comparison with histological studies of the primary lesion using immunohistochemical findings. We examined cytologically pleural liquid in renal carcinoma metastases to the pleura in 6 patients (2.3% of carcinomatous pleuricies). High efficacy was shown by a cytocentrifuge CYTOSPIN-4. In 3 cases initial cancer was renal cell carcinoma, pleural exudation developed 2 years later, clear cell carcinoma appeared 6 years later and papillary cancer--10 years later. In the other 3 cases malignant cells were detected in new-onset cases. Renal carcinoma was diagnosed in one case. Cytological preparations were studied with identification of cytological signs typical for classic clear cell, granulocell and papillary renal cancer. Immunohistochemical examination of primary tumor lesion in the kidney discovered high proliferative activity of tumor cells by Ki-67 index to 5.28%. The tumors had solitary Bcl-2 positive cells. Expression of mutant p-53 took place in 0.93%. Her-2/neu hyperexpression was not found in the tumors of the above patients. Such immunohistochemical parameters point to poor prognosis. This is confirmed by renal carcinoma metastases to the pleura.

  18. Birth characteristics and childhood carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K J; Carozza, S E; Chow, E J; Fox, E E; Horel, S; McLaughlin, C C; Mueller, B A; Puumala, S E; Reynolds, P; Von Behren, J; Spector, L G

    2011-10-25

    Carcinomas in children are rare and have not been well studied. We conducted a population-based case-control study and examined associations between birth characteristics and childhood carcinomas diagnosed from 28 days to 14 years during 1980-2004 using pooled data from five states (NY, WA, MN, TX, and CA) that linked their birth and cancer registries. The pooled data set contained 57,966 controls and 475 carcinoma cases, including 159 thyroid and 126 malignant melanoma cases. We used unconditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). White compared with 'other' race was positively associated with melanoma (OR=3.22, 95% CI 1.33-8.33). Older maternal age increased the risk for melanoma (OR(per 5-year age increase)=1.20, 95% CI 1.00-1.44), whereas paternal age increased the risk for any carcinoma (OR=1.10(per 5-year age increase), 95% CI 1.01-1.20) and thyroid carcinoma (OR(per 5-year age increase)=1.16, 95% CI 1.01-1.33). Gestational age < 37 vs 37-42 weeks increased the risk for thyroid carcinoma (OR=1.87, 95% CI 1.07-3.27). Plurality, birth weight, and birth order were not significantly associated with childhood carcinomas. This exploratory study indicates that some birth characteristics including older parental age and low gestational age may be related to childhood carcinoma aetiology.

  19. [Cortico-suprarenal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Alecu, L; Costan, I; Viţalariu, Adriana; Lungu, C; Obrocea, F; Gulinescu, L

    2002-01-01

    The authors show the case of a 69 years old male with a large corticosuprarenalian tumor that was detected on an random abdominal echographic examination. The patient was operated in the General Surgery Department. of Prof. Agrippa Ionescu Hospital, Bucharest. We performed ablation of the large left suprarenalian gland malign tumor with left nephrectomy, splenectomy and partial pancreatectomy. The hystopathological examination reveals a diffuse corticosuprenalian carcinoma. The case is interesting because of low incidence of this kind of malign tumor and also of the unusual tumor evolution in a long time up to its large size (12 cm in diameter).

  20. Histopathology of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Schlageter, Manuel; Terracciano, Luigi Maria; D'Angelo, Salvatore; Sorrentino, Paolo

    2014-11-21

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is currently the sixth most common type of cancer with a high mortality rate and an increasing incidence worldwide. Its etiology is usually linked to environmental, dietary or life-style factors. HCC most commonly arises in a cirrhotic liver but interestingly an increasing proportion of HCCs develop in the non-fibrotic or minimal fibrotic liver and a shift in the underlying etiology can be observed. Although this process is yet to be completely understood, this changing scenario also has impact on the material seen by pathologists, presenting them with new diagnostic dilemmas. Histopathologic criteria for diagnosing classical, progressed HCC are well established and known, but with an increase in detection of small and early HCCs due to routine screening programs, the diagnosis of these small lesions in core needle biopsies poses a difficult challenge. These lesions can be far more difficult to distinguish from one another than progressed HCC, which is usually a clear cut hematoxylin and eosin diagnosis. Furthermore lesions thought to derive from progenitor cells have recently been reclassified in the WHO. This review summarizes recent developments and tries to put new HCC biomarkers in context with the WHOs reclassification. Furthermore it also addresses the group of tumors known as combined hepatocellular-cholangiocellular carcinomas.

  1. Invasive onychocytic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Gao, Tianwen; Wang, Gang

    2015-05-01

    Neoplasms originating from nail matrix keratinocytes are very rare. Onychomatricoma and onychocytic matricoma are benign tumors arising from nail matrix keratinocytes. Only one case of onychocytic carcinoma, the malignant counterpart of onychocytic matricoma, has been reported in the literature. Herein, we describe a case of invasive onychocytic carcinoma. Two biopsy specimens of the tumor, obtained at early and invasive stages, were examined histopathologically. The first biopsy specimen showed a retiform proliferation of eosinophilic and basophilic cells in the nail matrix. The second biopsy specimen showed a retiform basophilic cell proliferation with focal keratinization. Similar to normal nail matrix keratinocytes, the proliferating basophilic cells failed to express cytokeratin (CK)1, CK6 and CK10. Focal expression of hair-specific keratins, including K31, K85 and K86, was observed. On the basis of these findings, the tumor was identified as an invasive malignant tumor originating from nail matrix keratinocytes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Vishwas; Seykora, John T

    2017-09-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is a malignant neoplasm of the skin characterized by an aberrant proliferation of keratinocytes. Cutaneous SCC is the second most common malignancy globally, and usually arises in the chronically sun-damaged skin of elderly white individuals. From a pathologist's perspective, it is important to differentiate cSCC from the benign and reactive squamoproliferative lesions and identify the high-risk features associated with aggressive tumor behavior. In this article, we provide an up-to-date overview of cSCC along with its precursor lesions and important histologic variants, with a particular emphasis on the histopathologic features and molecular pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered to be one of the most common malignancies worldwide, and the most common one in Africa and Asia. Over the last decade, a rising incidence of up to 10-15/100,000 per population has been seen in the Western world, with an estimate of 250,000 deaths and more than a million worldwide per year. By the year 2010, the World Health Organization expects that HCC will be the leading cause of cancer mortality surpassing lung cancer. This increasing incidence is most likely related to an increasing prevalence of chronic hepatitis C (HC) and B (HB) virus infections and other diseases inducing chronic inflammation (Befeler and Di Bisceglie 2002; Llovet et al. 2003).

  4. Squamous cell carcinoma - invasive (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This irregular red nodule is an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). Initial appearance, shown here, may be very similar to a noncancerous growth called a keratoacanthoma. Squamous cell cancers ...

  5. Morphologic Subtypes of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Torbenson, Michael S

    2017-06-01

    Hepatocellular carcinomas can be further divided into distinct subtypes that provide important clinical information and biological insights. These subtypes are distinct from growth patterns and are on based on morphologic and molecular findings. There are 12 reasonably well-defined subtypes as well as 6 provisional subtypes, together making up 35% of all hepatocellular carcinomas. These subtypes are discussed, with an emphasis on their definitions and the key morphologic findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Characteristic of S100A7 Induction by the Hippo-YAP Pathway in Cervical and Glossopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fei; Li, Yunguang; Hu, Enze; Wang, Rui; Wang, Junhao; Liu, Jin; Zhang, Jinsan; He, Dacheng; Xiao, Xueyuan

    2016-01-01

    S100A7 is expressed in many squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Our previous study revealed that S100A7 was dramatically induced in several SCC cells and activation of the Hippo pathway significantly promoted S100A7 in epidermoid carcinoma cells. However, whether the Hippo pathway regulates S100A7 expression in SCCs remains largely unknown. Here, we uncover that S100A7 induction by the Hippo-YAP pathway displays different characteristic in cervical and glossopharyngeal SCC. In well differentiated HCC94 cervical cells and FaDu pharyngeal cells, S100A7 is easily induced by both suspension and dense culture, which is accompanied by an increase in YAP phosphorylation and a decrease in nuclear YAP. Strikingly, these correlations of S100A7 and YAP reverse after recovery of cell attachment or relief from dense culture. Further examination finds that S100A7 induction is significantly repressed by nuclear YAP, which is validated by activation or inhibition of the Hippo pathway via loss- and/or gain-of- LATS1 and MST1 function. Subsequently, we prove that TEAD1 is required for YAP transcriptional repression of S100A7. However, S100A7 is hardly induced in poorly differentiated SiHa cervical cells and NCI-H226 pulmonary cells even in suspension or activation of the Hippo pathway. More importantly, cervical and lingual SCC tissues array analyses show that S100A7 expression displays the positive correlation with pYAP-S127 and the negative correlation with nuclear YAP in the majority of well differentiated but not in poorly differentiated tissues. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that the different induction of S100A7 toward activation of the Hippo pathway mainly depends on the degree of cell differentiation in cervical and glossopharyngeal SCC.

  7. Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma Presenting with Two Different Patterns of Cutaneous Metastases: Carcinoma Telangiectaticum and Carcinoma Erysipeloides

    PubMed Central

    Yaghoobi, Reza; Talaizade, Abdolhasan; Lal, Karan; Ranjbari, Nastaran; Sohrabiaan, Nasibe

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous metastases can have many different clinical presentations. They are seen in patients with advanced malignant disease; however, they can be the initial manifestation of undetected malignancies. Inflammatory breast carcinoma is a rare and aggressive form of breast cancer that has a nonspecific appearance mimicking many benign conditions including mastitis, breast abscesses, and/or dermatitis. The authors report the case of a 40-year-old woman with inflammatory breast carcinoma presenting with violaceous papulovesicular lesions resembling lymphangioma circumscriptum and erythematous patches resembling erysipelas. These lesions represent two different types of cutaneous metastases, both of which were the initial signs of inflammatory breast carcinoma in the patient described herein. Skin biopsy of lesions confirmed invasive breast cancer and further prompted a work up for inflammatory breast carcinoma. This case demonstrates the importance of follow-up for all breast lesions, even those considered to be of benign nature, for they can be presenting signs of metastatic breast cancer. PMID:26345728

  8. Cytological detection of a peripheral lung carcinoma in a coke oven worker

    SciTech Connect

    Teplitz, R.L.; Belman, M.J.; Nathwani, B.

    1980-06-01

    OSHA mandated programs of pulmonary cytology among coke oven workers have resulted in detection of a number of unsuspected tumors. While it is too early to determine the eventual impact of these programs, this report describes the detection of a 0.3 cm peripheral lesion, believed to be the smallest identified by cytology. In addition to being diminutive, the tumor proved to be of the epidermoid type, unusual for the location. Further investigation is required to determine whether peripheral epidermoid neoplasms are associated with exposure to coke vapors.

  9. [Penile squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Ferrándiz-Pulido, C; de Torres, I; García-Patos, V

    2012-01-01

    Penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is uncommon in Europe, where it accounts for approximately 0.7% of all malignant tumors in men. The main risk factors are poor hygiene, lack of circumcision, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and certain chronic inflammatory skin diseases. HPV infection is detected in 70% to 100% of all penile in situ SCCs and in 30% to 50% of invasive forms of the disease, mainly basaloid and warty SCCs. In situ tumors can be treated conservatively, but close monitoring is essential as they become invasive in between 1% and 30% of cases. The treatment of choice for penile SCC is surgery. Inguinal lymph node irradiation is no longer recommended as a prophylactic measure, and it appears that selective lymph node biopsy might be useful for reducing the morbidity associated with prophylactic inguinal lymph node dissection. Survival is directly related to lymph node involvement. Improving our knowledge of underlying molecular changes and their associated genotypes will open up new therapeutic pathways. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  10. Multifocal hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma without metastases.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Akiko T; Hirano, Shigeru; Asato, Ryo; Tanaka, Shinzo; Kitani, Yoshiharu; Honda, Nobumitsu; Fujiki, Nobuya; Miyata, Kouji; Fukushima, Hideyuki; Ito, Juichi

    2008-09-01

    Hyperthyroidism due to thyroid carcinoma is rare, and most cases are caused by hyperfunctioning metastatic thyroid carcinoma rather than primary carcinoma. Among primary hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma, multifocal thyroid carcinoma is exceedingly rare, with the only one case being reported in the literature. Here, we describe the case of a 62-year-old woman with multifocal functioning thyroid carcinoma. Technetium-99m (99m Tc) scintigraphic imaging showed four hot areas in the thyroid gland. Histopathological examination of all four nodules revealed papillary carcinoma, corresponding to hot areas in the 99m Tc scintigram. DNA sequencing of the thyrotropin receptor (TSH-R) gene from all nodules revealed no mutation, indicating that activation of TSH-R was unlikely in the pathophysiogenesis of hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma in the present case.

  11. General Information about Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Merkel Cell Carcinoma Go to Health Professional ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  12. General Information about Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Thymic Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  13. Potential targets for lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have identified potential therapeutic targets in lung squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of lung cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network study comprehensively characterized the lung squamous cell carcinoma gen

  14. Genomic features of lobular breast carcinoma - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have identified molecular characteristics of a type of breast cancer, invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), that distinguishes it from invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), the most common invasive breast cancer subtype.

  15. Treatment Options by Stage (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Merkel Cell Carcinoma Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Merkel Cell Carcinoma Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  17. Genomic features of lobular breast carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have identified molecular characteristics of a type of breast cancer, invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), that distinguishes it from invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), the most common invasive breast cancer subtype.

  18. [Hepatocellular carcinoma in undamaged liver].

    PubMed

    Feketé, F; Belghiti, J; Flejou, J F; Panis, Y; Molas, G

    1991-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma mainly affects patients with cirrhosis or with various degrees of fibrosis. From 1979 to 1990, among 87 patients who underwent hepatic resection for non fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma, 12 (14%) had a non fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma developed in a normal liver. There were 8 men and 4 women, aged 29 to 74 years. In 7 patients (58%) hepatocellular carcinoma was associated with clinical manifestations. Serum hepatitis B surface antigen were absent in all patients. Serum alphafetoprotein level was less than 100 mg/ml in 10 (83%), size of the tumor was greater than or less than 5 cm in 10 (83%) and capsule was present in 10 (83%). Resections included removal of 2 segments or more in 11 (91%). One patient died postoperatively. Actuarial survival rate at 3 and 5 years were respectively 57% and 38%. Intra or extrahepatic recurrence was recognized in 8 (67%), 2 patients were alive respectively 28 and 16 months after treatment of their intrahepatic recurrence (resection in one and intra-arterial embolisation in one). In conclusion, our results suggest that aggressive surgical efforts are justified in non fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma arising in normal liver.

  19. Radioimmune localization of occult carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Duda, R.B.; Zimmer, A.M.; Rosen, S.T.

    1990-07-01

    Patients with a rising serum carcinoembryonic antigen level and no clinical or roentgenographic evidence of recurrent or metastatic cancer present a treatment dilemma. Eleven such patients, 10 with a previously treated colorectal carcinoma and 1 with a previously treated breast carcinoma, received an injection of the anticarcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody ZCE-025 labeled with the radioisotope indium 111. Nuclear scintigraphy was performed on days 3 and 5 through 7 to detect potential sites of tumor recurrence. The monoclonal antibody scan accurately predicted the presence or absence of occult malignancy in 7 (64%) patients. Second-look laparotomy confirmed the monoclonal antibody scan resultsmore » in the patients with colorectal cancer, and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed metastatic breast cancer. This study demonstrates that In-ZCE-025 can localize occult carcinoma and may assist the surgeon in facilitating the operative exploration. In-ZCE-025 assisted in the initiation of adjuvant therapy for the patient with breast cancer.« less

  20. Fibrolamellar variant of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chun, Yun Shin; Zimmitti, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The fibrolamellar variant of hepatocellular carcinoma is a rare primary liver cancer occurring in adolescents and young adults without chronic liver disease or known risk factors. Histologically, it is defined by lamellar bands of fibrosis surrounding well-differentiated tumor cells. Radiologic imaging typically demonstrates a large, solitary mass with calcifications and a central scar. Lymph node metastases in the porta hepatis are frequently diagnosed upon presentation. More patients with fibrolamellar carcinoma are candidates for surgical resection than those with conventional hepatocellular carcinoma, owing to their young age and absence of cirrhosis. The most important prognostic factor is surgical resection, which results in 5-year overall survival rates ranging between 50 and 76 %. Despite complete surgical resection, relapse rates are high, and novel therapies are needed to prevent and treat recurrent disease.

  1. Breast metastases from colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mihai, Radu; Christie-Brown, Jonathan; Bristol, James

    2004-04-01

    A case history is presented of a 53-year-old woman with an incidental finding of a breast lump, identified after having had chemotherapy for lung metastases from a rectal carcinoma. Clinical examination, ultrasound, mammography, fine needle aspiration and core biopsies could not prove definitively whether the breast lump represented a metastasis from colorectal carcinoma. Following local excision, the final diagnosis of metastatic colorectal carcinoma to the breast was based on the absence of any site of origin within the breast (i.e. no surrounding DCIS) and on the expression of cytokeratin CK7 and CK20 on immunohistochemistry. Postoperative chemotherapy was initiated. Four months later, although without local recurrence in the breast, the patient developed cutaneous metastatic deposits and active treatment was stopped. A review of other cases of breast metastases from extramammary sources is presented. Possible mechanisms for this rare and unusual phenomenon are discussed.

  2. Update in adrenocortical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fassnacht, Martin; Kroiss, Matthias; Allolio, Bruno

    2013-12-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an orphan malignancy that has attracted increasing attention during the last decade. Here we provide an update on advances in the field since our last review published in this journal in 2006. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway and IGF-2 signaling have been confirmed as frequently altered signaling pathways in ACC, but recent data suggest that they are probably not sufficient for malignant transformation. Thus, major players in the pathogenesis are still unknown. For diagnostic workup, comprehensive hormonal assessment and detailed imaging are required because in most ACCs, evidence for autonomous steroid secretion can be found and computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (if necessary, combined with functional imaging) can differentiate benign from malignant adrenocortical tumors. Surgery is potentially curative in localized tumors. Thus, we recommend a complete resection including lymphadenectomy by an expert surgeon. The pathology report should demonstrate the adrenocortical origin of the lesion (eg, by steroidogenic factor 1 staining) and provide Weiss score, resection status, and quantitation of the proliferation marker Ki67 to guide further treatment. Even after complete surgery, recurrence is frequent and adjuvant mitotane treatment improves outcome, but uncertainty exists as to whether all patients benefit from this therapy. In advanced ACC, mitotane is still the standard of care. Based on the FIRM-ACT trial, mitotane plus etoposide, doxorubicin, and cisplatin is now the established first-line cytotoxic therapy. However, most patients will experience progress and require salvage therapies. Thus, new treatment concepts are urgently needed. The ongoing international efforts including comprehensive "-omic approaches" and next-generation sequencing will improve our understanding of the pathogenesis and hopefully lead to better therapies.

  3. The distribution of the therapeutic monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and trastuzumab within solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Carol M; Tannock, Ian F

    2010-06-03

    Poor distribution of some anticancer drugs in solid tumors may limit their anti-tumor activity. Here we used immunohistochemistry to quantify the distribution of the therapeutic monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and trastuzumab in relation to blood vessels and to regions of hypoxia in human tumor xenografts. The antibodies were injected into mice implanted with human epidermoid carcinoma A431 or human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 transfected with ERBB2 (231-H2N) that express high levels of ErbB1 and ErbB2 respectively, or wild-type MDA-MB-231, which expresses intermediate levels of ErbB1 and low levels of ErbB2. The distribution of cetuximab in A431 xenografts and trastuzumab in 231-H2N xenografts was time and dose dependent. At early intervals after injection of 1 mg cetuximab into A431 xenografts, the concentration of cetuximab decreased with increasing distance from blood vessels, but became more uniformly distributed at later times; there remained however limited distribution and binding in hypoxic regions of tumors. Injection of lower doses of cetuximab led to heterogeneous distributions. Similar results were observed with trastuzumab in 231-H2N xenografts. In MDA-MB-231 xenografts, which express lower levels of ErbB1, homogeneity of distribution of cetuximab was achieved more rapidly. Cetuximab and trastuzumab distribute slowly, but at higher doses achieve a relatively uniform distribution after about 24 hours, most likely due to their long half-lives in the circulation. There remains poor distribution within hypoxic regions of tumors.

  4. Multiple gastrointestinal metastases of Merkel cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Poškus, Eligijus; Platkevičius, Gediminas; Simanskaitė, Vilma; Rimkevičiūtė, Ernesta; Petrulionis, Marius; Strupas, Kestutis

    2016-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is an aggressive skin malignancy. Primary Merkel cell carcinomas are treated by wide radical excision with or without adjuvant radiotherapy, while benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy remain doubtful. There are only several cases of gastrointestinal metastases of Merkel cell carcinoma reported so far. We report a case of recurrent Merkel cell carcinoma with metastases to the stomach and the small intestines after wide excision of primary Merkel cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2016 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  5. Barium inhibits arsenic-mediated apoptotic cell death in human squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Ichiro; Uemura, Noriyuki; Nizam, Saika; Khalequzzaman, Md; Thang, Nguyen D; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Akhand, Anwarul A; Shekhar, Hossain U; Nakajima, Tamie; Kato, Masashi

    2012-06-01

    Our fieldwork showed more than 1 μM (145.1 μg/L) barium in about 3 μM (210.7 μg/L) arsenic-polluted drinking well water (n = 72) in cancer-prone areas in Bangladesh, while the mean concentrations of nine other elements in the water were less than 3 μg/L. The types of cancer include squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). We hypothesized that barium modulates arsenic-mediated biological effects, and we examined the effect of barium (1 μM) on arsenic (3 μM)-mediated apoptotic cell death of human HSC-5 and A431 SCC cells in vitro. Arsenic promoted SCC apoptosis with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and JNK1/2 and caspase-3 activation (apoptotic pathway). In contrast, arsenic also inhibited SCC apoptosis with increased NF-κB activity and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) expression level and decreased JNK activity (antiapoptotic pathway). These results suggest that arsenic bidirectionally promotes apoptotic and antiapoptotic pathways in SCC cells. Interestingly, barium in the presence of arsenic increased NF-κB activity and XIAP expression and decreased JNK activity without affecting ROS production, resulting in the inhibition of the arsenic-mediated apoptotic pathway. Since the anticancer effect of arsenic is mainly dependent on cancer apoptosis, barium-mediated inhibition of arsenic-induced apoptosis may promote progression of SCC in patients in Bangladesh who keep drinking barium and arsenic-polluted water after the development of cancer. Thus, we newly showed that barium in the presence of arsenic might inhibit arsenic-mediated cancer apoptosis with the modulation of the balance between arsenic-mediated promotive and suppressive apoptotic pathways.

  6. [Endometrial carcinomas and precursor lesions--new aspects].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, D

    2009-07-01

    Endometrial carcinomas can be separated into two groups which are designated as type I and type II carcinomas today. Both groups of tumors are clearly different with regard to conventional light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, molecular pathology and clinical features. Only type I carcinomas are associated with hyperestrogenism. The group of type I carcinomas consists of endometrioid carcinoma and its variants, and mucinous carcinoma. The prototypes of type II carcinomas are serous and clear cell carcinoma. Not all carcinomas, however, can be assigned to one of the two groups, because there are hybrid tumors and mixed carcinomas, e.g. endometrioid carcinoma with a serous component. The precursor lesions of the endometrioid carcinoma and the serous carcinoma are well characterized morphologically and by molecular pathology. Atypical hyperplasia is the precursor lesion of endometrioid carcinoma, whereas endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (EIC) is the precursor lesion of serous carcinoma. No precursor lesion has as yet been identified for clear cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical markers for endometrial carcinoma are CK7 and vimentin, for serous carcinoma markers are p53 and p16. Correct typing is of essential prognostic necessity in endometrial carcinoma. Of utmost importance is the detection of a serous component, because serous carcinoma leads to early tumor spread with the necessity of radical surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

  7. Undifferentiated carcinoma of parotid gland.

    PubMed Central

    López, J I; Alfaro, J; Ballestin, C

    1991-01-01

    Two cases of undifferentiated carcinomas of the major salivary glands were studied using immunohistochemical techniques. Results showed that this entity was a high grade malignant neoplasm arising from the excretory duct. Despite the undifferentiated appearance multiple immunophenotypes were evident in both cases. PMID:2045506

  8. Gut metastasis from breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Al-Qahtani, Mohammed S

    2007-10-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common malignancy in women. Common sites of metastases include the liver, lung, bone, and the brain. Metastases to the gastrointestinal tract are rare with patients presenting with small-bowel perforation, intestinal obstruction, and gastrointestinal bleeding. Here we report a case of a Saudi female presenting with invasive lobular carcinoma and ileo-cecal junction metastasis.

  9. Intrathoracic impedance monitor alarm in a patient with cardiac resynchronisation therapy and advanced lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cvijić, Marta; Zižek, David; Antolič, Bor; Zupan, Igor

    2013-01-01

    The intrathoracic impedance monitor system measures impedance between the device case and the right ventricular coil and reflects intrathoracic fluid status. It is used to detect early volume overload in patients with chronic heart failure. We report a case of inappropriate activation of the intrathoracic impedance monitor alarm in a patient with epidermoid lung cancer and pleural carcinosis.

  10. Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer with 1,1-Bis (3′-Indolyl)-1-(Aromatic) Methane Analog through Induction of the Orphan Nuclear Receptor, NR4A2 (Nurr1)

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Punit P.; Patel, Apurva R.; Godugu, Chandraiah; Safe, Stephen; Katiyar, Santosh K.; Singh, Mandip

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to demonstrate the anti-skin cancer and chemopreventive potential of 1,1-bis(3′-indolyl)-1-(p-chlorophenyl methane) (DIM-D) using an in vitro model. Methods In vitro cell cytotoxicity and viability assays were carried out in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cell line and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) respectively by crystal violet staining. Apoptosis induction in A431 cells (DIM-D treated) and NHEK cells pretreated with DIM-D (2 hr) prior to UVB irradiation, were assessed. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in DIM-D pretreated NHEK cells (2 hr) prior to UVB exposure was also determined. Immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis was performed to determine cleaved caspase 3 and DNA damage markers in DIM-D treated A431 cells and in DIM-D pretreated NHEK cells prior to UVB irradiation. Results The IC50 values of DIM-D were 68.7±7.3, 48.3±10.1 and 11.5±3.1 μM whilst for Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) were 419.1±8.3, 186.1±5.2 and 56.7±3.1 μM for 24, 48 and 72 hr treatments respectively. DIM-D exhibited a significantly (p<0.05) greater induction of DNA fragmentation in A431 cells compared to EGCG with percent cell death of 38.9. In addition, DIM-D induced higher expression in A431 cells compared to EGCG of cleaved caspase 3 (3.0-fold vs. 2.4-fold changes), Nurr1 (2.7-fold vs. 1.7-fold changes) and NFκB (1.3-fold vs. 1.1-fold changes). DIM-D also exhibited chemopreventive activity in UVB-irradiated NHEK cells by significantly (p<0.05) reducing UVB-induced ROS formation and apoptosis compared to EGCG. Additionally, DIM-D induced expression of Nurr1 but reduced expression of 8-OHdG significantly in UVB-irradiated NHEK cells compared to EGCG and UV only. Conclusion Our results suggest that DIM-D exhibits Nurr1-dependent transactivation in the induction of apoptosis in A431 cells and it protects NHEK cells against UVB-induced ROS formation and DNA damage. PMID:23950896

  11. Aggregation of nanoparticles in endosomes and lysosomes produces surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Leanne J.; Chen, Xiaoke K.; Smith, Aaron J.; Korbelik, Mladen; Zeng, Haishan; Lee, Patrick W. K.; Hewitt, Kevin Cecil

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the use of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to image the distribution of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in cells. To accomplish this task, 30-nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) tagged with antibodies to EGFR (1012 per mL) were incubated with cells (106 per mL) of the A431 human epidermoid carcinoma and normal human bronchial epithelial cell lines. Using the 632.8-nm excitation line of a He-Ne laser, Raman spectroscopy measurements were performed using a point mapping scheme. Normal cells show little to no enhancement. SERS signals were observed inside the cytoplasm of A431 cells with an overall enhancement of 4 to 7 orders of magnitude. Raman intensity maps of the 1450 and 1583 cm-1 peaks correlate well with the expected distribution of EGFR and AuNPs, aggregated following uptake by endosomes and lysosomes. Spectral features from tyrosine and tryptophan residues dominate the SERS signals.

  12. Apoptotic induction of skin cancer cell death by plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Thuncharoen, Walairat; Chulasiri, Malin; Nilwarangkoon, Sirinun; Nakamura, Yukio; Watanapokasin, Ramida

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of plant extracts on cancer apoptotic induction. Human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cell line, obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA), was maintained in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) at 37 degrees C, 5% carbon dioxide (CO2). Plant extract solutions were obtained from S & J international enterprises public company limited. These plant extracts include 50% hydroglycol extracts from Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M.Smith (torch ginger; EE), Rosa damascene (damask rose; DR) and Rafflesia kerrii Meijer (bua phut; RM). The cell viability, time and dose dependency were determined by MTT (3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. A431 cells were treated with the plant extracts and stained with Hoechst 33342 fluorescent staining dye. Cell viability was demonstrated by the inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50). The anti-proliferative effects were shown to be dependent on time and dose. Typical characteristics of apoptosis which are cell morphological changes and chromatin condensation were clearly observed. The plant extracts was shown to be effective for anti-proliferation and induction of apoptosis cell death in skin cancer cells. Therefore, mechanisms underlying the cell death and its potential use for treatment of skin cancer will be further studied.

  13. [Primary cutaneous cribriform apocrine carcinoma : An underdiagnosed entity?].

    PubMed

    Udvardi, A; Mayer, B; Volc-Platzer, B; Rütten, A

    2016-09-01

    Primary cutaneous cribriform apocrine carcinoma is a distinctive but little known variant of cutaneous apocrine carcinoma with indolent biological behaviour. It should not be mistaken for a cutaneous metastasis of a visceral carcinoma, an adenoid cystic basal cell carcinoma or a primary cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma.

  14. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of lung masquerading as urothelial carcinoma of bladder

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Donna M.; O’Connor, Kate M.; Hinchion, John; Coate, Linda E.; Burke, Louise; Power, Derek G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the lung is a rare subtype of non-small cell lung cancer. There is no consensus regarding optimal management for this disease. Case report We present a case of MEC of the lung in a 75 year-old female with a history of superficial urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. The patient was found to have an asymptomatic lung mass. Initial biopsy suggested metastatic recurrence of urothelial carcinoma and therefore, cisplatin and gemcitabine chemotherapy was administered prior to surgical resection. Pathological analysis of the resected specimen confirmed a diagnosis of stage IIIA MEC with focal high-grade features including transitional cell-like areas. Adjuvant radiotherapy was administered due to a positive microscopic resection margin. No chemotherapy was given due to lack of supporting data. The patient developed widespread metastatic disease 3 months following completion of radiotherapy and died 1 month later. Conclusion This case demonstrates the possibility of dual pathology in cases where metastatic disease is suspected. The use of small tissue samples may complicate diagnosis due to the heterogeneity of malignant tumours. PMID:24936321

  15. Merkel cell carcinoma: is this a true carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Marek; Kopinski, Piotr; Schwartz, Robert; Czajkowski, Rafal

    2014-11-01

    Recent years have brought an enhanced understanding of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) biology, especially with regard to the Merkel cell polyoma virus as a causative agent. Differences between Merkel cell polyomavirus-positive and Merkel cell polyomavirus-negative MCC in morphology; gene expression, miRNA profiles and prognosis have been reported. Origin of MCC is controversial. Presence of neurosecretory granules has suggested that these carcinomas originate from one of the neurocrest derivatives, most probably Merkel cells; the name Merkel cell carcinoma is now widely accepted. Expression of PGP 9.5, chromogranin A and several neuropeptides, initially regarded as specific markers for neural and neuroendocrine cells, has recently been shown in a subset of lymphomas. MCC commonly expresses terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase and PAX5. Their co-expression under physiologic circumstances is restricted to pro/pre-B cells and pre-B cells. These findings lead to the hypothesis by zur Hausen et al. that MCC originates from early B cells. This review was intended to critically appraise zur Hausen's hypothesis and discuss the possibility that MCC is a heterogenous entity with distinct subtypes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Genomics of mucoepidermoid and adenoid cystic carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Yan, Kenneth; Yesensky, Jessica; Hasina, Rifat; Agrawal, Nishant

    2018-02-01

    To report on the current state of the literature on the genetics of mucoepidermoid and adenoid cystic carcinomas of the salivary glands with a focus on genomic screens and recently discovered genetic translocations. A PubMed based literature review was performed to query for genetics related basic science and preclinical studies about mucoepidermoid and adenoid cystic carcinomas of the salivary glands. Genetic translocations between CRTC1 and MAML2 in mucoepidermoid carcinoma and between MYB and NFIB in adenoid cystic carcinoma have been recently discovered and have therapeutic implications. Key signaling pathways such as the EGFR pathway in mucoepidermoid carcinoma and the Notch pathway, chromatin regulation, and c-kit mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transitions in adenoid cystic carcinoma have recently been elucidated, pointing to possible therapeutic targets in both cancers.

  17. Genomics of mucoepidermoid and adenoid cystic carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Kenneth; Yesensky, Jessica; Hasina, Rifat

    2018-01-01

    Objective To report on the current state of the literature on the genetics of mucoepidermoid and adenoid cystic carcinomas of the salivary glands with a focus on genomic screens and recently discovered genetic translocations. Methods A PubMed based literature review was performed to query for genetics related basic science and preclinical studies about mucoepidermoid and adenoid cystic carcinomas of the salivary glands. Results and conclusions Genetic translocations between CRTC1 and MAML2 in mucoepidermoid carcinoma and between MYB and NFIB in adenoid cystic carcinoma have been recently discovered and have therapeutic implications. Key signaling pathways such as the EGFR pathway in mucoepidermoid carcinoma and the Notch pathway, chromatin regulation, and c‐kit mediated epithelial‐mesenchymal transitions in adenoid cystic carcinoma have recently been elucidated, pointing to possible therapeutic targets in both cancers. PMID:29492469

  18. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Peris, Ketty

    2015-11-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy is an effective and safe noninvasive treatment for low-risk basal cell carcinoma, with the advantage of an excellent cosmetic outcome. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy in basal cell carcinoma is supported by substantial research and clinical trials. In this article, we review the procedure, indications and clinical evidences for the use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

  19. Molecular genetic heterogeneity in undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Rosa-Rosa, Juan M; Leskelä, Susanna; Cristóbal-Lana, Eva; Santón, Almudena; López-García, Ma Ángeles; Muñoz, Gloria; Pérez-Mies, Belen; Biscuola, Michele; Prat, Jaime; Esther, Oliva E; Soslow, Robert A; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Palacios, Jose

    2016-11-01

    Undifferentiated and dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas are rare and highly aggressive subtypes of uterine cancer, not well characterized at a molecular level. To investigate whether dedifferentiated carcinomas carry molecular genetic alterations similar to those of pure undifferentiated carcinomas, and to gain insight into the pathogenesis of these tumors, we selected a cohort of 18 undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas, 8 of them with a well-differentiated endometrioid carcinoma component (dedifferentiated endometrioid carcinomas), and studied them by immunohistochemistry and massive parallel and Sanger sequencing. Whole-exome sequencing of the endometrioid and undifferentiated components, as well as normal myometrium, was also carried out in one case. According to The Cancer Genome Atlas classification, we distributed 95% of the undifferentiated carcinomas in this series as follows: (a) hypermutated tumors with loss of any mismatch repair protein expression and microsatellite instability (eight cases, 45%); (b) ultramutated carcinomas carrying mutations in the exonuclease domain of POLE (two cases, 11%); (c) high copy number alterations (copy-number high) tumors group exhibiting only TP53 mutations and high number of alterations detected by FISH (two cases, 11%); and (d) low copy number alterations (copy-number low) tumors with molecular alterations typical of endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (five cases, 28%). Two of the latter cases, however, also had TP53 mutations and higher number of alterations detected by FISH and could have progressed to a copy-number high phenotype. Most dedifferentiated carcinomas belonged to the hypermutated group, whereas pure undifferentiated carcinomas shared molecular genetic alterations with copy-number low or copy-number high tumors. These results indicate that undifferentiated and dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas are molecularly heterogeneous tumors, which may have prognostic value.

  20. Molecular genetic heterogeneity in undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Rosa-Rosa, J.M.; Leskelä, S.; Cristóbal-Lana, E.; Santón, A.; López-García, M.A.; Muñoz, G.; Pérez-Mies, B.; Biscuola, M; Prat, J.; Oliva, E.; Soslow, R.A.; Matias-Guiu, X.; Palacios, J.

    2017-01-01

    Undifferentiated and dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas are rare and highly aggressive subtypes of uterine cancer, not well characterized at a molecular level. To investigate whether dedifferentiated carcinomas carry molecular genetic alterations similar to those of pure undifferentiated carcinomas, and to gain insight into the pathogenesis of these tumours, we selected a cohort of 18 undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas, 8 of them with a well differentiated endometrioid carcinoma component (dedifferentiated endometrioid carcinomas), and studied them by immunohistochemistry and massive parallel and Sanger sequencing. Whole exome sequencing of the endometrioid and undifferentiated components as well as normal myometrium, was also carried out in one case. According to The Cancer Genome Atlas classification, we distributed 95% of the undifferentiated carcinomas in this series as follows: a) hypermutated tumours with loss of any mismatch repair protein expression and microsatellite instability (eight cases, 45%); b) ultramutated carcinomas carrying mutations in the exonuclease domain of POLE (two cases, 11%); c) high copy number alterations (copy-number high) tumours group exhibiting only TP53 mutations and high number of alterations detected by FISH (two cases, 11%) ; and d) low copy number alterations (copy-number low) tumours with molecular alterations typical of endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (five cases, 28%). Two of the latter cases, however, also had TP53 mutations and higher number of alterations detected by FISH and could have progressed to a copy-number high phenotype. Most dedifferentiated carcinomas belonged to the hypermutated group whereas pure undifferentiated carcinomas shared molecular genetic alterations with copy-number low or copy-number high tumours. These results indicate that undifferentiated and dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas are molecularly heterogeneous tumours, which may have prognostic value. PMID:27491810

  1. Merkel cell carcinoma in an immunosuppressed patient.

    PubMed

    Góes, Heliana Freitas de Oliveira; Lima, Caren Dos Santos; Issa, Maria Cláudia de Almeida; Luz, Flávio Barbosa; Pantaleão, Luciana; Paixão, José Gabriel Miranda da

    2017-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is an uncommon neuroendocrine carcinoma with a rising incidence and an aggressive behavior. It predominantly occurs in older patients, with onset occurring at a mean age of 75-80 years. Recognized risk factors are ultraviolet sunlight exposure, immunosuppression, and, more recently, Merkel cell polyomavirus. We report a case of Merkel cell carcinoma in a young HIV positive patient with Merkel Cell polyomavirus detected in the tumor.

  2. [Biological behavior of hypopharyngeal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Zhou, L X

    1997-01-01

    Hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (HPC) has an extremely poor prognosis. Characteristics of cell lines of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas including HPC were studied by various methods, e.g., chemosensitivity test and the immunohistochemistry staining method, to determine whether this poor prognosis is due to the biological behavior of this cancer. An HPC cell line was found to be resistant to anti tumor drugs, i.e., PEP, MTX and CPM and moderately sensitive to CDDP, 5-FU and ADM. Thermoresistance to hyperthermatic treatment and weak expression of ICAM-1 on the HPC cell line were observed. DNA synthesis by the HPC cell line was induced by stimulation with a low concentration of EGF and the amount of EGFR on these HPC cells was very high. In addition, cyclinD1 overexpression was found in the HPC cell line. Based on the above findings, further analysis of hypopharyngeal carcinoma cells and the development of a new treatment modality to control tumor growth and metastatic factors influencing the poor outcome are necessary to improve the prognosis of this cancer.

  3. Neural invasion in pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Lu, Kui-Yang

    2002-08-01

    Neural invasion is a special metastatic route in pancreatic cancer and responsible for the high recurrence in curatively resected cases. To summarize the characteristics and mechanisms of neural invasion in pancreatic carcinoma for the better treatment of this disease. The international literatures were reviewed about the definition, incidence and mechanisms of neural invasion and its clinicopathology, diagnosis and treatment. Neural invasion is defined when the medial perineurium is involved by cancer cells, accounting for 45%-100% of all cases. It can be divided into different kinds or stages according to its locations and the number of nerve fascicles involved. Invasion along vascularity, lymphatic vessels, perineural space and neurotropism is considered as its primary mechanisms. No clinicopathologic factors are correlated with neural invasion. Intravascular ultrasound, CT scan and immunostaining K-ras gene analysis can be used to diagnose neural invasion pre-, intra- or postoperatively. Neural invasion is an important prognostic factor for the recurrence of pancreatic carcinoma after pancreatectomy. Because of its high incidence, pancreatectomy with extended radical retroperitoneal dissection should be considered as a basic procedure in the treatment of pancreatic carcinoma.

  4. Bowenoid epidermotropic metastatic squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ihm, C W; Park, S L; Sung, S Y; Lee, I S

    1996-10-01

    Epidermotropic metastatic squamous cell carcinoma produced full-thickness cellular atypia of bowenoid carcinoma in situ or vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, grade 3 (VIN 3), in a 73-year-old woman who had past history of uterine cervical carcinoma. The presence of intravascular tumor cell nests and areas showing smooth continuity of the malignant squamous cell nodules with the adjoining benign epidermis supported the possibility of the epidermotropic metastasis. To our knowledge, metastatic epidermotropic squamous carcinoma clinicopathologically simulating primary Bowen's disease has not been reported.

