Science.gov

Sample records for a431 epidermoid carcinoma

  1. Pheophorbide a mediated photodynamic therapy against human epidermoid carcinoma cells (A431)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Li, Wen-Tyng

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the death mechanism of human epidermoid carcinoma cells (A431) triggered by photodynamic therapy (PDT) with pheophorbide a. First of all, significant inhibition on the survival of A431 cells (< 20 %) was observed when an irradiation dose of 5.1 J/cm2 combined with 125 ng/ml of pheophorbide a was applied. Survival rate of human keratinocyte cells was over 70 % under the same PDT parameters, suggesting that pheophorbide a killed cancer cells selectively. Mitochondria were the main target sites where pheophorbide a accumulated. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected after PDT. Addition of antioxidant N-Acetyl cysteine prevented ROS production and increased cell survival thereafter. The decrease in cellular ATP level was also observed at 6 hrs after PDT. Typical apoptotic cellular morphology and a collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential occurred after PDT. The loss of mitochondrial membrane potential led to the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol, followed by activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. The activation of caspase-3 resulted in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage in A431 cells, followed by DNA fragmentation. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that pheophorbide a possessed photodynamic action against A431 cells, mainly through apoptosis mediated by mitochondrial intrinsic pathway triggered by ROS.

  2. Purification of high-molecular-weight subfraction from porcine skin inhibiting proliferation of A431 human carcinoma epidermoid cells.

    PubMed

    Belova, O V; Sergienko, V I; Arion, V Ya; Lukanidina, T A; Moskvina, S N; Zimina, I V; Borisenko, G G; Lutsenko, G V; Grechikhina, M V; Kovaleva, E V; Klyuchnikova, Zh I

    2014-07-01

    Subfraction with a molecular weight >250 kDa isolated from porcine skin and inhibiting the proliferation of A431 human carcinoma epidermoid cells was purified by DEAE 32 anion exchange chromatography with NaCl concentration step-gradient. The effects of the initial subfraction and fractions obtained by separation in DEAE 32 on the proliferation of A431 human carcinoma epidermoid cells were studied in vitro in two tests (MTT and fluorescent test). The more sensitive fluorescent test showed the highest inhibitory activity of fraction No. 2 released from the column at 0.15 M NaCl. One major protein component and a series of minor protein components were detected in this fraction by vertical PAAG-SDS electrophoresis. PMID:25070165

  3. Effects of resveratrol on the proliferation, apoptosis and telomerase ability of human A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHAI, XIAO-XIANG; DING, JI-CUN; TANG, ZHI-MING; LI, JING-GUO; LI, YONG-CONG; YAN, YUE-HUA; SUN, JING-CHANG; ZHANG, CUI-XIA

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of resveratrol on cell apoptosis, ability of telomerase and the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) protein expression in human A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells. A431 cells were treated with different concentrations of resveratrol, and the cell appearance was then observed under a microscope. In addition, the cell proliferation was examined using an MTT assay, and the ability of telomerase was detected using telomeric repeat amplification protocol-polymerase chain reaction-ELISA. Resveratrol significantly inhibited the ability of telomerase and decreased the expression of hTERT protein in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, resveratrol is capable of downregulating the expression of hTERT protein and inhibits the ability of telomerase of A431, which is an important mechanism of action of resveratrol with regard to inhibition of A431 cell proliferation. PMID:27123055

  4. Regulation of apoptosis by resveratrol through JAK/STAT and mitochondria mediated pathway in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Madan, Esha; Prasad, Sahdeo; Roy, Preeti; George, Jasmine; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2008-12-26

    Resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenolic phytoalexin present mainly in grapes, red wine and berries, is known to possess strong chemopreventive and anticancer properties. Here, we demonstrated the anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities of resveratrol in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Resveratrol has cytotoxic effects through inhibiting cellular proliferation of A431 cells, which leads to the induction of apoptosis, as evident by an increase in the fraction of cells in the sub-G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle and Annexin-V binding of externalized phosphatidylserine. Results revealed that inhibition of proliferation is associated with regulation of the JAK/STAT pathway, where resveratrol prevents phosphorylation of JAK, thereby inhibiting STAT1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, resveratrol treatment actively stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Consequently, an imbalance in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio triggered the caspase cascade and subsequent cleavage of PARP, thereby shifting the balance in favor of apoptosis. These observations indicate that resveratrol treatment inhibits JAK/STAT-mediated gene transcription and induce the mitochondrial cell death pathway.

  5. Resveratrol enhances ultraviolet B-induced cell death through nuclear factor-{kappa}B pathway in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Preeti; Kalra, Neetu; Nigam, Nidhi; George, Jasmine; Ray, Ratan Singh; Hans, Rajendra K.; Prasad, Sahdeo; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2009-06-26

    Resveratrol has been reported to suppress cancer progression in several in vivo and in vitro models, whereas ultraviolet B (UVB), a major risk for skin cancer, is known to induce cell death in cancerous cells. Here, we investigated whether resveratrol can sensitize A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells to UVB-induced cell death. We examined the combined effect of UVB (30 mJ/cm{sup 2}) and resveratrol (60 {mu}M) on A431 cells. Exposure of A431 carcinoma cells to UVB radiation or resveratrol can inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. However, the combination of resveratrol and UVB exposure was associated with increased proliferation inhibition of A431 cells compared with either agent alone. Furthermore, results showed that resveratrol and UVB treatment of A431 cells disrupted the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-{kappa}B) pathway by blocking phosphorylation of serine 536 and inactivating NF-{kappa}B and subsequent degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, which regulates the expression of survivin. Resveratrol and UVB treatment also decreased the phosphorylation of tyrosine 701 of the important transcription factor signal transducer activator of transcription (STAT1), which in turn inhibited translocation of phospho-STAT1 to the nucleus. Moreover, resveratrol/UVB also inhibited the metastatic protein LIMK1, which reduced the motility of A431 cells. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the combination of resveratrol and UVB act synergistically against skin cancer cells. Thus, resveratrol is a potential chemotherapeutic agent against skin carcinogenesis.

  6. Enediyne lidamycin enhances the effect of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, gefitinib, in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells and lung carcinoma H460 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Li, Liang; Li, Xing-Qi; Liu, Xiu-Jun; Zhen, Yong-Su

    2009-01-01

    Gefitinib, a low-molecular-weight epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is effective in a wide variety of tumor types. Preclinical studies have shown potentiated antitumor efficacies of this agent in combination with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The antitumor antibiotic lidamycin (LDM) showed extremely potent cytotoxicity in vitro and marked therapeutic effect in vivo. In this report, the cytotoxic and biochemical activity of LDM and gefitinib on human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells and human large cell lung cancer H460 cells as a single agent or in combination has been evaluated. In the MTT assay, LDM showed much more potent cytotoxicity than gefitinib to both cell lines. A431 cells with a highly EGFR-expressing level were more sensitive to gefitinib than H460 cells, which expressed EGFR at an intermediate level. LDM plus gefitinib showed potentiation of antiproliferative activity and apoptosis induction, which were associated with downregulation of EGFR signaling pathway and nuclear factor-kappa B expression, and the increase of cleaved poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase in the two cell lines, although to a lesser degree in H460 cells. Combined treatment induced G1 phase arrest similar to that of gefitinib alone in A431 cells and intensified G2/M phase accumulation in H460 cells. The above results indicate that LDM potentiates the effects of gefitinib in both gefitinib sensitive and less sensitive cells in association with enhanced inhibition of EGFR-dependent signaling. PMID:19342999

  7. Artesunate induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and iron-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhongyong; Chai, Jin; Chuang, Henry Hon Fung; Li, Shifeng; Wang, Tianran; Cheng, Yi; Chen, Wensheng; Zhou, Deshan

    2012-07-01

    The anticancer effects of artesunate (ART) have been well documented. However, its potential against skin cancer has not been explored yet. Herein we reported that 60 μmol/l ART effectively inhibited A431 (human epidermoid carcinoma cells) growth but not that of HaCaT (normal human keratinocyte cells). Our results revealed that ART induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase through the downregulation of cyclin A1, cyclin B, cyclin D1, Cdk2, Cdk4, and Cdk6. This correlated with the upregulation of p21 and p27. The 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay also indicated that ART treatment reduced DNA synthesis in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, ART induced mitochondrial apoptosis, as evidenced by annexin V/propidium iodide staining and western blot analysis. Interestingly, ART-induced apoptosis diminished under iron-deficient conditions but intensified under iron-overload conditions. Taken together, these findings demonstrated the potential of ART in treating skin cancer through the induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and iron-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis and supported further investigations in other test systems. PMID:22421370

  8. Grape seed proanthocyanidins promote apoptosis in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells through alterations in Cdki-Cdk-cyclin cascade, and caspase-3 activation via loss of mitochondrial membrane potential.

    PubMed

    Meeran, Syed M; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2007-05-01

    Dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) prevent photocarcinogenesis in mice. Here, we report that in vitro treatment of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells with GSPs inhibited cellular proliferation (13-89%) and induced cell death (1-48%) in a dose (5-100 mug/ml)- and time (24, 48 and 72 h)-dependent manner. GSP-induced inhibition of cell proliferation was associated with an increase in G1-phase arrest at 24 h, which was mediated through the inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk) Cdk2, Cdk4, Cdk6 and cyclins D1, D2 and E and simultaneous increase in protein expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (Cdki), Cip1/p21 and Kip1/p27, and enhanced binding of Cdki-Cdk. The treatment of A431 cells with GSPs (20-80 mug/ml) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in apoptotic cell death (26-58%), which was associated with an increased protein expression of proapoptotic Bax, decreased expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP. Pretreatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) blocked the GSP-induced apoptosis in A431 cells suggesting that GSP-induced apoptosis is associated primarily with the caspase-3-dependent pathway. Together, our study suggests that GSPs possess chemotherapeutic potential against human epidermoid carcinoma cells in vitro, further in vivo mechanistic studies are required to verify the chemotherapeutic effect of GSPs in skin cancers. PMID:17437483

  9. Shikonin causes cell-cycle arrest and induces apoptosis by regulating the EGFR–NF-κB signalling pathway in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Rong; Li, You; Gao, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Shikonin, a naphthoquinone pigment isolated from the Chinese herbal Zicao, has been shown to exhibit antioxidant and anticancer effects. In the present study, we investigated the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of shikonin on A431 cells and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. In the present study, our results showed that shikonin significantly inhibited the growth of A431 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and caused cell cycle arrest by upregulation of p21 and p27, and downregulation of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases. In addition, shikonin evidently induced apoptosis due to decreasing Bcl-2 expression, increasing Bax expression, activating caspase and inactivating NF-κB, while pretreatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor Z-Asp-CH2-DCB abrogated shikonin-induced apoptosis. Moreover, EGF could significantly increase the NF-κB DNA-binding activity and reversed the shikonin-induced inactivation of NF-κB. As anticipated AG1478 (EGFR inhibitor) and Bay11-7082 (NF-κB inhibitor) blocked EGF-reversed the inactivation of NF-κB induced by shikonin. Our data also showed that EGF could evidently reverse the shikonin-induced decreases in cell viability and increases in apoptosis. Then, the NF-κB inhibitors such as Bay11-7082, SN50, Helenalin and the EGFR inhibitor AG1478 and its downstream inhibitor such as PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and STAT3 inhibitor Stattic dramatically blocked EGF-reversed decreases in cell viability and increases in apoptosis induced by shikonin. Collectively, our findings indicated that shikonin inhibited cell growth and caused cell cycle arrest of the A431 cells through the regulation of apoptosis. Moreover, these effects were mediated at least partially by suppressing the activation of the EGFR–NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:25720435

  10. Dual bradykinin B2 receptor signalling in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells: activation of protein kinase C is counteracted by a GS-mediated stimulation of the cyclic AMP pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Liebmann, C; Graness, A; Ludwig, B; Adomeit, A; Boehmer, A; Boehmer, F D; Nürnberg, B; Wetzker, R

    1996-01-01

    Cell membranes of the human epidermoid cell line A431 express classical bradykinin (BK) B2 receptors, as assessed by [3H]BK binding studies. Furthermore, stimulation by BK induced a time-dependent modulation of protein kinase C (PKC) activity in A431 cells: a rapid activation (t1/2 approximately 1 min) is followed by a slow inhibition (t1/2 approximately 20 min) of PKC translocation measured by [3H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate binding. In addition, BK stimulated both adenylate cyclase activity in A431 membranes and accumulation of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) in intact cells in a retarded manner. A possible BK-induced activation of the cAMP pathway mediated via PKC, phospholipase D, prostaglandins or Ca2+/calmodulin was excluded. A 35 kDa protein was found in A431 membranes to be specifically phosphorylated in the presence of both BK and protein kinase A (PKA). An anti-alpha s-antibody, AS 348, abolished stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity in response to BK, cholera toxin and isoprenaline, strongly suggesting the involvement of Gs proteins in the BK action. The BK-activated cAMP signalling system might be important for the observed inactivation of PKC slowly evoked by BK: the BK-induced rapid activation of PKC is decreased by dibutyryl cAMP, and the slow inhibition of PKC is prevented by an inhibitor of PKA, adenosine 3':5'-monophosphothioate (cyclic, Rp isomer). The inhibition of PKC translocation might be exerted directly at the level of PKC activation, since stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis by BK was affected by neither dibutyryl cAMP nor forskolin. Thus our results provide the first evidence that A431 cells BK is able to activate two independent signal-transduction pathways via a single class of B2 receptors but two different G proteins. The lagging stimulation of the cAMP signalling pathway via Gs might serve to switch off PKC, which is rapidly activated via Gq-mediated stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis. PMID:8546671

  11. Honokiol, a chemopreventive agent against skin cancer, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human epidermoid A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Chilampalli, Chandeshwari; Guillermo, Ruth; Kaushik, Radhey S; Young, Alan; Chandrasekher, Gudiseva; Fahmy, Hesham; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

    2011-11-01

    Honokiol is a plant lignan isolated from bark and seed cones of Magnolia officinalis. Recent studies from our laboratory indicated that honokiol pretreatment decreased ultraviolet B-induced skin cancer development in SKH-1 mice. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effects of honokiol on human epidermoid squamous carcinoma A431 cells and to elucidate possible mechanisms involved in preventing skin cancer. A431 cells were pretreated with different concentrations of honokiol for a specific time period and investigated for effects on apoptosis and cell cycle analysis. Treatment with honokiol significantly decreased cell viability and cell proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Honokiol pretreatment at 50 μmol/L concentration induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest significantly (P < 0.05) and decreased the percentage of cells in the S and G2/M phase. Honokiol down-regulated the expression of cyclin D1, cyclin D2, Cdk2, Cdk4 and Cdk6 proteins and up-regulated the expression of Cdk's inhibitor proteins p21 and p27. Pretreatment of A431 cells with honokiol leads to induction of apoptosis and DNA fragmentation. These findings indicate that honokiol provides its effects in squamous carcinoma cells by inducing cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis. PMID:21908486

  12. Induction of Apoptosis and Antiproliferative Activity of Naringenin in Human Epidermoid Carcinoma Cell through ROS Generation and Cell Cycle Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Jafri, Asif; Ahmad, Sheeba; Afzal, Mohammad; Arshad, Md

    2014-01-01

    A natural predominant flavanone naringenin, especially abundant in citrus fruits, has a wide range of pharmacological activities. The search for antiproliferative agents that reduce skin carcinoma is a task of great importance. The objective of this study was to analyze the anti-proliferative and apoptotic mechanism of naringenin using MTT assay, DNA fragmentation, nuclear condensation, change in mitochondrial membrane potential, cell cycle kinetics and caspase-3 as biomarkers and to investigate the ability to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) initiating apoptotic cascade in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Results showed that naringenin exposure significantly reduced the cell viability of A431 cells (p<0.01) with a concomitant increase in nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation in a dose dependent manner. The intracellular ROS generation assay showed statistically significant (p<0.001) dose-related increment in ROS production for naringenin. It also caused naringenin-mediated epidermoid carcinoma apoptosis by inducing mitochondrial depolarization. Cell cycle study showed that naringenin induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase of cell cycle and caspase-3 analysis revealed a dose dependent increment in caspase-3 activity which led to cell apoptosis. This study confirms the efficacy of naringenin that lead to cell death in epidermoid carcinoma cells via inducing ROS generation, mitochondrial depolarization, nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and caspase-3 activation. PMID:25330158

  13. Identification of specific gravity sensitive signal transduction pathways in human A431 carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijken, P. J.; de Groot, R. P.; Kruijer, W.; de Laat, S. W.; Verkleij, A. J.; Boonstra, J.

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) activates a well characterized signal transduction cascade in human A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells. The influence of gravity on EGF-induced EGF-receptor clustering and early gene expression as well as on actin polymerization and actin organization have been investigated. Different signalling pathways induced by the agents TPA, forskolin and A23187 that activate gene expression were tested for sensitivity to gravity. EGF-induced c-fos and c-jun expression were decreased in microgravity. However, constitutive β-2 microglobulin expression remained unaltered. Under simulated weightlessness conditions EGF- and TPA-induced c-fos expression was decreased, while forskolin- and A23187-induced c-fos expression was independent of the gravity conditions. These results suggest that gravity affects specific signalling pathways. Preliminary results indicate that EGF-induced EGF-receptor clustering remained unaltered irrespective of the gravity conditions. Furthermore, the relative filamentous actin content of steady state A431 cells was enhanced under microgravity conditions and actin filament organization was altered. Under simulated weightlessness actin filament organization in steady state cells as well as in EGF-treated cells was altered as compared to the 1 G reference experiment. Interestingly the microtubule and keratin organization in untreated cells showed no difference with the normal gravity samples. This indicates that gravity may affect specific components of the signal transduction circuitry.

  14. ALA-PpIX variability quantitatively imaged in A431 epidermoid tumors using in vivo ultrasound fluorescence tomography and ex vivo assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DSouza, Alisha V.; Flynn, Brendan P.; Gunn, Jason R.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Anand, Sanjay; Maytin, Edward V.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2014-03-01

    Treatment monitoring of Aminolevunilic-acid (ALA) - Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) of basal-cell carcinoma (BCC) calls for superficial and subsurface imaging techniques. While superficial imagers exist for this purpose, their ability to assess PpIX levels in thick lesions is poor; additionally few treatment centers have the capability to measure ALA-induced PpIX production. An area of active research is to improve treatments to deeper and nodular BCCs, because treatment is least effective in these. The goal of this work was to understand the logistics and technical capabilities to quantify PpIX at depths over 1mm, using a novel hybrid ultrasound-guided, fiber-based fluorescence molecular spectroscopictomography system. This system utilizes a 633nm excitation laser and detection using filtered spectrometers. Source and detection fibers are collinear so that their imaging plane matches that of ultrasound transducer. Validation with phantoms and tumor-simulating fluorescent inclusions in mice showed sensitivity to fluorophore concentrations as low as 0.025μg/ml at 4mm depth from surface, as presented in previous years. Image-guided quantification of ALA-induced PpIX production was completed in subcutaneous xenograft epidermoid cancer tumor model A431 in nude mice. A total of 32 animals were imaged in-vivo, using several time points, including pre-ALA, 4-hours post-ALA, and 24-hours post-ALA administration. On average, PpIX production in tumors increased by over 10-fold, 4-hours post-ALA. Statistical analysis of PpIX fluorescence showed significant difference among all groups; p<0.05. Results were validated by exvivo imaging of resected tumors. Details of imaging, analysis and results will be presented to illustrate variability and the potential for imaging these values at depth.

  15. Knockdown of asparagine synthetase by RNAi suppresses cell growth in human melanoma cells and epidermoid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zhou, Fusheng; Du, Wenhui; Dou, Jinfa; Xu, Yu; Gao, Wanwan; Chen, Gang; Zuo, Xianbo; Sun, Liangdan; Zhang, Xuejun; Yang, Sen

    2016-05-01

    Melanoma, the most aggressive form of skin cancer, causes more than 40,000 deaths each year worldwide. And epidermoid carcinoma is another major form of skin cancer, which could be studied together with melanoma in several aspects. Asparagine synthetase (ASNS) gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the glutamine- and ATP-dependent conversion of aspartic acid to asparagine, and its expression is associated with the chemotherapy resistance and prognosis in several human cancers. The present study aims to explore the potential role of ASNS in melanoma cells A375 and human epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431. We applied a lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) system to study its function in cell growth of both cells. The results revealed that inhibition of ASNS expression by RNAi significantly suppressed the growth of melanoma cells and epidermoid carcinoma cells, and induced a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in melanoma cells. Knockdown of ASNS in A375 cells remarkably downregulated the expression levels of CDK4, CDK6, and Cyclin D1, and upregulated the expression of p21. Therefore, our study provides evidence that ASNS may represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of melanoma. PMID:25858017

  16. Inhibitory effect of berberine on human skin squamous cell carcinoma A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, D X; Zhang, J; Zhang, Y; Zhao, P W; Yang, L M

    2015-01-01

    Berberine (BBR) is a natural alkaloid with significant anti-tumor activity against many types of cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms employed by BBR to repress the proliferation and growth of skin squamous cell carcinoma A431 cells. Berberine was reported to inhibit the proliferation of A431 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and was observed to induce a series of biochemical events, including the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome-c to cytosol, induction of proteins of the Bcl-2 family and caspases, and the cleavage of poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase. This suggested its ability to induce apoptosis. The results of a wound healing test revealed that berberine inhibited the migration of A431 cells. Ezrin was transfected into A431 cells by RNA interference. The level of expression of Ezrin in the transfected A431 cells was observed to decrease with berberine treatment, which suggested that berberine might inhibit the invasion of A431 cells through Ezrin. The results of this study demonstrated that berberine could potentially inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, and inhibit the invasion of A431 cells. PMID:26400287

  17. Turmeric toxicity in A431 epidermoid cancer cells associates with autophagy degradation of anti-apoptotic and anti-autophagic p53 mutant.

    PubMed

    Thongrakard, Visa; Titone, Rossella; Follo, Carlo; Morani, Federica; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Tencomnao, Tewin; Isidoro, Ciro

    2014-12-01

    The keratinocyte-derived A431 Squamous Cell Carcinoma cells express the p53R273H mutant, which has been reported to inhibit apoptosis and autophagy. Here, we show that the crude extract of turmeric (Curcuma longa), similarly to its bioactive component Curcumin, could induce both apoptosis and autophagy in A431 cells, and these effects were concomitant with degradation of p53. Turmeric and curcumin also stimulated the activity of mTOR, which notoriously promotes cell growth and acts negatively on basal autophagy. Rapamycin-mediated inhibition of mTOR synergized with turmeric and curcumin in causing p53 degradation, increased the production of autophagosomes and exacerbated cell toxicity leading to cell necrosis. Small-interference mediated silencing of the autophagy proteins BECLIN 1 or ATG7 abrogated the induction of autophagy and largely rescued p53 stability in Turmeric-treated or Curcumin-treated cells, indicating that macroautophagy was mainly responsible for mutant p53 degradation. These data uncover a novel mechanism of turmeric and curcumin toxicity in chemoresistant cancer cells bearing mutant p53. PMID:25044209

  18. Dihydroartemisinin suppresses growth of squamous cell carcinoma A431 cells by targeting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Hui, Hai-ying; Wu, Na; Wu, Min; Liu, Yang; Xiao, Sheng-xiang; Zhang, Mei-fang

    2016-02-01

    The antimalarial effects of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) have been well documented. However, its potential against skin cancer has not been explored as yet. Therefore, we assessed the function of DHA as an inhibitory factor of squamous cell carcinoma in A431 cells and the underlying mechanism was explored. After stimulation of A431 cells and Hacat cells (normal human keratinocyte cells, as control) with various doses of DHA, the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to assess the proliferation of both cell lines and cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometric analysis. Furthermore, after pretreatment with the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activator BIO or anti-caspase-3 antibody, mRNA levels of antiapoptotic gene survivin and proapoptotic gene caspease-3 were explored by quantitative real-time PCR, the corresponding protein levels were detected by western blotting, and the proliferation of A431 cells was also analyzed. DHA inhibited the proliferation and viability of A431 cells in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner and induced cell apoptosis. We also observed decreased surviving expression and increased caspase-3 expression of A431 cells. Furthermore, these effects depended on the suppression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling as pretreatment with the Wnt activator BIO markedly dampened the DHA-induced effects. More interestingly, when the caspase-3 expression was silenced using an antibody, the DHA-induced growth inhibition of A431 cells was offset significantly. Our results confirm that DHA inhibits skin cancer A431 cells by suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Our findings provide a potential target for squamous cell carcinoma treatment. PMID:26457547

  19. The beta 2-adrenergic receptors of human epidermoid carcinoma cells bear two different types of oligosaccharides which influence expression on the cell surface.

    PubMed Central

    Cervantes-Olivier, P; Delavier-Klutchko, C; Durieu-Trautmann, O; Kaveri, S; Desmandril, M; Strosberg, A D

    1988-01-01

    The beta 2-adrenergic receptors of the human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells reside on two polypeptide chains revealed by photoaffinity labelling with [125I]iodocyanopindolol-diazirine. These proteins correspond to two distinct populations of N-asparagine-linked glycoproteins: the 55-52 kDa molecules are associated with complex carbohydrate chain(s), the 65-63 kDa component with polymannosidic carbohydrate chain(s). Both types of receptors are present in preconfluent cells, but only the polymannosidic type is found in the postconfluent cells. Moreover, complex chains appear to be associated with the receptors with the highest affinity for (-)-isoproterenol and polymannosidic chains with the receptors with the lowest affinity for this agonist. the carbohydrate moiety of the beta-adrenergic receptor is involved in the expression and function of the beta 2-adrenergic receptors at the surface of the A431 cells, since tunicamycin and monensin, complete and partial inhibitors of glycosylation respectively, diminish the number of binding sites at the cell surface and increase the total number of sites in the cell. In these conditions a diminution of cyclic AMP accumulation is also observed. Images Fig. 5. PMID:2895638

  20. Pulmonary epidermoid carcinoma in a patient with acromegaly: a rare entity

    PubMed Central

    El Aziz, Siham; Chadli, Asma; Obbiba, Atika; El Ghomari, Hassan; Farouqi, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    A 56-years-old woman was referred to our unit for partially treated acromegaly. She had a high level of insulin growth factor. She did not complain of any pulmonary symptoms and was a non-smoker. Physical examination revealed clinical features of acromegaly. She had a 13 mm pituitary adenoma and was proposed for surgical intervention. Her chest X-ray showed a right paracardiac tumor. Computed tomography scan revealed a large right-sided fowler tumor. Pituitary surgery was cancelled and lobectomy after biopsy with lymph nodes excision was performed through thoracotomy. Histological study of the tumor revealed a medium differentiated epidermoid carcinoma with positive lymph nodes and extension to pleura. She was referred to chemotherapy protocol. Association between carcinoma and acromegaly has previously been reported. Most common tumors are colorectal and thyroid neoplasia. As we see in this case report, we need to consider other carcinomas in acromegalic patients like pulmonary carcinoma, despite their rarity in women. PMID:22891085

  1. [Laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma in a young adult without risk factors: a case report].

    PubMed

    M'barek, Basma; Gargouri, W; Maalej, M

    2005-08-01

    Head and neck carcinomas are rare in young patients without a history of tobacco consution, tho two classical risk factors. Our report is about 20 year-old patient without a history exosure to radiations or of alcohol / tobacco consumption, who presented with repeated episodes of dysphonia that didn't improve under medical treatment. Endoscopy showed a fungating hemilaryngeal lesion with a histology of epidermoid carcinoma stage T3N0. The patient initially 3 courses of cisplatin-5 fluorouracil resulting in a 90% objective response, followed by a loco-regional radiotherapy. 36 months after the diagnosis and 24 after the end of therapy, the patient is still alive and in complete remission. PMID:16238282

  2. Multimodality approach to surgical management of locally advanced epidermoid carcinoma of the anorectum

    SciTech Connect

    Wanebo, H.J.; Futrell, W.; Constable, W.

    1981-06-15

    Seven patients (five female, two male) had locally advanced epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal. Three patients had recurrent or persistent disease previously treated and four had advanced primary cancer. Five patients had groin node metastasis. The treatment protocol consisted of chemotherapy with continuous 5-day infusion of 5-fluorouracil, 750 mg/m2, and mitomycin C, 15 mg/m2, by bolus injection and radiation 3000 rads. All patients received one or two cycles of chemotherapy pre-operatively and four (not previously irradiated) received radiation. Tumor regression greater than 50% occurred in five patients, minor regression (25-50%) occurred in one patient and one patient showed no regression (on chemotherapy alone). All patients had total resection of all gross tumor with microscopic clear margins and five had groin dissection. One patient had no residual cancer in specimen and one patient had a microscopic focus only. Four of five patients had residual nodal metastases at groin dissection. Currently three patients are free of disease at 24, 24, and 26 months. Two patients died with disease at 6 months and 34 months, and two patients died of other causes while still free of disease, at 4 and 5 months after resection. Multimodality therapy of locally advanced epidermoid cancer of anal canal can provide effective control and palliation of many of these tumors and, in some, possibly effect cure.

  3. Vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor attenuates epidermoid squamous cell carcinoma growth by dampening mTOR signaling pathway in a human xenograft murine model

    SciTech Connect

    Kurundkar, Deepali; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Chaudhary, Sandeep C.; Ballestas, Mary E.; Kopelovich, Levy; Elmets, Craig A.; Athar, Mohammad

    2013-01-15

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are potent anticancer agents and show efficacy against various human neoplasms. Vorinostat is a potent HDAC inhibitor and has shown potential to inhibit growth of human xenograft tumors. However, its effect on the growth of skin neoplasm remains undefined. In this study, we show that vorinostat (2 μM) reduced expression of HDAC1, 2, 3, and 7 in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Consistently, it increased acetylation of histone H3 and p53. Vorinostat (100 mg/kg body weight, IP) treatment reduced human xenograft tumor growth in highly immunosuppressed nu/nu mice. Histologically, the vorinostat-treated tumor showed features of well-differentiation with large necrotic areas. Based on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining and expression of cyclins D1, D2, E, and A, vorinostat seems to impair proliferation by down-regulating the expression of these proteins. However, it also induced apoptosis. The mechanism by which vorinostat blocks proliferation and makes tumor cells prone to apoptosis, involved inhibition of mTOR signaling which was accompanied by reduction in cell survival AKT and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Our data provide a novel mechanism-based therapeutic intervention for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Vorinostat may be utilized to cure skin neoplasms in organ transplant recipient (OTR). These patients have high morbidity and surgical removal of these lesions which frequently develop in these patients, is difficult. -- Highlights: ► Vorinostat reduces SCC growth in a xenograft murine model. ► Vorinostat dampens proliferation and induces apoptosis in tumor cells. ► Diminution in mTOR, Akt and ERK signaling underlies inhibition in proliferation. ► Vorinostat by inhibiting HDACs inhibits epithelial–mesenchymal transition.

  4. Novel Gefitinib Formulation with Improved Oral Bioavailability in Treatment of A431 Skin Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Godugu, Chandraiah; Doddapaneni, Ravi; Patel, Apurva R; Singh, Rakesh; Mercer, Roger; Singh, Mandip

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Oral administration of anticancer agents presents a series of advantages for patients. However, most of the anti-cancer drugs have poor water solubility leading to low bioavailability. Methods Controlled released spray dried matrix system of Gefitinib with hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin, chitosan, hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose, vitamin E TPGS, succinic acid were used for the design of formulations to improve the oral absorption of Gefitinib. Spray drying with a customized spray gun which allows simultaneous/pulsatile flow of two different liquid systems through single nozzle was used to prepare Gefitinib spray dried formulations (Gef-SD). Formulation was characterized by in vitro drug release and Caco-2 permeability studies. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed in Sprague Dawley rats. Efficacy of Gef-SD was carried out in A431 xenografts models in nude mice. Results In Gef-SD group 9.14-fold increase in the AUC was observed compared to free Gef. Improved pharmacokinetic profile of Gef-SD translated into increase (1.75 fold compared to Gef free drug) in anticancer effects. Animal survival was significantly increased in Gef formulation treated groups, with superior reduction in the tumor size (1.48-fold) and volumes (1.75-fold) and also increase in the anticancer effects (TUNEL positive apoptotic cells) was observed in Gef-SD treated groups. Further, western blot, immunohistochemical and proteomics analysis demonstrated the increased pharmacodynamic effects of Gef-SD formulations in A431 xenograft tumor models. Conclusion Our studies suggested that Gefitinib can be successfully incorporated into control release microparticles based oral formulation with enhanced pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic activity. This study demonstrates the novel application of Gef in A431 tumor models. PMID:26286185

  5. Combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy versus radiotherapy alone in locally advanced epidermoid bronchogenic carcinoma. A randomized study

    SciTech Connect

    Trovo, M.G.; Minatel, E.; Veronesi, A.; Roncadin, M.; De Paoli, A.; Franchin, G.; Magri, D.M.; Tirelli, U.; Carbone, A.; Grigoletto, E. )

    1990-02-01

    Between June 1980 and December 1983, 111 patients with inoperable epidermoid bronchogenic carcinoma (limited disease) were entered into a randomized trial comparing radiotherapy alone versus radiotherapy and combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin (doxorubicin), methotrexate, and procarbazine. Thirty-five of 62 (56.4%) patients treated with 4500 rad in 15 fractions in 3 weeks and 19 of 49 (38.8%) patients treated with the same radiation treatment and chemotherapy had an objective response. The difference in response rate was not significant (P = 0.900). Median time to progression was 5.9 and 7.02 months, respectively, for the radiation treatment and the combined treatment. Median survival was 11.74 and 10.03 months, respectively, without statistically significant differences between the two groups of patients. The toxicity was acceptable and no treatment-related death occurred in either treatment schedule. In this study no significant superiority of combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment over radiation therapy alone was evidenced. Whether different chemotherapy regimens may prove more effective in this context should be clarified by further studies.

  6. In vitro cytotoxic effect of Brazilian green propolis on human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma (HEp-2) cells.

    PubMed

    Búfalo, Michelle C; Candeias, João M G; Sforcin, José Maurício

    2009-12-01

    Propolis is a sticky dark-colored material showing a very complex chemical composition that honeybees collect from plants. It has been used in folk medicine since ancient times, due to several biological properties, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities, among others. Its antitumor action in vivo and in vitro has also been reported, using propolis extracts or its isolated compounds. The goal of this work was to evaluate propolis's cytotoxic action in vitro on human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma (Hep-2) cells. These cells were incubated with different concentrations of this bee product for different time periods, and morphology and the number of viable HEp-2 cells analyzed. Data showed that propolis exhibited a cytotoxic effect in vitro against HEp-2 cells, in a dose- and time-dependent way. Propolis solvent had no effects on morphology and number of viable cells, proving that the cytotoxic effects were exclusively due to propolis components. Since humans have been using propolis for a long time, further assays will provide a better comprehension of propolis's antitumor action. PMID:18955250

  7. In vitro Cytotoxic Effect of Brazilian Green Propolis on Human Laryngeal Epidermoid Carcinoma (HEp-2) Cells

    PubMed Central

    Búfalo, Michelle C.; Candeias, João M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Propolis is a sticky dark-colored material showing a very complex chemical composition that honeybees collect from plants. It has been used in folk medicine since ancient times, due to several biological properties, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities, among others. Its antitumor action in vivo and in vitro has also been reported, using propolis extracts or its isolated compounds. The goal of this work was to evaluate propolis's cytotoxic action in vitro on human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma (Hep-2) cells. These cells were incubated with different concentrations of this bee product for different time periods, and morphology and the number of viable HEp-2 cells analyzed. Data showed that propolis exhibited a cytotoxic effect in vitro against HEp-2 cells, in a dose- and time-dependent way. Propolis solvent had no effects on morphology and number of viable cells, proving that the cytotoxic effects were exclusively due to propolis components. Since humans have been using propolis for a long time, further assays will provide a better comprehension of propolis's antitumor action. PMID:18955250

  8. A clinical report of an oral lichen planus associated to epidermoid carcinoma in contact with metallic restorations.

    PubMed

    Silva, Regina Helena Barbosa Tavares da; Paleari, Andrá Gustavo; Brito, Carolina de Assis Barros; Rocha, Josá Francisco Santos Simões da; Massucato, Elaine Maria Sgavioli; Quishida, Cristiane Campos Costa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to relate the clinical case of a patient with oral lichen planus (OLP) and a history of epidermoid carcinoma associated with metallic restorations. The etiology of OLP is a mucocutaneous disease, which is poorly understood. Studies point to the potential of malignant transformation of OLP and its association with metallic restorations. The metallic restorations were replaced by crowns with a ceramic covering associated and osseointegrated implants in the edentulous areas. About 1 year later, it was observed a bilateral regression of the tongue lesions. The replacement of metallic restorations can contribute to improvement of OLP. PMID:25707841

  9. Epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal. A series of 276 cases

    SciTech Connect

    Papillon, J.; Montbarbon, J.F.

    1987-05-01

    During the past ten years, substantial progress has been made in the knowledge of the natural history of epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal and of the response of the disease to radiotherapy alone or combined with chemotherapy. At the present time, the main problem in the management of this tumor concerns identification of the best modalities to achieve local control and preservation of anal function. From a series of 276 cases, followed for more than three years, the necessity for a careful pretreatment evaluation was stressed. This included a systematic search for pelvic metastatic lymph nodes by palpation and CT scan. All patients were treated initially by irradiation except those who underwent groin dissection for inguinal node metastasis or colostomy for complete anal obstruction. Three groups of patients have been identified: unresectable or disseminated tumors (33 cases), resectable tumors but not suitable for sphincter conservation (21 cases) treated by radiochemotherapy and delayed surgery, and resectable tumors suitable for sphincter conservation (222 cases) which were treated by a split-course regimen combining a short course of carefully planned external beam irradiation (19 days) followed by an iridium 192 implant after a two-month rest. In this group, which represents 80 percent of the whole series, 80 percent of patients have had their cancer controlled and 90 percent of controlled patients have retained normal anal function. The use of chemotherapy during the first days of irradiation is advisable in all cases to reinforce the efficacy of treatment and increase the chance of anal preservation. Results of the split-course regimen, combining external beam and interstitial irradiation, demonstrate a clear superiority over external beam irradiation alone, especially for large infiltrating tumors, which represent the majority of cases.

  10. Combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, methotrexate, procarbazine (camp) in 64 consecutive patients with epidermoid bronchogenic carcinoma, limited disease: a prospective study. [/sup 60/Co

    SciTech Connect

    Trovo, M.G.; Tirelli, U.; De Paloi, A., et. al.

    1982-06-01

    Sixty-four consecutive patients with inoperable epidermoid bronchogenic carcinoma (limited disease) were treated with radiotherapy to the primary and nodal areas and combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, methotrexate and procarbazine. The overall response rate (CR + PR) to combined treatment was 62%. The median survival time was 12.7 months. The toxicity was acceptable and no treatment-related death occurred.

  11. Design and optimization of non-clogging counter-flow microconcentrator for enriching epidermoid cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tran-Minh, Nhut; Dong, Tao; Su, Qianhua; Yang, Zhaochu; Jakobsen, Henrik; Karlsen, Frank

    2011-02-01

    Clogging failure is common for microfilters in living cells concentration; for instance, the CaSki Cell-lines (Epidermoid cervical carcinoma cells) utilizing the flat membrane structure. In order to avoid the clogging, counter-flow concentration units with turbine blade-like micropillar are proposed in microconcentrator design. Due to the unusual geometrical-profiles and extraordinary microfluidic performance, the cells blocking does not occur even at permeate entrances. A counter-flow microconcentrator was designed, with both processing layer and collecting layer arranged in terms of the fractal based honeycomb structure. The device was optimized by coupling Artificial Neuron Network (ANN) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The excellent concentration ratio of a final microconcentrator was presented in numerical results. PMID:21053081

  12. Endostatin improves radioresponse and blocks tumor revascularization after radiation therapy for A431 xenografts in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Itasaka, Satoshi |; Komaki, Ritsuko; Herbst, Roy S. ||; Shintani, Tomoaki D.D.S.; Hunter, Nancy R. M.S.; Milas, Luka; Onn, Amir |; Bucana, Corazon D.; Ang, K. Kian; O'Reilly, Michael S. |. E-mail: moreilly@mdanderson.org

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: Clinical trials of antiangiogenic agents used alone for advanced malignancy have been disappointing but preclinical studies suggest that the addition of radiation therapy could improve antitumor efficacy. To test the hypothesis that antiangiogenic therapy combined with radiation therapy can overcome the limitations of antiangiogenic monotherapy, we studied the effects of endostatin combined with radiation on the growth and vascularization of A431 human epidermoid carcinomas growing intramuscularly in the legs of mice. Methods and Materials: Mice with established A431 human epidermoid leg tumors were treated with radiation, endostatin, both radiation and endostatin, or vehicle control. The experiment was repeated and mice from each group were killed at 2, 7, and 10 days after irradiation so that tumor tissue could be obtained to further analyze the kinetics of the antitumor, antivascular, and antiangiogenic response to therapy. Results: Endostatin enhanced the antitumor effects of radiation, and prolonged disease-free survival was observed in the combined treatment group. Endothelial cell proliferation was increased in tumors after irradiation but was blocked by the concurrent administration of endostatin, and the combination of endostatin with radiation enhanced endothelial cell apoptosis within 48 h after irradiation. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukin-8, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 were increased in tumors after irradiation, and this increase was blocked by concurrent administration of endostatin. Conclusion: These data indicate that endostatin can block tumor revascularization after radiation therapy and thereby augment radioresponse.

  13. Combinatorial effects of geopropolis produced by Melipona fasciculata Smith with anticancer drugs against human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma (HEp-2) cells.

    PubMed

    Bartolomeu, Ariane Rocha; Frión-Herrera, Yahima; da Silva, Livia Matsumoto; Romagnoli, Graziela Gorete; de Oliveira, Deilson Elgui; Sforcin, José Maurício

    2016-07-01

    The identification of natural products exerting a combined effect with therapeutic agents could be an alternative for cancer treatment, reducing the concentration of the drugs and side effects. Geopropolis (Geo) is produced by some stingless bees from a mixture of vegetable resins, gland secretions of the bees and soil. It has been used popularly as an antiseptic agent and to treat respiratory diseases and dermatosis. To determine whether Geo enhances the anticancer effect of carboplatin, methotrexate and doxorubicin (DOX), human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma (HEp-2) cells were treated with Geo alone or in combination with each drug. Cell growth, cytotoxicity and apoptosis were evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and flow cytometry. Scratch assay was used to analyze cell migration and transmission electron microscopy to observe morphologic alterations. The influence of Geo on drug resistance was also investigated assessing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) action. Geo inhibited cell proliferation and migration. The combination Geo+DOX led to the highest cytotoxic activity and induced apoptosis, leading to loss of membrane integrity. Geo had no effect on P-gp-mediated efflux of DOX. Data indicate that Geo combined with DOX could be a potential clinical chemotherapeutic approach for laryngeal cancer treatment. PMID:27261576

  14. Regulation of Bcl-2 expression by HuR in HL60 leukemia cells and A431 carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, Daniella; Ramalingam, Sivakumar; Sengupta, Tapas K; Bandyopadhyay, Sumita; Dellis, Stephanie; Tholanikunnel, Baby G; Fernandes, Daniel J; Spicer, Eleanor K

    2009-08-01

    Overexpression of the proto-oncogene bcl-2 promotes abnormal cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis. Expression of bcl-2 is determined, in part, by regulatory mechanisms that control the stability of bcl-2 mRNA. Elements in the 3'-untranslated region of bcl-2 mRNA have been shown to play a role in regulating the stability of the message. Previously, it was found that the RNA binding proteins nucleolin and Ebp1 have a role in stabilizing bcl-2 mRNA in HL60 cells. Here, we have identified HuR as a component of bcl-2 messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) complexes. RNA coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that HuR binds to bcl-2 mRNA in vivo. We also observed an RNA-dependent coprecipitation of HuR and nucleolin, suggesting that the two proteins are present in common mRNP complexes. Moreover, nucleolin and HuR bind concurrently to bcl-2 AU-rich element (ARE) RNA in vitro, suggesting separate binding sites for these proteins on bcl-2 mRNA. Knockdown of HuR in A431 cells leads to down-regulation of bcl-2 mRNA and protein levels. Observation of a decreased ratio of bcl-2 mRNA to heterogeneous nuclear RNA in HuR knockdown cells confirmed a positive role for HuR in regulating bcl-2 stability. Recombinant HuR retards exosome-mediated decay of bcl-2 ARE RNA in extracts of HL60 cells. This supports a role for HuR in the regulation of bcl-2 mRNA stability in HL60 cells, as well as in A431 cells. Addition of nucleolin and HuR to HL60 cell extracts produced a synergistic protective effect on decay of bcl-2 ARE RNA. HuR knockdown also leads to redistribution of bcl-2 mRNA from polysomes to monosomes. Thus, HuR seems to play a positive role in both regulation of bcl-2 mRNA translation and mRNA stability. PMID:19671677

  15. [Prognostic value of the immunohistochemical expresion of protein Rb in epidermoid carcinoma of the larynx].

    PubMed

    García Lozano, M C; Orradre Romero, J L; Sánchez Carrión, S; Menéndez Loras, L M; Jiménez Antolín, J; Piris Pinilla, M A

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we carried out an immunohistochemical study of protein Rb (G3-245) expression in a series of 195 patients with laryngeal carcinoma that were diagnosticated, treated and followed at the Department of Otolaryngology at "Virgen de la Salud" Hospital (Toledo, Spain) for a time of 5 years. In the cases with lymph node metastasis we also studied Rb expression at this level. Furthermore we have analysed the value of Rb expression as a prognostic factor (tumor recurrence, deads due to cancer and survival) and we evaluate the relationship between Rb expression and other clinic and pathologic parameters. PMID:15929589

  16. [Pronostic value of the immunohistochemical expression of cyclin D1 (DCS6) in epidermoid larynx carcinoma].

    PubMed

    García Lozano, M C; Orradre Romero, J L; Sánchez Carrión, S; Caro Garcia, M; Lasso Luis, O; Piris Pinilla, M A

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we carried out an immunohistochemical study of cyclin D1 (DCS6 ) expression in a series of 195 patients with laryngeal carcinoma that were diagnosticated, treated and followed at the Department of Otolaryngology at "Virgen de la Salud" Hospital (Toledo, Spain) for a time of 5 years. In the cases with lymph node metastasis we also studied cyclin D1 expression at this level. Furthermore we have analysed the value of cyclin D1 expression as a prognostic factor (tumor recurrence, deads due to cancer and survival) and we evaluate the relationship between cyclin D1 expression and other clinic and pathologic parameters. PMID:16881553

  17. A new approach to the management of epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal

    SciTech Connect

    Papillon, J.; Mayer, M.; Montbarbon, J.F.; Gerard, J.P.; Chassard, J.L.; Bailly, C.

    1983-05-15

    Until recently most squamous cell carcinomas of the anal canal were treated by radical surgery. Radiation therapy was only considered for palliation in case of inoperable tumors. Important progress has been made in the knowledge of the natural history of the disease and in the field of radiotherapy. Anal canal squamous cell carcinoma should not be treated any longer by the same procedure as adenocarcinoma of the lower rectum, because both these diseases differ markedly. Multimodality therapy with radiotherapy as first approach has been considered. This series of 121 cases treated since 1971 and followed more than three years suggests that three protocols based on irradiation followed or not by surgery should be used according to the extent of the disease. Of the 72 patients with resectable tumor, the five-year survival rate was 65%. Three-quarters of the patients cured had normal anal function. The rate of death from cancer was 18%. The method requires an accurate assessment of the extent of the tumor and of its pelvic lymphatic spread. Great care must be taken in planning treatment in a close cooperation between radiotherapist and surgeon.

  18. Bleomycin, cyclophosphamide and radiotherapy in regionally advanced epidermoid carcinoma of the head and neck

    SciTech Connect

    Seagren, S.L.; Byfield, J.E.; Davidson, T.M.; Sharp, T.R.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-four patients with squamous carcinoma of the head and neck and advanced regional (N/sub 2-3) disease were treated. The regimen consisted of 3 cycles, each of 28 days. Cyclophosphamide (1 gm/ M/sup 2/ I.V.) was given on day 1, bleomycin (15 u I.M.) on days 2, 4, 9 and 11, and ionizing radiation (/sup 60/Co, 180 rad/fraction) days 1-5, and 8-12. No therapy was given on days 13-28. After three cycles of therapy, 13 patients had a complete response; following further therapy (surgery, interstitial or external beam radiation), 16 patients were free of disease. However, remissions were not durable and 11/16 patients recurred loco-regionally with a median time to recurrence of 5 months; most (7/11) also developed distant metatases. These patients have biologically aggressive disease and may have a worse prognosis than patients who are Stage IV based on a T/sub 4/ primary lesion only.

  19. Bleomycin, cyclophosphamide and radiotherapy in regionally advanced epidermoid carcinoma of the head and neck

    SciTech Connect

    Seagren, S.L.; Byfield, J.E.; Davidson, T.M.; Sharp, T.R.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty four patients with squamous carcinoma of the head and neck and advanced regional (N/sub 2//sub -//sub 3/) disease were treated. The regimen consisted of 3 cycles, each of 28 days. Cyclophosphamide (I gm/m/sup 2/ I.V.) were given on day 1, bleomycin (15 ..mu.. I.M.) on days 2, 4, 9 and 11, and ionizing radiation (/sup 60/Co, 180 rad/fraction) days 1-5, and 8-12. No therapy was given on days 13-28. After three cycles of therapy, 13 patients had a complete response; following further therapy (surgery, interstitial or extenal beam radiation), 16 patients were free of disease. However, remissions were not durable and 11/16 patients recurred loco-regionally with a median time to recurrence of 5 months; most (7/11) also developed distant metastases. These patients have biologically aggressive disease and may have a worse prognosis than patients who are Stage IV based on a T/sub 4/ primary lesion only.

  20. Malignant Transformation of an Epidermoid Cyst in the Cerebellopontine Angle

    PubMed Central

    Chon, Kyu-Hyon; Koh, Eun-Jung; Choi, Ha-Young

    2012-01-01

    Intracranial squamous cell carcinoma is extremely rare, with most of the cases arising from malignant transformation of an epidermoid or a dermoid cyst. The patient presented with facial weakness. Initial magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass in the right cerebellopontine angle. A subtotal resection was performed via right retrosigmoid suboccipital approach. Histopathological findings were consistent with an epidermoid tumor. Five months later, the patient underwent gamma knife radiosurgery due to highly probable recurrent epidermoid tumor. Two years after, the patient's neurological deficit had been newly developed, and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a large contrast-enhancing tumor in the left cerebellopontine angle, which compressed the brainstem. After resection of the tumor, histopathological examinations revealed a squamous cell carcinoma probably arising from an underlying epidermoid cyst. We report a case of an epidermoid tumor in the cerebellopontine angle that transformed into a squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:23091675

  1. [Testicular epidermoid cyst: orchiectomy or enucleation resection?].

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, A; Zumbé, J; Vorreuther, R; Klotz, T; Vietsch, H; Engelmann, U H

    1996-01-01

    Our experience with 18 patients with simple epidermoid cysts of the testis is reported. In each patient the tumour was enucleated completely and two biopsies of the adjacent parenchyma were obtained for exclusion of associated germ cell cancer, scars or carcinoma in situ. There was no evidence of malignancy in any of the biopsy specimens. Preoperative evaluation included physical examination, testicular sonography, and determination of AFP and hCG serum levels. Although epidermoid cyst can be strongly suspected on sonography the ultrasound appearance is not specific, and inguinal testicular exploration was required in these patients. In 1 patient multiple epidermoid cysts of the right testis were associated with an adult teratoma containing embryonal carcinoma and choriocarcinoma of the left testis; no similar case has been described in the literature. On the basis of our results and experience we consider tumour enucleation and biopsy of the adjacent parenchyma to be adequate treatment for benign epidermoid cyst. The world literature concerning organ-sparing surgery in testicular epidermoid cyst is reviewed. PMID:8851841

  2. Testicular epidermoid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Çakıroglu, Basri; Sönmez, Nurettin Cem; Sinanoğlu, Orhun; Ateş, Lora; Aksoy, Süleyman Hilmi; Özcan, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cyst of the testis is a benign, non-teratomatous tumour. It is often possible to make the diagnosis pre-operatively, combining typical sonographic features with normal biochemical tumour markers. The accurate pre-operative diagnosis will allow for testis-sparing surgery and prevent unnecessary orchiectomy. An 11-year-old boy with testicular epidermoid cyst who presented with pain in testis was presented in this report. PMID:25659561

  3. Physico-chemical comparison of betulinic acid, betulin and birch bark extract and in vitro investigation of their cytotoxic effects towards skin epidermoid carcinoma (A431), breast carcinoma (MCF7) and cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa) cell lines.

    PubMed

    Soica, Codruta M; Dehelean, Cristina A; Peev, Camelia; Aluas, Mihaela; Zupkó, I; Kása, P; Alexa, Ersilia

    2012-01-01

    Betulin and betulinic acid are pentacyclic triterpenes present in the bark of the birch tree and other vegetal sources. Quantitatively, in birch bark betulin is more significant than betulinic acid; therefore, birch can be a large and feasible source of raw material for betulin extraction. Betulin can be used as extracted or, after chemical modification, as a starting compound for its acid, betulinic acid, with both substances possessing various interesting pharmacological properties. The purpose of this study is to analyse the betulin and betulinic acid content of a birch tree bark extract, as well as its cytotoxic activity. The extraction was done using a Soxhlet extractor and chloroform/dichlormethane/methanol (1 : 1 : 1) as solvent. The betulin and betulinic acid content of the extract was estimated using standards of pure betulin and betulinic acid, by thermal analysis as opposed to pure substance (thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis). The extract and the main compounds were also analysed by NMR. The results indicated a high amount of betulin in the final extract (up to 50%), and an important quantity of betulinic acid: over 3%. The cytotoxic activity indicated a high proliferation inhibition for the birch tree extract but was still comparable with betulinic acid and betulin. PMID:21598174

  4. EGF raises cytosolic Ca sup 2+ in A431 and Swiss 3T3 cells by a dual mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Pandiella, A.; Malgaroli, A.; Meldolesi, J.; Vicentini, L.M. )

    1987-05-01

    The changes in Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis and phosphoinositide hydrolysis induced by EGF were studied in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells both when attached to a substratum and after detachment and suspension. The cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} concentration was measured by the conventional fluorimetric technique, using the specific probe, quin2, as well as by a new microscopic technique in which single cells are investigated after loading with another probe, fura-2. EGF applied in the complete, Ca{sup 2+}-containing medium caused a rapid rise in the cytosolic {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} concentration, that remained elevated for several minutes. In Ca{sup 2+}-free, EGTA-containing medium, part of this response persisted, as revealed by quin2 results in suspended cells and microscopic results with fura-2. These results, as well as additional microscopic fura-2 results in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts, demonstrate that the Ca{sup 2+} signal elicited by EGF is due to two components: redistribution from an intracellular store and stimulated influx across the plasmalemma. This latter process was not detected in 3T3 cells treated with either PDGF or bombesin. It is therefore suggested that the {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} influx effect of EGF is under the control of a separate, as yet unidentified mechanism.

  5. Indirect immunofluorescence localization of beta-adrenergic receptors and G-proteins in human A431 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, H Y; Berrios, M; Malbon, C C

    1989-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies directed against (i) rodent lung beta 2-adrenergic receptor, (ii) a synthetic fragment of an extracellular domain of the receptor, and (iii) human placenta G-protein beta-subunits, were used to localize these antigens in situ in intact and permeabilized human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Antibodies directed against beta 2-adrenergic receptors showed a punctate immunofluorescence staining throughout the cell surface of fixed intact cells. Punctate staining was also observed in clones of Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with an expression vector harbouring the gene for the hamster beta 2-adrenergic receptor. The immunofluorescence observed with anti-receptor antibodies paralleled the level of receptor expression. In contrast, the beta-subunits common to G-proteins were not stained in fixed intact cells, presumably reflecting their intracellular localization. In detergent-permeabilized fixed cells, strong punctate staining of G beta-subunits was observed throughout the cytoplasm. This is the first indirect immunofluorescence localization of beta-adrenergic receptors and G-proteins. Punctate immunofluorescence staining suggests that both antigens are distributed in clusters. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. p528-a Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:2556996

  6. Splenic epidermoid cysts.

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, F G; Yellin, A E; Lingua, R W; Craig, J R; Turrill, F L; Mikkelsen, W P

    1978-01-01

    Four patients with splenic masses were operated upon and found to have epidermoid cysts of the spleen, a rare lesion comprising less than 10% of benign, nonparasitic splenic cysts. The patients were young and had vague, non-specific symptoms which were related to the size of the slowly enlarging splenic mass. Three patients had palpable masses. Contrast gastrointestinal studies and intravenous urography will help exclude mass lesions of the gastrointestinal or genitourinary tract. Sonar scan may confirm the cystic nature of the lesion and localize it to the spleen. A review of 42,327 autopsy records at the Los Angeles County--University of Southern California Medical Center revealed 32 benign splenic cysts found incidentally at autopsy. Hemorrhage, infection, rupture, and rarely, malignant change are complications of splenic cysts. Splenectomy is recommended to eliminate the symptoms produced by the cyst and prevent the potential complications. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:637577

  7. Malignant transformation of an epidermoid cyst in the temporal and prepontine region: Report of a case and differential diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    DING, SHENGHAO; JIN, YICHAO; JIANG, JIYAO

    2016-01-01

    Malignant transformation of an epidermoid cyst is rare. The current report presents a case of a 55-year-old female patient with squamous cell carcinoma arising from a benign epidermoid cyst in the left temporal region and prepontine area. She had undergone subtotal resection of an epidermoid cyst 7 months previously. Preoperative imaging findings included a focal enhancing area adjacent to the lesion. Postoperative computed tomography demonstrated an increase in the size of the enhancing area. The patient underwent removal of the lesion and postoperative histological examination revealed a squamous cell carcinoma possibly arising from the epidermoid cyst. Accurate diagnosis of malignant transformation prior to operation is difficult; however, the possibility of an intracranial epidermoid cyst must be considered if a focally enhancing area is visible. Postoperative histological examinations may be used to determine a definite diagnosis, and accurate diagnosis is important for planning a rational therapeutic strategy. PMID:27123070

  8. Brainstem epidermoid cyst: An update.

    PubMed

    Patibandla, M R; Yerramneni, Vamsi Krishna; Mudumba, Vijaya S; Manisha, Nukavarapu; Addagada, Gokul Chowdary

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of epidermoid tumors is between 1% and 2% of all intracranial tumors. The usual locations of epidermoid tumor are the parasellar region and cerebellopontine angle, and it is less commonly located in sylvian fissure, suprasellar region, cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres, and lateral and fourth ventricles. Epidermoid cysts located in the posterior fossa usually arise in the lateral subarachnoid cisterns, and those located in the brain stem are rare. These epidermoids contain cheesy and flaky white soft putty like contents. Epidermoid cysts are very slow growing tumors having a similar growth pattern of the epidermal cells of the skin and develop from remnants of epidermal elements during closure of the neural groove and disjunction of the surface ectoderm with neural ectoderm between the third and fifth weeks of embryonic life. We are presenting an interesting case of intrinsic brainstem epidermoid cyst containing milky white liquefied material with flakes in a 5-year-old girl. Diffusion-weighted imaging is definitive for the diagnosis. Ideal treatment of choice is removal of cystic components with complete resection of capsule. Although radical resection will prevent recurrence, in view of very thin firmly adherent capsule to brainstem, it is not always possible to do complete resection of capsule without any neurological deficits. PMID:27366244

  9. Brainstem epidermoid cyst: An update

    PubMed Central

    Patibandla, M. R.; Yerramneni, Vamsi Krishna; Mudumba, Vijaya S.; Manisha, Nukavarapu; Addagada, Gokul Chowdary

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of epidermoid tumors is between 1% and 2% of all intracranial tumors. The usual locations of epidermoid tumor are the parasellar region and cerebellopontine angle, and it is less commonly located in sylvian fissure, suprasellar region, cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres, and lateral and fourth ventricles. Epidermoid cysts located in the posterior fossa usually arise in the lateral subarachnoid cisterns, and those located in the brain stem are rare. These epidermoids contain cheesy and flaky white soft putty like contents. Epidermoid cysts are very slow growing tumors having a similar growth pattern of the epidermal cells of the skin and develop from remnants of epidermal elements during closure of the neural groove and disjunction of the surface ectoderm with neural ectoderm between the third and fifth weeks of embryonic life. We are presenting an interesting case of intrinsic brainstem epidermoid cyst containing milky white liquefied material with flakes in a 5-year-old girl. Diffusion-weighted imaging is definitive for the diagnosis. Ideal treatment of choice is removal of cystic components with complete resection of capsule. Although radical resection will prevent recurrence, in view of very thin firmly adherent capsule to brainstem, it is not always possible to do complete resection of capsule without any neurological deficits. PMID:27366244

  10. [Giant intradiploic infratentorial epidermoid cyst].

    PubMed

    Alberione, F; Caire, F; Fischer-Lokou, D; Gueye, M; Moreau, J J

    2007-10-01

    Epidermoid cysts are benign, uncommon lesions (1% of all intracranial tumors). Their localization is intradiploic in 25% of cases, and exceptionally subtentorial. We report here a rare case of giant intradiploic infratentorial epidermoid cyst. A 74-year old patient presented with recent diplopia and sindrome cerebellar. CT scan and MR imaging revealed a giant osteolytic extradural lesion of the posterior fossa (5.2 cm x 3.8 cm) with a small area of peripheral enhancement after contrast injection. Retrosigmoid suboccipital craniectomy allowed a satisfactory removal of the tumor, followed by an acrylic cranioplasty. The outcome was good. Neuropathological examination confirmed an epidermoid cyst. We review the literature and discuss our case. PMID:18008017

  11. Transcriptional activation of human 12-lipoxygenase gene promoter is mediated through Sp1 consensus sites in A431 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y W; Arakawa, T; Yamamoto, S; Chang, W C

    1997-01-01

    The functional 5' flanking region of the human 12-lipoxygenase in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells was characterized. By a primer extension method, the transcription initiation sites were mapped at -47 adenosine, -48 guanosine and -55 guanosine upstream of the ATG translation start codon. Transient transfection with a series of 5' and 3' deletion constructs showed that the 5' flanking region spanning from -224 to -100 bp was important for the basal expression of 12-lipoxygenase gene. Gel mobility shift assays with antibodies of transcription factors showed that both Sp1 and Sp3 required highly GC-rich Sp1 sites within this region for binding. Disruption of two Sp1 recognition motifs residing at -158 to -150 bp and -123 to -114 bp by site-directed mutagenesis markedly reduced the basal 12-lipoxygenase promoter activity and abolished the retarded bands in a gel-shift assay, indicating that these two Sp1-binding sites were essential for gene expression. The same two Sp1-binding sites in this promoter region were also responsible for epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced expression of 12-lipoxygenase gene. Moreover, EGF also induced the transcriptional activation of luciferase driven by SV40 early promoter, which contained rich Sp1-binding sites. Taken together, the results suggest that two specific Sp1 consensus sites are involved in the mediation of the basal promoter activity as well as EGF induction of the 12-lipoxygenase gene and that Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors might have a role in their regulation. PMID:9164849

  12. [Study of the genesis of bronchial epidermoid carcinoma: evolution or the expression of proteins, messenger RNAs and microRNAs at all stages of the process of carcinogenesis].

