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Sample records for a431 epidermoid carcinoma

  1. Pheophorbide a mediated photodynamic therapy against human epidermoid carcinoma cells (A431)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Li, Wen-Tyng

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the death mechanism of human epidermoid carcinoma cells (A431) triggered by photodynamic therapy (PDT) with pheophorbide a. First of all, significant inhibition on the survival of A431 cells (< 20 %) was observed when an irradiation dose of 5.1 J/cm2 combined with 125 ng/ml of pheophorbide a was applied. Survival rate of human keratinocyte cells was over 70 % under the same PDT parameters, suggesting that pheophorbide a killed cancer cells selectively. Mitochondria were the main target sites where pheophorbide a accumulated. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected after PDT. Addition of antioxidant N-Acetyl cysteine prevented ROS production and increased cell survival thereafter. The decrease in cellular ATP level was also observed at 6 hrs after PDT. Typical apoptotic cellular morphology and a collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential occurred after PDT. The loss of mitochondrial membrane potential led to the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol, followed by activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. The activation of caspase-3 resulted in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage in A431 cells, followed by DNA fragmentation. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that pheophorbide a possessed photodynamic action against A431 cells, mainly through apoptosis mediated by mitochondrial intrinsic pathway triggered by ROS.

  2. Toxicity of dimethylmonothioarsinic acid toward human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Naranmandura, Hua; Ibata, Kenji; Suzuki, Kazuo T

    2007-08-01

    Chronic ingestion of arsenic-contaminated drinking water induces skin lesions and urinary bladder cancer in humans. It is now recognized that thioarsenicals such as dimethylmonothioarsinic acid (DMMTA (V)) are commonly excreted in the urine of humans and animals and that the production of DMMTA (V) may be a risk factor for the development of the diseases caused by arsenic. The toxicity of DMMTA (V) was compared with that of related nonthiolated arsenicals with respect to cell viability, uptake ability, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cell cycle progression of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells, arsenate (iAs (V)), arsenite (iAs (III)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA (V)), and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA (III)) being used as reference nonthiolated arsenicals. DMMTA (V) (LC 50 = 10.7 microM) was shown to be much more cytotoxic than iAs (V) (LC 50 = 571 microM) and DMA (V) (LC 50 = 843 microM), and its potency was shown to be close to that of trivalent arsenicals iAs (III) (LC 50 = 5.49 microM) and DMA (III) (LC 50 = 2.16 microM). The greater cytotoxicity of DMMTA (V) was associated with greater cellular uptake and distribution, and the level of intracellular ROS remarkably increased in A431 cells upon exposure to DMMTA (V) compared to that after exposure to other trivalent arsenicals at the respective LC 50. Exposure of DMMTA (V) to cells for 24 h induced cell cycle perturbation. Namely, the percentage of cells residing in S and G2/M phases increased from 10.2 and 15.6% to 46.5 and 20.8%, respectively. These results suggest that although DMMTA (V) is a pentavalent arsenical, it is taken up efficiently by cells and causes various levels of toxicity, in a manner different from that of nonthiolated pentavalent arsenicals, demonstrating that DMMTA (V) is one of the most toxic arsenic metabolites. The high cytotoxicity of DMMTA (V) was explained and/or proposed by (1) efficient uptake by cells followed by (2) its transformation to DMA (V), (3) producing ROS

  3. Flurbiprofen benzyl nitrate (NBS-242) inhibits the growth of A-431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells and targets β-catenin

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Niharika; Liu, Xiaoping; Jacobs, Lloydine; Kashfi, Khosrow

    2013-01-01

    Background The Wnt/β-catenin/T cell factor (TCF) signaling pathway is important in the development of nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). Nitric-oxide-releasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NO-NSAIDs) are chemopreventive agents consisting of a traditional NSAID attached to an NO-releasing moiety through a chemical spacer. Previously we showed that an aromatic spacer enhanced the potency of a particular NO-NSAID compared to an aliphatic spacer. Methods We synthesized an NO-releasing NSAID with an aromatic spacer (flurbiprofen benzyl nitrate, NBS-242), and using the human skin cancer cell line A-431, we evaluated its effects on cell kinetics, Wnt/β-catenin, cyclin D1, and caspase-3. Results NBS-242 inhibited the growth of A-431 cancer cells, being ~15-fold more potent than flurbiprofen and up to 5-fold more potent than NO-flurbiprofen with an aliphatic spacer, the half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for growth inhibition being 60 ± 4 μM, 320 ± 20 μM, and 880 ± 65 μM for NBS-242, NO-flurbiprofen, and flurbiprofen, respectively. This effect was associated with inhibition of proliferation, accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, and an increase in apoptotic cell population. NBS-242 cleaved β-catenin both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of A-431 cells. NBS-242 activated caspase-3 whose activation was reflected in the cleavage of procaspase-3. To test the functional consequence of β-catenin cleavage, we determined the expression of cyclin D1, a Wnt-response gene. NBS-242 reduced cyclin D1 levels in a concentration dependent manner. Conclusion These findings establish a strong inhibitory effect of NBS-242 in A-431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. NBS-242 modulates parameters that are important in determining cellular mass. PMID:23690679

  4. Regulation of apoptosis by resveratrol through JAK/STAT and mitochondria mediated pathway in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Madan, Esha; Prasad, Sahdeo; Roy, Preeti; George, Jasmine; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2008-12-26

    Resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenolic phytoalexin present mainly in grapes, red wine and berries, is known to possess strong chemopreventive and anticancer properties. Here, we demonstrated the anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities of resveratrol in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Resveratrol has cytotoxic effects through inhibiting cellular proliferation of A431 cells, which leads to the induction of apoptosis, as evident by an increase in the fraction of cells in the sub-G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle and Annexin-V binding of externalized phosphatidylserine. Results revealed that inhibition of proliferation is associated with regulation of the JAK/STAT pathway, where resveratrol prevents phosphorylation of JAK, thereby inhibiting STAT1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, resveratrol treatment actively stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Consequently, an imbalance in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio triggered the caspase cascade and subsequent cleavage of PARP, thereby shifting the balance in favor of apoptosis. These observations indicate that resveratrol treatment inhibits JAK/STAT-mediated gene transcription and induce the mitochondrial cell death pathway.

  5. [6]-Gingerol induces reactive oxygen species regulated mitochondrial cell death pathway in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Nidhi; Bhui, Kulpreet; Prasad, Sahdeo; George, Jasmine; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2009-09-14

    Since skin cancer incidence and prevalence is constantly rising up the charts despite all efforts, search for newer, better agents for protection and treatment is required. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), a monocotyledonous herb, is widely used as a herbal medicine, given the presence of homologous phenolic ketones, of which [6]-gingerol is the major one. The quantity of [6]-gingerol in the fresh ginger rhizome was found to be 104-965 microg/g in common varieties of ginger available in Indian market. Herein, [6]-gingerol was assessed for its anti-apoptotic effects in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. [6]-Gingerol treatment exhibited considerable cytotoxicity as indicated by growth inhibition of A431 cells mediated via generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increase in ROS led to decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and subsequent induction of apoptosis. Results revealed that perturbations in mitochondrial membrane are associated with deregulation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio at gene transcriptional level as well as protein level, where treatment with [6]-gingerol leads to up-regulation of Cytochrome-c and Apaf-1 subsequently culminating in triggering of Caspase cascade. These firmly suggest that [6]-gingerol can be effectively used for the treatment of skin cancer. PMID:19481070

  6. Fisetin inhibits growth, induces G₂ /M arrest and apoptosis of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells: role of mitochondrial membrane potential disruption and consequent caspases activation.

    PubMed

    Pal, Harish C; Sharma, Samriti; Elmets, Craig A; Athar, Mohammad; Afaq, Farrukh

    2013-07-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), one of the most common neoplasms, cause serious morbidity and mortality. Therefore, identification of non-toxic phytochemicals for prevention/treatment of NMSCs is highly desirable. Fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone), a dietary flavonoid, present in fruits and vegetables possesses anti-oxidant and antiproliferative properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemotherapeutic potential of fisetin in cultured human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Treatment of A431 cells with fisetin (5-80 μm) resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Employing clonogenic assay, we found that fisetin treatment significantly reduced colony formation in A431 cells. Fisetin treatment of A431 cells resulted in G₂ /M arrest and induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, treatment of A431 cells with fisetin resulted in (i) decreased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl2; Bcl-xL and Mcl-1); (ii) increased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, Bak and Bad); (iii) disruption of mitochondrial potential; (iv) release of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO from mitochondria; (v) activation of caspases; and (vi) cleavage of Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein. Pretreatment of A431 cells with the pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) blocked fisetin-induced cleavage of caspases and PARP. Taken together, these data provide evidence that fisetin possesses chemotherapeutic potential against human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Overall, these results suggest that fisetin could be developed as a novel therapeutic agent for the management of NMSCs.

  7. Resveratrol enhances ultraviolet B-induced cell death through nuclear factor-{kappa}B pathway in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Preeti; Kalra, Neetu; Nigam, Nidhi; George, Jasmine; Ray, Ratan Singh; Hans, Rajendra K.; Prasad, Sahdeo; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2009-06-26

    Resveratrol has been reported to suppress cancer progression in several in vivo and in vitro models, whereas ultraviolet B (UVB), a major risk for skin cancer, is known to induce cell death in cancerous cells. Here, we investigated whether resveratrol can sensitize A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells to UVB-induced cell death. We examined the combined effect of UVB (30 mJ/cm{sup 2}) and resveratrol (60 {mu}M) on A431 cells. Exposure of A431 carcinoma cells to UVB radiation or resveratrol can inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. However, the combination of resveratrol and UVB exposure was associated with increased proliferation inhibition of A431 cells compared with either agent alone. Furthermore, results showed that resveratrol and UVB treatment of A431 cells disrupted the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-{kappa}B) pathway by blocking phosphorylation of serine 536 and inactivating NF-{kappa}B and subsequent degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, which regulates the expression of survivin. Resveratrol and UVB treatment also decreased the phosphorylation of tyrosine 701 of the important transcription factor signal transducer activator of transcription (STAT1), which in turn inhibited translocation of phospho-STAT1 to the nucleus. Moreover, resveratrol/UVB also inhibited the metastatic protein LIMK1, which reduced the motility of A431 cells. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the combination of resveratrol and UVB act synergistically against skin cancer cells. Thus, resveratrol is a potential chemotherapeutic agent against skin carcinogenesis.

  8. Artesunate induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and iron-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhongyong; Chai, Jin; Chuang, Henry Hon Fung; Li, Shifeng; Wang, Tianran; Cheng, Yi; Chen, Wensheng; Zhou, Deshan

    2012-07-01

    The anticancer effects of artesunate (ART) have been well documented. However, its potential against skin cancer has not been explored yet. Herein we reported that 60 μmol/l ART effectively inhibited A431 (human epidermoid carcinoma cells) growth but not that of HaCaT (normal human keratinocyte cells). Our results revealed that ART induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase through the downregulation of cyclin A1, cyclin B, cyclin D1, Cdk2, Cdk4, and Cdk6. This correlated with the upregulation of p21 and p27. The 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay also indicated that ART treatment reduced DNA synthesis in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, ART induced mitochondrial apoptosis, as evidenced by annexin V/propidium iodide staining and western blot analysis. Interestingly, ART-induced apoptosis diminished under iron-deficient conditions but intensified under iron-overload conditions. Taken together, these findings demonstrated the potential of ART in treating skin cancer through the induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and iron-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis and supported further investigations in other test systems. PMID:22421370

  9. Bromelain inhibits nuclear factor kappa-B translocation, driving human epidermoid carcinoma A431 and melanoma A375 cells through G(2)/M arrest to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bhui, Kulpreet; Tyagi, Shilpa; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Singh, Madhulika; Roy, Preeti; Singh, Richa; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2012-03-01

    Bromelain, obtained from pineapple, is already in use clinically as adjunct in chemotherapy. Our objective was to test its ability to act as a sole anti-cancer agent. Therefore, we describe its anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and subsequent anti-cancer effects in vitro, against human epidermoid carcinoma-A431 and melanoma-A375 cells. Bromelain exhibited reduction in proliferation of both these cell-lines and suppressed their potential for anchorage-independent growth. Further, suppression of inflammatory signaling by bromelain was evident by inhibition of Akt regulated-nuclear factor-kappaB activation via suppression of inhibitory-kappaBα phosphorylation and concomitant reduction in cyclooxygenase-2. Since, the inflammatory cascade is well-known to be closely allied to cancer; we studied the effect of bromelain on events/molecules central to it. Bromelain caused depletion of intracellular glutathione and generation of reactive oxygen-species followed by mitochondrial membrane depolarization. This led to bromelain-induced cell-cycle arrest at G(2)/M phase which was mediated by modulation of cyclin B1, phospho-cdc25C, Plk1, phospho-cdc2, and myt1. This was subsequently followed by induction of apoptosis, indicated by membrane-blebbing, modulation of Bax-Bcl-2 ratio, Apaf-1, caspase-9, and caspase-3; chromatin-condensation, increase in caspase-activity and DNA-fragmentation. Bromelain afforded substantial anti-cancer potential in these settings; hence we suggest it as a potential prospect for anti-cancer agent besides only an additive in chemotherapy.

  10. Differential responses of skin cancer-chemopreventive agents silibinin, quercetin, and epigallocatechin 3-gallate on mitogenic signaling and cell cycle regulators in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, N; Agarwal, C; Agarwal, R

    2001-01-01

    Silibinin, quercetin, and epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) have been shown to be skin cancer-preventive agents, albeit by several different mechanisms. Here, we assessed whether these agents show their cancer-preventive potential by a differential effect on mitogenic signaling molecules and cell cycle regulators. Treatment of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells with these agents inhibited the activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and the downstream adapter protein Shc, but only silibinin showed a marked inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2 activation. In terms of cell cycle regulators, silibinin treatment showed an induction of Cip1/p21 and Kip1/p27 together with a significant decrease in cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-4, CDK2, and cyclin D1. Quercetin treatment, however, resulted in a moderate increase in Cip1/p21 with no change in Kip1/p27 and a decrease in CDK4 and cyclin D1. EGCG treatment also led to an induction of Cip1/p21 but no change in Kip1/27, CDK2, and cyclin D1 and a decrease in CDK4 only at low doses. Treatment of cells with these agents resulted in a strong dose- and time-dependent cell growth inhibition. A high dose of silibinin and low and high doses of quercetin and EGCG also led to cell death by apoptosis, suggesting that a lack of their inhibitory effect on mitogen-activated protein kinase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2 activation possibly "turns on" an apoptotic cell death response associated with their cancer-preventive and anticarcinogenic effects. Together, these results suggest that silibinin, quercetin, and EGCG exert their cancer-preventive effects by differential responses on mitogenic signaling and cell cycle regulators.

  11. Berberine inhibits growth, induces G1 arrest and apoptosis in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells by regulating Cdki-Cdk-cyclin cascade, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP.

    PubMed

    Mantena, Sudheer K; Sharma, Som D; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2006-10-01

    Chemotherapeutic approach using non-toxic botanicals may be one of the strategies for the management of the skin cancers. Here we report that in vitro treatment of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells with berberine, a naturally occurring isoquinoline alkaloid, decreased cell viability (3-77%, P < 0.05-0.001) and induced cell death (3-51%, P < 0.01-0.001) in a dose (5-75 microM)- and time (12-72 h)-dependent manner, which was associated with an increase in G(1) arrest. G(0)/G(1) phase of the cell cycle is known to be controlled by cyclin dependent kinases (Cdk), cyclin kinase inhibitors (Cdki) and cyclins. Our western blot analysis showed that berberine-induced G(1) cell cycle arrest was mediated through the increased expression of Cdki proteins (Cip1/p21 and Kip1/p27), a simultaneous decrease in Cdk2, Cdk4, Cdk6 and cyclins D1, D2 and E and enhanced binding of Cdki-Cdk. In additional studies, treatment of A431 cells with berberine (15-75 microM) for 72 h resulted in a significant dose-dependent increase in apoptosis (31-60%, P < 0.05-0.001) than non-berberine-treated control (11.7%), which was associated with an increased expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax, decreased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, and activation of caspases 9, 3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Pretreatment of A431 cells with the pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) significantly blocked the berberine-induced apoptosis in A431 cells confirmed that berberine-induced apoptosis is mediated through activation of caspase 3-dependent pathway. Together, this study for the first time identified berberine as a chemotherapeutic agent against human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells in vitro, further in vivo studies are required to determine whether berberine could be an effective chemotherapeutic agent for the management of non-melanoma skin cancers.

  12. Inhibitory effects of a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist on basal and epidermal growth factor-induced cell proliferation and metastasis-associated properties in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying-Tang; Hwang, Jiuan-Jiuan; Lee, Lung-Ta; Liebow, Charles; Lee, Ping-Ping H; Ke, Ferng-Chun; Lo, Tung-Bin; Schally, Andrew V; Lee, Ming-Ting

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a potent LHRH agonist, [D-Trp(6)]LHRH on the basal and EGF-induced cell proliferation and the metastasis-associated properties in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma. [D-Trp(6)]LHRH time-dependently inhibited the basal and EGF-stimulated growth of A431 cancer cells. It is assumed that phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of cellular proteins is highly related to cell growth. This study demonstrates that [D-Trp(6)]LHRH decreased the basal and EGF-induced total cellular kinase activity, particularly the tyrosine phosphorylation of several cellular proteins including the EGFR. In contrast, [D-Trp(6)]LHRH did not cause detectable changes in basal and EGF-stimulated serine/threonine phosphorylation of A431 cellular proteins. The inhibitory effect of [D-Trp(6)]LHRH on A431 cell proliferation was associated with apoptosis as evidenced by the cell morphology and DNA integrity (ladder pattern), the expression of interleukin 1beta-converting enzyme (ICE) and activation of caspase. Furthermore, EGF could rescue the remaining attached A431 cells following [D-Trp(6)]LHRH treatment for 48 hr, which suggests that limited exposure to [D-Trp(6)]LHRH did not channel all cells to irreversible apoptotic process. We also determined the effects of [D-Trp(6)]LHRH on metastasis-associated properties in A431 cells. [D-Trp(6)]LHRH reduced both basal and EGF-stimulated secretion of MMP-9 and MMP-2. In addition, [D-Trp(6)]LHRH suppressed the basal and EGF-induced invasive activity of A431 cells based on an in vitro invasion assay. In conclusion, this study indicates that [D-Trp(6)]LHRH may act partly through activating tyrosine phosphatase activity to inhibit cell proliferation and the metastasis-associated properties of A431 cancer cells. Our work suggests that [D-Trp(6)]LHRH may be therapeutically useful in limiting the tumor growth and metastasis of some neoplasms.

  13. Alpha-santalol, a chemopreventive agent against skin cancer, causes G2/M cell cycle arrest in both p53-mutated human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells and p53 wild-type human melanoma UACC-62 cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background α-Santalol, an active component of sandalwood oil, has shown chemopreventive effects on skin cancer in different murine models. However, effects of α-santalol on cell cycle have not been studied. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate effects of α-santalol on cell cycle progression in both p53 mutated human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells and p53 wild-type human melanoma UACC-62 cells to elucidate the mechanism(s) of action. Methods MTT assay was used to determine cell viability in A431 cells and UACC-62; fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of propidium iodide staining was used for determining cell cycle distribution in A431 cells and UACC-62 cells; immunoblotting was used for determining the expression of various proteins and protein complexes involved in the cell cycle progression; siRNA were used to knockdown of p21 or p53 in A431 and UACC-62 cells and immunofluorescence microscopy was used to investigate microtubules in UACC-62 cells. Results α-Santalol at 50-100 μM decreased cell viability from 24 h treatment and α-santalol at 50 μM-75 μM induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest from 6 h treatment in both A431 and UACC-62 cells. α-Santalol altered expressions of cell cycle proteins such as cyclin A, cyclin B1, Cdc2, Cdc25c, p-Cdc25c and Cdk2. All of these proteins are critical for G2/M transition. α-Santalol treatment up-regulated the expression of p21 and suppressed expressions of mutated p53 in A431 cells; whereas, α-santalol treatment increased expressions of wild-type p53 in UACC-62 cells. Knockdown of p21 in A431 cells, knockdown of p21 and p53 in UACC-62 cells did not affect cell cycle arrest caused by α-santalol. Furthermore, α-santalol caused depolymerization of microtubules similar to vinblastine in UACC-62 cells. Conclusions This study for the first time identifies effects of α-santalol in G2/M phase arrest and describes detailed mechanisms of G2/M phase arrest by this agent, which might be

  14. Shikonin causes cell-cycle arrest and induces apoptosis by regulating the EGFR–NF-κB signalling pathway in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Rong; Li, You; Gao, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Shikonin, a naphthoquinone pigment isolated from the Chinese herbal Zicao, has been shown to exhibit antioxidant and anticancer effects. In the present study, we investigated the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of shikonin on A431 cells and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. In the present study, our results showed that shikonin significantly inhibited the growth of A431 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and caused cell cycle arrest by upregulation of p21 and p27, and downregulation of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases. In addition, shikonin evidently induced apoptosis due to decreasing Bcl-2 expression, increasing Bax expression, activating caspase and inactivating NF-κB, while pretreatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor Z-Asp-CH2-DCB abrogated shikonin-induced apoptosis. Moreover, EGF could significantly increase the NF-κB DNA-binding activity and reversed the shikonin-induced inactivation of NF-κB. As anticipated AG1478 (EGFR inhibitor) and Bay11-7082 (NF-κB inhibitor) blocked EGF-reversed the inactivation of NF-κB induced by shikonin. Our data also showed that EGF could evidently reverse the shikonin-induced decreases in cell viability and increases in apoptosis. Then, the NF-κB inhibitors such as Bay11-7082, SN50, Helenalin and the EGFR inhibitor AG1478 and its downstream inhibitor such as PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and STAT3 inhibitor Stattic dramatically blocked EGF-reversed decreases in cell viability and increases in apoptosis induced by shikonin. Collectively, our findings indicated that shikonin inhibited cell growth and caused cell cycle arrest of the A431 cells through the regulation of apoptosis. Moreover, these effects were mediated at least partially by suppressing the activation of the EGFR–NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:25720435

  15. Epidermoid carcinoma arising in Warthin's tumor.

    PubMed

    Bolat, Filiz; Kayaselcuk, Fazilet; Erkan, Alper Nabi; Cagici, Can Alper; Bal, Nebil; Tuncer, Ilhan

    2004-01-01

    Warthin's tumor is a well-defined salivary gland neoplasm consisting of benign epithelial and lymphoid components. However, malignant transformation is extremely rare and the differential diagnosis of metastasis from an epidermoid carcinoma in Warthin's tumor is important. We present a case with epidermoid carcinoma arising in Warthin's tumor of parotid gland in a 48-year-old woman, and differential diagnosis is discussed.

  16. Honokiol, a chemopreventive agent against skin cancer, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human epidermoid A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Chilampalli, Chandeshwari; Guillermo, Ruth; Kaushik, Radhey S; Young, Alan; Chandrasekher, Gudiseva; Fahmy, Hesham; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

    2011-11-01

    Honokiol is a plant lignan isolated from bark and seed cones of Magnolia officinalis. Recent studies from our laboratory indicated that honokiol pretreatment decreased ultraviolet B-induced skin cancer development in SKH-1 mice. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effects of honokiol on human epidermoid squamous carcinoma A431 cells and to elucidate possible mechanisms involved in preventing skin cancer. A431 cells were pretreated with different concentrations of honokiol for a specific time period and investigated for effects on apoptosis and cell cycle analysis. Treatment with honokiol significantly decreased cell viability and cell proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Honokiol pretreatment at 50 μmol/L concentration induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest significantly (P < 0.05) and decreased the percentage of cells in the S and G2/M phase. Honokiol down-regulated the expression of cyclin D1, cyclin D2, Cdk2, Cdk4 and Cdk6 proteins and up-regulated the expression of Cdk's inhibitor proteins p21 and p27. Pretreatment of A431 cells with honokiol leads to induction of apoptosis and DNA fragmentation. These findings indicate that honokiol provides its effects in squamous carcinoma cells by inducing cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis.

  17. Honokiol, a chemopreventive agent against skin cancer, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human epidermoid A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Chilampalli, Chandeshwari; Guillermo, Ruth; Kaushik, Radhey S; Young, Alan; Chandrasekher, Gudiseva; Fahmy, Hesham; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

    2011-11-01

    Honokiol is a plant lignan isolated from bark and seed cones of Magnolia officinalis. Recent studies from our laboratory indicated that honokiol pretreatment decreased ultraviolet B-induced skin cancer development in SKH-1 mice. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effects of honokiol on human epidermoid squamous carcinoma A431 cells and to elucidate possible mechanisms involved in preventing skin cancer. A431 cells were pretreated with different concentrations of honokiol for a specific time period and investigated for effects on apoptosis and cell cycle analysis. Treatment with honokiol significantly decreased cell viability and cell proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Honokiol pretreatment at 50 μmol/L concentration induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest significantly (P < 0.05) and decreased the percentage of cells in the S and G2/M phase. Honokiol down-regulated the expression of cyclin D1, cyclin D2, Cdk2, Cdk4 and Cdk6 proteins and up-regulated the expression of Cdk's inhibitor proteins p21 and p27. Pretreatment of A431 cells with honokiol leads to induction of apoptosis and DNA fragmentation. These findings indicate that honokiol provides its effects in squamous carcinoma cells by inducing cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis. PMID:21908486

  18. Identification of specific gravity sensitive signal transduction pathways in human A431 carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijken, P. J.; de Groot, R. P.; Kruijer, W.; de Laat, S. W.; Verkleij, A. J.; Boonstra, J.

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) activates a well characterized signal transduction cascade in human A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells. The influence of gravity on EGF-induced EGF-receptor clustering and early gene expression as well as on actin polymerization and actin organization have been investigated. Different signalling pathways induced by the agents TPA, forskolin and A23187 that activate gene expression were tested for sensitivity to gravity. EGF-induced c-fos and c-jun expression were decreased in microgravity. However, constitutive β-2 microglobulin expression remained unaltered. Under simulated weightlessness conditions EGF- and TPA-induced c-fos expression was decreased, while forskolin- and A23187-induced c-fos expression was independent of the gravity conditions. These results suggest that gravity affects specific signalling pathways. Preliminary results indicate that EGF-induced EGF-receptor clustering remained unaltered irrespective of the gravity conditions. Furthermore, the relative filamentous actin content of steady state A431 cells was enhanced under microgravity conditions and actin filament organization was altered. Under simulated weightlessness actin filament organization in steady state cells as well as in EGF-treated cells was altered as compared to the 1 G reference experiment. Interestingly the microtubule and keratin organization in untreated cells showed no difference with the normal gravity samples. This indicates that gravity may affect specific components of the signal transduction circuitry.

  19. Ganoderma tsugae extract inhibits expression of epidermal growth factor receptor and angiogenesis in human epidermoid carcinoma cells: In vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shih-Chung; Ou, Chien-Chih; Chuang, Tzu-Chao; Li, Jhy-Wei; Lee, Yi-Jen; Wang, Vinchi; Liu, Jah-Yao; Chen, Chin-Shiang; Lin, Song-Chow; Kao, Ming-Ching

    2009-08-18

    We examined the anti-angiogenic effects of Ganoderma tsugae methanol extract (GTME) on human epidermoid carcinoma A-431 cells. Our data indicate that GTME inhibits the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in vitro and in vivo, and also inhibits the capillary tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We also show that the suppression of VEGF expression by GTME can be restored by treatment with EGF. These results suggest that GTME inhibits VEGF expression via the suppression of EGFR expression, resulting in the downregulation of VEGF secretion from epidermoid carcinoma A-431 cells. These findings reveal a novel role for G. tsugae in inhibiting EGFR and VEGF expression, which are important for tumor angiogenesis and growth. Thus, GTME may provide a potential therapeutic approach for anti-tumor treatment. PMID:19332363

  20. ALA-PpIX variability quantitatively imaged in A431 epidermoid tumors using in vivo ultrasound fluorescence tomography and ex vivo assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DSouza, Alisha V.; Flynn, Brendan P.; Gunn, Jason R.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Anand, Sanjay; Maytin, Edward V.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2014-03-01

    Treatment monitoring of Aminolevunilic-acid (ALA) - Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) of basal-cell carcinoma (BCC) calls for superficial and subsurface imaging techniques. While superficial imagers exist for this purpose, their ability to assess PpIX levels in thick lesions is poor; additionally few treatment centers have the capability to measure ALA-induced PpIX production. An area of active research is to improve treatments to deeper and nodular BCCs, because treatment is least effective in these. The goal of this work was to understand the logistics and technical capabilities to quantify PpIX at depths over 1mm, using a novel hybrid ultrasound-guided, fiber-based fluorescence molecular spectroscopictomography system. This system utilizes a 633nm excitation laser and detection using filtered spectrometers. Source and detection fibers are collinear so that their imaging plane matches that of ultrasound transducer. Validation with phantoms and tumor-simulating fluorescent inclusions in mice showed sensitivity to fluorophore concentrations as low as 0.025μg/ml at 4mm depth from surface, as presented in previous years. Image-guided quantification of ALA-induced PpIX production was completed in subcutaneous xenograft epidermoid cancer tumor model A431 in nude mice. A total of 32 animals were imaged in-vivo, using several time points, including pre-ALA, 4-hours post-ALA, and 24-hours post-ALA administration. On average, PpIX production in tumors increased by over 10-fold, 4-hours post-ALA. Statistical analysis of PpIX fluorescence showed significant difference among all groups; p<0.05. Results were validated by exvivo imaging of resected tumors. Details of imaging, analysis and results will be presented to illustrate variability and the potential for imaging these values at depth.

  1. Effect of transforming growth factor-alpha on inositol phospholipid metabolism in human epidermoid carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.; Takenawa, T.; Twardzik, D.R.

    1988-08-01

    Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) stimulates (in a dose-dependent manner) the incorporation of (/sup 32/P)Pi into phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP), phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), and phosphatidic acid (PA) in the human epidermoid carcinoma cell line (A431). The effect of TGF-alpha on the incorporation was found to be similar to that of EGF. On the other hand, a striking difference in the activation of diacylglycerol (DG) kinase activity was seen between TGF-alpha and EGF. At least 100 times more TGF-alpha was required to achieve maximal stimulation of DG kinase activity relative to EGF. These results suggest that the activation of DG kinase by TGF-alpha may involve a mechanism independent from or subsequent to activation of the EGF receptor.

  2. Knockdown of asparagine synthetase by RNAi suppresses cell growth in human melanoma cells and epidermoid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zhou, Fusheng; Du, Wenhui; Dou, Jinfa; Xu, Yu; Gao, Wanwan; Chen, Gang; Zuo, Xianbo; Sun, Liangdan; Zhang, Xuejun; Yang, Sen

    2016-05-01

    Melanoma, the most aggressive form of skin cancer, causes more than 40,000 deaths each year worldwide. And epidermoid carcinoma is another major form of skin cancer, which could be studied together with melanoma in several aspects. Asparagine synthetase (ASNS) gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the glutamine- and ATP-dependent conversion of aspartic acid to asparagine, and its expression is associated with the chemotherapy resistance and prognosis in several human cancers. The present study aims to explore the potential role of ASNS in melanoma cells A375 and human epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431. We applied a lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) system to study its function in cell growth of both cells. The results revealed that inhibition of ASNS expression by RNAi significantly suppressed the growth of melanoma cells and epidermoid carcinoma cells, and induced a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in melanoma cells. Knockdown of ASNS in A375 cells remarkably downregulated the expression levels of CDK4, CDK6, and Cyclin D1, and upregulated the expression of p21. Therefore, our study provides evidence that ASNS may represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of melanoma.

  3. Knockdown of asparagine synthetase by RNAi suppresses cell growth in human melanoma cells and epidermoid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zhou, Fusheng; Du, Wenhui; Dou, Jinfa; Xu, Yu; Gao, Wanwan; Chen, Gang; Zuo, Xianbo; Sun, Liangdan; Zhang, Xuejun; Yang, Sen

    2016-05-01

    Melanoma, the most aggressive form of skin cancer, causes more than 40,000 deaths each year worldwide. And epidermoid carcinoma is another major form of skin cancer, which could be studied together with melanoma in several aspects. Asparagine synthetase (ASNS) gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the glutamine- and ATP-dependent conversion of aspartic acid to asparagine, and its expression is associated with the chemotherapy resistance and prognosis in several human cancers. The present study aims to explore the potential role of ASNS in melanoma cells A375 and human epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431. We applied a lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) system to study its function in cell growth of both cells. The results revealed that inhibition of ASNS expression by RNAi significantly suppressed the growth of melanoma cells and epidermoid carcinoma cells, and induced a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in melanoma cells. Knockdown of ASNS in A375 cells remarkably downregulated the expression levels of CDK4, CDK6, and Cyclin D1, and upregulated the expression of p21. Therefore, our study provides evidence that ASNS may represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of melanoma. PMID:25858017

  4. [Alpha-lipoic acid triggers elimination of cells with abnormal nuclei in human carcinoma epidermoid cell line].

    PubMed

    Kisurina-Evgen'eva, O P; Onishchenko, G E

    2010-01-01

    The skin is usually exposed to adverse environmental conditions that may cause pathological cell proliferation and cellular transformations leading to the formation of malignant cells. Antioxidants may affect these processes and induce the elimination of transformed cell. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of alfa-lipoic acid on human carcinoma epidermoid cell line A431. Our results showed that alfa-lipoic acid induced inhibition of cell proliferation or stimulated apoptotic cell death. Cells with abnormal nuclei were eliminated by apoptosis. Electron microscopy showed that survived cells had typical for control cells shape and organization of the nuclei, organization of the cytoplasm and organelles. Thus, alfa-lipoic acid not only triggered apoptosis of carcinoma cells, but it may also activate the mechanism of elimination of cells with abnormal chromosome number.

  5. Inhibitory effect of berberine on human skin squamous cell carcinoma A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, D X; Zhang, J; Zhang, Y; Zhao, P W; Yang, L M

    2015-01-01

    Berberine (BBR) is a natural alkaloid with significant anti-tumor activity against many types of cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms employed by BBR to repress the proliferation and growth of skin squamous cell carcinoma A431 cells. Berberine was reported to inhibit the proliferation of A431 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and was observed to induce a series of biochemical events, including the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome-c to cytosol, induction of proteins of the Bcl-2 family and caspases, and the cleavage of poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase. This suggested its ability to induce apoptosis. The results of a wound healing test revealed that berberine inhibited the migration of A431 cells. Ezrin was transfected into A431 cells by RNA interference. The level of expression of Ezrin in the transfected A431 cells was observed to decrease with berberine treatment, which suggested that berberine might inhibit the invasion of A431 cells through Ezrin. The results of this study demonstrated that berberine could potentially inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, and inhibit the invasion of A431 cells. PMID:26400287

  6. Selective apoptotic effect of Zelkova serrata twig extract on mouth epidermoid carcinoma through p53 activation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hoe-Jin; Jang, Young-Joo

    2012-06-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death plays an essential role in chemotherapy-induced tumor cell killing, and inducers of apoptosis are commonly used in cancer therapy. Treatment with Zelkova serrata extracts was performed in human gingival fibroblast (HGF), mouth epidermoid carcinoma cell (KB), lower gingival squamous cancer cell (YD38) and tongue mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells (YD15). We observed that extract prepared from Zelkova serrata twig selectively inhibited proliferation of various oral cancer cells, but not normal gingival fibroblasts, in a dose-dependent manner. Caspase-8-mediated apoptosis was induced by treatment with the extract only in mouth epidermoid carcinoma and not in other types of cancer cells, including lower gingival squamous cell carcinoma. The selective apoptotic effect of Zelkova serrata twig extract in mouth epidermoid carcinoma was dependent on normal p53 status. Apoptosis was not remarkably induced by treatment with the extract in either lower gingival squamous or tongue mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells, both of which contain abnormalities of p53. Upon treatment with Zelkova serrata twig extract, mouth epidermoid carcinoma cells accumulated in S phase by activation of p21. These data indicate that Zelkova serrata twig extract exerted a cancer type-specific, p53-dependent apoptotic effect and disturbed the cell cycle, which suggests that herbal medicine could be a treatment for specific types of cancers. PMID:22498930

  7. Turmeric toxicity in A431 epidermoid cancer cells associates with autophagy degradation of anti-apoptotic and anti-autophagic p53 mutant.

    PubMed

    Thongrakard, Visa; Titone, Rossella; Follo, Carlo; Morani, Federica; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Tencomnao, Tewin; Isidoro, Ciro

    2014-12-01

    The keratinocyte-derived A431 Squamous Cell Carcinoma cells express the p53R273H mutant, which has been reported to inhibit apoptosis and autophagy. Here, we show that the crude extract of turmeric (Curcuma longa), similarly to its bioactive component Curcumin, could induce both apoptosis and autophagy in A431 cells, and these effects were concomitant with degradation of p53. Turmeric and curcumin also stimulated the activity of mTOR, which notoriously promotes cell growth and acts negatively on basal autophagy. Rapamycin-mediated inhibition of mTOR synergized with turmeric and curcumin in causing p53 degradation, increased the production of autophagosomes and exacerbated cell toxicity leading to cell necrosis. Small-interference mediated silencing of the autophagy proteins BECLIN 1 or ATG7 abrogated the induction of autophagy and largely rescued p53 stability in Turmeric-treated or Curcumin-treated cells, indicating that macroautophagy was mainly responsible for mutant p53 degradation. These data uncover a novel mechanism of turmeric and curcumin toxicity in chemoresistant cancer cells bearing mutant p53.

  8. [Epidermoid carcinoma of the urethra and glans penis: two independent tumors?].

    PubMed

    Pascual Regueiro, D; García de Jalón Martínez, A; Trívez Boned, M A; Gil Martínez, P; Azúa Romeo, J; Rioja Sanz, L A

    2004-01-01

    A 64 years-old man is treated in our hospital presenting a big tumor in glans penis. During the surgical act, another neoplasm is detected in the urethra. The microscopic study showed a concomintant epidermoid carcinoma of glans penis and urethra with non-affected tissue between both tumors. PMID:15666524

  9. Primary muco-epidermoid carcinoma arising in a parotid lymph node.

    PubMed

    Adkins, G F; Hinckley, D M

    1989-05-01

    A case of well-differentiated muco-epidermoid carcinoma in a parotid lymph node is described. This tumour apparently arose within and was confined to the lymph node. Salivary ductal and acinar inclusions are often found in parotid lymph nodes and these may occasionally give rise to salivary gland tumours, both benign and malignant. The finding of a malignant salivary gland tumour within such a site does not necessarily imply a metastasis from a primary neoplasm elsewhere in the parotid gland.

  10. The inhibition of resveratrol to human skin squamous cell carcinoma A431 xenografts in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yuqin; Huang, Weixing; Liao, Mingmei; Zhu, Yude; Liu, Hong; Hao, Chunguang; Liu, Guodong; Zhang, Guohui; Feng, Hongxia; Ning, Xiaohong; Li, Henggui; Li, Zhehai

    2013-04-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is one of the commonest dermatological malignancies. Resveratrol (Res) is one type of polyphenolic compound which was first identified from the roots of Veratrum grandinorum in 1940. The previous studies found that Res can promote apoptosis of a variety of tumor cell, especially SCC cells. However it is rare to study the inhibition mechanism of Res in the animal model. In this study, through the establishment of human cutaneous SCC A431 xenografts in nude mice, we observed Res inhibition effect and investigated the inhibition mechanism by checking the expression of apoptosis-related factors, p53, ERK and survivin. The results showed that the xenograft volume and weight of Res groups were less than those of the control groups (P<0.05), but the net body mass of nude mice of Res groups was not significantly different from the control groups (P>0.05). The apoptotic index of Res groups were significantly higher than the control groups (P<0.05). The protein and mRNA expression of p53 and ERK were statistically positively correlated (P<0.05) and significantly increased in Res high- and medium-dose groups compared with the control groups (P<0.05). Moreover, the protein and mRNA expression of SVV were negatively correlated with p53 (P<0.05) and lower than the control groups (P<0.05). The results demonstrate Res inhibitory effect and indicate that the inhibition mechanism of Res is to upgrade the protein and mRNA expression of p53 and to downgrade the protein and mRNA expression of SVV, thus inducing the apoptosis of tumor cells.

  11. Expression of B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma and its effect on the biological behavior of A-431 cells

    PubMed Central

    BAI, XUELI; OUYANG, LING; LI, BO; ZHOU, YANG; WEN, XIN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (BMI-1) in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN). Furthermore, the present study investigated the effects of BMI-1 expression on the biological behavior of A-431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. BMI-1 expression in human VSCC and VIN tissues was detected using immunohistochemistry. Subsequently, BMI-1 expression was silenced in A-431 cells using small interfering RNA (siRNA), and BMI-1 expression was detected using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The effects of BMI-1 silencing on cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasive ability were determined using an MTT assay, Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double-labeling experiment and Transwell assay, respectively. The expression rate of BMI-1 in normal vulvar, VIN and VSCC tissues was 0.0, 25.0 and 68.0% respectively, demonstrating an increasing trend in the severity of the disease. BMI-1 overexpression was found not to correlate with age, pathological stage, lymph node metastasis or degree of differentiation (P>0.05). BMI-1 siRNA transfection effectively inhibited BMI-1 messenger RNA and protein expression in A-431 cells. The mean rate of apoptosis promotion and proliferation inhibition in the most effectively silenced group were 20.19 and 46.82%, respectively, which was significantly higher than that of the cells in the blank and control siRNA groups (P<0.05). The number of invading cells was decreased in the most effectively silenced group compared with that of the blank and control siRNA groups. Abnormal expression of BMI-1 was also detected in VIN and VSCC tissues, and targeting of BMI-1 with siRNA was able to successfully silence BMI-1 expression in A-431 cells. Silencing of BMI-1 promoted apoptosis and inhibited the invasive abilities of A-431 cells in vitro. PMID

  12. Hesperetin exerts apoptotic effect on A431 skin carcinoma cells by regulating mitogen activated protein kinases and cyclins.

    PubMed

    Smina, T P; Mohan, A; Ayyappa, K A; Sethuraman, S; Krishnan, U M

    2015-10-30

    Dietary agents and phytochemicals have been utilised for the management of cancer for many years. Hesperetin, a dietary flavonoid found abundantly in citrus fruits, was evaluated for its cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic activities in A431 human skin carcinoma cells. Effect of hesperetin in regulating MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase) signalling pathway and levels of various cyclins and other downstream apoptotic proteins were investigated. Its critical role in regulating other apoptotic proteins especially p21, Bcl-2 and Bax were also assessed. Hesperetin stimulated alterations in MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase) signalling pathway by modulating the expression levels of ERK (Extracellular signal Regulated Kinase), JNK (c-Jun NH2-terminal Kinase) and p38; thereby induced apoptosis in A431 cells. Hesperetin regulated the levels of cyclin A2, B1, D1, D3 and E1. It also modulated the levels of various proteins involved in apoptotic pathway especially p21, Bcl-2 and Bax. The study revealed the efficiency of hesperetin against human skin carcinoma cells and proposed its mechanism of action; there by opens up new avenues for the use of this dietary flavonoid against skin malignancies.

  13. Vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor attenuates epidermoid squamous cell carcinoma growth by dampening mTOR signaling pathway in a human xenograft murine model

    SciTech Connect

    Kurundkar, Deepali; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Chaudhary, Sandeep C.; Ballestas, Mary E.; Kopelovich, Levy; Elmets, Craig A.; Athar, Mohammad

    2013-01-15

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are potent anticancer agents and show efficacy against various human neoplasms. Vorinostat is a potent HDAC inhibitor and has shown potential to inhibit growth of human xenograft tumors. However, its effect on the growth of skin neoplasm remains undefined. In this study, we show that vorinostat (2 μM) reduced expression of HDAC1, 2, 3, and 7 in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Consistently, it increased acetylation of histone H3 and p53. Vorinostat (100 mg/kg body weight, IP) treatment reduced human xenograft tumor growth in highly immunosuppressed nu/nu mice. Histologically, the vorinostat-treated tumor showed features of well-differentiation with large necrotic areas. Based on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining and expression of cyclins D1, D2, E, and A, vorinostat seems to impair proliferation by down-regulating the expression of these proteins. However, it also induced apoptosis. The mechanism by which vorinostat blocks proliferation and makes tumor cells prone to apoptosis, involved inhibition of mTOR signaling which was accompanied by reduction in cell survival AKT and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Our data provide a novel mechanism-based therapeutic intervention for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Vorinostat may be utilized to cure skin neoplasms in organ transplant recipient (OTR). These patients have high morbidity and surgical removal of these lesions which frequently develop in these patients, is difficult. -- Highlights: ► Vorinostat reduces SCC growth in a xenograft murine model. ► Vorinostat dampens proliferation and induces apoptosis in tumor cells. ► Diminution in mTOR, Akt and ERK signaling underlies inhibition in proliferation. ► Vorinostat by inhibiting HDACs inhibits epithelial–mesenchymal transition.

  14. Protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha regulates cell detachment and cell death profiles induced by nitric oxide donors in the A431 human carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Paulo E; Batista, Wagner L; Curcio, Marli F; Moraes, Miriam S; Borges, Roberta Eller; Nascimento, Patrícia A; Travassos, Luiz R; Monteiro, Hugo P

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the role of protein tyrosine phosphatase-alpha (PTPα) expression in the cell death profile of the A431 human carcinoma cell line that was induced by cytotoxic concentrations of the nitric oxide (NO) donors sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and 3,3-bis-(aminoethyl)-1-hydroxy-2-oxo-1-triazene (NOC-18). Both NO donors promoted extensive cell detachment in A431 parental cells as compared to the detachment observed for A431 cells that ectopically expressed PTPα (A431 (A27B(PTPα)) cells). The NO-induced cell death characteristics for both cell lines were examined. After incubation for 10 hours with 2.0 mM SNP, attached or detached A431 cells underwent apoptosis. Cells were highly positive for Annexin-V, featured increased cleavage of procaspase-8, activation of downstream caspase-3, and activation of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1). In contrast, exposure of A431 (A27B(PTPα)) cells to 2.0 mM SNP produced an increase in the release of lactate dehydrogenase and enhanced incorporation of propidium iodide. In addition, A431 (A27B(PTPα)) cells showed partial inhibition of the activities of caspase-8, caspase-3, and PARP-1 upon detachment and cell death induced by SNP treatment. Results indicate that necrotic cell damage was induced, characterized by cellular swelling and lysis. We conclude from these results that PTPα regulates the A431 tumor cell death profile mediated by NO donors. Expression of PTPα or its absence may determine the occurrence of NO-induced cell death with necrotic or apoptotic features, respectively.

  15. A clinical report of an oral lichen planus associated to epidermoid carcinoma in contact with metallic restorations.

    PubMed

    Silva, Regina Helena Barbosa Tavares da; Paleari, Andrá Gustavo; Brito, Carolina de Assis Barros; Rocha, Josá Francisco Santos Simões da; Massucato, Elaine Maria Sgavioli; Quishida, Cristiane Campos Costa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to relate the clinical case of a patient with oral lichen planus (OLP) and a history of epidermoid carcinoma associated with metallic restorations. The etiology of OLP is a mucocutaneous disease, which is poorly understood. Studies point to the potential of malignant transformation of OLP and its association with metallic restorations. The metallic restorations were replaced by crowns with a ceramic covering associated and osseointegrated implants in the edentulous areas. About 1 year later, it was observed a bilateral regression of the tongue lesions. The replacement of metallic restorations can contribute to improvement of OLP. PMID:25707841

  16. A clinical report of an oral lichen planus associated to epidermoid carcinoma in contact with metallic restorations.

    PubMed

    Silva, Regina Helena Barbosa Tavares da; Paleari, Andrá Gustavo; Brito, Carolina de Assis Barros; Rocha, Josá Francisco Santos Simões da; Massucato, Elaine Maria Sgavioli; Quishida, Cristiane Campos Costa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to relate the clinical case of a patient with oral lichen planus (OLP) and a history of epidermoid carcinoma associated with metallic restorations. The etiology of OLP is a mucocutaneous disease, which is poorly understood. Studies point to the potential of malignant transformation of OLP and its association with metallic restorations. The metallic restorations were replaced by crowns with a ceramic covering associated and osseointegrated implants in the edentulous areas. About 1 year later, it was observed a bilateral regression of the tongue lesions. The replacement of metallic restorations can contribute to improvement of OLP.

  17. Design and optimization of non-clogging counter-flow microconcentrator for enriching epidermoid cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tran-Minh, Nhut; Dong, Tao; Su, Qianhua; Yang, Zhaochu; Jakobsen, Henrik; Karlsen, Frank

    2011-02-01

    Clogging failure is common for microfilters in living cells concentration; for instance, the CaSki Cell-lines (Epidermoid cervical carcinoma cells) utilizing the flat membrane structure. In order to avoid the clogging, counter-flow concentration units with turbine blade-like micropillar are proposed in microconcentrator design. Due to the unusual geometrical-profiles and extraordinary microfluidic performance, the cells blocking does not occur even at permeate entrances. A counter-flow microconcentrator was designed, with both processing layer and collecting layer arranged in terms of the fractal based honeycomb structure. The device was optimized by coupling Artificial Neuron Network (ANN) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The excellent concentration ratio of a final microconcentrator was presented in numerical results.

  18. Platelet-derived growth factor type BB and collagen matrix for soft tissue reconstruction after muco-epidermoid carcinoma removal: a possible therapeutic option.

    PubMed

    Cicciù, Marco; Herford, Alan Scott; Maria, Vecchio Giada; Bramanti, Ennio

    2015-01-01

    Muco-epidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is a rare malignant tumor occurring in major and minor salivary glands. The described case shows a patient undergoing tumor resection without neck dissection. A quick diagnosis performed through clinical investigation and incisional biopsy revealed the nature of the tumor. A porcine collagen matrix was applied after the surgery in order to improve soft tissue healing. The matrix was saturated with platelet-derived growth factor type BB in order to favorite healing process and then fixed on the palate with a dental support device. Follow-up visit performed at first, second, and third weeks highlighted a quick healing of oral mucosa. Here reported is a case of a 34-year-old man who developed a muco-epidermoid oral carcinoma localized in the left upper jaw palatal side. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic findings, plus differential diagnoses of the case and reconstructive treatment options are also presented.

  19. [Prognostic value of the immunohistochemical expresion of protein Rb in epidermoid carcinoma of the larynx].

    PubMed

    García Lozano, M C; Orradre Romero, J L; Sánchez Carrión, S; Menéndez Loras, L M; Jiménez Antolín, J; Piris Pinilla, M A

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we carried out an immunohistochemical study of protein Rb (G3-245) expression in a series of 195 patients with laryngeal carcinoma that were diagnosticated, treated and followed at the Department of Otolaryngology at "Virgen de la Salud" Hospital (Toledo, Spain) for a time of 5 years. In the cases with lymph node metastasis we also studied Rb expression at this level. Furthermore we have analysed the value of Rb expression as a prognostic factor (tumor recurrence, deads due to cancer and survival) and we evaluate the relationship between Rb expression and other clinic and pathologic parameters.

  20. A new approach to the management of epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal

    SciTech Connect

    Papillon, J.; Mayer, M.; Montbarbon, J.F.; Gerard, J.P.; Chassard, J.L.; Bailly, C.

    1983-05-15

    Until recently most squamous cell carcinomas of the anal canal were treated by radical surgery. Radiation therapy was only considered for palliation in case of inoperable tumors. Important progress has been made in the knowledge of the natural history of the disease and in the field of radiotherapy. Anal canal squamous cell carcinoma should not be treated any longer by the same procedure as adenocarcinoma of the lower rectum, because both these diseases differ markedly. Multimodality therapy with radiotherapy as first approach has been considered. This series of 121 cases treated since 1971 and followed more than three years suggests that three protocols based on irradiation followed or not by surgery should be used according to the extent of the disease. Of the 72 patients with resectable tumor, the five-year survival rate was 65%. Three-quarters of the patients cured had normal anal function. The rate of death from cancer was 18%. The method requires an accurate assessment of the extent of the tumor and of its pelvic lymphatic spread. Great care must be taken in planning treatment in a close cooperation between radiotherapist and surgeon.

  1. Combined vitamins Bl2b and C induce the glutathione depletion and the death of epidermoid human larynx carcinoma cells HEp-2.

    PubMed

    Akatov, V S; Evtodienko, Y V; Leshchenko, V V; Teplova, V V; Potselueva, M M; Kruglov, A G; Lezhnev, E I; Yakubovskaya, R I

    2000-10-01

    The combination of hydroxocobalamin (vitamin B12b) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) can cause the death of tumor cells at the concentrations of the components at which they are nontoxic when administered separately. This cytotoxic action on epidermoid human larynx carcinoma cells HEp-2 in vitro is shown to be due to the hydrogen peroxide generated by the combination of vitamins B12b and C. The drop in the glutathione level preceding cell death was found to be the result of combined action of the vitamins. It is supposed that the induction of cell death by combined action of vitamins B12b and C is connected to the damage of the cell redox system.

  2. Characterization of photodynamic therapy responses elicited in A431 cells containing intracellular organelle-localized photofrin.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ya-Ju; Yu, Jau-Song; Lyu, Ping-Chiang

    2010-11-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a photochemotherapeutic regimen used to treat several diseases, including cancer, exerts its effects mainly through induction of cell death. Using human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells as a model, we previously showed that distinct cell death types could be triggered by protocols that selectively delivered Photofrin (a clinically approved photosensitizer) to different subcellular sites (Hsieh et al. [2003] J Cell Physiol 194: 363-375]. Here, the responses elicited by PDT in A431 cells containing intracellular organelle-localized Photofrin were further characterized. Two prominent cell phenotypes were observed under these conditions: one characterized by perinuclear vacuole (PV) formation 2-8 h after PDT followed by cell recovery or shrinkage within 48 h, and a second characterized by typical apoptotic features appearing within 4 h after PDT. DCFDA-sensitive reactive oxygen species formed proximal to PVs during the response to PDT, covering areas in which both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi complex were located. Biochemical analyses showed that Photofrin-PDT also induced JNK activation and altered the protein secretion profile. A more detailed examination of PV formation revealed that PVs were derived from the ER. The alteration of ER structure induced by PDT was similar to that triggered by thapsigargin, an ER Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor that perturbs Ca(2+) homeostasis, suggesting a role for Ca(2+) in the formation of PVs. Microtubule dynamics did not significantly affect PV formation. This study demonstrates that cells in which intracellular organelles are selectively loaded with Photofrin mount a novel response to ER stress induced by PDT.

  3. Physico-chemical comparison of betulinic acid, betulin and birch bark extract and in vitro investigation of their cytotoxic effects towards skin epidermoid carcinoma (A431), breast carcinoma (MCF7) and cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa) cell lines.

    PubMed

    Soica, Codruta M; Dehelean, Cristina A; Peev, Camelia; Aluas, Mihaela; Zupkó, I; Kása, P; Alexa, Ersilia

    2012-01-01

    Betulin and betulinic acid are pentacyclic triterpenes present in the bark of the birch tree and other vegetal sources. Quantitatively, in birch bark betulin is more significant than betulinic acid; therefore, birch can be a large and feasible source of raw material for betulin extraction. Betulin can be used as extracted or, after chemical modification, as a starting compound for its acid, betulinic acid, with both substances possessing various interesting pharmacological properties. The purpose of this study is to analyse the betulin and betulinic acid content of a birch tree bark extract, as well as its cytotoxic activity. The extraction was done using a Soxhlet extractor and chloroform/dichlormethane/methanol (1 : 1 : 1) as solvent. The betulin and betulinic acid content of the extract was estimated using standards of pure betulin and betulinic acid, by thermal analysis as opposed to pure substance (thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis). The extract and the main compounds were also analysed by NMR. The results indicated a high amount of betulin in the final extract (up to 50%), and an important quantity of betulinic acid: over 3%. The cytotoxic activity indicated a high proliferation inhibition for the birch tree extract but was still comparable with betulinic acid and betulin.

  4. Physico-chemical comparison of betulinic acid, betulin and birch bark extract and in vitro investigation of their cytotoxic effects towards skin epidermoid carcinoma (A431), breast carcinoma (MCF7) and cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa) cell lines.

    PubMed

    Soica, Codruta M; Dehelean, Cristina A; Peev, Camelia; Aluas, Mihaela; Zupkó, I; Kása, P; Alexa, Ersilia

    2012-01-01

    Betulin and betulinic acid are pentacyclic triterpenes present in the bark of the birch tree and other vegetal sources. Quantitatively, in birch bark betulin is more significant than betulinic acid; therefore, birch can be a large and feasible source of raw material for betulin extraction. Betulin can be used as extracted or, after chemical modification, as a starting compound for its acid, betulinic acid, with both substances possessing various interesting pharmacological properties. The purpose of this study is to analyse the betulin and betulinic acid content of a birch tree bark extract, as well as its cytotoxic activity. The extraction was done using a Soxhlet extractor and chloroform/dichlormethane/methanol (1 : 1 : 1) as solvent. The betulin and betulinic acid content of the extract was estimated using standards of pure betulin and betulinic acid, by thermal analysis as opposed to pure substance (thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis). The extract and the main compounds were also analysed by NMR. The results indicated a high amount of betulin in the final extract (up to 50%), and an important quantity of betulinic acid: over 3%. The cytotoxic activity indicated a high proliferation inhibition for the birch tree extract but was still comparable with betulinic acid and betulin. PMID:21598174

  5. Oligomerization of epidermal growth factor receptors on A431 cells studied by time-resolved fluorescence imaging microscopy. A stereochemical model for tyrosine kinase receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The aggregation states of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on single A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells were assessed with two new techniques for determining fluorescence resonance energy transfer: donor photobleaching fluorescence resonance energy transfer (pbFRET) microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). Fluorescein-(donor) and rhodamine-(acceptor) labeled EGF were bound to the cells and the extent of oligomerization was monitored by the spatially resolved FRET efficiency as a function of the donor/acceptor ratio and treatment conditions. An average FRET efficiency of 5% was determined after a low temperature (4 degrees C) incubation with the fluorescent EGF analogs for 40 min. A subsequent elevation of the temperature for 5 min caused a substantial increase of the average FRET efficiency to 14% at 20 degrees C and 31% at 37 degrees C. In the context of a two-state (monomer/dimer) model for the EGFR, these FRET efficiencies were consistent with minimal average receptor dimerizations of 13, 36, and 69% at 4, 20, and 37 degrees C, respectively. A431 cells were pretreated with the monoclonal antibody mAb 2E9 that specifically blocks EGF binding to the predominant population of low affinity EGFR (15). The average FRET efficiency increased dramatically to 28% at 4 degrees C, indicative of a minimal receptor dimerization of 65% for the subpopulation of high affinity receptors. These results are in accordance with prior studies indicating that binding of EGF leads to a fast and temperature- dependent microclustering of EGFR, but suggest in addition that the high affinity functional subclass of receptors on quiescent A431 cells are present in a predimerized or oligomerized state. We propose that the transmission of the external ligand-binding signal to the cytoplasmic domain is effected by a concerted relative rotational rearrangement of the monomeric units comprising the dimeric receptor, thereby potentiating a mutual activation of

  6. Splenic epidermoid cysts.

    PubMed

    Robbins, F G; Yellin, A E; Lingua, R W; Craig, J R; Turrill, F L; Mikkelsen, W P

    1978-03-01

    Four patients with splenic masses were operated upon and found to have epidermoid cysts of the spleen, a rare lesion comprising less than 10% of benign, nonparasitic splenic cysts. The patients were young and had vague, non-specific symptoms which were related to the size of the slowly enlarging splenic mass. Three patients had palpable masses. Contrast gastrointestinal studies and intravenous urography will help exclude mass lesions of the gastrointestinal or genitourinary tract. Sonar scan may confirm the cystic nature of the lesion and localize it to the spleen. A review of 42,327 autopsy records at the Los Angeles County--University of Southern California Medical Center revealed 32 benign splenic cysts found incidentally at autopsy. Hemorrhage, infection, rupture, and rarely, malignant change are complications of splenic cysts. Splenectomy is recommended to eliminate the symptoms produced by the cyst and prevent the potential complications.

  7. Epidermoid cyst of the testis.

    PubMed

    Mak, C W; Chen, C Y; Tzeng, W S; Li, C-F

    2007-10-01

    Epidermoid cysts, though having a variable sonographic appearance, may present with an onion peel configuration, that is, concentric rings of alternating hyperechogenicities and hypoechogenicities. The absence of vascular flow on colour Doppler sonography is also consistent with the avascular nature of these lesions. By combining these two sonographic features and the absence of biochemical tumour marker, preoperative diagnosis of epidermoid cyst is possible and may prompt a testis sparing surgery rather than orchidectomy. PMID:17875166

  8. Brainstem epidermoid cyst: An update

    PubMed Central

    Patibandla, M. R.; Yerramneni, Vamsi Krishna; Mudumba, Vijaya S.; Manisha, Nukavarapu; Addagada, Gokul Chowdary

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of epidermoid tumors is between 1% and 2% of all intracranial tumors. The usual locations of epidermoid tumor are the parasellar region and cerebellopontine angle, and it is less commonly located in sylvian fissure, suprasellar region, cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres, and lateral and fourth ventricles. Epidermoid cysts located in the posterior fossa usually arise in the lateral subarachnoid cisterns, and those located in the brain stem are rare. These epidermoids contain cheesy and flaky white soft putty like contents. Epidermoid cysts are very slow growing tumors having a similar growth pattern of the epidermal cells of the skin and develop from remnants of epidermal elements during closure of the neural groove and disjunction of the surface ectoderm with neural ectoderm between the third and fifth weeks of embryonic life. We are presenting an interesting case of intrinsic brainstem epidermoid cyst containing milky white liquefied material with flakes in a 5-year-old girl. Diffusion-weighted imaging is definitive for the diagnosis. Ideal treatment of choice is removal of cystic components with complete resection of capsule. Although radical resection will prevent recurrence, in view of very thin firmly adherent capsule to brainstem, it is not always possible to do complete resection of capsule without any neurological deficits. PMID:27366244

  9. Recurrent intramedullary epidermoid cyst of conus medullaris.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Christina; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; O'Sullivan, Michael

    2011-12-13

    Spinal intramedullary epidermoid cyst is a rare condition. Recurrent epidermoid cyst in the spine cord is known to occur. The authors describe a case of recurrent conus medullaris epidermoid cyst in a 24-year-old female. She initially presented at 7 years of age with bladder disturbance in the form of diurnal enuresis and recurrent urinary tract infection. MRI lumbar spine revealed a 4 cm conus medullaris epidermoid cyst. Since the initial presentation, the cyst had recurred seven times in the same location and she underwent surgical intervention in the form of exploration and debulking. This benign condition, owing to its anatomical location, has posed a surgical and overall management challenge. This occurrence is better managed in a tertiary-care centre requiring multi-disciplinary treatment approach.

  10. [Epidermoid cyst of the mouth floor].

    PubMed

    Sanjuán Rodríguez, S; Morán Penco, J M; Ruiz Orpez, A; Santamaria Ossorio, J I; Berchi García, F J

    2003-07-01

    The epidermoid cysts are frequent during childhood, however mouth floor location are very unusual, because of their more difficult diagnosis and therapeutic approach. We present a 5 years old male, symptoms free until a week before, when his parents noticed a well defined mass in the mouth floor. A physical examination leaded to the diagnosis of possible epidermoid cyst. The tumor was excised through an introral approach. A review of different diagnostic means and surgical management are undertaken.

  11. Epidermoid Cyst of Mandible Ramus: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Loxha, Mergime Prekazi; Salihu, Sami; Kryeziu, Kaltrina; Loxha, Sadushe; Agani, Zana; Hamiti, Vjosa; Rexhepi, Aida

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: An epidermoid cyst is a benign cyst usually found on the skin. Bone cysts are very rare and if they appear in bone they usually appear in the distal phalanges of the fingers. Epidermoid cysts of the jaws are uncommon. Case presentation: We present a case, of a 41 year-old female patient admitted to our department because of pain and swelling in the parotid and masseteric region–left side. There was no trismus, pathological findings in skin, high body temperature level, infra-alveolar nerves anesthesia or lymphadenopathy present. The orthopantomography revealed a cystic lesion and a unilocular lesion that included mandibular ramus on the left side with 3 cm in diameter. Under total anesthesia, a cyst had been reached and was enucleated. Histopathologic findings showed that the pathologic lesion was an epidermoid cyst. Discussion: Epidermoid and dermoid cysts are rare, benign lesions found throughout the body. Only a few cases in literature describe an intraossesus epidermoid cyst. Conclusion: Our case is an epidermoid cyst with a rare location in the region of the mandibular ramus. It is not associated with any trauma in this region except medical history reveals there was an operative removal of a wisdom tooth 12 years ago in the same side. These cysts are interesting from the etiological point of view. They should be considered in the differential diagnosis of other radiolucent lesions of the jaws. Surgically they have a very good prognosis, and are non-aggressive lesions. PMID:27594757

  12. Efficacy of temoporfin-loaded invasomes in the photodynamic therapy in human epidermoid and colorectal tumour cell lines.