  5. Mixed primary squamous cell carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A case report.

    PubMed

    Dong, Su; Song, Xue-Song; Chen, Guang; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland is rare, and mixed squamous cell and follicular carcinoma is even rarer still, with only a few cases reported in the literature. The simultaneous presentation of three primary cancers of the thyroid has not been reported previously. Here we report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid, follicular thyroid carcinoma, and micropapillary thyroid carcinoma. A 62-year-old female patient presented with complaints of pain and a 2-month history of progressively increased swelling in the anterior region of the neck. Fine-needle-aspiration cytology of both lobes indicated the possibility of the presence of a follicular neoplasm. Total thyroidectomy with left-sided modified radical neck dissection was performed. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma with squamous cell carcinoma and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy with l-thyroxine was administered. Radioiodine and radiotherapy also were recommended, but the patient did not complete treatment as scheduled. The patient remained alive more than 9 months after operation. The present case report provides an example of the coexistence of multiple distinct malignancies in the thyroid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. In vitro perforation of human epithelial carcinoma cell with antibody-conjugated biodegradable microspheres illuminated by a single 80 femtosecond near-infrared laser pulse

    PubMed Central

    Terakawa, Mitsuhiro; Tsunoi, Yasuyuki; Mitsuhashi, Tatsuki

    2012-01-01

    Pulsed laser interaction with small metallic and dielectric particles has been receiving attention as a method of drug delivery to many cells. However, most of the particles are attended by many risks, which are mainly dependent upon particle size. Unlike other widely used particles, biodegradable particles have advantages of being broken down and eliminated by innate metabolic processes. In this paper, the perforation of cell membrane by a focused spot with transparent biodegradable microspheres excited by a single 800 nm, 80 fs laser pulse is demonstrated. A polylactic acid (PLA) sphere, a biodegradable polymer, was used. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran and short interfering RNA were delivered into many human epithelial carcinoma cells (A431 cells) by applying a single 80 fs laser pulse in the presence of antibody-conjugated PLA microspheres. The focused intensity was also simulated by the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method. Perforation by biodegradable spheres compared with other particles has the potential to be a much safer phototherapy and drug delivery method for patients. The present method can open a new avenue, which is considered an efficient adherent for the selective perforation of cells which express the specific antigen on the cell membrane. PMID:22679375

  7. Transarterial embolization of metastatic mediastinal hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chia-Chang; Yeh, Hong-Zen; Chang, Chi-Sen; Ko, Chung-Wang; Lien, Han-Chung; Wu, Chun-Ying; Hung, Siu-Wan

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces an innovative treatment for extra-hepatic metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma. A 71-year-old patient had a stable liver condition following treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma, but later developed symptomatic mediastinal metastasis. This rapidly growing mediastinal mass induced symptoms including cough and hoarseness. Serial sessions of transarterial embolization (TAE) successfully controlled this mediastinal mass with limited side effects. The patient’s survival time since the initial diagnosis of the mediastinal hepatocellular carcinoma was 32 mo, significantly longer than the 12 mo mean survival period of patients with similar diagnoses: metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma and a liver condition with a Child-Pugh class A score. Currently, oral sorafenib is the treatment of choice for metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma. Recent studies indicate that locoregional treatment of extra-hepatic metastasis of hepatocellular carcinomas might also significantly improve the prognosis in patients with their primary hepatic lesions under control. Many effective locoregional therapies for extrahepatic metastasis, including radiation and surgical resection, may provide palliative effects for hepatocellular carcinoma-associated mediastinal metastasis. This case report demonstrates that TAE of metastatic mediastinal hepatocellular carcinoma provided this patient with tumor control and increased survival time. This finding is important as it can potentially provide an alternative treatment option for patients with similar symptoms and diagnoses. PMID:23801848

  8. Current Aspects on Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Markopoulos, Anastasios K

    2012-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant epithelial neoplasm affecting the oral cavity. This article overviews the essential points of oral squamous cell carcinoma, highlighting its risk and genomic factors, the potential malignant disorders and the therapeutic approaches. It also emphasizes the importance of the early diagnosis. PMID:22930665

  9. Mucinous breast carcinoma with tall columnar cells.

    PubMed

    Tsoukalas, N; Kiakou, M; Tolia, M; Kostakis, I D; Galanopoulos, M; Nakos, G; Tryfonopoulos, D; Kyrgias, G; Koumakis, G

    2018-05-01

    Mucinous carcinoma of the breast represents 1%-4% of all breast cancers. The World Health Organization classification divides this type of tumour into three different subtypes: mucinous carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma with tall columnar cells (mucinous cystadenocarcinoma and columnar cell mucinous carcinoma) and signet ring cell carcinoma. A 74-year-old woman presented a tumour with inflammatory features in the upper outer quadrant of her left breast, 7 cm in diameter. The core biopsy showed infiltrating ductal carcinoma of no specific type. The tumour-node-metastasis clinical staging was T4cN3M0 (Stage IIIC). She received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, underwent left mastectomy with radical axillary resection and subsequently received radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The histological examination of the surgical specimen revealed two solid tumors in the tail of Spence, which corresponded to adenocarcinoma with high columnar cells. The patient died 16 months after the diagnosis, suffering from pulmonary metastases and anterior chest wall infiltration. A review of the literature revealed only 21 reports of mucinous carcinoma of the breast with tall columnar cells, including our case. This is only the third time that the specific histological type of columnar cell mucinous carcinoma has been reported in the literature.

  10. Carcinoma of Unknown Primary—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) occurs when cancer cells have spread in the body and formed metastatic tumors but the site of the primary cancer is not known. There are a number of reasons why the primary cancer may not be found. Start here to find treatment information for carcinoma of unknown primary.

  11. Ductal carcinoma of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, H E; Greisen, O; Hastrup, N

    1987-06-01

    A case of ductal carcinoma of the parotid gland is described. The medical literature contains only 13 previous reports on this kind of adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland. The tumour is characterized by its histologic resemblance to ductal carcinomas of the breast and prostate. The course of previously described cases suggests that this tumour has a highly aggressive biological behaviour.

  12. Scalp squamous cell carcinoma in xeroderma pigmentosum.

    PubMed

    Awan, Basim A; Alzanbagi, Hanadi; Samargandi, Osama A; Ammar, Hossam

    2014-02-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder that appears in early childhood. Squamous cell carcinoma is not uncommon in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum and mostly involving the face, head, neck, and scalp. However, squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp may exhibit an aggressive course. Here, we present a huge squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp in a three-years-old child with xeroderma pigmentosum. In addition, we illustrate the challenges of a child with xeroderma pigmentosum who grows up in a sunny environment where the possibility of early onset of squamous cell carcinoma is extremely high in any suspected skin lesion. In xeroderma pigmentosum patients, squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp can present early and tends to be unusually aggressive. In sunny areas, proper education to the patient and their parents about ultra-violet light protection and early recognition of any suspicious lesion could be life-saving.

  13. Scalp Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Xeroderma Pigmentosum

    PubMed Central

    Awan, Basim A.; Alzanbagi, Hanadi; Samargandi, Osama A.; Ammar, Hossam

    2014-01-01

    Context: Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder that appears in early childhood. Squamous cell carcinoma is not uncommon in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum and mostly involving the face, head, neck, and scalp. However, squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp may exhibit an aggressive course. Case Report: Here, we present a huge squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp in a three-years-old child with xeroderma pigmentosum. In addition, we illustrate the challenges of a child with xeroderma pigmentosum who grows up in a sunny environment where the possibility of early onset of squamous cell carcinoma is extremely high in any suspected skin lesion. Conclusion: In xeroderma pigmentosum patients, squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp can present early and tends to be unusually aggressive. In sunny areas, proper education to the patient and their parents about ultra-violet light protection and early recognition of any suspicious lesion could be life-saving. PMID:24695441

  14. Esophageal adenosquamous carcinoma mimicking acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Matsukuma, Susumu; Takahashi, Oh; Utsumi, Yoshitaka; Tsuda, Masaki; Miyai, Kosuke; Okada, Kenji; Takeo, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Herein is described a unique case of esophageal cancer mimicking acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The patient succumbed to the disease within one month of diagnosis. Autopsy revealed a 10-cm esophageal tumor, characterized by prominent acantholysis-like areas composed of discohesive cancer cells, along with nested growth of SCC. These discohesive cancer cells focally exhibited pagetoid extension into adjacent esophageal epithelium, comprised ~60% of the esophageal tumor volume and had widely metastasized to the lungs, chest wall, liver, spleen, right adrenal gland, bones and lymph nodes. No metastases of SCC were observed. SCC cells were immunohistochemically positive for keratin 5/6 and E-cadherin and were negative for mucin and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). However, the discohesive cancer cells exhibited negativity for keratin 5/6, positivity for mucin and CEA, and diminished or no immunostaining for E-cadherin. Thus, these discohesive cells represented true adenocarcinomatous differentiation rather than acantholytic SCC cells. It was concluded that this tumor was an esophageal adenosquamous carcinoma with ‘pseudo’-acantholytic adenocarcinoma components, which should be considered as a rare but distinctive type of aggressive cancer. PMID:29085501

  15. Current management of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizian, Parissa; Roayaie, Sasan; Schwartz, Myron E

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and leading cause of death among patients with cirrhosis. Treatment guidelines are based according to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system. The choice among therapeutic options that include liver resection, liver transplantation, locoregional, and systemic treatments must be individualized for each patient. The aim of this paper is to review the outcomes that can be achieved in the treatment of HCC with the heterogeneous therapeutic options currently available in clinical practice. PMID:25132740

  16. Update on Merkel Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Harms, Paul W

    2017-09-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine malignancy. Merkel cell polyomavirus, a tumorigenic DNA virus, is present in most MCC tumors, with implications for tumor biology, diagnosis, and management. Merkel cell polyomavirus-negative tumors have a high burden of UV-signature mutations, similar to melanoma. The histopathologic diagnosis of MCC requires immunohistochemistry to exclude morphologically similar entities. Therapies for advanced disease are currently lacking. Here, the features of MCC are reviewed, including recent molecular discoveries with implications for improved therapy for advanced disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cetuximab & Nivolumab in Patients With Recurrent/Metastatic Head & Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-13

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus; Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Cancer; Head and Neck Carcinoma

  18. GATA-3 and FOXA1 expression is useful to differentiate breast carcinoma from other carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Davis, Drew G; Siddiqui, Momin T; Oprea-Ilies, Gabriela; Stevens, Keith; Osunkoya, Adeboye O; Cohen, Cynthia; Li, Xiaoxian Bill

    2016-01-01

    GATA-3, a member of the GATA family of zinc-finger DNA binding proteins, and FOXA1, a member of the forkhead transcription factor family, are both associated with estrogen receptor expression. Both GATA-3 and FOXA1 are useful markers for breast carcinoma, but their expression in the different breast cancer subtypes and other neoplasms has not been thoroughly evaluated. We examined the expression of GATA-3 and FOXA1 in estrogen receptor-positive, Her2/neu-positive, and triple-negative breast carcinomas as well as in 10 other common carcinomas, including hepatocellular, colonic, pancreatic, gastric, endometrial (endometrioid), lung, prostatic, renal cell, urothelial, and ovarian serous carcinomas. Primary and metastatic melanomas and mesotheliomas were also evaluated. GATA-3 and FOXA1 staining of estrogen receptor-positive breast carcinomas was seen in 96.6% and 96.2%, respectively. In triple-negative breast carcinomas, GATA-3 and FOXA1 staining was seen in 21.6% and 15.9%, respectively. Among the other tumors, GATA-3 staining was only seen in urothelial carcinoma (70.9%) and FOXA1 staining was only seen in prostatic (87.5%), urothelial (5.1%) carcinomas, and mesotheliomas (40.0%). In conclusion, GATA-3 and FOXA1 are excellent breast carcinoma markers; however, their utility is limited in the triple-negative subtype. The utility of FOXA1 in diagnosing prostatic carcinoma and mesothelioma warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reevaluation and reclassification of resected lung carcinomas originally diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma using immunohistochemical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kadota, Kyuichi; Nitadori, Jun-ichi; Rekhtman, Natasha; Jones, David R.; Adusumilli, Prasad S.; Travis, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, non-small cell lung carcinomas are primarily classified by light microscopy. However, recent studies have shown that poorly-differentiated tumors are more accurately classified by immunohistochemistry. In this study, we investigated the use of immunohistochemical analysis in reclassifying lung carcinomas that were originally diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. Tumor slides and blocks were available for histologic evaluation, and tissue microarrays were constructed from 480 patients with resected lung carcinomas originally diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma between 1999 and 2009. Immunohistochemistry for p40, p63, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1; clone SPT24 and 8G7G3/1), Napsin A, Chromogranin A, Synaptophysin, and CD56 were performed. Staining intensity (weak, moderate, or strong) and distribution (focal or diffuse) were also recorded. Of all, 449 (93.5%) patients were confirmed as having squamous cell carcinomas; the cases were mostly diffusely positive for p40 and negative for TTF-1 (8G7G3/1). Twenty cases (4.2%) were reclassified as adenocarcinoma since they were positive for TTF-1 (8G7G3/1 or SPT24) with either no or focal p40 expression, and all of them were poorly-differentiated with squamoid morphology. In addition, 1 case was reclassified as adenosquamous carcinoma, 4 cases as large cell carcinoma, 4 cases as large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and 2 cases as small cell carcinoma. In poorly-differentiated non-small cell lung carcinomas, an accurate distinction between squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cannot be reliably determined by morphology alone and requires immunohistochemical analysis, even in resected specimens. Our findings suggest that TTF-1 8G7G3/1 may be better suited as the primary antibody in differentiating adenocarcinoma from squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25871623

  20. Identification of the zinc finger 216 (ZNF216) in human carcinoma cells: a potential regulator of EGFR activity

    PubMed Central

    Mincione, Gabriella; Di Marcantonio, Maria Carmela; Tarantelli, Chiara; Savino, Luca; Ponti, Donatella; Marchisio, Marco; Lanuti, Paola; Sancilio, Silvia; Calogero, Antonella; Di Pietro, Roberta; Muraro, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), a member of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) proteins, is aberrantly expressed or deregulated in tumors and plays pivotal roles in cancer onset and metastatic progression. ZNF216 gene has been identified as one of Immediate Early Genes (IEGs) induced by RTKs. Overexpression of ZNF216 protein sensitizes 293 cell line to TNF-α induced apoptosis. However, ZNF216 overexpression has been reported in medulloblastomas and metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinomas. Thus, the role of this protein is still not clearly understood. In this study, the inverse correlation between EGFR and ZNF216 expression was confirmed in various human cancer cell lines differently expressing EGFR. EGF treatment of NIH3T3 cells overexpressing both EGFR and ZNF216 (NIH3T3-EGFR/ZNF216), induced a long lasting activation of EGFR in the cytosolic fraction and an accumulation of phosphorylated EGFR (pEGFR) more in the nuclear than in the cytosolic fraction compared to NIH3T3-EGFR cells. Moreover, EGF was able to stimulate an increased expression of ZNF216 in the cytosolic compartment and its nuclear translocation in a time-dependent manner in NIH3T3-EGFR/ZNF216. A similar trend was observed in A431 cells endogenously expressing the EGFR and transfected with Znf216. The increased levels of pEGFR and ZNF216 in the nuclear fraction of NIH3T3-EGFR/ZNF216 cells were paralleled by increased levels of phospho-MAPK and phospho-Akt. Surprisingly, EGF treatment of NIH3T3-EGFR/ZNF216 cells induced a significant increase of apoptosis thus indicating that ZNF216 could sensitize cells to EGF-induced apoptosis and suggesting that it may be involved in the regulation and effects of EGFR signaling. PMID:27732953

  1. Radioembolization in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Ahsun; Lewandowski, Robert; Salem, Riad

    2018-05-02

    The Oncology Grand Rounds series is designed to place original reports published in the Journal into clinical context. A case presentation is followed by a description of diagnostic and management challenges, a review of the relevant literature, and a summary of the authors' suggested management approaches. The goal of this series is to help readers better understand how to apply the results of key studies, including those published in Journal of Clinical Oncology, to patients seen in their own clinical practice. A 68-year-old man with a remote history of alcohol abuse presented with vague abdominal pain. A review of systems suggested the patient had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 1 (restriction of strenuous physical activity). There were no physical examination findings of note. Laboratory studies disclosed Child-Pugh A liver status (no ascites; no encephalopathy; total bilirubin, 1 mg/dL; albumin, 3.5 g/dL; and international normalized rato, 1.2). The alpha-fetoprotein was mildly elevated (19.5 ng/mL). Magnetic resonance imaging with contrast disclosed an infiltrative mass with extensive malignant right and left portal vein thrombosis ( Fig 1A ) with cavernous transformation of the portal vein. The infiltrative mass ( Fig 2A ) was biopsied, revealing hepatocellular carcinoma. No distant metastases were found on a bone scintigraphy or computerized tomography scan. Given these features, this patient was classified as Barcelona Clinic for Liver Cancer stage C. The patient was referred for management of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

  2. HPV Carcinomas in Immunocompromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    Reusser, Nicole M.; Downing, Christopher; Guidry, Jacqueline; Tyring, Stephen K.

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide and can result in pre-malignancies or overt malignancies of the skin and mucosal surfaces. HPV-related illnesses are an important personal and public health problem causing physical, mental, sexual and financial detriments. Moreover, this set of malignancies severely affects the immunosuppressed population, particularly HIV-positive patients and organ-transplant recipients. There is growing incidence of HPV-associated anogenital malignancies as well as a decrease in the average age of affected patients, likely related to the rising number of high-risk individuals. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of HPV-related malignancy. Current treatment options for HPV infection and subsequent disease manifestations include imiquimod, retinoids, intralesional bleomycin, and cidofovir; however, primary prevention with HPV vaccination remains the most effective strategy. This review will discuss anogenital lesions in immunocompromised patients, cutaneous warts at nongenital sites, the association of HPV with skin cancer in immunocompromised patients, warts and carcinomas in organ-transplant patients, HIV-positive patients with HPV infections, and the management of cutaneous disease in the immunocompromised patient. PMID:26239127

  3. Detergent solubilization of the EGF receptor from A431 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayanidhi, R.; Rintoul, D. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Functional reconstitution of purified preparations of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) requires dissociation of the protein from its plasma membrane lipid environment. Solubilization of membrane proteins in this manner requires the use of detergents, which are known to disrupt plasma membrane lipid/protein interactions. We have investigated the ability of three nonionic detergents to solubilize the human EGFR selectively, and have also analyzed the effect of these various treatments on the intrinsic tyrosyl kinase activity of the receptor. The nonionic detergent known as n-octyl glucoside (n-octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside) was found to give the best combination of selectivity, yield, and maintenance of enzymatic activity of the human EGFR.

  4. Identification of Prognostic Biomarkers for Progression of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-09

    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Carcinoma, Squamous; Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Neoplasms; Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Lung Cancer; Neoplasms, Lung; Neoplasms, Pulmonary; Pulmonary Cancer; Pulmonary Neoplasms

  5. Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma of the head and face.

    PubMed

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Kramer, B; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    2016-02-05

    Ultraviolet light (UV) is an important risk factor for cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin. These cancers most commonly affect persons with fair skin and blue eyes who sunburn rather than suntan. However, each of these cancers appears to be associated with a different pattern of UV exposure and to be mediated by different intracellular molecular pathways.Some melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants play a direct role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma apart from their role in determining a cancer-prone pigmentory phenotype (fair skin, red hair, blue eyes) through their interactions with other genes regulating immuno-inflammatory responses, DNA repair or apoptosis.In this short review we focus on the aetiological role of UV in cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin, and on some associated biopathological events.

  6. [Verrucous carcinoma of penis: a case report].

    PubMed

    Yokonishi, Tetsuhiro; Ito, Yuusuke; Matsumoto, Tatsuya; Osaka, Kimito; Umemoto, Susumu; Komiya, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Sakai, Naoki; Noguchi, Sumio; Kishi, Hiroichi; Tsuura, Yukio; Ikeda, Shigeru

    2010-06-01

    We report a case of verrucous carcinoma of the penis. A 62-year-old man, who presented with penile swelling and pain, was referred to our hospital. Although, penile tumor biopsy revealed no evidence of malignancy, the patient presented with penile swelling and discharge. The penis was surgically resected and urinary diversion was performed. The pathological examination of the resected glans revealed verrucous carcinoma of penis. Furthermore, in situ hybridization revealed human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. This clearly showed that the verrucous carcinoma of the penis resulted from the HPV infection. The patient has survived for 14 months after surgery without local recurrence or metastasis.

  7. Hypoxia inducible factors in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chu; Lou, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most prevalent and lethal cancers with limited therapeutic options. Pathogenesis of this disease involves tumor hypoxia and the activation of hypoxia inducible factors. In this review, we describe the current understanding of hypoxia signaling pathway and summarize the expression, function and target genes of hypoxia inducible factors in hepatocellular carcinoma. We also highlight the recent progress in hypoxia-targeted therapeutic strategies in hepatocellular carcinoma and discuss further the future efforts for the study of hypoxia and/or hypoxia inducible factors in this deadly disease. PMID:28493839

  8. FGFR2 alterations in endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gatius, Sonia; Velasco, Ana; Azueta, Ainara; Santacana, Maria; Pallares, Judit; Valls, Joan; Dolcet, Xavier; Prat, Jaime; Matias-Guiu, Xavier

    2011-11-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) is a tyrosine kinase receptor involved in many biological processes such as embryogenesis, adult tissue homeostasis and cell proliferation. Mutations in FGFR2 have been reported in up to 10-12% of endometrial carcinomas identical to those found in congenital craniofacial disorders. Inhibition of FGFR2 could be a new therapeutic target in endometrial carcinoma. FGFR2 immunostaining was assessed in three tissue microarrays: one constructed from paraffin-embedded blocks of 60 samples of normal endometrium in different phases of menstrual cycle, and two tissue microarrays containing endometrial carcinoma samples (95 and 62 cases). FGFR2 expression was correlated with stage, histological type and grade as well as with immunostaining of PTEN, RASSF1A, estrogen and progesterone receptors, KI67, Cyclin D1, STAT-3 and SPRY2. FGFR2 mutations were assessed by PCR and direct sequencing, with DNA obtained from 31 paraffin-embedded endometrial carcinoma samples. In normal endometrium, FGFR2 expression was higher in the secretory than in the proliferative phase (P=0.001), with an inverse correlation with Ki67 (P=0.00032), suggesting a tumor-suppressor role for FGFR2 in normal endometrium. Cytoplasmic expression of FGFR2 was higher in endometrial carcinoma when compared with the atrophic endometrium from the same patients (P=0.0283), but was lower in comparison with normal endometrium from women in the menstrual cycle. Interestingly, nuclear staining was observed in some cases, and it was less frequent in endometrial carcinoma when compared with the adjacent atrophic endometrium (P=0.0465). There were no statistical differences when comparing superficial and myoinvasive endometrial carcinoma samples. Endometrioid endometrial carcinomas showed higher expression of FGFR2 than nonendometrioid endometrial carcinomas (fold change 2.56; P=0.0015). Grade III endometrioid endometrial carcinomas showed decreased FGFR2 expression when compared

  9. Preclinical PET imaging of EGFR levels: pairing a targeting with a non-targeting Sel-tagged Affibody-based tracer to estimate the specific uptake.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qing; Wållberg, Helena; Grafström, Jonas; Lu, Li; Thorell, Jan-Olov; Hägg Olofsson, Maria; Linder, Stig; Johansson, Katarina; Tegnebratt, Tetyana; Arnér, Elias S J; Stone-Elander, Sharon; Ahlzén, Hanna-Stina Martinsson; Ståhl, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    Though overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in several forms of cancer is considered to be an important prognostic biomarker related to poor prognosis, clear correlations between biomarker assays and patient management have been difficult to establish. Here, we utilize a targeting directly followed by a non-targeting tracer-based positron emission tomography (PET) method to examine some of the aspects of determining specific EGFR binding in tumors. The EGFR-binding Affibody molecule ZEGFR:2377 and its size-matched non-binding control ZTaq:3638 were recombinantly fused with a C-terminal selenocysteine-containing Sel-tag (ZEGFR:2377-ST and ZTaq:3638-ST). The proteins were site-specifically labeled with DyLight488 for flow cytometry and ex vivo tissue analyses or with (11)C for in vivo PET studies. Kinetic scans with the (11)C-labeled proteins were performed in healthy mice and in mice bearing xenografts from human FaDu (squamous cell carcinoma) and A431 (epidermoid carcinoma) cell lines. Changes in tracer uptake in A431 xenografts over time were also monitored, followed by ex vivo proximity ligation assays (PLA) of EGFR expressions. Flow cytometry and ex vivo tissue analyses confirmed EGFR targeting by ZEGFR:2377-ST-DyLight488. [Methyl-(11)C]-labeled ZEGFR:2377-ST-CH3 and ZTaq:3638-ST-CH3 showed similar distributions in vivo, except for notably higher concentrations of the former in particularly the liver and the blood. [Methyl-(11)C]-ZEGFR:2377-ST-CH3 successfully visualized FaDu and A431 xenografts with moderate and high EGFR expression levels, respectively. However, in FaDu tumors, the non-specific uptake was large and sometimes equally large, illustrating the importance of proper controls. In the A431 group observed longitudinally, non-specific uptake remained at same level over the observation period. Specific uptake increased with tumor size, but changes varied widely over time in individual tumors. Total (membranous and cytoplasmic) EGFR

  10. Atezolizumab in urothelial bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hamilou, Zineb; Lavaud, Pernelle; Loriot, Yohann

    2018-02-01

    Metastatic bladder cancer is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis when presenting with advanced stage. Cisplatin-based therapy has been the mainstay of first-line treatment but therapy in second-line setting has been an unmet medical need for decades. Moreover, many patients are unable to receive cisplatin-based therapy. Recently, immune-checkpoint inhibitors transformed the management and prognosis of many malignancies and will certainly redefine the standard of care for bladder cancer. Atezolizumab, an anti-PD-L1 antibody, was the first immune-checkpoint inhibitor to be approved by the US FDA in May 2016 for patients with urothelial carcinoma. In this review, we discuss the evidence behind this promising drug.

  11. Early Localization of Bronchogenic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Macaulay, C.; Leriche, J. C.; Ikeda, N.; Palcic, B.

    1994-01-01

    The performance of a fluorescence imaging device was compared with conventional white-light bronchoscopy in 100 patients with lung cancer, 46 patients with resected stage I non-small cell lung cancer, 10 patients with head and neck cancer, and 67 volunteers who had smoked at least 1 pack of cigarettes per day for 25 years or more. Using differences in tissue autofluorescence between premalignant, malignant, and normal tissues, fluorescence bronchoscopy was found to detect significantly more areas with moderate/severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ than conventional white-light bronchoscopy with a similar specificity. Multiple foci of dysplasia or cancer were found in 13–24% of these individuals. Fluorescence bronchoscopy may be an important adjunct to conventional bronchoscopic examination to improve our ability to detect and localize premalignant and early lung cancer lesions. PMID:18493345

  12. [Radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Widmann, Gerlig; Schullian, Peter; Bale, Reto

    2013-03-01

    Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is well established in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Due to its curative potential, it is the method of choice for non resectable BCLC (Barcelona Liver Clinic) 0 and A. RFA challenges surgical resection for small HCC and is the method of choice in bridging for transplantation and recurrence after resection or transplantation. The technical feasibility of RFA depends on the size and location of the HCC and the availability of ablation techniques (one needle techniques, multi-needle techniques). More recently, stereotactic multi-needle techniques with 3D trajectory planning and guided needle placement substantially improve the spectrum of treatable lesions including large volume tumors. Treatment success depends on the realization of ablations with large intentional margins of tumor free tissue (A0 ablation in analogy to R0 resection), which has to be documented by fusion of post- with pre-ablation images, and confirmed during follow-up imaging.

  13. [Vulvar carcinoma. Diagnosis and therapy].

    PubMed

    Schnürch, H G

    2004-07-01

    Vulvar cancer is a rare entity. It appears mostly in older women aged 70-79 years with a slow tendency to younger age. More than 90% of the tumors show a squamous differentiation. The correspondent preneoplasia is VIN 3. This lesion occurs in women mostly younger than 35 years. Experts assume vulvar cancer to appear in two different types:HPV-induced type in younger women and non-HPV-dependent type in older women. The preneoplasia VIN 3 already should be treated by resection or destruction. Invasive carcinomas stage I or II can be treated by wide local excision. The inguinofemoral lymph nodes should be resected if invasion exceeds 1 mm in depth. In larger primary tumors, vulvectomy with bilateral inguinofemoral node dissection is indicated. In advanced tumor stages, multimodal concepts are applied: primary radiotherapy or radiochemotherapy may precede a salvage operation.

  14. [Molecular pathology of pulmonary carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Rohan, Zdeněk; Matějčková, Milada; Matěj, Radoslav

    2014-04-01

    The group of non-small cell lung carcinomas includes tumors that are variable at the clinical, histopathological and molecular levels. Advances in the understanding of molecular pathology of lung adenocarcinomas in particular has led to changes in their histopathological classification and treatment. Patients diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma harboring specific mutations benefit from the administration of specific targeted therapy. Therefore, pathologists closely involved in the diagnostics of lung tumors significantly contribute to the diagnostic-therapeutical algorithm. Analysis of EGFR gene mutations in lung adenocarcinomas is already routinely performed and the presence of activating mutations in EGFR is the main indication for the administration of tyrosinkinase inhibitors. Besides EGFR mutations, EML4-ALK rearrangement is also being analysed and there is potential in analysing BRAF mutations as well. The aim of this review is to summarize the role of the most relevant molecules that also serve as the therapeutic target for practicing pathologists.

  15. TCGA analysis of adrenocortical carcinoma - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    In the most comprehensive molecular characterization to date of adrenocortical carcinoma, a rare cancer of the adrenal cortex, researchers extensively analyzed 91 cases for alterations in the tumor genomes.

  16. [Superficial invasive squamous carcinoma of the vulva].

    PubMed

    Rosmanich, A; Briones, H; Espinoza, A; Dabancens, A

    1994-01-01

    We present our experience at University of Chile Clinical Hospital, about superficial scamous vulvar carcinoma, during January, 1967 and april, 1992. We studied eight patients, mean age 57.1 years. Diagnostic was histopathologic in all cases. Three patients were submitted to simple total vulvectomy; other three were treated by total vulvectomy and bilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy (classic form of treatment). The other two cases, were submitted to simple in one case and partial vulvectomy in other, with lymphadenectomy by separate bilateral inguinal incisions. Histopathological study proved in situ scamous carcinoma near invasive focus at 50% of all cases. Follow up was between 2 and 25 years, mean 10.5 years. In one patient, carcinoma in situ relapsed at 2 years and 8 months after treatment, and then, at 8 years after primitive treatment. In other patient, and anal carcinoma was demonstrated 20 years after vulvectomy.

  17. Perioperative Considerations in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Flavin, Kate; Vasdev, Nikhil; Ashead, Jim; Lane, Tim; Hanbury, Damian; Nathan, Paul; Gowrie-Mohan, Shanmugasundaram

    2016-01-01

    Patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma are complex, with the potential for significant complications, and require extensive pre-, peri-, and postoperative management. This article discusses, in depth, the necessary considerations in the treatment of these patients. PMID:27833463

  18. Sunitinib benefits patients with renal cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Findings from clinical trial patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, a common kidney cancer, show they did not have accelerated tumor growth after treatment with sunitinib, in contrast to some study results in animals.

  19. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    PubMed

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy.

  20. Metastatic giant basal cell carcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bellahammou, Khadija; Lakhdissi, Asmaa; Akkar, Othman; Rais, Fadoua; Naoual, Benhmidou; Elghissassi, Ibrahim; M'rabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, characterised by a slow growing behavior, metastasis are extremely rare, and it occurs in less than 0, 1% of all cases. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a rare form of basal cell carcinoma, more aggressive and defined as a tumor measuring more than 5 cm at its largest diameter. Only 1% of all basal cell carcinoma develops to a giant basal cell carcinoma, resulting of patient's negligence. Giant basal cell carcinoma is associated with higher potential of metastasis and even death, compared to ordinary basal cell carcinoma. We report a case of giant basal cell carcinoma metastaticin lung occurring in a 79 years old male patient, with a fatal evolution after one course of systemic chemotherapy. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a very rare entity, early detection of these tumors could prevent metastasis occurrence and improve the prognosis of this malignancy.

  1. Primary and secondary hypothyroidism in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, M.B.; Goldfine, I.D.

    1976-10-04

    We investigated the thyroid and pituitary functions of six of the seven patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma who had been previously treated with external radiation, and who were seen at the San Francisco Veterans Administration Hospital within a recent 18-month period. Two patients had primary hypothyroidism, and four had secondary hypothyroidism. These findings suggest that thyroid and pituitary abnormalities are frequent complications of both nasopharyngeal carcinoma and its treatment.

  2. Verrucous carcinoma of the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Woodson, G E; Jurco, S; Alford, B R; McGavran, M H

    1981-01-01

    A case of a highly destructive, cytologically nondysplastic squamous epithelial lesion of the middle ear is presented. The cranial nerve involvement and bone destruction are more extensive than has been seen in cholesteatoma. Cultures are negative for Pseudomonas, and the patient does not have the reported diathesis for malignant otitis externa. The gross and microscopic features are those of verrucous carcinoma. To our knowledge, the middle ear has not been previously reported as a site of involvement by verrucous carcinoma.

  3. Clinicopathological characteristics of head and neck Merkel cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Knopf, Andreas; Bas, Murat; Hofauer, Benedikt; Mansour, Naglaa; Stark, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    There are still controversies about the therapeutic strategies and subsequent outcome in head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma. Clinicopathological data of 23 Merkel cell carcinomas, 93 cutaneous head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), 126 malignant melanomas, and 91 primary parotid gland carcinomas were comprehensively analyzed. Merkel cell carcinomas were cytokeratin 20 (CK20)/neuron-specific enolase (NSE)/chromogranin A (CgA)/synaptophysin (Syn)/thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1)/MIB1 immunostained. All Merkel cell carcinomas underwent wide local excision. Parotidectomy/neck dissection was performed in 40%/33% cutaneous Merkel cell carcinoma and 100%/100% in parotid gland Merkel cell carcinoma. Five-year recurrence-free interval (RFI)/overall survival (OS) was significantly higher in malignant melanoma (81/80%) than in cutaneous Merkel cell carcinoma/HNSCC. Interestingly, 5-year RFI/OS was significantly higher in Merkel cell carcinoma (61%/79%) than in HNSCC (33%/65%; p < .0001) despite comparable TNM classifications and treatment regimens. There were neither differences of RFI/OS between parotid gland Merkel cell carcinoma and parotid gland carcinomas, nor in the immunohistochemical profile. Five-year RFI/OS was significantly better in cutaneous Merkel cell carcinoma when compared with TNM classification matched HNSCC. Five-year RFI/OS was comparable in parotid gland Merkel cell carcinoma and other primary parotid gland malignancies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 92-97, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Depsipeptide in Unresectable Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-29

    Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  5. Efficacy and Tolerability of ABT-869 Versus Sorafenib in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-09-07

    Hepatocellular Carcinoma Non-resectable; Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrent; Carcinoma, Hepatocellular; Liver Diseases; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Digestive System Neoplasms; Carcinoma; Liver Neoplasms; Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Site; Digestive System Diseases; Adenocarcinoma; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial

  6. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome. PMID:25506011

  7. Metastatic Basal cell carcinoma accompanying gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  8. Integrated genomic characterization of oesophageal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    2017-01-12

    Oesophageal cancers are prominent worldwide; however, there are few targeted therapies and survival rates for these cancers remain dismal. Here we performed a comprehensive molecular analysis of 164 carcinomas of the oesophagus derived from Western and Eastern populations. Beyond known histopathological and epidemiologic distinctions, molecular features differentiated oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas from oesophageal adenocarcinomas. Oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas resembled squamous carcinomas of other organs more than they did oesophageal adenocarcinomas. Our analyses identified three molecular subclasses of oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas, but none showed evidence for an aetiological role of human papillomavirus. Squamous cell carcinomas showed frequent genomic amplifications of CCND1 and SOX2 and/or TP63, whereas ERBB2, VEGFA and GATA4 and GATA6 were more commonly amplified in adenocarcinomas. Oesophageal adenocarcinomas strongly resembled the chromosomally unstable variant of gastric adenocarcinoma, suggesting that these cancers could be considered a single disease entity. However, some molecular features, including DNA hypermethylation, occurred disproportionally in oesophageal adenocarcinomas. These data provide a framework to facilitate more rational categorization of these tumours and a foundation for new therapies.

  9. [Clinicopathological study of diffuse carcinoma of stomach (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Shimoda, T

    1978-11-01

    The biological behavior of ulcer type gastric carcinoma was studied on 114 cases of diffuse carcinoma (Borrmann's 4 type) and 262 cases of early like advanced carcinoma (including superficial spreading type). In both types of gastric carcinoma, the age distribution, location, ulcer with cancer focus and prognosis differed greatly. The early like carcinoma was speculated to have advanced maintaining the groos findings of early gastric carcinoma, and its location and associated ulcer were the same as the early ulcer type of carcinoma. The prognosis of this type of carcinoma was good, showing a figure of 70% in 3 year survival rate. On the other hand, diffuse carcinoma demonstrated diffuse extensive infiltration of tumor cells along the gastric wall, resulting in poor prognosis with a 3 year survival rate of almost 0%. Histologically, diffuse type of carcinoma showed lymphatic infiltration of tumor cells, and this is probably the main reason for the diffuse infiltration in this type of carcinoma. Diffuse carcinoma is, therefore, considered to be one special type of carcinoma having different biological behavior compared with the other ulcer type of carcinoma, and diffuse carcinoma is not the terminal stage of early like advanced carcinoma. There are three stages in diffuse carcinoma: 1. Infiltrative stage: wide spread infiltration of cancer cells through lymphatic channels (lymphangiosis carcinomatosa) 2. Edematous stage: soluble collagen appearing in gastric wall 3. Sclerosing stage: soluble collagen changing into insoluble collagen leading to marked thickening and stiffness of the gastric wall. This is the end stage of gastric diffuse carcinoma. It is difficult to explain that the marked fibrosis of gastric wall is a result to stromal reaction from tumor cell infiltration, since extensive fibrosis is found in areas without tumor cells and stiffness of the gastric wall occurs in a too short period of time. The production of abundunt soluble collagen is probably

  10. Antiproliferative efficacy of curcumin mimics through microtubule destabilization.

    PubMed

    Khwaja, Sadiya; Fatima, Kaneez; Hasanain, Mohammad; Behera, Chittaranjan; Kour, Avneet; Singh, Arjun; Luqman, Suaib; Sarkar, Jayanta; Chanda, Debabrata; Shanker, Karuna; Gupta, A K; Mondhe, D M; Negi, Arvind S

    2018-05-10

    Curcumin possesses an attractive chemical structure with highly conjugated diferuloylmethane core. Curcumin mimics have been designed and prepared with an additional bridged phenyl ring in conjugation. Fourteen diverse analogues were evaluated against a panel of human cancer cell lines. The best analogue of the series i.e. compound 6a exhibited potent cytotoxicity against A431, epidermoid carcinoma cell line (IC 50  = 1.5 μM) and DLD1, colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (IC 50  = 6.9 μM). In tubulin kinetics experiment, compound 6a destabilized polymerisation process (IC 50  = 4.68 μM). In cell cycle analysis, compound 6a exerted G2/M phase arrest in A431 cells and induced apoptosis. In Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma in Swiss-albino mice, compound 6a showed 78.6% tumour reduction at 80 mg/kg dose and 57% solid tumour reduction at 150 mg/kg dose. Further, in acute-oral toxicity experiment in rodent model, compound 6a was given in three different oral doses to Swiss albino mice. There were non-significant changes in various biochemical parameters and major body organs studied, including their absolute and relative weights. It was tolerable up to 300 mg/kg dose in Swiss-albino mice. The present study shows that the novel curcumin mimic 6a is a safe and efficacious anticancer compound. However, it needs to be optimized for better efficacy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinicopathologic analysis of matched primary and recurrent endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Soslow, Robert A; Wethington, Stephanie L; Cesari, Matthew; Chiappetta, Daniel; Olvera, Narciso; Shia, Jinru; Levine, Douglas A

    2012-12-01

    It is unknown whether the type and grade of a primary endometrial carcinoma is reliably maintained in recurrence. All matched primary and recurrent endometrial carcinomas diagnosed from 2000 to 2010 at our institution were identified; 34 cases had available slides. Histologic classification was performed using modifications to the World Health Organization criteria. Immunohistochemical analysis for p53, p16, progesterone receptor (PR), and DNA mismatch-repair proteins (MMR) (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2) was performed. Endometrioid carcinoma recurrences were mostly local, whereas serous carcinoma recurrences were mostly peritoneal. Compared with endometrioid carcinoma patients, serous carcinoma patients were older, presented at high stage, and had shorter survival. Serous carcinomas were the most common recurrent endometrial carcinoma (18/34 cases). Overall, 21 cases (62%) displayed similar morphology when comparing primary and recurrent carcinomas, whereas 13 displayed discordant morphology. Seven of 13 endometrioid carcinomas (54%) had a morphologically discordant recurrence, compared with 3 of 14 serous carcinomas (21%), 1 of 4 morphologically ambiguous carcinomas (25%), and both mixed epithelial carcinomas. Serous and morphologically ambiguous carcinomas therefore demonstrated relative morphologic fidelity compared with endometrioid carcinomas. Four morphologically discordant cases demonstrated either pure clear cell carcinoma or clear cell features at recurrence. Seven of 23 matched pairs displayed discordant PR results, with 5 cases, including both endometrioid and serous carcinomas, showing diminished PR expression at recurrence. p53, p16, and DNA MMR staining results were generally concordant when evaluating matched pairs, with only occasional exceptions. Sixty-four percent of all pure endometrioid carcinomas and mixed epithelial carcinomas with an endometrioid component showed loss of expression of MLH1 and/or PMS2; no serous carcinoma demonstrated this

  12. Small cell type neuroendocrine carcinoma colliding with squamous cell carcinoma at esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Luoluo; Sun, Xun; Zou, Yabin; Meng, Xiangwei

    2014-01-01

    Collision tumor is an extremely rare tumor which defined as the concrescence of two distinct primaries neoplasms. We report here a case of collision tumor at lower third esophagus composed of small cell type neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC), which is an very rare, highly aggressive and poorly prognostic carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC). In our case, pathologically, the small cell carcinoma display the characteristic of small, round, ovoid or spindle-shaped tumor cells with scant cytoplasm, which colliding with a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated positive activities for CD56, synaptophysin, 34βE12, CK 5/6, ki-67 (70%-80%), but negative for CD99, chromogranin A, and TTF-1. Accurate diagnosis was made base on these findings. PMID:24817981

  13. Triple Test in Carcinoma Breast

    PubMed Central

    Sameer; Mukherjee, Arindam

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The commonest clinical presentation in majority of breast pathology is a lump. A definite diagnosis of breast lump is very important for the surgeon to decide on the final course of treatment and also saves the patient from unnecessary physical, emotional and psychological trauma if there is a definite preoperative diagnosis of benign lesion. The present study was done to evaluate the effectiveness and relevance of “TRIPLE TEST”in diagnosis of carcinoma breast in rural labour class population. Materials and Methods: The present study was a prospective study conducted on patients over 35 years of age having palpable breast lumps presenting in the out patient department of general surgery, ESI Hospital Basaidarapur New Delhi, India. The duration of study was from May 2007 to June 2009 and a total of 100 cases were studied. Each patient was subjected to a detailed history, clinical breast examination ,diagnostic mammography and FNAC. In this study, the results of each modality was divided in three groups: benign, suspicious and malignant. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of each test was calculated individually and as combined. Result: Out of 100 patients enrolled in this study, 60 cases were benign and 40 cases were of malignant breast disease. The age of patients with carcinoma breast in the series varied from 35 years to 70 years. The highest incidence of malignancy noted was 30% in 41-50 years age group (4th decade) followed by 27.5% in 51-60 years age group (5th decade). The sensitivity of clinical examination was found to be 75%, specificity was 83.3%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 75% and diagnostic accuracy of 80%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of mammography was calculated and was found to be 94.9% , 90% , 86% and 92% respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of

  14. Thyroid carcinoma at King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mulaudzi, T V; Ramdial, P K; Madiba, T E; Callaghan, R A

    2001-05-01

    Western literature depicts papillary carcinoma as the most common thyroid malignancy followed by follicular carcinoma. To assess the clinical pattern of thyroid carcinoma among African and Indian patients. King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban, South Africa. A retrospective study. One hundred patients with thyroid carcinoma treated at a tertiary teaching hospital between 1990 and 1997. Seventy seven patients were Africans and 23 were Indians. The male to female ratio was 1:6. Ninety eight patients presented with goitre with or without regional lymph node involvement or distant disease. The duration of symptoms ranged from one to 360 months. The mean age at presentation was 48.6 +/- 16.0 years. Follicular carcinoma was the most common malignancy among African patients (68%), followed by papillary carcinoma (16%), anaplastic carcinoma (13%) and medullary carcinoma (2.6%). Papillary carcinoma was the most common malignancy among Indian patients (57%) followed by follicular carcinoma and medullary carcinoma. There was no anaplastic carcinoma among Indian patients. Fifty five patients underwent lobectomy with 32 undergoing subsequent completion thyroidectomy. Nine patients had near total thyroidectomy, 27 were offered total thyroidectomy as primary surgery and eight had biopsy only. The in-hospital mortality was 8%. Recurrence rate was 8%. Most patients present long after the development of symptoms. Follicular carcinoma is the most common thyroid malignancy among Africans. Further studies are required to explain this phenomenon.

  15. Low-grade salivary duct carcinoma or low-grade intraductal carcinoma? Review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ying-Ju; Weinreb, Ilan; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo

    2013-07-01

    Low-grade salivary duct carcinoma (LG-SDC) is a rare neoplasm characterized by predominant intraductal growth, luminal ductal phenotype, bland microscopic features, and favorable clinical behavior with an appearance reminiscent of florid to atypical ductal hyperplasia to low grade intraductal breast carcinoma. LG-SDC is composed of multiple cysts, cribriform architecture with "Roman Bridges", "pseudocribriform" proliferations with floppy fenestrations or irregular slits, micropapillae with epithelial tufts, fibrovascular cores, and solid areas. Most of the tumor cells are small to medium sized with pale eosinophilic cytoplasm, and round to oval nuclei, which may contain finely dispersed or dark condensed chromatin. Foci of intermediate to high grade atypia, and invasive carcinoma or micro-invasion have been reported in up to 23 % of cases. The neoplastic cells have a ductal phenotype with coexpression of keratins and S100 protein and are surrounded by a layer of myoepithelial cells in non-invasive cases. The main differential diagnosis of LG-SDC includes cystadenoma, cystadenocarcinoma, sclerosing polycystic adenosis, salivary duct carcinoma in situ/high-grade intraductal carcinoma, and papillary-cystic variant of acinic cell carcinoma. There is no published data supporting the continuous classification of LG-SDC as a variant of cystadenocarcinoma. Given that most LG-SDC are non-invasive neoplasms; the terms "cribriform cystadenocarcinoma" and LG-SDC should be replaced by "low-grade intraductal carcinoma" (LG-IDC) of salivary gland or "low-grade intraductal carcinoma with areas of invasive carcinoma" in those cases with evidence of invasive carcinoma.

