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Sample records for a431 human epithelial

  1. Pheophorbide a mediated photodynamic therapy against human epidermoid carcinoma cells (A431)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Li, Wen-Tyng

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the death mechanism of human epidermoid carcinoma cells (A431) triggered by photodynamic therapy (PDT) with pheophorbide a. First of all, significant inhibition on the survival of A431 cells (< 20 %) was observed when an irradiation dose of 5.1 J/cm2 combined with 125 ng/ml of pheophorbide a was applied. Survival rate of human keratinocyte cells was over 70 % under the same PDT parameters, suggesting that pheophorbide a killed cancer cells selectively. Mitochondria were the main target sites where pheophorbide a accumulated. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected after PDT. Addition of antioxidant N-Acetyl cysteine prevented ROS production and increased cell survival thereafter. The decrease in cellular ATP level was also observed at 6 hrs after PDT. Typical apoptotic cellular morphology and a collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential occurred after PDT. The loss of mitochondrial membrane potential led to the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol, followed by activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. The activation of caspase-3 resulted in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage in A431 cells, followed by DNA fragmentation. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that pheophorbide a possessed photodynamic action against A431 cells, mainly through apoptosis mediated by mitochondrial intrinsic pathway triggered by ROS.

  2. Effects of resveratrol on the proliferation, apoptosis and telomerase ability of human A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHAI, XIAO-XIANG; DING, JI-CUN; TANG, ZHI-MING; LI, JING-GUO; LI, YONG-CONG; YAN, YUE-HUA; SUN, JING-CHANG; ZHANG, CUI-XIA

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of resveratrol on cell apoptosis, ability of telomerase and the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) protein expression in human A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells. A431 cells were treated with different concentrations of resveratrol, and the cell appearance was then observed under a microscope. In addition, the cell proliferation was examined using an MTT assay, and the ability of telomerase was detected using telomeric repeat amplification protocol-polymerase chain reaction-ELISA. Resveratrol significantly inhibited the ability of telomerase and decreased the expression of hTERT protein in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, resveratrol is capable of downregulating the expression of hTERT protein and inhibits the ability of telomerase of A431, which is an important mechanism of action of resveratrol with regard to inhibition of A431 cell proliferation. PMID:27123055

  3. Identification of specific gravity sensitive signal transduction pathways in human A431 carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijken, P. J.; de Groot, R. P.; Kruijer, W.; de Laat, S. W.; Verkleij, A. J.; Boonstra, J.

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) activates a well characterized signal transduction cascade in human A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells. The influence of gravity on EGF-induced EGF-receptor clustering and early gene expression as well as on actin polymerization and actin organization have been investigated. Different signalling pathways induced by the agents TPA, forskolin and A23187 that activate gene expression were tested for sensitivity to gravity. EGF-induced c-fos and c-jun expression were decreased in microgravity. However, constitutive β-2 microglobulin expression remained unaltered. Under simulated weightlessness conditions EGF- and TPA-induced c-fos expression was decreased, while forskolin- and A23187-induced c-fos expression was independent of the gravity conditions. These results suggest that gravity affects specific signalling pathways. Preliminary results indicate that EGF-induced EGF-receptor clustering remained unaltered irrespective of the gravity conditions. Furthermore, the relative filamentous actin content of steady state A431 cells was enhanced under microgravity conditions and actin filament organization was altered. Under simulated weightlessness actin filament organization in steady state cells as well as in EGF-treated cells was altered as compared to the 1 G reference experiment. Interestingly the microtubule and keratin organization in untreated cells showed no difference with the normal gravity samples. This indicates that gravity may affect specific components of the signal transduction circuitry.

  4. Inhibitory effect of berberine on human skin squamous cell carcinoma A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, D X; Zhang, J; Zhang, Y; Zhao, P W; Yang, L M

    2015-01-01

    Berberine (BBR) is a natural alkaloid with significant anti-tumor activity against many types of cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms employed by BBR to repress the proliferation and growth of skin squamous cell carcinoma A431 cells. Berberine was reported to inhibit the proliferation of A431 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and was observed to induce a series of biochemical events, including the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome-c to cytosol, induction of proteins of the Bcl-2 family and caspases, and the cleavage of poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase. This suggested its ability to induce apoptosis. The results of a wound healing test revealed that berberine inhibited the migration of A431 cells. Ezrin was transfected into A431 cells by RNA interference. The level of expression of Ezrin in the transfected A431 cells was observed to decrease with berberine treatment, which suggested that berberine might inhibit the invasion of A431 cells through Ezrin. The results of this study demonstrated that berberine could potentially inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, and inhibit the invasion of A431 cells. PMID:26400287

  5. Purification of high-molecular-weight subfraction from porcine skin inhibiting proliferation of A431 human carcinoma epidermoid cells.

    PubMed

    Belova, O V; Sergienko, V I; Arion, V Ya; Lukanidina, T A; Moskvina, S N; Zimina, I V; Borisenko, G G; Lutsenko, G V; Grechikhina, M V; Kovaleva, E V; Klyuchnikova, Zh I

    2014-07-01

    Subfraction with a molecular weight >250 kDa isolated from porcine skin and inhibiting the proliferation of A431 human carcinoma epidermoid cells was purified by DEAE 32 anion exchange chromatography with NaCl concentration step-gradient. The effects of the initial subfraction and fractions obtained by separation in DEAE 32 on the proliferation of A431 human carcinoma epidermoid cells were studied in vitro in two tests (MTT and fluorescent test). The more sensitive fluorescent test showed the highest inhibitory activity of fraction No. 2 released from the column at 0.15 M NaCl. One major protein component and a series of minor protein components were detected in this fraction by vertical PAAG-SDS electrophoresis. PMID:25070165

  6. Honokiol, a chemopreventive agent against skin cancer, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human epidermoid A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Chilampalli, Chandeshwari; Guillermo, Ruth; Kaushik, Radhey S; Young, Alan; Chandrasekher, Gudiseva; Fahmy, Hesham; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

    2011-11-01

    Honokiol is a plant lignan isolated from bark and seed cones of Magnolia officinalis. Recent studies from our laboratory indicated that honokiol pretreatment decreased ultraviolet B-induced skin cancer development in SKH-1 mice. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effects of honokiol on human epidermoid squamous carcinoma A431 cells and to elucidate possible mechanisms involved in preventing skin cancer. A431 cells were pretreated with different concentrations of honokiol for a specific time period and investigated for effects on apoptosis and cell cycle analysis. Treatment with honokiol significantly decreased cell viability and cell proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Honokiol pretreatment at 50 μmol/L concentration induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest significantly (P < 0.05) and decreased the percentage of cells in the S and G2/M phase. Honokiol down-regulated the expression of cyclin D1, cyclin D2, Cdk2, Cdk4 and Cdk6 proteins and up-regulated the expression of Cdk's inhibitor proteins p21 and p27. Pretreatment of A431 cells with honokiol leads to induction of apoptosis and DNA fragmentation. These findings indicate that honokiol provides its effects in squamous carcinoma cells by inducing cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis. PMID:21908486

  7. Resveratrol enhances ultraviolet B-induced cell death through nuclear factor-{kappa}B pathway in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Preeti; Kalra, Neetu; Nigam, Nidhi; George, Jasmine; Ray, Ratan Singh; Hans, Rajendra K.; Prasad, Sahdeo; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2009-06-26

    Resveratrol has been reported to suppress cancer progression in several in vivo and in vitro models, whereas ultraviolet B (UVB), a major risk for skin cancer, is known to induce cell death in cancerous cells. Here, we investigated whether resveratrol can sensitize A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells to UVB-induced cell death. We examined the combined effect of UVB (30 mJ/cm{sup 2}) and resveratrol (60 {mu}M) on A431 cells. Exposure of A431 carcinoma cells to UVB radiation or resveratrol can inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. However, the combination of resveratrol and UVB exposure was associated with increased proliferation inhibition of A431 cells compared with either agent alone. Furthermore, results showed that resveratrol and UVB treatment of A431 cells disrupted the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-{kappa}B) pathway by blocking phosphorylation of serine 536 and inactivating NF-{kappa}B and subsequent degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, which regulates the expression of survivin. Resveratrol and UVB treatment also decreased the phosphorylation of tyrosine 701 of the important transcription factor signal transducer activator of transcription (STAT1), which in turn inhibited translocation of phospho-STAT1 to the nucleus. Moreover, resveratrol/UVB also inhibited the metastatic protein LIMK1, which reduced the motility of A431 cells. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the combination of resveratrol and UVB act synergistically against skin cancer cells. Thus, resveratrol is a potential chemotherapeutic agent against skin carcinogenesis.

  8. Regulation of apoptosis by resveratrol through JAK/STAT and mitochondria mediated pathway in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Madan, Esha; Prasad, Sahdeo; Roy, Preeti; George, Jasmine; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2008-12-26

    Resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenolic phytoalexin present mainly in grapes, red wine and berries, is known to possess strong chemopreventive and anticancer properties. Here, we demonstrated the anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities of resveratrol in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Resveratrol has cytotoxic effects through inhibiting cellular proliferation of A431 cells, which leads to the induction of apoptosis, as evident by an increase in the fraction of cells in the sub-G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle and Annexin-V binding of externalized phosphatidylserine. Results revealed that inhibition of proliferation is associated with regulation of the JAK/STAT pathway, where resveratrol prevents phosphorylation of JAK, thereby inhibiting STAT1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, resveratrol treatment actively stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Consequently, an imbalance in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio triggered the caspase cascade and subsequent cleavage of PARP, thereby shifting the balance in favor of apoptosis. These observations indicate that resveratrol treatment inhibits JAK/STAT-mediated gene transcription and induce the mitochondrial cell death pathway.

  9. Indirect immunofluorescence localization of beta-adrenergic receptors and G-proteins in human A431 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, H Y; Berrios, M; Malbon, C C

    1989-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies directed against (i) rodent lung beta 2-adrenergic receptor, (ii) a synthetic fragment of an extracellular domain of the receptor, and (iii) human placenta G-protein beta-subunits, were used to localize these antigens in situ in intact and permeabilized human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Antibodies directed against beta 2-adrenergic receptors showed a punctate immunofluorescence staining throughout the cell surface of fixed intact cells. Punctate staining was also observed in clones of Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with an expression vector harbouring the gene for the hamster beta 2-adrenergic receptor. The immunofluorescence observed with anti-receptor antibodies paralleled the level of receptor expression. In contrast, the beta-subunits common to G-proteins were not stained in fixed intact cells, presumably reflecting their intracellular localization. In detergent-permeabilized fixed cells, strong punctate staining of G beta-subunits was observed throughout the cytoplasm. This is the first indirect immunofluorescence localization of beta-adrenergic receptors and G-proteins. Punctate immunofluorescence staining suggests that both antigens are distributed in clusters. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. p528-a Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:2556996

  10. Transcriptional activation of human 12-lipoxygenase gene promoter is mediated through Sp1 consensus sites in A431 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y W; Arakawa, T; Yamamoto, S; Chang, W C

    1997-01-01

    The functional 5' flanking region of the human 12-lipoxygenase in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells was characterized. By a primer extension method, the transcription initiation sites were mapped at -47 adenosine, -48 guanosine and -55 guanosine upstream of the ATG translation start codon. Transient transfection with a series of 5' and 3' deletion constructs showed that the 5' flanking region spanning from -224 to -100 bp was important for the basal expression of 12-lipoxygenase gene. Gel mobility shift assays with antibodies of transcription factors showed that both Sp1 and Sp3 required highly GC-rich Sp1 sites within this region for binding. Disruption of two Sp1 recognition motifs residing at -158 to -150 bp and -123 to -114 bp by site-directed mutagenesis markedly reduced the basal 12-lipoxygenase promoter activity and abolished the retarded bands in a gel-shift assay, indicating that these two Sp1-binding sites were essential for gene expression. The same two Sp1-binding sites in this promoter region were also responsible for epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced expression of 12-lipoxygenase gene. Moreover, EGF also induced the transcriptional activation of luciferase driven by SV40 early promoter, which contained rich Sp1-binding sites. Taken together, the results suggest that two specific Sp1 consensus sites are involved in the mediation of the basal promoter activity as well as EGF induction of the 12-lipoxygenase gene and that Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors might have a role in their regulation. PMID:9164849

  11. Artesunate induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and iron-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhongyong; Chai, Jin; Chuang, Henry Hon Fung; Li, Shifeng; Wang, Tianran; Cheng, Yi; Chen, Wensheng; Zhou, Deshan

    2012-07-01

    The anticancer effects of artesunate (ART) have been well documented. However, its potential against skin cancer has not been explored yet. Herein we reported that 60 μmol/l ART effectively inhibited A431 (human epidermoid carcinoma cells) growth but not that of HaCaT (normal human keratinocyte cells). Our results revealed that ART induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase through the downregulation of cyclin A1, cyclin B, cyclin D1, Cdk2, Cdk4, and Cdk6. This correlated with the upregulation of p21 and p27. The 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay also indicated that ART treatment reduced DNA synthesis in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, ART induced mitochondrial apoptosis, as evidenced by annexin V/propidium iodide staining and western blot analysis. Interestingly, ART-induced apoptosis diminished under iron-deficient conditions but intensified under iron-overload conditions. Taken together, these findings demonstrated the potential of ART in treating skin cancer through the induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and iron-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis and supported further investigations in other test systems. PMID:22421370

  12. Dual bradykinin B2 receptor signalling in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells: activation of protein kinase C is counteracted by a GS-mediated stimulation of the cyclic AMP pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Liebmann, C; Graness, A; Ludwig, B; Adomeit, A; Boehmer, A; Boehmer, F D; Nürnberg, B; Wetzker, R

    1996-01-01

    Cell membranes of the human epidermoid cell line A431 express classical bradykinin (BK) B2 receptors, as assessed by [3H]BK binding studies. Furthermore, stimulation by BK induced a time-dependent modulation of protein kinase C (PKC) activity in A431 cells: a rapid activation (t1/2 approximately 1 min) is followed by a slow inhibition (t1/2 approximately 20 min) of PKC translocation measured by [3H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate binding. In addition, BK stimulated both adenylate cyclase activity in A431 membranes and accumulation of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) in intact cells in a retarded manner. A possible BK-induced activation of the cAMP pathway mediated via PKC, phospholipase D, prostaglandins or Ca2+/calmodulin was excluded. A 35 kDa protein was found in A431 membranes to be specifically phosphorylated in the presence of both BK and protein kinase A (PKA). An anti-alpha s-antibody, AS 348, abolished stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity in response to BK, cholera toxin and isoprenaline, strongly suggesting the involvement of Gs proteins in the BK action. The BK-activated cAMP signalling system might be important for the observed inactivation of PKC slowly evoked by BK: the BK-induced rapid activation of PKC is decreased by dibutyryl cAMP, and the slow inhibition of PKC is prevented by an inhibitor of PKA, adenosine 3':5'-monophosphothioate (cyclic, Rp isomer). The inhibition of PKC translocation might be exerted directly at the level of PKC activation, since stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis by BK was affected by neither dibutyryl cAMP nor forskolin. Thus our results provide the first evidence that A431 cells BK is able to activate two independent signal-transduction pathways via a single class of B2 receptors but two different G proteins. The lagging stimulation of the cAMP signalling pathway via Gs might serve to switch off PKC, which is rapidly activated via Gq-mediated stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis. PMID:8546671

  13. Human thymocytes bind to autologous and allogeneic thymic epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Singer, K H; Wolf, L S; Lobach, D F; Denning, S M; Tuck, D T; Robertson, A L; Haynes, B F

    1986-01-01

    The thymus plays a critical role in the generation of immunocompetent T lymphocytes. In the thymus, lymphocytes are in close contact with epithelial cells, and this contact is necessary for T-cell maturation. Using cultured human thymic epithelial (TE) cells, we have found that human thymocytes bind to human TE cells in vitro. Thymocytes bound to both allogeneic and autologous TE cells and to the epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431 but did not bind to epidermal keratinocytes or to thymic fibroblasts. Thymocyte binding to TE cells was trypsin- and cytochalasin B-sensitive. Indirect immunofluorescence assays showed that both mature (T6-, T3+) and immature (T6+, T3-) thymocytes bound TE cells. In our system, TE-thymocyte binding was not inhibited by antibodies to class I or class II major histocompatibility antigens. In vitro binding of thymocytes to TE cells may represent a correlate of in vivo TE-thymocyte interactions and provides a model system for the study of human intrathymic T-lymphocyte maturation and activation. Images PMID:3092215

  14. Shikonin causes cell-cycle arrest and induces apoptosis by regulating the EGFR–NF-κB signalling pathway in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Rong; Li, You; Gao, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Shikonin, a naphthoquinone pigment isolated from the Chinese herbal Zicao, has been shown to exhibit antioxidant and anticancer effects. In the present study, we investigated the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of shikonin on A431 cells and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. In the present study, our results showed that shikonin significantly inhibited the growth of A431 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and caused cell cycle arrest by upregulation of p21 and p27, and downregulation of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases. In addition, shikonin evidently induced apoptosis due to decreasing Bcl-2 expression, increasing Bax expression, activating caspase and inactivating NF-κB, while pretreatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor Z-Asp-CH2-DCB abrogated shikonin-induced apoptosis. Moreover, EGF could significantly increase the NF-κB DNA-binding activity and reversed the shikonin-induced inactivation of NF-κB. As anticipated AG1478 (EGFR inhibitor) and Bay11-7082 (NF-κB inhibitor) blocked EGF-reversed the inactivation of NF-κB induced by shikonin. Our data also showed that EGF could evidently reverse the shikonin-induced decreases in cell viability and increases in apoptosis. Then, the NF-κB inhibitors such as Bay11-7082, SN50, Helenalin and the EGFR inhibitor AG1478 and its downstream inhibitor such as PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and STAT3 inhibitor Stattic dramatically blocked EGF-reversed decreases in cell viability and increases in apoptosis induced by shikonin. Collectively, our findings indicated that shikonin inhibited cell growth and caused cell cycle arrest of the A431 cells through the regulation of apoptosis. Moreover, these effects were mediated at least partially by suppressing the activation of the EGFR–NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:25720435

  15. Grape seed proanthocyanidins promote apoptosis in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells through alterations in Cdki-Cdk-cyclin cascade, and caspase-3 activation via loss of mitochondrial membrane potential.

    PubMed

    Meeran, Syed M; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2007-05-01

    Dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) prevent photocarcinogenesis in mice. Here, we report that in vitro treatment of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells with GSPs inhibited cellular proliferation (13-89%) and induced cell death (1-48%) in a dose (5-100 mug/ml)- and time (24, 48 and 72 h)-dependent manner. GSP-induced inhibition of cell proliferation was associated with an increase in G1-phase arrest at 24 h, which was mediated through the inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk) Cdk2, Cdk4, Cdk6 and cyclins D1, D2 and E and simultaneous increase in protein expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (Cdki), Cip1/p21 and Kip1/p27, and enhanced binding of Cdki-Cdk. The treatment of A431 cells with GSPs (20-80 mug/ml) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in apoptotic cell death (26-58%), which was associated with an increased protein expression of proapoptotic Bax, decreased expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP. Pretreatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) blocked the GSP-induced apoptosis in A431 cells suggesting that GSP-induced apoptosis is associated primarily with the caspase-3-dependent pathway. Together, our study suggests that GSPs possess chemotherapeutic potential against human epidermoid carcinoma cells in vitro, further in vivo mechanistic studies are required to verify the chemotherapeutic effect of GSPs in skin cancers. PMID:17437483

  16. Induced pluripotency of human prostatic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongjuan; Sun, Ning; Young, Sarah R; Nolley, Rosalie; Santos, Jennifer; Wu, Joseph C; Peehl, Donna M

    2013-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are a valuable resource for discovery of epigenetic changes critical to cell type-specific differentiation. Although iPS cells have been generated from other terminally differentiated cells, the reprogramming of normal adult human basal prostatic epithelial (E-PZ) cells to a pluripotent state has not been reported. Here, we attempted to reprogram E-PZ cells by forced expression of Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4 using lentiviral vectors and obtained embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like colonies at a frequency of 0.01%. These E-PZ-iPS-like cells with normal karyotype gained expression of pluripotent genes typical of iPS cells (Tra-1-81, SSEA-3, Nanog, Sox2, and Oct4) and lost gene expression characteristic of basal prostatic epithelial cells (CK5, CK14, and p63). E-PZ-iPS-like cells demonstrated pluripotency by differentiating into ectodermal, mesodermal, and endodermal cells in vitro, although lack of teratoma formation in vivo and incomplete demethylation of pluripotency genes suggested only partial reprogramming. Importantly, E-PZ-iPS-like cells re-expressed basal epithelial cell markers (CD44, p63, MAO-A) in response to prostate-specific medium in spheroid culture. Androgen induced expression of androgen receptor (AR), and co-culture with rat urogenital sinus further induced expression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a hallmark of secretory cells, suggesting that E-PZ-iPS-like cells have the capacity to differentiate into prostatic basal and secretory epithelial cells. Finally, when injected into mice, E-PZ-iPS-like cells expressed basal epithelial cell markers including CD44 and p63. When co-injected with rat urogenital mesenchyme, E-PZ-iPS-like cells expressed AR and expression of p63 and CD44 was repressed. DNA methylation profiling identified epigenetic changes in key pathways and genes involved in prostatic differentiation as E-PZ-iPS-like cells converted to differentiated AR- and PSA-expressing cells. Our results suggest that

  17. Henipavirus Pathogenesis in Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Escaffre, Olivier; Borisevich, Viktoriya; Carmical, J. Russ; Prusak, Deborah; Prescott, Joseph; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are deadly zoonotic viruses for which no vaccines or therapeutics are licensed for human use. Henipavirus infection causes severe respiratory illness and encephalitis. Although the exact route of transmission in human is unknown, epidemiological studies and in vivo studies suggest that the respiratory tract is important for virus replication. However, the target cells in the respiratory tract are unknown, as are the mechanisms by which henipaviruses can cause disease. In this study, we characterized henipavirus pathogenesis using primary cells derived from the human respiratory tract. The growth kinetics of NiV-Malaysia, NiV-Bangladesh, and HeV were determined in bronchial/tracheal epithelial cells (NHBE) and small airway epithelial cells (SAEC). In addition, host responses to infection were assessed by gene expression analysis and immunoassays. Viruses replicated efficiently in both cell types and induced large syncytia. The host response to henipavirus infection in NHBE and SAEC highlighted a difference in the inflammatory response between HeV and NiV strains as well as intrinsic differences in the ability to mount an inflammatory response between NHBE and SAEC. These responses were highest during HeV infection in SAEC, as characterized by the levels of key cytokines (interleukin 6 [IL-6], IL-8, IL-1α, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1], and colony-stimulating factors) responsible for immune cell recruitment. Finally, we identified virus strain-dependent variability in type I interferon antagonism in NHBE and SAEC: NiV-Malaysia counteracted this pathway more efficiently than NiV-Bangladesh and HeV. These results provide crucial new information in the understanding of henipavirus pathogenesis in the human respiratory tract at an early stage of infection. PMID:23302882

  18. Henipavirus pathogenesis in human respiratory epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Escaffre, Olivier; Borisevich, Viktoriya; Carmical, J Russ; Prusak, Deborah; Prescott, Joseph; Feldmann, Heinz; Rockx, Barry

    2013-03-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are deadly zoonotic viruses for which no vaccines or therapeutics are licensed for human use. Henipavirus infection causes severe respiratory illness and encephalitis. Although the exact route of transmission in human is unknown, epidemiological studies and in vivo studies suggest that the respiratory tract is important for virus replication. However, the target cells in the respiratory tract are unknown, as are the mechanisms by which henipaviruses can cause disease. In this study, we characterized henipavirus pathogenesis using primary cells derived from the human respiratory tract. The growth kinetics of NiV-Malaysia, NiV-Bangladesh, and HeV were determined in bronchial/tracheal epithelial cells (NHBE) and small airway epithelial cells (SAEC). In addition, host responses to infection were assessed by gene expression analysis and immunoassays. Viruses replicated efficiently in both cell types and induced large syncytia. The host response to henipavirus infection in NHBE and SAEC highlighted a difference in the inflammatory response between HeV and NiV strains as well as intrinsic differences in the ability to mount an inflammatory response between NHBE and SAEC. These responses were highest during HeV infection in SAEC, as characterized by the levels of key cytokines (interleukin 6 [IL-6], IL-8, IL-1α, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1], and colony-stimulating factors) responsible for immune cell recruitment. Finally, we identified virus strain-dependent variability in type I interferon antagonism in NHBE and SAEC: NiV-Malaysia counteracted this pathway more efficiently than NiV-Bangladesh and HeV. These results provide crucial new information in the understanding of henipavirus pathogenesis in the human respiratory tract at an early stage of infection. PMID:23302882

  19. Detection of Human Polyomavirus 7 in human thymic epithelial tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rennspiess, Dorit; Pujari, Sreedhar; Keijzers, Marlies; Abdul-Hamid, Myrurgia A.; Hochstenbag, Monique; Dingemans, Anne-Marie; Kurz, Anna Kordelia; Speel, Ernst-Jan; Haugg, Anke; Pastrana, Diana V.; Buck, Christopher B.; De Baets, Marc H.; zur Hausen, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although the molecular genetics possibly underlying the pathogenesis of human thymoma have been extensively studied, its etiology remains poorly understood. Since murine polyomavirus consistently induces thymomas in mice, we assessed the presence of the novel human polyomavirus 7 (HPyV7) in human thymic epithelial tumors. Methods HPyV7-DNA Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), DNA-PCR and immuno-histochemistry (IHC) were performed in 37 thymomas. Of these, 26 were previously diagnosed with myasthenia gravis (MG). In addition, 20 thymic hyperplasias and 20 fetal thymic tissues were tested. Results HPyV7-FISH revealed specific nuclear hybridization signals within the neoplastic epithelial cells of 23 thymomas (62.2%). With some exceptions, the HPyV7-FISH data correlated with the HPyV7-DNA PCR. By IHC large T antigen (LTAg) expression of HPyV7 was detected, and double staining confirmed its expression in the neoplastic epithelial cells. Eighteen of the 26 MG-positive and 7 of the 11 MG-negative thymomas were HPyV7-positive. 40% of the 20 hyperplastic thymi were HPyV7-positive by PCR as confirmed by FISH and IHC in the follicular lymphocytes. All 20 fetal thymi tested HPyV7-negative. Conclusions The presence of HPyV7-DNA and LTAg expression in the majority of thymomas possibly link HPyV7 to human thymomagenesis. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the possible associations of HPyV7 and MG. PMID:25526237

  20. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition can suppress major attributes of human epithelial tumor-initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Celià-Terrassa, Toni; Meca-Cortés, Óscar; Mateo, Francesca; Martínez de Paz, Alexia; Rubio, Nuria; Arnal-Estapé, Anna; Ell, Brian J.; Bermudo, Raquel; Díaz, Alba; Guerra-Rebollo, Marta; Lozano, Juan José; Estarás, Conchi; Ulloa, Catalina; ρlvarez-Simón, Daniel; Milà, Jordi; Vilella, Ramón; Paciucci, Rosanna; Martínez-Balbás, Marian; García de Herreros, Antonio; Gomis, Roger R.; Kang, Yibin; Blanco, Jerónimo; Fernández, Pedro L.; Thomson, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant progression in cancer requires populations of tumor-initiating cells (TICs) endowed with unlimited self renewal, survival under stress, and establishment of distant metastases. Additionally, the acquisition of invasive properties driven by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is critical for the evolution of neoplastic cells into fully metastatic populations. Here, we characterize 2 human cellular models derived from prostate and bladder cancer cell lines to better understand the relationship between TIC and EMT programs in local invasiveness and distant metastasis. The model tumor subpopulations that expressed a strong epithelial gene program were enriched in highly metastatic TICs, while a second subpopulation with stable mesenchymal traits was impoverished in TICs. Constitutive overexpression of the transcription factor Snai1 in the epithelial/TIC-enriched populations engaged a mesenchymal gene program and suppressed their self renewal and metastatic phenotypes. Conversely, knockdown of EMT factors in the mesenchymal-like prostate cancer cell subpopulation caused a gain in epithelial features and properties of TICs. Both tumor cell subpopulations cooperated so that the nonmetastatic mesenchymal-like prostate cancer subpopulation enhanced the in vitro invasiveness of the metastatic epithelial subpopulation and, in vivo, promoted the escape of the latter from primary implantation sites and accelerated their metastatic colonization. Our models provide new insights into how dynamic interactions among epithelial, self-renewal, and mesenchymal gene programs determine the plasticity of epithelial TICs. PMID:22505459

  1. Serum-Induced Differentiation of Human Meibomian Gland Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, David A.; Liu, Yang; Kam, Wendy R.; Ding, Juan; Green, Karin M.; Shaffer, Scott A.; Hatton, Mark P.; Liu, Shaohui

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We hypothesize that culturing immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells in serum-containing medium will induce their differentiation. The purpose of this investigation was to begin to test our hypothesis, and explore the impact of serum on gene expression and lipid accumulation in human meibomian gland epithelial cells. Methods. Immortalized and primary human meibomian gland epithelial cells were cultured in the presence or absence of serum. Cells were evaluated for lysosome and lipid accumulation, polar and neutral lipid profiles, and gene expression. Results. Our results support our hypothesis that serum stimulates the differentiation of human meibomian gland epithelial cells. This serum-induced effect is associated with a significant increase in the expression of genes linked to cell differentiation, epithelium development, the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, vesicles, and lysosomes, and a significant decrease in gene activity related to the cell cycle, mitochondria, ribosomes, and translation. These cellular responses are accompanied by an accumulation of lipids within lysosomes, as well as alterations in the fatty acid content of polar and nonpolar lipids. Of particular importance, our results show that the molecular and biochemical changes of immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells during differentiation are analogous to those of primary cells. Conclusions. Overall, our findings indicate that immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells may serve as an ideal preclinical model to identify factors that control cellular differentiation in the meibomian gland. PMID:24867579

  2. Establishment of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath/epithelial rests of Malassez cell line from human periodontium.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hyun; Kim, Ji-Hye; Kim, Jae-Won; Seo, Byoung-Moo; Park, Joo-Cheol; Kim, Jung-Wook; Lee, Gene

    2014-07-01

    Human Hertwig's epithelial root sheath/epithelial rests of Malassez (HERS/ERM) cells are epithelial remnants of teeth residing in the periodontium. Although the functional roles of HERS/ERM cells have yet to be elucidated, they are a unique epithelial cell population in adult teeth and are reported to have stem cell characteristics. Therefore, HERS/ERM cells might play a role as an epithelial component for the repair or regeneration of dental hard tissues; however, they are very rare population in periodontium and the primary isolation of them is considered to be difficult. To overcome these problems, we immortalized primary HERS/ERM cells isolated from human periodontium using SV40 large T antigen (SV40 LT) and performed a characterization of the immortalized cell line. Primary HERS/ERM cells could not be maintained for more than 6 passages; however, immortalized HERS/ERM cells were maintained for more than 20 passages. There were no differences in the morphological and immunophenotypic characteristics of HERS/ERM cells and immortalized HERS/ERM cells. The expression of epithelial stem cell and embryonic stem cell markers was maintained in immortalized HERS/ERM cells. Moreover, immortalized HERS/ERM cells could acquire mesenchymal phenotypes through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition via TGF-β1. In conclusion, we established an immortalized human HERS/ERM cell line with SV40 LT and expect this cell line to contribute to the understanding of the functional roles of HERS/ERM cells and the tissue engineering of teeth. PMID:25081036

  3. Development of human epithelial cell systems for radiation risk assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, C. H.; Craise, L. M.

    1994-01-01

    The most important health effect of space radiation for astronauts is cancer induction. For radiation risk assessment, an understanding of carcinogenic effect of heavy ions in human cells is most essential. In our laboratory, we have successfully developed a human mammary epithelial cell system for studying the neoplastic transformation in vitro. Growth variants were obtained from heavy ion irradiated immortal mammary cell line. These cloned growth variants can grow in regular tissue culture media and maintain anchorage dependent growth and density inhibition property. Upon further irradiation with high-Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation, transformed foci were found. Experimental results from these studies suggest that multiexposure of radiation is required to induce neoplastic tranformation of human epithelial cells. This multihits requirement may be due to high genomic stability of human cells. These growth variants can be useful model systems for space flight experiments to determine the carcinogenic effect of space radiation in human epithelial cells.

  4. Epithelial cells as alternative human biomatrices for comet assay

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Emilio; Lorenzo, Yolanda; Haug, Kristiane; Nicolaissen, Bjørn; Valverde, Mahara

    2014-01-01

    The comet assay is a valuable experimental tool aimed at mapping DNA damage in human cells in vivo for environmental and occupational monitoring, as well as for therapeutic purposes, such as storage prior to transplant, during tissue engineering, and in experimental ex vivo assays. Furthermore, due to its great versatility, the comet assay allows to explore the use of alternative cell types to assess DNA damage, such as epithelial cells. Epithelial cells, as specialized components of many organs, have the potential to serve as biomatrices that can be used to evaluate genotoxicity and may also serve as early effect biomarkers. Furthermore, 80% of solid cancers are of epithelial origin, which points to the importance of studying DNA damage in these tissues. Indeed, studies including comet assay in epithelial cells have either clear clinical applications (lens and corneal epithelial cells) or examine genotoxicity within human biomonitoring and in vitro studies. We here review improvements in determining DNA damage using the comet assay by employing lens, corneal, tear duct, buccal, and nasal epithelial cells. For some of these tissues invasive sampling procedures are needed. Desquamated epithelial cells must be obtained and dissociated prior to examination using the comet assay, and such procedures may induce varying amounts of DNA damage. Buccal epithelial cells require lysis enriched with proteinase K to obtain free nucleosomes. Over a 30 year period, the comet assay in epithelial cells has been little employed, however its use indicates that it could be an extraordinary tool not only for risk assessment, but also for diagnosis, prognosis of treatments and diseases. PMID:25506353

  5. Bacillus anthracis Lethal Toxin Reduces Human Alveolar Epithelial Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Marybeth; Duggan, Elizabeth Stewart; Booth, John Leland; Patel, Vineet Indrajit; Zander, Ryan A.; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Ramani, Vijay; Veres, Tibor Zoltan; Prenzler, Frauke; Sewald, Katherina; Williams, Daniel M.; Coggeshall, Kenneth Mark; Awasthi, Shanjana; Lupu, Florea; Burian, Dennis; Ballard, Jimmy Dale; Braun, Armin

    2012-01-01

    The lung is the site of entry for Bacillus anthracis in inhalation anthrax, the deadliest form of the disease. Bacillus anthracis produces virulence toxins required for disease. Alveolar macrophages were considered the primary target of the Bacillus anthracis virulence factor lethal toxin because lethal toxin inhibits mouse macrophages through cleavage of MEK signaling pathway components, but we have reported that human alveolar macrophages are not a target of lethal toxin. Our current results suggest that, unlike human alveolar macrophages, the cells lining the respiratory units of the lung, alveolar epithelial cells, are a target of lethal toxin in humans. Alveolar epithelial cells expressed lethal toxin receptor protein, bound the protective antigen component of lethal toxin, and were subject to lethal-toxin-induced cleavage of multiple MEKs. These findings suggest that human alveolar epithelial cells are a target of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin. Further, no reduction in alveolar epithelial cell viability was observed, but lethal toxin caused actin rearrangement and impaired desmosome formation, consistent with impaired barrier function as well as reduced surfactant production. Therefore, by compromising epithelial barrier function, lethal toxin may play a role in the pathogenesis of inhalation anthrax by facilitating the dissemination of Bacillus anthracis from the lung in early disease and promoting edema in late stages of the illness. PMID:23027535

  6. High mobility group box 1-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition in human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Ching; Statt, Sarah; Wu, Reen; Chang, Hao-Teng; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Wang, Chien-Neng; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Lee, Chen-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is implicated in bronchial remodeling and loss of lung function in chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Previous studies showed the involvement of the high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein in the pathology of chronic pulmonary inflammatory diseases. However, the role of HMGB1 in EMT of human airway epithelial cells is still unclear. In this study, we used RNA sequencing to show that HMGB1 treatment regulated EMT-related gene expression in human primary-airway epithelial cells. The top five upregulated genes were SNAI2, FGFBP1, VIM, SPARC (osteonectin), and SERPINE1, while the downregulated genes included OCLN, TJP1 (ZO-1), FZD7, CDH1 (E-cadherin), and LAMA5. We found that HMGB1 induced downregulation of E-cadherin and ZO-1, and upregulation of vimentin mRNA transcription and protein translation in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, we observed that HMGB1 induced AKT phosphorylation, resulting in GSK3β inactivation, cytoplasmic accumulation, and nuclear translocation of β-catenin to induce EMT in human airway epithelial cells. Treatment with PI3K inhibitor (LY294006) and β-catenin shRNA reversed HMGB1-induced EMT. Moreover, HMGB1 induced expression of receptor for advanced glycation products (RAGE), but not that of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 or TLR4, and RAGE shRNA inhibited HMGB1-induced EMT in human airway epithelial cells. In conclusion, we found that HMGB1 induced EMT through RAGE and the PI3K/AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:26739898

  7. Human Mammary Luminal Epithelial Cells Contain Progenitors to Myoepithelial Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pechoux, Christine; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J; Petersen, Ole

    1999-02-01

    The origin of the epithelial and myoepithelial cells in the human breast has not been delineated. In this study we have addressed whether luminal epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells are vertically connected, i.e., whether one is the precursor for the other. We used a primary culture assay allowing preservation of basic phenotypic traits of luminal epithelial and myoepithelial cells in culture. The two cell types were then separated immunomagnetically using antibodies directed against lineage-specific cell surface antigens into at best 100% purity. The cellular identity was ascertained by cytochemistry, immunoblotting, and 2-D gel electrophoresis. Luminal epithelial cells were identified by strong expression of cytokeratins 18 and 19 while myoepithelial cells were recognized by expression of vimentin and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin. We used a previously devised culture medium (CDM4) that allows vigorous expansion of proliferative myoepithelial cells and also devised a medium (CDM6) that allowed sufficient expansion of differentiated luminal epithelial cells based on addition of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor. The two different culture media supported each lineage for at least five passages without signs of interconversion. We used parallel cultures where we switched culture media, thus testing the ability of each lineage to convert to the other. Whereas the myoepithelial lineage showed no signs of interconversion, a subset of luminal epithelial cells, gradually, but distinctly, converted to myoepithelial cells. We propose that in the mature human breast, it is the luminal epithelial cell compartment that gives rise to myoepithelial cells rather than the other way around.