    PubMed

    Dragicevic-Curic, Nina; Gräfe, Susanna; Gitter, Burkhard; Fahr, Alfred

    2010-12-01

    In the case of cutaneous malignant or non-malignant diseases, topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) with a temoporfin (mTHPC)-containing formulation would be advantageous. Unfortunately, mTHPC is a highly hydrophobic drug with low percutaneous absorption and novel mTHPC-loaded invasomes for enhanced skin delivery were developed. The purpose of this study was to investigate photodynamic efficacy of mTHPC-loaded invasomes in vitro in two cell lines, i.e. the human colorectal tumour cell line HT29 and the epidermoid tumour cell line A431. Invasomes are vesicles containing besides phospholipids a mixture of terpenes or only one terpene and ethanol. Dark toxicity, phototoxicity and intracellular localization of mTHPC were studied. Laser scanning microscopy indicated perinuclear localization of mTHPC. Results revealed that mTHPC-invasomes and mTHPC-ethanolic solution used at a 2μM mTHPC-concentration and photoirradiation at 20J/cm(2) were able to reduce survival of HT29 cells and especially of A431 cells, being more sensitive to PDT. In contrast to HT29 cells, where there was not a significant difference between cytotoxicity of mTHPC-ethanolic solution and mTHPC-invasomes, in A431 cells mTHPC-invasomes were more cytotoxic. Survival of about 16% of A431 cells treated with mTHPC-invasomes is very promising, since it demonstrates invasomes' potential to be used in topical PDT of cutaneous malignant diseases.

  13. Epidermoid cysts of the vocal cords.

    PubMed

    Monday, L A; Cornut, G; Bouchayer, M; Roch, J B

    1983-01-01

    Fifty-three cases of intracordal epidermoid cysts diagnosed, treated and followed from 1972 to 1981 are presented. In the clinical evaluation, special attention must be paid to the type of dysphonia and morphology of the vocal cords at indirect laryngoscopy. The epidermoid cyst is not easily visualized and the examiner must take into account signs like "monochorditis," slight bulging, unilateral nodule and diminished or abolished vibrations of one of the cords at stroboscopy. Microsurgical excision followed by voice therapy is the recommended treatment. The pathogenesis of these cysts is still speculative. Two theories are discussed: the traumatic theory and the dysembryoplastic theory.

  14. Atypical Intracranial Epidermoid Cysts: Rare Anomalies with Unique Radiological Features

    PubMed Central

    Law, Eric K. C.; Lee, Ryan K. L.; Ng, Alex W. H.; Siu, Deyond Y. W.; Ng, Ho-Keung

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are benign slow growing extra-axial tumours that insinuate between brain structures, while their occurrences in intra-axial or intradiploic locations are exceptionally rare. We present the clinical, imaging, and pathological findings in two patients with atypical epidermoid cysts. CT and MRI findings for the first case revealed an intraparenchymal epidermoid cyst that demonstrated no restricted diffusion. The second case demonstrated an aggressive epidermoid cyst that invaded into the intradiploic spaces, transverse sinus, and the calvarium. The timing of ectodermal tissue sequestration during fetal development may account for the occurrence of atypical epidermoid cysts. PMID:25667778

  15. Paraplegia due to Spinal Epidermoid Cyst Rupture at Asthma Attack

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kweon Young; Kang, Jung Hun; Choi, Dae Woo; Lee, Min Hong

    2013-01-01

    Spinal epidermoid cyst is less than 1% of the entire spinal cord tumor and a rare tumor. It is a slowly proliferating benign tumor and can be a result of either congenital or acquired factors. In particular, reports of acute paraplegia due to spinal epidermoid cyst rupture are very rare. Since authors experienced paraplegia resulting from congenital spinal epidermoid cyst rupture during an asthma attack, it is reported with a review of literature. PMID:23705125

  16. Extensive epidermoid cyst of the submental region

    PubMed Central

    Utumi, Estevam Rubens; Araujo, Juliane Pirágine; Pedron, Irineu Gregnanin; Yonezaki, Frederico; Machado, Gustavo Grothe

    2016-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are malformations that are rarely observed in the submental region. Imaging has an important role in surgical planning according to the size and location of the cyst in relation to geniohyoid and mylohyoid muscles. This article reports the case of a 15-year-old female patient complaining of submental swelling. The differential diagnosis included infection, tumor, ranula, and abnormalities during embryonic development. The lesion was surgically excised using an extra-oral approach. The histopathological examination revealed a cyst wall lined with stratified squamous epithelium with the presence of several horny scales consistent with the diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst. No recurrences were found after 1 year of follow-up. PMID:27547744

  17. Isolated giant molluscum contagiosum mimicking epidermoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Uzuncakmak, Tugba K; Kuru, Burce C; Zemheri, Ebru I; Zindanci, Ilkin; Turkoglu, Zafer; Kavala, Mukaddes

    2016-07-01

    Molluscum contagiosum is a benign cutaneous viral infection which is caused by double- stranded DNA poxvirus. It affects mainly children and young adults and usually presents with single or multiple umblicated papules or nodules on face, arms, legs and anogenital regions. It may present in atypical size and clinical appearance in patients with altered or impaired immunity and rarely in immuncompetent patients. Herein we present an immuncompetent young adult patient with isolated giant molluscum contagiosum, which was mimicking epidermoid cyst clinically. PMID:27648389

  18. Isolated giant molluscum contagiosum mimicking epidermoid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Uzuncakmak, Tugba K.; Kuru, Burce C.; Zemheri, Ebru I.; Zindanci, Ilkin; Turkoglu, Zafer; Kavala, Mukaddes

    2016-01-01

    Molluscum contagiosum is a benign cutaneous viral infection which is caused by double- stranded DNA poxvirus. It affects mainly children and young adults and usually presents with single or multiple umblicated papules or nodules on face, arms, legs and anogenital regions. It may present in atypical size and clinical appearance in patients with altered or impaired immunity and rarely in immuncompetent patients. Herein we present an immuncompetent young adult patient with isolated giant molluscum contagiosum, which was mimicking epidermoid cyst clinically. PMID:27648389

  19. Isolated giant molluscum contagiosum mimicking epidermoid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Uzuncakmak, Tugba K.; Kuru, Burce C.; Zemheri, Ebru I.; Zindanci, Ilkin; Turkoglu, Zafer; Kavala, Mukaddes

    2016-01-01

    Molluscum contagiosum is a benign cutaneous viral infection which is caused by double- stranded DNA poxvirus. It affects mainly children and young adults and usually presents with single or multiple umblicated papules or nodules on face, arms, legs and anogenital regions. It may present in atypical size and clinical appearance in patients with altered or impaired immunity and rarely in immuncompetent patients. Herein we present an immuncompetent young adult patient with isolated giant molluscum contagiosum, which was mimicking epidermoid cyst clinically.

  20. Intrathymic epidermoid cyst: a very rare condition.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Francesco; Barone, Mario; Monaco, Maurizio

    2015-03-01

    A 65-year-old man presented with a nonspecific thymic neoplasm following blunt thoracic trauma. The lesion increased in size over 12 years, to reach 47 mm in diameter. After thymectomy, the lesion was described as an epidermoid lining cyst composed of thickened stratified squamous epithelium. We assume that this rare pathological condition was caused by skin tissue islands and fat migrating into the mediastinum.

  1. Giant Pelvic Retroperitoneal Epidermoid Cyst: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Fdili Alaoui, F. Z.; Oussaden, A.; Bouguern, H.; El Fatemi, H.; Melhouf, M. A.; Amarti, A.; Ait Taleb, K.

    2012-01-01

    Epidermoid cyst is a frequent benign cutaneous tumor. The pelvic localization does not occur very often. The literature that taps into such cases is very limited in scope. Here is a report of a 27-year-old woman with a giant pelvic retroperitoneal epidermoid cyst. The use of ultrasound exploration and computed tomography has indicated ovarian origins. The surgery also revealed a retroperitoneal epidermoid cyst, uterus and ovaries were all intact. The evacuation of a cyst was found to contain lamellas of keratin. Histology permitted us to confirm the diagnosis. The patient was faring well after two years of followup. PMID:23150734

  2. Giant pelvic retroperitoneal epidermoid cyst: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Fdili Alaoui, F Z; Oussaden, A; Bouguern, H; El Fatemi, H; Melhouf, M A; Amarti, A; Ait Taleb, K

    2012-01-01

    Epidermoid cyst is a frequent benign cutaneous tumor. The pelvic localization does not occur very often. The literature that taps into such cases is very limited in scope. Here is a report of a 27-year-old woman with a giant pelvic retroperitoneal epidermoid cyst. The use of ultrasound exploration and computed tomography has indicated ovarian origins. The surgery also revealed a retroperitoneal epidermoid cyst, uterus and ovaries were all intact. The evacuation of a cyst was found to contain lamellas of keratin. Histology permitted us to confirm the diagnosis. The patient was faring well after two years of followup. PMID:23150734

  3. Giant pelvic retroperitoneal epidermoid cyst: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Fdili Alaoui, F Z; Oussaden, A; Bouguern, H; El Fatemi, H; Melhouf, M A; Amarti, A; Ait Taleb, K

    2012-01-01

    Epidermoid cyst is a frequent benign cutaneous tumor. The pelvic localization does not occur very often. The literature that taps into such cases is very limited in scope. Here is a report of a 27-year-old woman with a giant pelvic retroperitoneal epidermoid cyst. The use of ultrasound exploration and computed tomography has indicated ovarian origins. The surgery also revealed a retroperitoneal epidermoid cyst, uterus and ovaries were all intact. The evacuation of a cyst was found to contain lamellas of keratin. Histology permitted us to confirm the diagnosis. The patient was faring well after two years of followup.

  4. Epidermoid cyst: Report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Puranik, Surekha R; Puranik, Rudrayya S; Prakash, Satya; Bimba, M

    2016-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts (ECs) are uncommon, benign cystic lesions derived from the entrapment of surface epithelium or more often from the aberrant healing of infundibular epithelium during an episode of follicular inflammation. ECs occur anywhere on the body, particularly along embryonic fusion lines, most commonly on the face, scalp, neck, chest and upper back. Head and neck ECs constitute only about 7%, whereas only 1.6% of ECs are reported in the oral cavity. They comprise <0.01% of all the oral cysts. Floor of the mouth, tongue, lips, palate, jaws, etc., are some of the reported sites of ECs in the oral cavity. Microscopically, ECs are lined with plain stratified squamous epithelium filled with laminated layers of keratin. Here, we report two rare cases of ECs, one occurring in the gingival aspect and other in the lower third of face. The cases are reported due to rarity of ECs in the head and neck region. PMID:27721628

  5. Stress-induced phosphorylation of caveolin-1 and p38, and down-regulation of EGFr and ERK by the dietary lectin jacalin in two human carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sahasrabuddhe, Anagh A; Ahmed, Neesar; Krishnasastry, M V

    2006-01-01

    We have examined the A431 (human epidermoid carcinoma) and HT29 (human colorectal carcinoma) cellular responses evoked by lectins of dietary origin, Jacalin of Artocarpus integrifolia (native jacalin; nJacalin), peanut agglutinin (PNA) of Arachis hypogea, and recombinant single-chain jacalin (rJacalin), which has the same protein backbone but approximately 100-fold less affinity for carbohydrates than nJacalin. All three lectins (nJacalin, rJacalin, and PNA) are cycotoxic inhibitors of proliferation of A431 cells. However, cells recover once jacalin but not PNA have been removed from the growth medium. Treatment of nJacalin results in morphologically visible cell rounding while retaining the membrane integrity when treated at 40 microg ml(-1), but treatment with PNA did not induce such changes. The observed cell rounding was found to be due to stress as the phosphorylation of caveolin-1 (at tyr14), p38 but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase were up-regulated, while PNA did not up-regulate the phosphorylation of the same. Jacalin also down-regulated the phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and extracellular signal regulated kinase in contrast to PNA, which failed to down-regulate the same. Confocal microscopic studies reveal that jacalin is not internalized, unlike the lectin of Agaricus bisporous. Analysis of the proteins that bind to an nJacalin-sepharose column revealed the binding of six to eight proteins, and significant among them is a protein at approximately 110 kDa, which appears to be oxygen-regulated protein 150 (ORP150) (endoplasmic reticulum chaperone) as identified by its isoelectric point, two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis. This 110-kDa band is detectable with anti-Hsp70 antibody because ORP150 has homology with Hsp70. Confocal microscopic studies reveal the presence of Hsp70-like proteins on the surface of A431 cells as revealed by immunostaining with anti-Hsp70

  6. Splenic Epidermoid Cyst in a Five-Year-Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Bhavna; Sood, Neena; Singh, Satpal

    2016-01-01

    Splenic epidermoid cysts are rare non-parasitic true cysts affecting the spleen. We report a five-year-old child who presented with an abdominal lump associated with pain of 15 days. Ultrasonography of the abdomen showed a huge cystic lesion of obscure origin. At laprotomy a huge unilocular cyst involving upper part of spleen containing pultaceous fluid was seen and its removal necessitated splenectomy. Histopathological findings were consistent with splenic epidermoid cyst. Thus histopathology helped in elucidating the aetiology and diagnosis.

  7. Laparoscopic excision of subdiaphragmatic epidermoid cyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hagr, A; Laberge, J M; Nguyen, L T; Emil, S; Bernard, C; Patenaude, Y

    2001-06-01

    Retroperitoneal epidermoid cysts are rare. The authors report a case of an 11-year-old boy with an asymptomatic subdiaphragmatic cyst, which was found incidentally during an investigation for hypertension. At laparoscopy, the cyst was densely adherent to the diaphragm, resulting in a pneumothorax during dissection. Nevertheless, the excision and the diaphragmatic repair could be completed laparoscopically without complication. Microscopic examination showed an epidermoid cyst. No similar case has been reported in the literature.

  8. Recurrent Perianal Sinus in Young Girl Due To Pre-sacral Epidermoid Cyst.

    PubMed

    Jain, V; Misra, S; Tiwari, S; Rahul, K; Jain, H

    2013-07-01

    Pre-sacral epidermoid cysts are rare development cysts resulting from dysembryogenesis mostly diagnosed in middle aged women. We report a case of pre-sacral epidermoid cyst presenting with recurrent perianal sinus in young girl. Generally pre-sacral epidermoid cysts are seen in adult age group but it is rare presentation in young age group. We report a rare case of presacral epidermoid cyst occurring in a young female.

  9. Splenic Epidermoid Cyst in a Five-Year-Old Child.

    PubMed

    Grover, Sumit; Garg, Bhavna; Sood, Neena; Singh, Satpal

    2016-07-01

    Splenic epidermoid cysts are rare non-parasitic true cysts affecting the spleen. We report a five-year-old child who presented with an abdominal lump associated with pain of 15 days. Ultrasonography of the abdomen showed a huge cystic lesion of obscure origin. At laprotomy a huge unilocular cyst involving upper part of spleen containing pultaceous fluid was seen and its removal necessitated splenectomy. Histopathological findings were consistent with splenic epidermoid cyst. Thus histopathology helped in elucidating the aetiology and diagnosis. PMID:27630857

  10. Epidermoid cyst of the soft palate in an infant

    PubMed Central

    Uppala, Divya; Majumdar, Sumit; Rao, Kameswara; Reddy, Sivanagendra

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are benign malformations that can be encountered anywhere in the body and are rarely observed in the oral cavity accounting for <0.01% of all cysts of the oral cavity. They can be classified as either congenital or acquired without any clinical or histologic differences. Our literature search did not find any report of a congenital epidermoid cyst located in the soft palate associated with a complete palatal cleft in an infant. This is a case report of a 9-month-old female patient who had a cleft palate with an associated soft tissue mass at the junction of soft palate and uvula. PMID:26980982

  11. Splenic Epidermoid Cyst in a Five-Year-Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Bhavna; Sood, Neena; Singh, Satpal

    2016-01-01

    Splenic epidermoid cysts are rare non-parasitic true cysts affecting the spleen. We report a five-year-old child who presented with an abdominal lump associated with pain of 15 days. Ultrasonography of the abdomen showed a huge cystic lesion of obscure origin. At laprotomy a huge unilocular cyst involving upper part of spleen containing pultaceous fluid was seen and its removal necessitated splenectomy. Histopathological findings were consistent with splenic epidermoid cyst. Thus histopathology helped in elucidating the aetiology and diagnosis. PMID:27630857

  12. [Clitoral epidermoid cyst causing clitoromegaly. A rare case report].

    PubMed

    Masson, V; Fiquet François, C; Rausky, J; Mazouz Dorval, S; Revol, M

    2014-04-01

    Clitoromegaly is uncommon. It is mostly congenital, hormonal or tumoral. Epidermoid cyst is rare. It can be the consequence of trauma, but in some situations the cyst can be non-traumatic. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman who presented a misdiagnosis of clitoromegaly due to hormonal condition. Surgical exploration has highlighted an epidermoid cyst. This observation underlines the importance to evoke a cystic origin for clitoral hypertrophy and encourages us to propose imaging (ultrasound, MRI) in case of etiological doubt. The preoperative diagnosis must be made to preserve vascularization and innervation of the clitoris.

  13. Unusually Giant Sublingual Epidermoid Cyst: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Nishar, Chintan-C; Ambulgekar, Vijayalaxmi-K.; Gujrathi, Atish-B.; Chavan, Pravin-T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Epidermoid cysts are rare, slow‑growing, benign, developmental cysts, which are derived from abnormally situated ectodermal tissue. Epidermoid cysts of the floor of the mouth represent <0.01% of all oral cysts. So far, only a few cases have been reported. Case Report: Hereby, we present a case of a giant sublingual epidermoid cyst, which was completely asymptomatic upon presentation. However, due to its large size, it pushed the epiglottis posteriorly and created difficulty during intubation. The patient developed respiratory distress after its surgical excision and extubation, requiring tracheostomy post operatively. The patient recovered well and a successful weaning of tracheostomy was performed, giving the patient a healthy life. Conclusion: Epidermoid cyst is a rare differential diagnosis of sublingual swelling that should be kept in mind for large asymptomatic swellings in this region. The only symptom it can cause might be respiratory distress due to its large size. This can happen not only pre-operatively but also post-operatively and the surgeon should be ready for immediate tracheostomy. PMID:27602342

  14. Unusually Giant Sublingual Epidermoid Cyst: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Nishar, Chintan-C; Ambulgekar, Vijayalaxmi-K.; Gujrathi, Atish-B.; Chavan, Pravin-T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Epidermoid cysts are rare, slow‑growing, benign, developmental cysts, which are derived from abnormally situated ectodermal tissue. Epidermoid cysts of the floor of the mouth represent <0.01% of all oral cysts. So far, only a few cases have been reported. Case Report: Hereby, we present a case of a giant sublingual epidermoid cyst, which was completely asymptomatic upon presentation. However, due to its large size, it pushed the epiglottis posteriorly and created difficulty during intubation. The patient developed respiratory distress after its surgical excision and extubation, requiring tracheostomy post operatively. The patient recovered well and a successful weaning of tracheostomy was performed, giving the patient a healthy life. Conclusion: Epidermoid cyst is a rare differential diagnosis of sublingual swelling that should be kept in mind for large asymptomatic swellings in this region. The only symptom it can cause might be respiratory distress due to its large size. This can happen not only pre-operatively but also post-operatively and the surgeon should be ready for immediate tracheostomy.

  15. [Iatrogenic spinal epidermoid tumors. A late complication of spinal puncture].

    PubMed

    Reina, M A; López-García, A; Dittmann, M; de Andrés, J A; Blázquez, M G

    1996-04-01

    INTRODUCTION. Epidermoid tumors in the spinal canal are rare. Whether congenitally or iatrogenically caused, they form as the result of epidermal cells implanted within the spinal channel. Such implantation can occur during a variety of procedures and events such as bullet wounds, surgery, myelography or punctures for diagnosis, anesthesia or treatment. Although this complication is not discussed in books or journals on anesthesiology, we have found it mentioned in over 100 published cases reporting iatrogenically caused spinal epidermoid tumors. ETIOPATHOGENESIS. Iatrogenic epidermoid tumors of the spine derive from the implantation of epidermal tissue transported inside the spinal canal during lumbar punctures without guidance or with inadequate guidance. There is ample evidence that such tumors are iatrogenic. All cases occur in patients with a history of lumbar puncture. They are rarely associated with congenital anomalies. They are extramedullary. They tend to develop near sites of earlier lumbar puncture, usually near the conus medullaris and the cauda equina. Iatrogenic epidermoid tumors of the spine have been reproduced experimentally in two studies in which autologous skin fragments were implanted in the spinal canal. CLINICAL SIGNS. These tumors are well tolerated by patients for extended periods of time, ranging from 2 to 10 years. At the cauda equinus, tumors can grow slowly for long periods without signs of nerve compression. Symptoms are directly related to tumor size and site. All patients with tumors at the cauda equinus report severe pain radiating toward the roots of compressed nerves. Nuclear magnetic resonance makes it possible to detect the tumor without administration of intrathecal contrast. At present gadolinium-DTPA improves the image so that these tumors can be distinguished from other types. The prognosis for epidermoid tumors of the spine is good, as they are histologically benign. Treatment is always surgical. CONCLUSION. Although the

  16. Maxillary sinus carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, F.; Ogura, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Primary site control, anatomical site of failure, survival, and complications of treatment were determined in a retrospective review of primary maxillary sinus carcinoma. Sixty-one patients were treated by radiation followed by surgery and 35 by radiation alone. Primary tumor control was achieved in 69% of patients receiving combined treatment, 14% of patients treated with radiation alone, and 49% of all patients. Local control did not differ with histological type. Virtually all epidermoid and undifferentiated carcinoma recurrences occurred within 2 years, but 27% of adenocarcinomas recurred after 2 years.

  17. Testicular epidermoid cysts: sonographic features with histopathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Dogra, V S; Gottlieb, R H; Rubens, D J; Oka, M; Di Sant Agnese, A P

    2001-01-01

    Testicular epidermoid cysts are rare, accounting for 1% of all testicular tumors. We present the sonographic appearances of epidermoid cysts in 3 cases, together with the histopathologic correlation. In case 1, sonography showed an intratesticular hypoechoic mass with a well-defined echogenic rim; the mass measured 1.8 x 1.5 x 1.5 cm, and there was no evidence of calcification. In case 2, sonography showed a well-circumscribed mass measuring 1.3 x 1.3 x 1.0 cm, with alternating hypoechoic and hyperechoic rings (onion-ring appearance) and no calcifications. In case 3, sonography showed a 2.4- x 2.3- x 2.3-cm, well-circumscribed, oval mass with a heterogeneous echotexture and an outer hypoechoic halo. The mass contained plaque-like regions of increased echogenicity, with peripheral acoustic shadowing from refraction artifact. Hypoechoic clefts were visualized posterior to the plaque-like areas. The triad of findings-sonographic appearance of an onion ring, avascularity on Doppler sonography, and negative results of tumor marker studies-is highly suggestive of an epidermoid cyst. PMID:11329161

  18. Incidental frontal lobe mixed density epidermoid tumor in a patient of head injury: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pankaj; Mittal, Radheyshyam; Gandhi, Ashok; Sharma, Achal; Gandhi, Sapna

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of the epidermoid tumor is approximately 0.2–1.8% of all intracranial tumors. Epidermoid tumors are typically intradural, but extra-axial in location and only rarely found within the brain substance. We are reporting the first case of incidental mixed density frontal epidermoid tumor in a patient of head injury. Difficulty in the preoperative diagnosis and uncommon presentation of the intracranial epidermoid tumor prompted us to report this case. PMID:26425171

  19. Case study: Epidermoid cyst following percutaneous Topaz coblation for plantar fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Kim; Thomson, Allan George; Moir, John Stuart

    2012-03-01

    An epidermoid cyst is formed when there is proliferation of epidermal cells within an area of the dermis. They may be formed by the traumatic implantation of epidermal cells within the dermis as well as many other mechanisms. We present a case of epidermoid cyst formation following Topaz coblation for plantar fasciitis; a complication we believe is yet to be reported in the literature.

  20. Epidermoid Cyst Arising in the Buccal Mucosa: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel; Chaves, Filipe Nobre; de Almeida, Stephanie; Alves, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes; Patrocínio, Régia Maria do Socorro Vidal; Sousa, Fabrício Bitu; Pereira, Karuza Maria Alves

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are benign subcutaneous lesions, and the large majority of these cysts affect the floor of the mouth; however, the buccal mucosa is not a usual site of occurrence. To date, only 5 articles have been published with 6 cases of epidermoid cysts arising in the buccal mucosa. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical features of a case of epidermoid cyst located in the buccal mucosa. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an oral epidermoid cyst describing an intense foreign body gigantocellular inflammatory reaction against epithelial keratin component. Although the usual diagnosis for epidermoid cysts is based on histopathological findings, this case report addresses novel information regarding to the immunohistochemical pattern that may be found in these lesions.

  1. Expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva; Almeida, Maria Carolina Leal; Costa, Alessandra Scorse; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Serrano, Rodrigo Lorenzetti; Machado Filho, Carlos D'Apparecida Santos

    2016-01-01

    Background Heparanase is an enzyme that cleaves heparan sulfate chains. Oligosaccharides generated by heparanase induce tumor progression. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma comprise types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Objectives Evaluate the glycosaminoglycans profile and expression of heparanase in two human cell lines established in culture, immortalized skin keratinocyte (HaCaT) and squamous cell carcinoma (A431) and also investigate the expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and eyelid skin of individuals not affected by the disease (control). Methods Glycosaminoglycans were quantified by electrophoresis and indirect ELISA method. The heparanase expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRTPCR). Results The A431 strain showed significant increase in the sulfated glycosaminoglycans, increased heparanase expression and decreased hyaluronic acid, comparing to the HaCaT lineage. The mRNA expression of heparanase was significantly higher in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma compared with control skin samples. It was also observed increased heparanase expression in squamous cell carcinoma compared to the Basal cell carcinoma. Conclusion The glycosaminoglycans profile, as well as heparanase expression are different between HaCaT and A431 cell lines. The increased expression of heparanase in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma suggests that this enzyme could be a marker for the diagnosis of such types of non-melanoma cancers, and may be useful as a target molecule for future alternative treatment.

  2. [Epidermoid neoplasm of the fourth ventricle. Report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Santos-Franco, Jorge Arturo; Vallejo-Moncada, Cristóbal; Collado-Arce, Griselda; Villalpando-Navarrete, Edgar; Sandoval-Balanzario, M

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: los tumores epidermoides representan 1 % de las neoplasias intracraneales; el ángulo pontocerebeloso es la localización más frecuente y en el cuarto ventrículo son raros. Casos clínicos: caso 1: mujer de 22 años de edad con cefalea intensa de tres meses de evolución. Al ingreso se identificó hipertensión endocraneana. La tomografía mostró hidrocefalia con aumento del volumen del cuarto ventrículo. La paciente fue tratada con derivación ventrículo-peritoneal; posteriormente se extirpó tumoración encapsulada de aspecto perlado. El estudio histológico indicó tumor epidermoide en el cuarto ventrículo. Caso 2: mujer de 44 años de edad con vértigo ocasional de cinco años de evolución, así como con diploplía y disfagia intermitentes de tres años de evolución. Al ingresó se identificó paresia bilateral de los nervios craneales VI y VII. La tomografía computarizada y la resonancia magnética mostraron lesión en el cuatro ventrículo. El manejo fue quirúrgico. Conclusiones: la resonancia magnética es el estudio diagnóstico específico para el diagnóstico del tumor epidermoide del cuarto ventrículo que, sin embargo, puede confundirse con neurocisticercosis. Están indicados la exéresis del quiste y el tratamiento de la hidrocefalia.

  3. Cytodiagnosis of Epidermoid Cyst of the Upper Lip: A Common Lesion in an Uncommon Site

    PubMed Central

    Phukan, Jyoti Prakash; Sinha, Anuradha; Pal, Subrata; Jalan, Shilpa

    2014-01-01

    Epidermoid cyst and dermoid cysts are developmental pathologies thought to derive from aberrant ectodermal tissue. They are uncommon in the head and neck region. Rarely, they can be found in the oral cavity and buccal mucosa. However, epidermoid cyst is extremely uncommon in the upper lip and is rarely reported. In this study, we report an uncommon case of epidermoid cyst occurring in the upper lip diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). We present this case because of its extremely rare site of presentation and also to highlight the role of FNAC to in the pre-operative diagnosis of this benign lesion. PMID:24696565

  4. Molluscum Contagiosum Involving an Epidermoid Cyst - A Rare Association and Potential Source of Clinical Misdiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Prithwijit; Saha, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a viral infection of skin and mucous membrane commonly affecting the adolescents and young adults. Extensive lesions are usually common in immunocompromised patients. We herein report a rare case of molluscum contagiosum in an epidermoid cyst (EC) in a 24-year-old immunocompetent male. The provisional clinical diagnosis was inflammed epidermoid cyst or lipoma. On histopathological examination, the lesion displayed a unilocular epidermoid cyst in deep dermis, the lining of which was infected by molluscum contagiosum virus with characteristic inclusions. The overlying epidermis was absolutely normal having no attachment with the cyst. PMID:26905556

  5. Retrorectal epidermoid cyst with unusually elevated serum SCC level, initially diagnosed as an ovarian tumor.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masaru; Tomita, Shigeki; Fujimori, Takahiro; Nagata, Hitoshi; Kubota, Keiichi; Shoda, Akiko; Tada, Kazumi; Kosaka, Nobuaki; Fukasawa, Ichio; Inaba, Noriyuki

    2009-01-01

    Retrorectal epidermoid cyst is one of the developmental cysts which arise from remnants of embryonic tissues. We report a rare case of retrorectal epidermoid cyst, initially diagnosed as an ovarian tumor. Serum SCC value as tumor marker was elevated to the high level. Laparoscopy revealed ovaries, uterus and other pelvic organs were all normal. This tumor existed in the retroperitoneal cavity and compressed the rectum. Later, complete tumor resection was performed by laparotomy. Histological study revealed the epithelium of this tumor consisted of only squamous cells without atypia, and the diagnosis of this tumor was retrorectal epidermoid cyst. Retrorectal epidermoid cyst is very rare, and difficult to diagnose before surgery. However, if we have-knowledge of developmental cysts, and by careful digital examination and image diagnosis, a differential diagnosis can be made.

  6. Surgery and outcomes of six patients with intradural epidermoid cysts in the lumbar spine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Study design This was a retrospective study. Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics and discuss the treatment options for epidermoid cysts in the lumbar spine. Summary of background data Epidermoid cysts are rare benign neoplasms, which account for less than 1% of all intraspinal tumors. Due to their rarity, there are only a few case reports in the literature. Complete excision is the recommended treatment for an epidermoid cyst, but this is difficult to achieve in the spine. In spite of their benign nature, local recurrence is not uncommon for spinal epidermoid cysts after incomplete excision. Methods Six patients with an epidermoid cyst in the lumbar spine underwent surgical treatment in our center between 2004 and 2011. A total excision using microsurgical techniques and reconstruction was successfully undertaken in all patients. Clinical data and detailed pathologic results were retrospectively analyzed. All cases were followed up for a median time of more than 4 years. The clinical data and surgical efficacy were analyzed to suggest treatment options for epidermoid cysts in the lumbar spine on the basis of a literature review and our own experience. Results The mean age of the patients in this study was 37.7 years and the mean duration of pre-operative symptoms was 29.7 months (2 to 120 months). All patients were disease-free during their follow-up period. Radicular pain nearly disappeared, and patients suffering from neurologic deficits and defecation disorders recovered well. Conclusions Although an epidermoid cyst is a benign tumor, it is apt to recur locally following inadequate removal. Therefore, complete excision with preservation of neural function is an ideal protocol for intraspinal epidermoid cysts. Microsurgical techniques are very useful. PMID:24589060

  7. Operative treatment of intracranial epidermoid cysts and cholesterol granulomas: report of 21 cases.

    PubMed

    Altschuler, E M; Jungreis, C A; Sekhar, L N; Jannetta, P J; Sheptak, P E

    1990-04-01

    Thirteen patients had operations to remove intracranial epidermoid cysts, and long-term follow-up was obtained. Total or nearly total tumor and capsule removal was accomplished in 7 patients during the initial operation. This group required no additional operations. The other 6 underwent subtotal tumor removal and required multiple operations for symptomatic tumor recurrence. This latter group had a poorer neurological outcome. We conclude that initial total or near-total tumor resection is highly desirable in treating intracranial epidermoid cysts, particularly in physiologically young individuals. Five patients were followed after operations to remove pure cholesterol granulomas of the petroclival bone, and 3 additional patients were followed after operations to remove tumors with combined histopathological features of both an epidermoid cyst and cholesterol granuloma. Four patients with some component of a cholesterol granuloma had concurrent middle ear infections, and 4 did not. Intracranial subtotal excision and drainage of these lesions was the initial operative management in 7 patients, 5 of whom have required multiple operations for symptomatic tumor recurrence. Therefore, we conclude that subtotal excisional procedures for tumors with histopathological features of cholesterol granulomas are not usually successful in establishing long-term cures. Total excision, as recommended for epidermoid cysts, tumors frequently confused with cholesterol granulomas when occupying the petroclival region, may be warranted for these tumors as well. We postulate that when a congenital epidermoid cyst occurs in the petroclival bone, it may incite a local inflammatory reaction, producing lesions which have the histological features of both epidermoid cysts and cholesterol granulomas.

  8. Vulvar Epidermoid Cyst and Type 2 Radical Genital Mutilation

    PubMed Central

    Birge, Ozer; Ozbey, Ertugrul Gazi; Arslan, Deniz; Erkan, Mustafa Melih; Demir, Feyza; Akgor, Utku

    2015-01-01

    About 100 million women are estimated to be circumcised globally. Various rates of complications have been encountered, especially after circumcision, such as bleeding, infection, shock, menstrual irregularity, difficulty in urination or common urinary tract infections, inguinal pain, difficulty in sexual intercourse, and genital circumcision scar especially at the vulvar region, and cystic or solid character mass in short and long term. Furthermore, the maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality increase due to bleeding and fistula, which develop after prolonged labor, travail, and difficult labors. Our aim in this paper was to discuss a 42-year-old multiparous female case who had undergone type 2 radical genital mutilation (circumcision) when she was 7 years of age, along with the literature, which has been evaluated for the gradually growing mass at the left inguinal canal region in the last 10 years and diagnosed as epidermoid inclusion cyst developing secondary to postcircumcision surgical ground trauma, since there was no other case found in the literature search that had been circumcised at such an early age and developing after circumcision at such advanced age, and, therefore, this is suggested to be the first case on this subject. PMID:26682078

  9. Synchronous epidermoid cyst and mature teratoma of the testis: an unusual association.

    PubMed

    Huyghe, Eric; Mazerolles, Catherine; Moran, Cesar; Khedis, Mehdi; Khoury, Elias; Nohra, Joe; Soulié, Michel; Plante, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    We describe here the first case of a synchronous epidermoid cyst and mature teratoma of the testis occurring in a young man presenting a with bilateral testicular tumor. After a clinical, biological and ultrasound evaluation, testis-sparing surgery was performed on the left testis and a total orchiectomy on the right side in accordance with oncological principles. Histopathological examination revealed a simple epidermoid cyst on the left side and a mature teratoma on the right side, following Price's criteria. No metastasis was detected, and the patient was closely followed. The patient remains disease-free and has normal postoperative testosterone levels 3 years after the surgery.

  10. [Undifferentiated carcinoma with lymphoid stroma (undifferentiated carcinoma nasopharyngeal type?). Optical, electron microscopical and immunofluorescence study (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Wassef, M; Le Charpentier, Y; Monteil, J P; Le Tien, K; Galian, A

    1982-01-01

    A case of undifferentiated carcinoma with lymphoid stroma of the paired gland is reported in a chinese woman with positive Epstein-Barr virus serology. The histologic appearance of the tumor is very similar to undifferentiated carcinomas nasopharyngeal type (UCNT). Ultrastructural study reveals features of epidermoid differentiation. Immunofluorescence study shows numerous and predominant IgA plasma cells in the stroma. The relationship between this tumor and the benign lymphoepithelial lesions of the salivary glands are discussed. The present case and the review of the literature emphasize the morphological and epidemiological similarities between UCNT and undifferentiated carcinoma with lymphoid stroma of the salivary glands.

  11. A Rare Cause of Headache in the Emergency Department: Intraventricular Epidermoid Cyst Rupture With Hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Yigit, Mehmet; Seyithanoglu, Mehmet Hakan; Dundar, Tolga Turan; Sogut, Ozgur; Yigit, Eda

    2016-01-01

    Lateral intraventricular tumors are not frequently observed. Since these tumors grow linearly rather than exponentially, they grow gradually and thus do not cause mass effects and hydrocephalus. This study is the case report of a rare great volume left intraventricular epidermoid cyst rupture. The tumor was found to be associated with mass effect on neighboring structures and hydrocephalus. PMID:27298668

  12. Epidermoid cyst of the coronal sulcus mimicking penile cancer: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Epidermoid cysts represent common benign tumors occurring anywhere in the body but very rarely in the penis. Only a few cases of penile localization have been reported in the literature so far, most of them being congenital and/or idiopathic, usually presenting in children as slow-growing, solitary, well-delimited cystic lesions. Here, we describe the case of a patient with a penile epidermoid cyst presenting as an ulcerated lesion of the coronal sulcus, thus mimicking penile cancer. Case presentation A 36-year-old Caucasian man presented with a three-month history of a rapidly growing asymptomatic ulcerated lesion in the ventral portion of the penile coronal sulcus. At surgical exploration, the area under the ulcerated lesion had a well-demarcated cystic shape; following its wide excision, an intraoperative histological examination revealed an epidermoid cyst. No recurrence had occurred at nine years of follow-up. Conclusions Rare benign tumors of the penis, like the described epidermoid cyst, may mimic cancer. Nevertheless, penile ulcerated lesions should always be surgically explored as wide excision and intraoperative histological examination remain the only means of obtaining a precise disease definition and, consequently, administering the appropriate treatment. PMID:24906506

  13. Concurrent extravasation mucocele and epidermoid cyst of the lower lip: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Chen; Lin, Li-Min; Shen, Yee-Hsiung; Lin, Yu-Ju; Chen, Yuk-Kwan

    2005-10-01

    An uncommon case of concurrent extravasation mucocele and epidermoid cyst in the lower lip of a 13-year-old boy is described. To our knowledge, there is no other report of such a concurrence, neither at the same site nor at different locations, involving these two lesions in the oral mucosa. PMID:16302452

  14. Cytotoxic Impacts of Linear and Branched Polyethylenimine Nanostructures in A431 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kafil, Vala; Omidi, Yadollah

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Polyethylenimine (PEI), as a nonviral cationic polymer, has been widely used as gene delivery nanosystem. Although a number of investigations have highlighted its toxic impacts on target cells through induction of apoptosis/necrosis, still it is essential to look at its structural impacts on target cells. Methods In this current study, cytogenomic impacts of 25 kD linear and branched PEI (LPEI and BPEI, respectively) in A431 cells are reported to address possible mechanism for induction of apoptosis. At 40-50% confluency, A431 cells were exposed to PEI at a recommended concentration for 4 hr. After 24 hr, to detect apoptosis and DNA damage, the treated cells were subjected to MTT assay, FITC-labeled annexin V flow cytometry and comet assay. Results Flow cytometry assessments revealed that the BPEI can result in greater internalization than the linear PEI, which also induced greater cytotoxicity. Annexin V assay confirmed early and late apoptosis by BPEI, imposing somewhat DNA damage detected by comet assay. Western blot analysis resulted in induction of Akt-kinase which is possibly one of biomolecules affected by PEI. Conclusion These results highlight that, despite induction of Akt-kinase, the BPEI can elicit apoptosis in target cells. PMID:23678404

  15. [Moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma associated pilonidal cyst].

    PubMed

    Cruz-Mendoza, Irma; Hernández-Jesús, Bernal; López-Pérez, Eva; Flores-Cobos, Ada Elisa; García-Rodríguez, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la degeneración maligna es una complicación rara, observada principalmente en enfermedad pilonidal crónica recurrente y se asocia con muy mal pronóstico. En la bibliografía mundial se encuentra como una entidad poco frecuente. En España se revisaron 367 pacientes afectados de quiste pilonidal, simple o complicado. Entre ellos se encontraron tres casos (0.81%) de carcinoma epidermoide con quiste pilonidal. Caso clínico: paciente masculino de 60 años de edad, con cuadro clínico de 50 años de evolución de un tumor sacro. Luego de la exéresis el reporte histopatológico fue de quiste pilonidal; la evolución fue tórpida en la cicatrización, con bordes necróticos que se resecaron y el reporte fue: carcinoma epidermoide. Conclusión: el carcinoma epidermoide de sinus pilonidal es una enfermedad infrecuente asociada con muy mal pronóstico.

  16. Petrous bone epidermoid cyst caused by penetrating injury to the external ear: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Kalfas, Fotios; Ramanathan, Dinesh; Mai, Jeffrey; Schwartz, Seth; Sekhar, Laligam N.

    2012-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are histologically benign, slow-growing congenital neoplasms of the central nervous system that may arise from retained ectodermal implants. The epidermoid lesions are generally caused during the 3rd to 5th week of gestation by an incomplete cleavage of the neural tissue from the cutaneous ectoderm, though it can also happen later in life due to introduction of skin elements by skin puncture, trauma or surgery. We present this unique case of a petromastoid epidermoid cyst associated with ipsilateral cerebellar abscesses, presenting 20 years after a penetrating trauma to the external auditory canal. Radical excision of both lesions and revision of the previous fistulous tract was performed. We present the diagnostic challenge and the operative treatment of this unique case, which to our knowledge is the first where an epidermoid cyst and an adjacent brain abscess occurred as a result of a single traumatic event. PMID:22870161

  17. [Bronchial mucoepidermoid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Bregante, J I; Rituerto, B; Font de Mora, F; Alonso, F; Andreu, M J; Figuerola, J; Mulet, J F

    1998-07-01

    We submit the case of a child afflicted with a mucoepidermoid bronchial tumor. The patient is a boy, aged seven, who after undergoing antibiotic treatment for six weeks because of a fever and atelectasia-condensation in the right lower lobe showed no signs of clinical improvement and was sent to our department to undergo further study and treatment. A bronchoscopy performed shows a polypoid mass that partially blocks the main bronchial tube a few milimiters under the access to the right upper lobe. A biopsy is carried out and the anatomopathological test shows there is a low degree epidermoid carcinoma. We decide to perform a lobectomy which for the tumor location and the lung condition has to be medium and lower right. We proceed to remove the adenopaty of hilium not affected by the tumor. The postoperative period develops without incidents. A check-up bronchoscopy performed three months later shows two polypoid masses in the right bronchial tube which, once a biopsy is performed, proved to be granulation tissue. Twelve months after undergoing surgery, the patient's condition is good, there is no evidence of tumor relapse and the breathing capacity is adequate, though there is an obstructive restrictive pattern in the espirometry. Even taking into consideration that lung tumors are extremely unusual, the epidermoid carcinoma is the one which most frequently occurs. The tumor's low malignancy is a sign that points to a good prognosis. Performing conservative surgery by means of bronchoplasty should be taken into account so as to keep the sequelae on the lung condition to a minimum, even though in this case the tumor location made it impossible. PMID:12602035

  18. Epidermoid cyst in the floor of the mouth of a 3-year-old.

    PubMed

    Pascual Dabán, Rossana; García Díez, Eloy; González Navarro, Beatriz; López-López, José

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are a rare entity in the oral cavity and are even less frequent in the floor of the mouth, representing less than 0.01% of all the cases. We present the case of a 3-year-old girl with a growth in the floor of the mouth with 2 months of evolution and without changes since it was discovered by her parents. The lesion was asymptomatic; it did not cause dysphagia, dyspnea, or any other alteration. A CT scan with contrast was done which revealed the location and exact size of the lesion, allowing an intraoral approach for its excision. The histological examination confirmed the clinical speculation of an epidermoid cyst. PMID:25694831

  19. [Laparoscopic resection of retroperitoneal epidermoid cyst on the right adrenal gland: a case report].

    PubMed

    Shoji, Sunao; Uchida, Toyoaki; Nakano, Mayura; Nagata, Yoshihiro; Usui, Yukio; Terachi, Toshiro

    2010-06-01

    A woman in her sixties was found to have pain in her upper back. An adrenal tumor was found by abdominal sonography and she was referred to our hospital. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed right adrenal cystic tumor. We diagnosed the tumor as right adrenal cystic tumor, and performed surgical excision by laparoscopic surgery. The resected tissue was a gray surface cystic mass, weighing 20 g. Histopathological examination of excised tumors revealed an epidermoid cyst.

  20. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Palatine Tonsil

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Lucas Novaes; Montalli, Victor Angelo Martins; Teixeira, Luiz Carlos Santana; Passador-Santos, Fabrício; Soares, Andresa Borges; de Araújo, Vera Cavalcanti

    2015-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common primary salivary gland malignancy in both adults and children. It has a slight female predilection and usually presents as a painless, rubber-like or soft mass, which may be fixed or mobile. Histologically, MEC is comprised of a mixture of cell types including mucous, epidermoid, and intermediate cells that can be arranged in solid nests or cystic structures. In the oral cavity, it most frequently occurs at the palate or buccal mucosa. The present paper aimed to describe an unusual case of MEC arising in the palatine tonsil. PMID:26550506

  1. Chlorogenic Acid Interaction with Cisplatin and Oxaliplatin: Studies in Cervical Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Catanzaro, Daniela; Filippini, Raffaella; Vianello, Caterina; Carrara, Maria; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Montopoli, Monica

    2016-04-01

    The antiproliferative effect of the naturally occurring polyphenol chlorogenic acid (CGA) was evaluated in combination with either cisplatin or oxaliplatin in human cervical carcinoma cell lines that were either sensitive (A431) or resistant to cisplatin (A431Pt), in order to provide evidence to overcome drug resistance. Cytotoxicity of platinating drugs (IC50 - 10(-6) - 10(-5) M) was enhanced by 1-2 orders of magnitude by increasing incubation times (1, 4, and 24 hours) in the two cell lines. CGA treatment presented low cytotoxicity per se (IC50 ~ 10(-4) M at 24 h) if compared with platinum drugs and its activity was similar in A431Pt cells and in their sensitive A431 counterpart. The combination of the platinating drugs with CGA (10(-6) - 10(-4) M) indicated variable effects on cytotoxicity, ranging from potentiation to various degrees of antagonism (in A431 cells) and no effect (in A431Pt cells). In order to explain the different cytotoxic activity elicited by oxaliplatin and cisplatin in association with CGA, the possible presence of chemical interactions was investigated by HPLC analysis. The drug association with CGA caused evident changes in their chromatographic profile, suggesting occurrence of in vitro chemical interactions.

  2. Histogenesis and morphogenesis of epidermoid metaplasia in hamster tracheal organ explant culture.

    PubMed

    Sigler, R E; Newkirk, C; McDowell, E M

    1988-01-01

    The formation of epidermoid metaplasia was studied in hamster tracheal epithelium in long-term serum-free organ explant culture. Explants were cultured up to 5 weeks in CMRL 1066 with antibiotics and amphotericin B. At 3 weeks there were rare small foci of epidermoid metaplasia and they became larger and more numerous at 4 and 5 weeks. Three dimensional reconstructions from serial sections demonstrated that the small deep-seated foci were discrete and did not reach the epithelial surface, whereas the larger foci were expansive and involved the full thickness of the explant epithelium. Each small focus consisted of a few swollen electron-lucent basal cells attached to the basal lamina, covered by a layer of flattened electron-dense secretory cells which formed a tight-fitting cap over the basal cells. The altered secretory cells displayed moderately well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum and tonofilament bundles. During the early stages of formation the deep-seated metaplastic foci were completely covered by a layer of normal appearing cuboidal to low-columnar secretory and ciliated cells. Expansion of the metaplastic foci occurred by addition of flattened, electron-dense secretory cells to the cap so that multiple layers of altered secretory cells covered a core of basal cells, analogous to the structure of an onion. The secretory cells became cornified and with time the foci broke through the columnar mucociliary surface layer. In well-advanced foci, the uppermost cornified squames (metaplastic secretory cells) exfoliated into the tracheal lumen. The study emphasizes similarities and differences between the morphogenesis and histogenesis of epidermoid metaplasia in vivo and in vitro.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2898833

  3. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging features of a rare case of a primary epidermoid tumor of the jugular foramen

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Parag Suresh; Mahajan, Anuradha Parag; Al Moosawi, Nawal M.

    2015-01-01

    We present computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of a very rare case of a primary epidermoid tumor of the jugular foramen (JF). A 45-year-old male patient presented with gradually progressive vertigo and tinnitus. CT and MRI scans revealed a 3.5 cm right-sided JF tumor with characteristic bright signal (restricted diffusion) on diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI). DWI may be useful in accurately differentiating the lesion from other cystic neoplasms of the JF. We describe the imaging features of intracranial epidermoid and JF tumors and discuss its differential diagnosis. PMID:25810672

  4. An unusual location of retroperitoneal epidermoid cyst in a child: case report and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hyseni, Nexhmi Sh; Llullaku, Sadik S; Koçinaj, Defrim H; Jashari, Hysni J; Kelmendi, Baton Z

    2009-01-01

    We report the case of a 4-year-old girl presenting with the retroperitoneal epidermoid cyst. The lesion presented as an intra-abdominal cyst on physical examination and was followed up with more specific investigations by ultrasound and computed tomographic scanning. The final diagnosis was obtained only after laparotomy where the cystic mass was completely excised and pathological examination was done. The patient is well at 3-year follow-up. epidermoid cyst of the reteroperitoneal space, although rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of incidentally discovered intra-abdominal cysts during investigation of irrelevant illnesses or during routine abdominal ultrasound scan.

  5. Intradiploic epidermoid cyst with intracranial hypertension syndrome: Report of two cases and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Moreira-Holguin, J.C.; Medélez-Borbonio, R.; Quintero-Lopez, E.; García-González, U.; Gómez-Amador, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intradiploic epidermoid intracranial cysts (IEIC) derive from ectodermal cells and are covered with stratified squamous epithelium. They are extremely rare, and most common locations are in the occipital, frontal and parietal bones. They have a very slow growth and can be asymptomatic until becoming evident by the deformation produced. The treatment is based on the removal of the lesion, and subsequent histopathological confirmation. Presentation of case Two cases are reported, with intracranial hypertension syndrome, which is very uncommon because of the slow growth of this type of pathology; however, decompensations occurring in the space-occupying lesions at intracranial level explain this type of clinical presentation. Discussion The most common presentation of intracranial intradiploic epidermoid cysts (IEIC) is asymptomatically, which is made evident by the prominence at the level of the soft tissues and then presenting less frequently local pain and cephalea; rarely the size of the lesion can cause focal neurological signs. Conclusion These benign lesions, although they are of low incidence, are seen very rarely in intradiploic locations and above all, of significant size, may produce significant mass effect in patients, which was initially tolerated because of its slow growth, however, they may become decompensate and cause intracranial hypertension syndrome. PMID:26433925

  6. Unusual coexistence of an epidermoid cyst with an atypical meningioma: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Karekezi, Claire; El Fatemi, Nizare; Egu, Komi; Ibrahimi, Mohamed; El Maaqili, Moulay Rachid; El Abbadi, Najia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Coexistence of multiple primary intracranial tumors of different cell types has rarely been documented; the association of a meningioma and a glioma has been reported as the most common combination. Hereby, we report an unusual case of a temporal epidermoid cyst coexisting with an atypical meningioma. Case Presentation: A 37-year-old male presented with progressive symptoms of raised intracranial progression with progressive loss of vision without any neurological deficit. On admission, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a right frontal lesion appearing hypointense T1, hyperintense T2 slightly enhanced after gadolinium and a second right temporal, isointense T1, hyperintense T2 non-enhancing lesion. A right frontotemporal craniotomy was performed that revealed two distinct lesions: The whitish temporal lesion with the pearl appearance reminding of an epidermoid cyst, the second lesion was extraaxial fibrous lesion arising from the falx. Pathology confirmed an atypical meningioma WHO Grade II and an epidermoid cyst. Conclusion: The simultaneous occurrence of primary intracranial tumors of different cell types is rare. Epidermoid cysts are slow growing lesions believed to arise from inclusion of ectodermal elements during neural tube closure, while meningiomas arise from arachnoidal cells; their association has rarely been reported previously. PMID:27069741

  7. Distributive shock, cardiac arrhythmias and multiple organ failure following surgery of a fourth ventricular epidermoid.

    PubMed

    Bercker, Sven; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Laudi, Sven; Renner, Christof

    2016-03-31

    A 33-years-old male patient presented with cardiac arrhythmias, acute shock and multiple organ dysfunction after the surgical removal of a massive epidermoid posterior to the brainstem. The patient initially presented with paraesthesia along the right C6 dermatome due to a big tumour at the brain stem. Surgical removal was performed without adverse events and he was transferred to our intensive care unit (ICU) immediately after the operation. Though initially showing a stable postsurgical course he developed cardiac arrhythmias and a state of acute distributive shock with consecutive multi organ failure. Extensive diagnostic measures could not identify a specific cause for this rapid deterioration. However, under carefully monitored symptomatic therapy the patient improved quickly, was extubated 72 h after admission and discharged from the ICU 6 days later. The follow-up did not show any persisting neurological deficits and no evidence of a residual tumour in the MRI-study.

  8. [Verrucous carcinoma of the larynx. An analysis of 20 years of experience].

    PubMed

    López Amado, M; Lozano Ramírez, A; Labella Caballero, T

    1997-01-01

    Retrospective study about 10 verrucous carcinomas of the larynx surgically treated in a 20-year-term. This variety accounted por the 1.9 percent of the cancers seen in that period of time. Tabagism and alcoholism predominated in 8 and 6 patients respectively. Glottis was the localization and dysphony the paramount symptom. In the paper are emphasized the most important histologic features. Koilocytosis was present in 6 cases. Four patients developed a second tumor of epidermoid carcinoma type. No one exitus due to the verrucous growth. Only in 3 the death was attributed to the second malignancy. PMID:9199100

  9. Epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen: three case reports and review of the literatures.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Kyuichi; Kushida, Yoshio; Miyai, Yumi; Katsuki, Naomi; Hayashi, Toshitetsu; Bando, Kenji; Shibuya, Shinsuke; Haba, Reiji

    2010-09-01

    The development of an epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen is an extremely rare lesion, with only 17 cases being reported in the English literature. All such cases were located in the pancreatic tail, some of which showed carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) immunoreactivity in the lining of the epithelium. A few of them indicated an elevation of the serum CA19-9 level. Here we report three cases of an epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen. Cases 1 and 2 were 57-year-old and 70-year-old women, while case 3 was a 37-year-old man. All three cases were asymptomatic. Serum CA19-9 levels showed within normal limits (case 1), slightly elevated (case 2), and clearly elevated (case 3). They underwent a distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy (cases 1 and 2) and without splenectomy (case 3). Grossly, the surgical specimen was a well-demarcated, multiple (case 1) or solitary (cases 2 and 3) cystic mass in the pancreatic tail. A high level of fluid CA 19-9 was detected in case 1. Microscopically, the cystic walls were lined with squamous and cuboidal epithelium, which were surrounded by normal splenic tissue and hyalinized fibrous tissue. The lining squamous epithelium was revealed as nonkeratinizing (Cases 1 and 2) or keratinizing (Case 3). Immunohistochemically, CA19-9 was positive in the monolayer and surface layer of the cuboidal epithelium, but negative for the keratinizing squamous epithelium. As for the histogenesis, it is suggested that the cystic lining of the epithelium may derive from the pancreatic duct which protrudes into the accessory spleen.

  10. Strain elastography features of epidermoid tumours in superficial soft tissue: differences from other benign soft-tissue tumours and malignant tumours

    PubMed Central

    Park, H J; Lee, S M; Kim, W T; Lee, S; Ahn, K S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated ultrasonographic features of superficial epidermoid tumour with a focus on strain elastography (SE) features that will help in the differential diagnosis of epidermoid tumour from other benign and malignant soft-tissue tumours. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated ultrasonographic and SE data of 103 surgically confirmed superficial soft-tissue tumours and tumour-like lesions: 29 cases of epidermoid tumour, 46 cases of other benign tumours and 28 cases of malignant tumour. SE and B-mode imaging were performed at the same time. SE characteristics were assigned into four grades (1–4) according to their elasticity. Interobserver agreement for the four SE scores between the two radiologists was analysed using kappa statistics. We classified each SE finding as a hard lesion (SE Score 3–4) or soft lesion (SE Score 1–2) and compared these findings using the χ2 test to identify whether a significant difference in mass hardness existed among epidermoid tumour, other benign tumour and malignant tumour. Results: Overall interobserver agreement according to the four SE scores was moderate (κ = 0.540), and overall agreement for the hardness [soft (Score 1–2) or hard (Score 3–4)] was almost perfect (κ = 0.825). Malignant tumours showed higher SE scores (3–4, hard nature) than did epidermoid tumour or other benign soft-tissue tumours. There were no differences in SE score between epidermoid tumour and other benign tumours. Conclusion: Superficial epidermoid tumour exhibits a softer nature than does malignant tumour but does not have a different SE pattern from other benign tumours. Advances in knowledge: SE features of epidermoid tumour might be helpful in differentiating from other benign and malignant tumours. PMID:25827206

  11. Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-receptor is phosphorylated at threonine-654 in A431 cells following EGF addition

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteley, B.; Glaser, L.

    1986-05-01

    It has been shown that activation of protein kinase C by tumor-promoting phorbol diesters causes phorphorylation of the EGF-receptor at threonine-654 and is believed to thereby regulate the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase and EGF binding activity. In their present studies, /sup 32/P-labeled A431 cells were treated with and without 10 nM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), or with 200 ng/ml EGF. Analysis of /sup 32/P-labeled EGF receptor tryptic phosphopeptides by reverse-phase HPLC confirmed the known effects of PMA and revealed that EGF caused phosphorylation at threonine-654 as well as various tyrosine residues. This effect occurred as early as 1 minute after EGF addition and was maximal after 5 minutes. The magnitude of the response appears to be 50% of a 15 minute treatment with 10 nM PMA. Direct measurement of diacylglycerol using an E. coli diacylglycerol kinase confirmed that EGF-stimulated phosphoinositide turnover could cause very rapid activation of protein kinase C. These results imply that protein kinase C is playing a role in negative modulation of EGF-receptor activity following EGF addition to A431 cells.

  12. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma in odontogenic keratocyst: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Chitrapriya; Aggarwal, Pooja; Wadhwan, Vijay; Bansal, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising from the wall of an odontogenic cyst (also known as primary intraosseous carcinoma) is a rare tumor which occurs only in jaw bones. This tumor was first described by Loos in 1913 as a central epidermoid carcinoma of the jaw. Primary intraosseous carcinomas (PIOC) may theoretically arise from the lining of an odontogenic cyst or de novo from presumed odontogenic cell rests. According to the new histological classification of tumors of the World Health Organization, odontogenic keratocyst is nowadays considered a specific odontogenic tumor and the PIOC derived from it is considered as a specific entity which is different from other PIOCs derived from the odontogenic cysts. The following report describes a case of such extremely rare entity that is primary intraosseous SCC of the mandible derived from an OKC in a 60-year-old male patient with brief review of literature. PMID:26980976

  13. Essential oil from Cryptomeria japonica induces apoptosis in human oral epidermoid carcinoma cells via mitochondrial stress and activation of caspases.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jeong-Dan; Kim, Ji-Young

    2012-03-30

    Cryptomeria japonica D. Don (C. japonica) has been used in traditional medicines from Asia for a variety of indications, including liver ailments, and an antitussive, and for its antiulcer activities. We examined the cell viability and apoptosis of KB cells treated with C. japonica essential oil at several concentrations for 12 h by MTT assay, Hoechst-33258 dye staining, DNA fragmentation, flow cytometry (cell cycle), and Western blotting for mitochondria stress, activation of caspases, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. The essential oil induced the apoptosis of KB cells in a dose-dependent manner, which was verified by DNA fragmentation, appearance of apoptotic bodies, and the sub-G1 ratio. The essential oil also induced rapid and transient caspase-3 activity and cleavage of PARP of the KB cells. Treating the cells with the oil also caused changes in the mitochondrial level of the Bcl-2 family proteins such as Bcl-2 and Bax, thereby inducing the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. The essential oil of C. japonica may have potential as a cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic agent.

  14. [Differential diagnosis of squamous epithelial carcinoma of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Seifert, G; Donath, K

    1998-05-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the salivary glands are localized predominantly in the major salivary glands and must be distinguished from metastases of extraglandular SCC of the skin, especially the head and neck area. Squamous cell metaplasia in non-tumourous diseases of the salivary gland (e.g. necrotizing sialometaplasia) as well as in benign or malignant salivary gland tumours (e.g. metaplastic Warthin tumour) can simulate SCC. Other differential diagnostic problems are the structural variants of SCC which develop predominantly in the minor salivary glands, but not in the major salivary glands. Special types include the very rare adenoid SCC with pseudoglandular structures as the result of acantholysis, the biphasic adenosquamous carcinoma with differentiation as SCC and adenocarcinoma, the biphasic basaloid squamous carcinoma with a structure as SCC and solid basaloid carcinoma (analogous to the solid type of adenoid-cystic carcinoma) and the poorly differentiated mucoepidermoid carcinoma (grade III) with biphasic structure of undifferentiated epidermoid and intermediate cells as well as inclusion of small groups of mucous-producing goblet cells. The differential diagnostic criteria are analysed concerning prognosis and treatment.

  15. Epidermoid cyst at a rare location, as a content of inguinal hernia: A case report with a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Meher, Sadananda; Baijal, Manish; Soni, Vandana; Sharma, Anil; Khullar, Rajesh; Chowbey, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts can occur in a variety of locations including the face, trunk, neck, extremities, and scalp. No case of epidermoid cyst as content of inguinal hernia has been reported so far; however, cases with dermoid, teratoma, lipoma, lymphangioma and leiomyoma as content of inguinal canal have been reported. A 29-year-old female presented with a lump in the left inguinal region that was clinically diagnosed as left inguinal hernia. The patient was planned for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair after routine investigation. Intraoperatively, a cystic mass was found to be attached to the left round ligament that was excised completely. Histopathological report was consistent with epidermal inclusion cyst. Inguinal epidermoid cyst mimicking inguinal hernia is a rare entity. If such a cyst is encountered during operation, it should be completely excised. PMID:27279405

  16. Resection of large epidermoid tumors ventral to the brainstem: techniques to expand the operative corridor across the basilar artery.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2014-01-01

    Epidermoid tumors comprise about 1% of all intracranial tumors. They are congenital lesions that arise from paramedian cisterns within the posterior fossa. These tumors present as heterogeneous hyperintense lesions on FLAIR and homogenous hyperintense lesions on DWI. Surgical resection remains the most accepted form of therapy, but epidermoid tumors may recur. These tumors are well exposed through a traditional retrosigmoid approach. The tumor can be removed relatively easily as it is avascular. However, the propensity of this tumor type to fill the small spaces within basal cisterns and attach to cranial nerves may make its complete resection challenging. Tumors resection has to preserve the surrounding arachnoid membranes encasing the cranial nerves. The author presents the case of a 42-year-old woman with a 1-year history of imbalance and nystagmus. An MRI revealed a large right-sided CP angle epidermoid tumor filling the ventral brainstem cistern and extending to the contralateral side, compressing the brainstem. The accompanying video illustrates resection of this mass through an extended (exposing the sigmoid sinus) retrosigmoid approach. The author removed the tumor piecemeal while protecting the cranial nerves. Small pieces of affected arachnoid covering the cranial nerves were not significantly manipulated. To excise the tumor along the contralateral paramedian cistern, the author used the space between the V and VII/VII cranial nerves to expose the space contralateral to the basilar artery and remove additional tumor. This maneuver allowed gross total resection of the tumor without a need to employ a more elaborate skull base approach such as petrosectomy. At 3-month follow-up visit after surgery, the patient's neurological exam returned to normal. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/CzRb-GUvhog . PMID:24380510

  17. [Clinico-morphologic characterization of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Kulikov, L S; Iagubov, A S; Dorofeev, D A; Mashkovtsev, Iu V

    1997-01-01

    64 cases of SGMC were studied. Clinical morphology of epidermoid carcinoma was studied according to the 2nd edition of the International histologic classification of the tumors of this site (WHO, Geneva, 1990). This allows to study not only incidence of this tumor depending on the site, sex and age, but to give new data on its biology. The malignancy of all the three types of this tumor (of low, moderate and high grade) was confirmed by means of histologic, histochemical, electron-microscopic (EM) and EM-histochemical methods. The previous assumption on benign character of the low-grade variant of the tumor was not confirmed.

  18. Lgr5-positive cells are cancer stem cells in skin squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shunli; Gong, Zhenyu; Chen, Mingrui; Liu, Benli; Bian, Donghui; Wu, Kai

    2014-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) in most human tumors are commonly identified and enriched using similar strategies for identifying normal stem cells, including flow cytometry assays for side population, high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, and CD133 positivity. Thus, development of a method for isolating a specific cancer using cancer-specific characteristic appears to be potentially important. Here, we reported extremely high Lgr5 levels in the specimen from skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in patients. Using SCC cell line A431, we detected high Lgr5 and CD133 levels in ALDH-high or side population from these cancer cells. To figure out whether Lgr5 is a marker of CSCs in SCC, we transfected A431 cells with a Lgr5-creERT-2A-DTR/Cag-Loxp-GFP-STOP-Loxp-RFP plasmid and purified transfected cells (tA431) based on GFP by flow cytometry. 4-Hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) was given to label Lgr5-positive cells with RFP, for comparison to GFP-positive Lgr5-negative cells. Lgr5-positive cells grew significantly faster than Lgr5-negative cells, and the fold increase in growth of Lgr5-positive vs Lgr5-negative cells is significantly higher than SP vs non-SP, or ALDH-high vs ALDH-low, or CD133-positive vs CD133-negative cells. Moreover, in Lgr5-negative population, Lgr5-positive re-appeared in culture with time, suggesting that Lgr5-positive cells can be regenerated from Lgr5-negative cells. Furthermore, the growth of tA431 cells significantly decreased upon a single dose of diphtheria toxin (DT)/4-OHT to eliminate Lgr5-positive cell lineage, while multiple doses of DT/4-OHT nearly completely inhibited tA431 cell growth. Taken together, our data provide compelling data to demonstrate that Lgr5-positive cells are CSCs in skin SCC.