  16. Carcinoma Ex Pleomorphic Adenoma of the Palate Composed of Invasive Micropapillary Salivary Duct Carcinoma and Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Components

    PubMed Central

    Sedassari, Bruno T.; da Silva Lascane, Nelise A.; Tobouti, Priscila L.; Pigatti, Fernanda M.; Franco, Maria I.F.; de Sousa, Suzana C.O.M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) is an unusual epithelial malignancy that develops from a primary or recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (PA), the most common tumor of salivary glands, and constitutes about 11.5% of all carcinomas that affect these glands. Intraoral minor salivary glands and seromucous glands of the oropharynx are uncommon locations of CXPA. On histopathological examination, the tumor comprises a wide morphological spectrum with a variable proportion between the benign and malignant components with the latter often predominating and overlapping the PA, which may cause misdiagnosis. Here, we report a case of palatal minor salivary gland CXPA composed of invasive micropapillary salivary duct carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma components with multiple nodal metastases in a 74-year-old woman. Neoplastic cells showed heterogeneous immunohistochemical profile with both luminal and myoepithelial differentiation. The invasive micropapillary salivary duct carcinoma component demonstrated overexpression of the oncoprotein human epidermal growth factor receptor-2. This feature should be considered and evaluated as a possible target for adjuvant therapy in case of metastatic disease. PMID:25501054

  17. Targeting Src in Mucinous Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Koji; Nishimura, Masato; Bottsford-Miller, Justin N.; Huang1, Jie; Komurov, Kakajan; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N.; Shahzad, Mian M. K.; Stone, Rebecca L.; Roh, Ju Won; Sanguino, Angela M.; Lu, Chunhua; Im, Dwight D.; Rosenshien, Neil B.; Sakakibara, Atsuko; Nagano, Tadayoshi; Yamasaki, Masato; Enomoto, Takayuki; Kimura, Tadashi; Ram, Prahlad T.; Schmeler, Kathleen M.; Gallick, Gary E.; Wong, Kwong K.; Frumovitz, Michael; Sood, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Mucinous ovarian carcinomas have a distinct clinical pattern compared to other subtypes of ovarian carcinoma. Here, we evaluated (i) stage-specific clinical significance of mucinous ovarian carcinomas in a large cohort and (ii) the functional role of src kinase in pre-clinical models of mucinous ovarian carcinoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN 1302 ovarian cancer patients including 122 (9.4%) cases of mucinous carcinoma were evaluated for survival analyses. Biological effects of src kinase inhibition were tested in a novel orthotopic mucinous ovarian cancer model (RMUG-S-ip2) using dasatinib-based therapy. RESULTS Patients with advanced-stage mucinous ovarian cancer had significantly worse survival compared to those with serous histology: median overall survival, 1.67 versus 3.41 years, p=0.002; and median survival time after recurrence of 0.53 versus 1.66 years, p<0.0001. Among multiple ovarian cancer cell lines, RMUG-S-ip2 mucinous ovarian cancer cells showed the highest src kinase activity. Moreover, oxaliplatin treatment induced phosphorylation of src kinase. This induced activity by oxaliplatin therapy was inhibited by concurrent administration of dasatinib. Targeting src with dasatinib in vivo showed significant anti-tumor effects in the RMUG-S-ip2 model, but not in the serous ovarian carcinoma (SKOV3-TR) model. Combination therapy of oxaliplatin with dasatinib further demonstrated significant effects on reducing cell viability, increasing apoptosis, and in vivo anti-tumor effects in the RMUG-S-ip2 model. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that poor survival of women with mucinous ovarian carcinoma is associated with resistance to cytotoxic therapy. Targeting src kinase with combination of dasatinib and oxaliplatin may be an attractive approach in this disease. PMID:21737505

  18. Phenotypic Intratumoral Heterogeneity of Endometrial Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cátia; Pires-Luís, Ana S; Rocha, Eduardo; Bartosch, Carla; Lopes, José M

    2018-03-01

    Intratumoral heterogeneity has been shown to play an important role in diagnostic accuracy, development of treatment resistance, and prognosis of cancer patients. Recent studies have proposed quantitative measurement of phenotypic intratumoral heterogeneity, but no study is yet available in endometrial carcinomas. In our study we evaluated the phenotypic intratumoral heterogeneity of a consecutive series of 10 endometrial carcinomas using measures of dispersion and diversity. Morphometric architectural (%tumor cells, %solid tumor, %differentiated tumor, and %lumens) and nuclear [volume-weighted mean nuclear volume ((Equation is included in full-text article.))] parameters, as well as estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, p53, vimentin, and beta-catenin immunoexpression (H-score) were digitally analyzed in 20 microscopic fields per carcinoma. Quantitative measures of intratumoral heterogeneity included coefficient of variation (CV) and relative quadratic entropy (rQE). In each endometrial carcinoma there was slight variation of architecture from field to field, resulting in globally low levels of heterogeneity measures (mean CV %tumor cells: 0.10, %solid tumor: 0.73, %differentiated tumor: 0.19, %lumens: 0.61 and mean rQE %tumor cells: 18.5, %solid tumor: 20.3, %differentiated tumor: 25.6, %lumens: 21.8). Nuclear intratumoral heterogeneity was also globally low (mean (Equation is included in full-text article.)CV: 0.23 and rQE: 27.3), but significantly higher than the heterogeneity of architectural parameters within most carcinomas. In general, there was low to moderate variability of immunoexpression markers within each carcinoma, but estrogen receptor (mean CV: 0.56 and rQE: 46.2) and progesterone receptor (mean CV: 0.60 and rQE: 39.3) displayed the highest values of heterogeneity measures. Intratumoral heterogeneity of immunoexpression was significantly higher than that observed for morphometric parameters. In conclusion, our study indicates that endometrial

  19. Uroplakin II Expression in Breast Carcinomas Showing Apocrine Differentiation: Putting Some Emphasis on Invasive Pleomorphic Lobular Carcinoma as a Potential Mimic of Urothelial Carcinoma at Metastatic Sites.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Shogo; Koda, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Uroplakin II antibody is exclusively specific for urothelial carcinoma. Nonurothelial carcinoma has not been reported to be immunoreactive for uroplakin II. In the present study, we hypothesized that breast carcinoma showing apocrine differentiation, such as invasive pleomorphic lobular carcinoma (IPLC) and apocrine carcinoma (AC), stains positive for uroplakin II. We identified 6 cases of IPLC between 2000 and 2014 by searching a computerized pathological database. We randomly selected 10 cases of each classic invasive lobular carcinoma (cILC) and AC and five cases of apocrine metaplasia (AM) that coexisted in a surgically resected breast carcinoma specimen. Immunohistochemistry was performed for uroplakin II, GATA3, CK7, CK20, and other representative markers positive for urothelial carcinoma. All cases of IPLC, AC, and AM, except those of cILC, showed immunoreactivity for uroplakin II. Poorly differentiated urothelial carcinoma sometimes shows similar morphology to IPLC with the following immunophenotype: CK7+, CK20-, GATA3+, and uroplakin II+. In the present study, this immunophenotype was observed in all the cases of IPLC and AC. Therefore, when studying metastatic, poorly differentiated carcinoma showing the aforementioned immunophenotype, we should consider the possibility of it being IPLC in addition to metastatic urothelial carcinoma.

  20. Environmental Exposures and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hui-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Infection with hepatitis B and/or hepatitis C virus is a well-established risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, it is now clear that certain occupational, environmental, and lifestyle factors also play a role in cancer development. Among these factors are smoking, alcohol consumption, workplace exposure to vinyl chloride, and exposure to polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons and aflatoxins. There is also evidence that several other chemical and infectious agents have a role in inducing HCC in humans. Epidemiologic studies and the use of biomarkers have provided essential data to demonstrate the importance of some of these factors in human risk, while animal studies have suggested that other chemicals may also play a role. Although immunization against hepatitis B virus infection remains the primary method of preventing HCC in regions of the world where this virus is a primary etiologic agent, there is currently no vaccine for hepatitis C virus. Thus, limiting exposure to other known risk factors remains an important mechanism in preventing HCC. PMID:26357611

  1. Challenges of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Colagrande, Stefano; Inghilesi, Andrea L; Aburas, Sami; Taliani, Gian G; Nardi, Cosimo; Marra, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive malignancy, resulting as the third cause of death by cancer each year. The management of patients with HCC is complex, as both the tumour stage and any underlying liver disease must be considered conjointly. Although surveillance by imaging, clinical and biochemical parameters is routinely performed, a lot of patients suffering from cirrhosis have an advanced stage HCC at the first diagnosis. Advanced stage HCC includes heterogeneous groups of patients with different clinical condition and radiological features and sorafenib is the only approved treatment according to Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer. Since the introduction of sorafenib in clinical practice, several phase III clinical trials have failed to demonstrate any superiority over sorafenib in the frontline setting. Loco-regional therapies have also been tested as first line treatment, but their role in advanced HCC is still matter of debate. No single agent or combination therapies have been shown to impact outcomes after sorafenib failure. Therefore this review will focus on the range of experimental therapeutics for patients with advanced HCC and highlights the successes and failures of these treatments as well as areas for future development. Specifics such as dose limiting toxicity and safety profile in patients with liver dysfunction related to the underlying chronic liver disease should be considered when developing therapies in HCC. Finally, robust validated and reproducible surrogate end-points as well as predictive biomarkers should be defined in future randomized trials. PMID:27678348

  2. Targeted therapies in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bronte, F; Bronte, G; Cusenza, S; Fiorentino, E; Rolfo, C; Cicero, G; Bronte, E; Di Marco, V; Firenze, A; Angarano, G; Fontana, T; Russo, A

    2014-01-01

    The onset of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is related to the development of non-neoplastic liver disease, such as viral infections and cirrhosis. Even though patients with chronic liver diseases undergo clinical surveillance for early diagnosis of HCC, this cancer is often diagnosed in advanced stage. In this case locoregional treatment is not possible and systemic therapies are the best way to control it. Until now sorafenib, a Raf and multi-kinase inhibitor has been the best, choice to treat HCC systemically. It showed a survival benefit in multicenter phase III trials. However the proper patient setting to treat is not well defined, since the results in Child-Pugh B patients are conflicting. To date various new target drugs are under developed and other biological treatments normally indicated in other malignancies are under investigation also for HCC. These strategies aim to target the different biological pathways implicated in HCC development and progression. The target drugs studied in HCC include anti-VEGF and anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and mTOR inhibitors. The most important challenge is represented by the best integration of these drugs with standard treatments to achieve improvement in overall survival and quality of life.

  3. Childhood Midline Tract Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Childhood midline tract carcinoma treatment options include surgery, watchful waiting, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, ablation, and antiviral therapy. Learn more about the diagnosis and treatment of childhood midline tract carcinoma in this expert-reviewed summary.

  4. Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Merkel cell carcinoma treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Get detailed information about the diagnosis and treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent Merkel cell carcinoma in this summary for clinicians.

  5. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Pancreas: A Review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shaun Kian Hong; Chuah, Khoon Leong

    2016-06-01

    The pancreas is an unusual site for tumor metastasis, accounting for only 2% to 5% of all malignancies affecting the pancreas. The more common metastases affecting the pancreas include renal cell carcinomas, melanomas, colorectal carcinomas, breast carcinomas, and sarcomas. Although pancreatic involvement by nonrenal malignancies indicates widespread systemic disease, metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the pancreas often represents an isolated event and is thus amenable to surgical resection, which is associated with long-term survival. As such, it is important to accurately diagnose pancreatic involvement by metastatic renal cell carcinoma on histology, especially given that renal cell carcinoma metastasis may manifest more than a decade after its initial presentation and diagnosis. In this review, we discuss the clinicopathologic findings of isolated renal cell carcinoma metastases of the pancreas, with special emphasis on separating metastatic renal cell carcinoma and its various differential diagnoses in the pancreas.

  6. Diagnostic utility of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta immunoreactivity in endometrial carcinomas: lack of specificity for endometrial clear cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fadare, Oluwole; Liang, Sharon X

    2012-12-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta (HNF1β) has recently emerged as a relatively sensitive and specific marker for ovarian clear cell carcinoma. The purpose of this study is to assess the diagnostic utility of this marker for endometrial clear cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on 75 endometrial tissues using a goat polyclonal antibody raised against a peptide mapping at the C-terminus of human HNF1β protein. The 75 cases included 15 clear cell carcinomas, 20 endometrioid carcinomas, 15 endometrial serous carcinomas/uterine papillary serous carcinomas, 20 cases of normal endometrium, 2 cases of clear cell metaplasia, and 3 cases of Arias Stella reaction. Staining interpretations were based on a semiquantitative scoring system, a 0 to 12+ continuous numerical scale that was derived by multiplying the extent of staining (0 to 4+ scale) by the intensity of staining (0 to 3+ scale) for each case. HNF1β expression was found to be present in a wide spectrum of tissues. Twenty-seven (54%) of the 50 carcinomas displayed at least focal nuclear HNF1β expression, including 11 (73%) of 15, 9 (60%) of 15, and 7 (35%) of 20 clear cell, serous, and endometrioid carcinomas, respectively. The average nuclear staining scores for clear cell carcinomas, endometrioid carcinomas, and serous carcinomas were 5.2, 1.4, and 4.1, respectively. Clear cell carcinomas and endometrioid carcinomas displayed statistically significant differences regarding their nuclear staining scores (P = 0.0027), but clear cell carcinomas and endometrial serous carcinomas did not (P = 0.45). The calculated sensitivity of any nuclear HNF1β expression in classifying a carcinoma as being of the clear cell histotype was 73%, whereas the specificity was 54%. Nineteen of 20 normal endometrium samples displayed at least focal nuclear expression of HNF1β, and this expression was often diffuse. The 5 cases of benign histologic mimics of clear cell carcinomas (Arias Stella reaction and clear

  7. Urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma with expression of KIT and PDGFRA and showing diverse differentiations into plasmacytoid, clear cell, acantholytic, nested, and spindle variants, and into adenocarcinoma, signet-ring cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and pleomorphic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    Various tumors can arise in the urinary bladder (UB); most common is urothelial carcinoma (UC). UC of the UB have many variants. Other types of carcinomas such as adenocarcinoma (AC) and small cell carcinoma (SmCC) can occur in UB carcinomas. Expression of KIT and PDGFRA has not been reported. A 66-year-old man admitted to our hospital because of hematuria. Cystoscopy revealed papillary invasive tumor and a transurethral bladder tumorectomy (TUR-BT) was performed. The TUR-BT showed UC, AC, SmCC, large cell carcinoma (LCC), and pleomorphic carcinoma (PC). The UC component showed plasmacytoid, spindle, nested, clear cell, acantholytic variants. The AC element showed tubular adenocarcinoma and signet-ring cell carcinoma (Sig). Immunohistochemically, all of these subtypes were positive for cytokeratin (CK) AE1/3, CK CAM5.2, CK34BE12, CK5, CK6, CK7, CK8, CK18, CK19, CK20, EMA, CEA, p63, CA19-9, p53 (positive 45%), MUC1, NSE, NCAM, KIT, PDGFRA, and Ki-67 (87%). They were negative for vimentin, chromogranin, synaptophysin, S100 protein, CD34, CD14, α-smooth muscle actin, CD31, caldesmon, CD138, CD45, κ-chain, λ-chain, MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC6. Mucin histochemistry revealed mucins in AC element including Sig. A molecular genetic analysis using PCR-direct sequencing method identified no mutations of KIT (exons 9, 11, 13, and 17) and PDGFRA (exons 12 and 18) genes. The carcinoma was highly aggressive and invaded into muscular layer. The nuclear grade was very high, and there were numerous lymphovascular permeations were seen. The surface showed carcinoma in situ involving von-Brunn's nests. This case shows that carcinoma of UB can show diverse differentiations into numerous histological types and variants, and can express KIT and PDGFRA. The both genes showed no mutations in the present case.

  8. Odontogenic carcinoma with dentinoid: a new odontogenic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Neville, Brad W; Tatemoto, Yukihiro; Ogawa, Ikuko; Takata, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    Dentinoid is an integral part of some odontogenic tumors. This article describes the clinico-pathological features of three cases of odontogenic carcinomas with dentinoid (OCD). A comparison of these with previously reported cases of dentinoid-producing epithelial odontogenic tumors allowed us to identify another six cases that may be considered as examples of OCD. Six cases occurred in the mandible and three in the maxilla, all developing behind the canines. There was no sex predilection (five men and four women; age range 14-61 years, mean 38.1). Pain or discomfort was mentioned in five cases, four of which showed tooth resorption. All cases appeared initially as well-defined radiolucencies, five of which showed variable amounts of calcified material. Recurrences were recorded in three instances, but no evidence of metastasis has been found. Seven cases were composed predominantly or entirely of clear cells, usually with minimal cellular atypia and variable mitotic activity; however, in all cases there was evidence of tumor infiltration into adjacent tissues, including the presence of perineural invasion in two tumors. Those cases in which no reference was made to the presence of clear cells exhibited evident mitotic activity and cellular pleomorphism. The epithelium in OCD does not produce buds or enamel organ-like structures such as those found in ameloblastic fibro-dentinoma and this tumor does not contain a mesenchyme-like connective tissue resembling dental papilla as observed in several mixed odontogenic tumors. Based on the existing data and the present series of cases, OCD appears to represent a distinct entity.

  9. Epstein-Barr Virus in Gastric Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Jun; Yoshiyama, Hironori; Iizasa, Hisashi; Kanehiro, Yuichi; Nakamura, Munetaka; Nishimura, Junichi; Saito, Mari; Okamoto, Takeshi; Sakai, Kouhei; Suehiro, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Takahiro; Oga, Atsunori; Yanai, Hideo; Sakaida, Isao

    2014-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is detected in about 10% of gastric carcinoma cases throughout the world. In EBV-associated gastric carcinoma, all tumor cells harbor the clonal EBV genome. Gastric carcinoma associated with EBV has distinct clinicopathological features, occurs predominately in men and in younger-aged individuals, and presents a generally diffuse histological type. Most cases of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma exhibit a histology rich in lymphocyte infiltration. The immunological reactiveness in the host may represent a relatively preferable prognosis in EBV-positive cases. This fact highlights the important role of EBV in the development of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. We have clearly proved direct infection of human gastric epithelialcells by EBV. The infection was achieved by using a recombinant EBV. Promotion of growth by EBV infection was observed in the cells. Considerable data suggest that EBV may directly contribute to the development of EBV-associated GC. This tumor-promoting effect seems to involve multiple mechanisms, because EBV affects several host proteins and pathways that normally promote apoptosis and regulate cell proliferation. PMID:25386788

  10. Aspergillus colonization in patients with bronchogenic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sana; Malik, Abida; Bhargava, Rakesh; Shahid, Mohammad; Fatima, Nazish

    2014-05-01

    Aspergillus antigens such as galactomannan antigen, a cell wall polysaccharide, can be detected in patient's serum or bronchoalveolar lavage. To study the prevalence of Aspergillus infection in patients with bronchogenic carcinoma, we measured galactomannan antigen in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage samples of patients with bronchogenic carcinoma. The study was conducted on 45 bronchogenic carcinoma patients. The diagnosis of lung cancer was confirmed by bronchoscopy, histopathological and radiological examinations. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collected from each patient by fiberoptic bronchoscopy was subjected to direct microscopy and culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and Czapek-Dox agar, and Aspergillus galactomannan antigen was measured in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage samples. The majority of patients were male (93.3%) in the age group 51-60 years, 88.9% were addicted to gutka chewing, and 82.1% were addicted to smoking. Most patients complained of cough (73%) and shortness of breath (51.1%). Squamous cell carcinoma (64.4%) was the most common malignancy, followed by adenocarcinoma (13.3%). On culture of bronchoalveolar lavage samples, 35.5% showed growth of Aspergillus spp. (Aspergillus fumigatus in 17.8%, Aspergillus flavus in 13.3%, and Aspergillus niger in 4.4%). Galactomannan antigen was detected in 58.3% of bronchoalveolar lavage samples and 47.2% of serum samples. There is a high prevalence of aspergillosis in patients with lung carcinoma, especially among smokers and gutka chewers.

  11. The molecular genetics of cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lazo, P A

    1999-08-01

    In the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma there are three major components, two of them related to the role of human papillomaviruses (HPV). First, the effect of viral E6 and E7 proteins. Second, the integration of viral DNA in chromosomal regions associated with well known tumour phenotypes. Some of these viral integrations occur recurrently at specific chromosomal locations, such as 8q24 and 12q15, both harbouring HPV18 and HPV16. And third, there are other recurrent genetic alterations not linked to HPV. Recurrent losses of heterozygosity (LOH) have been detected in chromosome regions 3p14-22, 4p16, 5p15, 6p21-22, 11q23, 17p13.3 without effect on p53, 18q12-22 and 19q13, all of them suggesting the alteration of putative tumour suppressor genes not yet identified. Recurrent amplification has been mapped to 3q+ arm, with the common region in 3q24-28 in 90% of invasive carcinomas. The mutator phenotype, microsatellite instability, plays a minor role and is detected in only 7% of cervical carcinomas. The development of cervical carcinoma requires the sequential occurrence and selection of several genetic alterations. The identification of the specific genes involved, and their correlation with specific tumour properties and stages could improve the understanding and perhaps the management of cervical carcinoma.

  12. The molecular genetics of cervical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lazo, P A

    1999-01-01

    In the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma there are three major components, two of them related to the role of human papillomaviruses (HPV). First, the effect of viral E6 and E7 proteins. Second, the integration of viral DNA in chromosomal regions associated with well known tumour phenotypes. Some of these viral integrations occur recurrently at specific chromosomal locations, such as 8q24 and 12q15, both harbouring HPV18 and HPV16. And third, there are other recurrent genetic alterations not linked to HPV. Recurrent losses of heterozygosity (LOH) have been detected in chromosome regions 3p14–22, 4p16, 5p15, 6p21–22, 11q23, 17p13.3 without effect on p53, 18q12–22 and 19q13, all of them suggesting the alteration of putative tumour suppressor genes not yet identified. Recurrent amplification has been mapped to 3q+ arm, with the common region in 3q24–28 in 90% of invasive carcinomas. The mutator phenotype, microsatellite instability, plays a minor role and is detected in only 7% of cervical carcinomas. The development of cervical carcinoma requires the sequential occurrence and selection of several genetic alterations. The identification of the specific genes involved, and their correlation with specific tumour properties and stages could improve the understanding and perhaps the management of cervical carcinoma. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10471054

  13. Primary cutaneous secretory carcinoma: A previously overlooked low-grade sweat gland carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Llamas-Velasco, Mar; Mentzel, Thomas; Rütten, Arno

    2018-03-01

    Twelve cases of primary cutaneous secretory carcinoma (PCSC) have been published, 9 showing ETV6-NTRK3 translocation, a characteristic finding shared with secretory breast carcinoma and mammary analogue secretory carcinoma. A 34-year-old female presented a solitary nodule on the right groin. Biopsy revealed a secretory carcinoma staining positive with CK7, CAM5.2, mammaglobulin and S100 and negative with GATA3, CK20, podoplanin, calponin and CDX2. ETV6-NTRK3 was demonstrated by Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). PCSC is a rare neoplasm, described in the skin in 2009, that affects more frequently females with a mean age of 42.3 years and it is most commonly located in axilla. Histopathologically, these tumor cells are characterized by bubbly eosinophilic secretions diastase-resistant and bland nuclei and they are arranged in various growth patterns, including microcystic, tubular, solid and papillary. S100, mammoglobin and CK7 are usually positive. We review the main histopathological features to rule out histopathologic mimics such as breast metastasis, salivary tumors, cribriform carcinoma and primary cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma. GATA3 negative staining, as in our case, can help to rule out breast metastasis. Moreover, long-term benign follow up (144 months) in this case as well as follow-up data on outcomes from literature review support that PCSC is a low-grade sweat gland carcinoma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Familial Non-VHL Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cell Carcinoma Request Permissions Familial Non-VHL Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 12/2017 What is familial non-VHL clear cell renal cell carcinoma? Familial non-VHL clear cell ...

  15. Gene expression signatures differentiate ovarian/peritoneal serous carcinoma from breast carcinoma in effusions

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Ben; Stavnes, Helene Tuft; Holth, Arild; Chen, Xu; Yang, Yanqin; Shih, Ie-Ming; Wang, Tian-Li

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Ovarian/primary peritoneal carcinoma and breast carcinoma are the gynaecological cancers that most frequently involve the serosal cavities. With the objective of improving on the limited diagnostic panel currently available for the differential diagnosis of these two malignancies, as well as to define tumour-specific biological targets, we compared their global gene expression patterns. Gene expression profiles of 10 serous ovarian/peritoneal and eight ductal breast carcinoma effusions were analysed using the HumanRef-8 BeadChip from Illumina. Differentially expressed candidate genes were validated using quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering using all 54,675 genes in the array separated ovarian from breast carcinoma samples. We identified 288 unique probes that were significantly differentially expressed in the two cancers by greater than 3.5-fold, of which 81 and 207 were overexpressed in breast and ovarian/peritoneal carcinoma, respectively. SAM analysis identified 1078 differentially expressed probes with false discovery rate less than 0.05. Genes overexpressed in breast carcinoma included TFF1, TFF3, FOXA1, CA12, GATA3, SDC1, PITX1, TH, EHFD1, EFEMP1, TOB1 and KLF2. Genes overexpressed in ovarian/peritoneal carcinoma included SPON1, RBP1, MFGE8, TM4SF12, MMP7, KLK5/6/7, FOLR1/3, PAX8, APOL2 and NRCAM. The differential expression of 14 genes was validated by quantitative real-time PCR, and differences in 5 gene products were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Expression profiling distinguishes ovarian/peritoneal carcinoma from breast carcinoma and identifies genes that are differentially expressed in these two tumour types. The molecular signatures unique to these cancers may facilitate their differential diagnosis and may provide a molecular basis for therapeutic target discovery. PMID:20132413

  16. [Fundus fluorescein angiography in metastatic choroidal carcinomas and differentiating metastatic choroidal carcinomas from primary choroidal melanomas].

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Wang, Wen-Ji; Chen, Rong-Jia; Qian, Jiang; Luo, Chuan-Qi; Zhang, Yong-Jin; Shen, Ying; Ye, Xiao-Feng; Gao, Qiao-Yun

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) in metastatic choroidal carcinomas and determine the value of FFA in differentiating metastatic choroidal carcinomas from primary choroidal melanomas. It was a retrospective case series. The retrospective analysis of clinical data and FFA findings was performed in 23 eyes of 22 patients with metastatic choroidal carcinomas and 31 eyes of 31 patients with primary choroidal melanomas as the control. Ocular fundus findings of metastatic choroidal carcinomas were divided into three types: solitary flat (tumor thickness less than 3 mm), solitary elevated (tumor thickness more than 3 mm) or diffuse type. FFA of the three types showed hypofluorescence during the arterial phase and progressive hyperfluorescence during the subsequent phases. The border of the lesions revealed retinal capillary dilation during the arteriovenous phase and persistent pinpoint leakage throughout the angiogram. Retinal capillary dilation and pinpoint leakage were more frequently presented in the solitary flat type. Simultaneous visualization of retinal and tumor circulation (the so called double circulation) was more frequently presented in the solitary elevated type. Pinpoint leakage could be detected in 17 (73.91%) eyes of metastatic choroidal carcinomas and in 5 (16.13%) eyes of primary choroidal melanomas. The difference between the visibility of pinpoint leakage in metastatic choroidal carcinomas and primary choroidal melanomas was statistically significant (P = 0.0000). When pinpoint leakage of FFA was used to differentiate metastatic choroidal carcinomas from primary choroidal melanomas, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values were 73.91%, 83.87%, 79.63%, 77.27%, 81.25% respectively. FFA is helpful for the diagnosis of metastatic choroidal carcinomas. Pinpoint leakage on the border of lesions has some value in differentiating metastatic choroidal carcinomas from primary

  17. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma presented as cavernous sinus tumour.

    PubMed

    Moona, Mohammad Shafi; Mehdi, Itrat

    2011-12-01

    A 32 year Libyan male presented with the complaints of headache and diplopia. He was diagnosed with a cavernous sinus meningioma on the basis of MRI findings but no initial biopsy was taken. Depending on the radiologic diagnosis the patient was treated with gamma knife surgery twice, abroad. During follow up he developed left ear deafness and left cervical lymph adenopathy. An ENT evaluation with biopsy from the nasopharynx and cervical lymph node was taken. The histopathologic diagnosis of the resected tumour showed a nasopharyngeal carcinoma with cervical lymph node metastasis (poorly differentiated lympho-epithelial carcinoma). The cavernous sinus tumour which was initially treated as a meningioma was in fact metastasis from the nasopharyngeal carcinoma, making this an interesting and rare occurrence.

  18. The Molecular Biology of Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Shao, Chunbo; Tan, Marietta L.; Mu, David; Ferris, Robert L.; Ha, Patrick K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is an unusual salivary gland malignancy that remains poorly understood. Standard treatment, including surgery with postoperative radiation therapy have attained reasonable local control rates, but the propensity for distant metastases has limited any improvement in survival over time. Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving adenoid cystic carcinoma is quite rudimentary, due to the infrequent nature of its occurrence. Methods An extensive literature review was performed on salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma and basic science research findings. Results This review highlights many findings that are emerging about the carcinogenesis of ACC including cytogenetics, tumor suppressor genes, oncogenes, epigenetic alterations, mitochondrial alterations, and biomarker studies. Conclusions While there have been many discoveries, much still remains unknown about this rare malignancy. PMID:22006498

  19. Histologic Mimics of Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stanoszek, Lauren M; Wang, Grace Y; Harms, Paul W

    2017-11-01

    - Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human malignant neoplasm and is a frequently encountered diagnosis in dermatopathology. Although BCC may be locally destructive, it rarely metastasizes. Many diagnostic entities display morphologic and immunophenotypic overlap with BCC, including nonneoplastic processes, such as follicular induction over dermatofibroma; benign follicular tumors, such as trichoblastoma, trichoepithelioma, or basaloid follicular hamartoma; and malignant tumors, such as sebaceous carcinoma or Merkel cell carcinoma. Thus, misdiagnosis has significant potential to result in overtreatment or undertreatment. - To review key features distinguishing BCC from histologic mimics, including current evidence regarding immunohistochemical markers useful for that distinction. - Review of pertinent literature on BCC immunohistochemistry and differential diagnosis. - In most cases, BCC can be reliably diagnosed by histopathologic features. Immunohistochemistry may provide useful ancillary data in certain cases. Awareness of potential mimics is critical to avoid misdiagnosis and resulting inappropriate management.

  20. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the nasopharynx.

    PubMed

    Atar, Yavuz; Topaloglu, Ilhan; Ozcan, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses can be misdiagnosed as primary malignant or benign diseases. A 33-year-old male attended our outpatient clinic complaining of difficulty breathing through the nose, bloody nasal discharge, postnasal drop, snoring, and discharge of phlegm. Endoscopic nasopharyngeal examination showed a vascularized nasopharyngeal mass. Under general anesthesia, multiple punch biopsies were taken from the nasopharynx. Pathologically, the tumor cells had clear cytoplasm and were arranged in a trabecular pattern lined by a layer of endothelial cells. After the initial pathological examination, the pathologist requested more information about the patient's clinical status. A careful history revealed that the patient had undergone left a nephrectomy for a kidney mass diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma 3 years earlier. Subsequently, nasopharyngeal metastatic renal cell carcinoma was diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining with CD10 and vimentin. Radiotherapy was recommended for treatment.

  1. [Breast carcinoma metastasis to the gastrointestinal tract and tumour-to-tumour metastasis to renal cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Mosholt, Karina Sif Søndergaard; Pilt, Anette Pedersen; Wittendorff, Hans-Erik

    2015-04-06

    Breast carcinoma metastasis to the gastrointestinal tract and tumour-to-tumour metastasis is rare. We describe a case of a 71-year-old woman with previous breast cancer presenting with dyspepsia, nausea and weight-loss. Biopsies from the pylorus revealed what appeared to be a gastric carcinoma. A CT scan showed large kidney mass and biopsies revealed clear cell renal cell carcinoma with areas of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Subsequent immunohistochemical analysis revealed the presence of breast carcinoma in both locations.

  2. Microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Poggi, Guido; Tosoratti, Nevio; Montagna, Benedetta; Picchi, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Although surgical resection is still the optimal treatment option for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with well compensated cirrhosis, thermal ablation techniques provide a valid non-surgical treatment alternative, thanks to their minimal invasiveness, excellent tolerability and safety profile, proven efficacy in local disease control, virtually unlimited repeatability and cost-effectiveness. Different energy sources are currently employed in clinics as physical agents for percutaneous or intra-surgical thermal ablation of HCC nodules. Among them, radiofrequency (RF) currents are the most used, while microwave ablations (MWA) are becoming increasingly popular. Starting from the 90s’, RF ablation (RFA) rapidly became the standard of care in ablation, especially in the treatment of small HCC nodules; however, RFA exhibits substantial performance limitations in the treatment of large lesions and/or tumors located near major heat sinks. MWA, first introduced in the Far Eastern clinical practice in the 80s’, showing promising results but also severe limitations in the controllability of the emitted field and in the high amount of power employed for the ablation of large tumors, resulting in a poor coagulative performance and a relatively high complication rate, nowadays shows better results both in terms of treatment controllability and of overall coagulative performance, thanks to the improvement of technology. In this review we provide an extensive and detailed overview of the key physical and technical aspects of MWA and of the currently available systems, and we want to discuss the most relevant published data on MWA treatments of HCC nodules in regard to clinical results and to the type and rate of complications, both in absolute terms and in comparison with RFA. PMID:26557950

  3. Surgical Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zamora-Valdes, Daniel; Taner, Timucin; Nagorney, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In select patients, surgical treatment in the form of either resection or transplantation offers a curative option. The aims of this review are to (1) review the current American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases/European Association for the Study of the Liver guidelines on the surgical management of HCC and (2) review the proposed changes to these guidelines and analyze the strength of evidence underlying these proposals. Three authors identified the most relevant publications in the literature on liver resection and transplantation for HCC and analyzed the strength of evidence according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) classification. In the United States, the liver allocation system provides priority for liver transplantation to patients with HCC within the Milan criteria. Current evidence suggests that liver transplantation may also be indicated in certain patient groups beyond Milan criteria, such as pediatric patients with large tumor burden or adult patients who are successfully downstaged. Patients with no underlying liver disease may also benefit from liver transplantation if the HCC is unresectable. In patients with no or minimal (compensated) liver disease and solitary HCC ≥2 cm, liver resection is warranted. If liver transplantation is not available or contraindicated, liver resection can be offered to patients with multinodular HCC, provided that the underlying liver disease is not decompensated. Many patients may benefit from surgical strategies adapted to local resources and policies (hepatitis B prevalence, organ availability, etc). Although current low-quality evidence shows better overall survival with aggressive surgical strategies, this approach is limited to select patients. Larger and well-designed prospective studies are needed to better define the benefits and limits of such approach. PMID:28975836

  4. New advances in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, Sonia; Herrera, Iván; Irurzun, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of deaths in cirrhotic patients and the third cause of cancer related deaths. Most HCC are associated with well known underlying risk factors, in fact, HCC arise in cirrhotic patients in up to 90% of cases, mainly due to chronic viral hepatitis and alcohol abuse. The worldwide prevention strategies are conducted to avoid the infection of new subjects and to minimize the risk of liver disease progression in infected patients. HCC is a condition which lends itself to surveillance as at-risk individuals can readily be identified. The American and European guidelines recommended implementation of surveillance programs with ultrasound every six months in patient at-risk for developing HCC. The diagnosis of HCC can be based on non-invasive criteria (only in cirrhotic patient) or pathology. Accurately staging patients is essential to oncology practice. The ideal tumour staging system in HCC needs to account for both tumour characteristics and liver function. Treatment allocation is based on several factors: Liver function, size and number of tumours, macrovascular invasion or extrahepatic spread. The recommendations in terms of selection for different treatment strategies must be based on evidence-based data. Resection, liver transplant and interventional radiology treatment are mainstays of HCC therapy and achieve the best outcomes in well-selected candidates. Chemoembolization is the most widely used treatment for unresectable HCC or progression after curative treatment. Finally, in patients with advanced HCC with preserved liver function, sorafenib is the only approved systemic drug that has demonstrated a survival benefit and is the standard of care in this group of patients. PMID:27028578

  5. Merkel Cell Carcinoma Therapeutic Update.

    PubMed

    Cassler, Nicole M; Merrill, Dean; Bichakjian, Christopher K; Brownell, Isaac

    2016-07-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin. Early-stage disease can be cured with surgical resection and radiotherapy (RT). Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is an important staging tool, as a microscopic MCC is frequently identified. Adjuvant RT to the primary excision site and regional lymph node bed may improve locoregional control. However, newer studies confirm that patients with biopsy-negative sentinel lymph nodes may not benefit from regional RT. Advanced MCC currently lacks a highly effective treatment as responses to chemotherapy are not durable. Recent work suggests that immunotherapy targeting the programmed cell death receptor 1/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) checkpoint holds great promise in treating advanced MCC and may provide durable responses in a portion of patients. At the same time, high-throughput sequencing studies have demonstrated significant differences in the mutational profiles of tumors with and without the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV). An important secondary endpoint in the ongoing immunotherapy trials for MCC will be determining if there is a response difference between the virus-positive MCC tumors that typically lack a large mutational burden and the virus-negative tumors that have a large number of somatic mutations and predicted tumor neoantigens. Interestingly, sequencing studies have failed to identify a highly recurrent activated driver pathway in the majority of MCC tumors. This may explain why targeted therapies can demonstrate exceptional responses in case reports but fail when treating all comers with MCC. Ultimately, a precision medicine approach may be more appropriate for treating MCC, where identified driver mutations are used to direct targeted therapies. At a minimum, stratifying patients in future clinical trials based on tumor viral status should be considered as virus-negative tumors are more likely to harbor activating driver mutations.

  6. The Association Between Lung Carcinoma and Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The association between lung tuberculosis and lung carcinoma is still controversial. Objective: to describe the characteristics of patients with associated lung tuberculosis (TB) and lung carcinoma (LC) in patients treated in Clinic for pulmonary diseases and TB “Podhrastovi”. Material and Methods: This is the retrospective study of patients with LC associated with TB treated in Clinic for pulmonary diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” in five-year period -from 2012 to 2016. We analyzed sex and age of patients, whether TB preceded LC or LC preceded TB, a time period between the developments of these two diseases, activity of TB, the histopathological type of LC, localization of LC in lungs (bronchial, peripheral, cavern) according to histopathological type. Results: In this period there were 2608 patients treated for LC. Among them there were 34 patients with diagnosed TB or 1.3%. All of them were smokers. No one had active TB. TB was the first diagnosis in all these patients. Each patient was previously treated for TB in hospital and had regular anti TB treatment. TB preceded LC in median time of 5 years (interquartile range 2 to 25 years). In 21 cases it was carcinoma of the drainage bronchus, in 11 cases it was peripheral lung carcinoma and 2 cases it was cavern carcinoma. Conlusion: patients with cured pulmonary tuberculosis represent a group at risk for developing lung carcinoma. Changes in the bronchial and alveolar mucosa which tuberculosis leaves behind in the lungs must be taken as a possible place of later malignant alteration. Patients with any form of pulmonary tuberculosis have to be controlled continuously. PMID:28974836

  7. Adenoid cystic carcinoma: An unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Pushpanjali, M; Sujata, D Naga; Subramanyam, S Bala; Jyothsna, M

    2014-05-01

    The adenoid cystic carcinoma is a relatively rare epithelial tumor of the major and minor salivary glands, accounting for about 1% of all malignant tumor of the oral and maxillofacial regions. Peak incidence occurs between the 5(th) and 6(th) decades of life. The clinical and pathological findings typical of this tumor include slow growth, peri-neural invasion, multiple local recurrences and distant metastasis. Herein, we report a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma of oropharynx with unusual clinical presentation. The diagnosis of this case and importance of cytology in diagnosing such cases is discussed.

  8. Adenoid cystic carcinoma: An unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Pushpanjali, M; Sujata, D Naga; Subramanyam, S Bala; Jyothsna, M

    2014-01-01

    The adenoid cystic carcinoma is a relatively rare epithelial tumor of the major and minor salivary glands, accounting for about 1% of all malignant tumor of the oral and maxillofacial regions. Peak incidence occurs between the 5th and 6th decades of life. The clinical and pathological findings typical of this tumor include slow growth, peri-neural invasion, multiple local recurrences and distant metastasis. Herein, we report a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma of oropharynx with unusual clinical presentation. The diagnosis of this case and importance of cytology in diagnosing such cases is discussed. PMID:25328314

  9. Therapeutic challenges in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Penticuff, Justin C; Kyprianou, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a malignancy that in advanced disease, is highly resistant to systemic therapies. Elucidation of the angiogenesis pathways and their intrinsic signaling interactions with the genetic and metabolic disturbances within renal cell carcinoma variants has ushered in the era of “targeted therapies”. Advanced surgical interventions and novel drugs targeting VEGF and mTOR, have improved patient survival and prolonged clinically stable-disease states. This review discusses the current understanding of diagnostic challenges and the mechanism-based clinical evidence on therapeutic management of advanced RCC. PMID:26309897

  10. Modeling anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Champa, Devora; Di Cristofano, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is the least common form of thyroid cancer; however, it accounts for the majority of deaths associated with this family of malignancies. A number of genetically engineered immunocompetent mouse models recapitulating the genetic and histological features of anaplastic thyroid cancer have been very recently generated and represent an invaluable tool to dissect the mechanisms involved in the progression from indolent, well-differentiated tumors to aggressive, undifferentiated carcinomas and to identify novel therapeutic targets. In this review, we focus on the relevant characteristics associated with these models and on what we have learned in terms of anaplastic thyroid cancer biology, genetics, and response to targeted therapy.

  11. Modeling anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Champa, Devora; Di Cristofano, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is the least common form of thyroid cancer; however, it accounts for the majority of deaths associated with this family of malignancies. A number of genetically engineered immunocompetent mouse models recapitulating the genetic and histological features of anaplastic thyroid cancer have been very recently generated and represent an invaluable tool to dissect the mechanisms involved in the progression from indolent, well differentiated tumors to aggressive, undifferentiated carcinomas, and to identify novel therapeutic targets. In this review, we focus on the relevant characteristics associated with these models and on what we have learned in terms of anaplastic thyroid cancer biology, genetics, and response to targeted therapy. PMID:25420535

  12. Diffuse consolidation form of bronchoalveolar carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Kanwal Fatima; Saeed, Waseem; Zill-e-Hamayun

    2010-03-01

    This case report describes a patient with diffuse consolidation form of bronchoalveolar carcinoma (BAC) which is a rare type of adenocarcinoma of lung. He was diagnosed on the basis of findings on X-ray and high resolution CT(HRCT) chest later confirmed by open lung biopsy and immuno-histochemical staining. Only supportive treatment could be provided and the patient expired during the subsequent month of follow-up. Traditionally, diffuse consolidation is the radiological presentation in only 20% of patients with bronchoalveolar carcinoma.

  13. Carcinoma in ectopic breast: a cytological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shailaja; Sehgal, Shivali; Rai, Preeti; Agarwal, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic breast carcinoma in the axillary region is rare with an incidence ranging from 0.3-6%. We report a case of infiltrating duct carcinoma in an adult female arising in aberrant breast tissue in the axilla diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology. There was history of recent increase in size of the lump which was otherwise present for the past 5 years. This case highlights the role fine needle aspiration cytology can play in the early diagnosis of malignant transformation of lumps.

