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Sample records for a431 human epidermoid

  1. The growth of human fibroblasts and A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells on gamma-irradiated human amnion collagen substrata.

    PubMed

    Liu, B; Harrell, R; Lamb, D J; Dresden, M H; Spira, M

    1989-10-15

    Human fibroblasts and A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells were cultured on gamma-irradiated human amnion collagen as well as on plastic dishes and non-irradiated collagen coated dishes. The morphology, attachment, growth and short-term cytotoxicity of these culture conditions have been determined. Both irradiated and non-irradiated amnion collagen enhanced the attachment and proliferation of fibroblasts as compared to the plastic dishes. No differences in these properties were observed for A431 cells cultured on irradiated collagen when compared with culture on non-irradiated collagen substrates. Cytotoxicity assays showed that irradiated and non-irradiated collagens were not cytotoxic for either fibroblasts or A431 cells. The results demonstrated that amnion collagen irradiated at doses of 0.25-2.0 Mrads is optimal for cell growth.

  2. Purification of high-molecular-weight subfraction from porcine skin inhibiting proliferation of A431 human carcinoma epidermoid cells.

    PubMed

    Belova, O V; Sergienko, V I; Arion, V Ya; Lukanidina, T A; Moskvina, S N; Zimina, I V; Borisenko, G G; Lutsenko, G V; Grechikhina, M V; Kovaleva, E V; Klyuchnikova, Zh I

    2014-07-01

    Subfraction with a molecular weight >250 kDa isolated from porcine skin and inhibiting the proliferation of A431 human carcinoma epidermoid cells was purified by DEAE 32 anion exchange chromatography with NaCl concentration step-gradient. The effects of the initial subfraction and fractions obtained by separation in DEAE 32 on the proliferation of A431 human carcinoma epidermoid cells were studied in vitro in two tests (MTT and fluorescent test). The more sensitive fluorescent test showed the highest inhibitory activity of fraction No. 2 released from the column at 0.15 M NaCl. One major protein component and a series of minor protein components were detected in this fraction by vertical PAAG-SDS electrophoresis.

  3. Anticancer effects of cantharidin in A431 human skin cancer (Epidermoid carcinoma) cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Chi-Chuan; Yu, Fu-Shun; Fan, Ming-Jen; Chen, Ya-Yin; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Chou, Yu-Cheng; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Tang, Nou-Ying; Peng, Shu-Fen; Huang, Wen-Wen; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2017-03-01

    Cantharidin (CTD), a potential anticancer agent of Traditional Chinese Medicine has cytotxic effects in different human cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic effects of CTD on A431 human skin cancer (epidermoid carcinoma) cells in vitro and in A431 cell xenograft mouse model were examined. In vitro, A431 human skin cell were treated with CTD for 24 and 48 h. Cell phase distribution, ROS production, Ca 2+ release, Caspase activity and the level of apoptosis associated proteins were measured. In vivo, A431 cell xenograft mouse model were examined. CTD-induced cell morphological changes and decreased percentage of viable A431 cells via G0/G1 phase arrest and induced apoptosis. CTD-induced G0/G1 phase arrest through the reduction of protein levels of cyclin E, CDK6, and cyclin D in A431 cells. CTD-induced cell apoptosis of A431 cells also was confirm by DNA gel electrophoresis showed CTD-induced DNA fragmentation. CTD reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential and stimulated release of cytochrome c, AIF and Endo G in A431 cells. Flow cytometry demonstrated that CTD increased activity of caspase-8, -9 and -3. However, when cells were pretreated with specific caspase inhibitors activity was reduced and cell viability increased. CTD increased protein levels of death receptors such as DR4, DR5, TRAIL and levels of the active form of caspase-8, -9 and -3 in A431 cells. AIF and Endo G proteins levels were also enhanced by CTD. In vivo studies showed that CTD significantly inhibited A431 cell xenograft tumors in mice. Taken together, these in vitro and in vivo results provide insight into the mechanisms of CTD on cell growth and tumor production. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 723-738, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Toxicity of dimethylmonothioarsinic acid toward human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Naranmandura, Hua; Ibata, Kenji; Suzuki, Kazuo T

    2007-08-01

    Chronic ingestion of arsenic-contaminated drinking water induces skin lesions and urinary bladder cancer in humans. It is now recognized that thioarsenicals such as dimethylmonothioarsinic acid (DMMTA (V)) are commonly excreted in the urine of humans and animals and that the production of DMMTA (V) may be a risk factor for the development of the diseases caused by arsenic. The toxicity of DMMTA (V) was compared with that of related nonthiolated arsenicals with respect to cell viability, uptake ability, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cell cycle progression of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells, arsenate (iAs (V)), arsenite (iAs (III)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA (V)), and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA (III)) being used as reference nonthiolated arsenicals. DMMTA (V) (LC 50 = 10.7 microM) was shown to be much more cytotoxic than iAs (V) (LC 50 = 571 microM) and DMA (V) (LC 50 = 843 microM), and its potency was shown to be close to that of trivalent arsenicals iAs (III) (LC 50 = 5.49 microM) and DMA (III) (LC 50 = 2.16 microM). The greater cytotoxicity of DMMTA (V) was associated with greater cellular uptake and distribution, and the level of intracellular ROS remarkably increased in A431 cells upon exposure to DMMTA (V) compared to that after exposure to other trivalent arsenicals at the respective LC 50. Exposure of DMMTA (V) to cells for 24 h induced cell cycle perturbation. Namely, the percentage of cells residing in S and G2/M phases increased from 10.2 and 15.6% to 46.5 and 20.8%, respectively. These results suggest that although DMMTA (V) is a pentavalent arsenical, it is taken up efficiently by cells and causes various levels of toxicity, in a manner different from that of nonthiolated pentavalent arsenicals, demonstrating that DMMTA (V) is one of the most toxic arsenic metabolites. The high cytotoxicity of DMMTA (V) was explained and/or proposed by (1) efficient uptake by cells followed by (2) its transformation to DMA (V), (3) producing ROS

  5. Flurbiprofen benzyl nitrate (NBS-242) inhibits the growth of A-431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells and targets β-catenin.

    PubMed

    Nath, Niharika; Liu, Xiaoping; Jacobs, Lloydine; Kashfi, Khosrow

    2013-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin/T cell factor (TCF) signaling pathway is important in the development of nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). Nitric-oxide-releasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NO-NSAIDs) are chemopreventive agents consisting of a traditional NSAID attached to an NO-releasing moiety through a chemical spacer. Previously we showed that an aromatic spacer enhanced the potency of a particular NO-NSAID compared to an aliphatic spacer. We synthesized an NO-releasing NSAID with an aromatic spacer (flurbiprofen benzyl nitrate, NBS-242), and using the human skin cancer cell line A-431, we evaluated its effects on cell kinetics, Wnt/β-catenin, cyclin D1, and caspase-3. NBS-242 inhibited the growth of A-431 cancer cells, being ~15-fold more potent than flurbiprofen and up to 5-fold more potent than NO-flurbiprofen with an aliphatic spacer, the half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for growth inhibition being 60 ± 4 μM, 320 ± 20 μM, and 880 ± 65 μM for NBS-242, NO-flurbiprofen, and flurbiprofen, respectively. This effect was associated with inhibition of proliferation, accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, and an increase in apoptotic cell population. NBS-242 cleaved β-catenin both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of A-431 cells. NBS-242 activated caspase-3 whose activation was reflected in the cleavage of procaspase-3. To test the functional consequence of β-catenin cleavage, we determined the expression of cyclin D1, a Wnt-response gene. NBS-242 reduced cyclin D1 levels in a concentration dependent manner. These findings establish a strong inhibitory effect of NBS-242 in A-431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. NBS-242 modulates parameters that are important in determining cellular mass.

  6. Regulation of apoptosis by resveratrol through JAK/STAT and mitochondria mediated pathway in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Madan, Esha; Prasad, Sahdeo; Roy, Preeti

    2008-12-26

    Resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenolic phytoalexin present mainly in grapes, red wine and berries, is known to possess strong chemopreventive and anticancer properties. Here, we demonstrated the anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities of resveratrol in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Resveratrol has cytotoxic effects through inhibiting cellular proliferation of A431 cells, which leads to the induction of apoptosis, as evident by an increase in the fraction of cells in the sub-G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle and Annexin-V binding of externalized phosphatidylserine. Results revealed that inhibition of proliferation is associated with regulation of the JAK/STAT pathway, where resveratrol prevents phosphorylation ofmore » JAK, thereby inhibiting STAT1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, resveratrol treatment actively stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Consequently, an imbalance in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio triggered the caspase cascade and subsequent cleavage of PARP, thereby shifting the balance in favor of apoptosis. These observations indicate that resveratrol treatment inhibits JAK/STAT-mediated gene transcription and induce the mitochondrial cell death pathway.« less

  7. Fisetin inhibits growth, induces G2/M arrest and apoptosis of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells: Role of mitochondrial membrane potential disruption and consequent caspases activation

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Harish C.; Sharma, Samriti; Elmets, Craig A.; Athar, Mohammad; Afaq, Farrukh

    2013-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) one of the most common neoplasms causes serious morbidity and mortality. Therefore, identification of non-toxic phytochemicals for prevention/treatment of NMSCs is highly desirable. Fisetin (3,3′,4′,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), a dietary flavonoid, present in fruits and vegetables possesses anti-oxidant and anti-proliferative properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemotherapeutic potential of fisetin in cultured human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Treatment of A431 cells with fistein (5-80 μM) resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Employing clonogenic assay, we found that fisetin treatment significantly reduced colony formation in A431 cells. Fisetin treatment of A431 cells resulted in G2/M arrest and induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, treatment of A431 cells with fisetin resulted in (i) decreased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl2, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1), (ii) increased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, Bak and Bad), (iii) disruption of mitochondrial potential, (iv) release of cytchrome c and Smac/DIABLO from mitochondria, (v) activation of caspases, and (vi) cleavage of PARP protein. Pretreatment of A431 cells with the pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) blocked fisetin-induced cleavage of caspases and PARP. Taken together, these data provide evidence that fisetin possesses chemotherapeutic potential against human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Overall, these results suggest that fisetin could be developed as a novel therapeutic agent for the management of NMSCs. PMID:23800058

  8. Resveratrol enhances ultraviolet B-induced cell death through nuclear factor-{kappa}B pathway in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Preeti; Kalra, Neetu; Nigam, Nidhi

    Resveratrol has been reported to suppress cancer progression in several in vivo and in vitro models, whereas ultraviolet B (UVB), a major risk for skin cancer, is known to induce cell death in cancerous cells. Here, we investigated whether resveratrol can sensitize A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells to UVB-induced cell death. We examined the combined effect of UVB (30 mJ/cm{sup 2}) and resveratrol (60 {mu}M) on A431 cells. Exposure of A431 carcinoma cells to UVB radiation or resveratrol can inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. However, the combination of resveratrol and UVB exposure was associated with increased proliferation inhibition ofmore » A431 cells compared with either agent alone. Furthermore, results showed that resveratrol and UVB treatment of A431 cells disrupted the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-{kappa}B) pathway by blocking phosphorylation of serine 536 and inactivating NF-{kappa}B and subsequent degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, which regulates the expression of survivin. Resveratrol and UVB treatment also decreased the phosphorylation of tyrosine 701 of the important transcription factor signal transducer activator of transcription (STAT1), which in turn inhibited translocation of phospho-STAT1 to the nucleus. Moreover, resveratrol/UVB also inhibited the metastatic protein LIMK1, which reduced the motility of A431 cells. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the combination of resveratrol and UVB act synergistically against skin cancer cells. Thus, resveratrol is a potential chemotherapeutic agent against skin carcinogenesis.« less

  9. Induction of apoptosis by lupeol in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells through regulation of mitochondrial, Akt/PKB and NFkappaB signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Madan, Esha; Nigam, Nidhi; Roy, Preeti; George, Jasmine; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2009-09-01

    The rising incidence of skin cancer in humans makes it equivalent to malignancies of organs. Therefore, it is necessary to intensify our efforts for better understanding and development of novel treatment and preventive approaches for skin cancer. Fruits and other plant derived products have gained considerable attention as they can reduce the risk of several cancer types. Lupeol, a triterpene, present in many fruits and medicinal plants, has been shown to possess many pharmacological properties including anti-cancer effect in both in vitro and in vivo assay systems. In the present study, apoptosis inducing effects of lupeol were studied in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Cell cycle analysis showed that lupeol treatment induces apoptosis (14-37%) in a dose-dependent manner as evident by an increased sub G(1) cell population. The RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that lupeol-induced apoptosis was associated with caspase dependent mitochondrial cell death pathway through activation of Bax, caspases, Apaf1, decrease in Bcl-2 expression and subsequent cleavage of PARP. Lupeol treatment also inhibited Akt/PKB signaling pathway by inhibition of Bad (Ser136) phosphorylation and 14-3-3 expression. In addition, lupeol treatment inhibited cell survival by inactivation of NFkappaB through upregulation of its inhibitor Ikappabetaalpha. The Caspase mediated apoptosis was noticed by decrease in lupeol induced apoptosis by Caspase inhibitors as well as increase in reactive oxygen species generation and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. These results suggest that lupeol could be an effective anti-cancer agent and merits further investigation.

  10. Bromelain inhibits nuclear factor kappa-B translocation, driving human epidermoid carcinoma A431 and melanoma A375 cells through G(2)/M arrest to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bhui, Kulpreet; Tyagi, Shilpa; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Singh, Madhulika; Roy, Preeti; Singh, Richa; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2012-03-01

    Bromelain, obtained from pineapple, is already in use clinically as adjunct in chemotherapy. Our objective was to test its ability to act as a sole anti-cancer agent. Therefore, we describe its anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and subsequent anti-cancer effects in vitro, against human epidermoid carcinoma-A431 and melanoma-A375 cells. Bromelain exhibited reduction in proliferation of both these cell-lines and suppressed their potential for anchorage-independent growth. Further, suppression of inflammatory signaling by bromelain was evident by inhibition of Akt regulated-nuclear factor-kappaB activation via suppression of inhibitory-kappaBα phosphorylation and concomitant reduction in cyclooxygenase-2. Since, the inflammatory cascade is well-known to be closely allied to cancer; we studied the effect of bromelain on events/molecules central to it. Bromelain caused depletion of intracellular glutathione and generation of reactive oxygen-species followed by mitochondrial membrane depolarization. This led to bromelain-induced cell-cycle arrest at G(2)/M phase which was mediated by modulation of cyclin B1, phospho-cdc25C, Plk1, phospho-cdc2, and myt1. This was subsequently followed by induction of apoptosis, indicated by membrane-blebbing, modulation of Bax-Bcl-2 ratio, Apaf-1, caspase-9, and caspase-3; chromatin-condensation, increase in caspase-activity and DNA-fragmentation. Bromelain afforded substantial anti-cancer potential in these settings; hence we suggest it as a potential prospect for anti-cancer agent besides only an additive in chemotherapy. Copyright ©2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Alpha-santalol, a chemopreventive agent against skin cancer, causes G2/M cell cycle arrest in both p53-mutated human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells and p53 wild-type human melanoma UACC-62 cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background α-Santalol, an active component of sandalwood oil, has shown chemopreventive effects on skin cancer in different murine models. However, effects of α-santalol on cell cycle have not been studied. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate effects of α-santalol on cell cycle progression in both p53 mutated human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells and p53 wild-type human melanoma UACC-62 cells to elucidate the mechanism(s) of action. Methods MTT assay was used to determine cell viability in A431 cells and UACC-62; fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of propidium iodide staining was used for determining cell cycle distribution in A431 cells and UACC-62 cells; immunoblotting was used for determining the expression of various proteins and protein complexes involved in the cell cycle progression; siRNA were used to knockdown of p21 or p53 in A431 and UACC-62 cells and immunofluorescence microscopy was used to investigate microtubules in UACC-62 cells. Results α-Santalol at 50-100 μM decreased cell viability from 24 h treatment and α-santalol at 50 μM-75 μM induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest from 6 h treatment in both A431 and UACC-62 cells. α-Santalol altered expressions of cell cycle proteins such as cyclin A, cyclin B1, Cdc2, Cdc25c, p-Cdc25c and Cdk2. All of these proteins are critical for G2/M transition. α-Santalol treatment up-regulated the expression of p21 and suppressed expressions of mutated p53 in A431 cells; whereas, α-santalol treatment increased expressions of wild-type p53 in UACC-62 cells. Knockdown of p21 in A431 cells, knockdown of p21 and p53 in UACC-62 cells did not affect cell cycle arrest caused by α-santalol. Furthermore, α-santalol caused depolymerization of microtubules similar to vinblastine in UACC-62 cells. Conclusions This study for the first time identifies effects of α-santalol in G2/M phase arrest and describes detailed mechanisms of G2/M phase arrest by this agent, which might be

  12. Interference of silibinin with IGF-1R signalling pathways protects human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells from UVB-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Weiwei; Otkur, Wuxiyar; Li, Lingzhi

    Highlights: ► Silibinin protects A431 cells from UVB irradiation-induced apoptosis. ► Up-regulation of the IGF-1R-JNK/ERK pathways by UVB induces cell apoptosis. ► Silibinin inhibits IGF-1R pathways to repress caspase-8-mediated apoptosis. -- Abstract: Ultraviolet B (UVB) from sunlight is a major cause of cutaneous lesion. Silibinin, a traditional hepatic protectant, elicits protective effects against UVB-induced cellular damage. In A431 cells, the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) was markedly up-regulated by UVB irradiation. The activation of the IGF-1R signalling pathways contributed to apoptosis of the cells rather than rescuing the cells from death. Up-regulated IGF-1R stimulated downstream mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), suchmore » as c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). The subsequent activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 led to apoptosis. The activation of IGF-1R signalling pathways is the cause of A431 cell death. The pharmacological inhibitors and the small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting IGF-1R suppressed the downstream activation of JNK/ERK-caspases to help the survival of the UVB-irradiated A431 cells. Indeed, silibinin treatment suppressed the IGF-1R-JNK/ERK pathways and thus protected the cells from UVB-induced apoptosis.« less

  13. A green approach toward quinoxalines and bis-quinoxalines and their biological evaluation against A431, human skin cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Debasish; Cruz, Jessica; Morales, Liza D; Arman, Hadi D; Cuate, Erica; Lee, Young S; Banik, Bimal K; Kim, Dae J

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a practical green procedure to synthesize quinoxalines and bis-quinoxalines and evaluate their inhibitory effects on the viability of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. A series of quinoxaline and bis-quinoxaline derivatives have been designed and synthesized following a microwave-assisted and bismuth nitrate-catalyzed eco-friendly route. A detailed comparison has been made between microwave-induced protocol with the reactions occurred at room temperature. The structure of the compounds have been elucidated by various spectroscopic methods and finally confirmed by x-ray crystallographic analyses. Two quinoxaline derivatives, compounds 6 and 12 have demonstrated inhibitory effects on the viability of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells when compared with HaCaT nontumorigenic human keratinocyte cells. Notably, compound 6 inhibits Stat3 phosphorylation/activation in A431 skin cancer cells.

  14. Identification of specific gravity sensitive signal transduction pathways in human A431 carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijken, P. J.; de Groot, R. P.; Kruijer, W.; de Laat, S. W.; Verkleij, A. J.; Boonstra, J.

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) activates a well characterized signal transduction cascade in human A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells. The influence of gravity on EGF-induced EGF-receptor clustering and early gene expression as well as on actin polymerization and actin organization have been investigated. Different signalling pathways induced by the agents TPA, forskolin and A23187 that activate gene expression were tested for sensitivity to gravity. EGF-induced c-fos and c-jun expression were decreased in microgravity. However, constitutive β-2 microglobulin expression remained unaltered. Under simulated weightlessness conditions EGF- and TPA-induced c-fos expression was decreased, while forskolin- and A23187-induced c-fos expression was independent of the gravity conditions. These results suggest that gravity affects specific signalling pathways. Preliminary results indicate that EGF-induced EGF-receptor clustering remained unaltered irrespective of the gravity conditions. Furthermore, the relative filamentous actin content of steady state A431 cells was enhanced under microgravity conditions and actin filament organization was altered. Under simulated weightlessness actin filament organization in steady state cells as well as in EGF-treated cells was altered as compared to the 1 G reference experiment. Interestingly the microtubule and keratin organization in untreated cells showed no difference with the normal gravity samples. This indicates that gravity may affect specific components of the signal transduction circuitry.

  15. Biologically synthesised silver nanoparticles from three diverse family of plant extracts and their anticancer activity against epidermoid A431 carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Debasis; Pradhan, Sonali; Ashe, Sarbani; Rauta, Pradipta Ranjan; Nayak, Bismita

    2015-11-01

    Biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles is a cost effective natural process where the phytochemicals specifically phenols, flavonoids and terpenoids present in the plant extracts act as capping and reducing agent. Due to their nano size regime the silver nanoparticles may directly bind to the DNA of the pathogenic bacterial strains leading to higher antimicrobial activity. In the current study silver nanoparticles were synthesised using plant extracts from different origin Cucurbita maxima (petals), Moringa oleifera (leaves) and Acorus calamus (rhizome). The synthesised nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (Fe-SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Highly crystalline, roughly spherical and cuboidal silver nanoparticles of 30-70 nm in size were synthesised. The nanoparticles provided strong antimicrobial activity against pathogenic strains. The effect of the synthesised nanoparticles against A431 skin cancer cell line was tested for their toxicity by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye. The IC50 values of 82.39±3.1, 83.57±3.9 and 78.58±2.7 μg/ml were calculated for silver nanoparticles synthesised by C. maxima, M. oleifera and A. calamus respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Induction of Apoptosis and Antiproliferative Activity of Naringenin in Human Epidermoid Carcinoma Cell through ROS Generation and Cell Cycle Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Jafri, Asif; Ahmad, Sheeba; Afzal, Mohammad; Arshad, Md

    2014-01-01

    A natural predominant flavanone naringenin, especially abundant in citrus fruits, has a wide range of pharmacological activities. The search for antiproliferative agents that reduce skin carcinoma is a task of great importance. The objective of this study was to analyze the anti-proliferative and apoptotic mechanism of naringenin using MTT assay, DNA fragmentation, nuclear condensation, change in mitochondrial membrane potential, cell cycle kinetics and caspase-3 as biomarkers and to investigate the ability to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) initiating apoptotic cascade in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Results showed that naringenin exposure significantly reduced the cell viability of A431 cells (p<0.01) with a concomitant increase in nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation in a dose dependent manner. The intracellular ROS generation assay showed statistically significant (p<0.001) dose-related increment in ROS production for naringenin. It also caused naringenin-mediated epidermoid carcinoma apoptosis by inducing mitochondrial depolarization. Cell cycle study showed that naringenin induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase of cell cycle and caspase-3 analysis revealed a dose dependent increment in caspase-3 activity which led to cell apoptosis. This study confirms the efficacy of naringenin that lead to cell death in epidermoid carcinoma cells via inducing ROS generation, mitochondrial depolarization, nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and caspase-3 activation. PMID:25330158

  17. ALA-PpIX variability quantitatively imaged in A431 epidermoid tumors using in vivo ultrasound fluorescence tomography and ex vivo assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DSouza, Alisha V.; Flynn, Brendan P.; Gunn, Jason R.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Anand, Sanjay; Maytin, Edward V.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2014-03-01

    Treatment monitoring of Aminolevunilic-acid (ALA) - Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) of basal-cell carcinoma (BCC) calls for superficial and subsurface imaging techniques. While superficial imagers exist for this purpose, their ability to assess PpIX levels in thick lesions is poor; additionally few treatment centers have the capability to measure ALA-induced PpIX production. An area of active research is to improve treatments to deeper and nodular BCCs, because treatment is least effective in these. The goal of this work was to understand the logistics and technical capabilities to quantify PpIX at depths over 1mm, using a novel hybrid ultrasound-guided, fiber-based fluorescence molecular spectroscopictomography system. This system utilizes a 633nm excitation laser and detection using filtered spectrometers. Source and detection fibers are collinear so that their imaging plane matches that of ultrasound transducer. Validation with phantoms and tumor-simulating fluorescent inclusions in mice showed sensitivity to fluorophore concentrations as low as 0.025μg/ml at 4mm depth from surface, as presented in previous years. Image-guided quantification of ALA-induced PpIX production was completed in subcutaneous xenograft epidermoid cancer tumor model A431 in nude mice. A total of 32 animals were imaged in-vivo, using several time points, including pre-ALA, 4-hours post-ALA, and 24-hours post-ALA administration. On average, PpIX production in tumors increased by over 10-fold, 4-hours post-ALA. Statistical analysis of PpIX fluorescence showed significant difference among all groups; p<0.05. Results were validated by exvivo imaging of resected tumors. Details of imaging, analysis and results will be presented to illustrate variability and the potential for imaging these values at depth.

  18. Vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor attenuates epidermoid squamous cell carcinoma growth by dampening mTOR signaling pathway in a human xenograft murine model

    SciTech Connect

    Kurundkar, Deepali; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Chaudhary, Sandeep C.

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are potent anticancer agents and show efficacy against various human neoplasms. Vorinostat is a potent HDAC inhibitor and has shown potential to inhibit growth of human xenograft tumors. However, its effect on the growth of skin neoplasm remains undefined. In this study, we show that vorinostat (2 μM) reduced expression of HDAC1, 2, 3, and 7 in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Consistently, it increased acetylation of histone H3 and p53. Vorinostat (100 mg/kg body weight, IP) treatment reduced human xenograft tumor growth in highly immunosuppressed nu/nu mice. Histologically, the vorinostat-treated tumor showed features of well-differentiation withmore » large necrotic areas. Based on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining and expression of cyclins D1, D2, E, and A, vorinostat seems to impair proliferation by down-regulating the expression of these proteins. However, it also induced apoptosis. The mechanism by which vorinostat blocks proliferation and makes tumor cells prone to apoptosis, involved inhibition of mTOR signaling which was accompanied by reduction in cell survival AKT and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Our data provide a novel mechanism-based therapeutic intervention for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Vorinostat may be utilized to cure skin neoplasms in organ transplant recipient (OTR). These patients have high morbidity and surgical removal of these lesions which frequently develop in these patients, is difficult. -- Highlights: ► Vorinostat reduces SCC growth in a xenograft murine model. ► Vorinostat dampens proliferation and induces apoptosis in tumor cells. ► Diminution in mTOR, Akt and ERK signaling underlies inhibition in proliferation. ► Vorinostat by inhibiting HDACs inhibits epithelial–mesenchymal transition.« less

  19. Designed Synthesis of Nanostructured Magnetic Hydroxyapatite Based Drug Nanocarrier for Anti-Cancer Drug Delivery toward the Treatment of Human Epidermoid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Govindan, Bharath; Swarna Latha, Beeseti; Nagamony, Ponpandian; Ahmed, Faheem; Saifi, Muheet Alam; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Alwasel, Saleh; Mansour, Lamjed; Alsharaeh, Edreese H.

    2017-01-01

    Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles on hydroxyapatite nanorod based nanostructures (Fe3O4/HAp) were synthesized using hydrothermal techniques at 180 °C for 12 h and were used as drug delivery nanocarriers for cancer cell therapeutic applications. The synthesized Fe3O4/HAp nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET)-analysis, and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The morphologies of the Fe3O4/HAp nanocomposites show 15 nm Fe3O4 nanoparticles dispersed in the form of rods. The BET result shows that the synthesized samples have a high specific surface area of 80 m2 g−1 with mesoporous structures. Magnetic measurements revealed that the sample has high saturation magnetization of 18 emu/g with low coercivity. The Fe3O4/HAp nanocomposites had a large specific surface area (SSA), high mesoporous volume, and good magnetic property, which made it a suitable nanocarrier for targeted drug delivery systems. The chemotherapeutic agent, andrographolide, was used to investigate the drug delivery behavior of the Fe3O4/HAp nanocomposites. The human epidermoid skin cancer cells (A431) were used as the model targeting cell lines by treating with andrographolide loaded Fe3O4/HAp nanosystems and were further evaluated for their antiproliferative activities and the induction of apoptosis. Also, the present nanocomposite shows better biocompatibility, therefore it can be used as suitable drug vehicle for cancer therapy applications. PMID:28587317

  20. Combinatorial effects of geopropolis produced by Melipona fasciculata Smith with anticancer drugs against human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma (HEp-2) cells.

    PubMed

    Bartolomeu, Ariane Rocha; Frión-Herrera, Yahima; da Silva, Livia Matsumoto; Romagnoli, Graziela Gorete; de Oliveira, Deilson Elgui; Sforcin, José Maurício

    2016-07-01

    The identification of natural products exerting a combined effect with therapeutic agents could be an alternative for cancer treatment, reducing the concentration of the drugs and side effects. Geopropolis (Geo) is produced by some stingless bees from a mixture of vegetable resins, gland secretions of the bees and soil. It has been used popularly as an antiseptic agent and to treat respiratory diseases and dermatosis. To determine whether Geo enhances the anticancer effect of carboplatin, methotrexate and doxorubicin (DOX), human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma (HEp-2) cells were treated with Geo alone or in combination with each drug. Cell growth, cytotoxicity and apoptosis were evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and flow cytometry. Scratch assay was used to analyze cell migration and transmission electron microscopy to observe morphologic alterations. The influence of Geo on drug resistance was also investigated assessing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) action. Geo inhibited cell proliferation and migration. The combination Geo+DOX led to the highest cytotoxic activity and induced apoptosis, leading to loss of membrane integrity. Geo had no effect on P-gp-mediated efflux of DOX. Data indicate that Geo combined with DOX could be a potential clinical chemotherapeutic approach for laryngeal cancer treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. A combined A431 cell membrane chromatography and online high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method for screening compounds from total alkaloid of Radix Caulophylli acting on the human EGFR.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meng; Ren, Jing; Du, Hui; Zhang, Yanmin; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Sicen; He, Langchong

    2010-10-15

    We have developed an online analytical method that combines A431 cell membrane chromatography (A431/CMC) with high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC/MS) for identifying active components from Radix Caulophylli acting on human EGFR. Retention fractions on A431/CMC model were captured onto an enrichment column and the components were directly analyzed by combining a 10-port column switcher with an LC/MS system for separation and preliminary identification. Using Sorafenib tosylate as a positive control, taspine and caulophine from Radix Caulophylli were identified as the active molecules which could act on the EGFR. This A431/CMC-online-LC/MS method can be applied for screening active components acting on EGFR from traditional Chinese medicines exemplified by Radix Caulophylli and will be of great utility in drug discovery using natural medicinal herbs as a source of novel compounds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Binding of fluoresceinated epidermal growth factor to A431 cell sub-populations studied using a model-independent analysis of flow cytometric fluorescence data.

    PubMed Central

    Chatelier, R C; Ashcroft, R G; Lloyd, C J; Nice, E C; Whitehead, R H; Sawyer, W H; Burgess, A W

    1986-01-01

    A method is developed for determining ligand-cell association parameters from a model-free analysis of data obtained with a flow cytometer. The method requires measurement of the average fluorescence per cell as a function of ligand and cell concentration. The analysis is applied to data obtained for the binding of fluoresceinated epidermal growth factor to a human epidermoid carcinoma cell line, A431. The results indicate that the growth factor binds to two classes of sites on A431 cells: 4 X 10(4) sites with a dissociation constant (KD) of less than or equal to 20 pM, and 1.5 X 10(6) sites with a KD of 3.7 nM. A derived plot of the average fluorescence per cell versus the average number of bound ligands per cell is used to construct binding isotherms for four sub-populations of A431 cells fractionated on the basis of low-angle light scatter. The four sub-populations bind the ligand with equal affinity but differ substantially in terms of the number of binding sites per cell. We also use this new analysis to critically evaluate the use of 'Fluorotrol' as a calibration standard in flow cytometry. PMID:3015587

  3. Submental epidermoid cysts in children.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Rafal; Zakrzewska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are lesions, which form as a result of implantation of the epidermis in the layers of the dermis or the mucous membrane. The lesions are rare in adults with 7% occurring in the head and neck area and most often located in the submental region. In children population submental epidermoid cysts are extremely rare. The differential diagnosis of the lesions is necessary as it affects the choice of treatment methods. Among the pathological conditions occurring in that region, salivary retention cyst (ranula), thyroglossal duct cyst, vascular lymphatic malformation (cystic hygroma), median neck cyst, lymphadenopathy, thyroid gland tumor, laryngeal cyst, epidermoid and dermoid cysts, submental abscess, sialolithiasis and salivary gland inflammation should be considered. The authors of the present report demonstrate two cases of submental epidermoid cysts in children. Differential diagnosis in case of suspected submental epidermoid cyst in a child with proposed clinical practice and literature review is provided.

  4. Submental epidermoid cysts in children

    PubMed Central

    Zakrzewska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are lesions, which form as a result of implantation of the epidermis in the layers of the dermis or the mucous membrane. The lesions are rare in adults with 7% occurring in the head and neck area and most often located in the submental region. In children population submental epidermoid cysts are extremely rare. The differential diagnosis of the lesions is necessary as it affects the choice of treatment methods. Among the pathological conditions occurring in that region, salivary retention cyst (ranula), thyroglossal duct cyst, vascular lymphatic malformation (cystic hygroma), median neck cyst, lymphadenopathy, thyroid gland tumor, laryngeal cyst, epidermoid and dermoid cysts, submental abscess, sialolithiasis and salivary gland inflammation should be considered. The authors of the present report demonstrate two cases of submental epidermoid cysts in children. Differential diagnosis in case of suspected submental epidermoid cyst in a child with proposed clinical practice and literature review is provided. PMID:28352681

  5. Huge intradiploic epidermoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Turkoglu, Omer Faruk; Ozdol, Cagatay; Gurcan, Oktay; Gurcay, Ahmet Gurhan; Tun, Kagan; Cemil, Berker

    2010-01-01

    A 60-year-old man presented with an occipital mass under the scalp and complained of headache, nausea, and dizziness. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a well-defined mass in the occipital scalp extending from the scalp through the cranium and several centimetres into the posterior fossa. There were well-defined margins in the deep portion and the mass was totally removed. Histological examination showed that the cystic structure was lined by squamous epithelium containing laminated keratin material. The pathological findings were consistent with the diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst. The patient was discharged free of symptoms.

  6. [Giant intradiploic infratentorial epidermoid cyst].

    PubMed

    Alberione, F; Caire, F; Fischer-Lokou, D; Gueye, M; Moreau, J J

    2007-10-01

    Epidermoid cysts are benign, uncommon lesions (1% of all intracranial tumors). Their localization is intradiploic in 25% of cases, and exceptionally subtentorial. We report here a rare case of giant intradiploic infratentorial epidermoid cyst. A 74-year old patient presented with recent diplopia and sindrome cerebellar. CT scan and MR imaging revealed a giant osteolytic extradural lesion of the posterior fossa (5.2 cm x 3.8 cm) with a small area of peripheral enhancement after contrast injection. Retrosigmoid suboccipital craniectomy allowed a satisfactory removal of the tumor, followed by an acrylic cranioplasty. The outcome was good. Neuropathological examination confirmed an epidermoid cyst. We review the literature and discuss our case.

  7. Up-regulation of the tight-junction protein ZO-1 by substance P and IGF-1 in A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ji-Ae; Murata, Shizuka; Nishida, Teruo

    2009-08-01

    The formation of a barrier by tight junctions is important in epithelia of various tissues. Substance P (SP) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 synergistically promote barrier function in the corneal epithelium. We have now examined the effects of SP and IGF-1 on expression of the tight-junction protein zonula occludens (ZO)-1 in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunoblot analyses revealed that SP and IGF-1 increased the amounts of ZO-1 mRNA and protein in these cells in a concentration-dependent manner, with neither SP nor IGF-1 alone having such an effect. The SP- and IGF-1-induced up-regulation of ZO-1 was accompanied by phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and both of these effects were blocked by PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK activation. SP and IGF-1 also increased the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) (an indicator of barrier function) of an A431 cell monolayer in a manner sensitive to PD98059. Our results thus suggest that the synergistic induction of ZO-1 expression by SP and IGF-1 may promote barrier function in skin epithelial cells. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. In vitro motility of cells from human epidermoid carcinomas. A study by phase-contrast and reflection-contrast cinematography.

    PubMed

    Haemmerli, G; Sträuli, P

    1981-05-15

    The motile behavior of six cell lines derived from human squamous carcinomas (two from the larynx, four from the tongue) was studied by cinematography under phase- and reflection-contrast illumination. The recorded cell activities consist in spreading, stationary and translocation motility, and aggregate formation. Within this common pattern, quantitative modifications ("sub-pattern") are stable properties of the individual cells lines. Such modifications are particularly evident with regard to the dynamic texture of the aggregates which ranges from loose, netlike structures to compact islands with smooth borders. Accordingly, the intensity of cell traffic within and around the aggregates varies considerably. It is discussed to what extent the in vitro motility of the carcinoma cell populations reflects their behavior in the organism and thus the significance of cell movements for invasion.

  9. PKI 166 induced redox signalling and apoptosis through activation of p53, MAP kinase and caspase pathway in epidermoid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Das, Subhasis; Dey, Kaushik Kumar; Bharti, Rashmi; MaitiChoudhury, Sujata; Maiti, Sukumar; Mandal, Mahitosh

    2012-01-01

    Cellular redox changes have emerged as a pivotal and proximal event in cancer. PKI 166 is used to determine the effects of redox sensitive inhibition of EGFR, metastasis and apoptosis in epidermoid carcinoma. Cytotoxicity study of PKI 166 (IC50 1.0 microM) treated A431 cells were performed by MTT assay for 48 and 72 hrs. Morphological analysis of PKI 166 treated A431 cells for 48 hrs. revealed the cell shrinkage, loss of filopodia and lamellipodia by phase contrast and SEM images in dose dependent manner. It has cytotoxic effects through inhibiting cellular proliferation, leads to the induction of apoptosis, as increased fraction of sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle, chromatin condensation and DNA ladder. It inhibited cyclin-D1 and cyclin-E expression and induced p53, p21 expression in dose dependent manner. Consequently, an imbalance of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio triggered caspase cascade and subsequent cleavage of PARP, thereby shifting the balance in favour of apoptosis. PKI 166 treatment actively stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. It inhibited some metastatic properties of A431 cells supressing colony formation by soft agar assay and inhibition of MMP 9 activity by gelatin zymography and western blot analysis. PKI 166 inhibited growth factor induced phosphorylation of EGFR, Akt, MAPK, JNK and colony formation in A431 cells. Thus the inhibition of proliferation was associated with redox regulation of the caspase cascade, EGFR, Akt/PI3K, MAPK/ ERK and JNK pathway. On the other hand, increased antioxidant activity leads to decreased ROS generation inhibit the anti-proliferative and apoptotic properties of PKI 166 in A431 cells. These observations indicated PKI 166 induced redox signalling dependent inhibition of cell proliferation, metastatic properties and induction of apoptotic potential in epidermoid carcinoma.

  10. Recurrent intramedullary epidermoid cyst of conus medullaris

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Christina; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; O’Sullivan, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Spinal intramedullary epidermoid cyst is a rare condition. Recurrent epidermoid cyst in the spine cord is known to occur. The authors describe a case of recurrent conus medullaris epidermoid cyst in a 24-year-old female. She initially presented at 7 years of age with bladder disturbance in the form of diurnal enuresis and recurrent urinary tract infection. MRI lumbar spine revealed a 4 cm conus medullaris epidermoid cyst. Since the initial presentation, the cyst had recurred seven times in the same location and she underwent surgical intervention in the form of exploration and debulking. This benign condition, owing to its anatomical location, has posed a surgical and overall management challenge. This occurrence is better managed in a tertiary-care centre requiring multi-disciplinary treatment approach. PMID:22669964

  11. An unusual encounter of an epidermoid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Sritharan, Kaji; Ghani, Yaser; Thompson, Hilary

    2014-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are extremely common and can occur in any hair-containing area. We present the case of a 20-year-old man with an epidermoid cyst in the perianal region. Epidermal cysts have been described in this area previously after haemorrhoidectomy, but cysts of the size seen in this case are rare in the absence of previous anal trauma. The diagnosis was confirmed by excision biopsy. PMID:24825558

  12. Epidermoid Cyst of Mandible Ramus: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Loxha, Mergime Prekazi; Salihu, Sami; Kryeziu, Kaltrina; Loxha, Sadushe; Agani, Zana; Hamiti, Vjosa; Rexhepi, Aida

    2016-06-01

    An epidermoid cyst is a benign cyst usually found on the skin. Bone cysts are very rare and if they appear in bone they usually appear in the distal phalanges of the fingers. Epidermoid cysts of the jaws are uncommon. We present a case, of a 41 year-old female patient admitted to our department because of pain and swelling in the parotid and masseteric region-left side. There was no trismus, pathological findings in skin, high body temperature level, infra-alveolar nerves anesthesia or lymphadenopathy present. The orthopantomography revealed a cystic lesion and a unilocular lesion that included mandibular ramus on the left side with 3 cm in diameter. Under total anesthesia, a cyst had been reached and was enucleated. Histopathologic findings showed that the pathologic lesion was an epidermoid cyst. Epidermoid and dermoid cysts are rare, benign lesions found throughout the body. Only a few cases in literature describe an intraossesus epidermoid cyst. Our case is an epidermoid cyst with a rare location in the region of the mandibular ramus. It is not associated with any trauma in this region except medical history reveals there was an operative removal of a wisdom tooth 12 years ago in the same side. These cysts are interesting from the etiological point of view. They should be considered in the differential diagnosis of other radiolucent lesions of the jaws. Surgically they have a very good prognosis, and are non-aggressive lesions.

  13. Epidermoid Cyst of Mandible Ramus: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Loxha, Mergime Prekazi; Salihu, Sami; Kryeziu, Kaltrina; Loxha, Sadushe; Agani, Zana; Hamiti, Vjosa; Rexhepi, Aida

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: An epidermoid cyst is a benign cyst usually found on the skin. Bone cysts are very rare and if they appear in bone they usually appear in the distal phalanges of the fingers. Epidermoid cysts of the jaws are uncommon. Case presentation: We present a case, of a 41 year-old female patient admitted to our department because of pain and swelling in the parotid and masseteric region–left side. There was no trismus, pathological findings in skin, high body temperature level, infra-alveolar nerves anesthesia or lymphadenopathy present. The orthopantomography revealed a cystic lesion and a unilocular lesion that included mandibular ramus on the left side with 3 cm in diameter. Under total anesthesia, a cyst had been reached and was enucleated. Histopathologic findings showed that the pathologic lesion was an epidermoid cyst. Discussion: Epidermoid and dermoid cysts are rare, benign lesions found throughout the body. Only a few cases in literature describe an intraossesus epidermoid cyst. Conclusion: Our case is an epidermoid cyst with a rare location in the region of the mandibular ramus. It is not associated with any trauma in this region except medical history reveals there was an operative removal of a wisdom tooth 12 years ago in the same side. These cysts are interesting from the etiological point of view. They should be considered in the differential diagnosis of other radiolucent lesions of the jaws. Surgically they have a very good prognosis, and are non-aggressive lesions. PMID:27594757

  14. Epidermoid cyst of the spleen

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Quoc Duy; Monnard, Etienne; Hoogewoud, Henri Marcel

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with a palpable mass and abdominal pain in the left upper quadrant. A physical examination revealed tenderness in this region. An ultrasound performed initially showed a large cystic structure. A CT examination revealed a large cyst originating in the spleen with loculations in its upper part and focal calcification in the wall. On MRI, the cystic mass showed high signal on T1-weighted and T2-weighted images. The carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) was measured at 88 U/ml (standard <37.1 mUI/l). According to the imaging examinations and laboratory tests performed, it was impossible to determine if the splenic cyst was parasitic or non-parasitic. Given the most important risks of complications encountered in parasitic cysts, it was decided to treat this splenic cyst as a parasitic cyst. For this reason, an elective laparoscopic splenectomy with preoperative embolisation of the splenic artery was performed. The histological diagnosis was a primary epidermoid splenic cyst with inner lining epithelial cells. PMID:23667225

  15. Atypical Intracranial Epidermoid Cysts: Rare Anomalies with Unique Radiological Features

    PubMed Central

    Law, Eric K. C.; Lee, Ryan K. L.; Ng, Alex W. H.; Siu, Deyond Y. W.; Ng, Ho-Keung

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are benign slow growing extra-axial tumours that insinuate between brain structures, while their occurrences in intra-axial or intradiploic locations are exceptionally rare. We present the clinical, imaging, and pathological findings in two patients with atypical epidermoid cysts. CT and MRI findings for the first case revealed an intraparenchymal epidermoid cyst that demonstrated no restricted diffusion. The second case demonstrated an aggressive epidermoid cyst that invaded into the intradiploic spaces, transverse sinus, and the calvarium. The timing of ectodermal tissue sequestration during fetal development may account for the occurrence of atypical epidermoid cysts. PMID:25667778

  16. Orbital dermoid and epidermoid cysts: case study.

    PubMed

    Veselinović, Dragan; Krasić, Dragan; Stefanović, Ivan; Veselinović, Aleksandar; Radovanović, Zoran; Kostić, Aleksandar; Cvetanović, Marija

    2010-01-01

    Dermoid and epidermoid cysts of the orbit belong to choristomas, tumours that originate from the aberrant primordial tissue. Clinically, they manifest as cystic movable formations mostly localized in the upper temporal quadrant of the orbit. They are described as both superficial and deep formations with most frequently slow intermittent growth. Apart from aesthetic effects, during their growth, dermoid and epidermoid cysts can cause disturbances in the eye motility, and in rare cases, also an optical nerve compression syndrome. In this paper, we described a child with a congenital orbital dermoid cyst localized in the upper-nasal quadrant that was showing signs of a gradual enlargement and progression. The computerized tomography revealed a cyst of 1.5-2.0 cm in size. At the Maxillofacial Surgery Hospital in Nis, the dermoid cyst was extirpated in toto after orbitotomy performed by superciliary approach. Postoperative course was uneventful, without inflammation signs, and after two weeks excellent functional and aesthetic effects were achieved. Before the decision to treat the dermoid and epidermoid cysts operatively, a detailed diagnostic procedure was necessary to be done in order to locate the cyst precisely and determine its size and possible propagation into the surrounding periorbital structures. Apart from cosmetic indications, operative procedures are recommended in the case of cysts with constant progressions, which cause the pressure to the eye lobe, lead to motility disturbances and indirectly compress the optical nerve and branches of the cranial nerves III, IV and VI.

  17. Hearing preservation in management of epidermoids of the cerebellopontine angle: CPA epidermoids and hearing preservation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mia E; Mastrodimos, Bill; Cueva, Roberto A

    2012-12-01

    Surgical approaches for epidermoid cysts of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) are dictated by tumor location. Previous reports have advocated the sacrifice of usable hearing to achieve maximal tumor resection in a single operation. The aim of the current study is to demonstrate the applicability of hearing preservation approaches in the neurotologic management of epidermoids of the CPA. Retrospective chart review. A search of archived surgical cases at a single institution between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2011, revealed 18 cases of epidermoid cysts involving the CPA. Eighteen patients with a mean age 40.9 years underwent surgery. Average tumor size was 4.47 cm, and presenting symptoms included headache, vertigo, cranial neuropathies, and seizures. Thirteen patients underwent a retrosigmoid approach, 2 translabyrinthine, 2 pterional, and 1 retrolabyrinthine/presigmoid. Complications included CSF leak, pseudomeningocele, meningitis, cranial nerve dysfunction, and persistent imbalance. All but 5 patients had long-term follow-up imaging to chronicle tumor residua/recurrence, varying from 6 to 149 months postoperatively. The average length of follow-up was 71.4 months, and residual tumor was common, with most patients demonstrating a focal or small area of residual tumor on follow-up imaging. Two patients had undergone previous surgery for epidermoid excision elsewhere. Two patients required reoperation for epidermoid regrowth, and the times between surgeries were 44 and 78 months. Of the patients who underwent a retrosigmoid approach, 9 had postoperative audiograms. All of these patients maintained hearing at or near their preoperative level except for 2 patients whose hearing declined and one whose hearing significantly improved. Hearing preservation approaches for epidermoids of the CPA is a feasible option for long-term control of these tumors. Resection from a retrosigmoid approach can provide years of useful hearing, and the majority of patients do not

  18. Cerebellopontine angle epidermoid tumour presenting with bilateral gaze nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Han, I B; Huh, R; Chung, S S; Kim, O J

    2008-06-01

    Vestibular symptoms have been rarely described in cerebellopontine angle epidermoid tumours. We report a case of CPA epidermoid tumour presenting with subacute onset of vestibular symptoms such as vertigo, gait ataxia, and nystagmus masquerading as acute vestibular neuritis or central vertigo. The vestibular symptoms disappeared after excision of the tumour.

  19. Epidermoid Cyst of the Sole - A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rajput, Santosh Singh; Gopinathan, Nayar Sajeeth

    2016-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are common benign subcutaneous lesion also termed as epidermal cysts. Epidermoid cyst are commonly seen in hairy regions of body like scalp, face and scrotum, can be single or multiple, but rarely can occur in glabrous skin of palm and sole. They are known to result from progressive cystic ectasia of the infundibular portion of hair follicle but the pathogenesis in palmo-plantar epidermoid cyst differs that is traumatic sequestration of epidermal elements into dermis. Here, we report a case of 30-year-old female presented with complaints of swelling in her left sole. On examination a palpable firm swelling was noted just below the 2nd web space left foot plantar region, on X-ray foot no osseous lesion or foreign body was detected. Swelling was excised and sent for histopathological examination which confirmed it as epidermoid cyst. PMID:28050432

  20. Periorbital epidermoid cyst in the medial canthus of three dogs.

    PubMed

    Davidson, H J; Blanchard, G L

    1991-01-15

    Periorbital epidermoid cyst in the medial canthus was identified ultrasonographically and confirmed histologically in 3 dogs. Surgical resection of the cysts, with reconstruction of the lacrimal canaliculi, was curative in all 3 cases.

  1. Twinkle artefact in the ultrasound diagnosis of superficial epidermoid cysts

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Richard; Suresh, Priya; Thomas, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the twinkle artefact is a valuable feature in the sonographic diagnosis of superficial epidermoid cysts. Materials and methods A retrospective search was undertaken of our institution’s Radiology Information System and pathology database to identify cases of superficial masses showing the twinkle artefact that proceeded to surgical excision. Results Eighteen superficial masses demonstrating the twinkle artefact were identified that were submitted for pathological analysis. Of these, 17 were confirmed to represent epidermoid cysts and only 1 case had an alternative diagnosis (proliferating trichilemmal cyst). Conclusion The presence of the twinkle artefact appears to be a specific and valuable ancillary sonographic feature for the diagnosis of superficial epidermoid cysts. PMID:27867407

  2. Pediatric epidermoid cysts masquerading as ranulas: A case series.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Abhita; Kreicher, Kathryn L; Patel, Neha A; Schantz, Stimson; Shinhar, Shai

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric neck masses represent a variety of differential diagnoses. A common pathology in pediatric cystic neck tumors include ranulas, mucus retention cysts due to salivary gland obstruction. Epidermoid cysts are lesions infrequently encountered in the pediatric population and may appear similarly to ranulas on computed tomography imaging. MRI more easily differentiates these masses, and should therefore be the preferred imaging modality. Due to their distinct intraoperative management, ranulas and epidermoid cysts should be distinguished preoperatively through proper workup. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Subconjunctival epidermoid cysts in Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

    PubMed

    De Craene, S; Batteauw, A; Van Lint, M; Claerhout, I; Decock, C

    2014-08-01

    Epidermoid cysts are common benign cysts which occur particularly on the skin of the face, neck and upper trunk. Subconjunctival location of these cysts is very rare and, until today, only seen in patients with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome. Histopathological examination of these cysts show similarities with odontogenic keratocysts, a typical clinical manifestation of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

  4. Gamma knife radiosurgery for cerebellopontine angle epidermoid tumors.

    PubMed

    El-Shehaby, Amr M N; Reda, Wael A; Abdel Karim, Khaled M; Emad Eldin, Reem M; Nabeel, Ahmed M

    2017-01-01

    Intracranial epidermoid tumors are commonly found in the cerebellopontine angle where they usually present with either trigeminal neuralgia or hemifacial spasm. Radiosurgery for these tumors has rarely been reported. The purpose of this study is to assess the safety and clinical outcome of the treatment of cerebellopontine epidermoid tumors with gamma knife radiosurgery. This is a retrospective study involving 12 patients harboring cerebellopontine angle epidermoid tumors who underwent 15 sessions of gamma knife radiosurgery. Trigeminal pain was present in 8 patients and hemifacial spasm in 3 patients. All cases with trigeminal pain were receiving medication and still uncontrolled. One patient with hemifacial spasm was medically controlled before gamma knife and the other two were not. Two patients had undergone surgical resection prior to gamma knife treatment. The median prescription dose was 11 Gy (10-11 Gy). The tumor volumes ranged from 3.7 to 23.9 cc (median 10.5 cc). The median radiological follow up was 2 years (1-5 years). All tumors were controlled and one tumor shrank. The median clinical follow-up was 5 years. The trigeminal pain improved or disappeared in 5 patients, and of these, 4 cases stopped their medication and one decreased it. The hemifacial spasm resolved in 2 patients who were able to stop their medication. Facial palsy developed in 1 patient and improved with conservative treatment. Transient diplopia was also reported in 2 cases. Gamma knife radiosurgery provides good clinical control for cerebellopontine angle epidermoid tumors.