  19. Transient visual loss triggered by scuba diving in a patient with a petrous epidermoid and combined thrombotic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Fodor, Mariann; Facskó, Andrea; Berényi, Ervin; Sziklai, István; Berta, András; Pfliegler, György

    2007-01-01

    A 25-year-old woman who developed transient neurological abnormalities after scuba diving is reported. The subsequent day she experienced transient left-side monocular blindness. Arterial ocular occlusion in apparently healthy young women is unusual, and a search for the cause of this devastating vascular event is mandatory. Occlusion of the left branch retinal artery, total occlusion of the left internal carotid artery, and a petrous apex epidermoid were found, together with a shortened prothrombin time (INR: 0.73), a slightly elevated serum cholesterol level (6.1 mmol/l) and combined thrombophilia (elevated FVIIIC plus type 2 sticky platelet syndrome). This case underlines the complex mechanism of thromboembolic diseases, and the importance of the acquired trigger (in the present case scuba diving) in addition to the long-term anatomical and biochemical risk factors.

  20. Giant epidermoid cyst of the spleen with elevated CA 19-9 production managed laparoscopically: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Arichika; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Mizutani, Satoshi; Chihara, Naoto; Matsunobu, Tetsuro; Maejima, Kentaro; Miura, Katsuhiro; Hanawa, Hidetsugu; Nomura, Satoshi; Toyoda, Tetsutaka; Yamagishi, Seiji; Nakata, Ryosuke; Muraki, Akira; Uchida, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    True splenic cysts are uncommon and are associated with elevated serum and intracystic tumor marker CA 19-9 levels. A 33-year-old woman presented to our hospital with a chief complaint of epigastralgia. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed a 10-cm cystic lesion in the spleen. The serum carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 level was 3,347 U/mL (normal, <37 U/mL). Total laparoscopic splenectomy was performed, and the serum level of CA 19-9 had normalized 2 weeks later. Pathological examination showed a benign true epidermal cyst of the spleen with strong immunohistological staining for CA 19-9. Splenic epidermoid cysts most often occur in young women, and laparoscopic surgery to remove cysts of this type is minimally invasive. Thus, laparoscopic surgery should be the method of first choice for most cases of splenic benign true cyst.

  1. A Rare Case of an Epidermoid Cyst in the Parotid Gland - which was Diagnosed by Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Panna N; Prasad H L, Kishan; Kumar Y, Sunil; Sajitha, K; Roy, Pooja Sarda; Raju, Mary; Shetty, Vikram

    2013-03-01

    Cystic lesions are common in the head and neck. The most common are the cutaneous cysts, which are referred to as epidermal cysts. These cysts present as nodular and fluctuant subcutaneous lesions and they are seen most commonly in the acne - prone areas like the head, neck and the back. They arise following a localized inflammation of the hair follicle and occasionally after the implantation of the epithelium, following a trauma or surgery. The presence of benign cystic lesions in the salivary glands is rare.We are presenting a rare case of a 55-year-old male who presented with a soft swelling on the left side of the face. A diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst was given on cytology. A superficial parotidectomy was performed and the histopathology confirmed the above diagnosis.

  2. Long-term evaluation of asymptomatic patients operated on for intracranial epidermoid cysts. Comparison of the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging and computer-assisted cisternography for detection of cholesterin fragments.

    PubMed

    Lunardi, P; Fortuna, A; Cantore, G; Missori, P

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or computer-assisted cisternography (CAc) assessment of latent late recurrences in long-term asymptomatic patients surgically treated for intracranial epidermoid cyst is here presented. MRI was exclusively utilized in one patient; CAc was exclusively employed in three patients with metalic operative clips; both CAc and MRI were employed in another four patients. CAc appears to be more reliable than MRI in detecting cholesterin fragments in asymptomatic patients operated on for intracranial epidermoid cyst.

  3. Oxidative stress in HEp-2 human laryngeal carcinoma cells induced by combination of vitamins B12b and C.

    PubMed

    Akatov, V S; Solov'eva, M E; Leshchenko, V V; Teplova, V V

    2003-09-01

    Incubation of human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma HEp-2 cells with hydroxocobalamin (vitamin B12b) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) for 1 h initiated oxidative stress accompanied by damage to mitochondria and increase in intracellular oxidative activity. Studies of the kinetics of these processes showed that the increase in intracellular H2O2 activity and mitochondrial damage are more likely a result, but not the cause of cell apoptosis during the first hour of their incubation with vitamins B12b and C.

  4. Anal carcinoma and HIV infection: is it time for screening?

    PubMed

    Herranz-Pinto, P; Sendagorta-Cudós, E; Bernardino-de la Serna, J I; Peña-Sánchez de Rivera, J M

    2014-03-01

    A 38-year-old white man had a 10-year history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (A3), with no episodes of opportunistic diseases and in good immunologic recovery (CD4 cell count: 450 and indetectable HIV viral load) while on HAART. He presented with a two-month history of mild anal symptoms, including pruritus and episodic bleeding. He referred past episodes of anal warts, self-treated with several topical compounds, all proven unsuccessful. Perianal examination showed erythema and scratching. A 0.5cm sized tumor, with infiltration at the base was detected on digital exam, located at 15mm from the anal margin. Local biopsy driven by high-resolution anuscopy (AAR) yielded a final diagnosis of infiltrative epidermoid carcinoma. Might that neoplasia have been prevented?

  5. [Prognosis value of the immunohistochemical expresion of the bcl-2 in the larynx epidermoid cancer].

    PubMed

    García Lozano, M C; Orradre Romero, J L; Caro García, M; Sáez del Castillo, A I; Galán Morales, J T; Piris Pinilla, M A

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we carried out an immunohistochemical study of bcl-2 protein expression in a series of 195 patients with laryngeal carcinoma that were diagnosticated, treated and followed at the Department of Otolaryngology at "Virgen de la Salud" Hospital (Toledo, Spain). In the cases with lymphonode metastasis we also analysed bcl-2 protein expression at this level. Furthermore we have studied the value of bcl-2 protein expression as a prognostic factor (tumor recurrence, deads due to cancer and survival) and we analysed the relationship between bcl-2 protein expression and other clinic and pathologic parameters.

  6. The endocytosis of epidermal growth factor in A431 cells: A pH of microenvironment and the dynamics of receptor complex dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Sorkin, A.D.; Teslenko, L.V.; Nikolsky, N.N. )

    1988-03-01

    The endocytosis and intracellular fate of epidermal growth factor (EGF) were studied in A431 cells. After 15-20 min of internalization at 37{degree}C, rhodomaine-labeled ({sup 125}-I) EGF (EGR-Rh) accumulated into large juxtanuclear compartment consisting of closely related vesicles. This structure was shown to be localized in the para-Golgi region. Fluorescein-labeled transferrin (Tr-FITC) was observed in the same region when added to the cell simultaneously with EGF-Rh. Using microscopy spectrofluorometer, the authors determined that the Tr-FITC-containing para-Golgi structures have a pH of 6.1{plus minus}0.3 while lysosomes containing dextran-fluorescein have a pH of 5.0{plus minus}0.2. To study the dynamics of EGF-receptor dissociation during endocytosis a mild detergent treatment of living cells was used for extraction of an intracellular receptor-unbound EGF. These results suggest that EGF remains associated with receptors during endocytosis in A431 cells until it is transferred to lysosomes where the pH of the EGF microenvironment is dropped to 5. A prolonged presence of EGF-receptor complexes in the para-Golgi region might be of importance in mitotic signaling.

  7. Inhibition of Phosphatidylcholine-Specific Phospholipase C Interferes with Proliferation and Survival of Tumor Initiating Cells in Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Renata; Mercurio, Laura; Canevari, Silvana; Podo, Franca; Miotti, Silvia; Iorio, Egidio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The role of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC), the enzyme involved in cell differentiation and proliferation, has not yet been explored in tumor initiating cells (TICs). We investigated PC-PLC expression and effects of PC-PLC inhibition in two adherent (AD) squamous carcinoma cell lines (A431 and CaSki), with different proliferative and stemness potential, and in TIC-enriched floating spheres (SPH) originated from them. Results Compared with immortalized non-tumoral keratinocytes (HaCaT) A431-AD cells showed 2.5-fold higher PC-PLC activity, nuclear localization of a 66-kDa PC-PLC isoform, but a similar distribution of the enzyme on plasma membrane and in cytoplasmic compartments. Compared with A431-AD, A431-SPH cells showed about 2.8-fold lower PC-PLC protein and activity levels, but similar nuclear content. Exposure of adherent cells to the PC-PLC inhibitor D609 (48h) induced a 50% reduction of cell proliferation at doses comprised between 33 and 50 μg/ml, without inducing any relevant cytotoxic effect (cell viability 95±5%). In A431-SPH and CaSki-SPH D609 induced both cytostatic and cytotoxic effects at about 20 to 30-fold lower doses (IC50 ranging between 1.2 and 1.6 μg/ml). Furthermore, D609 treatment of A431-AD and CaSki-AD cells affected the sphere-forming efficiency, which dropped in both cells, and induced down-modulation of stem-related markers mRNA levels (Oct4, Nestin, Nanog and ALDH1 in A431; Nestin and ALDH1 in CaSki cells). Conclusions These data suggest that the inhibition of PC-PLC activity may represent a new therapeutic approach to selectively target the most aggressive and tumor promoting sub-population of floating spheres originated from squamous cancer cells possessing different proliferative and stemness potential. PMID:26402860

  8. Epidermal growth factor prolongs survival time of tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Amagase, H; Tamura, K; Okuhira, M; Kakimoto, M; Amano, H; Hashimoto, K; Fuwa, T; Tsukagoshi, S

    1990-05-01

    We observed that human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) alone prolonged the survival time of mice bearing various murine syngeneic tumors as well as athymic nude mice bearing human xenografts. No changes in the subcutaneous solid tumor mass volume were observed. Prolongation of survival time by hEGF was observed in mice bearing murine epidermoid carcinoma (BSC) and human gastric carcinoma (KATO III), but not in murine epidermoid carcinoma (KLN205) or human epidermoid carcinoma (A431). Human tumor cells such as A431, KATO III, and murine tumor cells, KLN205, BSC had roughly 2 X 10(6), 3 X 10(4), 1.3 X 10(3) and 1 X 10(3) EGF receptors/cell, respectively. Although KLN205 and BSC tumor cells maintained nearly the same number of EGF receptors, the effects of hEGF were very different. Although A431 tumor cells had nearly 100 times more receptors than KATO III cells, the prolongation of survival time of mice bearing A431 by hEGF was no better than that of mice bearing KATO III. Accordingly, it appears that this prolongation of survival time by hEGF is independent of the number of EGF receptors on tumor cells. In addition, hEGF was shown to inhibit experimental pulmonary metastasis of murine BSC tumor, but was ineffective with murine KLN205 tumor. These results suggest that prolongation of survival time by hEGF may result from the inhibition of tumor cell metastasis and EGF may play a role in preventing the metastasis of certain malignant neoplasms unrelated to its effects through the EGF receptor on tumor cells.

  9. DNA transfer and cell killing in epidermoid cells by diagnostic ultrasound activation of contrast agent gas bodies in vitro.

    PubMed

    Miller, Douglas L; Dou, Chunyan; Song, Jianming

    2003-04-01

    DNA transfer by sonoporation and cell killing in monolayer cells were examined by contrast-aided low-power diagnostic ultrasound (US). Culture chambers with epidermoid cell monolayers were scanned at about 1 mm/s with a 1.5-MHz scan head aimed upward at the chamber in a 37 degrees C water bath. For DNA transfer tests, plasmids coding for green fluorescent protein (GFP) were added to the medium, and GFP expression was assessed by flow cytometry after 2 days. In separate tests, cell killing was determined immediately after treatment. GFP-positive cell counts were 0.4% (0.7% SD) for shams and 3.7% (1.2% SD) of cells for exposure at 2.3 MPa with 2% Optison contrast agent. The fraction of dead cells was 3.4% (1.7% SD) in shams and 28.6% (6.3% SD) in exposed chambers. Both effects increased for increasing Optison concentration and increasing peak rarefactional pressure amplitude. Contrast-aided diagnostic US has a potential therapeutic application for gene transfer, but a trade-off appears to exist with cell killing.

  10. Bi-lobed Perirectal Epidermoid Cyst: An Unusual Cause of Hematochezia in a Middle-aged Woman

    PubMed Central

    Atolagbe, AO; Ogunleye, O; Apakama, CT

    2016-01-01

    Perirectal epidermoid cysts are congenital cysts originating from the ectodermal germ cell layer of the hind gut. Their presenting symptoms are most often nonspecific and distinguishing them from other presacral developmental cysts often present a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. We present a 58-year-old woman who presented with chronic dyschezia and hematochezia of a few days duration and no prior colonoscopies. Initial blood work and tumor markers were unremarkable. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a 7.5 cm × 5 cm × 6 cm homogenous bi-lobed cystic mass in the pelvis adherent to the left lateral wall of the rectum and posteriorly to the sacrum with a displacement of the rectum anteriorly and to the right. There was no pelvic sidewall adenopathy or free fluid in the pelvis. Preoperative colonoscopy showed rectal compression with no rectal involvement of the mass. The cyst was successfully resected posteriorly via the trans-sacrococcygeal approach. An intraoperative proctosigmoidoscopy confirmed an intact rectum. The patient remains recurrence-free 1 year postsurgical resection. PMID:27398253

  11. Adrenocortical carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... this tumor. Adrenocortical carcinoma can produce the hormones cortisol, aldosterone, estrogen, or testosterone, as well as other ... Symptoms of increased cortisol or other adrenal gland hormones: ... high on the back just below the neck ( buffalo hump ) Flushed, ...

  12. Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia of thyroid gland in a male patient: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chi-Yun; Chao, Tzu-Chieh; Lin, Jen-Der; Hsueh, Chuen

    2015-01-01

    Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia (SMECE) was first described by Chan et al in 1991. It is characterized by nest or strands of epidermoid tumor cells with squamous differentiation, rare mucous cells, prominent sclerotic stroma, eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, and a background of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in the non-neoplastic thyroid gland. It is important to recognize SMECE of thyroid and differentiate it from squamous cell carcinoma or other neoplasms with squamous differentiation/metaplasia. In published cases, the SMECE of thyroid gland predominantly occurs in women. We report a case of SMECE of thyroid in a 45-year-old male patient. All cases in male patients were Caucasian described in English literature, and our case is the first one in Asian.

  13. Basilar artery dissection: A rare complication of posterior fossa epidermoid cyst resection, and evaluation of the possible effects of cerebrospinal fluid drainage on disease progression.

    PubMed

    Pikis, Stylianos; Cohen, José E; Margolin, Emil

    2016-10-01

    We report a rare case of a 45-year-old female with an unruptured basilar artery dissecting aneurysm presenting with locked-in syndrome due to brainstem ischemia eleven months following resection of a giant cerebellopontine angle epidermoid cyst and three months after insertion of ventriculo peritoneal shunt due to hydrocephalus. The etiology of basilar artery dissection and the effect of hydrocephalus and ventricular cerebrospinal fluid drainage on disease progression in this patient are unclear. Our report suggests a possible effect of hydrocephalus and ventricular cerebrospinal fluid drainage on intracranial arterial dissection progression. PMID:27344090

  14. Results of resection in non-oat cell carcinoma of the lung with mediastinal lymph node metastases.

    PubMed Central

    Martini, N; Flehinger, B J; Zaman, M B; Beattie, E J

    1983-01-01

    From 1974 to 1981, 1598 patients with non-oat cell carcinoma of the lung were seen and treated. All were staged according to the AJC staging system. Of these, 706 patients had evidence of mediastinal lymph node metastases (N2). There were 151 patients (21%) who had complete, potentially curative resection of their primary tumor and all accessible mediastinal lymph nodes. The histologic type of tumor was adenocarcinoma in 94 patients, epidermoid carcinoma in 46 patients, and large-cell carcinoma in 11 patients. The extent of pulmonary resection consisted of a lobectomy in 119 patients, pneumonectomy in 26 patients, and wedge resection or segmentectomy in six patients. Almost all patients also received radiation therapy to the mediastinum. Clinical staging of the primary tumor and the mediastinum was based on the radiographic presentation of the chest and on bronchoscopy. Before treatment, 104 of 151 patients (69%) were believed to have had stage I (90 patients) or II (14 patients) disease, and 47 patients had stage III disease, of whom only 33 had evidence of mediastinal lymph node involvement. Excluding deaths from unrelated causes, the overall survival rate was 74% at 1 year, 43% at 3 years and 29% at 5 years. Survival in patients with clinical stage I or II disease treated by resection was favorable despite the presence of N2 nodes (50% at 3 years). Survival in obvious clinical N2 disease was poor (8% at 3 years). There was no difference in survival between patients with adenocarcinoma and those with epidermoid carcinoma. However, survival was poorer in patients with N2 nodes in the inferior mediastinum compared to those without lymph node involvement at that level. PMID:6615059

  15. [Thymic carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Ströbel, P; Weis, C-A; Marx, A

    2016-09-01

    Thymic carcinomas (TC) are approximately 10 times less prevalent than thymomas but of high clinical relevance because they are more aggressive, less frequently resectable than thymomas and usually refractory to classical and targeted long-term treatment approaches. Furthermore, in children and adolescents TC are more frequent than thymomas and particularly in this age group, germ cell tumors need to be a differential diagnostic consideration. In diagnostic terms pathologists face two challenges: a), the distinction between thymic carcinomas and thymomas with a similar appearance and b), the distinction between TC and histologically similar metastases and tumor extensions from other primary tumors. Overcoming these diagnostic challenges is the focus of the new WHO classification of thymic epithelial tumors. The objectives of this review are to highlight novel aspects of the WHO classification of thymic carcinomas and to address therapeutically relevant diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:27538748

  16. Studies of plasma zinc, copper, caeruloplasmin, and growth hormone: with special reference to carcinoma of the bronchus.

    PubMed

    Andrews, G S

    1979-04-01

    The levels of plasma zinc, copper, caeruloplasmin, and growth hormone were determined in a group of normal people and in four groups of patients who were suffering from carcinoma of the bronchus, other forms of malignancy, chest illnesses, and diseases other than chest illness or malignancy. The plasma zinc was higher, and the plasma copper lower, in people without malignancy below the age of 30 years than they were in other age groups.It was confirmed that about 66% of patients with carcinoma of the bronchus had plasma zinc levels less than 11.5 mumol/l but low levels were also found in 23% of other cases of malignancy and in 9% of the other patients. In carcinoma of the bronchus the low plasma zinc was found to be associated with epidermoid and anaplastic tumours and was to some extent related to the duration of the disease. In carcinoma of the bronchus the plasma copper was found to be higher than in all other groups, and values higher than 26.5 mumol/l were considered to support a diagnosis of carcinoma of the bronchus. There was, however, no relationship between the increase in the plasma copper and the decrease in the plasma zinc.Raised caeruloplasmin levels above 420 mg/l were found in 65% of cases of carcinoma of the bronchus, and these high levels were usually associated with raised plasma copper. Growth hormone was normal in all groups except six patients with carcinoma of the bronchus with secondary carcinoma of the liver, in whom it was raised. Surgical operations lowered plasma zinc and raised growth hormone but did not affect plasma copper.A plasma zinc below 11.5 mumol/l is helpful in the diagnosis of carcinoma of the bronchus, but by itself it is not sufficiently specific to be considered diagnostic or to form a reliable screening test. A raised plasma copper and a raised plasma caeruloplasmin were useful supportive findings.

  17. Folate receptor mediated targeted delivery of ricin entrapped into sterically stabilized liposomes to human epidermoid carcinoma (KB) cells: effect of monensin intercalated into folate-tagged liposomes.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Nikhil; Ghosh, Prahlad C

    2011-07-17

    Ricin was encapsulated into various sterically stabilized liposomes having different density of folate on the surface and the cytotoxicity of ricin in these liposomes was examined in KB cells. The effect of monensin in free and various sterically stabilized liposomal forms having different density of folate on the surface on the enhancement of cytotoxicity of ricin entrapped in these liposomes was also examined. It was observed that liposomal ricin having 0.5 mol% folate-PEG on the surface exhibits maximum cytotoxicity (IC(50)=1274 ng/ml) in KB cells as compared to non-targeted liposomes (IC(50)=3274 ng/ml). Monensin either in free form (266.2-fold) or liposomal form (291.5-fold) enhances the cytotoxicity of this targeted liposomal ricin significantly. This enhancement of the cytotoxicity of ricin entrapped in folate-targeted liposomes is further enhanced to 557.7-fold by monensin when it was delivered through folate-targeted (0.5 mol% folate-PEG) liposomes. The present study has clearly demonstrated that ricin entrapped in folate-tagged-sterically stabilized liposomes in combination with monensin intercalated in folate-tagged-sterically stabilized liposomes may have potential application for the treatment of cancer cells over-expressing folate receptors on the cell surface.

  18. Leea indica Ethyl Acetate Fraction Induces Growth-Inhibitory Effect in Various Cancer Cell Lines and Apoptosis in Ca Ski Human Cervical Epidermoid Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yau Hsiung, Wong; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

    2011-01-01

    The anticancer potential of Leea indica, a Chinese medicinal plant was investigated for the first time. The crude ethanol extract and fractions (ethyl acetate, hexane, and water) of Leea indica were evaluated their cytotoxicity on various cell lines (Ca Ski, MCF 7, MDA-MB-435, KB, HEP G2, WRL 68, and Vero) by MTT assay. Leea indica ethyl acetate fraction (LIEAF) was found showing the greatest cytotoxic effect against Ca Ski cervical cancer cells. Typical apoptotic morphological changes such as DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation were observed in LIEAF-treated cells. Early signs of apoptosis such as externalization of phosphatidylserine and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential indicated apoptosis induction. This was further substantiated by dose- and time-dependent accumulation of sub-G1 cells, depletion of intracellular glutathione, and activation of caspase-3. In conclusion, these results suggested that LIEAF inhibited cervical cancer cells growth by inducing apoptosis and could be developed as potential anticancer drugs. PMID:21423690

  19. Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... carcinomas: Infiltrating basal cell carcinomas can be more aggressive and locally destructive than other types of basal ... to treat them early and with slightly more aggressive techniques. Excision – The basal cell carcinoma is cut ...

  20. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. MTC is very rare. It can occur in children and adults. Unlike other types ...

  1. Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Alex C.; Sabolch, Aaron; Raymond, Victoria M.; Kandathil, Asha; Caoili, Elaine M.; Jolly, Shruti; Miller, Barbra S.; Giordano, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy, often with an unfavorable prognosis. Here we summarize the knowledge about diagnosis, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and therapy of ACC. Over recent years, multidisciplinary clinics have formed and the first international treatment trials have been conducted. This review focuses on evidence gained from recent basic science and clinical research and provides perspectives from the experience of a large multidisciplinary clinic dedicated to the care of patients with ACC. PMID:24423978

  2. MicroRNAs Are Part of the Regulatory Network that Controls EGF Induced Apoptosis, Including Elements of the JAK/STAT Pathway, in A431 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Ibrahim; Hoffmann, Peter; Adelson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    MiRNAs are known to regulate gene expression and in the context of cancer have been shown to regulate metastasis, cell proliferation and cell death. In this report we describe potential miRNA regulatory roles with respect to induction of cell death by pharmacologic dose of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF). Our previous work suggested that multiple pathways are involved in the induction of apoptosis, including interferon induced genes, cytokines, cytoskeleton and cell adhesion and TP53 regulated genes. Using miRNA time course expression profiling of EGF treated A431 cells and coupling this to our previous gene expression and proteomic data, we have been able to implicate a number of additional miRNAs in the regulation of apoptosis. Specifically we have linked miR-134, miR-145, miR-146b-5p, miR-432 and miR-494 to the regulation of both apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes expressed as a function of EGF treatment. Whilst additional miRNAs were differentially expressed, these had the largest number of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic targets. We found 5 miRNAs previously implicated in the regulation of apoptosis and our results indicate that an additional 20 miRNAs are likely to be involved based on their correlated expression with targets. Certain targets were linked to multiple miRNAs, including PEG10, BTG1, ID1, IL32 and NCF2. Some miRNAs that target the interferon pathway were found to be down regulated, consistent with a novel layer of regulation of interferon pathway components downstream of JAK/STAT. We have significantly expanded the repertoire of miRNAs that may regulate apoptosis in cancer cells as a result of this work. PMID:25781916

  3. Oral Rigosertib for Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-18

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  4. Alterations of gene expression and protein synthesis in co-cultured adipose tissue-derived stem cells and squamous cell-carcinoma cells: consequences for clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This is the first study evaluating the interactions of human adipose tissue derived stem cells (ADSCs) and human squamous cell carcinoma cells (SCCs), with regard to a prospective cell-based skin regenerative therapy and a thereby unintended co-localization of ADSCs and SCCs. Methods ADSCs were co-cultured with A431-SCCs and primary SCCs (pSCCs) in a transwell system, and cell-cell interactions were analyzed by assessing doubling time, migration and invasion, angiogenesis, quantitative real time PCR of 229 tumor associated genes, and multiplex protein assays of 20 chemokines and growth factors and eight matrix metalloproteinases (MMPS). Results of co-culture were compared to those of the respective mono-culture. Results ADSCs’ proliferation on the plate was significantly increased when co-cultured with A431-SCCs (P = 0.038). PSCCs and ADSCs significantly decreased their proliferation in co-culture if cultured on the plate (P <0.001 and P = 0.03). The migration of pSCC was significantly increased in co-culture (P = 0.009), as well as that of ADSCs in A431-SCC-co-culture (P = 0.012). The invasive behavior of pSCCs and A431-SCCs was significantly increased in co-culture by a mean of 33% and 35%, respectively (P = 0.038 and P <0.001). Furthermore, conditioned media from co-cultured ADSC-A431-SCCs and co-cultured ADSCs-pSCCs induced tube formation in an angiogenesis assay in vitro. In A431-SCC-co-culture 36 genes were up- and 6 were down-regulated in ADSCs, in A431-SCCs 14 genes were up- and 8 genes were down-regulated. In pSCCs-co-culture 36 genes were up-regulated in ADSCs, two were down-regulated, one gene was up-regulated in pSCC, and three genes were down-regulated. Protein expression analysis revealed that three proteins were exclusively produced in co-culture (CXCL9, IL-1b, and MMP-7). In A431-SCC-co-culture the concentration of 17 proteins was significantly increased compared to the ADSCs mono-culture (2.8- to 357-fold

  5. Adrenocortical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Baudin, Eric

    2015-06-01

    Recent developments in the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) include diagnostic and prognostic risk stratification algorithms, increasing evidence of the impact of historical therapies on overall survival, and emerging targets from integrated epigenomic and genomic analyses. Advances include proper clinical and molecular characterization of all patients with ACC, standardization of proliferative index analyses, referral of these patients to large cancer referral centers at the time of first surgery, and development of new trials in patients with well-characterized ACC. Networking and progress in the molecular characterization of ACC constitute the basis for significant future therapeutic breakthroughs. PMID:26038209

  6. Thyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, M.; Skolnik, E.M.; Baim, H.M.; Becker, S.P.; Katz, A.H.; Mantravadi, R.V.

    1980-12-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma was studied with regard to mode of presentation, initial findings, treatment and survival. The classic signs, symptoms, physical and scan findings were found to be present in approximately 70% of the patients. Prognosis was found to be dependent on age of presentation more than any other factor. Patients with prior exposure to radiation were found to have more extensive disease and require more extensive surgery but ultimately had the same prognosis for 15-year cure. Treatment for distant metastatic disease by surgery, radioactive iodine and external radiation all resulted in long-term survival in certain cases.

  7. Hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Buendia, Marie-Annick; Neuveut, Christine

    2015-02-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a widespread human pathogen that causes liver inflammation, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recent sequencing technologies have refined our knowledge of the genomic landscape and pathogenesis of HCC, but the mechanisms by which HBV exerts its oncogenic role remain controversial. In a prevailing view, inflammation, liver damage, and regeneration may foster the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic defects leading to cancer onset. However, a more direct and specific contribution of the virus is supported by clinical and biological observations. Among genetically heterogeneous HCCs, HBV-related tumors display high genomic instability, which may be attributed to the ability of HBV to integrate its DNA into the host cell genome, provoking chromosomal alterations and insertional mutagenesis of cancer genes. The viral transactivator HBx may also participate in transformation by deregulating diverse cellular machineries. A better understanding of the complex mechanisms linking HBV to HCC will improve prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:25646384

  8. LINE-1 and Alu hypomethylation in mucoepidermoid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) can be classified into low-, intermediate-, and high-grade tumors based on its histological features. MEC is mainly composed of three cell types (squamous or epidermoid, mucous and intermediate cells), which correlates with the histological grade and reflects its clinical behavior. Most cancers exhibit reduced methylation of repetitive sequences such as Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1) and Alu elements. However, to date very little information is available on the LINE-1 and Alu methylation status in MEC. The aim of this study was to investigate LINE-1 and Alu element methylation in MEC and compare if key differences in the methylation status exist between the three different cell types, and adjacent normal salivary gland cells, to see if this may reflect the histological grade. Methods LINE-1 and Alu element methylation of 24 MEC, and 14 normal salivary gland tissues were compared using Combine Bisulfite Restriction Analysis (COBRA). Furthermore, the three different cell types from MEC samples were isolated for enrichment by laser capture microdissection (LCM), essentially to see if COBRA was likely to increase the predictive value of LINE-1 and Alu element methylation. Results LINE-1 and Alu element methylation levels were significantly different (p<0.001) between the cell types, and showed a stepwise decrease from the adjacent normal salivary gland to the intermediate, mucous and squamous cells. The reduced methylation levels of LINE-1 were correlated with a poorer histological grade. In addition, MEC tissue showed a significantly lower level of LINE-1 and Alu element methylation overall compared to normal salivary gland tissue (p<0.001). Conclusions Our findings suggest that LINE-1 methylation differed among histological grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Hence, this epigenetic event may hold value for MEC diagnosis and prognostic prediction. PMID:23510117

  9. Insulin binding properties of normal and transformed human epidermal cultured keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Verrando, P.; Ortonne, J.P.

    1985-10-01

    Insulin binding to its receptors was studied in cultured normal and transformed (A431 line) human epidermal keratinocytes. The specific binding was a temperature-dependent, saturable process. Normal keratinocytes possess a mean value of about 80,000 receptors per cell. Fifteen hours exposure of the cells to insulin lowered their receptor number (about 65% loss in available sites); these reappeared when the hormone was removed from the culture medium. In the A431 epidermoid carcinoma cell line, there is a net decrease in insulin binding (84% of the initial bound/free hormone ratio in comparison with normal cells) essentially related to a loss in receptor affinity for insulin. Thus, cultured human keratinocytes which express insulin receptors may be a useful tool in understanding skin pathology related to insulin disorders.

  10. Characterization of tissue plasminogen activator binding proteins isolated from endothelial cells and other cell types

    SciTech Connect

    Beebe, D.P.; Wood, L.L.; Moos, M. )

    1990-07-15

    Human tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) was shown to bind specifically to human osteosarcoma cells (HOS), and human epidermoid carcinoma cells (A-431 cells). Crosslinking studies with DTSSP demonstrated high molecular weight complexes (130,000) between {sup 125}I-t-PA and cell membrane protein on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), HOS, and A-431 cells. A 48-65,000 molecular weight complex was demonstrated after crosslinking t-PA peptide (res. 7-20) to cells. Ligand blotting of cell lysates which had been passed over a t-PA affinity column revealed binding of t-PA to 54,000 and 95,000 molecular weight proteins. Several t-PA binding proteins were identified in immunopurified cell lysates, including tubulin beta chain, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and single chain urokinase.

  11. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or older. Hepatocellular ...

  12. Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Squamous cell carcinoma typically develops in sun-damaged skin in fair-skinned patients. Overview Squamous ... skin cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma usually occurs on sun-damaged skin, especially in light-skinned individuals with ...

  13. [Hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Colombo, Massimo; Sangiovanni, Angelo

    2016-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer death and the first in patients with compensated cirrhosis. Chronic infection with hepatitis B and C, alcohol, smoking, exposure to aflatoxin and metabolic syndrome, associated with diabetes and obesity are the main etiological factors. Regardless of etiology, patients with cirrhosis stand as the category at higher risk of developing HCC, and indeed are the target of surveillance programs aimed to the early diagnosis of HCC, the only chance to reduce HCC-related mortality. This notwithstanding, International Scientific Societies have issued recommendations for the management of HCC, a significant number of patients are treated outside guidelines, due to several reasons. Among queries still unsolved, the impact of biological characterization of HCC, along with the biological profiling of patients at risk of developing HCC represent main challenges for the future. Treatment personalization and multimodal treatment being further challenges. This chapter summarizes the recommendations for surveillance, diagnosis and treatment of HCC and focus on future directions. PMID:27571469

  14. Role of radiation in the management of early vocal cord carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, B.; Rao, D.V.; Marks, J.E.; Perez, C.A.

    1983-07-01

    From 1952 to 1978, 177 patients with epidermoid carcinoma confined to the true vocal cords with normal mobility (T1NO) were treated with radiation alone. Five- and 10-year adjusted actuarial survival rates for all patients were 97 and 95%, respectively. The tumor recurred in the larynx and/or neck in 16% of patients with T/sub 1a/ (one cord involved) and 23% of the patients with T/sub 1b/ (both vocal cords involved) disease. Radiation failures were surgically salvaged in 89% of patients with T/sub 1a/ disease without anterior commissure involvement, in 60% of those with T/sub 1a/ disease with anterior commissure involvement and in 57% of those with T/sub 1b/ disease. Tumor was ultimately controlled in 97% of the patients with T/sub 1a/ and 90% of the patients with T/sub 1b/ disease. Voice was preserved in 93% of the patients with T/sub 1a/ disease and 77% of patients with T/sub 1b/ disease. Of 121 patients evaluated for voice quality 77% had good and 22% had fair voice, while only one patient had poor quality of voice. Patients with fair or poor quality voice usually had had salvage hemilaryngectomy. We recommend radiation for all patients with early vocal cord carcinoma.

  15. Hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Llovet, Josep M; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Pikarsky, Eli; Sangro, Bruno; Schwartz, Myron; Sherman, Morris; Gores, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally and has an incidence of approximately 850,000 new cases per year. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents approximately 90% of all cases of primary liver cancer. The main risk factors for developing HCC are well known and include hepatitis B and C virus infection, alcohol intake and ingestion of the fungal metabolite aflatoxin B1. Additional risk factors such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis are also emerging. Advances in the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of HCC have led to identification of critical driver mutations; however, the most prevalent of these are not yet druggable targets. The molecular classification of HCC is not established, and the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging classification is the main clinical algorithm for the stratification of patients according to prognosis and treatment allocation. Surveillance programmes enable the detection of early-stage tumours that are amenable to curative therapies - resection, liver transplantation or local ablation. At more developed stages, only chemoembolization (for intermediate HCC) and sorafenib (for advanced HCC) have shown survival benefits. There are major unmet needs in HCC management that might be addressed through the discovery of new therapies and their combinations for use in the adjuvant setting and for intermediate- and advanced-stage disease. Moreover, biomarkers for therapy stratification, patient-tailored strategies targeting driver mutations and/or activating signalling cascades, and validated measurements of quality of life are needed. Recent failures in the testing of systemic drugs for intermediate and advanced stages have indicated a need to refine trial designs and to define novel approaches. PMID:27158749

  16. Photodynamic therapy activated STAT3 associated pathways: Targeting intrinsic apoptotic pathways to increase PDT efficacy in human squamous carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Li; Xu, Chengshan; Li, Qiang; Mei, Zhusong; Li, Xinji; Cai, Hong; Liu, Wei

    2016-06-01

    5-Aminolaevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) has been used for part of squamous cell carcinoma (premalignant conditions or in situ cutaneous SCC-Bowen disease). However, mechanism of ALA-PDT is not fully understood yet on the cell apoptosis pathway. The aim of this study was to further investigate the effect and mechanism of 5-ALA-PDT on human squamous carcinoma A431cells. Apoptosis and cell viability after PDT were evaluated using Annexin V-FITC apoptosis detection kit and MTT assay. The mRNA and protein levels were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot. Our data showed that 5-ALA-PDT significantly inhibited cell proliferation (p<0.05), but there was no significant difference when the photosensitizer reached to 4.8mM. The inhibition in cell proliferation after 5-ALA-PDT treatment was correlated to more cells being arrested in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle (p<0.01). Immunocytochemical observations using anti-active caspase-3 antibodies showed active caspase-3 was translocated from cytoplasm to nuclear during apoptosis. STAT3 and its downstream gene Bax and BCL-2 were changed after 5-ALA-PDT treatment for the mRNA and protein expression. Our studies confirmed that 5-ALA-PDT might be an effective treatment for human squamous carcinoma by inhibiting the tumor cell A431growth and for the first time demonstrated that the expression of STAT3 was significantly reduced at 24h after 5-ALA-PDT treatment. PMID:26607555

  17. Hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Okuda, K

    2000-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing in many countries as a result of an increase in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection since World War II. The epidemiology of HCC varies with the global region. There have been conflicting observations from different parts of the world concerning the frequency of HCC in patients who in the distant past had post-transfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis. The genetic basis of hepatocarcinogenesis is still poorly understood. In hepatitis B virus (HVB) associated HCC, codon 249 mutation in the p 53 gene seems more related to exposure to aflatoxin B1 than to hepatocarcinogenesis itself. HCC that occurs in children in high HBV endemic regions could be associated with germ-line mutations, but little information is available; not much is known about chemical hepatocarcinogens in the environment other than aflatoxins. The X gene of HBV seems to play an important role in HBV-associated hepatocarcinogenesis. There are preliminary observations on the molecular mechanism of HCV-associated HCC, such as HCV core protein inducing HCC in transgenic mice and the NS3 genome transforming NIH 3T3 cells. Pathological distinction between preneoplastic and very early transformed lesions still depends on classical morphology, and a more genetically oriented differential diagnosis is required. Clinical diagnosis based on modern imaging has improved greatly, but is still unsatisfactory in the differential diagnosis of preneoplastic and early transformed nodules, because the vasculature changes that occur within the nodule are not accurately discerned with the current imaging. Use of sensitive des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (PIVKA II) assay, and lectin affinity chromatography separating HCC specific subspecies of AFP molecules with a more practical biochemical technique will further improve diagnosis. Early diagnosis and transplantation are the best treatment at the moment, but transplantation is not widely available because of the donor shortage. Despite

  18. Squamous cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    The hallmarks of squamous cell carcinoma are the differentiation features of the squamous epithelium: keratinization and intercellular bridges. Large central masses of keratin, individual cell keratinization, and/or keratin pearls may form. Necrosis of tumor cell nests and accumulation of acute inflammatory cells are frequent features of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma.

  19. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Todd M; Parekh, Vishwas

    2016-09-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor that shares the same histologic appearance and ETV6 gene (12p13) rearrangement as secretory carcinoma of the breast. Prior to its recognition, MASC cases were commonly labeled acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. Despite distinctive histologic features, MASC may be difficult to distinguish from other salivary gland tumors, in particular zymogen-poor acinic cell carcinoma and low-grade salivary duct carcinoma. Although characteristic morphologic and immunohistochemical features form the basis of a diagnosis of MASC, the presence of an ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion is confirmatory. Given its recent recognition the true prognostic import of MASC is not yet clearly defined. PMID:27575269

  20. Expression and function of NET-1 in human skin squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    zhang, Jie; Wang, Jianli; Chen, Li; Wang, Guilan; Qin, Jing; Xu, Yuyin; Li, Xingyu

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the clinicopathological significance of NET-1 in human skin squamous cell carcinoma (SSCC). The expression of NET-1 and Ki67 protein was detected using immunostaining from 60 SSCC cases, 50 SIN samples and ten normal skin tissues. The vectors expressing NET-1, siRNA NET-1 and shRNA NET-1 were constructed, as well as negative controls (target-off). In transfected A431 cells, the expression of NET-1 was detected by qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence staining; the proliferation and migration of cells was evaluated by MTT, flow cytometry, wound healing and transwell chamber assays. The stable cell lines transfected with shRNANET-1 was inoculated in nude mice for in vivo study. (1) The levels of NET-1 were significantly higher in SSCC (96.67 %) and SIN III (93.75 %) than that in SIN I and II (41.18 %), (P < 0.05). NET-1 expression was significantly enhanced in spindle-cell SSCC (75 %) versus other histological types (P < 0.05). (2) The expression of NET-1 in A431 cells transfected with siRNANET-1 or shRNANET-1 was significantly decreased; the proliferation and migration of these cells were obviously inhibited as compared to controls (P < 0.05). (3) The growth of subcutaneous tumors was significantly inhibited associated with reduction in the expression of NET-1 vs. the negative control or untreated group (P < 0.05). The overexpression of NET-1 in tumor cells may be closely related to the malignant phenotype of SSCC. NET-1 RNAi used in this study can specifically and effectively downregulate NET-1 gene expression; thus SSCC proliferation, invasion and tumor growth were attenuated. NET-1 might be one of the potential targets for SSCC therapy.

  1. Tetraspanin CD151 plays a key role in skin squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qinglin; Yang, Xiuwei H.; Xu, Fenghui; Sharma, Chandan; Wang, Hong-Xing; Knoblich, Konstantin; Rabinovitz, Isaac; Granter, Scott R.; Hemler, Martin E.

    2012-01-01

    Here we provide the first evidence that tetraspanin CD151 can support de novo carcinogenesis. During two-stage mouse skin chemical carcinogenesis, CD151 reduces tumor lag time and increases incidence, multiplicity, size, and progression to malignant squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), while supporting both cell survival during tumor initiation and cell proliferation during the promotion phase. In human skin SCC, CD151 expression is selectively elevated compared to other skin cancer types. CD151 support of keratinocyte survival and proliferation may depend on activation of transcription factor STAT3, a regulator of cell proliferation and apoptosis. CD151 also supports PKCα-α6β4 integrin association and PKC-dependent β4 S1424 phosphorylation, while regulating α6β4 distribution. CD151-PKCα effects on integrin β4 phosphorylation and subcellular localization are consistent with epithelial disruption to a less polarized, more invasive state. CD151 ablation, while minimally affecting normal cell and normal mouse functions, markedly sensitized mouse skin and epidermoid cells to chemicals/drugs including DMBA (mutagen) and camptothecin (topoisomerase inhibitor), as well as to agents targeting EGFR, PKC, Jak2/Tyk2, and STAT3. Hence, CD151 ‘co-targeting’ may be therapeutically beneficial. These findings not only support CD151 as a potential tumor target, but also should apply to other cancers utilizing CD151-laminin-binding integrin complexes. PMID:22824799

  2. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising in Warthin’s tumor of the parotid gland: Clinicopathological characteristics and immunophenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chunkai; Song, Zhigang; Xiao, Zhibo; Lin, Qiushi; Dong, Xiaoqun

    2016-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), an extremely rare tumor, arises from the epithelial component of preexisting parotid Warthin tumors (WT). Among the 309 cases of surgically resected WTs in Chinese PLA General Hospital and Beijing Shijitan Hospital of Capital Medical University, 5 cases (1.6%) fulfilled the criteria for MECs transformed from WTs. Clinicopathological characteristics of MECs was demonstrated in order to avoid misdiagnosis of this rare type of tumor. All the 5 patients, 3 males and 2 females, presented painless masses in the parotid gland. MECs were located inside or at the edge of WTs, with an obvious transitional zone between WT and MEC. Basal cells of WTs and epidermoid cells of MECs were strongly positive for cytokeratin CK5/6, CK34βE12, and P63; whereas negative for CK7, CK20, and CEA. Mucous cells of MECs were positive for CK7, CEA, as well as periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), whereas negative for CK5/6, CK34βE12, CK20, and P63. MECs patients were followed up for 25–69 months after surgery, presenting no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. Collectively, MECs arising from WT is very rare. The pathological diagnosis was based on histological morphology, especially the transitional zone between WT and MEC. PMID:27417276

  3. Stages of Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Childhood Treatment for more information.) Having certain genetic conditions increases the risk of adrenocortical carcinoma. Anything ... can be a sign of disease. CT scan (CAT scan) : A procedure that makes a series of ...

  4. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lanoue, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly occurring cancer in the world and overall incidence is still on the rise. While typically a slow-growing tumor for which metastases is rare, basal cell carcinoma can be locally destructive and disfiguring. Given the vast prevalence of this disease, there is a significant overall burden on patient well-being and quality of life. The current mainstay of basal cell carcinoma treatment involves surgical modalities, such as electrodessication and curettage, excision, cryosurgery, and Mohs micrographic surgery. Such methods are typically reserved for localized basal cell carcinoma and offer high five-year cure rates, but come with the risk of functional impairment, disfigurement, and scarring. Here, the authors review the evidence and indications for nonsurgical treatment modalities in cases where surgery is impractical, contraindicated, or simply not desired by the patient. PMID:27386043

  5. Comparative fluorescence in situ hybridization mapping of a 431-kb Arabidopsis thaliana bacterial artificial chromosome contig reveals the role of chromosomal duplications in the expansion of the Brassica rapa genome.

    PubMed

    Jackson, S A; Cheng, Z; Wang, M L; Goodman, H M; Jiang, J

    2000-10-01

    Comparative genome studies are important contributors to our understanding of genome evolution. Most comparative genome studies in plants have been based on genetic mapping of homologous DNA loci in different genomes. Large-scale comparative physical mapping has been hindered by the lack of efficient and affordable techniques. We report here the adaptation of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques for comparative physical mapping between Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa. A set of six bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) representing a 431-kb contiguous region of chromosome 2 of A. thaliana was mapped on both chromosomes and DNA fibers of B. rapa. This DNA fragment has a single location in the A. thaliana genome, but hybridized to four to six B. rapa chromosomes, indicating multiple duplications in the B. rapa genome. The sizes of the fiber-FISH signals from the same BACs were not longer in B. rapa than those in A. thaliana, suggesting that this genomic region is duplicated but not expanded in the B. rapa genome. The comparative fiber-FISH mapping results support that chromosomal duplications, rather than regional expansion due to accumulation of repetitive sequences in the intergenic regions, played the major role in the evolution of the B. rapa genome.

  6. Colorectal carcinoma: Pathologic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Matthew; Ravula, Sreelakshmi; Tatishchev, Sergei F.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the United States. Pathologic examination of biopsy, polypectomy and resection specimens is crucial to appropriate patient managemnt, prognosis assessment and family counseling. Molecular testing plays an increasingly important role in the era of personalized medicine. This review article focuses on the histopathology and molecular pathology of colorectal carcinoma and its precursor lesions, with an emphasis on their clinical relevance. PMID:22943008

  7. Cholescintigraphy in gallbladder carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Colletti, P.M.; Ralls, P.W.; Siegel, M.E.; Halls, J.M.

    1986-04-01

    Findings on cholescintigraphy in gallbladder carcinoma are described in five patients. Four patients presenting with acute cholecystitis had nonvisualization of the gallbladder with normal hepatoenteric transit time. One of these had a large portal mass and two had liver metastasis as additional findings. The fifth patient was jaundiced, and showed absence of bowel activity compatible with total biliary obstruction. Both the clinical and scintigraphic findings in gallbladder carcinoma are difficult to separate from findings in cholelithiasis and cholecystitis.

  8. [Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Antoine, Martine; Vieira, Thibault; Fallet, Vincent; Hamard, Cécile; Duruisseaux, Michael; Cadranel, Jacques; Wislez, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas are a rare group of tumors accounting for about one percent of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In 2015, the World Health Organization classification united under this name all the carcinomas with sarcomatous-like component with spindle cell or giant cell appearance, or associated with a sarcomatous component sometimes heterologous. There are five subtypes: pleomorphic carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, giant cell carcinoma, carcinosarcoma and pulmonary blastoma. Clinical characteristics are not specific from the other subtypes of NSCLC. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition pathway may play a key role. Patients, usually tobacco smokers, are frequently symptomatic. Tumors are voluminous more often peripherical than central, with strong fixation on FDG TEP CT. Distant metastases are frequent with atypical visceral locations. These tumors have poorer prognosis than the other NSCLC subtypes because of great aggressivity, and frequent chemoresistance. Here we present pathological description and a review of literature with molecular features in order to better describe these tumors and perhaps introduce new therapeutics.

  9. [Merkel cell skin carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Krejcí, K; Zadrazil, J; Tichý, T; Horák, P; Ciferská, H; Hodulová, M; Zezulová, M; Zlevorová, M

    2010-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare tumour of the skin. It affects predominantly elderly Caucasian males on sun-exposed areas of the skin. Distinctively more frequent and at significantly lower age, its incidence is higher in immunocompromised patients. In these patients we often observe the highly aggressive course of Merkel cell carcinoma and a fatal outcome. The incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma has been rising in recent years and is more dramatic than the increased incidence of cutaneous melanoma. More than one-third of Merkel cell carcinoma patients will die from this cancer, making it twice as lethal as melanoma. The malignant transformation of Merkel cells is currently thought to be related to an infection with Merkel cell polyomavirus. In the early stage the discreet clinical picture may be contrary to extensive microscopic invasion and this seemingly benign appearance can delay diagnosis or increase the risk of insufficient tumour excision. The diagnosis is definitely confirmed by histological evaluation and immunohistochemical tests. A typical feature is the tendency of Merkel cell carcinoma to frequent local recurrence and early metastasizing into regional lymph nodes with subsequent tumour generalization. The mainstay of therapy is radical excision of the tumour and adjuvant radiotherapy targeted at the site of primary incidence and local draining lymph nodes. The efficacy of different chemotherapy protocols in Merkel cell carcinoma is limited and the median survival rate is measured in months. In the future, prophylaxis with vaccination against Merkel cell polyomavirus will hopefully be possible in high-risk patients, as well as therapeutic usage of antisense oligonucleotides or microRNAs, eventually complete Merkel cell carcinoma elimination by affecting the tumour suppressor gene Atonal homolog 1 expression. The staging of the tumour at time of diagnosis is the most important prognostic factor. In this respect, the importance of preventative skin

  10. Chyluria associated with bronchial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Morice, A. H.; Wood, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Chylous pleural effusion, though not chyluria, is a recognized association of carcinoma of the bronchus. A case of chyluria associated with squamous bronchial carcinoma is reported. Chyluria in this patient was successfully treated by dietary modification. PMID:7329888

  11. Nonfunctional parathyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Giessler, G. A.; Beech, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare entity accounting for 0.5% to 5% of parathyroid neoplasia. Most of these malignancies present as functional hormone-producing masses with elevated serum levels of parathormone and calcium. These tumors may also be nonfunctional. Clinical detection of nonfunctioning parathyroid malignancies preoperatively is primarily based on symptoms of an expanding neck mass. This ominous complaint is typically accompanied with an advanced stage of the disease at initial diagnosis. Because there is a paucity of data in the literature regarding nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma, prognosis can not be readily assessed. In both functional and nonfunctional parathyroid carcinoma, early surgery has proven to be the only curative treatment approach whereas both chemotherapy and radiation therapy fail to produce systemic or regional benefit when used alone. Hence, parathyroid cancer should be considered in every patient evaluated for a neck mass regardless of the blood calcium and blood parathormone level. PMID:11491274

  12. Primary pulmonary cavitating carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, M. Ray

    1973-01-01

    A primary lung cancer can produce a cavity in three ways. The first is `cavitary necrosis' due to breakdown of the growth itself. The second is `stenotic abscess' due to infection and breakdown of the lung parenchyma distal to bronchial obstruction caused by the growth. The third type is `spill-over abscess'. In the present series, necrosis and cavitation were observed in 100 cases out of a total of 632 primary bronchial carcinomas seen at the London Chest Hospital from July 1967 to June 1970. There were 91 males and nine females with an average age of 58·45 years. All except one smoked very heavily and had considerable symptoms. The size of the cavities ranged from 1 to 10 cm and their wall thickness from 0·5 to 3 cm. They were single in 92 cases and multiple (up to four) in eight. In 42 cases, the cancerous cavitation was central, in 38 intermediate, and in 20 peripheral. The segments most frequently affected were the apicoposterior segment of the left upper lobe and the superior segment of the left lower lobe. For descriptive purposes, these cavitating carcinomas were also divided into six broad groups on the basis of radiological and pathological correlations. Neoplastic cells in the sputum were found in 64 cases. Bronchoscopy revealed growth in 42 cases and biopsy was positive in 48. The main microscopic feature was vascular invasion of medium-sized muscular arteries and veins found in the vicinity of every cavitating bronchial carcinoma. Invasion along with tumour plugging of the vessels was observed in 75 cases and thrombosis alone in 55 cases. There were 82 squamous-cell carcinomas, 11 undifferentiated carcinomas of large polygonal-cell type, and seven adeno-alveolar cell carcinomas. The single most important and noteworthy feature in the present series was that oat-cell carcinoma hardly ever undergoes necrosis. Out of a total of 95 cases observed, only three showed necrosis, and this was minimal and characteristically devoid of cavitation. In oat

  13. Diagnostic and pathogenetic role of café-au-lait macules in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ponti, Giovanni; Tomasi, Aldo; Pastorino, Lorenza; Ruini, Cristel; Guarneri, Carmelo; Mandel, Victor Desmond; Seidenari, Stefania; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2012-10-29

    Café au lait spots (CALS) are common dermatologic findings that can at the same time arise in a variety of pathologic conditions such as Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), together with numerous hereditary syndromes for which they represent either diagnostic criteria or associated elements (McCune Albright, Silver-Russell, LEOPARD, Ataxia-Telangiectasia). A review of the literature also revealed two cases of association with NBCCS. We report here the case of a female proband with CALS associated to Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) with known PTCH1 germline mutation (C.1348-2A>G) who had been misdiagnosed with NF1 in her childhood because of 5 CALS and cutaneous nodules. The patient presented a giant cell tumor of the skin, palmar and calcaneal epidermoidal cystic nodules, odontogenic keratocystic tumors and deformity of the jaw profile. Her family history brought both her brother and father to our attention because of the presence of KCOTs diagnosed at early age: after genetic testing, the same PTCH1 germline mutation was identified in the three family members. Clinical criteria are used for discerning NF1 diagnosis (size, number and onset age), while there are no definite guidelines concerning CALS except for their presence. In our experience, we have noted an association of CALS with NBCCS; this seems interesting because we already know clinical criteria are a dynamic entity and can be modified by epidemiologic evidences.

  14. Placental alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme expression by the non-HeLa DoT cervical-carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Kottel, R H; Fishman, W H

    1981-01-01

    Expression of the oncodevelopmental protein, placental alkaline phosphatase, was observed in DoT cells, an epidermoid cell line derived from cervical carcinoma. Under normal conditions of growth in vitro, biochemical inhibition, cytochemical and immunological studies revealed that these cells express the term-placental (Regan) isoenzyme. Thus alkaline phosphatase activity was observed to be heat-stable and inhibited by L-phenylalanine. These properties, supported by immunoelectrophoretic analysis using antisera specific for liver, intestinal or term-placental isoenzymes, identified the isoenzyme as placental type. DoT cells treated with prednisolone (1 microgram/ml) increased total alkaline phosphatase specific activity. This activity was also identified as term-placental phosphatase isoenzyme. On the other hand, treatment of the same cells with sodium butyrate (1 mM) did not induce increased activity of the term-placental isoenzyme, an unexpected observation. As a result of these studies, DoT cells are proposed as a representative cell line for studies of the regulation of oncodevelopmental gene expression in human tumour cells of cervical origin. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:7342975

  15. MRI assessment of changes in tumor oxygenation post hypoxia-targeted therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Shubhangi; Vidya Shankar, Rohini; Inge, Landon J.; Kodibagkar, Vikram

    2015-03-01

    In the tumor microenvironment, the combination of compromised oxygen supply and high demand results in formation of regions of acute and chronic hypoxia, which promotes metastasis, proliferation, resistance to chemo and radiotherapy and poor prognosis. Targeted, non-invasive in vivo imaging of hypoxia has the potential to determine regions with poor oxygenation in the target and differentiate between normoxic vs hypoxic tissues. MRI provides a powerful platform for generating quantitative maps of hypoxia with the use of a novel pO2 measuring technique PISTOL (Proton imaging of siloxanes to map tissue oxygenation levels) which could impact the therapeutic choices. In the present study, PISTOL was used to determine the changes in oxygenation of tumor in pre-clinical models of NSCLC (H1975) and epidermoid carcinoma (A431) in response to tirapzamine (TPZ), a hypoxia activated chemotherapeutic. The tumor volume measurements indicate that tirapazamine was more effective in slowing the tumor growth in H1975 as compared to A431 tumors, even though lower baseline pO2 was observed in A431 as compared to H1975 tumors. These results indicate that other factors such as tumor perfusion (essential for delivering TPZ) and relative expression of nitroreductases (essential for activating TPZ) may play an important role in conjunction with pO2.

  16. [Merkel cell carcinoma (trabecular carcinoma) of the skin].

    PubMed

    Zala, L; Armagni, C; Krebs, A

    1983-04-01

    The Merkel cell carcinoma was first designated some years ago by the descriptive term trabecular carcinoma. Both names refer to a skin tumor occurring in elderly patients. This is another example where ultrastructural differentiating criteria are necessary for a definite diagnosis i.e., identification of so-called neurosecretory-like granules by electron microscopy. We report clinical, histological, ultrastructural, and histogenetic aspects of such a disease in a woman suffering from a metastasizing Merkel cell carcinoma. PMID:6853165

  17. Fallacious Carcinoma- Spindle Cell Variant of Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bavle, Radhika M; Govinda, Girish; Venkataramanaiah, Padmalatha Gundappanayakanahalli; Muniswamappa, Sudhakara; Venugopal, Reshma

    2016-07-01

    Spindle cell carcinoma is a unique, rare and peculiar biphasic tumour of head and neck which is not frequently observed in the oral cavity. This variant of squamous cell carcinoma although of monophasic epithelial origin, simulates a sarcoma and is an aggressive carcinoma with high frequency of recurrence and metastasis. A correct and timely diagnosis is of paramount importance. Most of the tumours require an Immunohistochemistry (IHC) panel for confirmation or diagnosis. We report a case of spindle cell carcinoma with varied histopathological morphology and clinical presentation in a middle aged female with a brief review of literature. PMID:27630965

  18. Fallacious Carcinoma- Spindle Cell Variant of Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Radhika M; Govinda, Girish; Muniswamappa, Sudhakara; Venugopal, Reshma

    2016-01-01

    Spindle cell carcinoma is a unique, rare and peculiar biphasic tumour of head and neck which is not frequently observed in the oral cavity. This variant of squamous cell carcinoma although of monophasic epithelial origin, simulates a sarcoma and is an aggressive carcinoma with high frequency of recurrence and metastasis. A correct and timely diagnosis is of paramount importance. Most of the tumours require an Immunohistochemistry (IHC) panel for confirmation or diagnosis. We report a case of spindle cell carcinoma with varied histopathological morphology and clinical presentation in a middle aged female with a brief review of literature.

  19. Fallacious Carcinoma- Spindle Cell Variant of Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Radhika M; Govinda, Girish; Muniswamappa, Sudhakara; Venugopal, Reshma

    2016-01-01

    Spindle cell carcinoma is a unique, rare and peculiar biphasic tumour of head and neck which is not frequently observed in the oral cavity. This variant of squamous cell carcinoma although of monophasic epithelial origin, simulates a sarcoma and is an aggressive carcinoma with high frequency of recurrence and metastasis. A correct and timely diagnosis is of paramount importance. Most of the tumours require an Immunohistochemistry (IHC) panel for confirmation or diagnosis. We report a case of spindle cell carcinoma with varied histopathological morphology and clinical presentation in a middle aged female with a brief review of literature. PMID:27630965

  20. Photosensitizer Adhered to Cell Culture Microplates Induces Phototoxicity in Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Verena; Kiesslich, Tobias; Krammer, Barbara; Plaetzer, Kristjan

    2013-01-01

    In vitro experiments in plastic receptacles are the basis of characterization of new photosensitizers (PSs) for the photodynamic therapy. We recently reported that lipophilic PSs adhere to cell culture microplates in a kinetic-like manner (Engelhardt et al., 2011). In the current study, we examined the interaction and phototoxic effects of the microplate-adhered PS in cancer cells. Therefore, we preloaded microplates with hypericin, Foscan, PVP-hypericin, or aluminum (III) phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate chloride (AlPCS4) for 24 hours and measured the PS distribution after addition of A431 human carcinoma cells: following another 24 hours up to 68% of hypericin were detected in the cell fraction. The hydrophilic PVP-hypericin and AlPCS4 also diffused into the cells, but the quantities of PS adherence were considerably lower. Microplate-adhered Foscan appeared not to be redistributed. In contrast to the hydrophilic PSs, the cellular phototoxicity of microplate-adhered lipophilic PS was high, independent of whether the PS (i) was pre-loaded onto microplates or (ii) added simultaneously with the cells or (iii) one day after cell seeding. Based on these results, we suggest testing lipophilic PS dyes for their adherence to microplates. Furthermore, the ability of plastic materials to (reversibly) store PSs might represent a new approach for the PS delivery or the development of antimicrobial coatings. PMID:23509741

  1. Independent bilateral primary bronchial carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, M. Ray

    1971-01-01

    Independent bilateral primary bronchial carcinomas are not common. Since Beyreuther's description in 1924, 16 well-documented cases of independent primary bronchial carcinomas of different histology have been described. From 1965 to 1970, eight cases were seen at the London Chest Hospital. In order to make the diagnosis of a second primary bronchial carcinoma, each tumour should be malignant and neither should be a metastasis from the other. To meet this last criterion, the histopathological features of the two tumours must be different. Many cases have been described in the literature as double primary bronchial carcinomas where the second primary had the same histological features as the first. Images PMID:4327711

  2. Primary biliary carcinoma: CT evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsen, M.K.; Quiroz, F.; Lawson, T.L.; Smith, D.F.; Foley, W.D.; Steward, E.T.

    1984-08-01

    Fifty-three patients with documented primary biliary carcinoma were studied with computed tomography. Twenty-six patients had gallbladder carcinoma and 27 patients had carcinoma of the biliary ductal system. Ninety percent of patients with gallbladder cancer had an intraluminal mass. Local invasion into the liver was common. The majority of patients with biliary ductal carcinoma had dilated bile ducts, while only 50% of patients with gallbladder cancer had biliary ductal dilatation. The most common location of tumor involving the extrahepatic biliary ductal system was the distal common bile duct. This occurred in eight patients out of 27, or 30% of the cases.

  3. Merkel cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Koljonen, Virve

    2006-01-01

    Background Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an unusual primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. MCC is a fatal disease, and patients have a poor chance of survival. Moreover, MCC lacks distinguishing clinical features, and thus by the time the diagnosis is made, the tumour usually have metastasized. MCC mainly affects sun-exposed areas of elderly persons. Half of the tumours are located in the head and neck region. Methods MCC was first described in 1972. Since then, most of the cases reported, have been in small series of patients. Most of the reports concern single cases or epidemiological studies. The present study reviews the world literature on MCC. The purpose of this article is to shed light on this unknown neuroendocrine carcinoma and provide the latest information on prognostic markers and treatment options. Results The epidemiological studies have revealed that large tumour size, male sex, truncal site, nodal/distant disease at presentation, and duration of disease before presentation, are poor prognostic factors. The recommended initial treatment is extensive local excision. Adjuvant radiation therapy has recently been shown to improve survival. Thus far, no chemotherapy protocol have achieved the same objective. Conclusion Although rare, the fatality of this malignancy makes is important to understand the etiology and pathophysiology. During the last few years, the research on MCC has produced prognostic markers, which can be translated into clinical patient care. PMID:16466578

  4. Primary duodenal carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Adedeji, O. A.; Trescoli-Serrano, C.; Garcia-Zarco, M.

    1995-01-01

    Eight cases of primary duodenal carcinoma in a district general hospital are presented. The cases highlight the advanced state of the disease at presentation, the difficulty in diagnosis, and its poor prognosis. Duodenal carcinoma occurs in both sexes worldwide with no predisposing factors in the majority of cases. There is an increased risk in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and adenomas of the duodenum. Duodenal carcinoma occurs about 22 years from the diagnosis of familial adenomatous polyposis in about 2% of patients, forming over 50% of upper gastrointestinal cancers occurring in these patients. Carcinomatous changes occur in 30 to 60% of duodenal villous adenomas and much less in tubulo-villous and tubular adenomas. These categories of patients should be screened and adequately followed up. Aggressive and radical surgery, even in the presence of locally advanced disease and lymph node involvement, gives a better outcome. When curative surgery is not possible, chemotherapy must accompany palliation with or without radiotherapy. Pre-operative chemotherapy may facilitate a curative radical resection. The general five-year survival is 17-33% but some centres have achieved a five-year survival of 40-60% with aggressive management of these patients. PMID:7644397

  5. In vivo anticancer evaluation of the hyperthermic efficacy of anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted PEG-based nanocarrier containing magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Giovanni; Ravagli, Costanza; Mazzantini, Filippo; Loudos, George; Adan, Jaume; Masa, Marc; Psimadas, Dimitrios; Fragogeorgi, Eirini A; Locatelli, Erica; Innocenti, Claudia; Sangregorio, Claudio; Comes Franchini, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles with targeting moieties containing magnetic nanoparticles as theranostic agents have considerable potential for the treatment of cancer. Here we report the chemical synthesis and characterization of a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-based nanocarrier containing iron oxide nanoparticles and human epithelial growth factor receptor on the outer shell. The nanocarrier was also radiolabeled with (99m)Tc and tested as a theranostic nanomedicine, ie, it was investigated for both its diagnostic ability in vivo and its therapeutic hyperthermic effects in a standard A431 human tumor cell line. Following radiolabeling with (99m)Tc, the biodistribution and therapeutic hyperthermic effects of the nanosystem were studied noninvasively in vivo in tumor-bearing mice. A substantial decrease in tumor size correlated with an increase in both nanoparticle concentration and local temperature was achieved, confirming the possibility of using this multifunctional nanosystem as a therapeutic tool for epidermoid carcinoma.