  14. Synchronous oral paracoccidioidomycosis and esophageal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tubino, Paulo Victor Alves; Sarmento, Bruno Jose de Queiroz; dos Santos, Vitorino Modesto; Borges, Estevão Ribeiro; da Silva, Lucas Evangelista Correia; Lima, Rodrigo de Souza

    2012-08-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is the most common deep mycosis in South America and is caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (P. brasiliensis), a thermally dimorphic fungus. Infections usually occur by inhalation of conidia, which more often cause respiratory, mucocutaneous, and lymph nodal changes. Chronic features of this mycosis can mimic diverse infections and malignancies and constitute diagnosis challenges. Squamous cell carcinoma deserves special attention in this setting. We describe the case of a patient with synchronous diagnosis of oral paracoccidioidomycosis and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Concomitance of these conditions may be a casual event, but a not fully understood causal relationship can be involved.

  15. NUT Midline Carcinoma of the Nasal Cavity.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Mia; Caruso, Andria M; Kim, Esther; Foss, Robert D

    2017-09-01

    Nuclear protein in testis (NUT) midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare, aggressive, poorly differentiated form of squamous cell carcinoma caused by a chromosomal rearrangement of the NUT gene on chromosome 15. These tumors have a predilection for midline and paramidline structures of the upper aerodigestive tract and mediastinum and can affect patients across a broad age range, including children. In the current example, a 53 year old male presented with a mass originating in the left nasal cavity. The clinical, radiographic, and morphologic features of NMC are discussed.

  16. Molecular pathogenesis of ovarian clear cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gounaris, Ioannis; Brenton, James D

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian clear cell carcinoma is a distinct subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer, characterized by an association with endometriosis, glycogen accumulation and resistance to chemotherapy. Key driver events, including ARID1A mutations and HNF1B overexpression, have been recently identified and their functional characterization is ongoing. Additionally, the role of glycogen in promoting the malignant phenotype is coming under scrutiny. Appreciation of the notion that ovarian clear cell carcinoma is essentially an ectopic uterine cancer will hopefully lead to improved animal models of the disease, in turn paving the way for effective treatments.

  17. Carcinoma of the larynx. Surgery: general aspects.

    PubMed

    Remacle, M; Lawson, G

    1992-01-01

    A necessary and adequate selection of operations capable of meeting all the indications involved by partial surgery, is required. We suggest such a selection inspired on that of 1983. Partial laryngectomies for glottic carcinoma: CO2-laser endoscopic cordectomy, fronto-lateral partial laryngectomy (LEROUX-ROBERT), hemiglottectomy (GUERRIER), anterior partial laryngectomy with epiglottoplasty (TUCKER), subtotal laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy (MAJER-PIQUET). Partial laryngectomies for supraglottic carcinoma: horizontal supraglottic laryngectomy (anterior approach), CO2-laser endoscopic epiglottectomy, lateral supraglottic pharyngo-laryngectomy (ALONSO), subtotal laryngectomy with cricohyoidopexy (LABAYLE). Total laryngectomy As from the early eighties onwards, the great progress in vocal rehabilitation following laryngectomy has certainly been the development of phonatory prosthesis.

  18. Stromal signatures in endometrioid endometrial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Iñigo; Catasus, Lluis; D' Angelo, Emanuela; Mozos, Ana; Pedrola, Nuria; Bértolo, Cristina; Ferrer, Irene; Zannoni, Gian Franco; West, Robert B; van de Rijn, Matt; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Prat, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    The pattern of myometrial invasion in endometrioid endometrial carcinomas varies considerably; ie, from widely scattered glands and cell nests, often associated with a fibromyxoid stromal reaction (desmoplasia) and/or a lymphocytic infiltrate, to invasive glands with little or no stromal response. Recently, two distinct stromal signatures derived from a macrophage response (colony-stimulating factor 1, CSF1) and a fibroblastic response (desmoid-type fibromatosis, DTF) were identified in breast carcinomas and correlated with clinicopathologic features including outcome. In this study, we explored whether these stromal signatures also apply to endometrioid carcinomas and how their expression patterns correlated with morphologic changes. We studied the stromal signatures both by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization in 98 primary endometrioid carcinomas with (87 cases) and without (11 cases) myometrial invasion as well as in the corresponding regional lymph nodes metatases of 9 myoinvasive tumors. Desmoplasia correlated positively with the DTF expression signature. Likewise, mononuclear infiltrates were found in the stroma of tumors expressing CSF1. Twenty-four out of eighty-seven (27%) myoinvasive endometrioid carcinomas were positive for the macrophage signature and thirteen out of eighty-seven (15%) expressed the fibroblast signature. Eleven additional cases were positive for both DTF and CSF1 signatures (11/87; 13%). However, over half of the cases (39/87; 45%) and the majority of the non-myoinvasive tumors (8/11; 73%) failed to express any of the two stromal signatures. The macrophage response (CSF1) was associated with higher tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion, and PIK3CA mutations (P<0.05). There was a concordance in the expression of the CSF1 signature in the primary tumors and their corresponding lymph node metastases. This study is the first characterization of stromal signatures in endometrioid carcinomas. Our findings shed new light on the

  19. Paraneoplastic Neurological Disorder in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ng, Sze Yin; Kongg, Min Han; Yunus, Mohd Razif Mohamad

    2017-03-01

    Paraneoplastic neurological disorder (PND) is a condition due to immune cross-reactivity between the tumour cells and the normal tissue, whereby the "onconeural" antibodies attack the normal host nervous system. It can present within weeks to months before or after the diagnosis of malignancies. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is associated with paraneoplastic syndrome, for example, dermatomyositis, and rarely with a neurological disorder. We report on a case of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with probable PND. Otolaryngologists, oncologists and neurologists need to be aware of this condition in order to make an accurate diagnosis and to provide prompt treatment.

  20. [A case of mucinous noncystic carcinoma of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Jung, Jun Young; Song, Moon Hee; Park, Young Sook; Jo, Yun Ju; Kim, Seong Hwan; Jun, Dae-Won; Kim, Dong Hee; Lee, Won Mi

    2008-03-01

    Mucinous (colloid) carcinoma is defined as pools of stromal extracellular mucin containing scanty, floating carcinoma cells. It is a well-defined entity in breast or large bowel. However, mucinous noncystic carcinoma of the pancreas (MNCC) is uncommon, comprising between 1% and 3% of all carcinomas of the pancreas. In the past, MNCC generally had been categorized together with ordinary ductal adenocarcinoma or misdiagnosed as mucinous cystadenocarcinoma or signet-ring cell carcinoma. The new WHO classification lists MNCC as a variant of ductal adenocarcinoma. Herein, we report a 32-year-old woman with incidentally found pancreatic body mass who underwent subtotal pancreatectomy. She was diagnosed as MNCC histologically.

  1. Temporally separated bilateral anal sac gland carcinomas in four dogs.

    PubMed

    Bowlt, K L; Friend, E J; Delisser, P; Murphy, S; Polton, G

    2013-08-01

    Anal sac gland carcinoma arising from the apocrine secretory epithelium in the anal sac wall, is locally invasive and highly metastatic. The majority of anal sac gland carcinomas are unilateral on presentation, but bilateral tumours have been identified. This case series presents the outcome of four unique cases of unilateral anal sac gland carcinoma which subsequently developed contralateral anal sac gland carcinoma 50 to 390 days after removal of the initial tumour. Median survival was 1035 days after initial diagnosis and 807 days after diagnosis of the second anal sac gland carcinoma. © 2013 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  2. Are the uterine serous carcinomas underdiagnosed? Histomorphologic and immunohistochemical correlates and clinical follow up in high-grade endometrial carcinomas initially diagnosed as high-grade endometrioid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shaomin; Hinson, Jeff L; Matnani, Rahul; Cibull, Michael L; Karabakhtsian, Rouzan G

    2018-02-01

    Histologic subclassification of high-grade endometrial carcinomas can sometimes be a diagnostic challenge when based on histomorphology alone. Here we utilized immunohistochemical markers to determine the immunophenotype in histologically ambiguous high-grade endometrial carcinomas that were initially diagnosed as pure or mixed high-grade endometrioid carcinoma, aiming to determine the utility of selected immunohistochemical panel in accurate classification of these distinct tumor types, while correlating these findings with the clinical outcome. A total of 43 high-grade endometrial carcinoma cases initially classified as pure high-grade endometrioid carcinoma (n=32), mixed high-grade endometrioid carcinoma/serous carcinoma (n=9) and mixed high-grade endometrioid carcinoma/clear cell carcinoma (n=2) were retrospectively stained with a panel of immunostains, including antibodies for p53, p16, estrogen receptor, and mammaglobin. Clinical follow-up data were obtained, and stage-to-stage disease outcomes were compared for different tumor types. Based on aberrant staining for p53 and p16, 17/43 (40%) of the high-grade endometrial carcinoma cases initially diagnosed as high-grade endometrioid carcinoma were re-classified as serous carcinoma. All 17 cases showed negative staining for mammaglobin, while estrogen receptor was positive in only 6 (35%) cases. The remaining 26 cases of high-grade endometrioid carcinoma showed wild-type staining for p53 in 25 (96%) cases, patchy staining for p16 in 20 (77%) cases, and were positive for mammaglobin and estrogen receptor in 8 (31%) and 19 (73%) cases, respectively, thus the initial diagnosis of high-grade endometrioid carcinoma was confirmed in these cases. In addition, the patients with re-classified serous carcinoma had advanced clinical stages at diagnosis and poorer overall survival on clinical follow-up compared to that of the remaining 26 high-grade endometrioid carcinoma cases. These results indicate that selected

  3. Enhancement of tumor responsiveness to aminolevulinate-photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) using differentiation-promoting agents in mouse models of skin carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Sanjay; Honari, Golara; Paliwal, Akshat; Hasan, Tayyaba; Maytin, Edward V.

    2009-06-01

    Aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) is an emerging treatment for cancers. ALA, given as a prodrug, selectively accumulates and is metabolized in cancer cells to form protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Targeted local irradiation with light induces cell death. Since the efficacy of ALA-PDT for large or deep tumors is currently limited, we are developing a new approach that combines differentiation-inducing agents with ALA-PDT to improve the clinical response. Here, we tested this new combination paradigm in the following two models of skin carcinoma in mice: 1) tumors generated by topical application of chemical carcinogens (DMBA-TPA); 2) human SCC cells (A431) implanted subcutaneously. To achieve a differentiated state of the tumors, pretreatment with a low concentration of methotrexate (MTX) or Vitamin D (Vit D) was administered for 72 h prior to exposure to ALA. Confocal images of histological sections were captured and digitally analyzed to determine relative PpIX levels. PpIX in the tumors was also monitored by real-time in vivo fluorescence dosimetry. In both models, a significant increase in levels of PpIX was observed following pretreatment with MTX or Vit D, as compared to no-pretreatment controls. This enhancing effect was observed at very low, non-cytotoxic concentrations, and was highly specific to cancer cells as compared to normal cells. These results suggest that use of differentiating agents such as MTX or Vit D, as a short-term combination therapy given prior to ALA-PDT, can increase the production of PpIX photosensitizer and enhance the therapeutic response of skin cancers.

  4. CD10-bearing fibroblast inhibits matrigel invasive potency of interleukin-1α-producing squamous cell carcinoma by diminishing substance P levels in the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lining; Moroi, Yoichi; Tsuji, Gaku; Liu, Min; Hayashida, Sayaka; Takahara, Masakazu; Fukagawa, Shuji; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Shan, Baoen; Nakahara, Takeshi; Uchi, Hiroshi; Yokomizo, Takehiko; Furue, Masutaka

    2010-12-01

    CD10 is a neutral endopeptidase, which cleaves various peptide substrates including substance P. CD10 expression has been detected in peritumoral fibroblasts (Fb) within the invasive area of various cancers such as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). However, the biological significance of CD10-bearing Fb remains largely unknown. We examined dynamic interactions of Fb with tumorigenic A431 SCC cells or non-tumorigenic HaCaT squamous cells. The SCC and HaCaT cells did not synthesize CD10, while Fb constitutively expressed CD10. When co-cultured, SCC markedly upregulated fibroblastic CD10 expression compared with HaCaT, which was mainly attributable to SCC-derived interleukin-1α (IL-1α). Both SCC and Fb autonomously secreted substance P, which eventually enhanced the invasive capacity of SCC in a matrigel invasion assay by upregulating matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-2, but not MMP-9. Transfection of siRNA for CD10 successfully knocked down the CD10 expression in Fb (CD10ND-Fb). In the presence of CD10ND-Fb, substance P levels in supernatants as well as MMP production and the invasive potency of SCC were significantly augmented compared with control scramble RNA-transfected Fb. We also transfected CD10 vector to Fb and found that the matrigel invasive ability of SCC cells was downregulated co-cultured with CD10 vector-transfected Fb rather than empty vector-transfected Fb. In conclusion, the CD10-bearing Fb generated by SCC-derived IL-1 inhibited the invasive capacity of SCC by diminishing the microenvironmental concentration of substance P. © 2010 Japanese Cancer Association.

  5. Sebaceous gland carcinoma and mammary gland carcinoma in an African hedgehog (Ateletrix albiventris).

    PubMed

    Matute, Alonso Reyes; Bernal, Adriana Mendez; Lezama, José Ramírez; Guadalupe, Manzano Pech Linaloe; Antonio, Galicia Avalos Marco

    2014-09-01

    A sebaceous carcinoma was diagnosed, together with a mammary carcinoma, in an adult African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). The first neoplasm was located in the subcutaneous tissue of the neck and extended towards the axillary area of the chest. The second was located in the subcutaneous left caudal abdominal region. The purpose of this paper is to report the histopathologic and ultrastructural features of these neoplasms. Although there is little information about diseases affecting this species, it is known that neoplastic disorders are fairly common in African hedgehogs. The mammary carcinoma is considered to be the most common neoplasm in these animals; however, the presentation of sebaceous carcinoma is rare. In hedgehogs, the simultaneous presence of two neoplasms is common, which is why special attention should be paid to the presentation of other tumors during the early detection of a neoplastic process as this will greatly facilitate the optimal treatment and improve the long-term prognosis of affected animals.

  6. Synchronous Parotid (Mammary Analog) Secretory Carcinoma and Acinic Cell Carcinoma: Report of a Case.

    PubMed

    Mossinelli, C; Pigni, C; Sovardi, F; Occhini, A; Preda, L; Benazzo, M; Morbini, P; Pagella, F

    2018-06-06

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described low-grade salivary gland malignancy with histologic, immunohistochemical and molecular similarities to secretory carcinoma of the breast, including a specific t(12;15)(p13;q25) resulting in an ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging frequently document a macrocystic structure. The main differential diagnosis of secretory carcinoma is with low grade acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC). The two can be differentiated with immunohistochemical stains for S100, mammaglobin, carbonic anhydrase VI and DOG-1; the identification of the specific translocation can help to characterize non-typical cases. We report a unique case of synchronous MASC and AciCC presenting in a parotid gland and discuss the implications of the correct identification of the two tumors.

  7. Photodynamic Therapy With HPPH in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-19

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  8. Lymphoepithelioma-like Carcinoma of the Breast: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Top, Ömer Erdinç; Vardar, Enver; Yağcı, Ayşe; Deniz, Senem; Öztürk, Rafet; Zengel, Baha

    2014-01-01

    Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma carries similar histopathological features with lymphoepithelioma typically located in the nasopharynx. Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the breast can be mistaken for breast lymphoma or medullary carcinoma due to the undifferentiated appearance of tumor cells and presence of prominent lymphoid component. Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma is rare, and the similarity between medullary carcinoma of the breast makes it difficult to distinguish these two tumors. In the presented case, neither lymph node nor distant metastases were detected. Breast lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma is extremely rare with only 21 reported cases in the literature. Herein we present a 59-year-old woman with lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the breast along with the cases previously published in the literature. PMID:28331666

  9. Environmental exposures as a risk factor for fibrolamellar carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Graham, Rondell P; Craig, John R; Jin, Long; Oliveira, Andre M; Bergquist, John R; Truty, Mark J; Mounajjed, Taofic; Greipp, Patricia T; Torbenson, Michael S

    2017-06-01

    Fibrolamellar carcinoma was first described in 1956. Subsequent large studies failed to identify cases before 1939 (the start of the World War II). This finding, combined with the presence of aryl hydrocarbon receptors on the tumor cells, have suggested that fibrolamellar carcinomas may be caused by environmental exposures that are new since World War II. To investigate this possibility, the surgical pathology files before 1939 were reviewed for hepatocellular carcinomas resected in young individuals. Two cases of fibrolamellar carcinoma were identified, from 1915 to 1924. The diagnosis of fibrolamellar carcinoma was confirmed at the histologic, ultrastructural and proteomic levels. These two fibrolamellar carcinoma cases clarify a key aspect of fibrolamellar carcinoma biology, reducing the likelihood that these tumors result exclusively from post World War II environmental exposures.

  10. Surgical Treatment for Biliary Carcinoma Arising After Pancreatoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Akira; Kawasaki, Seiji

    1998-01-01

    The clinicopathological features and surgical treatment of biliary carcinoma around the major hepatic duct confluence arising after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) due to initial bile duct carcinoma are described in three patients. Occurrence of biliary carcinoma more than 12 years after initial surgery and a histological finding of cholangiocellular carcinoma mixed with hepatocellular carcinoma suggested metachronous incidence of biliary carcinoma after PD. Extended right hemihepatectomy with complete removal of the residual extrahepatic bile duct and segmental, resection of the jejunal loop were carried out safely without operative death or severe postoperative complications. Two patients died of tumor recurrence 6 months after surgery, and the remaining patient is currently living a normal life without evidence of recurrence 17 months after surgery. These surgical procedures are a therapeutic option in patients with biliary carcinoma around the major hepatic duct confluence arising after PD. PMID:9515238

  11. Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma Co-Existing with Intraductal Papillary Carcinoma of Male Breast: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mayank; Pottipati, Bhaswanth; Arakeri, Surekha U; Javalgi, Anita P

    2017-06-01

    Male breast carcinomas are rare tumours, accounting for less than 1% of all malignancies in men. Intracystic Papillary Carcinoma (IPC) in males is a very rare entity, representing 5-7.5% of all male breast carcinomas. It lacks the classical clinical, radiological and cytological features of malignancy and usually presents as a benign-appearing lump. We report a case of Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) co-existing with intracystic papillary carcinoma in a 53-year-old male who presented with lump in the right breast.

  12. Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma Co-Existing with Intraductal Papillary Carcinoma of Male Breast: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pottipati, Bhaswanth; Arakeri, Surekha U.; Javalgi, Anita P.

    2017-01-01

    Male breast carcinomas are rare tumours, accounting for less than 1% of all malignancies in men. Intracystic Papillary Carcinoma (IPC) in males is a very rare entity, representing 5-7.5% of all male breast carcinomas. It lacks the classical clinical, radiological and cytological features of malignancy and usually presents as a benign-appearing lump. We report a case of Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) co-existing with intracystic papillary carcinoma in a 53-year-old male who presented with lump in the right breast. PMID:28764176

  13. Papillary serous carcinoma of the uterus: increased risk of subsequent or concurrent development of breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Geisler, J P; Sorosky, J I; Duong, H L; Buekers, T E; Geisler, M J; Sood, A K; Anderson, B; Buller, R E

    2001-12-01

    Some women with endometrial cancer may be at increased risk for developing breast cancer. The histologic type of endometrial cancer associated with synchronous or subsequent breast cancer has not been clearly established. Our purpose was to determine if a certain histologic type of endometrial cancer was associated with an increased risk of synchronous or subsequent breast cancer. The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics tumor registry was queried to ascertain all patients with the diagnosis of uterine cancer from January 1, 1983, to December 31, 1994. Statistics were performed utilizing SPSS for Windows version 9.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL), including Student's t tests and chi(2) tests. Five hundred ninety-two patients had endometrial adenocarcinoma during the study period. Five hundred thirty-six women had endometrioid adenocarcinoma, 23 women had papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC), 21 women had adenosquamous carcinoma, 10 women had clear-cell carcinoma, and 1 woman each had mucinous or squamous carcinoma. Twelve patients had previously been diagnosed with breast carcinomas. Twenty-five patients were diagnosed with breast cancer either concurrently or subsequent to their diagnosis of endometrial cancer. Synchronous or subsequent breast cancers developed in 3.2% of patients with endometrioid carcinoma and in 25% of patients with UPSC (P < 0.001). Patients with UPSC have an increased risk of development of breast cancer as compared to patients with endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus. (c)2001 Elsevier Science.

  14. Folliculocentric squamous cell carcinoma with tricholemmal differentiation: a reappraisal of tricholemmal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Misago, N; Toda, S; Narisawa, Y

    2012-07-01

    The diagnostic criteria for tricholemmal carcinoma remain controversial, and even the existence of tricholemmal carcinoma has been the subject of debate. Follicular (infundibular) squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a distinctive subset of SCC, which develops solely with folliculocentricity, and displays the features of conventional SCC without tricholemmal differentiation. To examine the existence of pure folliculocentric SCCs showing tricholemmal differentiation, that is, tricholemmal carcinoma. In total, 812 SCCs were examined, and those meeting the following diagnostic criteria were selected: (i) pure folliculocentricity without any associated Bowen's disease or actinic keratosis; (ii) composition primarily of lightly eosinophilic cells or clear cells containing glycogen; (iii) columnar lightly eosinophilic or clear cells aligned in a palisade along a discernible basement membrane; (iv) tricholemmal keratinization; (v) glycogen contained within the pale/clear cells; and (vi) cytological atypia and or infiltrative growth. We also evaluated whether the immunohistochemical profile [cytokeratin (CK)1, CK10, CK17, CD34 and D2-40] seen in normal hair follicles was retained in the selected lesions. Only two lesions met the criteria. The immunohistochemical profile of the normal outer root sheath cells was generally retained in these lesions, except for CD34. Tricholemmal carcinoma is a rare occurrence, but it does exist, and at least one type of tricholemmal carcinoma is considered to be related to follicular (infundibular) SCC. © The Author(s). CED © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. Noncirrhotic hepatocellular carcinoma: derivation from hepatocellular adenoma? Clinicopathologic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ta-Chiang; Vachharajani, Neeta; Chapman, William C.; Brunt, Elizabeth M.

    2018-01-01

    The majority of hepatocellular carcinomas arise in background chronic liver disease, particularly cirrhosis. The pathogenesis of non-cirrhotic hepatocellular carcinomas remains unclear. While malignant transformation reportedly occurs in <15% of hepatocellular adenoma, the prevalence of noncirrhotic hepatocellular carcinomas arising from a pre-existing adenoma is a challenge to study. Cirrhotic hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatocellular adenoma may be subclassified by molecular pathways, but little is known in noncirrhotic hepatocellular carcinoma. We aim to delineate clinical, morphologic and immunohistochemical features of noncirrhotic hepatocellular carcinoma to evaluate for possible derivation from hepatocellular adenoma. We evaluated the clinicopathologic features of 74 noncirrhotic hepatocellular carcinomas from 72 patients for underlying clinical conditions and immunohistochemical markers known to be associated with hepatocellular adenoma. Men were more commonly affected (59%); however, in the < 50 year old group, women predominated (8:1). The age range was wide: 18year – 83year; median 64year. Underlying liver diseases were identified in only 7%; however 25% had diabetes mellitus, 69% were overweight or obese, and 58% had metabolic syndrome. Only 50% of the noncirrhotic hepatocellular carcinoma were encapsulated. As published in hepatocellular adenoma, multifocality and larger tumor size were more common in liver fatty acid binding protein-negative noncirrhotic hepatocellular carcinoma. Beta-catenin nuclear positivity was uncommon (5%), and was restricted to hepatocellular carcinomas in older men. Serum amyloid A positivity was not restricted to any subtype. In summary, we present the largest series to date examining noncirrhotic hepatocellular carcinoma. We evaluated these with current hepatocellular adenoma subclassification markers for possible associations. Thirty percent of the 74 noncirrhotic hepatocellular carcinoma had some clinical

  16. Intestinal lymphangiectasia mimicking primary peritoneal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Steines, Jennifer C; Larson, Joshua H; Wilkinson, Neal; Kirby, Patricia; Goodheart, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia is an obstruction of the lymphatic system. We report on a patient with mesenteric adenopathy and an elevated CA125 level, which were suspicious for peritoneal carcinoma. Further evaluation and bowel resection identified intestinal lymphangiectasia. This disease should be considered in patients with mesenteric adenopathy and a small bowel mass. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma with functional autonomy.

    PubMed

    Yaturu, Subhashini; Fowler, Marjorie R

    2002-01-01

    To present a case of papillary carcinoma in an autonomously hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule. We chronicle the clinical and laboratory findings in a patient with a painless neck mass, with a particular focus on the pathologic findings after surgical removal of the right thyroid lobe. A 39-year-old woman had an enlarging nodule of the right thyroid lobe. Results of thyroid function tests suggested subclinical hyperthyroidism. Two months later, the patient complained of increasing swelling in the neck (but still had no symptoms suggestive of hyperthyroidism). Thus, resection of the right thyroid lobe was performed. Pathologic analysis disclosed low-grade papillary thyroid carcinoma within the nodule, with a small rim of compressed inactive-appearing thyroid tissue surrounding the nodule. Subsequently, she underwent total thyroidectomy and follow-up care for thyroid carcinoma. Although solitary hyperfunctioning nodules of the thyroid gland are usually considered benign, the current case suggests that the diagnosis of autonomous thyroid nodules does not preclude thyroid carcinoma in a functioning nodule.

  18. [Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas: new therapeutic considerations].

    PubMed

    Graf, Hans

    2005-10-01

    For most differentiated thyroid carcinomas, as papillary and follicular carcinomas, following total thyroidectomy and 131I therapy for thyroid remnant ablation, treatment with thyroid hormones to suppress TSH levels will reduce the growth of any remaining thyroid cancer cells, and thyroid cell-specific radiation therapy will either cure or control the disease. Thyroid carcinomas are considered poorly differentiated when they start to lose such functions as iodine uptake and thyrotropin-dependence for growth and production of thyroid proteins like NIS, thyroglobulin and desiodases. One of the greatest challenges in the management of patients with follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer is the treatment of tumors that progressed despite surgery, (131)I and T4 suppression of TSH. With the better knowledge of the abnormal molecular signaling in thyroid cancer cells, actually known targeted cancer therapies, directed against molecules involved in neoplastic transformation, are being used. As the critical molecular requirements for tumor initiation, maintenance and progression are identified, combination therapies with targeted agents acting on each of them will improve the treatment of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

  19. Granuloma Inguinale Simulating Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mani, M Z; Singh, Trilochan; Mathew, Mary

    1981-01-01

    A case of extensive granuloma inguinale simulating squamous cell carcinoma is described. There was past history of urethritis leading to a urethral fistula. The ulcer healed almost completely within 19 days of receiving streptomycin injections. The patient had associated scabies and presumably also had latent syphillis (His VDRL was reactive in 1:8 dilution). The patient belonged to Madhya Pradesh.

  20. Microcystic adnexal carcinoma following radiotherapy in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Borenstein, A.; Seidman, D.S.; Trau, H.

    1991-04-01

    A 36-year-old man was treated by radiotherapy for tinea capitis many years before discovery of microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC). Because of patient's refusal of any surgical intervention, we were able to follow the natural course of this tumor for 13 years. This case emphasizes the typical slow development of (MAC). The implication of the association of MAC and radiotherapy are discussed.

  1. Perirenal lipoma versus renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mydlo, J H; Shore, N; Reuter, V; Herr, H W

    1991-07-01

    Pure renal and perirenal lipomas are rare. They arise from renal cortex, capsule, or perirenal tissue, and may be difficult to distinguish from renal adenocarcinomas. We report on a patient who presented with a renal mass that had the radiologic findings suggestive of a renal cell carcinoma, but proved to be a simple lipoma.

  2. Targeting Hsp90 in urothelial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Skotnicki, Kamil; Landas, Steve; Bratslavsky, Gennady; Bourboulia, Dimitra

    2015-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma, or transitional cell carcinoma, is the most common urologic malignancy that carries significant morbidity, mortality, recurrence risk and associated health care costs. Despite use of current chemotherapies and immunotherapies, long-term remission in patients with muscle-invasive or metastatic disease remains low, and disease recurrence is common. The molecular chaperone Heat Shock Protein-90 (Hsp90) may offer an ideal treatment target, as it is a critical signaling hub in urothelial carcinoma pathogenesis and potentiates chemoradiation. Preclinical testing with Hsp90 inhibitors has demonstrated reduced proliferation, enhanced apoptosis and synergism with chemotherapies and radiation. Despite promising preclinical data, clinical trials utilizing Hsp90 inhibitors for other malignancies had modest efficacy. Therefore, we propose that Hsp90 inhibition would best serve as an adjuvant treatment in advanced muscle-invasive or metastatic bladder cancers to potentiate other therapies. An overview of bladder cancer biology, current treatments, molecular targeted therapies, and the role for Hsp90 inhibitors in the treatment of urothelial carcinoma is the focus of this review. PMID:25909217

  3. Management of Early Carcinoma of the Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, George W.

    1988-01-01

    Ovarian cancer represents a formidable challenge to physicians. Early symptoms are nonspecific, and are usually attributed to disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Especially important is suspicion of this neoplasm in its early stage. This article discusses the epidemiology, clinical features, evaluation, and treatment of early carcinomas of the ovary. PMID:3071612

  4. Pyoderma Vegetans Misdiagnosed as Verrucous Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Aksu Çerman, Aslı; Aktaş, Ezgi; Kıvanç Altunay, İlknur; Demirkesen, Cuyan

    2016-02-01

    Pyoderma vegetans, a rare disorder of the skin, is considered a highly specific marker for inflammatory bowel disease, especially ulcerative colitis. It is clinically characterized by large verrucous plaques with elevated borders and multiple pustules. Here, the authors report the case of a 33-year-old man who was misdiagnosed as having verrucous carcinoma for 4 years.

  5. Pleomorphic liposarcoma following radiotherapy for breast carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Arbabi, L.; Warhol, M.J.

    1982-03-01

    A pleomorphic liposarcoma arising in a site previously irradiated as a treatment for breast carcinoma is described. This case fulfills the criteria for a tumor to be radiation-induced. The tumor is localized with an irradiated area, there is a clear histologic distinction between the previous and current tumor, and there is a long latent interval.

  6. Presumed choroidal metastasis of Merkel cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Small, K.W.; Rosenwasser, G.O.; Alexander, E. III

    1990-05-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare skin tumor of neural crest origin and is part of the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylase system. It typically occurs on the face of elderly people. Distant metastasis is almost uniformly fatal. Choroidal metastasis, to our knowledge, has not been described. We report a patient with Merkel cell carcinoma who had a synchronous solid choroidal tumor and a biopsy-proven brain metastasis. Our 56-year-old patient presented with a rapidly growing, violaceous preauricular skin tumor. Computed tomography of the head disclosed incidental brain and choroidal tumors. Light and electron microscopy of biopsy specimens of both themore » skin and the brain lesions showed Merkel cell carcinoma. Ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiography, and A and B echography revealed a solid choroidal mass. The brain and skin tumors responded well to irradiation. A radioactive episcleral plaque was applied subsequently to the choroidal tumor. All tumors regressed, and the patient was doing well 28 months later. To our knowledge this is the first case of presumed choroidal metastasis of Merkel cell carcinoma.« less

  7. Molecular approaches for classifying endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Piulats, Josep M; Guerra, Esther; Gil-Martín, Marta; Roman-Canal, Berta; Gatius, Sonia; Sanz-Pamplona, Rebeca; Velasco, Ana; Vidal, August; Matias-Guiu, Xavier

    2017-04-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is the most common cancer of the female genital tract. This review article discusses the usefulness of molecular techniques to classify endometrial carcinoma. Any proposal for molecular classification of neoplasms should integrate morphological features of the tumors. For that reason, we start with the current histological classification of endometrial carcinoma, by discussing the correlation between genotype and phenotype, and the most significant recent improvements. Then, we comment on some of the possible flaws of this classification, by discussing also the value of molecular pathology in improving them, including interobserver variation in pathologic interpretation of high grade tumors. Third, we discuss the importance of applying TCGA molecular approach to clinical practice. We also comment on the impact of intratumor heterogeneity in classification, and finally, we will discuss briefly, the usefulness of TCGA classification in tailoring immunotherapy in endometrial cancer patients. We suggest combining pathologic classification and the surrogate TCGA molecular classification for high-grade endometrial carcinomas, as an option to improve assessment of prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hepatocellular carcinoma and evidence-based surgery

    PubMed Central

    Braillon, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Transplantation cannot be considered the most important therapeutic procedure for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In France, no more than 2% of patients with HCC undergo a transplantation. Randomized controlled trial must assess the benefit to risk ratio of various potentially “curative” treatment procedures (transplantation, resection, radio-frequency ablation). PMID:19908350

  9. Gallbladder carcinoma: Prognostic factors and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Goetze, Thorsten Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of gallbladder carcinoma is poor, and the overall 5-year survival rate is less than 5%. In early-stage disease, a 5-year survival rate up to 75% can be achieved if stage-adjusted therapy is performed. There is wide geographic variability in the frequency of gallbladder carcinoma, which can only be explained by an interaction between genetic factors and their alteration. Gallstones and chronic cholecystitis are important risk factors in the formation of gallbladder malignancies. Factors such as chronic bacterial infection, primary sclerosing cholangitis, an anomalous junction of the pancreaticobiliary duct, and several types of gallbladder polyps are associated with a higher risk of gallbladder cancer. There is also an interesting correlation between risk factors and the histological type of cancer. However, despite theoretical risk factors, only a third of gallbladder carcinomas are recognized preoperatively. In most patients, the tumor is diagnosed by the pathologist after a routine cholecystectomy for a benign disease and is termed ‘‘incidental or occult gallbladder carcinoma’’ (IGBC). A cholecystectomy is performed frequently due to the minimal invasiveness of the laparoscopic technique. Therefore, the postoperative diagnosis of potentially curable early-stage disease is more frequent. A second radical re-resection to complete a radical cholecystectomy is required for several IGBCs. However, the literature and guidelines used in different countries differ regarding the radicality or T-stage criteria for performing a radical cholecystectomy. The NCCN guidelines and data from the German registry (GR), which records the largest number of incidental gallbladder carcinomas in Europe, indicate that carcinomas infiltrating the muscularis propria or beyond require radical surgery. According to GR data and current literature, a wedge resection with a combined dissection of the lymph nodes of the hepatoduodenal ligament is adequate for T1b and T2

  10. [Hyperthyroidism and carcinoma of the thyroid gland].

    PubMed

    Ardito, G; Mantovani, M; Vincenzoni, C; Guidi, M L; Corsello, S; Rabitti, C; Fadda, G; Di Giovanni, V

    1997-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid carcinoma in hyperthyroidism varies considerably from as low as 0.3% to as high as 16.6% with a higher rate in toxic nodular goiters. Occult thyroid carcinoma (< 1.5 cm or microscopic foci) is the rule and only a few tumors are suspected preoperatively with ultrasonography or fine needle aspiration or 131 I scan. In 408 patients who underwent surgery for hyperthyroidism in our Surgery Department from January 1967 through December 1994 the incidence of thyroid carcinoma was 5.6% (23 cases). In detail, a neoplasm occurred in 5 cases of Graves' disease (specific incidence: 3.8%), in 13 cases of toxic nodular goiter (12.5%) and in 5 cases of hyperfunctioning adenomas (2.8%). 19 cancers were papillary (12 in toxic nodular goiter, 3 in Graves' disease, 4 in hyperfunctioning adenomas), three were follicular (1 in Graves' disease, 1 in toxic nodular goiter, 1 in hyperfunctioning adenomas) and 1 medullary in Graves' disease. A papillary carcinoma was diagnosed preoperatively on fine needle aspiration with ultrasonography in only two patients with Graves' disease and confirmed by postoperative histological examination on permanent section. We do not believe in the frozen-section examination intraoperatively because it's not diagnostical for follicular lesions and evaluates rarely capsular invasion. Twenty patients received total thyroidectomy and four of them also lymphoadenectomy. Three patients received emithyroidectomy: in two cases for occult papillary carcinoma and in the last case for local cancer invasion (T4N0M0). Twenty patients are alive and with no evidence of cancer recurrence. Mean follow-up is 59.6 months. Our retrospective study shows a progressive increase of the incidence of coexisting thyroid malignancy and hyperthyroidism especially in toxic nodular goiter, probably related to extended surgical indications. Our findings do confirm that, even in the presence of hyperthyroidism, all thyroid nodules require careful diagnostics for

  11. Atezolizumab and CYT107 in Treating Participants With Locally Advanced, Inoperable, or Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-18

    Metastatic Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Metastatic Renal Pelvis Urothelial Carcinoma; Metastatic Ureter Urothelial Carcinoma; Metastatic Urethral Urothelial Carcinoma; Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma; Recurrent Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Pelvis Urothelial Carcinoma; Recurrent Ureter Urothelial Carcinoma; Recurrent Urethral Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage III Bladder Cancer AJCC v8; Stage III Renal Pelvis Cancer AJCC v8; Stage III Ureter Cancer AJCC v8; Stage III Urethral Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IV Bladder Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IV Renal Pelvis Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IV Ureter Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IV Urethral Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IVA Bladder Cancer AJCC v8; Stage IVB Bladder Cancer AJCC v8

  12. Cixutumumab, Everolimus, and Octreotide Acetate in Treating Patients With Advanced Low to Intermediate Grade Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-14

    Gastrin-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Pancreatic Glucagonoma; Pancreatic Insulinoma; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Paraganglioma; Recurrent Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Recurrent Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Regional Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Somatostatin-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor; Stage III Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

  13. Clinical significance of prominent retraction clefts in invasive urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shah, Tanmay S; Kaag, Matthew; Raman, Jay D; Chan, Wilson; Tran, Truc; Kunchala, Sudhir; Shuman, Lauren; DeGraff, David J; Chen, Guoli; Warrick, Joshua I

    2017-03-01

    Micropapillary morphology in invasive urothelial carcinoma is an established predictor of aggressive disease. It is unknown, however, if prominent retraction is associated with more aggressive disease in the absence of classic micropapillary morphology. We reviewed a retrospective series of 309 radical cystectomy specimens with clinical follow-up data and documented the presence or absence of invasive urothelial carcinoma with prominent retraction clefts, defined as invasive carcinoma with retraction involving the majority of invasive tumor nests in at least one 100× field but without classic micropapillary morphology. Invasive carcinomas with plasmacytoid, sarcomatoid, nested, and small cell morphology were excluded, as were cases without lymph node sampling. In invasive conventional urothelial carcinoma, the presence of prominent retraction clefts was associated lymph node metastasis (odds ratio 4.7, P = .0015, Fisher exact test) but not pathologic tumor stage or several other oncologic parameters (all Ps > .10). Similarly, invasive urothelial carcinoma with micropapillary morphology had lymph node metastasis more frequently than conventional urothelial carcinoma without prominent retraction clefts (P < .001, Fisher exact test), but there was no difference in pathologic tumor stage or oncologic parameters (all Ps > .10). There was no statistically significant difference in rates of lymph node metastasis between invasive urothelial carcinoma with micropapillary morphology and conventional urothelial carcinoma with prominent retraction clefts (P = .54, Fisher exact test). The findings suggest that prominent retraction in invasive urothelial carcinoma may be associated with more aggressive disease, even in the absence of classic micropapillary morphology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sarcomatoid carcinoma associated with small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a series of 28 cases.

    PubMed

    Urrea, Yuly Ramirez; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2017-09-01

    The association of sarcomatoid carcinoma (SC) with small cell carcinoma (SCC) has not been systematically studied. We identified 39 consult cases between 2001 and 2016 with available slides for review in 28 cases. There were 19 men and 9 women (mean age: 78 years [51-89]). In 26 (92.8%) cases, the sarcomatoid component had nonspecific malignant spindle cells, 4 (14%) chondrosarcoma, 2 (7%) myxoid sarcomatous, 1 (3.5%) osteosarcoma, and 1 (3.5%) rhabdomyosarcoma. The predominant component was SCC in 11 (39%) cases, urothelial carcinoma in 6 (21%), sarcomatoid in 3 (10%), and equal sarcomatoid and SCC in 8 (29%). There were 3 morphological groups: group 1 (18/28 [64%]) showed a gradual transition from SCC to other components; group 2 (5/28 [18%]) had an abrupt transition from SCC to other components; and in group 3 (5/28 [18%]), the SCC was separate from other components. In group 1, 12 (66%) cases of SCC showed a gradual transition to sarcomatoid areas; 3 (17%) to urothelial carcinoma; and 3 (17%) to multiple components including squamous cell carcinoma, urothelial carcinoma, and sarcomatoid. Mortality did not differ based on pathological groups. The 36-month actuarial risk of death was 64.3%. The multitude of different components in these tumors is further evidence of the remarkable ability of carcinoma of the bladder to show divergent differentiation with, in some cases, gradual transition between SCC and other elements including sarcomatoid. Greater recognition of this entity with chemotherapy targeted to the various histological elements may have important therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of cytotoxic, membrane, and DNA damaging effects of Thymus revolutus Célak essential oil on different cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Özkan, Aysun; Erdoğan, Ayşe

    2017-04-18

    In this study, we evaluated Thymus revolutus Célak essential oil and its two main constituents, γ-terpinene and p-cymene, as potential oxidative agents against lung cancer and epidermoid carcinoma cells. Cell viability assessment was made by CellTiter-Blue1397904493 cell viability and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay after treatment with 5-600 μg/mL concentrations of essential oil, γ-terpinene, and p-cymene. Malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels in parental H1299, epirubicin-resistant (drug-resistant) H1299, A549, and A431 cells were also assayed after essential oil, γ-terpinene, and p-cymene had been administered for 24 h. Glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRx), and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activities were determined. Parental H1299 cells were found to be more sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of all compounds. While A431 cells had the highest membrane damage, which was caused by essential oil (IC 50 and IC 70 ), A549 cells had the highest DNA damage at IC 50 and IC 70 p-cymene concentrations. G6PD, GST, GRx, and GPx enzyme activities of cells, which increased against these compounds, depended on concentrations, incubation times, and antioxidant capacities of the cells. This study suggests that different cancer cells showed different cellular responses against potential antitumor and prooxidative effects of the essential oil and its two main constituents.

  16. A Chrysin Derivative Suppresses Skin Cancer Growth by Inhibiting Cyclin-dependent Kinases*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haidan; Liu, Kangdong; Huang, Zunnan; Park, Chan-Mi; Thimmegowda, N. R.; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Ryoo, In-Ja; He, Long; Kim, Sun-Ok; Oi, Naomi; Lee, Ki Won; Soung, Nak-Kyun; Bode, Ann M.; Yang, Yifeng; Zhou, Xinmin; Erikson, Raymond L.; Ahn, Jong-Seog; Hwang, Joonsung; Kim, Kyoon Eon; Dong, Zigang; Kim, Bo-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), a natural flavonoid widely distributed in plants, reportedly has chemopreventive properties against various cancers. However, the anticancer activity of chrysin observed in in vivo studies has been disappointing. Here, we report that a chrysin derivative, referred to as compound 69407, more strongly inhibited EGF-induced neoplastic transformation of JB6 P+ cells compared with chrysin. It attenuated cell cycle progression of EGF-stimulated cells at the G1 phase and inhibited the G1/S transition. It caused loss of retinoblastoma phosphorylation at both Ser-795 and Ser-807/811, the preferred sites phosphorylated by Cdk4/6 and Cdk2, respectively. It also suppressed anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. Compound 69407 reduced tumor growth in the A431 mouse xenograft model and retinoblastoma phosphorylation at Ser-795 and Ser-807/811. Immunoprecipitation kinase assay results showed that compound 69407 attenuated endogenous Cdk4 and Cdk2 kinase activities in EGF-stimulated JB6 P+ cells. Pulldown and in vitro kinase assay results indicated that compound 69407 directly binds with Cdk2 and Cdk4 in an ATP-independent manner and inhibited their kinase activities. A binding model between compound 69407 and a crystal structure of Cdk2 predicted that compound 69407 was located inside the Cdk2 allosteric binding site. The binding was further verified by a point mutation binding assay. Overall results indicated that compound 69407 is an ATP-noncompetitive cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor with anti-tumor effects, which acts by binding inside the Cdk2 allosteric pocket. This study provides new insights for creating a general pharmacophore model to design and develop novel ATP-noncompetitive agents with chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic potency. PMID:23888052

  17. Green synthesis of anisotropic gold nanoparticles for photothermal therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Fazal, Sajid; Jayasree, Aswathy; Sasidharan, Sisini; Koyakutty, Manzoor; Nair, Shantikumar V; Menon, Deepthy

    2014-06-11

    Nanoparticles of varying composition, size, shape, and architecture have been explored for use as photothermal agents in the field of cancer nanomedicine. Among them, gold nanoparticles provide a simple platform for thermal ablation owing to its biocompatibility in vivo. However, the synthesis of such gold nanoparticles exhibiting suitable properties for photothermal activity involves cumbersome routes using toxic chemicals as capping agents, which can cause concerns in vivo. Herein, gold nanoparticles, synthesized using green chemistry routes possessing near-infrared (NIR) absorbance facilitating photothermal therapy, would be a viable alternative. In this study, anisotropic gold nanoparticles were synthesized using an aqueous route with cocoa extract which served both as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The as-prepared gold nanoparticles were subjected to density gradient centrifugation to maximize its NIR absorption in the wavelength range of 800-1000 nm. The particles also showed good biocompatibility when tested in vitro using A431, MDA-MB231, L929, and NIH-3T3 cell lines up to concentrations of 200 μg/mL. Cell death induced in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells upon irradiation with a femtosecond laser at 800 nm at a low power density of 6 W/cm(2) proved the suitability of green synthesized NIR absorbing anisotropic gold nanoparticles for photothermal ablation of cancer cells. These gold nanoparticles also showed good X-ray contrast when tested using computed tomography (CT), proving their feasibility for use as a contrast agent as well. This is the first report on green synthesized anisotropic and cytocompatible gold nanoparticles without any capping agents and their suitability for photothermal therapy.