  5. Gamma knife radiosurgery for cerebellopontine angle epidermoid tumors

    PubMed Central

    El-Shehaby, Amr M. N.; Reda, Wael A.; Abdel Karim, Khaled M.; Emad Eldin, Reem M.; Nabeel, Ahmed M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Intracranial epidermoid tumors are commonly found in the cerebellopontine angle where they usually present with either trigeminal neuralgia or hemifacial spasm. Radiosurgery for these tumors has rarely been reported. The purpose of this study is to assess the safety and clinical outcome of the treatment of cerebellopontine epidermoid tumors with gamma knife radiosurgery. Methods: This is a retrospective study involving 12 patients harboring cerebellopontine angle epidermoid tumors who underwent 15 sessions of gamma knife radiosurgery. Trigeminal pain was present in 8 patients and hemifacial spasm in 3 patients. All cases with trigeminal pain were receiving medication and still uncontrolled. One patient with hemifacial spasm was medically controlled before gamma knife and the other two were not. Two patients had undergone surgical resection prior to gamma knife treatment. The median prescription dose was 11 Gy (10–11 Gy). The tumor volumes ranged from 3.7 to 23.9 cc (median 10.5 cc). Results: The median radiological follow up was 2 years (1–5 years). All tumors were controlled and one tumor shrank. The median clinical follow-up was 5 years. The trigeminal pain improved or disappeared in 5 patients, and of these, 4 cases stopped their medication and one decreased it. The hemifacial spasm resolved in 2 patients who were able to stop their medication. Facial palsy developed in 1 patient and improved with conservative treatment. Transient diplopia was also reported in 2 cases. Conclusion: Gamma knife radiosurgery provides good clinical control for cerebellopontine angle epidermoid tumors. PMID:29184709

  6. Giant Vulvar Epidermoid Cyst in an Adolescent Girl

    PubMed Central

    Karaman, Erbil; Çim, Numan; Akdemir, Zülküf; Elçi, Erkan; Akdeniz, Hüseyin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Vulvar cyst in adolescent girls is very uncommon. Epidermoid cyst can be seen in many sites including face, trunk, and extremities but its occurrence in vulva is uncommon. This is the first case of epidermoid cyst of vulva reported in an adolescent girl. Case. A 17-year-old, adolescent girl admitted to our gynecology outpatient clinic with a complaint of painful and palpable mass in her vulva. On examination, a giant mass located in left vulva and labia majora with 11 cm in diameter was seen. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a well-defined cystic mass without contrast enhancement. The surgery was advised to the patient and the pathologic examination of mass revealed vulvar epidermoid cyst. Discussion. Vulvar cysts generally grow slowly and the main etiologies are vulvar trauma and surgical interventions including episiotomy and female circumcision in some culture. The exact treatment is total surgical excision and pathologic examination. MRI is an important imaging modality for detection of extension to deep perineal tissue and localization of mass in vulva especially in giant ones. Conclusion. Although vulvar mass in adolescents is rare, the epidermoid cyst with benign origin should be kept in mind. PMID:25949839

  7. Sublingual epidermoid cyst presenting with distinctive magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Naohiro; Kodama, Kozue; Iino, Yukiko

    2014-06-18

    A case of sublingual epidermoid cyst presenting distinctive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings is described. A 39-year-old man presented to our hospital with a three months progressive left submandibular swelling, difficulty moving his tongue, and snoring. Preoperative evaluation with MRI and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) revealed that the heterogeneous cystic lesion contained the squamous cells, which is compatible with ectodermal tissue. The mass was located above the mylohyoid muscle and spread to the pharyngeal space. By considering the size, infection history, patient age, and location, the cyst was completely resected under general anesthesia via cervical approach without any complication. Histopathologically, the cyst wall was lined by stratified squamous epithelium with no skin appendage, suggesting an epidermoid cyst. Ultrasound (US), MRI and FNAC were very useful of the preoperative diagnosis for oral and sublingual lesion. The postoperative course was uneventful and without recurrence after 24 months. This case showed that epidermoid cysts formed the rarely heterogeneous cystic tumor and it underlined usefulness of preoperative diagnosis, such as US, MRI and FNAC for oral and sublingual tumor.

  8. [The extended endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach in surgery for epidermoid cysts of the chiasmatic region].

    PubMed

    Fomichev, D V; Kalinin, P L; Kutin, M A; Sharipov, O I; Chernov, I V

    Surgical treatment for epidermoid cysts of the chiasmatic region is a challenge because of the tendency to a massive spread of epidermoid masses through the cerebrospinal fluid pathways and a significant lesion deviation from the midline. To analyze capabilities of the extended endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach in surgery for epidermoid cysts. The study included 6 patients with epidermoid cysts of the chiasmatic region who were operated on using the extended anterior endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach at the Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute in the past 5 years. Epidermoid masses were completely removed in 5 patients; in none of the cases, complete removal of the epidermoid cyst capsule was achieved. There were no cases of vision deterioration and the development of new focal neurological symptoms. One female patient developed hypopituitary disorders in the postoperative period. There was no recurrence of epidermoid cysts during follow-up. Removal of epidermoid cysts of the chiasmatic region using the extended anterior endoscopic transsphenoidal approach may be an alternative to transcranial microsurgery.

  9. Diosmin reduces cell viability of A431 skin cancer cells through apoptotic induction.

    PubMed

    Buddhan, Rajamanickam; Manoharan, Shanmugam

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic potential of the diosmin in A431 skin cancer cells. The cytotoxic (anti-cell proliferative) potential of diosmin in A431 cells was assessed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay (cell viability), dual staining (apoptotic induction), dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate assay (reactive oxygen species [ROS] generation), DNA fragmentation study, Western blotting analysis (apoptotic markers expression) and flow cytometry (cell cycle arrest). Diosmin reduced the cell viability of A431 cells in a dose-dependent fashion and the inhibitory concentration 50% value was attained at 45 μg/ml using MTT assay. Diosmin at a concentration of 45 μg/ml generated excessive ROS in A431 cells, as compared to untreated cells. Diosmin treated A431 cells also revealed multiple DNA fragments than the untreated cells. Diosmin upregulated the expression of p53, caspases 3 and 9 and downregulated the expression of Bcl-2, matrix metalloproteinases-2 and 9 in A431 cells. The cytotoxic or anti-cell proliferative potential of diosmin is due to its ROS-mediated apoptotic induction potential, as well as due to its role in the inhibition of invasion in the A431 cells.

  10. Intrinsic epidermoid of the brain stem: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Singh, Saraj K; Jain, Kapil; Jain, Vijendra Kumar

    2018-03-19

    Purely cystic brain stem epidermoid is a rare diagnosis among all brainstem cystic lesions. Further, it is very rare in pediatric age group. Here, we are reporting a rare case of completely cystic brain stem epidermoid in a child. The patient presented with clinical features of brain stem involvement. MRI brain was suggestive of cystic brain stem lesion. Patient went through surgical procedure. Final diagnosis of epidermoid cyst was confirmed on histopathological report. With the help of various advanced sequences of MRI like diffusion and ADC, diagnosis of epidermoid cyst can be established at unusual intracranial site also. Surgical resection of epidermoid cyst at brain stem should be attempted judiciously utilizing all modern tools of neurosurgery.

  11. Epidermoid cyst of the breast: Mammography, ultrasound, MRI.

    PubMed

    Wynne, Elisabeth; Louie, Adeline

    2011-01-01

    Epidermal cysts are common cysts located cutaneously or subcutaneously in the head, neck, and trunk. However, deep epidermal cysts of the breast are very rare, and are frequently associated with traumatic implantation. We present the case of a 62-year-old woman with a palpable mass in the right breast. The patient was evaluated using mammography, ultrasound, and MRI, which uniquely characterized the mass and revealed a second mass. Histological analysis revealed fragments of an epidermoid cyst. The origin of the cysts and location deep within the breast tissue likely were due to a previous bilateral-reduction mammoplasty.

  12. Surgical treatment of parapontine epidermoid cysts presenting with trigeminal neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhilin; Ouyang, Huoniu; Cheng, Zhihua

    2011-03-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the management of 49 patients with parapontine epidermoid cyst presenting with trigeminal neuralgia, emphasizing the importance of fully removing the tumor to relieve the trigeminal neuralgia. Clinical symptoms, MRI, the operative approach, and post-operative results were examined. Trigeminal neuralgia was noted in all patients. The mean duration from onset of symptoms to surgery was 18 months. Total removal was achieved in 23 patients, near-total removal in 21, and subtotal removal in five patients. However, all tumor capsule that adhered to the trigeminal nerve was completely removed. After the operation, 33 patients developed facial hypoesthesia, three complained of double vision, and two developed acute hydrocephalus. At six months of follow-up, all patients had recovered and returned to their normal lives. At 2 years of follow-up, one patient experienced pain recurrence and underwent another operation. Parapontine epidermoid cysts either encase cranial nerve (CN) V but with intact arachnoid between the capsule and the nerve, or compress and distort the nerve with tumor capsule adherent or attached to the nerve surface. Resecting the tumor capsule's attachment to CN V is critical in relieving pain, even though this method may damage the nerve. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Molluscum Contagiosum Involving an Epidermoid Cyst - A Rare Association and Potential Source of Clinical Misdiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Prithwijit; Saha, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a viral infection of skin and mucous membrane commonly affecting the adolescents and young adults. Extensive lesions are usually common in immunocompromised patients. We herein report a rare case of molluscum contagiosum in an epidermoid cyst (EC) in a 24-year-old immunocompetent male. The provisional clinical diagnosis was inflammed epidermoid cyst or lipoma. On histopathological examination, the lesion displayed a unilocular epidermoid cyst in deep dermis, the lining of which was infected by molluscum contagiosum virus with characteristic inclusions. The overlying epidermis was absolutely normal having no attachment with the cyst.

  14. Purification and characterization of a membrane-associated 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine binding protein from a human carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, S Y; Hasumura, S; Willingham, M C; Pastan, I

    1986-01-01

    A membrane-associated binding protein for 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) was purified to apparent homogeneity from A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. A431 cells were specifically labeled with the N-bromoacetyl derivative of T3 labeled with 125I at the 3' position (BrAc[125I]T3) and were extracted with 3-[3-(cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS), a zwitterionic detergent. The solubilized BrAc[125I]T3-labeled protein was successively purified by chromatography on Sephadex G-200 and QAE-Sephadex followed by NaDod-SO4/PAGE. Approximately 0.2 mg of purified protein was obtained from 2.5 X 10(9) cells, which represents a 3000-fold purification. The membrane-associated T3 binding protein is an acidic protein with a pI of 5.1 and an apparent molecular mass of 55,000 daltons determined by NaDodSO4/PAGE. Polyclonal antibodies against the 55-kDa protein were prepared and used in indirect immunofluorescence to show that the 55-kDa protein was mainly found in the nuclear envelope and endoplasmic reticulum. Images PMID:3006034

  15. Intranasal epidermoid cyst causing upper airway obstruction in three brachycephalic dogs.

    PubMed

    Murgia, D; Pivetta, M; Bowlt, K; Volmer, C; Holloway, A; Dennis, R

    2014-08-01

    This case report describes three brachycephalic dogs with intranasal epidermoid cysts that were causing additional upper airway obstruction. Although epidermoid cysts have been described in several locations in dogs, to the authors' knowledge intranasal epidermoid cysts have not been previously reported. All dogs had mucopurulent to haemorrhagic nasal discharge. Magnetic resonance imaging of the head revealed the presence of unilateral or bilateral intranasal cystic lesions obstructing the nasal cavities partially or completely, with atrophy of the ipsilateral nasal turbinates. The cystic lesions were surgically excised in all dogs using a modified lateral alveolar mucosal approach to the affected nasal cavity. Aerobic, anaerobic and fungal culture of the cystic contents were negative and histology of the excised tissue was consistent with a benign intranasal epidermoid cyst in each dog. Upper airway obstruction was clinically improved in two dogs. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  16. Laparoscopic excision of an epidermoid cyst arising from the deep abdominal wall.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Hajime; Nakai, Takuya; Ueda, Kazuki; Haji, Seiji; Takeyama, Yoshifumi; Ohyanagi, Harumasa

    2009-10-01

    Epidermoid cysts are the most common type of cutaneous cyst. However, their occurrence in the deep abdominal wall has not yet been reported. Here, we present the case of a 60-year-old woman who developed an epidermoid cyst in the deep abdominal wall, which was resected laparoscopically. The patient presented with right upper quadrant abdominal pain on admission to our hospital. Computed tomography revealed cholecystolithiasis and an incidentally identified well-defined hypoattenuating mass (62 x 47 x 65 mm) in the deep abdominal wall on the left side of the navel. We performed laparoscopic complete resection of the abdominal wall tumor followed by cholecystectomy. The excised specimen was a cyst covered with a smooth thin membrane and contained sludge. Histopathologic examination revealed an epidermoid cyst. This is a very rare case with no previous reports on a similar type of epidermoid cyst.

  17. A rare case of congenital epidermoid cyst of the hard palate

    PubMed Central

    Montebugnoli, Lucio; Tiberio, Cristiana; Venturi, Mattia

    2011-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are benign conditions that are thought to derive from abnormally situated ectodermal inclusions in the oral cavity. They are generally found in hands, fingers, feet, ovaries and testicles but in oral cavity they represent a very rare event. This is the first case of an intraosseous epidermoid cyst situated in the hard palate. Healing was uneventful and there was no sign of recurrence in 2-years follow-up. PMID:22675054

  18. Detergent solubilization of the EGF receptor from A431 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayanidhi, R.; Rintoul, D. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Functional reconstitution of purified preparations of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) requires dissociation of the protein from its plasma membrane lipid environment. Solubilization of membrane proteins in this manner requires the use of detergents, which are known to disrupt plasma membrane lipid/protein interactions. We have investigated the ability of three nonionic detergents to solubilize the human EGFR selectively, and have also analyzed the effect of these various treatments on the intrinsic tyrosyl kinase activity of the receptor. The nonionic detergent known as n-octyl glucoside (n-octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside) was found to give the best combination of selectivity, yield, and maintenance of enzymatic activity of the human EGFR.

  19. Icotinib, a potent and specific EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, inhibits growth of squamous cell carcinoma cell line A431 through negatively regulating AKT signaling.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenzhen; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Xiaohua; Cai, Peifen; Fang, Xianying; Xu, Qiang; Sun, Yang; Gu, Yanhong

    2013-06-01

    Icotinib is a potent and specific epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. In this study, we reported that icotinib had the antitumor activity on human squamous cell carcinoma cell line A431 in vitro. Meanwhile, adhesion to fibronectin and expression of integrin α3 and β1 were significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner after the treatment of icotinib. Moreover, icotinib induced cell cycle arrested and affected expression of various cell cycle related proteins in squamous cancer cell line A431, whereas it did not cause apoptosis. Furthermore, icotinib remarkably down-regulated phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) though blocking the interaction between 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) and AKT in A431 cells. Taken together, it is shown that the small molecular compound, icotinib, has an anti-squamous cell carcinoma activity in vitro and its antitumor mechanism is associated with the blockage of the interaction between PDK1 and AKT. These results provide a novel strategy for anti-squamous cell carcinoma therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Vulvar Epidermoid Cyst and Type 2 Radical Genital Mutilation

    PubMed Central

    Birge, Ozer; Ozbey, Ertugrul Gazi; Arslan, Deniz; Erkan, Mustafa Melih; Demir, Feyza; Akgor, Utku

    2015-01-01

    About 100 million women are estimated to be circumcised globally. Various rates of complications have been encountered, especially after circumcision, such as bleeding, infection, shock, menstrual irregularity, difficulty in urination or common urinary tract infections, inguinal pain, difficulty in sexual intercourse, and genital circumcision scar especially at the vulvar region, and cystic or solid character mass in short and long term. Furthermore, the maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality increase due to bleeding and fistula, which develop after prolonged labor, travail, and difficult labors. Our aim in this paper was to discuss a 42-year-old multiparous female case who had undergone type 2 radical genital mutilation (circumcision) when she was 7 years of age, along with the literature, which has been evaluated for the gradually growing mass at the left inguinal canal region in the last 10 years and diagnosed as epidermoid inclusion cyst developing secondary to postcircumcision surgical ground trauma, since there was no other case found in the literature search that had been circumcised at such an early age and developing after circumcision at such advanced age, and, therefore, this is suggested to be the first case on this subject. PMID:26682078

  1. Treatment of epidermoid tumors with gamma knife radiosurgery: Case series.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Javier A Jacobo; Fonnegra, Julio R; Diez, Juan C; Fonnegra, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Epidermoid tumors (ETs) are benign lesions that are treated mainly by means of surgical resection, with overall good results. External beam radiotherapy is an alternative treatment for those recurrent tumors, in which a second surgery might not be the best choice for the patient. A little information exists about the effectiveness of gamma knife radiosurgery for the treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent ETs. We present three cases of ETs treated with gamma knife radiosurgery. Case 1 is a 21-year-old female with an ET located in the left cerebellopontine angle (CPA) with symptoms related to VIII cranial nerve dysfunction. Symptom control was achieved and maintained after single session radiosurgery with gamma knife. Case 2 is a 59-year-old female patient with the history of trigeminal neuralgia secondary to a recurrent ET located in the left CPA. Significant pain improvement was achieved after treatment with gamma knife radiosurgery. Case 3 is a 29-year-old male patient with a CPA ET causing long lasting trigeminal neuralgia, pain relief was achieved in this patient after gamma knife radiosurgery. Long-term symptom relief was achieved in all three cases proving that gamma knife radiosurgery is a good and safe alternative for patients with recurrent or nonsurgically treated ETs.

  2. A large epidermoid cyst of breast mimicking carcinoma: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Debnath, Debasish; Taribagil, Savita; Al-Janabi, Khalid J.S.; Inwang, Reggie

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Triple assessment of a suspicious breast lesion may not always provide a definite diagnosis. We report a case of epidermoid cyst of breast, which caused diagnostic dilemma in spite of a thorough triple assessment and entailed mastectomy. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 69-year-old woman presented with a large painful retroareolar left breast mass. Clinical examination, ultrasound and mammography were highly suspicious of malignancy. However, core biopsy suggested a benign lesion. Due to size of the lesion and diagnostic uncertainty, various options were discussed with the patient. She opted for a simple mastectomy. The histology confirmed a large epidermoid cyst. DISCUSSION It is rare for an epidermoid cyst to present as such an advanced lesion, mimicking carcinoma. Excision of such a large retroareolar ‘benign’ lesion, however, may sometime entail mastectomy. This is the first reported case of an epidermoid cyst of breast necessitating mastectomy. CONCLUSION Diagnostic dilemma while dealing with a suspected breast cancer is not rare. Involvement of multidisciplinary team as well as patient is important in the decision-making. The report illustrates a rare presentation of a deep seated large epidermoid cyst of breast, which mimicked carcinoma, caused diagnostic confusion and entailed mastectomy. We strongly advocate the option of breast reconstruction in such cases. PMID:22705938

  3. Epidermoid cyst of the external auditory canal in children: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aziz, Mosaad

    2011-07-01

    Epidermoid cyst of the external auditory canal (EAC) is rarely encountered in the clinical practice, but when it occurs, it may cause obstruction of the meatus that necessitates surgical excision. The aims of this study were to present 9 pediatric patients with epidermoid cysts of the EAC and to evaluate the outcome of the surgical technique that has been used in excision. Surgical removal of the cyst was carried out through a simple transmeatal approach, a medially based rectangular skin flap was elevated and the cyst was completely removed. No complications or recurrence have been reported. Epidermoid cyst should be listed in the differential diagnosis of EAC masses; it appears on computed tomography as a cystic mass in the outer cartilaginous part of EAC that is usually limited to the soft tissue with no bone erosion. It can be removed easily through simple transmeatal approach with high success rate and no morbidity.

  4. Inpatient Rehabilitation of Cerebellopontine Angle Epidermoid Cysts: Report of 3 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jack Brian; Nelson, Megan Bale; Bruera, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Objective Demonstrate the inpatient rehabilitation potential of cerebellopontine angle epidermoid cyst patients. Due to their location, symptoms may present with a complex combination of headache, cerebellar dysfunction, and cranial nerve deficits affecting functional status. Methods This report describes the cases of 3 patients with cerebellopontine angle epidermoid cysts who underwent neurosurgical resection followed by inpatient rehabilitation. All 3 patients experienced gait instability and cranial nerve deficits before surgery, and 2 of the patients had mild cognitive deficits. A customized rehabilitation program for these patients can address these deficits. Results Each patient showed demonstrable gains in function with inpatient rehabilitation and good outcomes at discharge. Conclusion When rehabilitating epidermoid cyst patients, the clinician must be aware of a higher likelihood of cranial neuropathies, need for increased psychosocial support, and the need for more vigilant long term medical monitoring to detect recurrence. PMID:25328367

  5. Malignant transformation of a residual cerebellopontine angle epidermoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Pikis, Stylianos; Margolin, Emil

    2016-11-01

    Malignant transformation is a rare but devastating complication following partial resection of an intracranial epidermoid cyst (EC). Time to malignant transformation is highly variable and optimal management is unclear. A literature search from 1965 to January 2016 identified manuscripts discussing clinical presentation, management, and outcome of malignant transformation of a remnant intracranial EC. One male patient diagnosed with malignant transformation of a remnant intracranial EC in our institution was also included in the study. There were 21 patients with malignant transformation of a remnant intracranial EC, including the current patient. Mean age was 51.4years (range 36 to 77) and there was a female predominance (12 women, 9 men, ratio 1.33:1). The mean time interval from partial resection of a benign intracranial EC to malignant transformation was 7.74years (range from 3months to 33years). Surgical resection of the tumor alone was the treatment of choice in 10 patients with one of them requiring a second operation and radiotherapy 2months following the first operation. Adjuvant treatment modalities were employed in 11 patients and included radiotherapy (n=4), stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) (n=3), chemotherapy (n=1), chemotherapy combined with SRS (n=1) and with radiotherapy (n=1) and radiotherapy combined with SRS and followed by a second tumor resection (n=1). Follow-up period ranged from 1 day to 5years and 11/19 patients (57.8%) were reported dead on follow-up. Prospective studies are required to define the optimal management of malignant transformation of remnant intracranial EC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative study of cell alterations in oral lichen planus and epidermoid carcinoma of the mouth mucosa.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Fernando Augusto Cervantes Garcia de; Paradella, Thaís Cachuté; Brandão, Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck; Rosa, Luiz Eduardo Blumer

    2009-01-01

    Currently, much is discussed regarding the pre-malignant nature of mouth mucosa lichen planus. The present study aims at analyzing the alterations found in the epithelial cells present in the oral cavity lichen planus, comparing them to those found in epidermoid carcinoma. Histological cross-sections of oral lichen planus and epidermoid carcinoma, dyed by hematoxylineosin, were analyzed through light microscopy. The most frequently found alterations in oral lichen planus were: an increase in the nucleus/cytoplasm relation (93.33%), nucleus membrane thickness (86.67%) and bi-nucleus or multinucleous (86.67%). The Student t test (alpha=5%) revealed a statistically significant difference between the average number of cell alterations in oral lichen planus (5.87+/-1.57) and in epidermoid carcinoma (7.60+/-1.81). As to the types of alterations, the chi-squared test also revealed statistically significant differences among the lesions assessed in relation to the following cell alterations: nuclear excess chromatism, atypical mitoses, cellular pleomorphism and abnormal cell differentiation (p<0.05). Despite the fact that in some cases, some pathologists may make mistakes in the histopathological diagnosis of oral lichen planus, the results obtained in this study show that the alterations present in oral lichen planus differ considerably from those seen in epidermoid carcinoma, thus showing how distinct these two diseases are.

  7. [Giant epidermoid cyst of the skull with extra and intracranial extension. A case report].

    PubMed

    Akhaddar, A; Gazzaz, M; El Mostarchid, B; Kadiri, B; Lrhezzioui, J; Boucetta, M

    2002-09-01

    Intradiploic epidermoid cyst of the skull is a rare clinical entity that can exceptionally grow to a large size with intracranial extension. The authors report the case of a 38-year-old man with a giant epidermoid cyst of the parietal bone with extra and intracranial extension, presenting with focal neurological symptoms. The diagnosis was suggested at imaging (skull radiographs, CT and MRI), and confirmed at histology. Complete removal of the cyst and its capsule was performed followed by cranioplasty. Postoperatively, the patient was discharged free of symptoms. CT scan provides good evaluation of the bony lesion and may suggest intracranial extension. MRI is superior for evaluation of cerebral compression. The pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic management of these rare lesions are reviewed.

  8. A giant intradiploic epidermoid cyst with perforation of the dura and brain parenchymal involvement.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jong-Ho; Jung, Tae-Young; Kim, In-Young; Jung, Shin; Kang, Sam-Suk; Kim, Soo-Han

    2007-05-01

    A patient with a long-standing intradiploic epidermoid cyst with perforation of the dura and brain parenchymal involvement is reported. A 69-year-old man, who had previously presented with a subcutaneous mass on the left frontoparietal scalp, developed a sudden grand mal seizure. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a well-defined mass in the frontoparietal scalp with destruction of the skull. Penetration of the dura allowed for communication with the intracranial structures. Surgical resection and cranioplasty were performed. There were no well-defined margins in the deep portion and the mass was subtotally removed. Histological examination showed that the cystic structure was lined by squamous epithelium containing laminated keratin material. The pathologic findings were consistent with the diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst.

  9. Establishment of A431 cell membrane chromatography-RPLC method for screening target components from Radix Caulophylli.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaofang; Wang, Sicen; Hou, Jingjing; He, Langchong

    2011-03-01

    We describe here an analytical method of A431 cell membrane chromatography (A431/CMC) (CMC, cell membrane chromatography) combined with RPLC for recognition, separation, and identification of target components from traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) Radix Caulophylli. The A431 cells with high expressed epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were used to prepare the stationary phase in the CMC model. Retention fractions on the A431-CMC model were collected using an automated fraction collection and injection module (FC/I). Each fraction was analyzed by RPLC under the optimized conditions. Gefitinib and erlotinib were used as standard compounds to investigate the suitability and reliability of the A431 cell membrane chromatography-RPLC method prior to screening target component from Radix Caulophylli total alkaloids. The results indicated that caulophine and taspine were the target component acting on the epidermal growth factor receptor. This method could be an efficient way in drug discovery using natural medicinal herbs as a source of novel compounds. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Morphologic expression of glandular differentiation in the epidermoid nasal carcinomas induced by phenylglycidyl ether inhalation.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K. P.; Schneider, P. W.; Trochimowicz, H. J.

    1983-01-01

    Charles River-CD Sprague-Dawley rats in 3 equal groups of 100 males and 100 females each were exposed to 12, 1, and 0 ppm of phenylglycidyl ether vapor for 24 months. Nasal tumors were first detected after 621 days' exposure at 12 ppm with an incidence of 11% in males and 4.4% in females. No nasal tumors were found at 1 ppm in rats exposed for 24 months. The nasal tumors, mostly epidermoid carcinomas, were derived from the respiratory epithelium and nasal glands, both of which revealed squamous metaplasia or dysplasia in the anterior nasal cavity. Most nasal tumors were confined to the anterior nasal cavity and occasionally invaded the dorsonasal bones and posterior nasal cavity. The undifferentiated glandular cells appear to differentiate to neoplastic squamous cells, because the ultrastructure of epidermoid carcinoma revealed traits of glandular cell differentiation in the neoplastic squamous cells. The features of glandular cell differentiation in the neoplastic squamous cells were intercellular or intracellular glandular lumens, secretory vesicles, mucus droplets, and intermediate cells showing both glandular and squamous differentiation. Squamous cells in the well-differentiated epidermoid carcinomas revealed abundant tonofibrils, desmosomes, glycogen particulates, and interdigitated cytoplasmic processes. These markers of squamous-cell differentiation were markedly reduced in the undifferentiated epidermoid carcinomas. The spindle-cell squamous carcinoma showed both squamous and fibroblastic-like differentiations. Some spindle cells had only fibroblastic-like differentiation, suggesting spindle-cell metaplasia of the squamous cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:6846500

  11. Epidermoid cyst in Meckel's cave with unusual computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Case report.

    PubMed

    Arai, Atsushi; Sasayama, Takashi; Koyama, Junji; Fujita, Atsushi; Hosoda, Kohkichi; Kohmura, Eiji

    2010-01-01

    A 27-year-old woman presented with headache and occasional numbness over her right face. Computed tomography revealed a hypodense mass in the middle cranial fossa and another adjacent hyperdense mass in the posterior fossa with erosion of the right petrous apex. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the lesion in the middle cranial fossa as iso- to hypointense on T(1)-weighted and hyperintense on T(2)-weighted imaging, with peripheral enhancement after gadolinium administration, and the adjacent lesion in the posterior fossa as hyperintense on T(1)-weighted and hypointense on T(2)-weighted imaging. During surgery, these lesions mimicking two adjacent distinct tumors were revealed to connect through Meckel's cave. The hypodense lesion in the middle cranial fossa consisted of pearly-like solid contents, and the hyperdense lesion in the posterior cranial fossa consisted of viscid dark-green materials. The tumors were gross totally resected with endoscopic assistance. Histological examination confirmed that the tumor was an epidermoid cyst. The present case cyst indicates that although the diffusion-weighted imaging sequence is useful for detection of intracranial epidermoid cysts, epidermoid cysts including viscous materials with unusual radiological findings could complicate the preoperative diagnosis.

  12. Follicular hybrid cyst: a combination of bullous pilomatricoma and epidermoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Sanusi, Tutyana; Qu, Xiaoying; Li, Yanqiu; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Ming; Zhao, Yun; Yang, Zhen; An, Xiangjie; Qian, Yue; Wang, Chunsen; Chen, Hongxiang; Chen, Siyuan; Huang, Changzheng

    2013-01-01

    The follicular hybrid is composed of more than two components of pilosebaceous unit. There are several studies of hybrid cyst, combination of trichilemmal and epidermoid cyst was the most frequently reported. In this paper, we reported one case of hybrid cyst composed of bullous pilomatricoma and epidermoid cyst. A 14-year-old girl was complaint of a solitary flesh-colored to erythematous nodule with flaccid appearance sized 3.2 × 1.8 cm in diameter on her right upper back for one year. The histologic findings showed there were edema and proliferation of capillaries in the superficial dermis, a cyst in the middle to deep dermis. There were laminated keratins in the cystic space. The cyst wall was composed of two different components, one was composed of epithelial cells containing of granular layer, and another consisted of basophilic cells, transient cells and shadow cells. The cyst not related with Gardner's syndrome. Hybrid cyst such as trichilemmal cyst, epidermoid and pilomatricoma cysts maybe have same clinical features or mimicking each others, but we can distinguish them from histopathology evaluation.

  13. Follicular hybrid cyst: a combination of bullous pilomatricoma and epidermoid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Sanusi, Tutyana; Qu, Xiaoying; Li, Yanqiu; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Ming; Zhao, Yun; Yang, Zhen; An, Xiangjie; Qian, Yue; Wang, Chunsen; Chen, Hongxiang; Chen, Siyuan; Huang, Changzheng

    2013-01-01

    The follicular hybrid is composed of more than two components of pilosebaceous unit. There are several studies of hybrid cyst, combination of trichilemmal and epidermoid cyst was the most frequently reported. In this paper, we reported one case of hybrid cyst composed of bullous pilomatricoma and epidermoid cyst. A 14-year-old girl was complaint of a solitary flesh-colored to erythematous nodule with flaccid appearance sized 3.2×1.8 cm in diameter on her right upper back for one year. The histologic findings showed there were edema and proliferation of capillaries in the superficial dermis, a cyst in the middle to deep dermis. There were laminated keratins in the cystic space. The cyst wall was composed of two different components, one was composed of epithelial cells containing of granular layer, and another consisted of basophilic cells, transient cells and shadow cells. The cyst not related with Gardner’s syndrome. Hybrid cyst such as trichilemmal cyst, epidermoid and pilomatricoma cysts maybe have same clinical features or mimicking each others, but we can distinguish them from histopathology evaluation. PMID:24294394

  14. Dwarfism, occult spinal dysraphism, and presacral myxopapillary ependymoma with an epidermoid cyst in a child.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, R S; Kelly, D R; Mroczek-Musulman, E C; Braune, K; Reddy, A; Georgeson, K; Grabb, P A; Oakes, W J

    2005-03-01

    The authors present a case of a child with dwarfism that was noted to be developmentally delayed. Imaging revealed atlantoaxial instability, occult spinal dysraphism, and a presacral mass. Histopathology of the presacral lesion was that of a myxopapillary ependymoma with epidermoid cyst. We believe this to be the first report in the extant medical literature of this constellation of findings in the same patient. However, there are rare reports indicating a possible association of occult spinal dysraphism and the simultaneous occurrence of spinal ependymomas. Further case reports are necessary to discern whether these pathological entities are true low rate associations that the clinician should consider in their evaluation of these patients.

  15. Subtotal resection and omentoplasty of the epidermoid splenic cyst: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Spahija, Gazmend S; Hashani, Shemsedin I; Osmani, Eshref A; Hoxha, Sejdullah A; Hamza, Astrit H; Gashi-Luci, Lumturije H

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Nonparasitic splenic cysts are uncommon clinical entity and because of it, there is no information regarding their optimal surgical treatment. Case presentation A 41-years-old female with incidentally diagnosed nonparasitic splenic cyst which initially was asymptomatic. After two years of follow up, the patient underwent surgery; subtotal cystectomy and omentoplasty as an additional procedure. Postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion Short and mid term results showed that near total cystectomy with omentoplasty was a safe successful procedure for treatment of epidermoid splenic cyst. PMID:19829799

  16. Lysosomal Signaling Enhances Mitochondria-Mediated Photodynamic Therapy in A431 Cancer Cells: Role of Iron

    PubMed Central

    Saggu, Shalini; Hung, Hsin-I; Quiogue, Geraldine; Lemasters, John J.; Nieminen, Anna-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    In photodynamic therapy (PDT), light activates a photosensitizer added to a tissue, resulting in singlet oxygen formation and cell death. The photosensitizer phthalocyanine 4 (Pc 4) localizes primarily to mitochondrial membranes in cancer cells, resulting in mitochondria-mediated cell death. The aim of this study was to determine how lysosomes contribute to PDT-induced cell killing by mitochondria-targeted photosensitizers such as Pc 4. We monitored cell killing of A431 cells after Pc 4-PDT in the presence and absence of bafilomycin, an inhibitor of the vacuolar proton pump of lysosomes and endosomes. Bafilomycin was not toxic by itself, but greatly enhanced Pc 4-PDT-induced cell killing. To investigate whether iron loading of lysosomes affects bafilomycin-induced killing, cells were incubated with ammonium ferric citrate (30 μm) for 30 h prior to PDT. Ammonium ferric citrate enhanced Pc 4 plus bafilomycin-induced cell killing without having toxicity by itself. Iron chelators (desferrioxamine and starch-desferrioxamine) and the inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium (and ferrous iron) uniporter, Ru360, protected against Pc 4 plus bafilomycin toxicity. These results support the conclusion that chelatable iron stored in the lysosomes enhances the efficacy of bafilomycin-mediated PDT and that lysosomal disruption augments PDT with Pc 4. PMID:22220628

  17. Intraparenchymal epidermoid cyst: proper surgical management may lead to satisfactory outcome.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian; Wang, Chun; Liu, Fengqiang

    2018-03-12

    Intraparenchymal epidermoid cysts (IECs) are rare lesions, thus the preoperative diagnosis and proper surgical management are still a challenge. We searched the database at our institution and performed a search of English literature in PubMed and Google Scholar. Keywords used were as follows: "intraparenchymal"; "intracerebral"; "intraaxial"; "epidermoid cyst"; "brainstem"; "cholesteatoma"; "pearly tumor". Only cases that were true intraparenchymally located and contained adequate clinical information were included. Six cases of IECs were recorded at our institution. Total removal was achieved in all the six patients with good outcomes. 29 cases meeting the above criteria were found in the literature. Including ours, a total of 35 patients were analyzed. Females were more frequently affected (F/M ratio, 1.9:1). Most of them were located in the brainstem (42.9%) and temporal lobe (22.9%). While in children, all were located in the brainstem. 45.2% showed subtle peripheral enhancement on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and all appeared hyperintense on Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI). In the subgroup of cerebral lobes and cerebellums, total resection was achieved in 89.5%, and they all showed good outcomes. While in the subgroup of brainstem, 46.7% (seven cases) underwent total resection and 50% (three cases) of them died postoperatively. MRI with DWI is helpful in the preoperative diagnosis. Total resection should be achieved for the IECs located in cerebral lobes and cerebellums, while subtotal resection is a wise and safe strategy for the IECs located in the brainstem.

  18. Evidence for toxicity differences between inorganic arsenite and thioarsenicals in human bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Naranmandura, Hua; Ogra, Yasumitsu; Iwata, Katsuya; Lee, Jane; Suzuki, Kazuo T; Weinfeld, Michael; Le, X Chris

    2009-07-15

    Arsenic toxicity is dependent on its chemical species. In humans, the bladder is one of the primary target organs for arsenic-induced carcinogenicity. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying arsenic-induced carcinogenicity, and what arsenic species are responsible for this carcinogenicity. The present study aimed at comparing the toxic effect of DMMTA(V) with that of inorganic arsenite (iAs(III)) on cell viability, uptake efficiency and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) toward human bladder cancer EJ-1 cells. The results were compared with those of a previous study using human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Although iAs(III) was known to be toxic to most cells, here we show that iAs(III) (LC(50)=112 microM) was much less cytotoxic than DMMTA(V) (LC(50)=16.7 microM) in human bladder EJ-1 cells. Interestingly, pentavalent sulfur-containing DMMTA(V) generated a high level of intracellular ROS in EJ-1 cells. However, this was not observed in the cells exposed to trivalent inorganic iAs(III) at their respective LC(50) dose. Furthermore, the presence of N-acetyl-cysteine completely inhibited the cytotoxicity of DMMTA(V) but not iAs(III), suggesting that production of ROS was the main cause of cell death from exposure to DMMTA(V), but not iAs(III). Because the cellular uptake of iAs(III) is mediated by aquaporin proteins, and because the resistance of cells to arsenite can be influenced by lower arsenic uptake due to lower expression of aquaporin proteins (AQP 3, 7 and 9), the expression of several members of the aquaporin family was also examined. In human bladder EJ-1 cells, mRNA/proteins of AQP3, 7 and 9 were not detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)/western blotting. In A431 cells, only mRNA and protein of AQP3 were detected. The large difference in toxicity between the two cell lines could be related to their differences in uptake of arsenic species.

  19. [Epidermoid cyst of the testis difficult to make a preoperative diagnosis on the echoic examination: a case report].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Keisuke; Takada, Tsuyoshi; Momohara, Chikahiro; Komori, Kazuhiko; Honda, Masahito; Fujioka, Hideki

    2003-04-01

    A case of epidermoid cyst of the testis is presented. The patient was a 64-year-old man who complained of a painless mass in the left scrotum. Physical examination revealed a hen-egg sized enlargement of the left scrotal contents. The ultrasonographic appearance did not show a hyperechoic partition, which is called echogenic rim, a characteristic of this tumor on the echoic examination, and was homogeneous, almost similar to that of a normal testis. Because malignant testicular tumors could not be excluded preoperatively, excisional biopsy of the left testis was performed first. Histological diagnosis was an epidermoid cyst of the testis. As the left testis was almost completely occupied by the tumor and no normal testicular tissue was recognized, we performed orchiectomy additionally. Epidermoid cyst of the testis is a rare benign tumor that accounts for about 1 percent of all testicular tumors. It clinically resembles malignant testicular tumors, and orchiectomy is often performed for treatment. About 154 cases of testicular epidermoid cyst have been reported in the Japanese literature and are reviewed briefly here.

  20. Proteolytic cleavage and activation of PAK2 during UV irradiation-induced apoptosis in A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, T K; Chang, W C; Chan, W H; Yang, S D; Ni, M H; Yu, J S

    1998-09-15

    Exposure of mammalian cells to ultraviolet (UV) light elicits a cellular response and can also lead to apoptotic cell death. In this report, we show that a 36-kDa myelin basic protein (MBP) kinase detected by an in-gel kinase assay can be dramatically activated during the early stages of UV irradiation-triggered apoptosis of A431 cells. Immunoblot analysis revealed that this 36-kDa MBP kinase could be recognized by an antibody against the C-terminal regions of a family of p21Cdc42/Rac-activated kinases (PAKs). By using this antibody and a PAK2-specific antibody against the N-terminal region of PAK2 as studying tools, we further demonstrated that UV irradiation caused cleavage of PAK2 to generate a 36-kDa C-terminal catalytic fragment and a 30-kDa N-terminal fragment in A431 cells. The appearance of the 36-kDa C-terminal catalytic fragment of PAK2 matched exactly with the activation of the 36-kDa MBP kinase in A431 cells upon UV irradiation. In addition, UV irradiation also led to activation of CPP32/caspase-3, but not ICH-1L/caspase-2 and ICE/caspase-1, in A431 cells and the kinetics of activation of CPP32/caspase-3 appeared to correlate well with that of DNA fragmentation and of cleavage/activation of PAK2, respectively. Moreover, blockage of activation of CPP32/caspase-3 by pretreating the cells with two specific tetrapeptidic inhibitors for caspases (Ac-DEVD-cho and Ac-YVAD-cmk) could significantly attenuate the extent of cleavage/activation of PAK2 induced by UV irradiation. Collectively, the results demonstrate that cleavage and activation of PAK2 can be induced during the early stages of UV irradiation-triggered apoptosis and indicate the involvement of CPP32/caspase-3 in this process.

  1. Epidermoid cyst

    MedlinePlus

    ... your provider should examine you for signs of skin cancer. Some skin cancers look like cystic nodules, so have any new ... and pits. In: Patterson JW, ed. Weedon's Skin Pathology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2015: ...

  2. Pulmonary epidermoid carcinoma in a patient with acromegaly: a rare entity

    PubMed Central

    El Aziz, Siham; Chadli, Asma; Obbiba, Atika; El Ghomari, Hassan; Farouqi, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    A 56-years-old woman was referred to our unit for partially treated acromegaly. She had a high level of insulin growth factor. She did not complain of any pulmonary symptoms and was a non-smoker. Physical examination revealed clinical features of acromegaly. She had a 13 mm pituitary adenoma and was proposed for surgical intervention. Her chest X-ray showed a right paracardiac tumor. Computed tomography scan revealed a large right-sided fowler tumor. Pituitary surgery was cancelled and lobectomy after biopsy with lymph nodes excision was performed through thoracotomy. Histological study of the tumor revealed a medium differentiated epidermoid carcinoma with positive lymph nodes and extension to pleura. She was referred to chemotherapy protocol. Association between carcinoma and acromegaly has previously been reported. Most common tumors are colorectal and thyroid neoplasia. As we see in this case report, we need to consider other carcinomas in acromegalic patients like pulmonary carcinoma, despite their rarity in women. PMID:22891085

  3. Laparoscopic resection of an epidermoid cyst within an intrapancreatic accessory spleen: a case report and review article.

    PubMed

    Harris, Andrew Charles; Chaudry, Mohammed Asif; Menzies, Donald; Conn, Paul Chandler

    2012-08-01

    We report a case of an epidermoid cyst within an intrapancreatic accessory spleen that was treated by laparoscopic excision. A 39-year-old man with no abdominal symptoms was incidentally found to have a cystic pancreatic lesion on computed tomography scan undertaken for suspected deep vein thrombosis. Further computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed similar findings and the laparoscopic resection of the distal pancreas and spleen was undertaken as malignancy could not be excluded. Microscopic analysis revealed a well-circumscribed epidermoid cyst within a thin splenic rim in the tail of the pancreas. Such histologic diagnoses are extremely rare, and this is the 26th case report to our knowledge in English language journals. These lesions should be treated surgically to exclude malignancy. This is the first case reported in the United Kingdom and the first to be excised by pure laparoscopic means, which we believe provides effective and successful surgical management.

  4. Balancing the shortcomings of microscope and endoscope: endoscope-assisted technique in microsurgical removal of recurrent epidermoid cysts in the posterior fossa.

    PubMed

    Ebner, F H; Roser, F; Thaher, F; Schittenhelm, J; Tatagiba, M

    2010-10-01

    We report about endoscope-assisted surgery of epidermoid cysts in the posterior fossa focusing on the application of neuro-endoscopy and the clinical outcome in cases of recurrent epidermoid cysts. 25 consecutively operated patients with an epidermoid cyst in the posterior fossa were retrospectively analysed. Surgeries were performed both with an operating microscope (OPMI Pentero or NC 4, Zeiss Company, Oberkochen, Germany) and endoscopic equipment (4 mm rigid endoscopes with 30° and 70° optics; Karl Storz Company, Tuttlingen, Germany) under continuous intraoperative monitoring. Surgical reports and DVD-recordings were evaluated for identification of adhesion areas and surgical details. 7 (28%) of the 25 patients were recurrences of previously operated epidermoid cysts. Mean time to recurrence was 17 years (8-22 years). In 5 cases the endoscope was used as an adjunctive tool for inspection/endoscope-assisted removal of remnants. The effective time of use of the endoscope was limited to the end stage of the procedure, but was very effective. In a modern operative setting and with the necessary surgical experience recurrent epidermoid cysts may be removed with excellent clinical results. The combined use of microscope and endoscope offers relevant advantages in demanding anatomic situations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. 1,4-Naphthoquinone activates the HSP90/HSF1 pathway through the S-arylation of HSP90 in A431 cells: Negative regulation of the redox signal transduction pathway by persulfides/polysulfides.

    PubMed

    Abiko, Yumi; Sha, Liang; Shinkai, Yasuhiro; Unoki, Takamitsu; Luong, Nho Cong; Tsuchiya, Yukihiro; Watanabe, Yasuo; Hirose, Reiko; Akaike, Takaaki; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2017-03-01

    The current consensus is that environmental electrophiles activate redox signal transduction pathways through covalent modification of sensor proteins with reactive thiol groups at low concentrations, while they cause cell damage at higher concentrations. We previously exposed human carcinoma A431 cells to the atmospheric electrophile 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4-NQ) and found that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), a negative regulator of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), was a target of 1,4-NQ. In the study presented here, we determined whether 1,4-NQ activates HSF1. We also examined whether such redox signaling could be regulated by nucleophilic sulfur species. Exposure of A431 cells to 1,4-NQ covalently modified cellular HSP90, resulting in repression of the association between HSF1 with HSP90, thereby enhancing HSF1 translocation into the nuclei. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis with recombinant HSP90 revealed that the modifications site were Cys412 and Cys564. We found that HSF1 activation mediated by 1,4-NQ upregulated downstream genes, such as HSPA6. HSF1 knockdown accelerated 1,4-NQ-mediated cytotoxicity in the cells. While simultaneous treatment with reactive persulfide and polysulfide, Na 2 S 2 and Na 2 S 4 , blocked 1,4-NQ-dependent protein modification and HSF1 activation in A431 cells, the knockdown of Cys persulfide producing enzymes cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and/or cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) enhanced these phenomena. 1,4-NQ-thiol adduct and 1,4-NQ-S-1,4-NQ adduct were produced during the enzymatic reaction of recombinant CSE in the presence of 1,4-NQ. The results suggest that activation of the HSP90-HSF1 signal transduction pathway mediated by 1,4-NQ protects cells against 1,4-NQ and that per/polysulfides can diminish the reactivity of 1,4-NQ by forming sulfur adducts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Design and optimization of non-clogging counter-flow microconcentrator for enriching epidermoid cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tran-Minh, Nhut; Dong, Tao; Su, Qianhua; Yang, Zhaochu; Jakobsen, Henrik; Karlsen, Frank

    2011-02-01

    Clogging failure is common for microfilters in living cells concentration; for instance, the CaSki Cell-lines (Epidermoid cervical carcinoma cells) utilizing the flat membrane structure. In order to avoid the clogging, counter-flow concentration units with turbine blade-like micropillar are proposed in microconcentrator design. Due to the unusual geometrical-profiles and extraordinary microfluidic performance, the cells blocking does not occur even at permeate entrances. A counter-flow microconcentrator was designed, with both processing layer and collecting layer arranged in terms of the fractal based honeycomb structure. The device was optimized by coupling Artificial Neuron Network (ANN) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The excellent concentration ratio of a final microconcentrator was presented in numerical results.

  7. Ultrastructure of Pericystic or Intracystic Blood Vessels in Epidermoid Cysts-A Transmission Electron Microscopy Study: Laboratory Investigation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiao-Hui; Ma, Jun; Zeng, Chun; Sun, Yi-Lin; Lin, Song

    2017-07-01

    Recently, we reported a tendency toward spontaneous hemorrhage in both the preoperative and postoperative periods in patients with intracranial epidermoid cyst (EC). According to our experience, this tendency for spontaneous hemorrhage was partly caused by the pathologic blood vessels adjacent to the EC. This study was designed to testify this hypothesis. Twenty-three removable pericystic or intracystic blood vessels from 17 patients with EC were collected during surgery and were then examined by transmission electron microscopy. The microvascular structure in gliomas was chosen as the control. Under electron microscopy, variant pathologic changes of vessels were found in all patients with EC. In the tunicae intima, we found vacuolization, apoptosis, necrosis, and intralumenal protrusion of endothelial cells, as well as swollen basement and highly flexed and discontinued elastic plate. In the tunicae media, vacuolization and swollen mitochondria were found in muscular cells. In the tunicae adventitia, extravascular erythrocytes, edema or apoptosis of pericytes, collagen predominance, and inflammatory cell infiltration and destruction were found. Neuron denature and necrosis were found in the peripheral brain tissue. In the microvascular structure of 5 glioma specimens, we found enlargement and hyperplasia of endothelial cells, swollen basement membrane, swollen pericytes, and astrocytic hyperplasia and neuron denature in adjacent brain tissues. Our findings provide strong evidence for the hypothesis that intracystic or pericystic vascular degeneration or destruction accounts for the spontaneous hemorrhage tendency before and after surgical resection of ECs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. New Cytotoxic Triterpenoid Saponins from the Roots of Albizia gummifera (J.F.Gmel.) C.A.Sm.

    PubMed

    Simo, Line Made; Noté, Olivier Placide; Mbing, Joséphine Ngo; Aouazou, Sarah Ali; Guillaume, Dominique; Muller, Christian Dominique; Pegnyemb, Dieudonné Emmanuel; Lobstein, Annelise

    2017-10-01

    As part of our search for new bioactive saponins from Cameroonian medicinal plants, two new oleanane-type saponins, named gummiferaosides D and E (1 and 2), along with one known saponin, julibroside J 8 (3), were isolated from the roots of Albizia gummifera. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR ( 1 H- and 13 C-NMR, DEPT, COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HSQC, HSQC-TOCSY, and HMBC) and HR-ESI-MS studies, and by chemical evidence. The apoptotic effect of saponins 1 - 3 was evaluated on the A431 human epidermoid cancer cell. Flow cytometric analyses showed that saponins 1 - 3 induced apoptosis of human epidermoid cancer cell (A431) in a dose-dependent manner. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  9. Extracellular ATP is a mitogen for 3T3, 3T6, and A431 cells and acts synergistically with other growth factors.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, N; Wang, D J; Heppel, L A

    1989-01-01

    Extracellular ATP in concentrations of 5-50 microM displayed very little mitogenic activity by itself but it caused synergistic stimulation of [3H]thymidine incorporation in the presence of phorbol 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate, epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, insulin, adenosine, or 5'-(N-ethyl)carboxamidoadenosine. Cultures of Swiss 3T3, Swiss 3T6, A431, DDT1-MF2, and HFF cells were used. The percent of cell nuclei labeled with [3H]thymidine and cell number were also increased. ADP was equally mitogenic, while UTP and ITP were much less active. The effect of ATP was not due to hydrolysis by ectoenzymes to form adenosine, a known growth factor. Thus, the nonhydrolyzable analogue adenosine 5'-[beta, gamma-imido]triphosphate was mitogenic. In addition, it was found that ATP showed synergism in 3T6 and 3T3 cells when present for only the first hour of an incorporation assay, during which time no significant hydrolysis occurred. Furthermore, prolonged preincubation of cells with ATP reduced the mitogenic response to ATP but not to adenosine; preincubation with adenosine or N6-(R-phenylisopropyl)adenosine had the reverse effect. Finally, the effect of adenosine, but not of ATP, was inhibited by aminophylline. We conclude that extracellular ATP is a mitogen that interacts with P2 purinoceptors on the plasma membrane. PMID:2813367

  10. Protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-mediated epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor transinactivation and EGF receptor-independent stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase by bradykinin in A431 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Graness, A; Hanke, S; Boehmer, F D; Presek, P; Liebmann, C

    2000-01-01

    Transactivation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) has been proposed to represent an essential link between G-protein-coupled receptors and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in various cell types. In the present work we report, in contrast, that in A431 cells bradykinin transinactivates the EGFR and stimulates MAPK activity independently of EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation. Both effects of bradykinin are mediated by a pertussis-toxin-insensitive G-protein. Three lines of evidence suggest the activation of a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) by bradykinin: (i) treatment of A431 cells with bradykinin decreases both basal and EGF-induced EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation, (ii) this effect of bradykinin can be blocked by two different PTP inhibitors, and (iii) bradykinin significantly increased the PTP activity in total A431 cell lysates when measured in vitro. The transmembrane receptor PTP sigma was identified as a putative mediator of bradykinin-induced downregulation of EGFR autophosphorylation. Activation of MAPK in response to bradykinin was insensitive towards AG 1478, a specific inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine kinase, but was blocked by wortmannin or bisindolylmaleimide, inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) and protein kinase C (PKC) respectively. These results also suggest that the bradykinin-induced activation of MAPK is independent of EGFR and indicate a pathway involving PI3-K and PKC. In addition, bradykinin evokes a rapid and transient increase in Src kinase activity. Although Src does not participate in bradykinin-induced stimulation of PTP activity, inhibition of Src by 4-amino-5-(4-methylphenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo(3,4-d)pyrimidine leads to an increase in MAPK activation by bradykinin. Our results suggest that in A431 cells the G(q/11)-protein-coupled bradykinin B(2) receptor may stimulate PTP activity and thereby transinactivate the EGFR, and may simultaneously activate MAPK by an alternative signalling pathway

  11. Inhibition of STAT-3 Results in Radiosensitization of Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, James A.; Trummell, Hoa Q.; Willey, Christopher D.; Plants, Brian A.; Raisch, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription – 3 (STAT-3) is a downstream component of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFr) signaling process that may facilitate the resistance of tumor cells to conventional cancer treatments. Studies were performed to determine if inhibition of this downstream protein may produce radiosensitization. Methods/Results A431 cells (human squamous cell carcinoma cells with EGFr overexpression) were found to be sensitized to radiation after treatment with STAT-3 small interfering RNA (siRNA). Therefore, a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against STAT-3 was designed and cloned into a pBABE vector system modified for shRNA expression. Following transfection, clone 2.1 was selected for further study as it showed a dramatic reduction of STAT-3 protein (and mRNA) when compared to A431 parental cells or a negative control shRNA cell line (transfected with STAT-3 shRNA with 2 base pairs mutated). A431 2.1 showed doubling times of 25-31 h as compared to 18-24 h for the parental cell line. The A431 shRNA knockdown STAT-3 cells A431 were more sensitive to radiation than A431 parental or negative STAT-3 control cells. Conclusion A431 cells stably transfected with shRNA against STAT-3 resulted in enhanced radiosensitivity. Further work will be necessary to determine whether inhibition of STAT-3 phosphorylation is a necessary step for the radiosensitization that is induced by inhibition of EGFr. PMID:19616333

  12. [Effects of icotinib hydrochloride on the proliferation and apoptosis of human lung cancer cell lines].