  6. In vivo anticancer evaluation of the hyperthermic efficacy of anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted PEG-based nanocarrier containing magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Giovanni; Ravagli, Costanza; Mazzantini, Filippo; Loudos, George; Adan, Jaume; Masa, Marc; Psimadas, Dimitrios; Fragogeorgi, Eirini A; Locatelli, Erica; Innocenti, Claudia; Sangregorio, Claudio; Comes Franchini, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles with targeting moieties containing magnetic nanoparticles as theranostic agents have considerable potential for the treatment of cancer. Here we report the chemical synthesis and characterization of a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-based nanocarrier containing iron oxide nanoparticles and human epithelial growth factor receptor on the outer shell. The nanocarrier was also radiolabeled with (99m)Tc and tested as a theranostic nanomedicine, ie, it was investigated for both its diagnostic ability in vivo and its therapeutic hyperthermic effects in a standard A431 human tumor cell line. Following radiolabeling with (99m)Tc, the biodistribution and therapeutic hyperthermic effects of the nanosystem were studied noninvasively in vivo in tumor-bearing mice. A substantial decrease in tumor size correlated with an increase in both nanoparticle concentration and local temperature was achieved, confirming the possibility of using this multifunctional nanosystem as a therapeutic tool for epidermoid carcinoma. PMID:25028545

  7. Imaging EGFR distribution using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, L.; Chen, X. K.; Smith, A.; Korbelik, M.; Zeng, H.; Lee, P. W. K.; Hewitt, K. C.

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the feasibility of using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) to image the distribution of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) in cells. To accomplish this task, 30 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) tagged with antibodies to EGFR (1012 per ml) are incubated with cells (106 per ml) of the A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cell line and normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. Using the 632.8 nm excitation line of a He-Ne laser, Raman spectroscopy measurements are performed using a point mapping scheme. SERS signals are observed with an overall enhancement of 4-7 orders of magnitude. Raman intensity maps of the 1480 and 1583 cm-1 peaks correlate well with the expected distribution of AuNPs and EGFR. Normal cells show little to no enhancement. The results therefore present a simple yet effective means to image EGFR over-expression.

  8. Evaluation of Mannosidase and Trypsin Enzymes Effects on Biofilm Production of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Burn Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Banar, Maryam; Emaneini, Mohammad; Satarzadeh, Mhboubeh; Abdellahi, Nafiseh; Beigverdi, Reza; van Leeuwen, Willem B.; Jabalameli, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    Biofilm is an important virulence factor in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and has a substantial role in antibiotic resistance and chronic burn wound infections. New therapeutic agents against P. aeruginosa, degrading biofilms in burn wounds and improving the efficacy of current antimicrobial agents, are required. In this study, the effects of α-mannosidase, β-mannosidase and trypsin enzymes on the degradation of P. aeruginosa biofilms and on the reduction of ceftazidime minimum biofilm eliminating concentrations (MBEC) were evaluated. All tested enzymes, destroyed the biofilms and reduced the ceftazidime MBECs. However, only trypsin had no cytotoxic effect on A-431 human epidermoid carcinoma cell lines. In conclusion, since trypsin had better features than mannosidase enzymes, it can be a promising agent in combatting P. aeruginosa burn wound infections. PMID:27736961

  9. In vivo anticancer evaluation of the hyperthermic efficacy of anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted PEG-based nanocarrier containing magnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Giovanni; Ravagli, Costanza; Mazzantini, Filippo; Loudos, George; Adan, Jaume; Masa, Marc; Psimadas, Dimitrios; Fragogeorgi, Eirini A; Locatelli, Erica; Innocenti, Claudia; Sangregorio, Claudio; Comes Franchini, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles with targeting moieties containing magnetic nanoparticles as theranostic agents have considerable potential for the treatment of cancer. Here we report the chemical synthesis and characterization of a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-based nanocarrier containing iron oxide nanoparticles and human epithelial growth factor receptor on the outer shell. The nanocarrier was also radiolabeled with 99mTc and tested as a theranostic nanomedicine, ie, it was investigated for both its diagnostic ability in vivo and its therapeutic hyperthermic effects in a standard A431 human tumor cell line. Following radiolabeling with 99mTc, the biodistribution and therapeutic hyperthermic effects of the nanosystem were studied noninvasively in vivo in tumor-bearing mice. A substantial decrease in tumor size correlated with an increase in both nanoparticle concentration and local temperature was achieved, confirming the possibility of using this multifunctional nanosystem as a therapeutic tool for epidermoid carcinoma. PMID:25028545

  10. Assessment of redox changes to hydrogen peroxide-sensitive proteins during EGF signaling.

    PubMed

    Cuddihy, Sarah L; Winterbourn, Christine C; Hampton, Mark B

    2011-07-01

    Hydrogen peroxide acts as a second messenger in growth factor signaling where it can oxidize and modify the function of redox-sensitive proteins. While selective thiol oxidation has been measured, there has been no global assessment of protein oxidation following growth factor activation. Significant changes to the abundant and widely distributed redox sensitive thiol proteins were observed in A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide, but no changes were observed following treatment with epidermal growth factor (EGF). This included members of the peroxiredoxin family, which were also monitored in the presence of the thioredoxin reductase inhibitor auranofin to limit their capacity to recycle to the reduced form. We conclude that widespread thiol oxidation does not occur in cells during EGF signaling, and that hydrogen peroxide must act in a highly localized or selective manner.

  11. Rational Design of a Dephosphorylation-Resistant Reporter Enables Single-Cell Measurement of Tyrosine Kinase Activity.

    PubMed

    Turner, Abigail H; Lebhar, Michael S; Proctor, Angela; Wang, Qunzhao; Lawrence, David S; Allbritton, Nancy L

    2016-02-19

    Although peptide-based reporters of protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity have been used to study PTK enzymology in vitro, the application of these reporters to intracellular conditions is compromised by their dephosphorylation, preventing PTK activity measurements. Nonproteinogenic amino acids may be utilized to rationally design selective peptidic ligands by accessing greater chemical and structural diversity than is available using the native amino acids. We describe a peptidic reporter that, upon phosphorylation by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), is resistant to dephosphorylation both in vitro and in cellulo. The reporter contains a conformationally constrained phosphorylatable moiety (7-(S)-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid) in the place of L-tyrosine and is efficiently phosphorylated in A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells. Dephosphorylation of the reporter occurs 3 orders of magnitude more slowly compared with that of the conventional tyrosine-containing reporter.

  12. Antiproliferative activity of polygonaceae species from the Carpathian Basin against human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lajter, Ildikó; Zupkó, István; Molnár, Judit; Jakab, Gusztáv; Balogh, Lajos; Vasas, Andrea; Hohmann, Judit

    2013-01-01

    Aqueous and organic extracts of 27 selected species from five genera (Fallopia, Oxyria, Persicaria, Polygonum and Rumex) of the family Polygonaceae occurring in the Carpathian Basin were screened in vitro for antiproliferative activity against HeLa (cervix epithelial adenocarcinoma), A431 (skin epidermoid carcinoma) and MCF7 (breast epithelial adenocarcinoma) cells, using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. A total of 196 n-hexane, chloroform, 50% methanol or water extracts of different plant parts were investigated. It was found that extracts of Polygonum hydropiper, Rumex acetosa, Rumex alpinus, Rumex aquaticus, Rumex scutatus and Rumex thyrsiflorus at 10 or 30 µg/mL demonstrated substantial cell growth inhibitory activity (at least 50% inhibition of cell proliferation) against one or more cell lines. R. acetosa and R. thyrsiflorus proved to be the most active and are considered worthy of activity-guided phytochemical investigations.

  13. Inhibition of skin squamous cell carcinoma proliferation and promote apoptosis by dual silencing of NET-1 and survivin.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhou-Jing; Wang, Jian-Li; Chen, Li

    2015-08-01

    The simultaneous silencing of multiple upregulated genes is an attractive and viable strategy to treat many incurable diseases including cancer. In the present study, skin squamous cell carcinoma (SSCC) tissue microarray was constructed and the expression of NET-1 and survivin was identified. The high expression of NET-1 and survivin gene in SSCC was confirmed as an important event for the formation and development of the cancer. A total of 100 primary SSCC patients were included in the present study. Expression of NET-1 and survivin in cancer cells was evaluated immunohistochemically in tissue microarrays. The interaction between NET-1 and survivin in SSCC by co-immunoprecipitation was subsequently verified by producing the siRNA sequence targeting the single gene (siRNA-NET-1 and siRNA-survivin) as well as NET-1 and survivin gene (one-chain-double-target siRNA). The levels of NET-1 and survivin mRNA and protein expression in A431 cells were detected by RT-qPCR and western blotting, and the expression of related genes including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cortactin, Bcl-2, caspase-3 and -8 was identified using RT-qPCR. The protein localization and expression of NET-1 and survivin in A431 cells were documented by immunohistochemistry and immuno-fluorescence staining. The proliferation and apoptosis of A431 cells were detected by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry (FCM). The tissue microarray showed that NET-1 and survivin were highly expressed in SSCC, while the correlation analysis showed NET-1 expression was positively associated with survivin. In addition, we reported that using the one-chain-double-target siRNA conjugate composed of NET-1 and survivin siRNA sequences in the same backbone inhibited proliferation and promoted apoptosis of SSCC. The one-chain-double-target siRNA showed further downregulation on NET-1 and survivin mRNA and protein levels compared with NET-1 siRNA or survivin siRNA. It also exhibited greater suppression on proliferation

  14. Urinary bladder carcinoma with divergent differentiation featuring small cell carcinoma, sarcomatoid carcinoma, and liposarcomatous component.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Mariko; Morikawa, Teppei; Nakagawa, Tohru; Miyakawa, Jimpei; Maeda, Daichi; Homma, Yukio; Fukayama, Masashi

    2016-09-01

    Both small cell carcinoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma of the urinary bladder are highly aggressive tumors, and a concurrence of these tumors is extremely rare. We report a case of urinary bladder cancer with small cell carcinoma as a predominant component, accompanied by sarcomatoid carcinoma and conventional urothelial carcinoma (UC). Although the small cell carcinoma component had resolved on receiving chemoradiotherapy, rapid growth of the residual tumor led to a fatal outcome. A 47-year-old man presented with occasional bladder irritation and had a 2-year history of asymptomatic hematuria. Cystoscopy revealed a huge mass in the urinary bladder, and transurethral resection was performed. Microscopically, small cell carcinoma was detected as the major tumor component. Spindle-shaped sarcomatoid cells were also observed that were intermingled with small cell carcinoma and conventional UC. In addition, a sheet-like growth of the lipoblast-like neoplastic cells was observed focally. Initially, by providing chemoradiotherapy, we achieved a marked tumor regression; however, the tumor rapidly regrew after the completion of chemoradiotherapy, and the patient underwent radical cystectomy. Only conventional UC and sarcomatoid carcinoma were identified in the cystectomy specimen. The patient died of the disease 4 months after cystectomy. Urinary bladder cancer may include a combination of multiple aggressive histologies as in the present case. Because the variation in the tumor components may affect the efficacy of therapy, a correct diagnosis of every tumor component is necessary.

  15. Urinary bladder carcinoma with divergent differentiation featuring small cell carcinoma, sarcomatoid carcinoma, and liposarcomatous component.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Mariko; Morikawa, Teppei; Nakagawa, Tohru; Miyakawa, Jimpei; Maeda, Daichi; Homma, Yukio; Fukayama, Masashi

    2016-09-01

    Both small cell carcinoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma of the urinary bladder are highly aggressive tumors, and a concurrence of these tumors is extremely rare. We report a case of urinary bladder cancer with small cell carcinoma as a predominant component, accompanied by sarcomatoid carcinoma and conventional urothelial carcinoma (UC). Although the small cell carcinoma component had resolved on receiving chemoradiotherapy, rapid growth of the residual tumor led to a fatal outcome. A 47-year-old man presented with occasional bladder irritation and had a 2-year history of asymptomatic hematuria. Cystoscopy revealed a huge mass in the urinary bladder, and transurethral resection was performed. Microscopically, small cell carcinoma was detected as the major tumor component. Spindle-shaped sarcomatoid cells were also observed that were intermingled with small cell carcinoma and conventional UC. In addition, a sheet-like growth of the lipoblast-like neoplastic cells was observed focally. Initially, by providing chemoradiotherapy, we achieved a marked tumor regression; however, the tumor rapidly regrew after the completion of chemoradiotherapy, and the patient underwent radical cystectomy. Only conventional UC and sarcomatoid carcinoma were identified in the cystectomy specimen. The patient died of the disease 4 months after cystectomy. Urinary bladder cancer may include a combination of multiple aggressive histologies as in the present case. Because the variation in the tumor components may affect the efficacy of therapy, a correct diagnosis of every tumor component is necessary. PMID:27461832

  16. Lobomycosis and squamous cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Lisiane; Rodrigues, Luciana; Rodrigues, Carlos Alberto Chirano; Santos, Mônica; Talhari, Sinésio; Talhari, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    The occurence of squamous cell carcinoma on long-lasting ulcers is classic. Malignant transformation may occur on burn scars and chronic ulcers of varying etiology, including infectious agents. Transformation of old lobomycosis lesion scars into squamous cell carcinoma has been rarely reported. Careful and long-term follow-up of such patients is important to avoid carcinomatous transformation. PMID:23739701

  17. Basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common form of skin cancer, predominantly affecting the head and neck, and can be diagnosed clinically in most cases. Metastasis of BCC is rare, but localised tissue invasion and destruction can lead to morbidity. Incidence of BCC increases markedly after the age of 40 years, but incidence in younger people is rising, possibly as a result of increased sun exposure. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions on treatment response/recurrence (within 1 year of therapy) in people with basal cell carcinoma? What are the effects of interventions on long-term recurrence (a minimum of 2 years after treatment) in people with basal cell carcinoma? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to December 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 16 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: cryotherapy/cryosurgery, curettage and cautery/electrodesiccation, fluorouracil, imiquimod 5% cream, photodynamic therapy, and surgery (conventional or Mohs' micrographic surgery). PMID:21718567

  18. Perianal Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bulur, Isil; Boyuk, Emine; Saracoglu, Zeynep Nurhan; Arik, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common non-melanoma skin cancer. Exposure to ultraviolet light is an important risk factor for BCC development and the disorder therefore develops commonly on body areas that are more exposed to sunlight, such as the face and neck. It is uncommon in the closed area of the body and quite rare in the perianal and genital regions. Herein, we report a 34-year-old patient with perianal BCC who had no additional risk factors. PMID:25848349

  19. Carcinoma Adenomatodes Cervicis Uteri

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Herbert R.

    1926-01-01

    The case is one of carcinoma adenomatodes (adenoma malignum) cervicis uteri, which occurred in a patient, aged 49. Vaginal hysterectomy was performed with the Pacquelin cautery, and the patient remains well after 22 years. Attention is drawn to the rarity of the disease, and the point is emphasized that in true cases of the disease the glandular epithelium is nowhere proliferated, and therefore reliance on microscopic examination alone for the diagnosis may lead to serious error. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:19985105

  20. Immunotherapy of pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Märten, Angela

    2008-05-01

    Patients with carcinoma of the exocrine pancreas have especially poor prognosis with a five-year survival rate of <1% and a median survival of 4-6 months. Pancreatic carcinoma is a systemic disease, insensitive to radiotherapy and mostly to chemotherapy. Accordingly, new treatment modalities are worth being investigated. One of the promising approaches is immunotherapy. Several phase I/II trials that have been published show interesting results, whereupon antibody-based strategies seem to fail and unspecific stimulation or vaccination with peptides look encouraging. Furthermore, phase II trials dealing with combination therapies are highly promising. One of them, a combination of chemoradiotherapy plus interferon-alpha is currently tested in a randomized phase III trial. As most of the trials had enrolled only limited numbers of patients and most of the trials were not conducted and/or reported according to the new standards it is difficult to draw final conclusions from the discussed trials. Immuno-monitoring was performed only in 40% of the discussed publications. In all cases immune responses were observed and correlation with the clinical outcome is discussed. Immunotherapy of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and especially combination therapies including immunotherapy is an up-and-coming approach and needs to be investigated in well conducted phase III randomized controlled trials accompanied by appropriate immuno-monitoring.

  1. Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Iezzi, G; Rubini, C; Fioroni, M; Piattelli, A

    2002-02-01

    Clear cell tumours, in the head and neck region, are usually derived from salivary or odontogenic tissues, or may be metastatic. A few clear cells may be present in odontogenic cysts, while, odontogenic neoplasms composed predominantly of clear cells are quite rare. They include calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumours (CEOT), ameloblastoma and odontogenic carcinoma. Clear cell odontogenic tumour (CCOT) has been classified in the last WHO classification as a benign tumour, but it is now recognized as a more sinister lesion and current opinion is that CCOT should be designated as a carcinoma. These tumours are characterized by aggressive growth, recurrences, and metastatic disease. A recent review of the literature has yielded 30 cases of tumours with similar characteristics. These tumours have a peak incidence in the 5th-7th decades, with a female predilection. The anterior portions of the jaws, especially the mandible, are most frequently affected. The aggressive potential of these neoplasms is well documented by the extensive invasion of adjacent tissues, multiple recurrences and regional or distant metastases.

  2. Etiopathogenesis of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Makazlieva, Tanja; Vaskova, Olivija; Majstorov, Venjamin

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Thyroid malignomas are a heterogeneous group of neoplasm consisting of most frequent differentiated encountered carcinomas, papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma, then medullary thyroid carcinoma originating from neuroendocrine calcitonin-producing C-cells and rare forms of thyroid lymphomas arising from intrathyroidal lymphatic tissue, thyroid sarcomas and poorly differentiated anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. There are increasing numbers of epidemiological studies and publications that have suggested increased incidence rate of thyroid carcinomas. We have read, analysed and compare available reviews and original articles investigating different etiological factors in the development of thyroid carcinomas through Google Scholar and PubMed Database. DISCUSSION: Aetiology involved in the development of thyroid carcinomas is multifactorial and includes external influences, as well as constitutional predispositions and genetic etiological factors. The actual effect of environmental and constitutional factors is on promoting genetic and epigenetic alterations which result in cell proliferation and oncogenesis. Until now are identified numerous genetic alterations, assumed to have an important role in oncogenesis, with MAPK and PI3K-AKT as crucial signalling networks regulating growth, proliferation, differentiation and cell survival/apoptosis. CONCLUSION: This new molecular insight could have a crucial impact on diagnosis and also on improving and selecting an appropriate treatment to the patients with thyroid malignancies. PMID:27703585

  3. [DNA methylation in thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Song, Xianyun; Shang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yutuo

    2015-03-01

    Cancer has become clear that not merely gene variations but also epigenetic modifications may contribute to it. Epigenetic changes refer to stable alterations in gene expression with unrelated to changes in the underlying genetic sequence,resulting in heritable. DNA methylation is one of the common epigenetic changes. It control the gene expression through changing DNA conformation and stability, chromatin structer, DNA-protein interaction. The reversal of dysregulated DNA methylation has emerged as a potential strategy for the treatment of thyroid carcinoma. The artical will provide an overview of how DNA methylation contribute to thyroid carcinoma dissemination,invasion and metastasis and we will summarize the latest epigenetic therapies for thyroid carcinoma.

  4. Correlative imaging in gallbladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Willekens, I; Goethals, L R; Brussaard, C; Verdries, D; de Mey, J

    2014-01-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma is a relatively rare malignant epithelial neoplasm, arising from gallbladder mucosa. It is the fifth most common gastrointestinal malignancy and the most common biliary tract cancer. Early diagnosis remains difficult, because clinical symptoms are sparse and non-specific, often resulting in advanced stage disease at the time of diagnosis. The most common feature of gallbladder carcinoma on different imaging modalities is focal wall thickening, associated with a large eccentric tumor mass. In this case we report the imaging characteristics of gallbladder carcinoma on ultrasound, MDCT and 18F-FDG PET/CT.

  5. Myoepithelial carcinoma with contralateral invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sun Young; Bae, Young Kyung; Cho, Jihyong; Kang, Sun Hee

    2011-09-01

    Adenomyoepithelioma (AME) is a rare benign tumor composed of myoepithelial cells (MECs) which are located beneath the epithelial cells of exocrine glands, especially in breast and salivary glands. These tumor cells show biphasic proliferation of epithelial and MECs. Malignant AME is characterized by distant metastasis, local recurrence, cytologic atypia, high mitotic activity and infiltrating tumor margins. A 51-year-old woman presented with an 8 months growth in the left breast. She underwent core-needle biopsy and consecutively mammotome assisted biopsy at a local clinic. After resection, she complained about re-growing remnant lesion and a newly developed solid mass in the right breast. Finally, the remnant mass in the left breast was diagnosed with myoepithelial carcinoma. Concurrently, contralateral breast mass was diagnosed with invasive micropapillary carcinoma. Herein we report an unusual case of synchronous myoepithelial carcinoma and invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast with a review of literatures.

  6. Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered to be one of the most common malignancies worldwide, and the most common one in Africa and Asia. Over the last decade, a rising incidence of up to 10-15/100,000 per population has been seen in the Western world, with an estimate of 250,000 deaths and more than a million worldwide per year. By the year 2010, the World Health Organization expects that HCC will be the leading cause of cancer mortality surpassing lung cancer. This increasing incidence is most likely related to an increasing prevalence of chronic hepatitis C (HC) and B (HB) virus infections and other diseases inducing chronic inflammation (Befeler and Di Bisceglie 2002; Llovet et al. 2003).

  7. Diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Di Bisceglie, Adrian M.

    2005-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is responsible for a large proportion of cancer deaths worldwide. HCC is frequently diagnosed after the development of clinical deterioration at which time survival is measured in months. Long-term survival requires detection of small tumors, often present in asymptomatic individuals, which may be more amenable to invasive therapeutic options. Surveillance of high-risk individuals for HCC is commonly performed using the serum marker alfa-fetoprotein (AFP) often in combination with ultrasonography. Various other serologic markers are currently being tested to help improve surveillance accuracy. Diagnosis of HCC often requires more sophisticated imaging modalities such as CT scan and MRI, which have multiphasic contrast enhancement capabilities. Serum AFP used alone can be helpful if levels are markedly elevated, which occurs in fewer than half of cases at time of diagnosis. Confirmation by liver biopsy can be performed under circumstances when the diagnosis of HCC remains unclear. PMID:18333158

  8. Prevention of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Schütte, Kerstin; Balbisi, Fathi; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has significantly changed throughout the past decade and will continue to do so in the future as a consequence of effective primary prevention and treatment of virus-related liver diseases. However, other risk factors for HCC are constantly on the rise, including alcoholic liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The knowledge on these and further risk factors associated with an increased risk of HCC provide the opportunity and chance for the development and implementation of successful preventive strategies to decrease the worldwide burden of HCC. This mini-review gives a short overview on current strategies in primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of HCC. PMID:27722155

  9. Salivary gland myoepithelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vilar-González, S; Bradley, K; Rico-Pérez, J; Vogiatzis, P; Golka, D; Nigam, A; Sivaramalingam, M; Kazmi, S

    2015-11-01

    Salivary gland myoepithelial carcinoma (MC) or malignant myoepithelioma is a rare entity. MC usually presents as a slow-growing painless mass arising in the parotid gland, but may involve other salivary glands. This tumour may be particularly locally aggressive, but its clinical and biological features are not yet fully understood. MC may arise from pre-existing benign lesions, such as pleomorphic adenomas or benign myoepitheliomas, or may arise de novo. It usually affects patients over 50 years old, with no gender preference. Because it is often asymptomatic, the presentation and diagnosis can be delayed by months, even years. The current WHO classification considers MC to be an intermediate- to high-grade malignancy. Other published data suggest it is likely to be a high-grade neoplasm, consistent with its aggressive behaviour. Its epidemiology, histopathological features, immunohistochemical profile, clinical behaviour and optimal management are not well understood. Following review of the current literature we aim to address these.

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Adrenocortical Carcinoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Childhood Treatment for more information.) Having certain genetic conditions increases the risk of adrenocortical carcinoma. Anything ... can be a sign of disease. CT scan (CAT scan) : A procedure that makes a series of ...

  11. Stages of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... other organs . Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can affect the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma. ... ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy for psoriasis . Having an immune system weakened by disease, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...

  12. Onychocytic carcinoma: a new entity.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Christophe; Langbein, Lutz; Ambrossetti, Damien; Erfan, Nouran; Schweizer, Jürgen; Michiels, Jean-François

    2013-08-01

    We have recently described a new nail tumor known as onychocytic matricoma. Herein, we describe its malignant counterpart. Clinically, the tumor simulates onychomatricoma (OM). Histologically, this in situ malignant epithelial tumor exhibits a distinct picture of onychocytic differentiation with signs of both nail matrical differentiation and nail plate differentiation. We have proposed the name onychocytic carcinoma for this singular adnexal neoplasm. Given the peculiar thickening of the nail plate observed in OM, onychocytic matricoma, and onychocytic carcinoma, the clinical individualization of a new type of nail band pattern could be proposed. It presents as an acquired localized (monodactylous) longitudinal pachyonychia. Such longitudinal pachyonychia allow the recognition of the matrical nail tumor, which has a limited etiological spectrum. Xantholeucopachyonychia suggests mainly OM and rarely onychocytic carcinoma. Pachymelanonychia suggests onychocytic matricoma and rarely pigmented OM or onychocytic carcinoma. PMID:23518638

  13. Cutaneous metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lazaro, M; Serrano, M L; Allende, I; Ratón, J A; Acebo, E; Diaz-Perez, J L

    2009-12-01

    Cutaneous metastases are an unusual finding that may present as the first sign of an internal neoplasia. A case of cutaneous metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma, which may often involve other organs but very rarely metastases to the skin, is reported.

  14. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... radiation. Exposure to radiation can lead to skin cancers. ... DG, Farndon PA. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. 2002 Jun 20 ... al. eds. Cancer of the Skin. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  15. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Esmati, Ebrahim; Babaei, Mohammad; Matini, Amirhassan; Ashtiani, Monir Sadat Mirai; Hamed, Ehsan Akbari; Nosrati, Hassan; Razi, Farideh; Ganjalikhani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Neuroendocrine carcinoma usually originates from lung. Few data exist in the literature regarding neuroendocrine carcinoma of the tongue. Patient data including history, surgical procedure, histology, and radiology investigations were collected and summarized. A 40-year-old woman was referred after partial glossectomy. Squamous mucosa with neoplasm and cells with round nuclei and light cytoplasm was reported in the tongue biopsy. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was positive for cytokeratin, neuron specific enolase, synaptophysin and chromogranin and negative for leukocyte common antigen. This case showed a high proliferative activity (Ki-67 labeling index were 60%). These IHC findings were in favor of poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. After surgery, she received chemotherapy and chemoradiation. The diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors in the present case is based on immunohistochemical markers and cellular shapes. Postoperative chemoradiotherapy is a critical element of therapy for head and neck high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas, our patient received this treatment after surgery. PMID:26458666

  16. Cholangiographic evaluation of bile duct carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, D.A.; MacCarty, R.L.; Gaffey, T.A.

    1983-12-01

    Cholangiograms and clinical histories of 82 patients with biopsy-proved bile duct carcinoma were reviewed. The carcinomas were classified according to morphologic findings and clinical outcome. Ulcerative colitis and antecedent inflammatory disease of the biliary tree, particularly primary sclerosing cholangitis, seem to predispose to the development of bile duct carcinoma. Focal stenotic lesions were the most common morphologic type (62/82). Polypoid carcinomas and diffuse sclerosing carcinomas were less common and of about equal frequency. Prognosis was best for patients with polypoid carcinomas and worst for those with diffuse sclerosing carcinomas. In 69 cases (84%), the tumors involved the intrahepatic or proximal extrahepatic ducts, makin curative resection difficult or impossible. Patients with carcinomas limited to the more distal extrahepatic bile ducts had a longer average survival and a higher probability of surgical cure. Proper management of patients with bile duct carcinoma requires a complete and accurate cholangiographic evaluation of the morphology, location, and extent of the disease.

  17. Microvascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ünal, Emre; İdilman, İlkay Sedakat; Akata, Deniz; Özmen, Mustafa Nasuh; Karçaaltıncaba, Muşturay

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular invasion is a crucial histopathologic prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. We reviewed the literature and aimed to draw attention to clinicopathologic and imaging findings that may predict the presence of microvascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma. Imaging findings suggesting microvascular invasion are disruption of capsule, irregular tumor margin, peritumoral enhancement, multifocal tumor, increased tumor size, and increased glucose metabolism on positron emission tomography-computed tomography. In the presence of typical findings, microvascular invasion may be predicted. PMID:26782155

  18. Gene therapy and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J; Alusi, G; Wang, Y

    2012-06-01

    In 2003, a non-replicating adenoviral gene therapy product received the world`s first government licence for the treatment of head and neck cancer. Two years later approval was granted to a replication-selective adenovirus for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in combination with chemotherapy. This review introduces the reader to gene therapy as an emerging treatment modality, and outlines its application to the management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by examining recent pre-clinical and clinical research.

  19. Multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Velasquez, G.; Glass, T.A.; D'Souza, V.J.; Formanek, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Renal oncocytoma, although rare, is being diagnosed more frequently, and criteria to differentiate it from other tumors have been described. Multiple oncocytomas have been reported, but an association between multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma in the same kidney has not been described. The authors report a case with two oncocytomas and a renal carcinoma in the right kidney as well as a right adrenal adenoma.

  20. [Adenosquamous carcinoma of the palate].

    PubMed

    Mancusi, G; Susani, M; Kornfehl, J; Girsch, W; Kautzky, M

    2002-08-01

    A rare case of adenosquamous carcinoma in a 74 year-old man is reported. Presenting as a nodule on the soft palate, diagnosis was prolonged because of the benign macroscopic aspect. CT-scan and MR-tomography showed an encapsulated lesion but biopsy and histologic examination revealed the typical features of adenosquamous carcinoma. The tumour consisted of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in close proximity to minor salivary glands of which the tumour seemed to have its origin. This entity, although rare in the head and neck region has been documented to be very aggressive with early regional and hematogenic metastasis. Therefore it has to be distinguished from other tumours, especially from mucoepidermoid carcinomas of the salivary glands, which have a better prognosis. Adenosquamous carcinoma is considered to have poor radiosensitivity and chemotherapeutic approaches have also not been successful in the literature. In our case radical surgical therapy was performed by excision of the whole soft palate and bilateral neck dissection. This resulted in total removal of the tumour but revealed bilateral lymph node metastases. Vital functions were saved by reconstruction of the palate with a free vascularized tensor-fasciae-latae-perforator-flap. For the first time in a case of adenosquamous carcinoma carcinoembryonic antigen in serum was monitored. A pretherapeutical 29-fold elevation resulted in a marked decrease after surgery, but supranormal values indicated remaining tumour burden which was found in metastases in the lung. Because of the limitations in therapy, early histologic diagnosis is most important in this highly malignant tumour.

  1. Lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the minor salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Worley, N K; Daroca, P J

    1997-06-01

    Undifferentiated carcinoma of the minor salivary glands has been rarely reported in the world literature. Lymphoepithelial carcinoma, which is a variant of undifferentiated carcinoma, is distinguished from small cell and large cell undifferentiated carcinoma by its association with benign lymphoepithelial lesions. We report a case of a lymphoepithelial carcinoma developing in a minor salivary gland of the oral cavity in a 69-year-old woman. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a lymphoepithelial carcinoma arising from a minor salivary gland.

  2. Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma Presenting with Two Different Patterns of Cutaneous Metastases: Carcinoma Telangiectaticum and Carcinoma Erysipeloides

    PubMed Central

    Yaghoobi, Reza; Talaizade, Abdolhasan; Lal, Karan; Ranjbari, Nastaran; Sohrabiaan, Nasibe

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous metastases can have many different clinical presentations. They are seen in patients with advanced malignant disease; however, they can be the initial manifestation of undetected malignancies. Inflammatory breast carcinoma is a rare and aggressive form of breast cancer that has a nonspecific appearance mimicking many benign conditions including mastitis, breast abscesses, and/or dermatitis. The authors report the case of a 40-year-old woman with inflammatory breast carcinoma presenting with violaceous papulovesicular lesions resembling lymphangioma circumscriptum and erythematous patches resembling erysipelas. These lesions represent two different types of cutaneous metastases, both of which were the initial signs of inflammatory breast carcinoma in the patient described herein. Skin biopsy of lesions confirmed invasive breast cancer and further prompted a work up for inflammatory breast carcinoma. This case demonstrates the importance of follow-up for all breast lesions, even those considered to be of benign nature, for they can be presenting signs of metastatic breast cancer. PMID:26345728

  3. Loss of CRABP-II Characterizes Human Skin Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinomas and Favors DMBA/TPA-Induced Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Passeri, Daniela; Doldo, Elena; Tarquini, Chiara; Costanza, Gaetana; Mazzaglia, Donatella; Agostinelli, Sara; Campione, Elena; Di Stefani, Alessandro; Giunta, Alessandro; Bianchi, Luca; Orlandi, Augusto

    2016-06-01

    Retinol and its derivatives play an important role in epidermal growth and differentiation and represent chemopreventive agents in nonmelanoma skin cancer. Retinoic acid binding protein II (CRABP-II) is a cytoplasmic receptor that critically regulates all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) trafficking. We documented the marked reduced expression of CRABP-II and its promoter methylation in human poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas. To investigate the role of CRABP-II in skin carcinogenesis we used skin lesion induction by dimethylbenz[a]anthracene/12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate in CRABP-II-knockout C57BL/6 mice. We observed earlier and more diffuse epidermal dysplasia, greater incidence and severity of tumors, reduced expression of cytokeratin 1/cytokeratin 10 and involucrin, increased proliferation, and impaired ATRA inhibition of tumor promotion compared with wild-type animals. CRABP-II-transfected HaCaT, FaDu, and A431 cells showed expression of differentiation markers, retinoic acid receptor-β/-γ signaling, ATRA sensitivity, and suppression of EGFR/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT) pathways in a fatty acid binding protein 5/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/-δ-independent manner. The opposite was true in keratinocytes isolated from CRABP-II-knockout mice. Finally, CRABP-II accumulation induced ubiquitination-associated reduction of EGFR. Our results showed reduced CRABP-II expression in human poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas, and its gene deletion favored experimental skin carcinogenesis and impaired ATRA antitumor efficacy, likely modulating EGFR/AKT pathways and retinoic acid receptor-β/-γ signaling. Therapeutic interventions aimed at restoring CRABP-II-mediated signaling may amplify therapeutic retinoid efficacy in nonmelanoma skin cancer. PMID:26945879

  4. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors. 13. Structure-activity relationships for soluble 7-substituted 4-[(3-bromophenyl)amino]pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidines designed as inhibitors of the tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Thompson, A M; Murray, D K; Elliott, W L; Fry, D W; Nelson, J A; Showalter, H D; Roberts, B J; Vincent, P W; Denny, W A

    1997-11-21

    The general class of 4-(phenylamino)quinazolines are potent (some members with IC50 values < 1 nM) and selective inhibitors of the tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), via competitive binding at the ATP site of the enzyme, but many of the early analogues had poor aqueous solubility (< 1 mM). A series of 7-substituted 4-[(3-bromophenyl)-amino]pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidines, together with selected (3-methylphenyl)amino analogues, were prepared by reaction of the analogous 7-fluoro derivatives with appropriate amine nucleophiles in 2-BuOH or aqueous 1-PrOH. All of the compounds were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the tyrosine-phosphorylating action of EGF-stimulated full-length EGFR enzyme. Selected analogues were also evaluated for their inhibition of autophosphorylation of the EGF receptor in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells in culture and against A431 tumor xenografts in mice. Analogues bearing a wide variety of polyol, cationic, and anionic solubilizing substituents retained activity, but the most effective in terms of both increased aqueous solubility (> 40 mM) and retention of overall inhibitory activity (IC50's of 0.5-10 nM against isolated enzyme and 8-40 nM for inhibition of EGFR autophosphorylation in A431 cells) were weakly basic amine derivatives. These results are broadly consistent with a proposed model for the binding of these compounds to EGFR, in which the 6- and 7-positions of the pyridopyrimidine ring are in a largely hydrophobic binding region of considerable steric freedom, at the entrance of the adenine binding cleft. The most active cationic analogues have a weakly basic side chain where the amine moiety is three or more carbon atoms away from the nucleus. Two of the compounds (bearing weakly basic morpholinopropyl and strongly basic (dimethylamino)butyl solubilizing groups) produced in vivo tumor growth delays of 13-21 days against advanced stage A431 epidermoid xenografts in nude mice, when

  5. Treatment Options for Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of thymoma and thymic carcinoma include a cough and chest pain. Thymoma and thymic carcinoma may ... if you have any of the following: A cough that doesn't go away. Chest pain. Trouble ...

  6. Stages of Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of thymoma and thymic carcinoma include a cough and chest pain. Thymoma and thymic carcinoma may ... if you have any of the following: A cough that doesn't go away. Chest pain. Trouble ...

  7. General Information about Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Merkel Cell Carcinoma Go to Health Professional ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  8. General Information about Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Thymic Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  9. Potential targets for lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have identified potential therapeutic targets in lung squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of lung cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network study comprehensively characterized the lung squamous cell carcinoma gen

  10. Hepatocellular carcinoma in India.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Gouri Shankar; Babu, K Govind; Malhotra, Hemant; Ranade, Anantbhushan A; Murshed, Shaiqua; Datta, Debasis

    2013-12-01

    Cancers of the liver are one of the commonest cancers that occur in the world, the commonest of which is the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is considered to be the 5th commonest cancer in the world. In the areas that are endemic for hepatitis B and C, it is extremely common. Unfortunately, India which is an endemic zone for hepatitis B, there has been no comprehensive analyzed data for HCC. Incidence of HCC in India occurs at two peaks, one at a young age between 40 to 55 years and another above 60 years. Eighty per cent of all HCCs occurring in India occur with cirrhosis of liver in the background and 60% of all these cases are hepatitis B positive carriers. Symptoms are reflective of late presentation with advanced disease. Surgery, the only curative modulus available, unfortunately is not possible in 95% of HCC patients. Majority of the patients are treated with palliative and supportive care and life spans are limited. Sorafenib is used in a small section of patients. Characterization of HCC with molecular sub-typing is the need of the hour.

  11. Epidemiology of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Falk, R T; Pickle, L W; Fontham, E T; Greenberg, S D; Jacobs, H L; Correa, P; Fraumeni, J F

    1992-01-01

    Descriptive features of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) are presented using Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program population-based incidence data from 1973 through 1987, along with risk factors from histologically confirmed cases of BAC identified in a hospital-based case-control study conducted in Louisiana between 1979 and 1982. Compared to the rising incidence of lung cancer overall, BAC rates have remained relatively constant, accounting for less than 3% of all lung cancer. BAC incidence rates were higher in males, yet it explained proportionately more of the total lung cancer incidence in females. In the case-control study, 21 of the 33 cases originally ascertained from hospital pathology records were histologically confirmed as BAC. Most cases smoked cigarettes, with a 4-fold risk for ever smoking. Risks tended to increase with smoking intensity (reaching 10-fold for more than 1.5 packs/day) and duration (reaching 5-fold for more than 45 years of smoking). Following 10 or more years of employment, there was a 4-fold risk associated with motor freight occupations, along with nonsignificant excesses among construction workers, petroleum manufacturers, and sugar cane farmers. Cases were more likely than controls to have had emphysema or to have had a close family member with lung cancer. Although based on small numbers, this study suggests that BAC shares many of the epidemiological characteristics of lung adenocarcinoma.

  12. [External radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Girard, N; Mornex, F

    2011-02-01

    For a long time radiotherapy has been excluded from the therapeutic strategy for hepatocellular carcinoma, given its significant toxicity on the non-tumoral liver parenchyma. Conformal radiation is a recent advance in the field of radiotherapy, allowing dose escalation and combination with other therapeutic options for hepatocellular carcinoma, including trans-arterial chemo-embolization. Conformal radiotherapy is associated with interesting features, especially in cirrhotic patients: wide availability, non-invasiveness, possibility to target multiple localizations anywhere within the liver parenchyma, and favorable tolerance profile even in patients with cirrhosis and/or in a poor medical condition. Recently, radiation delivery has been optimized through several technical developments: respiratory gating and intensity-modulated radiotherapy, which allow a better focalization of the ballistics, stereotactic techniques and proton-beam radiotherapy, whose availability is currently limited in Europe. Given the high response rates of hepatocellular carcinoma to radiation, conformal radiotherapy may be regarded as a curative-intent treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma, similar to surgery and per-cutaneous techniques. Yet the impact of radiotherapy has to be evaluated in randomized trials to better integrate in the complex therapeutic algorithm of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  13. Barium inhibits arsenic-mediated apoptotic cell death in human squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Ichiro; Uemura, Noriyuki; Nizam, Saika; Khalequzzaman, Md; Thang, Nguyen D; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Akhand, Anwarul A; Shekhar, Hossain U; Nakajima, Tamie; Kato, Masashi

    2012-06-01

    Our fieldwork showed more than 1 μM (145.1 μg/L) barium in about 3 μM (210.7 μg/L) arsenic-polluted drinking well water (n = 72) in cancer-prone areas in Bangladesh, while the mean concentrations of nine other elements in the water were less than 3 μg/L. The types of cancer include squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). We hypothesized that barium modulates arsenic-mediated biological effects, and we examined the effect of barium (1 μM) on arsenic (3 μM)-mediated apoptotic cell death of human HSC-5 and A431 SCC cells in vitro. Arsenic promoted SCC apoptosis with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and JNK1/2 and caspase-3 activation (apoptotic pathway). In contrast, arsenic also inhibited SCC apoptosis with increased NF-κB activity and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) expression level and decreased JNK activity (antiapoptotic pathway). These results suggest that arsenic bidirectionally promotes apoptotic and antiapoptotic pathways in SCC cells. Interestingly, barium in the presence of arsenic increased NF-κB activity and XIAP expression and decreased JNK activity without affecting ROS production, resulting in the inhibition of the arsenic-mediated apoptotic pathway. Since the anticancer effect of arsenic is mainly dependent on cancer apoptosis, barium-mediated inhibition of arsenic-induced apoptosis may promote progression of SCC in patients in Bangladesh who keep drinking barium and arsenic-polluted water after the development of cancer. Thus, we newly showed that barium in the presence of arsenic might inhibit arsenic-mediated cancer apoptosis with the modulation of the balance between arsenic-mediated promotive and suppressive apoptotic pathways.

  14. Slit2 inhibits growth and metastasis of fibrosarcoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Zhang, Hong; Li, Hui; Wu, Tsung-Teh; Swisher, Stephen; He, Donggou; Wu, Lizhi; Xu, Jianmin; Elmets, Craig A; Athar, Mohammad; Xu, Xìao-chun; Xu, Hui

    2008-12-01

    Slits are a group of secreted glycoproteins that play a role in the regulation of cell migration. Previous studies suggested that Slit2 might be a tumor-suppressor gene. However, it remained to be determined whether Slit2 suppressed tumor growth and metastasis in animal models. We showed that Slit2 expression was decreased or abolished in human esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) compared to normal tissues by in situ hybridization. Stable transfection of human SCC A431 and fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells with Slit2 gene suppressed tumor growth in athymic nude mice. Apoptosis in Slit2-transfected tumors was increased, whereas proliferating cells were decreased, suggesting a mechanism for Slit2-mediated tumor suppression. This was supported by further analysis indicating that antiapoptotic molecules Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl and cell cycle molecules Cdk6 and Cyclin D1 were down-regulated in Slit2-transfected tumors. Furthermore, wound healing and Matrigel invasion assays showed that the transfection with Slit2 inhibited tumor cell migration and invasion. Slit2-transfected tumors showed a high level of keratin 8/18 and a low level of N-cadherin expression compared to empty vector-transfected tumors. More importantly, Slit2 transfection suppressed the metastasis of HT1080 tumor cells in lungs after intravenous inoculation. Collectively, our study has demonstrated that Slit2 inhibits tumor growth and metastasis of fibrosarcoma and SCC and that its effect on cell cycle and apoptosis signal pathways is an important mechanism for Slit2-mediated tumor suppression.

  15. Akt Inhibitor MK2206 in Treating Patients With Progressive, Recurrent, or Metastatic Adenoid Cyst Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-14

    Recurrent Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

  16. Transitional cell bladder carcinoma with presentation mimicking ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Erickson, D R; Dabbs, D J; Olt, G J

    1996-05-01

    In the case described here, the patient's initial presentation suggested ovarian carcinoma. She had recurrent ascites, a pelvic mass, elevated CA-125, and extensive peritoneal carcinomatosis with transitional cell histology. The presence of hematuria prompted a cystoscopy, which revealed the true site of origin to be the urinary bladder rather than ovaries. This presentation is extremely rare for bladder cancer. Since transitional cell tumors from the bladder have a much worse prognosis than those of ovarian origin, it is important to identify the primary site correctly. Therefore, cystoscopy is essential for patients with hematuria, and should be considered in cases of apparent primary peritoneal carcinoma with transitional cell histology.

  17. Treatment of thyroid follicular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Antonio; Rodríguez, José M; Parrilla, Pascual

    2015-12-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma includes 2 different tumor types, papillary (PC) and follicular carcinoma (FC), and although similar, their prognosis is different. FC is uncommon, and this has led to it often being analyzed together with PC, and therefore the true reality of this tumor is difficult to know. As a result, the diagnostic and therapeutic management and the prognostic factors in differentiated carcinoma are more predictive of PC than FC. In this review we analyze the current state of many of the therapeutic aspects of this pathology. The best surgical technique and the usefulness of associated lymphadenectomy is also analyzed. Regarding post-surgical ablation with 131I, the indications, doses and usefulness are discussed. For the remaining therapies we analyze the few indications for radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and of new drugs such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

  18. Genetic heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Unsal, H.; Isselbacher, K.J. ); Yakicier, C.; Marcais, C.; Ozturk, M. ); Kew, M. ); Volkmann, M. ); Zentgraf, H. )

    1994-01-18

    The authors studied 80 hepatocellular carcinomas from three continents for p53 gene (TP53) mutations and hepatitis B virus (HBV) sequences. p53 mutations were frequent in tumors from Mozambique but not in tumors from South Africa, China, and Germany. Independent of geographic origin, most tumors were positive for HBV sequences. X gene coding sequences of HBV were detected in 78% of tumors, whereas viral sequences in the surface antigen- and core antigen-encoding regions were present in less than 35% of tumors. These observations indicate that hepatocellular carcinomas are genetically heterogeneous. Mozambican-types of hepatocellular carcinomas are characterized by a high incidence of p53 mutations related to aflatoxins. In other tumors, the rarity of p53 mutations combined with the frequent presence of viral X gene coding sequences suggests a possible interference of HBV with the wild-type p53 function.

  19. Radioimmune localization of occult carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Duda, R.B.; Zimmer, A.M.; Rosen, S.T.; Gilyon, K.A.; Webber, D.; Spies, S.; Spies, W.; Merchant, B. )

    1990-07-01

    Patients with a rising serum carcinoembryonic antigen level and no clinical or roentgenographic evidence of recurrent or metastatic cancer present a treatment dilemma. Eleven such patients, 10 with a previously treated colorectal carcinoma and 1 with a previously treated breast carcinoma, received an injection of the anticarcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody ZCE-025 labeled with the radioisotope indium 111. Nuclear scintigraphy was performed on days 3 and 5 through 7 to detect potential sites of tumor recurrence. The monoclonal antibody scan accurately predicted the presence or absence of occult malignancy in 7 (64%) patients. Second-look laparotomy confirmed the monoclonal antibody scan results in the patients with colorectal cancer, and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed metastatic breast cancer. This study demonstrates that In-ZCE-025 can localize occult carcinoma and may assist the surgeon in facilitating the operative exploration. In-ZCE-025 assisted in the initiation of adjuvant therapy for the patient with breast cancer.

  20. Current management of pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Lillemoe, K D

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The author seeks to provide an update on the current management of pancreatic carcinoma, including diagnosis and staging, surgical resection and adjuvant therapy for curative intent, and palliation. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: During the 1960s and 1970s, the operative mortality and long-term survival after pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic carcinoma was so poor that some authors advocated abandoning the procedure. Several recent series have reported a marked improvement in perioperative results with 5-year survival in excess of 20%. Significant advances also have been made in areas of preoperative evaluation and palliation for advanced disease. CONCLUSION: Although carcinoma of the pancreas remains a disease with a poor prognosis, advances in the last decade have led to improvements in the overall management of this disease. Resection for curative intent currently should be accomplished with minimal perioperative mortality. Surgical palliation also may provide the optimal management of selected patients. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 7. PMID:7531966

  1. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the liver.

    PubMed

    Katsuda, S; Nakanishi, I; Kajikawa, K; Takabatake, S

    1984-01-01

    An autopsy case of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the liver associated with congenital cysts in a 78-year-old man was reported. The liver weighed 1,900 g, and there was a massive tumor of 11 X 10 X 6.5 cm in the left lobe with multiple sero-mucinous cysts. Histologically, the tumor cells consisted of four types of cells: mucus-secreting cells, squamous cells, intermediate cells, and oxyphilic cells. The variety of tumor cells quite resembled that of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary gland. The sero-mucinous cysts were lined with a single layer of cuboidal or columnar cells and were not communicated with the biliary ducts. Part of the cysts with benign lining cells was in continuity with tumor cells of the intermediate type. Discussion was made on the histogenesis of hepatic mucoepidermoid carcinoma in particular emphasis on the association of the congenital cysts.

  2. Parathyroid carcinoma in tertiary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Seup; Ryu, Han Suk; Kang, Kyung Ho; Park, Sung Jun

    2016-10-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare disease of unknown etiology. This study presents a case of parathyroid carcinoma in a patient with tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Despite a successful kidney transplantation, the intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level of the patient was elevated consistently and could not be controlled by medical therapy. Due to the development of tertiary hyperparathyroidism with bone pain and osteoporosis, subtotal parathyroidectomy was performed 4 months after the kidney transplantation. Histological evaluation revealed that one of four parathyroid lesions was a parathyroid carcinoma, while the others were diffuse hyperplasia. Postoperative laboratory studies indicated a decreased level of iPTH. A positron emission tomography-computed tomography performed 6 months after the operation revealed no evidence of local recurrence or distant metastasis. PMID:27664600

  3. Screening for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Merican, I

    1996-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the commonest cancers in Asian males. In Malaysia, it is one of the ten most common cancers amongst the male population. Most of our patients with HCC present to us rather late and almost all die within 4 months of diagnosis. HCC occurs more commonly in patients with cirrhosis associated with hepatitis B and C infections. Screening for HCC can lead to early detection of small tumours (< 5 cm) that are more amenable to surgical resection, resulting in improved survival rates. The average 5-year survival rate for those who have undergone surgical resection is 68% (range, 22-73%). Better results are obtained with the smaller tumours (< 2 cm in diameter). Patients with chronic hepatitis B and C infection especially those who are > 45 years of age, who have concomitant cirrhosis or have a family history of HCC should be examined every 3-6 months with periodic serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) measurements and abdominal ultrasound examinations. Abdominal ultrasound is useful in the detection of small tumours. While mass screening for HCC is not cost-effective in countries of low incidence of HCC, screening of high risk groups may be justified in countries with a high endemicity of HBV infection. Screening for HCC in Japan, Taiwan and China appears to yield better results than those in the West. Nonetheless, primary prevention with mass hepatitis B vaccination and blood donor screening for anti-HCV is expected to make a much greater impact in the control of HCC in the years to come.

  4. [Medullary thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Niccoli-Sire, P; Conte-Devolx, B

    2007-10-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is developed from thyroid C cells that secrete calcitonin (CT). MTC represents 5-10% of thyroid cancers with a 1-2% incidence in nodular thyroid diseases. Diagnosis is usually made by a solitary nodule often associated to nodal metastasis and confirmed by a high basal CT level which represents its biological marker. MTC may present as a sporadic form and in about 30% of case as a familial form as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome, an hereditary dominant inherited disease related to germline mutation of the proto-oncogene RET. Both biological (CT) and genetic (RET) markers allows the optimal diagnosis and treatment of MTC; the former allows screening and early diagnosis of MTC by routinely CT measurements in nodular thyroid diseases that make the adequate and complete surgery required to be performed. The former leads to diagnose familial MTC and to identify at risk subjects in whom early or prophylactic surgery may be performed. Treatment of MTC is based on the complete surgical resection: total thyroidectomy associated to central and laterocervical nodal dissection. For locally advanced or metastatic MTC, complete cervical surgery is required and needs to be associated to other systemic treatments: as chemotherapy is not very efficient, radioimmunotherapy and RET target gene therapy (mainly tyrosine kinase inhibitors) appears as possible valuable therapeutic options for the future. Prognosis of MTC is mainly related to both the stage of the disease and the extend of the initial surgery. Ten-year survival is about 80% when the patients are not surgically cured and reaches 95% when the biological marker CT is normalized after surgery. PMID:17572372

  5. Hepatocellular carcinoma: a review

    PubMed Central

    Balogh, Julius; Victor, David; Asham, Emad H; Burroughs, Sherilyn Gordon; Boktour, Maha; Saharia, Ashish; Li, Xian; Ghobrial, R Mark; Monsour, Howard P

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy and is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In the United States, HCC is the ninth leading cause of cancer deaths. Despite advances in prevention techniques, screening, and new technologies in both diagnosis and treatment, incidence and mortality continue to rise. Cirrhosis remains the most important risk factor for the development of HCC regardless of etiology. Hepatitis B and C are independent risk factors for the development of cirrhosis. Alcohol consumption remains an important additional risk factor in the United States as alcohol abuse is five times higher than hepatitis C. Diagnosis is confirmed without pathologic confirmation. Screening includes both radiologic tests, such as ultrasound, computerized tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, and serological markers such as α-fetoprotein at 6-month intervals. Multiple treatment modalities exist; however, only orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) or surgical resection is curative. OLT is available for patients who meet or are downstaged into the Milan or University of San Francisco criteria. Additional treatment modalities include transarterial chemoembolization, radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation, percutaneous ethanol injection, cryoablation, radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy, and molecularly targeted therapies. Selection of a treatment modality is based on tumor size, location, extrahepatic spread, and underlying liver function. HCC is an aggressive cancer that occurs in the setting of cirrhosis and commonly presents in advanced stages. HCC can be prevented if there are appropriate measures taken, including hepatitis B virus vaccination, universal screening of blood products, use of safe injection practices, treatment and education of alcoholics and intravenous drug users, and initiation of antiviral therapy. Continued improvement in both surgical and nonsurgical approaches has demonstrated

  6. Prokaryotic expression and refolding of EGFR extracellular domain and generation of phage display human scFv against EGFR.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yaqiong; Zhang, Juan; Jin, Haizhen; Chen, Zhiguo; Wu, Qinhang; Li, Weiguang; Yue, Ming; Luo, Chen; Wang, Min

    2013-10-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), overexpressed in many epithelial tumors, is emerging as an attractive target for cancer therapy. Antibodies to the extracellular region of EGFR play a key role in the development of a mechanistic understanding and cancer therapy. In the present study, we demonstrated for the first time that EGFR-truncated extracellular domain (EGFR-tED), which was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells in the form of inclusion bodies, could be purified and renatured. The EGFR-tED protein was purified by gel filtration and Ni-NTA affinity chromatography with high purity (>90%) and refolded by a urea gradient size-exclusion chromatography, which could bind its ligand EGF in a concentration-dependent manner. The renatured EGFR was used for biopanning anti-EGFR scFvs from a human synthetic antibody phage display library. Combined with an additional cell-based ELISA screen, a novel scFv, E10, was obtained with two-fold more potent on the binding to EGFR-bearing tumor cells (the epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431) and the inhibition of A431 cells proliferation than scFv 11F8, suggesting that the E10 has the potential to be developed as therapeutic agents to solid tumors associated with EGFR overexpression.

  7. Aggregation of nanoparticles in endosomes and lysosomes produces surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Leanne J.; Chen, Xiaoke K.; Smith, Aaron J.; Korbelik, Mladen; Zeng, Haishan; Lee, Patrick W. K.; Hewitt, Kevin Cecil

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the use of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to image the distribution of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in cells. To accomplish this task, 30-nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) tagged with antibodies to EGFR (1012 per mL) were incubated with cells (106 per mL) of the A431 human epidermoid carcinoma and normal human bronchial epithelial cell lines. Using the 632.8-nm excitation line of a He-Ne laser, Raman spectroscopy measurements were performed using a point mapping scheme. Normal cells show little to no enhancement. SERS signals were observed inside the cytoplasm of A431 cells with an overall enhancement of 4 to 7 orders of magnitude. Raman intensity maps of the 1450 and 1583 cm-1 peaks correlate well with the expected distribution of EGFR and AuNPs, aggregated following uptake by endosomes and lysosomes. Spectral features from tyrosine and tryptophan residues dominate the SERS signals.

  8. Time-dynamic imaging of individual cell ligand binding kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, David; Chung, Johnson

    1997-05-01

    Ligand-binding assays are commonly applied to large numbers of cells in culture; the binding parameters derived from such assays reflect the ensemble average behavior of many cells. Equilibrium binding assays of epidermal growth factor (EGF) binding to the EGF receptor (EGFR) indicate that the EGFR exhibits two affinity states for EGF, one low affinity with Kd about 10 nM and one high affinity with Kd < 1 nM. Bulk binding studies cannot determined if such multiple ligand binding classes are due to cell population heterogeneity or are due to heterogeneity at the individual cell level. Here is described a technique based on single cell imaging of fluorescein-EGF (f-EGF) binding to individual human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells that demonstrates that both classes of EGFR are found on all A431 cells, that the time course of f-EGF binding to individual cells shows two kinetic on-rates and two off-rates, that cell-to-cell heterogeneity of EGF binding is significant and that ligand binding kinetics vary across an individual cell. Contributions of cell autofluorescence photobleaching and f- EGF photobleaching in the measurement of fluorescent ligand binding are shown to be significant.

  9. Biocompatible amphiphilic pentablock copolymeric nanoparticles for anti-cancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Byagari, K; Shanavas, A; Rengan, A K; Kundu, G C; Srivastava, R

    2014-01-01

    A pentablock copolymer of Poly(Lactide-co-Glycolide) and Pluronic F68 was synthesized using ring-opening polymerization and characterized by NMR and FTIR for confirming the structure of the block copolymer. TG-DTA studies showed PLGA:Pluronic ratio to be 4:1. As the PLGA-PEO-PPO-PEO-PLGA Pentablock Copolymer (PPPC) prepared is amphiphilic, its Critical Vesicular Concentration, was measured, which was lower at 37 degrees C than at 25 degrees C, which could provide better stability to the system at physiological temperature. The nanoparticles of PPPC vary in topographyand range from 150 to 500 nm in size, according to the synthesis route used viz Emulsion Solvent Evaporation and simple dialysis. Pentablock copolymer nanoparticles were found to entrap about 84% of hydrophobic drug, docetaxel. Drug release profile of docetaxel showed about 50% release in first 2 hours at pH 4.6 and about 80% docetaxel was released at pH 7.4, at the end of 2 days. The PPPC nanoparticles was found to be biocompatible to L929 cell lines up to 1 mg/ml concentration. Preliminary in vitro cytotoxic effect of docetaxel loaded PPPC nanoparticles against four different cancer cell lines showed 50% inhibitory concentration of 6 nM in A431 (Squamous cell carcinoma), 250 nM in HeLa (Cervical carcinoma), 800 nM in PC3 (Prostate carcinoma) and 1 microM in KB (Epidermoid carcinoma) cells. PMID:24724503

  10. Merkel cell carcinoma and chronic arsenicism.

    PubMed

    Lien, H C; Tsai, T F; Lee, Y Y; Hsiao, C H

    1999-10-01

    Arsenic is a well-documented human carcinogen. Bowen's disease, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma are the most common skin cancers found in patients exposed to arsenic over the long term. Merkel cell carcinoma has been documented in Taiwanese patients who resided in an endemic area of black foot disease, another condition found in patients with chronic arsenicism. We collected all cases of Merkel cell carcinoma diagnosed at two medical centers in Taiwan (N = 11) to find a possible association between chronic arsenicism and Merkel cell carcinoma. In our study 6 of the 11 patients were residents of the endemic areas for chronic arsenicism.

  11. Thyroid carcinoma, version 2.2014.

    PubMed

    Tuttle, R Michael; Haddad, Robert I; Ball, Douglas W; Byrd, David; Dickson, Paxton; Duh, Quan-Yang; Ehya, Hormoz; Haymart, Megan; Hoh, Carl; Hunt, Jason P; Iagaru, Andrei; Kandeel, Fouad; Kopp, Peter; Lamonica, Dominick M; Lydiatt, William M; McCaffrey, Judith; Moley, Jeffrey F; Parks, Lee; Raeburn, Christopher D; Ridge, John A; Ringel, Matthew D; Scheri, Randall P; Shah, Jatin P; Sherman, Steven I; Sturgeon, Cord; Waguespack, Steven G; Wang, Thomas N; Wirth, Lori J; Hoffmann, Karin G; Hughes, Miranda

    2014-12-01

    These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on some of the major updates to the 2014 NCCN Guidelines for Thyroid Carcinoma. Kinase inhibitor therapy may be used to treat thyroid carcinoma that is symptomatic and/or progressive and not amenable to treatment with radioactive iodine. Sorafenib may be considered for select patients with metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma, whereas vandetanib or cabozantinib may be recommended for select patients with metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma. Other kinase inhibitors may be considered for select patients with either type of thyroid carcinoma. A new section on "Principles of Kinase Inhibitor Therapy in Advanced Thyroid Cancer" was added to the NCCN Guidelines to assist with using these novel targeted agents.

  12. Papillary thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chung, Bo Mi; Park, Sung Hee; Kim, Soo Jin; Seo, Jae Seung; Kim, Yang Soo; Shim, Hyung Jin; Lee, Jong Beum

    2014-09-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma is uncommon in children and constitutes 0.5% to 3% of all pediatric malignancies. Few studies have reported imaging findings of childhood papillary thyroid carcinomas. We report 3 cases of papillary thyroid carcinomas in children. Among the 3 patients, the youngest was a 7-year-old girl. In the current report, we describe 2 cases of classic papillary thyroid carcinoma and 1 case of pediatric diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The ultrasonographic features and diagnostic procedures in these pediatric patients are similar to those in adults.

  13. [Lactobacilli and colon carcinoma--A review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shumei; Zhang, Lanwei; Shan, Yujuan

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiological studies showed that incidence of colon carcinoma is increased in the world. There are many difficulties to inhibit colon carcinoma because the causes of inducing colon carcinoma were various and interactive each other. Previous evidence supported the balance of the colonic microflora was critical in inhibiting colon carcinoma and the protection by colonic microflora could be improved by ingesting lactobacilli. Therefore, the biological functions and anticancer effects of lactobacilli attract attention of researchers. In this review we discussed the causes of colon carcinoma; the anticancer mechanisms of lactobacilli on the basis of our own studies. Eventually, we summarized the effects of anticancer of different components and metabolic products extracted from lactobacilli.

  14. Tubulocystic carcinoma of kidney associated with papillary renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Mahesh; Shet, Tanuja; Bakshi, Ganesh; Desai, Sangeeta

    2011-01-01

    Tubulocystic renal cell carcinoma (TCRCC) is a rare variant of renal cell carcinoma, which has distinct histology but there is some controversy about its association with papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC) and cell of origin in literature. We report an 18-year-old girl with the rare TCRCC of kidney associated with PRCC with metastases to the para-aortic nodes. The patient presented with hematuria and a right renal mass with enlarged regional nodes for which a radical nephrectomy with retroperitoneal lymph node dissection was done. On gross examination, a solid cystic lesion involving the lower pole and middle pole of the kidney measuring 12x9x9 cm was seen along with an additional cystic lesion in upper pole of kidney. Microscopically the main tumor showed the typical histology of a tubulocystic carcinoma with multiple cysts filled with secretions lined by variably flattened epithelium with hobnailing of cells. The mass in the upper pole was a high-grade PRCC and the nodal metastases had morphology similar to this component. To conclude, at least a small but definite subset of TCRCC is associated with PRCC, and cases associated with PRCC do seem to have a higher propensity for nodal metastasis as in the case we report.

  15. Xenotransplanted human prostate carcinoma (DU145) cells develop into carcinomas and cribriform carcinomas: ultrastructural aspects.

    PubMed

    Gilloteaux, Jacques; Jamison, James M; Neal, Deborah R; Summers, Jack L; Taper, Henryk S

    2012-10-01

    Androgen-independent, human prostate carcinoma cells (DU145) develop into solid, carcinomatous xenotransplants on the diaphragm of nu/nu mice. Tumors encompass at least two poorly differentiated cell types: a rapidly dividing, eosinophilic cell comprises the main cell population and a few, but large basophilic cells able to invade the peritoneal stroma, the muscular tissue, lymph vessels. Poor cell contacts, intracytoplasmic lumina, and signet cells are noted. Lysosomal activities are reflected by entoses and programmed cell deaths forming cribriform carcinomas. In large tumors, degraded cells may align with others to facilitate formation of blood supply routes. Malignant cells would spread via ascites and through lymphatics.