  18. Quantum dot-insect neuropeptide conjugates for fluorescence imaging, transfection, and nucleus targeting of living cells.

    PubMed

    Biju, Vasudevanpillai; Muraleedharan, Damodaran; Nakayama, Ken-ichi; Shinohara, Yasuo; Itoh, Tamitake; Baba, Yoshinobu; Ishikawa, Mitsuru

    2007-09-25

    We identified an insect neuropeptide, namely, allatostatin 1 from Drosophila melanogaster, that transfects living NIH 3T3 and A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells and transports quantum dots (QDs) inside the cytoplasm and even the nucleus of the cells. QD-conjugated biomolecules are valuable resources for visualizing the structures and functions of biological systems both in vivo and in vitro. Here, we selected allatostatin 1, Ala-Pro-Ser-Gly-Ala-Gln-Arg-Leu-Tyr-Gly-Phe-Gly-Leu-NH2, conjugated to streptavidin-coated CdSe-ZnS QDs. This was followed by investigating the transfection of live mammalian cells with QD-allatostatin conjugates, the transport of QDs by allatostatin inside the nucleus, and the proliferation of cells in the presence of allatostatin. Also, on the basis of dose-dependent proliferation of cells in the presence of allatostatin we identified that allatostatin is not cytotoxic when applied at nanomolar levels. Considering the sequence similarity between the receptors of allatostatin in D. melanogaster and somatostatin/galanin in mammalian cells, we expected interactions and localization of allatostatin to somatostatin/galanin receptors on the membranes of 3T3 and A431 cells. However, with QD conjugation we identified that the peptide was delivered inside the cells and localized mainly to the cytoplasm, microtubules, and nucleus. These results indicate that allatostatin is a promising candidate for high-efficiency cell transfection and nucleus-specific cell labeling. Also, the transport property of allatostatin is promising with respect to label/drug/gene delivery and high contrast imaging of live cells and cell organelles. Another promising application of allatostatin is that the transport of QDs inside the nucleus would lift the limit of general photodynamic therapy to nucleus-specific photodynamic therapy, which is expected to be more efficient than photosensitization at the cell membrane or in the cytoplasm as a result of the short lifetime of

  19. In vivo detection of small tumour lesions by multi-pinhole SPECT applying a 99mTc-labelled nanobody targeting the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Krüwel, Thomas; Nevoltris, Damien; Bode, Julia; Dullin, Christian; Baty, Daniel; Chames, Patrick; Alves, Frauke

    2016-01-01

    The detection of tumours in an early phase of tumour development in combination with the knowledge of expression of tumour markers such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important prerequisite for clinical decisions. In this study we applied the anti-EGFR nanobody 99mTc-D10 for visualizing small tumour lesions with volumes below 100 mm3 by targeting EGFR in orthotopic human mammary MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 and subcutaneous human epidermoid A431 carcinoma mouse models. Use of nanobody 99mTc-D10 of a size as small as 15.5 kDa enables detection of tumours by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging already 45 min post intravenous administration with high tumour uptake (>3% ID/g) in small MDA-MB-468 and A431 tumours, with tumour volumes of 52.5 mm3 ± 21.2 and 26.6 mm3 ± 16.7, respectively. Fast blood clearance with a serum half-life of 4.9 min resulted in high in vivo contrast and ex vivo tumour to blood and tissue ratios. In contrast, no accumulation of 99mTc-D10 in MDA-MB-231 tumours characterized by a very low expression of EGFR was observed. Here we present specific and high contrast in vivo visualization of small human tumours overexpressing EGFR by preclinical multi-pinhole SPECT shortly after administration of anti-EGFR nanobody 99mTc-D10. PMID:26912069

  20. Metastatic serous carcinoma presenting as inflammatory carcinoma over the breast-Report of two cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Panse, Gauri; Bossuyt, Veerle; Ko, Christine J

    2018-03-01

    Non-mammary metastases involving breast are rare and most commonly involve the breast parenchyma. Infrequently, metastasis from an extramammary primary site presents as inflammatory carcinoma over the breast. Diagnosis of such lesions can be challenging, especially in patients with coexisting primary breast carcinoma. Few such cases have been described in literature; however, none of the previously reported cases had a prior history of primary breast carcinoma. We present 2 patients with history of breast carcinoma and serous carcinoma of ovarian/peritoneal origin that presented with inflammatory carcinoma over the breast. Biopsies from breast tissue showed atypical cells in the dermis forming cords and papillary structures. Histopathologic differential diagnosis included infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast origin and metastatic serous carcinoma. Immunohistochemical studies showed that the tumor cells were positive for markers of ovarian origin such as PAX-8 and CA-125 and negative for breast markers such as GATA-3, thus supporting the diagnosis. In summary, we describe the unusual presentation of metastatic serous carcinoma as inflammatory carcinoma over breast and discuss the diagnostic challenges in patients with coexisting primary breast and ovarian malignancies. We also review the morphologic features of tumors of breast and ovarian origin and the immunohistochemical stains to differentiate these 2 entities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. ELF5 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hongchao; Qiu, Linglin; Xie, Xiaolei; Yang, He; Liu, Yongli; Lin, Xiaoman; Huang, Hongxiang

    2017-03-01

    The expression of E74-like factor 5 (ELF5) in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and its effects on biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells were assessed in search for a new approach for gene treatment of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. RT-PCR technology was applied to detect the expression of ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (n=49), borderline ovarian epithelial tumor (n=19), benign ovarian epithelial tumor (n=31) and normal ovarian tissues (n=40). Then, we transfected recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1‑ELF5+EGFP into human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells (recombinant plasmid group) in vitro and screened out stably transfected cells to conduct multiplication culture. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression of ELF5 protein in the different groups. Flow cytometry was employed to detect cell apoptosis and cycles. ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma and borderline ovarian epithelial tumor tissues were significantly lower (P<0.05) than those in benign ovarian epithelial tumor and normal ovarian tissues. ELF5 protein expression in the cells of recombinant plasmid group was significantly higher compared with empty plasmid and blank control groups. The capacity of cell reproductive recombinant plasmid group at each time point decreased (P<0.05). Flow cytometry detection showed that 67.03% of cells in recombinant plasmid group was blocked in G0/G1 phase (P<0.05), compared with empty plasmid group (37.17%) and blank control group (38.24%). Apoptotic rate of recombinant plasmid group was significantly lower (31.4±1.9%; P<0.05), compared with that of empty plasmid group (9.1±2.2%) and blank control group (8.7±1.5%), and the differences were statistically significant. In conclusion, ELF5 interfered with cell cycle of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells and promoted apoptosis of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells inhibiting their growth and invasive capacity; and thus providing a new approach to gene treatment of ovarian carcinoma.

  2. Gastric and hepatocellular carcinomas do not overexpress the same ribosomal protein messenger RNAs as colonic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Barnard, G F; Staniunas, R J; Mori, M; Puder, M; Jessup, M J; Steele, G D; Chen, L B

    1993-09-01

    The levels of a number of ribosomal protein mRNAs are reported to be increased in human colon cancer. We have assessed whether selected ribosomal protein mRNAs are overexpressed in other gastrointestinal malignancies, namely gastric and hepatocellular carcinomas. Subtracted complementary DNA libraries were generated from paired samples of human (a) colorectal carcinoma minus adjacent normal colonic mucosa and (b) hepatocellular carcinoma minus adjacent normal liver. Screening of approximately 3% of these library clones determined that ribosomal protein mRNAs encoding L18 and L37 (not previously reported) and P0 and S6 were overexpressed in one or the other library. Their complementary DNA inserts were then used as probes to evaluate their expression in a larger number of paired tumor/normal surgical samples of human colonic, gastric, and hepatocellular carcinomas, by Northern hybridization. The mRNA signal was greater in the colonic carcinoma than in paired adjacent normal colonic mucosa in 38 of 42 cases for P0 [tumor/normal (T/N) ratio = 3.0 +/- 0.3, mean +/- SE, P < 0.001] (G. F. Barnard, R. J. Staniunas, S. Bao, K. Mafune, J. L. Gollan, G. D. Steele, Jr., and L. B. Chen, Cancer Res., 52: 3067-3072, 1992), in 25 of 28 cases for L18 (T/N ratio = 3.7 +/- 0.5, P < 0.001), in 27 of 28 cases for L37 (T/N ratio = 5.3 +/- 0.4, P < 0.001), and in 24 of 28 cases for S6 (T/N ratio = 3.1 +/- 0.5, P < 0.01). The level of mRNA overexpression of L18 and S6 did not correlate with the Dukes' stage of disease. In hepatocellular carcinoma samples, using the same four ribosomal protein complementary DNA probes, only P0 mRNA was significantly increased (T/N ratio = 2.8 +/- 0.4, n = 6, P = 0.047). In gastric carcinoma samples, none of these mRNAs was increased (mean T/N ratios = 0.9-1.2, n = 6). Therefore, gastric and hepatocellular carcinomas do not overexpress the same ribosomal protein mRNAs as do colonic carcinoma.

  3. High-grade endometrial carcinoma: serous and grade 3 endometrioid carcinomas have different immunophenotypes and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Alkushi, Abdulmohsen; Köbel, Martin; Kalloger, Steve E; Gilks, C Blake

    2010-07-01

    High-grade endometrial carcinomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors and include grade 3 endometrioid (EC-3), serous (SC), and clear cell carcinomas (CCC). There are conflicting data about the prognosis of these subtypes of high-grade endometrial carcinoma; this may be a result of lack of reproducibility in classifying tumor cell type. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in immunophenotype and outcome in a series of high-grade endometrial carcinomas, focusing on the comparison of EC-3 versus SC. We selected 180 endometrial carcinomas of SC, EC, or CCC type. No mixed carcinomas were included in the study. We chose the following immunohistochemical markers, estrogen receptor (ER), insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP3), p16, p53, progesterone receptor (PR), and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) as being significantly differentially expressed in endometrial carcinoma subtypes. The tumors were stratified into 4 groups on the basis of their cell type and grade: EC grade 1 or 2, EC-3, SC, and CCC. Univariate survival analysis revealed significant differences in outcome between the 4 groups (P<0.0001), with significantly longer disease-specific survival for grade 1 or 2 EC versus EC-3 (P=0.0001), and EC-3 versus SC (P=0.0003). p16, PTEN, and IMP3 expression was observed more frequently in SC compared with EC-3 (P<0.0001, P=0.021, and P=0.031, respectively). These 3 markers showed the highest sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing between EC-3 and SC, with receiver operating characteristics area under the curve of 0.85, 0.69, and 0.71, respectively. ER and p53 approached but did not reach significance for differential expression in EC-3 versus SC (P=0.055 and P=0.068, respectively). A combination of p16 and PTEN predicts EC-3 versus SC with a sensitivity of 90.0% and specificity of 96.8%. p16 and PTEN can aid in distinguishing between EC-3 and SC of the endometrium, and are superior to ER, PR, and p53 for this purpose. EC-3

  4. Primary pure spindle cell carcinoma (sarcomatoid carcinoma) of the ovary: A case report with immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Giovanna; Berretta, Roberto; Silini, Enrico

    2016-08-05

    In the ovary, sarcomatoid carcinoma has been reported only as mural nodules in epithelial malignant or borderline serous or mucinous cystic neoplasms, and in teratomas. In this paper we report a rare case of a solid sarcomatoid carcinoma of the ovary, without accompanying component of giant cells, pleomorphic cells, or glandular and other epithelial structures. This case report refers to a sarcomatoid carcinoma of the ovary in in a 57 year-old woman with abdominal pain. Macroscopically, the neoplasm was a 15x10x5 cm ovarian mass that featured gray white solid fleshy areas, interspersed with areas of necrosis, hemorrhage and cystic spaces filled with thick fluid. The epithelial differentiation of the tumor was demonstrated by strong and diffuse reactivity to CAM5.2 and focal immunoreactivity to EMA. A diagnosis of malignant mesenchymal tumor was excluded due to negativity for desmin, smooth muscle actin, caldesmon, CD34, CD10, and myoglobin. Neural, neuroendocrine neoplasm, melanoma and Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Tumor (PEComa) were excluded because of negativity for S100, chromogranin, synaptophysin and HMB45. Primary ovarian spindle cell carcinoma is a rare neoplasm, which must be considered in the differential diagnosis of solid ovarian mass with spindle cell appearance. This case adds to our knowledge of the biological behavior of these rare neoplasms. The distinction from true sarcomas and carcinosarcomas is important because of the more favorable prognosis of the spindle cell carcinomas. However their diagnosis necessitates a careful tissue sampling and immunohistochemical staining.

  5. Radiation Therapy With or Without Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Who Have Undergone Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-12-07

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Spindle Cell Variant; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  6. Experiences in radiotherapy of vulvar carcinomas (in German)

    SciTech Connect

    Makoski, H.B.; Sack, H.

    1973-04-01

    The management of 137 patients with carcinoma of the vulva is reported. The mean age at the onset of the disease of the patient was 64.1 yrs. Between 34 and 45% of the patients had diabetes. The predominant type of carcinoma was squamous cell carcinoma with the lesion originating from the labia. Metastases were found in eight patients. The value of lymphography in the management of carcinoma of the vulva is discussed. The 5 year survival rate was 24%. In the group of patients receiving radiotherapy alone, a high incidence of recurrence was observed. Following adequate surgery for carcinoma ofmore » the vulva, the incidence of recurrence was low. It is concluded that a mature carcinoma of the vulva cannot be cured by radiotherapy as the only modality. (auth)« less

  7. Autophagy as an emerging therapy target for ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Lei; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Wenyan; Song, Enxue; Fan, Yijun; Li, Jun; Wei, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a conserved cellular self-digestion pathway for maintenance of homeostasis under basal and stressed conditions. Autophagy plays pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of many diseases, such as aging-related diseases, autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. Of special note is that accumulating data suggest an intimate relationship between autophagy and ovarian carcinoma. Autophagy is well identified to act as either as a tumor-suppressor or as a tumor-promoter in ovarian carcinoma. The exact function of autophagy in ovarian carcinoma is highly dependent on the circumstances of cancer including hypoxic, nutrient-deficient, chemotherapy and so on. However, the mechanism underlying autophagy associated with ovarian carcinoma remains elusive, the precise role of autophagy in ovarian carcinoma also remains undetermined. In this review, we tried to sum up and discuss recent research achievements of autophagy in ovarian cancer. Moreover, waves of novel therapies ways for ovarian carcinoma based on the functions of autophagy were collected. PMID:27825125

  8. Paget's disease of the urethral meatus following transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewski, J E; Korat, O C; LiVolsi, V A; Connor, A M; Wein, A

    1986-02-01

    Pagetoid extension of transitional cell carcinoma onto the urethral meatus following cystectomy is a rare complication of bladder carcinoma. We report 2 cases associated with severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ of the periurethral glands.

  9. Immunotherapy With MK-3475 in Surgically Resectable Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-02-08

    Cancer of Head and Neck; Head and Neck Cancer; Neoplasms, Head and Neck; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell of Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Head and Neck

  10. Pembrolizumab Combined With Cetuximab for Treatment of Recurrent/Metastatic Head & Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-21

    HNSCC; Lip SCC; Oral Cavity Cancer; Oropharynx Cancer; Larynx Cancer; Hypopharynx Cancer; Nasopharynx Cancer; Sinonasal Carcinoma; Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Head and Neck Neoplasms; Head and Neck Cancer; Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  11. Crucial role of vinexin for keratinocyte migration in vitro and epidermal wound healing in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Kioka, Noriyuki, E-mail: nkioka@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Ito, Takuya; Yamashita, Hiroshi

    2010-06-10

    In the process of tissue injury and repair, epithelial cells rapidly migrate and form epithelial sheets. Vinexin is a cytoplasmic molecule of the integrin-containing cell adhesion complex localized at focal contacts in vitro. Here, we investigated the roles of vinexin in keratinocyte migration in vitro and wound healing in vivo. Vinexin knockdown using siRNA delayed migration of both HaCaT human keratinocytes and A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells in scratch assay but did not affect cell proliferation. Induction of cell migration by scratching the confluent monolayer culture of these cells activated both EGFR and ERK, and their inhibitors AG1478 and U0126 substantiallymore » suppressed scratch-induced keratinocyte migration. Vinexin knockdown in these cells inhibited the scratch-induced activation of EGFR, but not that of ERK, suggesting that vinexin promotes cell migration via activation of EGFR. We further generated vinexin (-/-) mice and isolated their keratinocytes. They similarly showed slow migration in scratch assay. Furthermore, vinexin (-/-) mice exhibited a delay in cutaneous wound healing in both the back skin and tail without affecting the proliferation of keratinocytes. Together, these results strongly suggest a crucial role of vinexin in keratinocyte migration in vitro and cutaneous wound healing in vivo.« less

  12. A novel label-free cell-based assay technology using biolayer interferometry.

    PubMed

    Verzijl, D; Riedl, T; Parren, P W H I; Gerritsen, A F

    2017-01-15

    Biolayer interferometry (BLI) is a well-established optical label-free technique to study biomolecular interactions. Here we describe for the first time a cell-based BLI (cBLI) application that allows label-free real-time monitoring of signal transduction in living cells. Human A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells were captured onto collagen-coated biosensors and serum-starved, followed by exposure to agonistic compounds targeting various receptors, while recording the cBLI signal. Stimulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with EGF, the β 2 -adrenoceptor with dopamine, or the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR/c-MET) with an agonistic antibody resulted in distinct cBLI signal patterns. We show that the mechanism underlying the observed changes in cBLI signal is mediated by rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton, a process referred to as dynamic mass redistribution (DMR). A panel of ligand-binding blocking and non-blocking anti-EGFR antibodies was used to demonstrate that this novel BLI application can be efficiently used as a label-free cellular assay for compound screening and characterization. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sonoporation enhances liposome accumulation and penetration in tumors with low EPR.

    PubMed

    Theek, Benjamin; Baues, Maike; Ojha, Tarun; Möckel, Diana; Veettil, Seena Koyadan; Steitz, Julia; van Bloois, Louis; Storm, Gert; Kiessling, Fabian; Lammers, Twan

    2016-06-10

    The Enhanced Permeability and Retention (EPR) effect is a highly variable phenomenon. To enhance EPR-mediated passive drug targeting to tumors, several different pharmacological and physical strategies have been evaluated over the years, including e.g. TNFα-treatment, vascular normalization, hyperthermia and radiotherapy. Here, we systematically investigated the impact of sonoporation, i.e. the combination of ultrasound (US) and microbubbles (MB), on the tumor accumulation and penetration of liposomes. Two different MB formulations were employed, and their ability to enhance liposome accumulation and penetration was evaluated in two different tumor models, which are both characterized by relatively low levels of EPR (i.e. highly cellular A431 epidermoid xenografts and highly stromal BxPC-3 pancreatic carcinoma xenografts). The liposomes were labeled with two different fluorophores, enabling in vivo computed tomography/fluorescence molecular tomography (CT-FMT) and ex vivo two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM). In both models, in spite of relatively high inter- and intra-individual variability, a trend towards improved liposome accumulation and penetration was observed. In treated tumors, liposome concentrations were up to twice as high as in untreated tumors, and sonoporation enhanced the ability of liposomes to extravasate out of the blood vessels into the tumor interstitium. These findings indicate that sonoporation may be a useful strategy for improving drug targeting to tumors with low EPR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Liquid Crystal Droplet-Based Amplification of Microvesicles that are Shed by Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Lie Na; Wiepz, Gregory J.; Miller, Daniel S.; Shusta, Eric V.; Abbott, Nicholas L.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane-derived microvesicles (MVs) shed by cells are being investigated for their role in intercellular communication and as potential biomarkers of disease, but facile and sensitive methods for their analysis do not exist. Here we demonstrate new principles for analysis of MVs that use micrometer-sized droplets of liquid crystals (LCs) to amplify MVs that are selectively captured via antibody-mediated interactions. The influence of the MVs on the micrometer-sized LC droplets is shown to be readily quantified via use of flow cytometry. The methodology was developed using MVs shed by epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells that contain epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as an important and representative example of MVs containing signaling proteins that play a central role in cancer. The LC droplets were found to be sensitive to 106 MVs containing EGFR (relative to controls using isotype control antibody) and to possess a dynamic range of response across several orders of magnitude. Because the 100 nm-sized MVs captured via EGFR generate an optical response in the micrometer-sized LC droplets that can be readily detected by flow cytometry in light scattering mode, the approach possesses significant advantages over direct detection of MVs by flow cytometry. The LC droplets are also substantially more sensitive than techniques such as immunoblotting because the lipid-component of the MVs serves to amplify the antibody-mediated capture of the target proteins in the MVs. Other merits of the approach are defined and discussed in the paper. PMID:24667742

  15. Alkyl isothiocyanates suppress epidermal growth factor receptor kinase activity but augment tyrosine kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Takahiro; Uehara, Yoshimasa; Kawajiri, Hiroo; Ryoyama, Kazuo; Yamori, Takao; Fuke, Yoko

    2009-10-01

    We have reported the in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities of 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MITC) derived from a Japanese spice, wasabi. In order to obtain some clues about the mechanism of the anticancer activity, we have studied the effect of alkyl isothiocyanates (MITCs) on protein kinase activities. The anti-autophosphorylation activity of MITCs with respect to the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated receptor kinase of A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells was examined by incorporation of radioactive ATP into an acid-insoluble fraction. Their anti-phosphorylation activity with respect to the non-receptor protein kinase was analyzed by a standard SDS-PAGE method. All the tested MITCs interfered with the EGF-stimulated receptor kinase activity in a dose-dependent manner, although their effects were less than 1/10 of that of erbstatin in microg/ml. On the other hand, the MITCs did not interfere with non-receptor kinases (kinase A, kinase C, tyrosine kinase and calmodulin dependent kinase III), but enhanced non-receptor tyrosine kinase. A possible anticancer mechanism of MITCs may involve the suppression of EGF receptor kinase activity and augmentation of non-receptor PTK.

  16. Intramolecular trimerization, a novel strategy for making multispecific antibodies with controlled orientation of the antigen binding domains

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Cienfuegos, Ana; Nuñez-Prado, Natalia; Compte, Marta; Cuesta, Angel M.; Blanco-Toribio, Ana; Harwood, Seandean Lykke; Villate, Maider; Merino, Nekane; Bonet, Jaume; Navarro, Rocio; Muñoz-Briones, Clara; Sørensen, Karen Marie Juul; Mølgaard, Kasper; Oliva, Baldo; Sanz, Laura; Blanco, Francisco J.; Alvarez-Vallina, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe a new strategy that allows the rapid and efficient engineering of mono and multispecific trivalent antibodies. By fusing single-domain antibodies from camelid heavy-chain-only immunoglobulins (VHHs) to the N-terminus of a human collagen XVIII trimerization domain (TIEXVIII) we produced monospecific trimerbodies that were efficiently secreted as soluble functional proteins by mammalian cells. The purified VHH-TIEXVIII trimerbodies were trimeric in solution and exhibited excellent antigen binding capacity. Furthermore, by connecting with two additional glycine-serine-based linkers three VHH-TIEXVIII modules on a single polypeptide chain, we present an approach for the rational design of multispecific tandem trimerbodies with defined stoichiometry and controlled orientation. Using this technology we report here the construction and characterization of a tandem VHH-based trimerbody capable of simultaneously binding to three different antigens: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and green fluorescence protein (GFP). Multispecific tandem VHH-based trimerbodies were well expressed in mammalian cells, had good biophysical properties and were capable of simultaneously binding their targeted antigens. Importantly, these antibodies were very effective in inhibiting the proliferation of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Multispecific VHH-based trimerbodies are therefore ideal candidates for future applications in various therapeutic areas. PMID:27345490

  17. Synthesis, characterization, and biological evaluation of Schiff base-platinum(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiju, C.; Arish, D.; Bhuvanesh, N.; Kumaresan, S.

    2015-06-01

    The platinum complexes of Schiff base ligands derived from 4-aminoantipyrine and a few substituted aldehydes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, mass, 1H NMR, IR, electronic spectra, molar conductance, and powder XRD. The structure of one of the ligands L5 was confirmed by a single crystal XRD analysis. The Schiff base ligand crystallized in the triclinic, space group P-1 with a = 7.032(2) Ǻ, b = 9.479(3) Ǻ, c = 12.425(4) Ǻ, α = 101.636(3)°, β = 99.633(3)°, γ = 94.040(3)°, V = 795.0(4) Ǻ3, Z = 2, F(0 0 0) = 352, Dc = 1.405 mg/m3, μ = 0.099 mm-1, R = 0.0378, and wR = 0.0967. The spectral results show that the Schiff base ligand acts as a bidentate donor coordinating through the azomethine nitrogen and the carbonyl oxygen atoms. The geometrical structures of these complexes are found to be square planar. Antimicrobial studies indicate that these complexes exhibit better activity than the ligand. The anticancer activities of the complexes have also been studied towards human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), Colon Cancer Cells (HCT116) and Epidermoid Carcinoma Cells (A431) and it was found that the [Pt(L3)Cl2] complex is more active.

  18. Determination of transformation mechanisms for DMMTA and DMDTA in landfill leachate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, J.; Yoon, H.; Bae, J.; Jung, H.; Kong, M.; Kim, M.

    2011-12-01

    Dimethylmonothiolated arsinic acid (DMMTA) and dimethyldithiolated arsinic acid (DMDTA) have receiving increasing attention because of its high toxicity to human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells (Naranmandura et al., 2007) and bladder EJ-1 cells (Naranmandura et al., 2009). These findings require accurate assessment of arsenic species including thiolated compounds in environmental media. Recently, Li et al. (2010) found DMMTA and DMDTA was transformed from dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in landfill leachate with low redox potential and high bacterial biomass and concentrations of BOD and sulfide. Therefore, the transformation mechanisms for DMMTA and DMDTA were investigated to quantify what arsenic species are existed and transformed in landfill leachate for determining their potential risk. For this purpose, simulated leachate mimicking mature landfill condition was prepared under the concentrations of sulfide and volatile fatty acid (VFA) and redox potential controlled. The leachate was spiked with arsenite (iAs(III)), arsenate (iAs(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and DMA respectively and the transformed arsenic species were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Factors influencing arsenic transformations in landfill leachate were evaluated in present study and these results provide to us pathways for being generated thiolated arsenicals. Realistic risk in arsenic disposed landfill is able to calculate by using these results. Acknowledgement : This research was supported by the research grant T31603 from Korea Basic Science Institute.

  19. Icotinib (BPI-2009H), a novel EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, displays potent efficacy in preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Tan, Fenlai; Shen, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dechang; Xie, Guojian; Zhang, Xiaodong; Ding, Lieming; Hu, Yunyan; He, Wei; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Yinxiang

    2012-05-01

    Icotinib, one of the leading compounds selected from our compound library, was found to be a potent and specific epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) with an IC(50) of 5 nM. When profiled with 88 kinases, Icotinib only showed meaningful inhibitory activity to EGFR and its mutants. Icotinib blocked EGFR-mediated intracellular tyrosine phosphorylation (IC(50)=45 nM) in the human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cell line and inhibits tumor cell proliferation. In vivo studies demonstrated that Icotinib exhibited potent dose-dependent antitumor effects in nude mice carrying a variety of human tumor-derived xenografts. The drug was well tolerated at doses up to 120 mg/kg/day in mice without mortality or significant body weight loss during the treatment. A head to head randomized, double blind phase III trial using Gefitinib as an active control for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was finished recently (Trial registration ID: NCT01040780). The data shows that Icotinib was non-inferior to Gefitinib in terms of median progression free survival (PFS) and safety superior favor to Icotinib compared to Gefitinib. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Real-time analysis of the carbohydrates on cell surfaces using a QCM biosensor: a lectin-based approach.

    PubMed

    Pei, Zhichao; Saint-Guirons, Julien; Käck, Camilla; Ingemarsson, Björn; Aastrup, Teodor

    2012-05-15

    A novel approach to the study of molecular interactions on the surface of mammalian cells using a QCM biosensor was developed. For this study, an epidermoid carcinoma cell line (A-431) and a breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MDA-MB-468) were immobilized onto polystyrene-coated quartz crystals. The binding and dissociation between the lectin Con A and the cells as well as the inhibition of the binding by monosaccharides were monitored in real time and provided an insight into the complex avidic recognition of cell glycoconjugates. The real-time lectin screening of a range of lectins, including Con A, DBA, PNA and UEA-I, enabled the accurate study of the glycosylation changes between cells, such as changes associated with cancer progression and development. Furthermore, the kinetic parameters of the interaction of Con A with MDA-MB-468 cells were studied. This application provides investigators in the field of glycobiology with a novel tool to study cell surface glycosylation and may also have impacts on drug discovery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification on Membrane and Characterization of Phosphoproteins Using an Alkoxide-Bridged Dinuclear Metal Complex as a Phosphate-Binding Tag Molecule

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi; Ando, Eiji; Furuta, Masaru; Kinoshita, Eiji; Kinoshita-Kikuta, Emiko; Koike, Tohru; Tsunasawa, Susumu; Nishimura, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a method for on-membrane direct identification of phosphoproteins, which are detected by a phosphate-binding tag (Phos-tag) that has an affinity to phosphate groups with a chelated Zn2+ ion. This rapid profiling approach for phosphoproteins combines chemical inkjet technology for microdispensing of reagents onto a tiny region of target proteins with mass spectrometry for on-membrane digested peptides. Using this method, we analyzed human epidermoid carcinoma cell lysates of A-431 cells stimulated with epidermal growth factor, and identified six proteins with intense signals upon affinity staining with the phosphate-binding tag. It was already known that these proteins are phosphorylated, and our new approach proved to be effective at rapid profiling of phosphoproteins. Furthermore, we tried to determine their phosphorylation sites by MS/MS analysis after in-gel digestion of the corresponding spots on the 2DE gel to the rapid on-membrane identifications. As one example of use of information gained from the rapid-profiling approach, we successfully characterized a phosphorylation site at Ser-113 on prostaglandin E synthase 3. PMID:18166671

  2. [Localization of hepatocellular carcinoma with monoclonal antibodies].

    PubMed

    Liu, Y

    1991-07-01

    We prepared monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against hepatocellular carcinoma using cell suspensions isolated from surgical fresh hepatoma specimens as antigen. Totally we got 6 strains of hybridoma cell lines stably secreting MAbs for more than 2 years. Immunocytochemically they stained positively most of the paraffin embedded hepatoma tissues (63.1 to 91.1%) without reaction to the normal liver tissues. Localization of human hepatoma with 125I or 131I labelled MAbs in nude mice was done by IV injection, which showed clear tumor image by ECT radioimmunodetection and autoradiography of tissues. The T/N ratios of different MAbs were 3.1, 3.6, 5.15 and that of HAb 18-F (ab')2 was 14.4. Among 15 patients suspected to have hepatoma and given the labelled MAb, 13 proved pathologically to be hepatocellular carcinoma.

  3. Hepatocellular carcinoma: Advances in diagnostic imaging.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haoran; Song, Tianqiang

    2015-10-01

    Thanks to the growing knowledge on biological behaviors of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), as well as continuous improvement in imaging techniques and experienced interpretation of imaging features of the nodules in cirrhotic liver, the detection and characterization of HCC has improved in the past decade. A number of practice guidelines for imaging diagnosis have been developed to reduce interpretation variability and standardize management of HCC, and they are constantly updated with advances in imaging techniques and evidence based data from clinical series. In this article, we strive to review the imaging techniques and the characteristic features of hepatocellular carcinoma associated with cirrhotic liver, with emphasis on the diagnostic value of advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques and utilization of hepatocyte-specific MRI contrast agents. We also briefly describe the concept of liver imaging reporting and data systems and discuss the consensus and controversy of major practice guidelines.

  4. Safety and Tolerability of Everolimus as Second-line Treatment in Poorly Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma / Neuroendocrine Carcinoma G3 (WHO 2010) and Neuroendocrine Tumor G3 - an Investigator Initiated Phase II Study

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-01-19

    Poorly Differentiated Malignant Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 3; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 1 [Well-differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma] That Switched to G3; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 2 [Moderately Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma] That Switched to G3; Neuroendocrine Tumor, Grade 3 and Disease Progression as Measured by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST 1.1.)

  5. Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma thyroid from functionally cured cancer cervix

    PubMed Central

    Vamsy, Mohana; Dattatreya, Palanki Satya; Sarma, Lella Yugandhar; Dayal, Monal; Janardhan, Nandigam; Rao, Vatturi Venkata Satya Prabhakar

    2013-01-01

    The authors report a very unusual occurrence of a metastatic squamous carcinoma to thyroid gland from a treated squamous cell carcinoma cervix 12 years before with no recurrence at the primary site. The case also has an additional complexity of rapid progression of the metastatic thyroid carcinoma to wide spread dissemination to lungs and bones while on concurrent chemo radio therapy confirming the aggressiveness of the entity. PMID:24163519

  6. Expression of immune checkpoint molecules in endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    LIU, JIA; LIU, YULING; WANG, WULIANG; WANG, CHENYANG; CHE, YANHONG

    2015-01-01

    The main obstacle in the development of an effective tumor vaccine is the inherent ability of tumors to evade immune responses. Tumors often use common immune mechanisms and regulators to evade the immune system. The present study aimed to analyze the expression levels of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), programmed death-ligand (PD-L) 1, PD-L2, B7-H4, galectin-1 and galectin-3 in tissue samples from patients with endometrial carcinoma, in order to detect the immunosuppressive environment of endometrial carcinomas. The levels of IDO, PD-L1, PD-L2 and B7-H4 were analyzed by immunohistochemical methods, and the levels of galectin-1 and galectin-3 in tumor lysates were determined using ELISA. PD-L2 was expressed at low levels in the majority of tumor samples. IDO expression was detected in 38, 63 and 43% of primary endometrial carcinoma, recurrent endometrial carcinoma, and metastatic endometrial carcinoma specimens, respectively. Positive expression rates for PD-L1 were 83% in primary endometrial carcinoma, 68% in recurrent endometrial carcinoma, and 100% in metastatic endometrial carcinoma, whereas B7-H4 expression was detected in 100% of both primary endometrial carcinoma and recurrent endometrial carcinoma samples, and in 96% of metastatic endometrial carcinoma specimens. The expression levels of galectin-1 and galectin-3 were not significantly different between the normal and tumor specimens. The results of the present study suggest that the interaction between PD-1/PD-L1 and B7-H4 may be a potential target for immune intervention in the treatment of endometrial carcinoma. Furthermore, the results may provide the basis for immunosuppressant therapy in the treatment of patients with uterine cancer. PMID:26640578

  7. Cutaneous metastasis of bilateral renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Fariba; Alizadeh, Mansur; Noroozinia, Farahnaz; Moradi, Amin

    2013-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a malignant lethal tumour with high potential of metastasis. However, metastasis from RCC to the skin is much less common. It is virtually a sign of poor prognosis. We represent a 42 years old man with bilateral RCC of clear cell type followed by metastasis to the scalp one month later. In this case the relatively young age of the patient, bilaterality of RCC and occurance of skin metastasis in the absence of recurrent kidney tumour are interesting.

  8. Avelumab Impresses in Merkel Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    2017-06-01

    The PD-L1 inhibitor avelumab-approved by the FDA in March for the treatment of Merkel cell carcinoma-demonstrated a high number of durable responses in an international, open-label, prospective phase II study. The results of the study, which supported the FDA's decision, were presented in April at the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting 2017. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Oral paracoccidioidomycosis or squamous cell carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Kaminagakura, Estela; Graner, Edgard; de Almeida, Oslei Paes; Di Hipolito Júnior, Osvaldo; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte

    2004-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a deep, systemic, and progressive mycosis caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Oral lesions normally are multiples with a mulberry-like appearance. This article reviews an unusual case involving a chronic, solitary, and ulcerated lesion whose clinical aspects were similar to squamous cell carcinoma. Viewed microscopically, the lesion showed pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia and non-necrotizing granulomas. The patient was treated with systemic ketoconazole. Over the next 11 years, follow-up examinations were performed but no recurrence was observed.

  10. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ: The Whole Truth.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Ujas; Chhor, Chloe M; Mercado, Cecilia L

    2018-02-01

    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a noninvasive malignant breast disease traditionally described as a precursor lesion to invasive breast cancer. With screening mammography, DCIS now accounts for approximately 20% of newly diagnosed cancer cases. DCIS is not well understood because of its heterogeneous nature. Studies have aimed to assess prognostic factors to characterize its risk of invasive potential; however, there still remains a lack of uniformity in workup and treatment. We summarize current knowledge of DCIS and the ongoing controversies.

  11. Anogenital squamous cell carcinoma in neglected patient.

    PubMed

    Svecova, D; Havrankova, M; Weismanova, E; Babal, P

    2012-01-01

    Skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are arguably the second most common carcinoma of the skin and are responsible for the majority of non-melanoma skin cancer deaths. Gynecologist treated a Caucasian 56-years old female patient for genital wart with podophyllotoxin cream. She did not achieve complete response and therefore she has interrupted the therapy and the collaboration with the gynecologist. At the time of evaluation the lesion had a size of man's palm in anogenital region and showed characteristic features of neoplasm. The regional lymph nodes have produced infiltrated painful bubo. PCR analysis for HPV proved negative. Histopathology revealed well-differentiated squamous cell keratinizing carcinoma from the tumor as well as from the regional lymph node packet. Staging computed tomography scans proved negative and pelvis scans disclosed regional lymphadenopathy underlying the tumor. Palliative radiation therapy (by linear accelerator) was administered for the oversized tumor to the total TD 50.0Gy. The patient died 6 months after diagnostic assessment from cardio-respiratory failure. Staging computed tomography before her death did not disclose distinct metastases in her inner organs. Well-differentiated squamous cell keratinizing carcinoma could be growing endophytically affecting the underlying adipose tissue and musculature, with spreading into the regional lymph nodes. The rate of metastases into inner organs seems to vary according to the aggressiveness and metastatic behavior of each SCC. The case report calls for attention to the importance of collaboration among various specialists assisting in the diagnosis and management of skin neoplasm (Fig. 5, Ref. 12). Full Text in PDF www.elis.sk.

  12. Matrix metalloproteinase-7 expression in gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Honda, M; Mori, M; Ueo, H; Sugimachi, K; Akiyoshi, T

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) belongs to the same family as matrix degrading metalloproteinase (MMPs) that may play an important part in cancer cell invasion and metastasis. This study reports on the MMP-7 mRNA expression level both in human gastric carcinomas and the normal gastric mucosa. METHODS: From fresh specimens of 47 surgical pairs of primary gastric carcinomas and corresponding normal tissue specimens, cDNA was obtained by reverse transcription (RT) and thereafter MMP-7 mRNAs were detected by means of a polymerase chain reaction. The tumour/normal (T/N) ratio of MMP-7 expression was calculated after correcting for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase as an internal control. RESULTS: The expression corrected levels of MMP-7 mRNA of the tumour was greater than that of the normal mucosa in 41 of 47 cases (87%). The 13 cases whose T/N ratio was more than 2.1 showed a deeper invasion of the gastric wall, and more frequent lymphatic or vascular permeations than the 34 cases whose T/N ratio was less than 2.0. An immunohistochemical study showed that MMP-7 was predominantly expressed in the cancer cells, weakly expressed in normal epithelial cells, and not expressed in the surrounding stromal cells. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the overexpression of MMP-7 may thus play an important part in tumour invasion in gastric carcinomas while, in addition, MMP-7 may also prove to be a useful marker for determining the biological aggressiveness of gastric carcinoma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8949652

  13. CT guided interstitial therapy of pancreatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Haaga, J.R.; Owens, D.B.; Kellermeyer, R.W.

    1987-11-01

    We describe the use of percutaneous CT guidance for localization and placement of /sup 192/Ir sources into a patient with pancreatic carcinoma. We have shown the feasibility of this procedure and the lack of complications which are probably due to minimal damage to tissue involved. Computed tomography is ideally suited for percutaneous implantation because it provides the most accurate method for needle placement within the abdomen.

  14. The cytologic features of NUT midline carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bellizzi, Andrew M; Bruzzi, Cynthia; French, Christopher A; Stelow, Edward B

    2009-12-25

    Nuclear protein in testis (NUT) midline carcinoma (NMC) represents an aggressive, high-grade carcinoma typically involving the upper aerodigestive tract or mediastinum. Although the tumor was originally noted in young persons, we have subsequently identified 5 adult cases. To our knowledge, the cytology of NMC has not been systematically described. We recently published a series of NMCs identified by fluorescent in situ hybridization for characteristic NUT rearrangement. Three of these patients had undergone fine-needle aspiration. Patient age, sex, primary tumor location, and aspiration site were noted. Cases were assessed for the following: cellularity, architecture, cytoplasm, cell size, nuclear contours, nucleoli, chromatin, anisonucleosis/cytosis, mitotic activity, background, and nuclear crush. The 3 cases occurred in 2 women and 1 man, ages 31-79 years. Primaries involved the sinonasal tract (2) and larynx. Aspirates were of right neck masses (2) and supraclavicular lymph node. Smears were highly cellular and generally noncohesive. Cytoplasm was scant/delicate, although occasional cells with denser cytoplasm were noted in 1 case. Cells were 2-3 times the diameter of a small lymphocyte with irregular nuclear contours, discrete nucleoli, and fine/granular to vesicular chromatin. Anisonucleosis/cytosis was slight to moderate. Mitotic figures were noted in each case. The background contained naked nuclei and karyorrhectic debris; nuclear crush was noted. NMCs exhibit cytologic features of a poorly differentiated or undifferentiated carcinoma. Although reports mention squamous differentiation as a histologic feature, it is typically focal, and overt squamous differentiation was not identified in our cases. Given morphologic overlap with other high-grade carcinomas, diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.

  15. Functional ectopic adrenal carcinoma in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jim A.; Lee, Maris S.; Nicholson, Matthew E.; Justin, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    An 11-year-old spayed female pit bull terrier was presented with a 2-month history of polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, and panting. Serum chemistry, blood and urine analysis, and tests for hyperadrenocorticism suggested an adrenal tumor. Abdominal ultrasound identified a mass caudal to the right kidney. The mass was completely excised and histopathology was consistent with endocrine carcinoma. Three years later there was no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. PMID:25183891

  16. Struma Ovarii with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Daniel M.; Lee, Victor; Bhatt, Shweta; Dogra, Vikram S.