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Han, Xiao-hong; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Jian-fei; Shi, Yuan-kai

    2012-09-25

    To explore the effects of icotinib on the proliferation and apoptosis of various lung cancer cell lines. Human lung cancer cell lines HCC827, H1650, H1975, A549 and human epidermal cancer cell line A431 were treated in vitro with icotinib or gefitinib at a concentration gradient of 0 - 40 µmol/L. Their proliferation effects were analyzed by the thiazolyl blue (MTT) assay and the apoptotic effects detected by flow cytometer. The downstream signaling proteins were detected by Western blot. The median inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of icotinib for A431 and HCC827 cell lines were (0.04 ± 0.02) and (0.15 ± 0.06) µmol/L respectively. No significant differences existed between the inhibitions of gefitinib and icotinib on A431, HCC827, H1650, H1975 and A549 cell lines (all P > 0.05). Compared with H1650, H1975 and A549 cell lines, icotinib significantly inhibited A431 (P = 0.009, 0.005 and 0.000) and HCC827 (P = 0.001, 0.001 and 0.000) cell lines. And it lowered the expressions of p-AKT, p-ERK and survivin protein expression through the inhibited activity of p-EGFR protein. Icotinib can arrest the proliferation of lung adenocarcinoma cells with EGFR mutation or over-expression by inhibiting the signal pathways of AKT-ERK and survivin.

  13. The effect of L-cysteine and N-acetylcysteine on porphyrin/heme biosynthetic pathway in cells treated with 5-aminolevulinic acid and exposed to radiation.

    PubMed

    He, D; Behar, S; Roberts, J E; Lim, H W

    1996-10-01

    The effects of L-cysteine (LC) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on porphyrin accumulation in a human dermal microvascular endothelial cell line (HMEC-1) and a human epidermoid carcinoma cell line (A431) loaded with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and exposed to ultraviolet A (UVA) and blue light radiation were determined. Porphyrin accumulation was decreased in the presence of 0.1-7.5 mM LC (24.8%-31.4% suppression in HMEC-1 cell; 35.8%-48.9% suppression in A431 cells), and in the presence of 0.1-10.0 mM NAC (30.9%-58.0% suppression in HMEC-1 cells; 8.5%-45.3% in A431 cells). The suppression occurred in a LC or NAC dose-dependent fashion. The above was associated with partial reversal of suppression of ferrochelatase (FeC) activity in HMEC-1 cells and in A431 cells. As compared to FeC activity in cells treated with ALA and irradiation, enzyme activity was higher (by 31.9%-62.1%) in the presence of LC (1.0 mM or 5.0 mM) and in the presence of NAC (1.0 mM or 5.0 mM). These data indicate that LC and NAC have protective effects on porphyrin- and irradiation-induced diminution of FeC activity in HMEC-1 cells and A341 cells in vitro.

  14. [Microsatellite instability and human papilloma virus genotypes in preneoplastic and neoplastic uterine cervix lesions].

    PubMed

    Roa S, Juan Carlos; Martínez S, Ricardo; Montenegro, Sonia; Roa E, Iván; Capurro V, Italo; Ibacache S, Gilda; Melo A, Angélica

    2007-01-01

    The association between some specific human papilloma virus (HPV) types and cervix cancer is well known. However, the genetic conditions that favor the development of cervical cancer are less well known. To determine the presence of satellite instability (MSI) in preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the cervix and correlate these findings with HPV genotypes. Biopsy samples of cervical lesions were studied. Sixteen had low grade lesions, 22 had high grade lesions and 28 had an epidermoid cancer. Viral types were identified with polymerase chain reaction, dot-blot hybridization and restriction fragment length polymorphism. MSI was determined using a panel of eight highly informative microsatellites. Microsatellite instability in at least one locus was observed in 91, 56 and 69% of low grade lesions, high grade lesions and epidermoid carcinomas, respectively. MSI-High grade, MSI-Low grade instability and microsatellite stability were observed in 5, 60 and 46% of samples, respectively. Two of three samples with high grade instability had HPV 52 genotype. Other viral subtypes had frequencies that ranged from 78% to 100%, with the exception of HPV16 that was present in only 53% of samples with low grade instability. Two thirds of biopsy samples from cervical lesions had MSI, mechanism that can be involved in the first stages of cervical carcinogenesis. The low frequency of high grade instability, its association with HPV52 and the low frequency of HPV16 in samples with low grade instability, suggest different coadjutant mechanisms in cervical carcinogenesis.

  15. Evaluation of Mannosidase and Trypsin Enzymes Effects on Biofilm Production of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Burn Wound Infections.

    PubMed

    Banar, Maryam; Emaneini, Mohammad; Satarzadeh, Mhboubeh; Abdellahi, Nafiseh; Beigverdi, Reza; Leeuwen, Willem B van; Jabalameli, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    Biofilm is an important virulence factor in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and has a substantial role in antibiotic resistance and chronic burn wound infections. New therapeutic agents against P. aeruginosa, degrading biofilms in burn wounds and improving the efficacy of current antimicrobial agents, are required. In this study, the effects of α-mannosidase, β-mannosidase and trypsin enzymes on the degradation of P. aeruginosa biofilms and on the reduction of ceftazidime minimum biofilm eliminating concentrations (MBEC) were evaluated. All tested enzymes, destroyed the biofilms and reduced the ceftazidime MBECs. However, only trypsin had no cytotoxic effect on A-431 human epidermoid carcinoma cell lines. In conclusion, since trypsin had better features than mannosidase enzymes, it can be a promising agent in combatting P. aeruginosa burn wound infections.

  16. Imaging of immunolabeled membrane receptors in uncoated SEM specimens.

    PubMed

    Heinzmann, U; Reninger, A; Autrata, R; Höfler, H

    1994-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) were labeled with 10 nm immunogold and examined on uncoated specimens of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. A field emission gun and a high-sensitivity YAG ring detector were used to demonstrate the affinity labeling simultaneously in the secondary-electron (SE) and backscattered-electron (BSE) modes with a low accelerating voltage (Vo). At Vo = 2 kV, the SE and BSE signals were too weak to identify all markers, while at Vo = 3-7 kV labeling was observed unambiguously in both the SE and BSE modes with smaller and higher working distances. Increasing the Vo to above 7 kV sometimes provokes instability of the specimens. A Vo of > or = 10 kV produces charging artifacts in the SE image, but permits a BSE image of the gold markers providing additional topographic information. In conclusion, immunogold labeling can be used with good results for uncoated specimens.

  17. Understanding the Antifungal Mechanism of Ag@ZnO Core-shell Nanocomposites against Candida krusei.

    PubMed

    Das, Bhaskar; Khan, Md Imran; Jayabalan, R; Behera, Susanta K; Yun, Soon-Il; Tripathy, Suraj K; Mishra, Amrita

    2016-11-04

    In the present paper, facile synthesis of Ag@ZnO core-shell nanocomposites is reported where zinc oxide is coated on biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using Andrographis paniculata and Aloe vera leaf extract. Structural features of as synthesized nanocomposites are characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD, and FTIR. Morphology of the above core-shell nanocomposites is investigated by electron microscopy. As synthesized nanocomposite material has shown antimicrobial activity against Candida krusei, which is an opportunistic pathogen known to cause candidemia. The possible mode of activity of the above material has been studied by in-vitro molecular techniques. Our investigations have shown that surface coating of biogenic silver nanoparticles by zinc oxide has increased its antimicrobial efficiency against Candida krusei, while decreasing its toxicity towards A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cell lines.

  18. Extracellular domain shedding influences specific tumor uptake and organ distribution of the EGFR PET tracer 89Zr-imgatuzumab.

    PubMed

    Pool, Martin; Kol, Arjan; Lub-de Hooge, Marjolijn N; Gerdes, Christian A; de Jong, Steven; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Anton G T

    2016-10-18

    Preclinical positron emission tomography (PET) imaging revealed a mismatch between in vivo epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression and EGFR antibody tracer tumor uptake. Shed EGFR ectodomain (sEGFR), which is present in cancer patient sera, can potentially bind tracer and therefore influence tracer kinetics. To optimize EGFR-PET, we examined the influence of sEGFR levels on tracer kinetics and tumor uptake of EGFR monoclonal antibody 89Zr-imgatuzumab in varying xenograft models. Human cancer cell lines A431 (EGFR overexpressing, epidermoid), A549 and H441 (both EGFR medium expressing, non-small cell lung cancer) were xenografted in mice. Xenografted mice received 10, 25 or 160 μg 89Zr-imgatuzumab, co-injected with equal doses 111In-IgG control. MicroPET scans were made 24, 72 and 144 h post injection, followed by biodistribution analysis. sEGFR levels in liver and plasma samples were determined by ELISA. 89Zr-imgatuzumab uptake in A431 tumors was highest (29.8 ± 5.4 %ID/g) in the 160 μg dose group. Contrary, highest uptake in A549 and H441 tumors was found at the lowest (10 μg) 89Zr-imgatuzumab dose. High 89Zr-imgatuzumab liver accumulation was found in A431 xenografted mice, which decreased with antibody dose increments. 89Zr-imgatuzumab liver uptake in A549 and H441 xenografted mice was low at all doses. sEGFR levels in liver and plasma of A431 bearing mice were up to 1000-fold higher than levels found in A549, H441 and non-tumor xenografted mice. 89Zr-imgatuzumab effectively visualizes EGFR-expressing tumors. High sEGFR levels can redirect 89Zr-imgatuzumab to the liver, in which case tumor visualization can be improved by increasing tracer antibody dose.

  19. Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer with 1,1-Bis (3′-Indolyl)-1-(Aromatic) Methane Analog through Induction of the Orphan Nuclear Receptor, NR4A2 (Nurr1)

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Punit P.; Patel, Apurva R.; Godugu, Chandraiah; Safe, Stephen; Katiyar, Santosh K.; Singh, Mandip

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to demonstrate the anti-skin cancer and chemopreventive potential of 1,1-bis(3′-indolyl)-1-(p-chlorophenyl methane) (DIM-D) using an in vitro model. Methods In vitro cell cytotoxicity and viability assays were carried out in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cell line and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) respectively by crystal violet staining. Apoptosis induction in A431 cells (DIM-D treated) and NHEK cells pretreated with DIM-D (2 hr) prior to UVB irradiation, were assessed. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in DIM-D pretreated NHEK cells (2 hr) prior to UVB exposure was also determined. Immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis was performed to determine cleaved caspase 3 and DNA damage markers in DIM-D treated A431 cells and in DIM-D pretreated NHEK cells prior to UVB irradiation. Results The IC50 values of DIM-D were 68.7±7.3, 48.3±10.1 and 11.5±3.1 μM whilst for Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) were 419.1±8.3, 186.1±5.2 and 56.7±3.1 μM for 24, 48 and 72 hr treatments respectively. DIM-D exhibited a significantly (p<0.05) greater induction of DNA fragmentation in A431 cells compared to EGCG with percent cell death of 38.9. In addition, DIM-D induced higher expression in A431 cells compared to EGCG of cleaved caspase 3 (3.0-fold vs. 2.4-fold changes), Nurr1 (2.7-fold vs. 1.7-fold changes) and NFκB (1.3-fold vs. 1.1-fold changes). DIM-D also exhibited chemopreventive activity in UVB-irradiated NHEK cells by significantly (p<0.05) reducing UVB-induced ROS formation and apoptosis compared to EGCG. Additionally, DIM-D induced expression of Nurr1 but reduced expression of 8-OHdG significantly in UVB-irradiated NHEK cells compared to EGCG and UV only. Conclusion Our results suggest that DIM-D exhibits Nurr1-dependent transactivation in the induction of apoptosis in A431 cells and it protects NHEK cells against UVB-induced ROS formation and DNA damage. PMID:23950896

  20. Targeting PI3K-AKT-mTOR by LY3023414 inhibits human skin squamous cell carcinoma cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ying; Ge, Minggai; Wang, Xuemin

    2017-08-19

    Abnormal activation of PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling is detected in human skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). LY3023414 is a novel, potent, and orally bio-available PI3K-AKT-mTOR inhibitor. Its activity against human skin SCC cells was tested. We demonstrated that LY3023414 was cytotoxic when added to established (A431 line) and primary (patient-derived) human skin SCC cells. LY3023414 induced G0/1-S arrest and inhibited proliferation of skin SCC cells. Moreover, LY3023414 induced activation of caspase-3/-9 and apoptosis in skin SCC cells. Intriguingly, LY3023414 was yet non-cytotoxic nor pro-apoptotic to normal human skin cells (melanocytes, keratinocytes and fibroblasts). At the molecular level, LY3023414 blocked PI3K-AKT-mTOR activation in skin SCC cells, as it dephosphorylated PI3K-AKT-mTOR substrates: P85, AKT and S6K1. In vivo studies showed that oral administration of LY3023414 at well-tolerated doses inhibited A431 xenograft tumor growth in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. AKT-mTOR activation in LY3023414-treated tumors was also largely inhibited. Together, these results suggest that targeting PI3K-AKT-mTOR by LY3023414 inhibits human skin SCC cell growth in vitro and in vivo, establishing the rationale for further clinical testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Blockage of JNK pathway enhances arsenic trioxide-induced apoptosis in human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.-S., E-mail: huanghs@mail.ncku.edu.t; Liu, Z.-M.; Hong, D.-Y.

    2010-04-15

    Arsenic is well known as a carcinogen predisposing humans to some severe diseases and also as an effective medicine for treating acute promyelocytic leukemia, syphilis, and psoriasis. Multiple active mechanisms, including cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, have been proposed in therapy; however, the opposing effects of arsenic remain controversial. Our previous study found that arsenic trioxide (ATO)-induced activation of p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} (p21) led to A431 cell death through the antagonistic effects of the signaling of ERK1/2 and JNK1. In the current study, the inhibitory effects of JNK1 on ATO-induced p21 expression were explored. Over-expression of JNK1 in A431 cells couldmore » inhibit p21 expression, which was associated with HDAC1 and TGIF. Using the GST pull-down assay and fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis, N-terminal domain (amino acids 1-108) of TGIF, critical to its binding with c-Jun, was found. Using reporter assays, requirement of the C-terminal domain (amino acids 138-272) of TGIF to suppress ATO-induced p21 expression was observed. Thus, the domains of TGIF that carried out its inhibitory effects on p21 were identified. Finally, treatment with JNK inhibitor SP600125 could enhance ATO-induced apoptosis of HaCaT keratinocytes by using flow cytometry.« less

  2. Aggregation of nanoparticles in endosomes and lysosomes produces surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Leanne J.; Chen, Xiaoke K.; Smith, Aaron J.; Korbelik, Mladen; Zeng, Haishan; Lee, Patrick W. K.; Hewitt, Kevin Cecil

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the use of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to image the distribution of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in cells. To accomplish this task, 30-nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) tagged with antibodies to EGFR (1012 per mL) were incubated with cells (106 per mL) of the A431 human epidermoid carcinoma and normal human bronchial epithelial cell lines. Using the 632.8-nm excitation line of a He-Ne laser, Raman spectroscopy measurements were performed using a point mapping scheme. Normal cells show little to no enhancement. SERS signals were observed inside the cytoplasm of A431 cells with an overall enhancement of 4 to 7 orders of magnitude. Raman intensity maps of the 1450 and 1583 cm-1 peaks correlate well with the expected distribution of EGFR and AuNPs, aggregated following uptake by endosomes and lysosomes. Spectral features from tyrosine and tryptophan residues dominate the SERS signals.

  3. The distribution of the therapeutic monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and trastuzumab within solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Carol M; Tannock, Ian F

    2010-06-03

    Poor distribution of some anticancer drugs in solid tumors may limit their anti-tumor activity. Here we used immunohistochemistry to quantify the distribution of the therapeutic monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and trastuzumab in relation to blood vessels and to regions of hypoxia in human tumor xenografts. The antibodies were injected into mice implanted with human epidermoid carcinoma A431 or human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 transfected with ERBB2 (231-H2N) that express high levels of ErbB1 and ErbB2 respectively, or wild-type MDA-MB-231, which expresses intermediate levels of ErbB1 and low levels of ErbB2. The distribution of cetuximab in A431 xenografts and trastuzumab in 231-H2N xenografts was time and dose dependent. At early intervals after injection of 1 mg cetuximab into A431 xenografts, the concentration of cetuximab decreased with increasing distance from blood vessels, but became more uniformly distributed at later times; there remained however limited distribution and binding in hypoxic regions of tumors. Injection of lower doses of cetuximab led to heterogeneous distributions. Similar results were observed with trastuzumab in 231-H2N xenografts. In MDA-MB-231 xenografts, which express lower levels of ErbB1, homogeneity of distribution of cetuximab was achieved more rapidly. Cetuximab and trastuzumab distribute slowly, but at higher doses achieve a relatively uniform distribution after about 24 hours, most likely due to their long half-lives in the circulation. There remains poor distribution within hypoxic regions of tumors.

  4. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors. 15. 4-(Phenylamino)quinazoline and 4-(phenylamino)pyrido[d]pyrimidine acrylamides as irreversible inhibitors of the ATP binding site of the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Smaill, J B; Palmer, B D; Rewcastle, G W; Denny, W A; McNamara, D J; Dobrusin, E M; Bridges, A J; Zhou, H; Showalter, H D; Winters, R T; Leopold, W R; Fry, D W; Nelson, J M; Slintak, V; Elliot, W L; Roberts, B J; Vincent, P W; Patmore, S J

    1999-05-20

    A series of 6- and 7-acrylamide derivatives of the 4-(phenylamino)quinazoline and -pyridopyrimidine classes of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors were prepared from the corresponding amino compounds by reaction with either acryloyl chloride/base or acrylic acid/1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride. All of the 6-acrylamides, but only the parent quinazoline 7-acrylamide, were irreversible inhibitors of the isolated enzyme, confirming that the former are better-positioned, when bound to the enzyme, to react with the critical cysteine-773. Quinazoline, pyrido[3,4-d]pyrimidine, and pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidine 6-acrylamides were all irreversible inhibitors and showed similar high potencies in the enzyme assay (likely due to titration of the available enzyme). However the pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidine analogues were 2-6-fold less potent than the others in a cellular autophosphorylation assay for EGFR in A431 cells. The quinazolines were generally less potent overall toward inhibition of heregulin-stimulated autophosphorylation of erbB2 (in MDA-MB-453-cells), whereas the pyridopyrimidines were equipotent. Selected compounds were evaluated in A431 epidermoid and H125 non-small-cell lung cancer human tumor xenografts. The compounds showed better activity when given orally than intraperitoneally. All showed significant tumor growth inhibition (stasis) over a dose range. The poor aqueous solubility of the compounds was a drawback, requiring formulation as fine particulate emulsions.

  5. Apoptotic induction of skin cancer cell death by plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Thuncharoen, Walairat; Chulasiri, Malin; Nilwarangkoon, Sirinun; Nakamura, Yukio; Watanapokasin, Ramida

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of plant extracts on cancer apoptotic induction. Human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cell line, obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA), was maintained in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) at 37 degrees C, 5% carbon dioxide (CO2). Plant extract solutions were obtained from S & J international enterprises public company limited. These plant extracts include 50% hydroglycol extracts from Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M.Smith (torch ginger; EE), Rosa damascene (damask rose; DR) and Rafflesia kerrii Meijer (bua phut; RM). The cell viability, time and dose dependency were determined by MTT (3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. A431 cells were treated with the plant extracts and stained with Hoechst 33342 fluorescent staining dye. Cell viability was demonstrated by the inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50). The anti-proliferative effects were shown to be dependent on time and dose. Typical characteristics of apoptosis which are cell morphological changes and chromatin condensation were clearly observed. The plant extracts was shown to be effective for anti-proliferation and induction of apoptosis cell death in skin cancer cells. Therefore, mechanisms underlying the cell death and its potential use for treatment of skin cancer will be further studied.

  6. Production of a germline-humanized cetuximab scFv and evaluation of its activity in recognizing EGFR- overexpressing cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Banisadr, Arsham; Safdari, Yaghoub; Kianmehr, Anvarsadat; Pourafshar, Mahdieh

    2018-04-03

    The aim of this study was to produce a humanized single chain antibody (scFv) as a potential improved product design to target EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor) overexpressing cancer cells. To this end, CDR loops of cetuximab (an FDA-approved anti-EGFR antibody) were grafted on framework regions derived from type 3 (VH3 and VL3 kappa) human germline sequences to obtain recombinant VH and VL domainslinked together with a flexible linker [(Gly 4 Ser) 3 ] to form a scFv. Codon optimized synthetic gene encoding the scFv (with NH2-VH-linker-VL-COOH orientation) was expressed in E. coli Origami™ 2(DE3) cells and the resultant scFv purified by using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The scFv, called cet.Hum scFv, was evaluated in ELISA and immunoblot to determine whether it can recognize EGFR. The scFv was able to recognize EGFR over-expressing cancer cells (A-431) but failed to detect cancer cells with low levels of EGFR (MCF-7 cells). Although the affinity of the scFv forA-431 cells was 9 fold lower than that of cetuximab, it was strong enough to recognize these cells. Considering its ability to bind EGFR molecules, the scFv may exhibit a potential application for the detection of EGFR-overexpressing cancer cells.

  7. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) density may not be the only determinant for the efficacy of EGFR-targeted photoimmunotherapy in human head and neck cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; de Bruijn, Henriette S; Farrell, Eric; Sioud, Mouldy; Mashayekhi, Vida; Oliveira, Sabrina; van Dam, Go M; Roodenburg, Jan L N; Witjes, Max J H; Robinson, Dominic J

    2018-05-19

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of targeted photoimmunotherapy (PIT) in vitro on cell lines with various expression levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) using an anti-EGFR targeted conjugate composed of Cetuximab and IR700DX, phthalocyanine dye. Relative EGFR density and cell binding assay was conducted in three human head & neck cancer cell lines (scc-U2, scc-U8, and OSC19) and one reference cell line A431. After incubation with the conjugate for 1 or 24 hours, cellular uptake and localization were investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy and quantified by image analysis. Cell survival was determined using the MTS assay and alamarBlue assay after PIT with a 690 nm laser to a dose of 7 J.cm -2 (at 5 mW.cm -2 ). The mode of cell death was examined with flow cytometry using apoptosis/necrosis staining by Annexin V/propidium iodide, together with immunoblots of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. A431 cells had the highest EGFR density followed by OSC19, and then scc-U2 and scc-U8. The conjugates were localized both on the surface and in the cytosol of the cells after 1- and 24-hour incubation. After 24-hour incubation the granular pattern was more pronounced and in a similar pattern of a lysosomal probe, suggesting that the uptake of conjugates by cells was via receptor-mediated endocytosis. The results obtained from the quantitative imaging analysis correlate with the level of EGFR expression. Targeted PIT killed scc-U8 and A431 cells efficiently; while scc-U2 and OSC19 were less sensitive to this treatment, despite having similar EGFR density, uptake and localization pattern. Scc-U2 cells showed less apoptotic cell dealth than in A431 after 24-hour targeted PIT. Immunoblots showed significantly higher expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL proteins in scc-U2 cell lines compared to scc-U8. Our study suggests that the effectiveness of EGFR targeted PIT is not only dependent upon EGFR density

  8. Human HST1 (HSTF1) gene maps to chromosome band 11q13 and coamplifies with the INT2 gene in human cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Michihiro C.; Wada, Makio; Satoh, Hitoshi

    1988-07-01

    The human HST1 gene, previously designated the hst gene, and now assigned the name HSTF1 for heparin-binding secretory transforming factor in human gene nomenclature, was originally identified as a transforming gene in DNAs from human stomach cancers by transfection assay with mouse NIH 3T3 cells. The amino acid sequence of the product deduced from DNA sequences of the HST1 cDNA and genomic clones had approximately 40% homology to human basic and acidic fibroblast growth factors and mouse Int-2-encoded protein. The authors have mapped the human HST1 gene to chromosome 11 at band q13.3 by Southern blot hybridization analysis of amore » panel of human and mouse somatic cell hybrids and in situ hybridization with an HST1 cDNA probe. The HST1 gene was found to be amplified in DNAs obtained from a stomach cancer and a vulvar carcinoma cell line, A431. In all of these samples of DNA, the INT2 gene, previously mapped to human chromosome 11q13, was also amplified to the same degree as the HST1 gene.« less

  9. [The identification of viruses of human papilloma of high carcinogenic risk and evaluation of physical status of viral DNA using technique of polymerase-chain reaction under affection of cervical epithelium].

    PubMed

    Viazovaia, A A; Kuevda, D A; Trofimova, O B; Shipulina, O Iu; Ershov, V A; Lialina, L V; Narvskaia, O V

    2013-08-01

    The DNA of virus of human papilloma of high carcinogenic risk was detected in 116 cervical samples. At that, the morphological symptoms of background processes are detected in 19 samples, CIN 1 in 9, CIN 2 in 23, CIN 3 in 54 (and out of them carcinoma in situ in 13), epidermoid cancer (squamous cell carcinoma) in 11 cases. The viral load of human papilloma of high carcinogenic risk in all samples of DNA exceeded threshold of clinical value (3 lg copies of DNA of human papilloma/105 cells). The genetic typing of human papilloma of high carcinogenic risk revealed the dominance of human papilloma of type 16 in 49.7%, type 33 in 15.3%, type 31 in 12.3% and type 45 in 5.5%. In women with background processes in cervix of the uterus DNA of human papilloma type 16 was detected more often in episome form. In case of dysplastic alterations of epithelium and cervical cancer DNA of human papilloma type 16 is detected in mixt form with different degree of integration into cell genome.

  10. Sphingomyelin-cholesterol liposomes significantly enhance the pharmacokinetic and therapeutic properties of vincristine in murine and human tumour models.

    PubMed Central

    Webb, M. S.; Harasym, T. O.; Masin, D.; Bally, M. B.; Mayer, L. D.

    1995-01-01

    This study reports on the development of a liposomal formulation of vincristine with significantly enhanced stability and biological properties. The in vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetic, tumour delivery and efficacy properties of liposomal vincristine formulations based on sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol were compared with liposomes composed of distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC) and cholesterol. SM/cholesterol liposomes had significantly greater in vitro stability than did similar DSPC/cholesterol liposomes. SM/cholesterol liposomes also had significantly improved biological properties compared with DSPC/cholesterol. Specifically, SM/cholesterol liposomes administered intravenously retained 25% of the entrapped vincristine after 72 h in the circulation, compared with 5% retention in DSPC/cholesterol liposomes. The improved retention properties of SM/cholesterol liposomes resulted in plasma vincristine levels 7-fold higher than in DSPC/cholesterol liposomes. The improved circulation lifetime of vincristine in SM/cholesterol liposomes correlated with increased vincristine accumulation in peritoneal ascitic murine P388 tumours and in subcutaneous solid A431 human xenograft tumours. Increased vincristine delivery to tumours was also accompanied by increased anti-tumour efficacy. Treatment with SM/cholesterol liposomal formulations of vincristine resulted in greater than 50% cures in mice bearing ascitic P388 tumours, an activity that could not be achieved with the DSPC/cholesterol formulation. Similarly, treatment of mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) bearing solid human A431 xenograft tumours with SM/cholesterol vincristine formulations delayed the time required for 100% increase in tumour mass to > 40 days, compared with 5 days, 7 days and 14 days for mice receiving no treatment or treatment with free vincristine or DSPC/cholesterol formulations of vincristine respectively. PMID:7547237

  11. [Epidermoid cancer of the thoracic esophagus following mediastinal irradiation].

    PubMed

    Fékété, F; Mosnier, H; Sogni, P; Belghiti, J; Molas, G

    1986-03-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus induced by radiation therapy is a rare entity. We report 4 cases observed during the past 4 years. Three women and one man aged from 47 to 78 years developed squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus 8 to 11 years after radiation therapy. The 3 women had been irradiated for breast cancer and the man for Hodgkin's disease with 40 to 57.5 Gy. Three patients were operated on and the immediate postoperative course was uneventful. Culling data from this report and from the literature we reviewed the different steps concerning the diagnosis and the treatment of this complication of radiation therapy. We suggest that diagnostic and therapeutic modalities should follow the same guidelines as in other esophageal cancers.

  12. Isolation of a human anti-epidermal growth factor receptor Fab antibody, EG-19-11, with subnanomolar affinity from naïve immunoglobulin repertoires using a hierarchical antibody library system.

    PubMed

    Hur, Byung-ung; Yoon, Jae-bong; Liu, Li-Kun; Cha, Sang-hoon

    2010-11-30

    Specific antibodies that possess a subnanomolar affinity are very difficult to obtain from human naïve immunoglobulin repertoires without the use of lengthy affinity optimization procedures. Here, we designed a hierarchical phage-displayed antibody library system to generate an enormous diversity of combinatorial Fab fragments (6×10(17)) and attempted to isolate high-affinity Fabs against the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). A primary antibody library, designated HuDVFab-8L, comprising 4.5×10(9) human naïve heavy chains and eight unspecified human naïve light chains was selected against the EGFR-Fc protein by biopanning, and four anti-EGFR Fab clones were isolated. Because one of the Fab clones, denoted EG-L2-11, recognized a native EGFR expressed on A431 cells, the heavy chain of the Fab was shuffled with a human naïve light chain repertoire with a diversity of 1.4×10(8) and selected a second time against the EGFR-Fc protein again. One EG-L2-11 variant, denoted EG-19-11, recognized an EGFR epitope that was almost the same as that bound by cetuximab and had a K(D) of approximately 540 pM for soluble EGFR, which is about 7-fold higher than that of the FabC225 derived from cetuximab. This variant was also internalized by A431 cells, likely via receptor-mediated endocytosis, and it efficiently inhibited EGF-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGFR. These results demonstrate that the use of our hierarchical antibody library system is advantageous in generating fully human antibodies especially with a therapeutic purpose. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. In vivo detection of small tumour lesions by multi-pinhole SPECT applying a 99mTc-labelled nanobody targeting the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Krüwel, Thomas; Nevoltris, Damien; Bode, Julia; Dullin, Christian; Baty, Daniel; Chames, Patrick; Alves, Frauke

    2016-01-01

    The detection of tumours in an early phase of tumour development in combination with the knowledge of expression of tumour markers such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important prerequisite for clinical decisions. In this study we applied the anti-EGFR nanobody 99mTc-D10 for visualizing small tumour lesions with volumes below 100 mm3 by targeting EGFR in orthotopic human mammary MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 and subcutaneous human epidermoid A431 carcinoma mouse models. Use of nanobody 99mTc-D10 of a size as small as 15.5 kDa enables detection of tumours by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging already 45 min post intravenous administration with high tumour uptake (>3% ID/g) in small MDA-MB-468 and A431 tumours, with tumour volumes of 52.5 mm3 ± 21.2 and 26.6 mm3 ± 16.7, respectively. Fast blood clearance with a serum half-life of 4.9 min resulted in high in vivo contrast and ex vivo tumour to blood and tissue ratios. In contrast, no accumulation of 99mTc-D10 in MDA-MB-231 tumours characterized by a very low expression of EGFR was observed. Here we present specific and high contrast in vivo visualization of small human tumours overexpressing EGFR by preclinical multi-pinhole SPECT shortly after administration of anti-EGFR nanobody 99mTc-D10. PMID:26912069

  14. Molecular cloning of a human Ca2+-dependent cell-cell adhesion molecule homologous to mouse placental cadherin: its low expression in human placental tissues

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    P-cadherin is a subclass of Ca2+-dependent cell-cell adhesion molecules present in mouse placenta, where its localization suggests a function of connecting the embryo to the uterus (Nose, A., and M. Takeichi. 1986. J. Cell Biol. 103:2649-2658). We recently identified a human cadherin detected by an mAb capable of disrupting cell-cell adhesion of A-431 cells, and found that it was closely related immunochemically to mouse P-cadherin. Curiously, this cadherin was undetectable in human placenta by immunohistochemical examination (Shimoyama, Y., S. Hirohashi, S. Hirano, M. Noguchi, Y. Shimosato, M. Takeichi, and O. Abe. 1989. Cancer Res. 49:2128-2133). We here report the cloning and sequencing of cDNA clone encoding the human homologue of mouse P- cadherin. The deduced amino acid sequence of the human P-cadherin consists of 829 amino acid and shows striking homology with mouse P- cadherin. On Northern blot analysis, human P-cadherin was scarcely expressed in human placenta in contrast to mouse P-cadherin, which was abundantly expressed in mouse placenta throughout pregnancy, and it was shown that E-cadherin, but not P-cadherin, was the major cadherin molecule in human placenta. Moreover, NIH3T3 cells transfected with human P-cadherin cDNA expressed the functional cadherin molecule, which was identical to the cadherin we had previously identified using the mAb, showing that this molecule really does mediate cell-cell adhesion and that the cadherin we detected immunochemically is undoubtedly human P-cadherin. The results obtained in this study support the idea that P- cadherin plays little role, if any, in Ca2+-dependent cell-cell binding in human placental tissue at least after several weeks of pregnancy. PMID:2793940

  15. Preclinical PET imaging of EGFR levels: pairing a targeting with a non-targeting Sel-tagged Affibody-based tracer to estimate the specific uptake.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qing; Wållberg, Helena; Grafström, Jonas; Lu, Li; Thorell, Jan-Olov; Hägg Olofsson, Maria; Linder, Stig; Johansson, Katarina; Tegnebratt, Tetyana; Arnér, Elias S J; Stone-Elander, Sharon; Ahlzén, Hanna-Stina Martinsson; Ståhl, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    Though overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in several forms of cancer is considered to be an important prognostic biomarker related to poor prognosis, clear correlations between biomarker assays and patient management have been difficult to establish. Here, we utilize a targeting directly followed by a non-targeting tracer-based positron emission tomography (PET) method to examine some of the aspects of determining specific EGFR binding in tumors. The EGFR-binding Affibody molecule ZEGFR:2377 and its size-matched non-binding control ZTaq:3638 were recombinantly fused with a C-terminal selenocysteine-containing Sel-tag (ZEGFR:2377-ST and ZTaq:3638-ST). The proteins were site-specifically labeled with DyLight488 for flow cytometry and ex vivo tissue analyses or with (11)C for in vivo PET studies. Kinetic scans with the (11)C-labeled proteins were performed in healthy mice and in mice bearing xenografts from human FaDu (squamous cell carcinoma) and A431 (epidermoid carcinoma) cell lines. Changes in tracer uptake in A431 xenografts over time were also monitored, followed by ex vivo proximity ligation assays (PLA) of EGFR expressions. Flow cytometry and ex vivo tissue analyses confirmed EGFR targeting by ZEGFR:2377-ST-DyLight488. [Methyl-(11)C]-labeled ZEGFR:2377-ST-CH3 and ZTaq:3638-ST-CH3 showed similar distributions in vivo, except for notably higher concentrations of the former in particularly the liver and the blood. [Methyl-(11)C]-ZEGFR:2377-ST-CH3 successfully visualized FaDu and A431 xenografts with moderate and high EGFR expression levels, respectively. However, in FaDu tumors, the non-specific uptake was large and sometimes equally large, illustrating the importance of proper controls. In the A431 group observed longitudinally, non-specific uptake remained at same level over the observation period. Specific uptake increased with tumor size, but changes varied widely over time in individual tumors. Total (membranous and cytoplasmic) EGFR

  16. Green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, induces toxicity in human skin cancer cells by targeting β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Singh, Tripti; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2013-12-01

    The green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), has been shown to have anti-carcinogenic effects in several skin tumor models, and efforts are continued to investigate the molecular targets responsible for its cytotoxic effects to cancer cells. Our recent observation that β-catenin is upregulated in skin tumors suggested the possibility that the anti-skin carcinogenic effects of EGCG are mediated, at least in part, through its effects on β-catenin signaling. We have found that treatment of the A431 and SCC13 human skin cancer cell lines with EGCG resulted in reduced cell viability and increased cell death and that these cytotoxic effects were associated with inactivation of β-catenin signaling. Evidence of EGCG-induced inactivation of β-catenin included: (i) reduced accumulation of nuclear β-catenin; (ii) enhanced levels of casein kinase1α, reduced phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β, and increased phosphorylation of β-catenin on critical serine(45,33/37) residues; and (iii) reduced levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, which are down-stream targets of β-catenin. Treatment of cells with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) enhanced the accumulation of β-catenin and enhanced β-catenin signaling. Treatment with either EGCG or an EP2 antagonist (AH6809) reduced the PGE2-enhanced levels of cAMP, an upstream regulator of β-catenin. Inactivation of β-catenin by EGCG resulted in suppression of cell survival signaling proteins. siRNA knockdown of β-catenin in A431 and SCC13 cells reduced cell viability. Collectively, these data suggest that induction of cytotoxicity in skin cancer cells by EGCG is mediated by targeting of β-catenin signaling and that the β-catenin signaling is upregulated by inflammatory mediators. © 2013.

  17. Chemotherapeutic Effect of CD147 Antibody-labeled Micelles Encapsulating Doxorubicin Conjugate Targeting CD147-Expressing Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Tadashi; Yokoyama, Masayuki; Shiraishi, Koichi; Aoki, Katsuhiko; Ohkawa, Kiyoshi

    2018-03-01

    CD147 (basigin/emmprin) is expressed on the surface of carcinoma cells. For studying the efficacy of CD147-targeting medicine on CD147-expressing cells, we studied the effect of anti-CD147-labeled polymeric micelles (CD147ab micelles) that encapsulated a conjugate of doxorubicin with glutathione (GSH-DXR), with specific accumulation and cytotoxicity against CD147-expressing A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells, Ishikawa human endometrial adenocarcinoma cells, and PC3 human prostate carcinoma cells. By treatment of each cell type with CD147ab micelles for 1 h, a specific accumulation of CD147ab micelles in CD147-expressing cells was observed. In addition, the cytotoxicity of GSH-DXR-encapsulated micelles against each cell type was measured by treatment of the micelles for 1 h. The cytotoxic effect of CD147ab micelles carrying GSH-DXR was 3- to 10-fold higher for these cells than that of micelles without GSH-DXR. These results suggest that GSH-DXR-encapsulated CD147ab micelles could serve as an effective drug delivery system to CD147-expressing carcinoma cells. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  18. Human See, Human Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasello, Michael

    1997-01-01

    A human demonstrator showed human children and captive chimpanzees how to drag food or toys closer using a rakelike tool. One side of the rake was less efficient than the other for dragging. Chimps tried to reproduce results rather than methods while children imitated and used the more efficient rake side. Concludes that imitation leads to…

  19. More Human than Human.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, David

    2017-07-01

    Within the literature surrounding nonhuman animals on the one hand and cognitively disabled humans on the other, there is much discussion of where beings that do not satisfy the criteria for personhood fit in our moral deliberations. In the future, we may face a different but related problem: that we might create (or cause the creation of) beings that not only satisfy but exceed these criteria. The question becomes whether these are minimal criteria, or hierarchical, such that those who fulfill them to greater degree should be afforded greater consideration. This article questions the validity and necessity of drawing divisions among beings that satisfy the minimum requirements for personhood; considering how future beings-intelligent androids, synthezoids, even alternate-substrate sentiences-might fit alongside the "baseline" human. I ask whether these alternate beings ought to be considered different to us, and why this may or may not matter in terms of a notion of "human community." The film Blade Runner, concerned in large part with humanity and its key synthezoid antagonist Roy Batty, forms a framing touchstone for my discussion. Batty is stronger, faster, more resilient, and more intelligent than Homo sapiens. His exploits, far beyond the capability of normal humans, are contrasted with his frailty and transient lifespan, his aesthetic appreciation of the sights he has seen, and his burgeoning empathy. Not for nothing does his creator within the mythos term him "more human than human."

  20. Consistency of the Proteome in Primary Human Keratinocytes With Respect to Gender, Age, and Skin Localization*

    PubMed Central

    Sprenger, Adrian; Weber, Sebastian; Zarai, Mostafa; Engelke, Rudolf; Nascimento, Juliana M.; Gretzmeier, Christine; Hilpert, Martin; Boerries, Melanie; Has, Cristina; Busch, Hauke; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Dengjel, Jörn

    2013-01-01

    Keratinocytes account for 95% of all cells of the epidermis, the stratified squamous epithelium forming the outer layer of the skin, in which a significant number of skin diseases takes root. Immortalized keratinocyte cell lines are often used as research model systems providing standardized, reproducible, and homogenous biological material. Apart from that, primary human keratinocytes are frequently used for medical studies because the skin provides an important route for drug administration and is readily accessible for biopsies. However, comparability of these cell systems is not known. Cell lines may undergo phenotypic shifts and may differ from the in vivo situation in important aspects. Primary cells, on the other hand, may vary in biological functions depending on gender and age of the donor and localization of the biopsy specimen. Here we employed metabolic labeling in combination with quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics to assess A431 and HaCaT cell lines for their suitability as model systems. Compared with cell lines, comprehensive profiling of the primary human keratinocyte proteome with respect to gender, age, and skin localization identified an unexpected high proteomic consistency. The data were analyzed by an improved ontology enrichment analysis workflow designed for the study of global proteomics experiments. It enables a quick, comprehensive and unbiased overview of altered biological phenomena and links experimental data to literature. We guide through our workflow, point out its advantages compared with other methods and apply it to visualize differences of cell lines compared with primary human keratinocytes. PMID:23722187

  1. A Chrysin Derivative Suppresses Skin Cancer Growth by Inhibiting Cyclin-dependent Kinases*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haidan; Liu, Kangdong; Huang, Zunnan; Park, Chan-Mi; Thimmegowda, N. R.; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Ryoo, In-Ja; He, Long; Kim, Sun-Ok; Oi, Naomi; Lee, Ki Won; Soung, Nak-Kyun; Bode, Ann M.; Yang, Yifeng; Zhou, Xinmin; Erikson, Raymond L.; Ahn, Jong-Seog; Hwang, Joonsung; Kim, Kyoon Eon; Dong, Zigang; Kim, Bo-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), a natural flavonoid widely distributed in plants, reportedly has chemopreventive properties against various cancers. However, the anticancer activity of chrysin observed in in vivo studies has been disappointing. Here, we report that a chrysin derivative, referred to as compound 69407, more strongly inhibited EGF-induced neoplastic transformation of JB6 P+ cells compared with chrysin. It attenuated cell cycle progression of EGF-stimulated cells at the G1 phase and inhibited the G1/S transition. It caused loss of retinoblastoma phosphorylation at both Ser-795 and Ser-807/811, the preferred sites phosphorylated by Cdk4/6 and Cdk2, respectively. It also suppressed anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. Compound 69407 reduced tumor growth in the A431 mouse xenograft model and retinoblastoma phosphorylation at Ser-795 and Ser-807/811. Immunoprecipitation kinase assay results showed that compound 69407 attenuated endogenous Cdk4 and Cdk2 kinase activities in EGF-stimulated JB6 P+ cells. Pulldown and in vitro kinase assay results indicated that compound 69407 directly binds with Cdk2 and Cdk4 in an ATP-independent manner and inhibited their kinase activities. A binding model between compound 69407 and a crystal structure of Cdk2 predicted that compound 69407 was located inside the Cdk2 allosteric binding site. The binding was further verified by a point mutation binding assay. Overall results indicated that compound 69407 is an ATP-noncompetitive cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor with anti-tumor effects, which acts by binding inside the Cdk2 allosteric pocket. This study provides new insights for creating a general pharmacophore model to design and develop novel ATP-noncompetitive agents with chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic potency. PMID:23888052

  2. Quantum dot-insect neuropeptide conjugates for fluorescence imaging, transfection, and nucleus targeting of living cells.

    PubMed

    Biju, Vasudevanpillai; Muraleedharan, Damodaran; Nakayama, Ken-ichi; Shinohara, Yasuo; Itoh, Tamitake; Baba, Yoshinobu; Ishikawa, Mitsuru

    2007-09-25

    We identified an insect neuropeptide, namely, allatostatin 1 from Drosophila melanogaster, that transfects living NIH 3T3 and A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells and transports quantum dots (QDs) inside the cytoplasm and even the nucleus of the cells. QD-conjugated biomolecules are valuable resources for visualizing the structures and functions of biological systems both in vivo and in vitro. Here, we selected allatostatin 1, Ala-Pro-Ser-Gly-Ala-Gln-Arg-Leu-Tyr-Gly-Phe-Gly-Leu-NH2, conjugated to streptavidin-coated CdSe-ZnS QDs. This was followed by investigating the transfection of live mammalian cells with QD-allatostatin conjugates, the transport of QDs by allatostatin inside the nucleus, and the proliferation of cells in the presence of allatostatin. Also, on the basis of dose-dependent proliferation of cells in the presence of allatostatin we identified that allatostatin is not cytotoxic when applied at nanomolar levels. Considering the sequence similarity between the receptors of allatostatin in D. melanogaster and somatostatin/galanin in mammalian cells, we expected interactions and localization of allatostatin to somatostatin/galanin receptors on the membranes of 3T3 and A431 cells. However, with QD conjugation we identified that the peptide was delivered inside the cells and localized mainly to the cytoplasm, microtubules, and nucleus. These results indicate that allatostatin is a promising candidate for high-efficiency cell transfection and nucleus-specific cell labeling. Also, the transport property of allatostatin is promising with respect to label/drug/gene delivery and high contrast imaging of live cells and cell organelles. Another promising application of allatostatin is that the transport of QDs inside the nucleus would lift the limit of general photodynamic therapy to nucleus-specific photodynamic therapy, which is expected to be more efficient than photosensitization at the cell membrane or in the cytoplasm as a result of the short lifetime of

  3. Antiproliferative efficacy of curcumin mimics through microtubule destabilization.

    PubMed

    Khwaja, Sadiya; Fatima, Kaneez; Hasanain, Mohammad; Behera, Chittaranjan; Kour, Avneet; Singh, Arjun; Luqman, Suaib; Sarkar, Jayanta; Chanda, Debabrata; Shanker, Karuna; Gupta, A K; Mondhe, D M; Negi, Arvind S

    2018-05-10

    Curcumin possesses an attractive chemical structure with highly conjugated diferuloylmethane core. Curcumin mimics have been designed and prepared with an additional bridged phenyl ring in conjugation. Fourteen diverse analogues were evaluated against a panel of human cancer cell lines. The best analogue of the series i.e. compound 6a exhibited potent cytotoxicity against A431, epidermoid carcinoma cell line (IC 50  = 1.5 μM) and DLD1, colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (IC 50  = 6.9 μM). In tubulin kinetics experiment, compound 6a destabilized polymerisation process (IC 50  = 4.68 μM). In cell cycle analysis, compound 6a exerted G2/M phase arrest in A431 cells and induced apoptosis. In Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma in Swiss-albino mice, compound 6a showed 78.6% tumour reduction at 80 mg/kg dose and 57% solid tumour reduction at 150 mg/kg dose. Further, in acute-oral toxicity experiment in rodent model, compound 6a was given in three different oral doses to Swiss albino mice. There were non-significant changes in various biochemical parameters and major body organs studied, including their absolute and relative weights. It was tolerable up to 300 mg/kg dose in Swiss-albino mice. The present study shows that the novel curcumin mimic 6a is a safe and efficacious anticancer compound. However, it needs to be optimized for better efficacy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Intramolecular trimerization, a novel strategy for making multispecific antibodies with controlled orientation of the antigen binding domains

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Cienfuegos, Ana; Nuñez-Prado, Natalia; Compte, Marta; Cuesta, Angel M.; Blanco-Toribio, Ana; Harwood, Seandean Lykke; Villate, Maider; Merino, Nekane; Bonet, Jaume; Navarro, Rocio; Muñoz-Briones, Clara; Sørensen, Karen Marie Juul; Mølgaard, Kasper; Oliva, Baldo; Sanz, Laura; Blanco, Francisco J.; Alvarez-Vallina, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe a new strategy that allows the rapid and efficient engineering of mono and multispecific trivalent antibodies. By fusing single-domain antibodies from camelid heavy-chain-only immunoglobulins (VHHs) to the N-terminus of a human collagen XVIII trimerization domain (TIEXVIII) we produced monospecific trimerbodies that were efficiently secreted as soluble functional proteins by mammalian cells. The purified VHH-TIEXVIII trimerbodies were trimeric in solution and exhibited excellent antigen binding capacity. Furthermore, by connecting with two additional glycine-serine-based linkers three VHH-TIEXVIII modules on a single polypeptide chain, we present an approach for the rational design of multispecific tandem trimerbodies with defined stoichiometry and controlled orientation. Using this technology we report here the construction and characterization of a tandem VHH-based trimerbody capable of simultaneously binding to three different antigens: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and green fluorescence protein (GFP). Multispecific tandem VHH-based trimerbodies were well expressed in mammalian cells, had good biophysical properties and were capable of simultaneously binding their targeted antigens. Importantly, these antibodies were very effective in inhibiting the proliferation of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Multispecific VHH-based trimerbodies are therefore ideal candidates for future applications in various therapeutic areas. PMID:27345490

  5. Icotinib (BPI-2009H), a novel EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, displays potent efficacy in preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Tan, Fenlai; Shen, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dechang; Xie, Guojian; Zhang, Xiaodong; Ding, Lieming; Hu, Yunyan; He, Wei; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Yinxiang

    2012-05-01

    Icotinib, one of the leading compounds selected from our compound library, was found to be a potent and specific epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) with an IC(50) of 5 nM. When profiled with 88 kinases, Icotinib only showed meaningful inhibitory activity to EGFR and its mutants. Icotinib blocked EGFR-mediated intracellular tyrosine phosphorylation (IC(50)=45 nM) in the human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cell line and inhibits tumor cell proliferation. In vivo studies demonstrated that Icotinib exhibited potent dose-dependent antitumor effects in nude mice carrying a variety of human tumor-derived xenografts. The drug was well tolerated at doses up to 120 mg/kg/day in mice without mortality or significant body weight loss during the treatment. A head to head randomized, double blind phase III trial using Gefitinib as an active control for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was finished recently (Trial registration ID: NCT01040780). The data shows that Icotinib was non-inferior to Gefitinib in terms of median progression free survival (PFS) and safety superior favor to Icotinib compared to Gefitinib. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of a Novel Human scFv Against EGFR L2 Domain by Phage Display Technology.