  8. Human airway xenograft models of epithelial cell regeneration.

    PubMed

    Puchelle, E; Peault, B

    2000-01-01

    Regeneration and restoration of the airway epithelium after mechanical, viral or bacterial injury have a determinant role in the evolution of numerous respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis, asthma and cystic fibrosis. The study in vivo of epithelial regeneration in animal models has shown that airway epithelial cells are able to dedifferentiate, spread, migrate over the denuded basement membrane and progressively redifferentiate to restore a functional respiratory epithelium after several weeks. Recently, human tracheal xenografts have been developed in immunodeficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and nude mice. In this review we recall that human airway cells implanted in such conditioned host grafts can regenerate a well-differentiated and functional human epithelium; we stress the interest in these humanized mice in assaying candidate progenitor and stem cells of the human airway mucosa. PMID:11667974

  9. Transcriptional PROFILING OF MUCOCILIARY DIFFERENTIATION IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When cultured at an air-liquid interface (ALI) in the appropriate medium, primary human airway epithelial cells form a polarized, pseudostratified epithelium composed of ciliated and mucus-secreting cells. This culture system provides a useful tool for the in vitro study of...

  10. High mobility group box 1-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition in human airway epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Ching; Statt, Sarah; Wu, Reen; Chang, Hao-Teng; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Wang, Chien-Neng; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Lee, Chen-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is implicated in bronchial remodeling and loss of lung function in chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Previous studies showed the involvement of the high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein in the pathology of chronic pulmonary inflammatory diseases. However, the role of HMGB1 in EMT of human airway epithelial cells is still unclear. In this study, we used RNA sequencing to show that HMGB1 treatment regulated EMT-related gene expression in human primary-airway epithelial cells. The top five upregulated genes were SNAI2, FGFBP1, VIM, SPARC (osteonectin), and SERPINE1, while the downregulated genes included OCLN, TJP1 (ZO-1), FZD7, CDH1 (E-cadherin), and LAMA5. We found that HMGB1 induced downregulation of E-cadherin and ZO-1, and upregulation of vimentin mRNA transcription and protein translation in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, we observed that HMGB1 induced AKT phosphorylation, resulting in GSK3β inactivation, cytoplasmic accumulation, and nuclear translocation of β-catenin to induce EMT in human airway epithelial cells. Treatment with PI3K inhibitor (LY294006) and β-catenin shRNA reversed HMGB1-induced EMT. Moreover, HMGB1 induced expression of receptor for advanced glycation products (RAGE), but not that of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 or TLR4, and RAGE shRNA inhibited HMGB1-induced EMT in human airway epithelial cells. In conclusion, we found that HMGB1 induced EMT through RAGE and the PI3K/AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:26739898

  11. Epithelial cell cultures from normal and cancerous human tissues.

    PubMed

    Owens, R B; Smith, H S; Nelson-Rees, W A; Springer, E L

    1976-04-01

    Thirty epithelial cell strains were isolated from human carcinomas and normal epithelial tissues by collagenase digestion and selective removal of fibroblasts with trypsin-Versene. Most strains were obtained from metastatic carcinomas or epithelia of the urinary and intestinal tracts. The success rate for growth of both neoplastic and normal tissues (excluding skin) was 38%. Six of these strains showed gross morphologic and chromosome changes typical of malignant cells. Nine resembled normal epithelium. The other 15 exhibited some degree of morphologic change from normal. PMID:176412

  12. Testing gene therapy vectors in human primary nasal epithelial cultures

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Huibi; Ouyang, Hong; Ip, Wan; Du, Kai; Duan, Wenming; Avolio, Julie; Wu, Jing; Duan, Cathleen; Yeger, Herman; Bear, Christine E; Gonska, Tanja; Hu, Jim; Moraes, Theo J

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) results from mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, which codes for a chloride/bicarbonate channel in the apical epithelial membranes. CFTR dysfunction results in a multisystem disease including the development of life limiting lung disease. The possibility of a cure for CF by replacing defective CFTR has led to different approaches for CF gene therapy; all of which ultimately have to be tested in preclinical model systems. Primary human nasal epithelial cultures (HNECs) derived from nasal turbinate brushing were used to test the efficiency of a helper-dependent adenoviral (HD-Ad) vector expressing CFTR. HD-Ad-CFTR transduction resulted in functional expression of CFTR at the apical membrane in nasal epithelial cells obtained from CF patients. These results suggest that HNECs can be used for preclinical testing of gene therapy vectors in CF. PMID:26730394

  13. Morphological appearances of human lens epithelial cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Power, W; Neylan, D; Collum, L

    1993-01-01

    A system for culturing human lens epithelial cells in the laboratory was developed. The morphological appearances of the cells was studied using phase contrast, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Cell marker studies using monoclonal antibodies to cytokeratin, vimentin and epithelial membrane antigen were also performed. There was a marked increase in cell size as a function of time in culture. After 3 to 4 weeks cells showed early signs of ageing. By 6 to 8 weeks the majority of the cells had become very irregular in shape and demonstrated irregularities of the plasma membrane and intra-cytoplasmic vacuole formation. The cells stained strongly for vimentin and epithelial membrane antigen. Staining with cytokeratin was somewhat weaker. This culture technique provides us with a suitable model for studying the growth behavior of these cells. PMID:7512459

  14. Testing gene therapy vectors in human primary nasal epithelial cultures.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huibi; Ouyang, Hong; Ip, Wan; Du, Kai; Duan, Wenming; Avolio, Julie; Wu, Jing; Duan, Cathleen; Yeger, Herman; Bear, Christine E; Gonska, Tanja; Hu, Jim; Moraes, Theo J

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) results from mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, which codes for a chloride/bicarbonate channel in the apical epithelial membranes. CFTR dysfunction results in a multisystem disease including the development of life limiting lung disease. The possibility of a cure for CF by replacing defective CFTR has led to different approaches for CF gene therapy; all of which ultimately have to be tested in preclinical model systems. Primary human nasal epithelial cultures (HNECs) derived from nasal turbinate brushing were used to test the efficiency of a helper-dependent adenoviral (HD-Ad) vector expressing CFTR. HD-Ad-CFTR transduction resulted in functional expression of CFTR at the apical membrane in nasal epithelial cells obtained from CF patients. These results suggest that HNECs can be used for preclinical testing of gene therapy vectors in CF. PMID:26730394

  15. Establishment and Characterization of Immortalized Human Amniotic Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Kaixuan; Koike, Chika; Yoshida, Toshiko; Okabe, Motonori; Fathy, Moustafa; Kyo, Satoru; Kiyono, Tohru; Saito, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Human amniotic epithelial cells (HAEs) have a low immunogenic profile and possess potent immunosuppressive properties. HAEs also have several characteristics similar to stem cells, and they are discarded after parturition. Thus, they could potentially be used in cell therapy with fewer ethical problems. HAEs have a short life, so our aim is to establish and characterize immortalized human amniotic epithelial cells (iHAEs). HAEs were introduced with viral oncogenes E6/E7 and with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) to create iHAEs. These iHAEs have proliferated around 200 population doublings (PDs) for at least 12 months. High expression of stem cell markers (Oct 3/4, Nanog, Sox2, Klf4) and epithelial markers (CK5, CK18) were detected by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). These iHAEs were expanded in ultra-low-attachment dishes to form spheroids similarly to epithelial stem/precursor cells. High expression of mesenchymal (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105) and somatic (CD24, CD29, CD271, Nestin) stem cell markers was detected by flow cytometry. The iHAEs showed adipogenic, osteogenic, neuronal, and cardiac differentiation abilities. In conclusion, the immortalization of HAEs with the characteristics of stem cells has been established, allowing these iHAEs to become useful for cell therapy and regenerative medicine. PMID:23298399

  16. Identification of Human Fibroblast Cell Lines as a Feeder Layer for Human Corneal Epithelial Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Rong; Bian, Fang; Lin, Jing; Su, Zhitao; Qu, Yangluowa; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.; Li, De-Quan

    2012-01-01

    There is a great interest in using epithelium generated in vitro for tissue bioengineering. Mouse 3T3 fibroblasts have been used as a feeder layer to cultivate human epithelia including corneal epithelial cells for more than 3 decades. To avoid the use of xeno-components, we evaluated human fibroblasts as an alternative feeder supporting human corneal epithelial regeneration. Five human fibroblast cell lines were used for evaluation with mouse 3T3 fibroblasts as a control. Human epithelial cells isolated from fresh corneal limbal tissue were seeded on these feeders. Colony forming efficiency (CFE) and cell growth capacity were evaluated on days 5–14. The phenotype of the regenerated epithelia was evaluated by morphology and immunostaining with epithelial markers. cDNA microarray was used to analyze the gene expression profile of the supportive human fibroblasts. Among 5 strains of human fibroblasts evaluated, two newborn foreskin fibroblast cell lines, Hs68 and CCD1112Sk, were identified to strongly support human corneal epithelial growth. Tested for 10 passages, these fibroblasts continually showed a comparative efficiency to the 3T3 feeder layer for CFE and growth capacity of human corneal epithelial cells. Limbal epithelial cells seeded at 1×104 in a 35-mm dish (9.6 cm2) grew to confluence (about 1.87–2.41×106 cells) in 12–14 days, representing 187–241 fold expansion with over 7–8 doublings on these human feeders. The regenerated epithelia expressed K3, K12, connexin 43, p63, EGFR and integrin β1, resembling the phenotype of human corneal epithelium. DNA microarray revealed 3 up-regulated and 10 down-regulated genes, which may be involved in the functions of human fibroblast feeders. These findings demonstrate that commercial human fibroblast cell lines support human corneal epithelial regeneration, and have potential use in tissue bioengineering for corneal reconstruction. PMID:22723892

  17. Airway epithelial cell response to human metapneumovirus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, X.; Liu, T.; Spetch, L.; Kolli, D.; Garofalo, R.P.; Casola, A.

    2007-11-10

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in infants, elderly and immunocompromised patients. In this study, we show that hMPV can infect in a similar manner epithelial cells representative of different tracts of the airways. hMPV-induced expression of chemokines IL-8 and RANTES in primary small alveolar epithelial cells (SAE) and in a human alveolar type II-like epithelial cell line (A549) was similar, suggesting that A549 cells can be used as a model to study lower airway epithelial cell responses to hMPV infection. A549 secreted a variety of CXC and CC chemokines, cytokines and type I interferons, following hMPV infection. hMPV was also a strong inducer of transcription factors belonging to nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B, interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) families, which are known to orchestrate the expression of inflammatory and immunomodulatory mediators.

  18. AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELL RESPONSE TO HUMAN METAPNEUMOVIRUS INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    X, Bao; T, Liu; L, Spetch; D, Kolli; R.P, Garofalo; A, Casola

    2007-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in infants, elderly and immunocompromised patients. In this study, we show that hMPV can infect in a similar manner epithelial cells representative of different tracts of the airways. hMPV-induced expression of chemokines IL-8 and RANTES in primary small alveolar epithelial cells (SAE) and in a human alveolar type II-like epithelial cell line (A549) was similar, suggesting that A549 cells can be used as a model to study lower airway epithelial cell responses to hMPV infection. A549 secreted a variety of CXC and CC chemokines, cytokines and type I interferons, following hMPV infection. hMPV was also a strong inducer of transcription factors belonging to nuclear factor (NF)-κB, interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) families, which are known to orchestrate the expression of inflammatory and immuno-modulatory mediators. PMID:17655903

  19. Studies in human skin epithelial cell carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, T.A.

    1987-01-01

    Metabolism and DNA adduct formation of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) by human epidermal keratinocytes pretreated with inhibitors or inducer of cytochrame P450 was studied. To study DNA adduct analysis, cultures were pretreated as described above, and then treated with non-radiolabeled BP. DNA was prepared from these cultures, digested to the nucleotide level, and /sup 32/P-postlabeled for adduct analysis. Cultures pretreated with BHA, 7,8-BF or disulfiralm formed significantly fewer BPDE I-dB adducts than non-pretreated cultures, while cultures pretreated with MeBHA formed more BPDE-I-dG adducts. MeBHA increased BP activation and adduct formation inhuman keratinocyte in cultures by inducing a specific isoenzyme of cytochrome P450 which preferentially increases the oxidative metabolism of BP to 7,8 diol BP and 7,8 diol BP to BPDE I. To approximate an in vivo human system, metabolism of BPDE I by human skin xenografts treated with cell cycles modulators was studied. When treated with BPDE I, specific carcinogen-DNA adducts were formed. Separation and identification of these adducts by the /sup 32/P-postlabeling technique indicated that the 7R- and 7S-BPDE I-dG adducts were the major adducts.

  20. Engineered human broncho-epithelial tissue-like assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional human broncho-epithelial tissue-like assemblies (TLAs) are produced in a rotating wall vessel (RWV) with microcarriers by coculturing mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells (BTC) and bronchial epithelium cells (BEC). These TLAs display structural characteristics and express markers of in vivo respiratory epithelia. TLAs are useful for screening compounds active in lung tissues such as antiviral compounds, cystic fibrosis treatments, allergens, and cytotoxic compounds.

  1. Temporal Monitoring of Differentiated Human Airway Epithelial Cells Using Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Blume, Cornelia; Reale, Riccardo; Held, Marie; Millar, Timothy M.; Collins, Jane E.; Davies, Donna E.; Morgan, Hywel; Swindle, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    The airway epithelium is exposed to a variety of harmful agents during breathing and appropriate cellular responses are essential to maintain tissue homeostasis. Recent evidence has highlighted the contribution of epithelial barrier dysfunction in the development of many chronic respiratory diseases. Despite intense research efforts, the responses of the airway barrier to environmental agents are not fully understood, mainly due to lack of suitable in vitro models that recapitulate the complex in vivo situation accurately. Using an interdisciplinary approach, we describe a novel dynamic 3D in vitro model of the airway epithelium, incorporating fully differentiated primary human airway epithelial cells at the air-liquid interface and a basolateral microfluidic supply of nutrients simulating the interstitial flow observed in vivo. Through combination of the microfluidic culture system with an automated fraction collector the kinetics of cellular responses by the airway epithelium to environmental agents can be analysed at the early phases for the first time and with much higher sensitivity compared to common static in vitro models. Following exposure of primary differentiated epithelial cells to pollen we show that CXCL8/IL–8 release is detectable within the first 2h and peaks at 4–6h under microfluidic conditions, a response which was not observed in conventional static culture conditions. Such a microfluidic culture model is likely to have utility for high resolution temporal profiling of toxicological and pharmacological responses of the airway epithelial barrier, as well as for studies of disease mechanisms. PMID:26436734

  2. Temporal Monitoring of Differentiated Human Airway Epithelial Cells Using Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Blume, Cornelia; Reale, Riccardo; Held, Marie; Millar, Timothy M; Collins, Jane E; Davies, Donna E; Morgan, Hywel; Swindle, Emily J

    2015-01-01

    The airway epithelium is exposed to a variety of harmful agents during breathing and appropriate cellular responses are essential to maintain tissue homeostasis. Recent evidence has highlighted the contribution of epithelial barrier dysfunction in the development of many chronic respiratory diseases. Despite intense research efforts, the responses of the airway barrier to environmental agents are not fully understood, mainly due to lack of suitable in vitro models that recapitulate the complex in vivo situation accurately. Using an interdisciplinary approach, we describe a novel dynamic 3D in vitro model of the airway epithelium, incorporating fully differentiated primary human airway epithelial cells at the air-liquid interface and a basolateral microfluidic supply of nutrients simulating the interstitial flow observed in vivo. Through combination of the microfluidic culture system with an automated fraction collector the kinetics of cellular responses by the airway epithelium to environmental agents can be analysed at the early phases for the first time and with much higher sensitivity compared to common static in vitro models. Following exposure of primary differentiated epithelial cells to pollen we show that CXCL8/IL-8 release is detectable within the first 2h and peaks at 4-6h under microfluidic conditions, a response which was not observed in conventional static culture conditions. Such a microfluidic culture model is likely to have utility for high resolution temporal profiling of toxicological and pharmacological responses of the airway epithelial barrier, as well as for studies of disease mechanisms. PMID:26436734

  3. Cytotoxic Action of Serratia marcescens Hemolysin on Human Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hertle, Ralf; Hilger, Martina; Weingardt-Kocher, Sandra; Walev, Iwan

    1999-01-01

    Incubation of human epithelial cells with nanomolar concentrations of chromatographically purified Serratia marcescens hemolysin (ShlA) caused irreversible vacuolation and subsequent lysis of the cells. Vacuolation differed from vacuole formation by Helicobacter pylori VacA. Sublytic doses of ShlA led to a reversible depletion of intracellular ATP. Restoration to the initial ATP level was presumably due to the repair of the toxin damage and was inhibited by cycloheximide. Pores formed in epithelial cells and fibroblasts without disruption of the plasma membrane, and the pores appeared to be considerably smaller than those observed in artificial lipid membranes and in erythrocytes and did not allow the influx of propidium iodide or trypan blue. All cytotoxic effects induced by isolated recombinant ShlA were also obtained with exponentially growing S. marcescens cells. The previously suggested role of the hemolysin in the pathogenicity of S. marcescens is supported by these data. PMID:9916096

  4. MicroRNA-145 Regulates Human Corneal Epithelial Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Tsz-Kin; Huang, Li; Lei, Peng; Choy, Kwong-Wai; Liu, Yingpeng; Zhang, Mingzhi; Lam, Dennis Shun-Chiu; Yam, Gary Hin-Fai; Pang, Chi-Pui

    2011-01-01

    Background Epigenetic factors, such as microRNAs, are important regulators in the self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells and progenies. Here we investigated the microRNAs expressed in human limbal-peripheral corneal (LPC) epithelia containing corneal epithelial progenitor cells (CEPCs) and early transit amplifying cells, and their role in corneal epithelium. Methodology/Principal Findings Human LPC epithelia was extracted for small RNAs or dissociated for CEPC culture. By Agilent Human microRNA Microarray V2 platform and GeneSpring GX11.0 analysis, we found differential expression of 18 microRNAs against central corneal (CC) epithelia, which were devoid of CEPCs. Among them, miR-184 was up-regulated in CC epithelia, similar to reported finding. Cluster miR-143/145 was expressed strongly in LPC but weakly in CC epithelia (P = 0.0004, Mann-Whitney U-test). This was validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Locked nucleic acid-based in situ hybridization on corneal rim cryosections showed miR-143/145 presence localized to the parabasal cells of limbal epithelium but negligible in basal and superficial epithelia. With holoclone forming ability, CEPCs transfected with lentiviral plasmid containing mature miR-145 sequence gave rise to defective epithelium in organotypic culture and had increased cytokeratin-3/12 and connexin-43 expressions and decreased ABCG2 and p63 compared with cells transfected with scrambled sequences. Global gene expression was analyzed using Agilent Whole Human Genome Oligo Microarray and GeneSpring GX11.0. With a 5-fold difference compared to cells with scrambled sequences, miR-145 up-regulated 324 genes (containing genes for immune response) and down-regulated 277 genes (containing genes for epithelial development and stem cell maintenance). As validated by qPCR and luciferase reporter assay, our results showed miR-145 suppressed integrin β8 (ITGB8) expression in both human corneal epithelial cells and primary

  5. Human alveolar epithelial type II cells in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Mao, Pu; Wu, Songling; Li, Jianchun; Fu, Wei; He, Weiqun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Slutsky, Arthur S; Zhang, Haibo; Li, Yimin

    2015-02-01

    Alveolar epithelial type II (AEII) cells are a key structure and defender in the lung but also are the targets in many lung diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, ventilator-induced lung injury, and pulmonary fibrosis. We sought to establish an optimized method for high yielding and long maintenance of characteristics of primary human AEII cells to facilitate the investigation of the mechanisms of lung diseases at the cellular and molecular levels. Adult human peripheral normal lung tissues of oncologic patients undergoing lung resection were collected. The AEII cells were isolated and identified by the expression of pro-surfactant protein (SP)C, epithelial sodium channel (αENaC) and cytokeratin (CK)-8, the lamellar bodies specific for AEII cells, and confirmed by the histology using electron microscopy. The phenotype of AEII cells was characterized by the expression of surfactant proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, SP-D), CK-8, KL-6, αENaC, and aquaporin (AQP)-3, which was maintained over 20 days. The biological activity of the primary human AEII cells producing SP-C, cytokines, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was vigorous in response to stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-α. We have modified previous methods and optimized a method for isolation of high purity and long maintenance of the human AEII cell phenotype in primary culture. This method provides an important tool for studies aiming at elucidating the molecular mechanisms of lung diseases exclusively in AEII cells. PMID:25677546

  6. Radiogenic transformation of human mammary epithelial cells in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T. C.; Georgy, K. A.; Tavakoli, A.; Craise, L. M.; Durante, M.

    1996-01-01

    Cancer induction by space radiations is a major concern for manned space exploration. Accurate assessment of radiation risk at low doses requires basic understanding of mechanism(s) of radiation carcinogenesis. For determining the oncogenic effects of ionizing radiation in human epithelial cells, we transformed a mammary epithelial cell line (185B5), which was immortalized by benzo(a)pyrene, with energetic heavy ions and obtained several transformed clones. These transformed cells showed growth properties on Matrigel similar to human mammary tumor cells. To better understand the mechanisms of radiogenic transformation of human cells, we systematically examined the alterations in chromosomes and cancer genes. Among 16 autosomes examined for translocations, by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, chromosomes 3, 12, 13, 15, 16, and 18 appeared to be normal in transformed cells. Chromosomes 1, 4, 6, 8, and 17 in transformed cells, however, showed patterns different from those in nontransformed cells. Southern blot analyses indicated no detectable alterations in myc, ras, Rb, or p53 genes. Further studies of chromosome 17 by using in situ hybridization with unique sequence p53 gene probe and a centromere probe showed no loss of p53 gene in transformed cells. Experimental results from cell fusion studies indicated that the transforming gene(s) is recessive. The role of genomic instability and tumor suppressor gene(s) in radiogenic transformation of human breast cells remains to be identified.

  7. Human alveolar epithelial type II cells in primary culture

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Pu; Wu, Songling; Li, Jianchun; Fu, Wei; He, Weiqun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Slutsky, Arthur S; Zhang, Haibo; Li, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar epithelial type II (AEII) cells are a key structure and defender in the lung but also are the targets in many lung diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, ventilator-induced lung injury, and pulmonary fibrosis. We sought to establish an optimized method for high yielding and long maintenance of characteristics of primary human AEII cells to facilitate the investigation of the mechanisms of lung diseases at the cellular and molecular levels. Adult human peripheral normal lung tissues of oncologic patients undergoing lung resection were collected. The AEII cells were isolated and identified by the expression of pro-surfactant protein (SP)C, epithelial sodium channel (αENaC) and cytokeratin (CK)-8, the lamellar bodies specific for AEII cells, and confirmed by the histology using electron microscopy. The phenotype of AEII cells was characterized by the expression of surfactant proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, SP-D), CK-8, KL-6, αENaC, and aquaporin (AQP)-3, which was maintained over 20 days. The biological activity of the primary human AEII cells producing SP-C, cytokines, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was vigorous in response to stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-α. We have modified previous methods and optimized a method for isolation of high purity and long maintenance of the human AEII cell phenotype in primary culture. This method provides an important tool for studies aiming at elucidating the molecular mechanisms of lung diseases exclusively in AEII cells. PMID:25677546

  8. Tissuelike 3D Assemblies of Human Broncho-Epithelial Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tissuelike assemblies (TLAs) of human broncho-epithelial (HBE) cells have been developed for use in in vitro research on infection of humans by respiratory viruses. The 2D monolayer HBE cell cultures heretofore used in such research lack the complex cell structures and interactions characteristic of in vivo tissues and, consequently, do not adequately emulate the infection dynamics of in-vivo microbial adhesion and invasion. In contrast, the 3D HBE TLAs are characterized by more-realistic reproductions of the geometrical and functional complexity, differentiation of cells, cell-to-cell interactions, and cell-to-matrix interactions characteristic of human respiratory epithelia. Hence, the 3D HBE TLAs are expected to make it possible to perform at least some of the research in vitro under more-realistic conditions, without need to infect human subjects. The TLAs are grown on collagen-coated cyclodextran microbeads under controlled conditions in a nutrient liquid in the simulated microgravitational environment of a bioreactor of the rotating- wall-vessel type. Primary human mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells are used as a foundation matrix, while adult human bronchial epithelial immortalized cells are used as the overlying component. The beads become coated with cells, and cells on adjacent beads coalesce into 3D masses. The resulting TLAs have been found to share significant characteristics with in vivo human respiratory epithelia including polarization, tight junctions, desmosomes, and microvilli. The differentiation of the cells in these TLAs into tissues functionally similar to in vivo tissues is confirmed by the presence of compounds, including villin, keratins, and specific lung epithelium marker compounds, and by the production of tissue mucin. In a series of initial infection tests, TLA cultures were inoculated with human respiratory syncytial viruses and parainfluenza type 3 viruses. Infection was confirmed by photomicrographs that

  9. Luminal and humoral influences on human rectal epithelial cytokinetics.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, M. G.

    1995-01-01

    Multiple genetic and environmental steps may underpin the development of human colorectal neoplasia, and experimental evidence suggests that promoters of colorectal cancer also induce colorectal epithelial cell hyperplasia. In vitro crypt cell production rate (CCPR) was measured to determine the effect of calcium, epidermal growth factor (EGF), vitamin D3 metabolites and synthetic analogues on human rectal epithelial cell proliferation. In a double-blind trial of oral calcium supplementation, CCPR was reduced by 49% in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), but there was no effect on established neoplasia. In control tissue, the active form of vitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) reduced rectal CCPR by 57% at 1 microM, 55% at 10 nM and 45% at 100 pM. Likewise, in tissue taken from patients with FAP, 1,25(OH)2D3 reduced CCPR by 52%. Vitamin D3 has profound effects on calcium metabolism, but synthetic analogues can avoid these. The effects of a synthetic analogue (MC-903) on human rectal CCPR were therefore studied. MC-903 (10(-7) M) reduced CCPR in control tissue by 51%, and in FAP tissue by 52% at 10(-6) M and 51% at 10(-7) M. In addition, MC-903 and a related analogue, EB 1089, produced a clear-cut dose-dependent inhibition of both HT-29 and Caco2 colorectal cancer cells maintained in culture. Hence, vitamin D3 and its analogues can reduce the rate of cell proliferation in normal, premalignant and malignant colorectal epithelial cells and might therefore have future therapeutic uses as chemoprotective or chemotherapeutic agents. Lastly, EGF increases CCPR by 102% in FAP tissue that expresses the EGF receptor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7793821

  10. Sequestration of human cytomegalovirus by human renal and mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Twite, Nicolas; Andrei, Graciela; Kummert, Caroline; Donner, Catherine; Perez-Morga, David; De Vos, Rita; Snoeck, Robert; Marchant, Arnaud

    2014-07-15

    Urine and breast milk represent the main routes of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) transmission but the contribution of renal and mammary epithelial cells to viral excretion remains unclear. We observed that kidney and mammary epithelial cells were permissive to HCMV infection and expressed immediate early, early and late antigens within 72 h of infection. During the first 24 h after infection, high titers of infectious virus were measured associated to the cells and in culture supernatants, independently of de novo synthesis of virus progeny. This phenomenon was not observed in HCMV-infected fibroblasts and suggested the sequestration and the release of HCMV by epithelial cells. This hypothesis was supported by confocal and electron microscopy analyses. The sequestration and progressive release of HCMV by kidney and mammary epithelial cells may play an important role in the excretion of the virus in urine and breast milk and may thereby contribute to HCMV transmission. - Highlights: • Primary renal and mammary epithelial cells are permissive to HCMV infection. • HCMV is sequestered by epithelial cells and this phenomenon does not require viral replication. • HCMV sequestration by epithelial cells is reduced by antibodies and IFN-γ.

  11. Pseudomonas pyocyanine alters calcium signaling in human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Denning, G M; Railsback, M A; Rasmussen, G T; Cox, C D; Britigan, B E

    1998-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic human pathogen, causes both acute and chronic lung disease. P. aeruginosa exerts many of its pathophysiological effects by secreting virulence factors, including pyocyanine, a redox-active compound that increases intracellular oxidant stress. Because oxidant stress has been shown to affect cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) in other cell types, we studied the effect of pyocyanine on [Ca2+]c in human airway epithelial cells (A549 and HBE). At lower concentrations, pyocyanine inhibits inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate formation and [Ca2+]c increases in response to G protein-coupled receptor agonists. Conversely, at higher concentrations, pyocyanine itself increases [Ca2+]c. The pyocyanine-dependent [Ca2+]c increase appears to be oxidant dependent and to result from increased inositol trisphosphate and release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Ca2+ plays a central role in epithelial cell function, including regulation of ion transport, mucus secretion, and ciliary beat frequency. By disrupting Ca2+ homeostasis, pyocyanine could interfere with these critical functions and contribute to the pathophysiological effects observed in Pseudomonas-associated lung disease. PMID:9609727

  12. Stanniocalcin-1 regulates re-epithelialization in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Bonnie H Y; Wong, Chris K C

    2011-01-01

    Stanniocalcin-1 (STC1), a glycoprotein hormone, is believed to be involved in various biological processes such as inflammation, oxidative responses and cell migration. Riding on these emerging evidences, we hypothesized that STC1 may participate in the re-epithelialization during wound healing. Re-epithelialization is a critical step that involves keratinocyte lamellipodia (e-lam) formation, followed by cell migration. In this study, staurosporine (STS) treatment induced human keratinocyte (HaCaT) e-lam formation on fibronectin matrix and migration via the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), the surge of intracellular calcium level [Ca²⁺]i and the inactivation of Akt. In accompanied with these migratory features, a time- and dose-dependent increase in STC1 expression was detected. STC1 gene expression was found not the downstream target of FAK-signaling as illustrated by FAK inhibition using PF573228. The reduction of [Ca²⁺]i by BAPTA/AM blocked the STS-mediated keratinocyte migration and STC1 gene expression. Alternatively the increase of [Ca²⁺]i by ionomycin exerted promotional effect on STS-induced STC1 gene expression. The inhibition of Akt by SH6 and GSK3β by lithium chloride (LiCl) could respectively induce and inhibit the STS-mediated e-lam formation, cell migration and STC1 gene expression. The STS-mediated e-lam formation and cell migration were notably hindered or induced respectively by STC1 knockdown or overexpression. This notion was further supported by the scratched wound assay. Collectively the findings provide the first evidence that STC1 promotes re-epithelialization in wound healing. PMID:22069492

  13. Neutrophil chemokines in epithelial inflammatory processes of human tonsils

    PubMed Central

    Sachse, F; Ahlers, F; Stoll, W; Rudack, C

    2005-01-01

    CXC chemokines are thought to play an important role at sites of inflammation. Because ELR+ CXC chemokines are expressed in different types of tonsillitis we investigated the role of the surface/crypt epithelium of human tonsils in producing ELR+ CXC chemokines: interleukin (IL)-8 (CXCL8), ENA-78 (CXCL5), GRO-α (CXCL1) and GCP-2 (CXCL6). Tonsillar tissue was obtained from patients undergoing tonsillectomy and chemokine expression was investigated by means of immunohistochemistry. A549 cells were used as a model to study kinetics of chemokine expression in epithelial cells. Cells were stimulated with tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and supernatants derived from aerobic/anaerobic Staphylococcus aureus strains. Chemokine expression was measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We observed epithelial expression of IL-8, GRO-α and GCP-2 in different types of tonsillitis, whereas ENA-78 was rarely expressed. In A549 cells abundant expression of ENA-78 was detected. IL-8 and GCP-2 are expressed in an acute type of tonsillitis whereas GRO-α was frequently detectable both in chronically and acutely inflamed tonsils. ENA-78 does not seem to play a pivotal role in tonsillitis in vivo. PMID:15807854

  14. Bcl-B Expression in Human Epithelial and Nonepithelial Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Krajewska, Maryla; Kitada, Shinichi; Winter, Jane N.; Variakojis, Daina; Lichtenstein, Alan; Zhai, Dayong; Cuddy, Michael; Huang, Xianshu; Luciano, Frederic; Baker, Cheryl H.; Kim, Hoguen; Shin, Eunah; Kennedy, Susan; Olson, Allen H.; Badzio, Andrzej; Jassem, Jacek; Meinhold-Heerlein, Ivo; Duffy, Michael J.; Schimmer, Aaron D.; Tsao, Ming; Brown, Ewan; Sawyers, Anne; Andreeff, Michael; Mercola, Dan; Krajewski, Stan; Reed, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Apoptosis plays an important role in neoplastic processes. Bcl-B is an antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family member, which is known to change its phenotype upon binding to Nur77/TR3. The expression pattern of this protein in human malignancies has not been reported. Experimental Design We investigated Bcl-B expression in normal human tissues and several types of human epithelial and nonepithelial malignancy by immunohistochemistry, correlating results with tumor stage, histologic grade, and patient survival. Results Bcl-B protein was strongly expressed in all normal plasma cells but found in only18%of multiple myelomas (n = 133). Bcl-B immunostaining was also present in normal germinal center centroblasts and centrocytes and in approximately half of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (n =48) specimens, whereas follicular lymphomas (n = 57) did not contain Bcl-B. In breast (n = 119), prostate (n = 66), gastric (n = 180), and colorectal (n = 106) adenocarcinomas, as well as in non – small cell lung cancers (n = 82), tumor-specific overexpression of Bcl-B was observed. Bcl-B expression was associated with variables of poor prognosis, such as high tumor grade in breast cancer (P = 0.009), microsatellite stability (P = 0.0002), and left-sided anatomic location (P = 0.02) of colorectal cancers, as well as with greater incidence of death from prostate cancer (P = 0.005) and shorter survival of patients with small cell lung cancer (P = 0.009). Conversely, although overexpressed in many gastric cancers, Bcl-B tended to correlate with better outcome (P = 0.01) and more differentiated tumor histology (P < 0.0001). Conclusions Tumor-specific alterations in Bcl-B expressionmay define subsets of nonepithelial and epithelial neoplasms with distinct clinical behaviors. PMID:18483366

  15. CYTOTOXICITY OF CHEMICAL CARCINOGENS TOWARDS HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS EVALUATED IN A CLONAL ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Survival of human bronchial epithelial cells after administration of four chemical carcinogens was measured in a clonal assay. Human bronchial epithelial cells were obtained from outgrowths of explanted tissue pieces. Serum-free medium was used for both explant culture and clonal...

  16. Tungsten-induced carcinogenesis in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Laulicht, Freda; Brocato, Jason; Cartularo, Laura; Vaughan, Joshua; Wu, Feng; Kluz, Thomas; Sun, Hong; Oksuz, Betul Akgol; Shen, Steven; Peana, Massimiliano; Medici, Serenella; Zoroddu, Maria Antonietta; Costa, Max

    2015-10-01

    Metals such as arsenic, cadmium, beryllium, and nickel are known human carcinogens; however, other transition metals, such as tungsten (W), remain relatively uninvestigated with regard to their potential carcinogenic activity. Tungsten production for industrial and military applications has almost doubled over the past decade and continues to increase. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate tungsten's ability to induce carcinogenic related endpoints including cell transformation, increased migration, xenograft growth in nude mice, and the activation of multiple cancer-related pathways in transformed clones as determined by RNA sequencing. Human bronchial epithelial cell line (Beas-2B) exposed to tungsten developed carcinogenic properties. In a soft agar assay, tungsten-treated cells formed more colonies than controls and the tungsten-transformed clones formed tumors in nude mice. RNA-sequencing data revealed that the tungsten-transformed clones altered the expression of many cancer-associated genes when compared to control clones. Genes involved in lung cancer, leukemia, and general cancer genes were deregulated by tungsten. Taken together, our data show the carcinogenic potential of tungsten. Further tests are needed, including in vivo and human studies, in order to validate tungsten as a carcinogen to humans. PMID:26164860

  17. Culture models of human mammary epithelial cell transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Stampfer, Martha R.; Yaswen, Paul

    2000-11-10

    Human pre-malignant breast diseases, particularly ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)3 already display several of the aberrant phenotypes found in primary breast cancers, including chromosomal abnormalities, telomerase activity, inactivation of the p53 gene and overexpression of some oncogenes. Efforts to model early breast carcinogenesis in human cell cultures have largely involved studies in vitro transformation of normal finite lifespan human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to immortality and malignancy. We present a model of HMEC immortal transformation consistent with the know in vivo data. This model includes a recently described, presumably epigenetic process, termed conversion, which occurs in cells that have overcome stringent replicative senescence and are thus able to maintain proliferation with critically short telomeres. The conversion process involves reactivation of telomerase activity, and acquisition of good uniform growth in the absence and presence of TFGB. We propose th at overcoming the proliferative constraints set by senescence, and undergoing conversion, represent key rate-limiting steps in human breast carcinogenesis, and occur during early stage breast cancer progression.

  18. Quantification of regenerative potential in primary human mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Linnemann, Jelena R.; Miura, Haruko; Meixner, Lisa K.; Irmler, Martin; Kloos, Uwe J.; Hirschi, Benjamin; Bartsch, Harald S.; Sass, Steffen; Beckers, Johannes; Theis, Fabian J.; Gabka, Christian; Sotlar, Karl; Scheel, Christina H.