  16. Mitochondriome and Cholangiocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bahitham, Wesam; Liao, Xiaoping; Peng, Fred; Bamforth, Fiona; Chan, Alicia; Mason, Andrew; Stone, Bradley; Stothard, Paul; Sergi, Consolato

    2014-01-01

    Cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCA) of the liver was the target of more interest, recently, due mainly to its increased incidence and possible association to new environmental factors. Somatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have been found in several cancers. Some of these malignancies contain changes of mtDNA, which are not or, very rarely, found in the mtDNA databases. In terms of evolutionary genetics and oncology, these data are extremely interesting and may be considered a sign of poor fitness, which may conduct in some way to different cellular processes, including carcinogenesis. MitoChip analysis is a strong tool for investigations in experimental oncology and was carried out on three CCA cell lines (HuCCT1, Huh-28 and OZ) with different outcome in human and a Papova-immortalized normal hepatocyte cell line (THLE-3). Real time quantitative PCR, western blot analysis, transmission electron microscopy, confocal laser microscopy, and metabolic assays including L-Lactate and NAD+/NADH assays were meticulously used to identify mtDNA copy number, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) content, ultrastructural morphology, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and differential composition of metabolites, respectively. Among 102 mtDNA changes observed in the CCA cell lines, 28 were non-synonymous coding region alterations resulting in an amino acid change. Thirty-eight were synonymous and 30 involved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA) regions. We found three new heteroplasmic mutations in two CCA cell lines (HuCCT1 and Huh-28). Interestingly, mtDNA copy number was decreased in all three CCA cell lines, while complexes I and III were decreased with depolarization of mitochondria. L-Lactate and NAD+/NADH assays were increased in all three CCA cell lines. MtDNA alterations seem to be a common event in CCA. This is the first study using MitoChip analysis with comprehensive metabolic studies in CCA cell lines potentially creating a platform for future

  17. Spontaneous regression of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Ayres, R C; Robertson, D A; Dewbury, K C; Millward-Sadler, G H; Smith, C L

    1990-01-01

    A 63 year old white woman presented with abdominal discomfort, anorexia, and weight loss. Investigations showed hepatocellular carcinoma with pulmonary metastases. The primary and secondary tumours resolved without specific treatment. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:2165992

  18. Transrectal Ultrasound of Prostatic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Daniel J.; Cooperberg, Peter L.; Goldenberg, S. Larry; Toi, Ants

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the indications for transrectal ultrasound; to briefly describe the sonographic technique; to describe the sonographic findings of prostatic carcinoma; to review the indications for transrectal sonographic-guided biopsy; and to discuss the controversles of routine screening and staging. ImagesFigures 1-3 PMID:21229044

  19. Genomic homogeneity in fibrolamellar carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Sirivatanauksorn, Y; Sirivatanauksorn, V; Lemoine, N; Williamson, R; Davidson, B

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Fibrolamellar carcinoma (FLC) is a variant of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with distinctive clinical and histological features. To date there have been few studies on the genotypic aspects of FLC and no previous attempts have been made to use the arbitrarily primed-polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR) technique to detect genetic alterations in this disease.
AIM—The aim of this study was to assess the degree of genomic heterogeneity of FLC using the AP-PCR technique.
METHODS—A total of 50 tissue samples of primary and metastatic FLCs from seven patients were microdissected. AP-PCR amplification of each genomic DNA sample was carried out using two arbitrary primers.
RESULTS—DNA fingerprints of the primary FLCs and all their metastatic lesions (both synchronous and metachronous disease) were identical in an individual patient. The fingerprints were different between tumours of different patients. No evidence of intratumour heterogeneity was observed.
CONCLUSIONS—Such genomic homogeneity in FLCs may explain their indolent growth. The absence of clonal evolution, which is present in other tumours (particularly HCCs), may explain the distinct behaviour in this tumour. The tumorigenic pathway and degree of somatic genomic changes in this disease may be less complex than in HCC.


Keywords: fibrolamellar carcinoma; hepatocellular carcinoma; DNA fingerprint; arbitrarily primed-polymerase chain reaction; laser capture microdissection PMID:11413114

  20. Radiotherapy T1 glottic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zablow, A.I.; Erba, P.S.; Sanfillippo, L.J.

    1989-11-01

    From 1970 to 1985, curative radiotherapy was administered to 63 patients with stage I carcinoma of the true vocal cords. Precision radiotherapeutic technique yields cure rates comparable to surgical results. Good voice quality was preserved in a high percentage of patients.

  1. Mandible metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Niedzielska, Iwona; Langowska-Adamczyk, Helena; Pajak, Jacek; Kajor, Maciej; Niedzielski, Zbigniew; Gołka, Dariusz

    2004-01-01

    Metastases to oral cavity are very uncommon. We present a case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis to the jaw. The x-ray examination and clinical picture of the lesion were not characteristic. The gingival metastasis may mimic other benign and malignant conditions which affect jaw and therefore the histopathological examination is necessary to make an ultimate diagnosis.

  2. Insular carcinoma: a distinct de novo entity among follicular carcinomas of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Pilotti, S; Collini, P; Mariani, L; Placucci, M; Bongarzone, I; Vigneri, P; Cipriani, S; Falcetta, F; Miceli, R; Pierotti, M A; Rilke, F

    1997-12-01

    We reclassified 720 nonmedullary invasive thyroid carcinomas diagnosed and treated between 1975 and 1993. Twenty-seven cases met the criteria of insular carcinoma and 29 cases those of widely invasive follicular carcinoma. Comparison of these histotypes with respect to pathologic stage and overall, relative, and visceral metastasis-free survival showed a significant association between histotype and pT and pN categories. In particular, pT4 (p < 0.001) and pN1 (p < 0.001) categories were more frequent in the insular carcinoma histotype. By contrast, no significant differences in overall, relative, or visceral metastasis-free survival were observed between insular carcinoma and widely invasive follicular carcinoma. Molecular analysis by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism demonstrated RAS gene family point mutations in five of eight cases analyzed in each of the two histotypes, with a high proportion of CAA-->AAA transversion at codon 61 of the N-RAS gene in insular carcinoma. These findings suggest that insular carcinoma represents a de novo entity distinct from widely invasive follicular carcinoma, that widely invasive follicular carcinoma has biologic characteristics more consistent with poorly differentiated than well-differentiated carcinomas, and that both insular carcinoma and widely invasive follicular carcinoma share similar molecular alterations.

  3. Intrathoracic impedance monitor alarm in a patient with cardiac resynchronisation therapy and advanced lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cvijić, Marta; Zižek, David; Antolič, Bor; Zupan, Igor

    2013-01-01

    The intrathoracic impedance monitor system measures impedance between the device case and the right ventricular coil and reflects intrathoracic fluid status. It is used to detect early volume overload in patients with chronic heart failure. We report a case of inappropriate activation of the intrathoracic impedance monitor alarm in a patient with epidermoid lung cancer and pleural carcinosis.

  4. Synchronous invasive ductal carcinoma in encapsulated papillary ductal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Regan, J.P.; Casaubon, J.T.; Genelus-Dominique, E.

    2016-01-01

    Encapsulated papillary ductal carcinoma (EPC) of the breast is a rare form of cancer with defining histopathology of encapsulation. These lesions are typically indolent but may rarely have concomitant, synchronous invasive lesions. This report details a 56-year-old black female who presented with a palpable left breast mass. Adenosis with focal fibrous and ductal hyperplasia characteristics were found on core needle biopsy. Excisional biopsy showed EPC with invasive components. A simple mastectomy was performed and a second lesion was identified as invasive ductal carcinoma. EPC typically has good prognosis and a low incidence of invasion. The risk increases in the presence of a second, synchronous lesion as in our case. Management is typically performed with breast conserving methods; however, missing a second lesion is possible. This report provides an overview of the literature and discussion of the role of MRI in preoperative workup. PMID:27562577

  5. Renal cell carcinoma: Evolving and emerging subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Crumley, Suzanne M; Divatia, Mukul; Truong, Luan; Shen, Steven; Ayala, Alberto G; Ro, Jae Y

    2013-01-01

    Our knowledge of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rapidly expanding. For those who diagnose and treat RCC, it is important to understand the new developments. In recent years, many new renal tumors have been described and defined, and our understanding of the biology and clinical correlates of these tumors is changing. Evolving concepts in Xp11 translocation carcinoma, mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma, multilocular cystic clear cell RCC, and carcinoma associated with neuroblastoma are addressed within this review. Tubulocystic carcinoma, thyroid-like follicular carcinoma of kidney, acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, and clear cell papillary RCC are also described. Finally, candidate entities, including RCC with t(6;11) translocation, hybrid oncocytoma/chromophobe RCC, hereditary leiomyomatosis and RCC syndrome, and renal angiomyoadenomatous tumor are reviewed. Knowledge of these new entities is important for diagnosis, treatment and subsequent prognosis. This review provides a targeted summary of new developments in RCC. PMID:24364021

  6. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Peris, Ketty

    2015-11-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy is an effective and safe noninvasive treatment for low-risk basal cell carcinoma, with the advantage of an excellent cosmetic outcome. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy in basal cell carcinoma is supported by substantial research and clinical trials. In this article, we review the procedure, indications and clinical evidences for the use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

  7. Clear cell carcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, C; Carlile, A

    1985-01-01

    Six tumours of the lung initially classified as clear cell carcinoma, were studied. Examination of further material by light and electron microscopy showed adenocarcinomatous differentiation in three cases and squamous differentiation in two. One case showed the features of a large cell anaplastic carcinoma. The clear appearance of the cytoplasm in paraffin sections was due to accumulations of glycogen that were partially removed during processing. It is concluded that clear cell carcinoma is not a single and separate entity. Images PMID:4031101

  8. Small cell carcinoma of epididymis: multimodal therapy.

    PubMed

    Lima, Guilherme C; Varkarakis, Ioannis M; Allaf, Mohamad E; Fine, Samson W; Kavoussi, Louis R

    2005-08-01

    Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma is an infrequent tumor that can occur in various organs. Although a few sporadic reports about extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma have been published, much remains to be uncovered about the clinical features, optimal treatment, and natural history. We present a case of small cell carcinoma of the epididymis with retroperitoneal recurrence, an exceedingly rare tumor with behavior and treatment not well characterized. Multimodal therapy with chemotherapy and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection was necessary to manage this aggressive disease.

  9. [Tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Tateishi, Ryosuke; Enooku, Kenichiro; Shiina, Shuichiro; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2012-05-01

    Three tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are available in Japan: alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonists-II (PIVKA-II), and Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-L3). Although AFP has drawbacks in its specificity, it is widely utilized in treatment evaluation and prognosis prediction. PIVKA-II is a unique marker that does not correlate with AFP value and can predict microvascular invasion. AFP-L3 is a highly specific marker and strong predictor of poor prognosis. These three markers are indispensable in every aspect of clinical practice of hepatocellular carcinoma including surveillance, diagnosis, treatment evaluation, and prognosis prediction.

  10. Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Rainey, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The human adrenal cortex secretes mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and adrenal androgens. These steroids are produced from unique cell types located within the three distinct zones of the adrenal cortex. Disruption of adrenal steroid production results in a variety of diseases that can lead to hypertension, metabolic syndrome, infertility and androgen excess. The adrenal cortex is also a common site for the development of adenomas, and rarely the site for the development of carcinomas. The adenomas can lead to diseases associated with adrenal steroid excess, while the carcinomas are particularly aggressive and have a poor prognosis. In vitro cell culture models provide an important tool to examine molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling both the normal and pathologic function of the adrenal cortex. Herein we discuss the human adrenocortical cell lines and their use as model systems for adrenal studies. PMID:21924324

  11. Allelic loss in colorectal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, S.E.; Fearon, E.R.; Tersmette, K.W.F.; Enterline, J.P.; Vogelstein, B.; Hamilton, S.R. ); Leppert, M.; Nakamura, Yusuke; White, R. )

    1989-06-02

    Clinical and pathological associations with molecular genetic alterations were studied in colorectal carcinomas from 83 patients. Fractional allelic loss, a measure of allelic deletions throughout the genome, and allelic deletions of specific chromosomal arms (the short arm of 17 and long arm of 18) each provided independent prognostic information by multivariate analysis when considered individually with Dukes' classification. Distant metastasis was significantly associated with high fractional allelic loss and with deletions of 17p and 18q. Mutations of ras proto-oncogenes and deletions of 5q had no prognostic importance. Statistically significant associations were also found between allelic losses and a family history of cancer, left-sided tumor location, and absence of extracellular tumor mucin. Allelic deletion analysis thus identified subsets of colorectal carcinoma with increased predilection for distant metastasis and cancer-related death. Further studies may define a subset of genetic alterations that can be used clinically to help assess prognosis.

  12. Gastric Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Rustagi, Tarun; Alekshun, Todd J.

    2010-01-01

    Case: A 63-year-old male presented with unintentional weight loss of 20 pounds over a 4-month duration. He reported loss of appetite, intermittent post-prandial nausea, bloating and early satiety. He also complained of dyspepsia and had been treated for reflux during the previous 2 years. He denied vomiting, dysphagia, odynophagia, abdominal pain, melena, hematochezia, or alterations in bowel habits. Additionally, he denied fevers, night sweats, cough, or dyspnea. He quit smoking 25 years ago, and denied alcohol use. His past medical history was significant for basal cell carcinoma treated with local curative therapy and he was without recurrence on surveillance. Pertinent family history included a paternal uncle with lung cancer at the age of 74. Physical examination was unremarkable except for occult heme-positive stools. Laboratory evaluation revealed elevated liver enzymes (ALT-112, AST-81, AlkPhos-364). CT scan of the chest, abdomen and pelvis showed diffuse heterogeneous liver with extensive nodularity, raising the concern for metastases. Serum tumor-markers: PSA, CEA, CA 19-9, and AFP were all within normal limits. Screening colonoscopy was normal, but esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a malignant-appearing ulcerative lesion involving the gastro-esophageal junction and gastric cardia. Pathology confirmed an invasive gastric large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of a hepatic lesion revealed malignant cells with cytologic features consistent with large-cell type carcinoma and positive immunostaining for synaptophysin favoring neuroendocrine differentiation. A PET-CT demonstrated intense diffuse FDG uptake of the liver, suggesting diffuse hepatic parenchymal infiltration by tumor. There were multiple foci of intense osseous FDG uptake with corresponding osteolytic lesions seen on CT scan. The remaining intra-abdominal and intra-thoracic structures were unremarkable. The patient will receive palliative systemic therapy

  13. Carcinoma in accessory axillary breast.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Seema; Mishra, Shashi Prakash; Kumar, Satendra; Khanna, Ajay Kumar

    2015-08-10

    We present a rare case of carcinoma developing in an accessory breast. The patient presented with a progressive lump in her right axilla for 1 year. On examination, there was a well-developed nipple areola complex in the right axilla overlying a hard, fixed 5 × 3 cm lump. On investigation, core biopsy revealed poorly differentiated carcinoma of the breast. Mammography also revealed features of a malignant lesion with skin and muscle infiltration. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was administered followed by modified radical mastectomy after three cycles. Immunohistochemistry study showed positive status of oestrogen and progesterone receptors, and negative HER-2 neu. Three more cycles of chemotherapy along with 50 Gy radiotherapy were given in an adjuvant setting followed by hormone therapy.

  14. Cutaneous metastatic pigmented breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gaitan-Gaona, Francisco; Said, Mirra C; Valdes-Rodriguez, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    A 66-year-old woman presented with a 3 cm black, ulcerated nodule located on the skin of the upper abdomen, just below the breast. The lesion was painful to the touch, but the patient reported no other associated symptoms and was otherwise healthy. A 4-mm punch biopsy of the affected skin was obtained and the histological diagnosis was cutaneous metastatic pigmented breast carcinoma. PMID:27136637

  15. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of trachea.

    PubMed

    Vigg, Ajit; Mantri, Sumant; Vigg, Avanti; Vigg, Arul

    2004-01-01

    A 20-year-old male, presented with cough, haemoptysis, breathlessness and wheezing for the past one month. Contrast enhanced computerised tomographic (CECT), scan of chest and fibreoptic bronchoscopy revealed an endotracheal mass that on histopathological examination showed adenoid cystic carcinoma of trachea. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of chest confirmed involvement of adjacent prevertebral, para-oesophageal and subcarinal lymph nodes rendering the tumour inoperable. PMID:15515830

  16. Renal cell carcinoma in childhood.

    PubMed

    Kabala, J E; Shield, J; Duncan, A

    1992-01-01

    The imaging features of renal cell carcinoma in 4 young patients (age 7 to 14 years) are described. A high proportion (75%) showed calcification on plain radiographs or computed tomography (CT). Both patients who underwent CT showed well defined high density tumours which were also echogenic on ultrasound examination. These findings are significantly different to those most commonly seen on studies of the tumour in adults.

  17. Anaplastic giant cell thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wallin, G; Lundell, G; Tennvall, J

    2004-01-01

    Anaplastic (giant cell) thyroid carcinoma (ATC), is one of the most aggressive malignancies in humans with a median survival time after diagnosis of 3-6 months. Death from ATC was earlier seen because of local growth and suffocation. ATC is uncommon, accounting for less than 5 % of all thyroid carcinomas. The diagnosis can be established by means of multiple fine needle aspiration biopsies, which are neither harmful nor troublesome for the patient. The cytological diagnosis of this high-grade malignant tumour is usually not difficult for a well trained cytologist. The intention to treat patients with ATC is cure, although only few of them survive. The majority of the patients are older than 60 years and treatment must be influenced by their high age. We have by using a combined modality regimen succeeded in achieving local control in most patients. Every effort should be made to control the primary tumour and thereby improve the quality of remaining life and it is important for patients, relatives and the personnel to know that cure is not impossible. Different treatment combinations have been used since 30 years including radiotherapy, cytostatic drugs and surgery, when feasible. In our latest combined regimen, 22 patients were treated with hyper fractionated radiotherapy 1.6Gy x 2 to a total target dose of 46 Gy given preoperatively, 20 mg doxorubicin was administered intravenously once weekly and surgery was carried out 2-3 weeks after the radiotherapy. 17 of these 22 patients were operated upon and none of these 17 patients got a local recurrence. In the future we are awaiting the development of new therapeutic approaches to this aggressive type of carcinoma. Inhibitors of angiogenesis might be useful. Combretastatin has displayed cytotoxicity against ATC cell lines and has had a positive effect on ATC in a patient. Sodium iodide symporter (NIS) genetherapy is also being currently considered for dedifferentiated thyroid carcinomas with the ultimate aim of

  18. Human papillomavirus in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Loke, S L; Ma, L; Wong, M; Srivastava, G; Lo, I; Bird, C C

    1990-01-01

    Thirty seven cases of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma were studied by applying DNA slot blot analysis and in situ hybridisation using type specific probes for HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18. Cases of condyloma accuminata, cervical carcinoma, and laryngeal papilloma were used as controls. Blocks including areas of invasive carcinoma, intraepithelial neoplasia, and normal epithelium were studied in each case. No HPV genome was detectable in any of the oesophageal cases. It is concluded that these types of HPV do not have an association with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Images PMID:2175754

  19. Small cell carcinoma of the bladder

    PubMed Central

    Calado, Bruno Nagel; Maron, Paulo Eduardo Goulart; Vedovato, Bruno César; Barrese, Tomas Zecchini; Fernandes, Roni de Carvalho; Perez, Marjo Deninson Cardenuto

    2015-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is an extremely aggressive and rare tumor. Even though small cell carcinoma most commonly arises from the lungs there are several reports of small cell carcinoma in extrapulmonary sites. Due to its low frequency there is no well-established management for this disease. We report the case of a 61 year-old man with small cell carcinoma of the bladder who underwent radical cystectomy following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We also reviewed the literature for the optimal treatment strategy. PMID:25517085

  20. Neural invasion in gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Mori, M; Adachi, Y; Kamakura, T; Ikeda, Y; Maehara, Y; Sugimachi, K

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To determine whether neural invasion in advanced gastric cancer is of clinicopathological significance. METHODS--The study population comprised 121 cases of primary advanced gastric carcinoma. Two paraffin wax embedded blocks taken from the central tissue slice in each primary tumour were used. For definitive recognition of neural invasion, immunostaining for S-100 protein was applied to one slide; the other slide was stained with haematoxylin and eosin. RESULTS--Neural invasion was recognised in 34 of 121 (28%) primary gastric carcinomas. There were significant differences in tumour size, depth of tumour invasion, stage, and curability between patients with and without neural invasion. The five year survival rates of patients with and without neural invasion were 10 and 50%, respectively. Multivariate analysis, however, demonstrated that neural invasion was not an independent prognostic factor. CONCLUSIONS--Neural invasion could be an additional useful factor for providing information about the malignant potential of gastric carcinoma. This may be analogous to vessel permeation which is thought to be important, but is not an independent prognostic factor. Images PMID:7745113

  1. [Current management of hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Ruiz, I; Féray, C

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the major complication of chronic liver diseases and particularly of cirrhosis whatever its etiology. Once encountered mainly in the endemic countries of hepatitis B and C, the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (6/100,000) is parallel to the global development of diabetes, overweight and alcohol consumption. Little progress has been made for this cancer, whose mortality is 100 % at 10 years. Liver transplantation is the only truly curative treatment (survival more than 50 % at 10 years) since it allows the eradication of hepatocellular carcinoma and its essential cause, cirrhotic liver. This is the only possible therapy when liver function is impaired. It has little impact since in the richest countries, less than 10 % of cases can be transplanted. Surgical resection and percutaneous destruction methods (uni- and multipolar radiofrequency, microwave, cryotherapy, electroporation) are the preferred treatments (survival less than 50 % at 5 years) but are only applicable for moderate tumour masses and in the absence of adjuvant therapy, are effective only in the medium term. Most patients received chemoembolization through hepatic artery, whose action is modest. Radiotherapy is widely used in Asia but almost non-existent in Western countries in this indication. Sorafenib is the only effective drug but its impact is modest. Therapies combining two modalities (embolization and radiotherapy; embolization and radiofrequency) seem promising and deserve wider testing. Screening and monitoring of cirrhosis is probably the major measure for potentially curative therapies. PMID:26337474

  2. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, and mimickers: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Todd M; Kovalovsky, Andra O; Velosa, Claudia; Shi, Qiuying; Dai, Qian; Owen, Randall P; Bell, Walter C; Wei, Shi; Althof, Pamela A; Sanmann, Jennifer N; Sweeny, Larissa; Carroll, William R; Siegal, Gene P; Bullock, Martin J; Brandwein-Gensler, Margaret

    2015-08-01

    Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently recognized low-grade salivary carcinoma characterized by a specific ETV6 rearrangement. We describe 14 new MASCs and examine their immunophenotypic and genetic profiles in the context of look-alikes, namely, low-and high-grade salivary duct carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. ETV6 rearrangement, and robust expression of mammaglobin and S100, were demonstrated in 11/11, 14/14, and 12/14 MASCs, respectively. All low-grade salivary duct carcinomas coexpressed S100/mammaglobin (6/6); none harbored ETV6 rearrangements (0/5). Given that S100/mammaglobin coexpression and absence of zymogen granules are features of both MASC and low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, these two are best distinguished histologically. The former is predominantly an extraductal neoplasm with bubbly pink cytoplasm, whereas the latter is a distinct intraductal micropapillary and cribriform process. Querying ETV6 gene status may be necessary for difficult cases. No acinic cell carcinoma expressed mammaglobin (0/13) or harbored an ETV6 rearrangement (0/7); only 1/13 acinic cell carcinomas weakly expressed S100. DOG1 expression was limited or absent among all tumor types, except acinic cell carcinoma which expressed DOG1 diffusely in a canalicular pattern. Therefore, histology and immunohistochemistry (mammaglobin, S100, DOG1) suffices in distinguishing acinic cell carcinoma from both MASC and low-grade salivary duct carcinoma. HER2 (ERBB2) amplification was detected in only 1/10 acinic cell carcinomas, but none of the MASCs or low-grade salivary duct carcinomas tested. High-grade salivary duct carcinomas frequently expressed mammaglobin (11/18) and harbored HER2 amplifications (13/15); none harbored ETV6 rearrangements (0/12). High-grade salivary duct carcinomas can easily be distinguished from these other entities by histology and HER2 amplification.

  3. Synthesis and investigation of the anticancer effects of estrone-16-oxime ethers in vitro.

    PubMed

    Berényi, Ágnes; Minorics, Renáta; Iványi, Zoltán; Ocsovszki, Imre; Ducza, Eszter; Thole, Hubert; Messinger, Josef; Wölfling, János; Mótyán, Gergő; Mernyák, Erzsébet; Frank, Éva; Schneider, Gyula; Zupkó, István

    2013-01-01

    An expanding body of evidence indicates the possible role of estrane derivatives as useful anticancer agents. The aim of this study was to describe the cytotoxic effects of 63 newly synthetized estrone-16-oxime ethers on human cancer cell lines (cervix carcinoma HeLa, breast carcinoma MCF7 and skin epidermoid carcinoma A431), studied by means of the MTT assay. Four of the most promising compounds were selected for participation in additional experiments in order to characterize the mechanism of action, including cell cycle analysis, morphological study and the 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation assay. The cancer selectivity was tested on a noncancerous fibroblast cell line (MRC-5). Since apoptosis and cell cycle disturbance were observed, caspase-3 activities were further assayed for the two most effective agents. These estrone-16-oxime analogs activated caspase-3 and changed the mRNA level expression of endogenous factors regulating the G1-S phase transition (retinoblastoma protein, CDK4 and p16). The repression of retinoblastoma protein was reinforced at a protein level too. These experimental data lead to the conclusion that estrone-16-oxime ethers may be regarded as potential starting structures for the design of novel anticancer agents. PMID:23127813

  4. Immunohistochemical characterization of urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rajcani, J; Kajo, K; Adamkov, M; Moravekova, E; Lauko, L; Felcanova, D; Bencat, M

    2013-01-01

    From the archive of BB Biocyt company, 32 urinary bladder carcinomas (urothelium carcinomas, UC) and 7 cases of chronic cystitis were selected and examined in semiserial sections for the following antigens: 1) cell proliferation marker Ki-67 (expressed in the nuclei), 2) cell cycle regulator p16/INK4a polypeptide (expressed in the cytoplasm and nuclei), 3) urothelium marker p63 (expressed in the nuclei), 4) cytokeratin 7 (CK7). 5) cytokeratin 20 (CK20) and 6) high molecular weight cytokeratin (HMWCK). Invasive urothelium carcinomas showing a high grade dysplasia (invasive HG UC) comprised over the half (20 out of 32) of the investigated tumours. Microinvasion to lamina propria (seen in three HG papillary carcinomas) was regarded as an early infiltration even when the position of muscular layer could not be determined. Classical invasion across the urinary bladder wall and/or to surrounding tissues was found in 17 cases of low-differentiated HG UCs. The rest (9 out of 32 neoplasms) were either non-invasive papillary carcinomas of high (non-invasive HG UC, 5 cases) or low malignant potential (noninvasive LG UC, 4 cases). Finally, 3 cases were papillary urothelium neoplasms of low malignant potential (PUNLMP). HMWCK was present in all invasive tumours, whereas the frequency of other urothelium markers ranged from 65 to 88 %. Nevertheless, at least two markers were expressed in each invasive tumour. Staining for Ki-67 antigen was positive in over 50 % of the nuclei of HG UCs, while in the LG UCs, the frequency of positive Ki-67 staining did not exceed 25 %. In PUNLMP, the positive rate of Ki-67 stained dysplastic cells was below 10 %. The staining for p16 antigen did not correlate with the degree of dysplasia within urothelium tumours. For routine diagnostic, we recommend to combine the Ki-67 staining with detection of HMWCK. In cases of chronic cystitis, which developed urothelial hyperplasia and/or squamous metaplasia, the presence of p63 antigen was a relevant

  5. Cisplatin, Radiation Therapy, and Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-02

    Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  6. Mixed primary squamous cell carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A case report.

    PubMed

    Dong, Su; Song, Xue-Song; Chen, Guang; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland is rare, and mixed squamous cell and follicular carcinoma is even rarer still, with only a few cases reported in the literature. The simultaneous presentation of three primary cancers of the thyroid has not been reported previously. Here we report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid, follicular thyroid carcinoma, and micropapillary thyroid carcinoma. A 62-year-old female patient presented with complaints of pain and a 2-month history of progressively increased swelling in the anterior region of the neck. Fine-needle-aspiration cytology of both lobes indicated the possibility of the presence of a follicular neoplasm. Total thyroidectomy with left-sided modified radical neck dissection was performed. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma with squamous cell carcinoma and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy with l-thyroxine was administered. Radioiodine and radiotherapy also were recommended, but the patient did not complete treatment as scheduled. The patient remained alive more than 9 months after operation. The present case report provides an example of the coexistence of multiple distinct malignancies in the thyroid.

  7. NUT midline carcinomas in the thymic region.

    PubMed

    Gökmen-Polar, Yesim; Cano, Oscar D; Kesler, Kenneth A; Loehrer, Patrick J; Badve, Sunil

    2014-12-01

    NUT midline carcinomas (NMCs) are rare tumors described predominantly in the pediatric age group. We recently reported two cases of these tumors occurring in the thymic region. In order to establish the true incidence of these tumors, we examined a large series of thymic carcinomas for morphological features of NUT tumor and further assessed the expression of NUTM1 (also known as NUT) protein by immunohistochemistry. The histological review of slides from 110 cases of thymic carcinoma was undertaken to identify carcinomas with mixed undifferentiated and squamous features that are typically associated with NUT carcinomas. The presenting symptoms, morphological spectrum of tumors and outcome data of patients with these histologies are presented. Immunohistochemistry for NUTM1 was performed on 35 cases of thymic carcinoma with available blocks (3 with these histological features and 32 without these features) to exclude the possibility of midline carcinoma. Tumors from 10 patients had features of mixed small cell undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma (M:F, 1.5:1; age range, 22-79). These patients predominantly presented with advanced disease and had respiratory-related symptoms or chest pain; four had paraneoplastic syndromes. The squamous component in all cases was well differentiated with little or no atypia. The undifferentiated component varied in cell size and lacked characteristic features of small cell carcinoma. All but one patients developed metastases or died within 3 years of diagnosis. NUTM1 expression was seen in two of three tumors with these histological features and in none of the 32 cases without. Mixed small cell undifferentiated carcinomas share histological and immunohistochemical similarity with NMCs and have aggressive clinical course. These tumors are not uncommon and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of carcinomas in the thymic region as novel therapies might be available.

  8. The diagnostic utility of the minimal carcinoma triple stain in breast carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Ross, Dara S; Liu, Yi-Fang; Pipa, Jennifer; Shin, Sandra J

    2013-01-01

    Pathologists are expected to accurately diagnose increasingly smaller breast carcinomas. Correct classification (ie, lobular vs ductal or in situ vs invasive) directly affects subsequent management, especially when the focus is near a surgical margin or present in a needle core biopsy and is further challenging if the lesion is morphologically ambiguous. We assessed the diagnostic utility of a multiplex, trichromogen immunostain of 3 commonly employed antibodies (CK7, p63, and E-cadherin) developed in our laboratory to evaluate these small lesions. Of the 147 specimens containing minimal (defined as ≤3 mm in size) invasive carcinoma, 81 also contained in situ carcinoma. In each case, the Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain was prepared with a parallel H&E-stained slide. Observations of staining characteristics in the focus of interest were recorded. The Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain was diagnostically useful in all but 1 case. In a case of invasive lobular carcinoma in an excisional biopsy, the Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain stained only the surrounding breast tissue (appropriately) and not the focus of interest. Also, a subset of 29 of 81 excisional biopsies had minimal invasive carcinoma located 2 mm or less from the inked surgical margin, in which in all cases the Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain was fully interpretable despite morphologic distortion due to concomitant cautery artifact and tissue disruption in some cases. The Minimal Carcinoma Triple Stain offers an accurate and tissue-conserving method to diagnose small, morphologically problematic foci of breast carcinoma while ideally leaving more tissue for additional adjunctive studies.

  9. Monitoring the progression from intraductal carcinoma to invasive ductal carcinoma based on multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yan; Fu, Fangmeng; Lian, Yuane; Nie, Yuting; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Wang, Chuan; Chen, Jianxin

    2015-09-01

    Intraductal carcinoma is a precancerous lesion of the breast and the immediate precursor of invasive ductal carcinoma. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) was used to monitor the progression from intraductal carcinoma to invasive ductal carcinoma, which can improve early detection of precursor lesions and halt progression to invasive neoplastic disease. It was found that MPM has the capability to reveal the qualitative changes in features of cells, structure of basement membranes, and architecture of collagens during the development from intraductal carcinoma to invasive ductal carcinoma, as well as the quantitative alterations in nuclear area, circle length of basement membrane, and collagen density. Combined with intra-fiberoptic ductoscopy or transdermal biopsy needle, MPM has the potential to provide immediate histological diagnosis of tumor progression in the field of breast carcinoma.

  10. Chemotherapy With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-04

    Recurrent Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Recurrent Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Neck With Occult Primary; Recurrent Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Recurrent Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma Metastatic in the Neck With Occult Primary; Stage IV Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVB Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVC Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Tongue Carcinoma; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma to Neck With Occult Primary

  11. Current Aspects on Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Markopoulos, Anastasios K

    2012-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant epithelial neoplasm affecting the oral cavity. This article overviews the essential points of oral squamous cell carcinoma, highlighting its risk and genomic factors, the potential malignant disorders and the therapeutic approaches. It also emphasizes the importance of the early diagnosis. PMID:22930665

  12. [Suprarenal carcinoma of an unusual size].

    PubMed

    Céspedes Mas, S; López de la Torre Casares, M; Gómez Morales, M; Medina Cano, M T; Vílchez Joya, R

    1993-06-01

    Suprarenal carcinoma is an unusual entity, rarely surpassing 4,000 gr. In general, tumors of such big size are not functional. We present a case of a 31-years-old woman with a suprarenal carcinoma weighting 5,200 gr, in which hormonal production was clinically and biochemically demonstrated.

  13. [Lactobacilli and colon carcinoma--A review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shumei; Zhang, Lanwei; Shan, Yujuan

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiological studies showed that incidence of colon carcinoma is increased in the world. There are many difficulties to inhibit colon carcinoma because the causes of inducing colon carcinoma were various and interactive each other. Previous evidence supported the balance of the colonic microflora was critical in inhibiting colon carcinoma and the protection by colonic microflora could be improved by ingesting lactobacilli. Therefore, the biological functions and anticancer effects of lactobacilli attract attention of researchers. In this review we discussed the causes of colon carcinoma; the anticancer mechanisms of lactobacilli on the basis of our own studies. Eventually, we summarized the effects of anticancer of different components and metabolic products extracted from lactobacilli. PMID:26562990

  14. Fascin expression in colorectal carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Ozerhan, Ismail Hakki; Ersoz, Nail; Onguru, Onder; Ozturk, Mustafa; Kurt, Bulent; Cetiner, Sadettin

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to investigate the significance of fascin expression in colorectal carcinoma. METHODS This is a retrospective study of 167 consecutive, well-documented cases of primary colorectal adenocarcinoma for which archival material of surgical specimens from primary tumor resections were available. We chose a representative tissue sample block and examined fascin expression by immunohistochemistry using a primary antibody against “fascin”. We calculated the “immunohistochemical score (IHS)” of fascin for each case, which was calculated from the multiplication of scores for the percentage of stained cells and the staining intensity. RESULTS Fascin immunoreactivity was observed in 59 (35.3%) of all cases with strong reactivity in 24 (14.4%), moderate reactivity in 25 (14.9%) and weak reactivity in 10 (6.0%) cases. Strong/moderate immunoreactivities were mostly observed in invasive fronts of the tumors or in both invasive and other areas. Fascin immunoreactivity scores were significantly higher in tumors with lymph node metastasis (p:0.002) and advanced stage presentation (p:0.007). There was no relation between fascin expression and age, gender, depth of invasion, distant metastasis or histological grade (p>0.05). There was a higher and statistically significant correlation between fascin immunoreactivity in the invasive borders of tumors and lymph node metastasis (r:0.747, p:0.005). In stage III/IV tumors, two-year survival was 92.2% in tumors without fascin immunoreactivity, and only 60.0% in tumors with a fascin IHS>10 (p:0.003). CONCLUSION These findings suggest that fascin is heterogeneously expressed in approximately one third of colorectal carcinomas with a significant association with lymph node metastasis, tumor stage and location. Moreover, these results indicate that fascin may have a role in the lymph node metastasis of colorectal carcinomas. PMID:20186299

  15. Transhemangioma Ablation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Pua, Uei

    2012-12-15

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a well-established treatment modality in the treatment of early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [1]. Safe trajectory of the RFA probe is crucial in decreasing collateral tissue damage and unwarranted probe transgression. As a percutaneous technique, however, the trajectory of the needle is sometimes constrained by the available imaging plane. The presence of a hemangioma beside an HCC is uncommon but poses the question of safety related to probe transgression. We hereby describe a case of transhemangioma ablation of a dome HCC.

  16. Oncogenic viruses and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ben Ari, Ziv; Weitzman, Ella; Safran, Michal

    2015-05-01

    About 80% of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections especially in the setting of established cirrhosis or advanced fibrosis, making HCC prevention a major goal of antiviral therapy. HCC tumors are highly complex and heterogeneous resulting from the aberrant function of multiple molecular pathways. The roles of HCV or HBV in promoting HCC development are still either directly or indirectly are still speculative, but the evidence for both effects is compelling. In patients with chronic hepatitis viral infection, cirrhosis is not a prerequisite for tumorigenesis.

  17. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

    PubMed

    Karthiga, Kannan S; Sivapatha Sundharam, B; Manikandan, R

    2006-01-01

    Binkley and Johnson first reported this syndrome in 1951. But it was in 1960, Gorlin-Goltz established the association of basal cell epithelioma, jaw cyst and bifid ribs, a combination which is now frequently known as Gorlin-Goltz syndrome as well as Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS). NBCCS is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance and variable expressivity. NBCCS is characterized by variety of cutaneous, dental, osseous, opthalmic, neurologic and sexual abnormalities. One such case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is reported here with good illustrations.

  18. Localized blanching erythema in a patient with vulvar carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hau, Jennifer; Diaz, Lucia; Paravar, Taraneh; Chon, Susan

    2012-05-01

    Mammary-like carcinoma arising in the vulva is a rare type of vulvar malignancy. Cutaneous metastasis of vulvar carcinoma is uncommon and the majority of cases have been reported in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. We describe a 69-year-old woman with mammary-like carcinoma of the vulva with cutaneous metastasis presenting as asymptomatic localized blanching erythema.

  19. GATA-3 and FOXA1 expression is useful to differentiate breast carcinoma from other carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Davis, Drew G; Siddiqui, Momin T; Oprea-Ilies, Gabriela; Stevens, Keith; Osunkoya, Adeboye O; Cohen, Cynthia; Li, Xiaoxian Bill

    2016-01-01

    GATA-3, a member of the GATA family of zinc-finger DNA binding proteins, and FOXA1, a member of the forkhead transcription factor family, are both associated with estrogen receptor expression. Both GATA-3 and FOXA1 are useful markers for breast carcinoma, but their expression in the different breast cancer subtypes and other neoplasms has not been thoroughly evaluated. We examined the expression of GATA-3 and FOXA1 in estrogen receptor-positive, Her2/neu-positive, and triple-negative breast carcinomas as well as in 10 other common carcinomas, including hepatocellular, colonic, pancreatic, gastric, endometrial (endometrioid), lung, prostatic, renal cell, urothelial, and ovarian serous carcinomas. Primary and metastatic melanomas and mesotheliomas were also evaluated. GATA-3 and FOXA1 staining of estrogen receptor-positive breast carcinomas was seen in 96.6% and 96.2%, respectively. In triple-negative breast carcinomas, GATA-3 and FOXA1 staining was seen in 21.6% and 15.9%, respectively. Among the other tumors, GATA-3 staining was only seen in urothelial carcinoma (70.9%) and FOXA1 staining was only seen in prostatic (87.5%), urothelial (5.1%) carcinomas, and mesotheliomas (40.0%). In conclusion, GATA-3 and FOXA1 are excellent breast carcinoma markers; however, their utility is limited in the triple-negative subtype. The utility of FOXA1 in diagnosing prostatic carcinoma and mesothelioma warrants further investigation.

  20. Comprehensive Cytomorphologic Analysis of Pulmonary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: Comparison to Small Cell Carcinoma and Non-pulmonary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seokhwi; Chu, Jinah; Kim, Hojoong; Han, Joungho

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cytologic diagnosis of pulmonary adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is frequently challenging and differential diagnosis with small cell carcinoma is often difficult. Methods: Eleven cytologically diagnosed cases of pulmonary AdCC were collected and reviewed according to fifteen cytomorphologic characteristics: small cell size, cellular uniformity, coarse chromatin, hyperchromasia, distinct nucleolus, frequent nuclear molding, granular cytoplasm, organoid cluster, sheet formation, irregular border of cluster, hyaline globule, hyaline basement membrane material, individual cell necrosis or apoptotic body, and necrotic background. Twenty cases of small cell carcinoma and fifteen cases of non-pulmonary AdCC were also reviewed for the comparison. Results: Statistically significant differences were identified between pulmonary AdCC and small cell carcinoma in fourteen of the fifteen cytomorphologic criteria (differences in sheet formation were not statistically significant). Cellular uniformity, distinct nucleolus, granular cytoplasm, distinct cell border, organoid cluster, hyaline globule, and hyaline basement membrane material were characteristic features of AdCC. Frequent nuclear molding, individual cell necrosis, and necrotic background were almost exclusively identified in small cell carcinoma. Although coarse chromatin and irregular cluster border were observed in both, they favored the diagnosis of small cell carcinoma. Hyaline globules were more frequently seen in non-pulmonary AdCC cases. Conclusions: Using the fifteen cytomorphologic criteria described by this study, pulmonary AdCC could be successfully distinguished from small cell carcinoma. Such a comprehensive approach to an individual case is recommended for the cytologic diagnosis of pulmonary AdCC. PMID:26477588

  1. Reevaluation and reclassification of resected lung carcinomas originally diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma using immunohistochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Kyuichi; Nitadori, Jun-ichi; Rekhtman, Natasha; Jones, David R; Adusumilli, Prasad S; Travis, William D

    2015-09-01

    Currently, non-small cell lung carcinomas are primarily classified by light microscopy. However, recent studies have shown that poorly differentiated tumors are more accurately classified by immunohistochemistry. In this study, we investigated the use of immunohistochemical analysis in reclassifying lung carcinomas that were originally diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. Tumor slides and blocks were available for histologic evaluation, and tissue microarrays were constructed from 480 patients with resected lung carcinomas originally diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma between 1999 and 2009. Immunohistochemical analyses for p40, p63, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1; clones SPT24 and 8G7G3/1), napsin A, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and CD56 were performed. Staining intensity (weak, moderate, or strong) and distribution (focal or diffuse) were also recorded. Of all, 449 (93.5%) patients were confirmed as having squamous cell carcinomas; the cases were mostly diffusely positive for p40 and negative for TTF-1 (8G7G3/1). Twenty cases (4.2%) were reclassified as adenocarcinoma, as they were positive for TTF-1 (8G7G3/1 or SPT24) with either no or focal p40 expression, and all of them were poorly differentiated with squamoid morphology. In addition, 1 case was reclassified as adenosquamous carcinoma, 4 cases as large cell carcinoma, 4 cases as large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and 2 cases as small cell carcinoma. In poorly differentiated non-small cell lung carcinomas, an accurate distinction between squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cannot be reliably determined by morphology alone and requires immunohistochemical analysis, even in resected specimens. Our findings suggest that TTF-1 8G7G3/1 may be better suited as the primary antibody in differentiating adenocarcinoma from squamous cell carcinoma.

  2. Primary esophageal small cell carcinoma with concomitant invasive squamous cell carcinoma or carcinoma in situ.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Junya; Ohshima, Koichi; Ikeda, Seiyou; Iwashita, Akinori; Kikuchi, Masahiro

    2003-11-01

    Esophageal small cell carcinoma (SmCC) is a rarer, more highly aggressive, and more rapidly growing neoplasm than esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC). SmCC and SqCC also differ in terms of chemotherapy of choice, response to therapy, and prognosis. Accordingly, it is important to differentiate the 2 carcinomas. We studied the histology and immunohistochemical profiles of 6 cases of esophageal SmCC to elucidate the correct diagnosis of this tumor. We performed immunohistochemical analysis antibodies against cytokeratins (CKAE1/AE3, CKCAM5.2, CK34betaE12, CK7, CK8, CK10/13, and CK19), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM; CD56), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), chromogranin-A, S-100 protein, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), E-cadherin, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), and p53. In 3 of the 6 SmCCs, heterogeneous components of in situ or invasive SqCC were observed. SqCC was found in the mucosa adjacent to the main SmCC, and the boundary between SmCC and SqCC was distinct, with no transitional features. Staining for NCAM, NSE, and chromogranin-A was positive in SmCCs, but negative in SqCCs. Both SmCCs and SqCCs were positive for CKAE1/AE3, CKCAM5.2, CK8, and EMA, but only SqCCs were positive for CK34betaE12 and CK19. Moreover, SmCCs containing SqCC components were positive for CEA and E-cadherin, whereas SmCCs without SqCC were negative. Our study suggests that NCAM and NSE are useful markers in diagnosing esophageal SmCC, and CK34betaE12 and CK19 are useful for differentiating SqCC components from SmCC.

  3. Neoadjuvant Intravesical Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Bladder Carcinoma Who Are Undergoing Cystectomy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-22

    Bladder Adenocarcinoma; Bladder Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Recurrent Bladder Carcinoma; Stage I Bladder Cancer; Stage II Bladder Cancer; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Cancer

  4. Identification of Prognostic Biomarkers for Progression of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-30

    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Carcinoma, Squamous; Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Neoplasms; Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Lung Cancer; Neoplasms, Lung; Neoplasms, Pulmonary; Pulmonary Cancer; Pulmonary Neoplasms

  5. Intracellular signaling and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Iakova, Polina; Timchenko, Lubov; Timchenko, Nikolai A

    2011-02-01

    Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer and the third most common cause of cancer related death in the world. The recent development of new techniques for the investigations of global change in the gene expression, signaling pathways and wide genome binding has provided novel information for the mechanisms underlying liver cancer progression. Although these studies identified gene expression signatures in hepatocellular carcinoma, the early steps of the development of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) are not well understood. The development of HCC is a multistep process which includes the progressive alterations of gene expression leading to the increased proliferation and to liver cancer. This review summarizes recent progress in the identification of the key steps of the development of HCC with the focus on early events of carcinogenesis and on the role of translational and epigenetic alterations in the development of HCC. Quiescent stage of the liver is supported by several tumor suppressor proteins including p53, Rb and C/EBPα. Studies with chemical models of liver carcinogenesis and with human HCC have shown that the elevation of gankyrin is responsible for the elimination of these three proteins at early steps of carcinogenesis. Later stages of progression of the liver cancer are associated with alterations in many signaling pathways including translation which leads to epigenetic silencing/activation of many genes. Particularly, recent reports suggest a critical role of histone deacetylase 1, HDAC1, in the development of HCC through the interactions with transcription factors such as C/EBP family proteins. PMID:20850540

  6. HPV Carcinomas in Immunocompromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    Reusser, Nicole M.; Downing, Christopher; Guidry, Jacqueline; Tyring, Stephen K.

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide and can result in pre-malignancies or overt malignancies of the skin and mucosal surfaces. HPV-related illnesses are an important personal and public health problem causing physical, mental, sexual and financial detriments. Moreover, this set of malignancies severely affects the immunosuppressed population, particularly HIV-positive patients and organ-transplant recipients. There is growing incidence of HPV-associated anogenital malignancies as well as a decrease in the average age of affected patients, likely related to the rising number of high-risk individuals. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of HPV-related malignancy. Current treatment options for HPV infection and subsequent disease manifestations include imiquimod, retinoids, intralesional bleomycin, and cidofovir; however, primary prevention with HPV vaccination remains the most effective strategy. This review will discuss anogenital lesions in immunocompromised patients, cutaneous warts at nongenital sites, the association of HPV with skin cancer in immunocompromised patients, warts and carcinomas in organ-transplant patients, HIV-positive patients with HPV infections, and the management of cutaneous disease in the immunocompromised patient. PMID:26239127

  7. Treatment for metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bensouda, Y; Kaikani, W; Ahbeddou, N; Rahhali, R; Jabri, M; Mrabti, H; Boussen, H; Errihani, H

    2011-04-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a specific entity different from head and neck carcinoma. Incidence is higher in South-East Asia and North Africa. Prognosis, especially for locally advanced stages (IIB - IVB) and metastasis, remains poor: more than third of cases will present local and/or metastatic recurrence. Overall 5-year survival for all NPC stages ranges from 50% to 70%. The role of chemotherapy in metastasis is well established, and remains an important palliative treatment, although no randomized trial has been reported comparing the different chemotherapy regimens. As 1(st)-line treatment, platin-based regimens seems optimal; in 2(nd) line and after progression under platins, there is no consensus: monotherapy with drugs such as gemcitabine, capecitabine or taxanes has been the most widely tested, with acceptable results. Future trials should integrate targeted therapy, in the light of overexpression of EGFR1 and C-kit in NPC. The present study presents a review of the literature concerning the various studies of metastatic NPC. PMID:21177151

  8. Enrichment of a squamous carcinoma vaccine.

    PubMed

    O-Sullivan, InSug; Chopra, Amla; Cohen, Edward P

    2007-03-01

    We describe a new vaccination strategy for squamous cell carcinoma. In a mouse model, the vaccine is prepared by transfer of unfractionated DNA-fragments (25 kb) from KLN205 cells, a squamous carcinoma cell line (DBA/2 mouse origin [H-2(d)]) into LM cells, a highly immunogenic mouse fibroblast cell line that expresses allogeneic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-determinants (H-2(k)). The number of vaccine cells can then be expanded for multiple immunizations, as desired. As only a small proportion of the transfected cell population was expected to have incorporated DNA segments that included genes specifying antigens associated with the squamous carcinoma cells, we devised a novel strategy to enrich the vaccine for cells that induced immunity to the squamous carcinoma cells. Twenty-five percent of tumor-bearing mice treated by immunization with the vaccine appeared to have rejected the squamous carcinoma cells; they survived indefinitely (more than 70 days). The therapeutic benefits of the enriched vaccine could be further enhanced by treating the tumor-bearing mice with paclitaxel, a chemotherapeutic agent, followed by immunization with the enriched vaccine. Under these circumstances, 75% of mice with squamous carcinoma appeared to have rejected the squamous carcinoma cells. Toxic effects including the development of autoimmune disease were not detected in tumor-bearing mice receiving the combined therapy.

  9. Gene Expression Patterns in Ovarian Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Schaner, Marci E.; Ross, Douglas T.; Ciaravino, Giuseppe; Sørlie, Therese; Troyanskaya, Olga; Diehn, Maximilian; Wang, Yan C.; Duran, George E.; Sikic, Thomas L.; Caldeira, Sandra; Skomedal, Hanne; Tu, I-Ping; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Johnson, Steven W.; O'Dwyer, Peter J.; Fero, Michael J.; Kristensen, Gunnar B.; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Hastie, Trevor; Tibshirani, Robert; van de Rijn, Matt; Teng, Nelson N.; Longacre, Teri A.; Botstein, David; Brown, Patrick O.; Sikic, Branimir I.

    2003-01-01

    We used DNA microarrays to characterize the global gene expression patterns in surface epithelial cancers of the ovary. We identified groups of genes that distinguished the clear cell subtype from other ovarian carcinomas, grade I and II from grade III serous papillary carcinomas, and ovarian from breast carcinomas. Six clear cell carcinomas were distinguished from 36 other ovarian carcinomas (predominantly serous papillary) based on their gene expression patterns. The differences may yield insights into the worse prognosis and therapeutic resistance associated with clear cell carcinomas. A comparison of the gene expression patterns in the ovarian cancers to published data of gene expression in breast cancers revealed a large number of differentially expressed genes. We identified a group of 62 genes that correctly classified all 125 breast and ovarian cancer specimens. Among the best discriminators more highly expressed in the ovarian carcinomas were PAX8 (paired box gene 8), mesothelin, and ephrin-B1 (EFNB1). Although estrogen receptor was expressed in both the ovarian and breast cancers, genes that are coregulated with the estrogen receptor in breast cancers, including GATA-3, LIV-1, and X-box binding protein 1, did not show a similar pattern of coexpression in the ovarian cancers. PMID:12960427

  10. Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma of the head and face.

    PubMed

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Kramer, B; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet light (UV) is an important risk factor for cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin. These cancers most commonly affect persons with fair skin and blue eyes who sunburn rather than suntan. However, each of these cancers appears to be associated with a different pattern of UV exposure and to be mediated by different intracellular molecular pathways.Some melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants play a direct role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma apart from their role in determining a cancer-prone pigmentory phenotype (fair skin, red hair, blue eyes) through their interactions with other genes regulating immuno-inflammatory responses, DNA repair or apoptosis.In this short review we focus on the aetiological role of UV in cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin, and on some associated biopathological events. PMID:26850723

  11. miR-215 overexpression distinguishes ampullary carcinomas from pancreatic carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong Ho; Park, Sang Jae; Kim, Hark Kyun

    2015-06-01

    Distinguishing ampullary carcinoma from pancreatic carcinoma is important because of their different prognoses. microRNAs are differentially expressed according to the tissue of origin. However, there is rare research on the differential diagnosis between the two types of cancers by microRNA in periampullary cancers. The present study was undertaken to compare microRNA profiles between ampullary and pancreatic carcinomas using microarrays. miR-215 was most significantly overexpressed in ampullary carcinomas; whereas the expressions of miR-134 and miR-214 were significantly lower in ampullary carcinomas than in pancreatic carcinomas. When these discriminatory microRNAs were applied to liver metastases, they were correctly predicted for the tissue of origin. Although this study is limited by small sample size, striking difference in microRNA expression and concordant expression of discriminating microRNAs in primary tumors and metastases suggest that these novel discriminatory microRNAs warrant future validation.

  12. Prevalence of Glomerulopathies in Canine Mammary Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and prevalence of paraneoplastic glomerulopathy, especially associated with carcinoma, are a matter of debate and the causal link between cancer and glomerular diseases remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate renal biopsies of selected bitches with spontaneous mammary gland carcinoma. We hypothesized that dogs with mammary carcinomas would show histologic evidence of glomerular pathology. A prospective study was performed in dogs with naturally occurring mammary carcinoma that were undergoing tumor resection and ovariohysterectomy. We evaluated renal biopsies of 32 bitches with spontaneous mammary gland carcinoma and 11 control dogs without mammary gland neoplasia. Samples were obtained from the left kidney and the biopsy material was divided for light microscopy (LM), immunofluorescence (IF) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Light microscopy abnormalities were identified in 78.1% of dogs with mammary carcinoma (n = 25) and in none of the dogs in the control group. Focal glomerular mesangial matrix expansion was the most common alteration (n = 15, 60.0%), but mesangial cell proliferation (n = 9, 36.0%) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (n = 9, 36.0%), synechiae (n = 7, 28.0%), and globally sclerotic glomeruli (n = 6, 24.0%) were also frequent in dogs with malignancy. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed strong IgM staining was demonstrated in 64.3% (n = 18) of carcinoma dogs. Transmission electron microscopy from dogs with carcinoma revealed slight changes, the most frequent of which was faint sub-endothelial and mesangial deposits of electron-dense material (78%). Mesangial cell interpositioning and segmental effacement of podocyte foot processes were identified in some specimens (45%). Changes in the glomerulus and proteinuria are common in dogs with naturally occurring mammary carcinoma and this condition appears to provide an excellent large animal model for cancer-associated glomerulopathy in humans. PMID:27764139

  13. Diagnosing Lung Carcinomas with Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Hariri, Lida P.; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Lanuti, Michael; Miller, Alyssa J.; Mark, Eugene J.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Lung carcinoma diagnosis on tissue biopsy can be challenging because of insufficient tumor and lack of architectural information. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution imaging modality that visualizes tissue microarchitecture in volumes orders of magnitude larger than biopsy. It has been proposed that OCT could potentially replace tissue biopsy. Objectives: We aim to determine whether OCT could replace histology in diagnosing lung carcinomas. We develop and validate OCT interpretation criteria for common primary lung carcinomas: adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and poorly differentiated carcinoma. Methods: A total of 82 ex vivo tumor samples were included in a blinded assessment with 3 independent readers. Readers were trained on the OCT criteria, and applied these criteria to diagnose adenocarcinoma, SCC, or poorly differentiated carcinoma in an OCT validation dataset. After a 7-month period, the readers repeated the training and validation dataset interpretation. An independent pathologist reviewed corresponding histology. Measurements and Main Results: The average accuracy achieved by the readers was 82.6% (range, 73.7–94.7%). The sensitivity and specificity for adenocarcinoma were 80.3% (65.7–91.4%) and 88.6% (80.5–97.6%), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for SCC were 83.3% (70.0–100.0%) and 87.0% (75.0–96.5%), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for poorly differentiated carcinoma were 85.7% (81.0–95.2%) and 97.6% (92.9–100.0%), respectively. Conclusions: Although these results are encouraging, they indicate that OCT cannot replace histology in the diagnosis of lung carcinomas. However, OCT has potential to aid in diagnosing lung carcinomas as a complement to tissue biopsy, particularly when insufficient tissue is available for pathology assessment. PMID:25562183

  14. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma: Brazilian survey

    PubMed Central

    Cotrim, Helma P.; Oliveira, Claudia P.; Coelho, Henrique Sérgio M.; Alvares-da-Silva, Mario R.; Nabuco, Leticia; Parise, Edison Roberto; Ivantes, Claúdia; Martinelli, Ana LC; Galizzi-Filho, João; Carrilho, Flair J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The majority of cases of hepatocellular carcinoma have been reported in individuals with cirrhosis due to chronic viral hepatitis and alcoholism, but recently, the prevalence has become increasingly related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis around the world. The study aimed to evaluate the clinical and histophatological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma in Brazilians' patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis at the present time. METHODS: Members of the Brazilian Society of Hepatology were invited to complete a survey regarding patients with hepatocellular carcinoma related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Patients with a history of alcohol intake (>20 g/day) and other liver diseases were excluded. Hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis was performed by liver biopsy or imaging methods according to the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases' 2011 guidelines. RESULTS: The survey included 110 patients with a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease from nine hepatology units in six Brazilian states (Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul). The mean age was 67±11 years old, and 65.5% were male. Obesity was observed in 52.7% of the cases; diabetes, in 73.6%; dyslipidemia, in 41.0%; arterial hypertension, in 60%; and metabolic syndrome, in 57.2%. Steatohepatitis without fibrosis was observed in 3.8% of cases; steatohepatitis with fibrosis (grades 1-3), in 27%; and cirrhosis, in 61.5%. Histological diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was performed in 47.2% of the patients, with hepatocellular carcinoma without cirrhosis accounting for 7.7%. In total, 58 patients with cirrhosis had their diagnosis by ultrasound confirmed by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Of these, 55% had 1 nodule; 17%, 2 nodules; and 28%, ≥3 nodules. CONCLUSIONS: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is a relevant risk factor associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with and

  15. Inflammation and Cancer: Role of Annexin A1 and FPR2/ALX in Proliferation and Metastasis in Human Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gastardelo, Thaís Santana; Cunha, Bianca Rodrigues; Raposo, Luís Sérgio; Maniglia, José Victor; Cury, Patrícia Maluf; Lisoni, Flávia Cristina Rodrigues; Tajara, Eloiza Helena; Oliani, Sonia Maria

    2014-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory protein annexin A1 (ANXA1) has been associated with cancer progression and metastasis, suggesting its role in regulating tumor cell proliferation. We investigated the mechanism of ANXA1 interaction with formylated peptide receptor 2 (FPR2/ALX) in control, peritumoral and tumor larynx tissue samples from 20 patients, to quantitate the neutrophils and mast cells, and to evaluate the protein expression and co-localization of ANXA1/FPR2 in these inflammatory cells and laryngeal squamous cells by immunocytochemistry. In addition, we performed in vitro experiments to further investigate the functional role of ANXA1/FPR2 in the proliferation and metastasis of Hep-2 cells, a cell line from larynx epidermoid carcinoma, after treatment with ANXA12–26 (annexin A1 N-terminal-derived peptide), Boc2 (antagonist of FPR) and/or dexamethasone. Under these treatments, the level of Hep-2 cell proliferation, pro-inflammatory cytokines, ANXA1/FPR2 co-localization, and the prostaglandin signalling were analyzed using ELISA, immunocytochemistry and real-time PCR. An influx of neutrophils and degranulated mast cells was detected in tumor samples. In these inflammatory cells of peritumoral and tumor samples, ANXA1/FPR2 expression was markedly exacerbated, however, in laryngeal carcinoma cells, this expression was down-regulated. ANXA12–26 treatment reduced the proliferation of the Hep-2 cells, an effect that was blocked by Boc2, and up-regulated ANXA1/FPR2 expression. ANXA12–26 treatment also reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and affected the expression of metalloproteinases and EP receptors, which are involved in the prostaglandin signalling. Overall, this study identified potential roles for the molecular mechanism of the ANXA1/FPR2 interaction in laryngeal cancer, including its relationship with the prostaglandin pathway, providing promising starting points for future research. ANXA1 may contribute to the regulation of tumor growth and

  16. Carcinoma of gall bladder presenting as dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhaiah, Deepti Akkihebbal; Premkumar, Jennifer Anne; Moses, Viju; Chacko, Geeta

    2011-01-01

    Cancer-related muscle diseases are usually paraneoplastic disorders. Dermatomyositis (DM) is a type of inflammatory myopathy that is strongly associated with a broad range of malignant disorders. The malignancy can occur before, concomitantly or after the onset of myositis. The malignancies most commonly associated with DM are carcinomas of ovary, lung, stomach, colorectal and pancreas, as well as non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. An association of DM with carcinoma of the gall bladder (GB) is extremely rare with only two previously reported cases in the literature. We report a case of carcinoma of GB with DM as the paraneoplastic manifestation. PMID:21655205

  17. Hepatocellular carcinoma: From diagnosis to treatment.

    PubMed

    Grandhi, Miral Sadaria; Kim, Amy K; Ronnekleiv-Kelly, Sean M; Kamel, Ihab R; Ghasebeh, Mounes A; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2016-06-01

    Primary liver cancer is the sixth most common cancer overall and the second most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for up to 90% of all primary hepatic malignancies and represents a major international health problem. While surgical resection and transplantation are the cornerstone of therapy in early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma, locoregional therapy and sorafenib are beneficial in those with more advanced disease or those who are not surgical candidates. At times, the integration of both surgical and locoregional therapy may be necessary. Hence, hepatocellular carcinoma requires a multidisciplinary approach to determine the most appropriate treatment as well as the timing of various treatments for optimal outcomes. PMID:27312032

  18. [Acinar cell carcinoma of submaxillary gland].

    PubMed

    Comeche, C; Calabuig, C; Barona, R

    1997-01-01

    Although acine cell neoplasms have for a long time been regarded as benign tumors, they are presently considered to represent the carcinomas. These rare tumors mainly affect the parotid glands, and only exceptionally involve other salivary glands. Clinically, acic cell carcinoma present as isolated tumors simulating a pleomorphic adenoma. The diagnosis is histopathological, and complete surgical removal of the tumor is the treatment of choice, with cervical lymphatic voiding and/or postoperative radiotherapy in selected cases. A prolonged patient follow-up is required, for the tumor may recur many years after surgery. We report a case of acinic cell carcinoma in submaxillary gland.

  19. Carcinomas ex monomorphic adenoma of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Luna, M A; Batsakis, J G; Tortoledo, M E; del Junco, G W

    1989-08-01

    A clinicopathological analysis of eight examples of carcinomas arising from salivary gland monomorphic adenomas, carcinomas ex monomorphic adenoma, is presented. These uncommon to rare neoplasms have a predilection for the parotid glands, are diagnosed about a decade later than their benign precursors, and most often arise from the dermal analogue type of monomorphic adenoma. As judged by follow-up periods of two to 16 years, carcinomas ex monomorphic adenoma are locally aggressive neoplasms with the clinical course marred by recurrences but without regional or distant metastases.

  20. Detergent solubilization of the EGF receptor from A431 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayanidhi, R.; Rintoul, D. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Functional reconstitution of purified preparations of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) requires dissociation of the protein from its plasma membrane lipid environment. Solubilization of membrane proteins in this manner requires the use of detergents, which are known to disrupt plasma membrane lipid/protein interactions. We have investigated the ability of three nonionic detergents to solubilize the human EGFR selectively, and have also analyzed the effect of these various treatments on the intrinsic tyrosyl kinase activity of the receptor. The nonionic detergent known as n-octyl glucoside (n-octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside) was found to give the best combination of selectivity, yield, and maintenance of enzymatic activity of the human EGFR.

  1. Nonconventional papillary thyroid carcinomas with pleomorphic tumor giant cells: a diagnostic pitfall with anaplastic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hommell-Fontaine, Juliette; Borda, Angela; Ragage, Florence; Berger, Nicole; Decaussin-Petrucci, Myriam

    2010-06-01

    The presence of pleomorphic tumor giant cells in thyroid carcinomas of follicular cell origin is always worrisome for the pathologist as they first of all refer to anaplastic carcinoma, one of the most aggressive human malignancies. However, non-anaplastic pleomorphic giant cells are well described in other thyroid diseases, most often benign. In this paper, we describe four cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma displaying pleomorphic tumor giant cells with features that differ from those of anaplastic carcinoma. Pleomorphic giant cells were admixed with the underlying thyroid carcinoma and constituted from 5% to 25% of the tumor. Cytologically, they had an abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm with large and irregular nuclei. Compared to pleomorphic giant cells of anaplastic carcinoma, they reproduced the growth pattern of the underlying carcinoma, had a low mitotic index without necrosis or inflammation, and were reactive with thyroglobulin and thyroid-specific transcription factor-1 and strongly and diffusely positive for cytokeratin AE1/AE3. After 16-84 months of follow-up, patients are relapse-free and still alive. These cases show that pleomorphic tumor giant cells arising in papillary thyroid carcinomas do not always represent dedifferentiation and progression to anaplastic carcinoma. Distinction among these processes is critical as their treatment and prognosis are very different.