    PubMed

    Mascaux, C

    2009-01-01

    We characterized the successive and cumulative molecular modifications associated with transition in the histological stages of lung squamous carcinogenesis (normal epithelium from smokers, hyperplasia, metaplasia, mild, moderate and severe dysplasia, in situ carcinoma and invasive carcinoma) to improve our understanding of the mechanisms involved and identify new biomarkers for the early detection of lung squamous cell carcinoma. We employed immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, gene expression microarrays and quantitative RT-PCR to successively assess the expression of various proteins involved in cellular proliferation and apoptosis as well as messenger RNAs and microRNAs expression. Based on our data, we have improved the classification of bronchial preneoplastic lesions and furthered our understanding of the pathways involved in early lung carcinogenesis. The large number of biomarkers highlighted in these studies has opened two major and interesting perspectives: 1) the development of non invasive tests based on biomarkers for lung cancer detection at pre-invasive and early invasive stages and 2) new avenues of fundamental research whose goal is to understand the mechanisms underlying lung carcinogenesis. PMID:20666154

  13. Interdural cavernous sinus epidermoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Bonde, Vivek; Goel, Atul

    2008-02-01

    We report a patient with an uncommon interdural epidermoid tumor, located within the confines of dural layers of the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus. The tumor was resected by a basal subtemporal extradural-interdural approach. Following the surgery, the 45-year-old female patient recovered completely from her symptoms of atypical neuralgic facial pains. PMID:18083573

  14. Recurrent craniospinal epidermoid: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Abhidha; Patil, Manoj; Goel, Atul

    2016-01-01

    We present a rare case of a fourth ventricular epidermoid cyst, which recurred 15 years after the initial radical tumor resection surgery. The recurrence of the tumor extended into the cervical spine. The patient was reoperated and a near-total excision of both the cranial and spinal components of the epidermoid was performed. Our literature search did not reveal any case where there was a simultaneous presence of both the cranial and spinal epidermoid tumors. The possible cause of extension of the cranial epidermoid into the spinal compartment is analyzed. PMID:27041888

  15. Porfiromycin in the management of epidermoid and transitional cell cancer: a phase II study.

    PubMed

    Panettiere, F J; Talley, R W; Torres, J; Lane, M

    1976-07-01

    Porifiromycin has been tested in many groups of patients over the past several years (1-7). This report is an analysis of greater than 100 patients with epidermoid and urinary tract transitional cell carcinomas treated with this agent. A review of these data and the available literature on this agent shows that porfiromycin offers definite usefulness in disseminated squamous cell carcinomas of the cervix, and definite but lesser effectiveness in epidermoid carcinomas of the lung, the head and neck region, and other sites. Responsiveness was also demonstrated in transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary tract. Toxicity was tolerable and consisted primarily of myelosuppression and local skin necrosis in sites where extravasation had occurred. PMID:795539

  16. Epidermoid Causing Ischemic Stroke in the Brainstem

    PubMed Central

    Mahore, Amit; Kulkarni, Abhijeet; Rangarajan, Vithal; Patil, Manoj; Kawale, Juhi

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial tumors may rarely cause stroke. We report an epidermoid cyst causing stroke in a pediatric patient. We have also reviewed the literature and pathogenesis of stroke caused by intracranial tumors. PMID:25580320

  17. Epidermoid cysts of the velum interpositum.

    PubMed

    Bahuleyan, Biji; Daniel, Roy T; Chacko, Geeta; Chacko, Ari G

    2008-10-01

    The cistern of the velum interpositum is a space located between the corpus callosum dorsally and the roof of the third ventricle ventrally. Lesions located within the velum interpositum are rare and include meningiomas, pilocytic astrocytomas, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors and arachnoid cysts. Epidermoid cysts in this location have not been reported previously. We report the clinical and radiological features of two patients with epidermoid cysts located in the velum interpositum. The patients presented with gait difficulty and features of raised intracranial pressure and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated large tumors in the velum interpositum with intensities suggestive of epidermoid cysts. There was ventral displacement of the internal cerebral veins and dorsal displacement of the corpus callosum in keeping with a mass in the velum interpositum. Tumors of the third ventricle displace the internal cerebral veins dorsally. A transcallosal approach was used in both patients to effectively excise the tumors. PMID:18710812

  18. Atypical Intracranial Epidermoid Cysts: Rare Anomalies with Unique Radiological Features

    PubMed Central

    Law, Eric K. C.; Lee, Ryan K. L.; Ng, Alex W. H.; Siu, Deyond Y. W.; Ng, Ho-Keung

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are benign slow growing extra-axial tumours that insinuate between brain structures, while their occurrences in intra-axial or intradiploic locations are exceptionally rare. We present the clinical, imaging, and pathological findings in two patients with atypical epidermoid cysts. CT and MRI findings for the first case revealed an intraparenchymal epidermoid cyst that demonstrated no restricted diffusion. The second case demonstrated an aggressive epidermoid cyst that invaded into the intradiploic spaces, transverse sinus, and the calvarium. The timing of ectodermal tissue sequestration during fetal development may account for the occurrence of atypical epidermoid cysts. PMID:25667778

  19. Orbital Epidermoid Cysts: A Diagnosis to Consider

    PubMed Central

    Eltanamly, Rasha M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Orbital epidermoids form a rare pathological entity that is separate from dermoid cysts. They have variable clinical and radiological presentations and they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of orbital cystic lesions. This work describes the various clinical and radiological presentations of 17 cases of epidermoid cysts and the surgical outcome. Method. A prospective interventional study was conducted on 17 patients diagnosed with epidermoid cysts. Patients' symptoms and signs were recorded; CT scan was done for all patients. All lesions were removed through anterior orbitotomy and histopathological diagnosis confirmed. Results. Mean age of patients was 16.3 years ±  10.54. Main complaints were lid swelling, masses, ocular dissimilarity, chronic pain, and ocular protrusion. Clinical signs varied from lid swelling and masses in all cases to proptosis, globe displacement, limitation of ocular motility, and scars. Radiological findings ranged from homogenous hypodense masses (58.8%) to homogenous radiolucent (17.6%) and heterogenous masses (23.5%). No recurrences following surgeries were reported throughout the follow-up (mean 18.8 months ±  0.72). Conclusion. Deep orbital epidemoid cysts are a separate entity that can behave like deep orbital epidermoid; however, they usually present at a relatively older age. They can be associated with increased orbital volume but not necessarily related to bony sutures. PMID:25276416

  20. Extensive epidermoid cyst of the submental region

    PubMed Central

    Utumi, Estevam Rubens; Araujo, Juliane Pirágine; Pedron, Irineu Gregnanin; Yonezaki, Frederico; Machado, Gustavo Grothe

    2016-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are malformations that are rarely observed in the submental region. Imaging has an important role in surgical planning according to the size and location of the cyst in relation to geniohyoid and mylohyoid muscles. This article reports the case of a 15-year-old female patient complaining of submental swelling. The differential diagnosis included infection, tumor, ranula, and abnormalities during embryonic development. The lesion was surgically excised using an extra-oral approach. The histopathological examination revealed a cyst wall lined with stratified squamous epithelium with the presence of several horny scales consistent with the diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst. No recurrences were found after 1 year of follow-up.

  1. Epidermoids involving the temporal bone: clinical, radiological and pathological aspects.

    PubMed

    Nager, G T

    1975-12-01

    Epidermoids or congenital cholesteatomas arise from aberrant epithelial remnants and are, therefore, considerd blastomatous malformations. Their predilective sites are the intracranial cavity, the diploe of the skull and the spinal canal. In the base of the skull the temporal bone is the most frequent site. Epidermoids account for about 0.2-1.5 percent of all intracranial tumors. The majority originate in the cerebello-pontine angle where they account for 6-7 percent of all tumors. Their age incidence reveals a great scatter from birth to 80 years. The majority are recognized during the third and fourth decades with the onset of clinical symptoms occurring much earlier. They affect males more frequently than females. Their delicate capsule with a whitish mother-of-pearl sheen lends them a typical appearance. Epidermoids are generally slow growing lesions which may remain asymptomatic for years. The irritative effect of their content, however, can produce symptoms of dysfunction and intense inflammation. Malignant changes occur infrequently. Diploic epidermoids are easily recognized, whereas, intradural epidermoids are more difficult to identify. Epidermoids may arise in the vicinity, on the outer aspect or within the temporal bone. Epidermoids originating in any of these locations have certain characteristic features which may arouse suspicion of their presence. Examples of an epidermoid with origin in the typical locations within the temporal bone and cerebello-pontine angle are discussed to portray their individual characteristics. PMID:1207346

  2. Esophageal leukoplakia or epidermoid metaplasia: a clinicopathological study of 18 patients.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Aatur D; Arnold, Christina A; Crowder, Clinton D; Lam-Himlin, Dora M; Voltaggio, Lysandra; Montgomery, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Oral leukoplakia is a relatively common, painless disorder of the oral mucosa. It predominantly affects middle-aged to elderly men and has a strong association with tobacco smoking and alcohol intake. Concomitant histological findings of hyperorthokeratosis and a well-developed granular cell layer, termed orthokeratotic dysplasia, are often associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma. In contrast, analogous lesions within the esophagus, termed esophageal epidermoid metaplasia, are rarely encountered and poorly described in the literature. To better characterize the clinicopathological features of this entity, we have collected 25 cases from 18 patients. Patients ranged in age from 37 to 81 years (mean, 61.5 years), with a slight female predominance (10/18, 56%). On presentation, a majority of patients complained of dysphagia (10/18, 56%). Past medical history was significant for tobacco smoking or long history of second-hand smoke in 11 (61%) patients and alcohol intake in 7 (39%) patients. Seventeen (94%) patients with esophageal epidermoid metaplasia were located within the middle-to-distal esophagus. Histologically, all cases were sharply demarcated and characterized by epithelial hyperplasia, a thickened basal layer, acanthotic midzone, a prominent granular cell layer, and superficial hyperorthokeratosis. Adjacent high-grade squamous dysplasia and/or squamous cell carcinoma were seen in 3 out of 18 (17%) patients. Follow-up information was available for 13 out of 18 (72%) patients and ranged from 2 to 8.3 years (mean, 2.3 years). Seven of the 13 (54%) patients had persistent disease; however, none of them developed squamous dysplasia or squamous cell carcinoma. In an effort to assess the incidence of esophageal epidermoid metaplasia, 198 consecutive esophageal biopsies were prospectively surveyed over a 6-month period at three academic institutions. No cases were identified within this time frame. In summary, esophageal epidermoid metaplasia is a rare

  3. Metformin inhibits the proliferation of A431 cells by modulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    LIU, YINGSHAN; ZHANG, YAN; JIA, KUN; DONG, YUHAO; MA, WEIYUAN

    2015-01-01

    The ability of metformin, an antidiabetic drug with wide applications, to inhibit tumor cell growth has recently been discovered. The PI3K/Akt signaling pathway has been found to play an important role in the survival, proliferation and apoptosis of tumor cells. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of metformin on the proliferation of A431 human squamous cell carcinoma cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms. A431 cells in the logarithmic growth phase were treated with 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 mM metformin for 12, 24 and 36 h, respectively. Cell morphology with 45 mM metformin treatment for 24 h was observed under a microscope. The proliferation of A431 cells was detected by the Cell Counting kit-8 colorimetric method. The mRNA expression levels of PI3K and Akt were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The protein expression levels of PI3K, Akt and phosphorylated (p)-Akt were detected by western blot analysis. Metformin treatment caused morphological change in A431 cells and inhibited their proliferation in a significant time- and dose-dependent manner. RT-PCR results showed that the mRNA expression of PI3K was inhibited by metformin in a time- and dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). However, there was no significant change in the mRNA expression of Akt following metformin treatment (P>0.05). Western blotting results showed that the protein expression levels of PI3K and p-Akt were inhibited by metformin in a time- and dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). In conclusion, metformin significantly inhibited the proliferation of A431 cells in the current study, which may be strongly associated with the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. PMID:25780442

  4. Study of the betulin enriched birch bark extracts effects on human carcinoma cells and ear inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pentacyclic triterpenes, mainly betulin and betulinic acid, are valuable anticancer agents found in the bark of birch tree. This study evaluates birch bark extracts for the active principles composition. Results New improved extraction methods were applied on the bark of Betula pendula in order to reach the maximum content in active principles. Extracts were analyzed by HPLC-MS, Raman, SERS and 13C NMR spectroscopy which revealed a very high yield of betulin (over 90%). Growth inhibiting effects were measured in vitro on four malignant human cell lines: A431 (skin epidermoid carcinoma), A2780 (ovarian carcinoma), HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma) and MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma), by means of MTT assay. All of the prepared bark extracts exerted a pronounced antiproliferative effect against human cancer cell lines. In vivo studies involved the anti-inflammatory effect of birch extracts on TPA-induced model of inflammation in mice. Conclusions The research revealed the efficacy of the extraction procedures as well as the antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of birch extracts. PMID:23158079

  5. Clinical Characteristics of Epidermoid Cysts of the External Auditory Canal

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Go-Woon; Park, Jang-Hee; Kwon, Oh-Joon; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The epidermoid cyst is a common benign disease of the skin caused by inflammation of hair cortex follicles and proliferation of epidermal cells within the dermis or superficial subcutaneous tissue. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of epidermoid cysts of the external auditory canal (EAC) by analyzing the clinical and radiologic features. Subjects and Methods The clinical records were retrospectively reviewed for patients diagnosed with epidermoid cyst of the EAC from March 2004 to December 2013. The epidermoid cysts were diagnosed clinically by endoscopy and microscopy examinations and by temporal bone CT images, and were confirmed by histopathologic examination. Characteristics of epidermoid cysts in bony EAC and cartilaginous EAC were compared. Results Eight patients had an epidermoid cyst in the bony EAC and nine patients had one in the cartilaginous EAC. Swelling and otalgia were common symptoms, but 47% of cysts were found incidentally. The mean age of patients was 49.6 years (age range, 26-67 years) in the bony EAC cases and 26.1 years (age range, 6-57 years) in the cartilaginous EAC cases. The mean size of the epidermoid cyst was 3.50 mm (size range, 2-7 mm) in the bony EAC cases and 9.55 mm (size range, 2-20 mm) in the cartilaginous EAC cases. Conclusions Comparison of epidermoid cysts of the bony EAC and the cartilaginous EAC revealed that epidermoid cysts of the bony EAC is usually found incidentally, arose in older patients and had smaller size. PMID:27144232

  6. Giant Pelvic Retroperitoneal Epidermoid Cyst: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Fdili Alaoui, F. Z.; Oussaden, A.; Bouguern, H.; El Fatemi, H.; Melhouf, M. A.; Amarti, A.; Ait Taleb, K.

    2012-01-01

    Epidermoid cyst is a frequent benign cutaneous tumor. The pelvic localization does not occur very often. The literature that taps into such cases is very limited in scope. Here is a report of a 27-year-old woman with a giant pelvic retroperitoneal epidermoid cyst. The use of ultrasound exploration and computed tomography has indicated ovarian origins. The surgery also revealed a retroperitoneal epidermoid cyst, uterus and ovaries were all intact. The evacuation of a cyst was found to contain lamellas of keratin. Histology permitted us to confirm the diagnosis. The patient was faring well after two years of followup. PMID:23150734

  7. Giant pelvic retroperitoneal epidermoid cyst: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Fdili Alaoui, F Z; Oussaden, A; Bouguern, H; El Fatemi, H; Melhouf, M A; Amarti, A; Ait Taleb, K

    2012-01-01

    Epidermoid cyst is a frequent benign cutaneous tumor. The pelvic localization does not occur very often. The literature that taps into such cases is very limited in scope. Here is a report of a 27-year-old woman with a giant pelvic retroperitoneal epidermoid cyst. The use of ultrasound exploration and computed tomography has indicated ovarian origins. The surgery also revealed a retroperitoneal epidermoid cyst, uterus and ovaries were all intact. The evacuation of a cyst was found to contain lamellas of keratin. Histology permitted us to confirm the diagnosis. The patient was faring well after two years of followup. PMID:23150734

  8. Pineal epidermoid cyst: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Fahd Derkaoui; Bouchaouch, Abdelali; El Fatemi, Nizare; Gana, Rachid; El Abbadi, Najia; Maaqili, Moulay Rachid

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial epidermoid cysts are one of the rare tumors of all intracranial tumors. They represent 0,2 to 1% of intracranial tumors and 7% of tumors in the cerebellopontine angle. The pineal region is exceptionally subject to such kind of tumor. Cushing was the first to report the pineal localization of the epidermoid cyst in 1928. Up to now, 85 cases of pineal epidermoid cyst were cited in the literature. We report a clinical case concerning a 45 years old man who presented an intracranial hypertension during 18 months. The clinical examination found a hemiparesis with a facial hypoesthesis. The MRI showed a process of the pineal region. The patient underwent a surgery with a large resection. The histological examination confirms the epidermoid cyst. Many approaches were described in the literature. The outcome is related to this localization. PMID:25489364

  9. Epidermoid cyst of the testis: An atypical sonographic appearance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-Ting; Chiou, Hong-Jen; Pan, Chin-Chen; Shen, Shu-Huei; Chou, Yi-Hong; Tiu, Chui-Mei; Wang, Hsin-Kai; Lai, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yung-Hui; Wang, Jane; Chang, Cheng-Yen

    2016-09-01

    Epidermoid cysts are rare. They represent the most common benign tumor of the testis. The sonographic appearances of testicular epidermoid cysts usually include avascular, mostly lamellated, heterogeneous internal echotexture, with hypoechoic and hyperechoic concentric rings, accounting for the typical onion-ring appearance. On MRI, epidermoid cysts show a low-signal-intensity center, with internal concentric rings of alternating high- and low-signal intensity on T2-weighted images, which correlates with the onion-ring appearance. We report a patient with testicular epidermoid cyst with atypical ultrasound and MRI appearances that led to the erroneous initial diagnosis of "burned-out" tumor. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 44:448-451, 2016. PMID:27028726

  10. Potentially fatal supramylohyoid sublingual epidermoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Ujjwal; Mohanty, Sujata; Augustine, Jayaseelan; Gupta, Shalini R

    2015-03-01

    A case of chronic and slow growing massive lateral neck swelling is presented which gradually resulted in dysphagia to an extent that patient reported in emergency room. Clinical findings were indicative of a cystic swelling or a massive lipoma. Temporary decompression of the lesion was achieved by partially aspirating the contents of the cyst. Nature of aspirate and its microscopic and biochemical analysis excluded lipoma, vascular malformation and salivary phenomenon. The diagnosis tapered to developmental lateral neck cysts. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) revealed a massive cystic lesion in the left floor of mouth extending to the right lingual aspect of mandible and posteriorly to impinge on the medial wall of pharynx. A combined intraoral and extraoral approach was used to expose and excise the lesion in toto. Final histological diagnosis of the pathology was epidermoid cyst. PMID:25848141

  11. Splenic Epidermoid Cyst in a Five-Year-Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Bhavna; Sood, Neena; Singh, Satpal

    2016-01-01

    Splenic epidermoid cysts are rare non-parasitic true cysts affecting the spleen. We report a five-year-old child who presented with an abdominal lump associated with pain of 15 days. Ultrasonography of the abdomen showed a huge cystic lesion of obscure origin. At laprotomy a huge unilocular cyst involving upper part of spleen containing pultaceous fluid was seen and its removal necessitated splenectomy. Histopathological findings were consistent with splenic epidermoid cyst. Thus histopathology helped in elucidating the aetiology and diagnosis.

  12. Familial epidermoid cysts of the spleen: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Masatoshi; Yamane, Masaomi; Miyatani, Katsuya; Udaka, Tetsunobu; Mizuta, Minoru; Shirakawa, Kazutoyo

    2006-01-01

    The familial occurrence of epidermoid cysts of the spleen is rare, with only six cases having ever been reported, to our knowledge. We recently diagnosed epidermoid cysts of the spleen in a mother and son. First, a 15-year-old boy was admitted to our hospital for management of blunt abdominal trauma. Computed tomography (CT) showed a ruptured large splenic cyst with an intraabdominal hematoma. We performed a splenectomy, and histopathological examination confirmed the existence of an epidermoid cyst of the spleen. About 2 years and 6 months later, the family physician found that the patient's 41-year-old mother had a large splenic cyst, and she was referred to our hospital for further investigation. CT showed a 10 x 8 cm cyst occupying most of the spleen. The patient underwent splenectomy, and a pathological diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst of the spleen was confirmed. Although the etiology of epidermoid cysts of the spleen is unclear, this familial occurrence may support the hypothesis of congenital malformation as a result of genetic change. PMID:16937296

  13. Primary epidermoid cysts of the mastoid: clinical and treatment implications.

    PubMed

    Syed, Mohammed Iqbal; Plodpai, Yuvatiya; Khoo, Seng Guan; Rutka, John A

    2016-04-01

    Epidermoid cysts of the temporal bone are extremely rare and such lesions arising in isolation within the mastoid bone have never been reported in literature. We report and describe the first two unique cases of primary epidermoid cysts arising in the mastoid bone. Of the two cases, one presented with progressive headache and imbalance and the other with unilateral hearing loss and tinnitus. Both cases needed CT and MRI scans and needed surgical management. We review the clinical presentations, histology, pathogenesis, radiological findings and management of these challenging cases. The diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst is based on clinical presentation, physical examination and especially the radiological, histological and intraoperative findings. Total removal of the lesion along with its capsule is recommended to prevent recurrence and to allow for a good long-term prognosis. PMID:25958160

  14. Sylvian fissure epidermoid cyst presenting with intention tremor

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Abhidha; Makkiyah, Feda; Goel, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Epidermoid tumors are benign tumors which contain keratin, cellular debris, and cholesterol, and are lined with stratified squamous epithelium. They grow in discreet silence sustained over a multitude of years. The tumors most commonly present with headache and seizures. We report the case of a 24-year-old male with a large sylvian fissure epidermoid tumor who presented with intention tremor. The patient was operated, and a near-total excision of the tumor was performed with a resolution of the tremor. PMID:27057232

  15. Intrascrotal epidermoid cyst with extension into the pelvis.

    PubMed

    Sadler, B T; Greenfield, S P; Wan, J; Glick, P L

    1995-04-01

    An 8-year-old boy presented with an asymptomatic extratesticular, scrotal epidermoid cyst with extension across the urogenital diaphragm into the pelvis. While routine contrast studies and ultrasound were performed, magnetic resonance imaging was most useful in depicting the anatomical boundaries of the lesion, including the intrapelvic extension. Complete excision was performed transcrotally. The lesion is histologically indistinguishable from epidermoid cysts found elsewhere in the external genitalia, that is the penis, scrotum or testis. The etiology is unknown but it may represent a monolayer teratoma of germ cell origin or abnormal embryological closure of the median raphe. PMID:7869526

  16. Imaging diagnosis--intracranial epidermoid cyst in a Doberman Pinscher.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, T; Matiasek, K; Brühschwein, A; Fischer, A

    2007-01-01

    A 4-year-old Doberman Pinscher was evaluated for chronic progressive central vestibular disease and aggressiveness. A cyst-like lesion was identified in the region of the left cerebellopontine angle. The lesion was hypointense on T1-weighted and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. Differentials included an epidermoid or dermoid cyst, cystic neoplasm, and brain abscess. Hyperintensity on subsequent fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images excluded an arachnoid cyst. The histopathologic diagnosis was epidermoid cyst within the fourth ventricle. PMID:17508513

  17. Epidermoid cyst of the ileum in a miniature dachshund dog

    PubMed Central

    Shimamura, Shunsuke; Kainuma, Risa; Kimura, Ken; Okamura, Yasuhiko; Kobayashi, Saori; Katayama, Masaaki; Sato, Reeko; Yasuda, Jun

    2014-01-01

    A 13-year-old castrated male miniature dachshund dog was presented with chronic vomiting and diarrhea. Contrast radiography and surgical exploration revealed an ileal cyst, which was excised. A diagnosis of epidermoid cyst was made from a combination of the clinical findings and histological examination of the surgical specimen. PMID:24688137

  18. [Rare giant retroauricular epidermoid cyst: a case report].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Enhui; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Xiaocheng

    2016-03-01

    Epidermnoid cysts are henign, cutaneous cysts which commonly occur on face, neck and trunk. Retroauricular epidermoid cyst is rare reported which should be differentiated from auricle pseudocyst, lipoma, steatocystoma and fibroma. The hitopathological examination is a gold standard of diagnosis. Surgery of complete excision is the first choice of treatment methods. PMID:27382692

  19. Meckel's cave epidermoid with trigeminal neuralgia: CT findings.

    PubMed

    Kapila, A; Steinbaum, S; Chakeres, D W

    1984-12-01

    An epidermoid tumor of Meckel's cave was found in a middle-aged woman with trigeminal neuralgia. On CT the lesion had negative attenuation numbers of fat and extended from an expanded Meckel's cave through the porous trigeminus into the ambient and cerebellopontine angle cisterns. Surgical excision provided relief of the patient's trigeminal neuralgia. PMID:6501628

  20. Unusually Giant Sublingual Epidermoid Cyst: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Nishar, Chintan-C; Ambulgekar, Vijayalaxmi-K.; Gujrathi, Atish-B.; Chavan, Pravin-T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Epidermoid cysts are rare, slow‑growing, benign, developmental cysts, which are derived from abnormally situated ectodermal tissue. Epidermoid cysts of the floor of the mouth represent <0.01% of all oral cysts. So far, only a few cases have been reported. Case Report: Hereby, we present a case of a giant sublingual epidermoid cyst, which was completely asymptomatic upon presentation. However, due to its large size, it pushed the epiglottis posteriorly and created difficulty during intubation. The patient developed respiratory distress after its surgical excision and extubation, requiring tracheostomy post operatively. The patient recovered well and a successful weaning of tracheostomy was performed, giving the patient a healthy life. Conclusion: Epidermoid cyst is a rare differential diagnosis of sublingual swelling that should be kept in mind for large asymptomatic swellings in this region. The only symptom it can cause might be respiratory distress due to its large size. This can happen not only pre-operatively but also post-operatively and the surgeon should be ready for immediate tracheostomy. PMID:27602342

  1. [Heterotopic cloacogenic carcinoma of the lower lip].

    PubMed

    Vulcan, P; Dumitriu, E; Grigore, M

    1994-01-01

    Cloacogenic carcinoma is a tumour which develops from cylindric epithelial cells at the anorectal junction. Besides this usual localization, other sites have been described including the vagina, urethra, sigmoid colon, vulva and perianal skin. We observed a labial localization in a 50-year-old woman. A 15 mm tumorous formation developed rapidly after initial excision without skin or mucosal changes. The clinical diagnosis was epidermoid carcinoma but histological examination revealed an aspect comparable to cloacogenic carcinoma with nodules of basaloid tumour cells showing atypical mitosis within the nodules and the uniformly eosinophilic masses. We considered that this particular histological aspect eliminated the diagnosis of basocellular or epidermoid carcinoma and suggest that the carcinoma developed from embryon reliquats of cloacoanal transition cells in a heterotopic localization. PMID:7979028

  2. [Iatrogenic spinal epidermoid tumors. A late complication of spinal puncture].

    PubMed

    Reina, M A; López-García, A; Dittmann, M; de Andrés, J A; Blázquez, M G

    1996-04-01

    INTRODUCTION. Epidermoid tumors in the spinal canal are rare. Whether congenitally or iatrogenically caused, they form as the result of epidermal cells implanted within the spinal channel. Such implantation can occur during a variety of procedures and events such as bullet wounds, surgery, myelography or punctures for diagnosis, anesthesia or treatment. Although this complication is not discussed in books or journals on anesthesiology, we have found it mentioned in over 100 published cases reporting iatrogenically caused spinal epidermoid tumors. ETIOPATHOGENESIS. Iatrogenic epidermoid tumors of the spine derive from the implantation of epidermal tissue transported inside the spinal canal during lumbar punctures without guidance or with inadequate guidance. There is ample evidence that such tumors are iatrogenic. All cases occur in patients with a history of lumbar puncture. They are rarely associated with congenital anomalies. They are extramedullary. They tend to develop near sites of earlier lumbar puncture, usually near the conus medullaris and the cauda equina. Iatrogenic epidermoid tumors of the spine have been reproduced experimentally in two studies in which autologous skin fragments were implanted in the spinal canal. CLINICAL SIGNS. These tumors are well tolerated by patients for extended periods of time, ranging from 2 to 10 years. At the cauda equinus, tumors can grow slowly for long periods without signs of nerve compression. Symptoms are directly related to tumor size and site. All patients with tumors at the cauda equinus report severe pain radiating toward the roots of compressed nerves. Nuclear magnetic resonance makes it possible to detect the tumor without administration of intrathecal contrast. At present gadolinium-DTPA improves the image so that these tumors can be distinguished from other types. The prognosis for epidermoid tumors of the spine is good, as they are histologically benign. Treatment is always surgical. CONCLUSION. Although the

  3. Maxillary sinus carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, F.; Ogura, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Primary site control, anatomical site of failure, survival, and complications of treatment were determined in a retrospective review of primary maxillary sinus carcinoma. Sixty-one patients were treated by radiation followed by surgery and 35 by radiation alone. Primary tumor control was achieved in 69% of patients receiving combined treatment, 14% of patients treated with radiation alone, and 49% of all patients. Local control did not differ with histological type. Virtually all epidermoid and undifferentiated carcinoma recurrences occurred within 2 years, but 27% of adenocarcinomas recurred after 2 years.

  4. Depressive symptomatology and pineal epidermoid cyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kontoangelos, Konstantinos; Economou, Marina; Maltezou, Maria; Kandaraki, Anna; Papadimitriou, George N

    2013-08-01

    Introduction Intracranial epidermoid cysts are congenital cysts. They comprise 0.2-1.8% of primary intracranial tumours and are four to nine times as common as dermoid cysts. Case report We here in present the case of a 32-year-old man who reported sudden onset of symptoms of a depressive symptomatology and particularly severe headache, accompanied by fatigue, depressed mood most of the day, marked diminished interest or pleasure in all or almost all activities, insomnia and diminished ability to think or concentrate. Brain magnetic resolution imaging examination revealed a pineal epidermoid cystic lesion, visualised in the posterior part of the third ventricle, with a maximum diameter of ∼2.8 cm and obstructing the aqueduct of Sylvius, causing obstructive hydrocephalus. Discussion Pineal cysts may enlarge over time, because of either increased cyst fluid or intracystic haemorrhage, and become symptomatic. Brain radiological investigations in patients with depressive symptomatology may be substantial. PMID:25287638

  5. Epidermoid cyst of the floor of the mouth

    PubMed Central

    Baliga, Mohan; Shenoy, Nandita; Poojary, Dharnappa; Mohan, Ram; Naik, Ramdas

    2014-01-01

    Dermoid cysts are malformations that are rarely seen in the oral cavity. An intraoral dermoid cyst grows slowly, but may enlarge and interfere with deglutition and speech, or can pose a critical risk to the airway and therefore require immediate surgical intervention. Dermoid cysts may develop above or below the mylohyoid muscle, causing a submental or submandibular swelling. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice and recurrence is rare. An intraoral approach for the treatment of large lesions presenting above the mylohyoid muscle provides good cosmetic and functional results. We report a case of a 26-year-old female who developed an epidermoid cyst presenting as a large sublingual swelling causing speech and swallowing difficulties. The lesion was surgically excised using an intraoral approach. Microscopic examination revealed a dermoid cyst of the epidermoid type. This case shows that dermoid cysts may be successfully diagnosed and managed using a series of simple yet effective clinical procedure. PMID:25298725

  6. Cerebellopontine angle epidermoid cysts: clinical presentations and surgical outcome.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Mitsuhiro; Nouri, Mohsen; Nagahisa, Shinya; Yoshida, Koichiro; Adachi, Kazuhide; Inamasu, Joji; Hirose, Yuichi; Fujisawa, Hironori

    2016-04-01

    Epidermoid cysts constitute less than 1 % of intracranial tumors with the majority of them involving cerebellopontine angle (CPA). Although several mechanisms for cranial nerve dysfunction due to these tumors have been proposed, no direct evaluation for hyper- or hypoactive dysfunction has been done. In this case series, pathophysiology of cranial nerve dysfunction in CPA epidermoid cysts was evaluated with special attention to a new mechanism of capsule strangulation caused by stratified tumor capsule. Twenty-two cases with epidermoid cysts of CPA micro-neurosurgically treated in our departments since 2005 were reviewed. Clinical status of the patients before the surgery and post-operative functional outcome were recorded. Available data from the English literature were summarized for comparison. Mass reduction of cyst contents in most cases was usually associated with prompt and marked improvement of the symptoms suggesting neuroapraxia caused by compression of the tumor content and/or mild ischemia. Among them, two cases showed strangulation of the affected nerves by the tumor capsule whose preoperative dysfunction did not improve after surgery in spite of meticulous microsurgical removal of the lesion. Involved facial and abducent nerves in these two cases showed distortion of nerve axis and nerve atrophy distal to the strangulation site. We report the first direct evidence of etiology of cranial nerve dysfunction caused by cerebellopontine angle epidermoid tumors. Young age and rapidly progressive neurological deficit might be the characteristics for strangulation of the affected nerves by the cyst capsule. Even though the number of cases might be limited, immediate decompression and release of the strangulating band might be urged in such patients to prevent irreversible deficits. PMID:26566990

  7. Whole Course Neuroendoscopic Resection of Cerebellopontine Angle Epidermoid Cysts.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhiqiang; Guan, Feng; Kang, Tiejiang; Huang, Hui; Dai, Bin; Zhu, Guangtong; Mao, Beibei; Kang, Zhuang

    2016-09-01

    Background Epidermoid cysts are the third most common tumor of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA). Diagnosis often occurs after involvement of the sulci and cisterns that surround nerves and blood vessels, making complete resection highly challenging. Objective To determine the efficacy of whole course neuroendoscopic surgery in the management of CPA epidermoid cysts. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of clinical data of 13 male and 17 female patients (mean age: 42.4 ± 11.4 years) who presented with a CPA epidermoid cyst and underwent whole course neuroendoscopy. Complications and tumor recurrence were assessed at follow-up. Results Clinical manifestations included an initial symptom of headache (n = 21), gait instability (n = 6), intracranial hypertension (n = 13), posterior cranial nerve symptoms (n = 6), ataxia (n = 5), and hydrocephalus (n = 1). All patients tolerated tumor resection with subsequent symptomatic improvement, and the results of the postoperative magnetic resonance imaging scan did not show any remnants of tumor. Mean duration of surgery was 2.61 ± 0.47 hours, mean loss of blood was 96.8 ± 35.4 mL, and the mean duration of hospitalization was 7.5 ± 2.25 days. Postoperative complications (8 of 30 [26.7%]) included fever (n = 5), communicating hydrocephalus (n = 1), facial nerve paralysis (n = 1), and abducens nerve palsy (n = 1). Tumor recurrence was observed in two patients (6.7%). No deaths or intracranial hemorrhage was reported. Conclusions The characteristics of epidermoid cysts make them amenable to whole course neuroendoscopic resection. Use of physiologic/pathologic interspaces and neuroendoscopic angulations decreases traction on the brain, improves complete resection rates, and decreases postoperative complications. PMID:26302403

  8. An unusual presentation of an intraosseous epidermoid cyst of the anterior maxilla: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Intraosseous epidermoid inclusion cysts are rare benign epithelial inclusion cysts in the bone. They are usually found in the cranium and hand phalanges. They are slow growing lesions, and it is difficult to differentiate them from other inflammatory and cystic lesions. Only a few cases of epidermoid inclusion cyst in the jaw have been reported in the literature. This is the fourth case reported as intraosseous epidermoid cyst of the maxilla in the English literature. Case presentation An asymptomatic 59-year-old Caucasian man was referred to our Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery clinic for a unilocular radiolucent area at his anterior maxilla shown on an orthopantomograph. He was scheduled for surgery and underwent cyst extraction surgery. A pathological examination revealed epidermoid cyst. The diagnostic dilemma in this case report in opposition to the presented intraosseous epidermoid cysts in the literature is that there was no trauma history to his upper jaw. Treatment for this cyst is conservative surgical excision and recurrence is uncommon. Conclusions This report presents an unusual case of an intraosseous epidermoid cyst that occurred with no trauma history to the upper jaw. Although only three cases of epidermoid inclusion cyst have been reported in the maxilla, epidermoid inclusion cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis of radiolucent lesions of the jaws. PMID:25070270

  9. Neurofibroma and epidermoid cyst: unexpected findings after first foreskin retraction.

    PubMed

    Ballouhey, Quentin; Longis, Bernard; Couvrat-Carcauzon, Véronique; Gardic, Solène; Piguet, Christophe; Berenguer, Daniel; Fourcade, Laurent

    2013-12-01

    We report here 2 unusual cases of tumor of the glans penis in children. Abnormal findings were found on a 12-year-old and a 13-year-old boy soon after their first foreskin retraction. Initial medical examination suggested inclusions of smegma and they were referred to our Department of Pediatric Urology. Complete resection was performed under general anesthesia. Histologic examination revealed an epidermoid cyst in the first patient and a solitary neurofibroma in the second. These patients represent respectively the third and the second cases of such entities described in the pediatric age group. Cautious examination is required for persistent inclusions of smegma. PMID:23958511

  10. DWI findings in a iatrogenic lumbar epidermoid cyst. A case report.

    PubMed

    Manzo, G; De Gennaro, A; Cozzolino, A; Martinelli, E; Manto, A

    2013-08-01

    Epidermoid cysts comprise less than 1% of intraspinal tumors. They can be congenital, frequently associated with other spinal malformations, or iatrogenic, resulting from the implantation of epidermal cells within the spinal canal during the execution of a variety of procedures such as spinal puncture. At MR imaging epidermoid tumors can mimic cystic lesions with fluid content such as arachnoid cysts. DWI can help obtain a correct diagnosis. We describe a case of iatrogenic lumbar epidermoid cyst with DWI findings in a young woman who had undergone epidural anesthesia for Cesarean section three years before the onset of symptoms. PMID:24007735

  11. Cytodiagnosis of Epidermoid Cyst of the Upper Lip: A Common Lesion in an Uncommon Site

    PubMed Central

    Phukan, Jyoti Prakash; Sinha, Anuradha; Pal, Subrata; Jalan, Shilpa

    2014-01-01

    Epidermoid cyst and dermoid cysts are developmental pathologies thought to derive from aberrant ectodermal tissue. They are uncommon in the head and neck region. Rarely, they can be found in the oral cavity and buccal mucosa. However, epidermoid cyst is extremely uncommon in the upper lip and is rarely reported. In this study, we report an uncommon case of epidermoid cyst occurring in the upper lip diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). We present this case because of its extremely rare site of presentation and also to highlight the role of FNAC to in the pre-operative diagnosis of this benign lesion. PMID:24696565

  12. Intranasal epidermoid cyst causing upper airway obstruction in three brachycephalic dogs.

    PubMed

    Murgia, D; Pivetta, M; Bowlt, K; Volmer, C; Holloway, A; Dennis, R

    2014-08-01

    This case report describes three brachycephalic dogs with intranasal epidermoid cysts that were causing additional upper airway obstruction. Although epidermoid cysts have been described in several locations in dogs, to the authors' knowledge intranasal epidermoid cysts have not been previously reported. All dogs had mucopurulent to haemorrhagic nasal discharge. Magnetic resonance imaging of the head revealed the presence of unilateral or bilateral intranasal cystic lesions obstructing the nasal cavities partially or completely, with atrophy of the ipsilateral nasal turbinates. The cystic lesions were surgically excised in all dogs using a modified lateral alveolar mucosal approach to the affected nasal cavity. Aerobic, anaerobic and fungal culture of the cystic contents were negative and histology of the excised tissue was consistent with a benign intranasal epidermoid cyst in each dog. Upper airway obstruction was clinically improved in two dogs. PMID:24697627

  13. Epidermoid cyst radiologically mistaken as a left sided subpulmonic effusion.

    PubMed

    Sameh, Ibrahim Sersar; Gewaeli, NourEldeen Noaman; Hamza, Usama Ali; Awadalla, Mohammed Mounir el-said

    2003-09-01

    A 33-year-old female had a left sided chest pain for the last 3 months. Chest X-ray showed a left basal opacity. Computed tomography chest suggested a left sided subpulmonic effusion (17.5x12.2x13 cm) with thick enhanced walls with marked collapse of the left lower lobe and displacement of the heart and mediastinum to the right side. Trial of thoracocentesis was done and it was positive. Trial of intercostal tube insertion was done with a sense of very thick pleura and the patient developed a vasovagal attack. Accordingly, exploratory thoracotomy was decided. Intraoperative assessment showed a huge anterosuperior mediastinal cyst attached to the pericardium and was successfully resected. The pathological findings were compatible with epidermoid cyst. PMID:17670071

  14. Treatment of epidermoid tumors with gamma knife radiosurgery: Case series

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Javier A. Jacobo; Fonnegra, Julio R.; Diez, Juan C.; Fonnegra, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epidermoid tumors (ETs) are benign lesions that are treated mainly by means of surgical resection, with overall good results. External beam radiotherapy is an alternative treatment for those recurrent tumors, in which a second surgery might not be the best choice for the patient. A little information exists about the effectiveness of gamma knife radiosurgery for the treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent ETs. We present three cases of ETs treated with gamma knife radiosurgery. Case Description: Case 1 is a 21-year-old female with an ET located in the left cerebellopontine angle (CPA) with symptoms related to VIII cranial nerve dysfunction. Symptom control was achieved and maintained after single session radiosurgery with gamma knife. Case 2 is a 59-year-old female patient with the history of trigeminal neuralgia secondary to a recurrent ET located in the left CPA. Significant pain improvement was achieved after treatment with gamma knife radiosurgery. Case 3 is a 29-year-old male patient with a CPA ET causing long lasting trigeminal neuralgia, pain relief was achieved in this patient after gamma knife radiosurgery. Conclusion: Long-term symptom relief was achieved in all three cases proving that gamma knife radiosurgery is a good and safe alternative for patients with recurrent or nonsurgically treated ETs. PMID:26958427

  15. Acquired Encephalocele With Hydrocephalus and Pineal Region Epidermoid Cyst.

    PubMed

    Toktaş, Zafer Orkun; Yilmaz, Baran; Ekşi, Murat Şakir; Bayoumi, Ahmed B; Akakin, Akin; Yener, Yasin; Demir, Mustafa Kemal; Kiliç, Türker

    2016-07-01

    A combination of trauma and a missed inflammatory response (nasal operation) concomitant with hydrocephalus and tumor in secondary encephalocele has not been described in the English literature yet. A 38-year-old man was admitted to the clinic with rhinorrhea that started 3 months ago. In his medical history, nothing abnormal was present except a nasal operation performed 1 year ago. Brain magnetic resonance imaging depicted left frontal encephalocele concomitant with obstructive hydrocephalus caused by an epidermoid cyst originated from the pineal region. A 2-staged surgery was planned. In the first stage, a ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion was conveyed successfully. In the second-stage surgery, the herniated brain tissue was excised, and the frontal sinus was cleansed with serum saline combined with antibiotic. The bony defect and the dura defect were repaired. The patient's presenting complaint recovered fully, and he was discharged to home in a well condition. Acquired encephalocele is a rare entity. In case of rhinorrhea and encephalocele, even in the presence of prior history of nasal surgery, intracranial evaluation should be conveyed to exclude the presence of hydrocephalus and/or tumor. The cranial defect should be repaired to prevent future infections and brain tissue damage. PMID:27315314

  16. Vulvar Epidermoid Cyst and Type 2 Radical Genital Mutilation.

    PubMed

    Birge, Ozer; Ozbey, Ertugrul Gazi; Arslan, Deniz; Erkan, Mustafa Melih; Demir, Feyza; Akgor, Utku

    2015-01-01

    About 100 million women are estimated to be circumcised globally. Various rates of complications have been encountered, especially after circumcision, such as bleeding, infection, shock, menstrual irregularity, difficulty in urination or common urinary tract infections, inguinal pain, difficulty in sexual intercourse, and genital circumcision scar especially at the vulvar region, and cystic or solid character mass in short and long term. Furthermore, the maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality increase due to bleeding and fistula, which develop after prolonged labor, travail, and difficult labors. Our aim in this paper was to discuss a 42-year-old multiparous female case who had undergone type 2 radical genital mutilation (circumcision) when she was 7 years of age, along with the literature, which has been evaluated for the gradually growing mass at the left inguinal canal region in the last 10 years and diagnosed as epidermoid inclusion cyst developing secondary to postcircumcision surgical ground trauma, since there was no other case found in the literature search that had been circumcised at such an early age and developing after circumcision at such advanced age, and, therefore, this is suggested to be the first case on this subject. PMID:26682078

  17. Vulvar Epidermoid Cyst and Type 2 Radical Genital Mutilation

    PubMed Central

    Birge, Ozer; Ozbey, Ertugrul Gazi; Arslan, Deniz; Erkan, Mustafa Melih; Demir, Feyza; Akgor, Utku

    2015-01-01

    About 100 million women are estimated to be circumcised globally. Various rates of complications have been encountered, especially after circumcision, such as bleeding, infection, shock, menstrual irregularity, difficulty in urination or common urinary tract infections, inguinal pain, difficulty in sexual intercourse, and genital circumcision scar especially at the vulvar region, and cystic or solid character mass in short and long term. Furthermore, the maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality increase due to bleeding and fistula, which develop after prolonged labor, travail, and difficult labors. Our aim in this paper was to discuss a 42-year-old multiparous female case who had undergone type 2 radical genital mutilation (circumcision) when she was 7 years of age, along with the literature, which has been evaluated for the gradually growing mass at the left inguinal canal region in the last 10 years and diagnosed as epidermoid inclusion cyst developing secondary to postcircumcision surgical ground trauma, since there was no other case found in the literature search that had been circumcised at such an early age and developing after circumcision at such advanced age, and, therefore, this is suggested to be the first case on this subject. PMID:26682078

  18. Intracranial germinoma in the pineal region arising after subtotal resection of epidermoid cyst: case report.

    PubMed

    Walker, Amanda J; Huynh-Le, Minh-Phuong; Nauen, David; Malayeri, Ashkan A; Jallo, George; Terezakis, Stephanie A

    2014-05-01

    We present an unusual case of a germinoma of the pineal region arising adjacent to an epidermoid cyst in a 16-year-old male. Initial imaging findings were classic for epidermoid cyst. The patient underwent two partial resections at an outside institution, each specimen demonstrating pure epidermoid cyst. Follow-up imaging over a period of 24 months showed an area of progressive contrast enhancement adjacent to the initial lesion, suggesting the development of a neoplasm. Given the area of contrast enhancement in addition to worsening headaches and visual changes, he underwent a third and final resection at our institution. Pathology revealed a mixed germ cell tumor with prominent germinoma component in addition to a well-differentiated epidermoid cyst. Details of his imaging and pathologic findings are presented, and possible explanations for these findings are explored, the most likely of which is lack of complete resection at the onset failed to identify the whole of the neoplasm. We conclude that pediatric epidermoid cysts of the pineal region should always receive close follow-up, particularly when total resection is not performed. PMID:24221216

  19. Epidermoid cysts of the rumen in a Holstein-Friesian steer.

    PubMed

    Ohfuji, S

    2014-07-01

    Epidermoid cysts were identified in the rumen of a 2-year-old Holstein-Friesian steer. Small nodules (<4 mm diameter) filled with paste-like, friable, white material were scattered in the rumen wall. Microscopically, the nodules were located in the submucosal connective tissue and comprised of cysts lined by stratified squamous epithelium surrounding keratin debris, exhibiting features identical to those of epidermoid cysts. The cysts were surrounded by chronic inflammation. The ruminal mucosa contained vesicles or cystic cavities filled by inflammatory exudate, in addition to empty cystic spaces lined by flattened endothelial cells, which were possibly of lymphatic origin. The development of these epidermoid cysts might have resulted from implantation of exfoliated squamous epithelial cells from damaged ruminal epithelium into the submucosal connective tissue, although the precise aetiology of this anomaly remains to be defined. PMID:24679853

  20. Primary intradural sacral epidermoid in a nondysraphic spine: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Sivaraju, Laxminadh; Thakar, Sumit; Ghosal, Nandita; Hegde, Alangar S

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of epidermoids within the spinal canal is uncommon. Most of the reported spinal epidermoids (SEs) have been described in the thoracic or lumbar regions. They occur either following trauma or in the setting of coexistent spinal dysraphism. The authors describe an unusual case of a 28-year-old lady who presented with long-standing back pain and urinary incontinence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of her spine demonstrated a sacral SE without any coexistent spinal dysraphism. The diagnosis of an epidermoid was confirmed by histopathological examination following laminectomy and excision. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the third case of a sacral SE occurring in a non-dysraphic spine. The case is discussed in the light of a relevant literature review. PMID:27217657

  1. Papillomavirus antigen in the epidermoid cyst of the sole. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, M; Sumi, A; Mori, S

    1989-12-01

    An epidermoid cyst of the sole was studied immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally. Papillomavirus particles were present in the horny layer and in the upper layers of the epidermis of the cyst and within the acrosyringeal epithelium overlying the cyst. Thickened basal lamina-like structures similar to those found in the eccrine sweat duct tumors such as in cylindroma and eccrine spiroadenoma existed at the epidermal-dermal junction of the cyst wall. Carcinoembryonic antigen was immunohistochemically demonstrated in the center of the epidermoid cyst and the DAB reaction products took the shape of a circle resembling that of the sweat ducts in the horny layer. PMID:2559111

  2. A Rare Cause of Headache in the Emergency Department: Intraventricular Epidermoid Cyst Rupture With Hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Yigit, Mehmet; Seyithanoglu, Mehmet Hakan; Dundar, Tolga Turan; Sogut, Ozgur; Yigit, Eda

    2016-01-01

    Lateral intraventricular tumors are not frequently observed. Since these tumors grow linearly rather than exponentially, they grow gradually and thus do not cause mass effects and hydrocephalus. This study is the case report of a rare great volume left intraventricular epidermoid cyst rupture. The tumor was found to be associated with mass effect on neighboring structures and hydrocephalus. PMID:27298668

  3. A Rare Cause of Headache in the Emergency Department: Intraventricular Epidermoid Cyst Rupture With Hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Yigit, Mehmet; Seyithanoglu, Mehmet Hakan; Dundar, Tolga Turan; Sogut, Ozgur; Yigit, Eda

    2016-07-01

    Lateral intraventricular tumors are not frequently observed. Since these tumors grow linearly rather than exponentially, they grow gradually and thus do not cause mass effects and hydrocephalus. This study is the case report of a rare great volume left intraventricular epidermoid cyst rupture. The tumor was found to be associated with mass effect on neighboring structures and hydrocephalus. PMID:27298668

  4. Epidermoid cyst of the coronal sulcus mimicking penile cancer: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Epidermoid cysts represent common benign tumors occurring anywhere in the body but very rarely in the penis. Only a few cases of penile localization have been reported in the literature so far, most of them being congenital and/or idiopathic, usually presenting in children as slow-growing, solitary, well-delimited cystic lesions. Here, we describe the case of a patient with a penile epidermoid cyst presenting as an ulcerated lesion of the coronal sulcus, thus mimicking penile cancer. Case presentation A 36-year-old Caucasian man presented with a three-month history of a rapidly growing asymptomatic ulcerated lesion in the ventral portion of the penile coronal sulcus. At surgical exploration, the area under the ulcerated lesion had a well-demarcated cystic shape; following its wide excision, an intraoperative histological examination revealed an epidermoid cyst. No recurrence had occurred at nine years of follow-up. Conclusions Rare benign tumors of the penis, like the described epidermoid cyst, may mimic cancer. Nevertheless, penile ulcerated lesions should always be surgically explored as wide excision and intraoperative histological examination remain the only means of obtaining a precise disease definition and, consequently, administering the appropriate treatment. PMID:24906506

  5. [Bronchial mucoepidermoid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Bregante, J I; Rituerto, B; Font de Mora, F; Alonso, F; Andreu, M J; Figuerola, J; Mulet, J F

    1998-07-01

    We submit the case of a child afflicted with a mucoepidermoid bronchial tumor. The patient is a boy, aged seven, who after undergoing antibiotic treatment for six weeks because of a fever and atelectasia-condensation in the right lower lobe showed no signs of clinical improvement and was sent to our department to undergo further study and treatment. A bronchoscopy performed shows a polypoid mass that partially blocks the main bronchial tube a few milimiters under the access to the right upper lobe. A biopsy is carried out and the anatomopathological test shows there is a low degree epidermoid carcinoma. We decide to perform a lobectomy which for the tumor location and the lung condition has to be medium and lower right. We proceed to remove the adenopaty of hilium not affected by the tumor. The postoperative period develops without incidents. A check-up bronchoscopy performed three months later shows two polypoid masses in the right bronchial tube which, once a biopsy is performed, proved to be granulation tissue. Twelve months after undergoing surgery, the patient's condition is good, there is no evidence of tumor relapse and the breathing capacity is adequate, though there is an obstructive restrictive pattern in the espirometry. Even taking into consideration that lung tumors are extremely unusual, the epidermoid carcinoma is the one which most frequently occurs. The tumor's low malignancy is a sign that points to a good prognosis. Performing conservative surgery by means of bronchoplasty should be taken into account so as to keep the sequelae on the lung condition to a minimum, even though in this case the tumor location made it impossible. PMID:12602035

  6. Petrous bone epidermoid cyst caused by penetrating injury to the external ear: Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kalfas, Fotios; Ramanathan, Dinesh; Mai, Jeffrey; Schwartz, Seth; Sekhar, Laligam N

    2012-04-01

    Epidermoid cysts are histologically benign, slow-growing congenital neoplasms of the central nervous system that may arise from retained ectodermal implants. The epidermoid lesions are generally caused during the 3(rd) to 5(th) week of gestation by an incomplete cleavage of the neural tissue from the cutaneous ectoderm, though it can also happen later in life due to introduction of skin elements by skin puncture, trauma or surgery. We present this unique case of a petromastoid epidermoid cyst associated with ipsilateral cerebellar abscesses, presenting 20 years after a penetrating trauma to the external auditory canal. Radical excision of both lesions and revision of the previous fistulous tract was performed. We present the diagnostic challenge and the operative treatment of this unique case, which to our knowledge is the first where an epidermoid cyst and an adjacent brain abscess occurred as a result of a single traumatic event. PMID:22870161

  7. Epidermoid Cyst in the Floor of the Mouth of a 3-Year-Old

    PubMed Central

    Pascual Dabán, Rossana; García Díez, Eloy; González Navarro, Beatriz; López-López, José

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are a rare entity in the oral cavity and are even less frequent in the floor of the mouth, representing less than 0.01% of all the cases. We present the case of a 3-year-old girl with a growth in the floor of the mouth with 2 months of evolution and without changes since it was discovered by her parents. The lesion was asymptomatic; it did not cause dysphagia, dyspnea, or any other alteration. A CT scan with contrast was done which revealed the location and exact size of the lesion, allowing an intraoral approach for its excision. The histological examination confirmed the clinical speculation of an epidermoid cyst. PMID:25694831

  8. Epidermoid cyst in the floor of the mouth of a 3-year-old.

    PubMed

    Pascual Dabán, Rossana; García Díez, Eloy; González Navarro, Beatriz; López-López, José

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are a rare entity in the oral cavity and are even less frequent in the floor of the mouth, representing less than 0.01% of all the cases. We present the case of a 3-year-old girl with a growth in the floor of the mouth with 2 months of evolution and without changes since it was discovered by her parents. The lesion was asymptomatic; it did not cause dysphagia, dyspnea, or any other alteration. A CT scan with contrast was done which revealed the location and exact size of the lesion, allowing an intraoral approach for its excision. The histological examination confirmed the clinical speculation of an epidermoid cyst. PMID:25694831

  9. Congenital dermal sinuses, dermoid and epidermoid cysts of the posterior fossa.

    PubMed

    Schijman, E; Monges, J; Cragnaz, R

    1986-01-01

    Dermal sinuses are abnormal communications between the skin and deeper tissues. Seven cases are presented of occipital dermal sinuses associated with dermoid or epidermoid cysts of the posterior fossa. The cysts were interdural, subdural and intracerebellar. Although they are benign lesions, there is a high incidence of complications, especially infections such as bacterial or aseptic meningitis and cerebellar abscess. The clinical features, radiological and tomographical characteristics, and the relationship to meningeal structures, dural sinuses and cerebellar parenchyma are described. PMID:3731173

  10. A rare case of verrucous carcinoma of penis in an human immunodeficiency virus- infected patient

    PubMed Central

    Noronha, Tonita Mariola; Girisha, Banavasi S.; Bhat, Shubha P.; Christy, Carol M.; Handattu, Sripathi; Fernandes, Michelle S.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects. Verrucous carcinoma is a peculiarly slow evolving, but relentlessly expanding variant of epidermoid carcinoma that is extremely reluctant to metastasize. A 60-year-old unmarried male patient presented with urethral discharge of 3 weeks duration. Dorsal slit of the prepuce revealed an ulceroproliferative growth measuring 3 cm × 3 cm arising from prepuce and involving glans. Biopsy from the growth in the prepuce showed histopathological features of verrucous carcinoma. Partial amputation of the penis was done. Human papillomavirus DNA by polymerase chain reaction was negative. The patient was started on antiretroviral therapy. PMID:26692616

  11. STAT3 regulated ATR via microRNA-383 to control DNA damage to affect apoptosis in A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xing-Hua; Zheng, Li; He, Hong-Peng; Zheng, De-Liang; Wei, Zhao-Qiang; Wang, Nan; Dong, Jian; Ma, Wen-Jian; Zhang, Tong-Cun

    2015-11-01

    Skin cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Mounting evidence shows that exposure of the skin to solar UV radiation results in inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA damage, dysregulation of cellular signaling pathways and immunosuppression thereby resulting in skin cancer. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is well known to function as an anti-apoptotic factor, especially in numerous malignancies, but the relationship between STAT3 activation and DNA damage response in skin cancer is still not fully understood. We now report that STAT3 inhibited DNA damage induced by UV and STAT3 mediated upregulation of GADD45γ and MDC-1 and the phosphorylation of H2AX in UV induced DNA damage. Notably, STAT3 can increase the expression of ATR in A431 cells. Luciferase assay shows that STAT3 activates the transcription of ATR promoter. More importantly, microRNA-383 suppressed ATR expression by targeting 3' (untranslated regions)UTR of ATR in A431 cells, and STAT3 down-regulates the transcription of miR-383 promoter. Thus, these results reveal the new insight that ATR is down-regulated by STAT3-regulated microRNA-383 in A431 cells. Moreover, overexpression of STAT3 enhanced expression of antiapoptosis genes BCL-1 and MCL-1, and depletion of STAT3 sensitized A431 cells to apoptotic cell death following UV. Collectively, these studies suggest that STAT3 may be a potential target for both the prevention and treatment of human skin cancer. PMID:26261078

  12. Differentiating bronchioloalveolar carcinoma from adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Schraufnagel, D; Peloquin, A; Paré, J A; Wang, N S

    1982-01-01

    The recognition of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) as distinct from adenocarcinoma of the lung, is controversial. Using strict pathologic criteria, 43 consecutive patients with BAC were matched by year of diagnosis and compared with a similar number of patients with adenocarcinoma, and for contrast, with those with squamous and oat cell carcinoma of the lung. We demonstrated that BAC is not sex related, and is not as smoking related as the other neoplasms. Unlike epidermoid carcinoma, BAC does not show a predilection for those occupations requiring manual labor. Also, BAC is frequently distinguishable radiologically from the other three by being smaller and peripheral. A pleural tag and an air bronchogram in a mass are rather specific, and BAC is less likely to have large airway involvement and adenopathy. The percentage of patients who were free of tumor after 2 yr was greater in the BAC group than in the others, but the overall survival rate between the BAC group and the adenocarcinoma group was not. Based on inter-observer variability, there is some overlap pathologically between these 2 groups. However, when the overlap between the adenocarcinoma and the BAC groups is compared with that between the adenocarcinoma and the squamous cell carcinoma groups, the difference is not significant. We conclude that BAC should be considered a distinct clinical entity. PMID:6278997

  13. Subtotal resection and omentoplasty of the epidermoid splenic cyst: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Spahija, Gazmend S; Hashani, Shemsedin I; Osmani, Eshref A; Hoxha, Sejdullah A; Hamza, Astrit H; Gashi-Luci, Lumturije H

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Nonparasitic splenic cysts are uncommon clinical entity and because of it, there is no information regarding their optimal surgical treatment. Case presentation A 41-years-old female with incidentally diagnosed nonparasitic splenic cyst which initially was asymptomatic. After two years of follow up, the patient underwent surgery; subtotal cystectomy and omentoplasty as an additional procedure. Postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion Short and mid term results showed that near total cystectomy with omentoplasty was a safe successful procedure for treatment of epidermoid splenic cyst. PMID:19829799

  14. MR imaging of intracranial epidermoid tumors: specific diagnosis with Turbo-FLAIR pulse sequence.

    PubMed

    Karantanas, A H

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present the imaging findings with particular reference to the FLAIR magnetic resonance (MR) pulse sequence, of four patients with epidermoid cysts. In all cases CT showed hypodense lesions with stippled peripheral calcifications and no enhancement. The MR showed low signal intensity lesions in T1-weighted images, high signal intensity in T2-weighted lesions, no or minor enhancement after gadolinium administration and characteristic heterogeneous appearance in FLAIR images. Including the FLAIR sequence in MR imaging, a specific diagnosis can be suggested. PMID:11179701

  15. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging features of a rare case of a primary epidermoid tumor of the jugular foramen

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Parag Suresh; Mahajan, Anuradha Parag; Al Moosawi, Nawal M.

    2015-01-01

    We present computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of a very rare case of a primary epidermoid tumor of the jugular foramen (JF). A 45-year-old male patient presented with gradually progressive vertigo and tinnitus. CT and MRI scans revealed a 3.5 cm right-sided JF tumor with characteristic bright signal (restricted diffusion) on diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI). DWI may be useful in accurately differentiating the lesion from other cystic neoplasms of the JF. We describe the imaging features of intracranial epidermoid and JF tumors and discuss its differential diagnosis. PMID:25810672

  16. Intradiploic epidermoid cyst with intracranial hypertension syndrome: Report of two cases and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Moreira-Holguin, J.C.; Medélez-Borbonio, R.; Quintero-Lopez, E.; García-González, U.; Gómez-Amador, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intradiploic epidermoid intracranial cysts (IEIC) derive from ectodermal cells and are covered with stratified squamous epithelium. They are extremely rare, and most common locations are in the occipital, frontal and parietal bones. They have a very slow growth and can be asymptomatic until becoming evident by the deformation produced. The treatment is based on the removal of the lesion, and subsequent histopathological confirmation. Presentation of case Two cases are reported, with intracranial hypertension syndrome, which is very uncommon because of the slow growth of this type of pathology; however, decompensations occurring in the space-occupying lesions at intracranial level explain this type of clinical presentation. Discussion The most common presentation of intracranial intradiploic epidermoid cysts (IEIC) is asymptomatically, which is made evident by the prominence at the level of the soft tissues and then presenting less frequently local pain and cephalea; rarely the size of the lesion can cause focal neurological signs. Conclusion These benign lesions, although they are of low incidence, are seen very rarely in intradiploic locations and above all, of significant size, may produce significant mass effect in patients, which was initially tolerated because of its slow growth, however, they may become decompensate and cause intracranial hypertension syndrome. PMID:26433925

  17. Unusual case of spinal epidermoid cyst and a concomitant spinal arachnoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Celik, Ahmet Orhan; Baris, Mustafa Mahmut; Demirtas, Hakan; Umul, Ayşe

    2016-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman presented with a 12-month history of subjective weakness and pain in her legs. Thoracolumbar MRI revealed two spinal intradural cystic lesions at T5-6 and T11 levels, respectively. The lesion located at the T5-6 level was heterogeneously hyperintense on T2-weighted images and heterogeneously hypointense on T1-weighted images. This lesion showed high signal intensity on diffusion weighted MRI (DWI) and low signal intensity on apparent diffusion coefficient images (ADC). According to the MRI findings, we reported this tumour as a spinal epidermoid cyst. The pathology result suggested that the lesion was an epidermoid cyst. The second intradural lesion, at the T11 level, showed a hypointense signal on T1 and hyperintense signal on T2 images. However, in contrast to the superior lesion, this lesion was hypointense on DWI and hyperintense on ADC. We evaluated the second lesion as an arachnoid cyst according to the MRI findings. PMID:26907820

  18. Laparoscopic resection of epidermoid cyst arising from an intrapancreatic accessory spleen: a case report with a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yoshimi; Tagaya, Nobumi; Nakagawa, Aya; Kita, Junji; Imura, Johji; Fujimori, Takahiro; Kubota, Keiichi

    2011-10-01

    We describe a rare case of epidermoid cyst arising in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen that presented as a cystic mass in the tail of the pancreas, and for which laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy was performed successfully. A 36-year-old woman with a cystic mass in the tail of the pancreas, which had been discovered incidentally at a medical checkup, was referred to our department for further examination. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic ultrasonography and positron emission tomography demonstrated a multilocular cyst in the tail of the pancreas without any evidence of malignancy, although differential diagnosis was extremely difficult because of the neoplasm-like appearance of the lesion. Therefore, we performed laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy under a preoperative diagnosis of mucinous cystic neoplasm. Postoperative pathologic examination demonstrated an epidermoid cyst arising from a heterotopic spleen within the pancreas. This is the first report of successful laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy for an epidermoid cyst arising in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen. One virtually has no chance to diagnose an epidermoid cyst in an accessory spleen on the basis of preoperative diagnostic workup, and consequently the type of surgical resection (open vs. laparoscopic) would be conditioned by factors other than the clinical entity suspected at the preoperative period. PMID:22002295

  19. Unusual coexistence of an epidermoid cyst with an atypical meningioma: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Karekezi, Claire; El Fatemi, Nizare; Egu, Komi; Ibrahimi, Mohamed; El Maaqili, Moulay Rachid; El Abbadi, Najia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Coexistence of multiple primary intracranial tumors of different cell types has rarely been documented; the association of a meningioma and a glioma has been reported as the most common combination. Hereby, we report an unusual case of a temporal epidermoid cyst coexisting with an atypical meningioma. Case Presentation: A 37-year-old male presented with progressive symptoms of raised intracranial progression with progressive loss of vision without any neurological deficit. On admission, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a right frontal lesion appearing hypointense T1, hyperintense T2 slightly enhanced after gadolinium and a second right temporal, isointense T1, hyperintense T2 non-enhancing lesion. A right frontotemporal craniotomy was performed that revealed two distinct lesions: The whitish temporal lesion with the pearl appearance reminding of an epidermoid cyst, the second lesion was extraaxial fibrous lesion arising from the falx. Pathology confirmed an atypical meningioma WHO Grade II and an epidermoid cyst. Conclusion: The simultaneous occurrence of primary intracranial tumors of different cell types is rare. Epidermoid cysts are slow growing lesions believed to arise from inclusion of ectodermal elements during neural tube closure, while meningiomas arise from arachnoidal cells; their association has rarely been reported previously. PMID:27069741

  20. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of eyelid: A usual tumor at an unusual site.