    PubMed

    Rahbarnia, Leila; Farajnia, Safar; Babaei, Hossein; Majidi, Jafar; Veisi, Kamal; Khosroshahi, Shiva Ahdi; Tanomand, Asghar

    2017-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor frequently overexpresses in tumors with epithelial origin. The L2 domain from extracellular part of EGFR is involved in ligand binding and the blockage of this domain prevents activation of related signaling pathways. This study was aimed to develop a novel human scFv against EGFR L2 domain as a promising target for cancer therapy. The L2 recombinant protein was purified and used for panning a human scFv phage library (Tomlinson I). In this study, a novel screening strategy was applied to select clones with high binding and enrichment of rare specific phage clones of the L2 protein. After five biopanning rounds several specific clones were isolated which among them one phage clone with high binding was purified for further analysis. The specific interaction of selected clone against target antigen was confirmed by ELISA and western blotting. Immunofluorescence staining showed that purified scFv binds to A431 cells surface, displaying EGFR surface receptor. In the present study, we isolated for the first time a novel human scFv against EGFR L2 domain. This study can be the groundwork for developing more effective diagnostic and therapeutic agents against EGFR overexpressing cancers using this novel human anti-L2 ScFv. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Human Development, Human Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smillie, David

    One of the truly remarkable events in human evolution is the unprecedented increase in the size of the brain of "Homo" over a brief span of 2 million years. It would appear that some significant selective pressure or opportunity presented itself to this branch of the hominid line and caused a rapid increase in the brain, introducing a…

  8. Macroalgae Extracts From Antarctica Have Antimicrobial and Anticancer Potential

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Rosiane M.; Nedel, Fernanda; Guimarães, Victoria B. S.; da Silva, Adriana F.; Colepicolo, Pio; de Pereira, Claudio M. P.; Lund, Rafael G.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Macroalgae are sources of bioactive compounds due to the large number of secondary metabolites they synthesize. The Antarctica region is characterized by extreme weather conditions and abundant aggregations of macroalgae. However, current knowledge on their biodiversity and their potential for bio-prospecting is still fledging. This study evaluates the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of different extracts of four macroalgae (Cystosphaera jacquinotii, Iridaea cordata, Himantothallus grandifolius, and Pyropia endiviifolia) from the Antarctic region against cancer and non-cancer cell lines. Methods: The antimicrobial activity of macroalgae was evaluated by the broth microdilution method. Extracts were assessed against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 19095, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 4083, Escherichia coli ATCC29214, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Candida albicans ATCC 62342, and the clinical isolates from the human oral cavity, namely, C. albicans (3), C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C. lipolytica, and C. famata. Cytotoxicity against human epidermoid carcinoma (A-431) and mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3) cell lines was evaluated with MTT colorimetric assay. Results: An ethyl acetate extract of H. grandifolius showed noticeable antifungal activity against all fungal strains tested, including fluconazole-resistant samples. Cytotoxicity investigation with a cancer cell line revealed that the ethyl acetate extract of I. cordata was highly cytotoxic against A-431 cancer cell line, increasing the inhibitory ratio to 91.1 and 95.6% after 24 and 48 h exposure, respectively, for a concentration of 500 μg mL−1. Most of the algal extracts tested showed little or no cytotoxicity against fibroblasts. Conclusion: Data suggest that macroalgae extracts from Antarctica may represent a source of therapeutic agents. HIGHLIGHTS Different macroalgae samples from Antarctica were collected and the lyophilized biomass of each macroalgae was extracted sequentially with

  9. Crucial role of vinexin for keratinocyte migration in vitro and epidermal wound healing in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Kioka, Noriyuki, E-mail: nkioka@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Ito, Takuya; Yamashita, Hiroshi

    2010-06-10

    In the process of tissue injury and repair, epithelial cells rapidly migrate and form epithelial sheets. Vinexin is a cytoplasmic molecule of the integrin-containing cell adhesion complex localized at focal contacts in vitro. Here, we investigated the roles of vinexin in keratinocyte migration in vitro and wound healing in vivo. Vinexin knockdown using siRNA delayed migration of both HaCaT human keratinocytes and A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells in scratch assay but did not affect cell proliferation. Induction of cell migration by scratching the confluent monolayer culture of these cells activated both EGFR and ERK, and their inhibitors AG1478 and U0126 substantiallymore » suppressed scratch-induced keratinocyte migration. Vinexin knockdown in these cells inhibited the scratch-induced activation of EGFR, but not that of ERK, suggesting that vinexin promotes cell migration via activation of EGFR. We further generated vinexin (-/-) mice and isolated their keratinocytes. They similarly showed slow migration in scratch assay. Furthermore, vinexin (-/-) mice exhibited a delay in cutaneous wound healing in both the back skin and tail without affecting the proliferation of keratinocytes. Together, these results strongly suggest a crucial role of vinexin in keratinocyte migration in vitro and cutaneous wound healing in vivo.« less

  10. A novel label-free cell-based assay technology using biolayer interferometry.

    PubMed

    Verzijl, D; Riedl, T; Parren, P W H I; Gerritsen, A F

    2017-01-15

    Biolayer interferometry (BLI) is a well-established optical label-free technique to study biomolecular interactions. Here we describe for the first time a cell-based BLI (cBLI) application that allows label-free real-time monitoring of signal transduction in living cells. Human A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells were captured onto collagen-coated biosensors and serum-starved, followed by exposure to agonistic compounds targeting various receptors, while recording the cBLI signal. Stimulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with EGF, the β 2 -adrenoceptor with dopamine, or the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR/c-MET) with an agonistic antibody resulted in distinct cBLI signal patterns. We show that the mechanism underlying the observed changes in cBLI signal is mediated by rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton, a process referred to as dynamic mass redistribution (DMR). A panel of ligand-binding blocking and non-blocking anti-EGFR antibodies was used to demonstrate that this novel BLI application can be efficiently used as a label-free cellular assay for compound screening and characterization. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Co-delivery of curcumin and STAT3 siRNA using deformable cationic liposomes to treat skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Jose, Anup; Labala, Suman; Venuganti, Venkata Vamsi Krishna

    2017-04-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most widely prevalent cancer types with over expression of multiple oncogenic signaling molecules including STAT3. Curcumin is a natural compound with effective anti-cancer properties. The objective of this work was to investigate the liposomal co-delivery of curcumin and STAT3 siRNA by non-invasive topical iontophoretic application to treat skin cancer. Curcumin was encapsulated in cationic liposomes and then complexed with STAT3 siRNA. The liposomal nanocomplex was characterized for particle size, zeta-potential, drug release and stability. Human epidermoid (A431) cancer cells were used to study the cell uptake, growth inhibition and apoptosis induction of curcumin-loaded liposome-siRNA complex. Topical iontophoresis was applied to study the skin penetration of nanocomplex in excised porcine skin model. Results showed that curcumin-loaded liposome-siRNA complex was rapidly taken up by cells preferentially through clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway. The co-delivery of curcumin and STAT3 siRNA using liposomes resulted in significantly (p < .05) greater cancer cell growth inhibition and apoptosis events compared with neat curcumin and free STAT3 siRNA treatment. Furthermore, topical iontophoresis application enhanced skin penetration of nanocomplex to penetrate viable epidermis. In conclusion, cationic liposomal system can be developed for non-invasive iontophoretic co-delivery of curcumin and siRNA to treat skin cancer.

  12. Synthesis, characterization, and biological evaluation of Schiff base-platinum(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiju, C.; Arish, D.; Bhuvanesh, N.; Kumaresan, S.

    2015-06-01

    The platinum complexes of Schiff base ligands derived from 4-aminoantipyrine and a few substituted aldehydes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, mass, 1H NMR, IR, electronic spectra, molar conductance, and powder XRD. The structure of one of the ligands L5 was confirmed by a single crystal XRD analysis. The Schiff base ligand crystallized in the triclinic, space group P-1 with a = 7.032(2) Ǻ, b = 9.479(3) Ǻ, c = 12.425(4) Ǻ, α = 101.636(3)°, β = 99.633(3)°, γ = 94.040(3)°, V = 795.0(4) Ǻ3, Z = 2, F(0 0 0) = 352, Dc = 1.405 mg/m3, μ = 0.099 mm-1, R = 0.0378, and wR = 0.0967. The spectral results show that the Schiff base ligand acts as a bidentate donor coordinating through the azomethine nitrogen and the carbonyl oxygen atoms. The geometrical structures of these complexes are found to be square planar. Antimicrobial studies indicate that these complexes exhibit better activity than the ligand. The anticancer activities of the complexes have also been studied towards human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), Colon Cancer Cells (HCT116) and Epidermoid Carcinoma Cells (A431) and it was found that the [Pt(L3)Cl2] complex is more active.

  13. Determination of transformation mechanisms for DMMTA and DMDTA in landfill leachate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, J.; Yoon, H.; Bae, J.; Jung, H.; Kong, M.; Kim, M.

    2011-12-01

    Dimethylmonothiolated arsinic acid (DMMTA) and dimethyldithiolated arsinic acid (DMDTA) have receiving increasing attention because of its high toxicity to human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells (Naranmandura et al., 2007) and bladder EJ-1 cells (Naranmandura et al., 2009). These findings require accurate assessment of arsenic species including thiolated compounds in environmental media. Recently, Li et al. (2010) found DMMTA and DMDTA was transformed from dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in landfill leachate with low redox potential and high bacterial biomass and concentrations of BOD and sulfide. Therefore, the transformation mechanisms for DMMTA and DMDTA were investigated to quantify what arsenic species are existed and transformed in landfill leachate for determining their potential risk. For this purpose, simulated leachate mimicking mature landfill condition was prepared under the concentrations of sulfide and volatile fatty acid (VFA) and redox potential controlled. The leachate was spiked with arsenite (iAs(III)), arsenate (iAs(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and DMA respectively and the transformed arsenic species were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Factors influencing arsenic transformations in landfill leachate were evaluated in present study and these results provide to us pathways for being generated thiolated arsenicals. Realistic risk in arsenic disposed landfill is able to calculate by using these results. Acknowledgement : This research was supported by the research grant T31603 from Korea Basic Science Institute.

  14. Chemo-spectroscopic sensor for carboxyl terminus overexpressed in carcinoma cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Stanca, Sarmiza E; Matthäus, Christian; Neugebauer, Ute; Nietzsche, Sandor; Fritzsche, Wolfgang; Dellith, Jan; Heintzmann, Rainer; Weber, Karina; Deckert, Volker; Krafft, Christoph; Popp, Jürgen

    2015-10-01

    Certain carboxyl groups of the plasma membrane are involved in tumorgenesis processes. A gold core-hydroxyapatite shell (AuHA) nanocomposite is introduced as chemo-spectroscopic sensor to monitor these carboxyl groups of the cell membrane. Hydroxyapatite (HA) plays the role both of a chemical detector and of a biocompatible Raman marker. The principle of detection is based on chemical interaction between the hydroxyl groups of the HA and the carboxyl terminus of the proteins. The AuHA exhibits a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal at 954 cm(-1) which can be used for its localization. The bio-sensing capacity of AuHA towards human skin epidermoid carcinoma (A431) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines is investigated using Raman microspectroscopic imaging. The localization of AuHA on cells is correlated with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and structured illumination fluorescence microscopy. This qualitative approach is a step towards a quantitative study of the proteins terminus. This method would enable further studies on the molecular profiling of the plasma membrane, in an attempt to provide accurate cell identification. Using a gold core-hydroxyapatite shell (AuHA) nanocomposite, the authors in this paper showed the feasibility of detecting and differentiating cell surface molecules by surface enhanced Raman scattering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification on Membrane and Characterization of Phosphoproteins Using an Alkoxide-Bridged Dinuclear Metal Complex as a Phosphate-Binding Tag Molecule

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi; Ando, Eiji; Furuta, Masaru; Kinoshita, Eiji; Kinoshita-Kikuta, Emiko; Koike, Tohru; Tsunasawa, Susumu; Nishimura, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a method for on-membrane direct identification of phosphoproteins, which are detected by a phosphate-binding tag (Phos-tag) that has an affinity to phosphate groups with a chelated Zn2+ ion. This rapid profiling approach for phosphoproteins combines chemical inkjet technology for microdispensing of reagents onto a tiny region of target proteins with mass spectrometry for on-membrane digested peptides. Using this method, we analyzed human epidermoid carcinoma cell lysates of A-431 cells stimulated with epidermal growth factor, and identified six proteins with intense signals upon affinity staining with the phosphate-binding tag. It was already known that these proteins are phosphorylated, and our new approach proved to be effective at rapid profiling of phosphoproteins. Furthermore, we tried to determine their phosphorylation sites by MS/MS analysis after in-gel digestion of the corresponding spots on the 2DE gel to the rapid on-membrane identifications. As one example of use of information gained from the rapid-profiling approach, we successfully characterized a phosphorylation site at Ser-113 on prostaglandin E synthase 3. PMID:18166671

  16. Capsaicin Displays Anti-Proliferative Activity against Human Small Cell Lung Cancer in Cell Culture and Nude Mice Models via the E2F Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hardman, W. Elaine; Luo, Haitao; Chen, Yi C.; Carpenter, A. Betts; Lau, Jamie K.; Dasgupta, Piyali

    2010-01-01

    Background Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is characterized by rapid progression and low survival rates. Therefore, novel therapeutic agents are urgently needed for this disease. Capsaicin, the active ingredient of chilli peppers, displays anti-proliferative activity in prostate and epidermoid cancer in vitro. However, the anti-proliferative activity of capsaicin has not been studied in human SCLCs. The present manuscript fills this void of knowledge and explores the anti-proliferative effect of capsaicin in SCLC in vitro and in vivo. Methodology/Principal Findings BrdU assays and PCNA ELISAs showed that capsaicin displays robust anti-proliferative activity in four human SCLC cell lines. Furthermore, capsaicin potently suppressed the growth of H69 human SCLC tumors in vivo as ascertained by CAM assays and nude mice models. The second part of our study attempted to provide insight into molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-proliferative activity of capsaicin. We found that the anti-proliferative activity of capsaicin is correlated with a decrease in the expression of E2F-responsive proliferative genes like cyclin E, thymidylate synthase, cdc25A and cdc6, both at mRNA and protein levels. The transcription factor E2F4 mediated the anti-proliferative activity of capsaicin. Ablation of E2F4 levels by siRNA methodology suppressed capsaicin-induced G1 arrest. ChIP assays demonstrated that capsaicin caused the recruitment of E2F4 and p130 on E2F-responsive proliferative promoters, thereby inhibiting cell proliferation. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that the anti-proliferative effects of capsaicin could be useful in the therapy of human SCLCs. PMID:20421925

  17. Enhanced constitutive invasion activity in human nontumorigenic keratinocytes exposed to a low level of barium for a long time.

    PubMed

    Thang, Nguyen D; Yajima, Ichiro; Ohnuma, Shoko; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Ichihara, Gaku; Kato, Masashi

    2015-02-01

    We have recently demonstrated that exposure to barium for a short time (≤4 days) and at a low level (5 µM = 687 µg/L) promotes invasion of human nontumorigenic HaCaT cells, which have characteristics similar to those of normal keratinocytes, suggesting that exposure to barium for a short time enhances malignant characteristics. Here we examined the effect of exposure to low level of barium for a long time, a condition mimicking the exposure to barium through well water, on malignant characteristics of HaCaT keratinocytes. Constitutive invasion activity, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) protein expression and activity, and matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14) protein expression in primary cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes, HaCaT keratinocytes, and HSC5 and A431 human squamous cell carcinoma cells were augmented following an increase in malignancy grade of the cells. Constitutive invasion activity, FAK phosphorylation, and MMP14 expression levels of HaCaT keratinocytes after treatment with 5 µM barium for 4 months were significantly higher than those of control untreated HaCaT keratinocytes. Taken together, our results suggest that exposure to a low level of barium for a long time enhances constitutive malignant characteristics of HaCaT keratinocytes via regulatory molecules (FAK and MMP14) for invasion. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Ebselen reduces the toxicity of mechlorethamine in A-431 cells via inhibition of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lulla, Anju; Pino, Maria A; Piętka-Ottlik, Magdalena; Młochowski, Jacek; Sparavalo, Oleksiy; Billack, Blase

    2013-06-01

    A series of test compounds were evaluated for an ability to reduce the toxicity of the nitrogen mustard mechlorethamine (HN2) in vitro. The test compounds included resveratrol, pterostilbene, vitamin C, ebselen, ebselen diselenide, and ebselen-sulfur. Among them, ebselen demonstrated the highest degree of protection against HN2 toxicity. To this end, pretreatment of the cells with ebselen offered protection against the toxicant whereas no protection was observed when cells were first incubated with HN2 and then treated with ebselen. Significant increases in caspase 3 and caspase 9 activities were observed in response to HN2, and ebselen was found to reduce these effects. Taken together, the data presented here indicate that ebselen is an effective countermeasure to nitrogen mustard in vitro, which is worthy of future investigation in vivo. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Human Augmentics: augmenting human evolution.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Robert V; Leigh, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Human Augmentics (HA) refers to technologies for expanding the capabilities, and characteristics of humans. One can think of Human Augmentics as the driving force in the non-biological evolution of humans. HA devices will provide technology to compensate for human biological limitations either natural or acquired. The strengths of HA lie in its applicability to all humans. Its interoperability enables the formation of ecosystems whereby augmented humans can draw from other realms such as "the Cloud" and other augmented humans for strength. The exponential growth in new technologies portends such a system but must be designed for interaction through the use of open-standards and open-APIs for system development. We discuss the conditions needed for HA to flourish with an emphasis on devices that provide non-biological rehabilitation.

  20. Human Parvoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Young, Neal S.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Parvovirus B19 (B19V) and human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), members of the large Parvoviridae family, are human pathogens responsible for a variety of diseases. For B19V in particular, host features determine disease manifestations. These viruses are prevalent worldwide and are culturable in vitro, and serological and molecular assays are available but require careful interpretation of results. Additional human parvoviruses, including HBoV2 to -4, human parvovirus 4 (PARV4), and human bufavirus (BuV) are also reviewed. The full spectrum of parvovirus disease in humans has yet to be established. Candidate recombinant B19V vaccines have been developed but may not be commercially feasible. We review relevant features of the molecular and cellular biology of these viruses, and the human immune response that they elicit, which have allowed a deep understanding of pathophysiology. PMID:27806994

  1. Human Rights/Human Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canning, Cynthia

    1978-01-01

    The faculty of Holy Names High School developed an interdisciplinary human rights program with school-wide activities focusing on three selected themes: the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in conjunction with Human Rights Week; Food; and Women. This article outlines major program activities. (SJL)

  2. Human Rights

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2005-12-01

    Daniel Meyer, president of the French League of the Defense of Human and Citizen Rights does an exposé on his political activism. In the second part, a Brazilian lawyer (exiled) gives witness about the human rights violation under the military dictatorship in her country; during 6 years she defended political prisoners.

  3. Human Rights

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2018-05-18

    Daniel Meyer, president of the French League of the Defense of Human and Citizen Rights does an exposé on his political activism. In the second part, a Brazilian lawyer (exiled) gives witness about the human rights violation under the military dictatorship in her country; during 6 years she defended political prisoners.

  4. Behavioral Humanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoresen, Carl E.

    Behavioral humanism is defined as the synthesis of behavioral techniques with humanistic goals. Contemporary humanism, especially humanistic psychology, offers directions for the kind of behavior that individuals should be able to engage in; contemporary behaviorism offers principles and procedures to help individuals increase their humanistic…

  5. Who is Mr. HAMLET? Interaction of human alpha-lactalbumin with monomeric oleic acid.

    PubMed

    Knyazeva, Ekaterina L; Grishchenko, Valery M; Fadeev, Roman S; Akatov, Vladimir S; Permyakov, Sergei E; Permyakov, Eugene A

    2008-12-09

    A specific state of the human milk Ca(2+) binding protein alpha-lactalbumin (hLA) complexed with oleic acid (OA) prepared using an OA-pretreated ion-exchange column (HAMLET) triggers several cell death pathways in various tumor cells. The possibility of preparing a hLA-OA complex with structural and cytotoxic properties similar to those of the HAMLET but under solution conditions has been explored. The complex was formed by titration of hLA by OA at pH 8.3 up to OA critical micelle concentration. We have shown that complex formation strongly depends on calcium, ionic strength, and temperature; the optimal conditions were established. The spectrofluorimetrically estimated number of OA molecules irreversibly bound per hLA molecule (after dialysis of the OA-loaded preparation against water followed by lyophilization) depends upon temperature: 2.9 at 17 degrees C (native apo-hLA; resulting complex referred to as LA-OA-17 state) and 9 at 45 degrees C (thermally unfolded apo-hLA; LA-OA-45). Intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence measurements revealed substantially decreased thermal stability of Ca(2+)-free forms of HAMLET, LA-OA-45, and OA-saturated protein. The irreversibly bound OA does not affect the Ca(2+) association constant of the protein. Phase plot analysis of fluorimetric and CD data indicates that the OA binding process involves several hLA intermediates. The effective pseudoequilibrium OA association constants for Ca(2+)-free hLA were estimated. The far-UV CD spectra of Ca(2+)-free hLA show that all OA-bound forms of the protein are characterized by elevated content of alpha-helical structure. The various hLA-OA complexes possess similar cytotoxic activities against human epidermoid larynx carcinoma cells. Overall, the LA-OA-45 complex possesses physicochemical, structural, and cytotoxic properties closely resembling those of HAMLET. The fact that the HAMLET-like complex can be formed in aqueous solution makes the process of its preparation more transparent and

  6. Teaching humanism.

    PubMed

    Stern, David T; Cohen, Jordan J; Bruder, Ann; Packer, Barbara; Sole, Allison

    2008-01-01

    As the "passion that animates authentic professionalism," humanism must be infused into medical education and clinical care as a central feature of medicine's professionalism movement. In this article, we discuss a current definition of humanism in medicine. We will also provide detailed descriptions of educational programs intended to promote humanism at a number of medical schools in the United States (and beyond) and identify the key factors that make these programs effective. Common elements of programs that effectively teach humanism include: (1) opportunities for students to gain perspective in the lives of patients; (2) structured time for reflection on those experiences; and (3) focused mentoring to ensure that these events convert to positive, formative learning experiences. By describing educational experiences that both promote and sustain humanism in doctors, we hope to stimulate the thinking of other medical educators and to disseminate the impact of these innovative educational programs to help the profession meet its obligation to provide the public with humanistic physicians.

  7. Trehalose, sucrose and raffinose are novel activators of autophagy in human keratinocytes through an mTOR-independent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xu; Li, Min; Li, Li; Xu, Song; Huang, Dan; Ju, Mei; Huang, Ju; Chen, Kun; Gu, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Trehalose is a natural disaccharide that is found in a diverse range of organisms but not in mammals. Autophagy is a process which mediates the sequestration, lysosomal delivery and degradation of proteins and organelles. Studies have shown that trehalose exerts beneficial effects through inducing autophagy in mammalian cells. However, whether trehalose or other saccharides can activate autophagy in keratinocytes is unknown. Here, we found that trehalose treatment increased the LC3-I to LC3-II conversion, acridine orange-stained vacuoles and GFP-LC3B (LC3B protein tagged with green fluorescent protein) puncta in the HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line, indicating autophagy induction. Trehalose-induced autophagy was also observed in primary keratinocytes and the A431 epidermal cancer cell line. mTOR signalling was not affected by trehalose treatment, suggesting that trehalose induced autophagy through an mTOR-independent pathway. mTOR-independent autophagy induction was also observed in HaCaT and HeLa cells treated with sucrose or raffinose but not in glucose, maltose or sorbitol treated HaCaT cells, indicating that autophagy induction was not a general property of saccharides. Finally, although trehalose treatment had an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation, it had a cytoprotective effect on cells exposed to UVB radiation. Our study provides new insight into the saccharide-mediated regulation of autophagy in keratinocytes. PMID:27328819

  8. The scorpion venom peptide BmKn2 induces apoptosis in cancerous but not in normal human oral cells.

    PubMed

    Satitmanwiwat, Saranya; Changsangfa, Chinarat; Khanuengthong, Anuson; Promthep, Kornkanok; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Arpornsuwan, Teerakul; Saikhun, Kulnasan; Sritanaudomchai, Hathaitip

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of the induction of apoptosis of human oral cancer cells by the scorpion venom peptide BmKn2. Human oral squamous carcinoma cells (HSC4), mouth epidermoid carcinoma cells (KB), human normal gingival cells (HGC) and dental pulp cells (DPC) were treated with BmKn-2 peptide for 24h. Cell viability was determined by the MTT assay. Apoptosis was assessed using phase contrast microscopy, by propidium iodide (PI) staining to assess nuclear morphology and by Annexin V staining. Apoptotic signaling pathways were investigated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Western blotting. BmKn-2 showed potent cytotoxic effects towards both HSC4 and KB cells with the associated induction of apoptosis. The cells showed distinct morphological changes, nuclear disintegration and an increase in the number of Annexin V-positive cells. Interestingly, at concentrations which kill cancerous cells, BmKn-2 did not affect cell viability or mediate the induction of apoptosis in normal HGC or DPC. Induction of apoptosis by BmKn-2 in HSC4 and KB cells was associated with the activation of tumor suppress p53. Pro-apoptotic BAX expression was increased, whereas antiapoptotic BCL-2 expression was decreased in BmKn-2 exposed HSC4 and KB cells. BmKn-2 treated-oral cancer cells showed distinct upregulation of initiator caspase-9, with no effect on caspase-8 expression. Increased expression levels of executor caspases-3 and -7 were also found in treated cells for both oral cancers. This study has suggested for the first time that BmKn-2 exerts selective cytotoxic effects on human oral cancer cells by inducting apoptosis via a p53-dependent intrinsic apoptotic pathway. BmKn-2 peptide originally derived from a natural source shows great promise as a candidate treatment for oral cancer, with minimal effects on healthy tissue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Human Issues in Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kates, Robert W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the report of the National Academy of Sciences' Committee in Human Rights which seeks to ease the plight of individual scientists, engineers, and medical personnel suffering severe repression. Case studies of instances of negligence of human rights are provided. (CP)

  10. Differential responses of Mcl-1 in photosensitized epithelial vs lymphoid-derived human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xue, Liang-yan; Chiu, Song-mao; Oleinick, Nancy L

    2005-10-20

    The antiapoptotic Bcl-2-family proteins, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, are recognized phototargets of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with the mitochondrion-targeting phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4. In the present study, we found that myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1), another antiapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, was not photodamaged in Pc 4-PDT-treated human carcinoma cells MCF-7c3, MDA-MB468, DU145, and A431, although Mcl-1 turnover was observed after exposure of HeLa or MCF-7c3 cells to a supralethal dose of UVC. In contrast, when human lymphoma U937 and Jurkat cells were treated with Pc 4-PDT, staurosporine (STS) or UVC, Mcl-1 was cleaved to generate a 28-kDa fragment over a 2-4 h period. The cleavage of Mcl-1 was accompanied by the activation of caspases-3, -9, and -8. The broad-specificity caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk completely blocked Mcl-1 cleavage induced by PDT, STS or UVC, providing evidence for Mcl-1 as a substrate for caspases. Western blot analysis localized Mcl-1 to mitochondria, ER, and cytosol of both MCF-7c3 and U937 cells, suggesting that Mcl-1 protein, unlike Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, is not a target for Pc 4-PDT, probably due to its localization to sites removed from those of Pc 4 binding. The 28-kDa cleaved fragment of Mcl-1, which has proapoptotic activity, was produced in PDT-treated lymphoid-derived cells, but not in cells of epithelial origin, suggesting that PDT-induced rapid and extensive apoptosis in lymphoma cells may result in part from the sensitivity of their Mcl-1 to caspase cleavage, removing an important negative control on apoptosis.

  11. Human tolerances.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1962-04-01

    The ultimate limitations in flight performance and in future civil air carrier equipment are the limitations imposed by what may be termed human tolerances. This is particularly applicable to the matter of the supersonic transport. The discussi...

  12. Human otoacariasis.

    PubMed

    Somayaji, K S Gangadhara; Rajeshwari, A

    2007-09-01

    Accidental entry of foreign bodies into the ear canal is very common. Animate foreign bodies constitute upto 14% of cases, majority being the cockroaches. Not many cases of ticks entering into human ears are found in the scientific literature. Even the available reports are from South Africa, Nepal, Malaysia, Chile and Srilanka. This Indian study discusses the occurence, clinical features, the methods adopted in the removal and the complications of tick infestation of human ear. A total of 144 cases of ticks entering the human ears were studied over a period of two years from Jan 2004 to Dec 2005. This report represents one of the largest recorded series of human otoacariasis available in the Indian literature.

  13. Human expunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klee, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Thomas Nagel in `The Absurd' (Nagel 1971) mentions the future expunction of the human species as a `metaphor' for our ability to see our lives from the outside, which he claims is one source of our sense of life's absurdity. I argue that the future expunction (not to be confused with extinction) of everything human - indeed of everything biological in a terran sense - is not a mere metaphor but a physical certainty under the laws of nature. The causal processes by which human expunction will take place are presented in some empirical detail, so that philosophers cannot dismiss it as merely speculative. I also argue that appeals to anthropic principles or to forms of mystical cosmology are of no plausible avail in the face of human expunction under the laws of physics.

  14. Human Cloning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-20

    parthenogenesis , to produce human embryos. ACT researchers obtained eggs from seven women, ages 24 to 32, who were paid $3,000 to $5,000. In the SCNT...cumulus cell nucleus began to divide but division stopped at the four-to-six-cell stage. In parthenogenesis , an egg cell is treated with chemicals...Human Subject Protection regulations] as of the date of enactment of this Act, that is derived by fertilization, parthenogenesis , cloning, or any

  15. Gene cloning, recombinant expression, purification and characterization of l-methionine decarboxylase from Streptomyces sp. 590.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masaya; Okada, Akane; Yamamoto, Kumiko; Okugochi, Tomomi; Kusaka, Chika; Kudou, Daizou; Nemoto, Michiko; Inagaki, Junko; Hirose, Yuu; Okajima, Toshihide; Tamura, Takashi; Soda, Kenji; Inagaki, Kenji

    2017-04-01

    l-Methionine decarboxylase (MetDC) from Streptomyces sp. 590 depends on pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and catalyzes the non-oxidative decarboxylation of l-methionine to produce 3-methylthiopropylamine and carbon dioxide. MetDC gene (mdc) was determined to consist of 1,674 bp encoding 557 amino acids, and the amino acid sequence is similar to that of l-histidine decarboxylases and l-valine decarboxylases from Streptomyces sp. strains. The mdc gene was cloned and recombinant MetDC was heterologously expressed by Escherichia coli. The purification of recombinant MetDC was carried out by DEAE-Toyopearl and Ni-NTA agarose column chromatography. The recombinant enzyme was homodimeric with a molecular mass of 61,000 Da and showed optimal activity between 45 to 55 °C and at pH 6.6, and the stability below 30 °C and between pH 4.6 to 7.0. l-Methionine and l-norleucine were good substrates for MetDC. The Michaelis constants for l-methionine and l-norleucine were 30 and 73 mM, respectively. The recombinant MetDC (0.50 U/ml) severely inhibited growth of human tumour cells A431 (epidermoid ovarian carcinoma cell line) and MDA-MB-231 (breast cancer cell line), however showed relatively low cytotoxicity for human normal cell NHDF-Neo (dermal fibroblast cell line from neonatal foreskin). This study revealed the properties of the gene and the protein sequence of MetDC for the first time. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Nothing Human

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharram, C. C.

    2014-01-01

    In this essay C. C. Wharram argues that Terence's concept of translation as a form of "contamination" anticipates recent developments in philosophy, ecology, and translation studies. Placing these divergent fields of inquiry into dialogue enables us read Terence's well-known statement "I am a human being--I deem nothing…

  17. Human Trafficking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David McKay

    2011-01-01

    The shadowy, criminal nature of human trafficking makes evaluating its nature and scope difficult. The U.S. State Department and anti-trafficking groups estimate that worldwide some 27 million people are caught in a form of forced servitude today. Public awareness of modern-day slavery is gaining momentum thanks to new abolitionist efforts. Among…

  18. Humanizing Shakespeare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Abraham

    The task of humanizing Shakespeare for high school seniors is not simple but may be done in a variety of ways, all intended to arouse student interest, curiosity, respect, and fondness for the Bard. Gimmicks such as bulletin board signs, pictures, maps, charts, and writings attract attention, as do letters to local newspapers reporting informally…

  19. Human Rights in the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpham, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Human rights are rapidly entering the academic curriculum, with programs appearing all over the country--including at Duke, Harvard, Northeastern, and Stanford Universities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Universities of Chicago, of Connecticut, of California at Berkeley, and of Minnesota; and Trinity College. Most of these…

  20. Barium inhibits arsenic-mediated apoptotic cell death in human squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Ichiro; Uemura, Noriyuki; Nizam, Saika; Khalequzzaman, Md; Thang, Nguyen D; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Akhand, Anwarul A; Shekhar, Hossain U; Nakajima, Tamie; Kato, Masashi

    2012-06-01

    Our fieldwork showed more than 1 μM (145.1 μg/L) barium in about 3 μM (210.7 μg/L) arsenic-polluted drinking well water (n = 72) in cancer-prone areas in Bangladesh, while the mean concentrations of nine other elements in the water were less than 3 μg/L. The types of cancer include squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). We hypothesized that barium modulates arsenic-mediated biological effects, and we examined the effect of barium (1 μM) on arsenic (3 μM)-mediated apoptotic cell death of human HSC-5 and A431 SCC cells in vitro. Arsenic promoted SCC apoptosis with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and JNK1/2 and caspase-3 activation (apoptotic pathway). In contrast, arsenic also inhibited SCC apoptosis with increased NF-κB activity and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) expression level and decreased JNK activity (antiapoptotic pathway). These results suggest that arsenic bidirectionally promotes apoptotic and antiapoptotic pathways in SCC cells. Interestingly, barium in the presence of arsenic increased NF-κB activity and XIAP expression and decreased JNK activity without affecting ROS production, resulting in the inhibition of the arsenic-mediated apoptotic pathway. Since the anticancer effect of arsenic is mainly dependent on cancer apoptosis, barium-mediated inhibition of arsenic-induced apoptosis may promote progression of SCC in patients in Bangladesh who keep drinking barium and arsenic-polluted water after the development of cancer. Thus, we newly showed that barium in the presence of arsenic might inhibit arsenic-mediated cancer apoptosis with the modulation of the balance between arsenic-mediated promotive and suppressive apoptotic pathways.

  1. Partial characterization of a putative new growth factor present in pathological human vitreous.

    PubMed

    Pombo, C; Bokser, L; Casabiell, X; Zugaza, J; Capeans, M; Salorio, M; Casanueva, F

    1996-03-01

    Several growth factors have been implicated in the development of proliferative eye diseases, and some of those are present in human vitreous (HV). The effects of HV on cellular responses which modulate proliferative cell processes were studied. This study describes the partial characterization of a vitreous factor activity which does not correspond to any of the previously reported growth factors in pathological HV. Vitreous humour was obtained from medical vitrectomies, from patients with PDR and PVR. The biological activity of the vitreous factor was determined by its ability to increase cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i), increase production of inositol phosphates, and induce cell proliferation in the cell line EGFR T17. In some experiments other cell lines, such as NIH 3T3, 3T3-L1, FRTL5, A431, PC12, Y79, and GH3, were also employed. Measurement of [Ca2+]i in cell suspensions was performed using the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator fura-2. The activity of the factor present in HV was compared with other growth factors by means of: (a) [Ca2+]i mobilization pattern, (b) sequential homologous and heterologous desensitization of receptors, (c) effects of phorbol esters on their action, and (d) inactivation after treatment with different proteolytic enzymes. The HV-induced cell proliferation and increases in [Ca2+]i concentration were characterized by a peculiar time pattern. The different approaches used ruled out its identity with PDGF, bFGF, EGF, TGF-beta, IGFs, TNF-alpha, NGF, and other compounds such as ATP, angiotensin I, and bradykinin. Vitreous factor actions are mediated by specific receptors apparently regulated by PKC. This factor is able to induce [Ca2+]i mobilization in most of the cell lines studied, indicating that its effects are not tissue specific. These results suggest the presence of a growth factor activity in pathological HV which may be due to the presence of an undescribed growth factor in the eye.

  2. Barium promotes anchorage-independent growth and invasion of human HaCaT keratinocytes via activation of c-SRC kinase.

    PubMed

    Thang, Nguyen Dinh; Yajima, Ichiro; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Ohnuma, Shoko; Yanagishita, Takeshi; Hayashi, Rumiko; Shekhar, Hossain U; Watanabe, Daisuke; Kato, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    Explosive increases in skin cancers have been reported in more than 36 million patients with arsenicosis caused by drinking arsenic-polluted well water. This study and previous studies showed high levels of barium as well as arsenic in the well water. However, there have been no reports showing a correlation between barium and cancer. In this study, we examined whether barium (BaCl(2)) may independently have cancer-related effects on human precancerous keratinocytes (HaCaT). Barium (5-50 µM) biologically promoted anchorage-independent growth and invasion of HaCaT cells in vitro. Barium (5 µM) biochemically enhanced activities of c-SRC, FAK, ERK and MT1-MMP molecules, which regulate anchorage-independent growth and/or invasion. A SRC kinase specific inhibitor, protein phosphatase 2 (PP2), blocked barium-mediated promotion of anchorage-independent growth and invasion with decreased c-SRC kinase activity. Barium (2.5-5 µM) also promoted anchorage-independent growth and invasion of fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and immortalized nontumorigenic melanocytes (melan-a), but not transformed cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (HSC5 and A431) and malignant melanoma (Mel-ret) cells, with activation of c-SRC kinase. Taken together, our biological and biochemical findings newly suggest that the levels of barium shown in drinking well water independently has the cancer-promoting effects on precancerous keratinocytes, fibroblast and melanocytes in vitro.

  3. Barium Promotes Anchorage-Independent Growth and Invasion of Human HaCaT Keratinocytes via Activation of c-SRC Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Thang, Nguyen Dinh; Yajima, Ichiro; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y.; Ohnuma, Shoko; Yanagishita, Takeshi; Hayashi, Rumiko; Shekhar, Hossain U.; Watanabe, Daisuke; Kato, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    Explosive increases in skin cancers have been reported in more than 36 million patients with arsenicosis caused by drinking arsenic-polluted well water. This study and previous studies showed high levels of barium as well as arsenic in the well water. However, there have been no reports showing a correlation between barium and cancer. In this study, we examined whether barium (BaCl2) may independently have cancer-related effects on human precancerous keratinocytes (HaCaT). Barium (5–50 µM) biologically promoted anchorage-independent growth and invasion of HaCaT cells in vitro. Barium (5 µM) biochemically enhanced activities of c-SRC, FAK, ERK and MT1-MMP molecules, which regulate anchorage-independent growth and/or invasion. A SRC kinase specific inhibitor, protein phosphatase 2 (PP2), blocked barium-mediated promotion of anchorage-independent growth and invasion with decreased c-SRC kinase activity. Barium (2.5–5 µM) also promoted anchorage-independent growth and invasion of fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and immortalized nontumorigenic melanocytes (melan-a), but not transformed cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (HSC5 and A431) and malignant melanoma (Mel-ret) cells, with activation of c-SRC kinase. Taken together, our biological and biochemical findings newly suggest that the levels of barium shown in drinking well water independently has the cancer-promoting effects on precancerous keratinocytes, fibroblast and melanocytes in vitro. PMID:22022425

  4. In vitro perforation of human epithelial carcinoma cell with antibody-conjugated biodegradable microspheres illuminated by a single 80 femtosecond near-infrared laser pulse

    PubMed Central

    Terakawa, Mitsuhiro; Tsunoi, Yasuyuki; Mitsuhashi, Tatsuki

    2012-01-01

    Pulsed laser interaction with small metallic and dielectric particles has been receiving attention as a method of drug delivery to many cells. However, most of the particles are attended by many risks, which are mainly dependent upon particle size. Unlike other widely used particles, biodegradable particles have advantages of being broken down and eliminated by innate metabolic processes. In this paper, the perforation of cell membrane by a focused spot with transparent biodegradable microspheres excited by a single 800 nm, 80 fs laser pulse is demonstrated. A polylactic acid (PLA) sphere, a biodegradable polymer, was used. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran and short interfering RNA were delivered into many human epithelial carcinoma cells (A431 cells) by applying a single 80 fs laser pulse in the presence of antibody-conjugated PLA microspheres. The focused intensity was also simulated by the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method. Perforation by biodegradable spheres compared with other particles has the potential to be a much safer phototherapy and drug delivery method for patients. The present method can open a new avenue, which is considered an efficient adherent for the selective perforation of cells which express the specific antigen on the cell membrane. PMID:22679375

  5. Human protothecosis.

    PubMed

    Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Mayr, Astrid

    2007-04-01

    Human protothecosis is a rare infection caused by members of the genus Prototheca. Prototheca species are generally considered to be achlorophyllic algae and are ubiquitous in nature. The occurrence of protothecosis can be local or disseminated and acute or chronic, with the latter being more common. Diseases have been classified as (i) cutaneous lesions, (ii) olecranon bursitis, or (iii) disseminated or systemic manifestations. Infections can occur in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients, although more severe and disseminated infections tend to occur in immunocompromised individuals. Prototheca wickerhamii and Prototheca zopfii have been associated with human disease. Usually, treatment involves medical and surgical approaches; treatment failure is not uncommon. Antifungals such as ketoconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole, and amphotericin B are the most commonly used drugs to date. Among them, amphotericin B displays the best activity against Prototheca spp. Diagnosis is largely made upon detection of characteristic structures observed on histopathologic examination of tissue.

  6. Human Protothecosis

    PubMed Central

    Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Mayr, Astrid

    2007-01-01

    Human protothecosis is a rare infection caused by members of the genus Prototheca. Prototheca species are generally considered to be achlorophyllic algae and are ubiquitous in nature. The occurrence of protothecosis can be local or disseminated and acute or chronic, with the latter being more common. Diseases have been classified as (i) cutaneous lesions, (ii) olecranon bursitis, or (iii) disseminated or systemic manifestations. Infections can occur in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients, although more severe and disseminated infections tend to occur in immunocompromised individuals. Prototheca wickerhamii and Prototheca zopfii have been associated with human disease. Usually, treatment involves medical and surgical approaches; treatment failure is not uncommon. Antifungals such as ketoconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole, and amphotericin B are the most commonly used drugs to date. Among them, amphotericin B displays the best activity against Prototheca spp. Diagnosis is largely made upon detection of characteristic structures observed on histopathologic examination of tissue. PMID:17428884

  7. Human Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    modification (e.g., for increased aggressiveness or decreased empathy ). Thus one strong recommendation of this study is that the US should develop a...Human Performance JASON The MITRE Corporation 7515 Colshire Drive McLean, Virginia 22102-7508 (703) 983-6997 Study Leader: E. Williams Contributors...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release, distribution unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The tasking for this study was to

  8. Human suffering.

    PubMed

    1992-12-01

    10 measures of quality of life are used to rank 141 countries in the International Human Suffering Index (HSI). The Index differentiates between extreme, high, moderate, and minimal levels of human suffering. Social welfare is the sum of 10 measures: life expectancy, daily caloric intake, clean drinking water, infant immunization, secondary school enrollment, gross national product per capita, the rate of inflation, communication technology (i.e., telephones), political freedom, and civil rights. Each measure is ranked between 0 and 10. The highest score indicates the greatest country stress, with the worst possible score being 100. About 1 billion people live in desperate poverty. Living conditions are the worst in Mozambique (93), followed by Somalia, Afghanistan, Haiti, and Sudan. Most of these countries also have high population growth. The most comfortable countries are Denmark (1), the Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland, and Canada, which have low population growth. Total scores of 75 or greater (extreme human suffering) occur in 27 countries (20 in Africa, 16 in Asia, and Haiti) with 8% of the world's population (432 million people). High human suffering scores range between 50 and 74 and include 56 countries (24 in Africa, 16 in Asia, 15 in the Western Hemisphere, and 1 in Oceania) with 3.5 billion people. The number of countries in this grouping increased from 44 countries with 58% of world population in 1987. Moderate suffering scores range from 25-49. Countries with moderate suffering number 34 countries (9 in Europe, 13 in Asia, 8 in the Western Hemisphere, and 2 in Oceania and 2 in Africa) with 11.8% of world population (636 million). Over the preceding 5-year period the number of countries increased from 29 countries with 10% of world population. Minimal human suffering occurs in 24 countries (17 in Europe, Israel and Japan in Asia; Canada, the US, and Barbados in the Western Hemisphere; and Australia and New Zealand in Oceania) with 14.8% of world

  9. β-sitosterol induces G1 arrest and causes depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential in breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds It is suggested that dietary phytosterols, such as β-sitosterol (ST), have cancer chemopreventive effects; however, studies are limited to support such claims. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of ST on three different human cancer cell lines including skin epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells, lung epithelial carcinoma A549 cells and breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231. Methods Cell growth assay, cell cycle analysis, FACS, JC-1 staining, annexin V staining and immunoblotting were used to study the efficacy of ST on cancer cells. Results ST (30–90 μM) treatments for 48 h and 72 h did not show any significant effect on cell growth and death in A431 cells. Whereas similar ST treatments moderately inhibited the growth of A549 cells by up to 13% (p ≤ 0.05) in 48 h and 14% (p ≤ 0.05-0.0001) in 72 h. In MDA-MB-231 cells, ST caused a significant dose-dependent cell growth inhibition by 31- 63% (p ≤ 0.0001) in 48 h and 40-50% (p ≤ 0.0001) in 72 h. While exploring the molecular changes associated with strong ST efficacy in breast cancer cells, we observed that ST induced cell cycle arrest as well as cell death. ST caused G0/G1 cell cycle arrest which was accompanied by a decrease in CDK4 and cyclin D1, and an increase in p21/Cip1and p27/Kip1 protein levels. Further, cell death effect of ST was associated with induction of apoptosis. ST also caused the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and increased Bax/Bcl-2 protein ratio. Conclusions These results suggest prominent in vitro anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of ST in MDA-MB-231 cells. This study provides valuable insight into the chemopreventive efficacy and associated molecular alterations of ST in breast cancer cells whereas it had only moderate efficacy on lung cancer cells and did not show any considerable effect on skin cancer cells. These findings would form the basis for further studies to understand the mechanisms and assess the potential utility of ST as a cancer

  10. Chaperone-Assisted Soluble Expression of a Humanized Anti-EGFR ScFv Antibody in E. Coli

    PubMed Central

    Veisi, Kamal; Farajnia, Safar; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Khoram Khorshid, Hamid Reza; Samadi, Nasser; Ahdi Khosroshahi, Shiva; Zarei Jaliani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Formation of inclusion bodies is a considerable obstacle threatening the advantages of E. coli expression system to serve as the most common and easiest system in recombinant protein production. To solve this problem, several strategies have been proposed among which application of molecular chaperones is of remarkable consideration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of molecular chaperones on soluble expression of aggregation-prone humanized single chain antibody. Methods: To increase the solubility of a humanized single chain antibody (hscFv), different chaperone plasmids including PG-tf2 (GroES- GroEL- tig), ptf16 (tig) and pGro7 (GroES- GroEL) were co-expressed in BL21 cells containing pET-22b- hscFv construct. The solubility of recombinant hscFv was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. After purification of soluble hscFv by Ni-NTA column, the biological activity and cytotoxicity of the recombinant protein were tested by ELISA and MTT assay, respectively. Results: SDS-PAGE analysis of the hscFv revealed that chaperone utility remarkably increased (up to 50%) the solubility of the protein. ELISA test and MTT assay analyses also confirmed the biological activity of the gained hscFv in reaction with A431 cells (OD value: 2.6) and inhibition of their proliferation, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that co-expression of chaperones with hscFv leads to remarkable increase in the solubility of the recombinant hscFv, which could be of great consideration for large scale production of recombinant single chain antibodies. PMID:26793607

  11. Human Capital, (Human) Capabilities and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grange, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I initiate a debate into the (de)merits of human capital theory and human capability theory and discuss implications of the debate for higher education. Human capital theory holds that economic growth depends on investment in education and that economic growth is the basis for improving the quality of human life. Human capable…

  12. Engineering cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detectors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The lack of sensitive biocompatible particle track detectors has so far limited parallel detection of physical energy deposition and biological response. Fluorescent nuclear track detectors (FNTDs) based on Al2O3:C,Mg single crystals combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) provide 3D information on ion tracks with a resolution limited by light diffraction. Here we report the development of next generation cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detectors (Cell-Fit-HD). Methods The biocompatibility of FNTDs was tested using six different cell lines, i.e. human non-small cell lung carcinoma (A549), glioblastoma (U87), androgen independent prostate cancer (PC3), epidermoid cancer (A431) and murine (VmDk) glioma SMA-560. To evaluate cell adherence, viability and conformal coverage of the crystals different seeding densities and alternative coating with extracellular matrix (fibronectin) was tested. Carbon irradiation was performed in Bragg peak (initial 270.55 MeV u−1). A series of cell compartment specific fluorescence stains including nuclear (HOECHST), membrane (Glut-1), cytoplasm (Calcein AM, CM-DiI) were tested on Cell-Fit-HDs and a single CLSM was employed to co-detect the physical (crystal) as well as the biological (cell layer) information. Results The FNTD provides a biocompatible surface. Among the cells tested, A549 cells formed the most uniform, viable, tightly packed epithelial like monolayer. The ion track information was not compromised in Cell-Fit-HD as compared to the FNTD alone. Neither cell coating and culturing, nor additional staining procedures affected the properties of the FNTD surface to detect ion tracks. Standard immunofluorescence and live staining procedures could be employed to co-register cell biology and ion track information. Conclusions The Cell-Fit-Hybrid Detector system is a promising platform for a multitude of studies linking biological response to energy deposition at high level of optical microscopy

  13. Engineering cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detectors.

    PubMed

    Niklas, Martin; Greilich, Steffen; Melzig, Claudius; Akselrod, Mark S; Debus, Jürgen; Jäkel, Oliver; Abdollahi, Amir

    2013-06-11

    The lack of sensitive biocompatible particle track detectors has so far limited parallel detection of physical energy deposition and biological response. Fluorescent nuclear track detectors (FNTDs) based on Al₂O₃:C,Mg single crystals combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) provide 3D information on ion tracks with a resolution limited by light diffraction. Here we report the development of next generation cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detectors (Cell-Fit-HD). The biocompatibility of FNTDs was tested using six different cell lines, i.e. human non-small cell lung carcinoma (A549), glioblastoma (U87), androgen independent prostate cancer (PC3), epidermoid cancer (A431) and murine (VmDk) glioma SMA-560. To evaluate cell adherence, viability and conformal coverage of the crystals different seeding densities and alternative coating with extracellular matrix (fibronectin) was tested. Carbon irradiation was performed in Bragg peak (initial 270.55 MeV u⁻¹). A series of cell compartment specific fluorescence stains including nuclear (HOECHST), membrane (Glut-1), cytoplasm (Calcein AM, CM-DiI) were tested on Cell-Fit-HDs and a single CLSM was employed to co-detect the physical (crystal) as well as the biological (cell layer) information. The FNTD provides a biocompatible surface. Among the cells tested, A549 cells formed the most uniform, viable, tightly packed epithelial like monolayer. The ion track information was not compromised in Cell-Fit-HD as compared to the FNTD alone. Neither cell coating and culturing, nor additional staining procedures affected the properties of the FNTD surface to detect ion tracks. Standard immunofluorescence and live staining procedures could be employed to co-register cell biology and ion track information. The Cell-Fit-Hybrid Detector system is a promising platform for a multitude of studies linking biological response to energy deposition at high level of optical microscopy resolution.

  14. In Vitro Cell Death Discrimination and Screening Method by Simple and Cost-Effective Viability Analysis.

    PubMed

    Helm, Katharina; Beyreis, Marlena; Mayr, Christian; Ritter, Markus; Jakab, Martin; Kiesslich, Tobias; Plaetzer, Kristjan

    2017-01-01

    For in vitro cytotoxicity testing, discrimination of apoptosis and necrosis represents valuable information. Viability analysis performed at two different time points post treatment could serve such a purpose because the dynamics of metabolic activity of apoptotic and necrotic cells is different, i.e. a more rapid decline of cellular metabolism during necrosis whereas cellular metabolism is maintained during the entire execution phase of apoptosis. This study describes a straightforward approach to distinguish apoptosis and necrosis. A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells were treated with different concentrations/doses of actinomycin D (Act-D), 4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-2-azabenzimidazole (TBB), Ro 31-8220, H2O2 and photodynamic treatment (PDT). The resazurin viability signal was recorded at 2 and 24 hrs post treatment. Apoptosis and necrosis were verified by measuring caspase 3/7 and membrane integrity. Calculation of the difference curve between the 2 and 24 hrs resazurin signals yields the following information: a positive difference signal indicates apoptosis (i.e. high metabolic activity at early time points and low signal at 24 hrs post treatment) while an early reduction of the viability signal indicates necrosis. For all treatments, this dose-dependent sequence of cellular responses could be confirmed by independent assays. Simple and cost-effective viability analysis provides reliable information about the dose ranges of a cytotoxic agent where apoptosis or necrosis occurs. This may serve as a starting point for further in-depth characterisation of cytotoxic treatments. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Humanized mouse models: Application to human diseases.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ryoji; Takahashi, Takeshi; Ito, Mamoru

    2018-05-01

    Humanized mice are superior to rodents for preclinical evaluation of the efficacy and safety of drug candidates using human cells or tissues. During the past decade, humanized mouse technology has been greatly advanced by the establishment of novel platforms of genetically modified immunodeficient mice. Several human diseases can be recapitulated using humanized mice due to the improved engraftment and differentiation capacity of human cells or tissues. In this review, we discuss current advanced humanized mouse models that recapitulate human diseases including cancer, allergy, and graft-versus-host disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Primary epidermoid carcinoma of the breast presenting as a breast abscess and sepsis.

    PubMed

    Damin, Andrea Pires; Nascimento, Fernanda Costa; Andreola, João Batista; Cerutti, Talita Haubert; Roehe, Adriana; Damin, Daniel Carvalho

    2011-12-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the breast is an extremely rare form of cancer, accounting for approximately 0.04% of all malignant breast tumors. To date, only a limited number of cases of SCC of the breast have been reported, and most of them presented like the usual breast carcinomas. A 39-year-old woman presented with a large breast abscess and signs of sepsis. After surgical debridement of the lesion, histopathological examination of the abscess capsule revealed the presence of SCC of the breast. The definitive treatment for the tumor consisted of modified radical mastectomy with resection of the residual lesion in the right breast. This unusual case illustrates how an apparently benign disorder such as a breast abscess might be related to a clinically occult malignancy. A review of the literature on SCC of the breast is presented.

  17. [Chronic ulceration of the hand in a mechanic: epidermoid carcinoma should be suspected].

    PubMed

    Naciri, Ilhame; Hassam, Baderddine

    2017-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is a malignant tumor developed from the epidermis or the squamous mucosa. It may occur de novo or, most often, on precancerous lesions, including actinic keratoses. This tumor can sometimes be secondary to physical or chemical hazardous conditions encountered during the professional activity. We here report the case of a 40-year old mechanic presenting with ulceration of the dorsal side of his right wrist, evolving over 6 months. The lesion had first appeared as a small keratosic lesion that had transformed into an erosion and then into an ulceration increasing rapidly in size. The patient had no initial trauma and he had no particular previous history except the handling of chemicals (fuels, mineral oil, paint) without gloves for about the last 30 years. Physical examination showed a large sized ulcero-budding tumor (5 × 6 cm) on the dorsal side of his right wrist (A), associated with diffuse multiple actinic keratosis lesions on his two forearms and on the back of his hands (B). The patient also had two painless hard mobile adenopathies measuring 1.5 cm in diameter, on the ipsilateral epitrochlear and axillary regions. The remainder of the clinical examination was normal. Viral hepatitis serology test, treponemal test and retrovirus (HIV) test were negative. Histological examination of a biopsy sample confirmed the diagnosis of well differentiated and infiltrating squamous cell carcinoma. The biopsy of the axillary adenopathy objectified ganglionic metastasis with capsular break-in and extension to the periganglionar tissue. The remainder of the staging was without abnormalities. The patient underwent wide resection of the lesion with lymph node dissection followed by radiation therapy. Patient's evolution was marked by early local recurrence (two months later) requiring reoperation. The postoperative course was uneventful.