    2015-01-01

    We present an organoid regeneration assay in which freshly isolated human mammary epithelial cells are cultured in adherent or floating collagen gels, corresponding to a rigid or compliant matrix environment. In both conditions, luminal progenitors form spheres, whereas basal cells generate branched ductal structures. In compliant but not rigid collagen gels, branching ducts form alveoli at their tips, express basal and luminal markers at correct positions, and display contractility, which is required for alveologenesis. Thereby, branched structures generated in compliant collagen gels resemble terminal ductal-lobular units (TDLUs), the functional units of the mammary gland. Using the membrane metallo-endopeptidase CD10 as a surface marker enriches for TDLU formation and reveals the presence of stromal cells within the CD49fhi/EpCAM− population. In summary, we describe a defined in vitro assay system to quantify cells with regenerative potential and systematically investigate their interaction with the physical environment at distinct steps of morphogenesis. PMID:26071498

  19. COMPARISON OF PM-INDUCED GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES BETWEEN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS AND NASAL EPITHELIAL CELLS IN HUMAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies have linked exposures to particulate matter (PM) and increased pulmonary mortality and morbidity. Bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) are the primary target of PM. PM exposure induces a wide array of biological responses in BEC. Primary human BEC, however, need...

  20. Phototoxicity and cytotoxicity of fullerol in human lens epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Joan E. Wielgus, Albert R. Boyes, William K. Andley, Usha Chignell, Colin F.

    2008-04-01

    The water-soluble, hydroxylated fullerene [fullerol, nano-C{sub 60}(OH){sub 22-26}] has several clinical applications including use as a drug carrier to bypass the blood ocular barriers. We have assessed fullerol's potential ocular toxicity by measuring its cytotoxicity and phototoxicity induced by UVA and visible light in vitro with human lens epithelial cells (HLE B-3). Accumulation of nano-C{sub 60}(OH){sub 22-26} in the cells was confirmed spectrophotometrically at 405 nm and cell viability estimated using MTS and LDH assays. Fullerol was cytotoxic to HLE B-3 cells maintained in the dark at concentrations higher than 20 {mu}M. Exposure to either UVA or visible light in the presence of > 5 {mu}M fullerol-induced phototoxic damage. When cells were pretreated with non-toxic antioxidants: 20 {mu}M lutein, 1 mM N-acetyl cysteine, or 1 mM L-ascorbic acid prior to irradiation, only the singlet oxygen quencher-lutein significantly protected against fullerol photodamage. Apoptosis was observed in lens cells treated with fullerol whether or not the cells were irradiated, in the order UVA > visible light > dark. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that in the presence of the endogenous lens protein {alpha}-crystallin, large aggregates of fullerol were reduced. In conclusion, fullerol is both cytotoxic and phototoxic to human lens epithelial cells. Although the acute toxicity of water-soluble nano-C{sub 60}(OH){sub 22-26} is low, these compounds are retained in the body for long periods, raising concern for their chronic toxic effect. Before fullerols are used to deliver drugs to the eye, they should be tested for photo- and cytotoxicity in vivo.

  1. Isolation, immortalization, and characterization of a human breast epithelial cell line with stem cell properties

    PubMed Central

    Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Villadsen, René; Nielsen, Helga Lind; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J.; Petersen, Ole William

    2002-01-01

    The epithelial compartment of the human breast comprises two distinct lineages: the luminal epithelial and the myoepithelial lineage. We have shown previously that a subset of the luminal epithelial cells could convert to myoepithelial cells in culture signifying the possible existence of a progenitor cell. We therefore set out to identify and isolate the putative precursor in the luminal epithelial compartment. Using cell surface markers and immunomagnetic sorting, we isolated two luminal epithelial cell populations from primary cultures of reduction mammoplasties. The major population coexpresses sialomucin (MUC+) and epithelial-specific antigen (ESA+) whereas the minor population has a suprabasal position and expresses epithelial specific antigen but no sialomucin (MUC−/ESA+). Two cell lines were further established by transduction of the E6/E7 genes from human papilloma virus type 16. Both cell lines maintained a luminal epithelial phenotype as evidenced by expression of the tight junction proteins, claudin-1 and occludin, and by generation of a high transepithelial electrical resistance on semipermeable filters. Whereas in clonal cultures, the MUC+/ESA+ epithelial cell line was luminal epithelial restricted in its differentiation repertoire, the suprabasal-derived MUC−/ESA+ epithelial cell line was able to generate itself as well as MUC+/ESA+ epithelial cells and Thy-1+/α-smooth muscle actin+ (ASMA+) myoepithelial cells. The MUC−/ESA+ epithelial cell line further differed from the MUC+/ESA+ epithelial cell line by the expression of keratin K19, a feature of a subpopulation of epithelial cells in terminal duct lobular units in vivo. Within a reconstituted basement membrane, the MUC+/ESA+ epithelial cell line formed acinus-like spheres. In contrast, the MUC−/ESA+ epithelial cell line formed elaborate branching structures resembling uncultured terminal duct lobular units both by morphology and marker expression. Similar structures were obtained by

  2. Lymphohaemopoietic antigens of cultured human glomerular epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    van der Woude, F. J.; Michael, A. F.; Muller, E.; van der Hem, G. K.; Vernier, R. L.; Kim, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Glomerular visceral epithelial cells (GVEC) from normal human glomeruli were grown in tissue culture. Cell surface markers were studied by immunofluorescence microscopy using antibodies against lymphohaemopoietic differentiation antigens which are known to be present early (BA-1, OKB2, BA-2) and late (J5, anti CR1) in renal ontogenesis. Like foetal human glomerular epithelium, the cultured cells reacted with BA-1 and OKB2 (identifying an antigen expressed on B cells and polymorphonuclear leucocytes), and BA-2 (leukaemia-associated antigen), but were consistently negative for CR1 (C3b receptor); J5 which identifies the common acute lymphoblastic leukaemia antigen (CALLA) stained variably. Reactivity with antimyosin or anti factor VIII were absent. The cells produced an extracellular matrix containing laminin, type IV collagen, and fibronectin. This study supports the notion that GVEC undergo dedifferentiation as shown by the acquisition of lymphohaemopoietic differentiation antigens present early in renal ontogeny. In addition, the production of extracellular matrix constituents in vitro may be useful for the investigation of human glomerular basement membranes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:2647119

  3. Bilberry extract, its major polyphenolic compounds, and the soy isoflavone genistein antagonize the cytostatic drug erlotinib in human epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Aichinger, G; Pahlke, G; Nagel, L J; Berger, W; Marko, D

    2016-08-10

    Erlotinib (Tarceva®) is a chemotherapeutic drug approved for the treatment of pancreatic cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. Its primary mode of action is the inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK). Recently, RTK-inhibiting polyphenols have been reported to interact synergistically with erlotinib. Furthermore some anthocyanidins and anthocyanin-rich berry extracts have been reported to inhibit tyrosine kinases, including the EGFR, which raises the question of potential interactions with erlotinib. Polyphenol-rich preparations such as berry- or soy-based products are commercially available as food supplements. In the present study we tested a bilberry extract, its major anthocyanin and potential intestinal degradation products, as well as genistein, with respect to possible interactions with erlotinib. Cell growth inhibition was assessed using the sulforhodamine B assay, while interactions with EGFR phosphorylation were analyzed by SDS-PAGE/western blotting with subsequent immunodetection. Genistein, bilberry extract, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside and delphinidin were found to antagonize erlotinib whereas phloroglucinol aldehyde was found to enhance cytostatic effects of the drug on human epithelial A431 cells. Genistein also antagonized the EGFR inhibitory effects of erlotinib, whereas bilberry anthocyanins showed no significant interactions in this regard. Our data indicate that different polyphenols are potentially able to impair the cytostatic effect of erlotinib in vitro. Genistein interacts via the modulation of erlotinib-mediated EGFR inhibition whereas bilberry anthocyanins modulated the growth-inhibitory effect of erlotinib without affecting EGFR phosphorylation, thus indicating a different mechanism of interference. PMID:27485636

  4. Sprouty 1 predicts prognosis in human epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Masoumi-Moghaddam, Samar; Amini, Afshin; Wei, Ai-Qun; Robertson, Gregory; Morris, David L

    2015-01-01

    Sprouty proteins are evolutionary-conserved modulators of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling. We have previously reported inverse correlation of the Sprouty 1 (Spry1) protein expression with ovarian cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion and survival. In the present study, the expression status of Spry1 protein and its clinical relevance in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer were explored. Matched tumor and normal tissue samples from 100 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer were immunohistochemically stained for Spry1. Expression of ERK, p-ERK, Ki67, FGF-2, VEGF and IL-6 and their correlation with Spry1 were also evaluated. In addition, correlation between Spry1 and clinicopathological characteristics and predictive significance of Spry1 for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were analysed. Our data indicated that Spry1 was significantly downregulated in tumor tissues (p=0.004). Spry1 showed significant inverse correlation with p-ERK/ERK (p=0.045), Ki67 (p=0.010), disease stage (p=0.029), tumor grade (p=0.037), recurrence (p=0.001) and lymphovascular invasion (p=0.042). It was revealed that Spry1 low-expressing patients had significantly poorer OS (p=0.010) and DFS (p=0.012) than those with high expression of Spry1. Multivariate analysis showed that high Spry1 (p=0.030), low stage (p=0.048) and no residual tumor (p=0.007) were independent prognostic factors for a better OS, among which high Spry1 (p=0.035) and low stage (p=0.035) remained as independent predictors of DFS, too. We also found that the expression of Spry1 significantly correlates with the expression of Spry2 (p<0.001), but not that of Spry4. In conclusion, we report for the first time to our knowledge that Spry1 protein is downregulated in human epithelial ovarian cancer. Spry1 expression significantly impacts tumor behavior and shows predictive value as an independent prognostic factor for survival and recurrence. PMID:26101716

  5. Spermidine Promotes Human Hair Growth and Is a Novel Modulator of Human Epithelial Stem Cell Functions

    PubMed Central

    Bíró, Tamás; Abu Bakar, Mohd Hilmi; Sugawara, Koji; Philpott, Michael P.; Harrison, Wesley; Pietilä, Marko; Paus, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Background Rapidly regenerating tissues need sufficient polyamine synthesis. Since the hair follicle (HF) is a highly proliferative mini-organ, polyamines may also be important for normal hair growth. However, the role of polyamines in human HF biology and their effect on HF epithelial stem cells in situ remains largely unknown. Methods and Findings We have studied the effects of the prototypic polyamine, spermidine (0.1–1 µM), on human scalp HFs and human HF epithelial stem cells in serum-free organ culture. Under these conditions, spermidine promoted hair shaft elongation and prolonged hair growth (anagen). Spermidine also upregulated expression of the epithelial stem cell-associated keratins K15 and K19, and dose-dependently modulated K15 promoter activity in situ and the colony forming efficiency, proliferation and K15 expression of isolated human K15-GFP+ cells in vitro. Inhibiting the rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine synthesis, ornithine decarboyxlase (ODC), downregulated intrafollicular K15 expression. In primary human epidermal keratinocytes, spermidine slightly promoted entry into the S/G2-M phases of the cell cycle. By microarray analysis of human HF mRNA extracts, spermidine upregulated several key target genes implicated e.g. in the control of cell adherence and migration (POP3), or endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial functions (SYVN1, NACA and SLC25A3). Excess spermidine may restrict further intrafollicular polyamine synthesis by inhibiting ODC gene and protein expression in the HF's companion layer in situ. Conclusions These physiologically and clinically relevant data provide the first direct evidence that spermidine is a potent stimulator of human hair growth and a previously unknown modulator of human epithelial stem cell biology. PMID:21818338

  6. CXCL9 Regulates TGF-β1 induced Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    O’Beirne, Sarah L; Walsh, Sinead M; Fabre, Aurélie; Reviriego, Carlota; Worrell, Julie C; Counihan, Ian P; Lumsden, Robert V; Cramton-Barnes, Jennifer; Belperio, John A.; Donnelly, Seamas C; Boylan, Denise; Marchal-Somme, Joëlle; Kane, Rosemary; Keane, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), whereby fully differentiated epithelial cells transition to a mesenchymal phenotype has been implicated in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). CXCR3 and its ligands are recognized to play a protective role in pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the presence and extent of EMT and CXCR3 expression in human IPF surgical lung biopsies and assessed whether CXCR3 and its ligand CXCL9 modulate EMT in alveolar epithelial cells. Coexpression of the epithelial maker thyroid transcription factor-1, and mesenchymal marker α-smooth muscle actin and CXCR3 expression was examined by immunohistochemical staining of IPF surgical lung biopsies. Epithelial and mesenchymal marker expression was examined by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence in human alveolar epithelial (A549) cells treated with TGF-β1 and CXCL9, whilst Smad2, Smad3, and Smad7 expression and cellular localization examined by Western blotting. We found that significantly more cells were undergoing EMT in fibrotic versus normal areas of lung in IPF surgical lung biopsy samples. CXCR3 was expressed by type II pneumocytes and fibroblasts in fibrotic areas in close proximity to cells undergoing EMT. In vitro, CXCL9 abrogated TGF-β1 induced EMT. A decrease in TGF-β1 induced phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 occurred with CXCL9 treatment. This was associated with increased shuttling of Smad7 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where it inhibits Smad phosphorylation. This suggests a role for EMT in the pathogenesis of IPF and provides a novel mechanism for the inhibitory effects of CXCL9 on TGF-β1 induced EMT. PMID:26268659

  7. Novel human bronchial epithelial cell lines for cystic fibrosis research

    PubMed Central

    Fulcher, M. L.; Gabriel, S. E.; Olsen, J. C.; Tatreau, J. R.; Gentzsch, M.; Livanos, E.; Saavedra, M. T.; Salmon, P.; Randell, S. H.

    2009-01-01

    Immortalization of human bronchial epithelial (hBE) cells often entails loss of differentiation. Bmi-1 is a protooncogene that maintains stem cells, and its expression creates cell lines that recapitulate normal cell structure and function. We introduced Bmi-1 and the catalytic subunit of telomerase (hTERT) into three non-cystic fibrosis (CF) and three ΔF508 homozygous CF primary bronchial cell preparations. This treatment extended cell life span, although not as profoundly as viral oncogenes, and at passages 14 and 15, the new cell lines had a diploid karyotype. Ussing chamber analysis revealed variable transepithelial resistances, ranging from 200 to 1,200 Ω·cm2. In the non-CF cell lines, short-circuit currents were stimulated by forskolin and inhibited by CFTR(inh)-172 at levels mostly comparable to early passage primary cells. CF cell lines exhibited no forskolin-stimulated current and minimal CFTR(inh)-172 response. Amiloride-inhibitable and UTP-stimulated currents were present, but at lower and higher amplitudes than in primary cells, respectively. The cells exhibited a pseudostratified morphology, with prominent apical membrane polarization, few apoptotic bodies, numerous mucous secretory cells, and occasional ciliated cells. CF and non-CF cell lines produced similar levels of IL-8 at baseline and equally increased IL-8 secretion in response to IL-1β, TNF-α, and the Toll-like receptor 2 agonist Pam3Cys. Although they have lower growth potential and more fastidious growth requirements than viral oncogene transformed cells, Bmi-1/hTERT airway epithelial cell lines will be useful for several avenues of investigation and will help fill gaps currently hindering CF research and therapeutic development. PMID:18978040

  8. Dihydroartemisinin suppresses growth of squamous cell carcinoma A431 cells by targeting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Hui, Hai-ying; Wu, Na; Wu, Min; Liu, Yang; Xiao, Sheng-xiang; Zhang, Mei-fang

    2016-02-01

    The antimalarial effects of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) have been well documented. However, its potential against skin cancer has not been explored as yet. Therefore, we assessed the function of DHA as an inhibitory factor of squamous cell carcinoma in A431 cells and the underlying mechanism was explored. After stimulation of A431 cells and Hacat cells (normal human keratinocyte cells, as control) with various doses of DHA, the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to assess the proliferation of both cell lines and cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometric analysis. Furthermore, after pretreatment with the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activator BIO or anti-caspase-3 antibody, mRNA levels of antiapoptotic gene survivin and proapoptotic gene caspease-3 were explored by quantitative real-time PCR, the corresponding protein levels were detected by western blotting, and the proliferation of A431 cells was also analyzed. DHA inhibited the proliferation and viability of A431 cells in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner and induced cell apoptosis. We also observed decreased surviving expression and increased caspase-3 expression of A431 cells. Furthermore, these effects depended on the suppression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling as pretreatment with the Wnt activator BIO markedly dampened the DHA-induced effects. More interestingly, when the caspase-3 expression was silenced using an antibody, the DHA-induced growth inhibition of A431 cells was offset significantly. Our results confirm that DHA inhibits skin cancer A431 cells by suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Our findings provide a potential target for squamous cell carcinoma treatment. PMID:26457547

  9. Radiation-induced chromosomal instability in human mammary epithelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durante, M.; Grossi, G. F.; Yang, T. C.

    1996-01-01

    Karyotypes of human cells surviving X- and alpha-irradiation have been studied. Human mammary epithelial cells of the immortal, non-tumorigenic cell line H184B5 F5-1 M/10 were irradiated and surviving clones isolated and expanded in culture. Cytogenetic analysis was performed using dedicated software with an image analyzer. We have found that both high- and low-LET radiation induced chromosomal instability in long-term cultures, but with different characteristics. Complex chromosomal rearrangements were observed after X-rays, while chromosome loss predominated after alpha-particles. Deletions were observed in both cases. In clones derived from cells exposed to alpha-particles, some cells showed extensive chromosome breaking and double minutes. Genomic instability was correlated to delayed reproductive death and neoplastic transformation. These results indicate that chromosomal instability is a radiation-quality-dependent effect which could determine late genetic effects, and should therefore be carefully considered in the evaluation of risk for space missions.

  10. Radiation-induced chromosomal instability in human mammary epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, M.; Grossi, G. F.; Yang, T. C.

    Karyotypes of human cells surviving X- and alpha-irradiation have been studied. Human mammary epithelial cells of the immortal, non-tumorigenic cell line H184B5 F5-1 M/10 were irradiated and surviving clones isolated and expanded in culture. Cytogenetic analysis was performed using dedicated software with an image analyzer. We have found that both high- and low-LET radiation induced chromosomal instability in long-term cultures, but with different characteristics. Complex chromosomal rearrangements were observed after X-rays, while chromosome loss predominated after alpha-particles. Deletions were observed in both cases. In clones derived from cells exposed to alpha-particles, some cells showed extensive chromosome breaking and double minutes. Genomic instability was correlated to delayed reproductive death and neoplastic transformation. These results indicate that chromosomal instability is a radiation-quality-dependent effect which could determine late genetic effects, and should therefore be carefully considered in the evaluation of risk for space missions.

  11. AGE-RAGE interaction in the TGFβ2-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition of human lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Cibin T; Nagaraj, Ram H

    2016-08-01

    Basement membrane (BM) proteins accumulate chemical modifications with age. One such modification is glycation, which results in the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). In a previous study, we reported that AGEs in the human lens capsule (BM) promote the TGFβ2-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lens epithelial cells, which we proposed as a mechanism for posterior capsule opacification (PCO) or secondary cataract formation. In this study, we investigated the role of a receptor for AGEs (RAGE) in the TGFβ2-mediated EMT in a human lens epithelial cell line (FHL124). RAGE was present in FHL124 cells, and its levels were unaltered in cells cultured on either native or AGE-modified BM or upon treatment with TGFβ2. RAGE overexpression significantly enhanced the TGFβ2-mediated EMT responses in cells cultured on AGE-modified BM compared with the unmodified matrix. In contrast, treatment of cells with a RAGE antibody or EN-RAGE (an endogenous ligand for RAGE) resulted in a significant reduction in the TGFβ2-mediated EMT response. This was accompanied by a reduction in TGFβ2-mediated Smad signaling and ROS generation. These results imply that the interaction of matrix AGEs with RAGE plays a role in the TGFβ2-mediated EMT of lens epithelial cells and suggest that the blockade of RAGE could be a strategy to prevent PCO and other age-associated fibrosis. PMID:27263094

  12. Increased programmed death-ligand-1 expression in human gastric epithelial cells in Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Y-Y; Lin, C-W; Cheng, K-S; Lin, C; Wang, Y-M; Lin, I-T; Chou, Y-H; Hsu, P-N

    2010-01-01

    B7-H1 [programmed death-ligand-1 (PD-L1)] is a B7-family member that binds to programmed death-1 (PD-1). Recently, deficiency of PD-L1 has been demonstrated to result in accelerated gastric epithelial cell damage in gastritis, and PD-L1 is suggested to play a critical role in regulating T cell homeostasis. Here, we aimed to gain more insight into gastric PD-L1 expression, regulation and function during Helicobacter pylori infection. PD-L1 expression in human gastric epithelial cells was analysed using Western blotting, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence activated cell sorter analysis. Furthermore, co-culture experiments of human gastric epithelial cells with primary human T cells or Jurkat T cells were conducted. PD-L1 expression in primary human gastric epithelial cells was strongly enhanced by H. pylori infection and activated T cells, and augmented markedly by further stimulation with interferon-γ or tumour necrosis factor-α. Moreover, PD-L1 expression in gastric epithelial cells significantly induced apoptosis of T cells. Our results indicate that a novel bidirectional interaction between human gastric epithelial cells and lymphocytes modulates PD-L1 expression in human gastric epithelial cells, contributing to the unique immunological properties of the stomach. PMID:20646001

  13. Cigarette Smoke Induces Human Epidermal Receptor 2-Dependent Changes in Epithelial Permeability.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Rangnath; Foster, Daniel; Vasu, Vihas T; Thaikoottathil, Jyoti V; Kosmider, Beata; Chu, Hong Wei; Bowler, Russell P; Finigan, James H

    2016-06-01

    The airway epithelium constitutes a protective barrier against inhaled insults, such as viruses, bacteria, and toxic fumes, including cigarette smoke (CS). Maintenance of bronchial epithelial integrity is central for airway health, and defective epithelial barrier function contributes to the pathogenesis of CS-mediated diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although CS has been shown to increase epithelial permeability, current understanding of the mechanisms involved in CS-induced epithelial barrier disruption remains incomplete. We have previously identified that the receptor tyrosine kinase human epidermal receptor (HER) 2 growth factor is activated by the ligand neuregulin-1 and increases epithelial permeability in models of inflammatory acute lung injury. We hypothesized that CS activates HER2 and that CS-mediated changes in barrier function would be HER2 dependent in airway epithelial cells. We determined that HER2 was activated in whole lung, as well as isolated epithelial cells, from smokers, and that acute CS exposure resulted in HER2 activation in cultured bronchial epithelial cells. Mechanistic studies determined that CS-mediated HER2 activation is independent of neuregulin-1 but required upstream activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor. HER2 was required for CS-induced epithelial permeability as knockdown of HER2 blocked increases in permeability after CS. CS caused an increase in IL-6 production by epithelial cells that was dependent on HER2-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erk) activation. Finally, blockade of IL-6 attenuated CS-induced epithelial permeability. Our data indicate that CS activates pulmonary epithelial HER2 and that HER2 is a central mediator of CS-induced epithelial barrier dysfunction. PMID:26600084

  14. Human papilloma virus DNAs immortalize normal human mammary epithelial cells and reduce their growth factor requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Band, V.; Zajchowski, D.; Kulesa, V.; Sager, R. )

    1990-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are most commonly associated with cervical carcinoma in patients and induce immortalization of human keratinocytes in culture. HPV has not been associated with breast cancer. This report describes the immortalization of normal human mammary epithelial cells (76N) by plasmid pHPV18 or pHPV16, each containing the linearized viral genome. Transfectants were grown continuously for more than 60 passages, whereas 76N cells senesce after 18-20 passages. The transfectants also differ from 76N cells in cloning in a completely defined medium called D2 and growing a minimally supplemented defined medium (D3) containing epidermal growth factor. All transfectant tested contain integrated HPV DNA, express HPV RNA, and produce HPV E7 protein. HPV transfectants do not form tumors in a nude mouse assay. It is concluded that products of the HPV genome induce immortalization of human breast epithelial cells and reduce their growth factor requirements. This result raises the possibility that HPV might be involved in breast cancer. Furthermore, other tissue-specific primary epithelial cells that are presently difficult to grown and investigate may also be immortalized by HPV.

  15. Nanoceria have no genotoxic effect on human lens epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierscionek, Barbara K.; Li, Yuebin; Yasseen, Akeel A.; Colhoun, Liza M.; Schachar, Ronald A.; Chen, Wei

    2010-01-01

    There are no treatments for reversing or halting cataract, a disease of the structural proteins in the eye lens, that has associations with other age-related degenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. The incidence of cataract and associated conditions is increasing as the average age of the population rises. Protein folding diseases are difficult to assess in vivo as proteins and their age-related changes are assessed after extraction. Nanotechnology can be used to investigate protein changes in the intact lens as well as for a potential means of drug delivery. Nanoparticles, such as cerium oxide (CeO2) which have antioxidant properties, may even be used as a means of treating cataract directly. Prior to use in treatments, nanoparticle genotoxicity must be tested to assess the extent of any DNA or chromosomal damage. Sister chromatid exchanges were measured and DNA damage investigated using the alkaline COMET assay on cultured human lens epithelial cells, exposed to 5 and 10 µg ml-1 of CeO2 nanoparticles (nanoceria). Nanoceria at these dosages did not cause any DNA damage or significant increases in the number of sister chromatid exchanges. The absence of genotoxic effects on lens cells suggests that nanoceria, in the doses and exposures tested in this study, are not deleterious to the eye lens and have the potential for use in studying structural alterations, in developing non-surgical cataract treatments and in investigating other protein folding diseases.

  16. Early Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Reprograms Human Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chiribao, María Laura; Libisch, Gabriela; Parodi-Talice, Adriana; Robello, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, has the peculiarity, when compared with other intracellular parasites, that it is able to invade almost any type of cell. This property makes Chagas a complex parasitic disease in terms of prophylaxis and therapeutics. The identification of key host cellular factors that play a role in the T. cruzi invasion is important for the understanding of disease pathogenesis. In Chagas disease, most of the focus is on the response of macrophages and cardiomyocytes, since they are responsible for host defenses and cardiac lesions, respectively. In the present work, we studied the early response to infection of T. cruzi in human epithelial cells, which constitute the first barrier for establishment of infection. These studies identified up to 1700 significantly altered genes regulated by the immediate infection. The global analysis indicates that cells are literally reprogrammed by T. cruzi, which affects cellular stress responses (neutrophil chemotaxis, DNA damage response), a great number of transcription factors (including the majority of NFκB family members), and host metabolism (cholesterol, fatty acids, and phospholipids). These results raise the possibility that early host cell reprogramming is exploited by the parasite to establish the initial infection and posterior systemic dissemination. PMID:24812617

  17. Entry of genital Chlamydia trachomatis into polarized human epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Wyrick, P B; Choong, J; Davis, C H; Knight, S T; Royal, M O; Maslow, A S; Bagnell, C R

    1989-01-01

    To study the initial invasion process(es) of genital chlamydiae, a model system consisting of hormonally maintained primary cultures of human endometrial gland epithelial cells (HEGEC), grown in a polarized orientation on collagen-coated filters, was utilized. After Chlamydia trachomatis inoculation of the apical surface of polarized HEGEC, chlamydiae were readily visualized, by transmission electron microscopy, in coated pits and coated vesicles. This was true for HEGEC maintained in physiologic concentrations of estrogen (proliferative phase) and of estrogen plus progesterone (secretory phase), despite the finding that association of chlamydiae with secretory-phase HEGEC is significantly reduced (P = 0.025; A.S. Maslow, C.H. Davis, J. Choong, and P.B. Wyrick, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 159:1006-1014, 1988). In contrast, chlamydiae were rarely observed in the clathrin-associated structures if the HEGEC were cultured on plastic surfaces. The same pattern of coated pit versus noncoated pit entry was reproducible in HeLa cells. The quantity of coated pits associated with isolated membrane sheets derived from HeLa cells, grown on poly-L-lysine-coated cover slips in medium containing the female hormones, was not significantly different as monitored by radiolabeling studies and by laser scanning microscopy. These data suggest that culture conditions which mimic in vivo cellular organization may enhance entry into coated pits for some obligate intracellular pathogens. Images PMID:2744852

  18. Concise review: the relevance of human stem cell-derived organoid models for epithelial translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Hynds, Robert E; Giangreco, Adam

    2013-03-01

    Epithelial organ remodeling is a major contributing factor to worldwide death and disease, costing healthcare systems billions of dollars every year. Despite this, most fundamental epithelial organ research fails to produce new therapies and mortality rates for epithelial organ diseases remain unacceptably high. In large part, this failure in translating basic epithelial research into clinical therapy is due to a lack of relevance in existing preclinical models. To correct this, new models are required that improve preclinical target identification, pharmacological lead validation, and compound optimization. In this review, we discuss the relevance of human stem cell-derived, three-dimensional organoid models for addressing each of these challenges. We highlight the advantages of stem cell-derived organoid models over existing culture systems, discuss recent advances in epithelial tissue-specific organoids, and present a paradigm for using organoid models in human translational medicine. PMID:23203919

  19. Recognition of Major Histocompatibility Complex Antigens on Cultured Human Biliary Epithelial Cells by Alloreactive Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Saidman, Susan L.; Duquesnoy, Rene J.; Zeevi, Adriana; Fung, John J.; Starzl, Thomas E.; Demetris, A. Jake

    2010-01-01

    We have developed an in vitro system to study the interactions between biliary epithelium and lymphocytes using cultured human biliary epithelial cells. No class II antigens were detected by immunoperoxidase staining of the normal biliary epithelial cells, but alloactivated lymphocyte culture supernatants were able to induce class II expression. The activity of the supernatants was blocked with an anti-γ-interferon monoclonal antibody. In addition, recombinant human γ-interferon alone induced the expression of class II antigens and increased the intensity of class I staining of cultured biliary epithelial cells. Biliary epithelial cell–induced proliferation of alloreactive T lymphocytes demonstrated that the major histocompatibility complex molecules carry functional lymphocyte-activating determinants. The recognition of major histocompatibility complex determinants was confirmed by monoclonal antibody–blocking studies and by stimulation of an alloreactive T-cell clone. However, the biliary epithelial cells were much less potent stimulators than arterial endothelial cells tested in the same assay system. PMID:1704868

  20. Expression and function of the epithelial sodium channel δ-subunit in human respiratory epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schwagerus, Elena; Sladek, Svenja; Buckley, Stephen T; Armas-Capote, Natalia; Alvarez de la Rosa, Diego; Harvey, Brian J; Fischer, Horst; Illek, Beate; Huwer, Hanno; Schneider-Daum, Nicole; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Ehrhardt, Carsten

    2015-11-01

    Using human airway epithelial cell lines (i.e. NCI-H441 and Calu-3) as well as human alveolar epithelial type I-like (ATI) cells in primary culture, we studied the contribution of the epithelial sodium channel δ-subunit (δ-ENaC) to transepithelial sodium transport in human lung in vitro. Endogenous δ-ENaC protein was present in all three cell types tested; however, protein abundance was low, and no expression was detected in the apical cell membrane of these cells. Similarly, known modulators of δ-ENaC activity, such as capsazepine and icilin (activators) and Evans blue (inhibitor), did not show effects on short-circuit current (I SC), suggesting that δ-ENaC is not involved in the modulation of transcellular sodium absorption in NCI-H441 cell monolayers. Over-expression of δ-ENaC in NCI-H441 cells resulted in detectable protein expression in the apical cell membrane, as well as capsazepine and icilin-stimulated increases in I SC that were effectively blocked by Evans blue and that were consistent with δ-ENaC activation and inhibition, respectively. Consequently, these observations suggest that δ-ENaC expression is low in NCI-H441, Calu-3, and ATI cells and does not contribute to transepithelial sodium absorption. PMID:25677639

  1. Fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin) secretion by human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells

    PubMed Central

    Cavet, M E; West, M; Simmons, N L

    1997-01-01

    Human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells were used to investigate the mechanistic basis of transepithelial secretion of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Net secretion and cellular uptake of ciprofloxacin (at 0.1 mM) were not subject to competitive inhibition by sulphate, thiosulphate, oxalate, succinate and para-amino hippurate, probenecid (10 mM), taurocholate (100 μM) or bromosulphophthalein (100 μM). Similarly tetraethylammonium and N-′methylnicotinamide (10 mM) were without effect. Net secretion of ciprofloxacin was inhibited by the organic exchange inhibitor 4,4′-diisothiocyanostilbene-2-2′-disulphonic acid (DIDS, 400 μM). Net secretion of ciprofloxacin was partially inhibited by 100 μM verapamil, whilst net secretion of the P-glycoprotein substrate vinblastine was totally abolished under these conditions. Ciprofloxacin secretion was unaltered after preincubation of cells with two anti-P-glycoprotein antibodies (UIC2 and MRK16), which both significantly reduced secretory vinblastine flux (measured in the same cell batch). Ciprofloxacin (3 mM) failed to inhibit vinblastine net secretion in Caco-2 epithelia, and was not itself secreted by the P-glycoprotein expressing and vinblastine secreting dog kidney cell line, MDCK. Net secretion and cellular uptake of ciprofloxacin (at 0.1 mM) were not subject to alterations of either cytosolic or medium pH, or dependent on the presence of medium Na+, Cl− or K+ in the bathing media. The substrate specificity of the ciprofloxacin secretory transport in Caco-2 epithelia is distinct from both the renal organic anion and cation transport. A role for P-glycoprotein in ciprofloxacin secretion may also be excluded. A novel transport mechanism, sensitive to both DIDS and verapamil mediates secretion of ciprofloxacin by human intestinal Caco-2 epithelia. PMID:9283689

  2. Detonation Nanodiamond Toxicity in Human Airway Epithelial Cells Is Modulated by Air Oxidation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detonational nanodiamonds (DND), a nanomaterial with an increasing range of industrial and biomedical applications, have previously been shown to induce a pro-inflammatory response in cultured human airway epithelial cells (HAEC). We now show that surface modifications induced by...