    PubMed

    Singh, Lavleen; Singh, Shuchita; Jain, Deepali; Sharma, Suresh C

    2015-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is a malignant epithelial neoplasm comprising mucous, intermediate and epidermoid cells, arising mainly in salivary gland. It is extremely uncommon in ocular region, where it can arise in conjunctiva, lacrimal gland or lacrimal sac. The index case is being presented for its rarity and for highlighting the importance of meticulous sampling for correct diagnosis. A 68-year-old female presented with complaints of ulceration over right lower eyelid for 3 years. She underwent a local surgical excision 2 years ago after which she was asymptomatic for the following 1 year. Histopathological examination of excised specimen showed features of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma in ocular adnexa may be difficult to differentiate from its close mimickers like basal, squamous, sebaceous cell carcinoma and apocrine carcinoma. Meticulous sampling, judicious use of special stains and immunohistochemistry are pivotal in establishing the diagnosis. PMID:26881601

  1. Surgical strategy for intracranial dermoid and epidermoid tumors: An experience with 33 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Jose Carlos; Aversa, Antônio; Pereira, Celestino; Nogueira, Jânio; Gonçalves, Mariangela; Lopes, Hélio

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this paper is to report on our surgical strategy and technique and to identify the best management for intracranial dermoids and epidermoids tumors (IDETs). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 33 consecutive patients (14 males and 19 females; mean age at surgery, 37.9 years) with pathologically confirmed IDETs who underwent surgical resection, with mean follow-up of 7.2 years. Results: Gross total tumor removal was achieved in 24 cases (72.7%) with zero surgical mortality and a recurrence rate of 9%. Conclusions: The surgical strategies used in this group of patients enabled total removal of most tumors without surgical mortality and with low morbidity and recurrence rates, proving to be safe and effective. PMID:25558422

  2. Case Report: Delayed presentation of penile epidermoid cyst following reconstruction for Peyronie’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Harrison, Luriel I.; Farhi, Jacques; Costabile, Raymond A.; Smith, Ryan P.

    2015-01-01

    Penile masses are a concerning finding for both patient and clinician upon initial presentation. There is a wide differential for penile masses from the benign (fibrous plaques, cysts, ulcerative lesions, benign penile pearly papules, etc.) to more concerning malignant lesions. A proper history and physical is the first step to determining the etiology of the mass and any future clinical interventions. In this paper, we review a case of a 73-year-old male who is found to have an enlarging mass during work-up for possible placement of inflatable penile prosthesis. Fortunately, the mass was determined to be a benign epidermoid cyst presenting thirty years after reconstruction for Peyronie’s disease using dermal penile skin graft. With this unique presentation we review the scant literature on penile mass formation following Peyronie’s repair. PMID:26835001

  3. Photoimmunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma-targeting Glypican-3 combined with nanosized albumin-bound paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Nakajima, Takahito; Sato, Kazuhide; Watanabe, Rira; Phung, Yen; Gao, Wei; Harada, Toshiko; Kim, Insook; Paik, Chang H; Choyke, Peter L; Ho, Mitchell; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2015-01-01

    Aim Effectiveness of Glypican-3 (GPC3)-targeted photoimmunotherapy (PIT) combined with the nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) for hepatocellular carcinoma was evaluated. Materials & methods GPC3 expressing A431/G1 cells were incubated with a phthalocyanine-derivative, IRDye700DX (IR700), conjugated to an anti-GPC3 antibody, IR700-YP7 and exposed to near-infrared light. Therapeutic experiments combining GPC3-targeted PIT with nab-paclitaxel were performed in A431/G1 tumor-bearing mice. Results IR700-YP7 bound to A431/G1 cells and induced rapid target-specific necrotic cell death by near-infrared light exposure in vitro. IR700-YP7 accumulated in A431/G1 tumors. Tumor growth was inhibited by PIT compared with nontreated control. Additionally, PIT dramatically increased nabpaclitaxel delivery and enhanced the therapeutic effect. Conclusion PIT targeting GPC3 combined with nab-paclitaxel is a promising method for treating hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:25929570

  4. Epidermoid Cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... epidermis) grows into the middle layer of the skin (dermis). This may occur due to injury or blocked hair follicles. The lesion may be ... the cyst. However, this is a temporary measure. After this treatment, a cyst will refill with the cheesy contents because the lining of the cyst has not been removed. ... Jean L., ed. Dermatology , pp. ...

  5. Strain elastography features of epidermoid tumours in superficial soft tissue: differences from other benign soft-tissue tumours and malignant tumours

    PubMed Central

    Park, H J; Lee, S M; Kim, W T; Lee, S; Ahn, K S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated ultrasonographic features of superficial epidermoid tumour with a focus on strain elastography (SE) features that will help in the differential diagnosis of epidermoid tumour from other benign and malignant soft-tissue tumours. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated ultrasonographic and SE data of 103 surgically confirmed superficial soft-tissue tumours and tumour-like lesions: 29 cases of epidermoid tumour, 46 cases of other benign tumours and 28 cases of malignant tumour. SE and B-mode imaging were performed at the same time. SE characteristics were assigned into four grades (1–4) according to their elasticity. Interobserver agreement for the four SE scores between the two radiologists was analysed using kappa statistics. We classified each SE finding as a hard lesion (SE Score 3–4) or soft lesion (SE Score 1–2) and compared these findings using the χ2 test to identify whether a significant difference in mass hardness existed among epidermoid tumour, other benign tumour and malignant tumour. Results: Overall interobserver agreement according to the four SE scores was moderate (κ = 0.540), and overall agreement for the hardness [soft (Score 1–2) or hard (Score 3–4)] was almost perfect (κ = 0.825). Malignant tumours showed higher SE scores (3–4, hard nature) than did epidermoid tumour or other benign soft-tissue tumours. There were no differences in SE score between epidermoid tumour and other benign tumours. Conclusion: Superficial epidermoid tumour exhibits a softer nature than does malignant tumour but does not have a different SE pattern from other benign tumours. Advances in knowledge: SE features of epidermoid tumour might be helpful in differentiating from other benign and malignant tumours. PMID:25827206

  6. Nasopharyngeal mucoepidermoid carcinoma - a common entity at an uncommon location.

    PubMed

    Hemalatha, A L; Kumar H K, Sharath; S, Geetanjali; M, Giripunja; S D, Shashikumar

    2014-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinomas mostly occur in the major salivary glands, the minor salivary glands of oral cavity and in the lacrimal glands. These tumours rarely occur in the sino-nasal tract. When they occur in the sino-nasal tract, the most frequent site is the maxillary antrum, followed by the nasal cavity, the nasopharynx and the ethmoidal sinuses. As per review of literature, nasopharyngeal mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for 0.6% of salivary gland tumours and 4.8% of mucoepidermoid carcinomas. Extensive literature search revealed 21 cases of nasopharyngeal mucoepidermoid carcinomas reported till date. These cases showed an age incidence ranging from 20 to 60 years with a female preponderance. In contrast to nasopharyngeal carcinomas, these tumours show low positivity rates for Ebstein-Barr virus serological test. Histochemical positivity for mucin may be demonstrated in the glandular and mucinous components of these tumours. High grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma of nasopharynx is treated with surgical excision combined with radiotherapy and is associated with poor survival. Therefore, early diagnosis and prompt treatment are of utmost importance. This case report highlights the rare occurrence of a high grade nasopharyngeal muco-epidermoid carcinoma in a 70-year-old male and is presented for its unusual occurrence in the nasopharynx which is the most infrequent location for this lesion. PMID:24596757

  7. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma in odontogenic keratocyst: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Chitrapriya; Aggarwal, Pooja; Wadhwan, Vijay; Bansal, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from the wall of an odontogenic cyst (also known as primary intraosseous carcinoma) is a rare tumor which occurs only in jaw bones. This tumor was first described by Loos in 1913 as a central epidermoid carcinoma of the jaw. Primary intraosseous carcinomas (PIOC) may theoretically arise from the lining of an odontogenic cyst or de novo from presumed odontogenic cell rests. According to the new histological classification of tumors of the World Health Organization, odontogenic keratocyst is nowadays considered a specific odontogenic tumor and the PIOC derived from it is considered as a specific entity which is different from other PIOCs derived from the odontogenic cysts. The following report describes a case of such extremely rare entity that is primary intraosseous SCC of the mandible derived from an OKC in a 60-year-old male patient with brief review of literature. PMID:26980976

  8. Epidermoid cyst at a rare location, as a content of inguinal hernia: A case report with a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Meher, Sadananda; Baijal, Manish; Soni, Vandana; Sharma, Anil; Khullar, Rajesh; Chowbey, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts can occur in a variety of locations including the face, trunk, neck, extremities, and scalp. No case of epidermoid cyst as content of inguinal hernia has been reported so far; however, cases with dermoid, teratoma, lipoma, lymphangioma and leiomyoma as content of inguinal canal have been reported. A 29-year-old female presented with a lump in the left inguinal region that was clinically diagnosed as left inguinal hernia. The patient was planned for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair after routine investigation. Intraoperatively, a cystic mass was found to be attached to the left round ligament that was excised completely. Histopathological report was consistent with epidermal inclusion cyst. Inguinal epidermoid cyst mimicking inguinal hernia is a rare entity. If such a cyst is encountered during operation, it should be completely excised. PMID:27279405

  9. Receptor interconversion model of hormone action. 3. Estrogen receptor mediated repression of reporter gene activity in A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Nag, A; Park, I; Krust, A; Smith, R G

    1990-03-20

    The chicken estrogen receptor exists in three interconvertible forms, two of which bind estradiol with high affinity and one which lacks the capacity to bind estradiol. Interconversion is regulated by reactions involving ATP/Mg2+. By cotransfecting into A431 cells estrogen receptor cDNA in an expression vector together with the pA2 (-821/-87) tk-CAT vitellogenin construct, we demonstrate that constitutive expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity can be regulated either by selection of ligand or by modifying phosphorylation reactions in the recipient cells. In the presence of estrogen receptors, constitutive expression of CAT activity is inhibited in three situations: (i) in the absence of an estrogenic ligand; (ii) in the presence of an anti-estrogen; and (iii) in the presence of an estrogenic ligand together with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). Estrogen receptor mediated repression of constitutive CAT activity is not observed with the pA2 (-331/-87) tk-CAT construct, indicating that DNA sequences required for repression are located between -821 and -331 base pairs upstream of the transcription initiation site. PMID:2346742

  10. Resection of large epidermoid tumors ventral to the brainstem: techniques to expand the operative corridor across the basilar artery.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2014-01-01

    Epidermoid tumors comprise about 1% of all intracranial tumors. They are congenital lesions that arise from paramedian cisterns within the posterior fossa. These tumors present as heterogeneous hyperintense lesions on FLAIR and homogenous hyperintense lesions on DWI. Surgical resection remains the most accepted form of therapy, but epidermoid tumors may recur. These tumors are well exposed through a traditional retrosigmoid approach. The tumor can be removed relatively easily as it is avascular. However, the propensity of this tumor type to fill the small spaces within basal cisterns and attach to cranial nerves may make its complete resection challenging. Tumors resection has to preserve the surrounding arachnoid membranes encasing the cranial nerves. The author presents the case of a 42-year-old woman with a 1-year history of imbalance and nystagmus. An MRI revealed a large right-sided CP angle epidermoid tumor filling the ventral brainstem cistern and extending to the contralateral side, compressing the brainstem. The accompanying video illustrates resection of this mass through an extended (exposing the sigmoid sinus) retrosigmoid approach. The author removed the tumor piecemeal while protecting the cranial nerves. Small pieces of affected arachnoid covering the cranial nerves were not significantly manipulated. To excise the tumor along the contralateral paramedian cistern, the author used the space between the V and VII/VII cranial nerves to expose the space contralateral to the basilar artery and remove additional tumor. This maneuver allowed gross total resection of the tumor without a need to employ a more elaborate skull base approach such as petrosectomy. At 3-month follow-up visit after surgery, the patient's neurological exam returned to normal. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/CzRb-GUvhog . PMID:24380510

  11. Adrenocortical carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript. Adrenocortical carcinoma is a cancer of the adrenal glands . Causes Adrenocortical carcinoma is most common in children ... tumor. Symptoms Symptoms of increased cortisol or other adrenal gland hormones: Fatty, rounded hump high on the back ...

  12. Anal carcinoma and HIV infection: is it time for screening?

    PubMed

    Herranz-Pinto, P; Sendagorta-Cudós, E; Bernardino-de la Serna, J I; Peña-Sánchez de Rivera, J M

    2014-03-01

    A 38-year-old white man had a 10-year history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (A3), with no episodes of opportunistic diseases and in good immunologic recovery (CD4 cell count: 450 and indetectable HIV viral load) while on HAART. He presented with a two-month history of mild anal symptoms, including pruritus and episodic bleeding. He referred past episodes of anal warts, self-treated with several topical compounds, all proven unsuccessful. Perianal examination showed erythema and scratching. A 0.5cm sized tumor, with infiltration at the base was detected on digital exam, located at 15mm from the anal margin. Local biopsy driven by high-resolution anuscopy (AAR) yielded a final diagnosis of infiltrative epidermoid carcinoma. Might that neoplasia have been prevented? PMID:24139082

  13. The endocytosis of epidermal growth factor in A431 cells: A pH of microenvironment and the dynamics of receptor complex dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Sorkin, A.D.; Teslenko, L.V.; Nikolsky, N.N. )

    1988-03-01

    The endocytosis and intracellular fate of epidermal growth factor (EGF) were studied in A431 cells. After 15-20 min of internalization at 37{degree}C, rhodomaine-labeled ({sup 125}-I) EGF (EGR-Rh) accumulated into large juxtanuclear compartment consisting of closely related vesicles. This structure was shown to be localized in the para-Golgi region. Fluorescein-labeled transferrin (Tr-FITC) was observed in the same region when added to the cell simultaneously with EGF-Rh. Using microscopy spectrofluorometer, the authors determined that the Tr-FITC-containing para-Golgi structures have a pH of 6.1{plus minus}0.3 while lysosomes containing dextran-fluorescein have a pH of 5.0{plus minus}0.2. To study the dynamics of EGF-receptor dissociation during endocytosis a mild detergent treatment of living cells was used for extraction of an intracellular receptor-unbound EGF. These results suggest that EGF remains associated with receptors during endocytosis in A431 cells until it is transferred to lysosomes where the pH of the EGF microenvironment is dropped to 5. A prolonged presence of EGF-receptor complexes in the para-Golgi region might be of importance in mitotic signaling.

  14. Inhibition of Phosphatidylcholine-Specific Phospholipase C Interferes with Proliferation and Survival of Tumor Initiating Cells in Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Renata; Mercurio, Laura; Canevari, Silvana; Podo, Franca; Miotti, Silvia; Iorio, Egidio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The role of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC), the enzyme involved in cell differentiation and proliferation, has not yet been explored in tumor initiating cells (TICs). We investigated PC-PLC expression and effects of PC-PLC inhibition in two adherent (AD) squamous carcinoma cell lines (A431 and CaSki), with different proliferative and stemness potential, and in TIC-enriched floating spheres (SPH) originated from them. Results Compared with immortalized non-tumoral keratinocytes (HaCaT) A431-AD cells showed 2.5-fold higher PC-PLC activity, nuclear localization of a 66-kDa PC-PLC isoform, but a similar distribution of the enzyme on plasma membrane and in cytoplasmic compartments. Compared with A431-AD, A431-SPH cells showed about 2.8-fold lower PC-PLC protein and activity levels, but similar nuclear content. Exposure of adherent cells to the PC-PLC inhibitor D609 (48h) induced a 50% reduction of cell proliferation at doses comprised between 33 and 50 μg/ml, without inducing any relevant cytotoxic effect (cell viability 95±5%). In A431-SPH and CaSki-SPH D609 induced both cytostatic and cytotoxic effects at about 20 to 30-fold lower doses (IC50 ranging between 1.2 and 1.6 μg/ml). Furthermore, D609 treatment of A431-AD and CaSki-AD cells affected the sphere-forming efficiency, which dropped in both cells, and induced down-modulation of stem-related markers mRNA levels (Oct4, Nestin, Nanog and ALDH1 in A431; Nestin and ALDH1 in CaSki cells). Conclusions These data suggest that the inhibition of PC-PLC activity may represent a new therapeutic approach to selectively target the most aggressive and tumor promoting sub-population of floating spheres originated from squamous cancer cells possessing different proliferative and stemness potential. PMID:26402860

  15. [Prognosis value of the immunohistochemical expresion of the bcl-2 in the larynx epidermoid cancer].

    PubMed

    García Lozano, M C; Orradre Romero, J L; Caro García, M; Sáez del Castillo, A I; Galán Morales, J T; Piris Pinilla, M A

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we carried out an immunohistochemical study of bcl-2 protein expression in a series of 195 patients with laryngeal carcinoma that were diagnosticated, treated and followed at the Department of Otolaryngology at "Virgen de la Salud" Hospital (Toledo, Spain). In the cases with lymphonode metastasis we also analysed bcl-2 protein expression at this level. Furthermore we have studied the value of bcl-2 protein expression as a prognostic factor (tumor recurrence, deads due to cancer and survival) and we analysed the relationship between bcl-2 protein expression and other clinic and pathologic parameters. PMID:15803918

  16. Lung carcinoma: survey of 2286 cases with emphasis on small cell type.

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, J D; Ewing, H P; Neely, W A; Stauss, H K; Vance, R B

    1981-01-01

    Lung carcinoma is the commonest major malignancy in men in the United States and its incidence is increasing rapidly in women. It is estimated that there will have been 117,000 new cases and 101,300 deaths in 1980. The 2286 patients with lung carcinoma admitted to the Hospital of the University of Mississippi from 1955 to 1980 were reviewed by decades of chronology and of life, with respect to age, cell type, sex and racial incidence. The greatest age incidence was in the sixth and seventh decades; cell types overall were epidermoid (45% of the patients), adenocarcinoma (12% of the patients), small (oat) cell (21% of the patients), and others (22% of the patients). There was a steady increase in the incidence of disease in females, adjusted for total hospital admissions, and a less certain increase among black patients. Twenty-eight per cent of 250 patients with small cell carcinoma so studied exhibited some feature of the paraneoplastic or paraendocrine syndromes. In 41 patients with small cell carcinoma treated with multiple drug chemotherapy, there was an overall response rate of 50% and an additional "stable disease" rate of 28%. Mean survival period in this group was 52 weeks, compared with 12 weeks in patients whose diseases went untreated. Clearly, definite progress is being made, not only in our knowledge of the biology of lung carcinoma, in general, but in the treatment of small cell carcinoma in particular. Images Fig. 4. PMID:6263195

  17. Phosphatidic acid mobilized by phospholipase D is involved in the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced G2 delay of A431 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kaszkin, M; Richards, J; Kinzel, V

    1996-01-01

    This study was aimed at gaining an understanding of metabolic events responsible for the inhibition of cells in G2 phase, a known physiological restriction site in the cell cycle of multicellular organisms. In an earlier study, phosphatidic acid was proposed as an inhibitory mediator in the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced inhibition of A431 cells in G2 phase via the phospholipase C pathway [Kaszkin, Richards and Kinzel (1992) Cancer Res. 52, 5627-5634]. We show here that the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induces a reversible inhibition of the G2/M transition in A431 cells under conditions of phospholipase D-catalysed phosphatidic acid formation. Such PMA-induced inhibition in G2 phase is largely attenuated in the presence of 1-propanol (but not of 2-propanol). In this case the amount of phosphatidic acid is reduced to almost control levels, and instead phosphatidylpropanol is formed. In the case of EGF-induced activation of a phospholipase D the amount of phosphatidic acid is only slightly decreased in the presence of a primary alcohol. Under these conditions the EGF-induced G2 delay was not affected. The correlation between the formation of phosphatidic acid and the G2 delay induced by PMA, as well as by an exogenous bacterial phospholipase D (from Streptomyces chromofuscus), could be supported by using synchronized cells in order to increase the population of cells in G2 phase. This study indicates that the formation of substantial amounts of phosphatidic acid immediately before entry into mitosis seems to be important for establishing a delay in the cell cycle at the G2/M border by exogenous ligands. PMID:8660273

  18. [Aspects of FLAIR sequences, 3D-CISS and diffusion-weight MR imaging of intracranial epidermoid cysts].

    PubMed

    Doll, A; Abu Eid, M; Kehrli, P; Esposito, P; Gillis, C; Bogorin, A; Jacques, C; Dietemann, J L

    2000-06-01

    We propose to assess the usefulness of diffusion-weighted MR Imaging (DWI), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and constructive interference in steady state (CISS) sequences in depicting epidermoid cysts (EC). FLAIR, CISS and DWI were obtained in 7 patients among 22. All patients were studied with T1 and T2 sequences. On Spin Echo images, EC demonstrate signal similar to LCS, which may lead to difficult differentiation between EC and arachnoid cyst (AC), specially for inexperienced radiologists. EC appear with a heterogeneous signal on T1 images (32%), irregular limits (91%) and with extension through foramen of Pacchioni in 18% of cases. On FLAIR sequence, the tumors were heterogeneous, different from void signal of CSF in 86% of cases. On CISS sequence, the tumors appear heterogeneous, hyperintense but less than LCS and with irregular limits in all cases. Some more, CISS images allowed to appreciate exact tumor extension and their relations with nerves and vessels. On DWI images, signal is hyperintense in all cases. Our study exhibited the great usefulness of DWI, CISS and FLAIR sequences in diagnosis of EC and in differentiating EC from AC. PMID:10970961

  19. Human papillomavirus in vulvar and vaginal carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Hietanen, S.; Grénman, S.; Syrjänen, K.; Lappalainen, K.; Kauppinen, J.; Carey, T.; Syrjänen, S.

    1995-01-01

    A number of reports associate human papillomavirus (HPV) with cervical cancer and cancer cell lines derived from this tumour type. Considerably fewer reports have focused on the role of HPV in carcinomas from other sites of female anogenital squamous epithelia. In this study we have tested for the presence of HPV in eight low-passage vulvar carcinoma cell lines and one extensively passaged cell line, A431. One cell line from a primary vaginal carcinoma was included. The presence of the HPV was evaluated by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), by Southern blot analysis and by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. General primer-mediated PCR was applied by using primers from the L1 region, E1 region and HPV 16 E7 region. Southern blot hybridisation was performed under low-stringency conditions (Tm = -35 degrees C) using a whole genomic HPV 6/16/18 probe mixture and under high stringency conditions (Tm = -18 degrees C) with the whole genomic probes of HPV 16 and 33. HPV 16 E6-E7 mRNA was assessed by ribonuclease protection assay (RPA). HPV was found in only one vulvar carcinoma cell line, UM-SCV-6. The identified type, HPV 16, was integrated in the cell genome and could be amplified with all primers used. Also E6-E7 transcripts were found in these cells. Five original tumour biopsies were available from the HPV-negative cell lines for in situ hybridisation. All these were HPV negative with both the HPV 6/16/18 screening probe mixture under low stringency and the HPV 16 probe under high stringency. The results indicate that vulvar carcinoma cell lines contain HPV less frequently than cervical carcinoma cell lines and suggest that a significant proportion of vulvar carcinomas may evolve by an HPV-independent mechanism. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7599042

  20. [Incidence of epidermoid cancer of the esophagus in Asturias (1975-85)].

    PubMed

    Prados, C; Rodrigo Sáez, L; Fernández García, J; Fernández León, A; De Llano Rodríguez, I

    1990-06-01

    We present the incidence the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Asturias, based on the review of the clinical histories of eleven years (1975-85). Of 356 total cases, 92.4% were male patients and the remaining 7.6% females; the relation M:F was 12.2:1. Mean age at the time of diagnosis was 59.4 +/- 9.6 for males and 70 +/- for females. Total annual incidence was 2.8 +/- 0.8 cases/10(5) + population/year. Maximal annual incidence was registered in 1981: 1.1 cases/10(5) population/year. Asturias has eight health districts; those with highest incidence were mining areas: Mieres, Cangas de Narcea and Riaño. Compared to that of some developing countries, the incidence of esophageal cancer in Asturias is low, similar to that in European countries (except France) and white population of the USA; there is an aggregation of cases in males living in mining areas. PMID:2223247

  1. Preliminary In Vitro Evaluation of Genistein Chemopreventive Capacity as a Result of Esterification and Cyclodextrin Encapsulation

    PubMed Central

    Danciu, Corina; Soica, Codruta; Dehelean, Cristina; Zupko, Istvan; Csanyi, Erzsebet; Pinzaru, Iulia

    2015-01-01

    The present study focuses on the synthesis and analysis of a genistein ester derivative with myristic acid followed by beta cyclodextrin encapsulation; physicochemical analysis using consecrated techniques such as FTIR, MS, DSC, and SEM revealed both a successful esterification and inclusion inside the cyclodextrin cavity. Cytotoxic effects were measured in vitro on three human cell lines: HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma), A2780 (ovary carcinoma), and A431 (skin epidermoid carcinoma). The in vitro biological analysis exhibited rather poor antiproliferative results on all three tested cancer cell lines, behavior that may be due to the high stability of the complex within the in vitro environment. PMID:26161301

  2. Trastuzumab for Her2/neu-positive metastatic salivary gland carcinoma: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Firwana, Belal; Atassi, Bassel; Hasan, Rim; Hasan, Nour; Sukari, Ammar

    2012-01-01

    Salivary gland carcinomas metastasize to distant organs in 20% of salivary gland malignancies. Applying immunohistochemistry (IHC) measures, salivary gland tumors showed a wide range of oncogene markers expression, including the human epidermoid receptor 2 (Her2/neu), which could be targeted with monoclonal antibody. Treating salivary gland tumors, which have Her2/neu over-expression, with trastuzumab was reported in a few case reports. We report a 61-year-old Caucasian male, with a history of salivary gland tumor, who presented after 20 years of complete surgical resection with kidney mass. He was treated as primary renal cell carcinoma, unclassified, with nephrectomy and adjuvant clinical trail where he received placebo. Subsequently, he developed multiple hepatic lesions and retroperitoneal mesenteric lymphadenopathy; CT-guided biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma with Her2/neu, 3+ by IHC. The patient was treated successfully with trastuzumab with near-complete response. PMID:23826550

  3. Trastuzumab for Her2/neu-positive metastatic salivary gland carcinoma: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Firwana, Belal; Atassi, Bassel; Hasan, Rim; Hasan, Nour; Sukari, Ammar

    2012-07-01

    Salivary gland carcinomas metastasize to distant organs in 20% of salivary gland malignancies. Applying immunohistochemistry (IHC) measures, salivary gland tumors showed a wide range of oncogene markers expression, including the human epidermoid receptor 2 (Her2/neu), which could be targeted with monoclonal antibody. Treating salivary gland tumors, which have Her2/neu over-expression, with trastuzumab was reported in a few case reports. We report a 61-year-old Caucasian male, with a history of salivary gland tumor, who presented after 20 years of complete surgical resection with kidney mass. He was treated as primary renal cell carcinoma, unclassified, with nephrectomy and adjuvant clinical trail where he received placebo. Subsequently, he developed multiple hepatic lesions and retroperitoneal mesenteric lymphadenopathy; CT-guided biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma with Her2/neu, 3+ by IHC. The patient was treated successfully with trastuzumab with near-complete response. PMID:23826550

  4. Results of resection in non-oat cell carcinoma of the lung with mediastinal lymph node metastases.

    PubMed Central

    Martini, N; Flehinger, B J; Zaman, M B; Beattie, E J

    1983-01-01

    From 1974 to 1981, 1598 patients with non-oat cell carcinoma of the lung were seen and treated. All were staged according to the AJC staging system. Of these, 706 patients had evidence of mediastinal lymph node metastases (N2). There were 151 patients (21%) who had complete, potentially curative resection of their primary tumor and all accessible mediastinal lymph nodes. The histologic type of tumor was adenocarcinoma in 94 patients, epidermoid carcinoma in 46 patients, and large-cell carcinoma in 11 patients. The extent of pulmonary resection consisted of a lobectomy in 119 patients, pneumonectomy in 26 patients, and wedge resection or segmentectomy in six patients. Almost all patients also received radiation therapy to the mediastinum. Clinical staging of the primary tumor and the mediastinum was based on the radiographic presentation of the chest and on bronchoscopy. Before treatment, 104 of 151 patients (69%) were believed to have had stage I (90 patients) or II (14 patients) disease, and 47 patients had stage III disease, of whom only 33 had evidence of mediastinal lymph node involvement. Excluding deaths from unrelated causes, the overall survival rate was 74% at 1 year, 43% at 3 years and 29% at 5 years. Survival in patients with clinical stage I or II disease treated by resection was favorable despite the presence of N2 nodes (50% at 3 years). Survival in obvious clinical N2 disease was poor (8% at 3 years). There was no difference in survival between patients with adenocarcinoma and those with epidermoid carcinoma. However, survival was poorer in patients with N2 nodes in the inferior mediastinum compared to those without lymph node involvement at that level. PMID:6615059

  5. Basilar artery dissection: A rare complication of posterior fossa epidermoid cyst resection, and evaluation of the possible effects of cerebrospinal fluid drainage on disease progression.

    PubMed

    Pikis, Stylianos; Cohen, José E; Margolin, Emil

    2016-10-01

    We report a rare case of a 45-year-old female with an unruptured basilar artery dissecting aneurysm presenting with locked-in syndrome due to brainstem ischemia eleven months following resection of a giant cerebellopontine angle epidermoid cyst and three months after insertion of ventriculo peritoneal shunt due to hydrocephalus. The etiology of basilar artery dissection and the effect of hydrocephalus and ventricular cerebrospinal fluid drainage on disease progression in this patient are unclear. Our report suggests a possible effect of hydrocephalus and ventricular cerebrospinal fluid drainage on intracranial arterial dissection progression. PMID:27344090

  6. Epidermoid anal cancer: treatment by radiation alone or by radiation and 5-fluorouracil with and without mitomycin C.

    PubMed

    Cummings, B J; Keane, T J; O'Sullivan, B; Wong, C S; Catton, C N

    1991-10-01

    One hundred ninety-two patients with primary epidermoid cancer of the anal canal were treated by a series of prospectively designed, sequential non-randomized protocols of radiation alone (RT), radiation with concurrent 5-Fluorouracil and Mitomycin C (FUMIR), or radiation with concurrent 5-Fluorouracil only (FUR). The 5-year cause-specific survival rates were 69% overall, 68% RT, 76% FUMIR, 64% FUR. The primary tumor was controlled by radiation with or without chemotherapy in 68% (130/191) overall, 56% (32/57) by RT, 86% (59/69) by FUMIR, 60% (39/65) by FUR. The results with FUMIR were significantly better than with either RT alone or FUR, and except in tumors up to 2 cm in size, this superiority was found in all T stages. Regional lymph node metastases were controlled in 33 of 38 (87%) overall. The finding of clinically detectable regional lymph node metastases at presentation did not affect survival significantly in any treatment group. Anorectal function was preserved in 88% of the patients in whom the primary tumor was controlled, and in 64% overall. The delivery of 5FU and MMC concurrently with uninterrupted radical irradiation, 50 Gy in 20 fractions in 4 weeks, produced severe acute and late normal tissue morbidity. Split course treatment, and reduction of the daily fractional dose to 2 Gy, diminished the severity of normal tissue damage. Omission of Mitomycin C reduced acute hematological toxicity, but was associated with a decreased primary tumor control rate. The most effective treatment protocols as measured by survival rates, primary anal tumor control rates, and the likelihood of conservation of anorectal function included the administration of both Mitomycin C and 5-Fluorouracil concurrently with radiation therapy. PMID:1938508

  7. Carcinoma of the cervical esophagus: changing therapeutic trends

    SciTech Connect

    Collin, C.F.; Spiro, R.H.

    1984-10-01

    Carcinoma of the cervical esophagus is a lethal tumor because of its advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. The records of 71 patients with this disease treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center from 1965 through 1980 have been reviewed herein. Epidermoid carcinoma was the prevailing histologic finding, and extramural penetration was present in 77 percent of the evaluable patients. Tracheal invasion and vocal cord paralysis were noted in 35 and 24 percent of the patients, respectively and were predictive of significantly decreased survival. Primary radiotherapy in doses greater than 5,000 rads produced short lived responses in 13 of 21 patients (62 percent). Surgery was performed in 45 patients (63 percent), including 35 esophagectomies for cure and palliative procedures in the 10 other patients. There were five operative deaths (11 percent), but only two followed esophageal resection (5.6 percent). Locoregional treatment failure, present in 46 of 52 evaluable patients (88 percent) at last follow-up, continues to be a major problem. Overall, the 5 year survival rate was 9.6 percent. The longest survival and best palliation was achieved with aggressive resection and immediate reconstruction using the transposed stomach (gastric pullup).

  8. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in children: review of 16 cases

    SciTech Connect

    Jereb, B.; Huvos, A.G.; Steinherz, P.; Unal, A.

    1980-04-01

    Of fifty two children with nasopharyngeal tumors who were registered and treated a Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), from 1961 through 1977, 16 had carcinoma. The results of retrospective analysis of these patients are presented here. There were 7 girls and 9 boys between 12 and 16 years of age. One patient had a Stage I tumor; one had a Stage II tumor and 14 had Stage IV tumors. The histology was poorly differentiated epidermoid carcinoma in all patients. All patients had radiotherapy to the primary site. Six patients received chemotherapy for distant metastases, and 2 had adjuvant chemotherapy. Of the 13 patients who were treated initially with radiation alone, 2 were alive and free of disease at 12 and 14 years respectively. Of the 3 patients who had chemotherapy at initial treatment, one was alive and free of disease 18 months from diagnosis and one patient died of treatment without tumor. Bone was the common site of distant metastases. While radiation therapy alone appears to be adequate treatment for early tumors, adjuvant chemotherapy should be tried to improve results in advanced tumors.

  9. [Thymic carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Ströbel, P; Weis, C-A; Marx, A

    2016-09-01

    Thymic carcinomas (TC) are approximately 10 times less prevalent than thymomas but of high clinical relevance because they are more aggressive, less frequently resectable than thymomas and usually refractory to classical and targeted long-term treatment approaches. Furthermore, in children and adolescents TC are more frequent than thymomas and particularly in this age group, germ cell tumors need to be a differential diagnostic consideration. In diagnostic terms pathologists face two challenges: a), the distinction between thymic carcinomas and thymomas with a similar appearance and b), the distinction between TC and histologically similar metastases and tumor extensions from other primary tumors. Overcoming these diagnostic challenges is the focus of the new WHO classification of thymic epithelial tumors. The objectives of this review are to highlight novel aspects of the WHO classification of thymic carcinomas and to address therapeutically relevant diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:27538748

  10. Parathyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Butt, Waqas Tariq; Azim, Asad; Abbas, Ansab; Gauhar, Tooba Mahmud; Afzal, Ameer; Azim, Khawaja Muhammad

    2012-09-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare endocrine malignancy accounting for less than 1% of all cases of hyperparathyroidism. We present a case of a middle-aged woman who was undiagnosed for 3 years before presenting with renal stones and advanced musculoskeletal disease. Investigations revealed primary hyperparathyroidism. Focused cervical exploration and left inferior parathyroidectomy was carried out based on the pre-operative localization studies. Parathyroid carcinoma was diagnosed on histopathology postoperatively. Subsequent en bloc resection was not performed and the patient is being monitored with serial parathyroid hormone levels which have not shown any increase in 6 months of follow-up. Only two previous cases of parathyroid carcinoma have been reported from Pakistan. PMID:22980615

  11. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Devaraju, Ramaraju; Gantala, Ramlal; Aitha, Harisha; Gotoor, Srikanth Goud

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland tumours comprise almost 5% of head and neck malignancies. Minor salivary gland tumours account for 10–15% of all salivary gland neoplasms and are usually malignant. The second most common minor salivary gland tumour (12–40% globally) is mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is more frequent in females, occurs in the fifth decade of life and is usually found in the parotid gland. However, the palate is a frequent site when it occurs in the minor glands. We report a case of a high-grade variant of mucoepidermoid carcinoma in the right retromolar trigone of a 21-year man which was treated with wide excision of the tumour with a 1.5 cm margin. Reconstruction was done with a buccal fat pad posteriorly with a pedicled lateral tongue flap. Temporal stripping and right coronoidectomy was carried out in case of post-surgical wound contraction. The patient is currently under periodic review. PMID:25085946

  12. The multidrug resistant modulator HZ08 reverses multidrug resistance via P-glycoprotein inhibition and apoptosis sensitization in human epidermoid carcinoma cell line KBV200.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y-L; Cen, J; Zhang, Y-Y; Feng, Y-D; Yang, Y; Li, Y-M; Huang, W-L

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the multidrug resistance modulator HZ08 has a strong multidrug resistance reversal effect in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 in K562/A02 and MCF-7/ADM cells, respectively. However, there are many other mechanisms responsible for resistance. In this study, MTT assay was used to examine the cytotoxicity and multidrug resistance reversal of HZ08 in KBV200 cells. It was also used to detect Rh123 and adriamycin accumulation in the presence of HZ08 to assess the effect on P-glycoprotein. Caspase-3 activity was analyzed under the incubation of HZ08 per se and in combination with vincristine. Results showed that HZ08 could increase the activity of caspase-3 with P-glycoprotein inhibition. Further studies revealed that HZ08 increased vincristine-induced apoptosis, characterized as an intrinsic apoptosis pathway with enhanced G2/M phase arrest, since HZ08 had an effect on the intrinsic apoptotic regulator Bcl-2 and Bax. Therefore, the outstanding reversal effect of HZ08 occurs not only through suppressing the P-glycoprotein function but also through activating the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. PMID:22344570

  13. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. ... and adults. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less ...

  14. Medullary carcinoma of thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC ... The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less likely to be caused by radiation therapy to the neck given ...

  15. Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... carcinomas: Infiltrating basal cell carcinomas can be more aggressive and locally destructive than other types of basal ... to treat them early and with slightly more aggressive techniques. Excision – The basal cell carcinoma is cut ...

  16. MicroRNAs Are Part of the Regulatory Network that Controls EGF Induced Apoptosis, Including Elements of the JAK/STAT Pathway, in A431 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Ibrahim; Hoffmann, Peter; Adelson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    MiRNAs are known to regulate gene expression and in the context of cancer have been shown to regulate metastasis, cell proliferation and cell death. In this report we describe potential miRNA regulatory roles with respect to induction of cell death by pharmacologic dose of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF). Our previous work suggested that multiple pathways are involved in the induction of apoptosis, including interferon induced genes, cytokines, cytoskeleton and cell adhesion and TP53 regulated genes. Using miRNA time course expression profiling of EGF treated A431 cells and coupling this to our previous gene expression and proteomic data, we have been able to implicate a number of additional miRNAs in the regulation of apoptosis. Specifically we have linked miR-134, miR-145, miR-146b-5p, miR-432 and miR-494 to the regulation of both apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes expressed as a function of EGF treatment. Whilst additional miRNAs were differentially expressed, these had the largest number of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic targets. We found 5 miRNAs previously implicated in the regulation of apoptosis and our results indicate that an additional 20 miRNAs are likely to be involved based on their correlated expression with targets. Certain targets were linked to multiple miRNAs, including PEG10, BTG1, ID1, IL32 and NCF2. Some miRNAs that target the interferon pathway were found to be down regulated, consistent with a novel layer of regulation of interferon pathway components downstream of JAK/STAT. We have significantly expanded the repertoire of miRNAs that may regulate apoptosis in cancer cells as a result of this work. PMID:25781916

  17. Amplification of FGFR1 gene and expression of FGFR1 protein is found in different histological types of lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Vitor; Reis, Diana; Silva, Maria; Alarcão, Ana Maria; Ladeirinha, Ana Filipa; d'Aguiar, Maria João; Ferreira, Teresa; Caramujo-Balseiro, Sandra; Carvalho, Lina

    2016-08-01

    Although lung cancer continues to be the leading cause of cancer-related death, accurate diagnosis followed by personalized treatment is expected to raise the 5-year survival rate. Targeted therapies are now in routine clinical use, in particular for lung adenocarcinoma (ADC). Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) has recently emerged as a molecular target, especially in squamous cell/epidermoid carcinoma (SQC) of the lung. This paper evaluates FGFR1 expression and gene copy number in adenocarcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, pleomorphic carcinomas (PLEOMC) and adenosquamous carcinomas (ADSQC) of the lung and also explores the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) pathway. We studied 76 lung carcinomas: 34 ADC, 24 SQC, 10 PLEOMC and 8 ADSQC. FGFR1 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Higher FGFR1 protein expression was observed in all tumour types compared to non-tumour tissue. FGFR1 expression was higher in ADC and PLEOMC than in SQC. We found a tendency to higher expression in ADC than in SQC and significantly higher expression in PLEOMC than in other histological subtypes. FISH-based amplification of FGFR1 was identified in 15 (20 %) lung carcinomas: 5 (15 %) ADC, 5 (21 %) SQC, 3 (30 %) PLEOMC and 2 (25 %) ADSQC. Amplification was more frequent in SQC without significant differences. FGFR1 protein is expressed in the majority of lung carcinomas, though it is higher in ADC and PLEOMC (the latter may reflect the importance of FGFR1 control of the EMT pathway). FGFR1 amplification was identified in all types of lung carcinoma. Although FGFR1 is most frequently amplified in SQC, other histological types merit assessment of FGFR1 amplification, in order to select patients that might benefit from targeted therapy. PMID:27194548

  18. Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Alex C.; Sabolch, Aaron; Raymond, Victoria M.; Kandathil, Asha; Caoili, Elaine M.; Jolly, Shruti; Miller, Barbra S.; Giordano, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy, often with an unfavorable prognosis. Here we summarize the knowledge about diagnosis, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and therapy of ACC. Over recent years, multidisciplinary clinics have formed and the first international treatment trials have been conducted. This review focuses on evidence gained from recent basic science and clinical research and provides perspectives from the experience of a large multidisciplinary clinic dedicated to the care of patients with ACC. PMID:24423978

  19. Alterations of gene expression and protein synthesis in co-cultured adipose tissue-derived stem cells and squamous cell-carcinoma cells: consequences for clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This is the first study evaluating the interactions of human adipose tissue derived stem cells (ADSCs) and human squamous cell carcinoma cells (SCCs), with regard to a prospective cell-based skin regenerative therapy and a thereby unintended co-localization of ADSCs and SCCs. Methods ADSCs were co-cultured with A431-SCCs and primary SCCs (pSCCs) in a transwell system, and cell-cell interactions were analyzed by assessing doubling time, migration and invasion, angiogenesis, quantitative real time PCR of 229 tumor associated genes, and multiplex protein assays of 20 chemokines and growth factors and eight matrix metalloproteinases (MMPS). Results of co-culture were compared to those of the respective mono-culture. Results ADSCs’ proliferation on the plate was significantly increased when co-cultured with A431-SCCs (P = 0.038). PSCCs and ADSCs significantly decreased their proliferation in co-culture if cultured on the plate (P <0.001 and P = 0.03). The migration of pSCC was significantly increased in co-culture (P = 0.009), as well as that of ADSCs in A431-SCC-co-culture (P = 0.012). The invasive behavior of pSCCs and A431-SCCs was significantly increased in co-culture by a mean of 33% and 35%, respectively (P = 0.038 and P <0.001). Furthermore, conditioned media from co-cultured ADSC-A431-SCCs and co-cultured ADSCs-pSCCs induced tube formation in an angiogenesis assay in vitro. In A431-SCC-co-culture 36 genes were up- and 6 were down-regulated in ADSCs, in A431-SCCs 14 genes were up- and 8 genes were down-regulated. In pSCCs-co-culture 36 genes were up-regulated in ADSCs, two were down-regulated, one gene was up-regulated in pSCC, and three genes were down-regulated. Protein expression analysis revealed that three proteins were exclusively produced in co-culture (CXCL9, IL-1b, and MMP-7). In A431-SCC-co-culture the concentration of 17 proteins was significantly increased compared to the ADSCs mono-culture (2.8- to 357-fold

  20. Short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing syndrome secondary to an epidermoid tumor in the cerebellopontine angle.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Shaun D; Marascalchi, Bryan J; Strom, Russell G; Huang, Paul P

    2013-03-01

    Short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT) syndrome is classified under trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias. This rare headache syndrome is infrequently associated with secondary pathologies. In this paper the authors report on a patient with paroxysmal left retroorbital pain with associated autonomic symptoms of ipsilateral conjunctival injection and lacrimation, suggestive of SUNCT syndrome. After failed medical treatment an MRI sequence was obtained in this patient, demonstrating an epidermoid tumor in the left cerebellopontine angle. The patient's symptoms completely resolved after a gross-total resection of the tumor. This case demonstrates the effectiveness of resection as definitive treatment for SUNCT syndrome associated with tumoral compression of the trigeminal nerve. Early MRI studies should be considered in all patients with SUNCT, especially those with atypical signs and symptoms. PMID:23452266

  1. Oral Rigosertib for Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-18

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  2. Metastasis suppressor proteins in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bozdogan, Onder; Vargel, Ibrahim; Cavusoglu, Tarik; Karabulut, Ayse A; Karahan, Gurbet; Sayar, Nilufer; Atasoy, Pınar; Yulug, Isik G

    2016-07-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCCs) are common human carcinomas. Despite having metastasizing capacities, they usually show less aggressive progression compared to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of other organs. Metastasis suppressor proteins (MSPs) are a group of proteins that control and slow-down the metastatic process. In this study, we established the importance of seven well-defined MSPs including NDRG1, NM23-H1, RhoGDI2, E-cadherin, CD82/KAI1, MKK4, and AKAP12 in cSCCs. Protein expression levels of the selected MSPs were detected in 32 cSCCs, 6 in situ SCCs, and two skin cell lines (HaCaT, A-431) by immunohistochemistry. The results were evaluated semi-quantitatively using the HSCORE system. In addition, mRNA expression levels were detected by qRT-PCR in the cell lines. The HSCOREs of NM23-H1 were similar in cSCCs and normal skin tissues, while RGHOGDI2, E-cadherin and AKAP12 were significantly downregulated in cSCCs compared to normal skin. The levels of MKK4, NDRG1 and CD82 were partially conserved in cSCCs. In stage I SCCs, nuclear staining of NM23-H1 (NM23-H1nuc) was significantly lower than in stage II/III SCCs. Only nuclear staining of MKK4 (MKK4nuc) showed significantly higher scores in in situ carcinomas compared to invasive SCCs. In conclusion, similar to other human tumors, we have demonstrated complex differential expression patterns for the MSPs in in-situ and invasive cSCCs. This complex MSP signature warrants further biological and experimental pathway research. PMID:27215390

  3. Thyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, M.; Skolnik, E.M.; Baim, H.M.; Becker, S.P.; Katz, A.H.; Mantravadi, R.V.

    1980-12-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma was studied with regard to mode of presentation, initial findings, treatment and survival. The classic signs, symptoms, physical and scan findings were found to be present in approximately 70% of the patients. Prognosis was found to be dependent on age of presentation more than any other factor. Patients with prior exposure to radiation were found to have more extensive disease and require more extensive surgery but ultimately had the same prognosis for 15-year cure. Treatment for distant metastatic disease by surgery, radioactive iodine and external radiation all resulted in long-term survival in certain cases.

  4. Adrenocortical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Baudin, Eric

    2015-06-01

    Recent developments in the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) include diagnostic and prognostic risk stratification algorithms, increasing evidence of the impact of historical therapies on overall survival, and emerging targets from integrated epigenomic and genomic analyses. Advances include proper clinical and molecular characterization of all patients with ACC, standardization of proliferative index analyses, referral of these patients to large cancer referral centers at the time of first surgery, and development of new trials in patients with well-characterized ACC. Networking and progress in the molecular characterization of ACC constitute the basis for significant future therapeutic breakthroughs. PMID:26038209

  5. Parathyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Givi, B.; Shah, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare endocrine malignancy. The reported incidence is from 0.5 to 5% of primary hyperparathyroidism cases in various series. The cause is unknown, but clinical correlations with different genetic syndromes exist. Mutations in the HPRT2 gene seem to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Men and women are equally affected, usually in the fourth or fifth decade of life. Most patients will present with signs and symptoms of hypercalcaemia. Cases of non-functioning carcinoma are exceedingly rare. Surgical resection is the most effective method of treatment and palliation. A significant proportion of patients will experience recurrence, and will need further surgical and, eventually, medical management of hypercalcaemia. The disease is progressive but slow growing. Most patients will require multiple operations to resect recurrent disease. The main cause of morbidity and mortality is the sequela of uncontrolled chronic hypercalcaemia rather than tumour burden. The current paper will review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and diagnostic work-up of this disease. Surgical management in different scenarios is reviewed in detail, followed by other types of treatment and management of incurable disease. PMID:20510594

  6. Hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Buendia, Marie-Annick; Neuveut, Christine

    2015-02-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a widespread human pathogen that causes liver inflammation, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recent sequencing technologies have refined our knowledge of the genomic landscape and pathogenesis of HCC, but the mechanisms by which HBV exerts its oncogenic role remain controversial. In a prevailing view, inflammation, liver damage, and regeneration may foster the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic defects leading to cancer onset. However, a more direct and specific contribution of the virus is supported by clinical and biological observations. Among genetically heterogeneous HCCs, HBV-related tumors display high genomic instability, which may be attributed to the ability of HBV to integrate its DNA into the host cell genome, provoking chromosomal alterations and insertional mutagenesis of cancer genes. The viral transactivator HBx may also participate in transformation by deregulating diverse cellular machineries. A better understanding of the complex mechanisms linking HBV to HCC will improve prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:25646384

  7. [Parathyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Poissonnet, Gilles; Castillo, Laurent; Bozec, Alexandre; Peyrottes, Isabelle; Ettore, Francette; Santini, José; Demard, François; Dassonville, Olivier

    2006-03-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare disease accounting for 1 to 5% of parathyroid neoplasms. This malignant tumour must be suspected when a severe primary hyperparathyroidism occurs with high hypercalcemia and elevated parathormon levels. At this time, a cervical mass is often palpable. Both head and neck ultrasonography and 99mTc-sestamibi scintigraphy are the best preoperative imaging tests to suspect and localize the tumour. Surgical approach with simultaneous tumorectomy and hemithyroidectomy, completed by selective neck dissection (level VI) is the treatment of choice. An elective lateral neck dissection should be performed if necessary. Tumour control should be monitored by regular measurement of calcium and parathormon levels. Local recurrence or metastasis risk is 30 to 70% and the 5 year overall survival about 50 to 80%. In case of recurrence, aggressive surgical management should be applied and adjuvant radiation therapy may be discussed. PMID:16567315

  8. Proteome profiling of keratinocytes transforming to malignancy.

    PubMed

    Paulitschke, Verena; Gerner, Christopher; Hofstätter, Elisabeth; Mohr, Thomas; Mayer, Rupert Laurenz; Pehamberger, Hubert; Kunstfeld, Rainer

    2015-02-01

    To shed light on the multistep process of squamous cell carcinoma development and the underlying pathologic mechanisms, we performed comparative proteome analysis of keratinocytes, keratinocytes stimulated with Il-1beta, and A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells. Fractionation of the cells into supernatant, nucleus, and cytoplasm was followed by protein separation, proteolytic digest, and nano-LC separation, and fragmentation using an ion trap mass spectrometer. Specific bioinformatics tools were used to generate a list of keratinocyte-specific proteins. Ninety percent of these proteins were found to be upregulated in keratinocytes versus the A431 cells. Classification of the identified proteins by biologic function and gene set enrichment analysis revealed that keratinocytes produced more proteins involved in cell differentiation, cell adhesion, cell junction, calcium ion, calmodulin binding, cytoskeleton organization, and cytokinesis, whereas A431 produced more proteins involved in cell cycle checkpoint, cell cycle process, RNA processing and transport, DNA damage and repair, RNA and DNA binding, and chromatin remodeling. The protein signatures of A431 and normal keratinocytes treated with IL-1beta showed marked similarity, confirming that inflammation is an important step in malignant transformation in nonmelanoma skin cancer. Thus, proteome profiling and bioinformatic processing may support the understanding of the underlying mechanisms, with the potential to facilitate development of early biomarkers and patient-tailored therapy. PMID:25395074

  9. Characterization of tissue plasminogen activator binding proteins isolated from endothelial cells and other cell types

    SciTech Connect

    Beebe, D.P.; Wood, L.L.; Moos, M. )

    1990-07-15

    Human tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) was shown to bind specifically to human osteosarcoma cells (HOS), and human epidermoid carcinoma cells (A-431 cells). Crosslinking studies with DTSSP demonstrated high molecular weight complexes (130,000) between {sup 125}I-t-PA and cell membrane protein on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), HOS, and A-431 cells. A 48-65,000 molecular weight complex was demonstrated after crosslinking t-PA peptide (res. 7-20) to cells. Ligand blotting of cell lysates which had been passed over a t-PA affinity column revealed binding of t-PA to 54,000 and 95,000 molecular weight proteins. Several t-PA binding proteins were identified in immunopurified cell lysates, including tubulin beta chain, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and single chain urokinase.

  10. Cell assay using a two-photon-excited europium chelate

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xudong; Haushalter, Jeanne P.; Kotz, Kenneth T.; Faris, Gregory W.

    2011-01-01

    We report application of two-photon excitation of europium chelates to immunolabeling of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) cell surface proteins on A431 cancer cells. The europium chelates are excited with two photons of infrared light and emit in the visible. Europium chelates are conjugated to antibodies for EGFR. A431 (human epidermoid carcinoma) cells are labeled with this conjugate and imaged using a multiphoton microscope. To minimize signal loss due to the relatively long-lived Eu3+ emission, the multiphoton microscope is used with scanning laser two-photon excitation and non-scanning detection with a CCD. The chelate labels show very little photobleaching (less than 1% during continuous illumination in the microscope for 20 minutes) and low levels of autofluorescence (less than 1% of the signal from labeled cells). The detection limit of the europium label in the cell assay is better than 100 zeptomoles. PMID:21833362

  11. A novel quinoline, MT477: suppresses cell signaling through Ras molecular pathway, inhibits PKC activity, and demonstrates in vivo anti-tumor activity against human carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Jasinski, Piotr; Welsh, Brandon; Galvez, Jorge; Land, David; Zwolak, Pawel; Ghandi, Lori; Terai, Kaoru; Dudek, Arkadiusz Z

    2008-06-01

    MT477 is a novel thiopyrano[2,3-c]quinoline that has been identified using molecular topology screening as a potential anticancer drug with a high activity against protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms. The objective of the present study was to determine the mechanism of action of MT477 and its activity against human cancer cell lines. MT477 interfered with PKC activity as well as phosphorylation of Ras and ERK1/2 in H226 human lung carcinoma cells. It also induced poly-caspase-dependent apoptosis. MT477 had a dose-dependent (0.006 to 0.2 mM) inhibitory effect on cellular proliferation of H226, MCF-7, U87, LNCaP, A431 and A549 cancer cell lines as determined by in vitro proliferation assays. Two murine xenograft models of human A431 and H226 lung carcinoma were used to evaluate tumor response to intraperitoneal administration of MT477 (33 microg/kg, 100 microg/kg, and 1 mg/kg). Tumor growth was inhibited by 24.5% in A431 and 43.67% in H226 xenografts following MT477 treatment, compared to vehicle controls (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our empirical findings are consistent with molecular modeling of MT477's activity against PKC. We also found, however, that its mechanism of action occurs through suppressing Ras signaling, indicating that its effects on apoptosis and tumor growth in vivo may be mediated by Ras as well as PKC. We propose, therefore, that MT477 warrants further development as an anticancer drug. PMID:17957339

  12. A monoclonal antibody to a carbohydrate epitope expressed on glycolipid and on alpha3beta1 integrin on human esophageal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jamasbi, Roudabeh J; Stoner, Gary D; Foote, Linda J; Lankford, Trish K; Davern, Sandra; Kennel, Stephen J

    2003-12-01

    A mouse monoclonal antibody (MAb-9) produced by immunization with a human esophageal carcinoma cell line, TE-2 (derived from undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma) reacted specifically with about 30% of esophageal carcinoma cell lines and tissue sections from clinical samples. MAb-9 showed minimal reactivity with normal esophageal tissue. (125)I, fluorescent or gold particle labeled MAb-9 bound to TE-2 cell surfaces. (125)I-radiolabeled MAb-9 was used to detect reactive material from cell extracts in Western blot. Treatment of TE-2 membrane proteins with neuraminidase, N-glycanase or O-glycanase reduced antigen detection. Treatment of cells with periodic acid destroyed antibody binding in ELISA. Lipid extracts from cell membranes, containing glycolipids, also reacted with MAb-9. MAb-9 was used to purify target antigen from detergent solubilized membrane proteins and the prominent bands from subsequent gel electrophoresis were trypsin digested and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Peptides from alpha(3) and beta(1) integrin chains were identified. These data indicate that alpha3beta1integrin is prominently expressed on certain esophageal carcinomas and that a specific carbohydrate unit is selectively displayed on the alpha(3) integrin subunit as well as on glycolipid on the cell surface. The alpha3beta1 integrin expressed on A-431 carcinoma cells does not display this carbohydrate epitope and is not detected by MAb-9. Thus, expression of the carbohydrate epitope is the basis for the tumor selective reaction of MAb-9 with a subset of esophageal carcinomas. PMID:14683596

  13. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or older. Hepatocellular ...

  14. Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Squamous cell carcinoma typically develops in sun-damaged skin in fair-skinned patients. Overview Squamous ... skin cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma usually occurs on sun-damaged skin, especially in light-skinned individuals with ...

  15. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or older. ...

  16. [Hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Colombo, Massimo; Sangiovanni, Angelo

    2016-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer death and the first in patients with compensated cirrhosis. Chronic infection with hepatitis B and C, alcohol, smoking, exposure to aflatoxin and metabolic syndrome, associated with diabetes and obesity are the main etiological factors. Regardless of etiology, patients with cirrhosis stand as the category at higher risk of developing HCC, and indeed are the target of surveillance programs aimed to the early diagnosis of HCC, the only chance to reduce HCC-related mortality. This notwithstanding, International Scientific Societies have issued recommendations for the management of HCC, a significant number of patients are treated outside guidelines, due to several reasons. Among queries still unsolved, the impact of biological characterization of HCC, along with the biological profiling of patients at risk of developing HCC represent main challenges for the future. Treatment personalization and multimodal treatment being further challenges. This chapter summarizes the recommendations for surveillance, diagnosis and treatment of HCC and focus on future directions. PMID:27571469

  17. Role of radiation in the management of early vocal cord carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, B.; Rao, D.V.; Marks, J.E.; Perez, C.A.

    1983-07-01

    From 1952 to 1978, 177 patients with epidermoid carcinoma confined to the true vocal cords with normal mobility (T1NO) were treated with radiation alone. Five- and 10-year adjusted actuarial survival rates for all patients were 97 and 95%, respectively. The tumor recurred in the larynx and/or neck in 16% of patients with T/sub 1a/ (one cord involved) and 23% of the patients with T/sub 1b/ (both vocal cords involved) disease. Radiation failures were surgically salvaged in 89% of patients with T/sub 1a/ disease without anterior commissure involvement, in 60% of those with T/sub 1a/ disease with anterior commissure involvement and in 57% of those with T/sub 1b/ disease. Tumor was ultimately controlled in 97% of the patients with T/sub 1a/ and 90% of the patients with T/sub 1b/ disease. Voice was preserved in 93% of the patients with T/sub 1a/ disease and 77% of patients with T/sub 1b/ disease. Of 121 patients evaluated for voice quality 77% had good and 22% had fair voice, while only one patient had poor quality of voice. Patients with fair or poor quality voice usually had had salvage hemilaryngectomy. We recommend radiation for all patients with early vocal cord carcinoma.

  18. Photodynamic therapy activated STAT3 associated pathways: Targeting intrinsic apoptotic pathways to increase PDT efficacy in human squamous carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Li; Xu, Chengshan; Li, Qiang; Mei, Zhusong; Li, Xinji; Cai, Hong; Liu, Wei

    2016-06-01

    5-Aminolaevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) has been used for part of squamous cell carcinoma (premalignant conditions or in situ cutaneous SCC-Bowen disease). However, mechanism of ALA-PDT is not fully understood yet on the cell apoptosis pathway. The aim of this study was to further investigate the effect and mechanism of 5-ALA-PDT on human squamous carcinoma A431cells. Apoptosis and cell viability after PDT were evaluated using Annexin V-FITC apoptosis detection kit and MTT assay. The mRNA and protein levels were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot. Our data showed that 5-ALA-PDT significantly inhibited cell proliferation (p<0.05), but there was no significant difference when the photosensitizer reached to 4.8mM. The inhibition in cell proliferation after 5-ALA-PDT treatment was correlated to more cells being arrested in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle (p<0.01). Immunocytochemical observations using anti-active caspase-3 antibodies showed active caspase-3 was translocated from cytoplasm to nuclear during apoptosis. STAT3 and its downstream gene Bax and BCL-2 were changed after 5-ALA-PDT treatment for the mRNA and protein expression. Our studies confirmed that 5-ALA-PDT might be an effective treatment for human squamous carcinoma by inhibiting the tumor cell A431growth and for the first time demonstrated that the expression of STAT3 was significantly reduced at 24h after 5-ALA-PDT treatment. PMID:26607555

  19. Hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J T; Macdonald, G A

    2000-05-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) appears to be declining in Taiwan and potentially in other high-prevalence areas as a consequence of vaccination for hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, there is evidence that the incidence of HCC is increasing in North America and Europe. This appears to be related to the increasing prevalence and duration of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in these countries. There is also growing evidence to support an increase in the risk of HCC in patients with HCV who are coinfected with occult HBV (patients who have lost HBV surface antigen but still have detectable HBV DNA either in blood or liver). Occult HBV infection in patients with HCV may be more common than previously thought, and HCC that occurs in this setting appears to have a worse prognosis. There is continuing interest in the effect of interferon therapy on the incidence of HCC in patients with HCV. Several studies from Japan have shown a benefit in patients without cirrhosis, although there are a number of potentially confounding variables that may partly explain these results. Prospective randomized studies are needed to investigate this important question. The molecular biology of HCC and the events of malignant transformation in the liver continue to be areas of intense study. Recently, there has been considerable interest in telomeres, the repeat units on the ends of chromosomes, and the enzyme that maintains these, telomerase. Telomeres shorten with each cell division and can be used to determine the number of divisions a cell has undergone. Eventually they reach a critical length, with further loss resulting in cellular senescence. Telomerase restores telomere length and may help malignant cells escape senescence. Nearly all HCCs have telomerase activity and assessments of telomeres and telomerase may be clinically useful. PMID:17023886

  20. Derivatization of agelastatin A leading to bioactive analogs and a trifunctional probe.

    PubMed

    Jouanneau, Morgan; McClary, Brandon; Reyes, Jeremy Chris P; Chen, Rong; Chen, Yuling; Plunkett, William; Cheng, Xin; Milinichik, Andrew Z; Albone, Earl F; Liu, Jun O; Romo, Daniel

    2016-04-15

    (-)-Agelastatin A (AglA, 1), a member of the pyrrole-aminoimidazole marine alkaloid (PAI) family, possesses a unique tetracyclic structure and is one of the most potent anticancer PAIs isolated to date. In efforts to expand the SAR of these agents and delineate sites that tolerate modification while retaining activity, we synthesized several derivatives and tested their anticancer activity. The cytotoxic effects of these derivatives were measured against several cancer cell lines including cervical cancer (HeLa), epidermoid carcinoma (A431), ovarian (Igrov and Ovcar3), osteosarcoma (SJSA1), acute T cell leukemia (A3), epidermoid carcinoma (A431) in addition to primary human chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. New positions for modification of AglA and new substitutions were explored leading to novel derivatives, 14-chloro AglA (3) and 14-methyl AglA (12), that retained activity toward various cancer cell lines with decreased toxicity toward B- and T-cells. The SAR data informed the synthesis of a trifunctional probe bearing an alkyne and a diazirine potentially useful for cellular target identification. PMID:26951751

  1. Resistance to Anti-VEGF Therapy Mediated by Autocrine IL6/STAT3 Signaling and Overcome by IL6 Blockade.

    PubMed

    Eichten, Alexandra; Su, Jia; Adler, Alexander P; Zhang, Li; Ioffe, Ella; Parveen, Asma A; Yancopoulos, George D; Rudge, John; Lowy, Israel; Lin, Hsin Chieh; MacDonald, Douglas; Daly, Christopher; Duan, Xunbao; Thurston, Gavin

    2016-04-15

    Anti-VEGF therapies benefit several cancer types, but drug resistance that limits therapeutic response can emerge. We generated cell lines from anti-VEGF-resistant tumor xenografts to investigate the mechanisms by which resistance develops. Of all tumor cells tested, only A431 (A431-V) epidermoid carcinoma cells developed partial resistance to the VEGF inhibitor aflibercept. Compared with the parental tumors, A431-V tumors secreted greater amounts of IL6 and exhibited higher levels of phospho-STAT3. Notably, combined blockade of IL6 receptor (IL6R) and VEGF resulted in enhanced activity against A431-V tumors. Similarly, inhibition of IL6R enhanced the antitumor effects of aflibercept in DU145 prostate tumor cells that displays high endogenous IL6R activity. In addition, post hoc stratification of data obtained from a clinical trial investigating aflibercept efficacy in ovarian cancer showed poorer survival in patients with high levels of circulating IL6. These results suggest that the activation of the IL6/STAT3 pathway in tumor cells may provide a survival advantage during anti-VEGF treatment, suggesting its utility as a source of response biomarkers and as a therapeutic target to heighten efficacious results. Cancer Res; 76(8); 2327-39. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26921327

  2. [5 cases of epidermoid cyst (or primary cholesteatoma) of the petrous pyramid. Clinical, radiologic, pathogenic and therapeutic aspects. Value of nuclear magnetic resonance in the diagnosis and postoperative monitoring].