  18. Effective multimodality treatment for advanced epidermoid carcinoma of the female genital tract

    SciTech Connect

    Kalra, J.; Cortes, E.; Chen, S.

    1985-07-01

    Fifteen patients with advanced or recurrent squamous-cell carcinoma of the cervix, vulva, vagina, and urethra were treated with simultaneous combination chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil infusion and mitomycin C) and radiotherapy (3,000 rad for a period of three weeks). Three to four weeks after completion of radiotherapy, 13 of 15 patients achieved partial or complete tumor shrinkage. Nine of 15 patients are alive, eight of whom (at a median follow-up time of 24 months) have no evidence of disease. The longest survival time was 45 + months. There was minimal toxicity associated with this therapy. The results of this pilot study suggest thatmore » the simultaneous administration of radiation and chemotherapy is an effective method of treatment of advanced female genital tract carcinoma.« less

  19. Human Factors Planning Guidelines

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-01-01

    To ensure human factors considerations are fully incorporated in the system : development, the Integrated Product Team (IPT) or Program Manager initiates a : Human Factors Program (HFP) that addresses the human performance and human : resource parame...

  20. The Digital Humanities as a Humanities Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that the digital humanities can be seen as a humanities project in a time of significant change in the academy. The background is a number of scholarly, educational and technical challenges, the multiple epistemic traditions linked to the digital humanities, the potential reach of the field across and outside the humanities,…

  1. NATO Human View Architecture and Human Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handley, Holly A. H.; Houston, Nancy P.

    2010-01-01

    The NATO Human View is a system architectural viewpoint that focuses on the human as part of a system. Its purpose is to capture the human requirements and to inform on how the human impacts the system design. The viewpoint contains seven static models that include different aspects of the human element, such as roles, tasks, constraints, training and metrics. It also includes a Human Dynamics component to perform simulations of the human system under design. One of the static models, termed Human Networks, focuses on the human-to-human communication patterns that occur as a result of ad hoc or deliberate team formation, especially teams distributed across space and time. Parameters of human teams that effect system performance can be captured in this model. Human centered aspects of networks, such as differences in operational tempo (sense of urgency), priorities (common goal), and team history (knowledge of the other team members), can be incorporated. The information captured in the Human Network static model can then be included in the Human Dynamics component so that the impact of distributed teams is represented in the simulation. As the NATO militaries transform to a more networked force, the Human View architecture is an important tool that can be used to make recommendations on the proper mix of technological innovations and human interactions.

  2. Human Rhinoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Lamson, Daryl M.; St. George, Kirsten; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRVs), first discovered in the 1950s, are responsible for more than one-half of cold-like illnesses and cost billions of dollars annually in medical visits and missed days of work. Advances in molecular methods have enhanced our understanding of the genomic structure of HRV and have led to the characterization of three genetically distinct HRV groups, designated groups A, B, and C, within the genus Enterovirus and the family Picornaviridae. HRVs are traditionally associated with upper respiratory tract infection, otitis media, and sinusitis. In recent years, the increasing implementation of PCR assays for respiratory virus detection in clinical laboratories has facilitated the recognition of HRV as a lower respiratory tract pathogen, particularly in patients with asthma, infants, elderly patients, and immunocompromised hosts. Cultured isolates of HRV remain important for studies of viral characteristics and disease pathogenesis. Indeed, whether the clinical manifestations of HRV are related directly to viral pathogenicity or secondary to the host immune response is the subject of ongoing research. There are currently no approved antiviral therapies for HRVs, and treatment remains primarily supportive. This review provides a comprehensive, up-to-date assessment of the basic virology, pathogenesis, clinical epidemiology, and laboratory features of and treatment and prevention strategies for HRVs. PMID:23297263

  3. Human stones.

    PubMed

    Lonsdale, K

    1968-03-15

    X-ray diffraction studies have shown that there are several different kinds of human urinary calculi, with different age, sex, period, and geographical distributions. Juvenile bladder stones are typically urate and oxalate in small boys in certain stone belts. They have disappeared in some areas, particularly in Britain, but are still common in Thailand. India. and Turkey. Their cause is unknown. Adult bladder stones, formerly common in elderly men, were largely of uric acid and were due to a faulty diet. Juvenile kidney stones are rare, except in Turkey where they are similar to juvenile bladder stones. Adult kidney stones are by far the most universally common, especially in technically developed communities. They are found in both sexes (equally at postmortem), and in the United States and in Czechoslovakia the average number of hospital entries for stones, relative to the whole population, is about 1 per 1000 per annum (increasing) although the incidence in different districts varies by 4 to 1 or more. Such stones are mainly calcium oxalates and calcium and MgNH(4) phosphates. The incidence among the administrative class is at least 20 times that among agricultural workers, relative to their numbers. Stones are reported also to be an occupational hazard for air pilots. It is probably that much more exercise and the drinking of more water to prevent kidney dehydration (spirits and coffee are not effective for this purpose) would lower the high rate of incidence. Moderate acidification would prevent phosphate supersaturation of the urine, but is not effective for oxalates. It seems certain that, once a suitable seed is formed, epitaxy is largely responsible for deposition from urines that would otherwise remain supersaturated until voided. This would explain the curioLls radial and layered texture of many stones. Laboratory experiments might suggest ways of preventing orientated overgrowth.

  4. Identification of the zinc finger 216 (ZNF216) in human carcinoma cells: a potential regulator of EGFR activity

    PubMed Central

    Mincione, Gabriella; Di Marcantonio, Maria Carmela; Tarantelli, Chiara; Savino, Luca; Ponti, Donatella; Marchisio, Marco; Lanuti, Paola; Sancilio, Silvia; Calogero, Antonella; Di Pietro, Roberta; Muraro, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), a member of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) proteins, is aberrantly expressed or deregulated in tumors and plays pivotal roles in cancer onset and metastatic progression. ZNF216 gene has been identified as one of Immediate Early Genes (IEGs) induced by RTKs. Overexpression of ZNF216 protein sensitizes 293 cell line to TNF-α induced apoptosis. However, ZNF216 overexpression has been reported in medulloblastomas and metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinomas. Thus, the role of this protein is still not clearly understood. In this study, the inverse correlation between EGFR and ZNF216 expression was confirmed in various human cancer cell lines differently expressing EGFR. EGF treatment of NIH3T3 cells overexpressing both EGFR and ZNF216 (NIH3T3-EGFR/ZNF216), induced a long lasting activation of EGFR in the cytosolic fraction and an accumulation of phosphorylated EGFR (pEGFR) more in the nuclear than in the cytosolic fraction compared to NIH3T3-EGFR cells. Moreover, EGF was able to stimulate an increased expression of ZNF216 in the cytosolic compartment and its nuclear translocation in a time-dependent manner in NIH3T3-EGFR/ZNF216. A similar trend was observed in A431 cells endogenously expressing the EGFR and transfected with Znf216. The increased levels of pEGFR and ZNF216 in the nuclear fraction of NIH3T3-EGFR/ZNF216 cells were paralleled by increased levels of phospho-MAPK and phospho-Akt. Surprisingly, EGF treatment of NIH3T3-EGFR/ZNF216 cells induced a significant increase of apoptosis thus indicating that ZNF216 could sensitize cells to EGF-induced apoptosis and suggesting that it may be involved in the regulation and effects of EGFR signaling. PMID:27732953

  5. Humane Education: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Eileen S.; Westerlund, Stuart R.

    This booklet traces the historical development of human education as it has been instilled into the young people of America from colonial times to the present and provides a future prognosis of humaneness in the schools. Humane education promotes humane behavior and is an important part of the humane movement in the United States, although until…

  6. Superintelligence, Humans, and War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-13

    Recent studies of the human mind debunk the myth that humans only use 10-20 percent of the human mind. A healthy human mind uses up to 90 percent...way. They will eat what is in front of them to satiate their appetite not knowing if there is anymore food for the future. Humans can predict

  7. Human Factors Job Aid

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-12-09

    The purpose of this Human Factors Job Aid is to serve as a desk reference for : human factors integration during system acquisition. The first chapter contains : an overview of the FAA human factors process in system acquisitions. The : remaining eig...

  8. IVI human factors strategy

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-11-01

    This document focuses on human factors research that supports the Intelligent Vehicle Initiative (IVI). The status of the problem areas within categories used often by the human factors community to organize human factors process is discussed. A simi...

  9. Human-machine interactions

    DOEpatents

    Forsythe, J Chris [Sandia Park, NM; Xavier, Patrick G [Albuquerque, NM; Abbott, Robert G [Albuquerque, NM; Brannon, Nathan G [Albuquerque, NM; Bernard, Michael L [Tijeras, NM; Speed, Ann E [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  10. Engineered human vaccines

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    The limitations of human vaccines in use at present and the design requirements for a new generation of human vaccines are discussed. The progress in engineering of human vaccines for bacteria, viruses, parasites, and cancer is reviewed, and the data from human studies with the engineered vaccines are discussed, especially for cancer and AIDS vaccines. The final section of the review deals with the possible future developments in the field of engineered human vaccines and the requirement for effective new human adjuvants.

  11. Tumor regression after intravenous administration of targeted vesicles entrapping the vitamin E α-tocotrienol.

    PubMed

    Karim, Reatul; Somani, Sukrut; Al Robaian, Majed; Mullin, Margaret; Amor, Rumelo; McConnell, Gail; Dufès, Christine

    2017-01-28

    The therapeutic potential of tocotrienol, a member of the vitamin E family of compounds with potent in vitro anti-cancer properties, is limited by its inability to specifically reach tumors following intravenous administration. The purpose of this study is to determine whether a novel tumor-targeted vesicular formulation of tocotrienol would suppress the growth of A431 epidermoid carcinoma and B16-F10 melanoma in vitro and in vivo. In this work, we demonstrated that novel transferrin-bearing multilamellar vesicles entrapping α-T3 resulted in a dramatically improved (by at least 52-fold) therapeutic efficacy in vitro on A431 cell line, compared to the free drug. In addition, the intravenous administration of tocotrienol entrapped in transferrin-bearing vesicles resulted in tumor suppression for 30% of A431 and 60% of B16-F10 tumors, without visible toxicity. Mouse survival was enhanced by >13days compared to controls administered with the drug solution only. This tumor-targeted, tocotrienol-based nanomedicine therefore significantly improved the therapeutic response in cancer treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Diosgenin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-glucopyranoside obtained as a new anticancer agent from Dioscorea futschauensis induces apoptosis on human colon carcinoma HCT-15 cells via mitochondria-controlled apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, San-Long; Cai, Bing; Cui, Cheng-Bin; Liu, Hong-Wei; Wu, Chun-Fu; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2004-06-01

    Diosgenin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (DRG) is a well-known pentacyclic triterpene glycoside newly isolated from the rhizomes of Dioscorea futschauensis R. Kunth (Dioscoreaceae) by our group. In the present work, the inhibitory effect of DRG on the cell proliferation of human cancer cell lines was examined to reveal for the first time that DRG shows stronger anticancer activity than that of the positive control cisplatin. DRG inhibited the proliferation of human cancer cells, A431, A2780, A549, K562, and HCT-15, with IC50 (micromol L(-1)) values of 9.33 +/- 0.22, 18.7 +/- 0.16, 9.98 +/- 0.38, 6.44 +/- 0.10, and 5.86 +/- 0.14 respectively. It was then found, by morphological observation, "DNA ladder" detection and flow cytometric analysis, that DRG exerts its anticancer effect through inducing apoptosis on HCT-15 cells. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that DRG triggers a mitochondria-controlled apoptotic pathway to induce apoptosis on HCT-15 cells, which involves the reduction of the mitochondrial potential (deltapsim), the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol, and the down-regulation of the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax expression level. The present results reasonably suggest that regulating the balance of Bcl-2/Bax expression level plays a key role in the DRG-induced apoptosis. Such findings provide novel knowledge to elucidate the biological properties of DRG, even though DRG was discovered early in the late 1960s. These results suggest that DRG may be a good candidate as a chemotherapeutic agent to treat human colon carcinoma.

  13. What Are the Humanities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broderick, Francis

    A working definition of the humanities and characteristics of a liberally educated person are specified. The humanities embrace areas of human knowledge that possess these elements: central concern for human beings rather than for the processes of nature or the structures of society; primary focus on the individual rather than on the group;…

  14. Human Research Program Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig E.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of HRP is to provide human health and performance countermeasures, knowledge, technologies, and tools to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration. The Human Research Program was designed to meet the needs of human space exploration, and understand and reduce the risk to crew health and performance in exploration missions.

  15. The Humanities: Interconnections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Focusing on a wide range of interdisciplinary themes and ideas for humanities instruction, the 17 articles in this journal issue discuss the following topics: (1) literature, humanities, and the adult learner; (2) the role of the humanities in educating for a democracy; (3) humanities in the marketplace; (4) literature versus "great books" in high…

  16. Special Section: Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frydenlund, Knut; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Eleven articles examine human rights in Europe. Topics include unemployment, human rights legislation, role of the Council of Europe in promoting human rights, labor unions, migrant workers, human dignity in industralized societies, and international violence. Journal available from Council of Europe, Directorate of Press and Information, 67006…

  17. ISS Payload Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellenberger, Richard; Duvall, Laura; Dory, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The ISS Payload Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) is the Payload Developer's resource for Human Factors. HFIT is the interface between Payload Developers and ISS Payload Human Factors requirements in SSP 57000. ? HFIT provides recommendations on how to meet the Human Factors requirements and guidelines early in the design process. HFIT coordinates with the Payload Developer and Astronaut Office to find low cost solutions to Human Factors challenges for hardware operability issues.

  18. Economics of human trafficking.

    PubMed

    Wheaton, Elizabeth M; Schauer, Edward J; Galli, Thomas V

    2010-01-01

    Because freedom of choice and economic gain are at the heart of productivity, human trafficking impedes national and international economic growth. Within the next 10 years, crime experts expect human trafficking to surpass drug and arms trafficking in its incidence, cost to human well-being, and profitability to criminals (Schauer and Wheaton, 2006: 164-165). The loss of agency from human trafficking as well as from modern slavery is the result of human vulnerability (Bales, 2000: 15). As people become vulnerable to exploitation and businesses continually seek the lowest-cost labour sources, trafficking human beings generates profit and a market for human trafficking is created. This paper presents an economic model of human trafficking that encompasses all known economic factors that affect human trafficking both across and within national borders. We envision human trafficking as a monopolistically competitive industry in which traffickers act as intermediaries between vulnerable individuals and employers by supplying differentiated products to employers. In the human trafficking market, the consumers are employers of trafficked labour and the products are human beings. Using a rational-choice framework of human trafficking we explain the social situations that shape relocation and working decisions of vulnerable populations leading to human trafficking, the impetus for being a trafficker, and the decisions by employers of trafficked individuals. The goal of this paper is to provide a common ground upon which policymakers and researchers can collaborate to decrease the incidence of trafficking in humans.

  19. Human Dignity, Three Human Rights, and Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenberg, Donald

    1986-01-01

    A general theory of value is outlined to show that moral agency is necessary to human dignity and that liberty, equality, and fraternity are necessary to moral agency. These ideals can be implemented in schools and human dignity can be at the core of the professional ethics of teaching. (MT)

  20. Values for Human-to-Human Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Defines "values" and lists the eight values (stewardship, service, intellectual freedom, rationalism, literacy and learning, equity of access, privacy, democracy) derived by the author in an earlier work. Gives a brief history of the evolution of human-to-human reference service and discusses its future. Relates each of the author's eight values…

  1. Boundaries of Humanities: Writing Medical Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Gillie

    2008-01-01

    Literature and medicine is a discipline within medical humanities, which challenges medicine to reconfigure its scientific model to become interdisciplinary, and be disciplined by arts and humanities as well as science. The psychological, emotional, spiritual and physical are inextricably linked in people, inevitably entailing provisionality,…

  2. Identification of tyrosine phosphorylation sites in human Gab-1 protein by EGF receptor kinase in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lehr, S; Kotzka, J; Herkner, A; Klein, E; Siethoff, C; Knebel, B; Noelle, V; Brüning, J C; Klein, H W; Meyer, H E; Krone, W; Müller-Wieland, D

    1999-01-05

    Grb2-associated binder-1 (Gab-1) has been identified recently in a cDNA library of glioblastoma tumors and appears to play a central role in cellular growth response, transformation, and apoptosis. Structural and functional features indicate that Gab-1 is a multisubstrate docking protein downstream in the signaling pathways of different receptor tyrosine kinases, including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Therefore, the aim of the study was to characterize the phosphorylation of recombinant human Gab-1 (hGab-1) protein by EGFR in vitro. Using the pGEX system to express the entire protein and different domains of hGab-1 as glutathione S-transferase proteins, kinetic data for phosphorylation of these proteins by wheat germ agglutinine-purified EGFR and the recombinant EGFR (rEGFR) receptor kinase domain were determined. Our data revealed similar affinities of hGab-1-C for both receptor preparations (KM = 2.7 microM for rEGFR vs 3.2 microM for WGA EGFR) as well as for the different recombinant hGab-1 domains. To identify the specific EGFR phosphorylation sites, hGab-1-C was sequenced by Edman degradation and mass spectrometry. The entire protein was phosphorylated by rEGFR at eight tyrosine residues (Y285, Y373, Y406, Y447, Y472, Y619, Y657, and Y689). Fifty percent of the identified radioactivity was incorporated in tyrosine Y657 as the predominant peak in HPLC analysis, a site exhibiting features of a potential Syp (PTP1D) binding site. Accordingly, GST-pull down assays with A431 and HepG2 cell lysates showed that phosphorylated intact hGab-1 was able to bind Syp. This binding appears to be specific, because it was abolished by changing the Y657 of hGab-1 to F657. These results demonstrate that hGab-1 is a high-affinity substrate for the EGFR and the major tyrosine phosphorylation site Y657 in the C terminus is a specific binding site for the tyrosine phosphatase Syp.

  3. Human Melioidosis, Malawi, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Katangwe, Thembi; Purcell, Janet; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Denis, Brigitte; Montgomery, Jacqui; Alaerts, Maaike; Heyderman, Robert Simon; Dance, David A.B.; Kennedy, Neil; Feasey, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    A case of human melioidosis caused by a novel sequence type of Burkholderia pseudomallei occurred in a child in Malawi, southern Africa. A literature review showed that human cases reported from the continent have been increasing. PMID:23735189

  4. Indicators: Human Disturbance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Human disturbance is a measure of the vulnerability of aquatic resources to a variety of harmful human activities such as tree removal, road building, construction near shorelines/streambanks, and artificial hardening of lakeshores with retaining walls.

  5. Human Purposive Movement Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    theory and provides examples of developmental and operational technologies that could use this theory in common settings. 15. SUBJECT TERMS human ... activity , prediction of behavior, human algorithms purposive movement theory 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18

  6. Statement on Human Cloning

    MedlinePlus

    ... form Search American Association for the Advancement of Science Statement on Human Cloning Tweet The American Association ... to implant a human cloned embryo for the purpose of reproduction. The scientific evidence documenting the serious ...

  7. Human bites (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Human bites present a high risk of infection. Besides the bacteria which can cause infection, there is ... the wound extends below the skin. Anytime a human bite has broken the skin, seek medical attention.

  8. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Why get vaccinated?HPV vaccine prevents infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are associated with cause ... at http://www.cdc.gov/hpv. HPV Vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and ...

  9. Human Exposure and Health

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The ROE is divided into 5 themes: Air, Water, Land, Human Exposure and Health and Ecological Condition. From these themes, the report indicators address fundamental questions that the ROE attempts to answer. For human health there are 3 questions.

  10. Civilian Human Resources

    Science.gov Websites

    open the menu (new window). Open Menu Navigate Up This page location is: Civilian Human Resources Pages Default BrowseTab 1 of 2. PageTab 2 of 2. Sign In You are leaving the Civilian Human Resources Website LinkedIn Search this site... Search Civilian Human Resources Top Link Bar Civilian Human Resources Home

  11. Human behavior and malaria.

    PubMed

    Hongvivatana, T

    1986-09-01

    Human behavior in malaria is often narrowly referred to behavior of the target populations in transmission and control of malaria. In this presentation it was discussed that such view is too narrow. A broader framework incorporating illness behavior and human behavior in malaria control bureaucracies is needed for the success of national malaria control programme. Literature under the three broad categories of human behavior in malaria is reviewed to justify future directions in human behavior research and their significance for successful malaria control.

  12. Human papillomavirus molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Harden, Mallory E; Munger, Karl

    Human papillomaviruses are small DNA viruses with a tropism for squamous epithelia. A unique aspect of human papillomavirus molecular biology involves dependence on the differentiation status of the host epithelial cell to complete the viral lifecycle. A small group of these viruses are the etiologic agents of several types of human cancers, including oral and anogenital tract carcinomas. This review focuses on the basic molecular biology of human papillomaviruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Intervention and Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Arthur J.

    1988-01-01

    Defends the right of nations to criticize human rights violations within other nations. Pointing out that the human rights protections cannot be left to domestic jurisdiction, Goldberg cites numerous treaties and declarations which make human rights protection a matter of international law. (GEA)

  14. Human Machine Learning Symbiosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kenneth R.; Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Williams, Kim H.

    2017-01-01

    Human Machine Learning Symbiosis is a cooperative system where both the human learner and the machine learner learn from each other to create an effective and efficient learning environment adapted to the needs of the human learner. Such a system can be used in online learning modules so that the modules adapt to each learner's learning state both…

  15. Explaining Human Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Alton T.; And Others

    The Deductive-Nomological (D-N) model of human behavior is useful and provides the most objective explanation when it is appropriate but it is not necessarily an all-inclusive statement. For instance, explaining human behavior is always an act that entails languages and theories that are value laden and reveal human choices; however the D-N model…

  16. Production Of Human Antibodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammons, David W.; Neil, Garry A.

    1993-01-01

    Process for making human monoclonal antibodies based on combination of techniques. Antibodies made active against specific antigen. Process involves in vivo immunization of human B lymphocyte cells in mice. B cells of interest enriched in vitro before fusion. Method potentially applicable to any antigen. Does not rely on use of Epstein-Barr virus at any step. Human lymphocytes taken from any source.

  17. Humanities Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Mary Ann

    Designed as a model for a high school humanities program, this publication outlines a two-course, two-year elective in humanities for high school juniors and seniors. Introductory material includes an overview of the program and its history, credits, goals of the program, and an introduction to humanities. The major portion of the guide contains…

  18. Financing Human Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juffras, Jason; Sawhill, Isabel V.

    This paper examines the government's role in financing human capital investments. It first examines why private investments in education, training, and other forms of human capital are likely to fall short of socially desirable levels. It then reviews past trends in public support for human resource investments. Finally, it discusses current…

  19. Esprit: A Humanities Magazine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Donald G.; Capella, Barry John

    In March 1984, the first issue of "Esprit," a semi-annual humanities magazine for the 56 two-year colleges in New York State, was published. The magazine seeks to confront the apparent decline of student interest in the humanities, community doubts about the relevance of the humanities, and the seeming indifference to the special truths…

  20. International Human Rights Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woito, Robert, Ed.

    Designed for students, educators, and citizens interested in human rights, the booklet presents resources for learning about the facts, perspectives, and existing procedures and institutions to promote human rights. Chapter one explores the relationship between human rights and war. Chapter two presents a self-survey to help readers clarify…

  1. A Human Rights Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Presents a human rights glossary that includes definitions of basic terms, treaties, charters, and groups/organizations that have been featured in previous articles in this edition of "Update on Law-Related Education"; the human rights terms have been compiled as part of the celebration of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights…

  2. HUMAN EXPOSURE ACTIVITY PATTERNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human activity/uptake rate data are necessary to estimate potential human exposure and intake dose to environmental pollutants and to refine human exposure models. Personal exposure monitoring studies have demonstrated the critical role that activities play in explaining and pre...

  3. The Virtual Physiological Human

    PubMed Central

    Coveney, Peter V.; Diaz, Vanessa; Hunter, Peter; Kohl, Peter; Viceconti, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The Virtual Physiological Human is synonymous with a programme in computational biomedicine that aims to develop a framework of methods and technologies to investigate the human body as a whole. It is predicated on the transformational character of information technology, brought to bear on that most crucial of human concerns, our own health and well-being.

  4. Human-technology Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullen, Katharine M.

    Human-technology integration is the replacement of human parts and extension of human capabilities with engineered devices and substrates. Its result is hybrid biological-artificial systems. We discuss here four categories of products furthering human-technology integration: wearable computers, pervasive computing environments, engineered tissues and organs, and prosthetics, and introduce examples of currently realized systems in each category. We then note that realization of a completely artificial sytem via the path of human-technology integration presents the prospect of empirical confirmation of an aware artificially embodied system.

  5. Human Mitochondrial Protein Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 131 Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (Web, free access)   The Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (HMPDb) provides comprehensive data on mitochondrial and human nuclear encoded proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. This database consolidates information from SwissProt, LocusLink, Protein Data Bank (PDB), GenBank, Genome Database (GDB), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Human Mitochondrial Genome Database (mtDB), MITOMAP, Neuromuscular Disease Center and Human 2-D PAGE Databases. This database is intended as a tool not only to aid in studying the mitochondrion but in studying the associated diseases.

  6. Rethinking medical humanities.

    PubMed

    Chiapperino, Luca; Boniolo, Giovanni

    2014-12-01

    This paper questions different conceptions of Medical Humanities in order to provide a clearer understanding of what they are and why they matter. Building upon former attempts, we defend a conception of Medical Humanities as a humanistic problem-based approach to medicine aiming at influencing its nature and practice. In particular, we discuss three main conceptual issues regarding the overall nature of this discipline: (i) a problem-driven approach to Medical Humanities; (ii) the need for an integration of Medical Humanities into medicine; (iii) the methodological requirements that could render Medical Humanities an effective framework for medical decision-making.

  7. Biological Races in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two most commonly used biological concepts of race, chimpanzees are indeed subdivided into races but humans are not. Adaptive traits, such as skin color, have frequently been used to define races in humans, but such adaptive traits reflect the underlying environmental factor to which they are adaptive and not overall genetic differentiation, and different adaptive traits define discordant groups. There are no objective criteria for choosing one adaptive trait over another to define race. As a consequence, adaptive traits do not define races in humans. Much of the recent scientific literature on human evolution portrays human populations as separate branches on an evolutionary tree. A tree-like structure among humans has been falsified whenever tested, so this practice is scientifically indefensible. It is also socially irresponsible as these pictorial representations of human evolution have more impact on the general public than nuanced phrases in the text of a scientific paper. Humans have much genetic diversity, but the vast majority of this diversity reflects individual uniqueness and not race. PMID:23684745

  8. Human rights and bioethics.

    PubMed

    Barilan, Y M; Brusa, M

    2008-05-01

    In the first part of this article we survey the concept of human rights from a philosophical perspective and especially in relation to the "right to healthcare". It is argued that regardless of meta-ethical debates on the nature of rights, the ethos and language of moral deliberation associated with human rights is indispensable to any ethics that places the victim and the sufferer in its centre. In the second part we discuss the rise of the "right to privacy", particularly in the USA, as an attempt to make the element of personal free will dominate over the element of basic human interest within the structure of rights and when different rights seem to conflict. We conclude by discussing the relationship of human rights with moral values beyond the realm of rights, mainly human dignity, free will, human rationality and response to basic human needs.

  9. Integrated Environmental Modelling: Human decisions, human challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glynn, Pierre D.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Modelling (IEM) is an invaluable tool for understanding the complex, dynamic ecosystems that house our natural resources and control our environments. Human behaviour affects the ways in which the science of IEM is assembled and used for meaningful societal applications. In particular, human biases and heuristics reflect adaptation and experiential learning to issues with frequent, sharply distinguished, feedbacks. Unfortunately, human behaviour is not adapted to the more diffusely experienced problems that IEM typically seeks to address. Twelve biases are identified that affect IEM (and science in general). These biases are supported by personal observations and by the findings of behavioural scientists. A process for critical analysis is proposed that addresses some human challenges of IEM and solicits explicit description of (1) represented processes and information, (2) unrepresented processes and information, and (3) accounting for, and cognizance of, potential human biases. Several other suggestions are also made that generally complement maintaining attitudes of watchful humility, open-mindedness, honesty and transparent accountability. These suggestions include (1) creating a new area of study in the behavioural biogeosciences, (2) using structured processes for engaging the modelling and stakeholder communities in IEM, and (3) using ‘red teams’ to increase resilience of IEM constructs and use.

  10. Sensitization to human milk.

    PubMed

    Schulmeister, U; Swoboda, I; Quirce, S; de la Hoz, B; Ollert, M; Pauli, G; Valenta, R; Spitzauer, S

    2008-01-01

    Allergy to milk is one of the earliest manifestations of IgE-mediated allergies and affects about 2.5% of newborn children. Several reports indicate that milk-allergic patients may be sensitized also to human milk proteins. To analyse the specificity and possible biological relevance of IgE reactivity to human milk antigens in milk-allergic patients. The specificity of IgE reactivity to cow's milk and human milk antigens was analysed with sera from milk-allergic children and adults by IgE immunoblotting. IgE cross-reactivity between milk antigens was studied by immunoblot inhibition experiments. That IgE reactivity to human milk antigens is not due to alloreactivity or due to the transmission of foreign antigens into mother's milk was demonstrated through the analysis of milk samples from genetically unrelated mothers before and after intake of dietary milk products. The biological relevance of IgE reactivity to human milk was confirmed by skin testing. Results IgE antibodies to human milk were found in more than 80% of the tested milk-allergic patients. Cross-reactive IgE-reactive human antigens such as alpha-lactalbumin and non-cross-reactive human milk antigens were identified. Immediate-type skin reactions could be elicited with human milk samples in patients with IgE reactivity to human milk. IgE reactivity to human milk in milk-allergic patients can be due to cross- sensitization and genuine sensitization to human milk and may cause allergic symptoms. IgE-mediated sensitization to human milk is common in milk-allergic patients and may require diagnostic testing and monitoring.

  11. Human organ markets and inherent human dignity.

    PubMed

    MacKellar, Calum

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that human organs should be bought and sold on a regulated market as any other material property belongingto an individual. This would have the advantage of both addressing the grave shortage of organs available for transplantation and respecting the freedom of individuals to choose to do whatever they want with their body parts. The old arguments against such a market in human organs are, therefore, being brought back into question. The article examines the different arguments both in favour and against the sale of human organs. It concludes that the body and any of its elements is a full expression of the whole person. As such, they cannot have a price if the individual is to retain his or her full inherent dignity and if society is to retain and protect this very important concept.

  12. Human Performance in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna

    2010-01-01

    Human factors is a critical discipline for human spaceflight. Nearly every human factors research area is relevant to space exploration -- from the ergonomics of hand tools used by astronauts, to the displays and controls of a spacecraft cockpit or mission control workstation, to levels of automation designed into rovers on Mars, to organizational issues of communication between crew and ground. This chapter focuses more on the ways in which the space environment (especially altered gravity and the isolated and confined nature of long-duration spaceflight) affects crew performance, and thus has specific novel implications for human factors research and practice. We focus on four aspects of human performance: neurovestibular integration, motor control and musculo-skeletal effects, cognitive effects, and behavioral health. We also provide a sampler of recent human factors studies from NASA.

  13. The Human Cell Atlas.

    PubMed

    Regev, Aviv; Teichmann, Sarah A; Lander, Eric S; Amit, Ido; Benoist, Christophe; Birney, Ewan; Bodenmiller, Bernd; Campbell, Peter; Carninci, Piero; Clatworthy, Menna; Clevers, Hans; Deplancke, Bart; Dunham, Ian; Eberwine, James; Eils, Roland; Enard, Wolfgang; Farmer, Andrew; Fugger, Lars; Göttgens, Berthold; Hacohen, Nir; Haniffa, Muzlifah; Hemberg, Martin; Kim, Seung; Klenerman, Paul; Kriegstein, Arnold; Lein, Ed; Linnarsson, Sten; Lundberg, Emma; Lundeberg, Joakim; Majumder, Partha; Marioni, John C; Merad, Miriam; Mhlanga, Musa; Nawijn, Martijn; Netea, Mihai; Nolan, Garry; Pe'er, Dana; Phillipakis, Anthony; Ponting, Chris P; Quake, Stephen; Reik, Wolf; Rozenblatt-Rosen, Orit; Sanes, Joshua; Satija, Rahul; Schumacher, Ton N; Shalek, Alex; Shapiro, Ehud; Sharma, Padmanee; Shin, Jay W; Stegle, Oliver; Stratton, Michael; Stubbington, Michael J T; Theis, Fabian J; Uhlen, Matthias; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Wagner, Allon; Watt, Fiona; Weissman, Jonathan; Wold, Barbara; Xavier, Ramnik; Yosef, Nir

    2017-12-05

    The recent advent of methods for high-throughput single-cell molecular profiling has catalyzed a growing sense in the scientific community that the time is ripe to complete the 150-year-old effort to identify all cell types in the human body. The Human Cell Atlas Project is an international collaborative effort that aims to define all human cell types in terms of distinctive molecular profiles (such as gene expression profiles) and to connect this information with classical cellular descriptions (such as location and morphology). An open comprehensive reference map of the molecular state of cells in healthy human tissues would propel the systematic study of physiological states, developmental trajectories, regulatory circuitry and interactions of cells, and also provide a framework for understanding cellular dysregulation in human disease. Here we describe the idea, its potential utility, early proofs-of-concept, and some design considerations for the Human Cell Atlas, including a commitment to open data, code, and community.

  14. Human Resource Accounting.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    costs . The goal of this thesis is to help the Portuguese Navy in formulating a formal and coherent approach to its human resource accounting , and in so...ABSTRACT Human Resource Accounting means accounting for people as an organizational asset. It is the measurement of the cost and value of people to the...29 II.HUMAN RESOURCE COSTS . . . . . . . . . . . 30 A. CONCEPTS OF COST AND MEASUREMENT METHODS . . . 30 1. Accounting Concepts of Costs

  15. Human Image Understanding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    A Theory of Human Image Understanding " and the reprint of the chapter "Aspects and...Extensions of a Theory of Human Image Understanding " in Z. Pylyshyn (Ed). CONTENTS I. Introduction and Background ............................... 2 II. A...edges Fig;i 4 Some nonacmdentg differences between a brick and a cylinder. From Fig. 5, Recognition-by-Components: A theory of human image

  16. Human cloning 2001.

    PubMed

    Healy, David L; Weston, Gareth; Pera, Martin F; Rombauts, Luk; Trounson, Alan O

    2002-05-01

    This review summaries human cloning from a clinical perspective. Natural human clones, that is, monozygotic twins, are increasing in the general community. Iatrogenic human clones have been produced for decades in infertile couples given fertility treatment such as ovulation induction. A clear distinction must be made between therapeutic cloning using embryonic stem cells and reproductive cloning attempts. Unlike the early clinical years of in vitro fertilization, with cloning there is no animal model that is safe and dependable. Until there is such a model, 'Dolly'-style human cloning is medically unacceptable.

  17. Robotics for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Deans, Mathew; Bualat, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Robots can do a variety of work to increase the productivity of human explorers. Robots can perform tasks that are tedious, highly repetitive or long-duration. Robots can perform precursor tasks, such as reconnaissance, which help prepare for future human activity. Robots can work in support of astronauts, assisting or performing tasks in parallel. Robots can also perform "follow-up" work, completing tasks designated or started by humans. In this paper, we summarize the development and testing of robots designed to improve future human exploration of space.

  18. Human target acquisition performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teaney, Brian P.; Du Bosq, Todd W.; Reynolds, Joseph P.; Thompson, Roger; Aghera, Sameer; Moyer, Steven K.; Flug, Eric; Espinola, Richard; Hixson, Jonathan

    2012-06-01

    The battlefield has shifted from armored vehicles to armed insurgents. Target acquisition (identification, recognition, and detection) range performance involving humans as targets is vital for modern warfare. The acquisition and neutralization of armed insurgents while at the same time minimizing fratricide and civilian casualties is a mounting concern. U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD has conducted many experiments involving human targets for infrared and reflective band sensors. The target sets include human activities, hand-held objects, uniforms & armament, and other tactically relevant targets. This paper will define a set of standard task difficulty values for identification and recognition associated with human target acquisition performance.

  19. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  20. Filipin-dependent Inhibition of Cholera Toxin: Evidence for Toxin Internalization and Activation through Caveolae-like Domains

    PubMed Central

    Orlandi, Palmer A.; Fishman, Peter H.

    1998-01-01

    The mechanism by which cholera toxin (CT) is internalized from the plasma membrane before its intracellular reduction and subsequent activation of adenylyl cyclase is not well understood. Ganglioside GM1, the receptor for CT, is predominantly clustered in detergent-insoluble glycolipid rafts and in caveolae, noncoated, cholesterol-rich invaginations on the plasma membrane. In this study, we used filipin, a sterol-binding agent that disrupts caveolae and caveolae-like structures, to explore their role in the internalization and activation of CT in CaCo-2 human intestinal epithelial cells. When toxin internalization was quantified, only 33% of surface-bound toxin was internalized by filipin-treated cells within 1 h compared with 79% in untreated cells. However, CT activation as determined by its reduction to form the A1 peptide and CT activity as measured by cyclic AMP accumulation were inhibited in filipin-treated cells. Another sterol-binding agent, 2-hydroxy-β-cyclodextrin, gave comparable results. The cationic amphiphilic drug chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of clathrin-dependent, receptor-mediated endocytosis, however, affected neither CT internalization, activation, nor activity in contrast to its inhibitory effects on diphtheria toxin cytotoxicity. As filipin did not inhibit the latter, the two drugs appeared to distinguish between caveolae- and coated pit–mediated processes. In addition to its effects in CaCo-2 cells that express low levels of caveolin, filipin also inhibited CT activity in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 and Jurkat T lymphoma cells that are, respectively, rich in or lack caveolin. Thus, filipin inhibition correlated more closely with alterations in the biochemical characteristics of CT-bound membranes due to the interactions of filipin with cholesterol rather than with the expressed levels of caveolin and caveolar structure. Our results indicated that the internalization and activation of CT was dependent on and mediated through cholesterol

  1. Affinity adsorption of glucose degradation products improves the biocompatibility of conventional peritoneal dialysis fluid.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Naoyoshi; Miyata, Toshio; Ueda, Yasuhiko; Inagi, Reiko; Izuhara, Yuko; Yuzawa, Hiroko; Onogi, Hiroshi; Nishina, Makoto; Nangaku, Masaomi; Van Ypersele De Strihou, Charles; Kurokawa, Kiyoshi

    2003-01-01

    Reactive carbonyl compounds (RCOs) present in peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluid have been incriminated in the progressive deterioration of the peritoneal membrane in long-term PD patients. They are initially present in fresh conventional heat-sterilized glucose PD fluid and are supplemented during dwell time by the diffusion of blood RCOs within the peritoneal cavity. In the present study, RCO entrapping agents were immobilized on affinity beads to adsorb RCOs both in fresh PD fluid and in PD effluent. The RCO trapping potential of various compounds was assessed in vitro first by dissolving them in the tested fluid and subsequently after coupling with either epoxy- or amino-beads. The tested fluids include fresh heat-sterilized glucose and non-glucose PD fluids, and PD effluent. Their RCOs contents, that is, glyoxal (GO), methylglyoxal (MGO), 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG), formaldehyde, 5-hydroxymethylfuraldehyde, acetaldehyde, and 2-furaldehyde were monitored by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. The biocompatibility of PD fluid was assessed by a cytotoxic assay with either human epidermoid cell line A431 cells or with primary cultured human peritoneal mesothelial cells. Among the tested RCO entrapping agents, hydrazine coupled to epoxy-beads proved the most efficient. It lowered the concentrations of three dicarbonyl compounds (GO, MGO, and 3-DG) and those of aldehydes present in fresh heat-sterilized glucose PD fluid toward the low levels observed in filter-sterilized glucose PD fluid. It did not change the glucose and electrolytes concentration of the PD fluid but raised its pH from 5.2 to 5.9. Hydrazine-coupled epoxy-bead also lowered the PD effluent content of total RCOs, measured by the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone (DNPH) method. The cytotoxicity of heat-sterilized PD fluid incubated with hydrazine-coupled epoxy-beads was decreased to the level observed in filter-sterilized PD fluid as the result of the raised pH and the lowered RCOs levels. Hydrazine

  2. Imaging of alpha(v)beta(3) expression by a bifunctional chimeric RGD peptide not cross-reacting with alpha(v)beta(5).

    PubMed

    Zannetti, Antonella; Del Vecchio, Silvana; Iommelli, Francesca; Del Gatto, Annarita; De Luca, Stefania; Zaccaro, Laura; Papaccioli, Angela; Sommella, Jvana; Panico, Mariarosaria; Speranza, Antonio; Grieco, Paolo; Novellino, Ettore; Saviano, Michele; Pedone, Carlo; Salvatore, Marco

    2009-08-15

    To test whether a novel bifunctional chimeric peptide comprising a cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp pentapeptide covalently bound to an echistatin domain can discriminate alpha(v)beta(3) from alpha(v)beta(5) integrin, thus allowing the in vivo selective visualization of alpha(v)beta(3) expression by single-photon and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The chimeric peptide was preliminarily tested for inhibition of alpha(v)beta(3)-dependent cell adhesion and competition of 125I-echistatin binding to membrane of stably transfected K562 cells expressing alpha(v)beta(3) (Kalpha(v)beta(3)) or alpha(v)beta(5) (Kalpha(v)beta(5)) integrin. The chimeric peptide was then conjugated with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and labeled with 111In for single-photon imaging, whereas a one-step procedure was used for labeling the full-length peptide and a truncated derivative, lacking the last five C-terminal amino acids, with 18F for PET imaging. Nude mice bearing tumors from Kalpha(v)beta(3), Kalpha(v)beta(5), U87MG human glioblastoma, and A431 human epidermoid cells were subjected to single-photon and PET imaging. Adhesion and competitive binding assays showed that the novel chimeric peptide selectively binds to alpha(v)beta(3) integrin and does not cross-react with alpha(v)beta(5). In agreement with in vitro findings, single-photon and PET imaging studies showed that the radiolabeled chimeric peptide selectively localizes in tumor xenografts expressing alphavbeta3 and fails to accumulate in those expressing alpha(v)beta(5) integrin. When 18F-labeled truncated derivative was used for PET imaging, alphavbeta3- and alpha(v)beta(5)-expressing tumors were visualized, indicating that the five C-terminal amino acids are required to differentially bind the two integrins. Our findings indicate that the novel chimeric Arg-Gly-Asp peptide, having no cross-reaction with alphavbeta5 integrin, allows highly selective alphavbeta3 expression imaging and monitoring.

  3. Humane Education Projects Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junior League of Ogden, UT.

    This handbook was developed to promote interest in humane education and to encourage the adoption of humane education projects. Although specifically designed to assist Junior Leagues in developing such projects, the content should prove valuable to animal welfare organizations, zoos, aquariums, nature centers, and other project-oriented groups…

  4. Assessment of Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, Frances; Foley, Tico

    1999-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering, often referred to as Ergonomics, is a science that applies a detailed understanding of human characteristics, capabilities, and limitations to the design, evaluation, and operation of environments, tools, and systems for work and daily living. Human Factors is the investigation, design, and evaluation of equipment, techniques, procedures, facilities, and human interfaces, and encompasses all aspects of human activity from manual labor to mental processing and leisure time enjoyments. In spaceflight applications, human factors engineering seeks to: (1) ensure that a task can be accomplished, (2) maintain productivity during spaceflight, and (3) ensure the habitability of the pressurized living areas. DSO 904 served as a vehicle for the verification and elucidation of human factors principles and tools in the microgravity environment. Over six flights, twelve topics were investigated. This study documented the strengths and limitations of human operators in a complex, multifaceted, and unique environment. By focusing on the man-machine interface in space flight activities, it was determined which designs allow astronauts to be optimally productive during valuable and costly space flights. Among the most promising areas of inquiry were procedures, tools, habitat, environmental conditions, tasking, work load, flexibility, and individual control over work.

  5. Rationality in Human Movement.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Megan K; Ahmed, Alaa A

    2016-01-01

    It long has been appreciated that humans behave irrationally in economic decisions under risk: they fail to objectively consider uncertainty, costs, and rewards and instead exhibit risk-seeking or risk-averse behavior. We hypothesize that poor estimates of motor variability (influenced by motor task) and distorted probability weighting (influenced by relevant emotional processes) contribute to characteristic irrationality in human movement decisions.

  6. Humanism within Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of adult learning connects it to almost all other facets of human endeavor. Consequently, the future of adult education depends, to a large extent on who participates and the quality of such participation. Quality participation, when teamed with environments committed to a concern for humanity, launches opportunities for varied…

  7. IMMUNOASSAY HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Human Exposure Research Branch has developed several enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods to support human exposure assessment studies. Immunoassays to detect low levels (<10 ng/mL) of chlorpyrifos in food, track-in dirt and house dust have been applied to sam...

  8. Incorporating Human Interindividual Biotransformation ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The protection of sensitive individuals within a population dictates that measures other than central tendencies be employed to estimate risk. The refinement of human health risk assessments for chemicals metabolized by the liver to reflect data on human variability can be accomplished through (1) the characterization of enzyme expression in large banks of human liver samples, (2) the employment of appropriate techniques for the quantification and extrapolation of metabolic rates derived in vitro, and (3) the judicious application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. While in vitro measurements of specific biochemical reactions from multiple human samples can yield qualitatively valuable data on human variance, such measures must be put into the perspective of the intact human to yield the most valuable predictions of metabolic differences among humans. For quantitative metabolism data to be the most valuable in risk assessment, they must be tied to human anatomy and physiology, and the impact of their variance evaluated under real exposure scenarios. For chemicals metabolized in the liver, the concentration of parent chemical in the liver represents the substrate concentration in the MichaelisMenten description of metabolism. Metabolic constants derived in vitro may be extrapolated to the intact liver, when appropriate conditions are met. Metabolic capacity Vmax; the maximal rate of the reaction) can be scaled directly to the concentration

  9. Three Human Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaves, Ronald C.; Williams, Thomas O., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This study represents a beginning step in research that may ultimately show that the multitudes of human behavior that educators currently encounter may be reduced to three broad human attributes: arousal, affect, and cognition. The resulting simplicity should lead to improved understanding and better decision making by practitioners. Four…

  10. Introduction to human factors

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, J.M.

    Some background is given on the field of human factors. The nature of problems with current human/computer interfaces is discussed, some costs are identified, ideal attributes of graceful system interfaces are outlined, and some reasons are indicated why it's not easy to fix the problems. (LEW)

  11. Human Powered Centrifuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulenburg, Gerald M. (Inventor); Vernikos, Joan (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A human powered centrifuge has independently established turntable angular velocity and human power input. A control system allows excess input power to be stored as electric energy in a battery or dissipated as heat through a resistors. In a mechanical embodiment, the excess power is dissipated in a friction brake.

  12. Evaluating the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Howard

    2013-01-01

    How can one measure the value of teaching the humanities? The problem of assessment and accountability is prominent today, of course, in secondary and higher education. It is perhaps even more acute for those who teach the humanities in nontraditional settings, such as medical and other professional schools. The public assumes that academes can…

  13. Human Sociobiology: Wilson's Fallacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehrman, Nathaniel S.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an introduction to and a critique of E.O. Wilson's new science of sociobiology, which focuses on explaining the social behavior of species as diverse as ants, apes, and humans. Suggests that Wilson has gone beyond his data in claiming that complex human behaviors such as altruism are caused to any extent by genetic, as opposed to…

  14. Quantification of human responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinlage, R. C.; Gantner, T. E.; Lim, P. Y. W.

    1992-01-01

    Human perception is a complex phenomenon which is difficult to quantify with instruments. For this reason, large panels of people are often used to elicit and aggregate subjective judgments. Print quality, taste, smell, sound quality of a stereo system, softness, and grading Olympic divers and skaters are some examples of situations where subjective measurements or judgments are paramount. We usually express what is in our mind through language as a medium but languages are limited in available choices of vocabularies, and as a result, our verbalizations are only approximate expressions of what we really have in mind. For lack of better methods to quantify subjective judgments, it is customary to set up a numerical scale such as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 1, 2, 3, ..., 9, 10 for characterizing human responses and subjective judgments with no valid justification except that these scales are easy to understand and convenient to use. But these numerical scales are arbitrary simplifications of the complex human mind; the human mind is not restricted to such simple numerical variations. In fact, human responses and subjective judgments are psychophysical phenomena that are fuzzy entities and therefore difficult to handle by conventional mathematics and probability theory. The fuzzy mathematical approach provides a more realistic insight into understanding and quantifying human responses. This paper presents a method for quantifying human responses and subjective judgments without assuming a pattern of linear or numerical variation for human responses. In particular, quantification and evaluation of linguistic judgments was investigated.

  15. Human Dignity Through History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterlie, Arthur L.

    A major educational need, as assessed by a committee of teachers, students, and community members, is to recognize acceptance of human dignity as the ultimate value in decision making. This concept provides a basis for the elementary and secondary social studies program. Although the concept of human dignity was promoted with the signing of the…

  16. Human Mind Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Tom

    2016-01-01

    When students generate mind maps, or concept maps, the maps are usually on paper, computer screens, or a blackboard. Human Mind Maps require few resources and little preparation. The main requirements are space where students can move around and a little creativity and imagination. Mind maps can be used for a variety of purposes, and Human Mind…

  17. Fungi that Infect Humans.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Julia R; Hube, Bernhard; Puccia, Rosana; Casadevall, Arturo; Perfect, John R

    2017-06-01

    Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue. Last, the potent human immune system evolved in the interaction with potential fungal pathogens, so few fungi meet all four conditions for a healthy human host. Paradoxically, the advances of modern medicine have made millions of people newly susceptible to fungal infections by disrupting immune defenses. This article explores how different members of four fungal phyla use different strategies to fulfill the four criteria to infect humans: the Entomophthorales, the Mucorales, the Ascomycota, and the Basidiomycota. Unique traits confer human pathogenic potential on various important members of these phyla: pathogenic Onygenales comprising thermal dimorphs such as Histoplasma and Coccidioides ; the Cryptococcus spp. that infect immunocompromised as well as healthy humans; and important pathogens of immunocompromised patients- Candida , Pneumocystis , and Aspergillus spp. Also discussed are agents of neglected tropical diseases important in global health such as mycetoma and paracoccidiomycosis and common pathogens rarely implicated in serious illness such as dermatophytes. Commensalism is considered, as well as parasitism, in shaping genomes and physiological systems of hosts and fungi during evolution.

  18. Portraits of Human Greatness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Anselm's Coll., Manchester, NH.

    Examined is the Humanities Program at St. Anselm College, a two-year program of readings and lectures ordered chronologically from ancient to contemporary times--from the age of Classical Greek thought and the Old Testament to the twentieth century. The first year of the Humanities Program is organized in eight units on general modes of…

  19. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  20. Teaching Human Rights Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Howard R.

    1985-01-01

    The international community has developed a system of human rights law relevant to many areas of legal encounter, which American law schools have been slow to incorporate into curricula. Teaching human rights law provides an opportunity for law schools to enrich the learning process and contribute creatively to the respect for rights in society.…

  1. The Shattered Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, William J.

    Intellectual refinement and spiritual evaluation have been the traditional goals of the humanities and should remain so. If these aims are given up, then the noble endeavors in the humanities such as sustained reflection, intensive research, careful scholarship, inspired teaching, deep learning, and serious discussion will all become discredited…

  2. HUMAN HEALTH RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mission of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to protect public health and safeguard the environment. Risk assessment is an integral part of this mission in that it identifies and characterizes environmentally related human health problems. The Human Health Re...

  3. Mars Human Exploration Objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Geoff

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the objectives and other considerations of Human exploration of Mars. The objectives of human exploration of Mars are: (1) to learn how Mars is similar to, and different from, Earth; (2) to explore possible life, past and present; (3) to discover what Mars is like now from the perspective of Geoscience and geologic history; and (4) how did Mars form and how did its formation differ from Earth. Considerations of human Martian exploration involve: (1) having a capable base laboratory; (2) having long range transportation; (3) having operational autonomy of the crew, and the requirement of the crew to possess a range of new cognitive processes along with easy communications with terrestrial colleagues; and finally (4) creating the human habitat along with human factors which involve more than just survivability.

  4. Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara; Mount, Frances

    2004-01-01

    The first human space flight, in the early 1960s, was aimed primarily at determining whether humans could indeed survive and function in micro-gravity. Would eating and sleeping be possible? What mental and physical tasks could be performed? Subsequent programs increased the complexity of the tasks the crew performed. Table 1 summarizes the history of U.S. space flight, showing the projects, their dates, crew sizes, and mission durations. With over forty years of experience with human space flight, the emphasis now is on how to design space vehicles, habitats, and missions to produce the greatest returns to human knowledge. What are the roles of the humans in space flight in low earth orbit, on the moon, and in exploring Mars?