  3. Binding of transcobalamin II by human mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Adkins, Y; Lönnerdal, B

    2001-01-01

    The presence of nutrient binders in milk may have an important role during milk production and may influence the nutrient's bioavailability to the infant. Human milk and plasma contain at least two types of vitamin B12 binders: transcobalamin II (TCII) and haptocorrin (Hc). Vitamin B12 in milk is exclusively bound to Hc (Hc-B12). In plasma, the major vitamin B12 binding protein that is responsible for delivering absorbed vitamin B12 to most tissues and cells is TCII (TCII-B12). Currently, little is known about the route of secretion of vitamin B12 into human milk. It is possible that a receptor-mediated pathway is involved, since maternal vitamin B12 supplementation increases the amount of the vitamin secreted into human milk if the mother's vitamin B12 consumption is low, but remains unchanged if her intake is adequate. In this study, we investigated the process by which the mammary gland acquires vitamin B12 from maternal circulation, whether as a free vitamin or as a Hc-B12 or TCII-B12 complex. TCII was purified from plasma incubated with [57Co]vit B12 (B12*), while Hc was purified from whey incubated with B12*. Both proteins were separated by fast protein liquid chromatography using gel filtration and anion-exchange columns. Purity of the separated proteins was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Binding studies were carried out on a monolayer of normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) at 4 degrees C using free B12* and TCII-B12* and Hc-B12* complexes. Minimal binding of free B12* and Hc-B12* to HMEC was observed; however, HMEC exhibited a high affinity for the TCII-B12* complex. This study suggests that a specific cell surface receptor for the TCII-B12 complex exists in the mammary gland. It is possible that once vitamin B12 is in the mammary gland it is transferred to Hc (which may be synthesized by the mammary gland) and then secreted into milk as a Hc-B12 complex. PMID:11787717

  4. Interactions between Periodontal Bacteria and Human Oral Epithelial Cells: Fusobacterium nucleatum Adheres to and Invades Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yiping W.; Shi, Wenyuan; Huang, George T.-J.; Kinder Haake, Susan; Park, No-Hee; Kuramitsu, Howard; Genco, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Bacteria are causative agents of periodontal diseases. Interactions between oral bacteria and gingival epithelial cells are essential aspects of periodontal infections. Using an in vitro tissue culture model, a selected group of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria frequently associated with periodontal diseases, including Bacteroides forsythus, Campylobacter curvus, Eikenella corrodens, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia, were examined for their ability to adhere to and invade primary cultures of human gingival epithelial cells (HGEC). The effects of these bacteria on the production of interleukin-8 (IL-8), a proinflammatory chemokine, were also measured. These studies provided an initial demonstration that F. nucleatum adhered to and invaded HGEC and that this was accompanied by high levels of IL-8 secretion from the epithelial cells. The attachment and invasion characteristics of F. nucleatum were also tested using KB cells, an oral epithelial cell line. The invasion was verified by transmission electron microscopy and with metabolic inhibitors. Invasion appeared to occur via a “zipping” mechanism and required the involvement of actins, microtubules, signal transduction, protein synthesis, and energy metabolism of the epithelial cell, as well as protein synthesis by F. nucleatum. A spontaneous mutant, lam, of F. nucleatum, isolated as defective in autoagglutination, was unable to attach to or invade HGEC or KB cells, further indicating the requirement of bacterial components in these processes. Sugar inhibition assays indicated that lectin-like interactions were involved in the attachment of F. nucleatum to KB cells. Investigation of these new virulence phenotypes should improve our understanding of the role of F. nucleatum in periodontal infections. PMID:10816455

  5. Ultrastructural analysis of primary human urethral epithelial cell cultures infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Harvey, H A; Ketterer, M R; Preston, A; Lubaroff, D; Williams, R; Apicella, M A

    1997-06-01

    In men with gonococcal urethritis, the urethral epithelial cell is a site of infection. To study the pathogenesis of gonorrhea in this cell type, we have developed a method to culture primary human urethral epithelial cells obtained at the time of urologic surgery. Fluorescent analysis demonstrated that 100% of the cells stained for keratin. Microscopic analyses indicated that these epithelial cells arrayed in a pattern similar to that seen in urethral epithelium. Using immunoelectron and confocal microscopy, we compared the infection process seen in primary cells with events occurring during natural infection of the same cell type in men with gonococcal urethritis. Immunoelectron microscopy studies of cells infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae 1291 Opa+ P+ showed adherence of organisms to the epithelial cell membrane, pedestal formation with evidence of intimate association between the gonococcal and the epithelial cell membranes, and intracellular gonococci present in vacuoles. Confocal studies of primary urethral epithelial cells showed actin polymerization upon infection. Polyclonal antibodies to the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) demonstrated the presence of this receptor on infected cells in the primary urethral cell culture. In situ hybridization using a fluorescent-labeled probe specific to the ASGP-R mRNA demonstrated this message in uninfected and infected cells. These features were identical to those seen in urethral epithelial cells in exudates from males with gonorrhea. Infection of primary urethral cells in culture mimics events seen in natural infection and will allow detailed molecular analysis of gonococcal pathogenesis in a human epithelial cell which is commonly infected. PMID:9169783

  6. Effect of Growth Factors on the Proliferation and Gene Expression of Human Meibomian Gland Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shaohui; Kam, Wendy R.; Ding, Juan; Hatton, Mark P.; Sullivan, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We hypothesize that growth factors, including epidermal growth factor (EGF) and bovine pituitary extract (BPE), induce proliferation, but not differentiation (e.g., lipid accumulation), of human meibomian gland epithelial cells. We also hypothesize that these actions involve a significant upregulation of genes linked to cell cycle processes, and a significant downregulation of genes associated with differentiation. Our objective was to test these hypotheses. Methods. Immortalized human meibomian gland and conjunctival epithelial cells were cultured for varying time periods in the presence or absence of EGF, BPE, EGF + BPE, or serum, followed by cell counting, neutral lipid staining, or RNA isolation for molecular biological procedures. Results. Our studies show that growth factors stimulate a significant, time-dependent proliferation of human meibomian gland epithelial cells. These effects are associated with a significant upregulation of genes linked to cell cycle, DNA replication, ribosomes, and translation, and a significant decrease in those related to cell differentiation, tissue development, lipid metabolic processes, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling. Serum-induced differentiation, but not growth factor-related proliferation, elicits a pronounced lipid accumulation in human meibomian gland epithelial cells. This lipogenic response is unique, and is not duplicated by human conjunctival epithelial cells. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate that EGF and BPE stimulate human meibomian gland epithelial cells to proliferate. Further, our findings show that action is associated with an upregulation of cell cycle and translation ontologies, and a downregulation of genetic pathways linked to differentiation and lipid biosynthesis. PMID:23493293

  7. The Neisseria meningitidis ADP-Ribosyltransferase NarE Enters Human Epithelial Cells and Disrupts Epithelial Monolayer Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Inmaculada; Colanzi, Antonino; Lapazio, Lucia; Corda, Daniela; Soriani, Marco; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Rossi Paccani, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Many pathogenic bacteria utilize ADP-ribosylating toxins to modify and impair essential functions of eukaryotic cells. It has been previously reported that Neisseria meningitidis possesses an ADP-ribosyltransferase enzyme, NarE, retaining the capacity to hydrolyse NAD and to transfer ADP-ribose moiety to arginine residues in target acceptor proteins. Here we show that upon internalization into human epithelial cells, NarE gains access to the cytoplasm and, through its ADP-ribosylating activity, targets host cell proteins. Notably, we observed that these events trigger the disruption of the epithelial monolayer integrity and the activation of the apoptotic pathway. Overall, our findings provide, for the first time, evidence for a biological activity of NarE on host cells, suggesting its possible involvement in Neisseria pathogenesis. PMID:25996923

  8. Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Response to Heavy Particle Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Story, Michael; Ding, Liang-Hao; Minna, John; Park, Seong-mi; Peyton, Michael; Larsen, Jill

    2012-07-01

    A battery of non-oncogenically immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) are being used to examine the molecular changes that lead to lung carcinogenesis after exposure to heavy particles found in the free space environment. The goal is to ultimately identify biomarkers of radioresponse that can be used for prediction of carcinogenic risk for fatal lung cancer. Our initial studies have focused on the cell line HBEC3 KT and the isogenic variant HBEC3 KTR53, which overexpresses the RASv12 mutant and where p53 has been knocked down by shRNA, and is considered to be a more oncogenically progressed variant. We have previously described the response of HBEC3 KT at the cellular and molecular level, however, the focus here is on the rate of cellular transformation after HZE radiation exposure and the molecular changes in transformed cells. When comparing the two cell lines we find that there is a maximum rate of cellular transformation at 0.25 Gy when cells are exposed to 1 GeV Fe particles, and, for the HBEC3 KTR53 there are multiple pathways upregulated that promote anchorage independent growth including the mTOR pathway, the TGF-1 pathway, RhoA signaling and the ERK/MAPK pathway as early as 2 weeks after radiation. This does not occur in the HBEC3 KT cell line. Transformed HBEC3 KT cells do not show any morphologic or phenotypic changes when grown as cell cultures. HBEC3 KTR53 cells on the other hand show substantial changes in morphology from a cobblestone epithelial appearance to a mesenchymal appearance with a lack of contact inhibition. This epithelial to mesenchymal change in morphology is accompanied by the expression of vimentin and a reduction in the expression of E-cadherin, which are hallmarks of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Interestingly, for HBEC3 KT transformed cells there are no mutations in the p53 gene, 2 of 15 clones were found to be heterozygous for the RASV12 mutation, and 3 of 15 clones expressed high levels of BigH3, a TGFB

  9. Interferons Mediate Terminal Differentiation of Human Cortical Thymic Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Laine, David; Zaffran, Yona; Azocar, Olga; Servet-Delprat, Christine; Wild, T. Fabian; Rabourdin-Combe, Chantal; Valentin, Hélène

    2002-01-01

    In the thymus, epithelial cells comprise a heterogeneous population required for the generation of functional T lymphocytes, suggesting that thymic epithelium disruption by viruses may compromise T-cell lymphopoiesis in this organ. In a previous report, we demonstrated that in vitro, measles virus induced differentiation of cortical thymic epithelial cells as characterized by (i) cell growth arrest, (ii) morphological and phenotypic changes, and (iii) apoptotis as a final step of this process. In the present report, we have analyzed the mechanisms involved. First, measles virus-induced differentiation of thymic epithelial cells is shown to be strictly dependent on beta interferon (IFN-β) secretion. In addition, transfection with double-stranded RNA, a common intermediate of replication for a broad spectrum of viruses, is reported to similarly mediate thymic epithelial cell differentiation through IFN-β induction. Finally, we demonstrated that recombinant IFN-α, IFN-β, or IFN-γ was sufficient to induce differentiation and apoptosis of uninfected thymic epithelial cells. These observations suggested that interferon secretion by either infected cells or activated leukocytes, such as plasmacytoid dendritic cells or lymphocytes, may induce thymic epithelium disruption in a pathological context. Thus, we have identified a new mechanism that may contribute to thymic atrophy and altered T-cell lymphopoiesis associated with many infections. PMID:12050353

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Human Adult Epithelial Stem Cells from the Periodontal Ligament.

    PubMed

    Athanassiou-Papaefthymiou, M; Papagerakis, P; Papagerakis, S

    2015-11-01

    We report a novel method for the isolation of adult human epithelial stem cells (hEpiSCs) from the epithelial component of the periodontal ligament-the human epithelial cell rests of Malassez (hERM). hEpiSC-rich integrin-α6(+ve) hERM cells derived by fluorometry can be clonally expanded, can grow organoids, and express the markers of pluripotency (OCT4, NANOG, SOX2), polycomb protein RING1B, and the hEpiSC supermarker LGR5. They maintain the growth profile of their originating hERM in vitro. Subcutaneous cotransplantation with mesenchymal stem cells from the dental pulp on poly-l-lactic acid scaffolds in nude mice gave rise to perfect heterotopic ossicles in vivo with ultrastructure of dentin, enamel, cementum, and bone. These remarkable fully mineralized ossicles underscore the importance of epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk in tissue regeneration using human progenitor stem cells, which may have already committed to lineage despite maintaining hallmarks of pluripotency. In addition, we report the clonal expansion and isolation of human LGR5(+ve) cells from the hERM in xeno-free culture conditions. The genetic profile of LGR5(+ve) cells includes both markers of pluripotency and genes important for secretory epithelial and dental epithelial cell differentiation, giving us a first insight into periodontal ligament-derived hEpiSCs. PMID:26392003

  11. Colonization of human epithelial cell lines by Corynebacterium ulcerans from human and animal sources.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Elena; Ott, Lisa; Hasselt, Kristin; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luiza; Tauch, Andreas; Burkovski, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Corynebacterium ulcerans is an emerging pathogen transmitted by a zoonotic pathway to humans. Despite rising numbers of infections and potentially fatal outcomes, data on the colonization of the human host are lacking up to now. In this study, adhesion of two C. ulcerans isolates to human epithelial cells, invasion of host cells and the function of two putative virulence factors with respect to these processes were investigated. C. ulcerans strains BR-AD22 and 809 were able to adhere to Detroit562 and HeLa cells, and invade these epithelial cell lines with a rate comparable to other pathogens as shown by scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and replication assays. Infection led to detrimental effects on the cells as deduced from measurements of transepithelial resistance. Mutant strains of putative virulence factors phospholipase D and DIP0733 homologue CULC22_00609 generated in this study showed no influence on colonization under the experimental conditions tested. The data presented here indicate a high infectious potential of this emerging pathogen. PMID:26066797

  12. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING OF NORMAL HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO TRIVALENT ARSENICALS AND DIMETHYLTHIOARSINIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lung is a major target for arsenic carcinogenesis in humans. However, the carcinogenic mode of action of arsenicals is unknown. We investigated, in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS2B) cells, the effects of inorganic arsenic (iAsIII), monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII), dimethylarsi...

  13. Determining adaptive and adverse oxidative stress responses in human bronical epithelial cells exposed to zinc

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining adaptive and adverse oxidative stress responses in human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to zincJenna M. Currier1,2, Wan-Yun Cheng1, Rory Conolly1, Brian N. Chorley1Zinc is a ubiquitous contaminant of ambient air that presents an oxidant challenge to the human lung...

  14. The plasticity of human breast carcinoma cells is more than epithelial to mesenchymal conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, Ole William; Nielsen, Helga Lind; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Villadsen, René; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J.

    2001-05-12

    The human breast comprises three lineages: the luminal epithelial lineage, the myoepithelial lineage, and the mesenchymal lineage. It has been widely accepted that human breast neoplasia pertains only to the luminal epithelial lineage. In recent years, however, evidence has accumulated that neoplastic breast epithelial cells may be substantially more plastic in their differentiation repertoire than previously anticipated. Thus, along with an increasing availability of markers for the myoepithelial lineage, at least a partial differentiation towards this lineage is being revealed frequently. It has also become clear that conversions towards the mesenchymal lineage actually occur, referred to as epithelial to mesenchymal transitions. Indeed, some of the so-called myofibroblasts surrounding the tumor may indeed have an epithelial origin rather than a mesenchymal origin. Because myoepithelial cells, epithelial to mesenchymal transition-derived cells, genuine stromal cells and myofibroblasts share common markers, we now need to define a more ambitious set of markers to distinguish these cell types in the microenvironment of the tumors. This is necessary because the different microenvironments may confer different clinical outcomes. The aim of this commentary is to describe some of the inherent complexities in defining cellular phenotypes in the microenvironment of breast cancer and to expand wherever possible on the implications for tumor suppression and progression.

  15. Epithelial expression and chromosomal location of human TLE genes: Implications for notch signaling and neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yanling; Dehni, Ghassan; Stifani, S.

    1996-01-01

    The TLE genes are the human homologues of Drosophila groucho, a member of the Notch signaling pathway. This pathway controls a number of different cell-fate choices in invertebrates and vertebrates. We are interested in investigating the functions of the TLE gene family during epithelial determination and carcinogenesis. We show that expression of individual TLE genes correlates with immature epithelial cells that are progressing toward their terminally differentiated state, suggesting a role during epithelial differentiation. In both normal tissues and conditions resulting from incorrect or incomplete maturation events, such as metaplastic and neoplastic transformations, TLE expression is elevated and coincides with Notch expression, implicating these molecules in the maintenance of the undifferentiated state in epithelial cells. We also show that TLE1 and TLE2 are organized in a tandem array at chromosomal location 19p13.3, while TLE3 maps to 15q22. 26 refs., 4 figs.

  16. An improved method for isolation of epithelial and stromal cells from the human endometrium

    PubMed Central

    MASUDA, Ayako; KATOH, Noriko; NAKABAYASHI, Kazuhiko; KATO, Kiyoko; SONODA, Kenzo; KITADE, Mari; TAKEDA, Satoru; HATA, Kenichiro; TOMIKAWA, Junko

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to improve the efficiency of isolating endometrial epithelial and stromal cells (EMECs and EMSCs) from the human endometrium. We revealed by immunohistochemical staining that the large tissue fragments remaining after collagenase treatment, which are usually discarded after the first filtration in the conventional protocol, consisted of glandular epithelial and stromal cells. Therefore, we established protease treatment and cell suspension conditions to dissociate single cells from the tissue fragments and isolated epithelial (EPCAM-positive) and stromal (CD13-positive) cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Four independent experiments showed that, on average, 1.2 × 106 of EMECs and 2.8 × 106 EMSCs were isolated from one hysterectomy specimen. We confirmed that the isolated cells presented transcriptomic features highly similar to those of epithelial and stromal cells obtained by the conventional method. Our improved protocol facilitates future studies to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the dynamic changes of the endometrium during the menstrual cycle. PMID:26853786

  17. Development of an enhanced human gastrointestinal epithelial culture system to facilitate patient-based assays

    PubMed Central

    VanDussen, Kelli L; Marinshaw, Jeffrey M; Shaikh, Nurmohammad; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Moon, Clara; Tarr, Phillip I; Ciorba, Matthew A; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S

    2014-01-01

    Objective The technology for the growth of human intestinal epithelial cells is rapidly progressing. An exciting possibility is that this system could serve as a platform for individualized medicine and research. However, to achieve this goal, human epithelial culture must be enhanced so that biopsies from individuals can be used to reproducibly generate cell lines in a short time frame so that multiple, functional assays can be performed (i.e., barrier function and host-microbial interactions). Design We created a large panel of human gastrointestinal epithelial cell lines (n = 65) from patient biopsies taken during routine upper and lower endoscopy procedures. Proliferative stem/progenitor cells were rapidly expanded using a high concentration of conditioned media containing the factors critical for growth (Wnt3a, R-spondin and Noggin). A combination of lower conditioned media concentration and Notch inhibition was used to differentiate these cells for additional assays. Results We obtained epithelial lines from all accessible tissue sites within two weeks of culture. The intestinal cell lines were enriched for stem cell markers and rapidly grew as spheroids that required passage at 1:3–1:4 every 3 days. Under differentiation conditions, intestinal epithelial spheroids showed region-specific development of mature epithelial lineages. These cells formed functional, polarized monolayers covered by a secreted mucus layer when grown on Transwell membranes. Using two-dimensional culture, these cells also demonstrated novel adherence phenotypes with various strains of pathogenic Escherichia coli. Conclusion This culture system will facilitate the study of inter-individual, functional studies of human intestinal epithelial cells, including host-microbial interactions. PMID:25007816

  18. Advanced Imaging and Tissue Engineering of the Human Limbal Epithelial Stem Cell Niche

    PubMed Central

    Massie, Isobel; Dziasko, Marc; Kureshi, Alvena; Levis, Hannah J.; Morgan, Louise; Neale, Michael; Sheth, Radhika; Tovell, Victoria E.; Vernon, Amanda J.; Funderburgh, James L.; Daniels, Julie T.

    2015-01-01

    The limbal epithelial stem cell niche provides a unique, physically protective environment in which limbal epithelial stem cells reside in close proximity with accessory cell types and their secreted factors. The use of advanced imaging techniques is described to visualize the niche in three dimensions in native human corneal tissue. In addition, a protocol is provided for the isolation and culture of three different cell types, including human limbal epithelial stem cells from the limbal niche of human donor tissue. Finally, the process of incorporating these cells within plastic compressed collagen constructs to form a tissue-engineered corneal limbus is described and how immunohistochemical techniques may be applied to characterize cell phenotype therein. PMID:25388395

  19. Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) Reprogram Gene Expression in Human Malignant Epithelial and Lymphoid Cells.

    PubMed

    Astakhova, Lidiia; Ngara, Mtakai; Babich, Olga; Prosekov, Aleksandr; Asyakina, Lyudmila; Dyshlyuk, Lyubov; Midtvedt, Tore; Zhou, Xiaoying; Ernberg, Ingemar; Matskova, Liudmila

    2016-01-01

    The effect of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) on gene expression in human, malignant cell lines was investigated, with a focus on signaling pathways. The commensal microbial flora produce high levels of SCFAs with established physiologic effects in humans. The most abundant SCFA metabolite in the human microflora is n-butyric acid. It is well known to activate endogenous latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), that was used as a reference read out system and extended to EBV+ epithelial cancer cell lines. N-butyric acid and its salt induced inflammatory and apoptotic responses in tumor cells of epithelial and lymphoid origin. Epithelial cell migration was inhibited. The n-butyric gene activation was reduced by knock-down of the cell membrane transporters MCT-1 and -4 by siRNA. N-butyric acid show biologically significant effects on several important cellular functions, also with relevance for tumor cell phenotype. PMID:27441625

  20. Initiation of oncogenic transformation in human mammary epithelial cells by charged particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T. C.; Georgy, K. A.; Craise, L. M.; Durante, M.

    1997-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that high linear-energy transfer (LET) charged particles can be more effective than x-rays and gamma-rays in inducing oncogenic transformation in cultured cells and tumors in animals. Based on these results, experiments were designed and performed with an immortal human mammary epithelial cell line (H184B5), and several clones transformed by heavy ions were obtained. Cell fusion experiments were subsequently done, and results indicate that the transforming gene(s) is recessive. Chromosome analysis with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques also showed additional translocations in transformed human mammary epithelial cells. In addition, studies with these cell lines indicate that heavy ions can effectively induce deletion, break, and dicentrics. Deletion of tumor suppressor gene(s) and/or formation of translocation through DNA double strand breaks is a likely mechanism for the initiation of oncogenic transformation in human mammary epithelial cells.

  1. Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) Reprogram Gene Expression in Human Malignant Epithelial and Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Astakhova, Lidiia; Ngara, Mtakai; Babich, Olga; Prosekov, Aleksandr; Asyakina, Lyudmila; Dyshlyuk, Lyubov; Midtvedt, Tore; Zhou, Xiaoying; Ernberg, Ingemar; Matskova, Liudmila

    2016-01-01

    The effect of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) on gene expression in human, malignant cell lines was investigated, with a focus on signaling pathways. The commensal microbial flora produce high levels of SCFAs with established physiologic effects in humans. The most abundant SCFA metabolite in the human microflora is n-butyric acid. It is well known to activate endogenous latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), that was used as a reference read out system and extended to EBV+ epithelial cancer cell lines. N-butyric acid and its salt induced inflammatory and apoptotic responses in tumor cells of epithelial and lymphoid origin. Epithelial cell migration was inhibited. The n-butyric gene activation was reduced by knock-down of the cell membrane transporters MCT-1 and -4 by siRNA. N-butyric acid show biologically significant effects on several important cellular functions, also with relevance for tumor cell phenotype. PMID:27441625

  2. Human colon epithelial cells productively infected with human immunodeficiency virus show impaired differentiation and altered secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Fantini, J; Yahi, N; Baghdiguian, S; Chermann, J C

    1992-01-01

    Selected strains of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) types 1 and 2 are able to infect human colon epithelial cells in vitro, suggesting a mechanism for the anal route of HIV transmission. In some cases, HIV is not produced by infected colon cells but can be rescued after coculture with T-lymphoid cells. One of the HIV strains (HIV1-NDK) replicated well in colonic cells. A transmission electron microscope study demonstrated two major structural perturbations in producer colon cells: an unusual number of secretion bodies and the appearance of intracellular lumina with disorganized microvilli, indicating a defect in brush border assembly and differentiation. Either abnormality could account for HIV-induced enteropathy consisting of chronic diarrhea and malabsorption in the absence of enteric pathogens. Moreover, HT29 cells infected with HIV provide a unique model for selection of enterotropic HIV strains. Images PMID:1727501

  3. Pre-existing Epithelial Diversity in Normal Human Livers: A Tissue-tethered Cytometric Analysis in Portal/Periportal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Isse, Kumiko; Lesniak, Andrew; Grama, Kedar; Maier, John; Specht, Susan; Castillo-Rama, Marcela; Lunz, John; Roysam, Badrinath; Michalopoulos, George; Demetris, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Routine light microscopy identifies two distinct epithelial cell populations in normal human livers: hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells (BEC). Considerable epithelial diversity, however, arises during disease states when a variety of hepatocyte-BEC hybrid cells appear. This has been attributed to activation and differentiation of putative hepatic progenitor cells (HPC) residing in the Canals of Hering and/or metaplasia of pre-existing mature epithelial cells. A novel analytic approach consisting of multiplex labeling, high resolution whole slide imaging (WSI), and automated image analysis was used to determine if more complex epithelial cell phenotypes pre-existed in normal adult human livers, which might provide an alternative explanation for disease-induced epithelial diversity. “Virtually digested” WSI enabled quantitative cytometric analyses of individual cells displayed in a variety of formats (e.g. scatter plots) while still tethered to the WSI and tissue structure. We employed biomarkers specifically-associated with mature epithelial forms (HNF4α for hepatocytes, CK19 and HNF1β for BEC) and explored for the presence of cells with hybrid biomarker phenotypes. Results showed abundant hybrid cells in portal bile duct BEC, canals of Hering, and immediate periportal hepatocytes. These bi-potential cells likely serve as a reservoir for the epithelial diversity of ductular reactions, appearance of hepatocytes in bile ducts, and the rapid and fluid transition of BEC to hepatocytes, and vice versa. Conclusion Novel imaging and computational tools enable increased information extraction from tissue samples and quantify the considerable pre-existent hybrid epithelial diversity in normal human liver. This computationally-enabled tissue analysis approach offers much broader potential beyond the results presented here. PMID:23150208

  4. Culture and characterization of human junctional epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, T; Izumi, Y; Sueda, T

    1997-03-01

    This study was undertaken to establish a culture of junctional epithelial cells derived from gingival tissue attached to the tooth surface and to characterize these cells immunocytochemically and ultrastructurally. Primary cultures of cells were obtained from the junctional tissue explanted on type I collagen-coated dishes and immersed in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Cells were subcultured with conditioned serum-free keratinocyte medium (keratinocyte-SFM + 5% FBS) on dishes coated with solubilized extract of the basement membrane. After 24 hours, the medium was changed to keratinocyte-SFM (0.09 mM Ca2+). The cell-doubling time was 40.5 hours. As a control, cells from gingival tissue were cultured by the same method. Cells from junctional tissue and gingival tissue were compared immunocytochemically using monoclonal antibodies to keratin, vimentin, and desmoplakins I and II and using Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA). The keratin AE1 and AE3 was expressed by all of culture cells. The vimentin (specific for the intermediate filament of mesenchymal cells) was also expressed by all cells. The expression pattern of keratin 19 was observed not only by cells from junctional tissue but also by cells from gingival tissue. All keratin peptides were expressed in both cells. However, DBA reacted only with cells from the junctional tissue. Anti-desmoplakin I and II reacted with both cells, however, the staining patterns differed. DBA-positive cultured epithelial cells from the junctional tissue showed poor tonofilament bundles and were rich in cytoplasmic organelles. These findings suggest that junctional epithelial cells can be isolated from junctional tissue and cultured under improved conditions. PMID:9100198

  5. Sensitivity of proliferating human breast epithelial cells to hypotonic treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstone, S.E.; Stanyon, R.; Lan, S.

    1982-12-01

    An assay for colony-forming cells of breast epithelia derived from normal and malignant surgical specimens is described using an IMR 90 fibroblast feeder layer. Their radiosensitivity (DO: 120-172) is consistent with the proliferative origin of the colonies. Distilled water inhibits proliferation of a proportion of the colony-forming cells after a 1-minute exposure. Continued detection of colonies after 10 minutes of exposure indicates that it is an inefficient way of completely eradicating proliferating epithelial cells of normal and malignant origin.

  6. Detection of Human Papillomavirus-16 E6-Oncoprotein in Epithelial Ovarian Tumors Samples of Iraqi Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Fahem Mohsin; Kadhim, Haider Sabah; Mousa Al Khuzaee, Liqaa Riadh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causal factor for cervical cancer. However, the role of HPV infection in ovarian cancer is unclear. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the presence of human papillomavirus-16 (HPV-16) in ovarian tumor tissues. Patients and Methods: This was a retrospective study, which included 61 Archived human ovarian tumor tissues embedded in paraffin blocks. The ovarian tumor tissues were divided into four groups. The first group was the malignant ovarian epithelial tumor group; it included 31 cases with invasive surface epithelial ovarian tumors. The second group was the borderline epithelial ovarian tumor group: it included four cases with borderline intermediate malignancy. The third group was the benign epithelial ovarian tumors group: it included 18 cases with benign epithelial ovarian tumors. The fourth group had functional ovarian cystic lesions: it included eight cases with non-neoplastic functional ovarian cysts. Sections were made from each of the paraffin embedded blocks and examined using immunohistochemistry to detect HPV 16-E6-oncoprotein in ovarian tumor tissues. Results: Out of the eight cases with functional cysts only one case (12.5%) expressed HPV. No HPV expression was seen in cases with benign and borderline tumors. Out of the 31 cases with one malignant surface epithelial ovarian tumor only three (9.67%) cases expressed HPV. There was no significant statistical difference in HPV expression among neoplastic and non-neoplastic ovarian tumors included in the present study (P= 0.476). Conclusions: HPV type 16 was detected in only 9.67% of malignant epithelial tumors. It appears that HPV infection plays a relatively minor role in the pathogenesis of ovarian carcinomas. PMID:25485061

  7. Differential growth factor induction and modulation of human gastric epithelial regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Tetreault, Marie-Pier; Chailler, Pierre; Rivard, Nathalie; Menard, Daniel . E-mail: Daniel.Menard@USherbrooke.ca

    2005-05-15

    While several autocrine/paracrine growth factors (GFs) can all stimulate epithelial regeneration in experimentally wounded primary gastric cultures, clinical relevance for their non-redundant cooperative actions in human gastric ulcer healing is suggested by the sequential pattern of GF gene induction in vivo. Using new HGE cell lines able to form a coherent monolayer with tight junctions as well as using primary human gastric epithelial cultures, we show that EGF, TGF{alpha}, HGF and IGFs accelerate epithelial restitution upon wounding, independently of the TGF{beta} pathway (as opposed to intestinal cells). However, they differently modulate cell behavior: TGF{alpha} exerts strong effects (even more than EGF) on cytoplasmic spreading and non-oriented protruding activity of bordering cells whereas HGF preferentially coordinates single lamella formation, cell elongation and migration into the wound. IGF-I and IGF-II rather induce the alignment of bordering cells and maintain a compact monolayer front. The number of mitotic cells maximally increases with EGF, followed by TGF{alpha} and IGF-I,-II. The current study demonstrates that GFs differentially regulate the regeneration of human gastric epithelial cells through specific modulation of cell shape adaptation, migration and proliferation, further stressing that a coordination of GF activities would be necessary for the normal progression of post-wounding epithelial repair.

  8. Metformin inhibits the proliferation of A431 cells by modulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    LIU, YINGSHAN; ZHANG, YAN; JIA, KUN; DONG, YUHAO; MA, WEIYUAN

    2015-01-01

    The ability of metformin, an antidiabetic drug with wide applications, to inhibit tumor cell growth has recently been discovered. The PI3K/Akt signaling pathway has been found to play an important role in the survival, proliferation and apoptosis of tumor cells. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of metformin on the proliferation of A431 human squamous cell carcinoma cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms. A431 cells in the logarithmic growth phase were treated with 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 mM metformin for 12, 24 and 36 h, respectively. Cell morphology with 45 mM metformin treatment for 24 h was observed under a microscope. The proliferation of A431 cells was detected by the Cell Counting kit-8 colorimetric method. The mRNA expression levels of PI3K and Akt were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The protein expression levels of PI3K, Akt and phosphorylated (p)-Akt were detected by western blot analysis. Metformin treatment caused morphological change in A431 cells and inhibited their proliferation in a significant time- and dose-dependent manner. RT-PCR results showed that the mRNA expression of PI3K was inhibited by metformin in a time- and dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). However, there was no significant change in the mRNA expression of Akt following metformin treatment (P>0.05). Western blotting results showed that the protein expression levels of PI3K and p-Akt were inhibited by metformin in a time- and dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). In conclusion, metformin significantly inhibited the proliferation of A431 cells in the current study, which may be strongly associated with the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. PMID:25780442

  9. Lumican induces human corneal epithelial cell migration and integrin expression via ERK 1/2 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Seomun, Young; Joo, Choun-Ki

    2008-07-18

    Lumican is a major proteoglycans of the human cornea. Lumican knock-out mice have been shown to lose corneal transparency and to display delayed wound healing. The purpose of this study was to define the role of lumican in corneal epithelial cell migration. Over-expression of lumican in human corneal epithelial (HCE-T) cells increased both cell migration and proliferation, and increased levels of integrins {alpha}2 and {beta}1. ERK 1/2 was also activated in lumican over-expressed cells. When we treated HCE-T cells with the ERK-specific inhibitor U0126, cell migration and the expression of integrin {beta}1 were completely blocked. These data provide evidence that lumican stimulates cell migration in the corneal epithelium by activating ERK 1/2, and point to a novel signaling pathway implicated in corneal epithelial cell migration.

  10. Identification of a major sialoprotein in the glycocalyx of human visceral glomerular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kerjaschki, D; Poczewski, H; Dekan, G; Horvat, R; Balzar, E; Kraft, N; Atkins, R C

    1986-11-01

    Glomerular visceral epithelial cells are endowed with a sialic acid-rich surface coat (the "glomerular epithelial polyanion"), which in rat tissue contains the sialoprotein podocalyxin. We have identified a major membrane sialoprotein in human glomeruli that is similar to rat podocalyxin in its sialic acid-dependent binding of wheat germ agglutinin and in its localization on the surface of glomerular epithelial and endothelial cells, as shown by immunoelectron microscopy, using the monoclonal antibody PHM5. Differences in the sialoproteins of the two species are indicated by the discrepancy of their apparent molecular weights in sodium dodecyl sulfate gels, by the lack of cross reactivity of their specific antibodies, and by the lack of homology of their proteolytic peptide maps. It is therefore possible that the human glomerular sialoprotein and rat podocalyxin are evolutionarily distinct, but have similar functions. PMID:3533998

  11. Chromosomal changes in cultured human epithelial cells transformed by low- and high-let radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chui-Hsu Yang, Tracy; Craise, Laurie M.; Prioleau, John C.; Stampfer, Martha R.; Rhim, Johng S.

    1992-07-01

    For a better assessment of radiation risk in space, an understanding of the responses of human cells, especially the epithelial cells, to low- and high-LET radiation is essential. In our laboratory, we have successfully developed techniques to study the neoplastic transformation of two human epithelial cell systems by ionizing radiation. These cell systems are human mammary epithelial cells (H184B5) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK). Both cell lines are immortal, anchorage dependent for growth, and nontumorigenic in athymic nude mice. Neoplastic transformation was achieved by irradiating cells successively. Our results showed that radiogenic cell transformation is a multistep process and that a single exposure of ionizing radiation can cause only one step of transformation. It requires, therefore, multihits to make human epithelial cells fully tumorigenic. Using a simple karyotyping method, we did chromosome analysis with cells cloned at various stages of transformation. We found no consistent large terminal deletion of chromosomes in radiation-induced transformants. Some changes of total number of chromosomes, however, were observed in the transformed cells. These transformants provide an unique opportunity for further genetic studies at a molecular level.

  12. Chromosomal changes in cultured human epithelial cells transformed by low- and high-LET radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craise, L. M.; Prioleau, J. C.; Stampfer, M. R.; Rhim, J. S.; Yang, TC-H (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    For a better assessment of radiation risk in space, an understanding of the responses of human cells, especially the epithelial cells, to low- and high-LET radiation is essential. In our laboratory, we have successfully developed techniques to study the neoplastic transformation of two human epithelial cell systems by ionizing radiation. These cell systems are human mammary epithelial cells (H184B5) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK). Both cell lines are immortal, anchorage dependent for growth, and nontumorigenic in athymic nude mice. Neoplastic transformation was achieved by irradiating cells successively. Our results showed that radiogenic cell transformation is a multistep process and that a single exposure of ionizing radiation can cause only one step of transformation. It requires, therefore, multihits to make human epithelial cells fully tumorigenic. Using a simple karyotyping method, we did chromosome analysis with cells cloned at various stages of transformation. We found no consistent large terminal deletion of chromosomes in radiation-induced transformants. Some changes of total number of chromosomes, however, were observed in the transformed cells. These transformants provide an unique opportunity for further genetic studies at a molecular level.

  13. Chromosomal changes in cultured human epithelial cells transformed by low- and high-LET radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Tracy Chui-hsu; Craise, L.M; Prioleau, J.C.; Stampfer, M.R.; Rhim, J.S.

    1990-11-01

    For a better assessment of radiation risk in space, an understanding of the responses of human cells, especially the epithelial cells, to low- and high-LET radiation is essential. In our laboratory, we have successfully developed techniques to study the neoplastic transformation of two human epithelial cell systems by ionizing radiation. These cell systems are human mammary epithelial cells (H184B5) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK). Both cell lines are immortal, anchorage dependent for growth, and nontumorigenic in athymic nude nice. Neoplastic transformation was achieved by irradiation cells successively. Our results showed that radiogenic cell transformation is a multistep process and that a single exposure of ionizing radiation can cause only one step of transformation. It requires, therefore, multihits to make human epithelial cells fully tumorigenic. Using a simple karyotyping method, we did chromosome analysis with cells cloned at various stages of transformation. We found no consistent large terminal deletion of chromosomes in radiation-induced transformants. Some changes of total number of chromosomes, however, were observed in the transformed cells. These transformants provide an unique opportunity for further genetic studies at a molecular level. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Endostatin improves radioresponse and blocks tumor revascularization after radiation therapy for A431 xenografts in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Itasaka, Satoshi |; Komaki, Ritsuko; Herbst, Roy S. ||; Shintani, Tomoaki D.D.S.; Hunter, Nancy R. M.S.; Milas, Luka; Onn, Amir |; Bucana, Corazon D.; Ang, K. Kian; O'Reilly, Michael S. |. E-mail: moreilly@mdanderson.org

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: Clinical trials of antiangiogenic agents used alone for advanced malignancy have been disappointing but preclinical studies suggest that the addition of radiation therapy could improve antitumor efficacy. To test the hypothesis that antiangiogenic therapy combined with radiation therapy can overcome the limitations of antiangiogenic monotherapy, we studied the effects of endostatin combined with radiation on the growth and vascularization of A431 human epidermoid carcinomas growing intramuscularly in the legs of mice. Methods and Materials: Mice with established A431 human epidermoid leg tumors were treated with radiation, endostatin, both radiation and endostatin, or vehicle control. The experiment was repeated and mice from each group were killed at 2, 7, and 10 days after irradiation so that tumor tissue could be obtained to further analyze the kinetics of the antitumor, antivascular, and antiangiogenic response to therapy. Results: Endostatin enhanced the antitumor effects of radiation, and prolonged disease-free survival was observed in the combined treatment group. Endothelial cell proliferation was increased in tumors after irradiation but was blocked by the concurrent administration of endostatin, and the combination of endostatin with radiation enhanced endothelial cell apoptosis within 48 h after irradiation. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukin-8, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 were increased in tumors after irradiation, and this increase was blocked by concurrent administration of endostatin. Conclusion: These data indicate that endostatin can block tumor revascularization after radiation therapy and thereby augment radioresponse.

  15. Human Papillomaviruses; Epithelial Tropisms, and the Development of Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Nagayasu; Egawa, Kiyofumi; Griffin, Heather; Doorbar, John

    2015-07-01

    Papillomaviruses have evolved over many millions of years to propagate themselves at specific epithelial niches in a range of different host species. This has led to the great diversity of papillomaviruses that now exist, and to the appearance of distinct strategies for epithelial persistence. Many papillomaviruses minimise the risk of immune clearance by causing chronic asymptomatic infections, accompanied by long-term virion-production with only limited viral gene expression. Such lesions are typical of those caused by Beta HPV types in the general population, with viral activity being suppressed by host immunity. A second strategy requires the evolution of sophisticated immune evasion mechanisms, and allows some HPV types to cause prominent and persistent papillomas, even in immune competent individuals. Some Alphapapillomavirus types have evolved this strategy, including those that cause genital warts in young adults or common warts in children. These strategies reflect broad differences in virus protein function as well as differences in patterns of viral gene expression, with genotype-specific associations underlying the recent introduction of DNA testing, and also the introduction of vaccines to protect against cervical cancer. Interestingly, it appears that cellular environment and the site of infection affect viral pathogenicity by modulating viral gene expression. With the high-risk HPV gene products, changes in E6 and E7 expression are thought to account for the development of neoplasias at the endocervix, the anal and cervical transformation zones, and the tonsilar crypts and other oropharyngeal sites. A detailed analysis of site-specific patterns of gene expression and gene function is now prompted. PMID:26193301

  16. Human Papillomaviruses; Epithelial Tropisms, and the Development of Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Egawa, Nagayasu; Egawa, Kiyofumi; Griffin, Heather; Doorbar, John

    2015-01-01

    Papillomaviruses have evolved over many millions of years to propagate themselves at specific epithelial niches in a range of different host species. This has led to the great diversity of papillomaviruses that now exist, and to the appearance of distinct strategies for epithelial persistence. Many papillomaviruses minimise the risk of immune clearance by causing chronic asymptomatic infections, accompanied by long-term virion-production with only limited viral gene expression. Such lesions are typical of those caused by Beta HPV types in the general population, with viral activity being suppressed by host immunity. A second strategy requires the evolution of sophisticated immune evasion mechanisms, and allows some HPV types to cause prominent and persistent papillomas, even in immune competent individuals. Some Alphapapillomavirus types have evolved this strategy, including those that cause genital warts in young adults or common warts in children. These strategies reflect broad differences in virus protein function as well as differences in patterns of viral gene expression, with genotype-specific associations underlying the recent introduction of DNA testing, and also the introduction of vaccines to protect against cervical cancer. Interestingly, it appears that cellular environment and the site of infection affect viral pathogenicity by modulating viral gene expression. With the high-risk HPV gene products, changes in E6 and E7 expression are thought to account for the development of neoplasias at the endocervix, the anal and cervical transformation zones, and the tonsilar crypts and other oropharyngeal sites. A detailed analysis of site-specific patterns of gene expression and gene function is now prompted. PMID:26193301

  17. UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYME 3 DELAYS HUMAN LENS EPITHELIAL CELLS IN METAPHASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ubc3/Cdc34 is a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (Ubc) with well established functions in the G1-to-S-phase transition. Expecting to find similar effects in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs), the authors explored roles for this ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme in regulation of the HLEC cycle. Catalytical...