    PubMed

    Tran Ba Huy, P; Lévy, C; Bensimon, J L; Cophignon, J

    1986-01-01

    Five cases of epidermoid cyst (or primary cholesteatoma) of petrous bone are described and the criteria necessary to consider these tumors as truly primary outlined. The most plausible theories appear to be either congenital: embryonic inclusions or, to a lesser degree, acquired: papillary proliferation. Emphasis is placed on facial signs, even minimal, associated with progressive perception or mixed unilateral deafness. Advantages and indications for different surgical approaches are discussed and the value of NMR imaging emphasized, both for diagnosis and postoperative follow up review, especially when a closed technique had been selected. PMID:3789583

  3. Chemoradiation for the treatment of epidermoid anal cancer: 13-year follow-up of the first randomised UKCCCR Anal Cancer Trial (ACT I)

    PubMed Central

    Northover, J; Glynne-Jones, R; Sebag-Montefiore, D; James, R; Meadows, H; Wan, S; Jitlal, M; Ledermann, J

    2010-01-01

    Background: The first UKCCCR Anal Cancer Trial (1996) demonstrated the benefit of chemoradiation over radiotherapy (RT) alone for treating epidermoid anal cancer, and it became the standard treatment. Patients in this trial have now been followed up for a median of 13 years. Methods: A total of 577 patients were randomised to receive RT alone or combined modality therapy using 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C. All patients were scheduled to receive 45 Gy by external beam irradiation. Patients who responded to treatment were recommended to have boost RT, with either an iridium implant or external beam irradiation. Data on relapse and deaths were obtained until October 2007. Results: Twelve years after treatment, for every 100 patients treated with chemoradiation, there are an expected 25.3 fewer patients with locoregional relapse (95% confidence interval (CI): 17.5–32.0 fewer) and 12.5 fewer anal cancer deaths (95% CI: 4.3–19.7 fewer), compared with 100 patients given RT alone. There was a 9.1% increase in non-anal cancer deaths in the first 5 years of chemoradiation (95% CI +3.6 to +14.6), which disappeared by 10 years. Conclusions: The clear benefit of chemoradiation outweighs an early excess risk of non-anal cancer deaths, and can still be seen 12 years after treatment. Only 11 patients suffered a locoregional relapse as a first event after 5 years, which may influence the choice of end points in future studies. PMID:20354531

  4. [Contribution of serum Cyfra 21-1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Jmal, Aouatef; Boussen, Hamouda; Abdennebi, Monia; Gara, Sonia; Harzallah, Latifa; Gritli, Saïd; Ladgham, Abderrahmen; Guemira, Fethi; Ghanem, Abderraouf

    2004-04-01

    Cyfra 21-1 is a recognised marker for epidermoid lung and head and neck carcinomas oriented to the cytokeratin 19 that is expressed particularly in malignant epithelial cells. The aims of this study were to evaluate the importance of the use of this marker in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Our prospective study interested 41 patients (33M/8F) with a mean age of 44 years (13 to 70) with 8 of them aged less than 30 years, presenting a nasopharyngeal carcinoma histologically confirmed from September 1999 to March 2000 and 45 healthy controls without evidence neoplasm. Undifferentiated forms represent 90.2% of cases and lesions are staged T2, T3 and T4 in 2.4%, 36.6% and 61% of cases, while N1, N2 and N3 represent 9.8%, 26.8% and 41.5% of cases. A blood sample was collected from each patient and control before any treatment, as well as controls to measure Cyfra 21-1 by immunoenzymatic assay, 2 groups of patients were selected after a period varying from 4 to 37 months with a median of 29 months: 27 patients with favourable evolution (without evidence of disease after initial treatment), 12 patients with non favourable evolution (1 death, 2 cases of loco-regional relapse and 9 patients with metastatic disease). 2 patients were lost to follow-up. The results showed that the mean serum Cyfra 21-1 values were significantly higher in patients with NPC than those in controls (p = 0.001). A significant correlation was found between the serum Cyfra 21-1 level before treatment and the clinical outcome of patients (p = 0.0009). Patients having a favourable evolution have the lowest level. Seric level of Cyfra 21-1 at diagnosis of NPC may play a predictive role to evaluate the risk of metastatic disease and prognosis. PMID:15242321

  5. Multiple primary bronchogenic carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Ji, H; Paljarvi, L; Soimakallio, S

    1996-07-01

    Multiple primary bronchogenic carcinomas (MPBCa) are extremely rare. The differentiation of a MPBCa from a pulmonary metastasis due to an extrathoracic neoplasm is sometimes difficult. We reviewed 324 pathologically proved primary pulmonary carcinomas and found six cases of MPBCa (1.9%). We herewith present the series and discuss the diagnosis of MPBCa. PMID:21594435

  6. Squamous cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    The hallmarks of squamous cell carcinoma are the differentiation features of the squamous epithelium: keratinization and intercellular bridges. Large central masses of keratin, individual cell keratinization, and/or keratin pearls may form. Necrosis of tumor cell nests and accumulation of acute inflammatory cells are frequent features of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma.

  7. [Hereditary renal cell carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Hartmann, A; Stöhr, C G; Junker, K

    2010-10-01

    Renal cell carcinomas occur in several hereditary tumor syndromes. These renal tumors frequently have a specific histopathological appearance which can be a sign for a hereditary cause of the disease. The genetic alterations responsible for most of these tumor syndromes were identified in recent years. Interestingly, renal cell carcinomas show specific histopathological features in each of the hereditary renal cancer syndromes. Clear cell and often cystic renal cell carcinomas occur in von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHL), while oncocytomas and chromophobe renal cell carcinomas are found in the Birt-Hugg-Dube syndrome, often also as hybrid tumors. Well differentiated papillary carcinomas (Type 1 according to the WHO) are found in the hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma (HPRC). In contrast, poorly diffentiated papillary renal cell carcinomas (Type 2 according to the WHO) occur in combination with leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas of the skin and uterus in hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma syndrome (HLRCC). The various genetic causes for these hereditary tumor syndromes open up new therapeutic possibilities, some of which are already being investigated in clinical studies. PMID:20960197

  8. Antineoplastic and Apoptotic Potential of Traditional Medicines Thymoquinone and Diosgenin in Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Das, Subhasis; Dey, Kaushik Kumar; Dey, Goutam; Pal, Ipsita; Majumder, Abhijit; MaitiChoudhury, Sujata; kundu, Subhas C.; Mandal, Mahitosh

    2012-01-01

    Thymoquinone (TQ) and diosgenin (DG), the active ingredients obtained from black cumin (Nigella sativa) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum), respectively, exert potent bioactivity, including anticancer effects. This study investigated the antineoplastic activity of these agents against squamous cell carcinoma in vitro and sarcoma 180–induced tumors in vivo. TQ and DG inhibited cell proliferation and induced cytotoxicity in A431 and Hep2 cells. These agents induced apoptosis by increasing the sub-G1 population, LIVE/DEAD cytotoxicity, chromatin condensation, DNA laddering and TUNEL-positive cells significantly (P<0.05). Increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, activation of caspases and cleavage of poly ADP ribose polymerase were observed in treated cells. These drugs inhibited Akt and JNK phosphorylations, thus inhibiting cell proliferation while inducing apoptosis. In combination, TQ and DG had synergistic effects, resulting in cell viability as low as 10%. In a mouse xenograft model, a combination of TQ and DG significantly (P<0.05) reduced tumor volume, mass and increased apoptosis. TQ and DG, alone and in combination, inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in squamous cell carcinoma. The combination of TQ and DG is a potential antineoplastic therapy in this common skin cancer. PMID:23077516

  9. Tetraspanin CD151 plays a key role in skin squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qinglin; Yang, Xiuwei H.; Xu, Fenghui; Sharma, Chandan; Wang, Hong-Xing; Knoblich, Konstantin; Rabinovitz, Isaac; Granter, Scott R.; Hemler, Martin E.

    2012-01-01

    Here we provide the first evidence that tetraspanin CD151 can support de novo carcinogenesis. During two-stage mouse skin chemical carcinogenesis, CD151 reduces tumor lag time and increases incidence, multiplicity, size, and progression to malignant squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), while supporting both cell survival during tumor initiation and cell proliferation during the promotion phase. In human skin SCC, CD151 expression is selectively elevated compared to other skin cancer types. CD151 support of keratinocyte survival and proliferation may depend on activation of transcription factor STAT3, a regulator of cell proliferation and apoptosis. CD151 also supports PKCα-α6β4 integrin association and PKC-dependent β4 S1424 phosphorylation, while regulating α6β4 distribution. CD151-PKCα effects on integrin β4 phosphorylation and subcellular localization are consistent with epithelial disruption to a less polarized, more invasive state. CD151 ablation, while minimally affecting normal cell and normal mouse functions, markedly sensitized mouse skin and epidermoid cells to chemicals/drugs including DMBA (mutagen) and camptothecin (topoisomerase inhibitor), as well as to agents targeting EGFR, PKC, Jak2/Tyk2, and STAT3. Hence, CD151 ‘co-targeting’ may be therapeutically beneficial. These findings not only support CD151 as a potential tumor target, but also should apply to other cancers utilizing CD151-laminin-binding integrin complexes. PMID:22824799

  10. Keratin proteins in human lung carcinomas. Combined use of morphology, keratin immunocytochemistry, and keratin immunoprecipitation.

    PubMed Central

    Banks-Schlegel, S. P.; McDowell, E. M.; Wilson, T. S.; Trump, B. F.; Harris, C. C.

    1984-01-01

    Light-microscopic immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy demonstrated that adenocarcinomas (AC) and squamous cell (epidermoid) carcinomas (SCCs) of human lung contained keratin proteins in the form of tonofilament bundles. However, moderately differentiated (md) SCCs contained abundant keratin, whereas poorly differentiated (pd) SCCs and all ACs contained lesser amounts. Lung tumors with the diagnosis of AC or SCC, as defined by WHO criteria, were also analyzed by immunoprecipitation techniques for the presence of keratin proteins. Regardless of the degree of tumor differentiation, SCCs contained a 44 kd keratin which was lacking in ACs. Interestingly, normal bronchial epithelium also contained the same 44 kd keratin. In addition, as SCCs became more differentiated, they exhibited even greater differences in the profile of synthesized keratins. Specifically, the relative abundance of the intermediate-sized keratins (57 and 59 kd) was increased in the md SCCs. Although keratin protein patterns appear to be a valuable adjunct in distinguishing AC from SCC, their usefulness as a diagnostic tool will require survey of a larger number of poorly differentiated tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:6198920

  11. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising in Warthin’s tumor of the parotid gland: Clinicopathological characteristics and immunophenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chunkai; Song, Zhigang; Xiao, Zhibo; Lin, Qiushi; Dong, Xiaoqun

    2016-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), an extremely rare tumor, arises from the epithelial component of preexisting parotid Warthin tumors (WT). Among the 309 cases of surgically resected WTs in Chinese PLA General Hospital and Beijing Shijitan Hospital of Capital Medical University, 5 cases (1.6%) fulfilled the criteria for MECs transformed from WTs. Clinicopathological characteristics of MECs was demonstrated in order to avoid misdiagnosis of this rare type of tumor. All the 5 patients, 3 males and 2 females, presented painless masses in the parotid gland. MECs were located inside or at the edge of WTs, with an obvious transitional zone between WT and MEC. Basal cells of WTs and epidermoid cells of MECs were strongly positive for cytokeratin CK5/6, CK34βE12, and P63; whereas negative for CK7, CK20, and CEA. Mucous cells of MECs were positive for CK7, CEA, as well as periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), whereas negative for CK5/6, CK34βE12, CK20, and P63. MECs patients were followed up for 25–69 months after surgery, presenting no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. Collectively, MECs arising from WT is very rare. The pathological diagnosis was based on histological morphology, especially the transitional zone between WT and MEC. PMID:27417276

  12. Carcinoma of the cervix stage IB: results of treatment with radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Montana, G.S.; Fowler, W.C. Jr.; Varia, M.A.; Walton, L.A.; Kirsch, M.; Halle, J.S.; McCafferty, B.B.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis has been made of 101 patients treated with radiation therapy for epidermoid carcinoma of the cervix Stage IB (FIGO) from January 1970 through December 1976. The patients were treated with a combination of intracavitary therapy and external beam therapy delivering a total combined dose of 8000 rad to the paracervical areas (Points A/sub R/ and A/sub L/) and 5500 rad to the pelvic lymph nodes (Points I/sub R/ and I/sub L/). The cumulative, disease-free survival at 2, 3 and 5 years was 89% and 84%. Sixteen failures were recorded in this group of patients, of which 3 were a result of loco-regional disease, 5 loco-regional disease plus distant metastasis and 8 distant metastasis only. The failure rate was greater among the patients who had lesions 4 or more cm in diameter and in patients who received doses of external beam therapy to the whole pelvis of 4000 rad or more. Eighteen patients developed complications; however, one patient had a recto-vaginal and a vesico-vaginal fistula; thus 19 complications were recorded. The complications were divided according to their severity into three groups: Grade I (mild), Grade II (moderate) and Grade III (severe). There were 10 Grade I, 4 Grade II and 5 Grade III complications.

  13. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising in Warthin's tumor of the parotid gland: Clinicopathological characteristics and immunophenotypes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunkai; Song, Zhigang; Xiao, Zhibo; Lin, Qiushi; Dong, Xiaoqun

    2016-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), an extremely rare tumor, arises from the epithelial component of preexisting parotid Warthin tumors (WT). Among the 309 cases of surgically resected WTs in Chinese PLA General Hospital and Beijing Shijitan Hospital of Capital Medical University, 5 cases (1.6%) fulfilled the criteria for MECs transformed from WTs. Clinicopathological characteristics of MECs was demonstrated in order to avoid misdiagnosis of this rare type of tumor. All the 5 patients, 3 males and 2 females, presented painless masses in the parotid gland. MECs were located inside or at the edge of WTs, with an obvious transitional zone between WT and MEC. Basal cells of WTs and epidermoid cells of MECs were strongly positive for cytokeratin CK5/6, CK34βE12, and P63; whereas negative for CK7, CK20, and CEA. Mucous cells of MECs were positive for CK7, CEA, as well as periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), whereas negative for CK5/6, CK34βE12, CK20, and P63. MECs patients were followed up for 25-69 months after surgery, presenting no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. Collectively, MECs arising from WT is very rare. The pathological diagnosis was based on histological morphology, especially the transitional zone between WT and MEC. PMID:27417276

  14. Comparative fluorescence in situ hybridization mapping of a 431-kb Arabidopsis thaliana bacterial artificial chromosome contig reveals the role of chromosomal duplications in the expansion of the Brassica rapa genome.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, S A; Cheng, Z; Wang, M L; Goodman, H M; Jiang, J

    2000-01-01

    Comparative genome studies are important contributors to our understanding of genome evolution. Most comparative genome studies in plants have been based on genetic mapping of homologous DNA loci in different genomes. Large-scale comparative physical mapping has been hindered by the lack of efficient and affordable techniques. We report here the adaptation of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques for comparative physical mapping between Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa. A set of six bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) representing a 431-kb contiguous region of chromosome 2 of A. thaliana was mapped on both chromosomes and DNA fibers of B. rapa. This DNA fragment has a single location in the A. thaliana genome, but hybridized to four to six B. rapa chromosomes, indicating multiple duplications in the B. rapa genome. The sizes of the fiber-FISH signals from the same BACs were not longer in B. rapa than those in A. thaliana, suggesting that this genomic region is duplicated but not expanded in the B. rapa genome. The comparative fiber-FISH mapping results support that chromosomal duplications, rather than regional expansion due to accumulation of repetitive sequences in the intergenic regions, played the major role in the evolution of the B. rapa genome. PMID:11014828

  15. In vitro antagonism between cisplatin and vinca alkaloids.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K.; Tanaka, M.; Kanamaru, H.; Hashimura, T.; Yamamoto, I.; Konishi, J.; Kuze, F.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of the combination of cisplatin and other cytotoxic agents were studied in vitro. When A549 lung cancer cells were treated simultaneously with cisplatin and other cytotoxic agents, cisplatin additively increased the cytotoxic effects of etoposide, mitomycin C, adriamycin, 5-fluorouracil and 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine, but antagonised those of vincristine, vindesine, vinblastine and podophyllotoxin. The antagonism between cisplatin and vincristine was also observed with HT29 colon cancer cells. NC65 renal carcinoma cells and A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells when these cells were simultaneously exposed to both agents. When A549 cells were exposed to cisplatin and vincristine sequentially, the antagonism between them was evident when cells were pretreated with cisplatin but not when treated in the opposite sequence. Therefore, when combination chemotherapy including cisplatin and vinca alkaloids is given, possible antagonism between them should be considered, especially in determining the schedule of drug administration. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2757923

  16. Stages of Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Childhood Treatment for more information.) Having certain genetic conditions increases the risk of adrenocortical carcinoma. Anything ... can be a sign of disease. CT scan (CAT scan) : A procedure that makes a series of ...

  17. Inherited renal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Akira; Young, Scott W; Takahashi, Naoki; King, Bernard F; Atwell, Thomas D

    2016-06-01

    Hereditary forms of kidney carcinoma account for 5-8% of all malignant kidney neoplasms. The renal tumors are often multiple and bilateral and occur at an earlier age. Each of the hereditary kidney carcinoma syndromes is associated with specific gene mutations as well as a specific histologic type of kidney carcinoma. The presence of associated extrarenal manifestations may suggest a hereditary kidney cancer syndrome. Radiology is most commonly used to screen and manage patients with hereditary kidney cancer syndromes. This manuscript reviews the clinical and imaging findings of well-defined inherited kidney cancer syndromes including von Hippel-Lindau disease, Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, hereditary papillary renal carcinoma syndrome, hereditary leiomyomatosis and RCC syndrome, tuberous sclerosis complex, and Lynch syndrome. PMID:27108134

  18. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lanoue, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly occurring cancer in the world and overall incidence is still on the rise. While typically a slow-growing tumor for which metastases is rare, basal cell carcinoma can be locally destructive and disfiguring. Given the vast prevalence of this disease, there is a significant overall burden on patient well-being and quality of life. The current mainstay of basal cell carcinoma treatment involves surgical modalities, such as electrodessication and curettage, excision, cryosurgery, and Mohs micrographic surgery. Such methods are typically reserved for localized basal cell carcinoma and offer high five-year cure rates, but come with the risk of functional impairment, disfigurement, and scarring. Here, the authors review the evidence and indications for nonsurgical treatment modalities in cases where surgery is impractical, contraindicated, or simply not desired by the patient. PMID:27386043

  19. [Etiopathogenesis of colorectal carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Reichlin, B

    1980-09-20

    There are a small group of colonic carcinomas of known etiology and large group of unknown etiology. In the latter group epidemiology, metabolic epidemiology, and animal experiments suggest a correlation between the fat content of the diet and the incidence of colonic carcinoma. Burkitt's postulate of a protective value of high fibre intake receives backing from 3 epidemiological studies from Israel, Scandinavia, and San Francisco. PMID:6252605

  20. Cholescintigraphy in gallbladder carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Colletti, P.M.; Ralls, P.W.; Siegel, M.E.; Halls, J.M.

    1986-04-01

    Findings on cholescintigraphy in gallbladder carcinoma are described in five patients. Four patients presenting with acute cholecystitis had nonvisualization of the gallbladder with normal hepatoenteric transit time. One of these had a large portal mass and two had liver metastasis as additional findings. The fifth patient was jaundiced, and showed absence of bowel activity compatible with total biliary obstruction. Both the clinical and scintigraphic findings in gallbladder carcinoma are difficult to separate from findings in cholelithiasis and cholecystitis.

  1. Colorectal carcinoma: Pathologic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Matthew; Ravula, Sreelakshmi; Tatishchev, Sergei F.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the United States. Pathologic examination of biopsy, polypectomy and resection specimens is crucial to appropriate patient managemnt, prognosis assessment and family counseling. Molecular testing plays an increasingly important role in the era of personalized medicine. This review article focuses on the histopathology and molecular pathology of colorectal carcinoma and its precursor lesions, with an emphasis on their clinical relevance. PMID:22943008

  2. [Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Antoine, Martine; Vieira, Thibault; Fallet, Vincent; Hamard, Cécile; Duruisseaux, Michael; Cadranel, Jacques; Wislez, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas are a rare group of tumors accounting for about one percent of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In 2015, the World Health Organization classification united under this name all the carcinomas with sarcomatous-like component with spindle cell or giant cell appearance, or associated with a sarcomatous component sometimes heterologous. There are five subtypes: pleomorphic carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, giant cell carcinoma, carcinosarcoma and pulmonary blastoma. Clinical characteristics are not specific from the other subtypes of NSCLC. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition pathway may play a key role. Patients, usually tobacco smokers, are frequently symptomatic. Tumors are voluminous more often peripherical than central, with strong fixation on FDG TEP CT. Distant metastases are frequent with atypical visceral locations. These tumors have poorer prognosis than the other NSCLC subtypes because of great aggressivity, and frequent chemoresistance. Here we present pathological description and a review of literature with molecular features in order to better describe these tumors and perhaps introduce new therapeutics. PMID:26778815

  3. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this disorder is a type of skin cancer called basal cell carcinoma , that develops around the time of puberty. Other ... if: You or any family members have nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, especially if you are planning to have ...

  4. Isolation, Cytotoxicity Evaluation and HPLC-Quantification of the Chemical Constituents from Prangos pabularia

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Saleem; Shakeel-u-Rehman; Dangroo, Nisar Ahmad; Priya, Dev; Banday, Javid Ahmad; Sangwan, Pyare Lal; Qurishi, Mushtaq Ahmad; Koul, Surrinder; Saxena, Ajit Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Phytochemical analysis of the dichloromethane:methanol (1∶1) extract of root parts of Prangos pabularia led to the isolation of twelve cytotoxic constituents, viz., 6-hydroxycoumarin (1), 7-hydroxycoumarin (2), heraclenol-glycoside (3), xanthotoxol (4), heraclenol (5), oxypeucedanin hydrate (6), 8-((3,3-dimethyloxiran-2-yl)methyl)-7-methoxy-2H-chromen-2-one (7), oxypeucedanin hydrate monoacetate (8), xanthotoxin (9), 4-((2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-3-en-1-yl)oxy)-7H-furo[3,2-g]chromen-7-one (10), imperatorin (11) and osthol (12). The isolates were identified using spectral techniques in the light of literature. 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity screening of the isolated constituents was carried out against six human cancer cell lines including lung (A549 and NCI-H322), epidermoid carcinoma (A431), melanoma (A375), prostate (PC-3) and Colon (HCT-116) cell lines. Osthol (12) exhibited the highest cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 3.2, 6.2, 10.9, 14.5, 24.8, and 30.2 µM against epidermoid carcinoma (A431), melanoma (A375), lung (NCI-H322), lung (A549), prostate (PC-3) and colon (HCT-116) cell lines respectively. Epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431 was sensitive to most of the compounds followed by lung (A549) cancer cell line. Finally a simple and reliable HPLC method was developed (RP-HPLC-DAD) and validated for the simultaneous quantification of these cytotoxic constituents in Prangos pabularia. The extract was analyzed using a reversed-phase Agilent ZORBAX eclipse plus column C18 (4.6×250 mm, 5 µm) at 250 nm wavelength using a gradient water-methanol solvent system at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min. The RP-HPLC method is validated in terms of recovery, linearity, accuracy and precision (intra and inter-day validation). This method, because of shorter analysis time, makes it valuable for the commercial quality control of Prangos pabularia extracts and its future pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:25314269

  5. Bronchial carcinoma and hypercalcaemia

    PubMed Central

    Azzopardi, J. G.; Whittaker, R. S.

    1969-01-01

    Hypercalcaemia due to malignant disease, in the absence of bone metastases, is generally regarded as a rare event. It occurred in 16% of a series of cases of bronchial carcinoma coming to necropsy. Hypercalcaemia is a relatively common complication of bronchial carcinoma. The hypercalcaemia is usually accompanied by hypophosphataemia and, in this respect, must be distinguished from the hypercalcaemia that may be found with breast carcinoma. It is frequently accompanied by hypokalaemic alkalosis; this must not be confused with the metabolic disorder that results from the production of ectopic `ACTH'. The bones sometimes show changes of osteitis fibrosa akin to those seen in hyperparathyroidism. Cystic disease of bone recognizable radiologically is rare, probably because of the relatively short duration of the metabolic disturbance. The parathyroids are usually mildly atrophic. There is no evidence that the main pathogenetic mechanism is stimulation of the parathyroids by the tumour. Acceptable instances of parathyroid hyperplasia are very rare: the significance of these exceptional cases awaits further study. Squamous carcinoma of the bronchus is the type mainly incriminated. Oat-cell carcinoma and bronchial adenocarcinoma are involved less frequently than expected by chance. The significance of the tumour types implicated is discussed in relation to the possible pathogenesis. Images PMID:5365347

  6. Nonfunctional parathyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Giessler, G. A.; Beech, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare entity accounting for 0.5% to 5% of parathyroid neoplasia. Most of these malignancies present as functional hormone-producing masses with elevated serum levels of parathormone and calcium. These tumors may also be nonfunctional. Clinical detection of nonfunctioning parathyroid malignancies preoperatively is primarily based on symptoms of an expanding neck mass. This ominous complaint is typically accompanied with an advanced stage of the disease at initial diagnosis. Because there is a paucity of data in the literature regarding nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma, prognosis can not be readily assessed. In both functional and nonfunctional parathyroid carcinoma, early surgery has proven to be the only curative treatment approach whereas both chemotherapy and radiation therapy fail to produce systemic or regional benefit when used alone. Hence, parathyroid cancer should be considered in every patient evaluated for a neck mass regardless of the blood calcium and blood parathormone level. PMID:11491274

  7. Polyamine aza-cyclic compounds demonstrate anti-proliferative activity in vitro but fail to control tumour growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wong, Pui Ee; Tetley, Laurence; Dufès, Christine; Chooi, Kar Wai; Bolton, Katherine; Schätzlein, Andreas G; Uchegbu, Ijeoma F

    2010-11-01

    Cationic polyamines such as the poly(propylenimine) dendrimers (DAB16) are anti-tumour agents (Dufes et al., 2005, Cancer Res 65:8079-8084). Their mechanism of action is poorly understood, but the lack of in vivo toxicity suggests cancer specificity. To explore this polyamine pharmacophore we cross-linked the aza-cyclic compound, hexacyclen, with 1,4-dibromobutane or 1,8-dibromooctane to yield the polyamines [poly(butylhexacyclen)--CL4] or [poly(octylhexacyclen)--CL8] respectively, both free of primary amines. We characterised the compounds and their respective nanoparticles and examined their interaction with the putative targets of the cationic polyamines: the cell membrane and DNA. Like DAB 16, CL4 and CL8 bind plasmid DNA and all three compounds interrupted the cell cycle of A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells in the S-phase. Additionally all three compounds disrupted erythrocyte membranes, with CL8 and DAB 16 being more active, in this respect, than CL4. CL4 (IC(50) =775.1 µg mL(-1)) and CL8 (IC(50) =8.4 µg mL(-1)), in a similar manner to DAB 16, were anti-proliferative against A431 cells; although unlike DAB 16, CL4 and CL8 were not tumouricidal against A431 xenografts in mice, indicating that primary amines may play an important role in the in vivo activity of DAB 16. PMID:20845462

  8. MRI assessment of changes in tumor oxygenation post hypoxia-targeted therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Shubhangi; Vidya Shankar, Rohini; Inge, Landon J.; Kodibagkar, Vikram

    2015-03-01

    In the tumor microenvironment, the combination of compromised oxygen supply and high demand results in formation of regions of acute and chronic hypoxia, which promotes metastasis, proliferation, resistance to chemo and radiotherapy and poor prognosis. Targeted, non-invasive in vivo imaging of hypoxia has the potential to determine regions with poor oxygenation in the target and differentiate between normoxic vs hypoxic tissues. MRI provides a powerful platform for generating quantitative maps of hypoxia with the use of a novel pO2 measuring technique PISTOL (Proton imaging of siloxanes to map tissue oxygenation levels) which could impact the therapeutic choices. In the present study, PISTOL was used to determine the changes in oxygenation of tumor in pre-clinical models of NSCLC (H1975) and epidermoid carcinoma (A431) in response to tirapzamine (TPZ), a hypoxia activated chemotherapeutic. The tumor volume measurements indicate that tirapazamine was more effective in slowing the tumor growth in H1975 as compared to A431 tumors, even though lower baseline pO2 was observed in A431 as compared to H1975 tumors. These results indicate that other factors such as tumor perfusion (essential for delivering TPZ) and relative expression of nitroreductases (essential for activating TPZ) may play an important role in conjunction with pO2.

  9. Carcinoma Tongue--Clinicopathological Presentation.

    PubMed

    Majumder, K R; Karmakar, R; Alam, M M; Rahman, T

    2015-10-01

    This prospective study was done to observe the diversity of clinical presentation of carcinoma of tongue and to study the pathological variety of carcinoma of tongue and was conducted in the Department of General Surgery and Otolaryngology and Head Neck Surgery in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka Medical College Hospital on 50 patients from January 2011 to July 2013. In this series highest number of patients were middle aged (36%). Male female ratio was 2:1. Average socioeconomic conditions of the patient were poor (68%). Betel nut and leaves chewing (88%) and smoking (56%) habits were commonly practiced for more than 10 years among the patients. Depending on site of involvement, variation in presenting symptoms has been observed. Oral tongue carcinoma mostly was presented with tongue lesion, pain and dysphagia where as the carcinoma of base of tongue commonly was presented with dysphagia, lump in neck. Lateral border of tongue (60%) was seen commonly involved. Ulcerative lesion (56%) predominantly was found in tongue lesion. Eighty percent (80%) of cases had no palpable Lymph node. Only few patients were found with Lymph node metastasis and most of them had carcinoma in base of the tongue (75%). Most of the carcinoma was well differentiated Squamous cell carcinoma. Carcinoma of tongue in our study commonly found in middle aged male patients. Variation of symptoms has depended on anatomical site involved. Most of the carcinoma was well differentiated Squamous cell carcinoma. Carcinoma other than squamous cell was not found. PMID:26620021

  10. What Is Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... which is a person’s outer layer of skin. Squamous cell carcinoma is a cancer that forms in squamous cells, ... like fish scales, when viewed under a microscope. Squamous cell carcinomas are sometimes called epidermoid carcinomas. Transitional cell carcinoma ...

  11. Diagnostic and pathogenetic role of café-au-lait macules in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ponti, Giovanni; Tomasi, Aldo; Pastorino, Lorenza; Ruini, Cristel; Guarneri, Carmelo; Mandel, Victor Desmond; Seidenari, Stefania; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Café au lait spots (CALS) are common dermatologic findings that can at the same time arise in a variety of pathologic conditions such as Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), together with numerous hereditary syndromes for which they represent either diagnostic criteria or associated elements (McCune Albright, Silver-Russell, LEOPARD, Ataxia-Telangiectasia). A review of the literature also revealed two cases of association with NBCCS. We report here the case of a female proband with CALS associated to Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) with known PTCH1 germline mutation (C.1348-2A>G) who had been misdiagnosed with NF1 in her childhood because of 5 CALS and cutaneous nodules. The patient presented a giant cell tumor of the skin, palmar and calcaneal epidermoidal cystic nodules, odontogenic keratocystic tumors and deformity of the jaw profile. Her family history brought both her brother and father to our attention because of the presence of KCOTs diagnosed at early age: after genetic testing, the same PTCH1 germline mutation was identified in the three family members. Clinical criteria are used for discerning NF1 diagnosis (size, number and onset age), while there are no definite guidelines concerning CALS except for their presence. In our experience, we have noted an association of CALS with NBCCS; this seems interesting because we already know clinical criteria are a dynamic entity and can be modified by epidemiologic evidences. PMID:23107377

  12. Follicular thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Haigh, Philip I

    2002-08-01

    Follicular carcinomas are rare thyroid malignancies that are difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Fine needle aspiration is an excellent diagnostic tool and should be the initial step in managing the solitary thyroid nodule. Follicular carcinoma cannot be diagnosed with certainty by cytologic features alone; the diagnosis rests on the histologic findings of blood vessel or tumor capsule invasion. Surgical resection is the primary option for treatment. The extent of thyroidectomy for optimal survival outcome has not been determined scientifically. The outcome is excellent in minimally invasive follicular carcinoma with lobectomy and isthmusectomy; it is difficult to argue that total thyroidectomy is necessary. In a low risk prognostic group, for tumors other than minimally invasive carcinoma, lobectomy and isthmusectomy or total thyroidectomy can be justified. However, if total thyroidectomy can be done safely with a minimum of complications, then it has definite advantages for staging, postoperative surveillance, treatment, and possibly a lower recurrence rate and better survival rate. For all patients at high risk of recurrence, total thyroidectomy is preferred. PMID:12074771

  13. Iontophoresis Improved Growth Reduction of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Topical Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Camila Nunes; de Souza, Joel Gonçalves; Simão, Patrícia Sper; Lopez, Renata Fonseca Vianna

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the potential of iontophoresis in topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) of human invasive squamous cells carcinomas (SCC). SCC was induced in nude BALB/c mice by subcutaneous injection of A431 cells. Tumor penetration and distribution of the photosensitizer tetrasulfonated zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPcS4) was investigated after 10 and 30 min of in vivo iontophoresis of a gel containing ZnPcS4. PDT was performed immediately after iontophoresis using laser at 660 nm with a dose of irradiation of 100 J/cm2 and irradiance of 48 mW/cm2 while tumor growth was measured for 30 days. Iontophoresis increased ZnPcS4 penetration into tumors by 6-fold after 30 min when compared with passive delivery. Confocal microscopy analysis showed that ZnPcS4 was homogeneous distributed within deep regions of the tumor after iontophoresis. Irradiation of the tumors immediately after iontophoresis showed reduction in tumor size by more than 2-fold when compared to non-treated tumors. Iontophoretic-PDT treated tumors presented large areas of necrosis. The study concluded that iontophoretic delivery of photosensitizers could be a valuable strategy for topical PDT of invasive SCC. PMID:26752697

  14. Iontophoresis Improved Growth Reduction of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Topical Photodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Camila Nunes; de Souza, Joel Gonçalves; Simão, Patrícia Sper; Lopez, Renata Fonseca Vianna

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the potential of iontophoresis in topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) of human invasive squamous cells carcinomas (SCC). SCC was induced in nude BALB/c mice by subcutaneous injection of A431 cells. Tumor penetration and distribution of the photosensitizer tetrasulfonated zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPcS4) was investigated after 10 and 30 min of in vivo iontophoresis of a gel containing ZnPcS4. PDT was performed immediately after iontophoresis using laser at 660 nm with a dose of irradiation of 100 J/cm(2) and irradiance of 48 mW/cm(2) while tumor growth was measured for 30 days. Iontophoresis increased ZnPcS4 penetration into tumors by 6-fold after 30 min when compared with passive delivery. Confocal microscopy analysis showed that ZnPcS4 was homogeneous distributed within deep regions of the tumor after iontophoresis. Irradiation of the tumors immediately after iontophoresis showed reduction in tumor size by more than 2-fold when compared to non-treated tumors. Iontophoretic-PDT treated tumors presented large areas of necrosis. The study concluded that iontophoretic delivery of photosensitizers could be a valuable strategy for topical PDT of invasive SCC. PMID:26752697

  15. [Merkel cell carcinoma (trabecular carcinoma) of the skin].

    PubMed

    Zala, L; Armagni, C; Krebs, A

    1983-04-01

    The Merkel cell carcinoma was first designated some years ago by the descriptive term trabecular carcinoma. Both names refer to a skin tumor occurring in elderly patients. This is another example where ultrastructural differentiating criteria are necessary for a definite diagnosis i.e., identification of so-called neurosecretory-like granules by electron microscopy. We report clinical, histological, ultrastructural, and histogenetic aspects of such a disease in a woman suffering from a metastasizing Merkel cell carcinoma. PMID:6853165

  16. Fallacious Carcinoma- Spindle Cell Variant of Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Radhika M; Govinda, Girish; Muniswamappa, Sudhakara; Venugopal, Reshma

    2016-01-01

    Spindle cell carcinoma is a unique, rare and peculiar biphasic tumour of head and neck which is not frequently observed in the oral cavity. This variant of squamous cell carcinoma although of monophasic epithelial origin, simulates a sarcoma and is an aggressive carcinoma with high frequency of recurrence and metastasis. A correct and timely diagnosis is of paramount importance. Most of the tumours require an Immunohistochemistry (IHC) panel for confirmation or diagnosis. We report a case of spindle cell carcinoma with varied histopathological morphology and clinical presentation in a middle aged female with a brief review of literature.

  17. Oblimersen in Treating Patients With Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Recurrent Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage I Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage II Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage III Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage IV Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin

  18. Brain metastases from ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Piura, Ettie; Piura, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    This paper will focus on knowledge related to brain metastases from ovarian carcinoma. So far, less than 600 cases were documented in the literature with an incidence among ovarian carcinoma patients ranging from 0.29% to 11.6%. The ovarian carcinoma was usually an advanced-stage epithelial serous carcinoma, and the median interval between diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma and brain metastases was 2 years. Most often, brain metastases, affected the cerebrum, were multiple and part of a disseminated disease. Treatment of brain metastasis has evolved over the years from whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) only to multimodal therapy including surgical resection or stereotactic radiosurgery followed by WBRT and/or chemotherapy. The median survival after diagnosis of brain metastases was 6 months; nevertheless, a significantly better survival was achieved with multimodal therapy compared to WBRT only. It is suggested that brain imaging studies should be included in the followup of patients after treatment for ovarian carcinoma. PMID:22191058

  19. Pilomatrix carcinoma of the vulva

    PubMed Central

    Song, Mihae; Chekmareva, Marina; Bachmann, Gloria; Gibbon, Darlene

    2015-01-01

    Background Pilomatrix carcinomas are rare, frequently occurring in older male patients. We report a case of vulvar pilomatrix carcinoma in a 30-year-old woman, the second known reported case occurring on the external genitalia. Case A 30-year-old female originally presented at an outside institution for the management of an asymptomatic vulvar mass that was biopsied and read as invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Pathology review at our institution reclassified the vulvar mass as a low-grade pilomatrix carcinoma. The patient underwent radical hemivulvectomy without an inguinal–femoral groin node dissection. She has remained without evidence of disease recurrence for more than 5 years since her diagnosis. Conclusion Pilomatrix carcinoma can be confused for an invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Due to its low risk of metastases, a less radical surgical approach can be taken. Consideration of this unusual malignancy is important in the determination of appropriate management. PMID:26937479

  20. Ameloblastic carcinoma: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Kumaran, P. Satish; Anuradha, V.; Gokkulakrishnan, S.; Thambiah, Lalita; Jagadish, Ajay Kumar; Satheesh, G.

    2014-01-01

    Ameloblastic carcinoma is a rare odontogenic tumor exhibiting not only features of ameloblastoma, but also features of carcinoma. Clinical dissemination of this lesion is more aggressive and rapid than that of ameloblastoma and it can metastasize to the lung or regional lymph node. Histologically, there are features of both ameloblastoma and carcinoma. <50 cases have been reported until 2011. We report a series of six cases with our treatment modalities. PMID:25210376

  1. In vivo anticancer evaluation of the hyperthermic efficacy of anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted PEG-based nanocarrier containing magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Giovanni; Ravagli, Costanza; Mazzantini, Filippo; Loudos, George; Adan, Jaume; Masa, Marc; Psimadas, Dimitrios; Fragogeorgi, Eirini A; Locatelli, Erica; Innocenti, Claudia; Sangregorio, Claudio; Comes Franchini, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles with targeting moieties containing magnetic nanoparticles as theranostic agents have considerable potential for the treatment of cancer. Here we report the chemical synthesis and characterization of a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-based nanocarrier containing iron oxide nanoparticles and human epithelial growth factor receptor on the outer shell. The nanocarrier was also radiolabeled with (99m)Tc and tested as a theranostic nanomedicine, ie, it was investigated for both its diagnostic ability in vivo and its therapeutic hyperthermic effects in a standard A431 human tumor cell line. Following radiolabeling with (99m)Tc, the biodistribution and therapeutic hyperthermic effects of the nanosystem were studied noninvasively in vivo in tumor-bearing mice. A substantial decrease in tumor size correlated with an increase in both nanoparticle concentration and local temperature was achieved, confirming the possibility of using this multifunctional nanosystem as a therapeutic tool for epidermoid carcinoma. PMID:25028545

  2. Endosomolytic activity of cationic liposomes enhances the delivery of human immunodeficiency virus-1 trans-activator protein (TAT) to mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, L; Farhood, H; Serbina, N; Teepe, A G; Barsoum, J

    1995-12-26

    We have explored the use of cationic liposomes to deliver the human immunodeficiency virus-1 trans-activator protein tat using a reporter gene expression assay. The human epidermoid carcinoma cell A431 stably transfected with a reporter gene under the control of human immunodeficiency virus-1 promoter was used as a target cell. Phosphatidylcholine-containing cationic liposomes had no detectable tat delivery activity. In contrast, delivery of tat was enhanced by up to 150-fold using cationic liposomes enriched with dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), a lipid which readily transforms a bilayer into a nonbilayer structure. Enhanced delivery of tat by DOPE-containing liposomes was most likely the result of the endosomolytic activity of the liposome. This phospholipid-rich formulation showed no toxicity at concentrations sufficient for maximal delivery of tat. A variety of cationic liposome formulations which contain DOPE were tested successfully for tat delivery. PMID:8554596

  3. Imaging EGFR distribution using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, L.; Chen, X. K.; Smith, A.; Korbelik, M.; Zeng, H.; Lee, P. W. K.; Hewitt, K. C.

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the feasibility of using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) to image the distribution of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) in cells. To accomplish this task, 30 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) tagged with antibodies to EGFR (1012 per ml) are incubated with cells (106 per ml) of the A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cell line and normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. Using the 632.8 nm excitation line of a He-Ne laser, Raman spectroscopy measurements are performed using a point mapping scheme. SERS signals are observed with an overall enhancement of 4-7 orders of magnitude. Raman intensity maps of the 1480 and 1583 cm-1 peaks correlate well with the expected distribution of AuNPs and EGFR. Normal cells show little to no enhancement. The results therefore present a simple yet effective means to image EGFR over-expression.

  4. In vivo anticancer evaluation of the hyperthermic efficacy of anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted PEG-based nanocarrier containing magnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Giovanni; Ravagli, Costanza; Mazzantini, Filippo; Loudos, George; Adan, Jaume; Masa, Marc; Psimadas, Dimitrios; Fragogeorgi, Eirini A; Locatelli, Erica; Innocenti, Claudia; Sangregorio, Claudio; Comes Franchini, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles with targeting moieties containing magnetic nanoparticles as theranostic agents have considerable potential for the treatment of cancer. Here we report the chemical synthesis and characterization of a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-based nanocarrier containing iron oxide nanoparticles and human epithelial growth factor receptor on the outer shell. The nanocarrier was also radiolabeled with 99mTc and tested as a theranostic nanomedicine, ie, it was investigated for both its diagnostic ability in vivo and its therapeutic hyperthermic effects in a standard A431 human tumor cell line. Following radiolabeling with 99mTc, the biodistribution and therapeutic hyperthermic effects of the nanosystem were studied noninvasively in vivo in tumor-bearing mice. A substantial decrease in tumor size correlated with an increase in both nanoparticle concentration and local temperature was achieved, confirming the possibility of using this multifunctional nanosystem as a therapeutic tool for epidermoid carcinoma. PMID:25028545

  5. Biomarkers for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Behne, Tara; Copur, M. Sitki

    2012-01-01

    The hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors and carries a poor survival rate. The management of patients at risk for developing HCC remains challenging. Increased understanding of cancer biology and technological advances have enabled identification of a multitude of pathological, genetic, and molecular events that drive hepatocarcinogenesis leading to discovery of numerous potential biomarkers in this disease. They are currently being aggressively evaluated to establish their value in early diagnosis, optimization of therapy, reducing the emergence of new tumors, and preventing the recurrence after surgical resection or liver transplantation. These markers not only help in prediction of prognosis or recurrence but may also assist in deciding appropriate modality of therapy and may represent novel potential targets for therapeutic interventions. In this paper, a summary of most relevant available data from published papers reporting various tissue and serum biomarkers involved in hepatocellular carcinoma was presented. PMID:22655201

  6. Biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Behne, Tara; Copur, M Sitki

    2012-01-01

    The hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors and carries a poor survival rate. The management of patients at risk for developing HCC remains challenging. Increased understanding of cancer biology and technological advances have enabled identification of a multitude of pathological, genetic, and molecular events that drive hepatocarcinogenesis leading to discovery of numerous potential biomarkers in this disease. They are currently being aggressively evaluated to establish their value in early diagnosis, optimization of therapy, reducing the emergence of new tumors, and preventing the recurrence after surgical resection or liver transplantation. These markers not only help in prediction of prognosis or recurrence but may also assist in deciding appropriate modality of therapy and may represent novel potential targets for therapeutic interventions. In this paper, a summary of most relevant available data from published papers reporting various tissue and serum biomarkers involved in hepatocellular carcinoma was presented. PMID:22655201

  7. Carcinoma of the Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Weekes, Leroy R.; Watkins, Sue A.

    1981-01-01

    The data for this paper are based on 50 patients discharged from the Queen of Angels Hospital with a diagnosis of carcinoma of the ovary from 1972 to 1978. Currently, ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death of all pelvic malignancies. Peak incidence of ovarian cancer is found in women between 40 to 65 years of age. Symptomatology includes often vague abdominal discomfort, dyspepsia, and other digestive disorders which may be present for several months prior to diagnosis. The workup for suspected ovarian cancer should include a careful history, physical examination, pelvic, and rectal examinations, Pap smear, CBC, urinalysis, SMA 12 (blood chemistries), chest x-ray, and intravenous pyelography as indicated. Sonography, lymphangiography are optional. Traditionally, operative treatment has been the keystone of management for ovarian carcinoma. In view of the unsatisfactory results with operation and radiotherapy in disseminated disease, chemotherapy has been used widely. Hope for the future lies in further development of immunodiagnosis and immunotherapy. PMID:7310921

  8. Uterine papillary serous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Moore, Kathleen N; Fader, Amanda Nickles

    2011-06-01

    Uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) is a histologic variant of endometrial cancer that accounts for only 10% of new cases of uterine cancer but is responsible for 40% of deaths from the disease. UPSC is an aggressive tumor with a predilection for early spread beyond the uterus. Treatment for UPSC typically entails surgery and in most women is followed by multimodality adjuvant therapy. In this review, we describe the epidemiology, natural history, treatment, and outcome of UPSC. PMID:21508697

  9. Prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kew, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Because of its frequency and grave prognosis, preventing hepatocellular carcinoma is an urgent priority. Prevention should be possible because environmental carcinogens-chronic hepatitis B and C virus infections, dietary exposure to aflatoxins, and iron overload-cause the great majority of these tumors. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection accounts for 55% of global hepatocellular carcinomas and 80% of those in the high-incidence Asia Pacific and sub-Saharan African regions. In these regions the infection that becomes chronic is predominantly acquired very early in life. A safe and effective vaccine against this virus is available and its universal inclusion in the immunization of infants has already resulted in a marked reduction of chronic infection and a 70% decrease in the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in those immunized. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is the major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in industrialized countries. The infection is mainly acquired in adulthood and, until a vaccine becomes available, prevention will consist mainly of identifying, counselling, and treating chronically infected individuals, preventing spread of the virus by the use of safe injection practices (particularly in intravenous drug abusers), and screening all donated blood for the presence of the virus. 4.5 billion of the world.s population are exposed to dietary aflatoxins. Prevention involves treating susceptible crops to prevent fungal contamination, and handling the foodstuffs in such a way as to prevent contamination during storage. Iron overload in hereditary hemochromatosis can be prevented by repeated venesection and in African dietary iron overload by fermenting the home-brewed beer in iron-free containers. PMID:20526004

  10. Neuroendocrine differentiation in cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Savargaonkar, P R; Hale, R J; Mutton, A; Manning, V; Buckley, C H

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To examine neuroendocrine differentiation, as shown by chromogranin A (CGA) expression, in cervical carcinomas. METHODS: Sixty seven cervical carcinomas were studied and were classified as adenocarcinomas, adenosquamous carcinomas or squamous cell carcinomas based on the assessment of haematoxylin and eosin staining and stains for mucin. Where features of glandular differentiation were identified, sections were also stained for evidence of intestinal type mucin. CGA immunostaining was done and the results were graded on a three point scale: 0, + (1-5% of cells positive) and ++ (> 5% of cells positive). These findings were then analysed with respect to lymph node status, tumour differentiation and clinical outcome. RESULTS: There were 32 adenocarcinomas, 18 adenosquamous carcinomas and 17 squamous cell carcinomas. Positive staining was seen in 14 (20.9%) cases, of which four were strongly positive. All but one case were either adenocarcinomas or adenosquamous carcinomas. There was a trend for CGA positivity to be related to intestinal differentiation but this failed to reach statistical significance. No correlation could be demonstrated between CGA staining and lymph node status, tumour differentiation and clinical outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Neuroendocrine differentiation is common in cervical carcinomas where there is evidence of glandular differentiation. Whilst the numbers in this study are relatively small, the presence of neuroendocrine cells in otherwise typical carcinomas does not seem to have any association with clinical behaviour. Images PMID:8655680

  11. Brain metastases from endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Piura, Ettie; Piura, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    This paper will focus on knowledge related to brain metastases from endometrial carcinoma. To date, 115 cases were documented in the literature with an incidence of 0.6% among endometrial carcinoma patients. The endometrial carcinoma was usually an advanced-stage and high-grade tumor. In most patients (~90%), brain metastasis was detected after diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma with a median interval from diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma to diagnosis of brain metastases of 17 months. Brain metastasis from endometrial carcinoma was either an isolated disease limited to the brain only (~50%) or part of a disseminated disease involving also other parts of the body (~50%). Most often, brain metastasis from endometrial carcinoma affected the cerebrum (~75%) and was solitary (~60%). The median survival after diagnosis of brain metastases from endometrial carcinoma was 5 months; however, a significantly better survival was achieved with multimodal therapy including surgical resection or stereotactic radiosurgery followed by whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and/or chemotherapy compared to WBRT alone. It is suggested that brain imaging studies should be considered in the routine follow up of patients with endometrial carcinoma and that the search for a primary source in females with brain metastases of unknown primary should include endometrial biopsy. PMID:22523707

  12. Merkel cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Koljonen, Virve

    2006-01-01

    Background Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an unusual primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. MCC is a fatal disease, and patients have a poor chance of survival. Moreover, MCC lacks distinguishing clinical features, and thus by the time the diagnosis is made, the tumour usually have metastasized. MCC mainly affects sun-exposed areas of elderly persons. Half of the tumours are located in the head and neck region. Methods MCC was first described in 1972. Since then, most of the cases reported, have been in small series of patients. Most of the reports concern single cases or epidemiological studies. The present study reviews the world literature on MCC. The purpose of this article is to shed light on this unknown neuroendocrine carcinoma and provide the latest information on prognostic markers and treatment options. Results The epidemiological studies have revealed that large tumour size, male sex, truncal site, nodal/distant disease at presentation, and duration of disease before presentation, are poor prognostic factors. The recommended initial treatment is extensive local excision. Adjuvant radiation therapy has recently been shown to improve survival. Thus far, no chemotherapy protocol have achieved the same objective. Conclusion Although rare, the fatality of this malignancy makes is important to understand the etiology and pathophysiology. During the last few years, the research on MCC has produced prognostic markers, which can be translated into clinical patient care. PMID:16466578

  13. Primary duodenal carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Adedeji, O. A.; Trescoli-Serrano, C.; Garcia-Zarco, M.

    1995-01-01

    Eight cases of primary duodenal carcinoma in a district general hospital are presented. The cases highlight the advanced state of the disease at presentation, the difficulty in diagnosis, and its poor prognosis. Duodenal carcinoma occurs in both sexes worldwide with no predisposing factors in the majority of cases. There is an increased risk in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and adenomas of the duodenum. Duodenal carcinoma occurs about 22 years from the diagnosis of familial adenomatous polyposis in about 2% of patients, forming over 50% of upper gastrointestinal cancers occurring in these patients. Carcinomatous changes occur in 30 to 60% of duodenal villous adenomas and much less in tubulo-villous and tubular adenomas. These categories of patients should be screened and adequately followed up. Aggressive and radical surgery, even in the presence of locally advanced disease and lymph node involvement, gives a better outcome. When curative surgery is not possible, chemotherapy must accompany palliation with or without radiotherapy. Pre-operative chemotherapy may facilitate a curative radical resection. The general five-year survival is 17-33% but some centres have achieved a five-year survival of 40-60% with aggressive management of these patients. PMID:7644397

  14. Nonfunctional parathyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yosuke; Kataoka, Hideyuki; Sakoda, Takema; Horie, Yasushi; Kitano, Hiroya

    2010-10-01

    A 65-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital presenting with a superior mediastinal big mass that was elastic, hard, and painless. Laboratory data including serum calcium level and thyroid and parathyroid hormonal functions revealed no abnormalities. Further examination consisting of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography demonstrated that it was a solid tumor extending into the superior mediastinum. Technetium (Tc-99) sestamibi scan revealed a hypofunctioning focus in that area. The preoperative diagnosis was a thyroid tumor or a metastatic lymph node. Parathyroid carcinoma was suspected on intraoperative frozen pathological examination. The tumor was successfully removed with left thyroid lobectomy, and neck node dissection was performed. Macroscopically, it appeared as a dark reddish solid tumor, and the cut surface presented opalescence. Immunohistology confirmed that there was proliferation of tumor cells with positive chromogranin A staining. Thus, the tumor was diagnosed as parathyroid carcinoma histopathologically despite a lack of clinical evidence for hyperparathyroidism. This patient has been followed with no evidence of recurrence, a normal serum calcium 4 years after surgery, and postoperative radiotherapy. This report describes a case of nonfunctional parathyroid carcinoma with a massive mass that technetium (Tc-99) sestamibi scan failed to detect, and we showed negative immunostaining for parathyroid hormone (PTH) (N). PMID:20224881

  15. Urinary bladder carcinoma with divergent differentiation featuring small cell carcinoma, sarcomatoid carcinoma, and liposarcomatous component.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Mariko; Morikawa, Teppei; Nakagawa, Tohru; Miyakawa, Jimpei; Maeda, Daichi; Homma, Yukio; Fukayama, Masashi

    2016-09-01

    Both small cell carcinoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma of the urinary bladder are highly aggressive tumors, and a concurrence of these tumors is extremely rare. We report a case of urinary bladder cancer with small cell carcinoma as a predominant component, accompanied by sarcomatoid carcinoma and conventional urothelial carcinoma (UC). Although the small cell carcinoma component had resolved on receiving chemoradiotherapy, rapid growth of the residual tumor led to a fatal outcome. A 47-year-old man presented with occasional bladder irritation and had a 2-year history of asymptomatic hematuria. Cystoscopy revealed a huge mass in the urinary bladder, and transurethral resection was performed. Microscopically, small cell carcinoma was detected as the major tumor component. Spindle-shaped sarcomatoid cells were also observed that were intermingled with small cell carcinoma and conventional UC. In addition, a sheet-like growth of the lipoblast-like neoplastic cells was observed focally. Initially, by providing chemoradiotherapy, we achieved a marked tumor regression; however, the tumor rapidly regrew after the completion of chemoradiotherapy, and the patient underwent radical cystectomy. Only conventional UC and sarcomatoid carcinoma were identified in the cystectomy specimen. The patient died of the disease 4 months after cystectomy. Urinary bladder cancer may include a combination of multiple aggressive histologies as in the present case. Because the variation in the tumor components may affect the efficacy of therapy, a correct diagnosis of every tumor component is necessary. PMID:27461832

  16. Growth inhibition of human lung adenocarcinoma cells by antibodies against epidermal growth factor receptor and by ganglioside GM3: involvement of receptor-directed protein tyrosine phosphatase(s).

    PubMed Central

    Suarez Pestana, E.; Greiser, U.; Sánchez, B.; Fernández, L. E.; Lage, A.; Perez, R.; Böhmer, F. D.

    1997-01-01

    Growth of the EGF receptor-expressing non-small-cell lung carcinoma cell line H125 seems to be at least partially driven by autocrine activation of the resident EGF receptors. Thus, the possibility of an EGF receptor-directed antiproliferative treatment was investigated in vitro using a monoclonal antibody (alpha EGFR ior egf/r3) against the human EGF receptor and gangliosides which are known to possess antiproliferative and anti-tyrosine kinase activity. The moderate growth-inhibitory effect of alpha EGFR ior egf/r3 was strongly potentiated by the addition of monosialoganglioside GM3. Likewise, the combination of alpha EGFR ior egf/r3 and GM3 inhibited EGF receptor autophosphorylation activity in H125 cells more strongly than either agent alone. A synergistic inhibition of EGF receptor autophosphorylation by alpha EGFR ior egf/r3 and GM3 was also observed in the human epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431. In both cell lines, the inhibition of EGF receptor autophosphorylation by GM3 was prevented by pretreatment of the cells with pervanadate, a potent inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases). Also, GM3 accelerated EGF receptor dephosphorylation in isolated A431 cell membranes. These findings indicate that GM3 has the capacity to activate EGF receptor-directed PTPase activity and suggest a novel possible mechanism for the regulation of cellular PTPases. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9010029

  17. Carcinoma of skin of penis.

    PubMed

    Onuigbo, W I

    1985-08-01

    Like the Jews, the Ibos or Igbos of Nigeria ritually circumcise males on the eighth day of birth. A retrospective review of approximately 15,000 surgical specimens collected from this ethnic group over a period of 13 years revealed 32 cases of carcinoma of the prostate but only 4 cases of penile carcinoma. One tumour arose on the glans penis. This localisation pattern suggests that, in circumcised males, smegma-induced squamous carcinoma of the glans can be abolished but not the ordinary squamous carcinoma that can develop by chance on the rest of the penis as well as on the glans. International urology would benefit from careful documentation of squamous carcinoma affecting various parts of the neonatally circumcised penile skin. PMID:4027519

  18. Pharyngeal pouch carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Saunders, M W; Murty, G E; Bradely, P J

    1993-02-01

    Malignant change occurs in 0.3-10% of pharyngeal pouches, with longstanding pouches most at risk. Contrast radiology and endoscopy can detect large and medium sized tumors but are inadequate for small lesions and carcinoma in situ. Expectant treatment and conservative surgery fail to provide an excised pouch for histological analysis and small lesions may be missed. Consequently, careful consideration must be given to radical excision, particularly if the pouch has been longstanding. The role of radiotherapy in conjunction with surgery remains unproven. PMID:8482256

  19. [Treatment options of T1 glottic carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Fan, Guokang

    2016-01-01

    T1 glottic carcinoma is part of early laryngeal carcinoma which involves the vocal cords, including anterior commissure or posterior commissure. We analyzed the treatment options of T1 glottic carcinoma by reviewing the related literatures about T1 glottic carcinoma treated by conservative surgery (open surgery and laser microsurgery), radiotherapy, robot surgery, photodynamic treatment. PMID:27192922

  20. Composite encapsulated papillary carcinoma and solid papillary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaoyan; Wei, Shi

    2015-03-01

    Encapsulated papillary carcinoma (EPC) and solid papillary carcinoma (SPC) are distinctive variants of intraductal papillary carcinomas, each accounting for <1% of breast carcinomas. Here we report a composite carcinoma consisting of EPC and SPC. A 73-year-old woman was found to have a high density mass in the left breast on mammogram. A biopsy showed intermediate to high grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Gross examination of the lumpectomy specimen revealed a solid, multinodular mass. Microscopic examination demonstrated two morphologically distinct intraductal carcinomas intermingled with each other. One had delicate papillae in multi-cystic spaces surrounded by thick fibrous capsule, consistent with EPC. The other had solid tumor nests with delicate fibrovascular cores. The cells were monotonous with round nuclei and salt and pepper-like chromatin, characteristic of SPC. The lack of myoepithelial cells within the papillae and at the periphery of the lesion was confirmed by immunostaining for p63 and CK5/6. Neuroendocrine differentiation of SPC was demonstrated by neuron specific enolase staining. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of composite EPC and SPC. It raises an interesting question as to a possible common pathway of carcinogenesis of these two rare variants. PMID:25545718

  1. Histopathology of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Schlageter, Manuel; Terracciano, Luigi Maria; D’Angelo, Salvatore; Sorrentino, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is currently the sixth most common type of cancer with a high mortality rate and an increasing incidence worldwide. Its etiology is usually linked to environmental, dietary or life-style factors. HCC most commonly arises in a cirrhotic liver but interestingly an increasing proportion of HCCs develop in the non-fibrotic or minimal fibrotic liver and a shift in the underlying etiology can be observed. Although this process is yet to be completely understood, this changing scenario also has impact on the material seen by pathologists, presenting them with new diagnostic dilemmas. Histopathologic criteria for diagnosing classical, progressed HCC are well established and known, but with an increase in detection of small and early HCCs due to routine screening programs, the diagnosis of these small lesions in core needle biopsies poses a difficult challenge. These lesions can be far more difficult to distinguish from one another than progressed HCC, which is usually a clear cut hematoxylin and eosin diagnosis. Furthermore lesions thought to derive from progenitor cells have recently been reclassified in the WHO. This review summarizes recent developments and tries to put new HCC biomarkers in context with the WHOs reclassification. Furthermore it also addresses the group of tumors known as combined hepatocellular-cholangiocellular carcinomas. PMID:25473149

  2. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma caused by carcinoma misdiagnosed as acne - case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Dogu; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Jakobsen, Linda P

    2016-06-01

    Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis. PMID:27398205

  3. Correlative imaging in gallbladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Willekens, I; Goethals, L R; Brussaard, C; Verdries, D; de Mey, J

    2014-01-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma is a relatively rare malignant epithelial neoplasm, arising from gallbladder mucosa. It is the fifth most common gastrointestinal malignancy and the most common biliary tract cancer. Early diagnosis remains difficult, because clinical symptoms are sparse and non-specific, often resulting in advanced stage disease at the time of diagnosis. The most common feature of gallbladder carcinoma on different imaging modalities is focal wall thickening, associated with a large eccentric tumor mass. In this case we report the imaging characteristics of gallbladder carcinoma on ultrasound, MDCT and 18F-FDG PET/CT. PMID:25597210

  4. Basal cell carcinoma – diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Monika; Strzelecka-Węklar, Daria; Dańczak-Pazdrowska, Aleksandra; Adamski, Zygmunt

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer in the Caucasian population. The cancer arises in sun exposed areas of the skin. The incidence of morbidity is high and it is still growing. The metastatic rate is low, but the enlarging tumor may cause severe tissue disfigurement and a poor cosmetic outcome. The diagnosis is usually clinical but there are many subtypes of this carcinoma and correct diagnosis is the clue to appropriate treatment of the lesion. The main problem in basal cell carcinoma management is the high recurrence rate. PMID:24592119

  5. Renal small cell carcinoma (neuroendocrine carcinoma) without features of transitional cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Masuda, T; Oikawa, H; Yashima, A; Sugimura, J; Okamoto, T; Fujioka, T

    1998-05-01

    Seventeen cases of renal small cell carcinoma have been reported in the literature. Approximately half of the reported cases show combined features of transitional cell carcinoma. Presented herein is a case of renal small cell carcinoma in a 37-year-old Japanese male who had been treated for 10 years with famotidine for duodenal ulcer. He suffered from sudden-onset chest pain at presentation and myxoma of the right atrium was suspected. He was treated by atriotomy and a tumor was removed from the right atrium and pulmonary artery. Histological examination, however, revealed it to be small cell carcinoma. Accordingly, a radical operation was performed for the removal of a tumor found in the right kidney. Histological examination of the tumor confirmed the presence of renal small cell carcinoma without any features of transitional cell carcinoma. It is reported that long-term administration of an histamine 2 (H2) receptor antagonist may produce carcinoid tumors in rodents and enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia in humans. The possible relationship between neuroendocrine carcinoma and H2 receptor antagonist therapy is discussed. PMID:9704349

  6. Estrogens and endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gray, L A; Christopherson, W M; Hoover, R N

    1977-04-01

    A group of 205 women with endometrial carcinoma was matched for age, parity, and year of operation with a group of 205 women who had had hysterectomies for benign disease. In the former group, 32 patients had used conjugated estrogens, while in the latter group 12 had used this hormone, yielding a relative risk of 3.1 (P = 0.0008). Users of other forms of systemic estrogens showed similar elevations in relative risk. Relative risk was related to duration of use, progressing from no evidence of risk among those using the hormone for less than 5 years to an 11.5-fold greater risk for those using it for 10 years or more. Risk was also related to the strength of the medication. The relative risk for users of the 1.25-mg tablets was 12.7 as compared to a two- to fourfold greater risk among users of lesser strength tablets. PMID:193072

  7. Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered to be one of the most common malignancies worldwide, and the most common one in Africa and Asia. Over the last decade, a rising incidence of up to 10-15/100,000 per population has been seen in the Western world, with an estimate of 250,000 deaths and more than a million worldwide per year. By the year 2010, the World Health Organization expects that HCC will be the leading cause of cancer mortality surpassing lung cancer. This increasing incidence is most likely related to an increasing prevalence of chronic hepatitis C (HC) and B (HB) virus infections and other diseases inducing chronic inflammation (Befeler and Di Bisceglie 2002; Llovet et al. 2003).