  5. Signal transduction in T lymphocytes in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogoli, A.

    1997-01-01

    More than 120 experiments conducted in space in the last 15 years have shown that dramatic changes are occurring in several types of single cells during their exposure to microgravity. One focus of today's research on cells in space is on signal transduction, especially those steps involving the cytoskeleton and cell-cell interactions. Signal transduction is often altered in microgravity as well as in hypergravity. This leads to changes in cell proliferation, genetic expression and differentiation. Interesting examples are leukocytes, HeLa cells, epidermoid cells and osteoblastic cells. Signalling pathways were studied in T lymphocytes in microgravity by several investigators after the discovery that mitogenic activation in vitro is virtually nil at 0g. T cells are a good model to study signal transduction because three extracellular signals (mitogen, IL-1 and IL-2) are required for full activation, and two classical pathways (via proteins G and PKC) are activated within the cell. In addition, low molecular weight GTP-binding proteins (Ras and Rap) are interacting with the cytoskeleton. The data at 0g support the notion that the expression of IL-2 receptor is inhibited at 0g, while mitogen binding and the transmission of IL-1 by accessory cells occur normally. In addition, alterations of the cytoskeleton suggest that the interaction with Rap proteins is disturbed. Data obtained with phorbol esters indicate that the function of PKC is changed in microgravity. Similar conclusions are drawn from the results with epidermoid cells A431.

  6. Digital Human Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dischinger, H. Charles, Jr.

    2017-01-01

    The development of models to represent human characteristics and behaviors in human factors is broad and general. The term "model" can refer to any metaphor to represent any aspect of the human; it is generally used in research to mean a mathematical tool for the simulation (often in software, which makes the simulation digital) of some aspect of human performance and for the prediction of future outcomes. This section is restricted to the application of human models in physical design, e.g., in human factors engineering. This design effort is typically human interface design, and the digital models used are anthropometric. That is, they are visual models that are the physical shape of humans and that have the capabilities and constraints of humans of a selected population. They are distinct from the avatars used in the entertainment industry (movies, video games, and the like) in precisely that regard: as models, they are created through the application of data on humans, and they are used to predict human response; body stresses workspaces. DHM enable iterative evaluation of a large number of concepts and support rapid analysis, as compared with use of physical mockups. They can be used to evaluate feasibility of escape of a suited astronaut from a damaged vehicle, before launch or after an abort (England, et al., 2012). Throughout most of human spaceflight, little attention has been paid to worksite design for ground workers. As a result of repeated damage to the Space Shuttle which adversely affected flight safety, DHM analyses of ground assembly and maintenance have been developed over the last five years for the design of new flight systems (Stambolian, 2012, Dischinger and Dunn Jackson, 2014). The intent of these analyses is to assure the design supports the work of the ground crew personnel and thereby protect the launch vehicle. They help the analyst address basic human factors engineering questions: can a worker reach the task site from the work platform

  7. Archaea on Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Alexander J.; Auerbach, Anna K.; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin. PMID:23776475

  8. Human Milk Banking.

    PubMed

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Antony

    2014-01-01

    The Mars probe, launched by India a few months ago, is on its way to Mars. At this juncture, it is appropriate to talk about the opportunities presented to us for the Human Exploration of Mars. I am planning to highlight some of the challenges to take humans to Mars, descend, land, stay, ascend and return home safely. The logistics of carrying the necessary accessories to stay at Mars will be delivered in multiple stages using robotic missions. The primary ingredients for human survival is air, water, food and shelter and the necessity to recycle the primary ingredients will be articulated. Humans have to travel beyond the van Allen radiation belt under microgravity condition during this inter-planetary travel for about 6 months minimum one way. The deconditioning of human system under microgravity conditions and protection of humans from Galactic cosmic radiation during the travel should be taken into consideration. The multi-disciplinary effort to keep the humans safe and functional during this journey will be addressed.

  10. Genetics of human hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Michael A.; Rigamonti, Daniele

    2006-01-01

    Human hydrocephalus is a common medical condition that is characterized by abnormalities in the flow or resorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), resulting in ventricular dilatation. Human hydrocephalus can be classified into two clinical forms, congenital and acquired. Hydrocephalus is one of the complex and multifactorial neurological disorders. A growing body of evidence indicates that genetic factors play a major role in the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. An understanding of the genetic components and mechanism of this complex disorder may offer us significant insights into the molecular etiology of impaired brain development and an accumulation of the cerebrospinal fluid in cerebral compartments during the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. Genetic studies in animal models have started to open the way for understanding the underlying pathology of hydrocephalus. At least 43 mutants/loci linked to hereditary hydrocephalus have been identified in animal models and humans. Up to date, 9 genes associated with hydrocephalus have been identified in animal models. In contrast, only one such gene has been identified in humans. Most of known hydrocephalus gene products are the important cytokines, growth factors or related molecules in the cellular signal pathways during early brain development. The current molecular genetic evidence from animal models indicate that in the early development stage, impaired and abnormal brain development caused by abnormal cellular signaling and functioning, all these cellular and developmental events would eventually lead to the congenital hydrocephalus. Owing to our very primitive knowledge of the genetics and molecular pathogenesis of human hydrocephalus, it is difficult to evaluate whether data gained from animal models can be extrapolated to humans. Initiation of a large population genetics study in humans will certainly provide invaluable information about the molecular and cellular etiology and the developmental mechanisms of human

  11. Human pancreas development.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Rachel E; Berry, Andrew A; Strutt, James P; Gerrard, David T; Hanley, Neil A

    2015-09-15

    A wealth of data and comprehensive reviews exist on pancreas development in mammals, primarily mice, and other vertebrates. By contrast, human pancreatic development has been less comprehensively reviewed. Here, we draw together those studies conducted directly in human embryonic and fetal tissue to provide an overview of what is known about human pancreatic development. We discuss the relevance of this work to manufacturing insulin-secreting β-cells from pluripotent stem cells and to different aspects of diabetes, especially permanent neonatal diabetes, and its underlying causes. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Human exposure to aluminium.

    PubMed

    Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    Human activities have circumvented the efficient geochemical cycling of aluminium within the lithosphere and therewith opened a door, which was previously only ajar, onto the biotic cycle to instigate and promote the accumulation of aluminium in biota and especially humans. Neither these relatively recent activities nor the entry of aluminium into the living cycle are showing any signs of abating and it is thus now imperative that we understand as fully as possible how humans are exposed to aluminium and the future consequences of a burgeoning exposure and body burden. The aluminium age is upon us and there is now an urgent need to understand how to live safely and effectively with aluminium.

  13. Aluminium in human sweat.

    PubMed

    Minshall, Clare; Nadal, Jodie; Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    It is of burgeoning importance that the human body burden of aluminium is understood and is measured. There are surprisingly few data to describe human excretion of systemic aluminium and almost no reliable data which relate to aluminium in sweat. We have measured the aluminium content of sweat in 20 healthy volunteers following mild exercise. The concentration of aluminium ranged from 329 to 5329μg/L. These data equate to a daily excretion of between 234 and 7192μg aluminium and they strongly suggest that perspiration is the major route of excretion of systemic aluminium in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Propelling medical humanities in China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei

    2017-05-23

    Advances in the study of the medical humanities and medical humanities education have been made over the past few decades. Many influential journals have published articles examining the role of medical humanities and medical humanities education, the development and evaluation of medical humanities, and the design of a curriculum for medical humanities education in Western countries. However, most articles related to medical humanities in China were published in Chinese, moreover, researchers have worked in relative isolation and published in disparate journals, so their work has not been systematically presented to and evaluated by international readers. The six companion articles featured in this issue describe the current status and challenge of medical humanities and medical humanities education in China in the hope of providing international readers with a novel and meaningful glimpse into medical humanities in China. This Journal is calling for greater publication of research on medical humanities and medical humanities education to propel medical humanities in China.

  15. Defense Human Resources Activity > PERSEREC

    Science.gov Websites

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Human Resources Activity Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Defense Human Resources Activity U.S. Department of Defense Defense Human Resources Activity Overview

  16. Detection of an epidermoid cyst in the foot of a horse by use of magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Macarena G; Sampson, Sarah N; Schneider, Robert K; Gavin, Patrick R; Baszler, Timothy V

    2006-06-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION-A 4-year-old Quarter Horse stallion was evaluated because of a 10-month history of moderate (grade 3/5) left forelimb lameness (detectable during trotting over a smooth, hard surface). CLINICAL FINDINGS-No abnormalities were detected in either forelimb via palpation or application of hoof testers; however, lameness was eliminated after administration of a palmar digital nerve block in the left forelimb. Whereas radiography and ultrasonography did not identify any left forelimb foot abnormalities, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a circumscribed soft tissue mass in the distal aspect of the digital flexor tendon sheath (DFTS) dorsal to the lateral aspect of the deep digital flexor tendon. Subsequently, the left forelimb DFTS was injected with local anesthetic, which resulted in 90% improvement of the horse's lameness. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME-The distal aspect of the left forelimb DFTS was evaluated tenoscopically. The mass was removed under tenoscopic guidance, after which the distal digital annular ligament was transected. The horse received phenylbutazone orally for 10 days, and the left forelimb DFTS was injected with hyaluronic acid and methylprednisolone acetate 7 days after the surgery. Following a rehabilitation program, the horse was returned to full training at 6 months after surgery and competed successfully during a 2-year follow-up period. CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Use of MR imaging should be considered in all lame horses for which a definitive diagnosis cannot be made via radiography, ultrasonography, or other imaging techniques, especially when the lameness has been localized to a specific anatomic region by use of diagnostic anesthesia.

  17. Human Rights and torture.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    1998 marks the 50th anniversary of the historic Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which proclaims that all peoples are born free and equal and sets out the basic principles of equality and nondiscrimination in the enjoyment of fundamental freedoms and human rights. Yet, despite the many covenants and conventions stemming from this declaration and signed by nations around the world, human rights continue to be violated by powerful groups, by individuals, often even by family members. On 26 June, which has been declared UN International Day in Support of Victims of Torture, attention will be focused on torture--a grave violation of a person's human rights still practised in its many insidious forms in many countries. INR reviews the work of the organizations trying to help stop the perpetrators and participation of health professionals; rehabilitate the survivors; and educate health professionals and the public.

  18. The Human Hazard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tickell, Crispin

    1995-01-01

    Examines the plight of environmental refugees and the adequacy of political responses to the situation. Discusses the consequences of accelerated environmental change, particularly the impact of global warming on human migration. (LZ)

  19. Biotechnology and human rights.

    PubMed

    Feuillet-Le Mintier, B

    2001-12-01

    Biotechnology permits our world to progress. It's a tool to better apprehend the human being, but as well to let him go ahead. Applied to the living, biotechnologies present the same finality. But since their matter concerns effectively the living, they are the sources of specific dangers and particularly of that one to use the improvements obtained on the human to modify the human species. The right of the persons has to find its place to avoid that the fundamental rights of the human personality shall undergo harm. This mission assigned to the right of the persons is as so much invaluable that the economical stakes are particularly important in the domain of the biotechnologies.

  20. Human Spaceflight Safety Hearing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-02

    Dr. Joseph R. Fragola, Vice President, Valador, Inc., testifies during a hearing before the House Subcommitte on Space and Aeronautics regarding Safety of Human Spaceflight on Capitol Hill, Wednesday, Dec. 2, 2009, in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. OAS :: Accountability :: Human Resources

    Science.gov Websites

    Disarmament Drugs E e-Government Education Elections Environment Equity G General Assembly Governance H Human Management Public Security R Racism and Intolerance Refugees S Scholarships School of Governance Science and

  2. Visible Human Project

    MedlinePlus

    ... used for teaching, modeling radiation absorption and therapy, equipment design, surgical simulation, and simulation of diagnostic procedures, ….” ... Project ® " by Michael J. Ackerman, Ph.D. Projects Based on the Visible Human Data Set Applications for ...

  3. HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women HPV (human papillomavirus) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... to be used for women over 30 years old. It may find HPV even before there are ...

  4. Aerospace Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    The following contains the final report on the activities related to the Cooperative Agreement between the human factors research group at NASA Ames Research Center and the Psychology Department at San Jose State University. The participating NASA Ames division has been, as the organization has changed, the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division (ASHFRD and Code FL), the Flight Management and Human Factors Research Division (Code AF), and the Human Factors Research and Technology Division (Code IH). The inclusive dates for the report are November 1, 1984 to January 31, 1999. Throughout the years, approximately 170 persons worked on the cooperative agreements in one capacity or another. The Cooperative Agreement provided for research personnel to collaborate with senior scientists in ongoing NASA ARC research. Finally, many post-MA/MS and post-doctoral personnel contributed to the projects. It is worth noting that 10 former cooperative agreement personnel were hired into civil service positions directly from the agreements.

  5. Teaching about Human Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlene, Vickie J.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a sampling of items from the ERIC database concerning the teaching of human geography. Includes documents dealing with Africa, Asia, the United States, Canada, Antarctica, and geographic concepts. Explains how to obtain ERIC documents. (SG)

  6. Human innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Montaldo, Elisa; Vacca, Paola; Vitale, Chiara; Moretta, Francesca; Locatelli, Franco; Mingari, Maria Cristina; Moretta, Lorenzo

    2016-11-01

    The interest in innate lymphoid cells (ILC) has rapidly grown during the last decade. ILC include distinct cell types that are collectively involved in host protection against pathogens and tumor cells and in the regulation of tissue homeostasis. Studies in mice enabled a broad characterization of ILC function and of their developmental requirements. In humans all mature ILC subsets have been characterized and their role in the pathogenesis of certain disease is emerging. Nonetheless, still limited information is available on human ILC development. Indeed, only the cell precursors committed toward NK cells or ILC3 have been described. Here, we review the most recent finding on human mature ILC, discussing their tissue localization and function. Moreover, we summarize the available data regarding human ILC development. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Approaches to Human Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Richard W., Ed.; Ruben, Brent D., Ed.

    This anthology of essays approaches human communication from the points of view of: anthropology, art biology, economics, encounter groups, semantics, general system theory, history, information theory, international behavior, journalism, linguistics, mass media, neurophysiology, nonverbal behavior, organizational behavior, philosophy, political…

  8. Pushing Human Frontiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubrin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    With human colonization of Mars, I think you will see a higher standard of civilization, just as America set a higher standard of civilization which then promulgated back into Europe. I think that if you want to maximize human potential, you need a higher standard of civilization, and that becomes an example that benefits everyone. Without an open frontier, closed world ideologies, such as the Malthus Theory, tend to come to the forefront. It is that there are limited resources; therefore, we are all in deadly competition with each other for the limited pot. The result is tyrannical and potentially genocidal regimes, and we've already seen this in the twentieth century. There s no truth in the Malthus Theory, because human beings are the creators of their resources. With every mouth comes a pair of hands and a brain. But if it seems to be true, you have a vector in this direction, and it is extremely unfortunate. It is only in a universe of infinite resources that all humans can be brothers and sisters. The fundamental question which affects humanity s sense of itself is whether the world is changeable or fixed. Are we the makers of our world or just its inhabitants? Some people have a view that they re living at the end of history within a world that s already defined, and there is no fundamental purpose to human life because there is nothing humans can do that matters. On the other hand, if humans understand their own role as the creators of their world, that s a much more healthy point of view. It raises the dignity of humans. Indeed, if we do establish a new branch of human civilization on Mars that grows in time and potency to the point where it cannot really settle Mars, but transforms Mars, and brings life to Mars, we will prove to everyone and for all time the precious and positive nature of the human species and every member of it.

  9. Conducting Human Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-05

    Socio-cultural data acquisition, extraction, and management.??? First the idea of a theoretical framework will be very briefly discussed as well as...SUBJECT TERMS human behavior, theoretical framework , hypothesis development, experimental design, ethical research, statistical power, human laboratory...who throw rocks? • How can we make them stay too far away to throw rocks? UNCLASSIFIED – Approved for Public Release Theoretical Framework / Conceptual

  10. Mapping the human genome

    SciTech Connect

    Annas, G.C.; Elias, S.

    1992-01-01

    This article is a review of the book Mapping the Human Genome: Using Law and Ethics as Guides, edited by George C. Annas and Sherman Elias. The book is a collection of essays on the subject of using ethics and laws as guides to justify human gene mapping. It addresses specific issues such problems related to eugenics, patents, insurance as well as broad issues such as the societal definitions of normality.

  11. Humans in space.

    PubMed

    White, R J; Averner, M

    2001-02-22

    Many successful space missions over the past 40 years have highlighted the advantages and necessity of humans in the exploration of space. But as space travel becomes ever more feasible in the twenty-first century, the health and safety of future space explorers will be paramount. In particular, understanding the risks posed by exposure to radiation and extended weightlessness will be crucial if humans are to travel far from Earth.

  12. Human ocular anatomy.

    PubMed

    Kels, Barry D; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    We review the normal anatomy of the human globe, eyelids, and lacrimal system. This contribution explores both the form and function of numerous anatomic features of the human ocular system, which are vital to a comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of many oculocutaneous diseases. The review concludes with a reference glossary of selective ophthalmologic terms that are relevant to a thorough understanding of many oculocutaneous disease processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-22

    The scientific knowledge and technologies needed to make human exploration of Mars happen are within our reach. NASA 360 joins Dr. Jim Green, Director of NASA’s Planetary Science Division, as he discusses how NASA is preparing for human exploration of the Red Planet. This video was created from a live recording at the Viking 40th Anniversary Symposium in July 2016. To watch the original talk please visit: http://bit.ly/2bk1PGk

  14. Evolution and human sexuality.

    PubMed

    Gray, Peter B

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this review is to put core features of human sexuality in an evolutionary light. Toward that end, I address five topics concerning the evolution of human sexuality. First, I address theoretical foundations, including recent critiques and developments. While much traces back to Darwin and his view of sexual selection, more recent work helps refine the theoretical bases to sex differences and life history allocations to mating effort. Second, I consider central models attempting to specify the phylogenetic details regarding how hominin sexuality might have changed, with most of those models honing in on transitions from a possible chimpanzee-like ancestor to the slightly polygynous and long-term bonded sociosexual partnerships observed among most recently studied hunter-gatherers. Third, I address recent genetic and physiological data contributing to a refined understanding of human sexuality. As examples, the availability of rapidly increasing genomic information aids comparative approaches to discern signals of selection in sexuality-related phenotypes, and neuroendocrine studies of human responses to sexual stimuli provide insight into homologous and derived mechanisms. Fourth, I consider some of the most recent, large, and rigorous studies of human sexuality. These provide insights into sexual behavior across other national samples and on the Internet. Fifth, I discuss the relevance of a life course perspective to understanding the evolution of human sexuality. Most research on the evolution of human sexuality focuses on young adults. Yet humans are sexual beings from gestation to death, albeit in different ways across the life course, and in ways that can be theoretically couched within life history theory. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Human Germline Genome Editing.

    PubMed

    Ormond, Kelly E; Mortlock, Douglas P; Scholes, Derek T; Bombard, Yvonne; Brody, Lawrence C; Faucett, W Andrew; Garrison, Nanibaa' A; Hercher, Laura; Isasi, Rosario; Middleton, Anna; Musunuru, Kiran; Shriner, Daniel; Virani, Alice; Young, Caroline E

    2017-08-03

    With CRISPR/Cas9 and other genome-editing technologies, successful somatic and germline genome editing are becoming feasible. To respond, an American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) workgroup developed this position statement, which was approved by the ASHG Board in March 2017. The workgroup included representatives from the UK Association of Genetic Nurses and Counsellors, Canadian Association of Genetic Counsellors, International Genetic Epidemiology Society, and US National Society of Genetic Counselors. These groups, as well as the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Asia Pacific Society of Human Genetics, British Society for Genetic Medicine, Human Genetics Society of Australasia, Professional Society of Genetic Counselors in Asia, and Southern African Society for Human Genetics, endorsed the final statement. The statement includes the following positions. (1) At this time, given the nature and number of unanswered scientific, ethical, and policy questions, it is inappropriate to perform germline gene editing that culminates in human pregnancy. (2) Currently, there is no reason to prohibit in vitro germline genome editing on human embryos and gametes, with appropriate oversight and consent from donors, to facilitate research on the possible future clinical applications of gene editing. There should be no prohibition on making public funds available to support this research. (3) Future clinical application of human germline genome editing should not proceed unless, at a minimum, there is (a) a compelling medical rationale, (b) an evidence base that supports its clinical use, (c) an ethical justification, and (d) a transparent public process to solicit and incorporate stakeholder input. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved.

  16. Quality and human society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, W.

    1991-02-01

    Quality of products and services is seen as a necessity in our modern world. Quality also has important cross-links to safety in our society. It is however suggested, that human beings are living in their industrial environment under the stress of a fractured personality with anxieties and frustrations. Some cultural comparisons with other industrial nations are given. Quality control tailored to human nature is recommended.

  17. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes several case studies of human space exploration, considered by the NASA's Office of Exploration in 1988. Special attention is given to the mission scenarios, the critical technology required in these expeditions, and the extraterrestrial power requirements of significant system elements. The cases examined include a manned expedition to Phobos, the inner Martian moon; a human expedition to Mars; the Lunar Observatory; and a lunar outpost to early Mars evolution.

  18. Cytokines in human milk.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Roberto

    2010-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies conducted in the past 30 years to investigate the protective functions of human milk strongly support the notion that breastfeeding prevents infantile infections, particularly those affecting the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. However, more recent clinical and experimental observations also suggest that human milk not only provides passive protection, but also can directly modulate the immunological development of the recipient infant. The study of this remarkable defense system in human milk has been difficult because of its biochemical complexity, the small concentration of certain bioactive components, the compartmentalization of some of these agents, the dynamic quantitative and qualitative changes of milk during lactation, and the lack of specific reagents to quantify these agents. However, a host of bioactive substances, including hormones, growth factors, and immunological factors such as cytokines, have been identified in human milk. Cytokines are pluripotent polypeptides that act in autocrine/paracrine fashions by binding to specific cellular receptors. They operate in networks and orchestrate the development and functions of immune system. Several different cytokines and chemokines have been discovered in human milk in the past years, and the list is growing very rapidly. This article will review the current knowledge about the increasingly complex network of chemoattractants, activators, and anti-inflammatory cytokines present in human milk and their potential role in compensating for the developmental delay of the neonate immune system. Copyright 2010. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  19. Human immunoglobulin allotypes

    PubMed Central

    Lefranc, Marie-Paule

    2009-01-01

    More than twenty recombinant monoclonal antibodies are approved as therapeutics. Almost all of these are based on the whole IgG isotype format, but vary in the origin of the variable regions between mouse (chimeric), humanized mouse and fully human sequences; all of those with whole IgG format employ human constant region sequences. Currently, the opposing merits of the four IgG subclasses are considered with respect to the in vivo biological activities considered to be appropriate to the disease indication being treated. Human heavy chain genes also exhibit extensive structural polymorphism(s) and, being closely linked, are inherited as a haplotype. Polymorphisms (allotypes) within the IgG isotype were originally discovered and described using serological reagents derived from humans; demonstrating that allotypic variants can be immunogenic and provoke antibody responses as a result of allo-immunization. The serologically defined allotypes differ widely within and between population groups; therefore, a mAb of a given allotype will, inevitably, be delivered to a cohort of patients homozygous for the alternative allotype. This publication reviews the serologically defined human IgG allotypes and considers the potential for allotype differences to contribute to or potentiate immunogenicity. PMID:20073133

  20. The Human Cell Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Amit, Ido; Benoist, Christophe; Birney, Ewan; Bodenmiller, Bernd; Campbell, Peter; Carninci, Piero; Clatworthy, Menna; Clevers, Hans; Deplancke, Bart; Dunham, Ian; Eberwine, James; Eils, Roland; Enard, Wolfgang; Farmer, Andrew; Fugger, Lars; Göttgens, Berthold; Hacohen, Nir; Haniffa, Muzlifah; Hemberg, Martin; Kim, Seung; Klenerman, Paul; Kriegstein, Arnold; Lein, Ed; Linnarsson, Sten; Lundberg, Emma; Lundeberg, Joakim; Majumder, Partha; Marioni, John C; Merad, Miriam; Mhlanga, Musa; Nawijn, Martijn; Netea, Mihai; Nolan, Garry; Pe'er, Dana; Phillipakis, Anthony; Ponting, Chris P; Quake, Stephen; Reik, Wolf; Rozenblatt-Rosen, Orit; Sanes, Joshua; Satija, Rahul; Schumacher, Ton N; Shalek, Alex; Shapiro, Ehud; Sharma, Padmanee; Shin, Jay W; Stegle, Oliver; Stratton, Michael; Stubbington, Michael J T; Theis, Fabian J; Uhlen, Matthias; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Wagner, Allon; Watt, Fiona; Weissman, Jonathan; Wold, Barbara; Xavier, Ramnik; Yosef, Nir

    2017-01-01

    The recent advent of methods for high-throughput single-cell molecular profiling has catalyzed a growing sense in the scientific community that the time is ripe to complete the 150-year-old effort to identify all cell types in the human body. The Human Cell Atlas Project is an international collaborative effort that aims to define all human cell types in terms of distinctive molecular profiles (such as gene expression profiles) and to connect this information with classical cellular descriptions (such as location and morphology). An open comprehensive reference map of the molecular state of cells in healthy human tissues would propel the systematic study of physiological states, developmental trajectories, regulatory circuitry and interactions of cells, and also provide a framework for understanding cellular dysregulation in human disease. Here we describe the idea, its potential utility, early proofs-of-concept, and some design considerations for the Human Cell Atlas, including a commitment to open data, code, and community. PMID:29206104

  1. Habitability and Human Factors Contributions to Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumaya, Jennifer Boyer

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch in support of human space flight in two main areas: Applied support to major space programs, and Space research. The field of Human Factors applies knowledge of human characteristics for the design of safer, more effective, and more efficient systems. This work is in several areas of the human space program: (1) Human-System Integration (HSI), (2) Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, (3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA), (4) Lunar Surface Systems, (5) International Space Station (ISS), and (6) Human Research Program (HRP). After detailing the work done in these areas, the facilities that are available for human factors work are shown.

  2. Human behavior and human performance: Psychomotor demands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The results of several experiments are presented in abstract form. These studies are critical for the interpretation and acceptance of flight based science to be conducted by the Behavior and Performance project. Some representative titles are as follow: External audio for IBM/PC compatible computers; A comparative assessment of psychomotor performance (target prediction by humans and macaques); Response path (a dependent measure for computer maze solving and other tasks); Behavioral asymmetries of psychomotor performance in Rhesus monkey (a dissociation between hand preference and skill); Testing primates with joystick based automated apparatus; and Environmental enrichment and performance assessment for ground or flight based research with primates;

  3. Microtubule organization during human parthenogenesis.

    PubMed

    Terada, Yukihiro; Hasegawa, Hisataka; Ugajin, Tomohisa; Murakami, Takashi; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Okamura, Kunihiro

    2009-04-01

    In human fertilization, the sperm centrosome plays a crucial role as a microtubule organizing center (MTOC). We studied microtubule organization during human parthenogenesis, which occurs when a human egg undergoes cleavage without a sperm centrosome. Multiple cytoplasmic asters were organized in the human oocyte after parthenogenetic activation, indicating that multiple MTOC are present in the human oocyte cytoplasm and function like a human sperm centrosome during parthenogenesis.

  4. Human dignity, humiliation, and torture.

    PubMed

    Luban, David

    2009-09-01

    Modern human rights instruments ground human rights in the concept of human dignity, without providing an underlying theory of human dignity. This paper examines the central importance of human dignity, understood as not humiliating people, in traditional Jewish ethics. It employs this conception of human dignity to examine and criticize U.S. use of humiliation tactics and torture in the interrogation of terrorism suspects.

  5. Meeting human needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.

    1992-01-01

    Manned space flight can be viewed as an interaction of three general elements: the human crewmember, spacecraft systems, and the environment. While the human crewmember is a crucial element in the system, certain physiological, psychological, environ- mental and spacecraft systems factors can compromise human performance in space. These factors include atmospheric pressure, physiology, uncertainties associated with space radiation, the potential for exposure to toxic materials in the closed environment, and spacecraft habitability. Health protection in space, for current and future missions, relies on a philosophy of risk reduction, which in the space program is achieved in four ways-through health maintenance, health care, design criteria, an selection and training. Emphasis is place upon prevention, through selection criteria and careful screening. Spacecraft health care systems must be absolutely reliable, and they will be automated and computerized to the maximum extent possible, but still designed with the human crewmember's capabilities in mind. The autonomy and technological sophistication of future missions will require a greater emphasis on high-level interaction between the human operator and automated systems, with effective allocation of tasks between humans and machines. Performance in space will include complex tasks during extravehicular activity (EVA) and on planetary surfaces, and knowledge of crewmembers' capability and limitations during such operations will be critical to mission success. Psychological support will become increasingly important on space missions, as crews spend long periods in remote and potentially hazardous environments. The success of future missions will depend on both individual psychological health and group cohesion and productivity, particularly as crew profiles become more heterogeneous. Thus, further human factors are needed in the area of small-group dynamics and performance.

  6. Human Milk Fortification.

    PubMed

    Simmer, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Human milk is the feed of choice for preterm infants. However, human milk does not provide enough nutrition, especially protein, for preterm infants to achieve target growth rates similar to those in utero (15-20 g/kg per day). Fortifiers for human milk, manufactured from bovine milk, are commercially available and routinely used for patients born <32 weeks' gestation prior to discharge home. Recent recommended dietary intakes (RDI) have been revised. Up to 4.2 g of protein and 135 kcal/kg per day is recommended for infants born very preterm. Additional supplements are needed to current commercial fortifiers to achieve these RDI and reduce the incidence of ex-uterine growth failure. A human milk fortifier that is manufactured from donor human milk is available in some developed countries and may confer some clinical benefits, including a reduction in necrotizing enterocolitis. Fortification can be added in a standardized protocol as per manufacturers' instructions. Human milk composition can be analyzed and fortification individualized to take into account the large variation from mother to mother. Alternatively, fortification can be increased in a stepwise manner based on assumed composition while monitoring blood urea levels for safety. The current aim is to prevent preterm infants dropping percentiles and falling below the 10th percentile at 36 weeks' corrected gestational age or discharge home. More data are required on how best to fortify human milk for preterm infants to achieve optimal growth, development and health outcomes in the long term. There is an urgent need for well-designed and informed randomized clinical trials in this vulnerable preterm population. © 2015 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Spaceflight Human System Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holubec, Keith; Tillman, Barry; Connolly, Jan

    2009-01-01

    NASA created a new approach for human system integration and human performance standards. NASA created two documents a standard and a reference handbook. The standard is titled NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard (SFHSS) and consists of two-volumes: Volume 1- Crew Health This volume covers standards needed to support astronaut health (medical care, nutrition, sleep, exercise, etc.) Volume 2 Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health This volume covers the standards for system design that will maintain astronaut performance (ie., environmental factors, design of facilities, layout of workstations, and lighting requirements). It includes classic human factors requirements. The new standards document is written in terms so that it is applicable to a broad range of present and future NASA systems. The document states that all new programs prepare system-specific requirements that will meet the general standards. For example, the new standard does not specify a design should accommodate specific percentiles of a defined population. Rather, NASA-STD-3001, Volume 2 states that all programs shall prepare program-specific requirements that define the user population and their size ranges. The design shall then accommodate the full size range of those users. The companion reference handbook, Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH), was developed to capture the design consideration information from NASA-STD-3000, and adds spaceflight lessons learned, gaps in knowledge, example solutions, and suggests research to further mature specific disciplines. The HIDH serves two major purposes: HIDH is the reference document for writing human factors requirements for specific systems. HIDH contains design guidance information that helps insure that designers create systems which safely and effectively accommodate the capabilities and limitations of space flight crews.

  8. Why Geo-Humanities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graells, Robert Casals i.; Sibilla, Anna; Bohle, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic global change is a composite process. It consists of societal processes (in the 'noosphere') and natural processes (in the 'bio-geosphere'). The 'noosphere' is the ensemble of social, cultural or political insights ('shared subjective mental concepts') of people. Understanding the composite of societal and natural processes ('human geo-biosphere intersections'), which shapes the features of anthropogenic global change, would benefit from a description that draws equally on natural sciences, social sciences and humanities. To that end it is suggested to develop a concept of 'geo-humanities': This essay presents some aspects of its scope, discussing "knowledge that is to manage", "intentions that are to shape", "choices that are to justify" and "complexity that is to handle". Managing knowledge: That people understand anthropogenic global change requires their insights into how 'human geosphere intersections' function. Insights are formed ('processed') in the noosphere by means of interactions between people. Understanding how 'human geosphere intersections' functions combines scientific, engineering and economic studies with studies of the dynamics of the noosphere. Shaping intentions: During the last century anthropogenic global change developed as the collateral outcome of humankind's accumulated actions. It is caused by the number of people, the patterns of their consumption of resources, and the alterations of their environments. Nowadays, anthropogenic global chance is either an intentional negligence or a conscious act. Justifying choices: Humanity has alternatives how to alter Earth at planetary scale consciously. For example, there is a choice to alter the geo-biosphere or to adjust the noosphere. Whatever the choice, it will depend on people's world-views, cultures and preferences. Thus beyond issues whether science and technology are 'sound' overarching societal issues are to tackle, such as: (i) how to appropriate and distribute natural

  9. Human Skin Fungal Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Findley, Keisha; Oh, Julia; Yang, Joy; Conlan, Sean; Deming, Clayton; Meyer, Jennifer A.; Schoenfeld, Deborah; Nomicos, Effie; Park, Morgan; Kong, Heidi H.; Segre, Julia A.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional culture-based methods have incompletely defined the etiology of common recalcitrant human fungal skin diseases including athlete’s foot and toenail infections. Skin protects humans from invasion by pathogenic microorganisms, while providing a home for diverse commensal microbiota1. Bacterial genomic sequence data have generated novel hypotheses about species and community structures underlying human disorders2,3,4. However, microbial diversity is not limited to bacteria; microorganisms such as fungi also play major roles in microbial community stability, human health and disease5. Genomic methodologies to identify fungal species and communities have been limited compared with tools available for bacteria6. Fungal evolution can be reconstructed with phylogenetic markers, including ribosomal RNA gene regions and other highly conserved genes7. Here, we sequenced and analyzed fungal communities of 14 skin sites in 10 healthy adults. Eleven core body and arm sites were dominated by Malassezia fungi, with species-level classifications revealing greater topographical resolution between sites. By contrast, three foot sites, plantar heel, toenail, and toeweb, exhibited tremendous fungal diversity. Concurrent analysis of bacterial and fungal communities demonstrated that skin physiologic attributes and topography differentially shape these two microbial communities. These results provide a framework for future investigation of interactions between pathogenic and commensal fungal and bacterial communities in maintaining human health and contributing to disease pathogenesis. PMID:23698366

  10. Human hybrid hybridoma

    SciTech Connect

    Tiebout, R.F.; van Boxtel-Oosterhof, F.; Stricker, E.A.M.

    1987-11-15

    Hybrid hybridomas are obtained by fusion of two cells, each producing its own antibody. Several authors have reported the construction of murine hybrid hybridomas with the aim to obtain bispecific monoclonal antibodies. The authors have investigated, in a model system, the feasibility of constructing a human hybrid hybridoma. They fused two monoclonal cell lines: an ouabain-sensitive and azaserine/hypoxanthine-resistant Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human cell line that produces an IgG1kappa antibody directed against tetanus toxiod and an azaserine/hypoxanthine-sensitive and ouabain-resistant human-mouse xenohybrid cell line that produces a human IgG1lambda antibody directed against hepatitis-B surface antigen. Hybrid hybridoma cells were selected in culture mediummore » containing azaserine/hypoxanthine and ouabain. The hybrid nature of the secreted antibodies was analyzed by means of two antigen-specific immunoassay. The results show that it is possible, with the combined use of transformation and xenohybridization techniques, to construct human hybrid hybridomas that produce bispecific antibodies. Bispecific antibodies activity was measured by means of two radioimmunoassays.« less

  11. Human neuroethology of emotion.

    PubMed

    Ploog, D

    1989-01-01

    1. Based on ethological theory, the question of what is the difference between human and nonhuman primate emotionality is investigated. 2. The anatomical basis for this difference is the greater number of neurons in the anterior thalamic nuclei in humans than in monkeys and apes. This may represent an increased differentiation of the limbic message being sent to the cortex. 3. Only humans can report about experiences and subjective feelings in certain motivational states. The two most general states are wakefulness and sleep. The subjective aspect of (desynchronized) sleep is dreaming. The causal relationship between dreaming and certain lower brain stem mechanisms is analysed. 4. Whereas the motor system is usually blocked during desynchronized sleep, there are individuals who voice their emotions and speak while sleeping. As there are essential differences in the substrates for the voluntary control of the voice in the human and nonhuman primates there are essential differences in the voluntary control of emotions. 5. Similar to the motor matching theory of speech perception a motor matching process of affect perception is suggested. 6. The evolutionary change in the human motivational system is thought to be one of several prerequisites for the evolution of language.

  12. Healthy human gut phageome

    PubMed Central

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T.; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M.; Young, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of humans, we analyzed a deep DNA sequence dataset of active bacteriophages and available metagenomic datasets of the gut bacteriophage community from healthy individuals. We found 23 shared bacteriophages in more than one-half of 64 healthy individuals from around the world. These shared bacteriophages were found in a significantly smaller percentage of individuals with gastrointestinal/irritable bowel disease. A network analysis identified 44 bacteriophage groups of which 9 (20%) were shared in more than one-half of all 64 individuals. These results provide strong evidence of a healthy gut phageome (HGP) in humans. The bacteriophage community in the human gut is a mixture of three classes: a set of core bacteriophages shared among more than one-half of all people, a common set of bacteriophages found in 20–50% of individuals, and a set of bacteriophages that are either rarely shared or unique to a person. We propose that the core and common bacteriophage communities are globally distributed and comprise the HGP, which plays an important role in maintaining gut microbiome structure/function and thereby contributes significantly to human health. PMID:27573828

  13. [Human cloning or cannibalism].

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, L M

    2001-01-01

    In this article I develop the idea presented in my previous work that human cloning would be of little practical use since almost any aim that one would like to attain by multiple cloning of a concrete man or a group of people, are unattainable or it might be achieved by easier, cheaper and more efficient traditional methods. For this reason cloning of a man is unlikely to occur on a larger scale and only few people will decide to clone themselves. In this sense no social effects of human cloning will be disastrous for the human population. Yet investigations in human genetics are very important since they may provide medical applications far more important than human cloning. It is argued that the main trend of modern medicine: organ transplantation from an alien donor, will become socially dangerous in near future since the number of donors will be drastically smaller than the number of potential patients waiting for transplantations. This in turn may cause social conflicts and a form of medical cannibalism may arise. These problems and conflicts will be avoided if organ transplantation from an alien donor is replaced by organ cloning, i.e. by transplanting an organ developed from the patient.

  14. The Human Serum Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Psychogios, Nikolaos; Hau, David D.; Peng, Jun; Guo, An Chi; Mandal, Rupasri; Bouatra, Souhaila; Sinelnikov, Igor; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Eisner, Roman; Gautam, Bijaya; Young, Nelson; Xia, Jianguo; Knox, Craig; Dong, Edison; Huang, Paul; Hollander, Zsuzsanna; Pedersen, Theresa L.; Smith, Steven R.; Bamforth, Fiona; Greiner, Russ; McManus, Bruce; Newman, John W.; Goodfriend, Theodore; Wishart, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Continuing improvements in analytical technology along with an increased interest in performing comprehensive, quantitative metabolic profiling, is leading to increased interest pressures within the metabolomics community to develop centralized metabolite reference resources for certain clinically important biofluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid, urine and blood. As part of an ongoing effort to systematically characterize the human metabolome through the Human Metabolome Project, we have undertaken the task of characterizing the human serum metabolome. In doing so, we have combined targeted and non-targeted NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS methods with computer-aided literature mining to identify and quantify a comprehensive, if not absolutely complete, set of metabolites commonly detected and quantified (with today's technology) in the human serum metabolome. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage while critically assessing the relative strengths and weaknesses of these platforms or technologies. Tables containing the complete set of 4229 confirmed and highly probable human serum compounds, their concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.serummetabolome.ca. PMID:21359215

  15. Human herpesvirus 6.

    PubMed Central

    Braun, D K; Dominguez, G; Pellett, P E

    1997-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 variant A (HHV-6A) and human herpesvirus 6 variant B (HHV-6B) are two closely related yet distinct viruses. These visuses belong to the Roseolovirus genus of the betaherpesvirus subfamily; they are most closely related to human herpesvirus 7 and then to human cytomegalovirus. Over 95% of people older than 2 years of age are seropositive for either or both HHV-6 variants, and current serologic methods are incapable of discriminating infection with one variant from infection with the other. HHV-6A has not been etiologically linked to any human disease, but such an association will probably be found soon. HHV-6B is the etiologic agent of the common childhood illness exanthem subitum (roseola infantum or sixth disease) and related febrile illnesses. These viruses are frequently active and associated with illness in immunocompromised patients and may play a role in the etiology of Hodgkin's disease and other malignancies. HHV-6 is a commensal inhabitant of brains; various neurologic manifestations, including convulsions and encephalitis, can occur during primary HHV-6 infection or in immunocompromised patients. HHV-6 and distribution in the central nervous system are altered in patients with multiple sclerosis; the significance of this is under investigation. PMID:9227865

  16. Human milk banking guidelines.

    PubMed

    Bharadva, Ketan; Tiwari, Satish; Mishra, Sudhir; Mukhopadhyay, Kanya; Yadav, Balraj; Agarwal, R K; Kumar, Vishesh

    2014-06-01

    WHO and UNICEF state that the use of human milk from other sources should be the first alternative when it is not possible for the mother to breastfeed. Human milk banks should be made available in appropriate situations. The IYCF Chapter is actively concerned about the compelling use of formula feeds in the infants because of the non availability of human breast milk banks. A National Consultative Meet for framing guidelines was summoned by the IYCF Chapter and the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India on 30th June, 2013, with representations from various stakeholders. The guidelines were drafted after an extensive literature review and discussions. Though these guidelines are based on the experiences and guidelines from other countries, changes have been made to suit the Indian setup, culture and needs, without compromising scientific evidence. To ensure quality of donated breast milk as a safe end product. Human Milk Banking Association should be constituted, and human milk banks should be established across the country. National coordination mechanism should be developed with a secretariat and technical support to follow-up on action in States. Budgetary provisions should be made available for the activities.

  17. Human occupancy detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, David A.

    1994-10-01

    In the area of security and surveillance technologies, the problem of the arrival in Canada of illegal and undesirable ship and truck cargo loads is steadily increasing. As the volumes of cargo arrivals increase so do the Immigration and Customs problems related to the determination of the validity of those cargo contents. Of special concern to Immigration Control Authorities around the world is the emerging and increasing trend of illegal smuggling of human beings hidden inside of shipping containers. Beginning in 1992, Immigration Control Authorities in Canada observed an escalation of alien people smuggling through the use of cargo shipping containers arriving in the Port of Montreal. This paper will present to the audience the recently completed Immigration Canada Human Occupancy Detection project by explaining the design, development and testing of human occupancy detectors. The devices are designed to electronically detect the presence of persons hiding inside of shipping containers, without the requirement of opening the container doors. The human occupancy detection concepts are based upon the presence of carbon dioxide or other human waste characteristics commonly found inside of shipping containers.

  18. Healthy human gut phageome.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M; Young, Mark J

    2016-09-13

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of humans, we analyzed a deep DNA sequence dataset of active bacteriophages and available metagenomic datasets of the gut bacteriophage community from healthy individuals. We found 23 shared bacteriophages in more than one-half of 64 healthy individuals from around the world. These shared bacteriophages were found in a significantly smaller percentage of individuals with gastrointestinal/irritable bowel disease. A network analysis identified 44 bacteriophage groups of which 9 (20%) were shared in more than one-half of all 64 individuals. These results provide strong evidence of a healthy gut phageome (HGP) in humans. The bacteriophage community in the human gut is a mixture of three classes: a set of core bacteriophages shared among more than one-half of all people, a common set of bacteriophages found in 20-50% of individuals, and a set of bacteriophages that are either rarely shared or unique to a person. We propose that the core and common bacteriophage communities are globally distributed and comprise the HGP, which plays an important role in maintaining gut microbiome structure/function and thereby contributes significantly to human health.

  19. Infants' Responses to Real Humans and Representations of Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heron, Michelle; Slaughter, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    Infants' responses to typical and scrambled human body shapes were assessed in relation to the realism of the human body stimuli presented. In four separate experiments, infants were familiarized to typical human bodies and then shown a series of scrambled human bodies on the test. Looking behaviour was assessed in response to a range of different…

  20. Cardiovascular Deconditioning in Humans: Human Studies Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Gordon

    1999-01-01

    Major cardiovascular problems, secondary to cardiovascular deconditioning, may occur on extended space missions. While it is generally assumed that the microgravity state is the primary cause of cardiovascular deconditioning, sleep deprivation and disruption of diurnal rhythms may also play an important role. Factors that could be modified by either or both of these perturbations include: autonomic function and short-term cardiovascular reflexes, vasoreactivity, circadian rhythm of cardiovascular hormones (specifically the renin-angiotensin system) and renal sodium handling and hormonal influences on that process, venous compliance, cardiac mass, and cardiac conduction processes. The purpose of the Human Studies Core is to provide the infrastructure to conduct human experiments which will allow for the assessment of the likely role of such factors in the space travel associated cardiovascular deconditioning process and to develop appropriate countermeasures. The Core takes advantage of a newly-created Intensive Physiologic Monitoring (IPM) Unit at the Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, to perform these studies. The Core includes two general experimental protocols. The first protocol involves a head down tilt bed-rest study to simulate microgravity. The second protocol includes the addition of a disruption of circadian rhythms to the simulated microgravity environment. Before and after each of these environmental manipulations, the subjects will undergo acute stressors simulating changes in volume and/or stress, which could occur in space and on return to Earth. The subjects are maintained in a rigidly controlled environment with fixed light/dark cycles, activity pattern, and dietary intake of nutrients, fluids, ions and calories.

  1. Human factors in aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Earl L. (Editor); Nagel, David C. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The fundamental principles of human-factors (HF) analysis for aviation applications are examined in a collection of reviews by leading experts, with an emphasis on recent developments. The aim is to provide information and guidance to the aviation community outside the HF field itself. Topics addressed include the systems approach to HF, system safety considerations, the human senses in flight, information processing, aviation workloads, group interaction and crew performance, flight training and simulation, human error in aviation operations, and aircrew fatigue and circadian rhythms. Also discussed are pilot control; aviation displays; cockpit automation; HF aspects of software interfaces; the design and integration of cockpit-crew systems; and HF issues for airline pilots, general aviation, helicopters, and ATC.

  2. Highest permanent human habitation.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was to determine the altitude of the highest permanent human habitation in the hope that this will throw some light on what determines the highest altitude that a community can tolerate indefinitely. A number of places where people have lived at very high altitudes for long periods of time are reviewed. Individuals have lived for as long as 2 yr at an altitude of 5950 m, and there was a miner's camp at 5300 m for several years. The highest permanently inhabited town in the world at the present time appears to be La Rinconada, a mining village of over 7000 people in southern Peru at an altitude of up to 5100 m, which has been in existence for over 40 yr. The altitude of the highest permanent human habitation is determined partly by economic factors, rather than solely by human tolerance to hypoxia.

  3. Preparing for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.; Joosten, B. Kent

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise is defining architectures and requirements for human exploration that radically reduce the costs of such missions through the use of advanced technologies, commercial partnerships and innovative systems strategies. In addition, the HEDS Enterprise is collaborating with the Space Science Enterprise to acquire needed early knowledge about Mars and to demonstrate critical technologies via robotic missions. This paper provides an overview of the technological challenges facing NASA as it prepares for human exploration. Emphasis is placed on identifying the key technologies including those which will provide the most return in terms of reducing total mission cost and/or reducing potential risk to the mission crew. Top-level requirements are provided for those critical enabling technology options currently under consideration.

  4. Helicopter human factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.

    1988-01-01

    The state-of-the-art helicopter and its pilot are examined using the tools of human-factors analysis. The significant role of human error in helicopter accidents is discussed; the history of human-factors research on helicopters is briefly traced; the typical flight tasks are described; and the noise, vibration, and temperature conditions typical of modern military helicopters are characterized. Also considered are helicopter controls, cockpit instruments and displays, and the impact of cockpit design on pilot workload. Particular attention is given to possible advanced-technology improvements, such as control stabilization and augmentation, FBW and fly-by-light systems, multifunction displays, night-vision goggles, pilot night-vision systems, night-vision displays with superimposed symbols, target acquisition and designation systems, and aural displays. Diagrams, drawings, and photographs are provided.

  5. On human parthenogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jose de Carli, Gabriel; Campos Pereira, Tiago

    2017-09-01

    Spontaneous parthenogenetic and androgenetic events occur in humans, but they result in tumours: the ovarian teratoma and the hydatidiform mole, respectively. However, the observation of fetiform (ovarian) teratomas, the serependious identification of several chimeric human parthenotes and androgenotes in the last two decades, along with the creation of viable bi-maternal mice in the laboratory based on minor genetic interferences, raises the question of whether natural cases of clinically healthy human parthenotes have gone unnoticed to science. Here we present a hypothesis based on three elements to support the existence of such elusive individuals: mutations affecting (i) genomic imprinting, (ii) meiosis and (iii) oocyte activation. Additionally, we suggest that the routine practice of whole genome sequencing on every single newborn worldwide will be the ultimate test to this controversial, yet astonishing hypothesis. Finally, several medical implications of such intriguing event are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Teleoperator Human Factors Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An investigation of the spectrum of space teleoperation activities likely in the 1985 to 1995 decade focused on the resolution of critical human engineering issues and characterization of the technology effect on performance of remote human operators. The study began with the identification and documentation of a set of representative reference teleoperator tasks. For each task, technology, development, and design options, issues, and alternatives that bear on human operator performance were defined and categorized. A literature survey identified existing studies of man/machine issues. For each teleoperations category, an assessment was made of the state of knowledge on a scale from adequate to void. The tests, experiments, and analyses necessary to provide the missing elements of knowledge were then defined. A limited set of tests were actually performed, including operator selection, baseline task definition, control mode study, lighting study, camera study, and preliminary time delay study.

  7. Highlights of human toxocariasis

    PubMed Central

    Glickman, Lawrence T.; Dorchies, Philippe; Morassin, Bruno

    2001-01-01

    Human toxocariasis is a helminthozoonosis due to the migration of Toxocara species larvae through human organism. Humans become infected by ingesting either embryonated eggs from soil (geophagia, pica), dirty hands or raw vegetables, or larvae from undercooked giblets. The diagnosis relies upon sensitive immunological methods (ELISA or western-blot) which use Toxocara excretory-secretory antigens. Seroprevalence is high in developed countries, especially in rural areas, and also in some tropical islands. The clinical spectrum of the disease comprises four syndromes, namely visceral larva migrans, ocular larva migrans, and the more recently recognized "common" (in adults) and "covert" (in children) pictures. Therapy of ocular toxocariasis is primarily based upon corticosteroids use, when visceral larva migrans and few cases of common or covert toxocariasis can be treated by anthelmintics whose the most efficient appeared to be diethylcarbamazine. When diagnosed, all of these syndromes require thorough prevention of recontamination (especially by deworming pets) and sanitary education. PMID:11301585

  8. Possible human endogenous cryogens.

    PubMed

    Shido, Osamu; Sugimoto, Naotoshi

    2011-06-01

    Anapyrexia, which is a regulated fall in core temperature, is beneficial for animals and humans when the oxygen supply is limited, e.g., hypoxic, ischemic, or histotoxic hypoxia, since at low body temperature the tissues require less oxygen due to Q(10). Besides hypoxia, anapyrexia can be induced various exogenous and endogenous substances, named cryogens. However, there are only a few reports investigating endogenous cryogens in mammals. We have experienced one patient who suffered from severe hypothermia. The patient seemed to be excessively producing endogenous peptidergic cryogenic substances the molecular weight of which may be greater than 30 kDa. In animal studies, the patient's cryogen appeared to affect metabolic functions, including thermogenic threshold temperatures, and then to produce hypothermia. Since endogenous cryogenic substances may be regarded as useful tool in human activities, e.g., during brain hypothermia therapy or staying in a space station or spaceship, further studies may be needed to identify human endogenous cryogens.

  9. Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochlis-Zumbado, Jennifer; Sandor, Aniko; Ezer, Neta

    2012-01-01

    Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI) is a new Human Research Program (HRP) risk. HRI is a research area that seeks to understand the complex relationship among variables that affect the way humans and robots work together to accomplish goals. The DRP addresses three major HRI study areas that will provide appropriate information for navigation guidance to a teleoperator of a robot system, and contribute to the closure of currently identified HRP gaps: (1) Overlays -- Use of overlays for teleoperation to augment the information available on the video feed (2) Camera views -- Type and arrangement of camera views for better task performance and awareness of surroundings (3) Command modalities -- Development of gesture and voice command vocabularies

  10. Scientists and Human Rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makdisi, Yousef

    2012-02-01

    The American Physical Society has a long history of involvement in defense of human rights. The Committee on International Freedom of Scientists was formed in the mid seventies as a subcommittee within the Panel On Public Affairs ``to deal with matters of an international nature that endangers the abilities of scientists to function as scientists'' and by 1980 it was established as an independent committee. In this presentation I will describe some aspects of the early history and the impetus that led to such an advocacy, the methods employed then and how they evolved to the present CIFS responsibility ``for monitoring concerns regarding human rights for scientists throughout the world''. I will also describe the current approach and some sample cases the committee has pursued recently, the interaction with other human rights organizations, and touch upon some venues through which the community can engage to help in this noble cause.

  11. Seaweed and human health.

    PubMed

    Brown, Emma S; Allsopp, Philip J; Magee, Pamela J; Gill, Chris I R; Nitecki, Sonja; Strain, Conall R; McSorley, Emeir M

    2014-03-01

    Seaweeds may have an important role in modulating chronic disease. Rich in unique bioactive compounds not present in terrestrial food sources, including different proteins (lectins, phycobiliproteins, peptides, and amino acids), polyphenols, and polysaccharides, seaweeds are a novel source of compounds with potential to be exploited in human health applications. Purported benefits include antiviral, anticancer, and anticoagulant properties as well as the ability to modulate gut health and risk factors for obesity and diabetes. Though the majority of studies have been performed in cell and animal models, there is evidence of the beneficial effect of seaweed and seaweed components on markers of human health and disease status. This review is the first to critically evaluate these human studies, aiming to draw attention to gaps in current knowledge, which will aid the planning and implementation of future studies.