  18. CULTURE CONDITIONS AFFECT HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELL RESPONSE TO DIESEL PARTICLE EXPOSURE IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a ubiquitous ambient air contaminant that may contribute to the health effects of particulate matter inhalation. In vitro studies have shown that DEP exposure induces pro-inflammatory proteins in human airway epithelial cells (HAEC) with varying...

  19. DIFFERENTIAL ACTIVATION OF AP-1 IN HUMAN BLADDER EPITHELIAL CELLS BY INORGANIC AND METHYLATED ARSENICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differential Activation of AP-1 in Human Bladder Epithelial Cells by Inorganic and Methylated Arsenicals

    Zuzana Drobna, Ilona Jaspers, David J. Thomas, and Miroslav Styblo

    ABSTRACT

    Epidemiological studies have linked chronic ingestion of drinking water contai...

  20. ASBESTOS-INDUCED ACTIVATION OF SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Title: Asbestos-Induced Activation of Signaling Pathways in Human
    Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    X. Wang, MD 1, J. M. Samet, PhD 2 and A. J. Ghio, MD 2. 1 Center for
    Environmental Medicine, Asthma and Lung Biology, University of North
    Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, Uni...

  1. SIGNALING MECHANISMS IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO CARBON ULTRAFINE PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    SIGNALING MECHANISMS IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO CARBON ULTRAFINE PARTICLES
    Y.M. Kim, A.G. Lenz, R. Silbajoris, I. Jaspers and J.M. Samet. Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering and Center for Environmental Medicine, University of North Carolina, ...

  2. ACTIVATION OF THE EGF RECEPTOR SIGNALING PATHWAY IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO METALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have previously shown that exposure to combustion-derived metals rapidly (within 20 min) activated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), in the human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS. To study the mechanisms respons...

  3. EFFECT OF PHORBOL ESTERS ON CLONAL CULTURES OF HUMAN, HAMSTER, AND RAT RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on the growth of epithelial cells from rat, hamster, and human respiratory tract has been measured by monitoring colony formation in culture. TPA and its active derivatives stimulated colony formation of ...

  4. Cytotoxicity of Shiga toxin for primary cultures of human colonic and ileal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, M P; Dixon, P S; Rothman, S W; Brown, J E

    1987-01-01

    Shiga toxin purified from Shigella dysenteriae 1 was cytotoxic to cultured epithelial cells from human colon and ileum. The cytotoxicity, which affected only about 50% of treated cells, was neutralized by rabbit antiserum monospecific for Shiga toxin and mediated by protein synthesis inhibition. PMID:3570477

  5. Characterisation of human thyroid epithelial cells immortalised in vitro by simian virus 40 DNA transfection.

    PubMed Central

    Lemoine, N. R.; Mayall, E. S.; Jones, T.; Sheer, D.; McDermid, S.; Kendall-Taylor, P.; Wynford-Thomas, D.

    1989-01-01

    Human primary thyroid follicular epithelial cells were transfected with a plasmid containing an origin-defective SV40 genome (SVori-) to produce several immortal cell lines. Two of the 10 cell lines analysed expressed specific features of thyroid epithelial function (iodide-trapping and thyroglobulin production). These two lines were characterised in detail and found to be growth factor-independent, capable of anchorage-independent growth at low frequency but non-tumorigenic in nude mice. These differentiated, These differentiated, partially transformed cell lines were shown to be suitable for gene transfer at high frequency using simple coprecipitation techniques. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2557880

  6. Gene expression correlations in human cancer cell lines define molecular interaction networks for epithelial phenotype.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Kurt W; Zeeberg, Barry M; Reinhold, William C; Pommier, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Using gene expression data to enhance our knowledge of control networks relevant to cancer biology and therapy is a challenging but urgent task. Based on the premise that genes that are expressed together in a variety of cell types are likely to functions together, we derived mutually correlated genes that function together in various processes in epithelial-like tumor cells. Expression-correlated genes were derived from data for the NCI-60 human tumor cell lines, as well as data from the Broad Institute's CCLE cell lines. NCI-60 cell lines that selectively expressed a mutually correlated subset of tight junction genes served as a signature for epithelial-like cancer cells. Those signature cell lines served as a seed to derive other correlated genes, many of which had various other epithelial-related functions. Literature survey yielded molecular interaction and function information about those genes, from which molecular interaction maps were assembled. Many of the genes had epithelial functions unrelated to tight junctions, demonstrating that new function categories were elicited. The most highly correlated genes were implicated in the following epithelial functions: interactions at tight junctions (CLDN7, CLDN4, CLDN3, MARVELD3, MARVELD2, TJP3, CGN, CRB3, LLGL2, EPCAM, LNX1); interactions at adherens junctions (CDH1, ADAP1, CAMSAP3); interactions at desmosomes (PPL, PKP3, JUP); transcription regulation of cell-cell junction complexes (GRHL1 and 2); epithelial RNA splicing regulators (ESRP1 and 2); epithelial vesicle traffic (RAB25, EPN3, GRHL2, EHF, ADAP1, MYO5B); epithelial Ca(+2) signaling (ATP2C2, S100A14, BSPRY); terminal differentiation of epithelial cells (OVOL1 and 2, ST14, PRSS8, SPINT1 and 2); maintenance of apico-basal polarity (RAB25, LLGL2, EPN3). The findings provide a foundation for future studies to elucidate the functions of regulatory networks specific to epithelial-like cancer cells and to probe for anti-cancer drug targets. PMID:24940735

  7. Gallic acid induces apoptosis in human cervical epithelial cells containing human papillomavirus type 16 episomes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lin; Lei, Yanjun; Srivastava, Ranjana; Qin, Weihua; Chen, Jason J

    2016-01-01

    The high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) that infect the anogenital tract are strongly associated with the development of cervical carcinoma, which is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Therapeutic drugs specifically targeting HPV are not available. Polyphenolic compounds have gained considerable attention because of their cytotoxic effects against a variety of cancers and certain viruses. In this study, we examined the effects of several polyphenols on cellular proliferation and death of the human cervical cancer cells and human cervical epithelial cells containing stable HPV type 16 episomes (HPVep). Our results show that three polyphenols inhibited proliferation of HeLa cells dose-dependently. Furthermore, one of the examined polyphenols, gallic acid (GA), also inhibited the proliferation of HPVep cells and exhibited significant specificity towards HPV-positive cells. The anti-proliferative effect of GA on HPVep and HeLa cells was associated with apoptosis and upregulation of p53. These results suggest that GA can be a potential candidate for the development of anti-HPV agents. PMID:26059022

  8. Evidence for the multistep nature of in vitro human epithelial cell carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Rhim, J.S.; Yoo, J.H.; Park, J.H.; Thraves, P.; Salehi, Z.; Dritschilo, A. )

    1990-09-01

    In keeping with the multistep development of human cancer in vivo, a stepwise approach to neoplastic transformation in vitro presents a reasonable strategy. We have recently developed an in vitro multistep model suitable for the study of human epithelial cell carcinogenesis. Upon infection with the adenovirus 12-simian virus 40 hybrid virus, primary human epidermal keratinocytes acquired an indefinite life span in culture but did not undergo malignant conversion. Subsequent addition of Kirsten murine sarcoma virus and human ras oncogene or chemical carcinogens (N-methyl-N{prime}-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine or 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide) to these cells induced morphological alterations and the acquisition of neoplastic properties. Subsequently it was found that this line could be transformed neoplastically by a variety of retrovirus-containing H-ras, bas, fes, fms, erbB, and src oncogenes. In addition, we found that the immortalized human epidermal keratinocyte (RHEK-1) line can be transformed neoplastically by exposure to ionizing radiation. Thus, this in vitro system may be useful in studying the interaction of a variety of carcinogenic agents and human epithelial cells. These findings demonstrate the malignant transformation of human primary epithelial cells in culture by the combined action of viruses, oncogenes, chemical carcinogens, or X-ray irradiation and support a multistep process for neoplastic conversion.

  9. Ciliary beating recovery in deficient human airway epithelial cells after lentivirus ex vivo gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Chhin, Brigitte; Negre, Didier; Merrot, Olivier; Pham, Jacqueline; Tourneur, Yves; Ressnikoff, Denis; Jaspers, Martine; Jorissen, Mark; Cosset, François-Loïc; Bouvagnet, Patrice

    2009-03-01

    Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia is a heterogeneous genetic disease that is characterized by cilia dysfunction of the epithelial cells lining the respiratory tracts, resulting in recurrent respiratory tract infections. Despite lifelong physiological therapy and antibiotics, the lungs of affected patients are progressively destroyed, leading to respiratory insufficiency. Recessive mutations in Dynein Axonemal Intermediate chain type 1 (DNAI1) gene have been described in 10% of cases of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia. Our goal was to restore normal ciliary beating in DNAI1-deficient human airway epithelial cells. A lentiviral vector based on Simian Immunodeficiency Virus pseudotyped with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Glycoprotein was used to transduce cultured human airway epithelial cells with a cDNA of DNAI1 driven by the Elongation Factor 1 promoter. Transcription and translation of the transduced gene were tested by RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. Human airway epithelial cells that were DNAI1-deficient due to compound heterozygous mutations, and consequently had immotile cilia and no outer dynein arm, were transduced by the lentivirus. Cilia beating was recorded and electron microscopy of the cilia was performed. Transcription and translation of the transduced DNAI1 gene were detected in human cells treated with the lentivirus. In addition, immotile cilia recovered a normal beat and outer dynein arms reappeared. We demonstrated that it is possible to obtain a normalization of ciliary beat frequency of deficient human airway epithelial cells by using a lentivirus to transduce cells with the therapeutic gene. This preliminary step constitutes a conceptual proof that is indispensable in the perspective of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia's in vivo gene therapy. This is the first time that recovery of cilia beating is demonstrated in this disease. PMID:19300481

  10. Ciliary Beating Recovery in Deficient Human Airway Epithelial Cells after Lentivirus Ex Vivo Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chhin, Brigitte; Negre, Didier; Merrot, Olivier; Pham, Jacqueline; Tourneur, Yves; Ressnikoff, Denis; Jaspers, Martine; Jorissen, Mark; Cosset, François-Loïc; Bouvagnet, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia is a heterogeneous genetic disease that is characterized by cilia dysfunction of the epithelial cells lining the respiratory tracts, resulting in recurrent respiratory tract infections. Despite lifelong physiological therapy and antibiotics, the lungs of affected patients are progressively destroyed, leading to respiratory insufficiency. Recessive mutations in Dynein Axonemal Intermediate chain type 1 (DNAI1) gene have been described in 10% of cases of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia. Our goal was to restore normal ciliary beating in DNAI1–deficient human airway epithelial cells. A lentiviral vector based on Simian Immunodeficiency Virus pseudotyped with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Glycoprotein was used to transduce cultured human airway epithelial cells with a cDNA of DNAI1 driven by the Elongation Factor 1 promoter. Transcription and translation of the transduced gene were tested by RT–PCR and western blot, respectively. Human airway epithelial cells that were DNAI1–deficient due to compound heterozygous mutations, and consequently had immotile cilia and no outer dynein arm, were transduced by the lentivirus. Cilia beating was recorded and electron microscopy of the cilia was performed. Transcription and translation of the transduced DNAI1 gene were detected in human cells treated with the lentivirus. In addition, immotile cilia recovered a normal beat and outer dynein arms reappeared. We demonstrated that it is possible to obtain a normalization of ciliary beat frequency of deficient human airway epithelial cells by using a lentivirus to transduce cells with the therapeutic gene. This preliminary step constitutes a conceptual proof that is indispensable in the perspective of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia's in vivo gene therapy. This is the first time that recovery of cilia beating is demonstrated in this disease. PMID:19300481

  11. Disruption of β-catenin/CBP signaling inhibits human airway epithelial-mesenchymal transition and repair.

    PubMed

    Moheimani, Fatemeh; Roth, Hollis M; Cross, Jennifer; Reid, Andrew T; Shaheen, Furquan; Warner, Stephanie M; Hirota, Jeremy A; Kicic, Anthony; Hallstrand, Teal S; Kahn, Michael; Stick, Stephen M; Hansbro, Philip M; Hackett, Tillie-Louise; Knight, Darryl A

    2015-11-01

    The epithelium of asthmatics is characterized by reduced expression of E-cadherin and increased expression of the basal cell markers ck-5 and p63 that is indicative of a relatively undifferentiated repairing epithelium. This phenotype correlates with increased proliferation, compromised wound healing and an enhanced capacity to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The transcription factor β-catenin plays a vital role in epithelial cell differentiation and regeneration, depending on the co-factor recruited. Transcriptional programs driven by the β-catenin/CBP axis are critical for maintaining an undifferentiated and proliferative state, whereas the β-catenin/p300 axis is associated with cell differentiation. We hypothesized that disrupting the β-catenin/CBP signaling axis would promote epithelial differentiation and inhibit EMT. We treated monolayer cultures of human airway epithelial cells with TGFβ1 in the presence or absence of the selective small molecule ICG-001 to inhibit β-catenin/CBP signaling. We used western blots to assess expression of an EMT signature, CBP, p300, β-catenin, fibronectin and ITGβ1 and scratch wound assays to assess epithelial cell migration. Snai-1 and -2 expressions were determined using q-PCR. Exposure to TGFβ1 induced EMT, characterized by reduced E-cadherin expression with increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin and EDA-fibronectin. Either co-treatment or therapeutic administration of ICG-001 completely inhibited TGFβ1-induced EMT. ICG-001 also reduced the expression of ck-5 and -19 independent of TGFβ1. Exposure to ICG-001 significantly inhibited epithelial cell proliferation and migration, coincident with a down regulation of ITGβ1 and fibronectin expression. These data support our hypothesis that modulating the β-catenin/CBP signaling axis plays a key role in epithelial plasticity and function. PMID:26315281

  12. Inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase activity mediates epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in human airway epithelial cells exposed to Zn{sup 2+}

    SciTech Connect

    Tal, T.L.; Graves, L.M.; Silbajoris, R.; Bromberg, P.A.; Wu, W.; Samet, J.M. . E-mail: samet.james@epa.gov

    2006-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have implicated zinc (Zn{sup 2+}) in the toxicity of ambient particulate matter (PM) inhalation. We previously showed that exposure to metal-laden PM inhibits protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity in human primary bronchial epithelial cells (HAEC) and leads to Src-dependent activation of EGFR signaling in B82 and A431 cells. In order to elucidate the mechanism of Zn{sup 2+}-induced EGFR activation in HAEC, we treated HAEC with 500 {mu}M ZnSO{sub 4} for 5-20 min and measured the state of activation of EGFR, c-Src and PTPs. Western blots revealed that exposure to Zn{sup 2+} results in increased phosphorylation at both trans- and autophosphorylation sites in the EGFR. Zn{sup 2+}-mediated EGFR phosphorylation did not require ligand binding and was ablated by the EGFR kinase inhibitor PD153035, but not by the Src kinase inhibitor PP2. Src activity was inhibited by Zn{sup 2+} treatment of HAEC, consistent with Src-independent EGFR transactivation in HAEC exposed to Zn{sup 2+}. The rate of exogenous EGFR dephosphorylation in lysates of HAEC exposed to Zn{sup 2+} or V{sup 4+} was significantly diminished. Moreover, exposure of HAEC to Zn{sup 2+} also resulted in a significant impairment of dephosphorylation of endogenous EGFR. These data show that Zn{sup 2+}-induced activation of EGFR in HAEC involves a loss of PTP activities whose function is to dephosphorylate EGFR in opposition to baseline EGFR kinase activity. These findings also suggest that there are marked cell-type-specific differences in the mechanism of EGFR activation induced by Zn{sup 2+} exposure.

  13. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition and FOXA genes during tobacco smoke carcinogen induced transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bersaas, Audun; Arnoldussen, Yke Jildouw; Sjøberg, Mari; Haugen, Aage; Mollerup, Steen

    2016-09-01

    Lung cancer is largely an environmentally caused disease with poor prognosis. An in vitro transformation model of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) was used to study long-term effects of tobacco smoke carcinogens on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the forkhead box transcription factors FOXA1 and FOXA2. CDK4 and hTERT immortalized HBEC2 and HBEC12 cell lines were exposed weekly to either cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), benzo[a]pyrene, or methylnitrosourea. Transformed cell lines were established from soft-agar colonies after 12weeks of exposure. HBEC12 was transformed by all exposures while HBEC2 was only transformed by CSC. Untransformed HBEC2 showed little invasive capacity, whereas transformed cell lines completely closed the gap in a matrigel scratch wound assay. CDH1 was down-regulated in all of the transformed cell lines. In contrast, CDH2 was up-regulated in both HBEC2 and one of the HBEC12 transformed cell lines. Furthermore, transformed cells showed activation of EMT markers including SNAI1, ZEB1, VIM, and MMP2. All transformed cell lines had significant down-regulation of FOXA1 and FOXA2, indicating a possible role in cell transformation and EMT. ChIP analysis showed increased binding of Histone-H3 and macroH2A in FOXA1 and FOXA2 in the transformed HBEC2 cell lines, indicating a compact chromatin. In conclusion, long-term carcinogen exposure lead to down-regulation of FOXA1 and FOXA2 concomitantly with the occurrence of EMT and in vitro transformation in HBEC cells. PMID:27221058

  14. Transcription Factors OVOL1 and OVOL2 Induce the Mesenchymal to Epithelial Transition in Human Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Roca, Hernan; Hernandez, James; Weidner, Savannah; McEachin, Richard C.; Fuller, David; Sud, Sudha; Schumann, Taibriana; Wilkinson, John E.; Zaslavsky, Alexander; Li, Hangwen; Maher, Christopher A.; Daignault-Newton, Stephanie; Healy, Patrick N.; Pienta, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Cell plasticity regulated by the balance between the mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) and the opposite program, EMT, is critical in the metastatic cascade. Several transcription factors (TFs) are known to regulate EMT, though the mechanisms of MET remain unclear. We demonstrate a novel function of two TFs, OVOL1 and OVOL2, as critical inducers of MET in human cancers. Our findings indicate that the OVOL-TFs control MET through a regulatory feedback loop with EMT-inducing TF ZEB1, and the regulation of mRNA splicing by inducing Epithelial Splicing Regulatory Protein 1 (ESRP1). Using mouse prostate tumor models we show that expression of OVOL-TFs in mesenchymal prostate cancer cells attenuates their metastatic potential. The role of OVOL-TFs as inducers of MET is further supported by expression analyses in 917 cancer cell lines, suggesting their role as crucial regulators of epithelial-mesenchymal cell plasticity in cancer. PMID:24124593

  15. Human alveolar epithelial cells expressing tight junctions to model the air-blood barrier.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Anna; Kletting, Stephanie; de Souza Carvalho-Wodarz, Cristiane; Repnik, Urska; Griffiths, Gareth; Fischer, Ulrike; Meese, Eckart; Huwer, Hanno; Wirth, Dagmar; May, Tobias; Schneider-Daum, Nicole; Lehr, Claus-Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a new human alveolar epithelial cell line (hAELVi - human Alveolar Epithelial Lentivirus immortalized) with type I-like characteristics and functional tight junctions, suitable to model the air-blood barrier of the peripheral lung. Primary human alveolar epithelial cells were immortalized by a novel regimen, grown as monolayers on permeable filter supports and characterized morphologically, biochemically and biophysically. hAELVi cells maintain the capacity to form tight intercellular junctions, with high trans-epithelial electrical resistance (> 1000 Ω*cm²). The cells could be kept in culture over several days, up to passage 75, under liquid-liquid as well as air-liquid conditions. Ultrastructural analysis and real time PCR revealed type I-like cell properties, such as the presence of caveolae, expression of caveolin-1, and absence of surfactant protein C. Accounting for the barrier properties, inter-digitations sealed with tight junctions and desmosomes were also observed. Low permeability of the hydrophilic marker sodium fluorescein confirmed the suitability of hAELVi cells for in vitro transport studies across the alveolar epithelium. These results suggest that hAELVi cells reflect the essential features of the air-blood barrier, as needed for an alternative to animal testing to study absorption and toxicity of inhaled drugs, chemicals and nanomaterials. PMID:26985677

  16. The Influence of 13-cis Retinoic Acid on Human Meibomian Gland Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Juan; Kam, Wendy R.; Dieckow, Julia; Sullivan, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is a primary cause of dry eye disease. One of the risk factors for MGD is exposure to 13-cis retinoic acid (13-cis RA), a metabolite of vitamin A. However, the mechanism is not well understood. We hypothesize that 13-cis RA inhibits cell proliferation, promotes cell death, alters gene and protein expressions, and attenuates cell survival pathways in human meibomian gland epithelial cells. Methods. To test our hypotheses, immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells were cultured with or without 13-cis RA for varying doses and time. Cell proliferation, cell death, gene expression, and proteins involved in proliferation/survival and inflammation were evaluated. Results. We found that 13-cis RA inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell death, and significantly altered the expression of 6726 genes, including those involved in cell proliferation, cell death, differentiation, keratinization, and inflammation, in human meibomian gland epithelial cells. Further, 13-cis RA also reduced the phosphorylation of Akt and increased the generation of interleukin-1β and matrix metallopeptidase 9. Conclusions. Exposure to 13-cis RA inhibits cell proliferation, increases cell death, alters gene expression, changes signaling pathways, and promotes inflammatory mediator and protease expression in meibomian gland epithelial cells. These effects may be responsible, at least in part, for the 13-cis RA–related induction of MGD. PMID:23722388

  17. Porphyromonas gingivalis Gingipain-Dependently Enhances IL-33 Production in Human Gingival Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Hiroyuki; Matsuyama, Takashi; Nishioka, Takashi; Hagiwara, Makoto; Kiyoura, Yusuke; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi; Matsushita, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    The cytokine IL-33 is constitutively expressed in epithelial cells and it augments Th2 cytokine-mediated inflammatory responses by regulating innate immune cells. We aimed to determine the role of the periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis, in the enhanced expression of IL-33 in human gingival epithelial cells. We detected IL-33 in inflamed gingival epithelium from patients with chronic periodontitis, and found that P. gingivalis increased IL-33 expression in the cytoplasm of human gingival epithelial cells in vitro. In contrast, lipopolysaccharide, lipopeptide, and fimbriae derived from P. gingivalis did not increase IL-33 expression. Specific inhibitors of P. gingivalis proteases (gingipains) suppressed IL-33 mRNA induction by P. gingivalis and the P. gingivalis gingipain-null mutant KDP136 did not induce IL-33 expression. A small interfering RNA for protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) as well as inhibitors of phospholipase C, p38 and NF-κB inhibited the expression of IL-33 induced by P. gingivalis. These results indicate that the PAR-2/IL-33 axis is promoted by P. gingivalis infection in human gingival epithelial cells through a gingipain-dependent mechanism. PMID:27058037

  18. Recovery of Elasticity of Aged Human Epithelial Cells In-Vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Igor; Iyer, Swaminathan; Woodworth, Craig

    2006-03-01

    We recently found a considerable increase in rigidity of human epithelial cells during ageing in-vitro. This is important because the loss in elasticity of epithelial tissues with ageing contributes to many human diseases. We also found that cultured cells had three distinct regions of rigidity, and that the increase in rigidity correlated with an increase in density of cytoskeletal fibres. However, it was not clear which type of fibre was important. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and imunofluorescence microscopy were used in this study to characterize aging human epithelial cells in vitro, both before and after treatment with cytochalasin B. We found that the fibres associated with increased rigidity were mostly F-actin microfilaments. Furthermore, using cytochalasin B, a chemical that inhibits polymerization of F-actin, we restored the rigidity of old cells to the young level in all three areas of rigidity simultaneously. In conclusion, these results clarify how the cell mechanics changes during aging in vitro, and they may be relevant for treatment of age-related loss of elasticity in epithelial tissues. The trials of this new treatment are in progress.

  19. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli TibA Glycoprotein Adheres to Human Intestine Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lindenthal, Christoph; Elsinghorst, Eric A.

    2001-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is capable of invading epithelial cell lines derived from the human ileum and colon. Two separate invasion loci (tia and tib) that direct noninvasive E. coli strains to adhere to and invade cultured human intestine epithelial cells have previously been isolated from the classical ETEC strain H10407. The tib locus directs the synthesis of TibA, a 104-kDa outer membrane glycoprotein. Synthesis of TibA is directly correlated with the adherence and invasion phenotypes of the tib locus, suggesting that this protein is an adhesin and invasin. Here we report the purification of TibA and characterization of its biological activity. TibA was purified by continuous-elution preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Purified TibA was biotin labeled and then shown to bind to HCT8 human ileocecal epithelial cells in a specific and saturable manner. Unlabeled TibA competed with biotin-labeled TibA, suggesting the presence of a specific TibA receptor in HCT8 cells. These results show that TibA acts as an adhesin. Polyclonal anti-TibA antiserum inhibited invasion of ETEC strain H10407 and of recombinant E. coli bearing tib locus clones, suggesting that TibA also acts as an invasin. The ability of TibA to direct epithelial cell adhesion suggests a role for this protein in ETEC pathogenesis. PMID:11119488

  20. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli TibA glycoprotein adheres to human intestine epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lindenthal, C; Elsinghorst, E A

    2001-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is capable of invading epithelial cell lines derived from the human ileum and colon. Two separate invasion loci (tia and tib) that direct noninvasive E. coli strains to adhere to and invade cultured human intestine epithelial cells have previously been isolated from the classical ETEC strain H10407. The tib locus directs the synthesis of TibA, a 104-kDa outer membrane glycoprotein. Synthesis of TibA is directly correlated with the adherence and invasion phenotypes of the tib locus, suggesting that this protein is an adhesin and invasin. Here we report the purification of TibA and characterization of its biological activity. TibA was purified by continuous-elution preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Purified TibA was biotin labeled and then shown to bind to HCT8 human ileocecal epithelial cells in a specific and saturable manner. Unlabeled TibA competed with biotin-labeled TibA, suggesting the presence of a specific TibA receptor in HCT8 cells. These results show that TibA acts as an adhesin. Polyclonal anti-TibA antiserum inhibited invasion of ETEC strain H10407 and of recombinant E. coli bearing tib locus clones, suggesting that TibA also acts as an invasin. The ability of TibA to direct epithelial cell adhesion suggests a role for this protein in ETEC pathogenesis. PMID:11119488

  1. Interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 cause barrier dysfunction in human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Saatian, Bahman; Rezaee, Fariba; Desando, Samantha; Emo, Jason; Chapman, Tim; Knowlden, Sara; Georas, Steve N

    2013-04-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that airway epithelial barrier function is compromised in asthma, a disease characterized by Th2-skewed immune response against inhaled allergens, but the mechanisms involved are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Th2-type cytokines on airway epithelial barrier function. 16HBE14o- human bronchial epithelial cells monolayers were grown on collagen coated Transwell inserts. The basolateral or apical surfaces of airway epithelia were exposed to human interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-13, IL-25, IL-33, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) alone or in combination at various concentrations and time points. We analyzed epithelial apical junctional complex (AJC) function by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability to FITC-conjugated dextran over time. We analyzed AJC structure using immunofluorescence with antibodies directed against key junctional components including occludin, ZO-1, β-catenin and E-cadherin. Transepithelial resistance was significantly decreased after both basolateral and apical exposure to IL-4. Permeability to 3 kDa dextran was also increased in IL-4-exposed cells. Similar results were obtained with IL-13, but none of the innate type 2 cytokines examined (TSLP, IL-25 or IL-33) significantly affected barrier function. IL-4 and IL-13-induced barrier dysfunction was accompanied by reduced expression of membrane AJC components but not by induction of claudin- 2. Enhanced permeability caused by IL-4 was not affected by wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI3 kinase signaling, but was attenuated by a broad spectrum inhibitor of janus associated kinases. Our study indicates that IL-4 and IL-13 have disruptive effect on airway epithelial barrier function. Th2-cytokine induced epithelial barrier dysfunction may contribute to airway inflammation in allergic asthma. PMID:24665390

  2. Human Normal Bronchial Epithelial Cells: A Novel In Vitro Cell Model for Toxicity Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haiyan; Xia, Bo; Liu, Hongya; Li, Jie; Lin, Shaolin; Li, Tiyuan; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Human normal cell-based systems are needed for drug discovery and toxicity evaluation. hTERT or viral genes transduced human cells are currently widely used for these studies, while these cells exhibited abnormal differentiation potential or response to biological and chemical signals. In this study, we established human normal bronchial epithelial cells (HNBEC) using a defined primary epithelial cell culture medium without transduction of exogenous genes. This system may involve decreased IL-1 signaling and enhanced Wnt signaling in cells. Our data demonstrated that HNBEC exhibited a normal diploid karyotype. They formed well-defined spheres in matrigel 3D culture while cancer cells (HeLa) formed disorganized aggregates. HNBEC cells possessed a normal cellular response to DNA damage and did not induce tumor formation in vivo by xenograft assays. Importantly, we assessed the potential of these cells in toxicity evaluation of the common occupational toxicants that may affect human respiratory system. Our results demonstrated that HNBEC cells are more sensitive to exposure of 10~20 nm-sized SiO2, Cr(VI) and B(a)P compared to 16HBE cells (a SV40-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells). This study provides a novel in vitro human cells-based model for toxicity evaluation, may also be facilitating studies in basic cell biology, cancer biology and drug discovery. PMID:25861018

  3. Human normal bronchial epithelial cells: a novel in vitro cell model for toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wenqiang; Guo, Juanjuan; Huang, Haiyan; Xia, Bo; Liu, Hongya; Li, Jie; Lin, Shaolin; Li, Tiyuan; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Human normal cell-based systems are needed for drug discovery and toxicity evaluation. hTERT or viral genes transduced human cells are currently widely used for these studies, while these cells exhibited abnormal differentiation potential or response to biological and chemical signals. In this study, we established human normal bronchial epithelial cells (HNBEC) using a defined primary epithelial cell culture medium without transduction of exogenous genes. This system may involve decreased IL-1 signaling and enhanced Wnt signaling in cells. Our data demonstrated that HNBEC exhibited a normal diploid karyotype. They formed well-defined spheres in matrigel 3D culture while cancer cells (HeLa) formed disorganized aggregates. HNBEC cells possessed a normal cellular response to DNA damage and did not induce tumor formation in vivo by xenograft assays. Importantly, we assessed the potential of these cells in toxicity evaluation of the common occupational toxicants that may affect human respiratory system. Our results demonstrated that HNBEC cells are more sensitive to exposure of 10~20 nm-sized SiO2, Cr(VI) and B(a)P compared to 16HBE cells (a SV40-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells). This study provides a novel in vitro human cells-based model for toxicity evaluation, may also be facilitating studies in basic cell biology, cancer biology and drug discovery. PMID:25861018

  4. Cell proliferation in the human mammary epithelium. Differential contribution by epithelial and myoepithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, K.; Smith, J. A.; Perusinghe, N.; Monoghan, P.

    1986-01-01

    The ductal system of the human breast consists of epithelial, myoepithelial, and basal clear cells. By labeling ducts and alveoli dissected from reduction mammoplasty specimens with 3H-thymidine in vitro and labeling human breast organoids xenografted in nude mice in vivo, it was found that cellular proliferation in the human breast is virtually confined to epithelial and basal clear cells. A pulse label of 3H-thymidine in organ culture explants was followed over a period of time, and it was found that myoepithelial cells originate from a precursor cell population within the mammary epithelium after a number of cell divisions. Myoepithelial cells were not seen to divide when fully mature. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:3740213

  5. Gene expression analysis uncovers novel Hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP) effects in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaobo; Qiu, Weiliang; Sathirapongsasuti, J. Fah.; Cho, Michael H.; Mancini, John D.; Lao, Taotao; Thibault, Derek M.; Litonjua, Gus; Bakke, Per S.; Gulsvik, Amund; Lomas, David A.; Beaty, Terri H.; Hersh, Craig P.; Anderson, Christopher; Geigenmuller, Ute; Raby, Benjamin A.; Rennard, Stephen I.; Perrella, Mark A.; Choi, Augustine M.K.; Quackenbush, John; Silverman, Edwin K.

    2013-01-01

    Hedgehog Interacting Protein (HHIP) was implicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, it remains unclear how HHIP contributes to COPD pathogenesis. To identify genes regulated by HHIP, we performed gene expression microarray analysis in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (Beas-2B) stably infected with HHIP shRNAs. HHIP silencing led to differential expression of 296 genes; enrichment for variants nominally associated with COPD was found. Eighteen of the differentially expressed genes were validated by real-time PCR in Beas-2B cells. Seven of 11 validated genes tested in human COPD and control lung tissues demonstrated significant gene expression differences. Functional annotation indicated enrichment for extracellular matrix and cell growth genes. Network modeling demonstrated that the extracellular matrix and cell proliferation genes influenced by HHIP tended to be interconnected. Thus, we identified potential HHIP targets in human bronchial epithelial cells that may contribute to COPD pathogenesis. PMID:23459001

  6. Susceptibility of human tonsillar epithelial cells to enterovirus 71 with normal cytokine response.

    PubMed

    Xie, Guang-Cheng; Guo, Ni-Jun; Grénman, Reidar; Wang, Hong; Wang, Ying; Vuorenmma, Minna; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Shuang; Li, Hui-Ying; Pang, Li-Li; Li, Dan-Di; Jin, Miao; Sun, Xiao-Man; Kong, Xiang-Yu; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2016-07-01

    A recent histopathologic study implicated human tonsillar crypt epithelium as an important site for EV71 replication in EV71-caused fatal cases. This study aimed to confirm the susceptibility of human tonsillar epithelium to EV71. Two human tonsillar epithelial cell lines (UT-SCC-60A and UT-SCC-60B) were susceptive to EV71, and PI3K/AKT, p38, ERK1/2, and JNK1/2 signal pathways were activated. Interferon-α, IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12p40 were induced and regulated by PI3K/AKT, p38, ERK1/2, and JNK1/2 signal pathways. PI3K/AKT pathway activation appeared to suppress the induction of TNF-α, which induced cell survival by inhibiting GSK-3β. The activation of NF-κB was observed but inhibited by these pathways in EV71 infection. Furthermore, ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 were essential for efficient EV71 replication. Human tonsillar epithelial cells support EV71 replication and display innate antiviral immunity in vitro, indicating that human tonsillar epithelial cells may be novel targets for EV71 infection and replication in vivo. PMID:27107253

  7. TGF-beta during human colorectal carcinogenesis: the shift from epithelial to mesenchymal signaling.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, K; Seki, T; Okazaki, K

    2006-12-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) activates not only TGF-beta type I receptor (Tbeta RI) but also c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), converting the mediator Smad3 to two distinct phosphoisoforms: C-terminally phosphorylated Smad3 (pSmad3C) and linker phosphorylated Smad3 (pSmad3L). While Tbeta RI/pSmad3C pathway inhibits growth of normal epithelial cells, the activated mesenchymal cells invade via JNK/pSmad3L pathway. During sporadic human colorectal carcinogenesis, TGF-beta signaling confers a selective advantage upon tumor cells by shifting from epithelial Tbeta RI/pSmad3C pathway to mesenchymal JNK/pSmad3L pathway. Loss of epithelial homeostasis and acquisition of a migratory, mesenchymal phenotype are essential for tumor invasion. In a future, specific inhibition of the JNK/pSmad3L pathway will become a therapy for human colorectal cancer that restores the lost tumor-suppressive function observed in normal colorectal epithelial cells at the expense of effects promoting the aggressive behavior. PMID:17093904

  8. TLR-Dependent Human Mucosal Epithelial Cell Responses to Microbial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Ryan; Massari, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling represents one of the best studied pathways to implement defense mechanisms against invading microbes in human being as well as in animals. TLRs respond to specific microbial ligands and to danger signals produced by the host during infection, and initiate downstream cascades that activate both innate and adaptive immunity. TLRs are expressed by professional immune cells and by the large majority of non-hematopoietic cells, including epithelial cells. In epithelial tissues, TLR functions are particularly important because these sites are constantly exposed to microorganisms, due to their location at the host interface with the environment. While at these sites specific defense mechanisms and inflammatory responses are initiated via TLR signaling against pathogens, suppression or lack of TLR activation is also observed in response to the commensal microbiota. The mechanisms by which TLR signaling is regulated in mucosal epithelial cells include differential expression and levels of TLRs (and their signaling partners), their cellular localization and positioning within the tissue in a fashion that favors responses to pathogens while dampening responses to commensals and maintaining tissue homeostasis in physiologic conditions. In this review, the expression and activation of TLRs in mucosal epithelial cells of several sites of the human body are examined. Specifically, the oral cavity, the ear canal and eye, the airways, the gut, and the reproductive tract are discussed, along with how site-specific host defense mechanisms are implemented via TLR signaling. PMID:25161655

  9. Human Milk Oligosaccharides Protect Bladder Epithelial Cells Against Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Invasion and Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ann E.; Autran, Chloe A.; Espanola, Sophia D.; Bode, Lars; Nizet, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The invasive pathogen uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the primary cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Recurrent infection that can progress to life-threatening renal failure has remained as a serious global health concern in infants. UPEC adheres to and invades bladder epithelial cells to establish infection. Studies have detected the presence of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) in urine of breast-fed, but not formula-fed, neonates. We investigated the mechanisms HMOs deploy to elicit protection in human bladder epithelial cells infected with UPEC CFT073, a prototypic urosepsis-associated strain. We found a significant reduction in UPEC internalization into HMO-pretreated epithelial cells without observing any significant effect in UPEC binding to these cells. This event coincides with a rapid decrease in host cell cytotoxicity, recognized by LIVE/DEAD staining and cell detachment, but independent of caspase-mediated or mitochondrial-mediated programmed cell death pathways. Further investigation revealed HMOs, and particularly the sialic acid-containing fraction, reduced UPEC-mediated MAPK and NF-κB activation. Collectively, our results indicate that HMOs can protect bladder epithelial cells from deleterious cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects of UPEC infection, and may be one contributing mechanism underlying the epidemiological evidence of reduced UTI incidence in breast-fed infants. PMID:23990566

  10. Immortalisation of human oesophageal epithelial cells by a recombinant SV40 adenovirus vector.

    PubMed Central

    Inokuchi, S.; Handa, H.; Imai, T.; Makuuchi, H.; Kidokoro, M.; Tohya, H.; Aizawa, S.; Shimamura, K.; Ueyama, Y.; Mitomi, T.