    2011-01-01

    Struma ovarii is an uncommon condition, in which thyroid tissue is the predominant or exclusive element in an ovarian teratoma. Thyroid tissue may demonstrate the same spectrum of pathological features as in the normal thyroid including benign and malignant changes. We present a case of papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in a struma ovarii of the left ovary in a 21-year-old female. PMID:22315711

  17. Paranasal Sinus Involvement in Metastatic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Abi-Fadel, Francois; Smith, Peter R.; Ayaz, Asim; Sundaram, Krishnamurthi

    2012-01-01

    Metastatic carcinoma involving the paranasal sinuses is uncommon. One hundred-sixty seven cases have been published in the literature since 1951. Symptoms, signs, and rhinoscopic and imaging findings are often nonspecific, and the diagnosis may be missed for considerable time. Therefore, a high level of suspicion is warranted in patients with known malignancies presenting with persistent or recurrent rhinosinusitis or facial complaints. PMID:23946928

  18. Akt Inhibitor MK2206 in Treating Patients With Progressive, Recurrent, or Metastatic Adenoid Cyst Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-21

    Recurrent Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7

  19. Colorectal carcinoma that afflicted King Jehoram.

    PubMed

    Liubov Louba, Ben-Noun

    2004-12-01

    This research uses the tools of modern medical science to examine the ancient descriptions of the symptoms suffered by King Jehoram who was affected by some disease. The Biblical texts were examined, and passages relating to the disease that afflicted King Jehoram, who ruled in Jerusalem 843-851 B.C., were closely studied. We have not included any commentaries, but referred only to the words of the Bible exactly as written. The Passages ''...the Lord smote him in his bowels with an incurable disease in the process of time, after the end of two years, his bowels fell out by reason of his sickness: so he died of sore diseases'' indicate that the King suffered from some kind of disease which affected his bowels. Among the various diseases which may be associated with prolapse of the bowel, colorectal carcinoma is the most acceptable. It seems that the colorectal carcinoma was poorly differentiated, invaded perirectal adipose tissue, blood vessels, and/or lymphatic vessels, and/or perineural areas, was lymph node positive and reached the 4th stage with the spread of metastases to the distal organs. Viewed by a modern physician, the story of King Jehoram unfolds as possibly the earliest description of a patient afflicted by colorectal carcinoma.

  20. Treatment and prognosis of primary thymic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yano, T; Hara, N; Ichinose, Y; Asoh, H; Yokoyama, H; Ohta, M

    1993-04-01

    From 1972 to 1990, we treated eight cases of thymic carcinoma (6 squamous cell and 2 small cell carcinomas). According to the classification by Masaoka et al., they consisted of one stage I, four stage III, one stage IVa, and two stage IVb. A complete resection of the primary tumour could be done in only three patients; the others had diagnostic biopsy and then radiation treatment. Four of five patients had a prolonged regression of the primary tumors after irradiation at 40-61.2 Gy. Six patients suffered from extrathoracic metastases. All patients received systemic chemotherapy with different regimens to counter either metastatic or locally recurrent lesions. Only two patients (with a regimen including cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and vincristine) obtained a partial response. The median survival of the eight patients was 70 months after surgical operation. The identification of an effective drug combination may thus improve the long-term prognosis of thymic carcinoma since radiotherapy is able to control primary lesions, even in the case of unresectable advanced disease.

  1. Aggressive squamous cell carcinoma in Kindler syndrome.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, Patrick O; Rudikoff, Donald; Phelps, Robert G

    2006-01-01

    A 57-year-old Hispanic man with a personal and family history of bullae and photosensitivity presented with a fungating, ulcerated squamous cell carcinoma on his left hand (Figure 1). Physical examination showed conjunctival injection, ectropion, symblepharon, urethral stricture, loss of teeth, short stature, and nail dystrophy. There was reticulated erythema, atrophy, hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation, and telangiectasia of sun-exposed skin of the face, neck, and hands consistent with poikiloderma (Figure 2). In addition, there was foreshortening of the left thumb and sclerodermoid changes of his hands (Figure 3). Radiation therapy was applied to shrink the tumor before a local excision was performed. However, a local recurrence followed and axillary lymph nodes became clinically palpable, necessitating amputation and lymph node dissection. Extensive histologic evaluation of the specimen obtained following left arm amputation and lymph node dissection showed moderate-to-poorly differentiated deeply invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Two of 3 axillary lymph nodes were positive for metastatic carcinoma. A random biopsy of the trunk showed epidermal atrophy, telangiectasia, a perivascular lymphocytic infiltration, and pigment-laden macrophages consistent with poikiloderma. Electron microscopy illustrated extensive reduplication of the basement membrane, with loops, curls, and free extensions of the basal lamina in the superficial dermis; reduced numbers of hemidesmosomes and anchoring fibrils; and a basement membrane focally devoid of basal cells (Figure 4). On the basis of the clinical features and the characteristic basement zone changes, a diagnosis of Kindler syndrome was made.

  2. Urothelial carcinoma involving the distal penis.

    PubMed

    Dason, Shawn; Sheikh, Adeel; Wang, Jing Gennie; Tauqir, Syeda; Davies, Timothy O; Shayegan, Bobby

    2012-04-01

    Urothelial carcinoma (UC) rarely metastasizes to the penis and skin. We report the case of a 73-year-old man with UC metastases to the corpus spongiosum and dermis of the distal penis. We also review the clinicopathologic characteristics and management options for UC metastasizing to the penis. The patient presented with priapism and edema of the genital region. This follows a 5-year history of urothelial carcinoma in situ that progressed to invasive cancer despite intravesical immunotherapy. Seventeen months prior to presentation, the patient underwent a radical cystectomy with adjuvant chemotherapy. The cystectomy specimen demonstrated a pT4a N2 M0 G3 UC and margins were positive for carcinoma in situ. Follow-up had been negative for recurrence until his presentation with priapism. Incisional biopsy of the glans revealed UC and radical penectomy was performed with negative margins. The penile specimen demonstrated extensive involvement of the corpus spongiosum by UC with lymphovascular invasion and subepidermal involvement. Three months after penectomy, the patient presented with inguinal nodal recurrence. Palliative radiotherapy was administered and the patient passed away eight months after surgery.

  3. Localized renal cell carcinoma management: an update.

    PubMed

    Heldwein, Flavio L; McCullough, T Casey; Souto, Carlos A V; Galiano, Marc; Barret, Eric

    2008-01-01

    To review the current modalities of treatment for localized renal cell carcinoma. A literature search for keywords: renal cell carcinoma, radical nephrectomy, nephron sparing surgery, minimally invasive surgery, and cryoablation was performed for the years 2000 through 2008. The most relevant publications were examined. New epidemiologic data and current treatment of renal cancer were covered. Concerning the treatment of clinically localized disease, the literature supports the standardization of partial nephrectomy and laparoscopic approaches as therapeutic options with better functional results and oncologic success comparable to standard radical resection. Promising initial results are now available for minimally invasive therapies, such as cryotherapy and radiofrequency ablation. Active surveillance has been reported with acceptable results, including for those who are poor surgical candidates. This review covers current advances in radical and conservative treatments of localized kidney cancer. The current status of nephron-sparing surgery, ablative therapies, and active surveillance based on natural history has resulted in great progress in the management of localized renal cell carcinoma.

  4. Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a common malignancy that causes approximately 150,000 deaths per year worldwide. To date, no molecularly targeted agents have been approved for the disease. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas project, we report here an integrated analysis of 131 urothelial carcinomas to provide a comprehensive landscape of molecular alterations. There were statistically significant recurrent mutations in 32 genes, including multiple genes involved in cell cycle regulation, chromatin regulation, and kinase signaling pathways, as well as 9 genes not previously reported as significantly mutated in any cancer. RNA sequencing revealed four expression subtypes, two of which (papillary-like and basal/squamous-like) were also evident in miRNA sequencing and protein data. Whole-genome and RNA sequencing identified recurrent in-frame activating FGFR3-TACC3 fusions and expression or integration of several viruses (including HPV16) that are associated with gene inactivation. Our analyses identified potential therapeutic targets in 69% of the tumours, including 42% with targets in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and 45% with targets (including ERBB2) in the RTK/MAPK pathway. Chromatin regulatory genes were more frequently mutated in urothelial carcinoma than in any common cancer studied to date, suggesting the future possibility of targeted therapy for chromatin abnormalities. PMID:24476821

  5. Epstein-Barr virus and nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Young, Lawrence S.; Dawson, Christopher W.

    2014-01-01

    Since its discovery 50 years ago, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been linked to the development of cancers originating from both lymphoid and epithelial cells. Approximately 95% of the world's population sustains an asymptomatic, life-long infection with EBV. The virus persists in the memory B-cell pool of normal healthy individuals, and any disruption of this interaction results in virus-associated B-cell tumors. The association of EBV with epithelial cell tumors, specifically nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and EBV-positive gastric carcinoma (EBV-GC), is less clear and is currently thought to be caused by the aberrant establishment of virus latency in epithelial cells that display premalignant genetic changes. Although the precise role of EBV in the carcinogenic process is currently poorly understood, the presence of the virus in all tumor cells provides opportunities for developing novel therapeutic and diagnostic approaches. The study of EBV and its role in carcinomas continues to provide insight into the carcinogenic process that is relevant to a broader understanding of tumor pathogenesis and to the development of targeted cancer therapies. PMID:25418193

  6. in Paraffin- Embedded Laryngeal Carcinoma Tissue

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyed Zinab; Makvandi, Manoochehr; Samarbafzade, Alireza; Timori, Ali; Ranjbar, Nastaran; Saki, Nader; Nisi, Nilofar; Shahani, Toran; Varnaseri, Mehran; Angali Ahmadi, Kambiz

    2017-04-01

    Background and Objective: Human papilloma virus (HPV) 16 and HPV18 have been detected in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) and there is evidence that detection of HPVs would have better prognostic value than patients with HNSCC negative for HPVs. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate frequency of HPV 16 and HPV 18 genotypes in patients with laryngeal carcinoma. Materials and methods: Fifty formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue blocks of laryngeal cancers were collected. Sections were prepared at 5 μm and DNA was extracted from each sample and subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect HPV-16/18 DNA s. Results: All samples were squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Overall 14/50 (28%) were positive for HPVs, 8 (18%) with HPV-16 and 6 (12%) with HPV-18. Additionally, 2 (4%) mixed infections of HPV 16 and 18 genotypes were observed among these cases. Conclusions: Overall, 28% of HNSCC samples proved positive for HPV16 and HPV18 genotypes, two high-risk HPV types. It is important to further assess whether such viral infection, could be a risk factor in HNSCC progression. Creative Commons Attribution License

  7. Radiation therapy in adenoid-cystic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Vikram, B.; Strong, E.W.; Shah, J.P.

    1984-02-01

    Between 1949-1977, 74 patients with adenoid-cystic carcinoma of various head and neck sites were treated by radiation therapy at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Radiation therapy alone was employed in 49 patients for recurrent, unresectable disease, and in 25 patients it was given as an adjunct to surgical resection. Among the 49 patients treated with radiation therapy alone, tumor regression was seen in 47 (96%). However, 44 of the 47 (93.5%) subsequently relapsed locally. Relapse occurred within 18 months in one-half of the patients and within 5 years in all of them. Of the 25 patients who received adjunctive radiation therapymore » about one-half relapsed locally within five years. There were 9 patients in this group, however, whose field size exceeded 8x8 cm and the dose of radiation also exceeded 4500 rad: 88% of these patients remained relapse-free at 5 years, compared with only 22% of the other 16 whose dose, or field size, or both, were inadequate by comparison. These data suggest that when irradiation is employed for advanced, inoperable adenoid-cystic carcinoma, it offers useful palliation but is rarely, if ever, curative. Postoperative irradiation, on the other hand, might improve the local control and the survival in patients with operable adenoid-cystic carcinoma who are at high risk for relapse, but only if the field size and the dose are adequate.« less

  8. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Jason C; Mendenhall, William M; Werning, John W

    2016-01-01

    This is a retrospective analysis of the 50-year University of Florida experience treating adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland with radiation therapy. Between 1965 and 2015, 8 patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland received radiation therapy with curative intent. Four patients received postoperative radiation therapy and 4 received definitive radiation therapy alone. The median follow-up was 3.3 years (range, 0.3 to 11.2 years). All 4 patients who received postoperative radiation therapy received 74.4 Gy. The 4 patients who received radiation therapy alone received a median dose of 72.3 Gy (range, 70.0 to 74.4 Gy). The overall survival rates at 5 and 10 years were 25% and 13%, respectively. The cause-specific survival rates at 5 and 10 years were 29% and 14%, respectively. The local control and freedom from metastases rates at 5 and 10 years were both 43%. Local recurrences occurred in 50% of patients, and distant metastatic disease occurred in 38% of patients. No patients experienced acute complications of treatment that warranted a treatment break. Two patients experienced bone exposure as late complications of treatment. The results of this study illustrate the propensity for adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland to recur both locally and with distant metastases despite aggressive local treatment measures. This study also demonstrates the relatively poor outcomes for individuals with this type of tumor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma with apatinib

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Sina; Deng, Huan; Chen, Yinkui; Wu, Xing; Guan, Xiaoqian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare type thyroid carcinoma originating from the thyroid parafollicular cells (C cells). Chemotherapy has a limited efficacy for treating persistent or recurrent MTC. Patient concerns: A 46-year-old woman who underwent thyroidectomy for MTC in December 2007. She began experience recurring diarrhea in January 2015 and started to cough and feel shortness of breath in March 2016. Diagnoses: A chestcomputed tomography (CT) scan showed metastases in the bilateral lungs, pulmonary hilum, and mediastinal lymph nodes. Percutaneous biopsy of the pulmonary occupying lesions performed on March 21, 2016 indicated medullary carcinoma metastases at the right pulmonary hilum. Interventions: This patient was treated with oral apatinib (500 mg daily). Outcomes: The patient's symptoms of diarrhea, coughing, and shortness of breath disappeared. CT reexaminations for efficacy assessment at 1, 2, and 3 months after the treatment indicated partial remission. Systemic migrating bone and joint pains occurred during the treatment, which were considered to be adverse events of apatinib. Lessons: Treatment of MTC with apatinib has been shown to be effective in our case. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that suppress rearranged during transfection (RET) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) should be considered as a effective therapeutic approaches. PMID:29390263

  10. Diagnostic Approaches to Metastatic Hepatocellular Carcinoma of the Orbit.

    PubMed

    Geske, Michael J; Bloomer, Michele M; Kersten, Robert C; Vagefi, M Reza

    Orbital metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma is exceedingly rare and caries a grave prognosis. Three cases of metastatic orbital hepatocellular carcinoma in which the primary tumor was initially unknown and the diagnostic challenges encountered are presented. With hepatocellular carcinoma, open biopsy and palliative tumor debulking has an increased bleeding risk due to the highly vascular nature of the tumor and coagulopathy associated with chronic liver disease. As an alternative, fine needle aspiration biopsy should be considered for hepatocellular carcinoma with a readily accessible mass and the availability of an experienced cytopathologist.

  11. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma mimicking a superficial spreading melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hasbún Acuña, Paula; Cullen Aravena, Roberto; Maturana Donaire, César; Ares Mora, Raúl; Porras Kusmanic, Ninoska

    2016-12-20

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of skin cancer, especially in elderly people. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma is a rare subtype and has been described in the literature as a nodular and hyperpigmented lesion; rarely, it can appear as an extensive pigmented plate, which may be clinically indistinguishable from superficial spreading melanoma and Bowen disease. Dermatoscopy has a high sensitivity in the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. When Menzies criteria are used; however, the final diagnosis is made by histopathology. The objective of the present report is to analyze the case of a patient with pigmented basal cell carcinoma simulating a superficial spreading melanoma.

  12. Influence of gross specimen sampling on the incidence of incidental prostatic carcinoma in cystoprostatectomy specimens of patients with bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mlakar, J; Volavšek, M

    2016-03-01

    Reported prostate cancer incidence rates vary greatly among cystoprostatectomy samples. We investigated how the thoroughness of prostate sampling influences prostatic carcinoma incidence in bladder cancer patients. In a retrospective study, 313 cystoprostatectomy cases of urinary bladder carcinoma were analysed for the presence of concurrent prostatic carcinoma. Patients were divided into two groups: patients who had undergone the operation before and after 2007, when a policy of preferably complete prostate sampling in cystoprostatectomy specimens was introduced at our institution. Cases processed after the 2007 recommended sampling changes had a significantly higher rate of incidental prostatic carcinoma and clinically significant prostatic carcinoma than the pre-2007 group (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.003, respectively). Complete prostate processing in cystoprostatectomy specimens results in a higher incidence of incidental prostatic carcinoma than with partial processing. More patients with clinically significant prostate cancer are consequently discovered. In conclusion, we believe that complete prostate sampling should be mandatory.

  13. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy Followed by Surgery in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-11-15

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  14. Cutaneous squamous and neuroendocrine carcinoma: genetically and immunohistochemically different from Merkel cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pulitzer, Melissa P; Brannon, A Rose; Berger, Michael F; Louis, Peter; Scott, Sasinya N; Jungbluth, Achim A; Coit, Daniel G; Brownell, Isaac; Busam, Klaus J

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous neuroendocrine (Merkel cell) carcinoma most often arises de novo in the background of a clonally integrated virus, the Merkel cell polyomavirus, and is notable for positive expression of retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) protein and low expression of p53 compared with the rare Merkel cell polyomavirus-negative Merkel cell carcinomas. Combined squamous and Merkel cell tumors are consistently negative for Merkel cell polyomavirus. Little is known about their immunophenotypic or molecular profile. Herein, we studied 10 combined cutaneous squamous cell and neuroendocrine carcinomas for immunohistochemical expression of p53, retinoblastoma 1 protein, neurofilament, p63, and cytokeratin 20 (CK20). We compared mutation profiles of five combined Merkel cell carcinomas and seven ‘pure’ Merkel cell carcinomas using targeted next-generation sequencing. Combined tumors were from the head, trunk, and leg of Caucasian males and one female aged 52–89. All cases were highly p53- and p63-positive and neurofilament-negative in the squamous component, whereas RB1-negative in both components. Eight out of 10 were p53-positive, 3/10 p63-positive, and 3/10 focally neurofilament-positive in the neuroendocrine component. Six out of 10 were CK20-positive in any part. By next-generation sequencing, combined tumors were highly mutated, with an average of 48 mutations per megabase compared with pure tumors, which showed 1.25 mutations per megabase. RB1 and p53 mutations were identified in all five combined tumors. Combined tumors represent an immunophenotypically and genetically distinct variant of primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinomas, notable for a highly mutated genetic profile, significant p53 expression and/or mutation, absent RB1 expression in the context of increased RB1 mutation, and minimal neurofilament expression. PMID:26022453

  15. Cutaneous squamous and neuroendocrine carcinoma: genetically and immunohistochemically different from Merkel cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pulitzer, Melissa P; Brannon, A Rose; Berger, Michael F; Louis, Peter; Scott, Sasinya N; Jungbluth, Achim A; Coit, Daniel G; Brownell, Isaac; Busam, Klaus J

    2015-08-01

    Cutaneous neuroendocrine (Merkel cell) carcinoma most often arises de novo in the background of a clonally integrated virus, the Merkel cell polyomavirus, and is notable for positive expression of retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) protein and low expression of p53 compared with the rare Merkel cell polyomavirus-negative Merkel cell carcinomas. Combined squamous and Merkel cell tumors are consistently negative for Merkel cell polyomavirus. Little is known about their immunophenotypic or molecular profile. Herein, we studied 10 combined cutaneous squamous cell and neuroendocrine carcinomas for immunohistochemical expression of p53, retinoblastoma 1 protein, neurofilament, p63, and cytokeratin 20 (CK20). We compared mutation profiles of five combined Merkel cell carcinomas and seven 'pure' Merkel cell carcinomas using targeted next-generation sequencing. Combined tumors were from the head, trunk, and leg of Caucasian males and one female aged 52-89. All cases were highly p53- and p63-positive and neurofilament-negative in the squamous component, whereas RB1-negative in both components. Eight out of 10 were p53-positive, 3/10 p63-positive, and 3/10 focally neurofilament-positive in the neuroendocrine component. Six out of 10 were CK20-positive in any part. By next-generation sequencing, combined tumors were highly mutated, with an average of 48 mutations per megabase compared with pure tumors, which showed 1.25 mutations per megabase. RB1 and p53 mutations were identified in all five combined tumors. Combined tumors represent an immunophenotypically and genetically distinct variant of primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinomas, notable for a highly mutated genetic profile, significant p53 expression and/or mutation, absent RB1 expression in the context of increased RB1 mutation, and minimal neurofilament expression.

  16. Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced, Recurrent, or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-23

    Recurrent Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage III Major Salivary Gland Cancer AJCC v7; Stage III Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Tongue Carcinoma

  17. Contemporary management of ductal carcinoma in situ and lobular carcinoma in situ.

    PubMed

    Obeng-Gyasi, Samilia; Ong, Cecilia; Hwang, E Shelley

    2016-06-01

    The management of in situ lesions ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) continues to evolve. These diagnoses now comprise a large burden of mammographically diagnosed cancers, and with a global trend towards more population-based screening, the incidence of these lesions will continue to rise. Because outcomes following treatment for DCIS and LCIS are excellent, there is emerging controversy about what extent of treatment is optimal for both diseases. Here we review the current approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of both DCIS and LCIS. In addition, we will consider potential directions for future management of these lesions.

  18. New Cytotoxic Triterpenoid Saponins from the Roots of Albizia gummifera (J.F.Gmel.) C.A.Sm.

    PubMed

    Simo, Line Made; Noté, Olivier Placide; Mbing, Joséphine Ngo; Aouazou, Sarah Ali; Guillaume, Dominique; Muller, Christian Dominique; Pegnyemb, Dieudonné Emmanuel; Lobstein, Annelise

    2017-10-01

    As part of our search for new bioactive saponins from Cameroonian medicinal plants, two new oleanane-type saponins, named gummiferaosides D and E (1 and 2), along with one known saponin, julibroside J 8 (3), were isolated from the roots of Albizia gummifera. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR ( 1 H- and 13 C-NMR, DEPT, COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HSQC, HSQC-TOCSY, and HMBC) and HR-ESI-MS studies, and by chemical evidence. The apoptotic effect of saponins 1 - 3 was evaluated on the A431 human epidermoid cancer cell. Flow cytometric analyses showed that saponins 1 - 3 induced apoptosis of human epidermoid cancer cell (A431) in a dose-dependent manner. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  19. Thyroid carcinoma in Graves' disease: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Staniforth, Joy U L; Erdirimanne, Senarath; Eslick, Guy D

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of thyroid carcinoma is increasing worldwide. Graves' disease is the most common hyperthyroid disease. Studies have suggested an increased risk of thyroid malignancy in Graves' disease: there has not yet been a meta-analysis to allow quantitative comparison. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of thyroid carcinoma in Graves' disease, and to gather information on the histological subtypes of carcinoma and the co-existence of thyroid nodules. Several databases and article reference lists were searched. Inclusion criteria included appropriate diagnostic criteria for thyroid conditions and a diagnoses of carcinoma based on histology. 33 studies were selected, all reporting on surgically-resected specimens. The event rate of thyroid carcinoma in Graves' disease was 0.07 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.12). There was no data to allow comparison with patients without hyperthyroid diseases. There was no increase in the odds of developing carcinoma in Graves' disease compared to toxic multinodular goitre and toxic uninodular goitre. 88% of thyroid carcinomas in Graves' disease were papillary, with solitary papillary micro-carcinoma (diameter 10 mm or less) comprising 23% of all detected thyroid carcinomas. Patients with Graves' disease and co-existing thyroid nodules were almost 5 times more likely to be diagnosed with thyroid carcinoma than those without nodules. Thyroid malignancy in Graves' disease requiring surgical treatment should be considered as likely as in other hyperthyroid diseases needing surgical treatment. Clinicians should consider screening selected patients with Graves' disease for nodules whilst being aware of potentially over-diagnosing papillary micro-carcinoma. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Papillomavirus, p53 alteration, and primary carcinoma of the vulva.

    PubMed

    Pilotti, S; D'Amato, L; Della Torre, G; Donghi, R; Longoni, A; Giarola, M; Sampietro, G; De Palo, G; Pierotti, M A; Rilke, F

    1995-12-01

    Twenty-nine samples from 28 cases of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma, of which 13 fulfilled the criteria of the bowenoid subtype (mean age 45 years, range 31-68) and 16 of the usual subtype of invasive squamous cell carcinoma (ISCC) (mean age 67.5 years, range 34-83) were investigated for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA, TP53 alterations, and mdm2 and bcl-2 gene product deregulation. Microscopically all the bowenoid subtype cases (group I) showed a high-grade intraepithelial (VIN 3, carcinoma in situ) lesion associated with early invasive carcinoma in six cases and overt invasive carcinoma in one. By contrast, no evidence of early carcinoma was present in the ISCCs (group II). By in situ hybridization and/or Southern blot hybridization or polymerase chain reaction (PCR), HPV DNA was detected in all cases of group I and in four of 16 cases (25%) of group II, two only by Southern blot after PCR. By single-strand conformation polymorphism and immunocytochemistry only wild-type TP53 and absence of detectable p53 product, respectively, were found in all cases of group I, i.e., in high-risk HPV-positive carcinomas, whereas mutations and/or p53 overexpression accounted for 75% in group II, i.e., in mainly HPV-negative carcinomas. The TP53 gene mutations observed in invasive carcinomas were significantly related to node-positive cases (p = 0.04). Taken together and in agreement with in vitro data, these results support the view that an alteration of TP53, gained either by interaction with viral oncoproteins or by somatic mutations, is a crucial event in the pathogenesis of vulvar carcinomas, but that TP53 mutations are mainly associated with disease progression. Finally, a preliminary immunocytochemical analysis seems to speak against the possible involvement of both MDM2 and BCL-2 gene products in the development of vulvar carcinoma.

  1. Sorafenib Tosylate, Cisplatin, and Docetaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-22

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  2. Clonal evolution of chemotherapy-resistant urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Faltas, Bishoy M; Prandi, Davide; Tagawa, Scott T; Molina, Ana M; Nanus, David M; Sternberg, Cora; Rosenberg, Jonathan; Mosquera, Juan Miguel; Robinson, Brian; Elemento, Olivier; Sboner, Andrea; Beltran, Himisha; Demichelis, Francesca; Rubin, Mark A

    2016-12-01

    Chemotherapy-resistant urothelial carcinoma has no uniformly curative therapy. Understanding how selective pressure from chemotherapy directs the evolution of urothelial carcinoma and shapes its clonal architecture is a central biological question with clinical implications. To address this question, we performed whole-exome sequencing and clonality analysis of 72 urothelial carcinoma samples, including 16 matched sets of primary and advanced tumors prospectively collected before and after chemotherapy. Our analysis provided several insights: (i) chemotherapy-treated urothelial carcinoma is characterized by intra-patient mutational heterogeneity, and the majority of mutations are not shared; (ii) both branching evolution and metastatic spread are very early events in the natural history of urothelial carcinoma; (iii) chemotherapy-treated urothelial carcinoma is enriched with clonal mutations involving L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) and integrin signaling pathways; and (iv) APOBEC-induced mutagenesis is clonally enriched in chemotherapy-treated urothelial carcinoma and continues to shape the evolution of urothelial carcinoma throughout its lifetime.

  3. Carcinoma of Unknown Primary—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) is a rare disease in which malignant cells are found in the body but the site of the primary cancer is not known. Most CUPs are adenocarcinomas, or undifferentiated tumors. Find evidence-based information on the treatment for carcinoma of unknown primary.

  4. Colonic metastasis from breast carcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, Kazuma; Teruya, Tsuyoshi; Kiyuna, Masaya; Higa, Kuniki; Higa, Junko; Iha, Kouji; Chinen, Kiyoshi; Asato, Masaya; Takushi, Yasukatsu; Ota, Morihito; Dakeshita, Eijirou; Nakachi, Atsushi; Gakiya, Akira; Shiroma, Hiroshi

    2017-07-05

    Colonic metastasis from breast carcinoma is very rare. Here, we report a case of colonic metastasis from breast carcinoma. The patient was a 51-year-old woman. She had upper abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea, repeatedly. We performed abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) to investigate these symptoms. The CT scan revealed a tumor in the ascending colon with contrast enhancement and showed an expanded small intestine. For further investigation of this tumor, we performed whole positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT). The PET-CT scan revealed fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the ascending colon, mesentery, left breast, and left axillary region. Analysis of biopsy samples obtained during colonoscopy revealed signet ring cell-like carcinoma. Moreover, biopsy of the breast tumor revealed invasive lobular carcinoma. Therefore, the preoperative diagnosis was colonic metastasis from breast carcinoma. Open ileocecal resection was performed. The final diagnosis was multiple metastatic breast carcinomas, and the TNM classification was T2N1M1 Stage IV. We presented a rare case of colonic metastasis from breast carcinoma. PET-CT may be useful in the diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer. When analysis of biopsy samples obtained during colonoscopy reveals signet ring cell-like carcinoma, the possibility of breast cancer as the primary tumor should be considered.

  5. Paraneoplastic hypercalcemia in a dog with thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Amy E.; Wyatt, Kenneth M.

    2012-01-01

    This case report describes a dog with thyroid carcinoma and paraneoplastic hypercalcemia. Following thyroidectomy the dog became hypocalcemic and required supplementation with calcitriol and calcium carbonate. During the following 2 years, attempts to reduce the supplementation resulted in hypocalcemia. The dog died from renal failure with no evidence of thyroid carcinoma. PMID:23543930

  6. The many faces and mimics of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Albores-Saavedra, Jorge; Wu, Jianhua

    2006-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the 15 histologic variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma listed by the 2004 World Health Organization (WHO) monograph on endocrine tumors. The histologic features, differential diagnosis, and clinical course of each variant are discussed in some detail. The follicular variants (conventional and macrofollicular) constitute a morphologic challenge because the majority of these tumors are encapsulated and, also, because, in many tumors, not all neoplastic cells show the nuclear features considered to be diagnostic of papillary carcinoma. As a result, most of these tumors are missed even by experienced pathologists. Moreover, hyperplastic thyroid lesions, follicular adenomas, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis may contain cells with clear nuclei resembling those of papillary carcinoma. Papillary carcinomas composed entirely of hyperchromatic cells have been overlooked. The WHO monograph defines papillary carcinoma with focal spindle and giant cell carcinoma components but its clinical behavior is unknown. Papillary carcinoma with an insular pattern that does not show the artifactual separation of the cell nests has been misinterpreted as the solid variant of papillary carcinoma. Papillary microcarcinomas include not only the conventional type and the follicular variants but also the tall cell and columnar cell variants.

  7. Androgen associated hepatocellular carcinoma with an aggressive course.

    PubMed Central

    Gleeson, D; Newbould, M J; Taylor, P; McMahon, R F; Leahy, B C; Warnes, T W

    1991-01-01

    The hepatocellular carcinomas that develop in patients treated with androgens have previously been associated with a benign clinical outcome. We describe a man who developed a hepatocellular carcinoma after 24 years of androgen treatment, whose tumour initially showed partial regression after withdrawal of androgens but subsequently pursued an aggressive and fatal course. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1655591

  8. Chemotherapy With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-19

    Recurrent Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Recurrent Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Neck With Occult Primary; Recurrent Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Recurrent Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma Metastatic in the Neck With Occult Primary; Stage IV Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Major Salivary Gland Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVB Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVC Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVC Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVC Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVC Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Tongue Carcinoma; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma to Neck With Occult Primary

  9. Pulmonary giant cell carcinoma associated with pseudomyxoma peritonei.

    PubMed

    Goldin, Mark; Li, Jinghong; Amirrezvani, Ali; Riker, David

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary giant cell carcinoma is a rare subtype of sarcomatoid carcinoma. Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a rare condition in which gelatinous material accumulates within the peritoneal cavity. It is believed PMP arises from a primary appendiceal mucinous neoplasm that perforates the gut, causing mucinous ascites. There are sporadic reports of PMP associated with neoplasms of other organs, rarely the lung. Here, we report on a 60-year-old woman with pulmonary giant cell carcinoma associated with PMP. She presented with progressive dyspnea and abdominal distention. Abdominal computed tomography revealed moderately dense ascites without an obvious mass. Chest computed tomography revealed a large, solitary right lower-lobe lung mass. She underwent transbronchial fine-needle aspiration of the mass, and was diagnosed with pulmonary giant cell carcinoma. The ascites showed scattered malignant cells in a background of mucin, confirming PMP. To our knowledge, this is the first report of pulmonary giant cell carcinoma associated with PMP.

  10. Metastases of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Misdiagnosed as Isolated Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Greco, Assunta; De Masi, Roberto; Orlando, Stefania; Metrangolo, Antonio; Zecca, Vittorio; Morciano, Giancarlo; De Donno, Antonella; Bagordo, Francesco; Piccinni, Giancarlo

    At present, cardiac metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma is rarely mentioned in the literature. We report a hepatocellular carcinoma patient with cardiac metastasis misdiagnosed as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in 2011. Two years later, on presentation of syncope, an abnormal ventricular septal size was recorded by ultrasound scan, and was subsequently shown by magnetic resonance imaging to be a tumour lesion. A myocardial biopsy confirmed infiltration of hepatocellular carcinoma. This observation underlines the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma cardiac metastasis, manifested in its infiltrative form as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In conclusion, we suggest that the ultrasound appearance of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in hepatocellular carcinoma patients should be seen as a "red flag" and recommend the introduction of magnetic resonance imaging assessment of transplant candidates.

  11. Adrenal Metastasis from Uterine Papillary Serous Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Singh Lubana, Sandeep; Singh, Navdeep; Tuli, Sandeep S; Seligman, Barbara

    2016-04-27

    Uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) is a highly malignant form of endometrial cancer with a high propensity for metastases and recurrences even when there is minimal or no myometrial invasion. It usually metastasizes to the pelvis, retroperitoneal lymph nodes, upper abdomen, and peritoneum. However, adrenal metastases from UPSC is extremely rare. Here, we present a case of UPSC with adrenal metastasis that occurred 6 years after the initial diagnosis. A 60-year-old woman previously diagnosed with uterine papillary serous carcinoma at an outside facility presented in September of 2006 with postmenopausal bleeding. She underwent comprehensive surgical staging with FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage 2. Post-operatively, the patient was treated with radiation and chemotherapy. The treatment was completed in April of 2007. The patient had no evidence of disease until July 2009 when she was found to have a mass highly suspicious for malignancy. Subsequently, she underwent right upper lobectomy. The morphology of the carcinoma was consistent with UPSC. She refused chemotherapy due to a previous history of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. The patient was followed up with regular computed tomography (CT) scans. In October 2012 a new right adrenal nodule was seen on CT, which showed intense metabolic uptake on positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scan. The patient underwent right adrenalectomy. Pathology of the surgical specimen was consistent with UPSC. UPSC is an aggressive variant of endometrial cancer associated with high recurrence rate and poor prognoses. Long-term follow-up is needed because there is a possibility of late metastases, as in this case.

  12. Adjuvant mitotane treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Terzolo, Massimo; Angeli, Alberto; Fassnacht, Martin; Daffara, Fulvia; Tauchmanova, Libuse; Conton, Pier Antonio; Rossetto, Ruth; Buci, Lisa; Sperone, Paola; Grossrubatscher, Erika; Reimondo, Giuseppe; Bollito, Enrico; Papotti, Mauro; Saeger, Wolfgang; Hahner, Stefanie; Koschker, Ann-Cathrin; Arvat, Emanuela; Ambrosi, Bruno; Loli, Paola; Lombardi, Gaetano; Mannelli, Massimo; Bruzzi, Paolo; Mantero, Franco; Allolio, Bruno; Dogliotti, Luigi; Berruti, Alfredo

    2007-06-07

    Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare neoplasm characterized by a high risk of recurrence after radical resection. Whether the use of mitotane is beneficial as an adjuvant treatment has been controversial. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant mitotane in prolonging recurrence-free survival. We performed a retrospective analysis involving 177 patients with adrenocortical cancer who had undergone radical surgery at 8 centers in Italy and 47 centers in Germany between 1985 and 2005. Adjuvant mitotane was administered to 47 Italian patients after radical surgery (mitotane group), whereas 55 Italian patients and 75 German patients (control groups 1 and 2, respectively) did not receive adjuvant treatment after surgery. Baseline features in the mitotane group and the control group from Italy were similar; the German patients were significantly older (P=0.03) and had more stage I or II adrenocortical carcinomas (P=0.02) than did patients in the mitotane group. Recurrence-free survival was significantly prolonged in the mitotane group, as compared with the two control groups (median recurrence-free survival, 42 months, as compared with 10 months in control group 1 and 25 months in control group 2). Hazard ratios for recurrence were 2.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77 to 4.78; P<0.001) and 1.97 (95% CI, 1.21 to 3.20; P=0.005), respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that mitotane treatment had a significant advantage for recurrence-free survival. Adverse events associated with mitotane were mainly of grade 1 or 2, but temporary dose reduction was needed in 13% of patients. Adjuvant mitotane may prolong recurrence-free survival in patients with radically resected adrenocortical carcinoma. Copyright 2007 Massachusetts Medical Society.

  13. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Bin; Weng, Hong-Rui; Wang, Geng; Yang, Jie-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Ping; Li, Hua; Liu, Di-Tian; Chen, Yu-Ping

    2012-07-01

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) of the esophagus is a rare carcinoma with distinct characteristics. No standard treatment has been established. This retrospective study was designed to investigate the clinical and pathological characteristics, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of esophageal BSCC. Clinical data were retrospectively analyzed from 26 patients with pathologically confirmed esophageal BSCC who underwent transthoracic esophagectomy with lymphadenectomy between January 1995 and June 2010 at the Cancer Hospital of Shantou University Medical College. Clinicopathologic data between BSCC patients and different histologic grades of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients were statistically compared by means of the χ(2) test or Fisher's exact test. The Kaplan-Meier and log-rank methods were used to estimate and compare survival rates. Microscopically, BSCC was characterized by a nesting, lobular, or trabecular arrangement of small crowded cells with scant cytoplasm. None of the histologic specimens taken at preoperative esophagoscopy were diagnosed as BSCC. The median survival time (MST) of the 26 patients was 29.0 months (95% confidence interval, 9.0-49.0), and the 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 73.1, 42.7, and 36.6%, respectively. The MST for BSCC patients was significantly lower than that of well-differentiated SCC patients (P = 0.024), but there were no significant differences between the MST for BSCC patients and that of moderately or poorly differentiated SCC patients (P > 0.05). BSCC of the esophagus is a rare but distinctive disease and is prone to be misdiagnosed by endoscopic biopsy. The prognosis is poorer than well-differentiated SCC, but similar to moderately or poorly differentiated SCC.

  14. Chromium in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.

    PubMed

    Golabek, Tomasz; Socha, Katarzyna; Kudelski, Jacek; Darewicz, Barbara; Markiewicz-Zukowska, Renata; Chlosta, Piotr; Borawska, Maria

    2017-12-23

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies report a strong role of chemical carcinogens in the etiology of bladder cancer. However, the involvement of heavy metals in tumourigenesis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder has been poorly investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between chromium (Cr) and bladder cancer. Chromium concentration in two 36-sample series of bladder cancer tissue and sera from patients with this neoplasm were matched with those of a control group. The amount of trace elements in every tissue sample was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. This was correlated with tumour stage. While the median chromium concentration levels reached statistically higher values in the bladder cancer tissue, compared with the non-cancer tissue (99.632ng/g and 33.144ng/g, respectively; p<0.001), the median Cr levels in the sera of the patients with this carcinoma showed no statistical difference when compared to those of the control group (0.511μg/l and 0.710μg/l, respectively; p=0.408). The median levels of Cr in the bladder tissue, depending on the stage of the tumour, compared with the tissue without the neoplasm, observed the same relationship for both non-muscle invasive and muscle-invasive tumours (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively). This study shows that patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder had higher tissue Cr levels than people without tumour, while no difference was found in the Cr serum levels between the two groups of patients under investigation.

  15. [Descriptive study on basal cell eyelid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, M J; Pfeiffer, N; Valor, C

    2015-09-01

    To describe a series of cases of basal cell carcinomas of the eyelid. A descriptive and retrospective study was conducted by reviewing the medical outcome, histopathological history, and photographic images of 200 patients with basal cell eyelid carcinomas. All were treated in the Herzog Carl Theodor Eye Hospital in Munich, Germany, between 2000 and 2013. In the present study, it was found that females are more affected than males. The mean age of presentation of the tumor occurred at the age of 70 years. In 50% of the cases the tumor was found on the lower lid, especially medially from the center of the lid. The lid margin was involved in 47% of all tumors. The mean diameter was 9.2mm. The recurrence rate after surgery with histologically clear resection margins was 5%. There was a significant relationship between tumor diameter and age. As tumors where located farther away from medial and closer to the lid margin, they became larger. There is a predominance of women affected by this tumor. This may be related to the fact that the sample was taken from those attending an oculoplastic surgery clinic, where there are generally more women than men attending. The formation of basal cell carcinomas increases with age. The infrequent involvement of the upper lid could be explained by the protection of the the eyebrow. The frequent involvement of the lower lid may be due to the light reflection (total reflection) by the cornea on the lower lid margin. Also chemical and physical effects of the tears may be more harmful on the lower lid. Patients tend to ask for medical help when they are females, younger, when the tumor is closer to the medial canthus or when the tumor is away from the lid margin. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Inactivation of Smad4 in gastric carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Powell, S M; Harper, J C; Hamilton, S R; Robinson, C R; Cummings, O W

    1997-10-01

    Allelic loss of chromosome 18q has been noted in intestinal type gastric adenocarcinomas. Smad4 is a gene located at 18q that was recently cloned in humans and found to be significantly altered in pancreatic cancers. We sought to determine whether Smad4 genetic alterations played a significant role in gastric tumorigenesis by studying 35 gastric adenocarcinomas of all histopathological types and pathological stages. Microdissected specimens were used for mutational analysis of Smad4 at the nucleotide level, including the entire coding region and intron/exon boundaries. Allelic imbalance was also analyzed at the Smad4 locus using two nearby microsatellite markers. One case of apparent biallelic inactivation of Smad4 was found in our study of 35 gastric carcinomas. A nonsense point mutation at codon 334 was demonstrated, which, similar to other Smad4 mutations, is predicted to truncate the conserved COOH-terminal domain of this protein. This Smad4 C to T transition mutation was proven to be somatically acquired. Allelic loss was also noted on chromosome 18q at a marker near Smad4 in this mutated gastric cancer, apparently producing complete inactivation of Smad4 in this tumor. Significant 18q allelic loss (56% of 34 informative cases) was noted in our gastric carcinomas using microsatellite markers near the Smad4 locus, regardless of histological subtype or pathological stage. Additionally, three cases of microsatellite instability were observed. Thus, Smad4 inactivation was noted in our gastric carcinomas; however, this event was rare. The frequent loss of chromosomal arm 18q observed in gastric cancers suggests the presence of other tumor suppressor genes in this region that are involved in gastric tumorigenesis. Further studies are needed to identify these other targets of inactivation during gastric cancer development.

  17. Neglected foreign body aspiration mimicking bronchial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Afghani, Reza; Khandashpour Ghomi, Mahmoud; Khandoozi, Seyed Reza; Yari, Behrouz

    2016-07-01

    Foreign body aspiration can occur in any age group, but it is more commonly seen in children. In adults, there is usually a predisposing condition that poses a risk of aspiration. If aspiration occurs, prompt diagnosis and extraction of the foreign body is needed to prevent early and late complications. We report a rare case of neglected foreign body aspiration in a 45-year-old schizophrenic opium addicted patient, which resulted in an occlusive lesion in the bronchus, mimicking bronchial carcinoma. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Warthin Tumor-Like Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Heatley, Nicholas; Harrington, Kevin J; Thway, Khin

    2018-02-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) shows a wide morphologic spectrum, including epithelium with oncocytic or squamous metaplastic changes overlying a prominent cystic architecture, as well as tumor-associated lymphoid tissue. We illustrate a case of MEC of the parotid in a 17-year-old female, in which all these features occurred extensively, such that they accounted for almost the entire neoplasm, and closely mimicked Warthin tumor histologically. This highlights the need for diagnostic awareness of this particular morphologic variant of MEC, as patients could potentially be inappropriately discharged from follow-up if diagnosed with a benign neoplasm.