  8. Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ramahi, Emma; Choi, Jehee; Fuller, Clifton D.; Eng, Tony Y.

    2011-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, clinically aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine neoplasm with a high mortality rate. Though the etiology is not precisely known, Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) DNA has been found recently in a large percentage of MCC tumors. Other suggested risk factors include sun-exposure, immunosuppression and a history of prior malignancy. Work-up of patients with MCC most notably includes nodal staging via clinical exam or sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). The prognosis for most patients with MCC is poor, and the rarity of MCC precludes the prospective, randomized clinical trials necessary to elucidate optimum treatment protocols. Most published data support the use of a multimodality approach centered around surgical excision with negative margins, SNLB to establish the presence or absence of nodal metastases, adjuvant radiothearpy (RT) to decrease the risk of recurrence, and systemic chemotherapy in the case of widespread disease. PMID:21422993

  9. Diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Di Bisceglie, Adrian M.

    2005-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is responsible for a large proportion of cancer deaths worldwide. HCC is frequently diagnosed after the development of clinical deterioration at which time survival is measured in months. Long-term survival requires detection of small tumors, often present in asymptomatic individuals, which may be more amenable to invasive therapeutic options. Surveillance of high-risk individuals for HCC is commonly performed using the serum marker alfa-fetoprotein (AFP) often in combination with ultrasonography. Various other serologic markers are currently being tested to help improve surveillance accuracy. Diagnosis of HCC often requires more sophisticated imaging modalities such as CT scan and MRI, which have multiphasic contrast enhancement capabilities. Serum AFP used alone can be helpful if levels are markedly elevated, which occurs in fewer than half of cases at time of diagnosis. Confirmation by liver biopsy can be performed under circumstances when the diagnosis of HCC remains unclear. PMID:18333158

  10. Imaging in endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Silvana C; Sagebiel, Tara; Balachandran, Aparna; Devine, Catherine; Lal, Chandana; Bhosale, Priya R

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the United States. Prognosis depends on patient age, histological grade, depth of myometrial invasion and/or cervical invasion, and the presence of lymph node metastases. Although EC is staged surgically according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) system, preoperative imaging can assist in optimal treatment planning. Several imaging techniques such as transvaginal ultrasonography (TVUS), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used as diagnostic tools for preoperative staging of EC. Recently, positron emission tomography (PET), PET/CT, and PET/MRI have also been used in staging these patients. In this article, we review the value of imaging in diagnosis, staging, treatment planning, and detection of recurrent disease in patients with EC. PMID:25969637

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Adrenocortical Carcinoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Childhood Treatment for more information.) Having certain genetic conditions increases the risk of adrenocortical carcinoma. Anything ... can be a sign of disease. CT scan (CAT scan) : A procedure that makes a series of ...

  12. Stages of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... other organs . Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can affect the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma. ... ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy for psoriasis . Having an immune system weakened by disease, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...

  13. Squamous cell carcinoma - invasive (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This irregular red nodule is an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). Initial appearance, shown here, may be very similar to a noncancerous growth called a keratoacanthoma. Squamous cell cancers ...

  14. Squamous cell carcinoma - invasive (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... invasive squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). Initial appearance, shown here, may be very similar to a noncancerous growth called a keratoacanthoma. Squamous cell cancers can metastasize (spread) and should be removed surgically ...

  15. Multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Velasquez, G.; Glass, T.A.; D'Souza, V.J.; Formanek, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Renal oncocytoma, although rare, is being diagnosed more frequently, and criteria to differentiate it from other tumors have been described. Multiple oncocytomas have been reported, but an association between multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma in the same kidney has not been described. The authors report a case with two oncocytomas and a renal carcinoma in the right kidney as well as a right adrenal adenoma.

  16. Microvascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ünal, Emre; İdilman, İlkay Sedakat; Akata, Deniz; Özmen, Mustafa Nasuh; Karçaaltıncaba, Muşturay

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular invasion is a crucial histopathologic prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. We reviewed the literature and aimed to draw attention to clinicopathologic and imaging findings that may predict the presence of microvascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma. Imaging findings suggesting microvascular invasion are disruption of capsule, irregular tumor margin, peritumoral enhancement, multifocal tumor, increased tumor size, and increased glucose metabolism on positron emission tomography-computed tomography. In the presence of typical findings, microvascular invasion may be predicted. PMID:26782155

  17. Radiological Features of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Samir; Shukla, Akash; Paunipagar, Bhawan

    2014-01-01

    Present article is a review of radiological features of hepatocellular carcinoma on various imaging modalities. With the advancement in imaging techniques, biopsy is rarely needed for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), unlike other malignancies. Imaging is useful not only for diagnosis but also for surveillance, therapy and assessing response to treatment. The classical and the atypical radiological features of HCC have been described. PMID:25755613

  18. Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma Presenting with Two Different Patterns of Cutaneous Metastases: Carcinoma Telangiectaticum and Carcinoma Erysipeloides

    PubMed Central

    Yaghoobi, Reza; Talaizade, Abdolhasan; Lal, Karan; Ranjbari, Nastaran; Sohrabiaan, Nasibe

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous metastases can have many different clinical presentations. They are seen in patients with advanced malignant disease; however, they can be the initial manifestation of undetected malignancies. Inflammatory breast carcinoma is a rare and aggressive form of breast cancer that has a nonspecific appearance mimicking many benign conditions including mastitis, breast abscesses, and/or dermatitis. The authors report the case of a 40-year-old woman with inflammatory breast carcinoma presenting with violaceous papulovesicular lesions resembling lymphangioma circumscriptum and erythematous patches resembling erysipelas. These lesions represent two different types of cutaneous metastases, both of which were the initial signs of inflammatory breast carcinoma in the patient described herein. Skin biopsy of lesions confirmed invasive breast cancer and further prompted a work up for inflammatory breast carcinoma. This case demonstrates the importance of follow-up for all breast lesions, even those considered to be of benign nature, for they can be presenting signs of metastatic breast cancer. PMID:26345728

  19. Loss of CRABP-II Characterizes Human Skin Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinomas and Favors DMBA/TPA-Induced Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Passeri, Daniela; Doldo, Elena; Tarquini, Chiara; Costanza, Gaetana; Mazzaglia, Donatella; Agostinelli, Sara; Campione, Elena; Di Stefani, Alessandro; Giunta, Alessandro; Bianchi, Luca; Orlandi, Augusto

    2016-06-01

    Retinol and its derivatives play an important role in epidermal growth and differentiation and represent chemopreventive agents in nonmelanoma skin cancer. Retinoic acid binding protein II (CRABP-II) is a cytoplasmic receptor that critically regulates all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) trafficking. We documented the marked reduced expression of CRABP-II and its promoter methylation in human poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas. To investigate the role of CRABP-II in skin carcinogenesis we used skin lesion induction by dimethylbenz[a]anthracene/12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate in CRABP-II-knockout C57BL/6 mice. We observed earlier and more diffuse epidermal dysplasia, greater incidence and severity of tumors, reduced expression of cytokeratin 1/cytokeratin 10 and involucrin, increased proliferation, and impaired ATRA inhibition of tumor promotion compared with wild-type animals. CRABP-II-transfected HaCaT, FaDu, and A431 cells showed expression of differentiation markers, retinoic acid receptor-β/-γ signaling, ATRA sensitivity, and suppression of EGFR/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT) pathways in a fatty acid binding protein 5/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/-δ-independent manner. The opposite was true in keratinocytes isolated from CRABP-II-knockout mice. Finally, CRABP-II accumulation induced ubiquitination-associated reduction of EGFR. Our results showed reduced CRABP-II expression in human poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas, and its gene deletion favored experimental skin carcinogenesis and impaired ATRA antitumor efficacy, likely modulating EGFR/AKT pathways and retinoic acid receptor-β/-γ signaling. Therapeutic interventions aimed at restoring CRABP-II-mediated signaling may amplify therapeutic retinoid efficacy in nonmelanoma skin cancer. PMID:26945879

  20. Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced, Recurrent, or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-10

    Recurrent Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage III Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Tongue Carcinoma

  1. Treatment Options for Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of thymoma and thymic carcinoma include a cough and chest pain. Thymoma and thymic carcinoma may ... if you have any of the following: A cough that doesn't go away. Chest pain. Trouble ...

  2. Stages of Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of thymoma and thymic carcinoma include a cough and chest pain. Thymoma and thymic carcinoma may ... if you have any of the following: A cough that doesn't go away. Chest pain. Trouble ...

  3. Radiographic Kinetics of Sarcomatoid Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Syed, Ali; Raval, Amar; Pridjian, Andrew; Birbe, Ruth; Trabulsi, Edouard J

    2016-07-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is a common entity often managed surgically with excellent survival benefits. We report a rare case of sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma with aggressive growth kinetics after palliative resection captured radiographically. PMID:27041470

  4. General Information about Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Merkel Cell Carcinoma Go to Health Professional ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  5. General Information about Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Thymic Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  6. Potential targets for lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have identified potential therapeutic targets in lung squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of lung cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network study comprehensively characterized the lung squamous cell carcinoma gen

  7. Cytological detection of a peripheral lung carcinoma in a coke oven worker

    SciTech Connect

    Teplitz, R.L.; Belman, M.J.; Nathwani, B.; Valco, Z.; Yokota, S.

    1980-06-01

    OSHA mandated programs of pulmonary cytology among coke oven workers have resulted in detection of a number of unsuspected tumors. While it is too early to determine the eventual impact of these programs, this report describes the detection of a 0.3 cm peripheral lesion, believed to be the smallest identified by cytology. In addition to being diminutive, the tumor proved to be of the epidermoid type, unusual for the location. Further investigation is required to determine whether peripheral epidermoid neoplasms are associated with exposure to coke vapors.

  8. Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: Imaging.

    PubMed

    Delorme, Stefan; Raue, Friedhelm

    2015-01-01

    Imaging plays an important role in early detection and staging of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) as well as in follow-up to localize early recurrence. MTC is a rare, calcitonin-secreting thyroid malignancy often diagnosed by ultrasound and calcitonin screening as part of the routine workup for any thyroid nodule. If calcitonin is elevated, imaging studies are needed for preoperative staging, which dictates surgical management. This can be done by ultrasound of the neck and abdomen. Computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies for more distant disease are done preoperatively if calcitonin levels are higher than 500 pg/ml. Neither FDG-PET/CT nor F-DOPA-PET/CT are used routinely for preoperative staging but may contribute in doubtful individual cases. Postoperative elevated calcitonin is related to persistence or recurrence of MTC. Imaging studies to localize tumor tissue during postoperative follow-up include ultrasound, CT, MRI as well as PET studies. They should be used wisely, however, since treatment consequences are often limited, and even patients with persistent disease may survive long enough to accumulate significant radiation doses. Imaging studies are also useful for diagnosis of associated components of the hereditary MTC such as pheochromocytoma and primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT). PMID:26494385

  9. Epidemiology of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Falk, R T; Pickle, L W; Fontham, E T; Greenberg, S D; Jacobs, H L; Correa, P; Fraumeni, J F

    1992-01-01

    Descriptive features of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) are presented using Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program population-based incidence data from 1973 through 1987, along with risk factors from histologically confirmed cases of BAC identified in a hospital-based case-control study conducted in Louisiana between 1979 and 1982. Compared to the rising incidence of lung cancer overall, BAC rates have remained relatively constant, accounting for less than 3% of all lung cancer. BAC incidence rates were higher in males, yet it explained proportionately more of the total lung cancer incidence in females. In the case-control study, 21 of the 33 cases originally ascertained from hospital pathology records were histologically confirmed as BAC. Most cases smoked cigarettes, with a 4-fold risk for ever smoking. Risks tended to increase with smoking intensity (reaching 10-fold for more than 1.5 packs/day) and duration (reaching 5-fold for more than 45 years of smoking). Following 10 or more years of employment, there was a 4-fold risk associated with motor freight occupations, along with nonsignificant excesses among construction workers, petroleum manufacturers, and sugar cane farmers. Cases were more likely than controls to have had emphysema or to have had a close family member with lung cancer. Although based on small numbers, this study suggests that BAC shares many of the epidemiological characteristics of lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:1339048

  10. Pediatric Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Starenki, Dmytro; Park, Jong-In

    2016-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), which originates from thyroid parafollicular C cells, accounts for 3 to 5% of thyroid malignancies. MTC occurs either sporadically or in an inherited autosomal dominant manner. Hereditary MTC occurs as a familial MTC or as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A and B syndromes. A strong genotype-phenotype correlation has been observed between hereditary MTC and germ-line “gain of function” mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. Most cases of pediatric MTC are hereditary whereas sporadic MTC is rare in children and is usually diagnosed in adults. Therefore, MTC in children is most often diagnosed in the course of a familial genetic investigation. The standard treatment of MTC mainly requires surgery involving total thyroidectomy and central neck node dissection before extrathyroidal extension occurs. To prevent MTC development in hereditary syndromes, prophylactic thyroidectomy is performed in presymptomatic patients. An appropriate age at which the surgery should take place is determined based upon the data from genotyping, serum calcitonin measurements, and ultrasonography. For the treatment of advanced MTC cases, the broad spectrum receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors vandetanib and cabozantinib, which also inhibit RET, are used although they are not always effective. PMID:27014708

  11. Pancreatic Acinar Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Béchade, Dominique; Desjardin, Marie; Salmon, Emma; Désolneux, Grégoire; Bécouarn, Yves; Evrard, Serge; Fonck, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant neoplasm that accounts for 1–2% of all pancreatic neoplasms. Here we report two cases of ACC and describe their clinical features, the therapies used to treat them, and their prognosis. The first patient was a 65-year-old woman who had an abdominal CT scan for a urinary infection. Fortuitously, a rounded and well-delimited corporeal pancreatic tumor was discovered. An endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration revealed an ACC. During the puncture, a hypoechoic cavity appeared inside the lesion, corresponding to a probable necrotic area. Treatment consisted of a distal splenopancreatectomy. The second patient was a 75-year-old man who complained of abdominal pain. An abdominal CT scan showed a cephalic pancreatic lesion and two hepatic metastases. An EUS-guided fine needle aspiration showed a pancreatic ACC. The patient received chemotherapy with gemcitabine plus oxaliplatin (GEMOX regimen), which enabled an objective response after 6 cycles.

  12. Immunology of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Meenakshi; Chawla, Yogesh K; Arora, Sunil K

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is primarily a malignancy of the liver, advancing from a damaged, cirrhotic liver to HCC. Globally, HCC is the sixth most prevalent cancer and the third-most prevalent reason for neoplastic disease-related deaths. A diverse array of infiltrating immunocytes regulates the development and progression of HCC, as is the case in many other cancers. An understanding of the various immune components during HCC becomes necessary so that novel therapeutic strategies can be designed to combat the disease. A dysregulated immune system (including changes in the number and/or function of immune cells, cytokine levels, and the expression of inhibitory receptors or their ligands) plays a key role in the development of HCC. Alterations in either the innate or adaptive arm of the immune system and cross-talk between them make the immune system tolerant to tumors, leading to disease progression. In this review, we have discussed the status and roles of various immune effector cells (e.g., dendritic cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, and T cells), their cytokine profile, and the chemokine-receptor axis in promoting or impeding HCC. PMID:26301050

  13. Screening for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Mindie H; Keeffe, Emmet B

    2002-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is common throughout the world and most often develops as a late complication of chronic viral hepatitis or cirrhosis of any cause. As a result of the high prevalence rate of chronic hepatitis C, the incidence of HCC is rising in the United States, as well as in European and Asian countries. The overall survival rate of HCC is poor, and surgical resection and liver transplantation are the only curative treatment options. Screening for HCC offers the best hope for early detection, eligibility for treatment, and improved survival. Most physicians routinely screen at-risk patients with chronic viral hepatitis and cirrhosis for HCC, despite the lack of official guidelines. The current consensus recommendations are to screen healthy hepatitis B virus carriers with annual or semiannual serum alpha-fetoprotein; carriers with chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis and patients with cirrhosis of any etiology are surveyed with twice yearly serum alpha-fetoprotein and liver ultrasound. This article will review the current recommendations for HCC screening, the rationale that led to these recommendations, and the challenges of cost-effectiveness research in this area. PMID:12394211

  14. Staging of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Duseja, Ajay

    2014-08-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is different from other malignancies because the prognosis in HCC is not only dependent upon the tumor stage but also on the liver function impairment due to accompanying cirrhosis liver. Various other staging systems used in HCC include the European systems [French staging system, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system and the cancer of the liver Italian program (CLIP)] and Asian systems [Okuda staging system, Japan integrated Staging (JIS), Tokyo score and Chinese University Prognostic Index (CUPI)]. Out of all the staging systems used in HCC, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system is probably the best because it takes in to account the tumor status (defined by tumor size and number, presence of vascular invasion and extrahepatic spread), liver function (defined either by the Child-Pugh's class) and general health status of the patient (defined by the ECOG classification and the presence of symptoms). Since most of the extrahepatic spread in HCC occurs to lymph nodes, lungs and bones, the assessment can be done with either PET/CT or a combination of CT (Chest and abdomen) and a bone scan. This article describes the various staging systems used in HCC, guides choosing a staging system particularly in the Indian context and the assessment of extra-hepatic spread in HCC. PMID:25755615

  15. Renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jianjun; Rathmell, W Kimryn

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has changed greatly over the past 15 years. Progress in the surgical management of the primary tumor and increased understanding of the molecular biology and genomics of the disease have led to the development of new therapeutic agents. The management of the primary tumor has changed owing to the realization that clean margins around the primary lesion are sufficient to prevent local recurrence, as well as the development of more sophisticated tools and techniques that increase the safety of partial nephrectomy. The management of advanced disease has altered even more dramatically as a result of new agents that target the tumor vasculature or that attenuate the activation of intracellular oncogenic pathways. This review summarizes data from prospective randomized phase III studies on the surgical management and systemic treatment of RCC, and provides an up to date summary of the histology, genomics, staging, and prognosis of RCC. It describes the management of the primary tumor and offers an overview of systemic agents that form the mainstay of treatment for advanced disease. The review concludes with an introduction to the exciting new class of immunomodulatory agents that are currently in clinical trials and may form the basis of a new therapeutic approach for patients with advanced RCC. PMID:25385470

  16. Endometrial carcinoma stage I.

    PubMed

    Baram, A; Ron, I; Kupferminc, M; Inbar, M

    1997-01-01

    Standard staging and therapeutic approach to endometrial cancer involves lymph node sampling (LNS) at the time of total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO). Lymphadenectomy prolongs time of surgery and increases the risk of morbidity; where other predictors are available, it may not contribute important supplementary information. 185/247 women with stage I endometrial carcinoma underwent the standard surgery while 62 underwent TAH+BSO. Recurrence and survival were monitored for a mean of 6.5 years and retrospectively reviewed: the rates for groups with and without known lymph node status were alike [13.5% (25/185) recurrence for the former and 12.9% (8/62) for the latter, and 5-year survival rates of 75.7% (140/185) for the former and 74.2 (46/62) for the latter]. Myometrial invasion and histological grade appeared to have been highly accurate predictors without lymph node information. Because information on histological grade is available early and is highly predictive, its use could be incorporated into a revised management algorithm for stage I endometrial cancer which would depend upon ensuring lymphadenectomy for women with low grade histopathology and omitting it for those with high grades on the grounds that no further information is necessary to act appropriately. PMID:21590195

  17. Chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lencioni, Riccardo

    2012-08-01

    Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the standard of care for patients with preserved liver function and asymptomatic, noninvasive multinodular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) confined to the liver. However, the survival benefit of conventional TACE-including the administration of an anticancer agent-in-oil emulsion followed by embolic agents-reported in randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses was described as modest. Various strategies to improve outcomes for this patient group have become the subject of much ongoing clinical research. The introduction of embolic, drug-eluting beads (DEB) for transarterial administration has been shown to significantly reduce liver toxicity and systemic drug exposure compared to conventional regimens. The addition of molecular targeted drugs to the therapeutic armamentarium for HCC has prompted the design of clinical trials aimed at investigating the synergies between TACE and systemic treatments. Combining TACE with agents with anti-angiogenic properties represents a promising strategy, because TACE is thought to cause local hypoxia, resulting in a temporary increase in levels of vascular endothelial growth factor. Recently, a large phase II randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (the SPACE study) has shown that the concurrent administration of DEB-TACE and sorafenib has a manageable safety profile and has suggested that time to progression and time to vascular invasion or extrahepatic spread may be improved with respect to DEB-TACE alone. These data support the further evaluation of molecular targeted, systemically active agents in combination with DEB-TACE in a phase III setting. PMID:22846867

  18. Chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lencioni, Riccardo; Petruzzi, Pasquale; Crocetti, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the current standard of care for patients with intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and relatively preserved liver function. In a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing conventional TACE regimens-including the administration of an anticancer-in-oil emulsion followed by embolic agents-versus best supportive care, TACE was shown to improve median survival from 16 to 20 months. Various strategies to improve outcomes for this patient group have become the subject of much ongoing clinical research. The introduction of an embolic drug-eluting bead (DEB) has been shown to substantially improve the pharmacokinetic profile of TACE, providing levels of consistency and repeatability not available with conventional regimens while concomitantly significantly diminishing systemic drug exposure. In randomized trials, DEB-TACE significantly reduced liver toxicity and drug-related adverse events compared with conventional TACE. In this article, technique, indications and contraindications, and clinical outcomes of conventional and DEB-TACE in the management of HCC are reviewed. In addition, scientific background and early clinical experience with the use of combination regimens including TACE and systemically active molecular-targeted agents with antiangiogenic properties are discussed. The combination of DEB-TACE and antiangiogenic therapy represents a potentially powerful approach that is currently undergoing clinical investigation in a phase 3 setting. PMID:24436512

  19. Chemoembolization of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lencioni, Riccardo; Petruzzi, Pasquale; Crocetti, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the current standard of care for patients with intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and relatively preserved liver function. In a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing conventional TACE regimens—including the administration of an anticancer-in-oil emulsion followed by embolic agents—versus best supportive care, TACE was shown to improve median survival from 16 to 20 months. Various strategies to improve outcomes for this patient group have become the subject of much ongoing clinical research. The introduction of an embolic drug-eluting bead (DEB) has been shown to substantially improve the pharmacokinetic profile of TACE, providing levels of consistency and repeatability not available with conventional regimens while concomitantly significantly diminishing systemic drug exposure. In randomized trials, DEB-TACE significantly reduced liver toxicity and drug-related adverse events compared with conventional TACE. In this article, technique, indications and contraindications, and clinical outcomes of conventional and DEB-TACE in the management of HCC are reviewed. In addition, scientific background and early clinical experience with the use of combination regimens including TACE and systemically active molecular-targeted agents with antiangiogenic properties are discussed. The combination of DEB-TACE and antiangiogenic therapy represents a potentially powerful approach that is currently undergoing clinical investigation in a phase 3 setting. PMID:24436512

  20. [Management of neuroendocrine prostate carcinoma: Literature review].

    PubMed

    Yossi, S; Brahmi, T; Enachescu, C; Selmaji, I; Lapierre, A; Samlali, H; Chapet, O

    2016-06-01

    Neuroendocrine prostate carcinoma is a rare entity causing both diagnostic and therapeutic issues. There are basically four histological forms (adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation, carcinoid tumors, small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas), which can be pure or mixed associated with prostatic carcinoma. There is no consensus on the management or the prognosis of these various tumor subtypes. We conducted a literature review aiming to determine the potential therapeutic implications. PMID:27340027

  1. Akt Inhibitor MK2206 in Treating Patients With Progressive, Recurrent, or Metastatic Adenoid Cyst Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-04

    Recurrent Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

  2. Bioactivity-guided isolation of antiproliferative compounds from Centaurea arenaria.

    PubMed

    Csapi, Bence; Hajdú, Zsuzsanna; Zupkó, István; Berényi, Agnes; Forgo, Peter; Szabó, Pál; Hohmann, Judit

    2010-11-01

    The antiproliferative effects of n-hexane, chloroform and aqueous methanol extracts prepared from the whole plant of Centaurea arenaria M.B. ex Willd. were investigated against cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) and skin epidermoid carcinoma (A431) cells, using the MTT assay. The chloroform extract displayed high tumour cell proliferation inhibitory activity (higher than 85% at 10 μg/mL concentration), and was therefore subjected to a bioassay-guided multistep separation procedure. Flavonoids (eupatilin, eupatorin, 3'-methyleupatorin, apigenin and isokaempferid), lignans (arctigenin, arctiin and matairesinol), the sesquiterpene cnicin, serotonin conjugates (moschamine and cis-moschamine), β-amyrin and β-sitosterin-β-D-glycopyranoside, identified by means of UV, MS and NMR spectroscopy, were obtained for the first time from this species. The isolated compounds were also evaluated for their tumour cell growth inhibitory activities on HeLa, MCF7 and A431 cells, and different types of secondary metabolites were found to be responsible for the antitumour effects of the extracts; in addition to moderately active compounds (isokaempferid and moschamine), especially apigenin, eupatorin, arctigenin, arctiin, matairesinol and cnicin exert marked antitumour effects against these cell lines. PMID:21031625

  3. Structural characterization and cytotoxic properties of an apiose-rich pectic polysaccharide obtained from the cell wall of the marine phanerogam Zostera marina.

    PubMed

    Gloaguen, Vincent; Brudieux, Véronique; Closs, Brigitte; Barbat, Aline; Krausz, Pierre; Sainte-Catherine, Odile; Kraemer, Michel; Maes, Emmanuel; Guerardel, Yann

    2010-06-25

    Zosterin, an apiose-rich pectic polysaccharide, was extracted and purified from the sea grass Zostera marina. Structural studies conducted by gas chromatography and NMR spectroscopy on a purified zosterin fraction (AGU) revealed a typical apiogalacturonan structure comprising an alpha-1,4-d-galactopyranosyluronan backbone substituted by 1,2-linked apiofuranose oligosaccharides and single apiose residues. The average molecular mass of AGU was estimated to be about 4100 Da with a low polydispersity. AGU inhibited proliferation of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells with an approximate IC(50) value of 3 microg/mL (0.7 microM). In addition, AGU inhibited A431 cell migration and invasion. Preliminary experiments showed that inhibition of metalloproteases expression could play a role in these antimigration and anti-invasive properties. Autohydrolysis of AGU, which eliminated apiose and oligo-apiose substituents, led to a virtual disappearance of cytotoxic properties, thus suggesting a direct structure-function relationship with the apiose-rich hairy region of AGU. PMID:20465284

  4. Aggregation of nanoparticles in endosomes and lysosomes produces surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Leanne J.; Chen, Xiaoke K.; Smith, Aaron J.; Korbelik, Mladen; Zeng, Haishan; Lee, Patrick W. K.; Hewitt, Kevin Cecil

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the use of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to image the distribution of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in cells. To accomplish this task, 30-nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) tagged with antibodies to EGFR (1012 per mL) were incubated with cells (106 per mL) of the A431 human epidermoid carcinoma and normal human bronchial epithelial cell lines. Using the 632.8-nm excitation line of a He-Ne laser, Raman spectroscopy measurements were performed using a point mapping scheme. Normal cells show little to no enhancement. SERS signals were observed inside the cytoplasm of A431 cells with an overall enhancement of 4 to 7 orders of magnitude. Raman intensity maps of the 1450 and 1583 cm-1 peaks correlate well with the expected distribution of EGFR and AuNPs, aggregated following uptake by endosomes and lysosomes. Spectral features from tyrosine and tryptophan residues dominate the SERS signals.

  5. Genetic heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Unsal, H.; Isselbacher, K.J. ); Yakicier, C.; Marcais, C.; Ozturk, M. ); Kew, M. ); Volkmann, M. ); Zentgraf, H. )

    1994-01-18

    The authors studied 80 hepatocellular carcinomas from three continents for p53 gene (TP53) mutations and hepatitis B virus (HBV) sequences. p53 mutations were frequent in tumors from Mozambique but not in tumors from South Africa, China, and Germany. Independent of geographic origin, most tumors were positive for HBV sequences. X gene coding sequences of HBV were detected in 78% of tumors, whereas viral sequences in the surface antigen- and core antigen-encoding regions were present in less than 35% of tumors. These observations indicate that hepatocellular carcinomas are genetically heterogeneous. Mozambican-types of hepatocellular carcinomas are characterized by a high incidence of p53 mutations related to aflatoxins. In other tumors, the rarity of p53 mutations combined with the frequent presence of viral X gene coding sequences suggests a possible interference of HBV with the wild-type p53 function.

  6. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors. 19. 6-Alkynamides of 4-anilinoquinazolines and 4-anilinopyrido[3,4-d]pyrimidines as irreversible inhibitors of the erbB family of tyrosine kinase receptors.

    PubMed

    Klutchko, Sylvester R; Zhou, Hairong; Winters, R Thomas; Tran, Tuan P; Bridges, Alexander J; Althaus, Irene W; Amato, Danielle M; Elliott, William L; Ellis, Paul A; Meade, Mary Ann; Roberts, Billy J; Fry, David W; Gonzales, Andrea J; Harvey, Patricia J; Nelson, James M; Sherwood, Veronica; Han, Hyo-Kyung; Pace, Gerry; Smaill, Jeff B; Denny, William A; Showalter, H D Hollis

    2006-02-23

    Structure-activity relationships for inhibition of erbB1, erbB2, and erbB4 were determined for a series of alkynamide analogues of quinazoline- and pyrido[3,4-d]pyrimidine-based compounds. The compounds were prepared by coupling the appropriate 6-aminoquinazolines or 6-aminopyrido[3,4-d]pyrimidines with alkynoic acids, using EDCI.HCl in pyridine. The compounds showed pan-erbB enzyme inhibition but were on average about 10-fold more potent against erbB1 than against erbB2 and erbB4. For cellular inhibition, the nature of the alkylating side chains was an important determinant, with 5-dialkylamino-2-pentynamide type Michael acceptors providing the highest potency. This is suggested to be due to an improved ability of the amine to participate in an autocatalysis of the Michael reaction with enzyme cysteine residues. Pyrido[3,4-d]pyrimidine analogue 39 was selected for in vivo evaluation and achieved tumor regressions at 10 mg/kg in the A431 human epidermoid carcinoma and at 40 mg/kg for the SF767 human glioblastoma and the SKOV3 human ovarian carcinoma. Complete stasis was observed at 40 mg/kg in the BXPC3 human pancreatic carcinoma as well as in the H125 human non-small-cell lung carcinoma. PMID:16480284

  7. [Medullary thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Niccoli-Sire, P; Conte-Devolx, B

    2007-10-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is developed from thyroid C cells that secrete calcitonin (CT). MTC represents 5-10% of thyroid cancers with a 1-2% incidence in nodular thyroid diseases. Diagnosis is usually made by a solitary nodule often associated to nodal metastasis and confirmed by a high basal CT level which represents its biological marker. MTC may present as a sporadic form and in about 30% of case as a familial form as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome, an hereditary dominant inherited disease related to germline mutation of the proto-oncogene RET. Both biological (CT) and genetic (RET) markers allows the optimal diagnosis and treatment of MTC; the former allows screening and early diagnosis of MTC by routinely CT measurements in nodular thyroid diseases that make the adequate and complete surgery required to be performed. The former leads to diagnose familial MTC and to identify at risk subjects in whom early or prophylactic surgery may be performed. Treatment of MTC is based on the complete surgical resection: total thyroidectomy associated to central and laterocervical nodal dissection. For locally advanced or metastatic MTC, complete cervical surgery is required and needs to be associated to other systemic treatments: as chemotherapy is not very efficient, radioimmunotherapy and RET target gene therapy (mainly tyrosine kinase inhibitors) appears as possible valuable therapeutic options for the future. Prognosis of MTC is mainly related to both the stage of the disease and the extend of the initial surgery. Ten-year survival is about 80% when the patients are not surgically cured and reaches 95% when the biological marker CT is normalized after surgery. PMID:17572372

  8. Infiltrative Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiaopeng; Fu, Xu; Deng, Min; Chen, Jun; He, Jian; Shi, Jiong; Qiu, Yudong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Data on infiltrative hepatocellular carcinoma (iHCC) receiving hepatectomy are unclear. Our study assessed the outcomes, effects of anatomical resection, and prognostic factors in a cohort of Chinese patients with iHCC undergoing hepatectomy. Data from 47 patients with iHCC undergoing hepatectomy were analyzed in a retrospective study. Independent prognostic factors of overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. Correlations between microvascular invasion (MVI) and clinicopathological features were assessed using the χ2 test, Student t test, or the Mann–Whitney U test. Survival outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The median OS was 27.37 months and the 1-year RFS rate were 61.7%. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level was not a specific parameter in iHCC patients undergoing hepatectomy. Anatomic resection was significantly associated with increased RFS (P = 0.007). Patients showing MVI were observed with decreased RFS (P < 0.001). A high lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level was significantly associated with decreased OS and RFS (P = 0.003 and P = 0.020, respectively). MVI was shown correlated with the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and LDH. Subgroup analysis indicated that in mild MVI group, survival outcome was significantly more favorable in patients with high LDH level (P = 0.019). iHCC patients are related with higher MVI rate and patients may still derive survival benefit from anatomic resection at early and intermediate stages. MVI classification could be used to identify iHCC patients with a poorer survival, especially those with a high preoperative LDH level. PMID:27175659

  9. Thrombosis and Pancreatic Carcinoma Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Verghese, Abraham; Haws, Claude C.; Thomas, Eapen

    1982-01-01

    A case of recurrent pulmonary embolism from thrombophlebitis associated with pancreatic carcinoma is reported. There is an increased incidence of thrombophlebitis with all tumors, but carcinoma of the pancreas is statistically more frequently responsible. The higher incidence of thrombophlebitis with tumors of the body and tail of the pancreas is probably due to the low trypsin levels associated with these tumors. Trypsin levels are directly related to plasma antithrombin levels and mucinous adenocarcinomas are more commonly associated with thrombus formation. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:7120446

  10. Combined salivary duct carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma suspected of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma.

    PubMed

    Enokida, Tomohiro; Fujii, Satoshi; Kuno, Hirofumi; Mukaigawa, Takashi; Tahara, Makoto; Sakuraba, Minoru; Hayashi, Ryuichi

    2016-08-01

    A 76-year-old Japanese woman had noticed an asymptomatic and palpable mass in her left parotid gland region for 20 years. The tumor had showed rapid growth during the last two months. Therefore, the tumor was clinically suspected of being a malignant tumor and was surgically resected. A histopathological examination revealed that the tumor consisted of two different histopathological neoplastic components accompanied by hyalinized fibrosis at the center of the tumor. The two-neoplastic components were squamous cell carcinoma and salivary duct carcinoma. The tumor was suspected to be a carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma after considering the clinical course and the histopathological findings, such as hyalinized fibrosis at the center of the tumor. There was no evidence of recurrence at 30 months after the surgical resection. PMID:27435055

  11. Mitochondriome and Cholangiocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bahitham, Wesam; Liao, Xiaoping; Peng, Fred; Bamforth, Fiona; Chan, Alicia; Mason, Andrew; Stone, Bradley; Stothard, Paul; Sergi, Consolato

    2014-01-01

    Cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCA) of the liver was the target of more interest, recently, due mainly to its increased incidence and possible association to new environmental factors. Somatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have been found in several cancers. Some of these malignancies contain changes of mtDNA, which are not or, very rarely, found in the mtDNA databases. In terms of evolutionary genetics and oncology, these data are extremely interesting and may be considered a sign of poor fitness, which may conduct in some way to different cellular processes, including carcinogenesis. MitoChip analysis is a strong tool for investigations in experimental oncology and was carried out on three CCA cell lines (HuCCT1, Huh-28 and OZ) with different outcome in human and a Papova-immortalized normal hepatocyte cell line (THLE-3). Real time quantitative PCR, western blot analysis, transmission electron microscopy, confocal laser microscopy, and metabolic assays including L-Lactate and NAD+/NADH assays were meticulously used to identify mtDNA copy number, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) content, ultrastructural morphology, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and differential composition of metabolites, respectively. Among 102 mtDNA changes observed in the CCA cell lines, 28 were non-synonymous coding region alterations resulting in an amino acid change. Thirty-eight were synonymous and 30 involved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA) regions. We found three new heteroplasmic mutations in two CCA cell lines (HuCCT1 and Huh-28). Interestingly, mtDNA copy number was decreased in all three CCA cell lines, while complexes I and III were decreased with depolarization of mitochondria. L-Lactate and NAD+/NADH assays were increased in all three CCA cell lines. MtDNA alterations seem to be a common event in CCA. This is the first study using MitoChip analysis with comprehensive metabolic studies in CCA cell lines potentially creating a platform for future

  12. Radiotherapy T1 glottic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zablow, A.I.; Erba, P.S.; Sanfillippo, L.J.

    1989-11-01

    From 1970 to 1985, curative radiotherapy was administered to 63 patients with stage I carcinoma of the true vocal cords. Precision radiotherapeutic technique yields cure rates comparable to surgical results. Good voice quality was preserved in a high percentage of patients.

  13. Interventional therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Isaac R.; Novelli, Paula M.; Vellody, Ranjith; Pandya, Amit; Krishnamurthy, V.N.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma is the third most common cause of cancer-related death. In the past few years, staging systems have been developed that enable patients to be stratified into treatment algorithms in a multidisciplinary setting. Several of these treatments involve minimally invasive image-guided therapy that can be performed by radiologists. PMID:22487698

  14. Yes-Associated Protein Contributes to the Development of Human Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma via Activation of RAS.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jinjing; Li, Changji; Luo, Suju; Liu-Smith, Feng; Yang, Jiao; Wang, Xin; Wang, Nanping; Lai, Baochang; Lei, Ting; Wang, Qiongyu; Xiao, Shengxiang; Shao, Yongping; Zheng, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is one of the most common skin malignant tumors with an increasing incidence. Studies have shown that Yes-associated protein (YAP) participates in the development of a variety of tumors as an oncogene, but to our knowledge its role in cSCC has not been reported. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry to show that YAP expression was elevated in cSCC samples of different stages versus in normal skin and that it was well correlated with the progression of the disease. Down-regulation of YAP in cSCC cell lines A431 and SCL-1 inhibited cell proliferation by inducing growth arrest during the G1/S phase transition, promoted apoptosis, and reduced invasion and migration abilities in vitro. Conversely, overexpression of YAP promoted cell proliferation and protected cells against basal and chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. These oncogenic effects of YAP were associated with activation of the RAS protein and its downstream AKT and ERK. Using a mouse xenograft model, we further showed that YAP depletion inhibited cSCC tumor growth in vivo. Our results suggested that YAP is involved in the carcinogenesis and development of cSCC and that it may serve as a biomarker or therapeutic target of this disease. PMID:26902922

  15. Spectral morphometric characterization of breast carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Barshack, I; Kopolovic, J; Malik, Z; Rothmann, C

    1999-01-01

    The spectral morphometric characteristics of standard haematoxylin and eosin breast carcinoma specimens were evaluated by light microscopy combined with a spectral imaging system. Light intensity at each wavelength in the range of 450–800 nm was recorded for 104 pixels from each field and represented as transmitted light spectra. A library of six characteristic spectra served to scan the cells and reconstruct new images depicting the nuclear area occupied by each spectrum. Fifteen cases of infiltrating ductal carcinoma and six cases of lobular carcinoma were examined; nine of the infiltrating ductal carcinoma and three of the lobular carcinoma showed an in situ component. The spectral morphometric analysis revealed a correlation between specific patterns of spectra and different groups of breast carcinoma cells. The most consistent result was that lobular carcinoma cells of in situ and infiltrating components from all patients showed a similar spectral pattern, whereas ductal carcinoma cells displayed spectral variety. Comparison of the in situ and the infiltrating ductal solid, cribriform and comedo carcinoma cells from the same patient revealed a strong similarity of the spectral elements and their relative distribution in the nucleus. The spectrum designated as number 5 in the library incorporated more than 40% of the nuclear area in 74.08% of the infiltrating lobular cells and in 13.64% of the infiltrating ductal carcinoma cells (P < 0.001). Spectrum number 2 appeared in all infiltrating ductal cells examined and in none of the lobular cells. These results indicate that spectrum number 5 is related to infiltrating lobular carcinoma, whereas spectrum number 2 is characteristic for infiltrating ductal carcinoma cells. Spectral similarity mapping of central necrotic regions of comedo type in situ carcinoma revealed nuclear fragmentation into defined segments composed of highly condensed chromatin. We conclude that the spectral morphometric features found for

  16. Synchronous invasive ductal carcinoma in encapsulated papillary ductal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Regan, J.P.; Casaubon, J.T.; Genelus-Dominique, E.

    2016-01-01

    Encapsulated papillary ductal carcinoma (EPC) of the breast is a rare form of cancer with defining histopathology of encapsulation. These lesions are typically indolent but may rarely have concomitant, synchronous invasive lesions. This report details a 56-year-old black female who presented with a palpable left breast mass. Adenosis with focal fibrous and ductal hyperplasia characteristics were found on core needle biopsy. Excisional biopsy showed EPC with invasive components. A simple mastectomy was performed and a second lesion was identified as invasive ductal carcinoma. EPC typically has good prognosis and a low incidence of invasion. The risk increases in the presence of a second, synchronous lesion as in our case. Management is typically performed with breast conserving methods; however, missing a second lesion is possible. This report provides an overview of the literature and discussion of the role of MRI in preoperative workup. PMID:27562577

  17. Monitoring of gefitinib sensitivity with radioiodinated PHY based on EGFR expression.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Mitsuyoshi; Hirata, Masahiko; Kanai, Yasukazu; Naka, Sadahiro; Nishii, Ryuichi; Kagawa, Shinya; Kawai, Keiichi; Ohmomo, Yoshiro

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is attractive target for tumor diagnosis and therapy, as it is specifically and abundantly expressed in tumor cells. EGFR-tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitors such as gefitinib and erlotinib are widely used in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we investigated whether radioiodinated 4-(3-iodo-phenoxy)-6,7-diethoxy-quinazoline (PHY), which is a candidate EGFR-TK imaging agent for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is able to predict gefitinib sensitivity. We used four NSCLC cell lines-A549 (wild-type EGFR), H1650 (mutant EGFR; del E746_A750), H1975 (mutant EGFR; L858R, T790M) and H3255 (mutant EGFR; L858R)-and one epidermoid carcinoma cell line, A431 (wild-type EGFR). Cell proliferation assay and Western blotting revealed that A431 and H3255 with high EGFR expression showed high sensitivity to gefitinib. On the other hand, A549, H1650 and H1975 showed much lower sensitivity to gefitinib. The blocking study revealed that gefitinib decreased tumor uptake in (125)I-PHY in A431-bearing mice. Moreover, in vivo tumor uptake of (125)I-PHY was correlated with the IC50 of gefitinib for cell proliferation. In the present study, tumor uptake of (125)I-PHY was correlated with the gefitinib sensitivity and this uptake was based on expression levels of EGFR, but not on mutation status. Although the mutation status is the most important factor for predicting gefitinib sensitivity, the abundant expression of EGFR is essential for therapy with EGFR-TK inhibitors. Therefore, radioiodinated PHY is a potential imaging agent to predict gefitinib sensitivity based on EGFR expression levels though further modifications of the imaging agent is needed to accurately estimate the mutation status. PMID:24583857

  18. Intracystic papillary carcinoma associated with ductal carcinoma in situ in a male breast: a case report

    PubMed Central

    El M’rabet, Fatema Zahra; Akesbi, Yusra; Benbrahim, Zineb; El Hind, fatemi; Znati, Kawtar; Benlemlih, Amal; Tbaili, Naima; Maaroufi, Mustapha; Tizniti, Siham; Amarti, Afaf; El Mesbahi, Omar

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Intracystic papillary carcinoma represents a small distinctive subgroup of noninvasive breast cancer, accounts for <0.5% of breast malignancies and is extremely rare in men, it was originally reported as a localized non-invasive carcinoma, but is usually associated with ductal carcinoma in situ around the main tumor or invasive carcinoma. Case presentation We report a case of 50-year-old man with intracystic papillary carcinoma in man with ductal carcinoma in situ who underwent a tumorectomy following by a radical Patey intervention (Halsted). Conclusion Nowadays, there is still no clear consensus regarding optimal treatment of intracystic papillary carcinoma. Most papers reinforce the importance of an adequate surgical margin in conservative treatment. Surgeons must pay much attention to the potential for ductal carcinoma in situ around the tumor when selecting the operative procedure. PMID:19829939

  19. ["Fossa" carcinoma - a relapse or "rest" carcinoma of the kidney?].

    PubMed

    Panchev, P; Ianev, K; Georgiev, M; Kirilov, S; Kumanov, Kh

    2000-01-01

    The local relapse represents a unique variant of the advanced stage of a disease (A Esrig et 1992). Presumably, "fossa" carcinoma may result from incomplete resection or persisting tumor in the regional contiguous lymph nodes (JB D Kernion 1978). The average time interval for a relapse to occur is 31 months after nephrectomy, and in most patients it becomes manifest with symptoms, such as losing weight, fatigability and lumbar discomfort (D Esrig et al 1992). In cases with local recurrence a long-term survivorship may be attained by resorting to aggressive surgical intervention (S Tanguag et al 1996). This is a report on twenty-three patients with "fossa" carcinoma covering the period 1994 through 1999, with a total of 425 patients with renal carcinoma operated during the same period of time. All patients undergo operation--lumbar access is used in 22 cases, and transperitoneal--in one. In one patients resection of colon is necessitated, whereas in five the neoplastic mass hardly lends itself to complete excision, with enucleation alone being done. At follow-up study the survival terms are as follows: up to 1 year--18 patients, up to 3 year--16 patients, up to 5 year--12 patients. PMID:11692915

  20. Renal cell carcinoma: Evolving and emerging subtypes.

    PubMed

    Crumley, Suzanne M; Divatia, Mukul; Truong, Luan; Shen, Steven; Ayala, Alberto G; Ro, Jae Y

    2013-12-16

    Our knowledge of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rapidly expanding. For those who diagnose and treat RCC, it is important to understand the new developments. In recent years, many new renal tumors have been described and defined, and our understanding of the biology and clinical correlates of these tumors is changing. Evolving concepts in Xp11 translocation carcinoma, mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma, multilocular cystic clear cell RCC, and carcinoma associated with neuroblastoma are addressed within this review. Tubulocystic carcinoma, thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of kidney, acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, and clear cell papillary RCC are also described. Finally, candidate entities, including RCC with t(6;11) translocation, hybrid oncocytoma/chromophobe RCC, hereditary leiomyomatosis and RCC syndrome, and renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor are reviewed. Knowledge of these new entities is important for diagnosis, treatment and subsequent prognosis. This review provides a targeted summary of new developments in RCC. PMID:24364021

  1. Local excision for selected colorectal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, M A; Goldberg, S M

    1989-07-01

    In summary, local excision is a useful tool in the management of selected colorectal carcinomas. The advent of the fibreoptic colonoscope has revised the concept of local excision when dealing with carcinoma-containing polyps of the colon. The clinician now has the means of locally excising certain carcinomas which would have required laparotomy in the not so distant past. In dealing with carcinoma of the rectum, local excision is not advocated for all rectal carcinomas. In fact, when the previously discussed tumour related factors are considered, local excision should be the ultimate procedure in less than 5% of operations performed for rectal carcinomas. However, when appropriately used, local excision provides a less morbid alternative to more radical procedures without compromising patient survival rates or local recurrence rates. PMID:2692739

  2. Renal cell carcinoma: Evolving and emerging subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Crumley, Suzanne M; Divatia, Mukul; Truong, Luan; Shen, Steven; Ayala, Alberto G; Ro, Jae Y

    2013-01-01

    Our knowledge of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rapidly expanding. For those who diagnose and treat RCC, it is important to understand the new developments. In recent years, many new renal tumors have been described and defined, and our understanding of the biology and clinical correlates of these tumors is changing. Evolving concepts in Xp11 translocation carcinoma, mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma, multilocular cystic clear cell RCC, and carcinoma associated with neuroblastoma are addressed within this review. Tubulocystic carcinoma, thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of kidney, acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, and clear cell papillary RCC are also described. Finally, candidate entities, including RCC with t(6;11) translocation, hybrid oncocytoma/chromophobe RCC, hereditary leiomyomatosis and RCC syndrome, and renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor are reviewed. Knowledge of these new entities is important for diagnosis, treatment and subsequent prognosis. This review provides a targeted summary of new developments in RCC. PMID:24364021

  3. Clear cell carcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, C; Carlile, A

    1985-01-01

    Six tumours of the lung initially classified as clear cell carcinoma, were studied. Examination of further material by light and electron microscopy showed adenocarcinomatous differentiation in three cases and squamous differentiation in two. One case showed the features of a large cell anaplastic carcinoma. The clear appearance of the cytoplasm in paraffin sections was due to accumulations of glycogen that were partially removed during processing. It is concluded that clear cell carcinoma is not a single and separate entity. Images PMID:4031101

  4. Merkel cell carcinoma of the abdominal wall

    PubMed Central

    Gaopande, Vandana L.; Joshi, Avinash R.; Khandeparkar, Siddhi G. S.; Deshmukh, Sanjay D.

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma also known as neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin is a very rare skin tumor. It commonly presents in the old age and the common sites are head, neck and extremities. The diagnosis requires histopathological examination with immunohistochemical correlation. We report a case of Merkel cell carcinoma stage IIIB with bilateral inguinal lymphadenopathy that on FNAB showed metastatic deposits of the tumor. PMID:26225333

  5. [Cytostatic treatment of ovarian carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Neijt, J P

    1999-10-30

    Shortly after treatment with the cytostatic combination of cisplatin and paclitaxel was generally accepted as the standard therapy for patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma, many have come to regard the combination of carboplatin and paclitaxel as a better choice. The latter combination causes fewer side effects and may be used in the outpatient clinic. Conceivably, the carboplatin-paclitaxel scheme will shortly have to be adjusted again owing to results of current research. The intensive basic research of recent years, namely, is beginning to yield benefits for the therapeutic arsenal against ovarian carcinoma. Possibilities are inhibitors of the breakdown of extracellular matrix (such as marimastat) and inhibitors of signal transduction (such as trastuzumab). PMID:10578409

  6. Carcinoma of the nasal vestibule

    SciTech Connect

    Mendenhall, N.P.; Parsons, J.T.; Cassisi, N.J.; Million, R.R.

    1984-05-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas of the nasal vestibule are essentially skin cancers that require special therapeutic considerations because of the regional anatomy. They have sometimes been considered poorly suited for treatment by irradiation because of potential or actual cartilage and/or bone invasion and therefore have been treated by surgical resection, sometimes producing defects that are difficult to reconstruct satisfactorily. From 1966 to April 1980, 13 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal vestibule were treated with radiotherapy at the University of Florida. Eight lesions were de novo; 5 were recurrent after 1 or more surgical procedures. Treatment consisted of radium needle implantation and/or external beam therapy. Neck management was individualized. All de novo and 4 of 5 recurrent lesions were controlled locally. Cosmetic resultes were good in patients with de novo lesions. There were no instances of significant cartilage or soft tissue necrosis despite cartilage involvement by tumor in 6 cases.

  7. Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Rainey, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The human adrenal cortex secretes mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and adrenal androgens. These steroids are produced from unique cell types located within the three distinct zones of the adrenal cortex. Disruption of adrenal steroid production results in a variety of diseases that can lead to hypertension, metabolic syndrome, infertility and androgen excess. The adrenal cortex is also a common site for the development of adenomas, and rarely the site for the development of carcinomas. The adenomas can lead to diseases associated with adrenal steroid excess, while the carcinomas are particularly aggressive and have a poor prognosis. In vitro cell culture models provide an important tool to examine molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling both the normal and pathologic function of the adrenal cortex. Herein we discuss the human adrenocortical cell lines and their use as model systems for adrenal studies. PMID:21924324

  8. Carcinoma in accessory axillary breast.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Seema; Mishra, Shashi Prakash; Kumar, Satendra; Khanna, Ajay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of carcinoma developing in an accessory breast. The patient presented with a progressive lump in her right axilla for 1 year. On examination, there was a well-developed nipple areola complex in the right axilla overlying a hard, fixed 5 × 3 cm lump. On investigation, core biopsy revealed poorly differentiated carcinoma of the breast. Mammography also revealed features of a malignant lesion with skin and muscle infiltration. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was administered followed by modified radical mastectomy after three cycles. Immunohistochemistry study showed positive status of oestrogen and progesterone receptors, and negative HER-2 neu. Three more cycles of chemotherapy along with 50 Gy radiotherapy were given in an adjuvant setting followed by hormone therapy. PMID:26260957

  9. Synthesis and investigation of the anticancer effects of estrone-16-oxime ethers in vitro.

    PubMed

    Berényi, Ágnes; Minorics, Renáta; Iványi, Zoltán; Ocsovszki, Imre; Ducza, Eszter; Thole, Hubert; Messinger, Josef; Wölfling, János; Mótyán, Gergő; Mernyák, Erzsébet; Frank, Éva; Schneider, Gyula; Zupkó, István

    2013-01-01

    An expanding body of evidence indicates the possible role of estrane derivatives as useful anticancer agents. The aim of this study was to describe the cytotoxic effects of 63 newly synthetized estrone-16-oxime ethers on human cancer cell lines (cervix carcinoma HeLa, breast carcinoma MCF7 and skin epidermoid carcinoma A431), studied by means of the MTT assay. Four of the most promising compounds were selected for participation in additional experiments in order to characterize the mechanism of action, including cell cycle analysis, morphological study and the 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation assay. The cancer selectivity was tested on a noncancerous fibroblast cell line (MRC-5). Since apoptosis and cell cycle disturbance were observed, caspase-3 activities were further assayed for the two most effective agents. These estrone-16-oxime analogs activated caspase-3 and changed the mRNA level expression of endogenous factors regulating the G1-S phase transition (retinoblastoma protein, CDK4 and p16). The repression of retinoblastoma protein was reinforced at a protein level too. These experimental data lead to the conclusion that estrone-16-oxime ethers may be regarded as potential starting structures for the design of novel anticancer agents. PMID:23127813

  10. Anaplastic giant cell thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wallin, G; Lundell, G; Tennvall, J

    2004-01-01

    Anaplastic (giant cell) thyroid carcinoma (ATC), is one of the most aggressive malignancies in humans with a median survival time after diagnosis of 3-6 months. Death from ATC was earlier seen because of local growth and suffocation. ATC is uncommon, accounting for less than 5 % of all thyroid carcinomas. The diagnosis can be established by means of multiple fine needle aspiration biopsies, which are neither harmful nor troublesome for the patient. The cytological diagnosis of this high-grade malignant tumour is usually not difficult for a well trained cytologist. The intention to treat patients with ATC is cure, although only few of them survive. The majority of the patients are older than 60 years and treatment must be influenced by their high age. We have by using a combined modality regimen succeeded in achieving local control in most patients. Every effort should be made to control the primary tumour and thereby improve the quality of remaining life and it is important for patients, relatives and the personnel to know that cure is not impossible. Different treatment combinations have been used since 30 years including radiotherapy, cytostatic drugs and surgery, when feasible. In our latest combined regimen, 22 patients were treated with hyper fractionated radiotherapy 1.6Gy x 2 to a total target dose of 46 Gy given preoperatively, 20 mg doxorubicin was administered intravenously once weekly and surgery was carried out 2-3 weeks after the radiotherapy. 17 of these 22 patients were operated upon and none of these 17 patients got a local recurrence. In the future we are awaiting the development of new therapeutic approaches to this aggressive type of carcinoma. Inhibitors of angiogenesis might be useful. Combretastatin has displayed cytotoxicity against ATC cell lines and has had a positive effect on ATC in a patient. Sodium iodide symporter (NIS) genetherapy is also being currently considered for dedifferentiated thyroid carcinomas with the ultimate aim of

  11. Cutaneous metastatic pigmented breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gaitan-Gaona, Francisco; Said, Mirra C; Valdes-Rodriguez, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    A 66-year-old woman presented with a 3 cm black, ulcerated nodule located on the skin of the upper abdomen, just below the breast. The lesion was painful to the touch, but the patient reported no other associated symptoms and was otherwise healthy. A 4-mm punch biopsy of the affected skin was obtained and the histological diagnosis was cutaneous metastatic pigmented breast carcinoma. PMID:27136637

  12. Proteome Analyses of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Megger, Dominik A.; Naboulsi, Wael; Meyer, Helmut E.; Sitek, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Proteomics has evolved into a powerful and widely used bioanalytical technique in the study of cancer, especially hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this review, we provide an up to date overview of feasible proteome-analytical techniques for clinical questions. In addition, we present a broad summary of proteomic studies of HCC utilizing various technical approaches for the analysis of samples derived from diverse sources like HCC cell lines, animal models, human tissue and body fluids. PMID:26357614

  13. Small cell carcinoma of the bladder

    PubMed Central

    Calado, Bruno Nagel; Maron, Paulo Eduardo Goulart; Vedovato, Bruno César; Barrese, Tomas Zecchini; Fernandes, Roni de Carvalho; Perez, Marjo Deninson Cardenuto

    2015-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is an extremely aggressive and rare tumor. Even though small cell carcinoma most commonly arises from the lungs there are several reports of small cell carcinoma in extrapulmonary sites. Due to its low frequency there is no well-established management for this disease. We report the case of a 61 year-old man with small cell carcinoma of the bladder who underwent radical cystectomy following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We also reviewed the literature for the optimal treatment strategy. PMID:25517085

  14. Immunotherapy in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, R M

    1999-06-01

    Patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma continue to present a therapeutic challenge. Current therapeutic approaches involve surgery and various types of immunotherapy. The rationale for this latter form of therapy include the observations of spontaneous tumor regression, the presence of a T-cell-mediated immune response, and the tumor responses observed in patients receiving cytokine therapy. Analysis of prognostic factors in these patients demonstrates that clinical responses occur most frequently in individuals with good performance status. The cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2, aldesleukin [Proleukin], interferon-alfa (Intron A, Roferon-A), or the combination produce responses in 15% to 20% of patients. Randomized trials suggest that administration of interferon-alfa may result in a modest improvement in median survival. Investigation of the molecular genetics of renal cell carcinoma and the presence of T-lymphocyte immune dysregulation have suggested new therapeutic strategies. Further preclinical and clinical studies investigating inhibitors of angiogenesis or pharmacologic methods to reverse immune dysregulation are ongoing. Therapeutic results in patients with renal cell carcinoma remain limited, and investigational approaches are warranted. PMID:10378218

  15. Multiple pigmented basal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Shoji, T; Lee, J; Hong, S H; Oh, C H; Kim, W K; Bhawan, J

    1998-04-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common of all skin cancers and the most prevalent one among Caucasians. Rarely, these tumors are seen in other races. We report a 77-year-old Korean woman who presented with multiple darkly pigmented enlarging nodules on her scalp, face, trunk, and extremities. The patient had first noted a 6-mm pigmented lesion on her left eyebrow 10 years previously. Since then, other lesions had appeared in many locations on her body. She had been otherwise healthy and without a history of exposure to arsenic or radiation. There was no family history of skin cancer, xeroderma pigmentosum, or basal cell nevus syndrome. On physical examination, multiple darkly pigmented dome-shaped papules and nodules were present on her scalp, face, right forearm, lower abdomen, and inguinal areas. They ranged in size from 0.5 mm to 2 cm. The larger ones showed central ulceration. Multiple biopsy specimens from different sites showed pigmented basal cell carcinomas. Clinically, there was no evidence of nevus sebaceus, xeroderma pigmentosum, basal cell nevus syndrome, or immunodeficiency. Clinical workup including chest radiography, abdominal ultrasound, bone scan, and brain computerized axial tomography scan did not demonstrate primary or secondary tumors. The results of serologic and hematologic tests were also within normal limits. This is an unusual case report of multiple pigmented basal cell carcinomas in an Asian woman without any predisposing risk factors. PMID:9557792

  16. Advances in managing hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Reataza, Marielle; Imagawa, David K

    2014-06-01

    Multiple modalities for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma are available, depending on tumor size and number. Surgical resection remains the gold standard, so long as the residual liver function reserve is sufficient. In patients with advanced cirrhosis, liver transplantation is the preferred option, as these patients may not have adequate hepatic reserve after resection. Salvage liver transplantation has also become an option for a select few patients who recur after surgical resection. Ablative techniques have been used for palliation as well as to either completely destroy the tumor, act as an adjunct to resection, or downstage the tumor to meet Milan criteria such that a patient may be a candidate for liver transplantation. Radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation, chemoembolization, radioembolization, and irreversible electroporation have all been used in this capacity. Currently, sorafenib is the only US Food and Drug Administration-approved chemotherapeutic for hepatocellular carcinoma. The efficacy of sorafenib, in combination with other agents, transarterial chemoembolization, and surgical resection is currently being investigated. Sunitinib and brivanib, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, have failed as potential first- or second-line options for chemotherapy. Bevacizumab in combination with erlotinib is also currently being studied. Final analysis for ramucirumab and axitinib are pending. Tivantinib, a selective mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (MET) inhibitor, is also undergoing clinical trials for efficacy in MET-high tumors. This review serves to emphasize the current and new technologies emerging in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:24810646

  17. Nested Variant of Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nested variant of urothelial carcinoma was added to the WHO's classification in 2004. Aims. To review the literature on nested variant of urothelial carcinoma. Results. About 200 cases of the tumour have been reported so far and it has the ensuing morphological features: large numbers of small confluent irregular nests of bland-appearing, closely packed, haphazardly arranged, and poorly defined urothelial cells infiltrating the lamina propria and the muscularis propria. The tumour has a bland histomorphologic appearance, has an aggressive biological behaviour, and has at times been misdiagnosed as a benign lesion which had led to a significant delay in the establishment of the correct diagnosis and contributing to the advanced stage of the disease. Immunohistochemically, the tumour shares some characteristic features with high-risk conventional urothelial carcinomas such as high proliferation index and loss of p27 expression. However, p53, bcl-2, or EGF-r immunoreactivity is not frequently seen. The tumour must be differentiated from a number of proliferative lesions of the urothelium. Conclusions. Correct and early diagnosis of this tumour is essential to provide early curative treatment to avoid diagnosis at an advanced stage. A multicentre trial is required to identify treatment options that would improve the outcome of this tumour. PMID:24587796

  18. Cisplatin, Radiation Therapy, and Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-16

    Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  19. Mixed primary squamous cell carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A case report.