    1995-01-01

    We introduced the origin-defective SV40 early gene into cultured human oesophageal epithelial cells by infection of a recombinant SV40 adenovirus vector. The virus-infected cells formed colonies 3-4 weeks after infection in medium containing fetal calf serum. When the cells derived from 'serum-resistant' colonies were then maintained in the serum-free medium with a low calcium ion concentration, some of them passed the cell crisis and kept growing for over 12 months. These cells, regarded as immortalised cells, resembled the primarily cultured oesophageal epithelial cells in morphology and had some of their original characteristics. Treatment of the cells with a high calcium concentration induced phenotypic changes. These cells still responded to transforming growth factor beta. When the immortalised cells were injected into severe combined immunodeficient mice, they transiently formed epithelial cysts, although the typical differentiation pattern of the oesophageal epithelium was not observed. These cysts regressed within 2 months without development into tumours. The results indicated that human oesophageal epithelial cells were reproducibly immortalised by infection with a recombinant SV40 adenovirus vector at relatively high efficiency. The immortalised cells should be useful in studies on oesophageal carcinogenesis and in assessing the cooperative effects with other oncogene products or carcinogens. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7536023

  11. Biodegradable Gelatin Microcarriers Facilitate Re-Epithelialization of Human Cutaneous Wounds - An In Vitro Study in Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Lönnqvist, Susanna; Rakar, Jonathan; Briheim, Kristina; Kratz, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    The possibility to use a suspended tridimensional matrix as scaffolding for re-epithelialization of in vitro cutaneous wounds was investigated with the aid of a human in vitro wound healing model based on viable full thickness skin. Macroporous gelatin microcarriers, CultiSpher-S, were applied to in vitro wounds and cultured for 21 days. Tissue sections showed incorporation of wound edge keratinocytes into the microcarriers and thicker neoepidermis in wounds treated with microcarriers. Thickness of the neoepidermis was measured digitally, using immunohistochemical staining of keratins as epithelial demarcation. Air-lifting of wounds enhanced stratification in control wounds as well as wounds with CultiSpher-S. Immunohistochemical staining revealed expression of keratin 5, keratin 10, and laminin 5 in the neoepidermal component. We conclude that the CultiSpher-S microcarriers can function as tissue guiding scaffold for re-epithelialization of cutaneous wounds. PMID:26061630

  12. Shear Stress-Induced Alteration of Epithelial Organization in Human Renal Tubular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Belloy, Marcy; Saulnier-Blache, Jean-Sébastien; Casemayou, Audrey; Ducasse, Laure; Grès, Sandra; Bellière, Julie; Caubet, Cécile; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Schanstra, Joost P.; Buffin-Meyer, Bénédicte

    2015-01-01

    Tubular epithelial cells in the kidney are continuously exposed to urinary fluid shear stress (FSS) generated by urine movement and recent in vitro studies suggest that changes of FSS could contribute to kidney injury. However it is unclear whether FSS alters the epithelial characteristics of the renal tubule. Here, we evaluated in vitro and in vivo the influence of FSS on epithelial characteristics of renal proximal tubular cells taking the organization of junctional complexes and the presence of the primary cilium as markers of epithelial phenotype. Human tubular cells (HK-2) were subjected to FSS (0.5 Pa) for 48h. Control cells were maintained under static conditions. Markers of tight junctions (Claudin-2, ZO-1), Par polarity complex (Pard6), adherens junctions (E-Cadherin, β-Catenin) and the primary cilium (α-acetylated Tubulin) were analysed by quantitative PCR, Western blot or immunocytochemistry. In response to FSS, Claudin-2 disappeared and ZO-1 displayed punctuated and discontinuous staining in the plasma membrane. Expression of Pard6 was also decreased. Moreover, E-Cadherin abundance was decreased, while its major repressors Snail1 and Snail2 were overexpressed, and β-Catenin staining was disrupted along the cell periphery. Finally, FSS subjected-cells exhibited disappeared primary cilium. Results were confirmed in vivo in a uninephrectomy (8 months) mouse model where increased FSS induced by adaptive hyperfiltration in remnant kidney was accompanied by both decreased epithelial gene expression including ZO-1, E-cadherin and β-Catenin and disappearance of tubular cilia. In conclusion, these results show that proximal tubular cells lose an important number of their epithelial characteristics after long term exposure to FSS both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, the changes in urinary FSS associated with nephropathies should be considered as potential insults for tubular cells leading to disorganization of the tubular epithelium. PMID:26146837

  13. Changes in the gene expression pattern of cytokeratins in human respiratory epithelial cells during culture.

    PubMed

    Endres, Michaela; Leinhase, Iris; Kaps, Christian; Wentges, Marek; Unger, Manja; Olze, Heidi; Ringe, Jochen; Sittinger, Michael; Rotter, Nicole

    2005-05-01

    The replacement of extensive tracheal defects resulting from intensive care medicine, trauma or large resections is still challenged by the re-epithelialization of an autologous or alloplastic trachea replacement. Therefore, this study was performed to investigate the potential of culture-expanded human respiratory epithelial cells (hREC) to regenerate a functional epithelium for tracheal tissue engineering. hREC from seven male nasal turbinates were freshly isolated, expanded on a collagenous matrix and subsequently cultured in high-density multi-layers to allow epithelial differentiation. The composition of epithelial cells in native respiratory epithelial tissue and culture-expanded hREC was analyzed by histological staining with Alcian blue and by immunohistochemical staining of cytokeratin pairs CK1/10 and CK5/14 with the antibodies 34betaE12 and CD44v6. Differentiation of culture-expanded hREC was further characterized by gene expression analysis of cytokeratins CK5, CK13, CK14 and CK18 using semi-quantitative real-time RT-PCR technique. Histological and immunohistochemical staining of culture-expanded hREC demonstrated basal cells covering the collagenous matrix. These cells formed a cellular multi-layer, which was composed of a basal layer of undifferentiated basal cells and an upper layer of cells differentiating along the squamous metaplasia and ciliated cell lineage. Lineage development of culture-expanded hREC was further documented by the induction of cytokeratins CK13 and CK18. Our results suggest that culture-expanded hREC have the potential to colonize collagen-coated biomaterials and to regenerate epithelial cell types for tracheal tissue engineering. PMID:15549340

  14. Generation of alveolar epithelial spheroids via isolated progenitor cells from human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Shimpei; Ito, Isao; Nagasaki, Tadao; Yamamoto, Yuki; Konishi, Satoshi; Korogi, Yohei; Matsumoto, Hisako; Muro, Shigeo; Hirai, Toyohiro; Funato, Michinori; Mae, Shin-Ichi; Toyoda, Taro; Sato-Otsubo, Aiko; Ogawa, Seishi; Osafune, Kenji; Mishima, Michiaki

    2014-09-01

    No methods for isolating induced alveolar epithelial progenitor cells (AEPCs) from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have been reported. Based on a study of the stepwise induction of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs), we identified carboxypeptidase M (CPM) as a surface marker of NKX2-1(+) "ventralized" anterior foregut endoderm cells (VAFECs) in vitro and in fetal human and murine lungs. Using SFTPC-GFP reporter hPSCs and a 3D coculture system with fetal human lung fibroblasts, we showed that CPM(+) cells isolated from VAFECs differentiate into AECs, demonstrating that CPM is a marker of AEPCs. Moreover, 3D coculture differentiation of CPM(+) cells formed spheroids with lamellar-body-like structures and an increased expression of surfactant proteins compared with 2D differentiation. Methods to induce and isolate AEPCs using CPM and consequently generate alveolar epithelial spheroids would aid human pulmonary disease modeling and regenerative medicine. PMID:25241738

  15. Engineering targeted chromosomal amplifications in human breast epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Springer, Simeon; Yi, Kyung H; Park, Jeenah; Rajpurohit, Anandita; Price, Amanda J; Lauring, Josh

    2015-07-01

    Chromosomal amplifications are among the most common genetic alterations found in human cancers. However, experimental systems to study the processes that lead to specific, recurrent amplification events in human cancers are lacking. Moreover, some common amplifications, such as that at 8p11-12 in breast cancer, harbor multiple driver oncogenes, which are poorly modeled by conventional overexpression approaches. We sought to develop an experimental system to model recurrent chromosomal amplification events in human cell lines. Our strategy is to use homologous-recombination-mediated gene targeting to deliver a dominantly selectable, amplifiable marker to a specified chromosomal location. We used adeno-associated virus vectors to target human MCF-7 breast cancer cells at the ZNF703 locus, in the recurrent 8p11-12 amplicon, using the E. coli inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) enzyme as a marker. We applied selective pressure using IMPDH inhibitors. Surviving clones were found to have increased copy number of ZNF703 (average 2.5-fold increase) by droplet digital PCR and FISH. Genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization confirmed that amplifications had occurred on the short arm of chromosome 8, without changes on 8q or other chromosomes. Patterns of amplification were variable and similar to those seen in primary human breast cancers, including "sawtooth" patterns, distal copy number loss, and large continuous regions of copy number gain. This system will allow study of the cis- and trans-acting factors that are permissive for chromosomal amplification and provide a model to analyze oncogene cooperativity in amplifications harboring multiple candidate driver genes. PMID:26099605

  16. Human amniotic epithelial cells as feeder layer to derive and maintain human embryonic stem cells from poor-quality embryos.

    PubMed

    Ávila-González, Daniela; Vega-Hernández, Eva; Regalado-Hernández, Juan Carlos; De la Jara-Díaz, Julio Francisco; García-Castro, Irma Lydia; Molina-Hernández, Anayansi; Moreno-Verduzco, Elsa Romelia; Razo-Aguilera, Guadalupe; Flores-Herrera, Héctor; Portillo, Wendy; Díaz-Martínez, Néstor Emmanuel; García-López, Guadalupe; Díaz, Néstor Fabián

    2015-09-01

    Data from the literature suggest that human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines used in research do not genetically represent all human populations. The derivation of hESC through conventional methods involve the destruction of viable human embryos, as well the use of mouse embryonic fibroblasts as a feeder layer, which has several drawbacks. We obtained the hESC line (Amicqui-1) from poor-quality (PQ) embryos derived and maintained on human amniotic epithelial cells (hAEC). This line displays a battery of markers of pluripotency and we demonstrated the capacity of these cells to produce derivates of the three germ layers. PMID:26246271

  17. Epigenetic influences of low-dose bisphenol A in primary human breast epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Yu-I; Hsu, Pei-Yin; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Liu, Joseph; Deatherage, Daniel E.; Huang Yiwen; Zuo Tao; Rodriguez, Benjamin; Lin, Ching-Hung; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Huang, Tim H.-M.

    2010-10-15

    Substantial evidence indicates that exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) during early development may increase breast cancer risk later in life. The changes may persist into puberty and adulthood, suggesting an epigenetic process being imposed in differentiated breast epithelial cells. The molecular mechanisms by which early memory of BPA exposure is imprinted in breast progenitor cells and then passed onto their epithelial progeny are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine epigenetic changes in breast epithelial cells treated with low-dose BPA. We also investigated the effect of BPA on the ER{alpha} signaling pathway and global gene expression profiles. Compared to control cells, nuclear internalization of ER{alpha} was observed in epithelial cells preexposed to BPA. We identified 170 genes with similar expression changes in response to BPA. Functional analysis confirms that gene suppression was mediated in part through an ER{alpha}-dependent pathway. As a result of exposure to BPA or other estrogen-like chemicals, the expression of lysosomal-associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP3) became epigenetically silenced in breast epithelial cells. Furthermore, increased DNA methylation in the LAMP3 CpG island was this repressive mark preferentially occurred in ER{alpha}-positive breast tumors. These results suggest that the in vitro system developed in our laboratory is a valuable tool for exposure studies of BPA and other xenoestrogens in human cells. Individual and geographical differences may contribute to altered patterns of gene expression and DNA methylation in susceptible loci. Combination of our exposure model with epigenetic analysis and other biochemical assays can give insight into the heritable effect of low-dose BPA in human cells.

  18. Epigenetic influences of low-dose bisphenol A in primary human breast epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Yu-I; Hsu, Pei-Yin; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Liu, Joseph; Deatherage, Daniel E.; Huang, Yi-Wen; Zuo, Tao; Rodriguez, Benjamin; Lin, Ching-Hung; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Huang, Tim H.-M.

    2010-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) during early development may increase breast cancer risk later in life. The changes may persist into puberty and adulthood, suggesting an epigenetic process being imposed in differentiated breast epithelial cells. The molecular mechanisms by which early memory of BPA exposure is imprinted in breast progenitor cells and then passed onto their epithelial progeny are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine epigenetic changes in breast epithelial cells treated with low-dose BPA. We also investigated the effect of BPA on the ERα signaling pathway and global gene expression profiles. Compared to control cells, nuclear internalization of ERα was observed in epithelial cells preexposed to BPA. We identified 170 genes with similar expression changes in response to BPA. Functional analysis confirms that gene suppression was mediated in part through an ERα-dependent pathway. As a result of exposure to BPA or other estrogen-like chemicals, the expression of lysosomal-associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP3) became epigenetically silenced in breast epithelial cells. Furthermore, increased DNA methylation in the LAMP3 CpG island was this repressive mark preferentially occurred in ERα-positive breast tumors. These results suggest that the in vitro system developed in our laboratory is a valuable tool for exposure studies of BPA and other xenoestrogens in human cells. Individual and geographical differences may contribute to altered patterns of gene expression and DNA methylation in susceptible loci. Combination of our exposure model with epigenetic analysis and other biochemical assays can give insight into the heritable effect of low-dose BPA in human cells. PMID:20678512

  19. Everolimus-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition in immortalized human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells: key role of heparanase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Everolimus (EVE) is a drug widely used in several renal transplant protocols. Although characterized by a relatively low nephrotoxicity, it may induce several adverse effects including severe fibro-interstitial pneumonitis. The exact molecular/biological mechanism associated to these pro-fibrotic effects is unknown, but epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) may have a central role. Additionally, heparanase, an enzyme recently associated with the progression of chronic allograft nephropathy, could contribute to activate this machinery in renal cells. Methods Several biomolecular strategies (RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, zymography and migration assay) have been used to assess the capability of EVE (10, 100, 200 and 500 nM) to induce an in vitro heparanase-mediated EMT in wild-type (WT) and Heparanase (HPSE)-silenced immortalized human renal epithelial proximal tubular cells (HK-2). Additionally, microarray technology was used to find additional biological elements involved in EVE-induced EMT. Results Biomolecular experiments demonstrated a significant up-regulation (more than 1.5 fold increase) of several genes encoding for well known EMT markers [(alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), Vimentin (VIM), Fibronectin (FN) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9)], enhancement of MMP9 protein level and increment of cells motility in WT HK2 cells treated with high concentrations of EVE (higher than 100 nM). Similarly, immunofluorescence analysis showed that 100 nM of EVE increased α-SMA, VIM and FN protein expression in WT HK2 cells. All these effects were absent in both HPSE- and AKT-silenced cell lines. AKT is a protein having a central role in EMT. Additionally, microarray analysis identified other 2 genes significantly up-regulated in 100 nM EVE-treated cells (p < 0.005 and FDR < 5%): transforming growth factor beta-2 (TGFβ2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Real-time PCR analysis validated microarray. Conclusions Our in vitro study

  20. N-Myc Drives Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer Initiated from Human Prostate Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, John K; Phillips, John W; Smith, Bryan A; Park, Jung Wook; Stoyanova, Tanya; McCaffrey, Erin F; Baertsch, Robert; Sokolov, Artem; Meyerowitz, Justin G; Mathis, Colleen; Cheng, Donghui; Stuart, Joshua M; Shokat, Kevan M; Gustafson, W Clay; Huang, Jiaoti; Witte, Owen N

    2016-04-11

    MYCN amplification and overexpression are common in neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC). However, the impact of aberrant N-Myc expression in prostate tumorigenesis and the cellular origin of NEPC have not been established. We define N-Myc and activated AKT1 as oncogenic components sufficient to transform human prostate epithelial cells to prostate adenocarcinoma and NEPC with phenotypic and molecular features of aggressive, late-stage human disease. We directly show that prostate adenocarcinoma and NEPC can arise from a common epithelial clone. Further, N-Myc is required for tumor maintenance, and destabilization of N-Myc through Aurora A kinase inhibition reduces tumor burden. Our findings establish N-Myc as a driver of NEPC and a target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27050099

  1. Transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells repairs brachial plexus injury: pathological and biomechanical analyses

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qi; Luo, Min; Li, Peng; Jin, Hai

    2014-01-01

    A brachial plexus injury model was established in rabbits by stretching the C6 nerve root. Immediately after the stretching, a suspension of human amniotic epithelial cells was injected into the injured brachial plexus. The results of tensile mechanical testing of the brachial plexus showed that the tensile elastic limit strain, elastic limit stress, maximum stress, and maximum strain of the injured brachial plexuses were significantly increased at 24 weeks after the injection. The treatment clearly improved the pathological morphology of the injured brachial plexus nerve, as seen by hematoxylin eosin staining, and the functions of the rabbit forepaw were restored. These data indicate that the injection of human amniotic epithelial cells contributed to the repair of brachial plexus injury, and that this technique may transform into current clinical treatment strategies. PMID:25657737

  2. STAT3 regulated ATR via microRNA-383 to control DNA damage to affect apoptosis in A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xing-Hua; Zheng, Li; He, Hong-Peng; Zheng, De-Liang; Wei, Zhao-Qiang; Wang, Nan; Dong, Jian; Ma, Wen-Jian; Zhang, Tong-Cun

    2015-11-01

    Skin cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Mounting evidence shows that exposure of the skin to solar UV radiation results in inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA damage, dysregulation of cellular signaling pathways and immunosuppression thereby resulting in skin cancer. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is well known to function as an anti-apoptotic factor, especially in numerous malignancies, but the relationship between STAT3 activation and DNA damage response in skin cancer is still not fully understood. We now report that STAT3 inhibited DNA damage induced by UV and STAT3 mediated upregulation of GADD45γ and MDC-1 and the phosphorylation of H2AX in UV induced DNA damage. Notably, STAT3 can increase the expression of ATR in A431 cells. Luciferase assay shows that STAT3 activates the transcription of ATR promoter. More importantly, microRNA-383 suppressed ATR expression by targeting 3' (untranslated regions)UTR of ATR in A431 cells, and STAT3 down-regulates the transcription of miR-383 promoter. Thus, these results reveal the new insight that ATR is down-regulated by STAT3-regulated microRNA-383 in A431 cells. Moreover, overexpression of STAT3 enhanced expression of antiapoptosis genes BCL-1 and MCL-1, and depletion of STAT3 sensitized A431 cells to apoptotic cell death following UV. Collectively, these studies suggest that STAT3 may be a potential target for both the prevention and treatment of human skin cancer. PMID:26261078

  3. Effect of resveratrol and zinc on intracellular zinc status in normal human prostate epithelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the influence of resveratrol on cellular zinc status, normal human prostate epithelial (NHPrE) cells were treated with 6 levels of resveratrol (0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 microM) and 4 levels of zinc [0, 4, 16, and 32 microM for zinc-deficient (ZD), zinc-normal (ZN), zinc-adequate (ZA), an...

  4. Human turbinate mesenchymal stromal cell sheets with bellows graft for rapid tracheal epithelial regeneration.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Hun; Park, Ju Young; Nam, Inn-Chul; Hwang, Se-Hwan; Kim, Choung-Soo; Jung, Jin Woo; Jang, Jinah; Lee, Hyungseok; Choi, Yeongjin; Park, Sun Hwa; Kim, Sung Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2015-10-01

    Rapid functional epithelial regeneration on the luminal surface is essential when using artificial tracheal grafts to repair tracheal defects. In this study, we imposed human turbinate mesenchymal stromal cell (hTMSC) sheets for tracheal epithelial regeneration, and then assessed their potential as a new clinical cell source. In vitro, hTMSCs sheets showed high capacity to differentiate into tracheal epithelium. We fabricated a poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) tracheal graft by indirect three-dimensional (3D) printing technique and created a composite construct by transplanting the hTMSC sheets to its luminal surface of the tracheal graft, then applied this tissue-engineered tracheal graft to non-circumferential tracheal reconstruction in a rabbit model. 4 weeks after implantation, the luminal surface of tissue-engineered tracheal graft was covered by a mature and highly-ciliated epithelium, whereas tracheal grafts without hTMSC sheets were covered by only a thin, immature epithelium. Therefore, hTMSC sheets on the luminal surface of a tissue-engineered tracheal graft can accelerate the tracheal epithelial regeneration, and the tissue-engineered tracheal graft with hTMSC sheets provides a useful clinical alternative for tracheal epithelial regeneration. PMID:26163763

  5. Stress Signaling from Human Mammary Epithelial Cells Contributes to Phenotypes of Mammographic Density

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Kelley; Chang, Hang; Zhao, Jianxin; Fontenay, Gerald V.; Kerlikowske, Karla; Parvin, Bahram; Tlsty, Thea D.

    2014-01-01

    Telomere malfunction and other types of DNA damage induce an activin A-dependent stress response in mortal non-tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells that subsequently induces desmoplastic-like phenotypes in neighboring fibroblasts. Some characteristics of this fibroblast/stromal response, such as reduced adipocytes and increased extracellular matrix content, are observed not only in tumor tissues but also in disease-free breast tissues at high risk for developing cancer, especially high mammographic density tissues. We found that these phenotypes are induced by repression of the fatty acid translocase CD36, which is seen in desmoplastic and disease-free high mammographic density tissues. In this study, we show that epithelial cells from high mammographic density tissues have more DNA damage signaling, shorter telomeres, increased activin A secretion and an altered DNA damage response compared to epithelial cells from low mammographic density tissues. Strikingly, both telomere malfunction and activin A expression in epithelial cells can repress CD36 expression in adjacent fibroblasts. These results provide new insights into how high mammographic density arises and why it is associated with breast cancer risk, with implications for the definition of novel invention targets (e.g. activin A, CD36) to prevent breast cancer. PMID:25172842

  6. Differential gene expression in normal and transformed human mammary epithelial cells in response to oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Diego F; Sha, Wei; Hower, Valerie; Blekherman, Greg; Laubenbacher, Reinhard; Akman, Steven; Torti, Suzy V; Shulaev, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a key role in breast carcinogenesis. To investigate whether normal and malignant breast epithelial cells differ in their responses to oxidative stress, we examined the global gene expression profiles of three cell types, representing cancer progression from a normal to a malignant stage, under oxidative stress. Normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC), an immortalized cell line (HMLER-1), and a tumorigenic cell line (HMLER-5), were exposed to increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by treatment with glucose oxidase. Functional analysis of the metabolic pathways enriched with differentially expressed genes demonstrates that normal and malignant breast epithelial cells diverge substantially in their response to oxidative stress. While normal cells exhibit the up-regulation of antioxidant mechanisms, cancer cells are unresponsive to the ROS insult. However, the gene expression response of normal HMEC cells under oxidative stress is comparable to that of the malignant cells under normal conditions, indicating that altered redox status is persistent in breast cancer cells, which makes them resistant to increased generation of ROS. This study discusses some of the possible adaptation mechanisms of breast cancer cells under persistent oxidative stress that differentiate them from the response to acute oxidative stress in normal mammary epithelial cells. PMID:21397008

  7. Distinct Proinflammatory Host Responses to Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infection in Immortalized Human Cervical and Vaginal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fichorova, Raina Nakova; Desai, Pragnya Jasvantrai; Gibson, Frank C.; Genco, Caroline Attardo

    2001-01-01

    In this study we utilized immortalized morphologically and functionally distinct epithelial cell lines from normal human endocervix, ectocervix, and vagina to characterize gonococcal epithelial interactions pertinent to the lower female genital tract. Piliated, but not nonpiliated, N. gonorrhoeae strain F62 variants actively invaded these epithelial cell lines, as demonstrated by an antibiotic protection assay and confocal microscopy. Invasion of these cells by green fluorescent protein-expressing gonococci was characterized by colocalization of gonococci with F actin, which were initially detected 30 min postinfection. In all three cell lines, upregulation of interleukin 8 (IL-8) and IL-6, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (CD54), and the nonspecific cross-reacting antigen (CD66c) were detected 4 h after infection with piliated and nonpiliated gonococci. Furthermore, stimulation of all three cell lines with gonococcal whole-cell lysates resulted in a similar upregulation of IL-6 and IL-8, confirming that bacterial uptake is not essential for this response. Increased levels of IL-1 were first detected 8 h after infection with gonococci, suggesting that the earlier IL-8 and IL-6 responses were not mediated through the IL-1 signaling pathway. The IL-1 response was limited to cultures infected with piliated gonococci and was more vigorous in the endocervical epithelial cells. The ability of gonococci to stimulate distinct proinflammatory host responses in these morphologically and functionally different compartments of the lower female genital tract may contribute directly to the inflammatory signs and symptoms characteristic of disease caused by N. gonorrhoeae. PMID:11500462

  8. Expression of IL-4/IL-13 receptors in differentiating human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    White, Steven R; Martin, Linda D; Stern, Randi; Laxman, Bharathi; Marroquin, Bertha A

    2010-11-01

    IL-4 and IL-13 elicit several important responses in airway epithelium including chemokine secretion and mucous secretion that may contribute to airway inflammation, cell migration, and differentiation. These cytokines have overlapping but not identical effector profiles likely due to shared subunits in their receptor complexes. These receptors are variably described in epithelial cells, and the relative expression, localization, and function of these receptors in differentiated and repairing epithelial cells are not clear. We examined IL-4/IL-13 receptor expression and localization in primary airway epithelial cells collected from normal human lungs and grown under conditions yielding both undifferentiated and differentiated cells inclusive of basal, goblet, and ciliated cell phenotypes. Gene expression of the IL-4Rα, IL-2Rγc, IL-13Rα1, and IL-13Rα2 receptor subunits increased with differentiation, but different patterns of localization and protein abundance were seen for each subunit based on both differentiation and the cell subtypes present. Increased expression of receptor subunits observed in more differentiated cells was associated with more substantial functional responses to IL-4 stimulation including increased eotaxin-3 expression and accelerated migration after injury. We demonstrate substantial differences in IL-4/IL-13 receptor subunit expression and responsiveness to IL-4 based on the extent of airway epithelial cell differentiation and suggest that these differences may have functional consequences in airway inflammation. PMID:20729386

  9. Transfection of normal human bronchial epithelial cells with the bcl-2 oncogene

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.H.; Kenyon, K.D.; Tesfaigzi, J.

    1995-12-01

    In vitro, studies examining the transformation of virus-immortalized human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells after exposure to chemical and physical carcinogens have contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the development of lung cancer. Virus-immortalized HBE cells have been used because of both the limited life span of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells in culture (approximately 30-35 population doublins) and their resistance to in vitro malignant transformation. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV)-immortalized HBE cells have been used to study the genetic changes that occur after exposure to {alpha}-particles in vitro. Although this model may prove to be useful for studying the 18% or less of bronchogenic carcinomas found to contain HPV sequences, it is not an appropriate model for studying the majority of lung epithelial malignancies in which HPV DNA is not detected. This view is supported by the fact that HPV-immortalized cell lines commonly exhibit aneuploidy. This results of this study suggest that: (1) NHBE cells can be transiently transfected with the pCMV{Beta} vector; and (2) the antibiotic hygromycin-resistant transfected cells.

  10. Biological length scale topography enhances cell-substratum adhesion of human corneal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Karuri, Nancy W.; Liliensiek, Sara; Teixeira, Ana I.; Abrams, George; Campbell, Sean; Nealey, Paul F.; Murphy, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    Summary The basement membrane possesses a rich 3-dimensional nanoscale topography that provides a physical stimulus, which may modulate cell-substratum adhesion. We have investigated the strength of cell-substratum adhesion on nanoscale topographic features of a similar scale to that of the native basement membrane. SV40 human corneal epithelial cells were challenged by well-defined fluid shear, and cell detachment was monitored. We created silicon substrata with uniform grooves and ridges having pitch dimensions of 400-4000 nm using X-ray lithography. F-actin labeling of cells that had been incubated for 24 hours revealed that the percentage of aligned and elongated cells on the patterned surfaces was the same regardless of pitch dimension. In contrast, at the highest fluid shear, a biphasic trend in cell adhesion was observed with cells being most adherent to the smaller features. The 400 nm pitch had the highest percentage of adherent cells at the end of the adhesion assay. The effect of substratum topography was lost for the largest features evaluated, the 4000 nm pitch. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the cells during and after flow indicated that the aligned and elongated cells on the 400 nm pitch were more tightly adhered compared to aligned cells on the larger patterns. Selected experiments with primary cultured human corneal epithelial cells produced similar results to the SV40 human corneal epithelial cells. These findings have relevance to interpretation of cell-biomaterial interactions in tissue engineering and prosthetic design. PMID:15226393

  11. Propagation of normal human epithelial cell populations using an in vivo culture system. Description and applications.

    PubMed

    Klein-Szanto, A J; Terzaghi, M; Mirkin, L D; Martin, D; Shiba, M

    1982-08-01

    A new model using xenotransplanted human epithelia was developed for the study of toxic and carcinogenic effects of chemicals. Epithelial cells from the respiratory tract of 4 male and 3 female premature and fullterm fetuses were enzymatically removed and inoculated into deepithelialized rat tracheas. These were sealed at both ends and transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice. After 3-4 weeks, a normal mucociliary epithelium covered the tracheal lumen. At this stage the epithelial cells could be isolated again and transplanted into new denuded rat tracheas. This passaging could be repeated up to six times, each permitting an amplification factor of approximately 3. Tracheal transplants containing cells of human origin (in vivo Passages 2-4) were treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. Hyperplasias, squamous metaplasias, and dysplasias were seen 1-8 weeks after initiation of treatment, indicating that the responses of human and rodent epithelial cells to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are similar. Initial experiments with skin and esophageal epithelia suggest that other covering epithelia could also be used in this fashion for evaluation of toxicants and carcinogens that are likely to come into contact with these tissues. PMID:6821529

  12. Development of an in vitro model of human bronchial epithelial barrier to study nanoparticle translocation.

    PubMed

    George, Isabelle; Vranic, Sandra; Boland, Sonja; Courtois, Arnaud; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle

    2015-02-01

    Inhalation is the most frequent route of unintentional exposure to nanoparticles (NPs). Our aim was to compare different in vitro models of human lung epithelial monolayers for their suitability to assess the translocation of 50 nm fluorescently labelled silica NPs (50 nm-SiO(2)-FITC-NPs). Human bronchial epithelial cell lines NCI-H292 and Calu-3 as well as human alveolar cell line A549 were seeded onto Transwell filters (TF) separating the well into an apical and a basal compartment. Measurements of the transepithelial electric resistance and monitoring the paracellular transport of a fluorescent marker (Lucifer Yellow) have shown that only Calu-3 cells formed a tight epithelium. In the absence of cells 4% of the initially applied NP concentration was found to cross the TF but the majority remained trapped inside the filter. After 24 h of treatment, 50 nm-SiO(2)-FITC-NPs were taken up by all cell types but their translocation was inversely correlated to the efficiency to prevent LY passage: translocation represented 3% of the initially apically applied NP concentration for Calu-3 cells, 9% for NCI-H292 cells and 35% for A549 cells. In conclusion, 50 nm-SiO(2)-FITC-NPs can cross different bronchial epithelial barriers, but the Calu-3 cell line appears to be the most relevant model for studying NP translocation. PMID:25197033

  13. Tsr Chemoreceptor Interacts With IL-8 Provoking E. coli Transmigration Across Human Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bing; Li, Manshu; Xu, Yonghao; Islam, Diana; Khang, Julie; Del Sorbo, Lorenzo; Lee, Warren; Szaszi, Katalin; Zhong, Nanshan; Slutsky, Arthur S.; Li, Yimin; Zhang, Haibo

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial colonization of epithelial surfaces and subsequent transmigration across the mucosal barrier are essential for the development of infection. We hypothesized that the methyl-accepting proteins (MCPs), known as chemoreceptors expressed on Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial surface, play an important role in mediating bacterial transmigration. We demonstrated a direct interaction between human interleukin-8 (IL-8) and Tsr receptor, a major MCP chemoreceptor. Stimulation of human lung epithelial cell monolayer with IL-8 resulted in increased E. coli adhesion and transmigration of the native strain (RP437) and a strain expressing only Tsr (UU2373), as compared to a strain (UU2599) with Tsr truncation. The augmented E. coli adhesion and migration was associated with a higher expression of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 and production of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, and a lower expression of the tight junction protein claudin-1 and the plasma membrane protein caveolin-1 in lung epithelial cells. An increased E. coli colonization and pulmonary cytokine production induced by the RP437 and UU2373 strains was attenuated in mice challenged with the UU2599 strain. Our results suggest a critical role of the E. coli Tsr chemoreceptor in mediating bacterial colonization and transmigration across human lung epithelium during development of pulmonary infections. PMID:27506372

  14. Methemoglobin-induced signaling and chemokine responses in human alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Mumby, Sharon; Ramakrishnan, Latha; Evans, Timothy W.; Griffiths, Mark J. D.

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is characterized by the presence of red blood cells and free hemoglobin in the alveoli and complicates a number of serious medical and surgical lung conditions including the pulmonary vasculitides and acute respiratory distress syndrome. In this study we investigated the hypothesis that exposure of human alveolar epithelial cells to hemoglobin and its breakdown products regulates chemokine release via iron- and oxidant-mediated activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. Methemoglobin alone stimulated the release of IL-8 and MCP-1 from A549 cells via activation of the NF-κB pathway; additionally, IL-8 required ERK activation and MCP-1 required JNK activation. Neither antioxidants nor iron chelators and knockdown of ferritin heavy and light chains affected these responses, indicating that iron and reactive oxygen species are not involved in the response of alveolar epithelial cells to methemoglobin. Incubation of primary cultures of human alveolar type 2 cells with methemoglobin resulted in a similar pattern of chemokine release and signaling pathway activation. In summary, we have shown for the first time that methemoglobin induced chemokine release from human lung epithelial cells independent of iron- and redox-mediated signaling involving the activation of the NF-κB and MAPK pathways. Decompartmentalization of hemoglobin may be a significant proinflammatory stimulus in a variety of lung diseases. PMID:24142518

  15. Tsr Chemoreceptor Interacts With IL-8 Provoking E. coli Transmigration Across Human Lung Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Bing; Li, Manshu; Xu, Yonghao; Islam, Diana; Khang, Julie; Del Sorbo, Lorenzo; Lee, Warren; Szaszi, Katalin; Zhong, Nanshan; Slutsky, Arthur S; Li, Yimin; Zhang, Haibo

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial colonization of epithelial surfaces and subsequent transmigration across the mucosal barrier are essential for the development of infection. We hypothesized that the methyl-accepting proteins (MCPs), known as chemoreceptors expressed on Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial surface, play an important role in mediating bacterial transmigration. We demonstrated a direct interaction between human interleukin-8 (IL-8) and Tsr receptor, a major MCP chemoreceptor. Stimulation of human lung epithelial cell monolayer with IL-8 resulted in increased E. coli adhesion and transmigration of the native strain (RP437) and a strain expressing only Tsr (UU2373), as compared to a strain (UU2599) with Tsr truncation. The augmented E. coli adhesion and migration was associated with a higher expression of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 and production of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, and a lower expression of the tight junction protein claudin-1 and the plasma membrane protein caveolin-1 in lung epithelial cells. An increased E. coli colonization and pulmonary cytokine production induced by the RP437 and UU2373 strains was attenuated in mice challenged with the UU2599 strain. Our results suggest a critical role of the E. coli Tsr chemoreceptor in mediating bacterial colonization and transmigration across human lung epithelium during development of pulmonary infections. PMID:27506372

  16. INHIBITION OF PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY MEDIATES EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR SIGNALING IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have implicated zinc in the toxicity of ambient particulate matter (PM) inhalation. We previously showed that exposure to metal-laden PM inhibits protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity in human primary bronchial epithelial cells (HAEC) and leads t...

  17. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELL PROTEINS PHOSPHORYLATED IN RESPONSE TO PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) EXPOSURE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple studies conducted by NHEERL scientists in recent years have shown that acute exposure to metals found associated with combustion-derived particulate matter (PM) alters phosphoprotein metabolism in human airway epithelial cells causing intracellular signaling. This disreg...

  18. ACTIVATION OF THE EGF RECEPTOR SIGNALING PATHWAY IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO UTAH VALLEY PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) in the Utah Valley (UV) has previously been associated with a variety of adverse health effects. To investigate intracellular signaling mechanisms for pulmonary responses to UV PM inhalation, human primary airway epithelial cells (NHBE)...