  12. Human antirabies gamma globulin*

    PubMed Central

    Hosty, Thomas S.; Kissling, R. E.; Schaeffer, M.; Wallace, Gordon A.; Dibble, E. H.

    1959-01-01

    To obviate the foreign protein reactions experienced with the use of hyperimmune serum in rabies-exposed individuals, an attempt was made to produce a rabies antiserum of human origin. Five doses of an inactivated rabies virus duck-egg vaccine were administered to 34 volunteers at 4-day intervals (i.e., on days 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16). An additional dose of chick-embryo attenuated virus vaccine—Flury HEP (high egg passage)—was given on the 46th day, followed by a final booster dose of duck-egg vaccine on the 288th day. Twenty-four days later, i.e., on the 312th day after the first dose, the participants were bled and the serum pooled and converted to gamma globulin. These volunteers, having no initial antibody, responded with variable titres, the pooled serum having a titre of 1: 100 against 50 LD50 of rabies virus in neutralization tests and the gamma globulin prepared from this pool a titre of 1: 300. In five individuals inoculated with the antirabies gamma globulin, blood samples tested at intervals for residual antibody showed significant titres through 21 days. While the passive antibody levels resulting from the administration of a more potent immune horse serum were much higher than those achieved by the weaker human antirabies gamma globulin used, the decrease in titre was more gradual with the human globulin. With more booster inoculations in a larger group of human volunteers, it is believed that a human rabies immune gamma globulin could be produced which would be equal in effect to immune horse serum. The advantages of a human source of antibody in rabies prophylaxis are discussed. PMID:14403320

  13. The Human Centrifuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, Jack J. W. A.

    2009-01-01

    Life on Earth has developed at unit gravity, 9.81 m/s2, which was a major factor especially when vertebrates emerged from water onto land in the late Devonian, some 375 million years ago. But how would nature have evolved on a larger planet? We are able to address this question simply in experiments using centrifuges. Based on these studies we have gained valuable insights in the physiological process in plants and animals. They adapt to a new steady state suitable for the high-g environments applied. Information on mammalian adaptations to hyper-g is interesting or may be even vital for human space exploration programs. It has been shown in long duration animal hypergravity studies, ranging from snails, rats to primates, that various structures like muscles, bones, neuro-vestibular, or the cardio-vascular system are affected. However, humans have never been exposed to a hyper-g environment for long durations. Centrifuge studies involving humans are mostly in the order of hours. The current work on human centrifuges are all focused on short arm systems to apply short periods of artificial gravity in support of long duration space missions in ISS or to Mars. In this paper we will address the possible usefulness of a large human centrifuge on Earth. In such a centrifuge a group of humans can be exposed to hypergravity for, in principle, an unlimited period of time like living on a larger planet. The input from a survey under scientists working in the field of gravitational physiology, but also other disciplines, will be discussed.

  14. Human Factors Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Jack is an advanced human factors software package that provides a three dimensional model for predicting how a human will interact with a given system or environment. It can be used for a broad range of computer-aided design applications. Jack was developed by the computer Graphics Research Laboratory of the University of Pennsylvania with assistance from NASA's Johnson Space Center, Ames Research Center and the Army. It is the University's first commercial product. Jack is still used for academic purposes at the University of Pennsylvania. Commercial rights were given to Transom Technologies, Inc.

  15. Human MSH2 protein

    DOEpatents

    Chapelle, A. de la; Vogelstein, B.; Kinzler, K.W.

    1997-01-07

    The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error{sup +} (RER{sup +}) tumor cells. 19 figs.

  16. Human MSH2 protein

    DOEpatents

    de la Chapelle, Albert; Vogelstein, Bert; Kinzler, Kenneth W.

    1997-01-01

    The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error.sup.+ (RER.sup.+) tumor cells.

  17. On human health.

    PubMed

    van Spijk, Piet

    2015-05-01

    If it is true that health is a priority objective of medicine, then medical practice can only be successful if the meaning of the term "health" is known. Various attempts have been made over the years to define health. This paper proposes a new definition. In addition to current health concepts, it also takes into account the distinction between specifically human (great) health and health as the absence of disease and illness-i.e. small health. The feeling of leading a life that makes sense plays a key role in determining specifically human great health.

  18. Ayahuasca and human destiny.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Dennis J

    2005-06-01

    In this essay, the author shares his personal reflections gleaned from a lifetime of research with ayahuasca, and speculates on the societal, political, planetary, and evolutionary implications of humanity's aeons-old symbiosis with this shamanic plant. The thesis is developed that at this critical historical juncture, ayahuasca has developed a strategy to broadcast its message to a wider world--a reflection of the urgent need to avert global ecological catastrophe. While ayahuasca has much to teach us, the critical question is, will humanity hear it, and heed it, in time?

  19. Disorders of Human Hemoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bank, Arthur; Mears, J. Gregory; Ramirez, Francesco

    1980-02-01

    Studies of the human hemoglobin system have provided new insights into the regulation of expression of a group of linked human genes, the γ -δ -β globin gene complex in man. In particular, the thalassemia syndromes and related disorders of man are inherited anemias that provide mutations for the study of the regulation of globin gene expression. New methods, including restriction enzyme analysis and cloning of cellular DNA, have made it feasible to define more precisely the structure and organization of the globin genes in cellular DNA. Deletions of specific globin gene fragments have already been found in certain of these disorders and have been applied in prenatal diagnosis.

  20. Protothecosis in human medicine.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Daniela; Bergmann, Armin

    2002-02-01

    Prototheca spp. are ubiquitous achlorophyllous algae that produce disease in humans and animals. In the past years infections with Prototheca have obtained increasing importance in human medicine. The cases have been classified into three clinical forms: cutaneous and/or subcutaneous infection, synovitis of olecranon bursa or other fibrous tissue and systemic infection. Patients with a mild degree of immunosuppression may become colonized by Prototheca spp. with a subsequent worsening of their immune surveillance and spread of the disease. Among the numerous pharmacologic agents tried, amphotericin B is the most promising. Successful treatment of protothecosis involves radical excision of the involved structures.

  1. Human push capability.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Ralph L; Liber, Theodore

    2006-02-22

    Use of unassisted human push capability arises from time to time in the areas of crowd and animal control, the security of locked doors, the integrity of railings, the removal of tree stumps and entrenched vehicles, the manoeuvering of furniture, and athletic pursuits such as US football or wrestling. Depending on the scenario, human push capability involves strength, weight, weight distribution, push angle, footwear/floor friction, and the friction between the upper body and the pushed object. Simple models are used to establish the relationships among these factors.

  2. Biodemography of human ageing

    PubMed Central

    Vaupel, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Human senescence has been delayed by a decade. This finding, documented in 1994 and bolstered since, is a fundamental discovery about the biology of human ageing, and one with profound implications for individuals, society and the economy. Remarkably, the rate of deterioration with age seems to be constant across individuals and over time: it seems that death is being delayed because people are reaching old age in better health. Research by demographers, epidemiologists and other biomedical researchers suggests that further progress is likely to be made in advancing the frontier of survival — and healthy survival — to even greater ages. PMID:20336136

  3. The Exploration of Mars by Humans: Why Mars? Why Humans?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    As we commemorate the 50th anniversary of Yuri Gagarin's historic flight in 1961, the first flight of a human in space, plans are underway for another historic human mission. Plans are being developed for a human mission to Mars. Once we reach Mars, the human species will become the first two-planet species. Both the Bush Administration (in 2004) and the Obama Administration (in 2010) proposed a human mission to Mars as a national goal of the United States.

  4. Human-human reliance in the context of automation.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Joseph B; Stokes, Charlene K

    2012-02-01

    The current study examined human-human reliance during a computer-based scenario where participants interacted with a human aid and an automated tool simultaneously. Reliance on others is complex, and few studies have examined human-human reliance in the context of automation. Past research found that humans are biased in their perceived utility of automated tools such that they view them as more accurate than humans. Prior reviews have postulated differences in human-human versus human-machine reliance, yet few studies have examined such reliance when individuals are presented with divergent information from different sources. Participants (N = 40) engaged in the Convoy Leader experiment.They selected a convoy route based on explicit guidance from a human aid and information from an automated map. Subjective and behavioral human-human reliance indices were assessed. Perceptions of risk were manipulated by creating three scenarios (low, moderate, and high) that varied in the amount of vulnerability (i.e., potential for attack) associated with the convoy routes. Results indicated that participants reduced their behavioral reliance on the human aid when faced with higher risk decisions (suggesting increased reliance on the automation); however, there were no reported differences in intentions to rely on the human aid relative to the automation. The current study demonstrated that when individuals are provided information from both a human aid and automation,their reliance on the human aid decreased during high-risk decisions. This study adds to a growing understanding of the biases and preferences that exist during complex human-human and human-machine interactions.

  5. Human Modeling for Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Lawrence, Brad A.; Stelges, Katrine S.; Steady, Marie-Jeanne O.; Ridgwell, Lora C.; Mills, Robert E.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over the last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the human modeling currently used at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs

  6. Human Rights: The Essential Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Carol; Hansen, Carol Rae; Wilde, Ralph; Bronkhorst, Daan; Moritz, Frederic A.; Rolle, Baptiste; Sherman, Rebecca; Southard, Jo Lynn; Wilkinson, Robert; Poole, Hilary, Ed.

    This reference work documents the history of human rights theory, explains each article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, explores the contemporary human rights movement, and examines the major human rights issues facing the world today. This book is the first to combine historical and contemporary perspectives on these critical…

  7. Making IBM's Computer, Watson, Human

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rachlin, Howard

    2012-01-01

    This essay uses the recent victory of an IBM computer (Watson) in the TV game, "Jeopardy," to speculate on the abilities Watson would need, in addition to those it has, to be human. The essay's basic premise is that to be human is to behave as humans behave and to function in society as humans function. Alternatives to this premise are considered…

  8. Human Challenges in Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Charles W.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presents an overview using pictures some of the history of human exploration of the new frontiers of Earth and then examines some of the challenges to human exploration of space. Particular attention is given to the environmental factors and to the social and human factors that effect humans in space environments.

  9. The Case for the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cary, Michael S.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the current impoverishment of the humanities and the gulf separating the humanities from the sciences. Discusses the need for adequate humanities instruction at the elementary-secondary level. Suggests that humanities teachers rediscover the Italian Renaissance spirit to improve their teaching. (SB)

  10. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  11. Learning to Be Human

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macmurray, John

    2012-01-01

    This article presents "Learning to be Human", which John Macmurray delivered on 5 May 1958 as the annual public lecture at Moray House College of Education, now part of Edinburgh University. The key themes of the paper are ones to which Macmurray returned again and again in both his educational and his philosophical writing for over 40 years and…

  12. Humane Treatment of Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Joan Smithey

    This booklet is designed to give teachers resource information about the humane treatment of and care for animals. The topics are presented as springboards for discussion and class activity. Topics include the care of dogs, cats, birds, horses, and fish; wildlife and ecological relationships; and careers with animals. Illustrations on some pages…

  13. Human Memory: The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    The human mind has two types of memory: short-term and long-term. In all types of learning, it is best to use that structure rather than to fight against it. One way to do that is to ensure that learners can fit new information into patterns that can be stored in and more easily retrieved from long-term memory.

  14. Strengthening Career Human Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Charles P.

    2006-01-01

    Rooted in A. Bandura's (1982, 2001b) social cognitive theory, the notion of human agency has received considerable attention in vocational and career psychology for the last 2 decades, especially with the recent emergence of social constructivist thinking in the field. This article continues in the same direction. In reviewing the notion of human…

  15. Predictors of human rotation.

    PubMed

    Stochl, Jan; Croudace, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Why some humans prefer to rotate clockwise rather than anticlockwise is not well understood. This study aims to identify the predictors of the preferred rotation direction in humans. The variables hypothesised to influence rotation preference include handedness, footedness, sex, brain hemisphere lateralisation, and the Coriolis effect (which results from geospatial location on the Earth). An online questionnaire allowed us to analyse data from 1526 respondents in 97 countries. Factor analysis showed that the direction of rotation should be studied separately for local and global movements. Handedness, footedness, and the item hypothesised to measure brain hemisphere lateralisation are predictors of rotation direction for both global and local movements. Sex is a predictor of the direction of global rotation movements but not local ones, and both sexes tend to rotate clockwise. Geospatial location does not predict the preferred direction of rotation. Our study confirms previous findings concerning the influence of handedness, footedness, and sex on human rotation; our study also provides new insight into the underlying structure of human rotation movements and excludes the Coriolis effect as a predictor of rotation.

  16. Human Development Student Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This set of 61 student learning modules deals with various topics pertaining to human development. The modules, which are designed for use in performance-based vocational education programs, each contain the following components: an introduction for the student, a performance objective, a variety of learning activities, content information, a…

  17. Human performance measuring device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, J.; Scow, J.

    1970-01-01

    Complex coordinator, consisting of operator control console, recorder, subject display panel, and limb controls, measures human performance by testing perceptual and motor skills. Device measures psychophysiological functions in drug and environmental studies, and is applicable to early detection of psychophysiological body changes.

  18. Humans as Lie Detectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePaulo, Bella; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Discusses several studies of whether and how well humans can detect lies. Examines the accuracy of such persons as well as the process of how they actually detect lies, how they think they detect lies, and whether the actual and perceived processes of lie detection correspond to one another. (JMF)

  19. Human Spaceflight Safety Hearing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-02

    U.S. Rep. Gabrielle Giffords, D-Ariz., left, speaks with reitred astronaut Lt. Gen. Thomas Stafford prior to the start of a hearing before the House Subcommitte on Space and Aeronautics regarding Safety of Human Spaceflight on Capitol Hill, Wednesday, Dec. 2, 2009, in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Human Babesiosis, Bolivia, 2013.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, Simona; Totino, Valentina; Macchioni, Fabio; Zuñiga, Freddy; Rojas, Patricia; Lara, Yuni; Roselli, Mimmo; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2016-08-01

    To investigate human babesiosis in the Bolivian Chaco, in 2013 we tested blood samples from 271 healthy persons living in 2 rural communities in this region. Microscopy and PCR indicated that 3.3% of persons were positive for Babesia microti parasites (US lineage); seroprevalence was 45.7%. Appropriate screening should mitigate the risk for transfusion-associated babesiosis.

  1. Humanism in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This is the text of Michael Armstrong's address to the Brian Simon Centenary conference, held at the Institute of Education on 26 March 2015. Michael Armstrong celebrates the humanism that underlay Brian's belief in a common system of education, democratic and non-selective, and finds its counterpart in the creative practice of school children.

  2. Biotechnologies and Human Dignity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, William; Masciulli, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors review some contemporary cases where biotechnologies have been employed, where they have had global implications, and where there has been considerable debate. The authors argue that the concept of dignity, which lies at the center of such documents as the 2005 Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, the…

  3. Inconvenient Human Rights

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Natasha

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Following an increase in Roma migration under the European “freedom of movement” laws, Swedish municipalities initiated more than 80 evictions of informal Roma settlements on the grounds of poor sanitation between 2013 and 2016. These evictions echo policies from earlier in the 20th century, when Roma living in Sweden were often marginalized through the denial of access to water and sanitation facilities. The recent Swedish evictions also follow similar government actions across Europe, where Roma settlements are controlled through the denial of access to water and sanitation. However, access to water and sanitation—central aspects of human health—are universal human rights that must be available to all people present in a jurisdiction, regardless of their legal status. The evictions described here violated Sweden’s obligations under both European and international human rights law. More positive government responses are required, such as providing shelters or camping sites, setting up temporary facilities, and directly engaging with communities to address water and sanitation issues. The authors conclude by providing guidance on how states and municipalities can meet their human rights obligations with respect to water and sanitation for vulnerable Roma individuals and informal settlements in their communities. PMID:29302163

  4. Television and Human Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comstock, George; And Others

    To compile a comprehensive review of English language scientific literature regarding the effects of television on human behavior, the authors of this book evaluated more than 2,500 books, articles, reports, and other documents. Rather than taking a traditional approach, the authors followed a new model for the retrieval and synthesis of…

  5. Communicating with Virtual Humans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thalmann, Nadia Magnenat

    The face is a small part of a human, but it plays an essential role in communication. An open hybrid system for facial animation is presented. It encapsulates a considerable amount of information regarding facial models, movements, expressions, emotions, and speech. The complex description of facial animation can be handled better by assigning…

  6. Human Spaceflight Safety Hearing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-02

    U.S. Rep. Pete Olson, R-Texas, speaks during a hearing before the House Subcommitte on Space and Aeronautics regarding Safety of Human Spaceflight on Capitol Hill, Wednesday, Dec. 2, 2009, in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Human perspectives in horticulture

    Treesearch

    Charles A. Lewis

    1977-01-01

    Gardening produces not only vegetables and flowers, but also social and behavioral benefits. In low-income housing sites in New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago, gardening programs have resulted in reduced vandalism, new neighborliness, cleaned and painted buildings and streets, and other improvements. The human response to plants, and the qualities of plants that...

  8. Radar: Human Safety Net

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritz, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Radar is a technology that can be used to detect distant objects not visible to the human eye. A predecessor of radar, called the telemobiloscope, was first used to detect ships in the fog in 1904 off the German coast. Many scientists have worked on the development and refinement of radar (Hertz with electromagnetic waves; Popov with determining…

  9. Human Ecology: Curriculum Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    1984-01-01

    Describes nine commercially available programs which represent one aspect or a portion of the human ecology theme. Other information supplied for each program includes: program objectives; methods of instruction; specific subjects, grade, and ability levels; materials produced and purchasable; program implementation; teacher preparation; program…

  10. Designers of Human Settlements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliff, Ursula

    1976-01-01

    Reviewed herein are the ideas of nine men who have addressed themselves to the problems of human settlements in this century. The ideas reviewed include those of Arnold Toynbee, Lewis Mumford, Hassan Fathy, Buckminster Fuller, Constantinos Doxiadis, Charles Correa, Paul Mwaluko, Robert McNamara and John F. C. Turner. (BT)

  11. The Human Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Christina O.

    2005-01-01

    Without effective classroom management, teaching and learning cannot take place. The responsibility for a teacher's success in the classroom lies as much in the human connection between administrator and teacher as between teacher and student. In fact, it lies with all who work with schools: universities, school boards, administrators, and…

  12. The Human Toxome Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Human Toxome project, funded as an NIH Transformative Research grant 2011--‐ 2016, is focused on developing the concepts and the means for deducing, validating, and sharing molecular Pathways of Toxicity (PoT). Using the test case of estrogenic endocrine disruption, the respo...

  13. Human Growth and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehurst, Keturah E.

    This brief overview of some aspects of human development aims to enable paraprofessionals (teachers' aides) to work with teachers and children with greater understanding and effectiveness. Aspects discussed include heredity, IQ scores and learning ability assessment, principles of development, and principles of learning. (ED)

  14. Human Learning and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key…

  15. Human Influenza Virus Infections.

    PubMed

    Peteranderl, Christin; Herold, Susanne; Schmoldt, Carole

    2016-08-01

    Seasonal and pandemic influenza are the two faces of respiratory infections caused by influenza viruses in humans. As seasonal influenza occurs on an annual basis, the circulating virus strains are closely monitored and a yearly updated vaccination is provided, especially to identified risk populations. Nonetheless, influenza virus infection may result in pneumonia and acute respiratory failure, frequently complicated by bacterial coinfection. Pandemics are, in contrary, unexpected rare events related to the emergence of a reassorted human-pathogenic influenza A virus (IAV) strains that often causes increased morbidity and spreads extremely rapidly in the immunologically naive human population, with huge clinical and economic impact. Accordingly, particular efforts are made to advance our knowledge on the disease biology and pathology and recent studies have brought new insights into IAV adaptation mechanisms to the human host, as well as into the key players in disease pathogenesis on the host side. Current antiviral strategies are only efficient at the early stages of the disease and are challenged by the genomic instability of the virus, highlighting the need for novel antiviral therapies targeting the pulmonary host response to improve viral clearance, reduce the risk of bacterial coinfection, and prevent or attenuate acute lung injury. This review article summarizes our current knowledge on the molecular basis of influenza infection and disease progression, the key players in pathogenesis driving severe disease and progression to lung failure, as well as available and envisioned prevention and treatment strategies against influenza virus infection. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Human health and groundwater

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The high quality of most groundwaters, consequent upon the self-purification capacity of subsurface strata, has long been a key factor in human health and wellbeing. More than 50% of the world’s population now rely on groundwater for their supply of drinking water – and in most circumstances a prope...

  17. Fighting for the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Cary

    2012-01-01

    The question, "Who will bankroll poetry?", succinctly embodies what is now a widespread recognition that the humanities may have more to lose in the current budget wars than either the sciences or a number of technical fields. The only budget war that can unite individuals, rather than divide them, is one arguing that too much is being…

  18. Occupying the Digital Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    This essay questions the digital humanities' dependence on interpretation and critique as strategies for reading and responding to texts. Instead, the essay proposes suggestion as a digital rhetorical practice, one that does not replace hermeneutics, but instead offers alternative ways to respond to texts. The essay uses the Occupy movement as an…

  19. The Humanization of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nechaev, N.; Usov, V.

    1991-01-01

    Warns against a tendency to command Soviet educational reform from above without thought of practical results. Criticizes proceeding before priorities have been set or put into practice, and ignoring the need for a vehicle of reform, material, and labor resources. Urges the humanization of architectural education through study of art, the…

  20. Children Are Human Beings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossard, James H. S.

    2017-01-01

    The basic assumption underlying this article is that the really significant changes in human history are those that occur, not in the mechanical gadgets which men use nor in the institutionalized arrangements by which they live, but in their attitudes and in the values which they accept. The revolutions of the past that have had the greatest…

  1. Pesticides and Human Health

    Science.gov Websites

    . People come into contact with pesticides in many ways, including: When pesticides are used in and around Disponible en español Pesticides and Human Health Pesticides have a specific purpose in society. Pesticides . Because people use pesticides to kill, prevent, repel, or in some way adversely affect some living

  2. Human and information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Hiroyuki

    This is a lecture at the 15th anniversary of JICST Chugoku Branch Office. A recent progress of VLSI technologies will make possible to simulate some functions of human beings, the results of which will prepare next new innovation for a coming now century.

  3. Human oocyte cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Tao, Tao; Zhang, Wenling; Del Valle, Alfonso

    2009-06-01

    This review summarized the clinical breakthroughs in the human oocyte cryopreservation field in the past 2 years and gave special emphasis on the role of vitrification method. Human oocyte cryopreservation is an attractive strategy to preserve female fertility, as it offers more opportunities to the future destination of the female gametes and also raises fewer legal and ethical questions compared with embryo cryopreservation. It became promising in recent years because of dramatic improvement in cryopreservation technologies. Human oocyte cryopreservation would not become a clinical routine until the availability of reliable cryopreservation methods and long-term follow-up results of the babies born by this technique. Oocyte cryopreservation produced very exciting results with pregnancy and implantation rates comparable to embryo cryopreservation and in some cases comparable to fresh in-vitro fertilization cycles with both modified slow-freezing and vitrification methods. A cancer patient conceived and delivered her own babies by this technology after recovery from the disease. Oocyte cryopreservation became a new focus in assisted reproductive technology. We witnessed the advanced development of human oocyte cryopreservation in the past years because of increasing demand, medically, legally and ethically, and also because of the dramatic improvement of the freezing technique. There is still a long way to go to integrate it into a routine clinical procedure to benefit more patients and encourage clinicians to follow the standard protocols.

  4. Ubiquitous human computing.

    PubMed

    Zittrain, Jonathan

    2008-10-28

    Ubiquitous computing means network connectivity everywhere, linking devices and systems as small as a drawing pin and as large as a worldwide product distribution chain. What could happen when people are so readily networked? This paper explores issues arising from two possible emerging models of ubiquitous human computing: fungible networked brainpower and collective personal vital sign monitoring.

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Anita

    2016-11-23

    What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The CPD article discussed the importance of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing and diagnosing the condition as early as possible, so that antiretroviral treatment can be initiated and patient outcomes improved.

  6. Food Affects Human Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolata, Gina

    1982-01-01

    A conference on whether food and nutrients affect human behavior was held on November 9, 1982 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Various research studies on this topic are reviewed, including the effects of food on brain biochemistry (particularly sleep) and effects of tryptophane as a pain reducer. (JN)

  7. Technologies for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2014-01-01

    Access to Space, Chemical Propulsion, Advanced Propulsion, In-Situ Resource Utilization, Entry, Descent, Landing and Ascent, Humans and Robots Working Together, Autonomous Operations, In-Flight Maintenance, Exploration Mobility, Power Generation, Life Support, Space Suits, Microgravity Countermeasures, Autonomous Medicine, Environmental Control.

  8. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  9. Television's New Humane Collectivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrag, Robert L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes "Taxi,""Barney Miller,""Lou Grant," and "M*A*S*H" in terms of three fantasy themes: the realization of significant others, the alliance in action, and membership into personhood. From these themes emerges a rhetorical vision of the new humane collectivity. (PD)

  10. Reconsidering Human Performance Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Hwan Young

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses three perceived challenges in the field of human performance technology: a missing link from training to performance, limitations in gap analysis and cause analysis, and a lack of attention to business and organization performance. It then provides possible alternatives for each issue, such as instructional system…

  11. Humanities for What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hook, J. N.

    1970-01-01

    While accepting the world of technology as necessary and beneficial to the progress of man, the English teacher's role should be to use his subject matter in fostering skills which will further humanize students. By stressing the power of words, by exploring the relationship of language to history and to technology, and by viewing language as a…

  12. The Humanities and Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John W.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Five individuals discuss the relationship of the humanities and leadership in different contexts: the liberal arts (John W. Gardner); the sculpting of a statue of James Madison (Walker Hancock); the Kennedy years (Thomas R. West), our civic culture (Bruce Adams); and liberal education (Gregory S. Prince, Jr.). (MSE)

  13. Human Sexuality Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claremont Univ. Center, CA.

    This program provides information to students about human sexual biology, behavior and attitudes. The primary intent of the workshops described is to provide fuller information and opportunity for self awareness to encourage participants to be more responsible as sexual beings, and to restructure their attitudes. The program presents the…

  14. Animal and human influenzas.

    PubMed

    Peiris, M; Yen, H-L

    2014-08-01

    Influenza type A viruses affect humans and other animals and cause significant morbidity, mortality and economic impact. Influenza A viruses are well adapted to cross species barriers and evade host immunity. Viruses that cause no clinical signs in wild aquatic birds may adapt in domestic poultry to become highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses which decimate poultry flocks. Viruses that cause asymptomatic infection in poultry (e.g. the recently emerged A/H7N9 virus) may cause severe zoonotic disease and pose a major pandemic threat. Pandemic influenza arises at unpredictable intervals from animal viruses and, in its global spread, outpaces current technologies for making vaccines against such novel viruses. Confronting the threat of influenza in humans and other animals is an excellent example of a task that requires a One Health approach. Changes in travel, trade in livestock and pets, changes in animal husbandry practices, wet markets and complex marketing chains all contribute to an increased risk of the emergence of novel influenza viruses with the ability to cross species barriers, leading to epizootics or pandemics. Coordinated surveillance at the animal- human interface for pandemic preparedness, risk assessment, risk reduction and prevention at source requires coordinated action among practitioners in human and animal health and the environmental sciences. Implementation of One Health in the field can be challenging because of divergent short-term objectives. Successful implementation requires effort, mutual trust, respect and understanding to ensure that long-term goals are achieved without adverse impacts on agricultural production and food security.

  15. Futures of Human Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harms, L. S.

    There are several research areas basic to the long-range future of human communications. Telecommunication and transportation offer the possiblity of two worldwide communications networks whose interrelationships need to be explored in terms of the needs of the individual, the community, and the world at large. Expanding possibilities of…

  16. Humanizing the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfield, Roy P., Ed.

    A series of essays discussing ideas about humanizing work are presented in the document. Three major sections divide the essays, and each includes a preface with comments suggesting the central focus and questions with which the authors are concerned. The first section deals with the history, philosophy, and issues related to work and contains…

  17. Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, E. Vincent, II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2015-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces affect the human's ability to perform tasks effectively and efficiently when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. For efficient and effective remote navigation of a rover, a human operator needs to be aware of the robot's environment. However, during teleoperation, operators may get information about the environment only through a robot's front-mounted camera causing a keyhole effect. The keyhole effect reduces situation awareness which may manifest in navigation issues such as higher number of collisions, missing critical aspects of the environment, or reduced speed. One way to compensate for the keyhole effect and the ambiguities operators experience when they teleoperate a robot is adding multiple cameras and including the robot chassis in the camera view. Augmented reality, such as overlays, can also enhance the way a person sees objects in the environment or in camera views by making them more visible. Scenes can be augmented with integrated telemetry, procedures, or map information. Furthermore, the addition of an exocentric (i.e., third-person) field of view from a camera placed in the robot's environment may provide operators with the additional information needed to gain spatial awareness of the robot. Two research studies investigated possible mitigation approaches to address the keyhole effect: 1) combining the inclusion of the robot chassis in the camera view with augmented reality overlays, and 2) modifying the camera

  18. Human milk and necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Aloka L; Kim, Jae H

    2018-02-01

    NEC is a multifactorial disease that occurs when multiple risk factors and/or stressors overlap, leading to profound inflammation and intestinal injury. Human milk feedings, both from the infant's mother and donor human milk, have been associated with reductions in NEC in preterm infants. This article will review the protective factors in human milk, clinical studies of human milk and NEC, and practices to enhance human milk use in neonatal intensive care units. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Human mammary microenvironment better regulates the biology of human breast cancer in humanized mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ming-Jie; Wang, Jue; Xu, Lu; Zha, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Yi; Ling, Li-Jun; Wang, Shui

    2015-02-01

    During the past decades, many efforts have been made in mimicking the clinical progress of human cancer in mouse models. Previously, we developed a human breast tissue-derived (HB) mouse model. Theoretically, it may mimic the interactions between "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin and human breast cancer cells. However, detailed evidences are absent. The present study (in vivo, cellular, and molecular experiments) was designed to explore the regulatory role of human mammary microenvironment in the progress of human breast cancer cells. Subcutaneous (SUB), mammary fat pad (MFP), and HB mouse models were developed for in vivo comparisons. Then, the orthotopic tumor masses from three different mouse models were collected for primary culture. Finally, the biology of primary cultured human breast cancer cells was compared by cellular and molecular experiments. Results of in vivo mouse models indicated that human breast cancer cells grew better in human mammary microenvironment. Cellular and molecular experiments confirmed that primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model showed a better proliferative and anti-apoptotic biology than those from SUB to MFP mouse models. Meanwhile, primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model also obtained the migratory and invasive biology for "species-specific" tissue metastasis to human tissues. Comprehensive analyses suggest that "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin better regulates the biology of human breast cancer cells in our humanized mouse model of breast cancer, which is more consistent with the clinical progress of human breast cancer.

  20. Making Human Beings Human: Bioecological Perspectives on Human Development. The SAGE Program on Applied Developmental Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    To a greater extent than any other species, human beings create the environments that, in turn, shape their own development. This book endeavors to demonstrate that human beings can also develop those environments to optimize their most constructive genetic potentials. What makes human beings human, therefore, is both the potential to shape their…

  1. Zygomycetes in Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ribes, Julie A.; Vanover-Sams, Carolyn L.; Baker, Doris J.

    2000-01-01

    The Zygomycetes represent relatively uncommon isolates in the clinical laboratory, reflecting either environmental contaminants or, less commonly, a clinical disease called zygomycosis. There are two orders of Zygomycetes containing organisms that cause human disease, the Mucorales and the Entomophthorales. The majority of human illness is caused by the Mucorales. While disease is most commonly linked to Rhizopus spp., other organisms are also associated with human infection, including Mucor, Rhizomucor, Absidia, Apophysomyces, Saksenaea, Cunninghamella, Cokeromyces, and Syncephalastrum spp. Although Mortierella spp. do cause disease in animals, there is no longer sufficient evidence to suggest that they are true human pathogens. The spores from these molds are transmitted by inhalation, via a variety of percutaneous routes, or by ingestion of spores. Human zygomycosis caused by the Mucorales generally occurs in immunocompromised hosts as opportunistic infections. Host risk factors include diabetes mellitus, neutropenia, sustained immunosuppressive therapy, chronic prednisone use, iron chelation therapy, broad-spectrum antibiotic use, severe malnutrition, and primary breakdown in the integrity of the cutaneous barrier such as trauma, surgical wounds, needle sticks, or burns. Zygomycosis occurs only rarely in immunocompetent hosts. The disease manifestations reflect the mode of transmission, with rhinocerebral and pulmonary diseases being the most common manifestations. Cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and allergic diseases are also seen. The Mucorales are associated with angioinvasive disease, often leading to thrombosis, infarction of involved tissues, and tissue destruction mediated by a number of fungal proteases, lipases, and mycotoxins. If the diagnosis is not made early, dissemination often occurs. Therapy, if it is to be effective, must be started early and requires combinations of antifungal drugs, surgical intervention, and reversal of the underlying risk

  2. Human Integration Design Processes (HIDP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Human Integration Design Processes (HIDP) document is to provide human-systems integration design processes, including methodologies and best practices that NASA has used to meet human systems and human rating requirements for developing crewed spacecraft. HIDP content is framed around human-centered design methodologies and processes in support of human-system integration requirements and human rating. NASA-STD-3001, Space Flight Human-System Standard, is a two-volume set of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Agency-level standards established by the Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer, directed at minimizing health and performance risks for flight crews in human space flight programs. Volume 1 of NASA-STD-3001, Crew Health, sets standards for fitness for duty, space flight permissible exposure limits, permissible outcome limits, levels of medical care, medical diagnosis, intervention, treatment and care, and countermeasures. Volume 2 of NASASTD- 3001, Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, focuses on human physical and cognitive capabilities and limitations and defines standards for spacecraft (including orbiters, habitats, and suits), internal environments, facilities, payloads, and related equipment, hardware, and software with which the crew interfaces during space operations. The NASA Procedural Requirements (NPR) 8705.2B, Human-Rating Requirements for Space Systems, specifies the Agency's human-rating processes, procedures, and requirements. The HIDP was written to share NASA's knowledge of processes directed toward achieving human certification of a spacecraft through implementation of human-systems integration requirements. Although the HIDP speaks directly to implementation of NASA-STD-3001 and NPR 8705.2B requirements, the human-centered design, evaluation, and design processes described in this document can be applied to any set of human-systems requirements and are independent of reference

  3. Human factors workplace considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    Computer workstations assume many different forms and play different functions today. In order for them to assume the effective interface role which they should play they must be properly designed to take into account the ubiguitous human factor. In addition, the entire workplace in which they are used should be properly configured so as to enhance the operational features of the individual workstation where possible. A number of general human factors workplace considerations are presented. This ongoing series of notes covers such topics as achieving comfort and good screen visibility, hardware issues (e.g., mouse maintenance), screen symbology features (e.g., labels, cursors, prompts), and various miscellaneous subjects. These notes are presented here in order to: (1) illustrate how one's workstation can be used to support telescience activities of many other people working within an organization, and (2) provide a single complete set of considerations for future reference.

  4. Sleep and Human Aging

    PubMed Central

    Mander, Bryce A.; Winer, Joseph R.; Walker, Matthew P.

    2017-01-01

    Older adults do not sleep as well as younger adults. Why? What alterations in sleep quantity and quality occur as we age, and are there functional consequences? What are the underlying neural mechanisms that explain age-related sleep disruption? This review tackles these questions. First, we describe canonical changes in human sleep quantity and quality in cognitively normal older adults. Second, we explore the underlying neurobiological mechanisms that may account for these human sleep alterations. Third, we consider the functional consequences of age-related sleep disruption, focusing on memory impairment as an exemplar. We conclude with a discussion of a still-debated question: do older adults simply need less sleep, or rather, are they unable to generate the sleep that they still need? PMID:28384471

  5. Secure Distributed Human Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentry, Craig; Ramzan, Zulfikar; Stubblebine, Stuart

    In Peha’s Financial Cryptography 2004 invited talk, he described the Cyphermint PayCash system (see www.cyphermint.com), which allows people without bank accounts or credit cards (a sizeable segment of the U.S. population) to automatically and instantly cash checks, pay bills, or make Internet transactions through publicly-accessible kiosks. Since PayCash offers automated financial transactions and since the system uses (unprotected) kiosks, security is critical. The kiosk must decide whether a person cashing a check is really the person to whom the check was made out, so it takes a digital picture of the person cashing the check and transmits this picture electronically to a central office, where a human worker compares the kiosk’s picture to one that was taken when the person registered with Cyphermint. If both pictures are of the same person, then the human worker authorizes the transaction.

  6. MIS - The Human Connection

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Ian E.

    1980-01-01

    The lessons of the 70's with MIS were largely painful, often the same as those of the 60's, and were found in different phases on two continents. On examination this turns out to be true for many non-medical fields, true for systems programming, and thus a very general phenomenon. It is related to the functional complexity rather than to the sheer size of the software required, and above all to the relative neglect of human factors at all levels of software and hardware design. Simple hierarchical theory is a useful tool for analyzing complex systems and restoring the necessary dominance of common sense human factors. An example shows the very large effects of neglecting these factors on costs and benefits of MIS and their sub-systems.

  7. Posthumanism: beyond humanism?

    PubMed

    Valera, Luca

    2014-01-01

    The focal point of posthumanism consists not as such in an a-critical acceptance of the technological promises - like there is for transhumanism - but in a total contamination and hybridization of human beings with other living beings and machines (these are the two main forms of contamination). The change of perspective untaken by posthumanism would be, thus, a paradigmatic shift in anthropology. As with ecologism, posthumanism, in order to obtain total contamination and man's openness to otherness, proposes the elimination and the fluidification of boundaries, thus even denying man's identity, and, with it, the very possibility of openness. However, by denying the identity, one denies the condition of possibility of thought, just as it has been manifested in history until now: hence we understand how, primarily, posthumanism is not configured as an adequate philosophical reflection, but as a narrative that takes origin from certain requirements, which are eminently human, and that discloses its deeply anthropogenic roots.

  8. Human waves in stadiums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas, I.; Helbing, D.; Vicsek, T.

    2003-12-01

    Mexican wave first widely broadcasted during the 1986 World Cup held in Mexico, is a human wave moving along the stands of stadiums as one section of spectators stands up, arms lifting, then sits down as the next section does the same. Here we use variants of models originally developed for the description of excitable media to demonstrate that this collective human behaviour can be quantitatively interpreted by methods of statistical physics. Adequate modelling of reactions to triggering attempts provides a deeper insight into the mechanisms by which a crowd can be stimulated to execute a particular pattern of behaviour and represents a possible tool of control during events involving excited groups of people. Interactive simulations, video recordings and further images are available at the webpage dedicated to this work: http://angel.elte.hu/wave.

  9. Sleep and Human Aging.

    PubMed

    Mander, Bryce A; Winer, Joseph R; Walker, Matthew P

    2017-04-05

    Older adults do not sleep as well as younger adults. Why? What alterations in sleep quantity and quality occur as we age, and are there functional consequences? What are the underlying neural mechanisms that explain age-related sleep disruption? This review tackles these questions. First, we describe canonical changes in human sleep quantity and quality in cognitively normal older adults. Second, we explore the underlying neurobiological mechanisms that may account for these human sleep alterations. Third, we consider the functional consequences of age-related sleep disruption, focusing on memory impairment as an exemplar. We conclude with a discussion of a still-debated question: do older adults simply need less sleep, or rather, are they unable to generate the sleep that they still need? Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Human-centric sensing.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Mani; Abdelzaher, Tarek; Szymanski, Boleslaw

    2012-01-13

    The first decade of the century witnessed a proliferation of devices with sensing and communication capabilities in the possession of the average individual. Examples range from camera phones and wireless global positioning system units to sensor-equipped, networked fitness devices and entertainment platforms (such as Wii). Social networking platforms emerged, such as Twitter, that allow sharing information in real time. The unprecedented deployment scale of such sensors and connectivity options ushers in an era of novel data-driven applications that rely on inputs collected by networks of humans or measured by sensors acting on their behalf. These applications will impact domains as diverse as health, transportation, energy, disaster recovery, intelligence and warfare. This paper surveys the important opportunities in human-centric sensing, identifies challenges brought about by such opportunities and describes emerging solutions to these challenges.

  11. Human biology of taste.

    PubMed

    Gravina, Stephen A; Yep, Gregory L; Khan, Mehmood

    2013-01-01

    Taste or gustation is one of the 5 traditional senses including hearing, sight, touch, and smell. The sense of taste has classically been limited to the 5 basic taste qualities: sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami or savory. Advances from the Human Genome Project and others have allowed the identification and determination of many of the genes and molecular mechanisms involved in taste biology. The ubiquitous G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) make up the sweet, umami, and bitter receptors. Although less clear in humans, transient receptor potential ion channels are thought to mediate salty and sour taste; however, other targets have been identified. Furthermore, taste receptors have been located throughout the body and appear to be involved in many regulatory processes. An emerging interplay is revealed between chemical sensing in the periphery, cortical processing, performance, and physiology and likely the pathophysiology of diseases such as diabetes.

  12. [PALEOPATHOLOGY OF HUMAN REMAINS].

    PubMed

    Minozzi, Simona; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumours, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, the palaeopathological study allowed to highlight the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population.

  13. Human freedom and enhancement.

    PubMed

    Heilinger, Jan-Christoph; Crone, Katja

    2014-02-01

    Ideas about freedom and related concepts like autonomy and self-determination play a prominent role in the moral debate about human enhancement interventions. However, there is not a single understanding of freedom available, and arguments referring to freedom are simultaneously used to argue both for and against enhancement interventions. This gives rise to misunderstandings and polemical arguments. The paper attempts to disentangle the different distinguishable concepts, classifies them and shows how they relate to one another in order to allow for a more structured and clearer debate. It concludes in identifying the individual underpinnings and the social conditions of choice and decision-making as particularly salient dimensions of freedom in the ethical debate about human enhancement.

  14. Development of human locomotion.

    PubMed

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P; Zago, Myrka

    2012-10-01

    Neural control of locomotion in human adults involves the generation of a small set of basic patterned commands directed to the leg muscles. The commands are generated sequentially in time during each step by neural networks located in the spinal cord, called Central Pattern Generators. This review outlines recent advances in understanding how motor commands are expressed at different stages of human development. Similar commands are found in several other vertebrates, indicating that locomotion development follows common principles of organization of the control networks. Movements show a high degree of flexibility at all stages of development, which is instrumental for learning and exploration of variable interactions with the environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ancient human microbiomes

    PubMed Central

    Warinner, Christina; Speller, Camilla; Collins, Matthew J.; Lewis, Cecil M.

    2015-01-01

    Very recently, we discovered a vast new microbial self: the human microbiome. Our native microbiota interface with our biology and culture to influence our health, behavior, and quality of life, and yet we know very little about their origin, evolution, or ecology. With the advent of industrialization, globalization, and modern sanitation, it is intuitive that we have changed our relationship with microbes, but we have little information about the ancestral state of our microbiome, and therefore, we lack a foundation for characterizing this change. High-throughput sequencing has opened up new opportunities in the field of paleomicrobiology, allowing us to investigate the evolution of the complex microbial ecologies that inhabit our bodies. By focusing on recent coprolite and dental calculus research, we explore how emerging research on ancient human microbiomes is changing the way we think about ancient disease and how archaeological studies can contribute to a medical understanding of health and nutrition today. PMID:25559298

  16. Optimizing Human Cognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    decision, unless so designated by other documentation. 12. DISTRIBUTION AVAILIBILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. UU 9...SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 6. AUTHORS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMES AND ADDRESSES U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box...12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS Human Attention Eran Zaidel Pacific Development and Technology LLC 999 Commercial St

  17. Human Systems Roadmap Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-09

    Impact of Human Systems Community of Interest D O T M L P F $450M COI Budget Has Broad Impact in Several DOTMLPF Areas Decision Making Selection...and fit to a military career. • 26 personality dimensions such as optimism, excitement seeking, and non- delinquency • Applicant chooses from...Adaptive Collaborative Control Technologies ( IMPACT ) architecture designed • IMPACT “DoD Virtual Lab” established (Year 1) • 1 operator x 6 vehicles

  18. [Human periorbital dirofilariasis].

    PubMed

    Garaffini, T; Ducasse, A; Jaussaud, R; Strady, A; Pinon, J M

    1996-01-01

    We present the case of a 72 year-old-woman with recurrent periocular inflamatory mass caused by an infection with Dirofilaria repens. The zoonotic infection is spreading by mosquito vectors from dogs to humans. Residence in endemic areas (ex-USSR, Italy, Sri Lanka, Southeastern United States) should always be suspected in patients with this type of symptomatology. The treatment is curative by the extraction of the pseudotumoral mass.

  19. Human Capital Accumulation: The Role of Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garavan, Thomas N.; Morley, Michael; Gunnigle, Patrick; Collins, Eammon

    2001-01-01

    Presents definitions of intellectual and human capital. Examines human capital from the individual perspective (employability, performance, career development) and organization perspective (investment, ownership, knowledge management). Reviews papers in the theme issue. (Contains 117 references.) (SK)

  20. Psychophysics of human echolocation.

    PubMed

    Schörnich, Sven; Wallmeier, Ludwig; Gessele, Nikodemus; Nagy, Andreas; Schranner, Michael; Kish, Daniel; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    The skills of some blind humans orienting in their environment through the auditory analysis of reflections from self-generated sounds have received only little scientific attention to date. Here we present data from a series of formal psychophysical experiments with sighted subjects trained to evaluate features of a virtual echo-acoustic space, allowing for rigid and fine-grain control of the stimulus parameters. The data show how subjects shape both their vocalisations and auditory analysis of the echoes to serve specific echo-acoustic tasks. First, we show that humans can echo-acoustically discriminate target distances with a resolution of less than 1 m for reference distances above 3.4 m. For a reference distance of 1.7 m, corresponding to an echo delay of only 10 ms, distance JNDs were typically around 0.5 m. Second, we explore the interplay between the precedence effect and echolocation. We show that the strong perceptual asymmetry between lead and lag is weakened during echolocation. Finally, we show that through the auditory analysis of self-generated sounds, subjects discriminate room-size changes as small as 10%.In summary, the current data confirm the practical efficacy of human echolocation, and they provide a rigid psychophysical basis for addressing its neural foundations.

  1. Perspectives on human regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Stark, James F.

    2018-01-01

    Regeneration is a concept that has fascinated humans for centuries. Whether we have been trying to bring things back to life, extract additional resources from the world, or remodel our living spaces—domestic and urban—it is often presented as an unproblematic force for good. But what exactly does it mean to regenerate a body, mind or space? This paper, which introduces a collection of contributions on the theme of human regeneration, explores the limits and possibilities of regeneration as a conceptual tool for understanding the biological realm. What does it mean to be regenerated? How can a scholarly focus on this concept enrich our histories of bodies, ageing, disability and science, technology and medicine? As a secondary goal, I identify two distinct aspects of regeneration—'hard' and 'soft' regeneration—which concern the medical and social elements of regeneration respectively. By recognising that everything from cosmetics and fictions to prosthetics and organs grown in vitro display a combination of 'hard' and 'soft' elements, we are better placed to understand that the biological and social must be considered in consort for us to fully appreciate the meanings and practices that underpin multiple forms of human regeneration. PMID:29910957

  2. Immunology of human schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Colley, D G; Secor, W E

    2014-01-01

    There is a wealth of immunologic studies that have been carried out in experimental and human schistosomiasis that can be classified into three main areas: immunopathogenesis, resistance to reinfection and diagnostics. It is clear that the bulk of, if not all, morbidity due to human schistosomiasis results from immune-response-based inflammation against eggs lodged in the body, either as regulated chronic inflammation or resulting in fibrotic lesions. However, the exact nature of these responses, the antigens to which they are mounted and the mechanisms of the critical regulatory responses are still being sorted out. It is also becoming apparent that protective immunity against schistosomula as they develop into adult worms develops slowly and is hastened by the dying of adult worms, either naturally or when they are killed by praziquantel. However, as with anti-egg responses, the responsible immune mechanisms and inducing antigens are not clearly established, nor are any potential regulatory responses known. Finally, a wide variety of immune markers, both cellular and humoral, can be used to demonstrate exposure to schistosomes, and immunologic measurement of schistosome antigens can be used to detect, and thus diagnose, active infections. All three areas contribute to the public health response to human schistosome infections. PMID:25142505

  3. Human milk banking.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, Esther Marie; Wood, Angela; Fiske, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Forms of human milk banking and donation have been present for more than a century worldwide, but, since 1985, the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HM BANA) has established guidelines to make the use of donor's breast milk safe and the second best form of feeding to maternal breast milk for a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infant. The Indiana Mother's Human Milk Bank provides an extensive and meticulous process of selecting breast milk donors. The process begins with a phone interview with a potential donor and includes the review of the donor's medical records, blood laboratory screening, medication and dietary intake, as well as consent from the donor's pediatrician. The milk bank follows steps of collecting, storing, and receiving the breast milk in accordance with the guidelines of the HM BANA. Pasteurization is the method used to ensure the proper heating and cooling of breast milk. Despite the rigorous pasteurization method, the donor's breast milk will not lose most of the important beneficial components needed for sick or ill NICU infants. Every batch of pasteurized breast milk will be cultured for any possible contamination and shipped to NICUs after it has been cleared by laboratory testing.

  4. Oxytocin promotes human ethnocentrism

    PubMed Central

    De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Greer, Lindred L.; Van Kleef, Gerben A.; Shalvi, Shaul; Handgraaf, Michel J. J.

    2011-01-01

    Human ethnocentrism—the tendency to view one's group as centrally important and superior to other groups—creates intergroup bias that fuels prejudice, xenophobia, and intergroup violence. Grounded in the idea that ethnocentrism also facilitates within-group trust, cooperation, and coordination, we conjecture that ethnocentrism may be modulated by brain oxytocin, a peptide shown to promote cooperation among in-group members. In double-blind, placebo-controlled designs, males self-administered oxytocin or placebo and privately performed computer-guided tasks to gauge different manifestations of ethnocentric in-group favoritism as well as out-group derogation. Experiments 1 and 2 used the Implicit Association Test to assess in-group favoritism and out-group derogation. Experiment 3 used the infrahumanization task to assess the extent to which humans ascribe secondary, uniquely human emotions to their in-group and to an out-group. Experiments 4 and 5 confronted participants with the option to save the life of a larger collective by sacrificing one individual, nominated as in-group or as out-group. Results show that oxytocin creates intergroup bias because oxytocin motivates in-group favoritism and, to a lesser extent, out-group derogation. These findings call into question the view of oxytocin as an indiscriminate “love drug” or “cuddle chemical” and suggest that oxytocin has a role in the emergence of intergroup conflict and violence. PMID:21220339

  5. Science and Human Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Leon N.

    2015-01-01

    Part I. Science and Society: 1. Science and human experience; 2. Does science undermine our values?; 3. Can science serve mankind?; 4. Modern science and contemporary discomfort: metaphor and reality; 5. Faith and science; 6. Art and science; 7. Fraud in science; 8. Why study science? The keys to the cathedral; 9. Is evolution a theory? A modest proposal; 10. The silence of the second; 11. Introduction to Copenhagen; 12. The unpaid debt; Part II. Thought and Consciousness: 13. Source and limits of human intellect; 14. Neural networks; 15. Thought and mental experience: the Turing test; 16. Mind as machine: will we rubbish human experience?; 17. Memory and memories: a physicist's approach to the brain; 18. On the problem of consciousness; Part III. On the Nature and Limits of Science: 19. What is a good theory?; 20. Shall we deconstruct science?; 21. Visible and invisible in physical theory; 22. Experience and order; 23. The language of physics; 24. The structure of space; 25. Superconductivity and other insoluble problems; 26. From gravity to light and consciousness: does science have limits?

  6. Science and Human Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Leon N.

    2014-12-01

    Part I. Science and Society: 1. Science and human experience; 2. Does science undermine our values?; 3. Can science serve mankind?; 4. Modern science and contemporary discomfort: metaphor and reality; 5. Faith and science; 6. Art and science; 7. Fraud in science; 8. Why study science? The keys to the cathedral; 9. Is evolution a theory? A modest proposal; 10. The silence of the second; 11. Introduction to Copenhagen; 12. The unpaid debt; Part II. Thought and Consciousness: 13. Source and limits of human intellect; 14. Neural networks; 15. Thought and mental experience: the Turing test; 16. Mind as machine: will we rubbish human experience?; 17. Memory and memories: a physicist's approach to the brain; 18. On the problem of consciousness; Part III. On the Nature and Limits of Science: 19. What is a good theory?; 20. Shall we deconstruct science?; 21. Visible and invisible in physical theory; 22. Experience and order; 23. The language of physics; 24. The structure of space; 25. Superconductivity and other insoluble problems; 26. From gravity to light and consciousness: does science have limits?

  7. Perspectives on human regeneration.

    PubMed

    Stark, James F

    2018-06-12

    Regeneration is a concept that has fascinated humans for centuries. Whether we have been trying to bring things back to life, extract additional resources from the world, or remodel our living spaces-domestic and urban-it is often presented as an unproblematic force for good. But what exactly does it mean to regenerate a body, mind or space? This paper, which introduces a collection of contributions on the theme of human regeneration, explores the limits and possibilities of regeneration as a conceptual tool for understanding the biological realm. What does it mean to be regenerated? How can a scholarly focus on this concept enrich our histories of bodies, ageing, disability and science, technology and medicine? As a secondary goal, I identify two distinct aspects of regeneration-'hard' and 'soft' regeneration-which concern the medical and social elements of regeneration respectively. By recognising that everything from cosmetics and fictions to prosthetics and organs grown in vitro display a combination of 'hard' and 'soft' elements, we are better placed to understand that the biological and social must be considered in consort for us to fully appreciate the meanings and practices that underpin multiple forms of human regeneration.