  2. PET imaging of epidermal growth factor receptor expression in tumours using 89Zr-labelled ZEGFR:2377 affibody molecules

    PubMed Central

    GAROUSI, JAVAD; ANDERSSON, KEN G.; MITRAN, BOGDAN; PICHL, MARIE-LOUISE; STÅHL, STEFAN; ORLOVA, ANNA; LÖFBLOM, JOHN; TOLMACHEV, VLADIMIR

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor, which is overexpressed in many types of cancer. The use of EGFR-targeting monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine-kinase inhibitors improves significantly survival of patients with colorectal, non-small cell lung cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Detection of EGFR overexpression provides important prognostic and predictive information influencing management of the patients. The use of radionuclide molecular imaging would enable non-invasive repeatable determination of EGFR expression in disseminated cancer. Moreover, positron emission tomography (PET) would provide superior sensitivity and quantitation accuracy in EGFR expression imaging. Affibody molecules are a new type of imaging probes, providing high contrast in molecular imaging. In the present study, an EGFR-binding affibody molecule (ZEGFR:2377) was site-specifically conjugated with a deferoxamine (DFO) chelator and labelled under mild conditions (room temperature and neutral pH) with a positron-emitting radionuclide 89Zr. The 89Zr-DFO-ZEGFR:2377 tracer demonstrated specific high affinity (160±60 pM) binding to EGFR-expressing A431 epidermoid carcinoma cell line. In mice bearing A431 xenografts, 89Zr-DFO-ZEGFR:2377 demonstrated specific uptake in tumours and EGFR-expressing tissues. The tracer provided tumour uptake of 2.6±0.5% ID/g and tumour-to-blood ratio of 3.7±0.6 at 24 h after injection. 89Zr-DFO-ZEGFR:2377 provides higher tumour-to-organ ratios than anti-EGFR antibody 89Zr-DFO-cetuximab at 48 h after injection. EGFR-expressing tumours were clearly visualized by microPET using 89Zr-DFO-ZEGFR:2377 at both 3 and 24 h after injection. In conclusion, 89Zr-DFO-ZEGFR:2377 is a potential probe for PET imaging of EGFR-expression in vivo. PMID:26847636

  3. PET imaging of epidermal growth factor receptor expression in tumours using 89Zr-labelled ZEGFR:2377 affibody molecules.

    PubMed

    Garousi, Javad; Andersson, Ken G; Mitran, Bogdan; Pichl, Marie-Louise; Ståhl, Stefan; Orlova, Anna; Löfblom, John; Tolmachev, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor, which is overexpressed in many types of cancer. The use of EGFR-targeting monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine-kinase inhibitors improves significantly survival of patients with colorectal, non-small cell lung cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Detection of EGFR overexpression provides important prognostic and predictive information influencing management of the patients. The use of radionuclide molecular imaging would enable non-invasive repeatable determination of EGFR expression in disseminated cancer. Moreover, positron emission tomography (PET) would provide superior sensitivity and quantitation accuracy in EGFR expression imaging. Affibody molecules are a new type of imaging probes, providing high contrast in molecular imaging. In the present study, an EGFR-binding affibody molecule (ZEGFR:2377) was site-specifically conjugated with a deferoxamine (DFO) chelator and labelled under mild conditions (room temperature and neutral pH) with a positron-emitting radionuclide (89)Zr. The (89)Zr-DFO-ZEGFR:2377 tracer demonstrated specific high affinity (160 ± 60 pM) binding to EGFR-expressing A431 epidermoid carcinoma cell line. In mice bearing A431 xenografts, (89)Zr-DFO-ZEGFR:2377 demonstrated specific uptake in tumours and EGFR-expressing tissues. The tracer provided tumour uptake of 2.6 ± 0.5% ID/g and tumour-to-blood ratio of 3.7 ± 0.6 at 24 h after injection. (89)Zr-DFO-ZEGFR:2377 provides higher tumour-to-organ ratios than anti-EGFR antibody (89)Zr-DFO-cetuximab at 48 h after injection. EGFR‑expressing tumours were clearly visualized by microPET using (89)Zr-DFO-ZEGFR:2377 at both 3 and 24 h after injection. In conclusion, 8(9)Zr-DFO-ZEGFR:2377 is a potential probe for PET imaging of EGFR-expression in vivo. PMID:26847636

  4. Hepatocellular carcinoma: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Lisa P; Deshpande, Vrushak; Pyrsopoulos, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is rapidly becoming one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide. With a rising rate, it is a prominent source of mortality. Patients with advanced fibrosis, predominantly cirrhosis and hepatitis B are predisposed to developing HCC. Individuals with chronic hepatitis B and C infections are most commonly afflicted. Different therapeutic options, including liver resection, transplantation, systemic and local therapy, must be tailored to each patient. Liver transplantation offers leading results to achieve a cure. The Milan criteria is acknowledged as the model to classify the individuals that meet requirements to undergo transplantation. Mean survival remains suboptimal because of long waiting times and limited donor organ resources. Recent debates involve expansion of these criteria to create options for patients with HCC to increase overall survival. PMID:26609342

  5. Molecular Pathogenesis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Daniel Wai-Hung; Lo, Regina Cheuk-Lam; Chan, Lo-Kong; Ng, Irene Oi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a multistep process involving the progressive accumulation of molecular alterations pinpointing different molecular and cellular events. The next-generation sequencing technology is facilitating the global and systematic evaluation of molecular landscapes in HCC. There is emerging evidence supporting the importance of cancer metabolism and tumor microenvironment in providing a favorable and supportive niche to expedite HCC development. Moreover, recent studies have identified distinct surface markers of cancer stem cell (CSC) in HCC, and they also put forward the profound involvement of altered signaling pathways and epigenetic modifications in CSCs, in addition to the concomitant drug resistance and metastasis. Taken together, multiple key genetic and non-genetic factors, as well as liver CSCs, result in the development and progression of HCC. PMID:27781201

  6. [Hepatocellular Carcinoma: therapeutic options 2015].

    PubMed

    Schultheiß, Michael; Bettinger, Dominik; Neeff, Hannes P; Brunner, Thomas B; Thimme, Robert

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a common neoplasm, is rising and the prognosis is poor. Many factors have to be taken into account when deciding on the best mode of therapy, like tumor size and number, liver function, sequelae of portal hypertension or other comorbidities. These factors are reflected in the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) classification. Resection, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and liver transplantation can be seen as curative therapies for the early and localized HCC. For the intermediate state of the HCC, there are other therapeutic modalities in therapy available: transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT, rarer occasions), off label: stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). At the moment, Sorafenib is the only option in treating advanced stages of HCC. Alternative treatment strategies, like e.g. immunological therapies, are being investigated. PMID:26182255

  7. Cytoreductive surgery for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lau, W Y; Leung, T W; Leung, K L; Ho, S; Leung, N; Chan, M; Lin, J; Li, A K

    1994-06-01

    A prospective study was conducted on 26 patients for cytoreductive surgery of inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma. These patients underwent cytoreduction with liver resection, cryosurgery, microwave tissue coagulation and/or absolute alcohol injection. In-hospital mortality was 7.7%. The symptomatic relief and quality of survival were excellent. The median survival of patients after cytoreduction was 10.0 months and the survival was much better than those of 26 patients matched by sex, age, tumour size, Child-Pugh grading and Karnofsky scores who received systemic chemotherapy during the same period of the study (log rank test, P = 0.0001). There was no statistical difference between the survival curves of those patients who received (19 patients) and those who did not receive (7 patients) additional treatment by chemotherapy or selective internal radiation therapy after cytoreduction. This suggests that the gained survival benefit could have been derived mainly from the cytoreductive surgery rather than the additional treatments.

  8. Hepatocellular carcinoma and industrial epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Braillon, Alain; Dubois, Gérard

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, the burden of the non viral causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is usually underestimated. Clearly industrial goods, tobacco, alcohol and processed foods are the agents of new epidemics in modern times which far outscore the burden of infectious agents on morbidity and mortality. Smoking, a dose-related contributing factor for HCC, receives too little attention in clinical practice. In France, tobacco, hepatitis B and C virus and alcohol are the main risk factors for HCC mortality (33%, 31% and 26%, respectively). In developing countries, where tobacco consumption is dramatically increasing, this epidemic may soon surpass hepatitis B. Obesity and diabetes are the contributing factors too. The role of industrial processed foods in the increase of the prevalence of obesity and diabetes cannot be ignored. PMID:21734811

  9. Primary carcinoma of renal calyx.

    PubMed

    Williams, Phillip A; Mai, Kien T

    2013-10-01

    Renal calyx carcinoma (RCXC) may mimic collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) or urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the renal pelvis. RCXC is distinguished from CDC and UC of the renal pelvis as having the tumor epicenter in the renal calyx, with limited involvement of the surrounding renal pelvis surface urothelium. In this study, we summarize our experience with this entity. Ten cases of RCXC, including 9 cases with urothelial differentiation (RCXC-UC) and 1 case with salivary gland-type differentiation (RCXC-SC), were identified. Ten consecutive cases of UC were selected for comparison, with extensive renal pelvis involvement and with secondary renal parenchymal invasion. Two cases of collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) were also examined. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on representative tissue blocks for PAX8, PAX2, CK5, CK7, CK20, p63, GATA3, AMACR, RCC, CD10, vimentin, S100, and MSA. The 10 cases of RCXC (M:F=4:6, ages: 62-91 years, mean: 76) presented with renal masses of 3-6cm. Ureteroscopic studies and renal pelvic washings showed atypical/malignant cells in three cases. Seven patients were treated with nephrectomy followed by radiation±chemotherapy, and all cases developed metastases to lymph nodes or liver/lung/bone. In all 7 cases with nephrectomy, there was extensive renal parenchymal involvement with infiltrating borders and diffuse spread along collecting ducts. Six RCXC-UC contained focal squamous differentiation. The RCXC-SC displayed features of adenoid cystic and basaloid features. In situ UC, with or without papillary components, was identified in the calyces in all 7 nephrectomy cases with remaining renal pelvis harboring small tumor burden in 5 cases, and no tumor in another 2 cases. Of the three cases without nephrectomy, no tumor in the renal pelvis could be visualized with endoscopy, however one case was associated with UC of the urinary bladder. Of 10 control UC cases, tumor was limited to the tip of renal papilla in 7 cases, extensive in 3

  10. Tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, YAN-JIE; JU, QIANG; LI, GUAN-CHENG

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. HCC affects approximately one million individuals annually worldwide, with the incidence equal to the mortality rate. In 2008, HCC was listed as the third most lethal cancer. Thus, early diagnosis is crucial for improving the survival rate for patients. α-fetoprotein (AFP) together with iconography and pathology detection are commonly used in the clinical early diagnosis of liver cancer. However, the specificity and sensitivity of AFP used in screening for liver cancer are not satisfactory. Athough the development of molecular biology has led to the identification of new tumor markers, including proteantigens, cytokines, enzymes and isoenzymes, as well as related genes that can be used in the treatment and prognosis of liver cancer, more tumor markers are required for effective early diagnosis of diseases and monitoring of the curative effect. PMID:24649215

  11. Treatment Options by Stage (Adrenocortical Carcinoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Childhood Treatment for more information.) Having certain genetic conditions increases the risk of adrenocortical carcinoma. Anything ... can be a sign of disease. CT scan (CAT scan) : A procedure that makes a series of ...

  12. Paraneoplastic Cough and Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    A case of patient with intractable cough due to renal cell carcinoma is reported. The discussion reviews the literature regarding this unusual paraneoplastic manifestation of renal malignancy. PMID:27445553

  13. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    PubMed

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy. PMID:26971503

  14. [Radiotherapy of carcinoma of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Servagi-Vernat, S; Tochet, F

    2016-09-01

    Indication, doses, and technique of radiotherapy for salivary glands carcinoma are presented, and the contribution of neutrons and carbon ions. The recommendations for delineation of the target volumes and organs at risk are detailed. PMID:27521038

  15. Treatment Options by Stage (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... other organs . Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can affect the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma. ... ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy for psoriasis . Having an immune system weakened by disease, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... other organs . Sun exposure and having a weak immune system can affect the risk of Merkel cell carcinoma. ... ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy for psoriasis . Having an immune system weakened by disease, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...

  17. Paraneoplastic Cough and Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    A case of patient with intractable cough due to renal cell carcinoma is reported. The discussion reviews the literature regarding this unusual paraneoplastic manifestation of renal malignancy. PMID:27445553

  18. [Ionising rays and laryngeal carcinomas (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Martin, G; Glanz, H; Kleinsasser, O

    1979-03-01

    Review of the literature and report of a new care of laryngeal cancer after irradiation of a benign lesion of the neck. These cases obviously become rare since benign lesions are no longer irradiated. Today the risk of inducing a second carcinoma by a successful irradiation of the first tumor becomes more important. A study of 109 patients, irradiated for laryngeal carcinoma and surviving with no evidence of disease for a period of at least 5 years has been performed. 8 of these patients developed a second primary in the previously irradiated area after 7-15 years. These second carcinomas are not rare if one considers that most patients with laryngeal carcinoma are 60-70 years old and therefore the life expectance on an average is low. These facts should be taken into consideration when deciding between surgical or radiation therapy in younger patients with high life expectance.

  19. TCGA analysis of adrenocortical carcinoma - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    In the most comprehensive molecular characterization to date of adrenocortical carcinoma, a rare cancer of the adrenal cortex, researchers extensively analyzed 91 cases for alterations in the tumor genomes.

  20. Sunitinib benefits patients with renal cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Findings from clinical trial patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, a common kidney cancer, show they did not have accelerated tumor growth after treatment with sunitinib, in contrast to some study results in animals.

  1. Precursors and pathogenesis of ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lim, D; Oliva, E

    2013-04-01

    The ultimate goal of defining cancer specific precursors is to facilitate early detection and intervention before the development of invasive malignancy. Unlike other malignancies involving the female genital tract such as cervical or endometrial carcinomas, precursor lesions of ovarian carcinomas have not been well characterised, resulting in a failure to develop effective screening programs. Recent clinicopathological and molecular studies have provided new insight into the origin and pathogenesis of ovarian carcinomas. It has been shown that ovarian cancer is comprised of different tumour types differing not only in morphology, but also in pathogenesis, molecular alterations and clinical progression. A dualistic model of ovarian carcinogenesis has been proposed. Type I tumours which include low grade serous, low grade endometrioid, clear cell, mucinous carcinomas and Brenner tumours, are generally indolent and tend to be genetically stable, although clear cell carcinoma would probably belong to an intermediate category. They demonstrate a step-wise progression from a benign precursor such as a benign to borderline tumour or endometriosis and are characterised by genetic aberrations targeting specific cell signalling pathways. Type II tumours comprise high grade serous, high grade endometrioid, and undifferentiated carcinomas as well as malignant mixed mesodermal tumours. They are clinically aggressive and exhibit high genetic instability with frequent p53 mutations. Mounting evidence suggests that many high grade serous carcinomas originate from the epithelium of the distal fallopian tube, and that serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) represents the putative precursor of these neoplasms. Low grade serous carcinomas arise via transformation of benign and borderline serous tumours, thought to be derived from inclusion cysts originating from the ovarian surface or tubal epithelium. Recently it has been suggested that papillary tubal hyperplasia may be a

  2. Depsipeptide in Unresectable Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-29

    Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  3. Efficacy and Tolerability of ABT-869 Versus Sorafenib in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-09-07

    Hepatocellular Carcinoma Non-resectable; Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrent; Carcinoma, Hepatocellular; Liver Diseases; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Digestive System Neoplasms; Carcinoma; Liver Neoplasms; Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Site; Digestive System Diseases; Adenocarcinoma; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial

  4. Ureterocele urothelial carcinoma: managing a rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Astigueta, Juan Carlos; Abad-Licham, Milagros; Silva, Eloy; Alvarez, Víctor; Piccone, Francis; Cruz, Enrique; Redorta, Joan Palou

    2016-01-01

    It is very uncommon for urothelial carcinoma to develop in an ureterocele. It is generally discovered in an imaging study or in connection with haematuria. We found very few reports in the literature. Here, we report on the case of a 71-year-old male who initially presented with haematuria and low back pain and who then underwent transurethral resection for an intraureterocele tumour. Pathology confirmed urothelial carcinoma. PMID:26913072

  5. [Hypopharyngeal carcinoma and red ear drum].

    PubMed

    Bender, B; Widmann, G; Riechelmann, H; Schmutzhard, J

    2011-04-01

    A 46-year-old male patient with an unresectable hypopharyngeal carcinoma was treated with primary radio-chemotherapy. At follow-up, the patient presented with a red ear drum and combined hearing loss. Because of radiotherapy-induced tubal dysfunction, paracentesis was performed. Biopsy of the polypoid middle ear mucosa revealed petrous bone infiltration of hypopharyngeal carcinoma. MRI studies revealed paracarotideal tumor infiltration to the petrous bone and the middle ear arising from a cervical retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis. PMID:20963385

  6. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasized to Pagetic Bone

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Ashley; Liu, Bo; Rop, Baiywo; Edison, Michelle; Valente, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Paget’s disease of the bone, historically known as osteitis deformans, is an uncommon disease typically affecting individuals of European descent. Patients with Paget’s disease of the bone are at increased risk for primary bone neoplasms, particularly osteosarcoma. Many cases of metastatic disease to pagetic bone have been reported. However, renal cell carcinoma metastasized to pagetic bone is extremely rare. A 94-year-old male presented to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen demonstrated a large mass in the right kidney compatible with renal cell carcinoma. The patient was also noted to have Paget’s disease of the pelvic bones and sacrum. Within the pagetic bone of the sacrum, there was an enhancing mass compatible with renal cell carcinoma. A subsequent biopsy of the renal lesion confirmed renal cell carcinoma. Paget’s disease of the bone places the patient at an increased risk for bone neoplasms. The most commonly reported sites for malignant transformation are the femur, pelvis, and humerus. In cases of malignant transformation, osteosarcoma is the most common diagnosis. Breast, lung, and prostate carcinomas are the most common to metastasize to pagetic bone. Renal cell carcinoma associated with Paget’s disease of the bone is very rare, with only one prior reported case. Malignancy in Paget's disease of the bone is uncommon with metastatic disease to pagetic bone being extremely rare. We report a patient diagnosed with concomitant renal cell carcinoma and metastatic disease within Paget’s disease of the sacrum. Further research is needed to assess the true incidence of renal cell carcinoma associated with pagetic bone.

  7. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasized to Pagetic Bone.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Ashley; Liu, Bo; Rop, Baiywo; Edison, Michelle; Valente, Michael; Burt, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Paget's disease of the bone, historically known as osteitis deformans, is an uncommon disease typically affecting individuals of European descent. Patients with Paget's disease of the bone are at increased risk for primary bone neoplasms, particularly osteosarcoma. Many cases of metastatic disease to pagetic bone have been reported. However, renal cell carcinoma metastasized to pagetic bone is extremely rare. A 94-year-old male presented to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen demonstrated a large mass in the right kidney compatible with renal cell carcinoma. The patient was also noted to have Paget's disease of the pelvic bones and sacrum. Within the pagetic bone of the sacrum, there was an enhancing mass compatible with renal cell carcinoma. A subsequent biopsy of the renal lesion confirmed renal cell carcinoma. Paget's disease of the bone places the patient at an increased risk for bone neoplasms. The most commonly reported sites for malignant transformation are the femur, pelvis, and humerus. In cases of malignant transformation, osteosarcoma is the most common diagnosis. Breast, lung, and prostate carcinomas are the most common to metastasize to pagetic bone. Renal cell carcinoma associated with Paget's disease of the bone is very rare, with only one prior reported case. Malignancy in Paget's disease of the bone is uncommon with metastatic disease to pagetic bone being extremely rare. We report a patient diagnosed with concomitant renal cell carcinoma and metastatic disease within Paget's disease of the sacrum. Further research is needed to assess the true incidence of renal cell carcinoma associated with pagetic bone.

  8. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma, Version 2.2015

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Robert I.; Lydiatt, William M.; Ball, Douglas W.; Busaidy, Naifa Lamki; Byrd, David; Callender, Glenda; Dickson, Paxton; Duh, Quan-Yang; Ehya, Hormoz; Haymart, Megan; Hoh, Carl; Hunt, Jason P.; Iagaru, Andrei; Kandeel, Fouad; Kopp, Peter; Lamonica, Dominick M.; McCaffrey, Judith C.; Moley, Jeffrey F.; Parks, Lee; Raeburn, Christopher D.; Ridge, John A.; Ringel, Matthew D.; Scheri, Randall P.; Shah, Jatin P.; Smallridge, Robert C.; Sturgeon, Cord; Wang, Thomas N.; Wirth, Lori J.; Hoffmann, Karin G.; Hughes, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    This selection from the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Thyroid Carcinoma focuses on anaplastic carcinoma because substantial changes were made to the systemic therapy recommendations for the 2015 update. Dosages and frequency of administration are now provided, docetaxel/doxorubicin regimens were added, and single-agent cisplatin was deleted because it is not recommended for patients with advanced or metastatic anaplastic thyroid cancer. PMID:26358798

  9. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasized to Pagetic Bone.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Ashley; Liu, Bo; Rop, Baiywo; Edison, Michelle; Valente, Michael; Burt, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Paget's disease of the bone, historically known as osteitis deformans, is an uncommon disease typically affecting individuals of European descent. Patients with Paget's disease of the bone are at increased risk for primary bone neoplasms, particularly osteosarcoma. Many cases of metastatic disease to pagetic bone have been reported. However, renal cell carcinoma metastasized to pagetic bone is extremely rare. A 94-year-old male presented to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen demonstrated a large mass in the right kidney compatible with renal cell carcinoma. The patient was also noted to have Paget's disease of the pelvic bones and sacrum. Within the pagetic bone of the sacrum, there was an enhancing mass compatible with renal cell carcinoma. A subsequent biopsy of the renal lesion confirmed renal cell carcinoma. Paget's disease of the bone places the patient at an increased risk for bone neoplasms. The most commonly reported sites for malignant transformation are the femur, pelvis, and humerus. In cases of malignant transformation, osteosarcoma is the most common diagnosis. Breast, lung, and prostate carcinomas are the most common to metastasize to pagetic bone. Renal cell carcinoma associated with Paget's disease of the bone is very rare, with only one prior reported case. Malignancy in Paget's disease of the bone is uncommon with metastatic disease to pagetic bone being extremely rare. We report a patient diagnosed with concomitant renal cell carcinoma and metastatic disease within Paget's disease of the sacrum. Further research is needed to assess the true incidence of renal cell carcinoma associated with pagetic bone. PMID:27660736

  10. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasized to Pagetic Bone

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Ashley; Liu, Bo; Rop, Baiywo; Edison, Michelle; Valente, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Paget’s disease of the bone, historically known as osteitis deformans, is an uncommon disease typically affecting individuals of European descent. Patients with Paget’s disease of the bone are at increased risk for primary bone neoplasms, particularly osteosarcoma. Many cases of metastatic disease to pagetic bone have been reported. However, renal cell carcinoma metastasized to pagetic bone is extremely rare. A 94-year-old male presented to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen demonstrated a large mass in the right kidney compatible with renal cell carcinoma. The patient was also noted to have Paget’s disease of the pelvic bones and sacrum. Within the pagetic bone of the sacrum, there was an enhancing mass compatible with renal cell carcinoma. A subsequent biopsy of the renal lesion confirmed renal cell carcinoma. Paget’s disease of the bone places the patient at an increased risk for bone neoplasms. The most commonly reported sites for malignant transformation are the femur, pelvis, and humerus. In cases of malignant transformation, osteosarcoma is the most common diagnosis. Breast, lung, and prostate carcinomas are the most common to metastasize to pagetic bone. Renal cell carcinoma associated with Paget’s disease of the bone is very rare, with only one prior reported case. Malignancy in Paget's disease of the bone is uncommon with metastatic disease to pagetic bone being extremely rare. We report a patient diagnosed with concomitant renal cell carcinoma and metastatic disease within Paget’s disease of the sacrum. Further research is needed to assess the true incidence of renal cell carcinoma associated with pagetic bone. PMID:27660736

  11. Primary Intraosseous Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Maxilla.

    PubMed

    Nallamilli, S M; Tatapudi, R; Reddy, R S; Ravikanth, M; Rajesh, N

    2015-06-01

    Primary intraosseous mucoepidermoid carcinoma (PIOC) is an infrequent malignancy of the head and neck that exhibits diverse biological behavior. The rareness of the location for a salivary gland tumor and the clinical and radiographic manifestations, suggestive of an odontogenic lesion often pose a diagnostic challenge. We hereby report such a unique case of central mucoepidermoid carcinoma that presented in an ambiguous manner, developing in the maxilla and intruding into the adjacent vital structures, adding a literature review. PMID:26339097

  12. [Clinical characteristics of the thyroid follicular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Hermosillo, Hugo; Tamez-Peréz, Héctor Eloy; Díaz de León-Gonzaléz, Enrique; Gutiérrez-Hermosillo, Violeta; Avila-Sanchéz, Jair

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: se ha identificado carcinoma folicular en 39 % de los pacientes con nódulos tiroideos cuya citología prequirúrgica ha indicado resultados indeterminados. El propósito de esta investigación fue conocer la prevalencia de esta entidad en un hospital de concentración. Métodos: se buscaron los reportes quirúrgicos con diagnóstico de carcinoma folicular. Se registró tamaño del tumor, sexo y edad del paciente, diagnósticos pre y posquirúrgico y patologías asociadas. Resultados: se diagnosticó carcinoma folicular en 35 pacientes: 30 mujeres (85 %) y cinco hombres (15 %). La edad en los hombres fue de 57 ± 6.6 y de 44 ± 16.9 en las mujeres. Los diagnósticos preoperatorios fueron carcinoma folicular en 14 (40 %), cáncer tiroideo en seis (17.1 %), adenoma folicular en cuatro (11.4 %), bocio en tres (8.5 %), nódulo tiroideo en tres (8.5 %); carcinoma papilar, tumor de tiroides, carcinoma poco diferenciado de tiroides, adenocarcinoma folicular bien diferenciado, cáncer medular en un paciente (2.8 %) cada uno. Las patologías asociadas fueron tiroiditis de Hashimoto y carcinoma papilar contralateral, con dos pacientes cada uno (5.6 %). Conclusiones: la edad de los pacientes y la presentación clínica del carcinoma folicular difirieron de las informadas en otras investigaciones.

  13. Pancreatic carcinoma: results with fast neutron therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kaul, R.; Cohen, L.; Hendrickson, F.; Awschalom, M.; Hrejsa, A.F.; Rosenberg, I.

    1981-02-01

    Results of therapy in 31 of 50 patients who were treated for advanced pancreatic carcinoma at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are presented here. To date, six patients are alive and four are free of disease. Since the main reason for failure was lack of control of primary tumor, the tumor dose has been increased by 15%. Based on our results, a nationwide study has been launched to assess the effectiveness of neutrons vs photons in the treatment of locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma.

  14. Intracystic breast carcinoma: case study and review.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Sadaf; Mood, Narges Izadi

    2010-12-01

    Breast carcinoma is the most common cancer in women, the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in women, and the leading cause of death from cancer in women between the ages of 40 and 44. While cystic breast disease is the most frequent cause of benign breast masses, intracystic breast cancers are rare. We present a case of a postmenopausal woman with a large cystic breast carcinoma with its interesting radiologic and cytopathologic findings and review the literature.

  15. GATA3 expression in breast carcinoma: utility in triple-negative, sarcomatoid, and metastatic carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Subhawong, Andrea P; Illei, Peter B; Sharma, Rajni; Halushka, Marc K; Vang, Russell; Fetting, John H; Park, Ben Ho; Argani, Pedram

    2013-07-01

    GATA3 plays an integral role in breast luminal cell differentiation and is implicated in breast cancer progression. GATA3 immunohistochemistry is a useful marker of breast cancer; however, its use in specific subtypes is unclear. Here, we evaluate GATA3 expression in 86 invasive ductal carcinomas including triple-negative, Her-2, and luminal subtypes, in addition to 13 metaplastic carcinomas and in 34 fibroepithelial neoplasms. In addition, we report GATA3 expression in matched primary and metastatic breast carcinomas in 30 patients with known estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and Her-2 status, including 5 with ER and/or PR loss from primary to metastasis. Tissue microarrays containing 5 to 10 cores per tumor were stained for GATA3, scored as follows: 0 (0-5%), 1+ (6%-25%), 2+ (26%-50%), 3+ (51%-75%), and 4+ (>75%). GATA3 labeling was seen in 67% (66/99) of primary ductal carcinomas including 43% of triple-negative and 54% of metaplastic carcinomas. In contrast, stromal GATA3 labeling was seen in only 1 fibroepithelial neoplasm. GATA3 labeling was seen in 90% (27/30) of primary breast carcinomas in the paired cohort, including 67% of triple-negative carcinomas. GATA3 labeling was overwhelmingly maintained in paired metastases. Notably, GATA3 was maintained in all "luminal loss" metastases, which showed ER and/or PR loss. In conclusion, GATA3 expression is maintained between matched primary and metastatic carcinomas including ER-negative cases. GATA3 can be particularly useful as a marker for metastatic breast carcinoma, especially triple-negative and metaplastic carcinomas, which lack specific markers of mammary origin. Finally, GATA3 labeling may help distinguish metaplastic carcinoma from malignant phyllodes tumors.

  16. Is local resection sufficient for parathyroid carcinoma?

    PubMed Central

    Basceken, Salim Ilksen; Genc, Volkan; Ersoz, Siyar; Sevim, Yusuf; Celik, Suleyman Utku; Bayram, Ilknur Kepenekci

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare malignant disease of the parathyroid glands that appears in less than 1% of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. In the literature, the generally recommended treatment is en bloc tumor excision with ipsilateral thyroid lobectomy. Based on our 12 years of experience, we discuss the necessity of performing thyroid lobectomy on parathyroid carcinoma patients. RESULTS: Eleven parathyroid carcinoma cases were included in the study. All operations were performed at the Department of Endocrine Surgery at Ankara University Medical School. Seven of the patients were male (63.6%), and the mean patient age was 48.9 ± 14.0 years. Hyperparathyroidism was the most common indication for surgery (n ϝ 10, 90.9%). Local disease was detected in 5 patients (45.5%), invasive disease was detected in 5 patients (45.5%) and metastatic disease was detected in 1 patient (9.1%). The mean follow-up period was 99.6 ± 42.1 months, and the patients' average disease-free survival was 96.0 ± 49.0 months. During the follow-up period, only 1 patient died of metastatic parathyroid carcinoma. CONCLUSION: Parathyroid carcinoma has a slow-growing natural progression, and regional lymph node metastases are uncommon. Although our study comprised few patients, it nevertheless showed that in selected cases, parathyroid carcinoma could be solely treated with parathyroidectomy. PMID:26017790

  17. Carcinoma of the lung in Lancashire coalminers.

    PubMed

    Rooke, G B; Ward, F G; Dempsey, A N; Dowler, J B; Whitaker, C J

    1979-04-01

    The prevalence at death of carcinoma of the lung in miners and ex-miners has been compared in those with and without pneumoconiosis at necropsy. The prevalence of 11.4% in the group as a whole is no greater than that in the male population in North-west England. Carcinoma of the lung was present in 62 (13.1%) of those without pneumoconiosis and in 52 (9.8%) of those with pneumoconiosis. The mean age at death of those with pneumoconiosis was 71.3 years so that they cannot be said to have died before the age at which they would have developed carcinoma. Those with progressive massive fibrosis whose mean age at death was 72 years had the lowest prevalence of carcinoma of the lung at all ages--8.4%. For reasons stated in the text this is inevitably a biased sample. The number of those without pneumoconiosis is probably lower than the true figure because the deaths of miners and ex-miners in whom there is no suspicion of lung disease may not have been reported to the coroner or to the pneumoconiosis medical panel. There appears to be no positive link between carcinoma of the lung and pneumoconiosis. There is a surprisingly high number of smokers and ex-smokers among these miners, and this appears to have more relevance to the prevalence of carcinoma of the lung than does pneumoconiosis.

  18. Oncocytic mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Jahan-Parwar, B; Huberman, R M; Donovan, D T; Schwartz, M R; Ostrowski, M L

    1999-05-01

    Two parotid mucoepidermoid carcinomas with predominant oncocytic features were initially assessed on frozen section. Because of extensive oncocytic change, it was inferred that the lesions were most likely benign. Permanent sections revealed low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma with prominent oncocytic change (in more than 75% of the neoplasms) in both cases. Review of 48 additional consecutive cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands revealed prominent oncocytic change (accounting for 60% of the neoplasm) in one high-grade lesion. Phosphotungstic acid-hematoxylin stains revealed strong granular cytoplasmic staining in the oncocytic elements; immunohistochemical stains for antimitochondrial antibodies also showed intense immunoreactivity in these cells. Oncocytic change is not typically a prominent feature of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands, and to our knowledge, only three such cases have been reported previously. Because most salivary gland lesions with oncocytic change are benign, it is important to distinguish mucoepidermoid carcinoma from other entities that may show prominent oncocytic change. We report three additional examples of this rare lesion, two low-grade tumors and one high-grade tumor, and review our experience with oncocytic change in mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands.

  19. Pancreatic mucinous noncystic (colloid) carcinomas and intraductal papillary mucinous carcinomas are usually microsatellite stable.

    PubMed

    Lüttges, Jutta; Beyser, Kurt; Pust, Susanne; Paulus, Anja; Rüschoff, Josef; Klöppel, Günter

    2003-06-01

    Pancreatic mucinous noncystic (colloid) carcinomas (MNCC) differ from the usual ductal adenocarcinomas in their mucin expression profile and share with many extrapancreatic mucinous carcinomas the expression of MUC2. Because mucinous carcinomas are frequently associated with mutations of the DNA mismatch repair genes, causing them to exhibit the so-called mutator phenotype, we decided to investigate whether MNCCs of the pancreas are characterized by microsatellite instability (MSI). Twelve carcinomas with a mucinous phenotype (8 mucinous noncystic carcinomas, 3 intraductal papillary-mucinous carcinomas with an invasive muconodular component, and 1 ductal adenocarcinoma with an extensive mucinous noncystic component) and 11 ductal adenocarcinomas were immunostained with monoclonal antibodies to the mismatch repair gene products hMLH1, hMSH2, and hMSH6. For MSI analysis, DNA was isolated from microdissected tissue, and five primary microsatellites (BAT 25, BAT 26, D5S346, D17S250, and D2S123) were analyzed. MSI was diagnosed in case a novel allele was found, compared with the normal tissue. The criterion for LOH was a 75% signal reduction. All carcinomas tested exhibited nuclear expression of mismatch repair gene products, except for one MNCC that also showed MSI at the molecular level. The data suggest that pancreatic carcinomas with a mucinous phenotype (MUC2+/MUC1-) do not appear to normally exhibit mutations in the mismatch repair genes and therefore differ in their carcinogenesis from those in other organs.

  20. Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Multifocal Synchronous Transformation to Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma is a common malignancy to affect the thyroid and is typified by a nonaggressive nature and low rates of mortality. In contrast, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is the most aggressive thyroid malignancy with a mortality rate of nearly 90% and survival typically of only six months after the diagnosis is made. The transformation of papillary thyroid carcinoma to anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is well documented in the literature but is uncommon and in most instances is reported as a case report or small series only. Transformation of papillary thyroid carcinoma to anaplastic thyroid carcinoma usually takes place in the thyroid itself or in the adjacent lymph nodes. Only on rare occasions does a transformation occur in a papillary thyroid carcinoma metastasis outside of these locations. In the present case report and subsequent discussion we highlight an unusual case of PTC with transformation to anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, which is shown to involve numerous locations to include near total lung parenchyma obliteration. We also discuss the differential diagnostic challenges when faced with a thyroid malignancy that is negative for thyroglobulin. PMID:27774331

  1. NUT midline carcinomas of the sinonasal tract.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Justin A; Westra, William H

    2012-08-01

    NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) is a highly lethal tumor defined by translocations involving the NUT gene on chromosome 15q14. NMC involves midline structures including the sinonasal tract, but its overall incidence at this midline site and its full morphologic profile are largely unknown because sinonasal tumors are not routinely tested for the NUT gene translocation. The recent availability of an immunohistochemical probe for the NUT protein now permits a more complete characterization of sinonasal NMCs. The archival files of The Johns Hopkins Hospital Surgical Pathology were searched for all cases of primary sinonasal carcinomas diagnosed from 1995 to 2011. Tissue microarrays were constructed, and NUT immunohistochemical analysis was performed. All NUT-positive cases underwent a more detailed microscopic and immunohistochemical analysis. Among 151 primary sinonasal carcinomas, only 3 (2%) were NUT positive. NUT positivity was detected in 2 of 13 (15%) carcinomas diagnosed as sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma and in 1 of 87 (1%) carcinomas diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. All occurred in men (26, 33, and 48 y of age). The NMCs grew as nests and sheets of cells with a high mitotic rate and extensive necrosis. Two were entirely undifferentiated, and 1 tumor showed abrupt areas of squamous differentiation. Each case had areas of cell spindling, and 2 were heavily infiltrated by neutrophils. Immunohistochemical staining was observed for cytokeratins (3 of 3), epithelial membrane antigen (3 of 3), p63 (2 of 3), CD34 (1 of 3), and synaptophysin (1 of 3). All patients died of the disease (survival time range, 8 to 16 mo; mean, 12 mo) despite combined surgery and chemoradiation. NMC represents a rare form of primary sinonasal carcinoma, but its incidence is significantly increased in those carcinomas that exhibit an undifferentiated component. Indiscriminant analysis for evidence of the NUT translocation is unwarranted. Instead, NUT analysis can be restricted to

  2. [New developments in molecular diagnostics of carcinomas of the salivary glands: "translocation carcinomas"].

    PubMed

    Skálová, Alena; Šteiner, Petr; Vaneček, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    In recent years the discovery of translocations and the fusion oncogenes that they result in has changed the way diagnoses are made in salivary gland pathology. These genetic aberrations are recurrent; and at the very least serve as powerful diagnostic tools in salivary gland tumors diagnosis and classification. They also show promise as prognostic markers and hopefully as targets of therapy. In this review the 4 carcinomas currently known to harbor translocations will be discussed, namely mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma, and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. The discovery and implications of each fusion will be highlighted and how they have helped to reshape the current classification of salivary gland tumors. PMID:27526014

  3. Intra-oral salivary gland neoplasms: a retrospective study of 98 cases.

    PubMed

    Chau, M N; Radden, B G

    1986-07-01

    The findings of a retrospective study of 98 minor salivary neoplasms are reported. The patient's ages ranged from 13-79 years and there was an equal sex distribution. Sixty-one of the lesions were benign, 53 being pleomorphic adenomas and 8 monomorphic adenomas. Of the malignant tumors, 19 were muco-epidermoid tumors, 12 adenoid cystic carcinomas, 4 adenocarcinomas, 1 carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma and 1 epidermoid carcinoma. One striking finding was the difference in age at the time of presentation for patients with muco-epidermoid tumors compared with those with adenoid cystic carcinomas. Seventy-four percent of the patients with muco-epidermoid tumors were under 50 years of age, but 75% of those with adenoid cystic carcinomas were over 50 years.

  4. Raf-1 kinase inhibitory protein expression in thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Gou Young; Lim, Sung-Jig; Kim, Youn Wha

    2010-12-01

    Raf-1 kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) has been implicated in several fundamental signal transduction pathways that control cellular growth, differentiation, apoptosis and migration. RKIP is reduced in a variety of human carcinomas, but RKIP expression in thyroid carcinomas has not been analyzed at the protein level. In this study, we examined the immunohistochemical expression of RKIP in various subtypes of thyroid carcinoma. Immunostaining for RKIP was performed on 104 cases of primary thyroid carcinoma (40 papillary, 29 follicular, 11 medullary, 11 poorly differentiated, and 13 anaplastic carcinomas) and 26 cases of nodal metastatic tumor (17 papillary, 4 medullary, and 5 anaplastic carcinomas). Normal thyroid tissue and all cases of follicular, papillary, and medullary carcinomas showed uniform, strong cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for RKIP. With the exception of one case, poorly differentiated carcinomas also revealed strong RKIP expression. In contrast, RKIP expression was completely absent in all anaplastic carcinomas. The transition zone from the differentiated carcinoma component (strong RKIP expression) to the anaplastic carcinoma component (no RKIP expression) demonstrated a completely opposite pattern of RKIP immunoreactivity. This reduction of RKIP expression in anaplastic carcinoma was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Additionally, RKIP expression of nodal metastatic tumors corresponded with that of primary tumors: metastatic papillary and medullary carcinomas showed uniform, strong cytoplasmic RKIP immunoreactivity, in contrast, in metastatic anaplastic carcinomas, RKIP expression was completely absent. RKIP expression is significantly reduced in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma as compared to other subtypes of thyroid carcinoma. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the precise mechanism of RKIP action in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

  5. Parvalbumin is constantly expressed in chromophobe renal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Martignoni, G; Pea, M; Chilosi, M; Brunelli, M; Scarpa, A; Colato, C; Tardanico, R; Zamboni, G; Bonetti, F

    2001-08-01

    Chromophobe renal carcinoma is composed of neoplastic cell showing several features similar to those found in the intercalated cells of the collecting ducts. Because the distal nephron expresses calcium-binding proteins playing a role in calcium homeostasis, we reasoned that these proteins could be expressed by chromophobe carcinoma and therefore represent a diagnostic marker. We studied the immunohistochemical expression of different calcium-binding proteins (parvalbumin, calbindin-D28K, and calretinin) in 140 renal tumors, including 75 conventional (clear cell) carcinomas, 32 chromophobe carcinomas, 17 papillary renal cell carcinomas, and 16 oncocytomas. Parvalbumin was strongly positive in all primary chromophobe carcinomas and in one pancreatic metastasis; it was positive in 11 of 16 oncocytomas and absent in conventional (clear cell) and papillary renal cell carcinomas, either primary or metastatic. Calbindin-D28K and calretinin were negative in all tumors, with the exception of two chromophobe carcinomas, four oncocytomas, and two papillary renal cell carcinomas showing inconspicuous calretinin expression. Our data demonstrate that parvalbumin may be a suitable marker for distinguishing primary and metastatic chromophobe carcinoma from conventional (clear cell) and papillary renal cell carcinoma. Moreover, they suggest a relationship between chromophobe renal carcinoma and renal oncocytoma and indicate that chromophobe carcinoma exhibits differentiation toward the collecting-duct phenotype.

  6. Cisplatin and Etoposide or Temozolomide and Capecitabine in Treating Patients With Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Gastrointestinal Tract or Pancreas That Is Metastatic or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-05

    Colorectal Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Esophageal Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Gallbladder Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Gastric Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Pancreatic Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Small Intestinal Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

  7. Familial pancreatic carcinoma in Jews.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Henry T; Deters, Carolyn A; Lynch, Jane F; Brand, Randall E

    2004-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the most fatal of all gastrointestinal cancers, wherein its mortality compares strikingly with its incidence. Unfortunately, 80-90% of PCs are diagnosed in the nonresectable stage. While the lifetime risk of PC in developed countries is approximately 1-3%, it is the fifth most common cause of cancer deaths among both males and females in Western countries. It occurs in excess in Jews. Approximately 5-10% of PC shows familial clustering. Examination of such familial clusters must take into consideration cancers of diverse anatomic sites, such as malignant melanoma in the familial atypical multiple melanoma (FAMMM) syndrome due to the CDKN2A (p16) germline mutation, and combinations of colorectal and endometrial carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, and several other cancers in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), which are due to mismatch repair germline mutations, the most common of which are MSH2 and MLH1 . Other hereditary disorders predisposing to PC include Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, due to the STK11 mutation, familial pancreatitis due to the cationic trypsinogen gene, site-specific familial pancreatic cancer which may be due to the 4q32-34 mutation, hereditary breast-ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome that is due to BRCA2 and possibly some families with HBOC that is due to BRCA1 , familial adenomatous polyposis due to the ATP gene, and ataxia telangiectasia due to the ATM germline mutation. This extant heterogeneity mandates that the physician be knowledgeable about these PC-prone syndromes which play such an important role when considering the differential diagnosis of hereditary PC. Unfortunately, there are no PC screening programs with acceptable sensitivity and specificity. However, the gold standard for screening at this time is endoscopic ultrasound. Clearly, there is a great need for the development of novel screening approaches with acceptable sensitivity and specificity. Further research is needed to elucidate those etiologic

  8. Hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Kew, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the major malignant tumors in the world today. The number of new cases of the tumor increases year by year, and hepatocellular carcinoma almost always runs a fulminant course and carries an especially grave prognosis. It has a low resectability rate and a high recurrence rate after surgical intervention, and responds poorly to anticancer drugs and radiotherapy. Hepatocellular carcinoma does not have a uniform geographical distribution: rather, very high incidences occur in Eastern and Southeastern Asia and in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In these regions and populations, the tumor shows a distinct shift in age distribution toward the younger ages, seen to greatest extent in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In all populations, males are more commonly affected. The most common risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-poor populations with a high incidence of the tumor are chronic hepatitis B virus infection and dietary exposure to the fungal hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1. These two causative agents act either singly or synergistically. Both the viral infection and exposure to the fungus occur from early childhood, and the tumor typically presents at an early age. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is an important cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-rich countries with a low incidence of the tumor. The infection is acquired in adulthood and hepatocellular carcinoma occurs later than it does with hepatitis B virus-induced tumors. In recent years, obesity and the metabolic syndrome have increased markedly in incidence and importance as a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in some resource-rich regions. Chronic alcohol abuse remains an important risk factor for malignant transformation of hepatocytes, frequently in association with alcohol-induced cirrhosis. Excessive iron accumulation in hereditary hemochromatosis and dietary iron overload in the Black African population and membranous obstruction of the inferior cava

  9. Uroplakin II Expression in Breast Carcinomas Showing Apocrine Differentiation: Putting Some Emphasis on Invasive Pleomorphic Lobular Carcinoma as a Potential Mimic of Urothelial Carcinoma at Metastatic Sites

    PubMed Central

    Tajima, Shogo; Koda, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Uroplakin II antibody is exclusively specific for urothelial carcinoma. Nonurothelial carcinoma has not been reported to be immunoreactive for uroplakin II. In the present study, we hypothesized that breast carcinoma showing apocrine differentiation, such as invasive pleomorphic lobular carcinoma (IPLC) and apocrine carcinoma (AC), stains positive for uroplakin II. We identified 6 cases of IPLC between 2000 and 2014 by searching a computerized pathological database. We randomly selected 10 cases of each classic invasive lobular carcinoma (cILC) and AC and five cases of apocrine metaplasia (AM) that coexisted in a surgically resected breast carcinoma specimen. Immunohistochemistry was performed for uroplakin II, GATA3, CK7, CK20, and other representative markers positive for urothelial carcinoma. All cases of IPLC, AC, and AM, except those of cILC, showed immunoreactivity for uroplakin II. Poorly differentiated urothelial carcinoma sometimes shows similar morphology to IPLC with the following immunophenotype: CK7+, CK20−, GATA3+, and uroplakin II+. In the present study, this immunophenotype was observed in all the cases of IPLC and AC. Therefore, when studying metastatic, poorly differentiated carcinoma showing the aforementioned immunophenotype, we should consider the possibility of it being IPLC in addition to metastatic urothelial carcinoma.

  10. Hsp90 Inhibitor AT13387 in Treating Patients With Locoregionally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Receiving Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-05

    Human Papillomavirus Infection; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  11. Localized peribronchial thickening: a CT sign of occult bronchogenic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, W.L. Jr.; Roberts, L. Jr.; McLendon, R.E.; Hill, R.C.

    1985-05-01

    The authors present a case with repeated positive sputum cytologies in which CT proved complementary to nonlocalizing endoscopies by identifying bronchogenic carcinoma as focal specimen provided precise pathologic correlation of the CT findings with a small squamous cell carcinoma.

  12. Diagnostic utility of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta immunoreactivity in endometrial carcinomas: lack of specificity for endometrial clear cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fadare, Oluwole; Liang, Sharon X

    2012-12-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta (HNF1β) has recently emerged as a relatively sensitive and specific marker for ovarian clear cell carcinoma. The purpose of this study is to assess the diagnostic utility of this marker for endometrial clear cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on 75 endometrial tissues using a goat polyclonal antibody raised against a peptide mapping at the C-terminus of human HNF1β protein. The 75 cases included 15 clear cell carcinomas, 20 endometrioid carcinomas, 15 endometrial serous carcinomas/uterine papillary serous carcinomas, 20 cases of normal endometrium, 2 cases of clear cell metaplasia, and 3 cases of Arias Stella reaction. Staining interpretations were based on a semiquantitative scoring system, a 0 to 12+ continuous numerical scale that was derived by multiplying the extent of staining (0 to 4+ scale) by the intensity of staining (0 to 3+ scale) for each case. HNF1β expression was found to be present in a wide spectrum of tissues. Twenty-seven (54%) of the 50 carcinomas displayed at least focal nuclear HNF1β expression, including 11 (73%) of 15, 9 (60%) of 15, and 7 (35%) of 20 clear cell, serous, and endometrioid carcinomas, respectively. The average nuclear staining scores for clear cell carcinomas, endometrioid carcinomas, and serous carcinomas were 5.2, 1.4, and 4.1, respectively. Clear cell carcinomas and endometrioid carcinomas displayed statistically significant differences regarding their nuclear staining scores (P = 0.0027), but clear cell carcinomas and endometrial serous carcinomas did not (P = 0.45). The calculated sensitivity of any nuclear HNF1β expression in classifying a carcinoma as being of the clear cell histotype was 73%, whereas the specificity was 54%. Nineteen of 20 normal endometrium samples displayed at least focal nuclear expression of HNF1β, and this expression was often diffuse. The 5 cases of benign histologic mimics of clear cell carcinomas (Arias Stella reaction and clear

  13. Mucinous carcinoma of the breast is genomically distinct from invasive ductal carcinomas of no special type.

    PubMed

    Lacroix-Triki, Magali; Suarez, Paula H; MacKay, Alan; Lambros, Maryou B; Natrajan, Rachael; Savage, Kay; Geyer, Felipe C; Weigelt, Britta; Ashworth, Alan; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2010-11-01

    Mucinous carcinomas are a rare entity accounting for up to 2% of all breast cancers, which have been shown to display a gene expression profile distinct from that of invasive ductal carcinomas of no special type (IDC-NSTs). Here, we have defined the genomic aberrations that are characteristic of this special type of breast cancer and have investigated whether mucinous carcinomas might constitute a genomic entity distinct from IDC-NSTs. Thirty-five pure and 11 mixed mucinous breast carcinomas were assessed by immunohistochemistry using antibodies against oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor, HER2, Ki67, cyclin D1, cortactin, Bcl-2, p53, E-cadherin, basal markers, neuroendocrine markers, and WT1. Fifteen pure mucinous carcinomas and 30 grade- and ER-matched IDC-NSTs were microdissected and subjected to high-resolution microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). In addition, the distinct components of seven mixed mucinous carcinomas were microdissected separately and subjected to aCGH. Pure mucinous carcinomas consistently expressed ER (100%), lacked HER2 expression (97.1%), and showed a relatively low level of genetic instability. Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that pure mucinous carcinomas were homogeneous and preferentially clustered together, separately from IDC-NSTs. They less frequently harboured gains of 1q and 16p and losses of 16q and 22q than grade- and ER-matched IDC-NSTs, and no pure mucinous carcinoma displayed concurrent 1q gain and 16q loss, a hallmark genetic feature of low-grade IDC-NSTs. Finally, both components of all but one mixed mucinous carcinoma displayed similar patterns of genetic aberrations and preferentially clustered together with pure mucinous carcinomas on unsupervised clustering analysis. Our results demonstrate that mucinous carcinomas are more homogeneous between themselves at the genetic level than IDC-NSTs. Both components of mixed mucinous tumours are remarkably similar at the

  14. Challenges of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Colagrande, Stefano; Inghilesi, Andrea L; Aburas, Sami; Taliani, Gian G; Nardi, Cosimo; Marra, Fabio

    2016-09-14

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive malignancy, resulting as the third cause of death by cancer each year. The management of patients with HCC is complex, as both the tumour stage and any underlying liver disease must be considered conjointly. Although surveillance by imaging, clinical and biochemical parameters is routinely performed, a lot of patients suffering from cirrhosis have an advanced stage HCC at the first diagnosis. Advanced stage HCC includes heterogeneous groups of patients with different clinical condition and radiological features and sorafenib is the only approved treatment according to Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer. Since the introduction of sorafenib in clinical practice, several phase III clinical trials have failed to demonstrate any superiority over sorafenib in the frontline setting. Loco-regional therapies have also been tested as first line treatment, but their role in advanced HCC is still matter of debate. No single agent or combination therapies have been shown to impact outcomes after sorafenib failure. Therefore this review will focus on the range of experimental therapeutics for patients with advanced HCC and highlights the successes and failures of these treatments as well as areas for future development. Specifics such as dose limiting toxicity and safety profile in patients with liver dysfunction related to the underlying chronic liver disease should be considered when developing therapies in HCC. Finally, robust validated and reproducible surrogate end-points as well as predictive biomarkers should be defined in future randomized trials. PMID:27678348

  15. Challenges of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Colagrande, Stefano; Inghilesi, Andrea L; Aburas, Sami; Taliani, Gian G; Nardi, Cosimo; Marra, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive malignancy, resulting as the third cause of death by cancer each year. The management of patients with HCC is complex, as both the tumour stage and any underlying liver disease must be considered conjointly. Although surveillance by imaging, clinical and biochemical parameters is routinely performed, a lot of patients suffering from cirrhosis have an advanced stage HCC at the first diagnosis. Advanced stage HCC includes heterogeneous groups of patients with different clinical condition and radiological features and sorafenib is the only approved treatment according to Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer. Since the introduction of sorafenib in clinical practice, several phase III clinical trials have failed to demonstrate any superiority over sorafenib in the frontline setting. Loco-regional therapies have also been tested as first line treatment, but their role in advanced HCC is still matter of debate. No single agent or combination therapies have been shown to impact outcomes after sorafenib failure. Therefore this review will focus on the range of experimental therapeutics for patients with advanced HCC and highlights the successes and failures of these treatments as well as areas for future development. Specifics such as dose limiting toxicity and safety profile in patients with liver dysfunction related to the underlying chronic liver disease should be considered when developing therapies in HCC. Finally, robust validated and reproducible surrogate end-points as well as predictive biomarkers should be defined in future randomized trials.

  16. Targeted therapies in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bronte, F; Bronte, G; Cusenza, S; Fiorentino, E; Rolfo, C; Cicero, G; Bronte, E; Di Marco, V; Firenze, A; Angarano, G; Fontana, T; Russo, A

    2014-01-01

    The onset of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is related to the development of non-neoplastic liver disease, such as viral infections and cirrhosis. Even though patients with chronic liver diseases undergo clinical surveillance for early diagnosis of HCC, this cancer is often diagnosed in advanced stage. In this case locoregional treatment is not possible and systemic therapies are the best way to control it. Until now sorafenib, a Raf and multi-kinase inhibitor has been the best, choice to treat HCC systemically. It showed a survival benefit in multicenter phase III trials. However the proper patient setting to treat is not well defined, since the results in Child-Pugh B patients are conflicting. To date various new target drugs are under developed and other biological treatments normally indicated in other malignancies are under investigation also for HCC. These strategies aim to target the different biological pathways implicated in HCC development and progression. The target drugs studied in HCC include anti-VEGF and anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and mTOR inhibitors. The most important challenge is represented by the best integration of these drugs with standard treatments to achieve improvement in overall survival and quality of life.

  17. Challenges of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Colagrande, Stefano; Inghilesi, Andrea L; Aburas, Sami; Taliani, Gian G; Nardi, Cosimo; Marra, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive malignancy, resulting as the third cause of death by cancer each year. The management of patients with HCC is complex, as both the tumour stage and any underlying liver disease must be considered conjointly. Although surveillance by imaging, clinical and biochemical parameters is routinely performed, a lot of patients suffering from cirrhosis have an advanced stage HCC at the first diagnosis. Advanced stage HCC includes heterogeneous groups of patients with different clinical condition and radiological features and sorafenib is the only approved treatment according to Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer. Since the introduction of sorafenib in clinical practice, several phase III clinical trials have failed to demonstrate any superiority over sorafenib in the frontline setting. Loco-regional therapies have also been tested as first line treatment, but their role in advanced HCC is still matter of debate. No single agent or combination therapies have been shown to impact outcomes after sorafenib failure. Therefore this review will focus on the range of experimental therapeutics for patients with advanced HCC and highlights the successes and failures of these treatments as well as areas for future development. Specifics such as dose limiting toxicity and safety profile in patients with liver dysfunction related to the underlying chronic liver disease should be considered when developing therapies in HCC. Finally, robust validated and reproducible surrogate end-points as well as predictive biomarkers should be defined in future randomized trials. PMID:27678348

  18. Environmental Exposures and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hui-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Infection with hepatitis B and/or hepatitis C virus is a well-established risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, it is now clear that certain occupational, environmental, and lifestyle factors also play a role in cancer development. Among these factors are smoking, alcohol consumption, workplace exposure to vinyl chloride, and exposure to polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons and aflatoxins. There is also evidence that several other chemical and infectious agents have a role in inducing HCC in humans. Epidemiologic studies and the use of biomarkers have provided essential data to demonstrate the importance of some of these factors in human risk, while animal studies have suggested that other chemicals may also play a role. Although immunization against hepatitis B virus infection remains the primary method of preventing HCC in regions of the world where this virus is a primary etiologic agent, there is currently no vaccine for hepatitis C virus. Thus, limiting exposure to other known risk factors remains an important mechanism in preventing HCC. PMID:26357611

  19. Everolimus in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y

    2010-08-01

    Everolimus (also known as RAD-001; Afinitor®) is an orally active inhibitor of the intracellular protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency recently approved everolimus for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) on the basis of the results of a randomized phase III clinical trial. In the trial, 10 mg daily everolimus was effective and well tolerated by patients with advanced RCC, whose disease had progressed while under the treatment with sunitinib and/or sorafenib. Everolimus treatment led to 36% of 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) rate and 31% of 3-month PFS rate. Most of the adverse events were mild to moderate (grade 1-2) in severity. The most frequent grade 3-4 adverse events were stomatitis, fatigue, pneumonitis and infections. Clinical trials on everolimus in combination with sunitinib, sorafenib, imatinib and vatalanib for the treatment of RCC are ongoing. PMID:20830316

  20. Fibrosing mediastinitis mimicking bronchogenic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bayiz, Hulya; Mutluay, Neslihan; Koyuncu, Adem; Demirag, Funda; Dagli, Gulfidan; Berktas, Bahadir; Berkoglu, Mine

    2013-01-01

    Fibrosing mediastinitis is a rare but benign disorder characterized by an excessive fibrotic reaction in the mediastinum which can result in compromise of airways, great vessels, and other mediastinal structures. In this paper we presented a patient with fibrosing mediastinitis mimicking bronchogenic carcinoma. The patient was a 32-year-old diabetic male admitting with cough and hemoptysis. There was a right hilar mass and multiple mediastinal conglomerated lymph nodes on chest computed tomography. Positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) scan demonstrated increased fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake at the right hilar mass lesion and mediastinal lymph nodes. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy showed mucosal distortion of right upper lobe. Pathologic examination of the mucosal biopsy revealed inflammation. Endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle and cervical mediastinoscopic lymph node biopsies were undiagnostic. Diagnostic thoracotomy confirmed the diagnosis fibrosing mediastinitis. Administration of six months of systemic corticosteroid and antituberculous therapy was not beneficial. In conclusion, despite being a rare clinical entity, fibrosing mediastinitis should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of mediastinal mass lesions of unknown etiology. The diagnosis is exceptionally difficult in the presence of atypical radiological findings. The treatment is particularly challenging without any proven effective therapy. PMID:23372962

  1. Multidisciplinary Management of Laryngeal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mendenhall, William M. Mancuso, Anthony A.; Hinerman, Russell W.; Malyapa, Robert S.; Werning, John W.; Amdur, Robert J.; Villaret, Douglas B.

    2007-10-01

    The management of head and neck cancer has evolved into a multidisciplinary approach in which patients are evaluated before treatment and decisions depend on prospective multi-institutional trials, as well as retrospective outcome studies. The choice of one or more modalities to use in a given case varies with the tumor site and extent, as exemplified in the treatment of laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. The goals of treatment include cure, laryngeal voice preservation, voice quality, optimal swallowing, and minimal xerostomia. Treatment options include transoral laser excision, radiotherapy (both definitive and postoperative), open partial laryngectomy, total laryngectomy, and neck dissection. The likelihood of local control and preservation of laryngeal function is related to tumor volume. Patients who have a relatively high risk of local recurrence undergo follow-up computed tomography scans every 3-4 months for the first 2 years after radiotherapy. Patients with suspicious findings on computed tomography might benefit from fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to differentiate post-radiotherapy changes from tumor.

  2. Preclinical pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, radiation dosimetry and toxicity studies required for regulatory approval of a phase I clinical trial with 111In-CP04 in medullary thyroid carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Maina, Theodosia; Konijnenberg, Mark W.; KolencPeitl, Petra; Garnuszek, Piotr; Nock, Berthold A.; Kaloudi, Aikaterini; Kroselj, Marko; Zaletel, Katja; Maecke, Helmut; Mansi, Rosalba; Erba, Paola; von Guggenberg, Elisabeth; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Mikolajczak, Renata; Decristoforo, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Introduction From a series of radiolabelled cholecystokinin (CCK) and gastrin analogues, 111In-CP04 (111In-DOTA-(DGlu)6-Ala-Tyr-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2) was selected for further translation as a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical towards a first-in-man study in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). A freeze-dried kit formulation for multicentre application has been developed. We herein report on biosafety, in vivo stability, biodistribution and dosimetry aspects of 111In-CP04 in animal models, essential for the regulatory approval of the clinical trial. Materials and methods Acute and extended single dose toxicity of CP04 was tested in rodents, while the in vivo stability of 111In-CP04 was assessed by HPLC analysis of mouse blood samples. The biodistribution of 111In-CP04 prepared from a freeze-dried kit was studied in SCID mice bearing double A431-CCK2R(±) xenografts at 1, 4 and 24 h pi. Further 4-h animal groups were either additionally treated with the plasma expander gelofusine or injected with 111In-CP04 prepared by wet-labelling. Pharmacokinetics in healthy mice included the 30 min, 1, 4, 24, 48 and 72 h time points pi. Dosimetric calculations were based on extrapolation of mice data to humans adopting two scaling models. Results CP04 was well-tolerated by both mice and rats, with an LD50 > 178.5 μg/kg body weight for mice and a NOAEL (no-observed-adverse-effect-level) of 89 μg/kg body weight for rats. After labelling, 111In-CP04 remained >70% intact in peripheral mouse blood at 5 min pi. The uptake of 111In-CP04 prepared from the freeze-dried kit and by wet-labelling were comparable in the A431-CCK2R(+)-xenografts (9.24 ± 1.35%ID/g and 8.49 ± 0.39%ID/g, respectively; P > 0.05). Gelofusine-treated mice exhibited significantly reduced kidneys values (1.69 ± 0.15%ID/g vs. 5.55 ± 0.94%ID/g in controls, P < 0.001). Dosimetry data revealed very comparable effective tumour doses for the two scaling models applied, of 0.045 and 0.044 m

  3. Localization of metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma with Ga-67

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, F.T.; Anderson, J.H.; Jelinek, J.; Anderson, D.W. )

    1991-02-01

    Data are limited on the localization of Ga-67 in primary or metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma. We report the localization of Ga-67 to pathologically confirmed adrenal cortical carcinoma metastatic to the lung. A review of the literature revealed four patients have previously been reported to have metastatic adrenal cortical carcinoma detected on Ga-67 scan. Gallium imaging may be useful in the evaluation of patients with adrenal cortical carcinoma. SPECT imaging should further improve lesion resolution and localization.