    PubMed

    Dong, Su; Song, Xue-Song; Chen, Guang; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland is rare, and mixed squamous cell and follicular carcinoma is even rarer still, with only a few cases reported in the literature. The simultaneous presentation of three primary cancers of the thyroid has not been reported previously. Here we report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid, follicular thyroid carcinoma, and micropapillary thyroid carcinoma. A 62-year-old female patient presented with complaints of pain and a 2-month history of progressively increased swelling in the anterior region of the neck. Fine-needle-aspiration cytology of both lobes indicated the possibility of the presence of a follicular neoplasm. Total thyroidectomy with left-sided modified radical neck dissection was performed. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma with squamous cell carcinoma and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy with l-thyroxine was administered. Radioiodine and radiotherapy also were recommended, but the patient did not complete treatment as scheduled. The patient remained alive more than 9 months after operation. The present case report provides an example of the coexistence of multiple distinct malignancies in the thyroid. PMID:26589365

  20. MR staging in carcinoma of the endometrium and carcinoma of the cervix.

    PubMed Central

    Pakkal, M. V.; Rudralingam, V.; McCluggage, W. G.; Kelly, B. E.

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate MR as an imaging modality for the assessment of myometrial and cervical invasion in endometrial carcinoma and for the assessment of parametrial and lymph node involvement in cervical carcinoma. Twenty-eight patients with a preoperative histological diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma/cervical carcinoma were included in the study. The findings were compared with the surgical staging and the histopathological report of the hysterectomy specimen. Accuracy in detecting myometrial and cervical involvement in patients with endometrial carcinoma was 78% for both. Accuracy in detecting parametrial and lymph node involvement in patients with cervical carcinoma was 71% and 86% respectively. MR is a reliable method for preoperative assessment of endometrial and cervical carcinoma. It helps decide operability, the type of operation and aids in the selection of patients who need to be considered for specialist referral to a gynaecologist oncologist. PMID:15244121

  1. Focus of tricholemmal differentiation (tricholemmal carcinoma) within Bowen's disease/carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Misago, Noriyuki; Toda, Shuji; Nakao, Tomokazu

    2016-04-01

    Bowen's disease (BD)/carcinoma is a type of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, however, the possibility of adnexal differentiation (the development of sebaceous carcinoma or porocarcinoma) occurring in BD/carcinoma has been suggested. We herein describe a case of BD with superficial invasive carcinoma, which showed a clear cell focus, demonstrating tricholemmal differentiation. This clear cell focus showed the following findings: primarily composed of clear cells, somewhat columnar clear cells aligned in a palisade along a discernible basement membrane, tricholemmal keratinization and glycogen contained within the cells. In addition, the immunohistochemical profile in this clear cell focus, namely, negative staining for cytokeratin (CK)1 and positive staining for CK17 and calretinin in the inner cells of the neoplastic lobule, corresponded to that of the outer root sheath cells. This case suggested that adnexal differentiation can rarely occur within true BD/carcinoma, although adnexal carcinomas are commonly associated with a simple bowenoid change. PMID:26365015

  2. Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Mechanistic Distinction From Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Riggle, Kevin M; Turnham, Rigney; Scott, John D; Yeung, Raymond S; Riehle, Kimberly J

    2016-07-01

    Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) has historically been classified as a rare subtype of HCC. However, unlike "classic" HCC, it occurs in children and young adults without underlying liver disease. The recent discovery of a deletion mutation in all FL-HCCs represented a major advancement in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. This deletion results in the fusion of the genes encoding a heat shock protein (DNAJB1) and the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKA, PRKACA), and overexpression of PRKACA and enhanced cAMP-dependent PKA activity. This review summarizes recent advancements in FL-HCC pathogenesis and characteristics of the HSP40-PKA C protein. PMID:26990031

  3. Salivary duct carcinoma of parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Kinnera, Vijay Sreedhar Babu; Mandyam, Kumaraswamy Reddy; Chowhan, Amit Kumar; Nandyala, Rukmangadha; Bobbidi, Venkata Phaneendra; Vutukuru, Venkatarami Reddy

    2009-07-01

    A 40-year old male presented with rapidly growing swelling in the right parotid region. Based on the fine needle aspiration cytology report of adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, superficial parotidectomy was performed, which showed the features of salivary duct carcinoma by histopathological examination. The smears were reviewed to identify the potential pitfalls in the cytological diagnosis of salivary duct carcinoma. PMID:21887008

  4. Salivary duct carcinoma of parotid gland

    PubMed Central

    Kinnera, Vijay Sreedhar Babu; Mandyam, Kumaraswamy Reddy; Chowhan, Amit Kumar; Nandyala, Rukmangadha; Bobbidi, Venkata Phaneendra; Vutukuru, Venkatarami Reddy

    2009-01-01

    A 40-year old male presented with rapidly growing swelling in the right parotid region. Based on the fine needle aspiration cytology report of adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, superficial parotidectomy was performed, which showed the features of salivary duct carcinoma by histopathological examination. The smears were reviewed to identify the potential pitfalls in the cytological diagnosis of salivary duct carcinoma. PMID:21887008

  5. [Relationship of renal cell carcinoma and hypertension].

    PubMed

    Masanauskiene, Edita; Naudziūnas, Albinas; Jankauskiene, Laima; Unikauskas, Alvydas

    2009-01-01

    The morbidity and mortality due to renal cell carcinoma has increased worldwide over the last 30 years. Renal cell carcinoma accounts for about 90-95% of all renal tumors. The mean age of patients with this type of tumor ranges between 50 and 70 years. It is important to note that primary arterial hypertension as well as obesity and smoking are considered as independent risk factors for renal cell carcinoma. The increase in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as the severity of arterial hypertension may have an impact on development of renal cell carcinoma. We describe the case of a 45-year-old male patient with hypertensive crisis. Computed tomography scan revealed renal cell carcinoma, which was confirmed histologically after surgical treatment. PMID:20173406

  6. Endometrial carcinoma in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, K; Nekhlyudov, L; Deligdisch, L

    1995-08-01

    Endometrial carcinoma remains the most common invasive gynecologic malignancy. Increased longevity is associated with an increased incidence of endometrial carcinoma (EC) in elderly women. While recent studies have looked at aging and its relation to ovarian, breast, and cervical cancer, few have focused on EC in the growing elderly population. This study analyzed 35 histologic specimens of EC in women 75-92 years of age. Findings revealed that only 23% of the tumors were Stage I, G1. The majority (77%) were deeply invasive or of advanced stage (IC-IV). These were G2, G3, or "virulent" types of nonendometrioid EC (undifferentiated, clear cell, uterine serous papillary, and squamous cell carcinoma). Fifty-seven percent of tumors were endometrioid, of which 9% were mixed, including a rare case of nongestational choriocarcinoma. The nonendometrioid tumors, compared to the endometrioid types, were more often high-stage tumors with vascular invasion. They were also more often associated with atrophic (vs hyperplastic) uninvolved endometrium. Clinical risk factors (nulliparity, obesity, estrogen replacement therapy) were assessed and correlated with the histologic findings. It was shown that tumors in the elderly were less likely to be estrogen-related. It was concluded that EC in this age group is more aggressive, histologically less differentiated, and often nonendometrioid compared with EC in the general population. The increased virulence of EC in the elderly may be related to the tumor's independence from hormonal factors, to the poorly understood but well-known diminished immunologic defense against cancer in general in elderly patients, and/or to the belated diagnosis of the disease in this population. PMID:7622105

  7. Parathyroid carcinoma: a silent presentation

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Karan; Chang, Robert; Mandava, Nageswara

    2014-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is most commonly diagnosed in the setting of benign parathyroid adenoma(s). However, it can also rarely be caused by parathyroid malignancy and when it is, the clinical manifestations far supercede the presentation of benign parathyroid adenoma. We report a case of suspected benign parathyroid adenoma induced primary hyperparathyroidism in which pathologic diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma was made. Due to the lack of signs and symptoms, this indicates parathyroid malignancy can be masked clinically as benign adenomas, until a histologic diagnosis can be ascertained. PMID:25207215

  8. Transhemangioma Ablation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Pua, Uei

    2012-12-15

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a well-established treatment modality in the treatment of early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [1]. Safe trajectory of the RFA probe is crucial in decreasing collateral tissue damage and unwarranted probe transgression. As a percutaneous technique, however, the trajectory of the needle is sometimes constrained by the available imaging plane. The presence of a hemangioma beside an HCC is uncommon but poses the question of safety related to probe transgression. We hereby describe a case of transhemangioma ablation of a dome HCC.

  9. Oncogenic viruses and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ben Ari, Ziv; Weitzman, Ella; Safran, Michal

    2015-05-01

    About 80% of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections especially in the setting of established cirrhosis or advanced fibrosis, making HCC prevention a major goal of antiviral therapy. HCC tumors are highly complex and heterogeneous resulting from the aberrant function of multiple molecular pathways. The roles of HCV or HBV in promoting HCC development are still either directly or indirectly are still speculative, but the evidence for both effects is compelling. In patients with chronic hepatitis viral infection, cirrhosis is not a prerequisite for tumorigenesis. PMID:25921667

  10. Current management of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizian, Parissa; Roayaie, Sasan; Schwartz, Myron E

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and leading cause of death among patients with cirrhosis. Treatment guidelines are based according to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system. The choice among therapeutic options that include liver resection, liver transplantation, locoregional, and systemic treatments must be individualized for each patient. The aim of this paper is to review the outcomes that can be achieved in the treatment of HCC with the heterogeneous therapeutic options currently available in clinical practice. PMID:25132740

  11. Cystosarcoma phylloides with lobular and ductal carcinoma in situ.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, P J; Ostergaard, J

    1987-09-01

    Malignant change of the epithelium in cystosarcoma phylloides is a rare occurrence, the most frequent occurrence being infiltrating carcinoma of various types and lobular carcinoma in situ, while ductal carcinoma in situ is much more rare. We describe a case of lobular and ductal carcinoma in situ in the same case of cystosarcoma phylloides. PMID:2820345

  12. GATA-3 and FOXA1 expression is useful to differentiate breast carcinoma from other carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Davis, Drew G; Siddiqui, Momin T; Oprea-Ilies, Gabriela; Stevens, Keith; Osunkoya, Adeboye O; Cohen, Cynthia; Li, Xiaoxian Bill

    2016-01-01

    GATA-3, a member of the GATA family of zinc-finger DNA binding proteins, and FOXA1, a member of the forkhead transcription factor family, are both associated with estrogen receptor expression. Both GATA-3 and FOXA1 are useful markers for breast carcinoma, but their expression in the different breast cancer subtypes and other neoplasms has not been thoroughly evaluated. We examined the expression of GATA-3 and FOXA1 in estrogen receptor-positive, Her2/neu-positive, and triple-negative breast carcinomas as well as in 10 other common carcinomas, including hepatocellular, colonic, pancreatic, gastric, endometrial (endometrioid), lung, prostatic, renal cell, urothelial, and ovarian serous carcinomas. Primary and metastatic melanomas and mesotheliomas were also evaluated. GATA-3 and FOXA1 staining of estrogen receptor-positive breast carcinomas was seen in 96.6% and 96.2%, respectively. In triple-negative breast carcinomas, GATA-3 and FOXA1 staining was seen in 21.6% and 15.9%, respectively. Among the other tumors, GATA-3 staining was only seen in urothelial carcinoma (70.9%) and FOXA1 staining was only seen in prostatic (87.5%), urothelial (5.1%) carcinomas, and mesotheliomas (40.0%). In conclusion, GATA-3 and FOXA1 are excellent breast carcinoma markers; however, their utility is limited in the triple-negative subtype. The utility of FOXA1 in diagnosing prostatic carcinoma and mesothelioma warrants further investigation. PMID:26527523

  13. Comprehensive Cytomorphologic Analysis of Pulmonary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: Comparison to Small Cell Carcinoma and Non-pulmonary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seokhwi; Chu, Jinah; Kim, Hojoong; Han, Joungho

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cytologic diagnosis of pulmonary adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is frequently challenging and differential diagnosis with small cell carcinoma is often difficult. Methods: Eleven cytologically diagnosed cases of pulmonary AdCC were collected and reviewed according to fifteen cytomorphologic characteristics: small cell size, cellular uniformity, coarse chromatin, hyperchromasia, distinct nucleolus, frequent nuclear molding, granular cytoplasm, organoid cluster, sheet formation, irregular border of cluster, hyaline globule, hyaline basement membrane material, individual cell necrosis or apoptotic body, and necrotic background. Twenty cases of small cell carcinoma and fifteen cases of non-pulmonary AdCC were also reviewed for the comparison. Results: Statistically significant differences were identified between pulmonary AdCC and small cell carcinoma in fourteen of the fifteen cytomorphologic criteria (differences in sheet formation were not statistically significant). Cellular uniformity, distinct nucleolus, granular cytoplasm, distinct cell border, organoid cluster, hyaline globule, and hyaline basement membrane material were characteristic features of AdCC. Frequent nuclear molding, individual cell necrosis, and necrotic background were almost exclusively identified in small cell carcinoma. Although coarse chromatin and irregular cluster border were observed in both, they favored the diagnosis of small cell carcinoma. Hyaline globules were more frequently seen in non-pulmonary AdCC cases. Conclusions: Using the fifteen cytomorphologic criteria described by this study, pulmonary AdCC could be successfully distinguished from small cell carcinoma. Such a comprehensive approach to an individual case is recommended for the cytologic diagnosis of pulmonary AdCC. PMID:26477588

  14. Identification of Prognostic Biomarkers for Progression of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-30

    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Carcinoma, Squamous; Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Neoplasms; Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Lung Cancer; Neoplasms, Lung; Neoplasms, Pulmonary; Pulmonary Cancer; Pulmonary Neoplasms

  15. Neoadjuvant Intravesical Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Bladder Carcinoma Who Are Undergoing Cystectomy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-22

    Bladder Adenocarcinoma; Bladder Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Recurrent Bladder Carcinoma; Stage I Bladder Cancer; Stage II Bladder Cancer; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Cancer

  16. Intracellular signaling and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Iakova, Polina; Timchenko, Lubov; Timchenko, Nikolai A

    2011-02-01

    Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer and the third most common cause of cancer related death in the world. The recent development of new techniques for the investigations of global change in the gene expression, signaling pathways and wide genome binding has provided novel information for the mechanisms underlying liver cancer progression. Although these studies identified gene expression signatures in hepatocellular carcinoma, the early steps of the development of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) are not well understood. The development of HCC is a multistep process which includes the progressive alterations of gene expression leading to the increased proliferation and to liver cancer. This review summarizes recent progress in the identification of the key steps of the development of HCC with the focus on early events of carcinogenesis and on the role of translational and epigenetic alterations in the development of HCC. Quiescent stage of the liver is supported by several tumor suppressor proteins including p53, Rb and C/EBPα. Studies with chemical models of liver carcinogenesis and with human HCC have shown that the elevation of gankyrin is responsible for the elimination of these three proteins at early steps of carcinogenesis. Later stages of progression of the liver cancer are associated with alterations in many signaling pathways including translation which leads to epigenetic silencing/activation of many genes. Particularly, recent reports suggest a critical role of histone deacetylase 1, HDAC1, in the development of HCC through the interactions with transcription factors such as C/EBP family proteins. PMID:20850540

  17. Carcinoma arising in pilonidal sinuses.

    PubMed Central

    Pilipshen, S J; Gray, G; Goldsmith, E; Dineen, P

    1981-01-01

    Pilonidal carcinoma is an infrequent complication of pilonidal disease. The surgeon's suspicion should be raised in cases of longstanding pilonidal inflammation. The disease occurs most frequently in men. The lesion is often a well-differentiated squamous carcinoma. Wide excisions at the initial procedure following a brief period of local wound care, is the optimum treatment and increases the chances for a five-year survival. Definitive closure of the defect is delayed and accomplished by rotational flaps or skin grafts. It palpable nodes are present in the inguinal region they should be biopsied even though this does not necessarily connote metastasis. When inguinal node metastasis is present, this is associated with a poor prognosis. The incidence of occult node metastasis is not known because no prophylactic groin dissections were performed. Staged groin dissections were not associated with any long-term survivals. The series was too small to determine its palliative potential. Radiation therapy may palliate local bone or soft tissue recurrences. Re-excisions of local soft tissue recurrences can provide, in some instances, long disease-free intervals. Both topical and systemic chemotherapy were administered in more recent cases with poor results, but this series is not large enough to form conclusions for this modality of treatment. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:7212813

  18. Rhabdoid Carcinoma of the Rectum

    PubMed Central

    Samalavicius, Narimantas Evaldas; Gasilionis, Valdas; Baltruskeviciene, Edita; Aleknavicius, Eduardas; Mickys, Ugnius

    2013-01-01

    Rhabdoid colonic tumors are very rare lesions with just a few publications describing such neoplasms. Even more unusual for these lesions are their primary rectal locations, with only two brief case reports having been published on that subject to date. We present a case of a composite rhabdoid rectal carcinoma in a 49-year-old male. The tumor behaved very aggressively, with rapid patient demise despite radical surgery and intensive postoperative chemotherapy (FOLFIRI [folinic acid {leucovorin}, fluorouracil {5-fluorouracil}, and irinotecan] and FOLFOX4 [folinic acid {leucovorin}, fluorouraci {5-fluorouracil}, and oxaliplatin]). Pathologic examination was supportive of a rhabdoid carcinoma, with a compatible immunohistochemical profile, demonstrating synchronous expression of vimentin and epithelial markers in the tumor cells. In addition, BRAF V600E gene mutation, together with a wild-type KRAS gene, was identified, and no evidence of microsatellite instability based on MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 immunophenotypes, i.e., no loss of expression for all 4 markers, was observed. Our reported case confirms previously published observations of the clinical aggressiveness and the poor therapeutic response for rhabdoid tumors. PMID:24466541

  19. HPV Carcinomas in Immunocompromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    Reusser, Nicole M.; Downing, Christopher; Guidry, Jacqueline; Tyring, Stephen K.

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide and can result in pre-malignancies or overt malignancies of the skin and mucosal surfaces. HPV-related illnesses are an important personal and public health problem causing physical, mental, sexual and financial detriments. Moreover, this set of malignancies severely affects the immunosuppressed population, particularly HIV-positive patients and organ-transplant recipients. There is growing incidence of HPV-associated anogenital malignancies as well as a decrease in the average age of affected patients, likely related to the rising number of high-risk individuals. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of HPV-related malignancy. Current treatment options for HPV infection and subsequent disease manifestations include imiquimod, retinoids, intralesional bleomycin, and cidofovir; however, primary prevention with HPV vaccination remains the most effective strategy. This review will discuss anogenital lesions in immunocompromised patients, cutaneous warts at nongenital sites, the association of HPV with skin cancer in immunocompromised patients, warts and carcinomas in organ-transplant patients, HIV-positive patients with HPV infections, and the management of cutaneous disease in the immunocompromised patient. PMID:26239127

  20. Treatment for metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bensouda, Y; Kaikani, W; Ahbeddou, N; Rahhali, R; Jabri, M; Mrabti, H; Boussen, H; Errihani, H

    2011-04-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a specific entity different from head and neck carcinoma. Incidence is higher in South-East Asia and North Africa. Prognosis, especially for locally advanced stages (IIB - IVB) and metastasis, remains poor: more than third of cases will present local and/or metastatic recurrence. Overall 5-year survival for all NPC stages ranges from 50% to 70%. The role of chemotherapy in metastasis is well established, and remains an important palliative treatment, although no randomized trial has been reported comparing the different chemotherapy regimens. As 1(st)-line treatment, platin-based regimens seems optimal; in 2(nd) line and after progression under platins, there is no consensus: monotherapy with drugs such as gemcitabine, capecitabine or taxanes has been the most widely tested, with acceptable results. Future trials should integrate targeted therapy, in the light of overexpression of EGFR1 and C-kit in NPC. The present study presents a review of the literature concerning the various studies of metastatic NPC. PMID:21177151

  1. Gene Expression Patterns in Ovarian Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Schaner, Marci E.; Ross, Douglas T.; Ciaravino, Giuseppe; Sørlie, Therese; Troyanskaya, Olga; Diehn, Maximilian; Wang, Yan C.; Duran, George E.; Sikic, Thomas L.; Caldeira, Sandra; Skomedal, Hanne; Tu, I-Ping; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Johnson, Steven W.; O'Dwyer, Peter J.; Fero, Michael J.; Kristensen, Gunnar B.; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Hastie, Trevor; Tibshirani, Robert; van de Rijn, Matt; Teng, Nelson N.; Longacre, Teri A.; Botstein, David; Brown, Patrick O.; Sikic, Branimir I.

    2003-01-01

    We used DNA microarrays to characterize the global gene expression patterns in surface epithelial cancers of the ovary. We identified groups of genes that distinguished the clear cell subtype from other ovarian carcinomas, grade I and II from grade III serous papillary carcinomas, and ovarian from breast carcinomas. Six clear cell carcinomas were distinguished from 36 other ovarian carcinomas (predominantly serous papillary) based on their gene expression patterns. The differences may yield insights into the worse prognosis and therapeutic resistance associated with clear cell carcinomas. A comparison of the gene expression patterns in the ovarian cancers to published data of gene expression in breast cancers revealed a large number of differentially expressed genes. We identified a group of 62 genes that correctly classified all 125 breast and ovarian cancer specimens. Among the best discriminators more highly expressed in the ovarian carcinomas were PAX8 (paired box gene 8), mesothelin, and ephrin-B1 (EFNB1). Although estrogen receptor was expressed in both the ovarian and breast cancers, genes that are coregulated with the estrogen receptor in breast cancers, including GATA-3, LIV-1, and X-box binding protein 1, did not show a similar pattern of coexpression in the ovarian cancers. PMID:12960427

  2. Basosquamous carcinoma: is it an aggressive tumor?

    PubMed

    Kececi, Yavuz; Argon, Asuman; Kebat, Tulug; Sir, Emin; Gungor, Melike; Vardar, Enver

    2015-04-01

    Basosquamous carcinoma is a rare cutaneous tumour that is considered an aggressive type of basal cell carcinoma with an increased risk of recurrence and metastases. This impression has been perpetuated in the literature, despite limited scientific data and conflicting results of some authors. This present study was aimed to evaluate the clinical-pathological features of this tumour and follow-up of a series of basosquamous carcinoma. Basosquamous carcinoma patients who underwent surgical excision between January 2000 and February 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Their medical files were reviewed and the corresponding routinely stained sections (with hematoxylin-eosin) were re-evaluated by two pathologists. Thirty-five patients with basosquamous carcinoma were operated on in this period. Most tumurs were located in the head and neck area (94%), and the mean age of the patients was 69.8 years. Margin involvements were seen in 11 patients (31.4%) and all of them underwent re-excision. There was only one local recurrence. There was neither regional lymph node nor distant metastasis in this series. The recurrence rate of basosquamous carcinoma is found as 4%, lower than that of most other similar studies. Further pathologic studies are needed to better classify basosquamous carcinoma and to increase consistency between the results of studies. Surgical excision and regular follow-up are considered as the treatment of choice. PMID:25139415

  3. Detergent solubilization of the EGF receptor from A431 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayanidhi, R.; Rintoul, D. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Functional reconstitution of purified preparations of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) requires dissociation of the protein from its plasma membrane lipid environment. Solubilization of membrane proteins in this manner requires the use of detergents, which are known to disrupt plasma membrane lipid/protein interactions. We have investigated the ability of three nonionic detergents to solubilize the human EGFR selectively, and have also analyzed the effect of these various treatments on the intrinsic tyrosyl kinase activity of the receptor. The nonionic detergent known as n-octyl glucoside (n-octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside) was found to give the best combination of selectivity, yield, and maintenance of enzymatic activity of the human EGFR.

  4. Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma of the head and face.

    PubMed

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Kramer, B; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet light (UV) is an important risk factor for cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin. These cancers most commonly affect persons with fair skin and blue eyes who sunburn rather than suntan. However, each of these cancers appears to be associated with a different pattern of UV exposure and to be mediated by different intracellular molecular pathways.Some melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants play a direct role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma apart from their role in determining a cancer-prone pigmentory phenotype (fair skin, red hair, blue eyes) through their interactions with other genes regulating immuno-inflammatory responses, DNA repair or apoptosis.In this short review we focus on the aetiological role of UV in cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin, and on some associated biopathological events. PMID:26850723

  5. Opposed expression of IKKα: loss in keratinizing carcinomas and gain in non-keratinizing carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Desheng; Jia, Jiantao; Shi, Ying; Fu, Chunyan; Chen, Ling; Jiang, Yiqun; Zhou, Li; Liu, Shuang; Tao, Yongguang

    2015-01-01

    The functional role of IKKα in vivo is pretty complicated, largely due to its diverse functions through cell autonomous and non-autonomous manners. In addition, most of the studies on IKKα were derived from animal models, whether these findings hold true in human tumors remain unclear. Here we examined the expression of IKKα in nasopharyngeal carcinoma, which includes non-keratinizing carcinoma and keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma, and lung squamous cell carcinoma with keratinization and non-keratinization. We demonstrated that IKKα expression was almost negative in keratinizing cancer and higher expression of IKKα was found in non-keratinizing cancer, and that IKKα expression correlateed with cellular differentiation of tumors in non-keratinizing nasopharyngeal carcinoma. These findings demonstrate that IKKα is diversely expressed in keratinizing and non-keratinizing carcinomas in the same type of cancer. PMID:26317791

  6. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma: Brazilian survey

    PubMed Central

    Cotrim, Helma P.; Oliveira, Claudia P.; Coelho, Henrique Sérgio M.; Alvares-da-Silva, Mario R.; Nabuco, Leticia; Parise, Edison Roberto; Ivantes, Claúdia; Martinelli, Ana LC; Galizzi-Filho, João; Carrilho, Flair J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The majority of cases of hepatocellular carcinoma have been reported in individuals with cirrhosis due to chronic viral hepatitis and alcoholism, but recently, the prevalence has become increasingly related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis around the world. The study aimed to evaluate the clinical and histophatological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma in Brazilians' patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis at the present time. METHODS: Members of the Brazilian Society of Hepatology were invited to complete a survey regarding patients with hepatocellular carcinoma related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Patients with a history of alcohol intake (>20 g/day) and other liver diseases were excluded. Hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis was performed by liver biopsy or imaging methods according to the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases' 2011 guidelines. RESULTS: The survey included 110 patients with a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease from nine hepatology units in six Brazilian states (Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul). The mean age was 67±11 years old, and 65.5% were male. Obesity was observed in 52.7% of the cases; diabetes, in 73.6%; dyslipidemia, in 41.0%; arterial hypertension, in 60%; and metabolic syndrome, in 57.2%. Steatohepatitis without fibrosis was observed in 3.8% of cases; steatohepatitis with fibrosis (grades 1-3), in 27%; and cirrhosis, in 61.5%. Histological diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was performed in 47.2% of the patients, with hepatocellular carcinoma without cirrhosis accounting for 7.7%. In total, 58 patients with cirrhosis had their diagnosis by ultrasound confirmed by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Of these, 55% had 1 nodule; 17%, 2 nodules; and 28%, ≥3 nodules. CONCLUSIONS: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is a relevant risk factor associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with and

  7. Recombinant human betacellulin. Molecular structure, biological activities, and receptor interaction.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Shintani, A; Nakata, M; Shing, Y; Folkman, J; Igarashi, K; Sasada, R

    1994-04-01

    Soluble forms of human betacellulin (BTC) were purified to homogeneity from the conditioned medium of mouse A9 cells transfected with the BTC precursor cDNA. Three types of soluble BTC, designated BTC-1a, BTC-1b and BTC-2, were resolved by cation-exchange and size-exclusion column chromatography. Physicochemical analysis has revealed that BTC-1a represents the glycosylated, intact molecule composed of 80 amino acid residues (Asp32 to Tyr111 of the precursor molecule). BTC-1b appears to be a truncated molecule lacking 12 amino acid residues from the amino terminus of BTC-1a. BTC-2 was found to be a 50-amino acid molecule (Arg62 to Tyr111) that corresponds to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) structural unit. The biological activities of these BTC molecules were essentially identical as judged by their mitogenicity on Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts. BTC and EGF were equipotent in stimulating Balb/c 3T3 cell proliferation and rat mesangial cell Ca2+ mobilization as well as in inhibiting the growth of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. BTC and EGF antagonized each other with similar dose dependence for binding to A431 cells, indicating that these factors bind the same receptor molecules with equivalent avidity. The Kd value of EGF receptor (EGFR) and BTC is 0.5 nM as determined on Balb/c 3T3 cells. In addition, human mammary carcinoma MDA-MB-453 cells, which express multiple members of the EGFR family, were found to possess 2.7 x 10(3) BTC binding sites/cell, and the binding was readily quenched by EGF. These results suggest that the primary receptor for BTC is EGFR. PMID:8144591

  8. PET imaging of epidermal growth factor receptor expression in tumours using 89Zr-labelled ZEGFR:2377 affibody molecules

    PubMed Central

    GAROUSI, JAVAD; ANDERSSON, KEN G.; MITRAN, BOGDAN; PICHL, MARIE-LOUISE; STÅHL, STEFAN; ORLOVA, ANNA; LÖFBLOM, JOHN; TOLMACHEV, VLADIMIR

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor, which is overexpressed in many types of cancer. The use of EGFR-targeting monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine-kinase inhibitors improves significantly survival of patients with colorectal, non-small cell lung cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Detection of EGFR overexpression provides important prognostic and predictive information influencing management of the patients. The use of radionuclide molecular imaging would enable non-invasive repeatable determination of EGFR expression in disseminated cancer. Moreover, positron emission tomography (PET) would provide superior sensitivity and quantitation accuracy in EGFR expression imaging. Affibody molecules are a new type of imaging probes, providing high contrast in molecular imaging. In the present study, an EGFR-binding affibody molecule (ZEGFR:2377) was site-specifically conjugated with a deferoxamine (DFO) chelator and labelled under mild conditions (room temperature and neutral pH) with a positron-emitting radionuclide 89Zr. The 89Zr-DFO-ZEGFR:2377 tracer demonstrated specific high affinity (160±60 pM) binding to EGFR-expressing A431 epidermoid carcinoma cell line. In mice bearing A431 xenografts, 89Zr-DFO-ZEGFR:2377 demonstrated specific uptake in tumours and EGFR-expressing tissues. The tracer provided tumour uptake of 2.6±0.5% ID/g and tumour-to-blood ratio of 3.7±0.6 at 24 h after injection. 89Zr-DFO-ZEGFR:2377 provides higher tumour-to-organ ratios than anti-EGFR antibody 89Zr-DFO-cetuximab at 48 h after injection. EGFR-expressing tumours were clearly visualized by microPET using 89Zr-DFO-ZEGFR:2377 at both 3 and 24 h after injection. In conclusion, 89Zr-DFO-ZEGFR:2377 is a potential probe for PET imaging of EGFR-expression in vivo. PMID:26847636

  9. PET imaging of epidermal growth factor receptor expression in tumours using 89Zr-labelled ZEGFR:2377 affibody molecules.

    PubMed

    Garousi, Javad; Andersson, Ken G; Mitran, Bogdan; Pichl, Marie-Louise; Ståhl, Stefan; Orlova, Anna; Löfblom, John; Tolmachev, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor, which is overexpressed in many types of cancer. The use of EGFR-targeting monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine-kinase inhibitors improves significantly survival of patients with colorectal, non-small cell lung cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Detection of EGFR overexpression provides important prognostic and predictive information influencing management of the patients. The use of radionuclide molecular imaging would enable non-invasive repeatable determination of EGFR expression in disseminated cancer. Moreover, positron emission tomography (PET) would provide superior sensitivity and quantitation accuracy in EGFR expression imaging. Affibody molecules are a new type of imaging probes, providing high contrast in molecular imaging. In the present study, an EGFR-binding affibody molecule (ZEGFR:2377) was site-specifically conjugated with a deferoxamine (DFO) chelator and labelled under mild conditions (room temperature and neutral pH) with a positron-emitting radionuclide (89)Zr. The (89)Zr-DFO-ZEGFR:2377 tracer demonstrated specific high affinity (160 ± 60 pM) binding to EGFR-expressing A431 epidermoid carcinoma cell line. In mice bearing A431 xenografts, (89)Zr-DFO-ZEGFR:2377 demonstrated specific uptake in tumours and EGFR-expressing tissues. The tracer provided tumour uptake of 2.6 ± 0.5% ID/g and tumour-to-blood ratio of 3.7 ± 0.6 at 24 h after injection. (89)Zr-DFO-ZEGFR:2377 provides higher tumour-to-organ ratios than anti-EGFR antibody (89)Zr-DFO-cetuximab at 48 h after injection. EGFR‑expressing tumours were clearly visualized by microPET using (89)Zr-DFO-ZEGFR:2377 at both 3 and 24 h after injection. In conclusion, 8(9)Zr-DFO-ZEGFR:2377 is a potential probe for PET imaging of EGFR-expression in vivo. PMID:26847636

  10. Inflammation and Cancer: Role of Annexin A1 and FPR2/ALX in Proliferation and Metastasis in Human Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gastardelo, Thaís Santana; Cunha, Bianca Rodrigues; Raposo, Luís Sérgio; Maniglia, José Victor; Cury, Patrícia Maluf; Lisoni, Flávia Cristina Rodrigues; Tajara, Eloiza Helena; Oliani, Sonia Maria

    2014-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory protein annexin A1 (ANXA1) has been associated with cancer progression and metastasis, suggesting its role in regulating tumor cell proliferation. We investigated the mechanism of ANXA1 interaction with formylated peptide receptor 2 (FPR2/ALX) in control, peritumoral and tumor larynx tissue samples from 20 patients, to quantitate the neutrophils and mast cells, and to evaluate the protein expression and co-localization of ANXA1/FPR2 in these inflammatory cells and laryngeal squamous cells by immunocytochemistry. In addition, we performed in vitro experiments to further investigate the functional role of ANXA1/FPR2 in the proliferation and metastasis of Hep-2 cells, a cell line from larynx epidermoid carcinoma, after treatment with ANXA12–26 (annexin A1 N-terminal-derived peptide), Boc2 (antagonist of FPR) and/or dexamethasone. Under these treatments, the level of Hep-2 cell proliferation, pro-inflammatory cytokines, ANXA1/FPR2 co-localization, and the prostaglandin signalling were analyzed using ELISA, immunocytochemistry and real-time PCR. An influx of neutrophils and degranulated mast cells was detected in tumor samples. In these inflammatory cells of peritumoral and tumor samples, ANXA1/FPR2 expression was markedly exacerbated, however, in laryngeal carcinoma cells, this expression was down-regulated. ANXA12–26 treatment reduced the proliferation of the Hep-2 cells, an effect that was blocked by Boc2, and up-regulated ANXA1/FPR2 expression. ANXA12–26 treatment also reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and affected the expression of metalloproteinases and EP receptors, which are involved in the prostaglandin signalling. Overall, this study identified potential roles for the molecular mechanism of the ANXA1/FPR2 interaction in laryngeal cancer, including its relationship with the prostaglandin pathway, providing promising starting points for future research. ANXA1 may contribute to the regulation of tumor growth and

  11. Inflammation and cancer: role of annexin A1 and FPR2/ALX in proliferation and metastasis in human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gastardelo, Thaís Santana; Cunha, Bianca Rodrigues; Raposo, Luís Sérgio; Maniglia, José Victor; Cury, Patrícia Maluf; Lisoni, Flávia Cristina Rodrigues; Tajara, Eloiza Helena; Oliani, Sonia Maria

    2014-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory protein annexin A1 (ANXA1) has been associated with cancer progression and metastasis, suggesting its role in regulating tumor cell proliferation. We investigated the mechanism of ANXA1 interaction with formylated peptide receptor 2 (FPR2/ALX) in control, peritumoral and tumor larynx tissue samples from 20 patients, to quantitate the neutrophils and mast cells, and to evaluate the protein expression and co-localization of ANXA1/FPR2 in these inflammatory cells and laryngeal squamous cells by immunocytochemistry. In addition, we performed in vitro experiments to further investigate the functional role of ANXA1/FPR2 in the proliferation and metastasis of Hep-2 cells, a cell line from larynx epidermoid carcinoma, after treatment with ANXA1(2-26) (annexin A1 N-terminal-derived peptide), Boc2 (antagonist of FPR) and/or dexamethasone. Under these treatments, the level of Hep-2 cell proliferation, pro-inflammatory cytokines, ANXA1/FPR2 co-localization, and the prostaglandin signalling were analyzed using ELISA, immunocytochemistry and real-time PCR. An influx of neutrophils and degranulated mast cells was detected in tumor samples. In these inflammatory cells of peritumoral and tumor samples, ANXA1/FPR2 expression was markedly exacerbated, however, in laryngeal carcinoma cells, this expression was down-regulated. ANXA1(2-26) treatment reduced the proliferation of the Hep-2 cells, an effect that was blocked by Boc2, and up-regulated ANXA1/FPR2 expression. ANXA1(2-26) treatment also reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and affected the expression of metalloproteinases and EP receptors, which are involved in the prostaglandin signalling. Overall, this study identified potential roles for the molecular mechanism of the ANXA1/FPR2 interaction in laryngeal cancer, including its relationship with the prostaglandin pathway, providing promising starting points for future research. ANXA1 may contribute to the regulation of tumor growth and

  12. Alcohol and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Feller, L; Chandran, R; Khammissa, R A G; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol is a risk factor for oral squamous cell carcinoma. It enhances the permeability of the oral epithelium, acts as a solvent for tobacco carcinogens, induces basal-cell proliferation, and generates free radicals and acetaldehyde, which have the capacity to cause DNA damage. Alcohol-associated malnutrition and immune suppression may further promote carcinogenesis. However, acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, is the critical agent by which prolonged and excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages increases the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Alcohol also acts synergistically with the products of tobacco combustion in the pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:23971298

  13. Cervical squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to placenta.

    PubMed

    Can, Nhu Thuy T; Robertson, Patricia; Zaloudek, Charles J; Gill, Ryan M

    2013-09-01

    A pregnant 29-year-old gravida 4, para 3 woman with Stage IIB cervical cancer was admitted at 33 weeks and 4 days of gestation and delivered a healthy neonate. Her placenta was small but otherwise grossly unremarkable. Microscopic examination revealed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. An immunohistochemical stain for p16 was positive in the carcinoma cells, supporting metastasis from the cervical tumor. Cervical squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to placenta is very rare. We report a case and discuss metastatic cancer during pregnancy with recommendations for infant follow-up. PMID:23896714

  14. Hepatocellular carcinoma: From diagnosis to treatment.

    PubMed

    Grandhi, Miral Sadaria; Kim, Amy K; Ronnekleiv-Kelly, Sean M; Kamel, Ihab R; Ghasebeh, Mounes A; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2016-06-01

    Primary liver cancer is the sixth most common cancer overall and the second most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for up to 90% of all primary hepatic malignancies and represents a major international health problem. While surgical resection and transplantation are the cornerstone of therapy in early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma, locoregional therapy and sorafenib are beneficial in those with more advanced disease or those who are not surgical candidates. At times, the integration of both surgical and locoregional therapy may be necessary. Hence, hepatocellular carcinoma requires a multidisciplinary approach to determine the most appropriate treatment as well as the timing of various treatments for optimal outcomes. PMID:27312032

  15. Endocrine and metabolic disordes in bronchial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Azzopardi, J G; Freeman, E; Poole, G

    1970-11-28

    In an unselected series of 185 patients with histologically confirmed bronchial carcinoma 16 had endocrine disturbances attributable to the tumour (excluding pulmonary osteoarthropathy). Of these, 11 patients had hypercalcaemia; three inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone; one Cushing's disease; three hypertrophic osteoarthropathy; and one gynaecomastia. Cushing's disease and inappropriate antidiuresis are specifically associated with oat-cell tumours, and hypercalcaemia occurs most frequently with squamous carcinoma. A negative correlation exists between gynaecomastia and osteoarthropathy on the one hand and oat-cell carcinoma on the other. PMID:5483322

  16. Intraglomerular micrometastasis of squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Kotaro; Kumar, Sajal; Chenal, Mario E.; Nicosia, Roberto F.

    2012-01-01

    Intraglomerular metastasis is a rare manifestation of disseminated malignancies. We present here a case of intraglomerular metastatic carcinoma diagnosed as an incidental finding on a kidney biopsy in a 62-year-old male presenting with acute renal failure and metastatic penile squamous cell carcinoma. A proliferative lesion composed of highly atypical epithelial cells was found within a capillary loop and adjacent urinary space of an isolated glomerulus, which was immunoreactive for markers of squamous cell carcinoma. This case is a reminder that circulating cancer cells can occasionally lodge in glomeruli and appear as micrometastasis in kidney biopsies performed for the evaluation of renal dysfunction. PMID:25874083

  17. Detection and Imaging of Aggressive Cancer Cells Using an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-Targeted Filamentous Plant Virus-Based Nanoparticle

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Amy M.; Gulati, Neetu M.; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Steinmetz, Nicole F.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular imaging approaches and targeted drug delivery hold promise for earlier detection of diseases and treatment with higher efficacy while reducing side effects, therefore increasing survival rates and quality of life. Virus-based nanoparticles are a promising platform because their scaffold can be manipulated both genetically and chemically to simultaneously display targeting ligands while carrying payloads for diagnosis or therapeutic intervention. Here, we displayed a 12-amino-acid peptide ligand, GE11 (YHWYGYTPQNVI), on nanoscale filaments formed by the plant virus potato virus X (PVX). Bioconjugation was used to produce fluorescently labeled PVX-GE11 filaments targeted toward the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Cell detection and imaging was demonstrated using human skin epidermoid carcinoma, colorectal adenocarcinoma, and triple negative breast cancer cell lines (A-431, HT-29, MDA-MB-231), all of which upregulate EGFR to various degrees. Nonspecific uptake in ductal breast carcinoma (BT-474) cells was not observed. Furthermore, co-culture experiments with EGFR+ cancer cells and macrophages indicate successful targeting and partitioning toward the cancer cells. This study lays a foundation for the development of EGFR-targeted filaments delivering contrast agents for imaging and diagnosis, and/or toxic payloads for targeted drug delivery. PMID:25611133

  18. Effects of Niacin Restriction on Sirtuin and PARP Responses to Photodamage in Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Benavente, Claudia A.; Schnell, Stephanie A.; Jacobson, Elaine L.

    2012-01-01

    Sirtuins (SIRTs) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs), NAD+-dependent enzymes, link cellular energy status with responses to environmental stresses. Skin is frequently exposed to the DNA damaging effects of UV irradiation, a known etiology in skin cancer. Thus, understanding the defense mechanisms in response to UV, including the role of SIRTs and PARPs, may be important in developing skin cancer prevention strategies. Here, we report expression of the seven SIRT family members in human skin. SIRTs gene expressions are progressively upregulated in A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells (SIRTs1 and 3), actinic keratoses (SIRTs 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7) and squamous cell carcinoma (SIRTs 1–7). Photodamage induces dynamic changes in SIRT expression with upregulation of both SIRT1 and SIRT4 mRNAs. Specific losses of SIRT proteins occur early after photodamage followed by accumulation later, especially for SIRT4. Niacin restriction, which decreases NAD+, the sirtuin substrate, results in an increase in acetylated proteins, upregulation of SIRTs 2 and 4, increased inherent DNA damage, alterations in SIRT responses to photodamage, abrogation of PARP activation following photodamage, and increased sensitivity to photodamage that is completely reversed by repleting niacin. These data support the hypothesis that SIRTs and PARPs play important roles in resistance to photodamage and identify specific SIRTs that respond to photodamage and may be targets for skin cancer prevention. PMID:22860104

  19. [A case of thymic carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Y; Kumamoto, T; Umemoto, M; Nonoyama, A

    1990-07-01

    A 41-year-old male visited with chief complaints of chest pain and cough. The patient was operated on under a diagnosis of invasive thymoma. The tumor was located in the left lobe of the thymus and measured 6 X 9 cm. Since the tumor invaded the left innominate vein, pericardium, and the upper lobe of the left lung, we resected it with adjacent structures. Postoperative pathological examination indicated squamous cell carcinoma of the thymus. Because the tumor metastasized also to the mediastinal lymph nodes, the patient was treated postoperatively by radiation therapy and adjuvant chemotherapy mainly with CDDP. The patient is well presently 2 years after operation without signs of recurrence. PMID:2212787

  20. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tanwar, Sudeep; Khan, Shahid A; Grover, Vijay Paul Bob; Gwilt, Catherine; Smith, Belinda; Brown, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the commonest primary malignancy of the liver. It usually occurs in the setting of chronic liver disease and has a poor prognosis if untreated. Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is a suitable therapeutic option for early, unresectable HCC particularly in the setting of chronic liver disease. Following on from disappointing initial results, the seminal study by Mazzaferro et al in 1996 established OLT as a viable treatment for HCC. In this study, the “Milan criteria” were applied achieving a 4-year survival rate similar to OLT for benign disease. Since then various groups have attempted to expand these criteria whilst maintaining long term survival rates. The technique of living donor liver transplantation has evolved over the past decade, particularly in Asia, and published outcome data is comparable to that of OLT. This article will review the evidence, indications, and the future direction of liver transplantation for liver cancer. PMID:19938188

  1. Alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stickel, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma shows a rising incidence worldwide, and the largest burden of disease in Western countries derives from patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and cirrhosis, the latter being the premier premalignant factor for HCC. The present chapter addresses key issues including the epidemiology of alcohol-associated HCC, and its link to other coexisting non-alcoholic liver diseases, and additional host and environmental risk factors including the underlying genetics. Also discussed are molecular mechanisms of alcohol-associated liver cancer evolution involving the mediators of alcohol toxicity and carcinogenicity, acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species, as well as the recently described mutagenic adducts which these mediators form with DNA. Specifically, interference of alcohol with retinoids and cofactors of transmethylation processes are outlined. Information presented in this chapter illustrates that the development of HCC in the context of ALD is multifaceted and suggests several molecular targets for prevention and markers for the screening of risk groups. PMID:25427904

  2. [Breast carcinoma in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Amodeo, C; Caglià, P; Gandolfo, L; Cardillo, P; Veroux, M

    2002-01-01

    Breast cancer represents 40% of all carcinomas and is responsible for the 20% of deads due to a cancer in female population. Patients in more of 50% age over 65 years. 150 patients with breast cancer older then 65 years underwent surgery. T1 and T2 < 2 cm patients were treated with quadrantectomy and radiotherapy. T2 > 2 cm and T3 patients underwent radical mastectomy. T4 patients were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy before surgery. Mean follow up was 48 (range 12-78) months. 43 patients (28.6%) had a progression of the neoplasia. Five years mortality rate was 18.6%. Surgery nowadays represents the treatment of choice for breast cancer even in elderly woman. Associated diseases in these patients shouldn't always considered an absolute contraindication for surgery. PMID:12704991

  3. Hepatocellular carcinoma: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Lisa P; Deshpande, Vrushak; Pyrsopoulos, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is rapidly becoming one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide. With a rising rate, it is a prominent source of mortality. Patients with advanced fibrosis, predominantly cirrhosis and hepatitis B are predisposed to developing HCC. Individuals with chronic hepatitis B and C infections are most commonly afflicted. Different therapeutic options, including liver resection, transplantation, systemic and local therapy, must be tailored to each patient. Liver transplantation offers leading results to achieve a cure. The Milan criteria is acknowledged as the model to classify the individuals that meet requirements to undergo transplantation. Mean survival remains suboptimal because of long waiting times and limited donor organ resources. Recent debates involve expansion of these criteria to create options for patients with HCC to increase overall survival. PMID:26609342

  4. Experimental models of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Newell, Philippa; Villanueva, Augusto; Friedman, Scott L; Koike, Kazuhiko; Llovet, Josep M

    2008-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common and deadly cancer whose pathogenesis is incompletely understood. Comparative genomic studies from human HCC samples have classified HCCs into different molecular subgroups; yet, the unifying feature of this tumor is its propensity to arise upon a background of inflammation and fibrosis. This review seeks to analyze the available experimental models in HCC research and to correlate data from human populations with them in order to consolidate our efforts to date, as it is increasingly clear that different models will be required to mimic different subclasses of the neoplasm. These models will be instrumental in the evaluation of compounds targeting specific molecular pathways in future preclinical studies. PMID:18314222

  5. Primary carcinoma of renal calyx.

    PubMed

    Williams, Phillip A; Mai, Kien T

    2013-10-01

    Renal calyx carcinoma (RCXC) may mimic collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) or urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the renal pelvis. RCXC is distinguished from CDC and UC of the renal pelvis as having the tumor epicenter in the renal calyx, with limited involvement of the surrounding renal pelvis surface urothelium. In this study, we summarize our experience with this entity. Ten cases of RCXC, including 9 cases with urothelial differentiation (RCXC-UC) and 1 case with salivary gland-type differentiation (RCXC-SC), were identified. Ten consecutive cases of UC were selected for comparison, with extensive renal pelvis involvement and with secondary renal parenchymal invasion. Two cases of collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) were also examined. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on representative tissue blocks for PAX8, PAX2, CK5, CK7, CK20, p63, GATA3, AMACR, RCC, CD10, vimentin, S100, and MSA. The 10 cases of RCXC (M:F=4:6, ages: 62-91 years, mean: 76) presented with renal masses of 3-6cm. Ureteroscopic studies and renal pelvic washings showed atypical/malignant cells in three cases. Seven patients were treated with nephrectomy followed by radiation±chemotherapy, and all cases developed metastases to lymph nodes or liver/lung/bone. In all 7 cases with nephrectomy, there was extensive renal parenchymal involvement with infiltrating borders and diffuse spread along collecting ducts. Six RCXC-UC contained focal squamous differentiation. The RCXC-SC displayed features of adenoid cystic and basaloid features. In situ UC, with or without papillary components, was identified in the calyces in all 7 nephrectomy cases with remaining renal pelvis harboring small tumor burden in 5 cases, and no tumor in another 2 cases. Of the three cases without nephrectomy, no tumor in the renal pelvis could be visualized with endoscopy, however one case was associated with UC of the urinary bladder. Of 10 control UC cases, tumor was limited to the tip of renal papilla in 7 cases, extensive in 3

  6. Treatment Options by Stage (Adrenocortical Carcinoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Childhood Treatment for more information.) Having certain genetic conditions increases the risk of adrenocortical carcinoma. Anything ... can be a sign of disease. CT scan (CAT scan) : A procedure that makes a series of ...

  7. Treatment Options by Stage (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... other organs . Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can affect the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma. ... ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy for psoriasis . Having an immune system weakened by disease, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...

  8. Treatment Option Overview (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... other organs . Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can affect the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma. ... ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy for psoriasis . Having an immune system weakened by disease, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...

  9. [Radiotherapy of carcinoma of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Servagi-Vernat, S; Tochet, F

    2016-09-01

    Indication, doses, and technique of radiotherapy for salivary glands carcinoma are presented, and the contribution of neutrons and carbon ions. The recommendations for delineation of the target volumes and organs at risk are detailed. PMID:27521038

  10. Paraneoplastic Cough and Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    A case of patient with intractable cough due to renal cell carcinoma is reported. The discussion reviews the literature regarding this unusual paraneoplastic manifestation of renal malignancy. PMID:27445553

  11. [Synchronous carcinomas of the colon and rectum].

    PubMed

    Mandarano, R; Ciccone, A

    1995-12-01

    The authors base their observations on 3 cases of synchronous carcinoma of the large intestine and 1 case of association of cancer on polyps and synchronous colorectal carcinoma. After a short review of the etiopathogenetic and diagnostic aspects, they focus attention in particular on the various types on surgical approach which synchronous carcinoma of the large intestine offer to surgeons. The authors underline that numerous forms of surgery exist which are often complex and difficult, especially if multiple neoplasia involve separate colic segments and above all if they affect the distal rectal section. In conclusion, they affirm that the association of cancer on polyps and synchronous colorectal carcinoma is not rare and should be treated using combined endoscopic and surgical therapy. To the precise colic exeresis should be followed by endoscopic resection in the case of a scissil, villous polyps with high non-differentiated neoplastic tissue laying close on the endoscopic plane of section. PMID:8725069

  12. Sunitinib benefits patients with renal cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Findings from clinical trial patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, a common kidney cancer, show they did not have accelerated tumor growth after treatment with sunitinib, in contrast to some study results in animals.

  13. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    PubMed

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy. PMID:26971503

  14. Depsipeptide in Unresectable Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-29

    Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  15. Efficacy and Tolerability of ABT-869 Versus Sorafenib in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-09-07

    Hepatocellular Carcinoma Non-resectable; Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrent; Carcinoma, Hepatocellular; Liver Diseases; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Digestive System Neoplasms; Carcinoma; Liver Neoplasms; Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Site; Digestive System Diseases; Adenocarcinoma; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial

  16. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate gland

    PubMed Central

    Hoof, Pamela; Tsai-Nguyen, Ginger; Paulson, Scott; Syed, Almas

    2016-01-01

    Small cell prostate carcinoma (SCPC) has a clinical course and prognosis that is markedly different from that of common adenocarcinoma of the prostate. The patient in this case presented with fever of unknown origin, dyspnea, and near spinal cord compression. He was subsequently found to have widely metastatic high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of prostatic origin. This case emphasizes that despite the commonality of prostate cancer, there are rare presentations of this common disease. PMID:26722176

  17. Ureterocele urothelial carcinoma: managing a rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Astigueta, Juan Carlos; Abad-Licham, Milagros; Silva, Eloy; Alvarez, Víctor; Piccone, Francis; Cruz, Enrique; Redorta, Joan Palou

    2016-01-01

    It is very uncommon for urothelial carcinoma to develop in an ureterocele. It is generally discovered in an imaging study or in connection with haematuria. We found very few reports in the literature. Here, we report on the case of a 71-year-old male who initially presented with haematuria and low back pain and who then underwent transurethral resection for an intraureterocele tumour. Pathology confirmed urothelial carcinoma. PMID:26913072

  18. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach

    PubMed Central

    Gülçiçek, Osman Bilgin; Solmaz, Ali; Özdoğan, Kamil; Erçetin, Candaş; Yavuz, Erkan; Yiğitbaş, Hakan; Çelebi, Fatih; Altınay, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach accounts for less than 1% of all gastric malignancies. Less than 100 cases were reported in the literature. Therefore, knowledge about management and prognosis of the disease is limited. Surgical approach is the basic form of treatment. In this study we confirmed a case of primary gastric squamous cell carcinoma with the aim of contribution to the literature, which is seen rare, and the diagnosis was confirmed pathologically. PMID:27528817

  19. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma, Version 2.2015

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Robert I.; Lydiatt, William M.; Ball, Douglas W.; Busaidy, Naifa Lamki; Byrd, David; Callender, Glenda; Dickson, Paxton; Duh, Quan-Yang; Ehya, Hormoz; Haymart, Megan; Hoh, Carl; Hunt, Jason P.; Iagaru, Andrei; Kandeel, Fouad; Kopp, Peter; Lamonica, Dominick M.; McCaffrey, Judith C.; Moley, Jeffrey F.; Parks, Lee; Raeburn, Christopher D.; Ridge, John A.; Ringel, Matthew D.; Scheri, Randall P.; Shah, Jatin P.; Smallridge, Robert C.; Sturgeon, Cord; Wang, Thomas N.; Wirth, Lori J.; Hoffmann, Karin G.; Hughes, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    This selection from the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Thyroid Carcinoma focuses on anaplastic carcinoma because substantial changes were made to the systemic therapy recommendations for the 2015 update. Dosages and frequency of administration are now provided, docetaxel/doxorubicin regimens were added, and single-agent cisplatin was deleted because it is not recommended for patients with advanced or metastatic anaplastic thyroid cancer. PMID:26358798

  20. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome. PMID:25506011

  1. Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Khoo, J J; Clouston, A

    2001-12-01

    A 6-year-old Malay boy presented with fever and abdominal pain for 2 months. Computerised tomography showed a nodular mass in the left lobe of the liver. There was also portal vein thrombosis on the left side. Serum alpha-fetoprotein was not elevated and Hepatitis B antigen was negative. Biopsy of the liver mass led to a histological diagnosis of fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma. In view of extensive tumour involvement, he could not be operated on but was treated with chemotherapy. However, the tumour did not respond. While this is expected for fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma, the possibility of the tumour having a component of ordinary hepatocellular carcinoma could not be excluded as the tumour was not resected. Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma is a rare histological subtype of hepatocellular carcinoma, associated with a better prognosis. It affects the younger age group and has no association with cirrhosis, hepatitis B virus infection or exposure to oral contraceptives, all of which are implicated in ordinary hepatocellular carcinoma. Serum alpha-fetoprotein level is usually within normal limits and other laboratory values are not contributory to the diagnosis. The diagnosis is usually suggested by radiographic studies viz. CT scan of the abdomen, which would show an irregular non-homogenous mass in the liver, and confirmed by histological examination. The most characteristic microscopical feature is fibrosis arranged in a lamellar fashion around polygonal and deeply eosinophilic neoplastic hepatocytes. PMID:12166592

  2. Pulmonary scar carcinoma. A clinicopathologic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bakris, G.L.; Mulopulos, G.P.; Korchik, R.; Ezdinli, E.Z.; Ro, J.; Yoon, B.H.

    1983-08-01

    To delineate differences between scar and non-scar pulmonary carcinoma, the charts, autopsy protocols and chest roentgenograms of 80 male patients (autopsied) between 1975 and 1980, were reviewed. Nineteen patients (24%) had documented scar carcinomas. The comparison revealed scar carcinomas to possess certain distinctive features: A higher histologic distribution of adenocarcinoma (58% versus 15% in non-scars) and the frequent presentation (53%) with only nonpulmonary symptoms and signs related to metastasis. In scar carcinomas both bronchoscopy and sputum cytology were ineffective as initial diagnostic tools since chest findings were absent or minimal. Chest x-ray was negative in 9 of the 19 patients with scar cancer and remained negative until death in seven. In 10 of 19 instances, pulmonary scar carcinomas presented with only nonpulmonary symptoms and showed a tendency to metastasize while clinically undetectable. The differences noted between scar and non-scar carcinomas of the lung appear to depend on the peripheral location of these tumors and not on the adenocarcinoma histology.

  3. Landscape of genomic alterations in cervical carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Ojesina, Akinyemi I; Lichtenstein, Lee; Freeman, Samuel S; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Imaz-Rosshandler, Ivan; Pugh, Trevor J; Cherniack, Andrew D; Ambrogio, Lauren; Cibulskis, Kristian; Bertelsen, Bjørn; Romero-Cordoba, Sandra; Treviño, Victor; Vazquez-Santillan, Karla; Guadarrama, Alberto Salido; Wright, Alexi A; Rosenberg, Mara W; Duke, Fujiko; Kaplan, Bethany; Wang, Rui; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Walline, Heather M; Lawrence, Michael S; Stewart, Chip; Carter, Scott L; McKenna, Aaron; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Iram P; Espinosa-Castilla, Magali; Woie, Kathrine; Bjorge, Line; Wik, Elisabeth; Halle, Mari K; Hoivik, Erling A; Krakstad, Camilla; Gabiño, Nayeli Belem; Gómez-Macías, Gabriela Sofia; Valdez-Chapa, Lezmes D; Garza-Rodríguez, María Lourdes; Maytorena, German; Vazquez, Jorge; Rodea, Carlos; Cravioto, Adrian; Cortes, Maria L; Greulich, Heidi; Crum, Christopher P; Neuberg, Donna S; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Escareno, Claudia Rangel; Akslen, Lars A; Carey, Thomas E; Vintermyr, Olav K; Gabriel, Stacey B; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo A; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge; Getz, Gad; Salvesen, Helga B; Meyerson, Matthew

    2014-02-20

    Cervical cancer is responsible for 10-15% of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. The aetiological role of infection with high-risk human papilloma viruses (HPVs) in cervical carcinomas is well established. Previous studies have also implicated somatic mutations in PIK3CA, PTEN, TP53, STK11 and KRAS as well as several copy-number alterations in the pathogenesis of cervical carcinomas. Here we report whole-exome sequencing analysis of 115 cervical carcinoma-normal paired samples, transcriptome sequencing of 79 cases and whole-genome sequencing of 14 tumour-normal pairs. Previously unknown somatic mutations in 79 primary squamous cell carcinomas include recurrent E322K substitutions in the MAPK1 gene (8%), inactivating mutations in the HLA-B gene (9%), and mutations in EP300 (16%), FBXW7 (15%), NFE2L2 (4%), TP53 (5%) and ERBB2 (6%). We also observe somatic ELF3 (13%) and CBFB (8%) mutations in 24 adenocarcinomas. Squamous cell carcinomas have higher frequencies of somatic nucleotide substitutions occurring at cytosines preceded by thymines (Tp*C sites) than adenocarcinomas. Gene expression levels at HPV integration sites were statistically significantly higher in tumours with HPV integration compared with expression of the same genes in tumours without viral integration at the same site. These data demonstrate several recurrent genomic alterations in cervical carcinomas that suggest new strategies to combat this disease. PMID:24390348

  4. Preclinical pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, radiation dosimetry and toxicity studies required for regulatory approval of a phase I clinical trial with 111In-CP04 in medullary thyroid carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Maina, Theodosia; Konijnenberg, Mark W.; KolencPeitl, Petra; Garnuszek, Piotr; Nock, Berthold A.; Kaloudi, Aikaterini; Kroselj, Marko; Zaletel, Katja; Maecke, Helmut; Mansi, Rosalba; Erba, Paola; von Guggenberg, Elisabeth; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Mikolajczak, Renata; Decristoforo, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Introduction From a series of radiolabelled cholecystokinin (CCK) and gastrin analogues, 111In-CP04 (111In-DOTA-(DGlu)6-Ala-Tyr-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2) was selected for further translation as a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical towards a first-in-man study in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). A freeze-dried kit formulation for multicentre application has been developed. We herein report on biosafety, in vivo stability, biodistribution and dosimetry aspects of 111In-CP04 in animal models, essential for the regulatory approval of the clinical trial. Materials and methods Acute and extended single dose toxicity of CP04 was tested in rodents, while the in vivo stability of 111In-CP04 was assessed by HPLC analysis of mouse blood samples. The biodistribution of 111In-CP04 prepared from a freeze-dried kit was studied in SCID mice bearing double A431-CCK2R(±) xenografts at 1, 4 and 24 h pi. Further 4-h animal groups were either additionally treated with the plasma expander gelofusine or injected with 111In-CP04 prepared by wet-labelling. Pharmacokinetics in healthy mice included the 30 min, 1, 4, 24, 48 and 72 h time points pi. Dosimetric calculations were based on extrapolation of mice data to humans adopting two scaling models. Results CP04 was well-tolerated by both mice and rats, with an LD50 > 178.5 μg/kg body weight for mice and a NOAEL (no-observed-adverse-effect-level) of 89 μg/kg body weight for rats. After labelling, 111In-CP04 remained >70% intact in peripheral mouse blood at 5 min pi. The uptake of 111In-CP04 prepared from the freeze-dried kit and by wet-labelling were comparable in the A431-CCK2R(+)-xenografts (9.24 ± 1.35%ID/g and 8.49 ± 0.39%ID/g, respectively; P > 0.05). Gelofusine-treated mice exhibited significantly reduced kidneys values (1.69 ± 0.15%ID/g vs. 5.55 ± 0.94%ID/g in controls, P < 0.001). Dosimetry data revealed very comparable effective tumour doses for the two scaling models applied, of 0.045 and 0.044 m

  5. Hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Kew, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the major malignant tumors in the world today. The number of new cases of the tumor increases year by year, and hepatocellular carcinoma almost always runs a fulminant course and carries an especially grave prognosis. It has a low resectability rate and a high recurrence rate after surgical intervention, and responds poorly to anticancer drugs and radiotherapy. Hepatocellular carcinoma does not have a uniform geographical distribution: rather, very high incidences occur in Eastern and Southeastern Asia and in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In these regions and populations, the tumor shows a distinct shift in age distribution toward the younger ages, seen to greatest extent in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In all populations, males are more commonly affected. The most common risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-poor populations with a high incidence of the tumor are chronic hepatitis B virus infection and dietary exposure to the fungal hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1. These two causative agents act either singly or synergistically. Both the viral infection and exposure to the fungus occur from early childhood, and the tumor typically presents at an early age. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is an important cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-rich countries with a low incidence of the tumor. The infection is acquired in adulthood and hepatocellular carcinoma occurs later than it does with hepatitis B virus-induced tumors. In recent years, obesity and the metabolic syndrome have increased markedly in incidence and importance as a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in some resource-rich regions. Chronic alcohol abuse remains an important risk factor for malignant transformation of hepatocytes, frequently in association with alcohol-induced cirrhosis. Excessive iron accumulation in hereditary hemochromatosis and dietary iron overload in the Black African population and membranous obstruction of the inferior cava

  6. Hsp90 Inhibitor AT13387 in Treating Patients With Locoregionally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Receiving Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-24

    Human Papillomavirus Infection; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  7. Enhancement of tumor responsiveness to aminolevulinate-photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) using differentiation-promoting agents in mouse models of skin carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Sanjay; Honari, Golara; Paliwal, Akshat; Hasan, Tayyaba; Maytin, Edward V.