  8. Gas hydrate and humans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    The potential effects of naturally occurring gas hydrate on humans are not understood with certainty, but enough information has been acquired over the past 30 years to make preliminary assessments possible. Three major issues are gas hydrate as (1) a potential energy resource, (2) a factor in global climate change, and (3) a submarine geohazard. The methane content is estimated to be between 1015 to 1017 m3 at STP and the worldwide distribution in outer continental margins of oceans and in polar regions are significant features of gas hydrate. However, its immediate development as an energy resource is not likely because there are various geological constraints and difficult technological problems that must be solved before economic recovery of methane from hydrate can be achieved. The role of gas hydrate in global climate change is uncertain. For hydrate methane to be an effective greenhouse gas, it must reach the atmosphere. Yet there are many obstacles to the transfer of methane from hydrate to the atmosphere. Rates of gas hydrate dissociation and the integrated rates of release and destruction of the methane in the geo/hydro/atmosphere are not adequately understood. Gas hydrate as a submarine geohazard, however, is of immediate and increasing importance to humans as our industrial society moves to exploit seabed resources at ever-greater depths in the waters of our coastal oceans. Human activities and installations in regions of gas-hydrate occurrence must take into account the presence of gas hydrate and deal with the consequences of its presence.

  9. Cocoa and human health.

    PubMed

    Ellam, Samantha; Williamson, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Cocoa is a dry, powdered, nonfat component product prepared from the seeds of the Theobroma cacao L. tree and is a common ingredient of many food products, particularly chocolate. Nutritionally, cocoa contains biologically active substances that may affect human health: flavonoids (epicatechin and oligomeric procyanidins), theobromine, and magnesium. Theobromine and epicatechin are absorbed efficiently in the small intestine, and the nature of their conjugates and metabolites are now known. Oligomeric procyanidins are poorly absorbed in the small intestine, but catabolites are very efficiently absorbed after microbial biotransformation in the colon. A significant number of studies, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, on the effects of cocoa and its constituent flavonoids have been conducted. Most human intervention studies have been performed on cocoa as an ingredient, whereas many in vitro studies have been performed on individual components. Approximately 70 human intervention studies have been carried out on cocoa and cocoa-containing products over the past 12 years, with a variety of endpoints. These studies indicate that the most robust biomarkers affected are endothelial function, blood pressure, and cholesterol level. Mechanistically, supporting evidence shows that epicatechin affects nitric oxide synthesis and breakdown (via inhibition of nicotinamide adenine di-nucleotide phosphate oxidase) and the substrate arginine (via inhibition of arginase), among other targets. Evidence further supports cocoa as a biologically active ingredient with potential benefits on biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease. However, the calorie and sugar content of chocolate and its contribution to the total diet should be taken into account in intervention studies.

  10. History of Human Parasitology

    PubMed Central

    Cox, F. E. G.

    2002-01-01

    Humans are hosts to nearly 300 species of parasitic worms and over 70 species of protozoa, some derived from our primate ancestors and some acquired from the animals we have domesticated or come in contact with during our relatively short history on Earth. Our knowledge of parasitic infections extends into antiquity, and descriptions of parasites and parasitic infections are found in the earliest writings and have been confirmed by the finding of parasites in archaeological material. The systematic study of parasites began with the rejection of the theory of spontaneous generation and the promulgation of the germ theory. Thereafter, the history of human parasitology proceeded along two lines, the discovery of a parasite and its subsequent association with disease and the recognition of a disease and the subsequent discovery that it was caused by a parasite. This review is concerned with the major helminth and protozoan infections of humans: ascariasis, trichinosis, strongyloidiasis, dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, loasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, cestodiasis, paragonimiasis, clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, amoebiasis, giardiasis, African trypanosomiasis, South American trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, cyclosporiasis, and microsporidiosis. PMID:12364371

  11. Human innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Mjösberg, Jenny; Spits, Hergen

    2016-11-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are increasingly acknowledged as important mediators of immune homeostasis and pathology. ILCs act as early orchestrators of immunity, responding to epithelium-derived signals by expressing an array of cytokines and cell-surface receptors, which shape subsequent immune responses. As such, ILCs make up interesting therapeutic targets for several diseases. In patients with allergy and asthma, group 2 innate lymphoid cells produce high amounts of IL-5 and IL-13, thereby contributing to type 2-mediated inflammation. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells are implicated in intestinal homeostasis and psoriasis pathology through abundant IL-22 production, whereas group 1 innate lymphoid cells are accumulated in chronic inflammation of the gut (inflammatory bowel disease) and lung (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), where they contribute to IFN-γ-mediated inflammation. Although the ontogeny of mouse ILCs is slowly unraveling, the development of human ILCs is far from understood. In addition, the growing complexity of the human ILC family in terms of previously unrecognized functional heterogeneity and plasticity has generated confusion within the field. Here we provide an updated view on the function and plasticity of human ILCs in tissue homeostasis and disease. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Volcanoes and human history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cashman, K. V.; Giordano, G.

    2008-10-01

    The study of volcanic hazards leads inevitably to questions of how past cultures have lived in volcanically active regions of the world. Here we summarize linkages between volcanological, archaeological and anthropological studies of historic and prehistoric volcanic eruptions, with the goal of evaluating the impact of past eruptions on human populations to better prepare for future events. We use examples from papers collected in this volume to illustrate ways in which volcanological studies aid archaeological investigations by providing basic stratigraphic markers and information about the nature and timing of specific volcanic events. We then turn to archaeological perspectives, which provide physical evidence of the direct impacts of volcanic eruptions, such as site abandonment and human migration, as well as indirect impacts on local cultures as reflected in human artifacts. Finally we review anthropological studies of societal responses to past and recent volcanic eruptions. We pay particular attention to both the psychological impact of catastrophic events and records of these impacts encoded within oral traditions. Taken together these studies record drastic short-term eruption impacts but adaptation to volcanic activity over the longer term, largely through strategies of adaptive land use.

  13. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Exploration has established a process whereby all NASA field centers and other NASA Headquarters offices participate in the formulation and analysis of a wide range of mission strategies. These strategies were manifested into specific scenarios or candidate case studies. The case studies provided a systematic approach into analyzing each mission element. First, each case study must address several major themes and rationale including: national pride and international prestige, advancement of scientific knowledge, a catalyst for technology, economic benefits, space enterprise, international cooperation, and education and excellence. Second, the set of candidate case studies are formulated to encompass the technology requirement limits in the life sciences, launch capabilities, space transfer, automation, and robotics in space operations, power, and propulsion. The first set of reference case studies identify three major strategies: human expeditions, science outposts, and evolutionary expansion. During the past year, four case studies were examined to explore these strategies. The expeditionary missions include the Human Expedition to Phobos and Human Expedition to Mars case studies. The Lunar Observatory and Lunar Outpost to Early Mars Evolution case studies examined the later two strategies. This set of case studies established the framework to perform detailed mission analysis and system engineering to define a host of concepts and requirements for various space systems and advanced technologies. The details of each mission are described and, specifically, the results affecting the advanced technologies required to accomplish each mission scenario are presented.

  14. History of human parasitology.

    PubMed

    Cox, F E G

    2002-10-01

    Humans are hosts to nearly 300 species of parasitic worms and over 70 species of protozoa, some derived from our primate ancestors and some acquired from the animals we have domesticated or come in contact with during our relatively short history on Earth. Our knowledge of parasitic infections extends into antiquity, and descriptions of parasites and parasitic infections are found in the earliest writings and have been confirmed by the finding of parasites in archaeological material. The systematic study of parasites began with the rejection of the theory of spontaneous generation and the promulgation of the germ theory. Thereafter, the history of human parasitology proceeded along two lines, the discovery of a parasite and its subsequent association with disease and the recognition of a disease and the subsequent discovery that it was caused by a parasite. This review is concerned with the major helminth and protozoan infections of humans: ascariasis, trichinosis, strongyloidiasis, dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, loasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, cestodiasis, paragonimiasis, clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, amoebiasis, giardiasis, African trypanosomiasis, South American trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, cyclosporiasis, and microsporidiosis.

  15. Human Viruses and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Sánchez, Abigail; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.

    2014-01-01

    The first human tumor virus was discovered in the middle of the last century by Anthony Epstein, Bert Achong and Yvonne Barr in African pediatric patients with Burkitt’s lymphoma. To date, seven viruses -EBV, KSHV, high-risk HPV, MCPV, HBV, HCV and HTLV1- have been consistently linked to different types of human cancer, and infections are estimated to account for up to 20% of all cancer cases worldwide. Viral oncogenic mechanisms generally include: generation of genomic instability, increase in the rate of cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, alterations in DNA repair mechanisms and cell polarity changes, which often coexist with evasion mechanisms of the antiviral immune response. Viral agents also indirectly contribute to the development of cancer mainly through immunosuppression or chronic inflammation, but also through chronic antigenic stimulation. There is also evidence that viruses can modulate the malignant properties of an established tumor. In the present work, causation criteria for viruses and cancer will be described, as well as the viral agents that comply with these criteria in human tumors, their epidemiological and biological characteristics, the molecular mechanisms by which they induce cellular transformation and their associated cancers. PMID:25341666

  16. Human herpesvirus 8 – A novel human pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Edelman, Daniel C

    2005-01-01

    In 1994, Chang and Moore reported on the latest of the gammaherpesviruses to infect humans, human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) [1]. This novel herpesvirus has and continues to present challenges to define its scope of involvement in human disease. In this review, aspects of HHV-8 infection are discussed, such as, the human immune response, viral pathogenesis and transmission, viral disease entities, and the virus's epidemiology with an emphasis on HHV-8 diagnostics. PMID:16138925

  17. Human Provenancing: It's Elemental…

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Kemp

    2009-04-01

    Forensic science already uses a variety of methods often in combination to determine a deceased person's identity if neither personal effects nor next of kin (or close friends) can positively identify the victim. While disciplines such as forensic anthropology are able to work from a blank canvass as it were and can provide information on age, gender and ethnical grouping, techniques such as DNA profiling do rely on finding a match either in a database or a comparative sample presumed to be an ante-mortem sample of the victim or from a putative relation. Chances for either to succeed would be greatly enhanced if information gained from a forensic anthropological examination and, circumstances permitting a facial reconstruction could be linked to another technique that can work from a blank canvass or at least does not require comparison to a subject specific database. With the help of isotope ratio mass spectrometry even the very atoms from which a body is made can be used to say something about a person that will help to focus human identification using traditional techniques such as DNA, fingerprints and odontology. Stable isotope fingerprinting works on the basis that almost all chemical elements and in particular the so-called light elements such as carbon (C) that comprise most of the human body occur naturally in different forms, namely isotopes. 2H isotope abundance values recorded by the human body through food and drink ultimately reflect averaged isotopic composition of precipitation or ground water. Stable isotope analysis of 2H isotopic composition in different human tissue such as hair, nails, bone and teeth enables us to construct a time resolved isotopic profile or ‘fingerprint' that may not necessarily permit direct identification of a murder victim or mass disaster victim but in conjunction with forensic anthropological information will provide sufficient intelligence to construct a profile for intelligence lead identification stating where a

  18. Human Resource Management and Human Resource Development: Evolution and Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Research agrees that a high performance organization (HPO) cannot exist without an elevated value placed on human resource management (HRM) and human resource development (HRD). However, a complementary pairing of HRM and HRD has not always existed. The evolution of HRD from its roots in human knowledge transference to HRM and present day HRD…

  19. Education for Survival: Helping Humans to Be More Human.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kenneth G.

    1994-01-01

    Defines what it is to be human, according to engineer Alfred Korzybski, who defined humans by what they do as opposed to what they are. States that Korzybski's work led to the development of general semantics. Argues that human survival depends on the ability to organize communication and cooperation, the creation of language, and the…

  20. Humane Education: A Curriculum Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Robert W.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a curriculum-based approach to humane education and addresses the role of humane education in the school curriculum as well as the relationship's of education to other facets of animal welfare work. (Author/DS)

  1. 21st Century Human Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ruth Colvin

    1995-01-01

    Technology can extend human memory and improve performance, but bypassing human intelligence has its dangers. Cognitive apprenticeships that compress learning experiences, provide coaching, and allow trial and error can build complex problem-solving skills and develop expertise. (SK)

  2. Accounting for the Human Factor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Sigmund G.

    1994-01-01

    College governing boards must address six areas of campus human resources management: composition of the new workforce; leadership and motivation; quality of work life; performance evaluation; compensation; and the role of the campus human resource management department. (MSE)

  3. Fire Control and Human Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Claire

    1978-01-01

    Briefly outlines some aspects of the discovery of fire control by primitive people, such as the preadaptation for speech, the evolution of the human brain, and natural selection for human nakedness or loss of hair. (CS)

  4. DEMONSTRATION OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) of the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) conducts research on exposure measurements, human activity patterns, exposure and dose models, and cumulative exposures critical for the Agency to make scientificall...

  5. Human error in airway facilities.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-01-01

    This report examines human errors in Airway Facilities (AF) with the intent of preventing these errors from being : passed on to the new Operations Control Centers. To effectively manage errors, they first have to be identified. : Human factors engin...

  6. Humane Education and Some Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carding, Tony

    1977-01-01

    The article explores some of the relationships between the value of humane education and those of education concerning the environment and education for international understanding and respect of human rights. (Author)

  7. Human bites - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000736.htm Human bites - self-care To use the sharing features ... at higher risk for infection. How to Prevent Human Bites Prevent bites by: Teaching young children not ...

  8. Human pheromones and sexual attraction.

    PubMed

    Grammer, Karl; Fink, Bernhard; Neave, Nick

    2005-02-01

    Olfactory communication is very common amongst animals, and since the discovery of an accessory olfactory system in humans, possible human olfactory communication has gained considerable scientific interest. The importance of the human sense of smell has by far been underestimated in the past. Humans and other primates have been regarded as primarily 'optical animals' with highly developed powers of vision but a relatively undeveloped sense of smell. In recent years this assumption has undergone major revision. Several studies indicate that humans indeed seem to use olfactory communication and are even able to produce and perceive certain pheromones; recent studies have found that pheromones may play an important role in the behavioural and reproduction biology of humans. In this article we review the present evidence of the effect of human pheromones and discuss the role of olfactory cues in human sexual behaviour.

  9. About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Laboratory Diagnosis HPIV Seasons Resources & References About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 6348 Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov TOP

  10. Rejecting medical humanism: medical humanities and the metaphysics of medicine.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Jeffrey P

    2008-03-01

    The call for a narrative medicine has been touted as the cure-all for an increasingly mechanical medicine. It has been claimed that the humanities might create more empathic, reflective, professional and trustworthy doctors. In other words, we can once again humanise medicine through the addition of humanities. In this essay, I explore how the humanities, particularly narrative medicine, appeals to the metaphysical commitments of the medical institution in order to find its justification, and in so doing, perpetuates a dualism of humanity that would have humanism as the counterpoint to the biopsychosociologisms of our day.

  11. Human Milk-Treatment and Quality of Banked Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Picaud, Jean-Charles; Buffin, Rachel

    2017-03-01

    The aim of human milk banks is to deliver safe and high quality donor human milk. Treatment of human milk has to destroy most microorganisms while preserving immunological and nutrient components, which is obtained when using low time low temperature pasteurization. However it destroys bile-simulated lipase, reduces lactoferrin, lysozyme, immunoglobulins, and bactericidal capacity of human milk. New methods are under investigation such as high temperature short time pasteurization, high pressure processing, or ultraviolet irradiation. They have been tested in experimental conditions and there are promising results, but they have to be tested in real conditions in human milk bank. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Community College Humanities Review, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheper, George L., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This special issue of the Community College Humanities Review contains articles generated by National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institutes, held over several years. The institutes provided opportunities for academics from a variety of humanities disciplines and types of institutions to interact over an extended period of common study of…

  13. Focus on Teaching the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Harriet W., Ed.

    1968-01-01

    Six articles on the problems in planning and executing a high school humanities program are collected here. Wallace Kennedy gives a partial listing of Minnesota teachers and schools that offer humanities in grades 11 and 12. Fred E. H. Schroeder takes up the problems of defining "humanities," selecting good teachers, preparing an interdisciplinary…

  14. Genes, Environment, and Human Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Mark V.; Cutter, Mary Ann; Davidson, Ronald; Dougherty, Michael J.; Drexler, Edward; Gelernter, Joel; McCullough, Laurence B.; McInerney, Joseph D.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Vogler, George P.; Zola, John

    This curriculum module explores genes, environment, and human behavior. This book provides materials to teach about the nature and methods of studying human behavior, raise some of the ethical and public policy dilemmas emerging from the Human Genome Project, and provide professional development for teachers. An extensive Teacher Background…

  15. Gender Aspects of Human Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussa, Ghada

    2008-01-01

    The chapter deals with the gender dimensions in human security through focusing on the relationship between gender and human security, first manifested in international declarations and conventions, and subsequently evolving in world women conferences. It aims at analysing the various gender aspects in its relation to different human security…

  16. NASA Space Human Factors Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This booklet briefly and succinctly treats 23 topics of particular interest to the NASA Space Human Factors Program. Most articles are by different authors who are mainly NASA Johnson or NASA Ames personnel. Representative topics covered include mental workload and performance in space, light effects on Circadian rhythms, human sleep, human reasoning, microgravity effects and automation and crew performance.

  17. Human Centered Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov Websites

    Contacts Researchers Thrust Area 2: Human Centered Modeling and Simulation Thrust Area Leader: Dr. Matthew performance of human occupants and operators are paramount in the achievement of ground vehicle design objectives, but these occupants are also the most variable components of the human-machine system. Modeling

  18. Leadership in a Humane Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrov, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the way leadership influences an organization to become humane through its features and behaviors; as well as the organizational circumstances in which humane leadership can be nurtured. The first empirical case study, in the fields of Human Resource Development (HRD) and hospitality management, to…

  19. Human Rights and Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowring, Bill

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts a contrast to the contribution by Hugh Starkey. Rather than his account of the inexorable rise of human rights discourse, and of the implementation of human rights standards, human rights are here presented as always and necessarily scandalous and highly contested. First, I explain why the UK has lagged so far behind its…

  20. A Hierarchy of Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockett, Charles

    To establish an objective conception of human rights, one must first identify basic needs intrinsic to all people and then determine whether these needs are or can be hierarchically ordered. Many scholars have conducted research on the concept of human needs, particularly in the area of human rights. Among these scholars are Abraham H. Maslow…

  1. Latvia: Human Development Report, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Development Programme, Riga (Latvia).

    This report, the second annual Human Development Report (HDR) for Latvia, investigates the accuracy of Latvia's 1995 ranking of 48th out of 174 countries in terms of human development in the most recent United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) global Human Development Report. The report also suggests measures that could significantly improve…

  2. The human and fire connection

    Treesearch

    Theresa B. Jain

    2014-01-01

    We refer to fire as a natural disturbance, but unlike other disturbances such as forest insects and diseases, fire has had an intimate relationship with humans. Fire facilitated human evolution over two million years ago when our ancestors began to use fire to cook. Fire empowered our furbearers to adapt to cold climates, allowing humans to disperse and settle into...

  3. Humanism and science: a reaction.

    PubMed

    Wampold, Bruce E

    2012-12-01

    Authors in this section have noted that humanism is intrinsic to psychotherapy, although disagreements remain. One of the disagreements is about the role of science in humanism. In this reaction, I contend that humanism, as discussed in these articles, is a legitimate theory to be subjected to scientific scrutiny. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Human acid sphingomyelinase.

    PubMed

    Lansmann, Stephanie; Schuette, Christina G; Bartelsen, Oliver; Hoernschemeyer, Joerg; Linke, Thomas; Weisgerber, Judith; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2003-03-01

    Human acid sphingomyelinase (haSMase, EC 3.1.4.12) catalyzes the lysosomal degradation of sphingomyelin to ceramide and phosphorylcholine. An inherited haSMase deficiency leads to Niemann-Pick disease, a severe sphingolipid storage disorder. The enzyme was purified and cloned over 10 years ago. Since then, only a few structural properties of haSMase have been elucidated. For understanding of its complex functions including its role in certain signaling and apoptosis events, complete structural information about the enzyme is necessary. Here, the identification of the disulfide bond pattern of haSMase is reported for the first time. Functional recombinant enzyme expressed in SF21 cells using the baculovirus expression system was purified and digested by trypsin. MALDI-MS analysis of the resulting peptides revealed the four disulfide bonds Cys120-Cys131, Cys385-Cys431, Cys584-Cys588 and Cys594-Cys607. Two additional disulfide bonds (Cys221-Cys226 and Cys227-Cys250) which were not directly accessible by tryptic cleavage, were identified by a combination of a method of partial reduction and MALDI-PSD analysis. In the sphingolipid activator protein (SAP)-homologous N-terminal domain of haSMase, one disulfide bond was assigned as Cys120-Cys131. The existence of two additional disulfide bridges in this region was proved, as was expected for the known disulfide bond pattern of SAP-type domains. These results support the hypothesis that haSMase possesses an intramolecular SAP-type activator domain as predicted by sequence comparison [Ponting, C.P. (1994) Protein Sci., 3, 359-361]. An additional analysis of haSMase isolated from human placenta shows that the recombinant and the native human protein possess an identical disulfide structure.

  5. Human due diligence.

    PubMed

    Harding, David; Rouse, Ted

    2007-04-01

    Most companies do a thorough job of financial due diligence when they acquire other companies. But all too often, deal makers simply ignore or underestimate the significance of people issues in mergers and acquisitions. The consequences are severe. Most obviously, there's a high degree of talent loss after a deal's announcement. To make matters worse, differences in decision-making styles lead to infighting; integration stalls; and productivity declines. The good news is that human due diligence can help companies avoid these problems. Done early enough, it helps acquirers decide whether to embrace or kill a deal and determine the price they are willing to pay. It also lays the groundwork for smooth integration. When acquirers have done their homework, they can uncover capability gaps, points of friction, and differences in decision making. Even more important, they can make the critical "people" decisions-who stays, who goes, who runs the combined business, what to do with the rank and file-at the time the deal is announced or shortly thereafter. Making such decisions within the first 30 days is critical to the success of a deal. Hostile situations clearly make things more difficult, but companies can and must still do a certain amount of human due diligence to reduce the inevitable fallout from the acquisition process and smooth the integration. This article details the steps involved in conducting human due diligence. The approach is structured around answering five basic questions: Who is the cultural acquirer? What kind of organization do you want? Will the two cultures mesh? Who are the people you most want to retain? And how will rank-and-file employees react to the deal? Unless an acquiring company has answered these questions to its satisfaction, the acquisition it is making will be very likely to end badly.

  6. Human lacrimal gland mucins.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Friedrich; Langer, Gesa; Hoffmann, Werner; Berry, Monica

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the lacrimal gland synthesizes mucins and whether they are changed with age or in cases of dry eye. Expression of mucins in human lacrimal glands was monitored by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Furthermore, the presence and distribution of MUC1, -2, -4, -5AC, -5B, -6 and -7 in epithelia of the human lacrimal gland and its excretory duct system were assessed with antisera to mucin peptide cores. Thirty normal tissues from cadavers of different ages were tested, plus four with dry eye treated with artificial tears. Expression studies detected mRNAs for mucins MUC1, -4, -5AC, -5B, -6 and -7; whereas the MUC2 message was absent. The message for MUC4 was present in all four cases of dry eye, but only in six out of the 30 normal glands from individuals who did not receive artificial tears. MUC6 mRNA was detected only in about half of the investigated samples. Immunohistochemistry revealed membrane-bound MUC1 at the apical surface of acinar cells, absence of MUC2, MUC5AC associated with goblet cells of excretory ducts, MUC5B and -7 in the cytoplasm of acinar cells, and MUC7 also in epithelial cells of excretory ducts. MUC4 mucin was detected only in those individuals in which message was identified. In dry eyes, MUC5AC and -5B were localized in the same acinar cells; whereas MUC2 and MUC6 were not detectable. Dot-blot analysis clearly revealed increased amounts of MUC4, -5AC, and -5B in the glands of elderly women who received treatment for dry eyes. These results confirm that the human lacrimal gland synthesizes a spectrum of mucins; part of them might be correlated with age. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag

  7. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  8. Magnetic human body communication.

    PubMed

    Park, Jiwoong; Mercier, Patrick P

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new human body communication (HBC) technique that employs magnetic resonance for data transfer in wireless body-area networks (BANs). Unlike electric field HBC (eHBC) links, which do not necessarily travel well through many biological tissues, the proposed magnetic HBC (mHBC) link easily travels through tissue, offering significantly reduced path loss and, as a result, reduced transceiver power consumption. In this paper the proposed mHBC concept is validated via finite element method simulations and measurements. It is demonstrated that path loss across the body under various postures varies from 10-20 dB, which is significantly lower than alternative BAN techniques.

  9. Human portable preconcentrator system

    DOEpatents

    Linker, Kevin L.; Bouchier, Francis A.; Hannum, David W.; Rhykerd, Jr., Charles L.

    2003-01-01

    A preconcentrator system and apparatus suited to human portable use wherein sample potentially containing a target chemical substance is drawn into a chamber and through a pervious screen. The screen is adapted to capture target chemicals and then, upon heating, to release those chemicals into the chamber. Chemicals captured and then released in this fashion are then carried to a portable chemical detection device such as a portable ion mobility spectrometer. In the preferred embodiment, the means for drawing sample into the chamber comprises a reversible fan which, when operated in reverse direction, creates a backpressure that facilitates evolution of captured target chemicals into the chamber when the screen is heated.

  10. Detection of Human Fatigue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-05

    research (Lacey, 1974; Jennings, 1992; van der Molen , 2000; Somsen, 2004) using principally fixed foreperiod reaction time tasks demonstrated that in...U.S. Department of Transportation DOT/FAA/AM-99/28. Somsen R.J., Jennings J.R., Van der Molen M.W. (Nov 2004). The cardiac cycle time effect revisited...Temporal dynamics of the central-vagal modulation of heart rate in human reaction time tasks. Psychophysiology. 41(6), pp. 941-953. Van der Molen , M

  11. Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Owen; McKay, Chris; Zubrin, Robert

    1991-06-01

    Novel approaches to the human exploration of Mars are considered with emphasis on a space suit design, extraterrestrial surface mobility, and water supply. A possible way of transporting personnel on the surface of Mars uses a suborbital rocket that will hop from one site to the next, refuelling each time it lands and giving the Martian explorers effective global mobility. Telepresence could be used to avoid limiting the people on Mars to a small exploration area as a result of a lack of transportation infrastructure. Drawings and photographs are included.

  12. Human Transposon Tectonics

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Kathleen H.; Boeke, Jef D.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile DNAs have had a central role in shaping our genome. More than half of our DNA is comprised of interspersed repeats resulting from replicative copy and paste events of retrotransposons. Although most are fixed, incapable of templating new copies, there are important exceptions to retrotransposon quiescence. De novo insertions cause genetic diseases and cancers, though reliably detecting these occurrences has been difficult. New technologies aimed at uncovering polymorphic insertions reveal that mobile DNAs provide a substantial and dynamic source of structural variation. Key questions going forward include the how and how much new transposition events affect human health and disease. PMID:22579280

  13. Mentoring Human Performance - 12480

    SciTech Connect

    Geis, John A.; Haugen, Christian N.

    2012-07-01

    Although the positive effects of implementing a human performance approach to operations can be hard to quantify, many organizations and industry areas are finding tangible benefits to such a program. Recently, a unique mentoring program was established and implemented focusing on improving the performance of managers, supervisors, and work crews, using the principles of Human Performance Improvement (HPI). The goal of this mentoring was to affect behaviors and habits that reliably implement the principles of HPI to ensure continuous improvement in implementation of an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) within a Conduct of Operations framework. Mentors engaged with personnel inmore » a one-on-one, or one-on-many dialogue, which focused on what behaviors were observed, what factors underlie the behaviors, and what changes in behavior could prevent errors or events, and improve performance. A senior management sponsor was essential to gain broad management support. A clear charter and management plan describing the goals, objectives, methodology, and expected outcomes was established. Mentors were carefully selected with senior management endorsement. Mentors were assigned to projects and work teams based on the following three criteria: 1) knowledge of the work scope; 2) experience in similar project areas; and 3) perceived level of trust they would have with project management, supervision, and work teams. This program was restructured significantly when the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) and the associated funding came to an end. The program was restructured based on an understanding of the observations, attributed successes and identified shortfalls, and the consolidation of those lessons. Mentoring the application of proven methods for improving human performance was shown effective at increasing success in day-to-day activities and increasing confidence and level of skill of supervisors. While mentoring program effectiveness is

  14. Human Genome Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The DOE Human Genome program has grown tremendously, as shown by the marked increase in the number of genome-funded projects since the last workshop held in 1991. The abstracts in this book describe the genome research of DOE-funded grantees and contractors and invited guests, and all projects are represented at the workshop by posters. The 3-day meeting includes plenary sessions on ethical, legal, and social issues pertaining to the availability of genetic data; sequencing techniques, informatics support; and chromosome and cDNA mapping and sequencing.

  15. AIDS and human sexuality.

    PubMed

    Smith, L L; Lathrop, L M

    1993-01-01

    The sexual behaviours placing an individual at risk for HIV infection are those also placing him/her at risk for gonorrhoea, syphilis, hepatitis B, chlamydia and unplanned pregnancy. This article proposes that approaches to HIV prevention must be included within a broad context of human sexuality. To address disease prevention in the absence of including people's relationships, social, behavioural and emotional needs is futile. Compartmentalization, denial of risk by various populations, and societal barriers are all factors to be overcome in the fight against HIV transmission. Specific strategies involved in a comprehensive approach are outlined under the categories of predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors contributing to healthy sexual behaviour.

  16. Generation of improved humanized mouse models for human infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brehm, Michael A.; Wiles, Michael V.; Greiner, Dale L.; Shultz, Leonard D.

    2014-01-01

    The study of human-specific infectious agents has been hindered by the lack of optimal small animal models. More recently development of novel strains of immunodeficient mice has begun to provide the opportunity to utilize small animal models for the study of many human-specific infectious agents. The introduction of a targeted mutation in the IL2 receptor common gamma chain gene (IL2rgnull) in mice already deficient in T and B cells led to a breakthrough in the ability to engraft hematopoietic stem cells, as well as functional human lymphoid cells and tissues, effectively creating human immune systems in immunodeficient mice. These humanized mice are becoming increasingly important as pre-clinical models for the study of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) and other human-specific infectious agents. However, there remain a number of opportunities to further improve humanized mouse models for the study of human-specific infectious agents. This is being done by the implementation of innovative technologies, which collectively will accelerate the development of new models of genetically modified mice, including; i) modifications of the host to reduce innate immunity, which impedes human cell engraftment; ii) genetic modification to provide human-specific growth factors and cytokines required for optimal human cell growth and function; iii) and new cell and tissue engraftment protocols. The development of “next generation” humanized mouse models continues to provide exciting opportunities for the establishment of robust small animal models to study the pathogenesis of human-specific infectious agents, as well as for testing the efficacy of therapeutic agents and experimental vaccines. PMID:24607601

  17. Stochastic Models of Human Errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elshamy, Maged; Elliott, Dawn M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Humans play an important role in the overall reliability of engineering systems. More often accidents and systems failure are traced to human errors. Therefore, in order to have meaningful system risk analysis, the reliability of the human element must be taken into consideration. Describing the human error process by mathematical models is a key to analyzing contributing factors. Therefore, the objective of this research effort is to establish stochastic models substantiated by sound theoretic foundation to address the occurrence of human errors in the processing of the space shuttle.

  18. Biological Databases for Human Research

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Dong; Ma, Lina; Yu, Jun; Zhang, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The completion of the Human Genome Project lays a foundation for systematically studying the human genome from evolutionary history to precision medicine against diseases. With the explosive growth of biological data, there is an increasing number of biological databases that have been developed in aid of human-related research. Here we present a collection of human-related biological databases and provide a mini-review by classifying them into different categories according to their data types. As human-related databases continue to grow not only in count but also in volume, challenges are ahead in big data storage, processing, exchange and curation. PMID:25712261

  19. NASA human factors programmatic overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, Mary M.

    1992-01-01

    Human factors addresses humans in their active and interactive capacities, i.e., in the mental and physical activities that they perform and in the contributions they make to achieving the goals of the mission. The overall goal of space human factors in NASA is to support the safety, productivity, and reliability of both the on-board crew and the ground support staff. Safety and reliability are fundamental requirements that human factors shares with other disciplines, while productivity represents the defining contribution of the human factors discipline.

  20. Globalization and human cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, Nancy R.; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Globalization magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced global warming. However, what does globalization imply for the cooperation needed to address such global social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that globalization prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that globalization strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, globalization, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring globalization at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between globalization and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or global accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of globalization increase, so too does individual cooperation at the global level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, “globalized” individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. Globalization may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of global public goods. PMID:19255433

  1. The human sweet tooth.

    PubMed

    Reed, Danielle R; McDaniel, Amanda H

    2006-06-15

    Humans love the taste of sugar and the word "sweet" is used to describe not only this basic taste quality but also something that is desirable or pleasurable, e.g., la dolce vita. Although sugar or sweetened foods are generally among the most preferred choices, not everyone likes sugar, especially at high concentrations. The focus of my group's research is to understand why some people have a sweet tooth and others do not. We have used genetic and molecular techniques in humans, rats, mice, cats and primates to understand the origins of sweet taste perception. Our studies demonstrate that there are two sweet receptor genes (TAS1R2 and TAS1R3), and alleles of one of the two genes predict the avidity with which some mammals drink sweet solutions. We also find a relationship between sweet and bitter perception. Children who are genetically more sensitive to bitter compounds report that very sweet solutions are more pleasant and they prefer sweet carbonated beverages more than milk, relative to less bitter-sensitive peers. Overall, people differ in their ability to perceive the basic tastes, and particular constellations of genes and experience may drive some people, but not others, toward a caries-inducing sweet diet. Future studies will be designed to understand how a genetic preference for sweet food and drink might contribute to the development of dental caries.

  2. SARSCEST (human factors)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, H. Mcilvaine

    1988-01-01

    People interact with the processes and products of contemporary technology. Individuals are affected by these in various ways and individuals shape them. Such interactions come under the label 'human factors'. To expand the understanding of those to whom the term is relatively unfamiliar, its domain includes both an applied science and applications of knowledge. It means both research and development, with implications of research both for basic science and for development. It encompasses not only design and testing but also training and personnel requirements, even though some unwisely try to split these apart both by name and institutionally. The territory includes more than performance at work, though concentration on that aspect, epitomized in the derivation of the term ergonomics, has overshadowed human factors interest in interactions between technology and the home, health, safety, consumers, children and later life, the handicapped, sports and recreation education, and travel. Two aspects of technology considered most significant for work performance, systems and automation, and several approaches to these, are discussed.

  3. Adipokines in human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Joëlle; Pollet-Villard, Xavier; Reverchon, Maxime; Mellouk, Namya; Levy, Rachel

    2015-10-01

    Adipose tissue communicates with other central and peripheral organs by the synthesis and release of substances called adipokines. The most studied adipokine is leptin but others have been recently identified including resistin, adiponectin, chemerin, omentin and visfatin. These adipokines have a critical role in the development of obesity-related complications and inflammatory conditions. However, they are also involved in other functions in the organism including reproductive functions. Indeed, many groups have demonstrated that adipokine receptors, such as adiponectin and chemerin, but also adipokines themselves (adiponectin, chemerin, resistin, visfatin and omentin) are expressed in human peripheral reproductive tissues and that these adipokines are likely to exert direct effects on these tissues. After a brief description of these new adipokines, an overview of their actions in different human reproductive organs (hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary, testis, uterus and placenta) will be presented. Finally, comments will be made on the eventual alterations of these adipokines in reproductive disorders, with special attention to polycystic ovary syndrome, a disease characterized by dysfunction of gonadal axis and systemic nerve endocrine metabolic network with a prevalence of up to 10% in women of reproductive age.

  4. First human Cerenkography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, Antonello Enrico; Ferdeghini, Marco; Cavedon, Carlo; Zivelonghi, Emanuele; Calandrino, Riccardo; Fenzi, Alberto; Sbarbati, Andrea; Boschi, Federico

    2013-02-01

    Cerenkov luminescence imaging is an emerging optical preclinical modality based on the detection of Cerenkov radiation induced by beta particles when traveling though biological tissues with a velocity greater than the speed of light. We present the first human Cerenkography obtained by detecting Cerenkov radiation escaping the thyroid gland of a patient treated for hyperthyroidism. The Cerenkov light was detected using an electron multiplied charge coupled device and a conventional C-mount lens. The system set-up has been tested by using a slab of ex vivo tissue equal to a 1 cm slice of chicken breast in order to simulate optical photons attenuation. We then imaged for 2 min the head and neck region of a patient treated orally 24 h before with 550 MBq of I-131. Co-registration between photographic and Cerenkov images showed a good localization of the Cerenkov light within the thyroid region. In conclusion, we showed that it is possible to obtain a planar image of Cerenkov photons escaping from a human tissue. Cerenkography is a potential novel medical tool to image superficial organs of patients treated with beta minus radiopharmaceuticals and can be extended to the imaging of beta plus emitters.

  5. [Mycotoxin research in humans].

    PubMed

    Lazo, Ramón F; Sierra, Gonzalo

    2008-03-01

    This study investigates the occurrence of aflatoxins in Ecuador. Early investigators proved the presence of aflatoxins in human and animal food, but the disturbing data lead to the formation of two research teams at Guayaquil University and the Agrarian University of Ecuador to investigate aflaxotins and other mycotoxins in food and their relationship to human health. Because the concept of mycotoxicosis as a result of the secondary metabolites produced by different species of moulds could cause different clinical patterns, the research team includes Aspergillus metabolites found in the urine of a patient with pulmonary aspergilloma. We considered that the body itself could create secondary metabolites. An ELISA method was used to detect mycotoxins with the specific reactive compounds using a company base assay. This allows the detection quantitative of such metabolites in 24 h collected urine. The patient was treated with itraconazole for nine months, after clinical, radiological and aflatoxins testing. We also investigated three other cases in children with a second level of malnutrition and only with vomitoxins results and in three investigated cases of otomycosis caused by Aspergillus niger only in one case traces of aflatoxins were found.

  6. Predicting Human Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Nay, John J.; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy

    2016-01-01

    The Prisoner’s Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner’s Dilemma (defection), when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner’s Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investigating the Prisoner’s Dilemma highlight that players often cooperate, but the level of cooperation varies significantly with the specifics of the experimental predicament. We present the first computational model of human behavior in repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma games that unifies the diversity of experimental observations in a systematic and quantitatively reliable manner. Our model relies on data we integrated from many experiments, comprising 168,386 individual decisions. The model is composed of two pieces: the first predicts the first-period action using solely the structural game parameters, while the second predicts dynamic actions using both game parameters and history of play. Our model is successful not merely at fitting the data, but in predicting behavior at multiple scales in experimental designs not used for calibration, using only information about the game structure. We demonstrate the power of our approach through a simulation analysis revealing how to best promote human cooperation. PMID:27171417

  7. Predicting Human Cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Nay, John J.; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy; Xia, Cheng -Yi

    The Prisoner’s Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner’s Dilemma (defection), when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner’s Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investigating the Prisoner’s Dilemma highlight that players often cooperate, but the level of cooperation varies significantly with the specifics of the experimental predicament. We present the first computational modelmore » of human behavior in repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma games that unifies the diversity of experimental observations in a systematic and quantitatively reliable manner. Our model relies on data we integrated from many experiments, comprising 168,386 individual decisions. The model is composed of two pieces: the first predicts the first-period action using solely the structural game parameters, while the second predicts dynamic actions using both game parameters and history of play. Our model is successful not merely at fitting the data, but in predicting behavior at multiple scales in experimental designs not used for calibration, using only information about the game structure. As a result, we demonstrate the power of our approach through a simulation analysis revealing how to best promote human cooperation.« less

  8. Predicting Human Cooperation

    DOE PAGES

    Nay, John J.; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy; Xia, Cheng -Yi

    2016-05-12

    The Prisoner’s Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner’s Dilemma (defection), when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner’s Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investigating the Prisoner’s Dilemma highlight that players often cooperate, but the level of cooperation varies significantly with the specifics of the experimental predicament. We present the first computational modelmore » of human behavior in repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma games that unifies the diversity of experimental observations in a systematic and quantitatively reliable manner. Our model relies on data we integrated from many experiments, comprising 168,386 individual decisions. The model is composed of two pieces: the first predicts the first-period action using solely the structural game parameters, while the second predicts dynamic actions using both game parameters and history of play. Our model is successful not merely at fitting the data, but in predicting behavior at multiple scales in experimental designs not used for calibration, using only information about the game structure. As a result, we demonstrate the power of our approach through a simulation analysis revealing how to best promote human cooperation.« less

  9. Lakeland Habitat for Humanity

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbride, Theresa L.

    2009-03-30

    This is a case study of the Lakeland, FLorida, Habitat for Humanity affiliate, which has partnered with DOE's Building America program to homes that achieve energy savings of 30% or more over the Building America baseline home (a home built to the 1993 Model Energy Code). The article includes a description of the energy-efficiency features used. The Lakeland affiliate built several of its homes with ducts in conditioned space, which minimizes heat losses and gains. They also used high-efficiency SEER 14 air conditioners; radiant barriers in the roof to keep attics cooler; above-code high-performance dual-pane vinyl-framed low-emissivity windows; a passivemore » fresh air duct to the air handler; and duct blaster and blower door testing of every home to ensure the home's air tightness. This case study was also prepared as a flier titled "High Performance Builder Spotlight: Lakeland Habitat for Humanity, Lakeland, Florida,: which was cleared as PNNL-SA-59068 and distributed at the International Builders’ Show Feb 13-16, 2008, in Orlando, Florida.« less

  10. Measuring Melatonin in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Benloucif, Susan; Burgess, Helen J.; Klerman, Elizabeth B.; Lewy, Alfred J.; Middleton, Benita; Murphy, Patricia J.; Parry, Barbara L.; Revell, Victoria L.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: To provide guidelines for collecting and analyzing urinary, salivary, and plasma melatonin, thereby assisting clinicians and researchers in determining which method of measuring melatonin is most appropriate for their particular needs and facilitating the comparison of data between laboratories. Methods: A modified RAND process was utilized to derive recommendations for methods of measuring melatonin in humans. Results: Consensus-based guidelines are presented for collecting and analyzing melatonin for studies that are conducted in the natural living environment, the clinical setting, and in-patient research facilities under controlled conditions. Conclusions: The benefits and disadvantages of current methods of collecting and analyzing melatonin are summarized. Although a single method of analysis would be the most effective way to compare studies, limitations of current methods preclude this possibility. Given that the best analysis method for use under multiple conditions is not established, it is recommended to include, in any published report, one of the established low threshold measures of dim light melatonin onset to facilitate comparison between studies. Citation: Benloucif S; Burgess HJ; Klerman EB; Lewy AJ; Middleton B; Murphy PJ; Parry BL; Revell VL. Measuring melatonin in humans. J Clin Sleep Med 2008;4(1):66-69. PMID:18350967

  11. Globalization and human cooperation.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Nancy R; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2009-03-17

    Globalization magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced global warming. However, what does globalization imply for the cooperation needed to address such global social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that globalization prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that globalization strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, globalization, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring globalization at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between globalization and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or global accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of globalization increase, so too does individual cooperation at the global level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, "globalized" individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. Globalization may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of global public goods.

  12. MRI of human hair.

    PubMed

    Mattle, Eveline; Weiger, Markus; Schmidig, Daniel; Boesiger, Peter; Fey, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Hair care for humans is a major world industry with specialised tools, chemicals and techniques. Studying the effect of hair care products has become a considerable field of research, and besides mechanical and optical testing numerous advanced analytical techniques have been employed in this area. In the present work, another means of studying the properties of hair is added by demonstrating the feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the human hair. Established dedicated nuclear magnetic resonance microscopy hardware (solenoidal radiofrequency microcoils and planar field gradients) and methods (constant time imaging) were adapted to the specific needs of hair MRI. Images were produced at a spatial resolution high enough to resolve the inner structure of the hair, showing contrast between cortex and medulla. Quantitative evaluation of a scan series with different echo times provided a T*(2) value of 2.6 ms for the cortex and a water content of about 90% for hairs saturated with water. The demonstration of the feasibility of hair MRI potentially adds a new tool to the large variety of analytical methods used nowadays in the development of hair care products.

  13. The Human Variome Project.

    PubMed

    Burn, John; Watson, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The practical realization of genomics has meant a growing realization that variant interpretation is a major barrier to practical use of DNA sequence data. The late Professor Dick Cotton devoted his life to innovation in molecular genetics and was a prime mover in the international response to the need to understand the "variome." His leadership resulted in the launch first of the Human Genetic Variation Society and then, in 2006, an international agreement to launch the Human Variome Project (HVP), aimed at data integration enabled by standards and infrastructure of the databases of variants being identified in families with a range of inherited disorders. The project attracted a network of affiliates across 81 countries and earned formal recognition by UNESCO, which now hosts its biennial meetings. It has also signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the World Health Organization. Future progress will depend on longer term secure funding and integration with the efforts of the genomics community where the rapid advances in sequencing technology have enabled variant capture on a previously unimaginable scale. Efforts are underway to integrate the efforts of HVP with those of the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health to provide a lasting legacy of Dick Cotton's vision. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  14. Human Life History Strategies.

    PubMed

    Chua, Kristine J; Lukaszewski, Aaron W; Grant, DeMond M; Sng, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Human life history (LH) strategies are theoretically regulated by developmental exposure to environmental cues that ancestrally predicted LH-relevant world states (e.g., risk of morbidity-mortality). Recent modeling work has raised the question of whether the association of childhood family factors with adult LH variation arises via (i) direct sampling of external environmental cues during development and/or (ii) calibration of LH strategies to internal somatic condition (i.e., health), which itself reflects exposure to variably favorable environments. The present research tested between these possibilities through three online surveys involving a total of over 26,000 participants. Participants completed questionnaires assessing components of self-reported environmental harshness (i.e., socioeconomic status, family neglect, and neighborhood crime), health status, and various LH-related psychological and behavioral phenotypes (e.g., mating strategies, paranoia, and anxiety), modeled as a unidimensional latent variable. Structural equation models suggested that exposure to harsh ecologies had direct effects on latent LH strategy as well as indirect effects on latent LH strategy mediated via health status. These findings suggest that human LH strategies may be calibrated to both external and internal cues and that such calibrational effects manifest in a wide range of psychological and behavioral phenotypes.

  15. Human intraepithelial lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Mayassi, Toufic; Jabri, Bana

    2018-04-20

    The location of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) between epithelial cells, their effector memory, cytolytic and inflammatory phenotype positions them to kill infected epithelial cells and protect the intestine against pathogens. Human TCRαβ + CD8αβ + IEL have the dual capacity to recognize modified self via natural killer (NK) receptors (autoreactivity) as well as foreign antigen via the T cell receptor (TCR), which is accomplished in mouse by two cell subsets, the naturally occurring TCRαβ + CD8αα + and adaptively induced TCRαβ + CD8αβ + IEL subsets, respectively. The private/oligoclonal nature of the TCR repertoire of both human and mouse IEL suggests local environmental factors dictate the specificity of IEL responses. The line between sensing of foreign antigens and autoreactivity is blurred for IEL in celiac disease, where recognition of stress ligands by induced activating NK receptors in conjunction with inflammatory signals such as IL-15 can result in low-affinity TCR/non-cognate antigen and NK receptor/stress ligand interactions triggering destruction of intestinal epithelial cells.

  16. [Terrorism and human behavior].

    PubMed

    Leistedt, S J

    2018-04-01

    Theories of religion are essential for understanding current trends in terrorist activities. The aim of this work is to clarify religion's role in facilitating terror and outline in parallel with recent theoretical developments on terrorism and human behaviour. Several databases were used such as PubCentral, Scopus, Medline and Science Direct. The search terms "terrorism", "social psychology", "religion", "evolution", and "cognition" were used to identify relevant studies in the databases. This work examines, in a multidimensional way, how terrorists employ these features of religion to achieve their goals. In the same way, it describes how terrorists use rituals to conditionally associate emotions with sanctified symbols that are emotionally evocative and motivationally powerful, fostering group solidarity, trust, and cooperation. Religious beliefs, including promised rewards in the afterlife, further serve to facilitate cooperation by altering the perceived payoffs of costly actions, including suicide bombing. The adolescent pattern of brain development is unique, and young adulthood presents an ideal developmental stage to attract recruits and enlist them in high-risk behaviors. This work offers insights, based on this translational analysis, concerning the links between religion, terrorism and human behavior. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. The human respiratory gate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckberg, Dwain L.

    2003-01-01

    Respiratory activity phasically alters membrane potentials of preganglionic vagal and sympathetic motoneurones and continuously modulates their responsiveness to stimulatory inputs. The most obvious manifestation of this 'respiratory gating' is respiratory sinus arrhythmia, the rhythmic fluctuations of electrocardiographic R-R intervals observed in healthy resting humans. Phasic autonomic motoneurone firing, reflecting the throughput of the system, depends importantly on the intensity of stimulatory inputs, such that when levels of stimulation are low (as with high arterial pressure and sympathetic activity, or low arterial pressure and vagal activity), respiratory fluctuations of sympathetic or vagal firing are also low. The respiratory gate has a finite capacity, and high levels of stimulation override the ability of respiration to gate autonomic responsiveness. Autonomic throughput also depends importantly on other factors, including especially, the frequency of breathing, the rate at which the gate opens and closes. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia is small at rapid, and large at slow breathing rates. The strong correlation between systolic pressure and R-R intervals at respiratory frequencies reflects the influence of respiration on these two measures, rather than arterial baroreflex physiology. A wide range of evidence suggests that respiratory activity gates the timing of autonomic motoneurone firing, but does not influence its tonic level. I propose that the most enduring significance of respiratory gating is its use as a precisely controlled experimental tool to tease out and better understand otherwise inaccessible human autonomic neurophysiological mechanisms.

  18. The human gut resistome

    PubMed Central

    van Schaik, Willem

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens has become a major threat to public health. Bacteria can acquire antibiotic resistance genes by the mobilization and transfer of resistance genes from a donor strain. The human gut contains a densely populated microbial ecosystem, termed the gut microbiota, which offers ample opportunities for the horizontal transfer of genetic material, including antibiotic resistance genes. Recent technological advances allow microbiota-wide studies into the diversity and dynamics of the antibiotic resistance genes that are harboured by the gut microbiota (‘the gut resistome’). Genes conferring resistance to antibiotics are ubiquitously present among the gut microbiota of humans and most resistance genes are harboured by strictly anaerobic gut commensals. The horizontal transfer of genetic material, including antibiotic resistance genes, through conjugation and transduction is a frequent event in the gut microbiota, but mostly involves non-pathogenic gut commensals as these dominate the microbiota of healthy individuals. Resistance gene transfer from commensals to gut-dwelling opportunistic pathogens appears to be a relatively rare event but may contribute to the emergence of multi-drug resistant strains, as is illustrated by the vancomycin resistance determinants that are shared by anaerobic gut commensals and the nosocomial pathogen Enterococcus faecium. PMID:25918444

  19. The human gut resistome.

    PubMed

    van Schaik, Willem

    2015-06-05

    In recent decades, the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens has become a major threat to public health. Bacteria can acquire antibiotic resistance genes by the mobilization and transfer of resistance genes from a donor strain. The human gut contains a densely populated microbial ecosystem, termed the gut microbiota, which offers ample opportunities for the horizontal transfer of genetic material, including antibiotic resistance genes. Recent technological advances allow microbiota-wide studies into the diversity and dynamics of the antibiotic resistance genes that are harboured by the gut microbiota ('the gut resistome'). Genes conferring resistance to antibiotics are ubiquitously present among the gut microbiota of humans and most resistance genes are harboured by strictly anaerobic gut commensals. The horizontal transfer of genetic material, including antibiotic resistance genes, through conjugation and transduction is a frequent event in the gut microbiota, but mostly involves non-pathogenic gut commensals as these dominate the microbiota of healthy individuals. Resistance gene transfer from commensals to gut-dwelling opportunistic pathogens appears to be a relatively rare event but may contribute to the emergence of multi-drug resistant strains, as is illustrated by the vancomycin resistance determinants that are shared by anaerobic gut commensals and the nosocomial pathogen Enterococcus faecium.

  20. Minimizing Human Risk: Human Performance Models in the Human Factors and Behavioral Performance Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gore, Brian F.

    2017-01-01

    Human space exploration has never been more exciting than it is today. Human presence to outer worlds is becoming a reality as humans are leveraging much of our prior knowledge to the new mission of going to Mars. Exploring the solar system at greater distances from Earth than ever before will possess some unique challenges, which can be overcome thanks to the advances in modeling and simulation technologies. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is at the forefront of exploring our solar system. NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) focuses on discovering the best methods and technologies that support safe and productive human space travel in the extreme and harsh space environment. HRP uses various methods and approaches to answer questions about the impact of long duration missions on the human in space including: gravitys impact on the human body, isolation and confinement on the human, hostile environments impact on the human, space radiation, and how the distance is likely to impact the human. Predictive models are included in the HRP research portfolio as these models provide valuable insights into human-system operations. This paper will provide an overview of NASA's HRP and will present a number of projects that have used modeling and simulation to provide insights into human-system issues (e.g. automation, habitat design, schedules) in anticipation of space exploration.