  19. Genomic Characterization of Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sfakianos, John P; Cha, Eugene K; Iyer, Gopa; Scott, Sasinya N; Zabor, Emily C; Shah, Ronak H; Ren, Qinghu; Bagrodia, Aditya; Kim, Philip H; Hakimi, A Ari; Ostrovnaya, Irina; Ramirez, Ricardo; Hanrahan, Aphrothiti J; Desai, Neil B; Sun, Arony; Pinciroli, Patrizia; Rosenberg, Jonathan E; Dalbagni, Guido; Schultz, Nikolaus; Bajorin, Dean F; Reuter, Victor E; Berger, Michael F; Bochner, Bernard H; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat A; Solit, David B; Coleman, Jonathan A

    2015-12-01

    Despite a similar histologic appearance, upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) and urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) tumors have distinct epidemiologic and clinicopathologic differences. To investigate whether the differences between UTUC and UCB result from intrinsic biological diversity. Tumor and germline DNA from patients with UTUC (n=83) and UCB (n=102) were analyzed using a custom next-generation sequencing assay to identify somatic mutations and copy number alterations in 300 cancer-associated genes. We described co-mutation patterns and copy number alterations in UTUC. We also compared mutation frequencies in high-grade UTUC (n=59) and high-grade UCB (n=102). Comparison of high-grade UTUC and UCB revealed significant differences in the prevalence of somatic alterations. Genes altered more commonly in high-grade UTUC included FGFR3 (35.6% vs 21.6%; p=0.065), HRAS (13.6% vs 1.0%; p=0.001), and CDKN2B (15.3% vs 3.9%; p=0.016). Genes less frequently mutated in high-grade UTUC included TP53 (25.4% vs 57.8%; p<0.001), RB1 (0.0% vs 18.6%; p<0.001), and ARID1A (13.6% vs 27.5%; p=0.050). Because our assay was restricted to genomic alterations in a targeted panel, rare mutations and epigenetic changes were not analyzed. High-grade UTUC tumors display a spectrum of genetic alterations similar to high-grade UCB. However, there were significant differences in the prevalence of several recurrently mutated genes including HRAS, TP53, and RB1. As relevant targeted inhibitors are being developed and tested, these results may have important implications for the site-specific management of patients with urothelial carcinoma. Comparison of next-generation sequencing of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) with urothelial bladder cancer identified that similar mutations were present in both cancer types but at different frequencies, indicating a potential need for unique management strategies. UTUC tumors were found to have a high rate of mutations that could be

  20. Endoscopic Treatment of Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Verges, Daniel P; Lallas, Costas D; Hubosky, Scott G; Bagley, Demetrius H

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to make the reader be aware of recent trends regarding the endoscopic management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) via review of the urologic literature over the past 5 years. Given the rare incidence of this disease, and the lack of level 1 evidence, systematic reviews and meta-analyses were also evaluated. Studies of importance are also considered and outlined in the annotated reference section. The PubMed database was queried using the following medical subject headings (MeSH terms): "carcinoma, transitional cell," "ureter," "ureteral neoplasms," "kidney pelvis," "endoscopy," "laser therapy," "ureteroscopy," "urologic surgical procedures," and "ureteroscopes." MeSH terms were linked together in varying combinations and limited to human studies in English. Given the relatively rare nature of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC), level 1 evidence regarding the efficacy of endoscopic treatment does not exist, even after 30+ years of experience. Rather, the literature available mostly is in the form of single institutional retrospective series consisting of relatively small numbers of patients with short to intermediate follow-up. Only within the last 3 years have published series with larger numbers of patients and mean follow-up over 5 years been made available. Even with these more robust experiences, comparisons among series are difficult given variable treatment and follow-up approaches. Most endoscopically managed UTUC will locally recur, especially with longer follow-up. Renal preservation rate is high, however, approaching 80% with follow-up well over 3 years. Patients with high-grade disease often fare poorly regardless of treatment modality. As such, endoscopic management for high-grade urothelial carcinoma should only be used in exceptional circumstances (i.e., in those patients medically unfit for NU or those with solitary kidneys wishing to avoid the morbidity of dialysis). No level 1 evidence exists for the routine use

  1. Individualized treatment in stage IVC nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chan, Oscar S H; Ngan, Roger K C

    2014-09-01

    The stage IVC nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a catch-all entity covering minute solitary metastasis to bulky disseminated disease. Prognosis varies greatly within this stage group. A subset of patients with oligometastases may benefit from aggressive local ablative therapy. Meanwhile, in multiple metastatic diseases, customizing conventional cytotoxics basing on individual tumor characteristics and previous chemotherapy responses can be a new direction to improve therapeutic results. Prognostic models built on clinical features and genomic profiles can be utilized to stratify different risk groups and tailor therapy schemes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiotherapy of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ

    PubMed Central

    Krug, David; Souchon, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Summary Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a heterogeneous disease in both its biology and clinical course. In the past, recurrence rates after breast-conserving surgery have been as high as 30% after 10 years. The introduction of mammography screening and advances in imaging have led to an increase in the detection of DCIS. The focus of this review is on the role of radiotherapy in the multidisciplinary treatment, including current developments in hypofractionation and boost delivery, and attempts to define low-risk subsets of DCIS for which the need for adjuvant radiation is repeatedly questioned. PMID:26600762

  3. Therapeutic vaccines in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Schwaab, Thomas; Ernstoff, Marc S

    2011-07-01

    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is a lethal disease. The advent of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has changed the disease process, yet the majority of patients will develop treatment-resistant disease. IL-2 based immunotherapy in mRCC is the only US FDA-approved treatment with curative results. Immunotherapeutic vaccine approaches to mRCC have been under investigation for several decades with mixed results. The recent FDA-approval of the first cellular immunotherapy in prostate cancer (Provenge(®)) has reinvigorated the search for similar vaccines approaches in mRCC. This review introduces the concepts and different features required for a successful anticancer vaccine approach.

  4. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy and Incidental Carcinoma of the Extrahepatic Biliary Tree

    PubMed Central

    Raparelli, Luigi; Jover Navalon, Jose' Maria; Gomez, Ana Serantes; Azcoita, Mariano Moreno; Materia, Alberto; Basso, Nicola

    2002-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Gallbladder carcinoma is found in 0.2 % to 5% of patients undergoing cholecystectomy, and gallstones are found in 70% to 98% of patients with gallbladder carcinoma. Early diagnosis of carcinoma is difficult because of the absence of specific symptoms and the frequent association with chronic cholecystitis and gallstones. At present, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the gold standard for the surgical treatment of symptomatic cholelithiasis and other benign gallbladder diseases. The aims of this study were to evaluate retrospectively the incidence of occasional and occult gallbladder carcinomas to ascertain the effect of laparoscopy on diagnosis and treatment of unexpected extrahepatic biliary tree carcinomas and to assess possible guidelines that can be taken into consideration when the problem is encountered. Methods: Clinical records of 3900 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were reviewed. Patients with occasional (intraoperative = Group A) or occult (postoperative = Group B) diagnosis of gallbladder or common bile duct carcinoma entered the study group. Follow-up data were obtained in June 2000. Results: A total of 14 patients (0.35%), 3 men and 11 women, mean age 60.8 years (range 37 to 73) with extra-hepatic biliary tree carcinoma were found. Occasional carcinomas occurred in 8 patients, occult carcinomas in 6. No deaths occurred in either group. The overall survival at mean follow-up of 30.5 months is 50%. Five patients are disease free, and 2 are alive with evidence of recurrence. Discussion: In 2 large series of unselected consecutive laparoscopic cholecystectomy, only 14 unsuspected malignant tumors of the extrahepatic biliary tree were found (0.35%). The limits of the preoperative workup and the difficult diagnosis of biliary tract carcinoma during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, has led to the present retrospective study and several significant recommendations. PMID:12500833

  5. Molecular testing for the clinical diagnosis of fibrolamellar carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Rondell P; Yeh, Matthew M; Lam-Himlin, Dora; Roberts, Lewis R; Terracciano, Luigi; Cruise, Michael W; Greipp, Patricia T; Zreik, Riyam T; Jain, Dhanpat; Zaid, Nida; Salaria, Safia N; Jin, Long; Wang, Xiaoke; Rustin, Jeanette G; Kerr, Sarah E; Sukov, William R; Solomon, David A; Kakar, Sanjay; Waterhouse, Emily; Gill, Ryan M; Ferrell, Linda; Alves, Venancio AF; Nart, Deniz; Yilmaz, Funda; Roessler, Stephanie; Longerich, Thomas; Schirmacher, Peter; Torbenson, Michael S

    2018-01-01

    Fibrolamellar carcinoma has a distinctive morphology and immunophenotype, including cytokeratin 7 and CD68 co-expression. Despite the distinct findings, accurate diagnosis of fibrolamellar carcinoma continues to be a challenge. Recently, fibrolamellar carcinomas were found to harbor a characteristic somatic gene fusion, DNAJB1–PRKACA. A break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay was designed to detect this fusion event and to examine its diagnostic performance in a large, multicenter, multinational study. Cases initially classified as fibrolamellar carcinoma based on histological features were reviewed from 124 patients. Upon central review, 104 of the 124 cases were classified histologically as typical of fibrolamellar carcinoma, 12 cases as ‘possible fibrolamellar carcinoma’ and 8 cases as ‘unlikely to be fibrolamellar carcinoma’. PRKACA FISH was positive for rearrangement in 102 of 103 (99%) typical fibrolamellar carcinomas, 9 of 12 ‘possible fibrolamellar carcinomas’ and 0 of 8 cases ‘unlikely to be fibrolamellar carcinomas’. Within the morphologically typical group of fibrolamellar carcinomas, two tumors with unusual FISH patterns were also identified. Both cases had the fusion gene DNAJB1–PRKACA, but one also had amplification of the fusion gene and one had heterozygous deletion of the normal PRKACA locus. In addition, 88 conventional hepatocellular carcinomas were evaluated with PRKACA FISH and all were negative. These findings demonstrate that FISH for the PRKACA rearrangement is a clinically useful tool to confirm the diagnosis of fibrolamellar carcinoma, with high sensitivity and specificity. A diagnosis of fibrolamellar carcinoma is more accurate when based on morphology plus confirmatory testing than when based on morphology alone. PMID:28862261

  6. Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma as part of histologically discordant multifocal renal cell carcinoma: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Shao, Tiffany; Yousef, Peter; Shipilova, Irina; Saleeb, Rola; Lee, Jason Y; Krizova, Adriana

    2016-03-01

    Multifocal renal cell carcinoma of different histological subtypes within a single kidney is rare. We report a recently classified clear cell (tubulo) papillary renal cell carcinoma as part of an unusual case of multifocal renal cell carcinoma of discordant histological subtypes. A 57 year-old-man was found to have multiple renal tumors and cysts on imaging and underwent a laparoscopic left radical nephrectomy. Pathological review showed multifocal renal cell carcinoma (clear cell (tubulo) papillary, clear cell and papillary renal cell carcinomas and papillary adenomas). Morphology of clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma was supported by immunohistochemical profile (CK7+, HMWK+, CAIX+, AMACR-, CD10-, TFE3-). This is the first report of clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma as part of multifocal renal cell carcinoma of different histological subtypes. Related lineage of clear cell renal cell carcinoma and papillary renal cell carcinoma is supported by the highest prevalence of their combination within multifocal renal cell carcinoma of different histological subtypes along with their molecular interconnection. Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma may be uniquely placed between clear cell and papillary renal cell carcinomas since it shows morphological features intermediate between clear cell and papillary renal cell carcinoma along with overlapping but unique immunohistochemical profile. Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma may be molecularly related to clear cell and papillary renal cell carcinomas since the tumors overexpress markers of HIF pathway activation with normal/elevated VHL mRNA expression and some tumors show losses of chromosome 3. Due to the overlapping morphology, it is possible that cases of clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma may have been misclassified as papillary or clear cell renal cell carcinoma in the literature, incorrectly increasing their reported prevalence. Identification of multifocal RCCs may be related to the

  7. Red Dot Basal Cell Carcinoma: Report of Cases and Review of This Unique Presentation of Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Philip R

    2017-03-22

    Red dot basal cell carcinoma is a unique variant of basal cell carcinoma. Including the three patients described in this report, red dot basal cell carcinoma has only been described in seven individuals. This paper describes the features of two males and one female with red dot basal cell carcinoma and reviews the characteristics of other patients with this clinical subtype of basal cell carcinoma. A 70-year-old male developed a pearly-colored papule with a red dot in the center on his nasal tip. A 71-year-old male developed a red dot surrounded by a flesh-colored papule on his left nostril. Lastly, a 74-year-old female developed a red dot within an area of erythema on her left mid back. Biopsy of the lesions all showed nodular and/or superficial basal cell carcinoma. Correlation of the clinical presentation and pathology established the diagnosis of red dot basal cell carcinoma. The tumors were treated by excision using the Mohs surgical technique. Pubmed was searched with the keyword: basal, cell, cancer, carcinoma, dot, red, and skin. The papers generated by the search and their references were reviewed. Red dot basal cell carcinoma has been described in three females and two males; the gender was not reported in two patients. The tumor was located on the nose (five patients), back (one patient) and thigh (one patient). Cancer presented as a solitary small red macule or papule; often, the carcinoma was surrounded by erythema or a flesh-colored papule. Although basal cell carcinomas usually do not blanch after a glass microscope slide is pressed against them, the red dot basal cell carcinoma blanched after diascopy in two of the patients, resulting in a delay of diagnosis in one of these individuals. Dermoscopy may be a useful non-invasive modality for evaluating skin lesions when the diagnosis of red dot basal cell carcinoma is considered. Mohs surgery is the treatment of choice; in some of the patients, the ratio of the area of the postoperative wound to that

  8. Red Dot Basal Cell Carcinoma: Report of Cases and Review of This Unique Presentation of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Red dot basal cell carcinoma is a unique variant of basal cell carcinoma. Including the three patients described in this report, red dot basal cell carcinoma has only been described in seven individuals. This paper describes the features of two males and one female with red dot basal cell carcinoma and reviews the characteristics of other patients with this clinical subtype of basal cell carcinoma. A 70-year-old male developed a pearly-colored papule with a red dot in the center on his nasal tip. A 71-year-old male developed a red dot surrounded by a flesh-colored papule on his left nostril. Lastly, a 74-year-old female developed a red dot within an area of erythema on her left mid back. Biopsy of the lesions all showed nodular and/or superficial basal cell carcinoma. Correlation of the clinical presentation and pathology established the diagnosis of red dot basal cell carcinoma. The tumors were treated by excision using the Mohs surgical technique. Pubmed was searched with the keyword: basal, cell, cancer, carcinoma, dot, red, and skin. The papers generated by the search and their references were reviewed. Red dot basal cell carcinoma has been described in three females and two males; the gender was not reported in two patients. The tumor was located on the nose (five patients), back (one patient) and thigh (one patient). Cancer presented as a solitary small red macule or papule; often, the carcinoma was surrounded by erythema or a flesh-colored papule. Although basal cell carcinomas usually do not blanch after a glass microscope slide is pressed against them, the red dot basal cell carcinoma blanched after diascopy in two of the patients, resulting in a delay of diagnosis in one of these individuals. Dermoscopy may be a useful non-invasive modality for evaluating skin lesions when the diagnosis of red dot basal cell carcinoma is considered. Mohs surgery is the treatment of choice; in some of the patients, the ratio of the area of the postoperative wound to that

  9. Talimogene Laherparepvec in Treating Patients With Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-15

    Stage 0 Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage 0a Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage 0is Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage I Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7

  10. Hepatocellular carcinoma arising in adenoma: similar immunohistochemical and cytogenetic features in adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma portions of the tumor

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, Valerie; Pote, Nicolas; Jakate, Shriram; Ferrell, Linda D

    2016-01-01

    Well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma in non-cirrhotic liver can show morphological features similar to hepatocellular adenoma. In rare instances, hepatocellular carcinoma can arise in the setting of hepatocellular adenoma. This study compares the immunohistochemical and cytogenetic features of the hepatocellular adenoma-like and hepatocellular carcinoma portions of these tumors. Immunohistochemistry for β-catenin, glutamine synthetase, serum amyloid A protein, glypican-3, and heat-shock protein 70 was done in 11 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma arising in hepatocellular adenoma in non-cirrhotic liver. Tumors with nuclear β-catenin and/or diffuse glutamine synthetase were considered β-catenin activated. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was done in nine cases for gains of chromosomes 1, 8 and MYC. There were seven men (33–75 years) and four women (29–65 years). Focal atypical morphological features were seen in hepatocellular adenoma-like areas in 7 (64%) cases. Hepatocellular adenoma-like areas showed features of inflammatory hepatocellular adenoma in 7 (64%) cases; 4 of these were also serum amyloid A-positive in the hepatocellular carcinoma portion. β-catenin activation, heat-shock protein 70 positivity, and chromosomal gains on FISH were seen in the hepatocellular adenoma portion in 55%, 40%, and 56% of cases, and 73%, 60%, and 78% of cases in the hepatocellular carcinoma portion, respectively. In conclusion, the hepatocellular adenoma-like portion of most cases of hepatocellular carcinoma arising in hepatocellular adenoma shows features typically seen in hepatocellular carcinoma such as focal morphological abnormalities, β-catenin activation, heat-shock protein 70 expression, and chromosomal gains. Hepatocellular adenoma-like areas in these tumors, especially in men and older women, may represent an extremely well-differentiated variant of hepatocellular carcinoma, whereas the morphologically recognizable hepatocellular carcinoma

  11. Diosgenin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-glucopyranoside obtained as a new anticancer agent from Dioscorea futschauensis induces apoptosis on human colon carcinoma HCT-15 cells via mitochondria-controlled apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, San-Long; Cai, Bing; Cui, Cheng-Bin; Liu, Hong-Wei; Wu, Chun-Fu; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2004-06-01

    Diosgenin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (DRG) is a well-known pentacyclic triterpene glycoside newly isolated from the rhizomes of Dioscorea futschauensis R. Kunth (Dioscoreaceae) by our group. In the present work, the inhibitory effect of DRG on the cell proliferation of human cancer cell lines was examined to reveal for the first time that DRG shows stronger anticancer activity than that of the positive control cisplatin. DRG inhibited the proliferation of human cancer cells, A431, A2780, A549, K562, and HCT-15, with IC50 (micromol L(-1)) values of 9.33 +/- 0.22, 18.7 +/- 0.16, 9.98 +/- 0.38, 6.44 +/- 0.10, and 5.86 +/- 0.14 respectively. It was then found, by morphological observation, "DNA ladder" detection and flow cytometric analysis, that DRG exerts its anticancer effect through inducing apoptosis on HCT-15 cells. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that DRG triggers a mitochondria-controlled apoptotic pathway to induce apoptosis on HCT-15 cells, which involves the reduction of the mitochondrial potential (deltapsim), the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol, and the down-regulation of the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax expression level. The present results reasonably suggest that regulating the balance of Bcl-2/Bax expression level plays a key role in the DRG-induced apoptosis. Such findings provide novel knowledge to elucidate the biological properties of DRG, even though DRG was discovered early in the late 1960s. These results suggest that DRG may be a good candidate as a chemotherapeutic agent to treat human colon carcinoma.

  12. Systematic review of renal carcinoma prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Lorente, D; Trilla, E; Meseguer, A; Planas, J; Placer, J; Celma, A; Salvador, C; Regis, L; Morote, J

    2017-05-01

    The natural history of renal cell carcinoma is heterogeneous. Some scenarios can be found in terms of clinical presentation, clinical evolution or type of recurrence (local/metastatic). The aim of this publication is to analyze the most important prognostic factors published in the literature. A literature review ob published papers was performed using the Pubmed, from first Motzer's classification published in 1999 to 2015, according to PRISMA declaration. Search was done using the following keywords: kidney neoplasm, kidney cancer, renal cell carcinoma, prognostic factors, mortality, survival and disease progression. Papers were classified according to level of evidence, the number of patients included and the type of study performed. The evolution in the knowledge of molecular pathways related to renal oncogenesis and the new targeted therapies has left to remain obsolete the old prognostic models. It's necessary to perform a continuous review to actualize nomograms and to adapt them to the new scenarios. Is necessary to perform a proper external validation of existing prognostic factors using prospective and multicentric studies to add them into the daily urologist clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Infrequent widespread microsatellite instability in hepatocellular carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, H; Itoh, F; Fukushima, H; Kaneto, H; Sasaki, S; Ohmura, T; Satoh, T; Karino, Y; Endo, T; Toyota, J; Imai, K

    2000-03-01

    Widespread or high-frequency microsatellite instability (MSI) due to the defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR) occurs in the majority of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer and a subset of sporadic malignant tumors. The incidence of MSI and underlying DNA MMR defects have been well characterized in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis, but not in hepatocarcinogenesis. To address the issue, we analyzed 55 Japanese hepatocellular carcinomas using several indicators of DNA MMR defects, such as microsatellite analysis, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and mutation analysis of MMR genes, methylation of hMLH1 promoter, and frameshift mutations of mononucleotide repeat sequences within possible target genes. Mutation of beta2-microglobulin gene, which is presumably involved in MSI-positive tumor cell escape from immune surveillance was also examined. Some of these analyses were also carried out in 9 human liver cancer cell lines. None of the 3 quasi-monomorphic mononucleotide markers sensitive for MSI, BAT26, BAT25, and BAT34C4 presented shortened unstable alleles in any of the carcinoma, cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis tissues, or cell lines. LOH at MMR genes was infrequent (4.4 approximately 7.1%), and no mutations were detected. Neither hMLH1 hypermethylation nor frameshift mutation in the target genes was detected. No mutations were found in beta2-microglobulin. Widespread MSI due to the defective DNA MMR appears to play little if any part in Japanese hepatocarcinogenesis.

  14. HOXB homeobox gene expression in cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    López, R; Garrido, E; Piña, P; Hidalgo, A; Lazos, M; Ochoa, R; Salcedo, M

    2006-01-01

    The homeobox (HOX) genes are a family of transcription factors that bind to specific DNA sequences in target genes regulating gene expression. Thirty-nine HOX genes have been mapped in four conserved clusters: A, B, C, and D; they act as master genes regulating the identity of body segments along the anteroposterior axis of the embryo. The role played by HOX genes in adult cell differentiation is unclear to date, but growing evidence suggests that they may play an important role in the development of cancer. To study the role played by HOX genes in cervical cancer, in the present work, we analyzed the expression of HOXB genes and the localization of their transcripts in human cervical tissues. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis and nonradioactive RNA in situ hybridization were used to detect HOXB expression in 11 normal cervical tissues and 17 cervical carcinomas. It was determined that HOXB1, B3, B5, B6, B7, B8, and B9 genes are expressed in normal adult cervical epithelium and squamous cervical carcinomas. Interestingly, HOXB2, HOXB4, and HOXB13 gene expression was found only in tumor tissues. Our findings suggest that the new expression of HOXB2, HOXB4, and B13 genes is involved in cervical cancer.

  15. Combined treatment in carcinoma of the nasopharynx

    SciTech Connect

    Souhami, L.; Rabinowits, M.

    1988-08-01

    From October 1982 to August 1984, 30 previously untreated patients with biopsy-proven carcinoma of the nasopharynx, stage III (26.5%) and stage IV (73.5%), received combined radiotherapy (6,000 to 7,000 cGy over a period of 7 to 7.5 weeks) and chemotherapy (mitomycin-C 10 mg/M2, IV; 5-fluorouracil 750 mg/M2, IV; and methotrexate 30 mg/M2, IV) concomitantly. There were 20 males and 10 females, with a median age of 40 years. Minimal follow-up duration was 24 months. Actuarial overall survival rate at 48 months was 49%. Complete local response was achieved in 75% of the patients, with 31% of the cases failing distantly.more » The complication rate was high and included severe mucositis, xerostomia, and septicemia (fatal in two cases). Despite high local disease control, survival rate did not increase. A randomized trial is urgently needed to establish whether or not combined treatment is of value in advanced carcinoma of the nasopharynx.« less

  16. Carcinoma of the cervix and sexual function.

    PubMed

    Seibel, M M; Freeman, M G; Graves, W L

    1980-04-01

    Forty-six patients were interviewed more than a year after treatment for carcinoma of the cervix to establish the effects of radiation therapy and of surgical therapy on sexual feelings and performance. Group 1 consisted of 22 patients who had undergone radiation therapy for stage I, II, or III cancer of the cervix. Group 2 consisted of 20 patients who had undergone hysterectomy with or without partial vaginectomy for carcinoma in situ. The irradiated patients experienced statistically significant decreases in sexual enjoyment, ability to attain orgasm, libido, frequency of intercourse, opportunity, and sexual dreams. The surgically treated group had no significant change in sexual function after treatment. Both groups experienced a change in self-image but did not feel that their partners or family viewed them differently. Myths about cancer and the actual effects of pelvic irradiation were found to have disrupted the sexual-marital relationships of many women. Therapeutic programs are discussed through which women can be helped through this difficult time in their lives.

  17. [Strategy for molecular testing in pulmonary carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Tixier, Lucie; Perrot, Loïc; Cayre, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the analysis of theranostic molecular markers is central in the management of lung cancer. As those tumors are diagnosed in two third of the cases at an advanced stage, molecular screening is frequently performed on "small samples". The screening strategy starts by an accurate histopathological characterization, including on biopsies or cytological specimens. WHO 2015 provided a new classification for small biopsy and cytology, defining categories such as non-small cell carcinoma (NSCC), favor adenocarcinoma (TTF1 positive), or favor squamous cell carcinoma (p40 positive). Only the NSCC tumors, non-squamous, are eligible to molecular testing. A strategy aiming at tissue sparing for the small biopsies has to be organized. Tests corresponding to available drugs are prioritized. Blank slides will be prepared for immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization based tests such as ALK. DNA will then be extracted for the other tests, EGFR mutation screening first associated or not to KRAS. Then, the emerging biomarkers (HER2, ROS1, RET, BRAF…) as well as potentially other markers in case of clinical trials, can been tested. The spread of next generation sequencing technologies, with a very sensitive all-in-one approach will allow the identification of minority clones. Eventually, the development of liquid biopsies will provide the opportunity to monitor the apparition of resistance clones during treatment. This non-invasive approach allows patients with a contraindication to perform biopsy or with non-relevant biopsies to access to molecular screening. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. [Sarcomatoid carcinoma of larynx. A histological challenge?

    PubMed

    Osorio-Velásquez, Alejandra; Chiesa-Estomba, Carlos M; Betances-Reinoso, Frank A; San Miguel-Fraile, M Pilar; Ortiz-Rey, José A

    Sarcomatoid carcinoma can occur in any part of the body; in the head and neck it occurs most frequently in the major salivary glands, with only about 1% of cases found in the larynx. As it has both epithelial and mesenchymal components, there are many theories concerning its origin and it can prove a diagnostic challenge. A 76 year old male smoker presented with dysphonia. Vocal cord injury was found on examination but no lymphadenopathy or metastases were present. Laryngeal microsurgery was performed with complete excision of the lesion. Histopathology showed it to be a carcinosarcoma which showed intense and diffuse positivity for vimentin and focal positivity for AE1-AE3, CK5 and p63. The patient underwent radiotherapy as complementary treatment. Sarcomatoid carcinoma usually presents with obstructive symptoms such as dysphonia. Prognosis depends on the stage and the presence or not of metastases. Both epithelial markers EMA, cytokeratin (AE1-AE3), epithelial membrane antigen, Ki 67 and mesenchymal markers such as vimentin, desmin, S-100 may be positive in these tumours. Recommended treatment for T2-T1 stages is an excisional biopsy which can be followed by adjuvant radiotherapy; radiotherapy alone has also been successful. T3-T4 stages can be treated with local excision, partial laryngectomy or total laryngectomy with subsequent ganglion emptying and concomitant radio and chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anatomía Patológica. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is very rare; only several studies have been reported in the English literature. A 62-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of hematuria and dysuria. Bladder endoscopy revealed a large polypoid tumor at the bladder base. Transurethral bladder tumorectomy (TUR-BT) was performed. Many TUR-BT specimens were obtained. Histologically, the bladder tumor was pure small cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (CK) AE1/3, CK CAM5.2, CK8, CK18, neurone-specific enolase, chromogranin, NCAM (CD56), synaptophysin, Ki-67 (labeling=100%), p53, KIT (CD117), and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRA). The tumor cells were negative for CK5/6, CK 34BE12, CK7, CK14, CK19, CK20, p63, CD45, and TTF-1. A molecular genetic analysis using PCR-direct sequencing showed no mutations of KIT (exons 9, 11, 13 and 17) and PDGFRA (exons 12 and 18) genes. No metastases were found by various imaging techniques. The patient is now treated by cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

  20. Reappraisal of Morphologic Differences Between Renal Medullary Carcinoma, Collecting Duct Carcinoma, and Fumarate Hydratase-deficient Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ohe, Chisato; Smith, Steven C; Sirohi, Deepika; Divatia, Mukul; de Peralta-Venturina, Mariza; Paner, Gladell P; Agaimy, Abbas; Amin, Mitual B; Argani, Pedram; Chen, Ying-Bei; Cheng, Liang; Colecchia, Maurizio; Compérat, Eva; Werneck da Cunha, Isabela; Epstein, Jonathan I; Gill, Anthony J; Hes, Ondřej; Hirsch, Michelle S; Jochum, Wolfram; Kunju, Lakshmi P; Maclean, Fiona; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; McKenney, Jesse K; Mehra, Rohit; Nesi, Gabriella; Osunkoya, Adeboye O; Picken, Maria M; Rao, Priya; Reuter, Victor E; de Oliveira Salles, Paulo Guilherme; Schultz, Luciana; Tickoo, Satish K; Tomlins, Scott A; Trpkov, Kiril; Amin, Mahul B

    2018-03-01

    Renal medullary carcinomas (RMCs) and collecting duct carcinomas (CDCs) are rare subsets of lethal high-stage, high-grade distal nephron-related adenocarcinomas with a predilection for the renal medullary region. Recent findings have established an emerging group of fumarate hydratase (FH)-deficient tumors related to hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC-RCCs) syndrome within this morphologic spectrum. Recently developed, reliable ancillary testing has enabled consistent separation between these tumor types. Here, we present the clinicopathologic features and differences in the morphologic patterns between RMC, CDC, and FH-deficient RCC in consequence of these recent developments. This study included a total of 100 cases classified using contemporary criteria and ancillary tests. Thirty-three RMCs (SMARCB1/INI1-deficient, hemoglobinopathy), 38 CDCs (SMARCB1/INI1-retained), and 29 RCCs defined by the FH-deficient phenotype (FH/2SC or FH/2SC with FH mutation, regardless of HLRCC syndromic stigmata/history) were selected. The spectrum of morphologic patterns was critically evaluated, and the differences between the morphologic patterns present in the 3 groups were analyzed statistically. Twenty-five percent of cases initially diagnosed as CDC were reclassified as FH-deficient RCC on the basis of our contemporary diagnostic approach. Among the different overlapping morphologic patterns, sieve-like/cribriform and reticular/yolk sac tumor-like patterns favored RMCs, whereas intracystic papillary and tubulocystic patterns favored FH-deficient RCC. The tubulopapillary pattern favored both CDCs and FH-deficient RCCs, and the multinodular infiltrating papillary pattern favored CDCs. Infiltrating glandular and solid sheets/cords/nested patterns were not statistically different among the 3 groups. Viral inclusion-like macronucleoli, considered as a hallmark of HLRCC-RCCs, were observed significantly more frequently in FH-deficient RCCs. Despite the

  1. [Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary. Morphological and clinical features].

    PubMed

    Kommoss, F; Kommoss, S; Eichhorn, J; Schmidt, D

    2007-05-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary (TCC-O) is a less common type of malignant surface epithelial-stromal tumor of the ovary, still with uncertain incidence. Histologically, TCC-O resembles urothelial carcinoma of the urinary system, and by definition does not contain a Brenner tumor component. TCC-O may not be a bona fide urothelial neoplasm, however, but rather a lesion of the Müllerian type derived from the ovarian surface epithelium. This notion is supported by the existence of mixed tumors consisting of TCC-O and other histological types of ovarian carcinoma, as well as the observation that TCC-O has a Müllerian type but not a urothelial-like immunohistochemical profile. Besides metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the urinary tract, the other types of ovarian carcinoma, as well as sex cord-stromal tumors such as adult granulosa cell tumors, have to be considered in the differential diagnosis of TCC-O. A recent analysis of a large series of advanced ovarian carcinomas treated by radical surgery and postoperative chemotherapy confirms studies that had suggested that TCC-O has a better prognosis (with current treatment) than that of the other histological types of ovarian carcinoma. Further studies applying standardized histopathological criteria are needed to clarify the true incidence and behavior of TCC-O. In addition, it is important to study the biological and molecular background of this apparently less aggressive phenotype.

  2. SIRT3 functions as a tumor suppressor in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xianchun; Wang, Nanzhu; Zhai, Hui; Wang, Rongpin; Wu, Jiahong; Pu, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the leading causes for cancer-related mortality worldwide. SIRT3 may function as either oncogene or tumor suppressor in a panel of cancers; however, the role of SIRT3 in hepatocellular carcinoma remains unclear. In this study, we assayed the expression level of SIRT3 in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. A loss-of-function approach was used to examine the effects of SIRT3 on biological activity, including cell proliferative activity and invasive potential. The results demonstrated that the expression levels of SIRT3 protein in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues were significantly downregulated compared with those in adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Furthermore, SIRT3 could decrease cell proliferation and inhibit cell migration/invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. Taken together, these results elucidated the function of SIRT3 in hepatocellular carcinoma development and suggested that SIRT3 might function as tumor suppressor in hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting PI3K/Akt pathway.

  3. The evolutionary scenario of hepatocellular carcinoma in Italy: an update.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Laura; Garuti, Francesca; Lenzi, Barbara; Pecorelli, Anna; Farinati, Fabio; Giannini, Edoardo G; Granito, Alessandro; Ciccarese, Francesca; Rapaccini, Gian Lodovico; Di Marco, Maria; Caturelli, Eugenio; Zoli, Marco; Borzio, Franco; Sacco, Rodolfo; Cammà, Calogero; Virdone, Roberto; Marra, Fabio; Felder, Martina; Morisco, Filomena; Benvegnù, Luisa; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Svegliati-Baroni, Gianluca; Foschi, Francesco Giuseppe; Missale, Gabriele; Masotto, Alberto; Nardone, Gerardo; Colecchia, Antonio; Bernardi, Mauro; Trevisani, Franco

    2017-02-01

    Epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma is changing worldwide. This study aimed at evaluating the changing scenario of aetiology, presentation, management and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in Italy during the last 15 years. Retrospective analysis of the ITA.LI.CA (Italian Liver Cancer) database including 5192 hepatocellular carcinoma patients managed in 24 centres from 2000 to 2014. Patients were divided into three groups according to the date of cancer diagnosis (2000-2004, 2005-2009 and 2010-2014). The main results were as follows: (i) progressive patient aging; (ii) progressive expansion of non-viral cases and, namely, of "metabolic" hepatocellular carcinomas; (iii) increasing proportion of hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosed during a correct (semi-annual) surveillance programme; (iv) favourable cancer stage migration; (v) increased use of radiofrequency ablation to the detriment of percutaneous ethanol injection; (vi) improved outcomes of ablative and transarterial treatments; (vii) improved overall survival (adjusted for the lead time in surveyed patients), particularly after 2009, of both viral and non-viral patients presenting with an early- or intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma. During the last 15 years several aetiological and clinical features of hepatocellular carcinoma patients have changed, as their management. The observed improvement of overall survival was owing both to the wider use of semi-annual surveillance, expanding the proportion of tumours that qualified for curative treatments, and to the improved outcome of loco-regional treatments. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Targeted mutation analysis of endometrial clear cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Lien N; McConechy, Melissa K; Meng, Bo; McIntyre, John B; Ewanowich, Carol; Gilks, Cyril Blake; Huntsman, David G; Köbel, Martin; Lee, Cheng-Han

    2015-04-01

    Endometrial clear cell carcinomas (CCC) constitute fewer than 5% of all carcinomas of the endometrium. Currently, little is known regarding the genetic basis of endometrial CCC. We performed genomic and immunohistochemical analyses on 14 rigorously reviewed pure endometrial CCC. The genomic analysis consisted of sequencing the coding regions of 26 genes implicated previously in endometrial carcinoma. Twelve of 14 tumours displayed a prototypical CCC immunophenotype [napsin A+, hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β (HNF1β(+) ) and oestrogen receptor(-) ] and all showed intact mismatch repair protein expression. We detected mutations in 11 of 14 tumours, and there was a predominance of mutations involving genes that are mutated more frequently in endometrial serous carcinomas than in endometrioid carcinomas. Two tumours displayed a prototypical serous carcinoma mutation profile (concurrent TP53 and PPP2R1A mutations, without PTEN, CTNNB1 or ARID1A mutation). No mutations in PTEN, CTNNB1 or POLE were identified. The overall mutation profile of this cohort of endometrial CCC appears to be more serous-like than endometrioid-like, with a minor subset in the TP53-mutated CCC showing serous carcinoma profile. These findings provide new insights into the molecular features of morphologically prototypical endometrial CCC, and underscore the need for further investigations into the oncogenesis of endometrial CCC. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A qualitative signature for early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma based on relative expression orderings.

    PubMed

    Ao, Lu; Zhang, Zimei; Guan, Qingzhou; Guo, Yating; Guo, You; Zhang, Jiahui; Lv, Xingwei; Huang, Haiyan; Zhang, Huarong; Wang, Xianlong; Guo, Zheng

    2018-04-23

    Currently, using biopsy specimens to confirm suspicious liver lesions of early hepatocellular carcinoma are not entirely reliable because of insufficient sampling amount and inaccurate sampling location. It is necessary to develop a signature to aid early hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis using biopsy specimens even when the sampling location is inaccurate. Based on the within-sample relative expression orderings of gene pairs, we identified a simple qualitative signature to distinguish both hepatocellular carcinoma and adjacent non-tumour tissues from cirrhosis tissues of non-hepatocellular carcinoma patients. A signature consisting of 19 gene pairs was identified in the training data sets and validated in 2 large collections of samples from biopsy and surgical resection specimens. For biopsy specimens, 95.7% of 141 hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and all (100%) of 108 cirrhosis tissues of non-hepatocellular carcinoma patients were correctly classified. Especially, all (100%) of 60 hepatocellular carcinoma adjacent normal tissues and 77.5% of 80 hepatocellular carcinoma adjacent cirrhosis tissues were classified to hepatocellular carcinoma. For surgical resection specimens, 99.7% of 733 hepatocellular carcinoma specimens were correctly classified to hepatocellular carcinoma, while 96.1% of 254 hepatocellular carcinoma adjacent cirrhosis tissues and 95.9% of 538 hepatocellular carcinoma adjacent normal tissues were classified to hepatocellular carcinoma. In contrast, 17.0% of 47 cirrhosis from non-hepatocellular carcinoma patients waiting for liver transplantation were classified to hepatocellular carcinoma, indicating that some patients with long-lasting cirrhosis could have already gained hepatocellular carcinoma characteristics. The signature can distinguish both hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and tumour-adjacent tissues from cirrhosis tissues of non-hepatocellular carcinoma patients even using inaccurately sampled biopsy specimens, which can aid early

  6. Macroalgae Extracts From Antarctica Have Antimicrobial and Anticancer Potential

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Rosiane M.; Nedel, Fernanda; Guimarães, Victoria B. S.; da Silva, Adriana F.; Colepicolo, Pio; de Pereira, Claudio M. P.; Lund, Rafael G.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Macroalgae are sources of bioactive compounds due to the large number of secondary metabolites they synthesize. The Antarctica region is characterized by extreme weather conditions and abundant aggregations of macroalgae. However, current knowledge on their biodiversity and their potential for bio-prospecting is still fledging. This study evaluates the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of different extracts of four macroalgae (Cystosphaera jacquinotii, Iridaea cordata, Himantothallus grandifolius, and Pyropia endiviifolia) from the Antarctic region against cancer and non-cancer cell lines. Methods: The antimicrobial activity of macroalgae was evaluated by the broth microdilution method. Extracts were assessed against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 19095, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 4083, Escherichia coli ATCC29214, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Candida albicans ATCC 62342, and the clinical isolates from the human oral cavity, namely, C. albicans (3), C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C. lipolytica, and C. famata. Cytotoxicity against human epidermoid carcinoma (A-431) and mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3) cell lines was evaluated with MTT colorimetric assay. Results: An ethyl acetate extract of H. grandifolius showed noticeable antifungal activity against all fungal strains tested, including fluconazole-resistant samples. Cytotoxicity investigation with a cancer cell line revealed that the ethyl acetate extract of I. cordata was highly cytotoxic against A-431 cancer cell line, increasing the inhibitory ratio to 91.1 and 95.6% after 24 and 48 h exposure, respectively, for a concentration of 500 μg mL−1. Most of the algal extracts tested showed little or no cytotoxicity against fibroblasts. Conclusion: Data suggest that macroalgae extracts from Antarctica may represent a source of therapeutic agents. HIGHLIGHTS Different macroalgae samples from Antarctica were collected and the lyophilized biomass of each macroalgae was extracted sequentially with

  7. GLUT-1 immunoexpression in oral epithelial dysplasia, oral squamous cell carcinoma, and verrucous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Angadi, Vidya C; Angadi, Punnya V

    2015-06-01

    Glucose transporters, such as GLUT-1, mediate the important mechanisms involved in cellular glucose influx, allowing cells to proliferate and survive. The significance of GLUT-1 expression in oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been less explored, and no study has investigated it in relation to verrucous carcinoma (VC). We evaluated 30 cases each of OED, OSCC, and VC, graded further on the basis of their differentiation, immunohistochemically for GLUT-1 expression, along with 10 specimens of normal oral mucosa (NOM) as controls. In OSCC, GLUT-1 expression increased with the degree of dysplasia and increasing grade (P < 0.001). The expression in VC was predominantly membranous and intense, resembling well differentiated OSCC. This increase of GLUT-1 expression in OSCC along with the degree of dysplasia and the histologic grade reflects the expanding glycolytic response to hypoxia. This is the first study to have revealed prominent GLUT-1 expression in VC, highlighting its inherent metabolic capacity.

  8. WT1 immunoreactivity in breast carcinoma: selective expression in pure and mixed mucinous subtypes.

    PubMed

    Domfeh, Akosua B; Carley, AnnaMarie L; Striebel, Joan M; Karabakhtsian, Rouzan G; Florea, Anca V; McManus, Kim; Beriwal, Sushil; Bhargava, Rohit

    2008-10-01

    Current literature suggests that strong WT1 expression in a carcinoma of unknown origin virtually excludes a breast primary. Our previous pilot study on WT1 expression in breast carcinomas has shown WT1 expression in approximately 10% of carcinomas that show mixed micropapillary and mucinous morphology (Mod Pathol 2007;20(Suppl 2):38A). To definitively assess as to what subtype of breast carcinoma might express WT1 protein, we examined 153 cases of invasive breast carcinomas. These consisted of 63 consecutive carcinomas (contained 1 mucinous tumor), 20 cases with micropapillary morphology (12 pure and 8 mixed), 6 micropapillary 'mimics' (ductal no special type carcinomas with retraction artifacts), 33 pure mucinous carcinomas and 31 mixed mucinous carcinomas (mucinous mixed with other morphologic types). Overall, WT1 expression was identified in 33 carcinomas, that is, 22 of 34 (65%) pure mucinous carcinomas and in 11 of 33 (33%) mixed mucinous carcinomas. The non-mucinous component in these 11 mixed mucinous carcinomas was either a ductal no special type carcinoma (8 cases) or a micropapillary component (3 cases). WT1 expression level was similar in both the mucinous and the non-mucinous components. The degree of WT1 expression was generally weak to moderate (>90% cases) and rarely strong (<10% cases). None of the breast carcinoma subtype unassociated with mucinous component showed WT1 expression.

  9. Merkel Cell Carcinoma Metastatic to Pleural Fluid: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Ye-Young; Kim, Soo Hee; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Se Hoon

    2018-05-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin that shows locoregional or distant metastasis. Metastasis of MCC to body cavity effusion is extremely rare; only three cases have been reported so far. Metastatic MCC in effusion cytology shows small blue round cells with fine stippled chromatin like other small blue round cell tumors such as small cell lung carcinoma or lymphoma. The diagnosis of metastatic MCC can grant patients good chances at recently advanced therapeutic options. Here, we present a case of metastatic MCC to pleural effusion with characteristic single file-like pattern.

  10. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sacs in three dogs.