  4. Synchronous Renal Cell Carcinoma and Gastrointestinal Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Dafashy, Tamer J.; Ghaffary, Cameron K.; Keyes, Kyle T.; Sonstein, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    While renal cell carcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm of the kidney, its simultaneous diagnosis with a gastrointestinal malignancy is a rare, but well reported phenomenon. This discussion focuses on three independent cases in which each patient was diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma and a unique synchronous gastrointestinal malignancy. Case 1 explores the diagnosis and surgical intervention of a 66-year-old male patient synchronously diagnosed with clear cell renal cell carcinoma and a carcinoid tumor of the small bowel. Case 2 describes the diagnosis and surgical intervention of a 61-year-old male found to have clear cell renal cell carcinoma and a mucinous appendiceal neoplasm. Lastly, Case 3 focuses on the interventions and management of a 36-year-old female diagnosed with synchronous clear cell renal carcinoma and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. This case series examines each distinct patient's presentation, discusses the diagnosis, and compares and contrasts the findings while discussing the literature on this topic. PMID:26904353

  5. Palliation of Dysphagia in Carcinoma Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnaiah, Vishnu Prasad Nelamangala; Malage, Somanath; Sreenath, G S; Kotlapati, Sudhakar; Cyriac, Sunu

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal carcinoma has a special place in gastrointestinal carcinomas because it contains two main types, namely, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Carcinoma esophagus patients require some form of palliation because of locally advanced stage or distant metastasis, where it cannot be subjected to curable treatment with surgery and chemoradiation. Many modalities of palliation of dysphagia are available, but the procedure with least morbidity, mortality, and long-term palliation of dysphagia needs to be chosen for the patient. This study aims to discuss the recent trends in palliation of dysphagia with promising results and the most suitable therapy for palliation of dysphagia in a given patient. A total of 64 articles that were published between years 2005 and 2015 on various modes of palliation of dysphagia in carcinoma esophagus were studied, which were mainly randomized and prospective studies. Through this study, we conclude that stents are the first choice of therapy for palliation, which is safe and cost-effective, and they can be combined with either radiotherapy or chemotherapy for long-term palliation of dysphagia with good quality of life. Radiotherapy can be used as a second-line treatment modality. PMID:27279758

  6. Factors predictive of survival in ampullary carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Howe, J R; Klimstra, D S; Moccia, R D; Conlon, K C; Brennan, M F

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the recent Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center experience with adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater and to identify clinicopathologic factors that have an impact on patient survival. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The prognosis for patients with tumors of the ampulla of Vater is improved relative to other periampullary neoplasms. Identification of independent prognostic factors in ampullary tumors has been limited by small numbers of tumors and a lack of pathologic review. METHODS: Data were collected prospectively for patients presenting with periampullary carcinomas to the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between October 15, 1983 and June 30, 1995. The correlation between clinicopathologic variables and survival of ampullary carcinoma was tested by the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazards regression. Survival of patients with periampullary adenocarcinomas was compared by the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: In 123 patients presenting with ampullary carcinoma, 101 tumors (82.1%) were resected. Factors significantly correlated with improved survival were resection (p < 0.01), and in resected tumors, negative nodes (p = 0.04) and margins (p = 0.02) independently predicted for improved survival. In periampullary tumors, the highest rates of resection and overall survival (median, 43.6 months) were found in ampullary carcinomas. CONCLUSIONS: Factors predictive of improved survival in ampullary carcinoma include resection, negative margins, and negative nodes. Improved overall survival in ampullary relative to periampullary adenocarcinoma is due in part to a significantly higher rate of resection. Images Figure 1. PMID:9671071

  7. The Emerging Molecular Landscape of Urothelial Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Solomon, James P; Hansel, Donna E

    2016-09-01

    Although there have been many recent discoveries in the molecular alterations associated with urothelial carcinoma, current understanding of this disease lags behind many other malignancies. Historically, a two-pathway model had been applied to distinguish low- and high-grade urothelial carcinoma, although significant overlap and increasing complexity of molecular alterations has been recently described. In many cases, mutations in HRAS and FGFR3 that affect the MAPK and PI3K pathways seem to be associated with noninvasive low-grade papillary tumors, whereas mutations in TP53 and RB that affect the G1-S transition of the cell cycle are associated with high-grade in situ and invasive carcinoma. However, recent large-scale analyses have identified overlap in these pathways relative to morphology, and in addition, many other variants in a wide variety of oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes have been identified. New technologies including next-generation sequencing have enabled more detailed analysis of urothelial carcinoma, and several groups have proposed molecular classification systems based on these data, although consensus is elusive. This article reviews the current understanding of alterations affecting oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes associated with urothelial carcinoma, and their application in the context of morphology and classification schema. PMID:27523968

  8. A hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreatic head.

    PubMed

    Stamatova, D; Theilmann, L; Spiegelberg, C

    2016-12-01

    Hepatoid carcinoma (HC) is an extremely rare form of neoplasm. Its cellular structure resembles that of a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To date, only 26 cases of hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreas have been reported in the literature. We report the diagnosis of a hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreatic head in a 78-year-old male patient. The tumor was detected incidentally during routine abdominal ultrasound scanning. Laboratory tests did not show any abnormalities except for a monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. After CT, MRI, and laparoscopic biopsy that failed to obtain the diagnosis, the patient underwent a Whipple procedure. The final pathology report described a hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreatic head (pathological T3, N0 (0/10), L0, V0, R0, M0). After the patient recovered, no further therapy was recommended by the tumor board and he was discharged. Regular follow-up was suggested; however, the patient suddenly died of acute coronary artery disease 2 months after surgery. PMID:27488314

  9. The molecular genetics of cervical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lazo, P A

    1999-01-01

    In the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma there are three major components, two of them related to the role of human papillomaviruses (HPV). First, the effect of viral E6 and E7 proteins. Second, the integration of viral DNA in chromosomal regions associated with well known tumour phenotypes. Some of these viral integrations occur recurrently at specific chromosomal locations, such as 8q24 and 12q15, both harbouring HPV18 and HPV16. And third, there are other recurrent genetic alterations not linked to HPV. Recurrent losses of heterozygosity (LOH) have been detected in chromosome regions 3p14–22, 4p16, 5p15, 6p21–22, 11q23, 17p13.3 without effect on p53, 18q12–22 and 19q13, all of them suggesting the alteration of putative tumour suppressor genes not yet identified. Recurrent amplification has been mapped to 3q+ arm, with the common region in 3q24–28 in 90% of invasive carcinomas. The mutator phenotype, microsatellite instability, plays a minor role and is detected in only 7% of cervical carcinomas. The development of cervical carcinoma requires the sequential occurrence and selection of several genetic alterations. The identification of the specific genes involved, and their correlation with specific tumour properties and stages could improve the understanding and perhaps the management of cervical carcinoma. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10471054

  10. Palliation of Dysphagia in Carcinoma Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnaiah, Vishnu Prasad Nelamangala; Malage, Somanath; Sreenath, G.S.; Kotlapati, Sudhakar; Cyriac, Sunu

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal carcinoma has a special place in gastrointestinal carcinomas because it contains two main types, namely, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Carcinoma esophagus patients require some form of palliation because of locally advanced stage or distant metastasis, where it cannot be subjected to curable treatment with surgery and chemoradiation. Many modalities of palliation of dysphagia are available, but the procedure with least morbidity, mortality, and long-term palliation of dysphagia needs to be chosen for the patient. This study aims to discuss the recent trends in palliation of dysphagia with promising results and the most suitable therapy for palliation of dysphagia in a given patient. A total of 64 articles that were published between years 2005 and 2015 on various modes of palliation of dysphagia in carcinoma esophagus were studied, which were mainly randomized and prospective studies. Through this study, we conclude that stents are the first choice of therapy for palliation, which is safe and cost-effective, and they can be combined with either radiotherapy or chemotherapy for long-term palliation of dysphagia with good quality of life. Radiotherapy can be used as a second-line treatment modality. PMID:27279758

  11. Odontogenic carcinoma with dentinoid: a new odontogenic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Neville, Brad W; Tatemoto, Yukihiro; Ogawa, Ikuko; Takata, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    Dentinoid is an integral part of some odontogenic tumors. This article describes the clinico-pathological features of three cases of odontogenic carcinomas with dentinoid (OCD). A comparison of these with previously reported cases of dentinoid-producing epithelial odontogenic tumors allowed us to identify another six cases that may be considered as examples of OCD. Six cases occurred in the mandible and three in the maxilla, all developing behind the canines. There was no sex predilection (five men and four women; age range 14-61 years, mean 38.1). Pain or discomfort was mentioned in five cases, four of which showed tooth resorption. All cases appeared initially as well-defined radiolucencies, five of which showed variable amounts of calcified material. Recurrences were recorded in three instances, but no evidence of metastasis has been found. Seven cases were composed predominantly or entirely of clear cells, usually with minimal cellular atypia and variable mitotic activity; however, in all cases there was evidence of tumor infiltration into adjacent tissues, including the presence of perineural invasion in two tumors. Those cases in which no reference was made to the presence of clear cells exhibited evident mitotic activity and cellular pleomorphism. The epithelium in OCD does not produce buds or enamel organ-like structures such as those found in ameloblastic fibro-dentinoma and this tumor does not contain a mesenchyme-like connective tissue resembling dental papilla as observed in several mixed odontogenic tumors. Based on the existing data and the present series of cases, OCD appears to represent a distinct entity. PMID:25409850

  12. Enhancement of tumor responsiveness to aminolevulinate-photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) using differentiation-promoting agents in mouse models of skin carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Sanjay; Honari, Golara; Paliwal, Akshat; Hasan, Tayyaba; Maytin, Edward V.

    2009-06-01

    Aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) is an emerging treatment for cancers. ALA, given as a prodrug, selectively accumulates and is metabolized in cancer cells to form protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Targeted local irradiation with light induces cell death. Since the efficacy of ALA-PDT for large or deep tumors is currently limited, we are developing a new approach that combines differentiation-inducing agents with ALA-PDT to improve the clinical response. Here, we tested this new combination paradigm in the following two models of skin carcinoma in mice: 1) tumors generated by topical application of chemical carcinogens (DMBA-TPA); 2) human SCC cells (A431) implanted subcutaneously. To achieve a differentiated state of the tumors, pretreatment with a low concentration of methotrexate (MTX) or Vitamin D (Vit D) was administered for 72 h prior to exposure to ALA. Confocal images of histological sections were captured and digitally analyzed to determine relative PpIX levels. PpIX in the tumors was also monitored by real-time in vivo fluorescence dosimetry. In both models, a significant increase in levels of PpIX was observed following pretreatment with MTX or Vit D, as compared to no-pretreatment controls. This enhancing effect was observed at very low, non-cytotoxic concentrations, and was highly specific to cancer cells as compared to normal cells. These results suggest that use of differentiating agents such as MTX or Vit D, as a short-term combination therapy given prior to ALA-PDT, can increase the production of PpIX photosensitizer and enhance the therapeutic response of skin cancers.

  13. Clinicopathological significance of gastric poorly differentiated medullary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Hideaki; Yoshizawa, Tadashi; Morohashi, Satoko; Haga, Toshihiro; Wu, Yunyan; Ota, Rie; Takatsuna, Masafumi; Akasaka, Harue; Hakamada, Kenichi; Kijima, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma of solid type is known to show a clinicopathological diversity, but its morphological characteristics have rarely been investigated. In this study, we defined poorly differentiated medullary carcinoma indicating the following three characteristics: (i) more than 90% of the entire tumor were composed of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in a medullary growth, (ii) the tumor exhibited an expansive growth at the tumor margin, and (iii) special types such as an α-fetoprotein-producing carcinoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma, and carcinoma with lymphoid stroma were excluded. Based on the definition, we subclassified the poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma of solid type into the two groups: medullary carcinoma and non-medullary carcinoma, and clinicopathologically analyzed 23 cases of medullary carcinomas and 38 cases of non-medullary carcinomas. The medullary carcinomas less frequently displayed lymphatic invasion, venous invasion, and lymph node metastasis, compared with the non-medullary carcinoma (P < 0.001, P = 0.002, and P < 0.001, respectively). The patients with medullary carcinomas significantly showed better disease-free survival (P = 0.017). This is the first study to demonstrate that poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of solid type can be subclassified into tumors with low and high malignant potentials. Gastric poorly differentiated medullary carcinoma is considered to be a novel histological type predicting good patients' prognosis. PMID:27108877

  14. Late metastases of ovarian carcinoma. A case report.

    PubMed

    Friedman, M; Browde, S; Rabin, S; Murray, J; Nissenbaum, M

    1984-02-01

    In cases of ovarian carcinoma distant metastases are rarely discovered before local spread has become evident. This article reports an unusual case in which renal metastases appeared 9 years after the initial diagnosis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. A discussion of the histological features of the tumour and the spread of ovarian carcinoma is included.

  15. Macrofollicular encapsulated papillary thyroid carcinoma--a case report.

    PubMed

    Ravindra, Savithri; Niveditha, S R; Geethamani, V; Rangaswamy, R

    2006-01-01

    Macrofollicular encapsulated papillary thyroid carcinoma (MEPC) is a rare variant of papillary carcinoma of thyroid with a favourable clinical course. It could be mistaken for a follicular neoplasm or a hyperplastic nodule. We report cytological and histopathological features of this rare variant of papillary carcinoma in a 22 year old female with brief review of literature.

  16. Bilateral acrometastasis in a case renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Vaishya, Raju; Vijay, Vipul; Vaish, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    We present a unique case of bilateral skeletal metastasis below the knee in a patient with renal cell carcinoma. In this rarest of rare cases, bony metastases were the first presentation of a primary tumour. Incidentally, the primary tumour (renal cell carcinoma) involved the solitary kidney of the patient and the same patient also had coexisting carcinoma of the prostate. PMID:25368128

  17. Gene expression signatures differentiate ovarian/peritoneal serous carcinoma from breast carcinoma in effusions.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Ben; Stavnes, Helene Tuft; Holth, Arild; Chen, Xu; Yang, Yanqin; Shih, Ie-Ming; Wang, Tian-Li

    2011-03-01

    Ovarian/primary peritoneal carcinoma and breast carcinoma are the gynaecological cancers that most frequently involve the serosal cavities.With the objective of improving on the limited diagnostic panel currently available for the differential diagnosis of these two malignancies,as well as to define tumour-specific biological targets, we compared their global gene expression patterns. Gene expression profiles of 10 serous ovarian/peritoneal and eight ductal breast carcinoma effusions were analysed using the HumanRef-8 BeadChip from Illumina.Differentially expressed candidate genes were validated using quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering using all 54,675 genes in the array separated ovarian from breast carcinoma samples. We identified 288 unique probes that were significantly differentially expressed in the two cancers by greater than 3.5-fold, of which 81 and 207 were overexpressed in breast and ovarian/peritoneal carcinoma, respectively. SAM analysis identified 1078 differentially expressed probes with false discovery rate less than 0.05. Genes overexpressed in breast carcinoma included TFF1, TFF3, FOXA1, CA12, GATA3, SDC1, PITX1, TH, EHFD1, EFEMP1, TOB1 and KLF2. Genes overexpressed in ovarian/peritoneal carcinoma included SPON1, RBP1, MFGE8, TM4SF12, MMP7, KLK5/6/7, FOLR1/3,PAX8, APOL2 and NRCAM. The differential expression of 14 genes was validated by quantitative real-time PCR, and differences in 5 gene products were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Expression profiling distinguishes ovarian/peritoneal carcinoma from breast carcinoma and identifies genes that are differentially expressed in these two tumour types. The molecular signatures unique to these cancers may facilitate their differential diagnosis and may provide a molecular basis for therapeutic target discovery.

  18. GATA3 immunohistochemistry expression in histologic subtypes of primary breast carcinoma and metastatic breast carcinoma cytology.

    PubMed

    Deftereos, Georgios; Sanguino Ramirez, Angela M; Silverman, Jan F; Krishnamurti, Uma

    2015-09-01

    GATA3 plays a role in cell proliferation and differentiation in many tissues, including breast, and it has been suggested that GATA3 expression correlates with ER expression. However, little is known on GATA3 expression in various subtypes of breast carcinoma, its utilization in cytology, and on how GATA3 performs in comparison with GCDFP-15 and mammaglobin. Eighty-four histology cases of breast carcinoma of various subtypes, including 28 triple-negative breast carcinomas, along with 20 cytology cases of metastatic breast carcinoma and 12 cytology cases of ER-positive metastatic gynecologic malignancies, were stained for GATA3, GCDFP-15, and mammaglobin. In non-triple-negative breast carcinomas (n=56), GATA3 showed 100% sensitivity, higher than GCDFP-15 (42.8%; P<0.0001) and mammaglobin (58.9%; P<0.0001), whereas staining patterns were similar for all the histologic subtypes examined. Staining scores were determined by multiplying the percentage of cancer cells staining with an intensity score of 1+, 2+, or 3+ (range, 0 to 300). In non-triple-negative carcinomas, GATA3 showed a mean score of 273.7, higher than GCDFP-15 (107.5; P<0.0001) and mammaglobin (147.7; P<0.0001). In triple-negative breast carcinomas (n=28), GATA3 showed a sensitivity of 60.7%, greater than GCDFP-15 (17.9%; P=0.0022) and mammaglobin (7.1%; P<0.0001). These results were consistent irrespective of the subtype examined. In breast carcinoma cytology cases, 100% stained with GATA3, higher than GCDFP-15 (20%; P<0.0001) and mammaglobin (45%; P<0.0001). None of the metastatic endometrial or ovarian carcinomas were positive for GATA3. Although GATA3 expression correlates with ER expression in breast, no correlation is observed in gynecologic malignancies. Thus, in working up ER-positive metastatic malignancies GATA3 demonstrates specificity for breast.

  19. [Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and premalignant skin lesions--how to treat?].

    PubMed

    Pitkänen, Sari; Jeskanen, Leila; Ylitalo, Leea

    2014-01-01

    Increasing exposure to UV radiation is considered the most important etiologic factor of nonmelanoma skin cancers. Consequently, exposed areas such as the scalp and face, are the primary areas for developing non-melanoma skin cancers. Once a patient has presented with one tumor, additional lesions are common. The diagnosis is based on typical clinical picture and biopsy or excision for histopathological analysis. Various non-surgical treatment options have been established. Superficial basal cell carcinoma, superficial carcinoma in situ and all actinic keratoses are preferentially treated non-surgically. Most other basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas should be surgically removed. PMID:24724463

  20. Current management of ductal carcinoma in situ.

    PubMed

    Barth, A; Brenner, R J; Giuliano, A E

    1995-10-01

    Ductal carcinoma in situ represents a biologically and histologically heterogeneous group of lesions characterized by the proliferation of neoplastic epithelial cells confined to the ducts of the breast. Before screening mammography, ductal carcinoma in situ was considered uncommon; patients were usually diagnosed by a breast mass or bloody nipple discharge, and their treatment was mastectomy. Today it represents 20% to 30% of mammographically detected breast cancers and 10% to 15% of all diagnosed breast cancers in the United States. The invariable progression of this cancer to invasive breast cancer requiring mastectomy has been challenged, but because most patients have been treated with mastectomy, knowledge about ductal carcinoma in situ is limited and primarily based on retrospective data. Further insight will emerge from randomized prospective studies that are near completion. Currently available data indicate that breast-conserving treatments are valid alternatives to mastectomy for most patients with this disease. PMID:7483593

  1. Carcinoma of the cervix with massive eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Lowe, D G

    1988-04-01

    Massive local eosinophilia of 100 or more eosinophils per high power field was found in 3.2% cases of invasive carcinoma of the cervix. The prevalence, length of history before presentation to surgery and histological features were similar in patients from Great Britain and Malawi, but in both populations the mean age at diagnosis was lower than in patients with cervical carcinomas without tissue eosinophilia. In some of the tumours, the malignant cells were very difficult to find because of the eosinophil infiltrate, and misinterpretation as an inflammatory lesion was possible. In the absence of circulating eosinophilia, cervical carcinomas with massive eosinophilia were found to have a better prognosis than tumours without. Five patients had circulating eosinophilia as well as local tumour eosinophil infiltration, and each of them had extensive tumour spread.

  2. HLA class I expression in bladder carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, T; Pedrajas, G; Cozar, J M; Garrido, A; Vicente, J; Tallada, M; Garrido, F

    2003-10-01

    HLA class I molecules are frequently lost in a large variety of human carcinomas, possibly because of T-cell immune selection of major histocompatibility complex class I deficient tumor variants. We report that this phenomenon is also a frequent event in bladder carcinomas. Of a total of 72 bladder carcinomas, 72% of the tumors had at least one alteration in HLA class I expression. These altered HLA class I phenotypes were classified as total HLA class I loss (25%; phenotype I); HLA-A or/and HLA-B locus-specific loss (12%; phenotype III); and HLA class I allelic loss (35%; phenotype II or IV). Comparison of histopathological parameters with HLA class I expression showed a statistically significant relationship with the degree of differentiation and tumor recurrence.

  3. Unusual cases of carcinoma of palatine tonsil

    PubMed Central

    Chikkannaiah, Panduranga; Boovalli, Mythri M; Kumar, R Praveen; Murthy, V Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    We present two unusual cases of carcinoma of palatine tonsil in elderly patients. Both the cases were initially diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil, second case, in addition, showed lung metastasis. On subsequent follow-up, the first case developed cutaneous metastasis in the right frontoparietal region while second case showed granulocytosis as paraneoplastic manifestation. The association of cutaneous metastasis and paraneoplastic granulocytosis with carcinoma of tonsil is rare. Cutaneous metastasis has been described only once in the literature while paraneoplastic granulocytosis is being reported for the first time. Both the conditions need long-term follow-up as they manifest at the extreme edges of the neoplastic process. PMID:26604503

  4. Breast carcinoma in a prepubertal girl.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Syed Tausif; Singh, Sudipto Kumar; Mukherjee, Tanmoy; Banerjee, Manju

    2014-04-15

    Breast carcinoma is a very rare disease in children. We present a rare case of breast cancer in an 11-year-old prepubertal girl. Clinically, it was a case of locally advanced breast cancer (T4bN1M0). The core biopsy report showed adenocarcinoma of the not otherwise specified (NOS) variety (oestrogen receptor-negative, progesterone receptor-negative and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative). Diagnosis was late in this case due to lack of suspicion. A modified radical mastectomy was considered to be adequate treatment. Histologically, it was adenocarcinoma NOS, which is rare in young girls (the secretory type being more common). Incidence, differential diagnoses, investigation and management of breast carcinoma in young girls are discussed. The purpose of reporting this case is to highlight that prevention and early detection of breast carcinoma in children is very important.

  5. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the nasopharynx.

    PubMed

    Atar, Yavuz; Topaloglu, Ilhan; Ozcan, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses can be misdiagnosed as primary malignant or benign diseases. A 33-year-old male attended our outpatient clinic complaining of difficulty breathing through the nose, bloody nasal discharge, postnasal drop, snoring, and discharge of phlegm. Endoscopic nasopharyngeal examination showed a vascularized nasopharyngeal mass. Under general anesthesia, multiple punch biopsies were taken from the nasopharynx. Pathologically, the tumor cells had clear cytoplasm and were arranged in a trabecular pattern lined by a layer of endothelial cells. After the initial pathological examination, the pathologist requested more information about the patient's clinical status. A careful history revealed that the patient had undergone left a nephrectomy for a kidney mass diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma 3 years earlier. Subsequently, nasopharyngeal metastatic renal cell carcinoma was diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining with CD10 and vimentin. Radiotherapy was recommended for treatment. PMID:23924557

  6. [A Case of Composite Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Neuroendocrine Carcinoma in a Patient with Liver Cirrhosis Caused by Chronic Hepatitis B].

    PubMed

    Yun, Eun Young; Kim, Tae Hyo; Lee, Sang Soo; Kim, Hong Jun; Kim, Hyun Jin; Jung, Woon Tae; Lee, Ok Jae; Song, Dae Hyun

    2016-08-25

    Primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma (PHNEC) is rare and its origin is not clearly understood. The coexistence of PHNEC and hepaotcellular carcinoma has been reported in only a few cases. We report a rare case of combined PHNEC and hepaotcellular carcinoma in a patient with liver cirrhosis caused by chronic hepatitis B that resulted in aggressive behavior and poor prognosis. PMID:27554219

  7. Microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Poggi, Guido; Tosoratti, Nevio; Montagna, Benedetta; Picchi, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Although surgical resection is still the optimal treatment option for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with well compensated cirrhosis, thermal ablation techniques provide a valid non-surgical treatment alternative, thanks to their minimal invasiveness, excellent tolerability and safety profile, proven efficacy in local disease control, virtually unlimited repeatability and cost-effectiveness. Different energy sources are currently employed in clinics as physical agents for percutaneous or intra-surgical thermal ablation of HCC nodules. Among them, radiofrequency (RF) currents are the most used, while microwave ablations (MWA) are becoming increasingly popular. Starting from the 90s’, RF ablation (RFA) rapidly became the standard of care in ablation, especially in the treatment of small HCC nodules; however, RFA exhibits substantial performance limitations in the treatment of large lesions and/or tumors located near major heat sinks. MWA, first introduced in the Far Eastern clinical practice in the 80s’, showing promising results but also severe limitations in the controllability of the emitted field and in the high amount of power employed for the ablation of large tumors, resulting in a poor coagulative performance and a relatively high complication rate, nowadays shows better results both in terms of treatment controllability and of overall coagulative performance, thanks to the improvement of technology. In this review we provide an extensive and detailed overview of the key physical and technical aspects of MWA and of the currently available systems, and we want to discuss the most relevant published data on MWA treatments of HCC nodules in regard to clinical results and to the type and rate of complications, both in absolute terms and in comparison with RFA. PMID:26557950

  8. New advances in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Sonia; Herrera, Iván; Irurzun, Javier

    2016-03-28

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of deaths in cirrhotic patients and the third cause of cancer related deaths. Most HCC are associated with well known underlying risk factors, in fact, HCC arise in cirrhotic patients in up to 90% of cases, mainly due to chronic viral hepatitis and alcohol abuse. The worldwide prevention strategies are conducted to avoid the infection of new subjects and to minimize the risk of liver disease progression in infected patients. HCC is a condition which lends itself to surveillance as at-risk individuals can readily be identified. The American and European guidelines recommended implementation of surveillance programs with ultrasound every six months in patient at-risk for developing HCC. The diagnosis of HCC can be based on non-invasive criteria (only in cirrhotic patient) or pathology. Accurately staging patients is essential to oncology practice. The ideal tumour staging system in HCC needs to account for both tumour characteristics and liver function. Treatment allocation is based on several factors: Liver function, size and number of tumours, macrovascular invasion or extrahepatic spread. The recommendations in terms of selection for different treatment strategies must be based on evidence-based data. Resection, liver transplant and interventional radiology treatment are mainstays of HCC therapy and achieve the best outcomes in well-selected candidates. Chemoembolization is the most widely used treatment for unresectable HCC or progression after curative treatment. Finally, in patients with advanced HCC with preserved liver function, sorafenib is the only approved systemic drug that has demonstrated a survival benefit and is the standard of care in this group of patients. PMID:27028578

  9. Primary prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yu, S Z

    1995-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the major cancers in China. Accordingly, the mortality rates in 1990 (per 100,000) were 20.10 in certain cities and 24.32 in certain counties. More than 90% of HCC cases and 70% of controls were infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) (Odds Ratio (OR) = 10-50). In the same group of patients, 8-27% of those with HCC and 0-11% of the healthy controls were also infected with hepatitis C (HCV) (OR = 2.11-17.29). There appears to be some correlation between HBV markers and the OR. The government requires that 85% of infants be immunized with HBV vaccine. In 1992, there were 3 million infants inoculated with HB vaccines. Aflatoxins have been found as contaminants in food, particularly in corn, peanut oil, soya sauce and fermented soya beans. The intake of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by people of ten different villages correlated with HCC mortality rates (r = 0.55; P < 0.05). The concentration of AFB1-albumin adducts is an indicator of individual exposure to aflatoxins. These adducts are higher in hyperendemic HCC areas and cases. Most people have now changed their staple food and eat rice instead of corn. Six large epidemiological studies have confirmed that people who drink pond-ditch water experience higher HCC mortality rates than people who drink deep-well water. Recent research has found that the blue-green algal toxin microcystin (MCYST) was a contaminant of pond-ditch water. MCYST is a strong promoter of HCC and will induce severe intrahepatic haemorrhages and liver necrosis. More than 80% of people in Qidong County have already changed their sources of water from pond-ditches to deep wells. Therefore, a combined strategy of the prevention of hepatitis, control of crops and control of drinking water is advocated for the primary prevention of HCC in China.

  10. New advances in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, Sonia; Herrera, Iván; Irurzun, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of deaths in cirrhotic patients and the third cause of cancer related deaths. Most HCC are associated with well known underlying risk factors, in fact, HCC arise in cirrhotic patients in up to 90% of cases, mainly due to chronic viral hepatitis and alcohol abuse. The worldwide prevention strategies are conducted to avoid the infection of new subjects and to minimize the risk of liver disease progression in infected patients. HCC is a condition which lends itself to surveillance as at-risk individuals can readily be identified. The American and European guidelines recommended implementation of surveillance programs with ultrasound every six months in patient at-risk for developing HCC. The diagnosis of HCC can be based on non-invasive criteria (only in cirrhotic patient) or pathology. Accurately staging patients is essential to oncology practice. The ideal tumour staging system in HCC needs to account for both tumour characteristics and liver function. Treatment allocation is based on several factors: Liver function, size and number of tumours, macrovascular invasion or extrahepatic spread. The recommendations in terms of selection for different treatment strategies must be based on evidence-based data. Resection, liver transplant and interventional radiology treatment are mainstays of HCC therapy and achieve the best outcomes in well-selected candidates. Chemoembolization is the most widely used treatment for unresectable HCC or progression after curative treatment. Finally, in patients with advanced HCC with preserved liver function, sorafenib is the only approved systemic drug that has demonstrated a survival benefit and is the standard of care in this group of patients. PMID:27028578

  11. Microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Poggi, Guido; Tosoratti, Nevio; Montagna, Benedetta; Picchi, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    Although surgical resection is still the optimal treatment option for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with well compensated cirrhosis, thermal ablation techniques provide a valid non-surgical treatment alternative, thanks to their minimal invasiveness, excellent tolerability and safety profile, proven efficacy in local disease control, virtually unlimited repeatability and cost-effectiveness. Different energy sources are currently employed in clinics as physical agents for percutaneous or intra-surgical thermal ablation of HCC nodules. Among them, radiofrequency (RF) currents are the most used, while microwave ablations (MWA) are becoming increasingly popular. Starting from the 90s', RF ablation (RFA) rapidly became the standard of care in ablation, especially in the treatment of small HCC nodules; however, RFA exhibits substantial performance limitations in the treatment of large lesions and/or tumors located near major heat sinks. MWA, first introduced in the Far Eastern clinical practice in the 80s', showing promising results but also severe limitations in the controllability of the emitted field and in the high amount of power employed for the ablation of large tumors, resulting in a poor coagulative performance and a relatively high complication rate, nowadays shows better results both in terms of treatment controllability and of overall coagulative performance, thanks to the improvement of technology. In this review we provide an extensive and detailed overview of the key physical and technical aspects of MWA and of the currently available systems, and we want to discuss the most relevant published data on MWA treatments of HCC nodules in regard to clinical results and to the type and rate of complications, both in absolute terms and in comparison with RFA. PMID:26557950

  12. Newer markers for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Marrero, Jorge A; Lok, Anna S F

    2004-11-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing worldwide; the overall survival of patients with HCC is grim because most patients are diagnosed late, when curative treatment is not possible. Cirrhosis is the strongest risk factor for the development of HCC. HCC surveillance with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and ultrasonography has been recommended for persons with cirrhosis. However, AFP level is insensitive for the early detection of HCC, and ultrasonography is expensive and operator dependent. Clearly, there is a need for novel strategies for the early detection of HCC. The ideal biomarker assay for HCC would be sensitive, specific, noninvasive, reproducible, inexpensive, and acceptable to patients. The Early Detection Research Network of the National Cancer Institute has proposed 5 phases for biomarker validation: preclinical exploratory studies, clinical assay development for disease, retrospective longitudinal study to detect preclinical disease, prospective screening study, and cancer control studies. Several biomarkers, such as des-gamma carboxyprothrombin, lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive AFP, human hepatocyte growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor-1, are promising, but none of these markers has been validated for clinical use. Limitations of the current literature include inadequate sample size, heterogeneity in biomarker assay methods and result reporting, limited analysis of demographics and cause of liver disease as covariates in the expression of these markers, and a scarcity of longitudinal studies evaluating the ability of biomarkers to detect preclinical disease. There is an urgent need for novel biomarkers for the detection of early HCC; the National Cancer Institute proposal provides a framework for future validation studies. PMID:15508074

  13. Targeted Therapies for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, Augusto; Llovet, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike most solid tumors, incidence and mortality of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have increased in the US and Europe in the last decade. Most patients are diagnosed at advanced stages, so there is an urgent need for new systemic therapies. Sorafenib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), has demonstrated clinical efficacy in patients with HCC. Studies in patients with lung, breast, or colorectal cancers indicated that the genetic heterogeneity of cancer cells within a tumor affect its response to therapeutics designed to target specific molecules. When tumor progression requires alterations in specific oncogenes (oncogene addiction), drugs that selectively block their products might slow tumor growth. However, no specific oncogene alterations are yet known to be implicated in HCC progression, so it is important to improve our understanding of its molecular pathogenesis. There are currently many clinical trials evaluating TKIs for HCC, including those tested in combination with (e.g., erlotinib) or compared to (e.g., linifanib) sorafenib as a first-line therapy. For patients that do not respond or are intolerant to sorafenib, TKIs such as brivanib, everolimus, and monoclonal antibodies (e.g. ramucirumab) are being tested as second-line therapies. There are early-stage trials investigating the efficacy for up to 60 reagents for HCC. Together, these studies might change the management strategy for HCC, and combination therapies might be developed for patients with advanced HCC. Identification of oncogenes that mediate progression of HCC, and trials that monitor their products as biomarkers, might lead to personalized therapy; reagents that interfere with signaling pathways required for HCC progression might be used to treat selected populations, and thereby maximize the efficacy and cost-benefit. PMID:21406195

  14. Hepatocellular carcinoma: Where are we?

    PubMed Central

    Mazzanti, Roberto; Arena, Umberto; Tassi, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second cause of death due to malignancy in the world, following lung cancer. The geographic distribution of this disease accompanies its principal risk factors: Chronic hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection, alcoholism, aflatoxin B1 intoxication, liver cirrhosis, and some genetic attributes. Recently, type II diabetes has been shown to be a risk factor for HCC together with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Although the risk factors are quite well known and it is possible to diagnose HCC when the tumor is less than 1 cm diameter, it remains elusive at the beginning and treatment is often unsuccessful. Liver transplantation is thus far considered the best treatment for HCC as it cures HCC and the underlying liver disease. Using the Milan criteria, overall survival after liver transplantation for HCC is about 70% after 5 years. Many attempts have been made to go beyond the Milan Criteria and according to recent works reasonably good results have been achieved by using a histochemical marker such as cytokeratine 19 and the so-called “up to seven criteria” to divide patients into categories according to their risk of relapse. In addition to liver transplantation other therapies have been proposed such as resection, tumor ablation by different means, embolization and chemotherapy. An important step in the treatment of advanced HCC has been the introduction of sorafenib, the first oral, systemic drug that has provided significant improvement in survival. Treatment of HCC patients must be multidisciplinary and by using the different approaches discussed in this review it is possible to offer prolonged survival and quite good and sometimes even excellent quality of life to many patients. PMID:26929917

  15. Thyroid carcinoma in patients with Graves' disease: an institutional experience.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuanzeng; Baloch, Zubair W; LiVolsi, Virginia A

    2015-03-01

    Graves' disease (GD) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by diffuse hyperplasia and excessive production of thyroid hormone. The association between thyroid carcinoma and GD is controversial. The prevalence of thyroid carcinoma was investigated in patients with GD who underwent thyroidectomy for thyroid nodular lesions or GD from 1994 to 2013 at our institution. Three hundred and forty-seven patients were placed into two groups: Graves' disease with nodular lesions group (group GN) included 85 patients who had thyroidectomy for nodular lesion, and Graves' disease group (group G) included 262 patients who had thyroidectomy for hyperthyroidism. There were 59 patients with thyroid carcinomas in the 85 patients (69 %) of group GN, including 3 follicular carcinomas (5 %), 1 poorly differentiated carcinoma (2 %), and 55 papillary thyroid carcinomas (93 %). Among the 55 papillary thyroid carcinomas, 19 cases were papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (34 %); and 5 cases of tall cell variant (9 %) were identified. There were 8 cases with lymph node metastasis (14 %), 6 cases with lymphovascular invasion (10 %), and 12 cases with extrathyroidal invasion (20 %). In addition, 24 carcinomas showed multiple foci of tumor (41 %). In contrast, 51 patients (19 %) of 262 patients in group G had carcinoma, including 2 follicular carcinomas (4 %) and 49 papillary thyroid carcinomas (96 %). In the 49 cases of papillary thyroid carcinomas, 47 cases were microcarcinomas (96 %); and 2 cases of tall cell variant (4 %) were found. There were no lymph node metastasis or lymphovascular and extrathyroidal invasion, but 11 cases (22 %) demonstrated multiple carcinoma foci. In conclusion, thyroid nodular lesions in patients with GD should raise a high suspicion of carcinoma, and these lesions are frequently clinically significant tumors. Incidental thyroid carcinomas in patients with GD are not uncommon, but most of them are low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma without lymph node

  16. Ossifying Parotid Carcinoma ex Pleomorphic Adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Suresh; Puram, Sidharth V.; Yarlagadda, Bharat; Nosé, Vania; Deschler, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    We present a unique case of an extensively ossified carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) in a 76-year-old man with a five-year history of a slowly growing parotid mass. Fine-needle aspiration of the mass was nondiagnostic. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the lesion revealed a well-circumscribed mass with peripheral calcification. Initial pathological analysis suggested a benign parotid mass, but rigorous decalcification revealed noninvasive CXPA. The patient underwent complete resection of the mass and remained disease-free nine months later. Extensive ossification of a seemingly benign parotid mass may mask areas of carcinoma that may progress if left untreated. PMID:26075129

  17. Therapeutic challenges in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Penticuff, Justin C; Kyprianou, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a malignancy that in advanced disease, is highly resistant to systemic therapies. Elucidation of the angiogenesis pathways and their intrinsic signaling interactions with the genetic and metabolic disturbances within renal cell carcinoma variants has ushered in the era of “targeted therapies”. Advanced surgical interventions and novel drugs targeting VEGF and mTOR, have improved patient survival and prolonged clinically stable-disease states. This review discusses the current understanding of diagnostic challenges and the mechanism-based clinical evidence on therapeutic management of advanced RCC. PMID:26309897

  18. Sclerosing Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Bidari-Zerehpoosh, Farahnaz; Naghibzadeh, Bijan; Jamali, Elena; Jamali, Moein; Mafi, Amirali; Bahrami-Motlagh, Hooman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma represents one of the most common malignant salivary gland tumors. However, the sclerosing morphologic variant is extremely rare with only 23 reported cases in the English-language literature since it was discovered in 1987. Case Report: Herein, we describe another case that was diagnosed in a 25-year-old woman presenting with a posterior auricular mass, as well as a review of the literature, which demonstrates that this is an extremely rare malignancy with no strict protocol for treatment. Conclusion: Pathologists must be aware of recognizing low grade sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma which has metastatic potential and is frequently misdiagnosed as a benign lesion.

  19. Sclerosing Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Bidari-Zerehpoosh, Farahnaz; Naghibzadeh, Bijan; Jamali, Elena; Jamali, Moein; Mafi, Amirali; Bahrami-Motlagh, Hooman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma represents one of the most common malignant salivary gland tumors. However, the sclerosing morphologic variant is extremely rare with only 23 reported cases in the English-language literature since it was discovered in 1987. Case Report: Herein, we describe another case that was diagnosed in a 25-year-old woman presenting with a posterior auricular mass, as well as a review of the literature, which demonstrates that this is an extremely rare malignancy with no strict protocol for treatment. Conclusion: Pathologists must be aware of recognizing low grade sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma which has metastatic potential and is frequently misdiagnosed as a benign lesion. PMID:27602340

  20. Cytoreductive nephrectomy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chery, Lisly J; Karam, Jose A; Wood, Christopher G

    2016-09-01

    The incidence of renal cell carcinoma is increasing, with up to one-third of patients presenting with metastatic disease. Combination therapy is used to prolong survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, which carries a poor prognosis. Although two pivotal phase 3 trials have demonstrated the efficacy of immunotherapy after cytoreductive nephrectomy for metastatic disease, for now, targeted therapy has replaced immunotherapy as the preferred systemic treatment in these patients. Two ongoing phase 3 trials are evaluating the role of cytoreductive nephrectomy prior to targeted therapy. Proper patient selection is paramount in achieving successful outcomes. PMID:27673288

  1. Carcinoma in ectopic breast: a cytological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shailaja; Sehgal, Shivali; Rai, Preeti; Agarwal, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic breast carcinoma in the axillary region is rare with an incidence ranging from 0.3-6%. We report a case of infiltrating duct carcinoma in an adult female arising in aberrant breast tissue in the axilla diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology. There was history of recent increase in size of the lump which was otherwise present for the past 5 years. This case highlights the role fine needle aspiration cytology can play in the early diagnosis of malignant transformation of lumps.

  2. Synchronous Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Auricular Myxoma

    PubMed Central

    González-Cantú, Yessica M.; Rodriguez-Padilla, Cristina; Tena-Suck, Martha Lilia; García de la Fuente, Alberto; Mejía-Bañuelos, Rosa María; Díaz Mendoza, Raymundo; Quintanilla-Garza, Samuel; Batisda-Acuña, Yolaester

    2015-01-01

    Synchronic occurrence of benign and malignant tumors is extremely rare. Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma represents 1% to 2% of all hepatocarcinomas, while myxomas represent about half of all the cases of primary tumors of the heart. We present the case of a 53-year-old woman with a left atrial myxoma that was surgically removed. Several weeks later, the patient returned to the hospital with abdominal pain. CT scan showed a mass in the left lobe of the liver that was resected and diagnosed as fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma. As of this writing, the patient is healthy. PMID:26509093

  3. Synchronous Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Auricular Myxoma.

    PubMed

    González-Cantú, Yessica M; Rodriguez-Padilla, Cristina; Tena-Suck, Martha Lilia; García de la Fuente, Alberto; Mejía-Bañuelos, Rosa María; Díaz Mendoza, Raymundo; Quintanilla-Garza, Samuel; Batisda-Acuña, Yolaester

    2015-01-01

    Synchronic occurrence of benign and malignant tumors is extremely rare. Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma represents 1% to 2% of all hepatocarcinomas, while myxomas represent about half of all the cases of primary tumors of the heart. We present the case of a 53-year-old woman with a left atrial myxoma that was surgically removed. Several weeks later, the patient returned to the hospital with abdominal pain. CT scan showed a mass in the left lobe of the liver that was resected and diagnosed as fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma. As of this writing, the patient is healthy.

  4. Carcinoma of the lung complicating lipoid pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Felson, B.; Ralaisomay, G.

    1983-11-01

    The authors have encountered four cases of oil aspiration pneumonia complicated by carcinoma. Each had a clear-cut history of chronic intake of an oily substance, radiographic changes, and histologically documented oil aspiration pneumonia. Lung cancer later appeared in the involved area. A small number of similar cases also have been reported. The implication is that oil aspiration pneumonitis may induce bronchogenic carcinoma, particularly either the alveolar cell or the squamous cell variety. The radiographic diagnosis of the malignant transformation is difficult, and consequently the prognosis is poor.

  5. Colon carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, J.W. Jr.; Carter, M.P.; Berens, S.V.; Long, R.F.; Caplan, G.E.

    1986-09-01

    Metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid gland rarely is encountered in clinical practice; however, autopsy series have shown that it is not a rare occurrence. A case of adenocarcinoma of the colon with metastases to the thyroid is reported. A review of the literature reveals that melanoma, breast, renal, and lung carcinomas are the most frequent tumors to metastasize to the thyroid. Metastatic disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of cold nodules on radionuclide thyroid scans, particularly in patients with a known primary.

  6. Differential Immunohistochemical Profiles for Distinguishing Prostate Carcinoma and Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Woo Jin; Chung, Arthur Minwoo; Kim, Jee Soon; Han, Ji Heun; Hong, Sung Hoo; Lee, Ji Yeol; Choi, Yeong Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background The pathologic distinction between high-grade prostate adenocarcinoma (PAC) involving the urinary bladder and high-grade urothelial carcinoma (UC) infiltrating the prostate can be difficult. However, making this distinction is clinically important because of the different treatment modalities for these two entities. Methods A total of 249 patient cases (PAC, 111 cases; UC, 138 cases) collected between June 1995 and July 2009 at Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital were studied. An immunohistochemical evaluation of prostatic markers (prostate-specific antigen [PSA], prostate-specific membrane antigen [PSMA], prostate acid phosphatase [PAP], P501s, NKX3.1, and α-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase [AMACR]) and urothelial markers (CK34βE12, p63, thrombomodulin, S100P, and GATA binding protein 3 [GATA3]) was performed using tissue microarrays from each tumor. Results The sensitivities of prostatic markers in PAC were 100% for PSA, 83.8% for PSMA, 91.9% for PAP, 93.7% for P501s, 88.3% for NKX 3.1, and 66.7% for AMACR. However, the urothelial markers CK34βE12, p63, thrombomodulin, S100P, and GATA3 were also positive in 1.8%, 0%, 0%, 3.6%, and 0% of PAC, respectively. The sensitivities of urothelial markers in UC were 75.4% for CK34βE12, 73.9% for p63, 45.7% for thrombomodulin, 22.5% for S100P, and 84.8% for GATA3. Conversely, the prostatic markers PSA, PSMA, PAP, P501s, NKX3.1, and AMACR were also positive in 9.4%, 0.7%, 18.8%, 0.7%, 0%, and 8.7% of UCs, respectively. Conclusions Prostatic and urothelial markers, including PSA, NKX3.1, p63, thrombomodulin, and GATA3 are very useful for differentiating PAC from UC. The optimal combination of prostatic and urothelial markers could improve the ability to differentiate PAC from UC pathologically. PMID:27498545

  7. Unique Transcriptomic Profile of Collecting Duct Carcinomas Relative to Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinomas and other Kidney Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Malouf, Gabriel G; Compérat, Eva; Yao, Hui; Mouawad, Roger; Lindner, Veronique; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Verkarre, Virginie; Leroy, Xavier; Dainese, Linda; Classe, Marion; Descotes, Jean-Luc; Barthelemy, Philippe; Yacoub, Mokrane; Rouprêt, Morgan; Bernhard, Jean-Christophe; Creighton, Chad J; Spano, Jean-Philippe; Su, Xiaoping; Khayat, David

    2016-01-01

    Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) is a kidney cancer subtype that is thought to arise from principal cells in distal parts of the collecting ducts. Some studies suggested an overlap of CDC with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC), making the pathological diagnosis challenging. Herein, we performed for the first time transcriptome sequencing of CDC and compared them to UTUC and renal cell carcinoma subtypes. We discovered that CDC displays a unique transcriptomic signature among kidney cancer subtypes, with a putative cell of origin in the distal convoluted tubules. Hierarchical unsupervised clustering reveals that the CDC signature is closer to that of other RCC subtypes than to UTUC, which is similar to that of bladder carcinoma. CDC is characterized by a metabolic shift, with impairment of oxidoreductase activity, pyruvate metabolism and the tricarboxlyic acid cycle, as well as an immunogenic response consistent with increased tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, particularly within metastatic cases. In addition, pathways differentially altered between CDC and UTUC point to a basal-like phenotype of CDC in contrast to the luminal-like signature of UTUC. We conclude that CDC harbors a pathognomonic transcriptomic signature characterized by immunogenic and a metabolic aberrations, indicating that targeting these processes might provide therapeutic options for patients. PMID:27484008

  8. Unique Transcriptomic Profile of Collecting Duct Carcinomas Relative to Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinomas and other Kidney Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Malouf, Gabriel G.; Compérat, Eva; Yao, Hui; Mouawad, Roger; Lindner, Veronique; Rioux-leclercq, Nathalie; Verkarre, Virginie; Leroy, Xavier; Dainese, Linda; Classe, Marion; Descotes, Jean-Luc; Barthelemy, Philippe; Yacoub, Mokrane; Rouprêt, Morgan; Bernhard, Jean-Christophe; Creighton, Chad J.; Spano, Jean-Philippe; Su, Xiaoping; Khayat, David

    2016-01-01

    Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) is a kidney cancer subtype that is thought to arise from principal cells in distal parts of the collecting ducts. Some studies suggested an overlap of CDC with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC), making the pathological diagnosis challenging. Herein, we performed for the first time transcriptome sequencing of CDC and compared them to UTUC and renal cell carcinoma subtypes. We discovered that CDC displays a unique transcriptomic signature among kidney cancer subtypes, with a putative cell of origin in the distal convoluted tubules. Hierarchical unsupervised clustering reveals that the CDC signature is closer to that of other RCC subtypes than to UTUC, which is similar to that of bladder carcinoma. CDC is characterized by a metabolic shift, with impairment of oxidoreductase activity, pyruvate metabolism and the tricarboxlyic acid cycle, as well as an immunogenic response consistent with increased tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, particularly within metastatic cases. In addition, pathways differentially altered between CDC and UTUC point to a basal-like phenotype of CDC in contrast to the luminal-like signature of UTUC. We conclude that CDC harbors a pathognomonic transcriptomic signature characterized by immunogenic and a metabolic aberrations, indicating that targeting these processes might provide therapeutic options for patients. PMID:27484008

  9. Lung Metastasis of Renal Cell Carcinoma: ACase Report of Pulmonary Sarcomatoid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fan, Tao; Song, Ying-Jie

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma (PSC) is a rare malignant cancer composed of sarcoma and sarcoma-like elements with spindle or giant cell features. We report the case of a 60-year-old male with past medical history of right renal cell carcinoma 2 years earlier. Apulmonary nodule was detected in the left upper lobe, 23 months after nephrectomy. Systemic positron emission tomography-computerized tomography (PET-CT) revealed one high metabolic mass shadow in the left upper lobe. Chest CTscan with contrast revealed a left upper lobe mass (2.9 x 2.5 cm). The case was suspected to be a lung metastasis of renal cell carcinoma. After surgery, the pathology revealed PSC-giant cell carcinoma. The tumor's pathology and treatment methods are discussed. PMID:27376226

  10. A Rare Constellation of Hürthle Cell Thyroid Carcinoma and Parathyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zakerkish, Mehrnoosh; Rajaei, Elham; Dargahi, Mehrdad; Bahadoram, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    Separate occurrence of thyroid and parathyroid carcinoma in patients is extremely rare, and to the best of our knowledge, only 7 patients with documented parathyroid and papillary thyroid carcinomas have been described formerly in published reports. We report a patient with an extremely unusual clinical presentation of Hürthle cell carcinoma in thyroid and parathyroid carcinoma. The patient displayed a rare presentation of life-threatening hypercalcaemia after total para-thyroidectomy and failed to respond to standard therapy. Our review of available literature yielded insufficient evidence in managing such. When a patient with thyroid cancer is diagnosed, checking for serum calcium is advised. This is considered a useful method for detecting possible incidental parathyroid lesion and screening the probable concealed parathyroid pathology.

  11. PAX 2: a novel Müllerian marker for serous papillary carcinomas to differentiate from micropapillary breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chivukula, Mamatha; Dabbs, David J; O'Connor, Siobhan; Bhargava, Rohit

    2009-11-01

    Ovarian serous papillary carcinoma, although rarely metastasizing to the breast, is often challenging based on morphology alone, particularly from the micropapillary variant of breast carcinoma. Gross cystic disease fluid protein-15, although a specific marker, can be negative in up to 50% of breast carcinomas. Wilm's tumor gene 1 (WT-1) has been identified as a useful marker to differentiate metastatic ovarian serous papillary carcinoma from primary breast carcinoma; however, it has recently been shown in the micropapillary variant of the primary breast carcinoma making it a less specific marker. PAX 2, a nuclear transcription factor, was recently observed in ovarian serous papillary carcinomas. In this study of 89 breast carcinoma cases, 26 micropapillary carcinoma, and 63 nonmicropapillary carcinoma types were retrieved from our pathology archives, represented on a single tissue microarray (TMA) with a 3-fold redundancy (TMA-1, TMA-2). In addition, whole tissue sections of a variety of benign and neoplastic müllerian tissues were surveyed with the PAX 2 immunostain. All cases were stained with rabbit polyclonal PAX 2 antibody and, in addition, the 5 metastatic ovarian serous carcinoma cases were stained with WT-1 as well for comparison. Only nuclear staining was considered positive. All primary breast carcinomas represented on TMA-1 and TMA-2 were entirely negative for PAX 2 100% (89/89), whereas 100% (5/5) of all metastatic ovarian serous carcinomas showed moderate-to-strong staining. PAX 2 expression was comparable with WT-1 as well in the metastatic ovarian serous carcinoma group. We therefore conclude that PAX 2 is a promising new, sensitive, and specific müllerian immunomarker for ovarian serous carcinomas (primary and metastatic).

  12. Photodynamic Therapy With HPPH in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-19

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  13. Morphogenesis of nasal tumors in rats exposed to hexamethylphosphoramide by inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.P.; Trochimowicz, H.J.

    1984-02-01

    Hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) is used as a solvent, polymerization catalyst and, to some extent, as a deicing additive for jet fuels. Nasal tumors have been induced in rats by inhalation exposure to the compound for 6 to 24 months at concentrations of 50, 100, 400, and 4000 parts per billion (ppb), but not in rats exposed at 10 ppb for 24 months. Most nasal tumors were epidermoid carcinomas and developed from the respiratory epithelium or subepithelial nasal gland, both of which revealed squamous metaplasia or dysplasia in the anterior nasal cavity. The glandular cells appear to play an important role in developing epidermoid carcinomas in the nasal cavity. The ultrastructure of epidermoid carcinomas revealed abundant features of glandular differentiation in the neoplastic squamous cells. The morphological expression of glandular cell metamorphosis in the epidermoid carcinoma included intermediate cells showing both glandular and squamous differentiation, inter- or intracellular lumina, secretory vesicles, and mucus droplets in squamous cells and keratin plates.

  14. Metastatic brain tumor from urothelial carcinoma of the prostatic urethra

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Kohei; Oda, Masashi; Koyanagi, Masaomi; Saiki, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urothelial carcinoma occurs in the bladder, upper urinary tract, and lower urinary tract, including prostatic urethra. A majority of the reported cases of intracranial metastasis from urothelial carcinoma originates from the bladder and upper urinary tract. Brain metastasis from urothelial carcinoma of the prostatic urethra has not yet been reported in the literature. Case Description: A 72-year-old male presented with a metastatic brain tumor and a 3-year history of urothelial carcinoma of the prostatic urethra treated with cystourethrectomy and chemotherapy with gemcitabine-cisplatin. Pathological diagnosis for tumor removal was compatible with metastatic brain tumor from urothelial carcinoma. Conclusion: Brain metastasis from urothelial carcinoma of the prostatic urethra has not yet been reported in the literature. It is an extremely rare case, however, we should be careful of brain metastasis during follow-up for urothelial carcinoma in the lower urinary tract. PMID:27512612

  15. Occult distal urethral carcinoma presenting as metastatic carcinoma in the inguinal lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Hammer-Hansen, Niels; Høyer, Søren; Jensen, Jørgen Bjerggaard

    2015-02-01

    A 65-year-old man presented with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma in the inguinal lymph nodes from an unknown primary tumour. The initial work-up lacked clinical examination of the glans penis, in part due to the patient having phimosis. More than a year after presentation, a primary tumour, located distally on the penis, was diagnosed. A discussion of urethral carcinoma as well as inguinal lymph-node metastasis of unknown primary tumour is presented. PMID:25313619

  16. Mammaglobin and S-100 immunoreactivity in salivary gland carcinomas other than mammary analogue secretory carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kalyani R; Solomon, Isaac H; El-Mofty, Samir K; Lewis, James S; Chernock, Rebecca D

    2013-11-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor that has morphologic features similar to secretory carcinoma of the breast and that also harbors the same ETV6 translocation. Diffuse mammaglobin and S-100 immunoreactivity are used to differentiate MASC from its morphologic mimics, especially acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. However, the combination of mammaglobin and S-100 immunoreactivity has not been well studied in other types of salivary gland carcinomas that may have focal areas reminiscent of MASC. Here we evaluated mammaglobin and S-100 immunoreactivity in 15 cases each of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and also in 2 cases of adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified, and 1 mucinous adenocarcinoma. Cases with significant co-expression of mammaglobin and S-100 (moderate or strong immunoreactivity in >25% of tumor cells) were further analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization using the ETV6 (12p13) break-apart probe. Nine cases (60%) of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma and two (13.3%) of adenoid cystic carcinoma met the criteria for significant co-expression of mammaglobin and S-100. All were negative for the ETV6 translocation by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Although mammaglobin and S-100 positivity was seen in the majority of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas and a minority of adenoid cystic carcinomas, none were positive for the ETV6 translocation characteristic of MASC. This indicates a need for caution in the use of immunohistochemistry for diagnosing MASC, especially in the absence of cytogenetic confirmation.

  17. Pedunculated-type T1 colorectal carcinoma with lung carcinoma metastasis at the deepest invasive portion.

    PubMed

    Asayama, Naoki; Oka, Shiro; Tanaka, Shinji; Hirano, Daiki; Sumimoto, Kyoku; Ninomiya, Yuki; Tamaru, Yuzuru; Shigita, Kenjiro; Hayashi, Nana; Shimamoto, Fumio; Arihiro, Koji; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2016-08-01

    We present a rare case of colorectal T1 carcinoma with metastasis of previous lung carcinoma found at the deepest invasive portion. A 61-year-old man presented with cervical lymphadenopathy 18 years after undergoing surgery for right lung carcinoma [poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma stage IIb (T3N0M0)]. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed enlarged lymph nodes (LNs) in the neck and mediastinal regions. Combined hybrid-F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission-computerized tomography showed increased radionuclide uptake in multiple cervical LNs and mediastinal LNs. LN biopsy revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, suspected to be a metastatic tumor of the lung. Subsequent colonoscopy revealed a pedunculated-type lesion with a depressed area in the ascending colon. We performed polypectomy as total excisional biopsy; this tumor was composed mainly of moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, partially mixed with mucinous adenocarcinoma. The pathological findings of the invasive front of the colorectal carcinoma showed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with a morphological pattern similar to that of the previous lung carcinoma. Furthermore, immunohistochemical results for the histological type of the deepest invasive portion of the tissue specimen were positive for thyroid transcription factor-1 but negative for Caudal-type homeobox 2. From these morphological and immunohistochemical findings, the final diagnosis was moderately differentiated lung carcinoma, pTX N3 M1b (LN, colon) Stage IV. PMID:27259703

  18. Case report of the bronchioloalveolar carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Emami, Mohammad; Kalantari, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma is a form of adenocarcinoma. Its clinical presentation spans the entire spectrum from asymptomatic solitary pulmonary nodule to full presentation with cough, hemoptysis and dyspnea. Clinical symptoms usually are in correlation with the extent of disease. The case we present here is a patient in late stage of disease with few symptoms regarding to the extent of disease involvement. PMID:25709995

  19. Merkel cell carcinoma with glandular differentiation admixed with sweat gland carcinoma and spindle cell carcinoma: histogenesis of merkel cell carcinoma from hair follicle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Koba, Shinichi; Nagase, Kotaro; Ikeda, Satoshi; Aoki, Shigehisa; Misago, Noriyuki; Narisawa, Yutaka

    2015-03-01

    We describe a unique case of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) with a heterogeneous differentiation exhibiting distinct triphasic phenotypic differentiation features: small cells typical of MCC, sweat gland carcinoma (sweat gland Ca.) with possible decapitation secretion, and spindle cell carcinoma (spindle cell Ca.). The patient was an 84-year-old Japanese woman. We evaluated the present case immunohistochemically with various antibodies. The histological features showed a gradual transition from MCC to sweat gland Ca. and spindle cell Ca. For clarifying the histogenesis, immunophenotypic analysis of the 3 different components of the carcinoma was performed using hair follicle stem cell markers (eg, CK15, CK19, and CD200) that have been identified as biomarkers of human bulge cells. The triphasic components immunohistochemically shared the characteristic feature of CK19 and CD200 expression. We posit that the MCC arose from hair follicle stem cells residing within the bulge area where Merkel cells are preferentially situated. Based on our findings, we recommend adding this rare neoplasm to the expanding morphological spectrum of MCC.

  20. Odontogenic squamous cell carcinoma with osseous metaplasia.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J H; Jones, J; Speight, P M

    1993-07-01

    Intra-osseous carcinomas of the jaw are rare tumours, thought to arise from residual elements of the odontogenic epithelium. We report an additional case which, unusually, was characterised by marked osseous metaplasia. We propose that the new bone formed around the tumour is the result of an epithelial-mesenchymal interaction between malignant odontogenic epithelium and osteogenic precursor cells in the surrounding stroma.

  1. Prognostic factors for hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence.

    PubMed

    Colecchia, Antonio; Schiumerini, Ramona; Cucchetti, Alessandro; Cescon, Matteo; Taddia, Martina; Marasco, Giovanni; Festi, Davide

    2014-05-28

    The recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma, the sixth most common neoplasm and the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, represents an important clinical problem, since it may occur after both surgical and medical treatment. The recurrence rate involves 2 phases: an early phase and a late phase. The early phase usually occurs within 2 years after resection; it is mainly related to local invasion and intrahepatic metastases and, therefore, to the intrinsic biology of the tumor. On the other hand, the late phase occurs more than 2 years after surgery and is mainly related to de novo tumor formation as a consequence of the carcinogenic cirrhotic environment. Since recent studies have reported that early and late recurrences may have different risk factors, it is clinically important to recognize these factors in the individual patient as soon as possible. The aim of this review was, therefore, to identify predicting factors for the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma, by means of invasive and non-invasive methods, according to the different therapeutic strategies available. In particular the role of emerging techniques (e.g., transient elastography) and biological features of hepatocellular carcinoma in predicting recurrence have been discussed. In particular, invasive methods were differentiated from non-invasive ones for research purposes, taking into consideration the emerging role of the genetic signature of hepatocellular carcinoma in order to better allocate treatment strategies and surveillance follow-up in patients with this type of tumor.

  2. Impact of Squamous Differentiation in Breast Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pai, Trupti; Shet, Tanuja; Desai, Sangeeta; Patil, Asawari; Nair, Nita; Parmar, Vani; Gupta, Sudeep; Budrukkar, Ashwini; Sarin, Rajiv; Badwe, Rajendra

    2016-09-01

    This study attempted to review the impact of extent of squamous differentiation in 56 infiltrating duct carcinomas (IDC) with squamous differentiation (metaplastic squamous carcinomas [MSC]). Tumors showing 100% squamous elements were labeled as primary squamous carcinomas (PSC; n = 28) and compared with 28 MSC showing lesser squamous components. A clinicopathological comparison revealed that lymphovascular emboli were never seen in any PSC but were noted in 7/28 of other MSC, while perineural invasion was seen only in PSC and not in MSC. Nodal metastasis was significantly more in other MSC as opposed to PSC. Most MSC presented with 2- to 5-cm sized tumors while PSC were 5 to 10 cm in size. PSC showed cystic change while MSC did not. Disease free survival (DFS) for MSC versus PSC was 64% versus 39.8%, while overall survival (OAS) was 72.7% in MSC versus 66.7% in PSC. Tumor stage affected DFS in MSC while none of the factors affected DFS/OAS in PSC. The extent of squamous differentiation affected DFS with best behavior for metaplastic carcinomas showing <40% squamous elements and worse for those with >90% squamous component (P = .024). PSC of breast is an aggressive disease and show distinct clinicopathological features from other MSC, and though the current definition of MSC does not advocate quantifying the squamous element, clearly this affects prognosis. PMID:27076454

  3. [Report on 114 primary vaginal carcinomas].

    PubMed

    Sun, J H; Zhang, W H; Li, A L; Wu, A R

    1987-11-01

    114 patients with primary carcinoma of the vagina were treated in our hospital from 1958 to 1978. It accounted for 0.83% of all gynecological malignant tumors in the same period. The youngest was 26 years of age, the oldest 75. Patients 40-59 years comprised 61.4%. 33% of patients had wedding age under 17. 63.4% had more than 4 pregnancies and 58.4% gave more than 4 births. 89.69% was diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma, 7.2% as adenocarcinoma, 2.06% as undifferentiated carcinoma and 1 as embryonic carcinoma. The tumor occurred frequently in the upper third and posterior wall of the vagina (60% and 68%). In this series, there were 21 stage I, 29 stage II, 61 stage III and 3 stage IV lesions. 110 patients were treated by radiotherapy in different schemes. Intracavitary radium or caesium plus 60Co external irradiation by four fields gave better result with a 5 year survival rate of 66.1%. Only 2 out of 12 patients were cured by 60Co rotation alone but if supplemented by intracavitary radium or caesium, the cure rate was increased. The 5 year survival rate was 71.4% for stage I, 62.1% for stage II, 42.6% for stage III and O for stage IV. After the radiotherapy, rectovaginal fistula developed in 1 patient, vesicovaginal fistula in 1. 14% was complicated with rectal bleeding and 8.18% with hematuria. PMID:3452544

  4. Integrated genomic characterization of endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kandoth, Cyriac; Schultz, Nikolaus; Cherniack, Andrew D; Akbani, Rehan; Liu, Yuexin; Shen, Hui; Robertson, A Gordon; Pashtan, Itai; Shen, Ronglai; Benz, Christopher C; Yau, Christina; Laird, Peter W; Ding, Li; Zhang, Wei; Mills, Gordon B; Kucherlapati, Raju; Mardis, Elaine R; Levine, Douglas A

    2013-05-01

    We performed an integrated genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic characterization of 373 endometrial carcinomas using array- and sequencing-based technologies. Uterine serous tumours and ∼25% of high-grade endometrioid tumours had extensive copy number alterations, few DNA methylation changes, low oestrogen receptor/progesterone receptor levels, and frequent TP53 mutations. Most endometrioid tumours had few copy number alterations or TP53 mutations, but frequent mutations in PTEN, CTNNB1, PIK3CA, ARID1A and KRAS and novel mutations in the SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex gene ARID5B. A subset of endometrioid tumours that we identified had a markedly increased transversion mutation frequency and newly identified hotspot mutations in POLE. Our results classified endometrial cancers into four categories: POLE ultramutated, microsatellite instability hypermutated, copy-number low, and copy-number high. Uterine serous carcinomas share genomic features with ovarian serous and basal-like breast carcinomas. We demonstrated that the genomic features of endometrial carcinomas permit a reclassification that may affect post-surgical adjuvant treatment for women with aggressive tumours.

  5. Pituitary Carcinoma: Difficult Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Context: Although pituitary tumors are common, pituitary carcinoma is very rare and is only diagnosed when pituitary tumor noncontiguous with the sellar region is demonstrated. Diagnosis is difficult, resulting in delays that may adversely effect outcome that is traditionally poor. Barriers to earlier diagnosis and management strategies for pituitary carcinoma are discussed. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was employed to identify relevant studies, a review of the literature was conducted, and data were summarized and integrated from the author's perspective. Evidence Synthesis: The available data highlight the difficulties in diagnosis and management and practical challenges in conducting clinical trials in this rare condition. They suggest that earlier diagnosis with aggressive multimodal therapy may be advantageous in some cases. Conclusions: Although pituitary carcinoma remains difficult to diagnose and treat, recent developments have led to improved outcomes in selected cases. With broader use of molecular markers, efforts to modify current histopathological criteria for pituitary carcinoma diagnosis may now be possible. This would assist earlier diagnosis and, in combination with targeted therapies, potentially improve long-term survival. PMID:21956419

  6. [Multifocus or recurrent carcinoma adenoides cysticum].