    2009-06-01

    Aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) is an emerging treatment for cancers. ALA, given as a prodrug, selectively accumulates and is metabolized in cancer cells to form protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Targeted local irradiation with light induces cell death. Since the efficacy of ALA-PDT for large or deep tumors is currently limited, we are developing a new approach that combines differentiation-inducing agents with ALA-PDT to improve the clinical response. Here, we tested this new combination paradigm in the following two models of skin carcinoma in mice: 1) tumors generated by topical application of chemical carcinogens (DMBA-TPA); 2) human SCC cells (A431) implanted subcutaneously. To achieve a differentiated state of the tumors, pretreatment with a low concentration of methotrexate (MTX) or Vitamin D (Vit D) was administered for 72 h prior to exposure to ALA. Confocal images of histological sections were captured and digitally analyzed to determine relative PpIX levels. PpIX in the tumors was also monitored by real-time in vivo fluorescence dosimetry. In both models, a significant increase in levels of PpIX was observed following pretreatment with MTX or Vit D, as compared to no-pretreatment controls. This enhancing effect was observed at very low, non-cytotoxic concentrations, and was highly specific to cancer cells as compared to normal cells. These results suggest that use of differentiating agents such as MTX or Vit D, as a short-term combination therapy given prior to ALA-PDT, can increase the production of PpIX photosensitizer and enhance the therapeutic response of skin cancers.

  8. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Pancreas: A Review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shaun Kian Hong; Chuah, Khoon Leong

    2016-06-01

    The pancreas is an unusual site for tumor metastasis, accounting for only 2% to 5% of all malignancies affecting the pancreas. The more common metastases affecting the pancreas include renal cell carcinomas, melanomas, colorectal carcinomas, breast carcinomas, and sarcomas. Although pancreatic involvement by nonrenal malignancies indicates widespread systemic disease, metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the pancreas often represents an isolated event and is thus amenable to surgical resection, which is associated with long-term survival. As such, it is important to accurately diagnose pancreatic involvement by metastatic renal cell carcinoma on histology, especially given that renal cell carcinoma metastasis may manifest more than a decade after its initial presentation and diagnosis. In this review, we discuss the clinicopathologic findings of isolated renal cell carcinoma metastases of the pancreas, with special emphasis on separating metastatic renal cell carcinoma and its various differential diagnoses in the pancreas. PMID:27232353

  9. Squamous cell carcinoma of the respiratory tract following laryngeal papillomatosis.

    PubMed

    Lie, E S; Engh, V; Boysen, M; Clausen, O P; Kvernvold, H; Stenersen, T C; Winther, F O

    1994-03-01

    With the object to disclose an association between laryngeal papillomatosis and laryngeal carcinoma, we reviewed 102 patients with laryngeal papillomatosis treated between 1950 and 1979. Seven cases of laryngeal carcinomas were recorded and 1 patient with spread of papilloma to the bronchial tree developed a bronchial carcinoma. The time between onset of papilloma and diagnosis of carcinoma was 4-55 years (mean 24 years). For laryngeal carcinoma the ratio of observed to expected cases was 88. Of the 8 patients developing respiratory tract carcinoma, 2 had received treatment with radiation and 2 had been treated with Bleomycin. Four of these 8 patients were known smokers. This study shows that papillomatosis is more often associated with laryngeal carcinoma than previously reported. It appears, however, that laryngeal papillomas alone seldom induce carcinomas. Apart from irradiation and smoking, Bleomycin could be an important co-factor. PMID:7515551

  10. Radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Hiroki; Kimura, Toru; Kita, Ryuichi; Osaki, Yukio

    2013-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Unfortunately, only 20% of HCC patients are amenable to curative therapy (liver transplantation or surgical resection). Locoregional therapies such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA), percutaneous ethanol injection, microwave coagulation therapy, and transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation play a key role in the management of HCC. The choice of the treatment modality depends on the size of the tumour, tumour location, anatomic considerations and the number of tumours present and liver function. RFA therapy for HCC can be performed safely using a percutaneous, laparoscopic, or an open approach, even in patients with poor functional reserve. Since the introduction of RFA, several randomised controlled trials and non-randomised studies comparing RFA and other therapies for HCC have been conducted. In addition, in the last decade there have been technical advances in RFA therapy for HCC, resulting in significant improvement in the prognosis of HCC patients treated with this modality. In this review, we primarily focus on percutaneous RFA therapy for HCC and refer to current knowledge and future perspectives for this therapy. We also discuss new emerging ablation techniques. PMID:23937321

  11. Everolimus in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y

    2010-08-01

    Everolimus (also known as RAD-001; Afinitor®) is an orally active inhibitor of the intracellular protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency recently approved everolimus for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) on the basis of the results of a randomized phase III clinical trial. In the trial, 10 mg daily everolimus was effective and well tolerated by patients with advanced RCC, whose disease had progressed while under the treatment with sunitinib and/or sorafenib. Everolimus treatment led to 36% of 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) rate and 31% of 3-month PFS rate. Most of the adverse events were mild to moderate (grade 1-2) in severity. The most frequent grade 3-4 adverse events were stomatitis, fatigue, pneumonitis and infections. Clinical trials on everolimus in combination with sunitinib, sorafenib, imatinib and vatalanib for the treatment of RCC are ongoing. PMID:20830316

  12. Epigenetic Mechanisms in Penile Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kuasne, Hellen; Marchi, Fabio Albuquerque; Rogatto, Silvia Regina; de Syllos Cólus, Ilce Mara

    2013-01-01

    Penile carcinoma (PeCa) represents an important public health problem in poor and developing countries. Despite its unpredictable behavior and aggressive treatment, there have only been a few reports regarding its molecular data, especially epigenetic mechanisms. The functional diversity in different cell types is acquired by chromatin modifications, which are established by epigenetic regulatory mechanisms involving DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and miRNAs. Recent evidence indicates that the dysregulation in these processes can result in the development of several diseases, including cancer. Epigenetic alterations, such as the methylation of CpGs islands, may reveal candidates for the development of specific markers for cancer detection, diagnosis and prognosis. There are a few reports on the epigenetic alterations in PeCa, and most of these studies have only focused on alterations in specific genes in a limited number of cases. This review aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge of the epigenetic alterations in PeCa and the promising results in this field. The identification of epigenetically altered genes in PeCa is an important step in understanding the mechanisms involved in this unexplored disease. PMID:23702847

  13. Hepatitis D and hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Zaigham; Abbas, Minaam; Abbas, Sarim; Shazi, Lubna

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective circular shape single stranded HDV RNA virus with two types of viral proteins, small and large hepatitis D antigens, surrounded by hepatitis B surface antigen. Superinfection with HDV in chronic hepatitis B is associated with a more threatening form of liver disease leading to rapid progression to cirrhosis. In spite of some controversy in the epidemiological studies, HDV infection does increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared to hepatitis B virus (HBV) monoinfection. Hepatic decompensation, rather than development of HCC, is the first usual clinical endpoint during the course of HDV infection. Oxidative stress as a result of severe necroinflammation may progress to HCC. The large hepatitis D antigen is a regulator of various cellular functions and an activator of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 and the nuclear factor kappa B pathway. Another proposed epigenetic mechanism by which HCC may form is the aberrant silencing of tumor suppressor genes by DNA Methyltransferases. HDV antigens have also been associated with increased histone H3 acetylation of the clusterin promoter. This enhances the expression of clusterin in infected cells, increasing cell survival potential. Any contribution of HBV DNA integration with chromosomes of infected hepatocytes is not clear at this stage. The targeted inhibition of STAT3 and cyclophilin, and augmentation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ have a potential therapeutic role in HCC. PMID:25914778

  14. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sarpel, Umut; Schwartz, Myron

    2007-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma can only be cured by physical removal or destruction of the tumor before it has spread. This can be accomplished by the ablation of the tumor, surgical resection of the tumor-bearing liver, or by liver transplantation. Ablation and resection can only be performed in patients who will be left with sufficient liver volume to sustain normal hepatic function. Unfortunately, the same disease that caused the HCC also limits the amount of parenchymal loss that can be tolerated by the patient. Liver transplantation is an appealing treatment option because it has the potential to cure patient of both the cancer and the predisposinig liver disease. Excellent survival rates are possible in patients with early HCC who receive a transplant, but dismal results are seen when patients with advanced tumors are transplanted.Wide criteria for transplant allow for more patients to be cured of HCC, but this comes at the expense of a greater overall recurrence rate. The acceptable recurrence rate is not a concrete number, but this is a function of donor organ availability. A 50% cure rate is viewed as an excellent outcome for many accepted cancer operations; however, in the case of transplant for HCC, this would represent a poor use of the scarce donor resource when the same liver offers a 70% 5-year survival rate to a non-HCC patient. These issues and methods retarding tumor progression while on the transplant waiting list are reviewed herein. PMID:17877492

  15. Multidisciplinary Management of Laryngeal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mendenhall, William M. Mancuso, Anthony A.; Hinerman, Russell W.; Malyapa, Robert S.; Werning, John W.; Amdur, Robert J.; Villaret, Douglas B.

    2007-10-01

    The management of head and neck cancer has evolved into a multidisciplinary approach in which patients are evaluated before treatment and decisions depend on prospective multi-institutional trials, as well as retrospective outcome studies. The choice of one or more modalities to use in a given case varies with the tumor site and extent, as exemplified in the treatment of laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. The goals of treatment include cure, laryngeal voice preservation, voice quality, optimal swallowing, and minimal xerostomia. Treatment options include transoral laser excision, radiotherapy (both definitive and postoperative), open partial laryngectomy, total laryngectomy, and neck dissection. The likelihood of local control and preservation of laryngeal function is related to tumor volume. Patients who have a relatively high risk of local recurrence undergo follow-up computed tomography scans every 3-4 months for the first 2 years after radiotherapy. Patients with suspicious findings on computed tomography might benefit from fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to differentiate post-radiotherapy changes from tumor.

  16. Tissue Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Deepali

    2014-01-01

    The current American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) guideline provides strategies for achieving the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) based on the size of liver nodules seen on surveillance imaging. For lesions less than 1 cm in size, follow-up surveillance imaging is recommended. Lesions larger than 2 cm require typical radiological hallmark on dynamic imaging. Lesions of 1–2 cm in size require typical imaging features including intense uptake of contrast during arterial phases followed by decreased enhancement during portal venous phases on at least 2 imaging modalities. In cases of atypical radiological features of the suspected lesion, tissue diagnosis either by fine needle aspiration or biopsy should be obtained. Although fine needle aspiration could give a smaller risk of seeding than biopsy, biopsy has been preferred over cytology. Percutaneous biopsy of HCC carries a potential risk of tumor seeding along the needle tract. However the risk is low and there is no clear evidence of post transplant recurrence due to needle tract seeding. Histopathologic assessment can differentiate between premalignant lesions such as dysplastic nodules and early HCC. Atypical variants of HCC can be recognized morphologically which may have associated prognostic value. PMID:25755614

  17. Gut Microbiota and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Xuemei; Wang, Ning; Qin, Wenxin

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common complication of liver diseases such as those related to viral hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. The gut-liver axis is gaining increasing attention as a key pathophysiological mechanism responsible for the progression of HCC. Here, we will review the data from the published literature to address the association between HCC and gut microbiota. Summary The presence of high levels of endotoxemia in the blood results in portal hypertension and ensuing hepatocyte damage, thus leading to the development of HCC. Probiotics can be used to treat or prevent the progression of HCC, because they may decrease the counts of gut microbiota and thus improve the endotoxemia. Key Message Increased bacterial translocation can result in endotoxemia, which may play a critical role in the progression of HCC. Modulation of the gut microbiota by probiotics may represent a new avenue for therapeutic intervention in HCC. Practical Implications Breakdown in intestinal barrier function and bacterial overgrowth are main events in the development of HCC. When the intestinal barrier function is disrupted, large amounts of bacterial products can enter the liver and induce inflammation through their receptors, leading to liver diseases. Altering the gut microflora has been proposed as an adjunctive therapy to reduce bacterial translocation and prevent progression of HCC. The purpose of this review is to discuss the relationship between gut microbiota and HCC in both pathogenesis and treatment by probiotics. PMID:26673641

  18. Localization of metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma with Ga-67

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, F.T.; Anderson, J.H.; Jelinek, J.; Anderson, D.W. )

    1991-02-01

    Data are limited on the localization of Ga-67 in primary or metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma. We report the localization of Ga-67 to pathologically confirmed adrenal cortical carcinoma metastatic to the lung. A review of the literature revealed four patients have previously been reported to have metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma detected on Ga-67 scan. Gallium imaging may be useful in the evaluation of patients with adrenal cortical carcinoma. SPECT imaging should further improve lesion resolution and localization.

  19. [Clinial picture and localization of skin metastasis of visceral carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Chadlou, R; Biess, B; Ehring, F

    1978-05-01

    Seven cases with secondary skin carcinomas are described. The primary tumor was located at the tongue, the larynx, the thyroid, the abdomen, the ovaries, the collum uteri and the rectum. From the literature 60 other patients with secundary skin carcinomas and 100 primary carcinomas were evaluated. Clinical evidences for a secundary skin carcinoma are: unusual localization, multiple occurrence and an even surface. It was examined whether the localization of the secundary skin tumor refers to the localization of the primary tumor. PMID:207659

  20. The Emerging Molecular Landscape of Urothelial Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Solomon, James P; Hansel, Donna E

    2016-09-01

    Although there have been many recent discoveries in the molecular alterations associated with urothelial carcinoma, current understanding of this disease lags behind many other malignancies. Historically, a two-pathway model had been applied to distinguish low- and high-grade urothelial carcinoma, although significant overlap and increasing complexity of molecular alterations has been recently described. In many cases, mutations in HRAS and FGFR3 that affect the MAPK and PI3K pathways seem to be associated with noninvasive low-grade papillary tumors, whereas mutations in TP53 and RB that affect the G1-S transition of the cell cycle are associated with high-grade in situ and invasive carcinoma. However, recent large-scale analyses have identified overlap in these pathways relative to morphology, and in addition, many other variants in a wide variety of oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes have been identified. New technologies including next-generation sequencing have enabled more detailed analysis of urothelial carcinoma, and several groups have proposed molecular classification systems based on these data, although consensus is elusive. This article reviews the current understanding of alterations affecting oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes associated with urothelial carcinoma, and their application in the context of morphology and classification schema. PMID:27523968

  1. A hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreatic head.

    PubMed

    Stamatova, D; Theilmann, L; Spiegelberg, C

    2016-12-01

    Hepatoid carcinoma (HC) is an extremely rare form of neoplasm. Its cellular structure resembles that of a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To date, only 26 cases of hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreas have been reported in the literature. We report the diagnosis of a hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreatic head in a 78-year-old male patient. The tumor was detected incidentally during routine abdominal ultrasound scanning. Laboratory tests did not show any abnormalities except for a monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. After CT, MRI, and laparoscopic biopsy that failed to obtain the diagnosis, the patient underwent a Whipple procedure. The final pathology report described a hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreatic head (pathological T3, N0 (0/10), L0, V0, R0, M0). After the patient recovered, no further therapy was recommended by the tumor board and he was discharged. Regular follow-up was suggested; however, the patient suddenly died of acute coronary artery disease 2 months after surgery. PMID:27488314

  2. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma in a thyroglossal duct remnant

    PubMed Central

    Warner, E.; Ofo, E.; Connor, S.; Odell, E.; Jeannon, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Thyroglossal duct cysts (TDC) are common midline neck swellings resulting from embryological remnants of the thyroglossal duct. They often contain ectopic thyroid tissue and malignant transformation has been reported, most commonly to papillary thyroid carcinoma. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) usually occurs in the salivary glands and only rarely in the thyroid. This is the first case of a MEC occurring within a thyroglossal duct remnant. Presentation of a case A 73 year old lady presented with a thyroglossal duct cyst. She declined surgical excision, as she was adamant she wanted to avoid surgery. The neck mass rapidly enlarged at two years following initial diagnosis. Fine needle aspiration cytology was suspicious for carcinoma. She underwent total thyroidectomy and selective central compartment neck dissection with adjuvant radiotherapy. She remains alive and well two years post treatment. Discussion Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the most common malignant neoplasm of salivary glands, although it has rarely been reported in diverse locations including the thyroid, lung and pancreas. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising from a thyroglossal duct remnant. Conclusion This case adds weight to the literature favouring surgical excision of thyroglossal duct remnants due to the risk of malignant transformation. PMID:26101054

  3. Palliation of Dysphagia in Carcinoma Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnaiah, Vishnu Prasad Nelamangala; Malage, Somanath; Sreenath, G.S.; Kotlapati, Sudhakar; Cyriac, Sunu

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal carcinoma has a special place in gastrointestinal carcinomas because it contains two main types, namely, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Carcinoma esophagus patients require some form of palliation because of locally advanced stage or distant metastasis, where it cannot be subjected to curable treatment with surgery and chemoradiation. Many modalities of palliation of dysphagia are available, but the procedure with least morbidity, mortality, and long-term palliation of dysphagia needs to be chosen for the patient. This study aims to discuss the recent trends in palliation of dysphagia with promising results and the most suitable therapy for palliation of dysphagia in a given patient. A total of 64 articles that were published between years 2005 and 2015 on various modes of palliation of dysphagia in carcinoma esophagus were studied, which were mainly randomized and prospective studies. Through this study, we conclude that stents are the first choice of therapy for palliation, which is safe and cost-effective, and they can be combined with either radiotherapy or chemotherapy for long-term palliation of dysphagia with good quality of life. Radiotherapy can be used as a second-line treatment modality. PMID:27279758

  4. Factors predictive of survival in ampullary carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Howe, J R; Klimstra, D S; Moccia, R D; Conlon, K C; Brennan, M F

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the recent Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center experience with adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater and to identify clinicopathologic factors that have an impact on patient survival. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The prognosis for patients with tumors of the ampulla of Vater is improved relative to other periampullary neoplasms. Identification of independent prognostic factors in ampullary tumors has been limited by small numbers of tumors and a lack of pathologic review. METHODS: Data were collected prospectively for patients presenting with periampullary carcinomas to the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between October 15, 1983 and June 30, 1995. The correlation between clinicopathologic variables and survival of ampullary carcinoma was tested by the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazards regression. Survival of patients with periampullary adenocarcinomas was compared by the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: In 123 patients presenting with ampullary carcinoma, 101 tumors (82.1%) were resected. Factors significantly correlated with improved survival were resection (p < 0.01), and in resected tumors, negative nodes (p = 0.04) and margins (p = 0.02) independently predicted for improved survival. In periampullary tumors, the highest rates of resection and overall survival (median, 43.6 months) were found in ampullary carcinomas. CONCLUSIONS: Factors predictive of improved survival in ampullary carcinoma include resection, negative margins, and negative nodes. Improved overall survival in ampullary relative to periampullary adenocarcinoma is due in part to a significantly higher rate of resection. Images Figure 1. PMID:9671071

  5. Computed tomography evaluation of colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Scharling, E S; Wolfman, N T; Bechtold, R E

    1996-04-01

    Knowledge of the extent of primary colorectal carcinoma at initial diagnosis is critical for proper management of disease. Currently, CT does not have a role in screening for colorectal carcinoma, though promising work on virtual colonoscopy is on the horizon. In patients with proven colorectal carcinoma, accurate prospective noninvasive assessment can identify those who may benefit from preoperative local radiotherapy, hepatic resection or cryoablation, or intra-arterial chemotherapy. CT should be considered complementary to the clinical assessment of colorectal carcinoma and to other modalities, such as barium enema, endorectal ultrasonography, MRI, and immunoscintigraphy. Although limited in evaluation of the primary tumor and local spread, CT has proven useful in assessing patients thought to harbor extensive local or metastatic disease. CT is generally the modality of choice for imaging the postoperative patient. The cross-sectional display of CT clearly depicts the operative bed, particularly after abdominoperineal resection. Baseline examinations should be obtained 2 to 4 months after surgery, with follow-up examinations every 6 to 9 months for 2 years, and yearly studies thereafter. CT-guided biopsies should be performed when findings suggest recurrent carcinoma. PMID:8848730

  6. Diagnosis and treatment of penile verrucous carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    LI, FANGYIN; XU, YIPENG; WANG, HUA; CHEN, BO; WANG, ZONGPING; ZHAO, YANG; ZHU, SHAOXING; CHEN, GUIPING

    2015-01-01

    Penile verrucous carcinoma is an extremely rare disease that, at present, has not been well characterized. The etiology, diagnosis and treatment of this carcinoma remain poorly understood, particularly in the Chinese population. The aim of the present study was to discuss the methods of diagnosis and treatment of penile verrucous carcinoma in the Chinese population. The clinical and pathological data of 10 patients with penile verrucous carcinoma were analyzed alongside a literature review. All the tumors were exophytic papillary lesions, ranging between 0.4 and 4 cm in diameter and all 10 patients underwent partial penectomy with tumor-negative surgical margins. None of the 10 patients underwent ilioinguinal lymphadenectomy. All patients were regularly followed up for 0.7–9 years, which revealed that no patients developed recurrence, and only one case resulted in mortality due to unassociated causes. It was found that penile verrucous carcinoma is a well-differentiated disease with low malignant potential and locally aggressive features, which seldom metastasizes to regional lymph nodes or distant regions. However, misdiagnosis may occur due to an incorrect biopsy. Favorable outcomes can be achieved by surgery, even without any adjuvant therapy, but patients should be carefully followed up. PMID:25789024

  7. Cranial mediastinal carcinomas in nine dogs.

    PubMed

    Liptak, J M; Kamstock, D A; Dernell, W S; Ehrhart, E J; Rizzo, S A; Withrow, S J

    2008-03-01

    Nine dogs were diagnosed with cranial mediastinal carcinomas. Based on histological and immunohistochemical analysis, four dogs were diagnosed with ectopic follicular cell thyroid carcinomas, one dog with ectopic medullary cell thyroid carcinoma, two dogs with neuroendocrine carcinomas and two dogs with anaplastic carcinomas. Clinical signs and physical examination findings were associated with a space-occupying mass, although one dog was diagnosed with functional hyperthyroidism. Surgical resection was attempted in eight dogs. The cranial mediastinal mass was invasive either into the heart or into the cranial vena cava in three dogs. Resection was complete in six dogs and unresectable in two dogs. All dogs survived surgery, but four dogs developed pulmonary thromboembolism and two dogs died of respiratory complications postoperatively. Adjunctive therapies included pre-operative radiation therapy (n=1) and postoperative chemotherapy (n=3). Three dogs had metastasis at the time of diagnosis, but none developed metastasis following surgery. The overall median survival time was 243 days. Local invasion, pleural effusion and metastasis did not have a negative impact on survival time in this small case series. PMID:19178660

  8. AZD1775, Docetaxel, and Cisplatin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Borderline Resectable Stage III-IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-04

    Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  9. Odontogenic carcinoma with dentinoid: a new odontogenic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Neville, Brad W; Tatemoto, Yukihiro; Ogawa, Ikuko; Takata, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    Dentinoid is an integral part of some odontogenic tumors. This article describes the clinico-pathological features of three cases of odontogenic carcinomas with dentinoid (OCD). A comparison of these with previously reported cases of dentinoid-producing epithelial odontogenic tumors allowed us to identify another six cases that may be considered as examples of OCD. Six cases occurred in the mandible and three in the maxilla, all developing behind the canines. There was no sex predilection (five men and four women; age range 14-61 years, mean 38.1). Pain or discomfort was mentioned in five cases, four of which showed tooth resorption. All cases appeared initially as well-defined radiolucencies, five of which showed variable amounts of calcified material. Recurrences were recorded in three instances, but no evidence of metastasis has been found. Seven cases were composed predominantly or entirely of clear cells, usually with minimal cellular atypia and variable mitotic activity; however, in all cases there was evidence of tumor infiltration into adjacent tissues, including the presence of perineural invasion in two tumors. Those cases in which no reference was made to the presence of clear cells exhibited evident mitotic activity and cellular pleomorphism. The epithelium in OCD does not produce buds or enamel organ-like structures such as those found in ameloblastic fibro-dentinoma and this tumor does not contain a mesenchyme-like connective tissue resembling dental papilla as observed in several mixed odontogenic tumors. Based on the existing data and the present series of cases, OCD appears to represent a distinct entity. PMID:25409850

  10. TERT Promoter Mutations Are Frequent in Cutaneous Basal Cell Carcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Griewank, Klaus G.; Murali, Rajmohan; Schilling, Bastian; Schimming, Tobias; Möller, Inga; Moll, Iris; Schwamborn, Marion; Sucker, Antje; Zimmer, Lisa; Schadendorf, Dirk; Hillen, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Activating mutations in the TERT promoter were recently identified in up to 71% of cutaneous melanoma. Subsequent studies found TERT promoter mutations in a wide array of other major human cancers. TERT promoter mutations lead to increased expression of telomerase, which maintains telomere length and genomic stability, thereby allowing cancer cells to continuously divide, avoiding senescence or apoptosis. TERT promoter mutations in cutaneous melanoma often show UV-signatures. Non-melanoma skin cancer, including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, are very frequent malignancies in individuals of European descent. We investigated the presence of TERT promoter mutations in 32 basal cell carcinomas and 34 cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas using conventional Sanger sequencing. TERT promoter mutations were identified in 18 (56%) basal cell carcinomas and in 17 (50%) cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas. The recurrent mutations identified in our cohort were identical to those previously described in cutaneous melanoma, and showed a UV-signature (C>T or CC>TT) in line with a causative role for UV exposure in these common cutaneous malignancies. Our study shows that TERT promoter mutations with UV-signatures are frequent in non-melanoma skin cancer, being present in around 50% of basal and squamous cell carcinomas and suggests that increased expression of telomerase plays an important role in the pathogenesis of these tumors. PMID:24260374

  11. Clinicopathological significance of gastric poorly differentiated medullary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Hideaki; Yoshizawa, Tadashi; Morohashi, Satoko; Haga, Toshihiro; Wu, Yunyan; Ota, Rie; Takatsuna, Masafumi; Akasaka, Harue; Hakamada, Kenichi; Kijima, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma of solid type is known to show a clinicopathological diversity, but its morphological characteristics have rarely been investigated. In this study, we defined poorly differentiated medullary carcinoma indicating the following three characteristics: (i) more than 90% of the entire tumor were composed of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in a medullary growth, (ii) the tumor exhibited an expansive growth at the tumor margin, and (iii) special types such as an α-fetoprotein-producing carcinoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma, and carcinoma with lymphoid stroma were excluded. Based on the definition, we subclassified the poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma of solid type into the two groups: medullary carcinoma and non-medullary carcinoma, and clinicopathologically analyzed 23 cases of medullary carcinomas and 38 cases of non-medullary carcinomas. The medullary carcinomas less frequently displayed lymphatic invasion, venous invasion, and lymph node metastasis, compared with the non-medullary carcinoma (P < 0.001, P = 0.002, and P < 0.001, respectively). The patients with medullary carcinomas significantly showed better disease-free survival (P = 0.017). This is the first study to demonstrate that poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of solid type can be subclassified into tumors with low and high malignant potentials. Gastric poorly differentiated medullary carcinoma is considered to be a novel histological type predicting good patients' prognosis. PMID:27108877

  12. Genomic landscape of small cell carcinoma of the breast contrasted to small cell carcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed

    McCullar, Brennan; Pandey, Manjari; Yaghmour, George; Hare, Felicia; Patel, Kruti; Stein, Matthew; Feldman, Rebecca; Chandler, Jason C; Martin, Michael G

    2016-07-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the breast is a rare, aggressive form of breast cancer that is associated with extremely poor outcomes [1]. In an effort to identify possible targets for treatment, we utilized comprehensive genomic profiling in small cell carcinoma of the breast. Under an IRB approved protocol, we identified patients with small cell carcinoma of the breast and small cell carcinoma of the lung profiled by Caris Life Sciences between 2007 and 2015. Tumors were assessed with up to 25 immunohistochemical stains, in situ hybridization of cMET, EGFR, HER2, PIK3CA, and TOP2A, and next generation sequencing as well as Sanger sequencing of 47 genes. 19 patients with small cell carcinoma of the breast were identified, median age was 58 years (range 37-79) and 42 % had metastatic disease at presentation; for comparison, 58 patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung were identified (66 [36-86], 65 % metastatic). By immunohistochemistry, 31 % of small cell carcinoma of the breast patients expressed ER, 13 % expressed PR, and 16 % expressed AR; small cell carcinoma of the lung patients expressed ER 0 %, PR 2 %, and AR 6 %. Small cell carcinoma of the breast and small cell carcinoma of the lung patients had similar patterns of other immunohistochemical expression (0 v 0 % PDL1, 50 v 42 % PD1, and 77 v 95 % TOP2A, respectively). All small carcinoma of the breast and small cell carcinoma of the lung patients were negative for HER2 and cMET amplification by in situ hybridization. Next generation sequencing revealed TP53 mutations in 75 % of patients both with small cell carcinoma of the breast and small cell carcinoma of the lung and PIK3CA mutations in 33 % of small cell carcinoma of the breast patients but no small cell carcinoma of the lung patients (Fisher's exact test p = 0.005, OR 0.02 [0.00-0.52]). No other mutations were found in small cell carcinoma of the breast patients and no other mutation occurred in over 10 % of small cell carcinoma of the

  13. GATA3 immunohistochemistry expression in histologic subtypes of primary breast carcinoma and metastatic breast carcinoma cytology.

    PubMed

    Deftereos, Georgios; Sanguino Ramirez, Angela M; Silverman, Jan F; Krishnamurti, Uma

    2015-09-01

    GATA3 plays a role in cell proliferation and differentiation in many tissues, including breast, and it has been suggested that GATA3 expression correlates with ER expression. However, little is known on GATA3 expression in various subtypes of breast carcinoma, its utilization in cytology, and on how GATA3 performs in comparison with GCDFP-15 and mammaglobin. Eighty-four histology cases of breast carcinoma of various subtypes, including 28 triple-negative breast carcinomas, along with 20 cytology cases of metastatic breast carcinoma and 12 cytology cases of ER-positive metastatic gynecologic malignancies, were stained for GATA3, GCDFP-15, and mammaglobin. In non-triple-negative breast carcinomas (n=56), GATA3 showed 100% sensitivity, higher than GCDFP-15 (42.8%; P<0.0001) and mammaglobin (58.9%; P<0.0001), whereas staining patterns were similar for all the histologic subtypes examined. Staining scores were determined by multiplying the percentage of cancer cells staining with an intensity score of 1+, 2+, or 3+ (range, 0 to 300). In non-triple-negative carcinomas, GATA3 showed a mean score of 273.7, higher than GCDFP-15 (107.5; P<0.0001) and mammaglobin (147.7; P<0.0001). In triple-negative breast carcinomas (n=28), GATA3 showed a sensitivity of 60.7%, greater than GCDFP-15 (17.9%; P=0.0022) and mammaglobin (7.1%; P<0.0001). These results were consistent irrespective of the subtype examined. In breast carcinoma cytology cases, 100% stained with GATA3, higher than GCDFP-15 (20%; P<0.0001) and mammaglobin (45%; P<0.0001). None of the metastatic endometrial or ovarian carcinomas were positive for GATA3. Although GATA3 expression correlates with ER expression in breast, no correlation is observed in gynecologic malignancies. Thus, in working up ER-positive metastatic malignancies GATA3 demonstrates specificity for breast. PMID:26274030

  14. Extensive Presentation of Penile Carcinoma Cuniculatum a Variant of Squamous Cell Carcinoma With Low Malignant Potential.

    PubMed

    Vinson, Mohabe A; Okorji, Onyinyechukwu; Gagucas, Raul

    2016-09-01

    Carcinoma cuniculatum is an uncommon variation of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has been documented in a few cases at various locations of the body such as penis, foot, jaw, oropharynx and esophagus. In this case, a 79-year-old male presents with a penile mass, which he underwent a total penectomy. Histology of the mass was defined as carcinoma cuniculatum with negative margins and no lymphovascular invasion. This variant of SCC rarely metastasizes. A joint decision was made to observe lymph nodes. It is important to differentiate the different SCC because patient care can be guided based on the pathology. PMID:27313988

  15. Ameloblastic carcinoma: Report of a rare case

    PubMed Central

    Srikanth, Mandadi Dakshinamurthy; Radhika, Besta; Metta, Kiran; Renuka, Nukala Valli

    2014-01-01

    Ameloblastic carcinoma is a rare odontogenic tumor exhibiting histological evidence of malignancy in the primary or recurrent tumor. It is characterized by rapid, painful expansion of the jaw, unlike conventional ameloblastomas. The tumor most frequently involves the mandible. The expanding lesion causes perforation of the buccal and lingual plates of the jaw and invades the surrounding soft tissue. Rapidly growing large tumor mass may cause tooth mobility. A mandibular tumor involving the mental nerve leads to paresthesia of the nerve. A maxillary tumor can produce a fistula in the palate and paresthesia of the infraorbital nerve. Most ameloblastic carcinomas are presumed to have arisen de novo with a few cases of malignant transformation of ameloblastomas. Although rare, these lesions have been known to metastasize, mostly to the regional lymph nodes or lungs. A case of ameloblastic carcinoma in a 60-year-old man is reported here and its clinical, radiological and histological features are discussed. PMID:24579073

  16. Yttrium-90 microsphere radioembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Edeline, Julien; Gilabert, Marine; Garin, Etienne; Boucher, Eveline; Raoul, Jean-Luc

    2015-03-01

    Yttrium-90 (Y90) radioembolization is an emerging strategy to treat liver malignancies, and clinical data supporting its use have accumulated in recent years. Y90-radioembolization has shown clinical effectiveness in intermediate and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, with a favorable safety profile. Retrospective data show similar levels of effectiveness to transarterial chemoembolization in intermediate hepatocellular carcinoma, with some evidence of better tolerance. While phase 3 studies comparing Y90-radioembolization to chemoembolization in intermediate hepatocellular carcinoma would be difficult to conduct, studies comparing or combining Y90-radioembolization with sorafenib are under way. Questions also remain about the most suitable modalities for defining the dose to administer. Phase 3 studies are under way to clarify the place of Y90-radioembolization in the algorithm of HCC treatment. PMID:26020026

  17. Carcinoma of the endometrium results of treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Fayos, J.V.; Morales, P.H.

    1980-05-01

    From 1955 to 1974, 294 patients with primary carcinoma of the endometrium were treated by a combination of preoperative irradiation and surgery or by irradiation alone. Of these 294 patients, 12 had biopsy-proven involvement of the cervix. The current FIGO classification was used. The overall 5-year survival was 79%. The 5-year survival for Stage I, II, and III was 83%, 91%, and 40% respectively. The 5-year survival was 88% for operable Stage I carcinoma of the endometrium and 65% for inoperable Stage I. One hundred ninety-six patients with operable Stage I carcinoma of the endometrium received preoperative irradiation followed by total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) and were studied in greater detail. In this group, the incidence of sterilization and the degree of myometrial invasion in the removed uterus were important factors in determining the prognosis. Preoperative radium yielded better results than preoperative external irradiation.

  18. Current management of ductal carcinoma in situ.

    PubMed

    Barth, A; Brenner, R J; Giuliano, A E

    1995-10-01

    Ductal carcinoma in situ represents a biologically and histologically heterogeneous group of lesions characterized by the proliferation of neoplastic epithelial cells confined to the ducts of the breast. Before screening mammography, ductal carcinoma in situ was considered uncommon; patients were usually diagnosed by a breast mass or bloody nipple discharge, and their treatment was mastectomy. Today it represents 20% to 30% of mammographically detected breast cancers and 10% to 15% of all diagnosed breast cancers in the United States. The invariable progression of this cancer to invasive breast cancer requiring mastectomy has been challenged, but because most patients have been treated with mastectomy, knowledge about ductal carcinoma in situ is limited and primarily based on retrospective data. Further insight will emerge from randomized prospective studies that are near completion. Currently available data indicate that breast-conserving treatments are valid alternatives to mastectomy for most patients with this disease. PMID:7483593

  19. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the nasopharynx.

    PubMed

    Atar, Yavuz; Topaloglu, Ilhan; Ozcan, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses can be misdiagnosed as primary malignant or benign diseases. A 33-year-old male attended our outpatient clinic complaining of difficulty breathing through the nose, bloody nasal discharge, postnasal drop, snoring, and discharge of phlegm. Endoscopic nasopharyngeal examination showed a vascularized nasopharyngeal mass. Under general anesthesia, multiple punch biopsies were taken from the nasopharynx. Pathologically, the tumor cells had clear cytoplasm and were arranged in a trabecular pattern lined by a layer of endothelial cells. After the initial pathological examination, the pathologist requested more information about the patient's clinical status. A careful history revealed that the patient had undergone left a nephrectomy for a kidney mass diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma 3 years earlier. Subsequently, nasopharyngeal metastatic renal cell carcinoma was diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining with CD10 and vimentin. Radiotherapy was recommended for treatment. PMID:23924557

  20. Ameloblastic carcinoma of mandible: facts and dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Mainak; Kundu, Sohag; Bera, Himel; Barik, Sabyasachi; Ghosh, Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    Ameloblastic carcinoma is a rare malignant odontogenic tumor and is considered as the malignant counterpart of ameloblastoma with features of both benign and malignant histology. It may arise de novo or from a long-standing ameloblastoma and is locally aggressive with a propensity for metastasis. With limited documentation, little is known about its pathobiogenesis, with no universal guidelines for management. For clinicians, differentiating ameloblastic carcinoma from ameloblastoma and malignant ameloblastoma in a patient presenting with a suspicious jaw tumor is a challenge due to overlapping clinical features, inconclusive cytology/biopsy reports, different management approaches and inadequate follow-up. Proper knowledge of the disease entity and a high index of suspicion are essential. Here we elaborate the dilemmas in diagnosis and management of ameloblastic carcinoma through presentation of a representative case in a 56-year-old man presenting with a tumor in the mandible. PMID:25343557

  1. Primary carcinoma of the ureteral stump following radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    JIN, SHIHUA; WANG, GANG; YU, CHENGFAN; LI, NINGCHEN

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of primary carcinoma of the ureteral stump following radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma is extremely rare; 7 patients with the disease have been reported previously. All these patients were males with transitional cell carcinoma. The current study reports the case of a 61-year-old woman, who presented with gross hematuria following a radical nephrectomy for local clear cell renal carcinoma. A computed tomography scan revealed the presence of a mass on the ureteral stump. The patient underwent a left ureteral stump and bladder cuff excision. The histological diagnosis was high-grade transitional cell carcinoma of the ureteral stump, with focal interstitial cancer cell infiltrates. There was no evidence of recurrence during a follow-up period of 35 months. In addition, the present study reviewed the literature for previous patients with ureteral stump carcinoma following a radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma; 7 previous patients with the disease were identified. The present study suggests that, if patients who have previously undergone a radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma present with hematuria, the possibility of ureteral stump carcinoma should be considered, particularly in East Asian countries. The existence or a history of bladder carcinoma should be considered as a high-risk factor for developing ureteral stump carcinoma. A ureteral stump and bladder cuff excision should be performed once ureteral stump carcinoma is diagnosed. PMID:27123110

  2. [A Case of Composite Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Neuroendocrine Carcinoma in a Patient with Liver Cirrhosis Caused by Chronic Hepatitis B].

    PubMed

    Yun, Eun Young; Kim, Tae Hyo; Lee, Sang Soo; Kim, Hong Jun; Kim, Hyun Jin; Jung, Woon Tae; Lee, Ok Jae; Song, Dae Hyun

    2016-08-25

    Primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma (PHNEC) is rare and its origin is not clearly understood. The coexistence of PHNEC and hepaotcellular carcinoma has been reported in only a few cases. We report a rare case of combined PHNEC and hepaotcellular carcinoma in a patient with liver cirrhosis caused by chronic hepatitis B that resulted in aggressive behavior and poor prognosis. PMID:27554219

  3. Current Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Crissien, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy. Despite efforts for prevention and screening as well as development of new technologies for diagnosis and treatment, the incidence of HCC has doubled, and mortality rates have increased in recent decades. A variety of important risk factors are associated with the development of HCC, with any type of cirrhosis, regardless of etiology, being the major contributor. Hepatitis C virus infection with bridging fibrosis or cirrhosis and hepatitis B virus infection are independent risk factors. The diagnosis of HCC is made without liver biopsy in over 90% of cases. Screening with ultrasound and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) at 6-month intervals is advised; however, it is not adequate for patients on the orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) list. Triple-phase computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging are used in combination with the detection of AFP, AFP-L3%, and/or des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin due to their superior sensitivities and specificities. Several treatment modalities are available, but only surgical resection and OLT are curative. OLT is available only for patients who meet or are downstaged into Milan or University of California, San Francisco criteria. Other treatment options include radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation, percutaneous ethanol injection, transarterial chemoembolization, radioembolization, cryoablation, radiation therapy, stereotactic radiotherapy, systemic chemotherapy, and molecularly targeted therapies. The management of HCC is based on tumor size and location, extrahepatic spread, and underlying liver function. Given the complexity of the disease, patients are often best served in centers with experience in HCC management, where a multi-disciplinary approach can take place. PMID:24829542

  4. Microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Poggi, Guido; Tosoratti, Nevio; Montagna, Benedetta; Picchi, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Although surgical resection is still the optimal treatment option for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with well compensated cirrhosis, thermal ablation techniques provide a valid non-surgical treatment alternative, thanks to their minimal invasiveness, excellent tolerability and safety profile, proven efficacy in local disease control, virtually unlimited repeatability and cost-effectiveness. Different energy sources are currently employed in clinics as physical agents for percutaneous or intra-surgical thermal ablation of HCC nodules. Among them, radiofrequency (RF) currents are the most used, while microwave ablations (MWA) are becoming increasingly popular. Starting from the 90s’, RF ablation (RFA) rapidly became the standard of care in ablation, especially in the treatment of small HCC nodules; however, RFA exhibits substantial performance limitations in the treatment of large lesions and/or tumors located near major heat sinks. MWA, first introduced in the Far Eastern clinical practice in the 80s’, showing promising results but also severe limitations in the controllability of the emitted field and in the high amount of power employed for the ablation of large tumors, resulting in a poor coagulative performance and a relatively high complication rate, nowadays shows better results both in terms of treatment controllability and of overall coagulative performance, thanks to the improvement of technology. In this review we provide an extensive and detailed overview of the key physical and technical aspects of MWA and of the currently available systems, and we want to discuss the most relevant published data on MWA treatments of HCC nodules in regard to clinical results and to the type and rate of complications, both in absolute terms and in comparison with RFA. PMID:26557950

  5. Newer markers for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Marrero, Jorge A; Lok, Anna S F

    2004-11-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing worldwide; the overall survival of patients with HCC is grim because most patients are diagnosed late, when curative treatment is not possible. Cirrhosis is the strongest risk factor for the development of HCC. HCC surveillance with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and ultrasonography has been recommended for persons with cirrhosis. However, AFP level is insensitive for the early detection of HCC, and ultrasonography is expensive and operator dependent. Clearly, there is a need for novel strategies for the early detection of HCC. The ideal biomarker assay for HCC would be sensitive, specific, noninvasive, reproducible, inexpensive, and acceptable to patients. The Early Detection Research Network of the National Cancer Institute has proposed 5 phases for biomarker validation: preclinical exploratory studies, clinical assay development for disease, retrospective longitudinal study to detect preclinical disease, prospective screening study, and cancer control studies. Several biomarkers, such as des-gamma carboxyprothrombin, lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive AFP, human hepatocyte growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor-1, are promising, but none of these markers has been validated for clinical use. Limitations of the current literature include inadequate sample size, heterogeneity in biomarker assay methods and result reporting, limited analysis of demographics and cause of liver disease as covariates in the expression of these markers, and a scarcity of longitudinal studies evaluating the ability of biomarkers to detect preclinical disease. There is an urgent need for novel biomarkers for the detection of early HCC; the National Cancer Institute proposal provides a framework for future validation studies. PMID:15508074

  6. New advances in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, Sonia; Herrera, Iván; Irurzun, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of deaths in cirrhotic patients and the third cause of cancer related deaths. Most HCC are associated with well known underlying risk factors, in fact, HCC arise in cirrhotic patients in up to 90% of cases, mainly due to chronic viral hepatitis and alcohol abuse. The worldwide prevention strategies are conducted to avoid the infection of new subjects and to minimize the risk of liver disease progression in infected patients. HCC is a condition which lends itself to surveillance as at-risk individuals can readily be identified. The American and European guidelines recommended implementation of surveillance programs with ultrasound every six months in patient at-risk for developing HCC. The diagnosis of HCC can be based on non-invasive criteria (only in cirrhotic patient) or pathology. Accurately staging patients is essential to oncology practice. The ideal tumour staging system in HCC needs to account for both tumour characteristics and liver function. Treatment allocation is based on several factors: Liver function, size and number of tumours, macrovascular invasion or extrahepatic spread. The recommendations in terms of selection for different treatment strategies must be based on evidence-based data. Resection, liver transplant and interventional radiology treatment are mainstays of HCC therapy and achieve the best outcomes in well-selected candidates. Chemoembolization is the most widely used treatment for unresectable HCC or progression after curative treatment. Finally, in patients with advanced HCC with preserved liver function, sorafenib is the only approved systemic drug that has demonstrated a survival benefit and is the standard of care in this group of patients. PMID:27028578

  7. Hepatocellular carcinoma: Where are we?

    PubMed Central

    Mazzanti, Roberto; Arena, Umberto; Tassi, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second cause of death due to malignancy in the world, following lung cancer. The geographic distribution of this disease accompanies its principal risk factors: Chronic hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection, alcoholism, aflatoxin B1 intoxication, liver cirrhosis, and some genetic attributes. Recently, type II diabetes has been shown to be a risk factor for HCC together with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Although the risk factors are quite well known and it is possible to diagnose HCC when the tumor is less than 1 cm diameter, it remains elusive at the beginning and treatment is often unsuccessful. Liver transplantation is thus far considered the best treatment for HCC as it cures HCC and the underlying liver disease. Using the Milan criteria, overall survival after liver transplantation for HCC is about 70% after 5 years. Many attempts have been made to go beyond the Milan Criteria and according to recent works reasonably good results have been achieved by using a histochemical marker such as cytokeratine 19 and the so-called “up to seven criteria” to divide patients into categories according to their risk of relapse. In addition to liver transplantation other therapies have been proposed such as resection, tumor ablation by different means, embolization and chemotherapy. An important step in the treatment of advanced HCC has been the introduction of sorafenib, the first oral, systemic drug that has provided significant improvement in survival. Treatment of HCC patients must be multidisciplinary and by using the different approaches discussed in this review it is possible to offer prolonged survival and quite good and sometimes even excellent quality of life to many patients. PMID:26929917

  8. New advances in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Sonia; Herrera, Iván; Irurzun, Javier

    2016-03-28

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of deaths in cirrhotic patients and the third cause of cancer related deaths. Most HCC are associated with well known underlying risk factors, in fact, HCC arise in cirrhotic patients in up to 90% of cases, mainly due to chronic viral hepatitis and alcohol abuse. The worldwide prevention strategies are conducted to avoid the infection of new subjects and to minimize the risk of liver disease progression in infected patients. HCC is a condition which lends itself to surveillance as at-risk individuals can readily be identified. The American and European guidelines recommended implementation of surveillance programs with ultrasound every six months in patient at-risk for developing HCC. The diagnosis of HCC can be based on non-invasive criteria (only in cirrhotic patient) or pathology. Accurately staging patients is essential to oncology practice. The ideal tumour staging system in HCC needs to account for both tumour characteristics and liver function. Treatment allocation is based on several factors: Liver function, size and number of tumours, macrovascular invasion or extrahepatic spread. The recommendations in terms of selection for different treatment strategies must be based on evidence-based data. Resection, liver transplant and interventional radiology treatment are mainstays of HCC therapy and achieve the best outcomes in well-selected candidates. Chemoembolization is the most widely used treatment for unresectable HCC or progression after curative treatment. Finally, in patients with advanced HCC with preserved liver function, sorafenib is the only approved systemic drug that has demonstrated a survival benefit and is the standard of care in this group of patients. PMID:27028578

  9. Microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Poggi, Guido; Tosoratti, Nevio; Montagna, Benedetta; Picchi, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    Although surgical resection is still the optimal treatment option for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with well compensated cirrhosis, thermal ablation techniques provide a valid non-surgical treatment alternative, thanks to their minimal invasiveness, excellent tolerability and safety profile, proven efficacy in local disease control, virtually unlimited repeatability and cost-effectiveness. Different energy sources are currently employed in clinics as physical agents for percutaneous or intra-surgical thermal ablation of HCC nodules. Among them, radiofrequency (RF) currents are the most used, while microwave ablations (MWA) are becoming increasingly popular. Starting from the 90s', RF ablation (RFA) rapidly became the standard of care in ablation, especially in the treatment of small HCC nodules; however, RFA exhibits substantial performance limitations in the treatment of large lesions and/or tumors located near major heat sinks. MWA, first introduced in the Far Eastern clinical practice in the 80s', showing promising results but also severe limitations in the controllability of the emitted field and in the high amount of power employed for the ablation of large tumors, resulting in a poor coagulative performance and a relatively high complication rate, nowadays shows better results both in terms of treatment controllability and of overall coagulative performance, thanks to the improvement of technology. In this review we provide an extensive and detailed overview of the key physical and technical aspects of MWA and of the currently available systems, and we want to discuss the most relevant published data on MWA treatments of HCC nodules in regard to clinical results and to the type and rate of complications, both in absolute terms and in comparison with RFA. PMID:26557950

  10. Colon carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, J.W. Jr.; Carter, M.P.; Berens, S.V.; Long, R.F.; Caplan, G.E.

    1986-09-01

    Metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid gland rarely is encountered in clinical practice; however, autopsy series have shown that it is not a rare occurrence. A case of adenocarcinoma of the colon with metastases to the thyroid is reported. A review of the literature reveals that melanoma, breast, renal, and lung carcinomas are the most frequent tumors to metastasize to the thyroid. Metastatic disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of cold nodules on radionuclide thyroid scans, particularly in patients with a known primary.

  11. Endometrial carcinoma arising in a bicornuate uterus

    PubMed Central

    Munkhdelger, Jijgee; Mia-Jan, Khalilullah; Cha, Dong Soo

    2014-01-01

    Endometrial carcinomas arising in a bicornuate uterus are rare, only five case of which have been previously reported. We present a case of endometrial cancer arising in a bicornuate uterus, occurring in a 65-year-old woman. Unlike previously reported cases, our case showed mixed endometrial adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma in one horn and focal adenocarcinoma in the other. Adequate tissue sampling of both horns is necessary for accurate diagnosis of malignancy in patients with a bicornuate uterus. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of this abnormality in cases when endometrial cancer is suspected but histology fails to confirm. PMID:25264532

  12. Sclerosing Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Bidari-Zerehpoosh, Farahnaz; Naghibzadeh, Bijan; Jamali, Elena; Jamali, Moein; Mafi, Amirali; Bahrami-Motlagh, Hooman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma represents one of the most common malignant salivary gland tumors. However, the sclerosing morphologic variant is extremely rare with only 23 reported cases in the English-language literature since it was discovered in 1987. Case Report: Herein, we describe another case that was diagnosed in a 25-year-old woman presenting with a posterior auricular mass, as well as a review of the literature, which demonstrates that this is an extremely rare malignancy with no strict protocol for treatment. Conclusion: Pathologists must be aware of recognizing low grade sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma which has metastatic potential and is frequently misdiagnosed as a benign lesion. PMID:27602340

  13. Acetylation phenotypes in patients with bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bicho, M P; Breitenfeld, L; Carvalho, A A; Manso, C F

    1988-01-01

    The present study was done to evaluate the possible association of bladder carcinoma with the slow acetylator phenotype in a portuguese population. 49 patients with bladder carcinoma were compared to a normal control group of 84 individuals. No statistically significant association was detected. But when subdividing the group of slow acetylators it is found that in the subgroup with 12-36% acetylation there is a higher percentage of patients, which is statistically significant. These results are in agreement with two other studies, using populations of similar ethnic origin. PMID:3265609

  14. Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Risk Factors, Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Janevska, Dafina; Chaloska-Ivanova, Viktorija; Janevski, Vlado

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most often primary cancer of the liver and is one if the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The incidence of HCC has geographic distribution with the highest levels in countries with developing economies. Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma have poor prognosis despite the achievements in surgery techniques and other therapeutic procedures and it is a reason why continuous attention should be paid to this issue. This article provides an overview of this disease based on an extensive review of relevant literature. The article summarizes the current risk factors, diagnosis, staging and the management of HCC. PMID:27275318

  15. [Carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts].

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, F; Marzano, P F; Giacinti, I; Di Bello, M G; Maturo, A; Di Matteo, F M; Micacchi, M; Zaccagnino, P; Morucci, R; Petrassi, P; Ascenzi, P; Di Curzio, B

    1996-01-01

    In the last 5 years 25 patients (11 men, 14 women) with carcinoma of the extrahepatic biliary duct were studied. The most frequent localization of the carcinoma was the hepatic hilum. D.C.P. according to Whipple was possible only in one patient, while in 20 patients a palliative approach with external and internal biliary derivations was the choice. In the remaining 4 patients an explorative laparotomy with biopsy was performed. It is concluded that palliative resection allows for a better quality of life. PMID:9162182

  16. Synchronous Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Auricular Myxoma

    PubMed Central

    González-Cantú, Yessica M.; Rodriguez-Padilla, Cristina; Tena-Suck, Martha Lilia; García de la Fuente, Alberto; Mejía-Bañuelos, Rosa María; Díaz Mendoza, Raymundo; Quintanilla-Garza, Samuel; Batisda-Acuña, Yolaester

    2015-01-01

    Synchronic occurrence of benign and malignant tumors is extremely rare. Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma represents 1% to 2% of all hepatocarcinomas, while myxomas represent about half of all the cases of primary tumors of the heart. We present the case of a 53-year-old woman with a left atrial myxoma that was surgically removed. Several weeks later, the patient returned to the hospital with abdominal pain. CT scan showed a mass in the left lobe of the liver that was resected and diagnosed as fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma. As of this writing, the patient is healthy. PMID:26509093

  17. Primary intraosseous mucoepidermoid carcinoma of maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Rathore, Ajit Sing; Ahuja, Puneet; Chhina, Shivjot; Ahuja, Anshuman

    2014-01-01

    Primary intraosseous mucoepidermoid carcinoma (PIOC) of the jaw bones is an extremely rare malignant salivary gland tumor, comprising 2–3% of all mucoepidermoid carcinomas reported. It is commonly seen in the posterior part of the mandible; its occurrence in the maxilla is rare. They have been reported in patients of all ages, ranging from 1 to 78 years, with the overwhelming majority occurring in the 4th and 5th decades of life. They are histologically low-grade cancers and radiographically seen as uniocular or multiocular lesions. We report a rare case of PIOC in posterior palatal region in 18-year-old male. PMID:25949001

  18. Evolving Immunotherapy Approaches for Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Susanna A; Cohen, Justine V; Kluger, Harriet M

    2016-09-01

    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) continues to be associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is typically resistant to cytotoxic chemotherapy, and while targeted therapies have activity and prolong progression-free and overall survival, responses are usually not durable. Modulating the immune system with cytokine therapy, vaccine therapy, cell therapy, and checkpoint inhibitors offers hope of prolonged survival. Standard and emerging immune therapy approaches and combinations of immune therapies and other modalities are reviewed. PMID:27475806

  19. Synchronous Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Auricular Myxoma.

    PubMed

    González-Cantú, Yessica M; Rodriguez-Padilla, Cristina; Tena-Suck, Martha Lilia; García de la Fuente, Alberto; Mejía-Bañuelos, Rosa María; Díaz Mendoza, Raymundo; Quintanilla-Garza, Samuel; Batisda-Acuña, Yolaester

    2015-01-01

    Synchronic occurrence of benign and malignant tumors is extremely rare. Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma represents 1% to 2% of all hepatocarcinomas, while myxomas represent about half of all the cases of primary tumors of the heart. We present the case of a 53-year-old woman with a left atrial myxoma that was surgically removed. Several weeks later, the patient returned to the hospital with abdominal pain. CT scan showed a mass in the left lobe of the liver that was resected and diagnosed as fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma. As of this writing, the patient is healthy. PMID:26509093

  20. Carcinoma of the lung complicating lipoid pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Felson, B.; Ralaisomay, G.

    1983-11-01

    The authors have encountered four cases of oil aspiration pneumonia complicated by carcinoma. Each had a clear-cut history of chronic intake of an oily substance, radiographic changes, and histologically documented oil aspiration pneumonia. Lung cancer later appeared in the involved area. A small number of similar cases also have been reported. The implication is that oil aspiration pneumonitis may induce bronchogenic carcinoma, particularly either the alveolar cell or the squamous cell variety. The radiographic diagnosis of the malignant transformation is difficult, and consequently the prognosis is poor.

  1. Therapeutic challenges in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Penticuff, Justin C; Kyprianou, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a malignancy that in advanced disease, is highly resistant to systemic therapies. Elucidation of the angiogenesis pathways and their intrinsic signaling interactions with the genetic and metabolic disturbances within renal cell carcinoma variants has ushered in the era of “targeted therapies”. Advanced surgical interventions and novel drugs targeting VEGF and mTOR, have improved patient survival and prolonged clinically stable-disease states. This review discusses the current understanding of diagnostic challenges and the mechanism-based clinical evidence on therapeutic management of advanced RCC. PMID:26309897

  2. Unique Transcriptomic Profile of Collecting Duct Carcinomas Relative to Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinomas and other Kidney Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Malouf, Gabriel G; Compérat, Eva; Yao, Hui; Mouawad, Roger; Lindner, Veronique; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Verkarre, Virginie; Leroy, Xavier; Dainese, Linda; Classe, Marion; Descotes, Jean-Luc; Barthelemy, Philippe; Yacoub, Mokrane; Rouprêt, Morgan; Bernhard, Jean-Christophe; Creighton, Chad J; Spano, Jean-Philippe; Su, Xiaoping; Khayat, David

    2016-01-01

    Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) is a kidney cancer subtype that is thought to arise from principal cells in distal parts of the collecting ducts. Some studies suggested an overlap of CDC with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC), making the pathological diagnosis challenging. Herein, we performed for the first time transcriptome sequencing of CDC and compared them to UTUC and renal cell carcinoma subtypes. We discovered that CDC displays a unique transcriptomic signature among kidney cancer subtypes, with a putative cell of origin in the distal convoluted tubules. Hierarchical unsupervised clustering reveals that the CDC signature is closer to that of other RCC subtypes than to UTUC, which is similar to that of bladder carcinoma. CDC is characterized by a metabolic shift, with impairment of oxidoreductase activity, pyruvate metabolism and the tricarboxlyic acid cycle, as well as an immunogenic response consistent with increased tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, particularly within metastatic cases. In addition, pathways differentially altered between CDC and UTUC point to a basal-like phenotype of CDC in contrast to the luminal-like signature of UTUC. We conclude that CDC harbors a pathognomonic transcriptomic signature characterized by immunogenic and a metabolic aberrations, indicating that targeting these processes might provide therapeutic options for patients. PMID:27484008

  3. Unique Transcriptomic Profile of Collecting Duct Carcinomas Relative to Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinomas and other Kidney Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Malouf, Gabriel G.; Compérat, Eva; Yao, Hui; Mouawad, Roger; Lindner, Veronique; Rioux-leclercq, Nathalie; Verkarre, Virginie; Leroy, Xavier; Dainese, Linda; Classe, Marion; Descotes, Jean-Luc; Barthelemy, Philippe; Yacoub, Mokrane; Rouprêt, Morgan; Bernhard, Jean-Christophe; Creighton, Chad J.; Spano, Jean-Philippe; Su, Xiaoping; Khayat, David

    2016-01-01

    Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) is a kidney cancer subtype that is thought to arise from principal cells in distal parts of the collecting ducts. Some studies suggested an overlap of CDC with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC), making the pathological diagnosis challenging. Herein, we performed for the first time transcriptome sequencing of CDC and compared them to UTUC and renal cell carcinoma subtypes. We discovered that CDC displays a unique transcriptomic signature among kidney cancer subtypes, with a putative cell of origin in the distal convoluted tubules. Hierarchical unsupervised clustering reveals that the CDC signature is closer to that of other RCC subtypes than to UTUC, which is similar to that of bladder carcinoma. CDC is characterized by a metabolic shift, with impairment of oxidoreductase activity, pyruvate metabolism and the tricarboxlyic acid cycle, as well as an immunogenic response consistent with increased tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, particularly within metastatic cases. In addition, pathways differentially altered between CDC and UTUC point to a basal-like phenotype of CDC in contrast to the luminal-like signature of UTUC. We conclude that CDC harbors a pathognomonic transcriptomic signature characterized by immunogenic and a metabolic aberrations, indicating that targeting these processes might provide therapeutic options for patients. PMID:27484008

  4. The ectopic expression of Snail in MDBK cells does not induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    IZAWA, GENYA; KOBAYASHI, WAKAKO; HARAGUCHI, MISAKO; SUDO, AKIHARU; OZAWA, MASAYUKI

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key process in the tumor metastatic cascade, is characterized by the loss of cell-cell junctions and cell polarity, as well as by the acquisition of migratory and invasive properties. However, the precise molecular events that initiate this complex EMT process are poorly understood. Snail expression induces EMT in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and the human epidermoid carcinoma cell line, A431. Snail is a zinc finger transcription factor and triggers EMT by suppressing E-cadherin expression. In the present study, to broaden our knowledge of Snail-induced EMT, we generated stable Snail transfectants using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. Contrary to the MDCK or A431 cells examined in our previous studies, the MDBK cells transfected with the Snail construct maintained an epithelial morphology and showed no sign of reduced cell-cell adhesiveness compared to the control cells. Consistent with these observations, the down-regulation of epithelial marker proteins, e.g. E-cadherin and desmoglein, and the upregulation of mesenchymal marker proteins, e.g., N-cadherin and fibronectin, were not detected. Furthermore, the E-cadherin promoter was not methylated. Therefore, in the MDBK cells, the ectopic expression of Snail failed to induce EMT. As previously demonstrated, in MDCK cells, Snail expression is accompanied by the increased expression of other EMT-inducing transcription factors, e.g., Slug and zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1). However, the MDBK cells transfected with the Snail construct did not exhibit an increased expression of these factors. Thus, it is possible that the failure to upregulate other EMT-related transcription factors may explain the lack of Snail-mediated induction of EMT in MDBK cells. PMID:25998899

  5. In vivo detection of small tumour lesions by multi-pinhole SPECT applying a 99mTc-labelled nanobody targeting the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Krüwel, Thomas; Nevoltris, Damien; Bode, Julia; Dullin, Christian; Baty, Daniel; Chames, Patrick; Alves, Frauke

    2016-01-01

    The detection of tumours in an early phase of tumour development in combination with the knowledge of expression of tumour markers such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important prerequisite for clinical decisions. In this study we applied the anti-EGFR nanobody 99mTc-D10 for visualizing small tumour lesions with volumes below 100 mm3 by targeting EGFR in orthotopic human mammary MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 and subcutaneous human epidermoid A431 carcinoma mouse models. Use of nanobody 99mTc-D10 of a size as small as 15.5 kDa enables detection of tumours by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging already 45 min post intravenous administration with high tumour uptake (>3% ID/g) in small MDA-MB-468 and A431 tumours, with tumour volumes of 52.5 mm3 ± 21.2 and 26.6 mm3 ± 16.7, respectively. Fast blood clearance with a serum half-life of 4.9 min resulted in high in vivo contrast and ex vivo tumour to blood and tissue ratios. In contrast, no accumulation of 99mTc-D10 in MDA-MB-231 tumours characterized by a very low expression of EGFR was observed. Here we present specific and high contrast in vivo visualization of small human tumours overexpressing EGFR by preclinical multi-pinhole SPECT shortly after administration of anti-EGFR nanobody 99mTc-D10. PMID:26912069

  6. In vivo detection of small tumour lesions by multi-pinhole SPECT applying a (99m)Tc-labelled nanobody targeting the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor.