  19. In vitro modeling of the interaction between human epithelial cells and lymphocytes upon influenza infection.

    PubMed

    Ilyushina, Natalia A; Wright, Peter F

    2016-09-01

    Influenza viruses are a continuous threat to humans because of their ability to cross species barriers and adapt to new hosts. Data from murine studies, along with limited human data, suggest that CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) that recognize conserved epitopes of structural influenza proteins are the main mediators of influenza virus clearance. Additionally, the fact that many CTLs recognize epitopes shared between different influenza strains offers the potential for broad cross-strain immunity. However, the mechanisms of cellular immunity against influenza viruses are poorly defined in humans, where the CTL response has been hard to measure and interpret. We developed a novel CTL assay that utilizes fully differentiated nasal human epithelial cells taken from volunteers as permissive targets for autologous peripheral blood-derived influenza virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. This in vitro system of human lymphocyte-epithelial cell co-cultures can be considered as the closest approximation to events in vivo and can be employed for studying the interactions between the pathogen and human host. Modeling of the natural interaction process between the primary cell type that supports the productive replication of influenza and immune cells may allow us to put in perspective CTLs as a correlate of immunity to influenza in humans. PMID:27102577

  20. Alpha2 adrenoceptors regulate proliferation of human intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Schaak, S; Cussac, D; Cayla, C; Devedjian, J; Guyot, R; Paris, H; Denis, C

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—Previous studies on rodents have suggested that catecholamines stimulate proliferation of the intestinal epithelium through activation of α2 adrenoceptors located on crypt cells. The occurrence of this effect awaits demonstration in humans and the molecular mechanisms involved have not yet been elucidated. Here, we examined the effect of α2 agonists on a clone of Caco2 cells expressing the human α2A adrenoceptor.
METHODS—Cells were transfected with a bicistronic plasmid containing the α2C10 and neomycin phosphotransferase genes. G418 resistant clones were assayed for receptor expression using radioligand binding. Receptor functionality was assessed by testing its ability to couple Gi proteins and to inhibit cAMP production. Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation was followed by western blot, and cell proliferation was estimated by measuring protein and DNA content.
RESULTS—Permanent transfection of Caco2 cells allowed us to obtain a clone (Caco2-3B) expressing α2A adrenoceptors at a density similar to that found in normal human intestinal epithelium. Caco2-3B retained morphological features and brush border enzyme expression characteristic of enterocytic differentiation. The receptor was coupled to Gi2/Gi3 proteins and its stimulation caused marked diminution of forskolin induced cAMP production. Treatment of Caco2-3B with UK14304 (α2 agonist) induced a rapid increase in the phosphorylation state of MAPK, extracellular regulated protein kinase 1 (Erk1), and 2 (Erk2). This event was totally abolished in pertussis toxin treated cells and in the presence of kinase inhibitors (genistein or PD98059). It was unaffected by protein kinase C downregulation but correlated with a transient increase in Shc tyrosine phosphorylation. Finally, sustained exposure of Caco2-3B to UK14304 resulted in modest but significant acceleration of cell proliferation. None of these effects was observed in the parental cell line Caco2.

  1. Entrance and survival of Brucella pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in human macrophages and epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Anett K; Nymo, Ingebjørg H; Briquemont, Benjamin; Sørensen, Karen K; Godfroid, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammal Brucella spp. have been isolated from pinnipeds (B. pinnipedialis) and cetaceans (B. ceti) from around the world. Although the zoonotic potential of marine mammal brucellae is largely unknown, reports of human disease exist. There are few studies of the mechanisms of bacterial intracellular invasion and multiplication involving the marine mammal Brucella spp. We examined the infective capacity of two genetically different B. pinnipedialis strains (reference strain; NTCT 12890 and a hooded seal isolate; B17) by measuring the ability of the bacteria to enter and replicate in cultured phagocytes and epithelial cells. Human macrophage-like cells (THP-1), two murine macrophage cell lines (RAW264.7 and J774A.1), and a human malignant epithelial cell line (HeLa S3) were challenged with bacteria in a gentamicin protection assay. Our results show that B. pinnipedialis is internalized, but is then gradually eliminated during the next 72-96 hours. Confocal microscopy revealed that intracellular B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain colocalized with lysosomal compartments at 1.5 and 24 hours after infection. Intracellular presence of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain was verified by transmission electron microscopy. By using a cholesterol-scavenging lipid inhibitor, entrance of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in human macrophages was significantly reduced by 65.8 % (± 17.3), suggesting involvement of lipid-rafts in intracellular entry. Murine macrophages invaded by B. pinnipedialis do not release nitric oxide (NO) and intracellular bacterial presence does not induce cell death. In summary, B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain can enter human and murine macrophages, as well as human epithelial cells. Intracellular entry of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain involves, but seems not to be limited to, lipid-rafts in human macrophages. Brucella pinnipedialis does not multiply or survive for prolonged periods intracellulary. PMID:24376851

  2. Entrance and Survival of Brucella pinnipedialis Hooded Seal Strain in Human Macrophages and Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Briquemont, Benjamin; Sørensen, Karen K.; Godfroid, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammal Brucella spp. have been isolated from pinnipeds (B. pinnipedialis) and cetaceans (B. ceti) from around the world. Although the zoonotic potential of marine mammal brucellae is largely unknown, reports of human disease exist. There are few studies of the mechanisms of bacterial intracellular invasion and multiplication involving the marine mammal Brucella spp. We examined the infective capacity of two genetically different B. pinnipedialis strains (reference strain; NTCT 12890 and a hooded seal isolate; B17) by measuring the ability of the bacteria to enter and replicate in cultured phagocytes and epithelial cells. Human macrophage-like cells (THP-1), two murine macrophage cell lines (RAW264.7 and J774A.1), and a human malignant epithelial cell line (HeLa S3) were challenged with bacteria in a gentamicin protection assay. Our results show that B. pinnipedialis is internalized, but is then gradually eliminated during the next 72 – 96 hours. Confocal microscopy revealed that intracellular B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain colocalized with lysosomal compartments at 1.5 and 24 hours after infection. Intracellular presence of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain was verified by transmission electron microscopy. By using a cholesterol-scavenging lipid inhibitor, entrance of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in human macrophages was significantly reduced by 65.8 % (± 17.3), suggesting involvement of lipid-rafts in intracellular entry. Murine macrophages invaded by B. pinnipedialis do not release nitric oxide (NO) and intracellular bacterial presence does not induce cell death. In summary, B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain can enter human and murine macrophages, as well as human epithelial cells. Intracellular entry of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain involves, but seems not to be limited to, lipid-rafts in human macrophages. Brucella pinnipedialis does not multiply or survive for prolonged periods intracellulary. PMID:24376851

  3. Effect of Lunar Dust Simulant on Human Epithelial Cell Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Nicholas J.; Wallace, William T.; Jeevarajan, Antony S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to assess the potential toxicity of lunar dust to cause the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by human lung cells. Some of this dust is on the scale of 1-2 micrometers and could enter the lungs when astronauts track dust into the habitat and inhale it. This could be a serious problem as NASA plans on going back to the moon for an extended period of time. Literature shows that quartz, which has a known cytoxicity, can cause acute cases of silicosis within 6 months, and in most cases cause silicosis after 3 years. The activation of lunar dust through impacts creates surface based radicals which, upon contact with water create hydroxl radicals and peroxyl radicals which are very reactive and potentially might even be as cytotoxic as quartz. These radicals could then react with lung cells to produce pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-6 and interleukin-8, and TNF-alpha.

  4. A small molecule inhibitor of SRC family kinases promotes simple epithelial differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lian, Xiaojun; Selekman, Joshua; Bao, Xiaoping; Hsiao, Cheston; Zhu, Kexian; Palecek, Sean P

    2013-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) provide unprecedented opportunities to study the earliest stages of human development in vitro and have the potential to provide unlimited new sources of cells for regenerative medicine. Although previous studies have reported cytokeratin 14+/p63+ keratinocyte generation from hPSCs, the multipotent progenitors of epithelial lineages have not been described and the developmental pathways regulating epithelial commitment remain largely unknown. Here we report membrane localization of β-catenin during retinoic acid (RA)--induced epithelial differentiation. In addition hPSC treatment with the Src family kinase inhibitor SU6656 modulated β-catenin localization and produced an enriched population of simple epithelial cells under defined culture conditions. SU6656 strongly upregulated expression of cytokeratins 18 and 8 (K18/K8), which are expressed in simple epithelial cells, while repressing expression of the pluripotency gene Oct4. This homogeneous population of K18+K8+Oct4- simple epithelial precursor cells can further differentiate into cells expressing keratinocyte or corneal-specific markers. These enriched hPSC-derived simple epithelial cells may provide a ready source for development and toxicology cell models and may serve as a progenitor for epithelial cell transplantation applications. PMID:23527294

  5. Interleukin-13 interferes with CFTR and AQP5 expression and localization during human airway epithelial cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Skowron-zwarg, Marie; Boland, Sonja; Caruso, Nathalie; Coraux, Christelle; Marano, Francelyne; Tournier, Frederic . E-mail: f-tournier@paris7.jussieu.fr

    2007-07-15

    Interleukin-13 (IL-13) is a central regulator of Th2-dominated respiratory disorders such as asthma. Lesions of the airway epithelial barrier frequently observed in chronic respiratory inflammatory diseases are repaired through proliferation, migration and differentiation of epithelial cells. Our work is focused on the effects of IL-13 in human cellular models of airway epithelial cell regeneration. We have previously shown that IL-13 altered epithelial cell polarity during mucociliary differentiation of human nasal epithelial cells. In particular, the cytokine inhibited ezrin expression and interfered with its apical localization during epithelial cell differentiation in vitro. Here we show that CFTR expression is enhanced in the presence of the cytokine, that two additional CFTR protein isoforms are expressed in IL-13-treated cells and that part of the protein is retained within the endoplasmic reticulum. We further show that aquaporin 5 expression, a water channel localized within the apical membrane of epithelial cells, is completely abolished in the presence of the cytokine. These results show that IL-13 interferes with ion and water channel expression and localization during epithelial regeneration and may thereby influence mucus composition and hydration.

  6. Cigarette Smoke Modulates Expression of Human Rhinovirus-Induced Airway Epithelial Host Defense Genes

    PubMed Central

    Proud, David; Hudy, Magdalena H.; Wiehler, Shahina; Zaheer, Raza S.; Amin, Minaa A.; Pelikan, Jonathan B.; Tacon, Claire E.; Tonsaker, Tabitha O.; Walker, Brandie L.; Kooi, Cora; Traves, Suzanne L.; Leigh, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Human rhinovirus (HRV) infections trigger acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. The human airway epithelial cell is the primary site of HRV infection and responds to infection with altered expression of multiple genes, the products of which could regulate the outcome to infection. Cigarette smoking aggravates asthma symptoms, and is also the predominant risk factor for the development and progression of COPD. We, therefore, examined whether cigarette smoke extract (CSE) modulates viral responses by altering HRV-induced epithelial gene expression. Primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to medium alone, CSE alone, purified HRV-16 alone or to HRV-16+ CSE. After 24 h, supernatants were collected and total cellular RNA was isolated. Gene array analysis was performed to examine mRNA expression. Additional experiments, using real-time RT-PCR, ELISA and/or western blotting, validated altered expression of selected gene products. CSE and HRV-16 each induced groups of genes that were largely independent of each other. When compared to gene expression in response to CSE alone, cells treated with HRV+CSE showed no obvious differences in CSE-induced gene expression. By contrast, compared to gene induction in response to HRV-16 alone, cells exposed to HRV+CSE showed marked suppression of expression of a number of HRV-induced genes associated with various functions, including antiviral defenses, inflammation, viral signaling and airway remodeling. These changes were not associated with altered expression of type I or type III interferons. Thus, CSE alters epithelial responses to HRV infection in a manner that may negatively impact antiviral and host defense outcomes. PMID:22808255

  7. Silica induces NLRP3 inflammasome activation in human lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In myeloid cells the inflammasome plays a crucial role in innate immune defenses against pathogen- and danger-associated patterns such as crystalline silica. Respirable mineral particles impinge upon the lung epithelium causing irreversible damage, sustained inflammation and silicosis. In this study we investigated lung epithelial cells as a target for silica-induced inflammasome activation. Methods A human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) and primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) were exposed to toxic but nonlethal doses of crystalline silica over time to perform functional characterization of NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1β, bFGF and HMGB1. Quantitative RT-PCR, caspase-1 enzyme activity assay, Western blot techniques, cytokine-specific ELISA and fibroblast (MRC-5 cells) proliferation assays were performed. Results We were able to show transcriptional and translational upregulation of the components of the NLRP3 intracellular platform, as well as activation of caspase-1. NLRP3 activation led to maturation of pro-IL-1β to secreted IL-1β, and a significant increase in the unconventional release of the alarmins bFGF and HMGB1. Moreover, release of bFGF and HMGB1 was shown to be dependent on particle uptake. Small interfering RNA experiments using siNLRP3 revealed the pivotal role of the inflammasome in diminished release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, danger molecules and growth factors, and fibroblast proliferation. Conclusion Our novel data indicate the presence and functional activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by crystalline silica in human lung epithelial cells, which prolongs an inflammatory signal and affects fibroblast proliferation, mediating a cadre of lung diseases. PMID:23402370

  8. Development of epithelial and mesenchymal regionalization of the human fetal utero-vaginal anlagen

    PubMed Central

    Fritsch, Helga; Hoermann, Romed; Bitsche, Mario; Pechriggl, Elisabeth; Reich, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Literature on the development of the human vagina is abundant; however, contributions concerning the prenatal development of the entire utero-vaginal anlagen (UVA) are rare or carried out in rodents. The primary epithelial characteristics in the adult vagina and uterus are determined during prenatal development and depend on epithelio-mesenchymal stroma interaction; thus an investigation summarizing the spatiotemporal distribution of relevant molecular markers in the entire human UVA will be of current interest. We phenotyped epithelial and mesenchymal characteristics in sagittal sections from 24 female fetuses of 14–34 weeks of gestation and two female newborns by immunostaining with cytokeratins 8, 13, 14 and 17, p63, bcl-2, bmp4, HOX A13, CD31, VEGF, SMA, Pax2 and vimentin. Epithelial differentiation followed a caudal-to-cranial direction in the UVA. Due to the cytokeratin profile of cytokeratins 8, 13 and 14, the characteristics of the different epithelial zones in the UVA could already be recognized in middle-age fetuses. Vaginal epithelium originated from the urogenital sinus in the lower portion and initiated the transformation of vimentin-positive Müllerian epithelium in the upper vaginal portion. During prenatal development the original squamo-columnar junction was clearly detectable from week 24 onwards and was always found in the cervical canal. Early blc-2 positivity within the surrounding mesenchyme of the entire vagina including the portio region pointed to an organ-specific mesenchymal influence. Prenatal findings in human specimens clearly show that fornix epithelium up to the squamo-columnar junction is of vaginal Müllerian origin, and the cervical epithelium cranial to the squamo-columnar junction is of uterine Müllerian origin and includes cells with enough plasticity to transform into squamous epithelium. PMID:23406280

  9. Arsenic Compromises Conducting Airway Epithelial Barrier Properties in Primary Mouse and Immortalized Human Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Cara L.; Liguori, Andrew E.; Olsen, Colin E.; Lantz, R. Clark; Burgess, Jefferey L.; Boitano, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic is a lung toxicant that can lead to respiratory illness through inhalation and ingestion, although the most common exposure is through contaminated drinking water. Lung effects reported from arsenic exposure include lung cancer and obstructive lung disease, as well as reductions in lung function and immune response. As part of their role in innate immune function, airway epithelial cells provide a barrier that protects underlying tissue from inhaled particulates, pathogens, and toxicants frequently found in inspired air. We evaluated the effects of a five-day exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic {<4μM [~300 μg/L (ppb)] as NaAsO2} on airway epithelial barrier function and structure. In a primary mouse tracheal epithelial (MTE) cell model we found that both micromolar (3.9 μM) and submicromolar (0.8 μM) arsenic concentrations reduced transepithelial resistance, a measure of barrier function. Immunofluorescent staining of arsenic-treated MTE cells showed altered patterns of localization of the transmembrane tight junction proteins claudin (Cl) Cl-1, Cl-4, Cl-7 and occludin at cell-cell contacts when compared with untreated controls. To better quantify arsenic-induced changes in tight junction transmembrane proteins we conducted arsenic exposure experiments with an immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-). We found that arsenic exposure significantly increased the protein expression of Cl-4 and occludin as well as the mRNA levels of Cl-4 and Cl-7 in these cells. Additionally, arsenic exposure resulted in altered phosphorylation of occludin. In summary, exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic can alter both the function and structure of airway epithelial barrier constituents. These changes likely contribute to the observed arsenic-induced loss in basic innate immune defense and increased infection in the airway. PMID:24349408

  10. Carrageenan Induces Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells in Vitro1–3

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sumit; Borthakur, Alip; Dudeja, Pradeep K.; Tobacman, Joanne K.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies in animal models have shown that the commonly used food additive carrageenan (CGN) induces inflammation and intestinal neoplasia. We performed the first studies to determine the effects of CGN exposure on human intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) in tissue culture and tested the effect of very low concentrations (1–10 mg/L) of undegraded, high-molecular weight CGN. These concentrations of CGN are less than the anticipated exposure of the human colon to CGN from the average Western diet. In the human colonic epithelial cell line NCM460 and in primary human colonic epithelial cells that were exposed to CGN for 1–8 d, we found increased cell death, reduced cell proliferation, and cell cycle arrest compared with unexposed control cells. After 6–8 d of CGN exposure, the percentage of cells reentering G0–G1 significantly decreased and the percentages of cells in S and G2-M phases significantly increased. Increases in activated p53, p21, and p15 followed CGN exposure, consistent with CGN-induced cell cycle arrest. Additional data, including DNA ladder, poly ADP ribose polymerase Western blot, nuclear DNA staining, and activities of caspases 3 and 7, indicated no evidence of increased apoptosis following CGN exposure and were consistent with CGN-induced necrotic cell death. These data document for the first time, to our knowledge, marked adverse effects of low concentrations of CGN on survival of normal human IEC and suggest that CGN exposure may have a role in development of human intestinal pathology. PMID:18287351

  11. Downregulation of miR-153 contributes to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tumor metastasis in human epithelial cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qin; Sun, Qiang; Zhang, Jianjun; Yu, Jingshuang; Chen, Wantao; Zhang, Zhiyuan

    2013-03-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial step in epithelial cancer invasion and metastasis. The aims of this study were to investigate and validate unidentified micro RNAs (miRNAs) that regulate EMT and to reveal their clinical relevance in epithelial cancer patients. By applying miRNA array screening in a natural epithelial-mesenchymal phenotype cell line pair and in a transforming growth factor β-induced EMT cell model, we found miR-153 was markedly downregulated in the cells that underwent an EMT. A close association was confirmed between inhibition of miR-153 and the EMT phenotype, as well as the invasive ability of epithelial cancer cells. Ectopic expression of miR-153 in mesenchymal-like cells resulted in an epithelial morphology change with decreased cellular invasive ability. On the contrary, transfection of a miR-153 inhibitor in epithelial-like cells led to a mesenchymal phenotype change. In vivo ectopic expression of miR-153 significantly inhibited tumor cell metastasis formation. Data from the dual-luciferase reporter gene assay showed, for the first time, that SNAI1 and ZEB2 were direct targets of miR-153. Inverse correlations were also observed between miR-153 and SNA1 and ZEB2 levels in oral cancer patients' samples. Furthermore, low expression level of miR-153 was found to be significantly related to metastasis and poor prognosis in oral cancer patients. These data demonstrate that miR-153 is a novel regulator of EMT by targeting SNAI1 and ZEB2 and indicate its potential therapeutic value for reducing cancer metastasis. PMID:23188671

  12. A Synthetic Chloride Channel Restores Chloride Conductance in Human Cystic Fibrosis Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Yao, Xiaoqiang; Yang, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the gene-encoding cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) cause defective transepithelial transport of chloride (Cl−) ions and fluid, thereby becoming responsible for the onset of cystic fibrosis (CF). One strategy to reduce the pathophysiology associated with CF is to increase Cl− transport through alternative pathways. In this paper, we demonstrate that a small synthetic molecule which forms Cl− channels to mediate Cl− transport across lipid bilayer membranes is capable of restoring Cl− permeability in human CF epithelial cells; as a result, it has the potential to become a lead compound for the treatment of human diseases associated with Cl− channel dysfunction. PMID:22514656

  13. Tissue distribution of human gamma delta T cells: no evidence for general epithelial tropism.

    PubMed Central

    Vroom, T M; Scholte, G; Ossendorp, F; Borst, J

    1991-01-01

    In man and mice only a small proportion of T cells in the peripheral lymphoid compartment express the gamma delta T cell receptor (TCR). In mice, however, gamma delta T cells comprise the predominant population at particular epithelial sites--in epidermis and epithelia of intestine, reproductive organs, and tongue. The distribution of gamma delta T cells in normal human tissues was investigated, paying particular attention to epithelial layers. In all lymphatic organs and in epithelia of a wide variety of non-lymphatic organs, including the respiratory tract, male and female reproductive organs and tongue, gamma delta T cells constituted less than 5% of total T cells, with the remainder expressing TCR alpha beta. The only exception was the intestine, where gamma delta T cells were preferentially situated in the columnar epithelium of the crypts, rather than in the lamina propria. It is concluded, therefore, that human gamma delta T cells do not display a general epithelial tropism and are, in terms of relative numbers, no more able than alpha beta T cells to carry out continuous surveillance of the immune system against infection or transformation in epithelia. gamma delta T cells may, however, have a specialised function in the epithelium of the intestinal tract. Images PMID:1838746

  14. Odontoblastic inductive potential of epithelial cells derived from human deciduous dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Kyung; Park, Ji-Won; Seo, You-Mi; Kim, Ha Hoon; Lee, Gene; Bae, Hyun-Sook; Park, Joo-Cheol

    2016-06-01

    For the dentin regeneration, dental epithelial cells are indispensible and must possess odontoblastic induction capability. Epithelial cell-like stem cells were recently identified in human deciduous dental pulp (DPESCs). However, their cellular characteristics remain poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to characterize DPESCs compared to HAT-7 ameloblastic cells. Expression levels of ameloblast-specific markers [odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein (Odam), matrix metalloproteinase (Mmp)-20, amelogenin, and ameloblastin] were detected in DPESCs. Co-culturing odontoblastic MDPC-23 cells with DPESCs increased expression of odontoblast differentiation markers (Dmp1 and Dspp) from days 4 to 10, while the expression of bone sialoprotein rapidly decreased. MDPC-23 cells cultured in DPESC-conditioned medium (CM) showed increased Dspp promoter activity compared with control MDPC-23 cultures. Mineralization was first observed in the CM groups from day 4 and proceeded rapidly until day 14, whereas mineralized nodules were found from day 7 in control media-cultured cells. In conclusion, DPESCs in human deciduous pulp possess ameloblast-like characteristics and differentiation properties, and substances derived from DPESCs promote odontoblastic differentiation. Thus, our results indicate that DPESCs can be a realistic epithelial source for use in odontoblastic induction and dentin formation of dental mesenchymal cells. PMID:27098651

  15. Human Gastric Epithelial Cells Contribute to Gastric Immune Regulation by Providing Retinoic Acid to Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bimczok, Diane; Kao, John Y.; Zhang, Min; Cochrun, Steven; Mannon, Peter; Peter, Shajan; Wilcox, Charles M.; Mönkemüller, Klaus E.; Harris, Paul R.; Grams, Jayleen M.; Stahl, Richard D.; Smith, Phillip D.; Smythies, Lesley E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of chronic gastritis caused by H. pylori, the gastric mucosa has received little investigative attention as a unique immune environment. Here, we analyzed whether retinoic acid (RA), an important homeostatic factor in the small intestinal mucosa, also contributes to gastric immune regulation. We report that human gastric tissue contains high levels of the RA precursor molecule, retinol, and that gastric epithelial cells express both RA biosynthesis genes and RA response genes, indicative of active RA biosynthesis. Moreover, primary gastric epithelial cells cultured in the presence of retinol synthesized RA in vitro and induced RA biosynthesis in co-cultured monocytes through an RA-dependent mechanism, suggesting that gastric epithelial cells may also confer the ability to generate RA on gastric DCs. Indeed, DCs purified from gastric mucosa had similar levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and RA biosynthesis gene expression as small intestinal DCs, although gastric DCs lacked CD103. In H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa, gastric RA biosynthesis gene expression was severely disrupted, which may lead to reduced RA signaling and thus contribute to disease progression. Collectively, our results support a critical role for RA in human gastric immune regulation. PMID:25249167

  16. IL-13 Augments Compressive Stress-Induced Tissue Factor Expression in Human Airway Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Mitchel, Jennifer A; Antoniak, Silvio; Lee, Joo-Hyeon; Kim, Sae-Hoon; McGill, Maureen; Kasahara, David I; Randell, Scott H; Israel, Elliot; Shore, Stephanie A; Mackman, Nigel; Park, Jin-Ah

    2016-04-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is best known as a cellular initiator of coagulation, but it is also a multifunctional protein that has been implicated in multiple pathophysiologic conditions, including asthma. In the lung, airway epithelial cells express TF, but it is unknown how TF expression is regulated by asthma-associated mediators. We investigated the role of IL-13, a type 2 cytokine, alone and in combination with compressive stress, which mimics asthmatic bronchoconstriction, on TF expression and release of TF-positive extracellular vesicles from primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Well-differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells were treated with IL-13 and compressive stress, alone and in combination. TF mRNA, protein and activity were measured in the cells and conditioned media. TF was also measured in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of allergen-challenged mice and patients with asthma. IL-13 and compressive stress increased TF expression, but only compressive stress induced TF-positive extracellular vesicle release. Pretreatment with IL-13 augmented compressive stress-induced TF expression and release. TF protein and activity in BAL fluid were increased in allergen-sensitized and -challenged mice. TF was elevated in the BAL fluid of patients with mild asthma after an allergen challenge. Our in vitro and in vivo data indicate close cooperation between mechanical and inflammatory stimuli on TF expression and release of TF-positive extracellular vesicles in the lungs, which may contribute to pathophysiology of asthma. PMID:26407210

  17. Three-dimensional cultures modeling premalignant progression of human breast epithelial cells: role of cysteine cathepsins.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Stefanie R; Sameni, Mansoureth; Blum, Galia; Bogyo, Matthew; Sloane, Bonnie F; Moin, Kamiar

    2012-12-01

    The expression of the cysteine protease cathepsin B is increased in early stages of human breast cancer.To assess the potential role of cathepsin B in premalignant progression of breast epithelial cells, we employed a 3D reconstituted basement membrane overlay culture model of MCF10A human breast epithelial cells and isogenic variants that replicate the in vivo phenotypes of hyper plasia(MCF10AneoT) and atypical hyperplasia (MCF10AT1). MCF10A cells developed into polarized acinar structures with central lumens. In contrast, MCF10AneoT and MCF10AT1 cells form larger structures in which the lumens are filled with cells. CA074Me, a cell-permeable inhibitor selective for the cysteine cathepsins B and L,reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of MCF10A, MCF10AneoT and MCF10AT1 cells in 3D culture. We detected active cysteine cathepsins in the isogenic MCF10 variants in 3D culture with GB111, a cell-permeable activity based probe, and established differential inhibition of cathepsin B in our 3D cultures. We conclude that cathepsin B promotes proliferation and premalignant progression of breast epithelial cells. These findings are consistent with studies by others showing that deletion of cathepsin B in the transgenic MMTV-PyMT mice, a murine model that is predisposed to development of mammary cancer, reduces malignant progression. PMID:23667900

  18. Characterization of human papillomavirus type 13 from focal epithelial hyperplasia Heck lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Pfister, H; Hettich, I; Runne, U; Gissmann, L; Chilf, G N

    1983-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia Heck lesions of a Turkish patient were shown to contain papillomavirus-specific DNA, which was molecularly cloned into bacteriophage lambda. It proved to be related to human papillomavirus (HPV) type 6 DNA and HPV type 11 DNA. Reassociation kinetics revealed a cross-hybridization of 4 and 3%, respectively. There was no cross-reactivity with HPV type 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, or 10. This papillomavirus type will be referred to as HPV type 13. The DNA was characterized by cleavage with several restriction enzymes, and the cleavage sites were physically mapped. Papules from two additional cases of Morbus Heck contained HPV type 13 DNA as shown by Southern blot hybridization and by the characteristic cleavage patterns. This may indicate that HPV type 13 is more frequently associated with focal epithelial hyperplasia Heck than are other HPV types. Images PMID:6312071

  19. Three-Dimensionally Engineered Normal Human Broncho-epithelial Tissue-Like Assemblies: Target Tissues for Human Respiratory Viral Infections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, T. J.; McCarthy, M.; Lin, Y-H

    2006-01-01

    In vitro three-dimensional (3D) human broncho-epithelial (HBE) tissue-like assemblies (3D HBE TLAs) from this point forward referred to as TLAs were engineered in Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) technology to mimic the characteristics of in vivo tissues thus providing a tool to study human respiratory viruses and host cell interactions. The TLAs were bioengineered onto collagen-coated cyclodextran microcarriers using primary human mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells (HBTC) as the foundation matrix and an adult human bronchial epithelial immortalized cell line (BEAS-2B) as the overlying component. The resulting TLAs share significant characteristics with in vivo human respiratory epithelium including polarization, tight junctions, desmosomes, and microvilli. The presence of tissue-like differentiation markers including villin, keratins, and specific lung epithelium markers, as well as the production of tissue mucin, further confirm these TLAs differentiated into tissues functionally similar to in vivo tissues. Increasing virus titers for human respiratory syncytial virus (wtRSVA2) and parainfluenza virus type 3 (wtPIV3 JS) and the detection of membrane bound glycoproteins over time confirm productive infections with both viruses. Therefore, TLAs mimic aspects of the human respiratory epithelium and provide a unique capability to study the interactions of respiratory viruses and their primary target tissue independent of the host's immune system.

  20. A novel protein isoform of the RON tyrosine kinase receptor transforms human pancreatic duct epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Chakedis, Jeffery; French, Randall; Babicky, Michele; Jaquish, Dawn; Howard, Haleigh; Mose, Evangeline; Lam, Raymond; Holman, Patrick; Miyamoto, Jaclyn; Walterscheid, Zakk; Lowy, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    The MST1R gene is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer producing elevated levels of the RON tyrosine kinase receptor protein. While mutations in MST1R are rare, alternative splice variants have been previously reported in epithelial cancers. We report the discovery of a novel RON isoform discovered in human pancreatic cancer. Partial splicing of exons 5 and 6 (P5P6) produces a RON isoform that lacks the first extracellular immunoglobulin-plexin-transcription (IPT) domain. The splice variant is detected in 73% of pancreatic adenocarcinoma patient derived xenografts and 71% of pancreatic cancer cell lines. Peptides specific to RON P5P6 detected in human pancreatic cancer specimens by mass spectrometry confirms translation of the protein isoform. The P5P6 isoform is found to be constitutively phosphorylated, present in the cytoplasm, and it traffics to the plasma membrane. Expression of P5P6 in immortalized human pancreatic duct epithelial (HPDE) cells activates downstream AKT, and in human pancreatic epithelial nestin-expressing (HPNE) cells activates both the AKT and MAPK pathways. Inhibiting RON P5P6 in HPDE cells using a small molecule inhibitor BMS-777607 blocked constitutive activation and decreased AKT signaling. P5P6 transforms NIH3T3 cells and induces tumorigenicity in HPDE cells. Resultant HPDE-P5P6 tumors develop a dense stromal compartment similar to that seen in pancreatic cancer. In summary, we have identified a novel and constitutively active isoform of the RON tyrosine kinase receptor that has transforming activity and is expressed in human pancreatic cancer. These findings provide additional insight into the biology of the RON receptor in pancreatic cancer and are clinically relevant to the study of RON as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:26477314

  1. Pulmonary surfactant mitigates silver nanoparticle toxicity in human alveolar type-I-like epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Leo, Bey Fen; Chen, Shu; Abraham-Thomas, Nisha; Thorley, Andrew J; Gow, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Shaffer, Milo S P; Chung, Kian Fan; Ryan, Mary P; Porter, Alexandra E; Tetley, Teresa D

    2016-09-01

    Accompanying increased commercial applications and production of silver nanomaterials is an increased probability of human exposure, with inhalation a key route. Nanomaterials that deposit in the pulmonary alveolar region following inhalation will interact firstly with pulmonary surfactant before they interact with the alveolar epithelium. It is therefore critical to understand the effects of human pulmonary surfactant when evaluating the inhalation toxicity of silver nanoparticles. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of AgNPs on human alveolar type-I-like epithelial (TT1) cells in the absence and presence of Curosurf(®) (a natural pulmonary surfactant substitute), hypothesising that the pulmonary surfactant would act to modify toxicity. We demonstrated that 20nm citrate-capped AgNPs induce toxicity in human alveolar type I-like epithelial cells and, in agreement with our hypothesis, that pulmonary surfactant acts to mitigate this toxicity, possibly through reducing AgNP dissolution into cytotoxic Ag(+) ions. For example, IL-6 and IL-8 release by TT1 cells significantly increased 10.7- and 35-fold, respectively (P<0.01), 24h after treatment with 25μg/ml AgNPs. In contrast, following pre-incubation of AgNPs with Curosurf(®), this effect was almost completely abolished. We further determined that the mechanism of this toxicity is likely associated with Ag(+) ion release and lysosomal disruption, but not with increased reactive oxygen species generation. This study provides a critical understanding of the toxicity of AgNPs in target human alveolar type-I-like epithelial cells and the role of pulmonary surfactant in mitigating this toxicity. The observations reported have important implications for the manufacture and application of AgNPs, in particular for applications involving use of aerosolised AgNPs. PMID:27182651

  2. A novel protein isoform of the RON tyrosine kinase receptor transforms human pancreatic duct epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chakedis, J; French, R; Babicky, M; Jaquish, D; Howard, H; Mose, E; Lam, R; Holman, P; Miyamoto, J; Walterscheid, Z; Lowy, A M

    2016-06-23

    The MST1R gene is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer producing elevated levels of the RON tyrosine kinase receptor protein. While mutations in MST1R are rare, alternative splice variants have been previously reported in epithelial cancers. We report the discovery of a novel RON isoform discovered in human pancreatic cancer. Partial splicing of exons 5 and 6 (P5P6) produces a RON isoform that lacks the first extracellular immunoglobulin-plexin-transcription domain. The splice variant is detected in 73% of xenografts derived from pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients and 71% of pancreatic cancer cell lines. Peptides specific to RON P5P6 detected in human pancreatic cancer specimens by mass spectrometry confirm translation of the protein isoform. The P5P6 isoform is found to be constitutively phosphorylated, present in the cytoplasm, and it traffics to the plasma membrane. Expression of P5P6 in immortalized human pancreatic duct epithelial (HPDE) cells activates downstream AKT, and in human pancreatic epithelial nestin-expressing cells, activates both the AKT and MAPK pathways. Inhibiting RON P5P6 in HPDE cells using a small molecule inhibitor BMS-777607 blocked constitutive activation and decreased AKT signaling. P5P6 transforms NIH3T3 cells and induces tumorigenicity in HPDE cells. Resultant HPDE-P5P6 tumors develop a dense stromal compartment similar to that seen in pancreatic cancer. In summary, we have identified a novel and constitutively active isoform of the RON tyrosine kinase receptor that has transforming activity and is expressed in human pancreatic cancer. These findings provide additional insight into the biology of the RON receptor in pancreatic cancer and are clinically relevant to the study of RON as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:26477314

  3. Using organotypic (raft) epithelial tissue cultures for the biosynthesis and isolation of infectious human papillomaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Ozbun, Michelle A.; Patterson, Nicole A.

    2014-01-01

    Papillomaviruses have a strict tropism for epithelial cells and they are fully reliant on cellular differentiation for completion of their life cycles, resulting in the production of progeny virions. Thus, a permissive environment for full viral replication in vitro wherein virion morphogenesis occurs under cooperative viral and cellular cues requires the cultivation of epithelium. Presented in the first section of this unit is a protocol for growing differentiating epithelial tissues, whose structure and function mimics many important morphological and biochemical aspects of normal skin. The technique, pioneered by Asslineau and Pruniéras (Asselineau and Prunieras 1984) and modified by Kopan et al. (Kopan et al. 1987), involves growing epidermal cells atop a dermal equivalent consisting of live fibroblasts and a collagen lattice. Epithelial stratification and differentiation ensues when the keratinocyte-dermal equivalent is placed at the air-liquid interface. The apparent floating nature of the cell-matrix in this method led to the nickname “raft” cultures. The general technique can be applied to normal low passage keratinocytes, to cells stably transfected with papillomavirus genes or genomes, as well as keratinocytes established from neoplastic lesions. However, infectious papillomavirus particles have only been isolated from organotypic epithelial cultures initiated with cells that maintain oncogenic human papillomavirus genomes in an extrachomosomal replicative form. The second section of this unit is dedicated to a virion isolation method that minimizes aerosol and skin exposure to these human carcinogens. Although the focus of the protocols is on the growth of tissues that yields infectious papillomavirus progeny, this culture system facilitates the investigation of these fastidious viruses during their complex replicative cycles, and raft tissues can be manipulated and harvested at any point during the process. Importantly, a single step virus growth

  4. Generation of folliculogenic human epithelial stem cells from induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ruifeng; Zheng, Ying; Burrows, Michelle; Liu, Shujing; Wei, Zhi; Nace, Arben; Guo, Wei; Kumar, Suresh; Cotsarelis, George; Xu, Xiaowei

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial stem cells (EpSCs) in the hair follicle bulge are required for hair follicle growth and cycling. The isolation and propagation of human EpSCs for tissue engineering purposes remains a challenge. Here we develop a strategy to differentiate human iPSCs (hiPSCs) into CD200+/ITGA6+ EpSCs that can reconstitute the epithelial components of the hair follicle and interfollicular epidermis. The hiPSC-derived CD200+/ITGA6+ cells show a similar gene expression signature as EpSCs directly isolated from human hair follicles. Human iPSC-derived CD200+/ITGA6+ cells are capable of generating all hair follicle lineages including the hair shaft, and the inner and outer root sheaths in skin reconstitution assays. The regenerated hair follicles possess a KRT15+ stem cell population and produce hair shafts expressing hair specific keratins. These results suggest an approach for generating large numbers of human EpSCs for tissue engineering and new treatments for hair loss, wound healing and other degenerative skin disorders. PMID:24468981

  5. Generation of folliculogenic human epithelial stem cells from induced pluripotent stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ruifeng; Zheng, Ying; Burrows, Michelle; Liu, Shujing; Wei, Zhi; Nace, Arben; Guo, Wei; Kumar, Suresh; Cotsarelis, George; Xu, Xiaowei

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial stem cells (EpSCs) in the hair follicle bulge are required for hair follicle growth and cycling. The isolation and propagation of human EpSCs for tissue engineering purposes remains a challenge. Here we develop a strategy to differentiate human iPSCs (hiPSCs) into CD200+/ITGA6+ EpSCs that can reconstitute the epithelial components of the hair follicle and interfollicular epidermis. The hiPSC-derived CD200+/ITGA6+ cells show a similar gene expression signature as EpSCs directly isolated from human hair follicles. Human iPSC-derived CD200+/ITGA6+ cells are capable of generating all hair follicle lineages including the hair shaft, and the inner and outer root sheaths in skin reconstitution assays. The regenerated hair follicles possess a KRT15+ stem cell population and produce hair shafts expressing hair-specific keratins. These results suggest an approach for generating large numbers of human EpSCs for tissue engineering and new treatments for hair loss, wound healing and other degenerative skin disorders.