    PubMed

    Wójtowicz, P; Sujkowska, U; Kukwa, A; Sobczyk, G; Misztela, T

    1995-01-01

    Authors present the case of carcinoma adenoides cysticum, which was located in small salivary glands of palatum. After surgical treatment and radiotherapy during 3 years observation of the patient two new ca adenoides cysticum focus were noticed. It can give evidence of cancer multifocus of cancer recurrents.

  7. [Two autopsy cases of primary pituitary carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Negishi, K; Suzuki, T; Masuda, Y; Masugi, Y; Teramoto, A; Ohama, E

    1988-05-01

    We studied two autopsy cases of primary pituitary carcinoma. Case-1. A 45 year old female was admitted on Oct. 4 1978, with a complaint of right homonymous hemianopsia. And diagnosis was pituitary adenoma. Partial removal of pituitary tumor was performed on Oct. 23 1978. She died on Dec. 5 1978 due to bleeding of gastrointestinal tract. Autopsy disclosed a pituitary carcinoma invading the left hypothalamus, mamillary body, optic and V cranial nerves, and mid brain as well as sphenoid bone. No extracranial metastasis was noted. Case-2. A 44 year old female with a history of acromegaly for 6 years was admitted with a complaint of headache on May 8 1976. She was diagnosed as having pituitary adenoma. The subtotal removal of pituitary tumor was performed on May 21 1976 and followed by 4500 rad irradiation. At this time, pathological diagnosis was eosinophilic adenoma. Seven years later, she complained of progressive right hearing disturbance, dysarthria and ataxic gait 1983. The second subtotal removal of pituitary tumor was performed with a diagnosis of recurrence of pituitary adenoma on Oct. 7 1983. After the operation, she complicated sepsis and died on Jan. 14 1984. An autopsy disclosed a pituitary carcinoma from residual pituitary gland, continuously extending to the subarachnoid space of the pons, and invading right cerebello-pontine angle and cerebellum. The histological examination revealed pituitary carcinoma with high pleomorphism and glioblastoma multiform-like feature were within the tumor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma mimicking lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Basoglu, A; Findik, S; Celik, B; Yildiz, L

    2006-06-01

    Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma has rarely been reported and is a benign entity of unknown origin. The chest radiograph reveals multiple and frequently bilateral pulmonary nodules. We describe a patient with pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma who presented with a central mass in the left lung mimicking lung carcinoma. PMID:16755455

  9. Hepatocellular carcinoma and evidence-based surgery

    PubMed Central

    Braillon, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Transplantation cannot be considered the most important therapeutic procedure for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In France, no more than 2% of patients with HCC undergo a transplantation. Randomized controlled trial must assess the benefit to risk ratio of various potentially “curative” treatment procedures (transplantation, resection, radio-frequency ablation). PMID:19908350

  10. Impact of Squamous Differentiation in Breast Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pai, Trupti; Shet, Tanuja; Desai, Sangeeta; Patil, Asawari; Nair, Nita; Parmar, Vani; Gupta, Sudeep; Budrukkar, Ashwini; Sarin, Rajiv; Badwe, Rajendra

    2016-09-01

    This study attempted to review the impact of extent of squamous differentiation in 56 infiltrating duct carcinomas (IDC) with squamous differentiation (metaplastic squamous carcinomas [MSC]). Tumors showing 100% squamous elements were labeled as primary squamous carcinomas (PSC; n = 28) and compared with 28 MSC showing lesser squamous components. A clinicopathological comparison revealed that lymphovascular emboli were never seen in any PSC but were noted in 7/28 of other MSC, while perineural invasion was seen only in PSC and not in MSC. Nodal metastasis was significantly more in other MSC as opposed to PSC. Most MSC presented with 2- to 5-cm sized tumors while PSC were 5 to 10 cm in size. PSC showed cystic change while MSC did not. Disease free survival (DFS) for MSC versus PSC was 64% versus 39.8%, while overall survival (OAS) was 72.7% in MSC versus 66.7% in PSC. Tumor stage affected DFS in MSC while none of the factors affected DFS/OAS in PSC. The extent of squamous differentiation affected DFS with best behavior for metaplastic carcinomas showing <40% squamous elements and worse for those with >90% squamous component (P = .024). PSC of breast is an aggressive disease and show distinct clinicopathological features from other MSC, and though the current definition of MSC does not advocate quantifying the squamous element, clearly this affects prognosis.

  11. Intra-mandibular adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bouaichi, A; Aimad-Eddine, S; Mommers, X-A; Ella, B; Zwetyenga, N

    2014-04-01

    Intra-mandibular localization of adenoid cystic carcinoma is rare. This tumor is characterized by progressive local, regional, and distant aggressiveness. We reviewed the latest data on this rare type of cancer with a small number of reported cases, alack of consensus for its treatment, and its bad prognosis.

  12. Metastatic thyroid carcinoma of the mandibule.

    PubMed

    Erdag, T; Bilgen, C; Ceryan, K

    1999-01-01

    A case of metastatic papillary carcinoma to the mandible is presented. Though relatively rare, metastatic tumours of the mandible should be included in the differential diagnosis of the tumours in the parotid region. For the primary site; being in the cervicofacial region, the thyroid gland must be considered by the head and neck surgeon.

  13. [Thyroglossal cyst and papillary carcinoma. Management proposals].

    PubMed

    Palomino-Martínez, Brisa Denise; Beristain-Hernández, José Luis; Piscil-Salazar, Marco Antonio; Villalpando-Mendoza, César Javier; Velázquez-García, José Arturo

    2014-01-01

    The thyroid descends through the foramen cecum leaving the thyroglossal duct, which disappears between the fifth and the tenth week of pregnancy. The lack of involution of any part of this duct results in thyroglossal cyst formation. Its diagnostic approach is made by cervical ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Approximately 1 % of the thyroglossal cyst formation contains malignant elements, and the most reported primary tumor has been papillary carcinoma. The recommended treatment for these carcinomas is controversial and it has evolved as time goes by. From Sistrunk procedure to neck dissection with total thyroidectomy and complementary therapies, such as iodine ablation and thyroid supplements, yet there is still no consensus as to the type of surgery and postoperative management it should be used to treat this carcinoma. Therapy should be applied according to each specific case, and it should be based on histological diagnosis, the invasive character of the tumor, and the lymph node affectation. In this paper we review the literature published so far with regards to the treatment of this carcinoma.

  14. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor in Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Natalie; Babur, Muhammad; Resch, Julia; Williams, Kaye J.; Brabant, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Intratumoural hypoxia (low oxygen tension) is associated with aggressive disease and poor prognosis. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 is a transcription factor activated by hypoxia that regulates the expression of genes that promote tumour cell survival, progression, metastasis, and resistance to chemo/radiotherapy. In addition to hypoxia, HIF-1 can be activated by growth factor-signalling pathways such as the mitogen-activated protein kinases- (MAPK-) and phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinases- (PI3K-) signalling cascades. Mutations in these pathways are common in thyroid carcinoma and lead to enhanced HIF-1 expression and activity. Here, we summarise current data that highlights the potential role of both hypoxia and MAPK/PI3K-induced HIF-1 signalling in thyroid carcinoma progression, metastatic characteristics, and the potential role of HIF-1 in thyroid carcinoma response to radiotherapy. Direct or indirect targeting of HIF-1 using an MAPK or PI3K inhibitor in combination with radiotherapy may be a new potential therapeutic target to improve the therapeutic response of thyroid carcinoma to radiotherapy and reduce metastatic burden. PMID:21765994

  15. Targeting Hsp90 in urothelial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Skotnicki, Kamil; Landas, Steve; Bratslavsky, Gennady; Bourboulia, Dimitra

    2015-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma, or transitional cell carcinoma, is the most common urologic malignancy that carries significant morbidity, mortality, recurrence risk and associated health care costs. Despite use of current chemotherapies and immunotherapies, long-term remission in patients with muscle-invasive or metastatic disease remains low, and disease recurrence is common. The molecular chaperone Heat Shock Protein-90 (Hsp90) may offer an ideal treatment target, as it is a critical signaling hub in urothelial carcinoma pathogenesis and potentiates chemoradiation. Preclinical testing with Hsp90 inhibitors has demonstrated reduced proliferation, enhanced apoptosis and synergism with chemotherapies and radiation. Despite promising preclinical data, clinical trials utilizing Hsp90 inhibitors for other malignancies had modest efficacy. Therefore, we propose that Hsp90 inhibition would best serve as an adjuvant treatment in advanced muscle-invasive or metastatic bladder cancers to potentiate other therapies. An overview of bladder cancer biology, current treatments, molecular targeted therapies, and the role for Hsp90 inhibitors in the treatment of urothelial carcinoma is the focus of this review. PMID:25909217

  16. [Effect of plant hormones on the components of secretory pathway in human normal and tumor cells].

    PubMed

    Vil'danova, M S; Savitskaia, M A; Onishchenko, G E; Smirnova, E A

    2014-01-01

    Plant hormones play a key role in plant growth and differentiation. Many hormones are known as potential antitumor agents, yet others appear to affect the secretory activity and are produced by mammalian cells as pro-inflammatory cytokines. The goal of this research was to study the effect of abscisic and gibberellic acids on the secretory system of human cultured epidermoid carcinoma cells A431 and keratinocytes HaCat. Immunocytochemical and morphometric analysis demonstrated that subtoxic concentration of plant hormones induced the broadening of the ER network and increased the size of Golgi complex. Electron microscopy studies confirmed the hypertrophic changes of the Golgi apparatus, specifically, the swelling of cisternae in the trans-compartment of dictyosomes after exposure to abscisic acid, and swelling of cis- and trans-compartment of dictyosomes after exposure to abscisic acid, and swelling of cis- and trans-compartments of dictyosomes after exposure to gibberellic acid. Using of Click-iT technique allowed to detect the elevation of the total protein synthesis only in A431 cells exposed to abscisic acid. Cumulative data suggests that, under these conditions, the hypertrophy of Golgi apparatus may reflect the enhanced secretory activity of cells. In other experiments, the hypertrophy of Golgi is not related to increased protein synthesis and therefore may suggest the stress-related changes of ER and Golgi apparatus. Our results demonstrate that morphologically similar reaction of cellular organelles, such as hypertrophy of Golgi apparatus, is the result of different functional activities, and that molecular mechanisms underlying the changes induced in cells need further investigations. PMID:25696996

  17. Novel Nitrobenzazolo[3,2-a]quinolinium Salts Induce Cell Death through a Mechanism Involving DNA Damage, Cell Cycle Changes, and Mitochondrial Permeabilization

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Christian; Cox, Osvaldo; Rosado-Berrios, Carlos A.; Molina, Dennise; Arroyo, Luz; Carro, Sujey; Filikov, Anton; Kumar, Vineet; Malhotra, Sanjay V.; Cordero, Marisol; Zayas, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the capacity of three nitro substituted benzazolo[3,2-a]quinolinium salts NBQs: NBQ 95 (NSC-763304), NBQ 38 (NSC 763305), and NBQ 97 (NSC-763306) as potential antitumor agents. NBQ’s are unnatural alkaloids possessing a positive charge that could facilitate interaction with cell organelles. The anticancer activities of these compounds were evaluated through the National Cancer Institute (NCI) 60 cell line screening which represents diverse histologies. The screening was performed at 10 µM on all cell lines. Results from the NCI screening indicated cytotoxicity activity on six cell lines. In order to explore a possible mechanism of action, a detailed biological activity study of NBQ 95 and NBQ 38 was performed on A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells to determine an apoptotic pathway involving, cell cycle changes, DNA fragmentation, mutations, mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and caspases activation. DNA fragmentation, cell cycle effects, mutagenesis, mitochondrial permeabilization and activation of caspases were determined by fluorimetry and differential imaging. Our data showed that A431 growth was inhibited with an average IC50 of 30 µM. In terms of the mechanism, these compounds interacted with DNA causing fragmentation and cell cycle arrest at sub G0/G1 stage. Mutagenesis was higher for NBQ 38 and moderate for NBQ 95 Mitochon-drial permeabilization was observed with NBQ 38 and slightly for NBQ 95. Both compounds caused activation of Caspases 3 and 7 suggesting an apoptotic cell death pathway through an intrinsic mechanism. This study reports evidence of the toxicity of these novel compounds with overlapping structural and mechanistic similarities to ellipticine, a known anti-tumor compound. PMID:25243104

  18. In vivo detection of small tumour lesions by multi-pinhole SPECT applying a 99mTc-labelled nanobody targeting the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Krüwel, Thomas; Nevoltris, Damien; Bode, Julia; Dullin, Christian; Baty, Daniel; Chames, Patrick; Alves, Frauke

    2016-01-01

    The detection of tumours in an early phase of tumour development in combination with the knowledge of expression of tumour markers such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important prerequisite for clinical decisions. In this study we applied the anti-EGFR nanobody 99mTc-D10 for visualizing small tumour lesions with volumes below 100 mm3 by targeting EGFR in orthotopic human mammary MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 and subcutaneous human epidermoid A431 carcinoma mouse models. Use of nanobody 99mTc-D10 of a size as small as 15.5 kDa enables detection of tumours by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging already 45 min post intravenous administration with high tumour uptake (>3% ID/g) in small MDA-MB-468 and A431 tumours, with tumour volumes of 52.5 mm3 ± 21.2 and 26.6 mm3 ± 16.7, respectively. Fast blood clearance with a serum half-life of 4.9 min resulted in high in vivo contrast and ex vivo tumour to blood and tissue ratios. In contrast, no accumulation of 99mTc-D10 in MDA-MB-231 tumours characterized by a very low expression of EGFR was observed. Here we present specific and high contrast in vivo visualization of small human tumours overexpressing EGFR by preclinical multi-pinhole SPECT shortly after administration of anti-EGFR nanobody 99mTc-D10. PMID:26912069

  19. A chrysin derivative suppresses skin cancer growth by inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haidan; Liu, Kangdong; Huang, Zunnan; Park, Chan-Mi; Thimmegowda, N R; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Ryoo, In-Ja; He, Long; Kim, Sun-Ok; Oi, Naomi; Lee, Ki Won; Soung, Nak-Kyun; Bode, Ann M; Yang, Yifeng; Zhou, Xinmin; Erikson, Raymond L; Ahn, Jong-Seog; Hwang, Joonsung; Kim, Kyoon Eon; Dong, Zigang; Kim, Bo-Yeon

    2013-09-01

    Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), a natural flavonoid widely distributed in plants, reportedly has chemopreventive properties against various cancers. However, the anticancer activity of chrysin observed in in vivo studies has been disappointing. Here, we report that a chrysin derivative, referred to as compound 69407, more strongly inhibited EGF-induced neoplastic transformation of JB6 P(+) cells compared with chrysin. It attenuated cell cycle progression of EGF-stimulated cells at the G1 phase and inhibited the G1/S transition. It caused loss of retinoblastoma phosphorylation at both Ser-795 and Ser-807/811, the preferred sites phosphorylated by Cdk4/6 and Cdk2, respectively. It also suppressed anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. Compound 69407 reduced tumor growth in the A431 mouse xenograft model and retinoblastoma phosphorylation at Ser-795 and Ser-807/811. Immunoprecipitation kinase assay results showed that compound 69407 attenuated endogenous Cdk4 and Cdk2 kinase activities in EGF-stimulated JB6 P(+) cells. Pulldown and in vitro kinase assay results indicated that compound 69407 directly binds with Cdk2 and Cdk4 in an ATP-independent manner and inhibited their kinase activities. A binding model between compound 69407 and a crystal structure of Cdk2 predicted that compound 69407 was located inside the Cdk2 allosteric binding site. The binding was further verified by a point mutation binding assay. Overall results indicated that compound 69407 is an ATP-noncompetitive cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor with anti-tumor effects, which acts by binding inside the Cdk2 allosteric pocket. This study provides new insights for creating a general pharmacophore model to design and develop novel ATP-noncompetitive agents with chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic potency.

  20. A chrysin derivative suppresses skin cancer growth by inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haidan; Liu, Kangdong; Huang, Zunnan; Park, Chan-Mi; Thimmegowda, N R; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Ryoo, In-Ja; He, Long; Kim, Sun-Ok; Oi, Naomi; Lee, Ki Won; Soung, Nak-Kyun; Bode, Ann M; Yang, Yifeng; Zhou, Xinmin; Erikson, Raymond L; Ahn, Jong-Seog; Hwang, Joonsung; Kim, Kyoon Eon; Dong, Zigang; Kim, Bo-Yeon

    2013-09-01

    Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), a natural flavonoid widely distributed in plants, reportedly has chemopreventive properties against various cancers. However, the anticancer activity of chrysin observed in in vivo studies has been disappointing. Here, we report that a chrysin derivative, referred to as compound 69407, more strongly inhibited EGF-induced neoplastic transformation of JB6 P(+) cells compared with chrysin. It attenuated cell cycle progression of EGF-stimulated cells at the G1 phase and inhibited the G1/S transition. It caused loss of retinoblastoma phosphorylation at both Ser-795 and Ser-807/811, the preferred sites phosphorylated by Cdk4/6 and Cdk2, respectively. It also suppressed anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. Compound 69407 reduced tumor growth in the A431 mouse xenograft model and retinoblastoma phosphorylation at Ser-795 and Ser-807/811. Immunoprecipitation kinase assay results showed that compound 69407 attenuated endogenous Cdk4 and Cdk2 kinase activities in EGF-stimulated JB6 P(+) cells. Pulldown and in vitro kinase assay results indicated that compound 69407 directly binds with Cdk2 and Cdk4 in an ATP-independent manner and inhibited their kinase activities. A binding model between compound 69407 and a crystal structure of Cdk2 predicted that compound 69407 was located inside the Cdk2 allosteric binding site. The binding was further verified by a point mutation binding assay. Overall results indicated that compound 69407 is an ATP-noncompetitive cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor with anti-tumor effects, which acts by binding inside the Cdk2 allosteric pocket. This study provides new insights for creating a general pharmacophore model to design and develop novel ATP-noncompetitive agents with chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic potency. PMID:23888052

  1. Ca2+/Calmodulin and Apo-Calmodulin Both Bind to and Enhance the Tyrosine Kinase Activity of c-Src

    PubMed Central

    Anguita, Estefanía; Benaim, Gustavo; Villalobo, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Src family non-receptor tyrosine kinases play a prominent role in multiple cellular processes, including: cell proliferation, differentiation, cell survival, stress response, and cell adhesion and migration, among others. And when deregulated by mutations, overexpression, and/or the arrival of faulty incoming signals, its hyperactivity contributes to the development of hematological and solid tumors. c-Src is a prototypical member of this family of kinases, which is highly regulated by a set of phosphorylation events. Other factor contributing to the regulation of Src activity appears to be mediated by the Ca2+ signal generated in cells by different effectors, where the Ca2+-receptor protein calmodulin (CaM) plays a key role. In this report we demonstrate that CaM directly interacts with Src in both Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent manners in vitro and in living cells, and that the CaM antagonist N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide (W-7) inhibits the activation of this kinase induced by the upstream activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), in human carcinoma epidermoide A431 cells, and by hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress, in both A431 cells and human breast adenocarcinoma SK-BR-3 cells. Furthermore, we show that the Ca2+/CaM complex strongly activates the auto-phosphorylation and tyrosine kinase activity of c-Src toward exogenous substrates, but most relevantly and for the first time, we demonstrate that Ca2+-free CaM (apo-CaM) exerts a far higher activatory action on Src auto-phosphorylation and kinase activity toward exogenous substrates than the one exerted by the Ca2+/CaM complex. This suggests that a transient increase in the cytosolic concentration of free Ca2+ is not an absolute requirement for CaM-mediated activation of Src in living cells, and that a direct regulation of Src by apo-CaM could be inferred. PMID:26058065

  2. The ectopic expression of Snail in MDBK cells does not induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    IZAWA, GENYA; KOBAYASHI, WAKAKO; HARAGUCHI, MISAKO; SUDO, AKIHARU; OZAWA, MASAYUKI

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key process in the tumor metastatic cascade, is characterized by the loss of cell-cell junctions and cell polarity, as well as by the acquisition of migratory and invasive properties. However, the precise molecular events that initiate this complex EMT process are poorly understood. Snail expression induces EMT in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and the human epidermoid carcinoma cell line, A431. Snail is a zinc finger transcription factor and triggers EMT by suppressing E-cadherin expression. In the present study, to broaden our knowledge of Snail-induced EMT, we generated stable Snail transfectants using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. Contrary to the MDCK or A431 cells examined in our previous studies, the MDBK cells transfected with the Snail construct maintained an epithelial morphology and showed no sign of reduced cell-cell adhesiveness compared to the control cells. Consistent with these observations, the down-regulation of epithelial marker proteins, e.g. E-cadherin and desmoglein, and the upregulation of mesenchymal marker proteins, e.g., N-cadherin and fibronectin, were not detected. Furthermore, the E-cadherin promoter was not methylated. Therefore, in the MDBK cells, the ectopic expression of Snail failed to induce EMT. As previously demonstrated, in MDCK cells, Snail expression is accompanied by the increased expression of other EMT-inducing transcription factors, e.g., Slug and zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1). However, the MDBK cells transfected with the Snail construct did not exhibit an increased expression of these factors. Thus, it is possible that the failure to upregulate other EMT-related transcription factors may explain the lack of Snail-mediated induction of EMT in MDBK cells. PMID:25998899

  3. The ectopic expression of Snail in MDBK cells does not induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Genya; Kobayashi, Wakako; Haraguchi, Misako; Sudo, Akiharu; Ozawa, Masayuki

    2015-07-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key process in the tumor metastatic cascade, is characterized by the loss of cell-cell junctions and cell polarity, as well as by the acquisition of migratory and invasive properties. However, the precise molecular events that initiate this complex EMT process are poorly understood. Snail expression induces EMT in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and the human epidermoid carcinoma cell line, A431. Snail is a zinc finger transcription factor and triggers EMT by suppressing E-cadherin expression. In the present study, to broaden our knowledge of Snail‑induced EMT, we generated stable Snail transfectants using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. Contrary to the MDCK or A431 cells examined in our previous studies, the MDBK cells transfected with the Snail construct maintained an epithelial morphology and showed no sign of reduced cell-cell adhesiveness compared to the control cells. Consistent with these observations, the downregulation of epithelial marker proteins, e.g. E-cadherin and desmoglein, and the upregulation of mesenchymal marker proteins, e.g., N-cadherin and fibronectin, were not detected. Furthermore, the E-cadherin promoter was not methylated. Therefore, in the MDBK cells, the ectopic expression of Snail failed to induce EMT. As previously demonstrated, in MDCK cells, Snail expression is accompanied by the increased expression of other EMT-inducing transcription factors, e.g., Slug and zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1). However, the MDBK cells transfected with the Snail construct did not exhibit an increased expression of these factors. Thus, it is possible that the failure to upregulate other EMT-related transcription factors may explain the lack of Snail-mediated induction of EMT in MDBK cells.

  4. Association of urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis with papillary and medullary thyroid carcinomas. A new sporadic neoplastic syndrome?

    PubMed

    Albores-Saavedra, Jorge; Dorantes-Heredia, Rita; Chablé-Montero, Fredy; Córdova-Ramón, Juan Carlos; Henson, Donald E

    2014-10-01

    We describe 2 adult women (72 and 54 years), 1 with a low-grade noninvasive papillary urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis, who 14 years later developed a papillary carcinoma in 1 thyroid lobe and a medullary carcinoma in the contralateral lobe. Both neoplasms were similar in size and appeared symmetrical. Despite its small size, the medullary carcinoma metastasized in multiple cervical lymph nodes. The second patient had a high-grade invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis that infiltrated the renal parenchyma and metastasized in one of the lungs. Five months later, a papillary carcinoma was discovered in the thyroid gland. The 2 papillary thyroid carcinomas were of the follicular variant. Adjacent to 1 papillary carcinoma, there was a dominant nodule of a colloid and adenomatous goiter. The medullary carcinoma contained stromal amyloid and was immunoreactive for calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen. There was no C-cell hyperplasia (medullary carcinoma in situ). The 2 patients are alive, 1 is living with pulmonary metastasis from the high-grade urothelial carcinoma. Twelve cases of this neoplastic association were registered in the Survey, Epidemiology, and End Results Program from 1980 to 2009. We believe that the combination of these unusual neoplasms in the same patient may represent a new sporadic neoplastic syndrome.

  5. Gallbladder carcinoma: Prognostic factors and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Goetze, Thorsten Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of gallbladder carcinoma is poor, and the overall 5-year survival rate is less than 5%. In early-stage disease, a 5-year survival rate up to 75% can be achieved if stage-adjusted therapy is performed. There is wide geographic variability in the frequency of gallbladder carcinoma, which can only be explained by an interaction between genetic factors and their alteration. Gallstones and chronic cholecystitis are important risk factors in the formation of gallbladder malignancies. Factors such as chronic bacterial infection, primary sclerosing cholangitis, an anomalous junction of the pancreaticobiliary duct, and several types of gallbladder polyps are associated with a higher risk of gallbladder cancer. There is also an interesting correlation between risk factors and the histological type of cancer. However, despite theoretical risk factors, only a third of gallbladder carcinomas are recognized preoperatively. In most patients, the tumor is diagnosed by the pathologist after a routine cholecystectomy for a benign disease and is termed ‘‘incidental or occult gallbladder carcinoma’’ (IGBC). A cholecystectomy is performed frequently due to the minimal invasiveness of the laparoscopic technique. Therefore, the postoperative diagnosis of potentially curable early-stage disease is more frequent. A second radical re-resection to complete a radical cholecystectomy is required for several IGBCs. However, the literature and guidelines used in different countries differ regarding the radicality or T-stage criteria for performing a radical cholecystectomy. The NCCN guidelines and data from the German registry (GR), which records the largest number of incidental gallbladder carcinomas in Europe, indicate that carcinomas infiltrating the muscularis propria or beyond require radical surgery. According to GR data and current literature, a wedge resection with a combined dissection of the lymph nodes of the hepatoduodenal ligament is adequate for T1b and T2

  6. Calculator for ovarian carcinoma subtype prediction.

    PubMed

    Kalloger, Steve E; Köbel, Martin; Leung, Samuel; Mehl, Erika; Gao, Dongxia; Marcon, Krista M; Chow, Christine; Clarke, Blaise A; Huntsman, David G; Gilks, C Blake

    2011-04-01

    With the emerging evidence that the five major ovarian carcinoma subtypes (high-grade serous, clear cell, endometrioid, mucinous, and low-grade serous) are distinct disease entities, management of ovarian carcinoma will become subtype specific in the future. In an effort to improve diagnostic accuracy, we set out to determine if an immunohistochemical panel of molecular markers could reproduce consensus subtype assignment. Immunohistochemical expression of 22 biomarkers were examined on tissue microarrays constructed from 322 archival ovarian carcinoma samples from the British Columbia Cancer Agency archives, for the period between 1984 and 2000, and an independent set of 242 cases of ovarian carcinoma from the Gynaecologic Tissue Bank at Vancouver General Hospital from 2001 to 2008. Nominal logistic regression was used to produce a subtype prediction model for each of these sets of cases. These models were then cross-validated against the other cohort, and then both models were further validated in an independent cohort of 81 ovarian carcinoma samples from five different centers. Starting with data for 22 markers, full model fit, backwards, nominal logistic regression identified the same nine markers (CDKN2A, DKK1, HNF1B, MDM2, PGR, TFF3, TP53, VIM, WT1) as being most predictive of ovarian carcinoma subtype in both the archival and tumor bank cohorts. These models were able to predict subtype in the respective cohort in which they were developed with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity (κ statistics of 0.88±0.02 and 0.86±0.04, respectively). When the models were cross-validated (ie using the model developed in one case series to predict subtype in the other series), the prediction equation's performances were reduced (κ statistics of 0.70±0.04 and 0.61±0.04, respectively) due to differences in frequency of expression of some biomarkers in the two case series. Both models were then validated on the independent series of 81 cases, with very good to

  7. [Chronic arsenic poisoning].

    PubMed

    Lozano Armando, V; Ochoa Angel, A

    1979-01-01

    A case of chronic arsenic intoxication due to ingestion of contaminated water for several years is reported. The main symptoms were keratosis palmaris et plantaris, confetti - Like dyschromias in chest, post - necrotic liver cirrhosis multiple intraepithelial epidermoid carcinomas and invasive epidermoid carcinoma. The epidemiologic study showed high concentration of arsenic in the water of the well used by the patient; likewise, chronic arsenicalism was found in the whole family and in several neighbors who consumed water from the same well.

  8. Gingival Squamous Cell Carcinoma: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, Luiz Antonio Guimarães; de Carvalho, Luis Felipe das Chagas e Silva; Salgado, José Antônio Pereira; Brandão, Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Squamous cell carcinoma is a malignant epithelial neoplasm characterized by variable clinical manifestations. When located in the gingiva, this neoplasm may mimic common inflammatory lesions. The aim of this study was to report a case of atypical squamous cell carcinoma, in which the patient had no risk factors for the development of this neoplasm. Methods A 61 year old Caucasian female was seen with a 3 month history of a rapidly growing, painful nodule in the gingiva adjacent to tooth #11. Clinical examination revealed a proliferative lesion in the vestibular marginal gingiva of teeth #11 and #12, presenting with purulent exudation. Thus, in view of the clinical symptoms and differential diagnosis of an infectious granulomatous process and malignant neoplasm, an incisional biopsy was obtained from the lesion. Results The diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma was made and fourteen days after incisional biopsy, healing was found to be unsatisfactory. The patient was referred for treatment consisting of surgical excision of the tumour. A removable partial denture was fabricated for rehabilitation, one month after surgery of the maxilla; the patient was submitted to dissection of the regional lymph nodes and radiotherapy for an additional 3 months. Three years after the end of treatment, the patient continues to be followed-up and does not show any sign of recurrence. Conclusions Gingival squamous cell carcinoma is a condition which chance of cure is higher when carcinomatous lesions are diagnosed and treated early. In this instance dentists play an important role in early detection of gingival squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:24421976

  9. Cixutumumab, Everolimus, and Octreotide Acetate in Treating Patients With Advanced Low to Intermediate Grade Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-14

    Gastrin-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Pancreatic Glucagonoma; Pancreatic Insulinoma; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Paraganglioma; Recurrent Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Recurrent Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Regional Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Somatostatin-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor; Stage III Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

  10. Biological and clinical significance of NAC1 expression in cervical carcinomas: a comparative study between squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas/adenosquamous carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Yeasmin, Shamima; Nakayama, Kentaro; Rahman, Mohammed Tanjimur; Rahman, Munmun; Ishikawa, Masako; Katagiri, Atsuko; Iida, Kouji; Nakayama, Naomi; Otuski, Yoshiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Satoru; Miyazaki, Kohji

    2012-04-01

    This study examined the biological and clinical significance of NAC1 (nucleus accumbens associated 1) expression in both cervical squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas/adenosquamous carcinomas. Using immunohistochemistry, the frequency of positive NAC1 expression in adenocarcinomas/adenosquamous carcinomas (31.0%; 18/58) was significantly higher than that in squamous cell carcinomas (16.2%; 12/74) (P = .043). NAC1 gene amplification was identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization in 5 (7.2%) of 69 squamous cell carcinomas. NAC1 amplification was not identified in the adenocarcinomas (0%; 0/58). Positive NAC1 expression was significantly correlated with shorter overall survival in squamous cell carcinomas (P < .0001). A multivariate analysis showed that positive NAC1 expression in squamous cell carcinomas was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival after standard radiotherapy (P = .0003). In contrast to squamous cell carcinomas, positive NAC1 expression did not correlate with shorter overall survival in adenocarcinomas/adenosquamous carcinomas (P = .317). Profound growth inhibition, increased apoptosis, decreased cell proliferation, and decreased cell migration and invasion were observed in silencing RNA-treated cancer cells with NAC1 overexpression compared with cancer cells without NAC1 expression. NAC1 overexpression stimulated proliferation, migration, and invasion in the cervical cancer cell lines TCS and Hela P3, which normally lack NAC1 expression. These findings indicate that NAC1 overexpression is critical to the growth and survival of cervical carcinomas irrespective of histologic type. Furthermore, they suggest that NAC1 silencing RNA-induced phenotypes depend on the expression status of the targeted cell line. Therefore, cervical carcinoma patients with NAC1 expression may benefit from a targeted therapy irrespective of histologic type.

  11. A Case of Gastric Cancer with Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma Components, and Intramural Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Aoyagi, Keishiro; Kizaki, Junya; Isobe, Taro; Akagi, Yoshito

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 67 Final Diagnosis: Gastric cancer with neuroendocrine carcinoma Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Total gastrectomy • splenectomy with D2 lymph node dissection Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Many neuroendocrine carcinomas exhibit medullary infiltration and expanded proliferation. Differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma is frequently seen in the superficial region in many neuroendocrine carcinoma cases. However, the present case showed non-medullary infiltration and signet ring cell carcinoma in the superficial region, with intramural metastases distributed throughout the whole of the stomach. Case Report: A 67-year-old man was referred to our institution for treatment of gastric cancer. Type IIc-like advanced gastric cancer was detected in the greater curvature of the middle body of the stomach. The patient underwent total gastrectomy, splenectomy with D2 lymph node dissection, and Roux-en-Y reconstruction with curative resection. The tumor was diagnosed as a large-cell endocrine carcinoma of the stomach. A solid growth of signet ring cells was seen in the mucosa and submucosa. Intramural metastases were observed in many other depressed lesions. Large-cell carcinoma invaded the submucosa, mainly in the intramural metastatic site. Metastasis to one lesser curvature lymph node was also seen on histological examination. The final diagnosis was a gastric cancer of type 0–IIc (T4a) [M] (with intramural metastases) at T4aN1H0P0M0 Stage IIIA. This patient has remained alive without recurrence for 72 months after surgery. Conclusions: We recommend close preoperative examination of neuroendocrine carcinoma, taking intramural metastases into consideration. PMID:27102318

  12. A subset of prostatic basal cell carcinomas harbor the MYB rearrangement of adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Justin A; Yonescu, Raluca; Epstein, Jonathan I; Westra, William H

    2015-08-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a basaloid tumor consisting of myoepithelial and ductal cells typically arranged in a cribriform pattern. Adenoid cystic carcinoma is generally regarded as a form of salivary gland carcinoma, but it can arise from sites unassociated with salivary tissue. A rare form of prostate carcinoma exhibits ACC-like features; it is no longer regarded as a true ACC but rather as prostatic basal cell carcinoma (PBCC) and within the spectrum of basaloid prostatic proliferations. True ACCs often harbor MYB translocations resulting in the MYB-NFIB fusion protein. MYB analysis could clarify the true nature of prostatic carcinomas that exhibit ACC features and thus help refine the classification of prostatic basaloid proliferations. Twelve PBCCs were identified from the pathology consultation files of Johns Hopkins Hospital. The histopathologic features were reviewed, and break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization for MYB was performed. All 12 cases exhibited prominent basaloid histology. Four were purely solid, 7 exhibited a cribriform pattern reminiscent of salivary ACC, and 1 had a mixed pattern. The MYB rearrangement was detected in 2 (29%) of 7 ACC-like carcinomas but in none (0%) of the 5 PBCCs with a prominent solid pattern. True ACCs can arise in the prostate as is evidenced by the presence of the characteristic MYB rearrangement. When dealing with malignant basaloid proliferations in the prostate, recommendations to consolidate ACCs with other tumor types may need to be reassessed, particularly in light of the rapidly advancing field of biologic therapy where the identification of tumor-specific genetic alterations presents novel therapeutic targets.

  13. Squamous cell and adenosquamous carcinomas of the gallbladder: clinicopathological analysis of 34 cases identified in 606 carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Roa, Juan C; Tapia, Oscar; Cakir, Asli; Basturk, Olca; Dursun, Nevra; Akdemir, Deniz; Saka, Burcu; Losada, Hector; Bagci, Pelin; Adsay, N Volkan

    2011-08-01

    The information in the literature on squamous cell and adenosquamous carcinomas of the gallbladder is highly limited. In this study, 606 resected invasive gallbladder carcinoma cases were analyzed. Squamous differentiation was identified in 41 cases (7%). Those without any identifiable glandular-type invasive component were classified as pure squamous cell carcinomas (8 cases) and those with the squamous component constituting 25-99% of the tumors were classified as adenosquamous carcinomas (26 cases) and included into the analysis. The remaining 7 that had <25% squamous component were classified as adenocarcinoma with focal squamous change and excluded. The clinicopathological characteristics of adenosquamous carcinoma/squamous cell carcinomas were documented and contrasted with that of ordinary gallbladder adenocarcinomas. The average patient age was 65 years (range 26-81); female/male ratio, 3.8. In only 13%, there was a preoperative clinical suspicion of malignancy. Grossly, 58% presented as thickening and hardening of the wall and 6% were polypoid. In 12%, mucosa adjacent to the tumor revealed squamous metaplasia. All pure squamous cell carcinomas had prominent keratinization. Giant cells and tumor-infiltrating eosinophils were observed in 29 and 51% of the squamous cell carcinomas/adenosquamous carcinomas versus 10% (P=0.02) and 6% (P=0.001) in gallbladder adenocarcinomas, respectively. All but three cases had 'advanced' (pT2 and above) carcinomas. Follow-up was available in 31 patients: 25 died of disease (median=5 months, range 0-20), and 6 were alive (median=64 months, range 5-112.5). The survival of patients with squamous cell carcinomas/adenosquamous carcinomas was significantly worse than that of gallbladder adenocarcinomas (P=0.003), and this adverse prognosis persisted when compared with stage-matched advanced gallbladder adenocarcinoma cases (median=11.4 months, P=0.01). In conclusion, squamous differentiation was noted in 7% of gallbladder

  14. Synthesis, characterization, and biological evaluation of Schiff base-platinum(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Shiju, C; Arish, D; Bhuvanesh, N; Kumaresan, S

    2015-06-15

    The platinum complexes of Schiff base ligands derived from 4-aminoantipyrine and a few substituted aldehydes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, mass, (1)H NMR, IR, electronic spectra, molar conductance, and powder XRD. The structure of one of the ligands L5 was confirmed by a single crystal XRD analysis. The Schiff base ligand crystallized in the triclinic, space group P-1 with a=7.032(2)Ǻ, b=9.479(3)Ǻ, c=12.425(4)Ǻ, α=101.636(3)°, β=99.633(3)°, γ=94.040(3)°, V=795.0(4)Ǻ(3), Z=2, F(000)=352, Dc=1.405 mg/m(3), μ=0.099 mm(-1), R=0.0378, and wR=0.0967. The spectral results show that the Schiff base ligand acts as a bidentate donor coordinating through the azomethine nitrogen and the carbonyl oxygen atoms. The geometrical structures of these complexes are found to be square planar. Antimicrobial studies indicate that these complexes exhibit better activity than the ligand. The anticancer activities of the complexes have also been studied towards human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), Colon Cancer Cells (HCT116) and Epidermoid Carcinoma Cells (A431) and it was found that the [Pt(L3)Cl2] complex is more active.

  15. Synthesis, characterization, and biological evaluation of Schiff base-platinum(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiju, C.; Arish, D.; Bhuvanesh, N.; Kumaresan, S.

    2015-06-01

    The platinum complexes of Schiff base ligands derived from 4-aminoantipyrine and a few substituted aldehydes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, mass, 1H NMR, IR, electronic spectra, molar conductance, and powder XRD. The structure of one of the ligands L5 was confirmed by a single crystal XRD analysis. The Schiff base ligand crystallized in the triclinic, space group P-1 with a = 7.032(2) Ǻ, b = 9.479(3) Ǻ, c = 12.425(4) Ǻ, α = 101.636(3)°, β = 99.633(3)°, γ = 94.040(3)°, V = 795.0(4) Ǻ3, Z = 2, F(0 0 0) = 352, Dc = 1.405 mg/m3, μ = 0.099 mm-1, R = 0.0378, and wR = 0.0967. The spectral results show that the Schiff base ligand acts as a bidentate donor coordinating through the azomethine nitrogen and the carbonyl oxygen atoms. The geometrical structures of these complexes are found to be square planar. Antimicrobial studies indicate that these complexes exhibit better activity than the ligand. The anticancer activities of the complexes have also been studied towards human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), Colon Cancer Cells (HCT116) and Epidermoid Carcinoma Cells (A431) and it was found that the [Pt(L3)Cl2] complex is more active.

  16. Monoclonal antibody GB3, a new probe for the study of human basement membranes and hemidesmosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Verrando, P.; Pisani, A.; Serieys, N.; Ortonne, J.P. ); Hsi, Baeli; Yeh, Changjing )

    1987-05-01

    A monoclonal antibody, GB3, has been raised against human amnion. Not only does GB3 bind to amniotic basement membrane, but it also recognizes an antigenic structure expressed by epidermal as well as by some other human basement membranes. This antigen is synthesized (and excreted) by cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes. It is expressed to a lesser extent by the A431 epidermoid carcinoma cell line, but is not expressed by the SV40 virus-transformed SVK14 keratinocyte cell line. In ultrastructural studies, this antigen was located in the epidermal basement membrane, both in the lamina densa and in the lamina lucida, associated with hemidesmosomes. It was identified as a protein by in vitro proteolytic cleavage studies. The radio-immunoprecipitates from cultured human keratinocytes, analyzed by SDS-PAGE, showed that GB3 recognized five polypeptides of 93.5, 125, 130, 146 and 150 kD under reducing conditions. The tissue distribution of the antigen and the molecular weights (MWs) of its constitutive polypeptides suggest that it is different from other known components of basement membranes. It may provide a biochemical marker for hemidesmosomes. Furthermore, GB3 represents an interesting and original clinical probe, since the antigenic structure recognized by GB3 is lacking in Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa, a lethal genodermatosis in which a dermo-epidermal splitting occurs at the level of lamina lucida.

  17. Laxitextines A and B, Cyathane Xylosides from the Tropical Fungus Laxitextum incrustatum.

    PubMed

    Mudalungu, Cynthia M; Richter, Christian; Wittstein, Kathrin; Abdalla, Muna Ali; Matasyoh, Josphat C; Stadler, Marc; Süssmuth, Roderich D

    2016-04-22

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the mycelial extract of a basidiomycete culture collected in Kenya led to the isolation of two new cyathane diterpenoids named laxitextines A (1) and B (2). The producer strain was characterized by detailed taxonomic studies based on rDNA using the 5.8S gene region, the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2), and part of the large subunit that identified the fungus as Laxitextum incrustatum. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. Both compounds exhibited moderate activities against Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis (DSM 10), Staphylococcus aureus (DSM 346), and methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus (DSM 1182). The two compounds also showed variable antiproliferative activities against mouse fibroblast (L929) and selected human cell lines (breast cancer MCF-7, epidermoid carcinoma A431, and umbilical vein endothelial HUVEC). The IC50 values with respect to the MCF-7 cell line for compounds 1 and 2 were 2.3 and 2.0 μM, respectively. PMID:27043217

  18. EGFR-mediated Intracellular Delivery of Pc 4 Nanoformulation for Targeted Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer: In Vitro Studies

    PubMed Central

    Master, Alyssa M.; Qi, Yizhi; Oleinick, Nancy L.; Gupta, Anirban Sen

    2011-01-01

    In photodynamic therapy (PDT), the light-activation of a photosensitizer leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species that can trigger various mechanisms of cell death. Harnessing this process within cancer cells enables minimally invasive yet targeted cancer treatment. With this rationale, here we demonstrate tumor-targeted delivery of a highly hydrophobic photosensitizer Pc 4 loaded within biocompatible PEG-PCL block-copolymer micelles. The micelles were surface-modified with EGFR-targeting GE11-peptides for active targeting of EGFR-overexpressing cancer cells, in vitro. Pc 4-loaded EGFR-targeted micelles were incubated with EGFR-overexpressing A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells for various time periods, to determine Pc 4 uptake by epifluorescence microscopy. The cells were subsequently photoirradiated and PDT-induced cell death for various incubation periods was determined by MTT assay and fluorescence Live/Dead assay. Our results indicate that active EGFR-targeting of the Pc 4-loaded micelles accelerates intracellular uptake of the drug. Consequently this enhances the PDT-induced cytotoxicity within shorter time periods. PMID:22024195

  19. Structural characterization and cytotoxic properties of a 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan from castanea sativa. 2. Evidence of a structure-activity relationship.

    PubMed

    Barbat, Aline; Gloaguen, Vincent; Moine, Charlotte; Sainte-Catherine, Odile; Kraemer, Michel; Rogniaux, Hélène; Ropartz, David; Krausz, Pierre

    2008-08-01

    Xylans were purified from delignified holocellulose alkaline extracts of Castanea sativa (Spanish chestnut) and Argania spinosa (Argan tree) and their structures analyzed by means of GC of their per-trimethylsilylated methylglycoside derivatives and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The structures deduced were characteristic of a 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan (MGX) and a homoxylan (HX), respectively, with degrees of polymerization ranging from 182 to 360. In the case of MGX, the regular or random distribution of 4-O-methylglucuronic acid along the xylosyl backbone--determined by MALDI mass spectrometry after autohydrolysis of the polysaccharide--varied and depended both on the botanical source from which they were extracted and on the xylan extraction procedure. The MGX also inhibited in different ways the proliferation as well as the migration and invasion capability of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. These biological properties could be correlated with structural features including values of the degree of polymerization, 4-O-MeGlcA to xylose ratios, and distribution of 4-O-MeGlcA along the xylosyl backbone, giving evidence of a defined structure-activity relationship. PMID:18646856

  20. Intramolecular trimerization, a novel strategy for making multispecific antibodies with controlled orientation of the antigen binding domains.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Cienfuegos, Ana; Nuñez-Prado, Natalia; Compte, Marta; Cuesta, Angel M; Blanco-Toribio, Ana; Harwood, Seandean Lykke; Villate, Maider; Merino, Nekane; Bonet, Jaume; Navarro, Rocio; Muñoz-Briones, Clara; Sørensen, Karen Marie Juul; Mølgaard, Kasper; Oliva, Baldo; Sanz, Laura; Blanco, Francisco J; Alvarez-Vallina, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe a new strategy that allows the rapid and efficient engineering of mono and multispecific trivalent antibodies. By fusing single-domain antibodies from camelid heavy-chain-only immunoglobulins (VHHs) to the N-terminus of a human collagen XVIII trimerization domain (TIE(XVIII)) we produced monospecific trimerbodies that were efficiently secreted as soluble functional proteins by mammalian cells. The purified VHH-TIE(XVIII) trimerbodies were trimeric in solution and exhibited excellent antigen binding capacity. Furthermore, by connecting with two additional glycine-serine-based linkers three VHH-TIE(XVIII) modules on a single polypeptide chain, we present an approach for the rational design of multispecific tandem trimerbodies with defined stoichiometry and controlled orientation. Using this technology we report here the construction and characterization of a tandem VHH-based trimerbody capable of simultaneously binding to three different antigens: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and green fluorescence protein (GFP). Multispecific tandem VHH-based trimerbodies were well expressed in mammalian cells, had good biophysical properties and were capable of simultaneously binding their targeted antigens. Importantly, these antibodies were very effective in inhibiting the proliferation of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Multispecific VHH-based trimerbodies are therefore ideal candidates for future applications in various therapeutic areas. PMID:27345490

  1. A highly sensitive ratiometric fluorescent probe for the detection of cytoplasmic and nuclear hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ying; Liu, Keyin; Yang, Huiran; Li, Yi; Lan, Haichuang; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Xinyu; Yi, Tao

    2014-10-01

    As a marker for oxidative stress and a second messenger in signal transduction, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) plays an important role in living systems. It is thus critical to monitor the changes in H2O2 in cells and tissues. Here, we developed a highly sensitive and versatile ratiometric H2O2 fluorescent probe (NP1) based on 1,8-naphthalimide and boric acid ester. In response to H2O2, the ratio of its fluorescent intensities at 555 and 403 nm changed 1020-fold within 200 min. The detecting limit of NP1 toward H2O2 is estimated as 0.17 μM. It was capable of imaging endogenous H2O2 generated in live RAW 264.7 macrophages as a cellular inflammation response, and especially, it was able to detect H2O2 produced as a signaling molecule in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells through stimulation by epidermal growth factor. This probe contains an azide group and thus has the potential to be linked to various molecules via the click reaction. After binding to a Nuclear Localization Signal peptide, the peptide-based combination probe (pep-NP1) was successfully targeted to nuclei and was capable of ratiometrically detecting nuclear H2O2 in living cells. These results indicated that NP1 was a highly sensitive ratiometric H2O2 dye with promising biological applications.

  2. Intramolecular trimerization, a novel strategy for making multispecific antibodies with controlled orientation of the antigen binding domains

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Cienfuegos, Ana; Nuñez-Prado, Natalia; Compte, Marta; Cuesta, Angel M.; Blanco-Toribio, Ana; Harwood, Seandean Lykke; Villate, Maider; Merino, Nekane; Bonet, Jaume; Navarro, Rocio; Muñoz-Briones, Clara; Sørensen, Karen Marie Juul; Mølgaard, Kasper; Oliva, Baldo; Sanz, Laura; Blanco, Francisco J.; Alvarez-Vallina, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe a new strategy that allows the rapid and efficient engineering of mono and multispecific trivalent antibodies. By fusing single-domain antibodies from camelid heavy-chain-only immunoglobulins (VHHs) to the N-terminus of a human collagen XVIII trimerization domain (TIEXVIII) we produced monospecific trimerbodies that were efficiently secreted as soluble functional proteins by mammalian cells. The purified VHH-TIEXVIII trimerbodies were trimeric in solution and exhibited excellent antigen binding capacity. Furthermore, by connecting with two additional glycine-serine-based linkers three VHH-TIEXVIII modules on a single polypeptide chain, we present an approach for the rational design of multispecific tandem trimerbodies with defined stoichiometry and controlled orientation. Using this technology we report here the construction and characterization of a tandem VHH-based trimerbody capable of simultaneously binding to three different antigens: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and green fluorescence protein (GFP). Multispecific tandem VHH-based trimerbodies were well expressed in mammalian cells, had good biophysical properties and were capable of simultaneously binding their targeted antigens. Importantly, these antibodies were very effective in inhibiting the proliferation of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Multispecific VHH-based trimerbodies are therefore ideal candidates for future applications in various therapeutic areas. PMID:27345490

  3. Crucial role of vinexin for keratinocyte migration in vitro and epidermal wound healing in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Kioka, Noriyuki; Ito, Takuya; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Uekawa, Natsuko; Umemoto, Tsutomu; Motoyoshi, Soh; Imai, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kenzo; Watanabe, Hideto; Yamada, Masayasu; Ueda, Kazumitsu

    2010-06-10

    In the process of tissue injury and repair, epithelial cells rapidly migrate and form epithelial sheets. Vinexin is a cytoplasmic molecule of the integrin-containing cell adhesion complex localized at focal contacts in vitro. Here, we investigated the roles of vinexin in keratinocyte migration in vitro and wound healing in vivo. Vinexin knockdown using siRNA delayed migration of both HaCaT human keratinocytes and A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells in scratch assay but did not affect cell proliferation. Induction of cell migration by scratching the confluent monolayer culture of these cells activated both EGFR and ERK, and their inhibitors AG1478 and U0126 substantially suppressed scratch-induced keratinocyte migration. Vinexin knockdown in these cells inhibited the scratch-induced activation of EGFR, but not that of ERK, suggesting that vinexin promotes cell migration via activation of EGFR. We further generated vinexin (-/-) mice and isolated their keratinocytes. They similarly showed slow migration in scratch assay. Furthermore, vinexin (-/-) mice exhibited a delay in cutaneous wound healing in both the back skin and tail without affecting the proliferation of keratinocytes. Together, these results strongly suggest a crucial role of vinexin in keratinocyte migration in vitro and cutaneous wound healing in vivo.

  4. Radiation Therapy With or Without Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Who Have Undergone Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-04

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Spindle Cell Variant; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  5. Immunohistochemical and oncogenetic analyses of the esophageal basaloid squamous cell carcinoma in comparison with conventional squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Imamhasan, Abdukadir; Mitomi, Hiroyuki; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Takuo; Takahashi, Michiko; Kajiyama, Yoshiaki; Yao, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma. We reviewed 878 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and detected 22 cases (3%) of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. These tumors and stage-matched paired conventional squamous cell carcinomas were investigated for clinicopathologic features and immunoreactivity of cytokeratin subtypes, p53, B-cell lymphoma 2 (bcl-2), β-catenin, and epidermal growth factor receptor. Molecular aberrations in p53, CTNNB1 (the gene encoding β-catenin), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were also determined. Patients with basaloid squamous cell carcinomas demonstrated a 5-year survival rate of 42%, significantly worse than those with well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (P<.01). Histologically, solid nests with central necrosis and a cribriform pattern were identified in almost all (≥95%) cases, and ductal differentiation was less frequent (45%) but associated with significantly better survival (P<.05). Compared with conventional squamous cell carcinomas, the basaloid squamous cell carcinomas were less immunoreactive for cytokeratin 14, cytokeratin 903, and membranous β-catenin (P<.01-.001) but more reactive for bcl-2, nuclear β-catenin, epidermal growth factor receptor, and Ki-67 (P<.05-.001). Direct sequencing showed mutations of p53 (36%), EGFR (14%), but not CTNNB1; fluorescent in situ hybridization detected amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (22%). In basaloid squamous cell carcinomas, low-level expression of cytokeratin 14/cytokeratin 903 and mutations of p53 and EGFR had a significant influence on worse survival (P<.05-.001). We conclude that the esophageal basaloid squamous cell carcinoma, a neoplasm with particularly aggressive biologic behavior, should be differentiated from conventional squamous cell carcinomas. In this context, immunohistochemical assessment of several markers might provide a useful adjunct diagnostic tool

  6. High-grade endometrial carcinoma: serous and grade 3 endometrioid carcinomas have different immunophenotypes and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Alkushi, Abdulmohsen; Köbel, Martin; Kalloger, Steve E; Gilks, C Blake

    2010-07-01

    High-grade endometrial carcinomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors and include grade 3 endometrioid (EC-3), serous (SC), and clear cell carcinomas (CCC). There are conflicting data about the prognosis of these subtypes of high-grade endometrial carcinoma; this may be a result of lack of reproducibility in classifying tumor cell type. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in immunophenotype and outcome in a series of high-grade endometrial carcinomas, focusing on the comparison of EC-3 versus SC. We selected 180 endometrial carcinomas of SC, EC, or CCC type. No mixed carcinomas were included in the study. We chose the following immunohistochemical markers, estrogen receptor (ER), insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP3), p16, p53, progesterone receptor (PR), and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) as being significantly differentially expressed in endometrial carcinoma subtypes. The tumors were stratified into 4 groups on the basis of their cell type and grade: EC grade 1 or 2, EC-3, SC, and CCC. Univariate survival analysis revealed significant differences in outcome between the 4 groups (P<0.0001), with significantly longer disease-specific survival for grade 1 or 2 EC versus EC-3 (P=0.0001), and EC-3 versus SC (P=0.0003). p16, PTEN, and IMP3 expression was observed more frequently in SC compared with EC-3 (P<0.0001, P=0.021, and P=0.031, respectively). These 3 markers showed the highest sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing between EC-3 and SC, with receiver operating characteristics area under the curve of 0.85, 0.69, and 0.71, respectively. ER and p53 approached but did not reach significance for differential expression in EC-3 versus SC (P=0.055 and P=0.068, respectively). A combination of p16 and PTEN predicts EC-3 versus SC with a sensitivity of 90.0% and specificity of 96.8%. p16 and PTEN can aid in distinguishing between EC-3 and SC of the endometrium, and are superior to ER, PR, and p53 for this purpose. EC-3

  7. 77 FR 24959 - Scientific Information Request on Local Therapies for Unresectable Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Therapies for Unresectable Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and... local, minimally invasive, medical devices for unresectable primary hepatocellular carcinoma (e.g... Comparative Effectiveness Review of Local Therapies for Unresectable Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma,...

  8. Immunotherapy With MK-3475 in Surgically Resectable Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-18

    Cancer of Head and Neck; Head and Neck Cancer; Neoplasms, Head and Neck; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell of Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Head and Neck

  9. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the buccal region is composed of salivary duct carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma components.

    PubMed

    Nakamori, K; Ohuchi, T; Hasegawa, T; Hiratsuka, H

    2009-10-01

    A 73-year-old female presented with an asymptomatic mass in the left buccal region that she had first noticed 4 years earlier. The tumor, which was located in the buccal space, was clinically diagnosed as a salivary gland tumor and treated by excision. Histopathological examination revealed a capsule of connective tissue consisting of three different histopathological neoplastic areas in a large, fibrous, hyalinizing stromal background. The neoplastic lesion contained two malignant and one benign element, with histological characteristics consistent with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) and pleomorphic adenoma (PA). The SCC nests showed no continuity with the buccal mucosa. Both the SCC and SDC nests were surrounded by non-atypical myoepithelial cells, suggesting that both components may have developed from transformation of metaplastic luminal epithelial cells of PA. The tumor was diagnosed as a non-invasive carcinoma (SCC and SDC) ex pleomorphic adenoma (Ca-ex-PA). There was no evidence of recurrence 16 months after operation.

  10. The roles of tumor- and metastasis-promoting carcinoma-associated fibroblasts in human carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Mezawa, Yoshihiro; Orimo, Akira

    2016-09-01

    Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) constitute a substantial proportion of the non-neoplastic mesenchymal cell compartment in various human tumors. These fibroblasts are phenotypically converted from their progenitors via interactions with nearby cancer cells during the course of tumor progression. The resulting CAFs, in turn, support the growth and progression of carcinoma cells. These fibroblasts have a major influence on the hallmarks of carcinoma and promote tumor malignancy through the secretion of tumor-promoting growth factors, cytokines and exosomes, as well as through the remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Coevolution of CAFs and carcinoma cells during tumorigenesis is therefore essential for progression into fully malignant tumors. Recent studies have revealed the molecular mechanisms underlying CAF functions, especially in tumor invasion, metastasis and drug resistance and have highlighted the significant heterogeneity among these cells. In this review, we summarize the impacts of recently identified roles of tumor-promoting CAFs and discuss the therapeutic implications of targeting the heterotypic interactions of these fibroblasts with carcinoma cells. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27506216

  11. Mandibular Destruction Secondary to Invasion by Carcinoma Cuniculatum.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Michael C; Wong, Brian; O'Brien, Michael J; Salama, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    Carcinoma cuniculatum is a rare form of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma that is often misdiagnosed. It has a propensity for local invasion and rarely metastasizes. Oral carcinoma cuniculatum is exceedingly rare, with very few reported cases in the English-language literature. Classically, its presentation mimics osteomyelitis or a dental abscess, resulting in misdiagnosis, multiple biopsy examinations, and procedures before a final diagnosis of carcinoma cuniculatum. This case report describes the case of a 71-year-old woman who was referred to the authors' clinic for evaluation of persistent pain and swelling of the mandible. Multiple biopsy examinations were negative for malignancy, and the patient was misdiagnosed with osteomyelitis and dental abscess before obtaining an accurate diagnosis of carcinoma cuniculatum. The aim of this report is to provide a thorough clinical and histopathologic report of carcinoma cuniculatum of the mandible, provide a brief review of the literature, and highlight the difficulties in arriving at this uncommon diagnosis.

  12. Clinical, epidemiological and histopathological prognostic factors in oral squamous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dragomir, L P; Simionescu, Cristiana; Dăguci, Luminiţa; Searpe, Monica; Dragomir, Manuela

    2010-10-01

    The study that was carried out was comprised of 117 cases of oral squamous carcinomas, selected in two years interval, between 2007-2008. The tumors were diagnosed especially at patients between the ages of 50 and 79 years, 96,6% being over 40 years old. It came out a clear predominance of the male sex in approximatively 90% of the cases. The main localisation was the lower lip and the tongue ( 67,5% ), in approximatively equal proportions ( 35% and 32,5% ). The histopathologically analisys releaved that 37,6% were well differentiated squamous carcinomas, 27,4% were moderately differentiated squamous carcinomas and 35% were poorly differentiated squamous carcinomas. Out of these 3,3% were microcarcinomas, 91,9% were non-metastatic invasive carcinomas and 4,8% were invasive carcinomas with metastatic adenopathy. PMID:24778830

  13. Carcinoma of the Breast With Medullary-like Features

    PubMed Central

    Kleer, Celina G.

    2016-01-01

    This case presentation reviews the histologic distinction between pure medullary carcinoma and breast carcinomas with medullary-like features. This particular case prompts us to analyze the relationship among medullary carcinoma, basal-like breast carcinomas and carcinomas associated with germline BRCA1 mutations. In addition to now well-defined features, such as expression of high-molecular-weight cytokeratins and EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), basal-like tumors have a deficiency or dysfunction of BRCA1. This association in part explains the histologic features of BRCA1-associated breast cancers. Recent studies in our laboratory demonstrate that BRCA1 protein is regulated by a recently described gene, EZH2. These concepts illustrate the important relationships among histopathologic features; genomic profile; single gene abnormalities, such as BRCA1 and EZH2; and growth regulation in this subset of breast carcinomas. PMID:19886718

  14. Clinical, Epidemiological And Histopathological Prognostic Factors In Oral Squamous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dragomir, L.P.; Simionescu, Cristiana; Dăguci, Luminiţa; Şearpe, Monica; Dragomir, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    The study that was carried out was comprised of 117 cases of oral squamous carcinomas, selected in two years interval, between 2007-2008. The tumors were diagnosed especially at patients between the ages of 50 and 79 years, 96,6% being over 40 years old. It came out a clear predominance of the male sex in approximatively 90% of the cases. The main localisation was the lower lip and the tongue ( 67,5% ), in approximatively equal proportions ( 35% and 32,5% ). The histopathologically analisys releaved that 37,6% were well differentiated squamous carcinomas, 27,4% were moderately differentiated squamous carcinomas and 35% were poorly differentiated squamous carcinomas. Out of these 3,3% were microcarcinomas, 91,9% were non-metastatic invasive carcinomas and 4,8% were invasive carcinomas with metastatic adenopathy. PMID:24778830

  15. Medullary carcinoma of the breast: a tumour lacking keratin 19.

    PubMed

    Larsimont, D; Lespagnard, L; Degeyter, M; Heimann, R

    1994-06-01

    The presence of keratin 19 (K19) was searched for by immunostaining in 16 medullary carcinomas, comprising 12 typical and four atypical cases, in 29 undifferentiated high-grade carcinomas (NOS-HG) with conspicuous lymphoid response and in 12 well differentiated low-grade carcinomas (NOS-LG). The medullary carcinomas were all negative whereas 23 of the high-grade and all 12 low-grade carcinomas expressed K19. Staining for K19 could be of value in the differential diagnosis of these tumours. Furthermore, these findings, with other observations, raise the possibility that medullary carcinoma cells could be linked to precursor cells of the terminal duct lobular units because both populations share several characteristics. PMID:7520414

  16. Safety and Tolerability of Everolimus as Second-line Treatment in Poorly Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma / Neuroendocrine Carcinoma G3 (WHO 2010) and Neuroendocrine Tumor G3 - an Investigator Initiated Phase II Study

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-18

    Poorly Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma,; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 3; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 1 [Well-differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma] That Switched to G3; Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Grade 2 [Moderately Differentiated Neuroendocrine Carcinoma] That Switched to G3; Neuroendocrine Tumor, Grade 3 and Disease Progression as Measured by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST 1.1.)

  17. Carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland consisting of high-grade salivary duct carcinoma and keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Magaki, Shino D; Bhuta, Sunita; Abemayor, Elliot; Nabili, Vishad; Sepahdari, Ali R; Lai, Chi K

    2015-09-01

    Carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) is a rare salivary gland malignancy that presents diagnostic difficulties partly because of its wide range of histologic presentations. We report a case of a 77-year-old man, who presented with a 6-year history of a parotid mass that had undergone rapid growth within weeks. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an infiltrative mass in the parotid gland, and the fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy result was highly suspicious for carcinoma. Subsequent excision of the tumor demonstrated a poorly differentiated epithelial neoplasm consisting of keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma with regions of both ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive salivary duct carcinoma (SDC). Only focal areas exhibited a benign pleomorphic adenoma component. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a CXPA that consists of both a high-grade SDC and a keratinizing SCC in the parotid gland.

  18. Pulmonar collision tumor: metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Blanco, M; García-Fontán, E; Ríos, J; Rivo, J E; Fernández-Martín, R; Cañizares, M A

    2012-01-01

    We report an extraordinary case of collision tumor consisting of a lung adenocarcinoma and a metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma in a 56 year-old man. He was diagnosed with a pulmonary nodule 11 years after treatment of an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the right maxillary sinus. A non-small cell carcinoma was observed when a transbronchial biopsy was performed. The other component of the nodule was only diagnosed with pathological examination of the resection specimen. PMID:21802893

  19. Pulmonar collision tumor: metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Blanco, M; García-Fontán, E; Ríos, J; Rivo, J E; Fernández-Martín, R; Cañizares, M A

    2012-01-01

    We report an extraordinary case of collision tumor consisting of a lung adenocarcinoma and a metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma in a 56 year-old man. He was diagnosed with a pulmonary nodule 11 years after treatment of an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the right maxillary sinus. A non-small cell carcinoma was observed when a transbronchial biopsy was performed. The other component of the nodule was only diagnosed with pathological examination of the resection specimen.

  20. Aggressive Metaplastic Carcinoma of the Breast with Osteoclastic Giant Cells.

    PubMed

    Khong, Kathleen; Zhang, Yanhong; Tomic, Mary; Lindfors, Karen; Aminololama-Shakeri, Shadi

    2015-09-01

    Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast is an uncommon type of malignancy that is aggressive but can mimic other benign breast neoplastic processes on imaging. We present a case of a young female patient who presented with a rapidly progressing metaplastic carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells subtype. There have been only very rare published reports of this pathologic subtype of metaplastic carcinoma containing osteoclastic giant cells.