    PubMed

    Mellett, S; Verganti, S; Murphy, S; Bowlt, K

    2015-03-01

    Anal sac squamous cell carcinoma is rare in dogs. Five cases have been previously reported, treatment of which involved surgery alone. This report describes three further cases of canine anal sac squamous cell carcinoma which underwent medical (meloxicam) management alone, resulting in survival of up to seven months. No metastases were identified. Squamous cell carcinoma, although extremely uncommon, should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis when a dog is presented for investigation of an anal sac mass. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  11. Relatively Long Survival in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Presenting With Carcinoid Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nwokediuko, Sylvester Chuks; Uchenna, Ijoma; Esther, Ofoegbu; Okechukwu, Okafor; Augustine, Onuh; Charity, Ajuyah

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocelluar carcinoma is one of the commonest cancers in Nigeria. Some patients may manifest a variety of paraneoplastic syndromes. Carcinoid syndrome is an extremely rare presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma. A 57-year old man presented with recurrent facial flushing and diarrhea, tricuspid regurgitation, and very high level of urinary hydroxyindoleacetic acid (HIAA) as the first manifestation of a multicentric hepatic lesion which proved histologically to be hepatocellular carcinoma. The lesions also exhibited arterial hypervascularization on contrast enhanced computerized tomography. The patient is still alive after 6 years of symptoms. PMID:27956985

  12. [Verrucous carcinoma of the kidney: report of 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Sellami-Boudawara, T; Gouiaa, N; Makni, S; Sellami, A; Bahri, I; Mhiri, M N; Jlidi, R

    2001-07-01

    The verrucous carcinoma is an unusual shape of well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, first described at the ORL region; the kidney location is rare; the risk factors are represented essentially by lithiasis and/or urinary infection; the clinical symptom is not specific. Diagnosis is facilitated by radiological investigations and particularly excretory urogram/ultrasound; certainly diagnosis is pathological. The nephro-ureterectomy with collar resection of the bladder is the choice treatment. We report two observations and we clarify clinicopathological aspects of this type of carcinoma and we discuss the prognosis.

  13. Presentation of renal cell carcinoma as cervical polyp metastasis.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Gwendolyn J; Moore, Grace; Alatassi, Houda

    2010-10-01

    Secondary cervical adenocarcinomas are most commonly seen owing to the extension of a primary endometrial adenocarcinoma. Metastatic tumors from other sites are rather uncommon and, when seen, are most frequently from the ovaries, gastrointestinal tract, or breast. We report a case of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, clear cell variant, to the cervix, which presented as a cervical polyp in a postmenopausal female. To our knowledge, this is the fourth reported case of renal cell carcinoma metastatic to the cervix. This case is only the third in which the cervical metastasis was the presenting sign of renal cell carcinoma and the first in which the clinical presentation was as a cervical polyp.

  14. Papillary Carcinoma in Median Aberrant Thyroid (Ectopic) - Case Report

    PubMed Central

    K, Shashidhar; Deshmane, Vijaya Laxmi; Kumar, Veerendra; Arjunan, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Median ectopic thyroid may be encountered anywhere from the foramen caecum to the diaphragm. Non lingual median aberrant thyroid (incomplete descent) usually found in the infrahyoid region and malignant transformation in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report an extremely rare case of papillary carcinoma in non lingual median aberrant thyroid in a 25-year-old female. The differentiation between a carcinoma arising in the median ectopic thyroid tissue and a metastatic papillary carcinoma from an occult primary in the main thyroid gland is also discussed. PMID:25121039

  15. Papillary carcinoma in median aberrant thyroid (ectopic) - case report.

    PubMed

    Hebbar K, Ashwin; K, Shashidhar; Deshmane, Vijaya Laxmi; Kumar, Veerendra; Arjunan, Ravi

    2014-06-01

    Median ectopic thyroid may be encountered anywhere from the foramen caecum to the diaphragm. Non lingual median aberrant thyroid (incomplete descent) usually found in the infrahyoid region and malignant transformation in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report an extremely rare case of papillary carcinoma in non lingual median aberrant thyroid in a 25-year-old female. The differentiation between a carcinoma arising in the median ectopic thyroid tissue and a metastatic papillary carcinoma from an occult primary in the main thyroid gland is also discussed.

  16. Treatment options after sorafenib failure in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dika, Imane El

    2017-01-01

    Second line therapy after failure of sorafenib continues to be under study. Prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma is measured in months, with median overall survival reaching 10.7 months with sorafenib. Because of the modest net benefit sorafenib has contributed, and rising incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in the world, continued efforts are ongoing to look for efficient upfront, second line, or combination therapies. Herein we review the most relevant to date published literature on treatment options beyond sorafenib, reported studies, ongoing investigational efforts, and possibilities for future studies in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:29151326

  17. Renal cell carcinoma, unclassified with medullary phenotype: poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas overlapping with renal medullary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sirohi, Deepika; Smith, Steven C; Ohe, Chisato; Colombo, Piergiuseppe; Divatia, Mukul; Dragoescu, Ema; Rao, Priya; Hirsch, Michelle S; Chen, Ying-Bei; Mehra, Rohit; Amin, Mahul B

    2017-09-01

    Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is a highly aggressive renal cell carcinoma arising in the collecting system and requiring careful correlation with status of sickle cell trait. A panel of international experts has recently proposed provisional diagnostic terminology, renal cell carcinoma, unclassified, with medullary phenotype, based on encountering an extraordinarily rare tumor with RMC morphology and immunophenotype in an individual proven not to have a hemoglobinopathy. Herein, we extend this observation to a cohort of 5 such tumors, morphologically similar to RMC, lacking SMARCB1 expression by immunohistochemistry, but each without evidence of a hemoglobinopathy. The tumors arose in 4 men and 1 woman with a mean age of 44 years, occurring in 3 left and 2 right kidneys. Clinically, aggression was apparent with involvement of perinephric adipose tissue in all 5 cases, nodal metastasis in 4 of 5 cases, and death of disease in 4 of 5 cases within 3-27 months. Histologic sections showed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, often with solid and nested growth patterns, as well as infiltrative glandular, tubulopapillary, cribriform, or reticular growth. Rhabdoid and sarcomatoid cytomorphology was seen in a subset. All tumors showed PAX8 nuclear positivity and SMARCB1 loss, with OCT3/4 expression in 4 of 5 cases. In summary, this first series of renal cell carcinoma, unclassified, with medullary phenotype documents tumors with morphologic, immunophenotypic, and prognostic features of RMC occurring in individuals without sickle cell trait. Although greater biologic and molecular understanding is needed, the available evidence points to these cases representing a sporadic counterpart to sickle cell trait-associated RMC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular Genetic Evidence for a Common Clonal Origin of Urinary Bladder Small Cell Carcinoma and Coexisting Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Liang; Jones, Timothy D.; McCarthy, Ryan P.; Eble, John N.; Wang, Mingsheng; MacLennan, Gregory T.; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Yang, Ximing J.; Koch, Michael O.; Zhang, Shaobo; Pan, Chong-Xian; Baldridge, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    In most cases, small-cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is admixed with other histological types of bladder carcinoma. To understand the pathogenetic relationship between the two tumor types, we analyzed histologically distinct tumor cell populations from the same patient for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and X chromosome inactivation (in female patients). We examined five polymorphic microsatellite markers located on chromosome 3p25-26 (D3S3050), chromosome 9p21 (IFNA and D9S171), chromosome 9q32-33 (D9S177), and chromosome 17p13 (TP53) in 20 patients with small-cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and concurrent urothelial carcinoma. DNA samples were prepared from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections using laser-assisted microdissection. A nearly identical pattern of allelic loss was observed in the two tumor types in all cases, with an overall frequency of allelic loss of 90% (18 of 20 cases). Three patients showed different allelic loss patterns in the two tumor types at a single locus; however, the LOH patterns at the remaining loci were identical. Similarly, the same pattern of nonrandom X chromosome inactivation was present in both carcinoma components in the four cases analyzed. Concordant genetic alterations and X chromosome inactivation between small-cell carcinoma and coexisting urothelial carcinoma suggest that both tumor components originate from the same cells in the urothelium. PMID:15855652

  19. Carcinoma-specific Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I binding glycoproteins of human colorectal carcinoma and its relation to carcinoembryonic antigen.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Y; Yonezawa, S; Nakamura, T; Shimizu, S; Ozawa, M; Muramatsu, T; Sato, E

    1985-08-01

    Glycoproteins binding to Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) lectin, which recognizes the terminal alpha-L-fucose residue, were analyzed in 18 cases of human colorectal carcinoma by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by the Western blotting method. In the distal large bowel (descending and sigmoid colon and rectum), high-molecular-weight glycoproteins binding to UEA-I existed in carcinoma tissue but not in normal mucosa. In the proximal large bowel (ascending and transverse colon), high-molecular-weight glycoproteins binding to UEA-I were found both in normal mucosa and in carcinoma tissue, whereas those from the carcinoma tissue had an apparently lower molecular weight as compared to the weight of those from the normal mucosa. Thus there is a biochemical difference in UEA-I binding glycoproteins between the normal mucosa and the carcinoma tissue, although in our previous histochemical study no difference was observed in UEA-I binding glycoproteins of the proximal large bowel between the carcinoma tissue and the normal mucosa. Furthermore, carcinoembryonic antigen from the carcinoma tissue was found to have the same electrophoretical mobility as the UEA-I binding glycoproteins.

  20. Perineural Infiltration of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Basal Cell Carcinoma Without Clinical Features

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Charles, E-mail: Charles_Lin@health.qld.gov.au; Tripcony, Lee; Keller, Jacqui

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To review the factors that influence outcome and patterns of relapse in patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with perineural infiltration (PNI) without clinical or radiologic features, treated with surgery and radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2004, 222 patients with SCC or BCC with PNI on pathologic examination but without clinical or radiologic PNI features were identified. Charts were reviewed retrospectively and relevant data collected. All patients were treated with curative intent; all had radiotherapy, and most had surgery. The primary endpoint was 5-year relapse-free survival from the time of diagnosis.more » Results: Patients with SCC did significantly worse than those with BCC (5-year relapse-free survival, 78% vs. 91%; p < 0.01). Squamous cell carcinoma with PNI at recurrence did significantly worse than de novo in terms of 5-year local failure (40% vs. 19%; p < 0.01) and regional relapse (29% vs. 5%; p < 0.01). Depth of invasion was also a significant factor. Of the PNI-specific factors for SCC, focal PNI did significantly better than more-extensive PNI, but involved nerve diameter or presence of PNI at the periphery of the tumor were not significant factors. Conclusions: Radiotherapy in conjunction with surgery offers an acceptable outcome for cutaneous SCC and BCC with PNI. This study suggests that focal PNI is not an adverse feature.« less

  1. Differential senescence capacities in meibomian gland carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Leilei; Huang, Xiaolin; Zhu, Xiaowei; Ge, Shengfang; Gilson, Eric; Jia, Renbing; Ye, Jing; Fan, Xianqun

    2016-03-15

    Meibomian gland carcinoma (MGC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are common eyelid carcinomas that exhibit highly dissimilar degrees of proliferation and prognoses. We address here the question of the differential mechanisms between these two eyelid cancers that explain their different outcome. A total of 102 confirmed MGC and 175 diagnosed BCC cases were analyzed. Twenty confirmed MGC and twenty diagnosed BCC cases were collected to determine the telomere length, the presence of senescent cells, and the expression levels of the telomere capping shelterin complex, P53, and the E3 ubiquitin ligase Siah1. Decreased protein levels of the shelterin subunits, shortened telomere length, over-expressed Ki-67, and Bcl2 as well as mutations in P53 were detected both in MGC and BCC. It suggests that the decreased protein levels of the shelterin complex and the shortened telomere length contribute to the tumorigenesis of MGC and BCC. However, several parameters distinguish MGC from BCC samples: (i) the mRNA level of the shelterin subunits decreased in MGC but it increased in BCC; (ii) P53 was more highly mutated in MGC; (iii) Siah1 mRNA was over-expressed in BCC; (iv) BCC samples contain a higher level of senescent cells; (v) Ki-67 and Bcl2 expression were lower in BCC. These results support a model where a preserved P53 checkpoint in BCC leads to cellular senescence and reduced tumor proliferation as compared to MGC. © 2015 UICC.

  2. Comparative clinicopathological and cytomorphological analyses of peritoneal carcinomatosis associated with metastatic breast carcinoma and primary peritoneal/ovarian carcinoma in patients with a history of breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Na, Kiyong; Lee, Jung-Yun; Sung, Ji-Youn; Kim, Gun Min; Koo, Ja Seung; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2018-06-20

    Causes of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) in patients with a history of breast carcinoma include both metastatic breast carcinoma (MBC) and primary peritoneal/ovarian carcinoma (PPOC). The origin of PC is important to determine the appropriate treatment strategy. Cytological examination of the peritoneal fluid (PF), which may be the first diagnostic approach to PC, is of distinct value in confirming the presence of malignant cells and determining the origin of PC. We analyzed the clinicopathological and cytomorphological characteristics of 33 patients with a history of breast carcinoma whose PF cytology contained malignant cells. Cases showing positive immunoreactivity for PAX8 and a lack of GATA3 expression were considered as PPOC. Sixteen patients developed PC caused by PPOC. PPOC patients were characterized by early-stage primary breast carcinoma, absence of non-peritoneal MBC before PC, and normal serum levels of CEA and CA15-3. Fourteen PPOC patients had pathogenic germline BRCA mutations. Cytological examination revealed that most of the PPOC cases had a dominant papillary arrangement of the tumor cells with severe nuclear pleomorphism, occasional bizarre nuclei, and atypical mitotic figures. Patients with PPOC who underwent cytoreductive surgery had a significantly longer survival time compared to those who did not, or MBC patients. In patients with a history of breast carcinoma presenting with PC, the presence of early-stage primary breast carcinoma, no prior non-peritoneal MBC, and a dominant papillary cellular arrangement pattern in the PF cytology were independent predictors of PPOC. Cytoreductive surgery significantly improved survival for patients with PPOC.

  3. [Prediction of occult carcinoma in contralateral nodules based on the ultrasonic features of unilateral papillary thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Yang, L M; Li, Q; Zhao, B W; Lyu, J G; Xu, H S; Xu, L L; Li, S Y; Gao, L; Zhu, J

    2017-04-07

    Objective: To investigate the occurrence of occult carcinoma in contralateral lobes based on the ultrasonic features of unilateral papillary thyroid carcinoma. Methods: The study included 202 consecutives cases of unilateral papillary thyroid carcinoma with benign nodules in the contralateral lobe identified by preoperative ultrasound or fine-needle aspiration from June 2014 to December 2015. All patients received total thyroidectomies, and with postoperative pathological examination they were divided into two groups, one including 60 cases with positive occult cancer and another one consisting of 142 cases with negative occult cancer. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to analyze the sonographic features of unilateral papillary thyroid carcinoma relevant to the occurrence of occult carcinoma in the contralateral nodules. Results: Univariate analysis indicated occult carcinoma in the contralateral lobes was associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis(χ(2)=3.955, P =0.047), unclear border (χ(2)=4.375, P =0.036)and multifocality in the ipsilateral(χ(2)=7.375, P =0.007), but not with tumors maximum size, location, A/T, shape, internal structure, internal echo, acoustic halo, calcification, capsular invasion and blood flow signal in the lobe with carcinoma on another side. Multivariate analysis showed unclear border ( OR =2.727, P =0.010) and multifocality in the ipsilateral( OR =2.807, P =0.005)of carcinoma were independent predictive factor for contralateral occult PTC. Conclusions: Unclear border and multifocality of PTC in the ipsilateral were closely relevant to the occurrence of occult carcinoma in the contralateral nodules.

  4. Sunitinib, Cetuximab, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-01

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  5. Armc8 expression was elevated during atypia-to-carcinoma progression and associated with cancer development of breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chuifeng; Zhao, Yang; Mao, Xiaoyun; Miao, Yuan; Lin, Xuyong; Jiang, Guiyang; Zhang, Xiupeng; Han, Qiang; Luan, Lan; Wang, Enhua

    2014-11-01

    Armadillo repeat-containing protein 8 (Armc8) is a key factor to regulate cell membrane adhesion complex through promoting α-catenin degradation. However, its expression and function in human malignant tumors are largely unknown. Here, we present our study investigating Armc8 expression in tumor and non-tumor breast tissues including 45 normal epithelia, 53 lesions of hyperplasia with or without dysplasia, 22 benign tumors, and 92 carcinomas including 28 carcinomas in situ and 64 infiltrating carcinomas using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blotting study. Armc8 expression was detected mainly in the cytoplasm with occasional membrane immunostaining. The positive rate of Armc8 expression in normal breast epithelia (8.9%, four out of 45) was very low. No significant difference was found between Armc8 expression in usual ductal hyperplasia (UDH) (11.1%, two out of 18), benign breast tumors including intraductal papilloma (10.0%, one out of 10) and fibroadenoma (8.3%, one out of 12), and normal breast epithelia (p>0.05). Elevated expression of Armc8 was found in breast epithelia with dysplasia (24.0%, six out of 25) compared to that in normal breast epithelia, UDH, and benign breast tumors (p<0.05). Armc8 expression in breast carcinoma including breast carcinoma in situ (10/28, 35.7%), infiltrating ductal carcinoma (60.7%, 34/56), and infiltrating lobular carcinoma (50.0%, 4/8) was higher than that in normal breast epithelia, UDH, benign breast tumors, and breast epithelia with dysplasia (p<0.05). The highest expression of Armc8 was found in infiltrating breast carcinoma (59.4%, 38/64) compared to all the other breast tissues. Higher Armc8 expression was found to be linked to lymph node metastasis and advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stages (III+IV) in infiltrating breast carcinoma (p<0.05). We further confirmed Armc8 expression in breast epithelial cell line MCF10A and breast carcinoma cell lines including MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and ZR751 using Western

  6. [Stomach carcinoma as a surgical emergency].

    PubMed

    Maurer, C A; Lindemann, W; Schilling, M K

    2002-01-01

    Perforated or bleeding gastric cancer is a life threatening situation that occurs in less than 10% of all patients with gastric cancer in the Western world. Three quarters of these complicated gastric carcinomas show advanced stages (UICC stages III and IV). Diagnosis is made intraoperatively only in the majority of patients. Emergency gastrectomy is superior to any type of local excision and/or local repair regarding surgical mortality and long-term survival and should be the intervention of choice. Stage-related long term survival of patients with emergency gastrectomy is comparable to that of electively resected patients. Minimalism and nihilism are therefore not appropriate in the treatment of complicated gastric cancer and are often deleterious. Subtotal gastrectomy without D2 lymphadenectomy is regarded as the adeqauate procedure in most cases.

  7. Role of laser therapy in bladder carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Brent A.; de Riese, Werner T.

    2001-05-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder is most common genitourinary tract cancer and its treatment comprises a large number of surgical procedures in urological oncology. Seventy-five percent (75%) of cases recur within two years and the recurrence rate is correlated with the grade of the initial tumor. While Transurethral Resection of the Bladder (TURB) is the current standard of care, the use of laser offers a proven alternative. Sufficient evidence is available that laser treatment of superficial bladder cancer is as effective as TURB. Laser treatment offers several advantages such as decreased incidence of bladder perforation, a near bloodless procedure, catheter-free procedure, and the possibility of outpatient therapy. It has been reported that laser treatment may reduce the recurrence rate of TCC as compared to electrocautery resection. Furthermore, some studies suggest seeding can be avoided with laser resection; however, both items remain highly controversial.

  8. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising within Seborrheic Keratosis

    PubMed Central

    Yurdakul, Cüneyt; Güçer, Hasan; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Malignant tumour development within a seborrheic keratosis (SK) is extremely rare. Though the most commonly developed malignant tumour is the basal cell carcinoma (BCC), other tumour types have also been reported in literature. Herein, we will report a superficial type BCC case developed within SK localized in hairy skin of a 78-year-old female patient. In immunohistochemical evaluation, diffuse positive staining with CK19 and over-expression in p53 compared with non-neoplastic areas were determined in neoplastic basaloid islands. It is always not easy to differentiate especially superficial type BCC cases from non-neoplastic epithelium of SK with histopathological evaluation. As far as this reason we believe that in difficult differentiation of these 2 lesions, in order to show the differentiation in basal epithelium, immunohistochemical evaluation may be helpful. PMID:25177624

  9. Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma: University of Cincinnati experience

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Nagla Abdel; Schuster, James; Eldessouki, Ihab; Gaber, Ola; Namad, Tariq; Wang, Jiang; Xie, Changchun; Morris, John C.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To review the outcomes of treatment in patients with pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma (PSC) treated at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center (UCMC). Results There was no significant difference in survival of patients treated with chemotherapy alone (median, 256 days) compared to patients not undergoing treatment (median, 205.5 days). Patients who underwent surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy showed a trend in improvement of survival (median, 457.6 days). Patients requiring only surgery had the longest OS of 713.5 days. Conclusions Systemic chemotherapy alone did not improve survival in patients with PSC. Surgery provides the greatest overall survival benefit and adjuvant chemotherapy may also improve survival. Methods From 2000 to 2014, twenty-five patients with pathologically confirmed PSC were treated at UCMC. The outcomes were retrospectively analyzed by treatment with overall survival (OS) as the endpoint. PMID:29423107

  10. Gene therapy for carcinoma of the breast

    PubMed Central

    Stoff-Khalili, MA; Dall, P; Curiel, DT

    2007-01-01

    In view of the limited success of available treatment modalities for breast cancer, alternative and complementary strategies need to be developed. The delineation of the molecular basis of breast cancer provides the possibility of specific intervention by gene therapy through the introduction of genetic material for therapeutic purposes. In this regard, several gene therapy approaches for carcinoma of the breast have been developed. These approaches can be divided into six broad categories: (1) mutation compensation, (2) molecular chemotherapy, (3) proapoptotic gene therapy, (4) antiangiogenic gene therapy, (5) genetic immunopotentiation, and (6) genetic modulation of resistance/sensitivity. Clinical trials for breast cancer have been initiated to evaluate safety, toxicity, and efficacy. Combined modality therapy with gene therapy and chemotherapy or radiation therapy has shown promising results. It is expected that as new therapeutic targets and approaches are identified and advances in vector design are realized, gene therapy will play an increasing role in clinical breast cancer treatment. PMID:16410823

  11. A flowgraph model for bladder carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Superficial bladder cancer has been the subject of numerous studies for many years, but the evolution of the disease still remains not well understood. After the tumor has been surgically removed, it may reappear at a similar level of malignancy or progress to a higher level. The process may be reasonably modeled by means of a Markov process. However, in order to more completely model the evolution of the disease, this approach is insufficient. The semi-Markov framework allows a more realistic approach, but calculations become frequently intractable. In this context, flowgraph models provide an efficient approach to successfully manage the evolution of superficial bladder carcinoma. Our aim is to test this methodology in this particular case. Results We have built a successful model for a simple but representative case. Conclusion The flowgraph approach is suitable for modeling of superficial bladder cancer. PMID:25080066

  12. Small cell sweat gland carcinoma of childhood

    PubMed Central

    Drut, R; Giménez, O P; Oliva, J

    2005-01-01

    Small cell sweat gland carcinoma appears to represent a very unusual histological type of sweat gland anlage tumour presenting in children. The differential diagnosis from other small blue cell tumours involving the skin is often difficult. The present report confirms the original observation describing two patients of 2 and 5 years of age harbouring cutaneous tumours. The histology of these lesions showed a monomorphic proliferation of small cells with a high mitotic rate and areas of necrosis. Immunohistochemically, the cells were negative for desmin, cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 20, Cam 5.2, CD99, chromogranin, CD56, synaptophysin, and S-100, and focally positive for the pancytokeratin marker AE1/AE3, carcinoembryonic antigen (one case), and neurone specific enolase (one case). The prognosis of this type of tumour seems to be good. As more cases are added, the clinical pathological spectrum of the lesion will become better defined. PMID:16311358

  13. Bronchoalveolar carcinoma: current treatment and future trends.

    PubMed

    Laskin, Janessa J

    2004-12-01

    Bronchoalveolar carcinoma (BAC) is a subtype of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with unique clinical and pathologic characteristics. The most recent classification system defines BAC as a primary lung cancer that tends to be peripheral and grow in a lepedic fashion along the alveolar septae without parenchymal invasion. Most of the clinical information on BAC comes from retrospective institutional reviews; however, recent studies have focused more specifically on BAC. In particular, clinical trials of molecular-targeted anticancer therapies against the epidermal growth factor receptor have led to a deeper understanding of the distinct features of this cancer and suggest that BAC may require a therapeutic paradigm different from that of other NSCLCs.

  14. [Muscular metastases from renal cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Montagnac, Richard; Champion, Justine; Pradel, Jean; Takin, Romulus; Eychenne, Dominique; Schendel, Adeline

    2016-12-01

    Renal cell carcinoma can metastasize to several locations but rarely in muscles. However, this possibility must never be overlooked because muscle metastases may occur a very long time after the initial nephrectomy. So the post-operative follow-up, according to the recommendations, with thoraco-abdomino-pelvic imaging (computed tomography or nuclear magnetic resonance) allowing to detect metastases, including muscle metastases in the trunk, does not have to neglect the metastases located in the members. This search is based upon a thorough clinical examination, completed by targeted imaging in case of symptoms and/or palpable mass. Copyright © 2016 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Subungual squamous cell carcinoma: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Neill, Cory J., E-mail: coryjneill@gmail.com

    The purpose of this case study is to describe a dosimetric delivery of radiation to a superficial disease process involving the skin and bone of the distal finger. A 76-year-old male patient presented with a subungual squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the left distal index finger with bony involvement. The patient refused conventional surgical treatment but agreed to external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). There is a gap in the current literature describing how to successfully immobilize fingers and which EBRT modality is dosimetrically advantageous in treating them. The construction of a simple immobilization method with the patient in a reproduciblemore » position is described. The use of photons and electrons were compared ultimately showing photons to be dosimetrically advantageous. Long-term efficacy of the treatment was not evaluated because of patient noncompliance.« less

  16. Circular RNA expression in basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sand, Michael; Bechara, Falk G; Sand, Daniel; Gambichler, Thilo; Hahn, Stephan A; Bromba, Michael; Stockfleth, Eggert; Hessam, Schapoor

    2016-05-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs), are nonprotein coding RNAs consisting of a circular loop with multiple miRNA, binding sites called miRNA response elements (MREs), functioning as miRNA sponges. This study was performed to identify differentially expressed circRNAs and their MREs in basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Microarray circRNA expression profiles were acquired from BCC and control followed by qRT-PCR validation. Bioinformatical target prediction revealed multiple MREs. Sequence analysis was performed concerning MRE interaction potential with the BCC miRNome. We identified 23 upregulated and 48 downregulated circRNAs with 354 miRNA response elements capable of sequestering miRNA target sequences of the BCC miRNome. The present study describes a variety of circRNAs that are potentially involved in the molecular pathogenesis of BCC.

  17. Adenoma–carcinoma sequence in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pinho, André Costa; Melo, Renato Bessa; Oliveira, Manuel; Almeida, Marinho; Lopes, Joanne; Graça, Luís; Costa-Maia, J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Cholangiocarcinoma is a rare tumor but recent data report a worldwide increase in incidence and mortality. There are several risk factors associated with cholangiocarcinoma, and chronic inflammation of billiary tree seems to be implied in the cholangiocarcinogenesis, but little is known about this process. Presentation of case We present a 56-year-old female with a bile duct adenoma incidentally discovered in the follow up of breast cancer that 18 months later progress to intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Discussion This is a rare presentation of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma that suggests the classic adenoma-carcinoma sequence in cholangiocarcinogenesis. Furthermore this case gives rise to some questions about the possible common ground on intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and breast cancer. Conclusion Cholangiocarcinogenesis is a complex multi-step mechanism and further investigations are needed to fully understand this process. PMID:22326450

  18. Embolotherapy in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mojtahedi, Alireza; Yang, Xiaoming; Goswami, Gaurav K

    2008-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranks fifth in frequency of cancers worldwide. The incidence of HCC in the United States is rising, primarily due to the number of patients who were infected by hepatitis in the 1960s and 1970s coupled with the rising migrant population from Asia, where hepatitis is widely prevalent. Up to 80% of the patients present with multicentric HCC and advanced liver disease or comorbidities that restrict the option of resection or liver transplantation. The dual blood supply (arterial and portal) to the liver with predominantly arterial supply to the tumor has made embolotherapy a cornerstone in the management of inoperable HCC. The techniques have become refined not only due to the development of microcatheter angiographic capabilities, but also in the ability to deliver a wide variety of therapeutic agents to these tumors. This article reviews the fundamental principles of bland embolization, chemoembolization, and radioembolization in the management of HCC.

  19. Hepatocellular carcinoma presenting as uterine metastasis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Woo Dae; Kim, Cheol Hong; Cho, Moon Kyung; Kim, Jong Woon; Lee, Ji Shin; Kim, Yoon Ha; Choi, Ho Sun; Kim, Seok Mo

    2008-09-01

    Metastatic extragenital cancer that spreads to the uterus is rare. When it occurs, the extragenital primary disease is often in the breast or gastrointestinal tract. We report here on a case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that metastasis to the uterus. The patient was admitted for evaluation of a pelvic mass. The serum alpha-fetoprotein level was highly elevated. Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen and pelvis showed hepatic and uterine masses. The patient underwent surgical treatment. The histopathologic findings and immunohistochemical staining results of the uterine mass were characteristics of metastatic HCC. The endometrium and both ovaries were free of tumor. Up to now, there have been only two cases of uterine metastasis from HCC reported in the English literature. This case is the first documented instance of a metastatic uterine tumor from HCC that spared both ovaries.

  20. Primary invasive squamous carcinoma of the vagina

    SciTech Connect

    Pride, G.L.; Schultz, A.E.; Chuprevich, T.W.

    1979-02-01

    Forty-three cases of primary vaginal squamous cell cancer were treated at the University of Wisconsin Hospital between 1956 and 1971. These cases comprised of 1.2% of patients admitted to the University Hospital with female genital tract cancer. Evidence is presented to support a modification of the currently accepted FIGO staging system for vaginal carcinoma (Stage II disease). Radiation therapy using both external beam and brachyradium equivalents or interstitial implantation of suitable isotopes was an effective method for the treatment of patients having early and locally advanced invasive vaginal cancer. The 5-year absolute survival rate for the entire series was 37.2%.more » Absolute survival rate by modified FIGO clinical staging was 66% for Stages I and IIA, 31% for Stage IIB, 25% for Stage III, and 0% for Stage IV.« less

  1. Ductal Carcinoma in Situ: Clinical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Thorsten

    2010-08-01

    Ductal carcinoma is situ (DCIS) is the fastest growing subtype of breast cancer, mainly because of improved screening activities. In contrast to invasive disease, DCIS is a local process with excellent survival rates. Current treatment strategies include surgery, radiotherapy (RT) and anti-hormonal treatment. The selection of an individual risk-adapted therapeutic approach remains controversial. This relates especially to the extent of surgery and the therapeutic index of adjuvant RT and tamoxifen. Several new trials have been published or updated recently that address important clinical issues. There is an urgent need to get more insight into the biological behaviour of different subtypes of DCIS, and develop more targeted and individualized treatment strategies. So far, surgery appears to be the most effective treatment modality. A morphology-based treatment model that allows complete resection of certain DCIS lesions without further adjuvant measures has not been evaluated prospectively and deserves further evaluation.

  2. Merkel cell polyomavirus and Merkel cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    DeCaprio, James A

    2017-10-19

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) causes the highly aggressive and relatively rare skin cancer known as Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). MCPyV also causes a lifelong yet relatively innocuous infection and is one of 14 distinct human polyomaviruses species. Although polyomaviruses typically do not cause illness in healthy individuals, several can cause catastrophic diseases in immunocompromised hosts. MCPyV is the only polyomavirus clearly associated with human cancer. How MCPyV causes MCC and what oncogenic events must transpire to enable this virus to cause MCC is the focus of this essay.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human oncogenic viruses'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Molecular Biology and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Alfa, Ghassan

    2007-01-01

    Advanced and metastatic hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) are challenging to treat, and no cytotoxic agents have impacted survival. The underlying liver cirrhosis that commonly accompanies HCC provides an additional challenge; indeed, functional scoring of cirrhosis and HCC is a critical component of patient evaluation. Currently, the molecular biology and pathogenesis of HCC are being increasingly investigated, which may lead to better understanding of the evolution of the disease, especially differing etiologies and identification of survival genes that may affect outcome. Early studies of targeted therapies in HCC have shown disease stabilization, and an increased understanding of the mechanism(s) of these novel agents combined with correlative studies may lead to the identification of an active agent or combination of agents that impacts the natural history of HCC. PMID:17178294

  4. Prognostic Effect of Carcinoma In Situ in Muscle-invasive Urothelial Carcinoma Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Derek E.; Kaimakliotis, Hristos Z.; Rice, Kevin R.; Pereira, Jose A.; Johnston, Paul; Moore, Marietta L.; Reed, Angela; Cregar, Dylan M.; Franklin, Cindy; Loman, Rhoda L.; Koch, Michael O.; Bihrle, Richard; Foster, Richard S.; Masterson, Timothy A.; Gardner, Thomas A.; Sundaram, Chandru P.; Powell, Charles R.; Beck, Stephen D.W.; Grignon, David J.; Cheng, Liang; Albany, Costantine; Hahn, Noah M.

    2017-01-01

    We performed a single-institution retrospective analysis of 137 patients with muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical cystectomy to assess the prognostic significance of carcinoma in situ (CIS). The pathologic complete response rates were significantly decreased for patients with CIS identified on transurethral resection of the bladder tumor before treatment. The long-term follow-up data from patients with isolated CIS at cystectomy revealed prolonged progression-free and overall survival. Background Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is a poor prognostic finding in urothelial carcinoma. However, its significance in muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma (MIUC) treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is uncertain. We assessed the effect of CIS found in pretreatment transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) biopsies on the pathologic and clinical outcomes. Materials and Methods Subjects with MIUC treated with NAC before cystectomy were identified. The pathologic complete response (pCR) rates stratified by TURBT CIS status were compared. The secondary analyses included tumor response, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and an exploratory post hoc analysis of patients with pathologic CIS only (pTisN0) at cystectomy. Results A total of 137 patients with MIUC were identified. TURBT CIS was noted in 30.7% of the patients. The absence of TURBT CIS was associated with a significantly increased pCR rate (23.2% vs. 9.5%; odds ratio, 4.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.19–13.98; P = .025). Stage pTisN0 disease was observed in 19.0% of the TURBT CIS patients. TURBT CIS status did not significantly affect the PFS or OS outcomes. Post hoc analysis of the pTisN0 patients revealed prolonged median PFS (104.5 vs. 139.9 months; P = .055) and OS (104.5 vs. 152.3 months; P = .091) outcomes similar to those for the pCR patients. Conclusion The absence of CIS on pretreatment TURBT in patients with MIUC undergoing NAC was

  5. Laryngeal Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Marchiano, Emily; Chin, Oliver Y; Fang, Christina H; Park, Richard Chan; Baredes, Soly; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2016-03-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant minor salivary gland tumor that represents <1% of all laryngeal tumors. The submucosal location of laryngeal adenoid cystic carcinoma (LACC) results in delayed presentation. Here, we present the first systematic review of reported cases of LACC to determine trends in presentation, diagnostic and treatment modalities, and patient outcome. PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases. A search of the above databases was done to identify articles reporting cases of LACC. The variables included in the analysis were patient demographics, presenting symptoms, tumor location, imaging, treatment, follow-up time, recurrence, and outcome. A total of 50 articles and 120 cases were included in the review. The most common presenting symptom was dyspnea (48.8%), followed by hoarseness (43.9%). LACC arose most frequently from the subglottis (56.7%). At presentation, 14.6% (13 of 89) of patients had regional disease. The average follow-up time was 54.0 months. At follow-up, distant metastasis was reported in 30 cases (33.3%). Surgery alone (43.3%) and surgery with radiotherapy (43.3%) were used most frequently and resulted in 57.1% and 55.3% of patients alive with no evidence disease at follow-up, respectively. LACC was most often located in the subglottis. Patients commonly presented with dyspnea and hoarseness. In this systematic review, surgery with radiotherapy and surgery alone were the most commonly employed treatment modalities, and both resulted in slightly more than 50% of patients alive with no evidence of disease at follow-up. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  6. Understanding Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the most common form of kidney cancer in adults, is not a single disease but rather a collection of different tumor types driven by distinct genetic changes that arise within the same tissue.

  7. [Verrucous carcinoma of the vulva: a tailored treatment].

    PubMed

    Louis-Sylvestre, C; Chopin, N; Constancis, E; Plantier, F; Paniel, B-J

    2003-11-01

    Verrucous carcinoma is a rare form of vulvar squamous carcinoma, with particular clinical presentation and histological description. We analyze the specificity of the treatment of this form. We analyzed the records of 8 patients treated in our hospital between 1995 and 2001. In the absence of an associated lesion, the treatment was partial vulvectomy without lymph node dissection. A close follow-up was then organized. Mean age was 76 years (range 54 to 92). In 7 out of the 8 cases we found an associated lesion: invasive squamous carcinoma, VIN III or lichen. Two patients later developed a squamous carcinoma. Two others died because of intercurrent diseases. The last four patients are doing well. We confirm the efficacy of the treatment generally proposed: partial vulvectomy, without lymph node dissection and without complementary treatment but with a close follow-up. The coexistence of other vulvar lesions such as lichen is remarkable in our series.

  8. Hyperfunctioning Solid/Trabecular Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Giovanella, Luca; Fasolini, Fabrizio; Suriano, Sergio; Mazzucchelli, Luca

    2010-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman with solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma inside of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule is described in this paper. The patient was referred to our clinic for swelling of the neck and an increased pulse rate. Ultrasonography showed a slightly hypoechoic nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid. Despite suppressed TSH levels, the 99mTc-pertechnetate scan showed a hot area corresponding to the nodule with a suppressed uptake in the remaining thyroid tissue. Histopathological examination of the nodule revealed a solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of hyperfunctioning follicular solid/trabecular carcinoma reported in the literature. Even if a hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy, careful management is recommended so that a malignancy will not be overlooked in the hot thyroid nodules. PMID:20847957

  9. Hyperfunctioning solid/trabecular follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Giovanella, Luca; Fasolini, Fabrizio; Suriano, Sergio; Mazzucchelli, Luca

    2010-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman with solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma inside of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule is described in this paper. The patient was referred to our clinic for swelling of the neck and an increased pulse rate. Ultrasonography showed a slightly hypoechoic nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid. Despite suppressed TSH levels, the (99m)Tc-pertechnetate scan showed a hot area corresponding to the nodule with a suppressed uptake in the remaining thyroid tissue. Histopathological examination of the nodule revealed a solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of hyperfunctioning follicular solid/trabecular carcinoma reported in the literature. Even if a hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy, careful management is recommended so that a malignancy will not be overlooked in the hot thyroid nodules.

  10. Helicobacter pylori virulence factors in development of gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Yi; Liu, Xiao-Fei; Gao, Xiao-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of gastric carcinoma. However, only a relatively small proportion of individuals infected with H. pylori develop gastric carcinoma. Differences in the incidence of gastric carcinoma among infected individuals can be explained, at least partly, by the different genotypes of H. pylori virulence factors. Thus far, many virulence factors of H. pylori, such as Cag PAI, VacA, OMPs and DupA, have been reported to be involved in the development of gastric cancer. The risk of developing gastric cancer during H. pylori infection is affected by specific host-microbe interactions that are independent of H. pylori virulence factors. In this review, we discuss virulence factors of H. pylori and their role in the development of gastric carcinoma that will provide further understanding of the biological interactions of H. pylori with the host.

  11. Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP), treatment can include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormone therapy. Get detailed information about the diagnosis and treatment of CUP in this expert-reviewed summary.

  12. Adrenocortical Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC or adrenal cancer) treatment is usually radical open complete resection and may include chemotherapy and radiation. Get detailed information about the prognosis and treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent ACC in this comprehensive summary for clinicians.

  13. Rheumatoid-like arthritis associated with a colonic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Simon, R D; Ford, L E

    1980-05-01

    A 76-year-old woman with rapidly progressive athritis associated with a rising rheumatoid factor, acute joint effusion, and fever had remission of her symptoms and return of her laboratory values to normal following removal of a colonic carcinoma.

  14. Detection of squamous carcinoma cells using gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Wei-Yun; Lee, Sze-tsen; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this study is to use gold nanoparticle as a diagnostic agent to detect human squamous carcinoma cells. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized and the gold nanoparticle size was 34.3 ± 6.2 nm. Based on the over-expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) biomarkers in squamous carcinoma cells, we hypothesized that EGFR could be a feasible biomarker with a target moiety for detection. We further modified polyclonal antibodies of EGFR on the surface of gold nanoparticles. We found selected squamous carcinoma cells can be selectively detected using EGFR antibody-modified gold nanoparticles via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Cell death was also examined to determine the survival status of squamous carcinoma cells with respect to gold nanoparticle treatment and EGFR polyclonal antibody modification.

  15. Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium collaborates on epidemiologic studies to address the high burden of prostate cancer and to understand the causes of etiology and outcomes among men of African ancestry.

  16. PGK1 Drives Hepatocellular Carcinoma Metastasis by Enhancing Metabolic Process.

    PubMed

    Xie, Huijun; Tong, Guihui; Zhang, Yupei; Liang, Shu; Tang, Kairui; Yang, Qinhe

    2017-07-27

    During the proliferation and metastasis, the tumor cells prefer glycolysis (Warburg effect), but its exact mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) is an important enzyme in the pathway of metabolic glycolysis. We observed a significant overexpression of PGK1 in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues, and a correlation between PGK1 expression and poor survival of hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Also, the depletion of PGK1 dramatically reduced cancer cell proliferation and metastasis, indicating an oncogenic role of PGK1 in liver cancer progression. Further experiments showed that PGK1 played an important role in MYC -induced metabolic reprogramming, which led to an enhanced Warburg effect. Our results revealed a new effect of PGK1, which can provide a new treatment strategy for hepatocellular carcinoma, as PGK1 is used to indicate the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

  17. Adrenocortical Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (also called ACC or adrenal cancer) treatment usually involves surgery and may include radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Learn about risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment for newly diagnosed and recurrent ACC in this expert-reviewed summary.

  18. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of Buccal Mucosa: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Garg, Vipul; Roy, Swati; Khanna, Kaveri Surya; Bakshi, Preeti Sethi; Chauhan, Isha

    2016-09-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm most commonly originating in salivary glands of head and neck region. Among intra oral adenoid cystic carcinoma, buccal mucosa is among the rarest sites. We report a case of adenoid cystic of buccal mucosa in a 40-year old female. We have discussed the clinical features, histopathology, diagnosis and treatment along with a brief review of the relevant literature. Although the buccal mucosa is an uncommon site for adenoid cystic carcinoma, the relatively indolent growth pattern of this case and its location which is rather atypical for this type of salivary gland malignancy primarily warrants the necessity behind reporting of this case. Secondly, adenoid cystic carcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mass of buccal mucosa. It is important to identify such cases rather early and surgical removal with adequate margins is the treatment of choice .

  19. HER-2 amplification in tubular carcinoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Gerard J; Tubbs, Raymond R; Crowe, Joseph; Sebek, Bruce; Budd, G Thomas; Patrick, Rebecca J; Procop, Gary W

    2006-07-01

    The prognostic and therapeutic implications of HER-2 gene amplification and estrogen and progesterone receptor status in breast cancer are well described. To address the relative paucity of information concerning HER-2 amplification for tubular carcinomas, we assessed the frequency of gene amplification in 55 tubular carcinomas of the breast from 54 patients, 5 of which had axillary node metastases. The HER-2 gene copy number was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization for the majority of tumors analyzed, whereas estrogen and progesterone receptor status was achieved by immunohistochemical analysis. HER-2 gene amplification was not observed in any of the tumors examined, and most were estrogen receptor-positive. This HER-2 gene amplification frequency was significantly lower than the frequency of gene amplification previously reported for all invasive ductal carcinoma of no special type (P < .01). HER-2 gene amplification likely occurs infrequently, or not at all, in tubular carcinomas of the breast, whereas most express estrogen receptors.

  20. Merkel cell carcinoma with seborrheic keratosis: A unique association.

    PubMed

    Anand, Murthy S; Krishnamurthy, Shantha; Ravindranath, Suvarna; Ranganathan, Jyothi

    2018-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, clinically aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin; MCC is 40 times less common as compared to melanoma. The most frequently reported sites have been the head and neck, extremities, and trunk. Potential mimics include malignant melanoma, lymphoma, or metastatic small cell (neuroendocrine) carcinomas. Histopathology of MCC resembles small cell carcinoma both morphologically and on IHC. The possible cell of origin was proposed as the Merkel cell, which functions as a mechanoreceptor. It has a high chance of local recurrence, regional and distant spread. In recent times, Merkel cell polyomavirus has been implicated as the causative agent for this tumor. The same agent has a reported etiologic association with other skin lesions, including seborrheic keratosis.