    PubMed

    Krüwel, Thomas; Nevoltris, Damien; Bode, Julia; Dullin, Christian; Baty, Daniel; Chames, Patrick; Alves, Frauke

    2016-01-01

    The detection of tumours in an early phase of tumour development in combination with the knowledge of expression of tumour markers such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important prerequisite for clinical decisions. In this study we applied the anti-EGFR nanobody (99m)Tc-D10 for visualizing small tumour lesions with volumes below 100 mm(3) by targeting EGFR in orthotopic human mammary MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 and subcutaneous human epidermoid A431 carcinoma mouse models. Use of nanobody (99m)Tc-D10 of a size as small as 15.5 kDa enables detection of tumours by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging already 45 min post intravenous administration with high tumour uptake (>3% ID/g) in small MDA-MB-468 and A431 tumours, with tumour volumes of 52.5 mm(3) ± 21.2 and 26.6 mm(3) ± 16.7, respectively. Fast blood clearance with a serum half-life of 4.9 min resulted in high in vivo contrast and ex vivo tumour to blood and tissue ratios. In contrast, no accumulation of (99m)Tc-D10 in MDA-MB-231 tumours characterized by a very low expression of EGFR was observed. Here we present specific and high contrast in vivo visualization of small human tumours overexpressing EGFR by preclinical multi-pinhole SPECT shortly after administration of anti-EGFR nanobody (99m)Tc-D10. PMID:26912069

  7. Green synthesis of anisotropic gold nanoparticles for photothermal therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Fazal, Sajid; Jayasree, Aswathy; Sasidharan, Sisini; Koyakutty, Manzoor; Nair, Shantikumar V; Menon, Deepthy

    2014-06-11

    Nanoparticles of varying composition, size, shape, and architecture have been explored for use as photothermal agents in the field of cancer nanomedicine. Among them, gold nanoparticles provide a simple platform for thermal ablation owing to its biocompatibility in vivo. However, the synthesis of such gold nanoparticles exhibiting suitable properties for photothermal activity involves cumbersome routes using toxic chemicals as capping agents, which can cause concerns in vivo. Herein, gold nanoparticles, synthesized using green chemistry routes possessing near-infrared (NIR) absorbance facilitating photothermal therapy, would be a viable alternative. In this study, anisotropic gold nanoparticles were synthesized using an aqueous route with cocoa extract which served both as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The as-prepared gold nanoparticles were subjected to density gradient centrifugation to maximize its NIR absorption in the wavelength range of 800-1000 nm. The particles also showed good biocompatibility when tested in vitro using A431, MDA-MB231, L929, and NIH-3T3 cell lines up to concentrations of 200 μg/mL. Cell death induced in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells upon irradiation with a femtosecond laser at 800 nm at a low power density of 6 W/cm(2) proved the suitability of green synthesized NIR absorbing anisotropic gold nanoparticles for photothermal ablation of cancer cells. These gold nanoparticles also showed good X-ray contrast when tested using computed tomography (CT), proving their feasibility for use as a contrast agent as well. This is the first report on green synthesized anisotropic and cytocompatible gold nanoparticles without any capping agents and their suitability for photothermal therapy. PMID:24842534

  8. [Effect of plant hormones on the components of secretory pathway in human normal and tumor cells].

    PubMed

    Vil'danova, M S; Savitskaia, M A; Onishchenko, G E; Smirnova, E A

    2014-01-01

    Plant hormones play a key role in plant growth and differentiation. Many hormones are known as potential antitumor agents, yet others appear to affect the secretory activity and are produced by mammalian cells as pro-inflammatory cytokines. The goal of this research was to study the effect of abscisic and gibberellic acids on the secretory system of human cultured epidermoid carcinoma cells A431 and keratinocytes HaCat. Immunocytochemical and morphometric analysis demonstrated that subtoxic concentration of plant hormones induced the broadening of the ER network and increased the size of Golgi complex. Electron microscopy studies confirmed the hypertrophic changes of the Golgi apparatus, specifically, the swelling of cisternae in the trans-compartment of dictyosomes after exposure to abscisic acid, and swelling of cis- and trans-compartment of dictyosomes after exposure to abscisic acid, and swelling of cis- and trans-compartments of dictyosomes after exposure to gibberellic acid. Using of Click-iT technique allowed to detect the elevation of the total protein synthesis only in A431 cells exposed to abscisic acid. Cumulative data suggests that, under these conditions, the hypertrophy of Golgi apparatus may reflect the enhanced secretory activity of cells. In other experiments, the hypertrophy of Golgi is not related to increased protein synthesis and therefore may suggest the stress-related changes of ER and Golgi apparatus. Our results demonstrate that morphologically similar reaction of cellular organelles, such as hypertrophy of Golgi apparatus, is the result of different functional activities, and that molecular mechanisms underlying the changes induced in cells need further investigations. PMID:25696996

  9. Ca2+/Calmodulin and Apo-Calmodulin Both Bind to and Enhance the Tyrosine Kinase Activity of c-Src

    PubMed Central

    Anguita, Estefanía; Benaim, Gustavo; Villalobo, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Src family non-receptor tyrosine kinases play a prominent role in multiple cellular processes, including: cell proliferation, differentiation, cell survival, stress response, and cell adhesion and migration, among others. And when deregulated by mutations, overexpression, and/or the arrival of faulty incoming signals, its hyperactivity contributes to the development of hematological and solid tumors. c-Src is a prototypical member of this family of kinases, which is highly regulated by a set of phosphorylation events. Other factor contributing to the regulation of Src activity appears to be mediated by the Ca2+ signal generated in cells by different effectors, where the Ca2+-receptor protein calmodulin (CaM) plays a key role. In this report we demonstrate that CaM directly interacts with Src in both Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent manners in vitro and in living cells, and that the CaM antagonist N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide (W-7) inhibits the activation of this kinase induced by the upstream activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), in human carcinoma epidermoide A431 cells, and by hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress, in both A431 cells and human breast adenocarcinoma SK-BR-3 cells. Furthermore, we show that the Ca2+/CaM complex strongly activates the auto-phosphorylation and tyrosine kinase activity of c-Src toward exogenous substrates, but most relevantly and for the first time, we demonstrate that Ca2+-free CaM (apo-CaM) exerts a far higher activatory action on Src auto-phosphorylation and kinase activity toward exogenous substrates than the one exerted by the Ca2+/CaM complex. This suggests that a transient increase in the cytosolic concentration of free Ca2+ is not an absolute requirement for CaM-mediated activation of Src in living cells, and that a direct regulation of Src by apo-CaM could be inferred. PMID:26058065

  10. Novel Nitrobenzazolo[3,2-a]quinolinium Salts Induce Cell Death through a Mechanism Involving DNA Damage, Cell Cycle Changes, and Mitochondrial Permeabilization

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Christian; Cox, Osvaldo; Rosado-Berrios, Carlos A.; Molina, Dennise; Arroyo, Luz; Carro, Sujey; Filikov, Anton; Kumar, Vineet; Malhotra, Sanjay V.; Cordero, Marisol; Zayas, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the capacity of three nitro substituted benzazolo[3,2-a]quinolinium salts NBQs: NBQ 95 (NSC-763304), NBQ 38 (NSC 763305), and NBQ 97 (NSC-763306) as potential antitumor agents. NBQ’s are unnatural alkaloids possessing a positive charge that could facilitate interaction with cell organelles. The anticancer activities of these compounds were evaluated through the National Cancer Institute (NCI) 60 cell line screening which represents diverse histologies. The screening was performed at 10 µM on all cell lines. Results from the NCI screening indicated cytotoxicity activity on six cell lines. In order to explore a possible mechanism of action, a detailed biological activity study of NBQ 95 and NBQ 38 was performed on A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells to determine an apoptotic pathway involving, cell cycle changes, DNA fragmentation, mutations, mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and caspases activation. DNA fragmentation, cell cycle effects, mutagenesis, mitochondrial permeabilization and activation of caspases were determined by fluorimetry and differential imaging. Our data showed that A431 growth was inhibited with an average IC50 of 30 µM. In terms of the mechanism, these compounds interacted with DNA causing fragmentation and cell cycle arrest at sub G0/G1 stage. Mutagenesis was higher for NBQ 38 and moderate for NBQ 95 Mitochon-drial permeabilization was observed with NBQ 38 and slightly for NBQ 95. Both compounds caused activation of Caspases 3 and 7 suggesting an apoptotic cell death pathway through an intrinsic mechanism. This study reports evidence of the toxicity of these novel compounds with overlapping structural and mechanistic similarities to ellipticine, a known anti-tumor compound. PMID:25243104

  11. A chrysin derivative suppresses skin cancer growth by inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haidan; Liu, Kangdong; Huang, Zunnan; Park, Chan-Mi; Thimmegowda, N R; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Ryoo, In-Ja; He, Long; Kim, Sun-Ok; Oi, Naomi; Lee, Ki Won; Soung, Nak-Kyun; Bode, Ann M; Yang, Yifeng; Zhou, Xinmin; Erikson, Raymond L; Ahn, Jong-Seog; Hwang, Joonsung; Kim, Kyoon Eon; Dong, Zigang; Kim, Bo-Yeon

    2013-09-01

    Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), a natural flavonoid widely distributed in plants, reportedly has chemopreventive properties against various cancers. However, the anticancer activity of chrysin observed in in vivo studies has been disappointing. Here, we report that a chrysin derivative, referred to as compound 69407, more strongly inhibited EGF-induced neoplastic transformation of JB6 P(+) cells compared with chrysin. It attenuated cell cycle progression of EGF-stimulated cells at the G1 phase and inhibited the G1/S transition. It caused loss of retinoblastoma phosphorylation at both Ser-795 and Ser-807/811, the preferred sites phosphorylated by Cdk4/6 and Cdk2, respectively. It also suppressed anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. Compound 69407 reduced tumor growth in the A431 mouse xenograft model and retinoblastoma phosphorylation at Ser-795 and Ser-807/811. Immunoprecipitation kinase assay results showed that compound 69407 attenuated endogenous Cdk4 and Cdk2 kinase activities in EGF-stimulated JB6 P(+) cells. Pulldown and in vitro kinase assay results indicated that compound 69407 directly binds with Cdk2 and Cdk4 in an ATP-independent manner and inhibited their kinase activities. A binding model between compound 69407 and a crystal structure of Cdk2 predicted that compound 69407 was located inside the Cdk2 allosteric binding site. The binding was further verified by a point mutation binding assay. Overall results indicated that compound 69407 is an ATP-noncompetitive cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor with anti-tumor effects, which acts by binding inside the Cdk2 allosteric pocket. This study provides new insights for creating a general pharmacophore model to design and develop novel ATP-noncompetitive agents with chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic potency. PMID:23888052

  12. Photodynamic Therapy With HPPH in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-19

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  13. Morphogenesis of nasal tumors in rats exposed to hexamethylphosphoramide by inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.P.; Trochimowicz, H.J.

    1984-02-01

    Hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) is used as a solvent, polymerization catalyst and, to some extent, as a deicing additive for jet fuels. Nasal tumors have been induced in rats by inhalation exposure to the compound for 6 to 24 months at concentrations of 50, 100, 400, and 4000 parts per billion (ppb), but not in rats exposed at 10 ppb for 24 months. Most nasal tumors were epidermoid carcinomas and developed from the respiratory epithelium or subepithelial nasal gland, both of which revealed squamous metaplasia or dysplasia in the anterior nasal cavity. The glandular cells appear to play an important role in developing epidermoid carcinomas in the nasal cavity. The ultrastructure of epidermoid carcinomas revealed abundant features of glandular differentiation in the neoplastic squamous cells. The morphological expression of glandular cell metamorphosis in the epidermoid carcinoma included intermediate cells showing both glandular and squamous differentiation, inter- or intracellular lumina, secretory vesicles, and mucus droplets in squamous cells and keratin plates.

  14. [Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma of larynx as an uncommon variant of squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Tiken, Elif Eda; Çolpan Öksüz, Didem; Batur, Şebnem; Uzel, Esengül Koçak; Öz, Büge; Öz, Ferhan; Uzel, Ömer; Turkan, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma is an uncommon variant of squamous cell carcinoma. Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma occurs in the sun-exposed areas of the skin and lip. It is rarely observed in the respiratory and digestive tract and may present more aggressively. The incidence of distant metastases of squamous cell head and neck cancers is low and the lungs are the most common metastatic sites. Metastasis to the soft tissue, skin, and adrenal glands from the laryngeal region is very uncommon. In this article, we report a 58-year-old female case who underwent postoperative radiation therapy with the diagnosis of acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and developed metastasis to the soft tissue and adrenal gland at the early period. PMID:27107606

  15. Lung Metastasis of Renal Cell Carcinoma: ACase Report of Pulmonary Sarcomatoid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fan, Tao; Song, Ying-Jie

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma (PSC) is a rare malignant cancer composed of sarcoma and sarcoma-like elements with spindle or giant cell features. We report the case of a 60-year-old male with past medical history of right renal cell carcinoma 2 years earlier. Apulmonary nodule was detected in the left upper lobe, 23 months after nephrectomy. Systemic positron emission tomography-computerized tomography (PET-CT) revealed one high metabolic mass shadow in the left upper lobe. Chest CTscan with contrast revealed a left upper lobe mass (2.9 x 2.5 cm). The case was suspected to be a lung metastasis of renal cell carcinoma. After surgery, the pathology revealed PSC-giant cell carcinoma. The tumor's pathology and treatment methods are discussed. PMID:27376226

  16. Mixed adenocarcinoma, sarcomatoid carcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma of the prostate: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, ZHONGFU; WANG, YADONG; ZHAO, QING; LI, GANHONG; ZHAO, XINGQI; LI, JUN; LI, XIANXIN

    2014-01-01

    Adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) and sarcomatoid carcinoma (SC) of the prostate are rare, but highly aggressive tumors. The occurrence of mixed carcinomas in the prostate is even more rarely reported. The present study reports the case of a 62-year-old male who was diagnosed with prostatic adenocarcinoma accompanied by multiple bone metastases, as shown by a needle biopsy and skeletal computed tomography scan. The patient was treated with hormonal therapy, but thereafter, specimens from a transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) were found to be composed of three histologically distinct elements: ASC, SC and adenocarcinoma. The level of p53 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in detail, and it was found that this was significantly increased in the TURP samples compared with the needle biopsy samples. The abnormal level of p53 was likely associated with the prognosis of the patient; the patient succumbed to prostate carcinoma two months after the confirmation of the diagnosis. PMID:25295118

  17. A Rare Constellation of Hürthle Cell Thyroid Carcinoma and Parathyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zakerkish, Mehrnoosh; Rajaei, Elham; Dargahi, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Separate occurrence of thyroid and parathyroid carcinoma in patients is extremely rare, and to the best of our knowledge, only 7 patients with documented parathyroid and papillary thyroid carcinomas have been described formerly in published reports. We report a patient with an extremely unusual clinical presentation of Hürthle cell carcinoma in thyroid and parathyroid carcinoma. The patient displayed a rare presentation of life-threatening hypercalcaemia after total para-thyroidectomy and failed to respond to standard therapy. Our review of available literature yielded insufficient evidence in managing such. When a patient with thyroid cancer is diagnosed, checking for serum calcium is advised. This is considered a useful method for detecting possible incidental parathyroid lesion and screening the probable concealed parathyroid pathology. PMID:26813941

  18. A Rare Constellation of Hürthle Cell Thyroid Carcinoma and Parathyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zakerkish, Mehrnoosh; Rajaei, Elham; Dargahi, Mehrdad; Bahadoram, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    Separate occurrence of thyroid and parathyroid carcinoma in patients is extremely rare, and to the best of our knowledge, only 7 patients with documented parathyroid and papillary thyroid carcinomas have been described formerly in published reports. We report a patient with an extremely unusual clinical presentation of Hürthle cell carcinoma in thyroid and parathyroid carcinoma. The patient displayed a rare presentation of life-threatening hypercalcaemia after total para-thyroidectomy and failed to respond to standard therapy. Our review of available literature yielded insufficient evidence in managing such. When a patient with thyroid cancer is diagnosed, checking for serum calcium is advised. This is considered a useful method for detecting possible incidental parathyroid lesion and screening the probable concealed parathyroid pathology. PMID:26813941

  19. Sebaceous gland carcinoma and mammary gland carcinoma in an African hedgehog (Ateletrix albiventris).

    PubMed

    Matute, Alonso Reyes; Bernal, Adriana Mendez; Lezama, José Ramírez; Guadalupe, Manzano Pech Linaloe; Antonio, Galicia Avalos Marco

    2014-09-01

    A sebaceous carcinoma was diagnosed, together with a mammary carcinoma, in an adult African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). The first neoplasm was located in the subcutaneous tissue of the neck and extended towards the axillary area of the chest. The second was located in the subcutaneous left caudal abdominal region. The purpose of this paper is to report the histopathologic and ultrastructural features of these neoplasms. Although there is little information about diseases affecting this species, it is known that neoplastic disorders are fairly common in African hedgehogs. The mammary carcinoma is considered to be the most common neoplasm in these animals; however, the presentation of sebaceous carcinoma is rare. In hedgehogs, the simultaneous presence of two neoplasms is common, which is why special attention should be paid to the presentation of other tumors during the early detection of a neoplastic process as this will greatly facilitate the optimal treatment and improve the long-term prognosis of affected animals. PMID:25314843

  20. Metastatic brain tumor from urothelial carcinoma of the prostatic urethra

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Kohei; Oda, Masashi; Koyanagi, Masaomi; Saiki, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urothelial carcinoma occurs in the bladder, upper urinary tract, and lower urinary tract, including prostatic urethra. A majority of the reported cases of intracranial metastasis from urothelial carcinoma originates from the bladder and upper urinary tract. Brain metastasis from urothelial carcinoma of the prostatic urethra has not yet been reported in the literature. Case Description: A 72-year-old male presented with a metastatic brain tumor and a 3-year history of urothelial carcinoma of the prostatic urethra treated with cystourethrectomy and chemotherapy with gemcitabine-cisplatin. Pathological diagnosis for tumor removal was compatible with metastatic brain tumor from urothelial carcinoma. Conclusion: Brain metastasis from urothelial carcinoma of the prostatic urethra has not yet been reported in the literature. It is an extremely rare case, however, we should be careful of brain metastasis during follow-up for urothelial carcinoma in the lower urinary tract. PMID:27512612

  1. Occult distal urethral carcinoma presenting as metastatic carcinoma in the inguinal lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Hammer-Hansen, Niels; Høyer, Søren; Jensen, Jørgen Bjerggaard

    2015-02-01

    A 65-year-old man presented with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma in the inguinal lymph nodes from an unknown primary tumour. The initial work-up lacked clinical examination of the glans penis, in part due to the patient having phimosis. More than a year after presentation, a primary tumour, located distally on the penis, was diagnosed. A discussion of urethral carcinoma as well as inguinal lymph-node metastasis of unknown primary tumour is presented. PMID:25313619

  2. Pedunculated-type T1 colorectal carcinoma with lung carcinoma metastasis at the deepest invasive portion.

    PubMed

    Asayama, Naoki; Oka, Shiro; Tanaka, Shinji; Hirano, Daiki; Sumimoto, Kyoku; Ninomiya, Yuki; Tamaru, Yuzuru; Shigita, Kenjiro; Hayashi, Nana; Shimamoto, Fumio; Arihiro, Koji; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2016-08-01

    We present a rare case of colorectal T1 carcinoma with metastasis of previous lung carcinoma found at the deepest invasive portion. A 61-year-old man presented with cervical lymphadenopathy 18 years after undergoing surgery for right lung carcinoma [poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma stage IIb (T3N0M0)]. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed enlarged lymph nodes (LNs) in the neck and mediastinal regions. Combined hybrid-F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission-computerized tomography showed increased radionuclide uptake in multiple cervical LNs and mediastinal LNs. LN biopsy revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, suspected to be a metastatic tumor of the lung. Subsequent colonoscopy revealed a pedunculated-type lesion with a depressed area in the ascending colon. We performed polypectomy as total excisional biopsy; this tumor was composed mainly of moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, partially mixed with mucinous adenocarcinoma. The pathological findings of the invasive front of the colorectal carcinoma showed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with a morphological pattern similar to that of the previous lung carcinoma. Furthermore, immunohistochemical results for the histological type of the deepest invasive portion of the tissue specimen were positive for thyroid transcription factor-1 but negative for Caudal-type homeobox 2. From these morphological and immunohistochemical findings, the final diagnosis was moderately differentiated lung carcinoma, pTX N3 M1b (LN, colon) Stage IV. PMID:27259703

  3. Prognostic factors for hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Colecchia, Antonio; Schiumerini, Ramona; Cucchetti, Alessandro; Cescon, Matteo; Taddia, Martina; Marasco, Giovanni; Festi, Davide

    2014-01-01

    The recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma, the sixth most common neoplasm and the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, represents an important clinical problem, since it may occur after both surgical and medical treatment. The recurrence rate involves 2 phases: an early phase and a late phase. The early phase usually occurs within 2 years after resection; it is mainly related to local invasion and intrahepatic metastases and, therefore, to the intrinsic biology of the tumor. On the other hand, the late phase occurs more than 2 years after surgery and is mainly related to de novo tumor formation as a consequence of the carcinogenic cirrhotic environment. Since recent studies have reported that early and late recurrences may have different risk factors, it is clinically important to recognize these factors in the individual patient as soon as possible. The aim of this review was, therefore, to identify predicting factors for the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma, by means of invasive and non-invasive methods, according to the different therapeutic strategies available. In particular the role of emerging techniques (e.g., transient elastography) and biological features of hepatocellular carcinoma in predicting recurrence have been discussed. In particular, invasive methods were differentiated from non-invasive ones for research purposes, taking into consideration the emerging role of the genetic signature of hepatocellular carcinoma in order to better allocate treatment strategies and surveillance follow-up in patients with this type of tumor. PMID:24876717

  4. Thyroglossal Duct Carcinoma in a Cat.

    PubMed

    Moorer, Jeremiah D; Breshears, Melanie A; Dugat, Danielle R

    2016-01-01

    A 14 yr old castrated domestic shorthair cat presented for a fluid-filled structure in the ventral cervical region that had been present for 1 yr and had not resolved after repeated aspiration and drainage. Cervical computed tomography showed an approximately 10 cm, fluid-filled, multilobulated mass located on the ventrolateral right side of the cervical region extending into the thoracic inlet. Cytologic examination of the fluid revealed cystic fluid with evidence of chronic hemorrhage. The mass was surgically removed, and histopathologic examination revealed a thyroglossal duct carcinoma. Thyroid and parathyroid gland origin were ruled out by negative immunohistochemical staining for thyroglobulin, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and synaptophysin. No adjunctive treatment was performed and no recurrence was noted at 14 mo. Thyroglossal duct carcinoma has not been previously reported in a cat. There are two previous reports of squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroglossal duct in dogs. In humans, with complete removal and no evidence of metastasis, carcinoma of the thyroglossal duct has a good prognosis for recovery. PMID:27259027

  5. Targeting Hsp90 in urothelial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Skotnicki, Kamil; Landas, Steve; Bratslavsky, Gennady; Bourboulia, Dimitra

    2015-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma, or transitional cell carcinoma, is the most common urologic malignancy that carries significant morbidity, mortality, recurrence risk and associated health care costs. Despite use of current chemotherapies and immunotherapies, long-term remission in patients with muscle-invasive or metastatic disease remains low, and disease recurrence is common. The molecular chaperone Heat Shock Protein-90 (Hsp90) may offer an ideal treatment target, as it is a critical signaling hub in urothelial carcinoma pathogenesis and potentiates chemoradiation. Preclinical testing with Hsp90 inhibitors has demonstrated reduced proliferation, enhanced apoptosis and synergism with chemotherapies and radiation. Despite promising preclinical data, clinical trials utilizing Hsp90 inhibitors for other malignancies had modest efficacy. Therefore, we propose that Hsp90 inhibition would best serve as an adjuvant treatment in advanced muscle-invasive or metastatic bladder cancers to potentiate other therapies. An overview of bladder cancer biology, current treatments, molecular targeted therapies, and the role for Hsp90 inhibitors in the treatment of urothelial carcinoma is the focus of this review. PMID:25909217

  6. Hepatocellular carcinoma and evidence-based surgery

    PubMed Central

    Braillon, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Transplantation cannot be considered the most important therapeutic procedure for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In France, no more than 2% of patients with HCC undergo a transplantation. Randomized controlled trial must assess the benefit to risk ratio of various potentially “curative” treatment procedures (transplantation, resection, radio-frequency ablation). PMID:19908350

  7. Integrated Genomic Characterization of Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Summary We performed an integrated genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic characterization of 373 endometrial carcinomas using array- and sequencing-based technologies. Uterine serous tumors and ~25% of high-grade endometrioid tumors have extensive copy number alterations, few DNA methylation changes, low ER/PR levels, and frequent TP53 mutations. Most endometrioid tumors have few copy number alterations or TP53 mutations but frequent mutations in PTEN, CTNNB1, PIK3CA, ARID1A, KRAS and novel mutations in the SWI/SNF gene ARID5B. A subset of endometrioid tumors we identified had a dramatically increased transversion mutation frequency, and newly identified hotspot mutations in POLE. Our results classified endometrial cancers into four categories: POLE ultramutated, microsatellite instability hypermutated, copy number low, and copy number high. Uterine serous carcinomas share genomic features with ovarian serous and basal-like breast carcinomas. We demonstrated that the genomic features of endometrial carcinomas permit a reclassification that may impact post-surgical adjuvant treatment for women with aggressive tumors. PMID:23636398

  8. Impact of Squamous Differentiation in Breast Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pai, Trupti; Shet, Tanuja; Desai, Sangeeta; Patil, Asawari; Nair, Nita; Parmar, Vani; Gupta, Sudeep; Budrukkar, Ashwini; Sarin, Rajiv; Badwe, Rajendra

    2016-09-01

    This study attempted to review the impact of extent of squamous differentiation in 56 infiltrating duct carcinomas (IDC) with squamous differentiation (metaplastic squamous carcinomas [MSC]). Tumors showing 100% squamous elements were labeled as primary squamous carcinomas (PSC; n = 28) and compared with 28 MSC showing lesser squamous components. A clinicopathological comparison revealed that lymphovascular emboli were never seen in any PSC but were noted in 7/28 of other MSC, while perineural invasion was seen only in PSC and not in MSC. Nodal metastasis was significantly more in other MSC as opposed to PSC. Most MSC presented with 2- to 5-cm sized tumors while PSC were 5 to 10 cm in size. PSC showed cystic change while MSC did not. Disease free survival (DFS) for MSC versus PSC was 64% versus 39.8%, while overall survival (OAS) was 72.7% in MSC versus 66.7% in PSC. Tumor stage affected DFS in MSC while none of the factors affected DFS/OAS in PSC. The extent of squamous differentiation affected DFS with best behavior for metaplastic carcinomas showing <40% squamous elements and worse for those with >90% squamous component (P = .024). PSC of breast is an aggressive disease and show distinct clinicopathological features from other MSC, and though the current definition of MSC does not advocate quantifying the squamous element, clearly this affects prognosis. PMID:27076454

  9. Management of Early Carcinoma of the Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, George W.

    1988-01-01

    Ovarian cancer represents a formidable challenge to physicians. Early symptoms are nonspecific, and are usually attributed to disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Especially important is suspicion of this neoplasm in its early stage. This article discusses the epidemiology, clinical features, evaluation, and treatment of early carcinomas of the ovary. PMID:3071612

  10. [Report on 114 primary vaginal carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Sun, J H; Zhang, W H; Li, A L; Wu, A R

    1987-11-01

    114 patients with primary carcinoma of the vagina were treated in our hospital from 1958 to 1978. It accounted for 0.83% of all gynecological malignant tumors in the same period. The youngest was 26 years of age, the oldest 75. Patients 40-59 years comprised 61.4%. 33% of patients had wedding age under 17. 63.4% had more than 4 pregnancies and 58.4% gave more than 4 births. 89.69% was diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma, 7.2% as adenocarcinoma, 2.06% as undifferentiated carcinoma and 1 as embryonic carcinoma. The tumor occurred frequently in the upper third and posterior wall of the vagina (60% and 68%). In this series, there were 21 stage I, 29 stage II, 61 stage III and 3 stage IV lesions. 110 patients were treated by radiotherapy in different schemes. Intracavitary radium or caesium plus 60Co external irradiation by four fields gave better result with a 5 year survival rate of 66.1%. Only 2 out of 12 patients were cured by 60Co rotation alone but if supplemented by intracavitary radium or caesium, the cure rate was increased. The 5 year survival rate was 71.4% for stage I, 62.1% for stage II, 42.6% for stage III and O for stage IV. After the radiotherapy, rectovaginal fistula developed in 1 patient, vesicovaginal fistula in 1. 14% was complicated with rectal bleeding and 8.18% with hematuria. PMID:3452544

  11. Non-hepatocellular carcinoma spinal metastases.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, C Rory; Abu-Bonsrah, Nancy; Boone, Christine; Ruiz-Valls, Alejandro; Sankey, Eric W; Sarabia-Estrada, Rachel; Elder, Benjamin D; Kosztowski, Thomas; Sciubba, Daniel M

    2016-05-01

    Metastases to the spine from non-hepatocellular carcinomas, such as cholangiocarcinoma and angiosarcoma, occur rarely. With improvements in oncologic care, the number of patients diagnosed with metastatic cancer is expected to increase. We performed a systematic review of the literature to assess the clinical presentation, treatment, outcome and survival of patients diagnosed with non-hepatocellular carcinoma spinal metastasis using PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and Web of Science. We identified 19 cases of spinal metastases from non-hepatocellular carcinomas that fit our pre-specified criteria. The mean age at presentation was 62.3years and cholangiocarcinoma was the most common subtype. Patients frequently presented with pain, weakness or paraparesis and at the time of diagnosis, most of them had multi-level involvement of the spine. A majority of patients with spinal metastasis were treated either with radiation or chemotherapy or received no treatment. A minority of the reports included information on survival, which revealed a median survival of 1.5months following diagnosis of the spinal metastasis. Although there is a paucity of published literature on non-hepatocellular carcinoma spinal metastasis, this systematic review provides descriptive clinical characteristics of these patients. PMID:26778049

  12. [The origin of bronchial carcinoma in siderofibrosis].

    PubMed

    Wiemann, B; Bergmann, L

    1988-01-01

    Investigations of diseases due to professional exposure, especially the development of malignant tumors, are of increasing interest. In the present case the development of a bronchogenic carcinoma on the base of sidero-fibrosis in a 46-year-old man (E-welder) is described. Several aspects of the problem are discussed. PMID:3195165

  13. SnapShot: Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Turajlic, Samra; Larkin, James; Swanton, Charles

    2015-12-01

    This SnapShot summarizes current knowledge about the key features in mutational landscape, major pathways, and tumor evolution and heterogeneity in renal cell carcinoma, as well as the most recent advances in therapeutic development. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF. PMID:26638079

  14. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor in Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Natalie; Babur, Muhammad; Resch, Julia; Williams, Kaye J.; Brabant, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Intratumoural hypoxia (low oxygen tension) is associated with aggressive disease and poor prognosis. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 is a transcription factor activated by hypoxia that regulates the expression of genes that promote tumour cell survival, progression, metastasis, and resistance to chemo/radiotherapy. In addition to hypoxia, HIF-1 can be activated by growth factor-signalling pathways such as the mitogen-activated protein kinases- (MAPK-) and phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinases- (PI3K-) signalling cascades. Mutations in these pathways are common in thyroid carcinoma and lead to enhanced HIF-1 expression and activity. Here, we summarise current data that highlights the potential role of both hypoxia and MAPK/PI3K-induced HIF-1 signalling in thyroid carcinoma progression, metastatic characteristics, and the potential role of HIF-1 in thyroid carcinoma response to radiotherapy. Direct or indirect targeting of HIF-1 using an MAPK or PI3K inhibitor in combination with radiotherapy may be a new potential therapeutic target to improve the therapeutic response of thyroid carcinoma to radiotherapy and reduce metastatic burden. PMID:21765994

  15. Microcystic adnexal carcinoma following radiotherapy in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Borenstein, A.; Seidman, D.S.; Trau, H.; Tsur, H. )

    1991-04-01

    A 36-year-old man was treated by radiotherapy for tinea capitis many years before discovery of microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC). Because of patient's refusal of any surgical intervention, we were able to follow the natural course of this tumor for 13 years. This case emphasizes the typical slow development of (MAC). The implication of the association of MAC and radiotherapy are discussed.

  16. Epstein-Barr virus in gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Tokunaga, M.; Land, C. E.; Uemura, Y.; Tokudome, T.; Tanaka, S.; Sato, E.

    1993-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is known to be related to lymphoid tumors and some types of epithelial tumors, including lymphoepithelioma-like gastric carcinoma with marked lymphocytic stroma. In this study, prevalence of EBV involvement in gastric cancer, and characteristics of tumors with such involvement, were investigated by EBV-encoded RNA 1 in situ hybridization applied to paraffin sections, including the tumor and adjacent gastric tissue, from 999 gastric carcinomas observed in 970 consecutive cases from a large Japanese hospital. EBV involvement occurred in 6.9 percent of lesions, a significantly lower proportion than has been observed in a North American series. Involvement was significantly more frequent among males, in tumors in the upper part of the stomach, and in adenocarcinomas of the moderately differentiated tubular and poorly differentiated solid or medullary types. Almost all carcinomas with marked lymphoid stroma were EBV-positive. Positive lesions were characterized by the presence of uniform hybridized signals in almost all carcinoma cells and by their absence from adjacent non-neoplastic tissue. Images Figure 1 PMID:8238241

  17. CARCINOMA OF THE EXOCRINE PANCREAS IN MEDAKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eight cases of acinar cell carcinoma of the exocrine pancreas were diagnosed in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) from a pool of approximately 10,000 specimens used in a variety of carcinogenesis bioassays. hree cases occurred in specimens from control groups and one case in a sp...

  18. Association of urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis with papillary and medullary thyroid carcinomas. A new sporadic neoplastic syndrome?

    PubMed

    Albores-Saavedra, Jorge; Dorantes-Heredia, Rita; Chablé-Montero, Fredy; Córdova-Ramón, Juan Carlos; Henson, Donald E

    2014-10-01

    We describe 2 adult women (72 and 54 years), 1 with a low-grade noninvasive papillary urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis, who 14 years later developed a papillary carcinoma in 1 thyroid lobe and a medullary carcinoma in the contralateral lobe. Both neoplasms were similar in size and appeared symmetrical. Despite its small size, the medullary carcinoma metastasized in multiple cervical lymph nodes. The second patient had a high-grade invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis that infiltrated the renal parenchyma and metastasized in one of the lungs. Five months later, a papillary carcinoma was discovered in the thyroid gland. The 2 papillary thyroid carcinomas were of the follicular variant. Adjacent to 1 papillary carcinoma, there was a dominant nodule of a colloid and adenomatous goiter. The medullary carcinoma contained stromal amyloid and was immunoreactive for calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen. There was no C-cell hyperplasia (medullary carcinoma in situ). The 2 patients are alive, 1 is living with pulmonary metastasis from the high-grade urothelial carcinoma. Twelve cases of this neoplastic association were registered in the Survey, Epidemiology, and End Results Program from 1980 to 2009. We believe that the combination of these unusual neoplasms in the same patient may represent a new sporadic neoplastic syndrome. PMID:25175810

  19. Gallbladder carcinoma: Prognostic factors and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Goetze, Thorsten Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of gallbladder carcinoma is poor, and the overall 5-year survival rate is less than 5%. In early-stage disease, a 5-year survival rate up to 75% can be achieved if stage-adjusted therapy is performed. There is wide geographic variability in the frequency of gallbladder carcinoma, which can only be explained by an interaction between genetic factors and their alteration. Gallstones and chronic cholecystitis are important risk factors in the formation of gallbladder malignancies. Factors such as chronic bacterial infection, primary sclerosing cholangitis, an anomalous junction of the pancreaticobiliary duct, and several types of gallbladder polyps are associated with a higher risk of gallbladder cancer. There is also an interesting correlation between risk factors and the histological type of cancer. However, despite theoretical risk factors, only a third of gallbladder carcinomas are recognized preoperatively. In most patients, the tumor is diagnosed by the pathologist after a routine cholecystectomy for a benign disease and is termed ‘‘incidental or occult gallbladder carcinoma’’ (IGBC). A cholecystectomy is performed frequently due to the minimal invasiveness of the laparoscopic technique. Therefore, the postoperative diagnosis of potentially curable early-stage disease is more frequent. A second radical re-resection to complete a radical cholecystectomy is required for several IGBCs. However, the literature and guidelines used in different countries differ regarding the radicality or T-stage criteria for performing a radical cholecystectomy. The NCCN guidelines and data from the German registry (GR), which records the largest number of incidental gallbladder carcinomas in Europe, indicate that carcinomas infiltrating the muscularis propria or beyond require radical surgery. According to GR data and current literature, a wedge resection with a combined dissection of the lymph nodes of the hepatoduodenal ligament is adequate for T1b and T2

  20. Cixutumumab, Everolimus, and Octreotide Acetate in Treating Patients With Advanced Low to Intermediate Grade Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-14

    Gastrin-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Pancreatic Glucagonoma; Pancreatic Insulinoma; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Paraganglioma; Recurrent Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Recurrent Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Regional Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Somatostatin-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor; Stage III Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

  1. Macromolecular delivery of 5-aminolaevulinic acid for photodynamic therapy using dendrimer conjugates.

    PubMed

    Battah, Sinan; Balaratnam, Sherina; Casas, Adriana; O'Neill, Sophie; Edwards, Christine; Batlle, Alcira; Dobbin, Paul; MacRobert, Alexander J

    2007-03-01

    Intracellular porphyrin generation following administration of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (5-ALA) has been widely used in photodynamic therapy. However, cellular uptake of 5-ALA is limited by its hydrophilicity, and improved means of delivery are therefore being sought. Highly branched polymeric drug carriers known as dendrimers present a promising new approach to drug delivery because they have a well-defined structure capable of incorporating a high drug payload. In this work, a dendrimer conjugate was investigated, which incorporated 18 aminolaevulinic acid residues attached via ester linkages to a multipodent aromatic core. The ability of the dendrimer to deliver and release 5-ALA intracellularly for metabolism to the photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX, was studied in the transformed PAM 212 murine keratinocyte and A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cell lines. Up to an optimum concentration of 0.1 mmol/L, the dendrimer was significantly more efficient compared with 5-ALA for porphyrin synthesis. The intracellular porphyrin fluorescence levels showed good correlation with cellular phototoxicity following light exposure, together with minimal dark toxicity. Cellular uptake of the dendrimer occurs through endocytic routes predominantly via a macropinocytosis pathway. In conclusion, macromolecular dendritic derivatives are capable of delivering 5-ALA efficiently to cells for sustained porphyrin synthesis. PMID:17363482

  2. Intramolecular trimerization, a novel strategy for making multispecific antibodies with controlled orientation of the antigen binding domains.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Cienfuegos, Ana; Nuñez-Prado, Natalia; Compte, Marta; Cuesta, Angel M; Blanco-Toribio, Ana; Harwood, Seandean Lykke; Villate, Maider; Merino, Nekane; Bonet, Jaume; Navarro, Rocio; Muñoz-Briones, Clara; Sørensen, Karen Marie Juul; Mølgaard, Kasper; Oliva, Baldo; Sanz, Laura; Blanco, Francisco J; Alvarez-Vallina, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe a new strategy that allows the rapid and efficient engineering of mono and multispecific trivalent antibodies. By fusing single-domain antibodies from camelid heavy-chain-only immunoglobulins (VHHs) to the N-terminus of a human collagen XVIII trimerization domain (TIE(XVIII)) we produced monospecific trimerbodies that were efficiently secreted as soluble functional proteins by mammalian cells. The purified VHH-TIE(XVIII) trimerbodies were trimeric in solution and exhibited excellent antigen binding capacity. Furthermore, by connecting with two additional glycine-serine-based linkers three VHH-TIE(XVIII) modules on a single polypeptide chain, we present an approach for the rational design of multispecific tandem trimerbodies with defined stoichiometry and controlled orientation. Using this technology we report here the construction and characterization of a tandem VHH-based trimerbody capable of simultaneously binding to three different antigens: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and green fluorescence protein (GFP). Multispecific tandem VHH-based trimerbodies were well expressed in mammalian cells, had good biophysical properties and were capable of simultaneously binding their targeted antigens. Importantly, these antibodies were very effective in inhibiting the proliferation of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Multispecific VHH-based trimerbodies are therefore ideal candidates for future applications in various therapeutic areas. PMID:27345490

  3. Human thymocytes bind to autologous and allogeneic thymic epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Singer, K H; Wolf, L S; Lobach, D F; Denning, S M; Tuck, D T; Robertson, A L; Haynes, B F

    1986-01-01

    The thymus plays a critical role in the generation of immunocompetent T lymphocytes. In the thymus, lymphocytes are in close contact with epithelial cells, and this contact is necessary for T-cell maturation. Using cultured human thymic epithelial (TE) cells, we have found that human thymocytes bind to human TE cells in vitro. Thymocytes bound to both allogeneic and autologous TE cells and to the epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431 but did not bind to epidermal keratinocytes or to thymic fibroblasts. Thymocyte binding to TE cells was trypsin- and cytochalasin B-sensitive. Indirect immunofluorescence assays showed that both mature (T6-, T3+) and immature (T6+, T3-) thymocytes bound TE cells. In our system, TE-thymocyte binding was not inhibited by antibodies to class I or class II major histocompatibility antigens. In vitro binding of thymocytes to TE cells may represent a correlate of in vivo TE-thymocyte interactions and provides a model system for the study of human intrathymic T-lymphocyte maturation and activation. Images PMID:3092215

  4. Synthesis, Characterization, and in Vitro Antitumor Activity of Ruthenium(II) Polypyridyl Complexes Tethering EGFR-Inhibiting 4-Anilinoquinazolines.

    PubMed

    Du, Jun; Kang, Yan; Zhao, Yao; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Yang; Lin, Yu; Wang, Zhaoying; Wang, Yuanyuan; Luo, Qun; Wu, Kui; Wang, Fuyi

    2016-05-01

    Ruthenium-based anticancer complexes are promising antitumor agents for their low system toxicity and versatile chemical structures. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been found to be overexpressed in a broad range of tumor cells and is regarded as a drug target in developing novel antitumor drugs. In this work, five ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes containing EGFR-inhibiting 4-anilinoquinazoline pharmacophores were synthesized and characterized. These complexes showed both high EGFR-inhibiting activity and strong DNA minor groove-binding activity. In vitro antiproliferation screening demonstrated that the prepared ruthenium complexes are highly cytotoxic against a series of cancer cell lines, in particular non-small-cell lung A549 and human epidermoid carcinoma A431. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis and fluorescence microscopy revealed that the most active complex, K4, induced much more late-stage cell apoptosis and necrosis than gefitinib, the first EGFR-targeting antitumor drug in clinical use. These results indicate that the ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes bearing EGFR-inhibiting 4-anilinoquinazolines possess highly active dual-targeting anticancer activity and are promising in developing new anticancer agents. PMID:27093574

  5. Sonoporation enhances liposome accumulation and penetration in tumors with low EPR.

    PubMed

    Theek, Benjamin; Baues, Maike; Ojha, Tarun; Möckel, Diana; Veettil, Seena Koyadan; Steitz, Julia; van Bloois, Louis; Storm, Gert; Kiessling, Fabian; Lammers, Twan

    2016-06-10

    The Enhanced Permeability and Retention (EPR) effect is a highly variable phenomenon. To enhance EPR-mediated passive drug targeting to tumors, several different pharmacological and physical strategies have been evaluated over the years, including e.g. TNFα-treatment, vascular normalization, hyperthermia and radiotherapy. Here, we systematically investigated the impact of sonoporation, i.e. the combination of ultrasound (US) and microbubbles (MB), on the tumor accumulation and penetration of liposomes. Two different MB formulations were employed, and their ability to enhance liposome accumulation and penetration was evaluated in two different tumor models, which are both characterized by relatively low levels of EPR (i.e. highly cellular A431 epidermoid xenografts and highly stromal BxPC-3 pancreatic carcinoma xenografts). The liposomes were labeled with two different fluorophores, enabling in vivo computed tomography/fluorescence molecular tomography (CT-FMT) and ex vivo two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM). In both models, in spite of relatively high inter- and intra-individual variability, a trend towards improved liposome accumulation and penetration was observed. In treated tumors, liposome concentrations were up to twice as high as in untreated tumors, and sonoporation enhanced the ability of liposomes to extravasate out of the blood vessels into the tumor interstitium. These findings indicate that sonoporation may be a useful strategy for improving drug targeting to tumors with low EPR. PMID:26878973

  6. EGFR-mediated Intracellular Delivery of Pc 4 Nanoformulation for Targeted Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer: In Vitro Studies

    PubMed Central

    Master, Alyssa M.; Qi, Yizhi; Oleinick, Nancy L.; Gupta, Anirban Sen

    2011-01-01

    In photodynamic therapy (PDT), the light-activation of a photosensitizer leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species that can trigger various mechanisms of cell death. Harnessing this process within cancer cells enables minimally invasive yet targeted cancer treatment. With this rationale, here we demonstrate tumor-targeted delivery of a highly hydrophobic photosensitizer Pc 4 loaded within biocompatible PEG-PCL block-copolymer micelles. The micelles were surface-modified with EGFR-targeting GE11-peptides for active targeting of EGFR-overexpressing cancer cells, in vitro. Pc 4-loaded EGFR-targeted micelles were incubated with EGFR-overexpressing A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells for various time periods, to determine Pc 4 uptake by epifluorescence microscopy. The cells were subsequently photoirradiated and PDT-induced cell death for various incubation periods was determined by MTT assay and fluorescence Live/Dead assay. Our results indicate that active EGFR-targeting of the Pc 4-loaded micelles accelerates intracellular uptake of the drug. Consequently this enhances the PDT-induced cytotoxicity within shorter time periods. PMID:22024195

  7. Synthesis, characterization, and biological evaluation of Schiff base-platinum(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiju, C.; Arish, D.; Bhuvanesh, N.; Kumaresan, S.

    2015-06-01

    The platinum complexes of Schiff base ligands derived from 4-aminoantipyrine and a few substituted aldehydes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, mass, 1H NMR, IR, electronic spectra, molar conductance, and powder XRD. The structure of one of the ligands L5 was confirmed by a single crystal XRD analysis. The Schiff base ligand crystallized in the triclinic, space group P-1 with a = 7.032(2) Ǻ, b = 9.479(3) Ǻ, c = 12.425(4) Ǻ, α = 101.636(3)°, β = 99.633(3)°, γ = 94.040(3)°, V = 795.0(4) Ǻ3, Z = 2, F(0 0 0) = 352, Dc = 1.405 mg/m3, μ = 0.099 mm-1, R = 0.0378, and wR = 0.0967. The spectral results show that the Schiff base ligand acts as a bidentate donor coordinating through the azomethine nitrogen and the carbonyl oxygen atoms. The geometrical structures of these complexes are found to be square planar. Antimicrobial studies indicate that these complexes exhibit better activity than the ligand. The anticancer activities of the complexes have also been studied towards human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), Colon Cancer Cells (HCT116) and Epidermoid Carcinoma Cells (A431) and it was found that the [Pt(L3)Cl2] complex is more active.

  8. Intramolecular trimerization, a novel strategy for making multispecific antibodies with controlled orientation of the antigen binding domains

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Cienfuegos, Ana; Nuñez-Prado, Natalia; Compte, Marta; Cuesta, Angel M.; Blanco-Toribio, Ana; Harwood, Seandean Lykke; Villate, Maider; Merino, Nekane; Bonet, Jaume; Navarro, Rocio; Muñoz-Briones, Clara; Sørensen, Karen Marie Juul; Mølgaard, Kasper; Oliva, Baldo; Sanz, Laura; Blanco, Francisco J.; Alvarez-Vallina, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe a new strategy that allows the rapid and efficient engineering of mono and multispecific trivalent antibodies. By fusing single-domain antibodies from camelid heavy-chain-only immunoglobulins (VHHs) to the N-terminus of a human collagen XVIII trimerization domain (TIEXVIII) we produced monospecific trimerbodies that were efficiently secreted as soluble functional proteins by mammalian cells. The purified VHH-TIEXVIII trimerbodies were trimeric in solution and exhibited excellent antigen binding capacity. Furthermore, by connecting with two additional glycine-serine-based linkers three VHH-TIEXVIII modules on a single polypeptide chain, we present an approach for the rational design of multispecific tandem trimerbodies with defined stoichiometry and controlled orientation. Using this technology we report here the construction and characterization of a tandem VHH-based trimerbody capable of simultaneously binding to three different antigens: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and green fluorescence protein (GFP). Multispecific tandem VHH-based trimerbodies were well expressed in mammalian cells, had good biophysical properties and were capable of simultaneously binding their targeted antigens. Importantly, these antibodies were very effective in inhibiting the proliferation of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Multispecific VHH-based trimerbodies are therefore ideal candidates for future applications in various therapeutic areas. PMID:27345490

  9. Determination of transformation mechanisms for DMMTA and DMDTA in landfill leachate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, J.; Yoon, H.; Bae, J.; Jung, H.; Kong, M.; Kim, M.

    2011-12-01

    Dimethylmonothiolated arsinic acid (DMMTA) and dimethyldithiolated arsinic acid (DMDTA) have receiving increasing attention because of its high toxicity to human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells (Naranmandura et al., 2007) and bladder EJ-1 cells (Naranmandura et al., 2009). These findings require accurate assessment of arsenic species including thiolated compounds in environmental media. Recently, Li et al. (2010) found DMMTA and DMDTA was transformed from dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in landfill leachate with low redox potential and high bacterial biomass and concentrations of BOD and sulfide. Therefore, the transformation mechanisms for DMMTA and DMDTA were investigated to quantify what arsenic species are existed and transformed in landfill leachate for determining their potential risk. For this purpose, simulated leachate mimicking mature landfill condition was prepared under the concentrations of sulfide and volatile fatty acid (VFA) and redox potential controlled. The leachate was spiked with arsenite (iAs(III)), arsenate (iAs(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and DMA respectively and the transformed arsenic species were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Factors influencing arsenic transformations in landfill leachate were evaluated in present study and these results provide to us pathways for being generated thiolated arsenicals. Realistic risk in arsenic disposed landfill is able to calculate by using these results. Acknowledgement : This research was supported by the research grant T31603 from Korea Basic Science Institute.

  10. Crucial role of vinexin for keratinocyte migration in vitro and epidermal wound healing in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Kioka, Noriyuki; Ito, Takuya; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Uekawa, Natsuko; Umemoto, Tsutomu; Motoyoshi, Soh; Imai, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kenzo; Watanabe, Hideto; Yamada, Masayasu; Ueda, Kazumitsu

    2010-06-10

    In the process of tissue injury and repair, epithelial cells rapidly migrate and form epithelial sheets. Vinexin is a cytoplasmic molecule of the integrin-containing cell adhesion complex localized at focal contacts in vitro. Here, we investigated the roles of vinexin in keratinocyte migration in vitro and wound healing in vivo. Vinexin knockdown using siRNA delayed migration of both HaCaT human keratinocytes and A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells in scratch assay but did not affect cell proliferation. Induction of cell migration by scratching the confluent monolayer culture of these cells activated both EGFR and ERK, and their inhibitors AG1478 and U0126 substantially suppressed scratch-induced keratinocyte migration. Vinexin knockdown in these cells inhibited the scratch-induced activation of EGFR, but not that of ERK, suggesting that vinexin promotes cell migration via activation of EGFR. We further generated vinexin (-/-) mice and isolated their keratinocytes. They similarly showed slow migration in scratch assay. Furthermore, vinexin (-/-) mice exhibited a delay in cutaneous wound healing in both the back skin and tail without affecting the proliferation of keratinocytes. Together, these results strongly suggest a crucial role of vinexin in keratinocyte migration in vitro and cutaneous wound healing in vivo.

  11. Monoclonal antibody GB3, a new probe for the study of human basement membranes and hemidesmosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Verrando, P.; Pisani, A.; Serieys, N.; Ortonne, J.P. ); Hsi, Baeli; Yeh, Changjing )

    1987-05-01

    A monoclonal antibody, GB3, has been raised against human amnion. Not only does GB3 bind to amniotic basement membrane, but it also recognizes an antigenic structure expressed by epidermal as well as by some other human basement membranes. This antigen is synthesized (and excreted) by cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes. It is expressed to a lesser extent by the A431 epidermoid carcinoma cell line, but is not expressed by the SV40 virus-transformed SVK14 keratinocyte cell line. In ultrastructural studies, this antigen was located in the epidermal basement membrane, both in the lamina densa and in the lamina lucida, associated with hemidesmosomes. It was identified as a protein by in vitro proteolytic cleavage studies. The radio-immunoprecipitates from cultured human keratinocytes, analyzed by SDS-PAGE, showed that GB3 recognized five polypeptides of 93.5, 125, 130, 146 and 150 kD under reducing conditions. The tissue distribution of the antigen and the molecular weights (MWs) of its constitutive polypeptides suggest that it is different from other known components of basement membranes. It may provide a biochemical marker for hemidesmosomes. Furthermore, GB3 represents an interesting and original clinical probe, since the antigenic structure recognized by GB3 is lacking in Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa, a lethal genodermatosis in which a dermo-epidermal splitting occurs at the level of lamina lucida.

  12. Laxitextines A and B, Cyathane Xylosides from the Tropical Fungus Laxitextum incrustatum.

    PubMed

    Mudalungu, Cynthia M; Richter, Christian; Wittstein, Kathrin; Abdalla, Muna Ali; Matasyoh, Josphat C; Stadler, Marc; Süssmuth, Roderich D

    2016-04-22

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the mycelial extract of a basidiomycete culture collected in Kenya led to the isolation of two new cyathane diterpenoids named laxitextines A (1) and B (2). The producer strain was characterized by detailed taxonomic studies based on rDNA using the 5.8S gene region, the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2), and part of the large subunit that identified the fungus as Laxitextum incrustatum. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. Both compounds exhibited moderate activities against Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis (DSM 10), Staphylococcus aureus (DSM 346), and methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus (DSM 1182). The two compounds also showed variable antiproliferative activities against mouse fibroblast (L929) and selected human cell lines (breast cancer MCF-7, epidermoid carcinoma A431, and umbilical vein endothelial HUVEC). The IC50 values with respect to the MCF-7 cell line for compounds 1 and 2 were 2.3 and 2.0 μM, respectively. PMID:27043217

  13. A Case of Gastric Cancer with Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma Components, and Intramural Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Aoyagi, Keishiro; Kizaki, Junya; Isobe, Taro; Akagi, Yoshito

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 67 Final Diagnosis: Gastric cancer with neuroendocrine carcinoma Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Total gastrectomy • splenectomy with D2 lymph node dissection Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Many neuroendocrine carcinomas exhibit medullary infiltration and expanded proliferation. Differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma is frequently seen in the superficial region in many neuroendocrine carcinoma cases. However, the present case showed non-medullary infiltration and signet ring cell carcinoma in the superficial region, with intramural metastases distributed throughout the whole of the stomach. Case Report: A 67-year-old man was referred to our institution for treatment of gastric cancer. Type IIc-like advanced gastric cancer was detected in the greater curvature of the middle body of the stomach. The patient underwent total gastrectomy, splenectomy with D2 lymph node dissection, and Roux-en-Y reconstruction with curative resection. The tumor was diagnosed as a large-cell endocrine carcinoma of the stomach. A solid growth of signet ring cells was seen in the mucosa and submucosa. Intramural metastases were observed in many other depressed lesions. Large-cell carcinoma invaded the submucosa, mainly in the intramural metastatic site. Metastasis to one lesser curvature lymph node was also seen on histological examination. The final diagnosis was a gastric cancer of type 0–IIc (T4a) [M] (with intramural metastases) at T4aN1H0P0M0 Stage IIIA. This patient has remained alive without recurrence for 72 months after surgery. Conclusions: We recommend close preoperative examination of neuroendocrine carcinoma, taking intramural metastases into consideration. PMID:27102318

  14. A subset of prostatic basal cell carcinomas harbor the MYB rearrangement of adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Justin A; Yonescu, Raluca; Epstein, Jonathan I; Westra, William H

    2015-08-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a basaloid tumor consisting of myoepithelial and ductal cells typically arranged in a cribriform pattern. Adenoid cystic carcinoma is generally regarded as a form of salivary gland carcinoma, but it can arise from sites unassociated with salivary tissue. A rare form of prostate carcinoma exhibits ACC-like features; it is no longer regarded as a true ACC but rather as prostatic basal cell carcinoma (PBCC) and within the spectrum of basaloid prostatic proliferations. True ACCs often harbor MYB translocations resulting in the MYB-NFIB fusion protein. MYB analysis could clarify the true nature of prostatic carcinomas that exhibit ACC features and thus help refine the classification of prostatic basaloid proliferations. Twelve PBCCs were identified from the pathology consultation files of Johns Hopkins Hospital. The histopathologic features were reviewed, and break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization for MYB was performed. All 12 cases exhibited prominent basaloid histology. Four were purely solid, 7 exhibited a cribriform pattern reminiscent of salivary ACC, and 1 had a mixed pattern. The MYB rearrangement was detected in 2 (29%) of 7 ACC-like carcinomas but in none (0%) of the 5 PBCCs with a prominent solid pattern. True ACCs can arise in the prostate as is evidenced by the presence of the characteristic MYB rearrangement. When dealing with malignant basaloid proliferations in the prostate, recommendations to consolidate ACCs with other tumor types may need to be reassessed, particularly in light of the rapidly advancing field of biologic therapy where the identification of tumor-specific genetic alterations presents novel therapeutic targets. PMID:26089205

  15. Radiation Therapy With or Without Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Who Have Undergone Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-06

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Spindle Cell Variant; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  16. Granule membrane protein 140 (GMP140) binds to carcinomas and carcinoma-derived cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Aruffo, A; Dietsch, M T; Wan, H; Hellström, K E; Hellström, I

    1992-01-01

    The glycoproteins granule membrane protein 140 (GMP140), endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 (ELAM-1), and Leu-8 are members of a family of glycoprotein receptors (selectins or LEC-CAMs) that play an important role in adhesive interactions between circulating leukocytes and vascular endothelium. Recently it has been reported that ELAM-1 is able to mediate the binding of the colon carcinoma cell line HT-29 to cytokine-activated vascular endothelium, suggesting that tumor cell adhesion to vascular endothelium, a prerequisite for tumor extravasation and metastasis, is in part the result of adhesive interactions between blood-borne tumor cells and cell surface proteins expressed by vascular endothelium. Here, using an approach in which soluble immunoglobulin chimeras of the GMP140 and ELAM-1 receptors were prepared and used to carry out immunohistological studies, we establish that GMP140 binds to tumor cells in a variety of human carcinoma tissue sections (colon, lung, and breast), whereas ELAM-1 binds exclusively to tumor cells in colon carcinoma tissue sections. In addition, GMP140 was found to bind to the cell surface of a number of cell lines derived from various carcinomas but not from melanomas, whereas ELAM-1 bound only colon carcinoma cell lines. We further investigated the nature of the ligands of GMP140 and ELAM-1 on the surface of the carcinoma cells and found that the GMP140 ligand on the surface of tumor cells appears to be distinct from that expressed on the myeloid cell line HL-60. Neuraminidase treatment of a breast carcinoma cell line does not affect, or in some instances increases, GMP140 binding, whereas it completely abolishes GMP140 binding to HL-60 cells. On the other hand, the ligand of ELAM-1 on both the colon carcinoma and HL-60 cells is neuraminidase sensitive in accord with its identification as sialyl-CD15. Parallel results were obtained with neuraminidase-treated frozen carcinoma tissue sections. The present findings form the basis

  17. Immunotherapy With MK-3475 in Surgically Resectable Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-11

    Cancer of Head and Neck; Head and Neck Cancer; Neoplasms, Head and Neck; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell of Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Head and Neck

  18. Mandibular Destruction Secondary to Invasion by Carcinoma Cuniculatum.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Michael C; Wong, Brian; O'Brien, Michael J; Salama, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    Carcinoma cuniculatum is a rare form of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma that is often misdiagnosed. It has a propensity for local invasion and rarely metastasizes. Oral carcinoma cuniculatum is exceedingly rare, with very few reported cases in the English-language literature. Classically, its presentation mimics osteomyelitis or a dental abscess, resulting in misdiagnosis, multiple biopsy examinations, and procedures before a final diagnosis of carcinoma cuniculatum. This case report describes the case of a 71-year-old woman who was referred to the authors' clinic for evaluation of persistent pain and swelling of the mandible. Multiple biopsy examinations were negative for malignancy, and the patient was misdiagnosed with osteomyelitis and dental abscess before obtaining an accurate diagnosis of carcinoma cuniculatum. The aim of this report is to provide a thorough clinical and histopathologic report of carcinoma cuniculatum of the mandible, provide a brief review of the literature, and highlight the difficulties in arriving at this uncommon diagnosis. PMID:26072180

  19. Invasive breast carcinoma arising in microglandular adenosis: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung Eun; Bae, Young Kyung

    2013-12-01

    Microglandular adenosis (MGA) is a rare benign disease that shows an infiltrative growth pattern of small glands, and it may progress to include atypia and carcinoma. Here we report two cases of breast carcinoma arising in MGA. Case 1 was a 44-year-old woman with a previous history of ductal carcinoma in situ in her right breast. During a follow-up, a 1.8 cm mass-like lesion was found in her left breast. An excisional biopsy suggested that the lesion was breast carcinoma. Case 2 was a 57-year-old woman with a 2.9 cm mass in her right breast. A core needle biopsy of the lesion suggested invasive carcinoma. Both patients underwent modified radical mastectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsy. Both tumors lacked a myoepithelial cell layer and stained positively for S-100, lysozyme, and α1-antitrypsin, which is typical of MGA. Both cases showed invasive carcinoma arising in MGA. PMID:24454466

  20. Clinical, epidemiological and histopathological prognostic factors in oral squamous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dragomir, L P; Simionescu, Cristiana; Dăguci, Luminiţa; Searpe, Monica; Dragomir, Manuela

    2010-10-01

    The study that was carried out was comprised of 117 cases of oral squamous carcinomas, selected in two years interval, between 2007-2008. The tumors were diagnosed especially at patients between the ages of 50 and 79 years, 96,6% being over 40 years old. It came out a clear predominance of the male sex in approximatively 90% of the cases. The main localisation was the lower lip and the tongue ( 67,5% ), in approximatively equal proportions ( 35% and 32,5% ). The histopathologically analisys releaved that 37,6% were well differentiated squamous carcinomas, 27,4% were moderately differentiated squamous carcinomas and 35% were poorly differentiated squamous carcinomas. Out of these 3,3% were microcarcinomas, 91,9% were non-metastatic invasive carcinomas and 4,8% were invasive carcinomas with metastatic adenopathy. PMID:24778830