  6. Assessing the adhesion of putative indigenous probiotic lactobacilli to human colonic epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Duary, Raj Kumar; Rajput, Yudhishthir Singh; Batish, Virender Kumar; Grover, Sunita

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Adherence of bacteria to epithelial cells and mucosal surfaces is a key criterion for selection of probiotic. We assessed the adhesion property of selected indigenous probiotic Lactobacillus strains based on their hydrophobicity and ability to adhere to human epithelial cells. Methods: Five human faecal Lactobacillus isolates, one from buffalo milk and one from cheese were assessed for hydrophobicity following the microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH) method and colonization potentials based on their adherence to Caco2 and HT-29 colonic adenocarcinomal human intestinal epithelial cell lines. Lactobacillus strains that adhered to Caco2 and HT-29 cell lines were quantified by plating after trypsinization and simultaneously the adhered bacteria were also examined microscopically after staining with Geimsa stain and counted in different fields. Results: Among the tested faecal isolates, L. plantarum Lp91 showed maximum percentage hydrophobicity (35.73±0.40 for n-hexadecane and 34.26±0.63 for toluene) closely followed by L. plantarum Lp9 (35.53±0.29 for n-hexadecane and 33.00±0.57 for toluene). Based on direct adhesion to epithelial cells, L. plantarum Lp91 was the most adhesive strain to HT-29 and Caco2 cell lines with per cent adhesion values of 12.8 ± 1.56 and 10.2 ± 1.09, respectively. L. delbrukeii CH4, was the least adhesive with corresponding figures of 2.5 ± 0.37 and 2.6 ± 0.20 per cent on HT-29 and Caco2 cell lines. Adhesion of the six isolated Lactobacillus strain to HT-29 cell and Caco2 lines as recorded under microscope varied between 131.0 ± 13.9 (Lp75) to 342.7 ± 50.52 (Lp91) and 44.7 ± 9.29 (CH4) to 315.7± 35.4 (Lp91), respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: Two Indigenous probiotic Lactobacillus strains (Lp9, Lp91) demonstrated their ability to adhere to epithelial cell and exhibited strong hydrophobicity under in vitro conditions, and thus could have better prospects to colonize the gut with extended transit

  7. Serum-Free and Xenobiotic-Free Preservation of Cultured Human Limbal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Utheim, Oeygunn; Islam, Rakibul; Lyberg, Torstein; Roald, Borghild; Eidet, Jon Roger; de la Paz, Maria Fideliz; Dartt, Darlene A.; Raeder, Sten; Utheim, Tor Paaske

    2015-01-01

    Aim/Purpose of the Study To develop a one-week storage method, without serum and xenobiotics, that would maintain cell viability, morphology, and phenotype of cultured human limbal epithelial sheets. Materials and Methods Human limbal explants were cultured on intact human amniotic membranes for two weeks. The sheets were stored in a hermetically sealed container at 23°C in either a serum-free medium with selected animal serum-derived compounds (Quantum 286) or a xenobiotic-free medium (Minimal Essential Medium) for 4 and 7 days. Stored and non-stored cultures were analyzed for cell viability, amniotic membrane and epithelial sheet thickness, and a panel of immunohistochemical markers for immature cells (ΔNp63α, p63, Bmi-1, C/EBP∂, ABCG2 and K19), differentiated cells (K3 and Cx43), proliferation (PCNA), and apoptosis (Caspase-3). Results The cell viability of the cultures was 98 ± 1% and remained high after storage. Mean central thickness of non-stored limbal epithelial sheets was 23 ± 3 μm, and no substantial loss of cells was observed after storage. The non-stored epithelial sheets expressed a predominantly immature phenotype with ΔNp63α positivity of more than 3% in 9 of 13 cultures. After storage, the expression of ABCG2 and C/EBP∂ was reduced for the 7 day Quantum 286-storage group; (P = 0.04), and Bmi-1 was reduced after 4 day Quantum 286-storage; (P = 0.02). No other markers varied significantly. The expression of differentiation markers was unrelated to the thickness of the epithelia and amniotic membrane, apart from ABCG2, which correlated negatively with thickness of limbal epithelia (R = -0.69, P = 0.01) and ΔNp63α, which correlated negatively with amniotic membrane thickness (R = -0.59, P = 0.03). Conclusion Limbal epithelial cells cultured from explants on amniotic membrane can be stored at 23°C in both serum-free and xenobiotic-free media, with sustained cell viability, ultrastructure, and ΔNp63α-positivity after both 4 and 7 days

  8. MAPK Activation Is Essential for Waddlia chondrophila Induced CXCL8 Expression in Human Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Storrie, Skye; Longbottom, David; Barlow, Peter G.; Wheelhouse, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Background Waddlia chondrophila (W. chondrophila) is an emerging agent of respiratory and reproductive disease in humans and cattle. The organism is a member of the order Chlamydiales, and shares many similarities at the genome level and in growth studies with other well-characterised zoonotic chlamydial agents, such as Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus). The current study investigated the growth characteristics and innate immune responses of human and ruminant epithelial cells in response to infection with W. chondrophila. Methods Human epithelial cells (HEp2) were infected with W. chondrophila for 24h. CXCL8 release was significantly elevated in each of the cell lines by active-infection with live W. chondrophila, but not by exposure to UV-killed organisms. Inhibition of either p38 or p42/44 MAPK significantly inhibited the stimulation of CXCL8 release in each of the cell lines. To determine the pattern recognition receptor through which CXCL8 release was stimulated, wild-type HEK293 cells which express no TLR2, TLR4, NOD2 and only negligible NOD1 were infected with live organisms. A significant increase in CXCL8 was observed. Conclusions/Significance W. chondrophila actively infects and replicates within both human and ruminant epithelial cells stimulating CXCL8 release. Release of CXCL8 is significantly inhibited by inhibition of either p38 or p42/44 MAPK indicating a role for this pathway in the innate immune response to W. chondrophila infection. W. chondrophila stimulation of CXCL8 secretion in HEK293 cells indicates that TLR2, TLR4, NOD2 and NOD1 receptors are not essential to the innate immune response to infection. PMID:27002636

  9. Ex Vivo Chemical Cytometric Analysis of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Activity in Single Human Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Ryan M.; Dailey, Lisa A.; Bair, Eric; Samet, James M.; Allbritton, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a novel method for the measurement of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity in single human airway epithelial cells (hAECs) using capillary electrophoresis. This technique involved the microinjection of a fluorescent phosphopeptide that is hydrolyzed specifically by PTPs. Analyses in BEAS-2B immortalized bronchial epithelial cells showed rapid PTP-mediated dephosphorylation of the substrate (2.2 pmol min−1 mg−1) that was blocked by pretreatment of the cells with the PTP inhibitors pervanadate, Zn2+, and 1,2-naphthoquinone (76%, 69%, 100% inhibition relative to PTP activity in untreated controls, respectively). These studies were then extended to a more physiologically relevant model system: primary hAECs cultured from bronchial brushings of living human subjects. In primary hAECs, dephosphorylation of the substrate occurred at a rate of 2.2 pmol min−1 mg−1, and was also effectively inhibited by pre-incubation of the cells with the inhibitors pervanadate, Zn2+, and 1,2- naphthoquinone (91%, 88%, and 87% median PTP inhibition, respectively). Reporter proteolysis in single BEAS-2B cells occurred at a median rate of 43 fmol min−1 mg−1 resulting in a mean half-life of 20 min. The reporter displayed a similar median half-life of 28 min in these single primary cells. Finally, single viable epithelial cells (which were assayed for PTP activity immediately after collection by bronchial brushing of a human volunteer) showed dephosphorylation rates ranging from 0.34–36 pmol min−1 mg−1 (n = 6). These results demonstrate the utility and applicability of this technique for the ex vivo quantification of PTP activity in small, heterogeneous, human cells and tissues. PMID:24380370

  10. Differential effects of human papillomavirus type 6, 16, and 18 DNAs on immortalization and transformation of human cervical epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pecoraro, G.; Morgan, D.; Defendi, V. )

    1989-01-01

    The human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are associated with specific benign and malignant lesions of the skin and mucosal epithelia. Cloned viral DNAs from HPV types 6b, 16, and 18 associated with different pathological manifestations of genital neoplasia in vivo were introduced into primary human cervical epithelial cells by electroporation. Cells transfected with HPV16 or HPV18 DNA acquired indefinite lifespans, distinct morphological alterations, and anchorage-independent growth (HPV18), and contain integrated transcriptionally active viral genomes. HPV6b or plasmid electroporated cells senesced at low passage. The alterations in growth and differentiation of the cells appear to reflect the progressive oncogenic processes that result in cervical carcinoma in vivo.

  11. IL-36γ Augments Host Defense and Immune Responses in Human Female Reproductive Tract Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Winkle, Sean M.; Throop, Andrea L.; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M.

    2016-01-01

    IL-36γ is a proinflamatory cytokine which belongs to the IL-1 family of cytokines. It is expressed in the skin and by epithelial cells (ECs) lining lung and gut tissue. We used human 3-D organotypic cells, that recapitulate either in vivo human vaginal or cervical tissue, to explore the possible role of IL-36γ in host defense against pathogens in the human female reproductive tract (FRT). EC were exposed to compounds derived from virus or bacterial sources and induction and regulation of IL-36γ and its receptor was determined. Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), flagellin, and synthetic lipoprotein (FSL-1) significantly induced expression of IL-36γ in a dose-dependent manner, and appeared to be TLR-dependent. Recombinant IL-36γ treatment resulted in self-amplification of IL-36γ and its receptor (IL-36R) via increased gene expression, and promoted other inflammatory signaling pathways. This is the first report to demonstrate that the IL-36 receptor and IL-36γ are present in the human FRT EC and that they are differentially induced by microbial products at this site. We conclude that IL-36γ is a driver for epithelial and immune activation following microbial insult and, as such, may play a critical role in host defense in the FRT. PMID:27379082

  12. Physiological and biochemical markers of alveolar epithelial barrier dysfunction in perfused human lungs

    PubMed Central

    Frank, James A.; Briot, Raphael; Lee, Jae Woo; Ishizaka, Akitoshi; Uchida, Tokujiro; Matthay, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    To study air space fluid clearance (AFC) under conditions that resemble the clinical setting of pulmonary edema in patients, we developed a new perfused human lung preparation. We measured AFC in 20 human lungs rejected for transplantation and determined the contribution of AFC to lung fluid balance. AFC was then compared with air space and perfusate levels of a biological marker of epithelial injury. The majority of human lungs rejected for transplant had intact basal (75%) and β2-adrenergic agonist-stimulated (70%) AFC. For lungs with both basal and stimulated AFC, the basal AFC rate was 19 ± 10%/h, and the β2-adrenergic-stimulated AFC rate was 43 ± 13%/h. Higher rates of AFC were associated with less lung weight gain (Pearson coefficient −0.90, P < 0.0001). Air space and perfusate levels of the type I pneumocyte marker receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) were threefold and sixfold higher, respectively, in lungs without basal AFC compared with lungs with AFC (P < 0.05). These data show that preserved AFC is a critical determinant of favorable lung fluid balance in the perfused human lung, raising the possibility that β2-agonist therapy to increase edema fluid clearance may be of value for patients with acute lung injury and pulmonary edema. Also, although additional studies are needed, a biological marker of alveolar epithelial injury may be useful clinically in predicting preserved AFC. PMID:17351061

  13. Sulfation of chlorotyrosine and nitrotyrosine by human lung endothelial and epithelial cells: Role of the human SULT1A3

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuda, Shin; Yasuda, Tomoko; Liu, Ming-Yih; Shetty, Sreerama; Idell, Steven; Boggaram, Vijayakumar; Suiko, Masahito; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Fu Jian; Liu, Ming-Cheh

    2011-03-01

    During inflammation, potent reactive oxidants formed may cause chlorination and nitration of both free and protein-bound tyrosine. In addition to serving as biomarkers of inflammation-mediated oxidative stress, elevated levels of chlorotyrosine and nitrotyrosine have been linked to the pathogenesis of lung and vascular disorders. The current study was designed to investigate whether the lung cells are equipped with mechanisms for counteracting these tyrosine derivatives. By metabolic labeling, chlorotyrosine O-[{sup 35}S]sulfate and nitrotyrosine O-[{sup 35}S]sulfate were found to be generated and released into the labeling media of human lung endothelial and epithelial cells labeled with [{sup 35}S]sulfate in the presence of added chlorotyrosine and nitrotyrosine. Enzymatic assays using the eleven known human cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) revealed SULT1A3 as the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the sulfation of chlorotyrosine and nitrotyrosine. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis demonstrated the expression of SULT1A3 in the lung endothelial and epithelial cells used in this study. Kinetic constants of the sulfation of chlorotyrosine and nitrotyrosine by SULT1A3 were determined. Collectively, these results suggest that sulfation by SULT1A3 in lung endothelial and epithelial cells may play a role in the inactivation and/or disposal of excess chlorotyrosine and nitrotyrosine generated during inflammation.

  14. Expression and distribution of osteopontin in human tissues: widespread association with luminal epithelial surfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, L F; Berse, B; Van de Water, L; Papadopoulos-Sergiou, A; Perruzzi, C A; Manseau, E J; Dvorak, H F; Senger, D R

    1992-01-01

    Osteopontin, a glycoprotein with a glycine-arginine-glycine-aspartate-serine (GRGDS) cell-binding domain, has been described in bone and is also known to be expressed in other organs, particularly kidney. The goal of the present work was to define the distribution of osteopontin synthesis and deposition in a wide variety of normal adult human tissues using a multifaceted approach that included immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and Northern analysis. Immunohistochemical studies have revealed the unexpected finding that osteopontin is deposited as a prominent layer at the luminal surfaces of specific populations of epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract, gall bladder, pancreas, urinary and reproductive tracts, lung, breast, salivary glands, and sweat glands. Northern analyses identified gallbladder as a major site of osteopontin gene transcription comparable in magnitude with that of kidney, and immunoblotting identified osteopontin in bile. In situ hybridization localized osteopontin gene transcripts predominantly to the epithelium of a variety of organs as well as to ganglion cells of bowel wall. Osteopontin of epithelial cell origin, like bone-derived osteopontin, promoted GRGDS-dependent cell spreading in attachment assays. We postulate that osteopontin secreted by epithelium binds integrins on luminal surfaces. Collectively, these findings suggest an important role for osteopontin on many luminal epithelial surfaces communicating with the external environment. Images PMID:1421573

  15. Antioxidant macromolecules in the epithelial lining fluid of the normal human lower respiratory tract.

    PubMed Central

    Cantin, A M; Fells, G A; Hubbard, R C; Crystal, R G

    1990-01-01

    We hypothesized that the alveolar structures may contain extracellular macromolecules with antioxidant properties to defend against oxidants. To evaluate this 51Cr-labeled human lung fibroblasts (HFL-1) and cat lung epithelial cells (AKD) were exposed to a H2O2-generating system and alveolar epithelial lining fluid (ELF) from healthy nonsmokers was tested for its ability to protect the lung cells from H2O2-mediated injury. The ELF provided marked antioxidant protection, with most from a H2O-soluble fraction in the 100-300-kD range. Plasma proteins with anti-H2O2 properties were in insufficient concentrations to provide the antioxidant protection observed. However, catalase, a normal intracellular antioxidant, was present in sufficient concentration to account for most of the observed anti-H2O2 properties of ELF. Depletion of ELF with an anticatalase antibody abolished the anti-H2O2 macromolecular defenses of ELF. Since catalase is not normally released by cells, a likely explanation for its presence in high concentrations in normal ELF is that it is released by lung inflammatory and parenchymal cells onto the epithelial surface of the lower respiratory tract during their normal turnover and collects there due to the slow turnover of ELF. It is likely that catalase in the ELF of normal individuals plays a role in protecting lung parenchymal cells against oxidants present in the extracellular milieu. Images PMID:2394842

  16. Campylobacter jejuni survival within human epithelial cells is enhanced by the secreted protein CiaI

    PubMed Central

    Buelow, Daelynn R.; Christensen, Jeffrey E.; Neal-McKinney, Jason M.; Konkel, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Although it is known that Campylobacter jejuni invade the cells that line the human intestinal tract, the bacterial proteins that enable this pathogen to survive within Campylobacter-containing vacuoles (CCV) have not been identified. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of a protein that we termed CiaI for Campylobacter invasion antigen involved in Intracellular survival. We show that CiaI harbors an amino-terminal type III secretion (T3S) sequence and is secreted from C. jejuni through the flagellar T3S system. In addition, the ciaI mutant was impaired in intracellular survival when compared to a wild-type strain, as judged by the gentamicin-protection assay. Fluorescence microscopy examination of epithelial cells infected with the C. jejuni ciaI mutant revealed that the CCV were more frequently co-localized with Cathepsin D (a lysosomal marker) than the CCV in cells infected with a C. jejuni wild-type strain. Ectopic expression of CiaI-GFP in epithelial cells yielded a punctate phenotype not observed with the other C. jejuni genes, and this phenotype was abolished by mutation of a dileucine motif located in the carboxy-terminus of the protein. Based on the data, we conclude that CiaI contributes to the ability of C. jejuni to survive within epithelial cells. PMID:21435039

  17. Establishment of three-dimensional cultures of human pancreatic duct epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez-Barrera, Angelica M.; Menter, David G.; Abbruzzese, James L.; Reddy, Shrikanth A.G. . E-mail: sa08366@wotan.mdacc.tmc.edu

    2007-07-06

    Three-dimensional (3D) cultures of epithelial cells offer singular advantages for studies of morphogenesis or the role of cancer genes in oncogenesis. In this study, as part of establishing a 3D culture system of pancreatic duct epithelial cells, we compared human pancreatic duct epithelial cells (HPDE-E6E7) with pancreatic cancer cell lines. Our results show, that in contrast to cancer cells, HPDE-E6E7 organized into spheroids with what appeared to be apical and basal membranes and a luminal space. Immunostaining experiments indicated that protein kinase Akt was phosphorylated (Ser473) and CTMP, a negative Akt regulator, was expressed in both HPDE-E6E7 and cancer cells. However, a nuclear pool of CTMP was detectable in HPDE-E6E7 cells that showed a dynamic concentrated expression pattern, a feature that further distinguished HPDE-E637 cells from cancer cells. Collectively, these data suggest that 3D cultures of HPDE-E6E7 cells are useful for investigating signaling and morphological abnormalities in pancreatic cancer cells.

  18. Azithromycin differentially affects the IL-13-induced expression profile in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Tinne C J; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Taube, Christian

    2016-08-01

    The T helper 2 (Th2) cytokine interleukin(IL)-13 is a central regulator in goblet cell metaplasia and induces the recently described Th2 gene signature consisting of periostin (POSTN), chloride channel regulator 1 (CLCA1) and serpin B2 (SERPINB2) in airway epithelial cells. This Th2 gene signature has been proposed as a biomarker to classify asthma into Th2-high and Th2-low phenotypes. Clinical studies have shown that the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin reduced clinical symptoms in neutrophilic asthma, but not in the classical Th2-mediated asthma despite the ability of azithromycin to reduce IL-13-induced mucus production. We therefore hypothesize that azithromycin differentially affects the IL-13-induced expression profile. To investigate this, we focus on IL-13-induced mucin and Th2-signature expression in human bronchial epithelial cells and how this combined expression profile is affected by azithromycin treatment. Primary bronchial epithelial cells were differentiated at air liquid interface in presence of IL-13 with or without azithromycin. Azithromycin inhibited IL-13-induced MUC5AC, which was accompanied by inhibition of IL-13-induced CLCA1 and SERPINB2 expression. In contrast, IL-13-induced expression of POSTN was further increased in cells treated with azithromycin. This indicates that azithromycin has a differential effect on the IL-13-induced Th2 gene signature. Furthermore, the ability of azithromycin to decrease IL-13-induced MUC5AC expression may be mediated by a reduction in CLCA1. PMID:27246785

  19. SERS and integrative imaging upon internalization of quantum dots into human oral epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cepeda-Pérez, Elisa; López-Luke, Tzarara; Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Perez-Mayen, Leonardo; Ceja-Fdez, Andrea; Ponce, Arturo; Vivero-Escoto, Juan; de la Rosa, Elder

    2016-07-01

    CdTe quantum dots (QDs) are widely used in bio-applications due to their size and highly efficient optical properties. However internalization mechanisms thereof for the variety of freshly extracted, not cultivated human cells and their specific molecular interactions remains an open topic for discussion. In this study, we assess the internalization mechanism of CdTe quantum dots (3.3 nm) capped with thioglycolic acid using non cultivated oral epithelial cells obtained from healthy donors. Naked gold nanoparticles (40 nm) were successfully used as nanosensors for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to efficiently identify characteristic Raman peaks, providing new evidence indicating that the first interactions of these QDs with epithelial cells occurred preferentially with aromatic rings and amine groups of amino acid residues and glycans from trans-membrane proteins and cytoskeleton. Using an integrative combination of advanced imaging techniques, including ultra-high resolution SEM, high resolution STEM coupled with EDX spectroscopy together with the results obtained by Raman spectroscopy, it was determined that thioglycolic acid capped CdTe QDs are efficiently internalized into freshly extracted oral epithelial cells only by facilitated diffusion, distributed into cytoplasm and even within the cell nucleus in three minutes. PMID:27120043

  20. Individual and Complementary Effects of Human Papillomavirus Oncogenes on Epithelial Cell Proliferation and Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Bergner, Sven; Halec, Gordana; Schmitt, Markus; Aubin, François; Alonso, Angel; Auvinen, Eeva

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 protein functions have established the oncogenic nature of three viral proteins: E5, E6 and E7. Here we have studied the functions of these proteins by functional deletion of the individual E5, E6 or E7, or both E6 and E7 oncogenes in the context of the whole viral genome. These mutants, or the intact wild-type genome, were expressed from the natural viral promoters along with differentiation of epithelial HaCaT cells in three-dimensional collagen raft cultures. High episomal viral copy numbers were obtained using a transfection-based loxp-HPV16-eGFP-N1 vector system. All epithelial equivalents carrying the different HPV type 16 genomes showed pronounced hyperplastic and dysplastic morphology. Particularly the E7 oncogene, with contribution of E6, was shown to enhance cell proliferation. Specifically, the crucial role of E7 in HPV-associated hyperproliferation was clearly manifested. Based on morphological characteristics, immunohistochemical staining for differentiation and proliferation markers, and low expression of E1^E4, we propose that our raft culture models produce cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)1 and CIN2-like tissue. Our experimental setting provides an alternative tool to study concerted functions of HPV proteins in the development of epithelial dysplasia. PMID:26636751

  1. Silver nanowire interactions with primary human alveolar type-II epithelial cell secretions: contrasting bioreactivity with human alveolar type-I and type-II epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Theodorou, Ioannis G; Zambianchi, Marta; Chen, Shu; Gow, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Chung, Kian Fan; Shaffer, Milo S P; Ryan, Mary P; Porter, Alexandra E; Tetley, Teresa D

    2015-06-21

    Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in the alveolar units of the deep lung. The alveolar epithelium is composed of type-I and type-II epithelial cells (ATI and ATII respectively) and is bathed in pulmonary surfactant. The effect of native human ATII cell secretions on nanoparticle toxicity is not known. We investigated the cellular uptake and toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs; 70 nm diameter, 1.5 μm length) with human ATI-like cells (TT1), in the absence or presence of Curosurf® (a natural porcine pulmonary surfactant with a low amount of protein) or harvested primary human ATII cell secretions (HAS; containing both the complete lipid as well as the full protein complement of human pulmonary surfactant i.e. SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D). We hypothesised that Curosurf® or HAS would confer improved protection for TT1 cells, limiting the toxicity of AgNWs. In agreement with our hypothesis, HAS reduced the inflammatory and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating potential of AgNWs with exposed TT1 cells. For example, IL-8 release and ROS generation was reduced by 38% and 29%, respectively, resulting in similar levels to that of the non-treated controls. However in contrast to our hypothesis, Curosurf® had no effect. We found a significant reduction in AgNW uptake by TT1 cells in the presence of HAS but not Curosurf. Furthermore, we show that the SP-A and SP-D are likely to be involved in this process as they were found to be specifically bound to the AgNWs. While ATI cells appear to be protected by HAS, evidence suggested that ATII cells, despite no uptake, were vulnerable to AgNW exposure (indicated by increased IL-8 release and ROS generation and decreased intracellular SP-A levels one day post-exposure). This study provides unique findings that may be important for the study of lung epithelial-endothelial translocation of nanoparticles in general and associated toxicity within the alveolar unit. PMID:25996248

  2. Silver nanowire interactions with primary human alveolar type-II epithelial cell secretions: contrasting bioreactivity with human alveolar type-I and type-II epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Theodorou, Ioannis G.; Zambianchi, Martina; Chen, Shu; Gow, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Chung, Kian Fan; Shaffer, Milo S.; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Tetley, Teresa D.

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in the alveolar units of the deep lung. The alveolar epithelium is composed of type-I and type-II epithelial cells (ATI and ATII respectively) and is bathed in pulmonary surfactant. The effect of native human ATII cell secretions on nanoparticle toxicity is not known. We investigated the cellular uptake and toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs; 70 nm diameter, 1.5 μm length) with human ATI-like cells (TT1), in the absence or presence of Curosurf® (a natural porcine pulmonary surfactant with a low amount of protein) or harvested primary human ATII cell secretions (HAS; containing both the complete lipid as well as the full protein complement of human pulmonary surfactant i.e. SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D). We hypothesised that Curosurf® or HAS would confer improved protection for TT1 cells, limiting the toxicity of AgNWs. In agreement with our hypothesis, HAS reduced the inflammatory and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating potential of AgNWs with exposed TT1 cells. For example, IL-8 release and ROS generation was reduced by 38% and 29%, respectively, resulting in similar levels to that of the non-treated controls. However in contrast to our hypothesis, Curosurf® had no effect. We found a significant reduction in AgNW uptake by TT1 cells in the presence of HAS but not Curosurf. Furthermore, we show that the SP-A and SP-D are likely to be involved in this process as they were found to be specifically bound to the AgNWs. While ATI cells appear to be protected by HAS, evidence suggested that ATII cells, despite no uptake, were vulnerable to AgNW exposure (indicated by increased IL-8 release and ROS generation and decreased intracellular SP-A levels one day post-exposure). This study provides unique findings that may be important for the study of lung epithelial-endothelial translocation of nanoparticles in general and associated toxicity within the alveolar unit. PMID:25996248

  3. Neutrophil elastase in respiratory epithelial lining fluid of individuals with cystic fibrosis induces interleukin-8 gene expression in a human bronchial epithelial cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, H; Yoshimura, K; McElvaney, N G; Crystal, R G

    1992-01-01

    The respiratory manifestations of cystic fibrosis (CF) are characterized by neutrophil-dominated airway inflammation. Since a variety of inflammatory stimuli are capable of inducing bronchial epithelial cells to express the gene for IL-8, a cytokine that attracts and activates neutrophils, mediators in respiratory epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of CF individuals might induce IL-8 production by epithelial cells, thus recruiting neutrophils to the airways. BET-1A human bronchial epithelial cells at rest or incubated with normal ELF showed little IL-8 gene expression, but after incubation with CF ELF, a marked increase in IL-8 transcript levels was observed. CF ELF contained high levels of neutrophil elastase (NE) and various serine protease inhibitors prevented CF ELF from inducing IL-8 gene expression in BET-1A cells, suggesting that NE was the dominant inducer for IL-8 production in CF ELF. The addition of purified NE caused BET-1A cells to increase IL-8 gene transcription with accumulation of mRNA transcripts and to release IL-8-like neutrophil chemotactic activity. These observations suggest a self-perpetuating inflammatory process on the CF bronchial surface where NE released by neutrophils induced the bronchial epithelium to secrete IL-8, which in turn recruits additional neutrophils to the bronchial surface. Images PMID:1569186

  4. Acellular porcine corneal matrix as a carrier scaffold for cultivating human corneal epithelial cells and fibroblasts in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ju; Zhang, Can-Wei; Du, Li-Qun; Wu, Xin-Yi

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the feasibility of corneal anterior lamellar reconstruction with human corneal epithelial cells and fibroblasts, and an acellular porcine cornea matrix (APCM) in vitro. METHODS The scaffold was prepared from fresh porcine corneas which were treated with 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution and the complete removal of corneal cells was confirmed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and 4′, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. Human corneal fibroblasts and epithelial cells were cultured with leaching liquid extracted from APCM, and then cell proliferative ability was evaluated by MTT assay. To construct a human corneal anterior lamellar replacement, corneal fibroblasts were injected into the APCM and cultured for 3d, followed by culturing corneal epithelial cells on the stroma construction surface for another 10d. The corneal replacement was analyzed by HE staining, and immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS Histological examination indicated that there were no cells in the APCM by HE staining, and DAPI staining did not detect any residual DNA. The leaching liquid from APCM had little influence on the proliferation ability of human corneal fibroblasts and epithelial cells. At 10d, a continuous 3 to 5 layers of human corneal epithelial cells covering the surface of the APCM was observed, and the injected corneal fibroblasts distributed within the scaffold. The phenotype of the construction was similar to normal human corneas, with high expression of cytokeratin 12 in the epithelial cell layer and high expression of vimentin in the stroma. CONCLUSION Corneal anterior lamellar replacement can be reconstructed in vitro by cultivating human corneal epithelial cells and fibroblasts with an acellular porcine cornea matrix. This laid the foundation for the further transplantation in vivo. PMID:26949602

  5. ABCG2 Transporter Identifies a Population of Clonogenic Human Limbal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    de Paiva, Cintia S.; Chen, Zhuo; Corrales, Rosa M.; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.; Li, De-Quan

    2010-01-01

    ABCG2, a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, has been identified as a molecular determinant for bone marrow stem cells and proposed as a universal marker for stem cells. This study investigates ABCG2 expression and its potential as a marker that identifies human limbal epithelial stem cells. ABCG2 expression was evaluated by immunofluorescent and immunohistochemical staining, laser scanning confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, and semiquantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Cells selected from primary limbal epithelial cultures by flow cytometry with ABCG2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) or Hoechst 33342 dye staining were evaluated for their gene expression and colony-forming efficiency (CFE). ABCG2 protein was mainly located in the basal cells of limbal epithelia but not in the limbal suprabasal and corneal epithelia. ABCG2 staining was also observed in primary limbal epithelial cultures. Limbal epithelia express higher levels of ABCG2 and ΔNp63 mRNAs than corneal epithelia. Labeling with ABCG2 mAb yielded 2.5%–3.0% positive cells by flow cytometry. The ABCG2-positive cells exhibited greater CFE on a 3T3 fibroblast feeder layer than ABCG2-negative cells. A side population (SP) was detected by the Hoechst 33342 exclusion assay. SP cells displayed stronger expression of ABCG2 and ΔNp63 mRNA and greater CFE than the non-SP cells. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that ABCG2 transporter was exclusively expressed by limbal basal cells and that the ABCG2-positive and SP cells possess enriched stem cell properties, suggesting for the first time that ABCG2 could serve as a marker to identify the putative limbal epithelial stem cells. PMID:15625123

  6. In vitro ultraviolet–induced damage in human corneal, lens, and retinal pigment epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Hyun-Yi; Sivak, Jacob G.; Jones, Lyndon W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose was to develop suitable in vitro methods to detect ocular epithelial cell damage when exposed to UV radiation, in an effort to evaluate UV-absorbing ophthalmic biomaterials. Methods Human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC), lens epithelial cells (HLEC), and retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) were cultured and Ultraviolet A/Ultraviolet B (UVA/UVB) blocking filters and UVB-only blocking filters were placed between the cells and a UV light source. Cells were irradiated with UV radiations at various energy levels with and without filter protections. Cell viability after exposure was determined using the metabolic dye alamarBlue and by evaluating for changes in the nuclei, mitochondria, membrane permeability, and cell membranes of the cells using the fluorescent dyes Hoechst 33342, rhodamine 123, calcein AM, ethidium homodimer-1, and annexin V. High-resolution images of the cells were taken with a Zeiss 510 confocal laser scanning microscope. Results The alamarBlue assay results of UV-exposed cells without filters showed energy level-dependent decreases in cellular viability. However, UV treated cells with 400 nm LP filter protection showed the equivalent viability to untreated control cells at all energy levels. Also, UV irradiated cells with 320 nm LP filter showed lower cell viability than the unexposed control cells, yet higher viability than UV-exposed cells without filters in an energy level-dependent manner. The confocal microscopy results also showed that UV radiation can cause significant dose-dependent degradations of nuclei and mitochondria in ocular cells. The annexin V staining also showed an increased number of apoptotic cells after UV irradiation. Conclusions The findings suggest that UV-induced HCEC, HLEC, and ARPE-19 cell damage can be evaluated by bioassays that measure changes in the cell nuclei, mitochondria, cell membranes, and cell metabolism, and these assay methods provide a valuable in vitro model for evaluating the

  7. Overexpression of the β Subunit of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Promotes the Transformation of Human Ovarian Epithelial Cells and Ovarian Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Liu, Guangzhi; Schauer, Isaiah G.; Yang, Gong; Mercado-Uribe, Imelda; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Shiwu; He, Yuanli; Liu, Jinsong

    2011-01-01

    Ovarian carcinoma is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy, however underlying molecular events remain elusive. Expression of human chorionic gonadotropin β subunit (β-hCG) is clinically significant for both trophoblastic and nontrophoblastic cancers; however, whether β-hCG facilitates ovarian epithelial cell tumorigenic potential remains uncharacterized. Immortalized nontumorigenic ovarian epithelial T29 and T80 cells stably overexpressing β-hCG were examined for alterations in cell cycle and apoptotic status by flow cytometry, expression of proteins regulating cell cycle and apoptosis by Western blot, proliferation status by MTT assay, anchorage-independent colony formation, and mouse tumor formation. Immunoreactivity for β-hCG was evaluated using mouse xenografts and on human normal ovarian, fallopian tube, endometrium, and ovarian carcinoma tissues. T29 and T80 cells overexpressing β-hCG demonstrated significantly increased proliferation, anchorage-independent colony formation, prosurvival Bcl-XL protein expression, G2-checkpoint progression, elevated cyclins E/D1 and Cdk 2/4/6, and decreased apoptosis. Collectively, these transformational alterations in phenotype facilitated increased xenograft tumorigenesis (P < 0.05). Furthermore, β-hCG immunoreactivity was elevated in malignant ovarian tumors, compared with normal epithelial expression in ovaries, fallopian tube, and endometrium (P < 0.001). Our data indicate that elevated β-hCG transforms ovarian surface epithelial cells, facilitating proliferation, cell cycle progression, and attenuated apoptosis to promote tumorigenesis. Our results further decipher the functional role and molecular mechanism of β-hCG in ovarian carcinoma. β-hCG may contribute to ovarian cancer etiology, which introduces a new therapeutic intervention target for ovarian cancer. PMID:21763678

  8. Sprouty2 Suppresses Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Human Lens Epithelial Cells through Blockade of Smad2 and ERK1/2 Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuan; Chen, Xiaoyun; Qin, Yingyan; Qu, Bo; Luo, Lixia; Lin, Haotian; Wu, Mingxing; Chen, Weirong; Liu, Yizhi

    2016-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lens epithelial cells (LECs) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of anterior subcapsular cataract (ASC) and capsule opacification. In mouse lens, Sprouty2 (Spry2) has a negative regulatory role on TGFβ signaling. However, the regulation of Spry2 during ASC development and how Spry2 modulates TGFβ signaling pathway in human LECs have not been characterized. Here, we demonstrate that Spry2 expression level is decreased in anterior capsule LECs of ASC patients. Spry2 negatively regulates TGFβ2-induced EMT and migration of LECs through inhibition of Smad2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Also, blockade of Smad2 or ERK1/2 activation suppresses EMT caused by Spry2 downregulation. Collectively, our results for the first time show in human LECs that Spry2 has an inhibitory role in TGFβ signaling pathway. Our findings in human lens tissue and epithelial cells suggest that Spry2 may become a novel therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of ASC and capsule opacification. PMID:27415760

  9. Optimised laser microdissection of the human ocular surface epithelial regions for microarray studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The most important challenge of performing insitu transcriptional profiling of the human ocular surface epithelial regions is obtaining samples in sufficient amounts, without contamination from adjacent tissue, as the region of interest is microscopic and closely apposed to other tissues regions. We have effectively collected ocular surface (OS) epithelial tissue samples from the Limbal Epithelial Crypt (LEC), limbus, cornea and conjunctiva of post-mortem cadaver eyes with laser microdissection (LMD) technique for gene expression studies with spotted oligonucleotide microarrays and Gene 1.0 ST arrays. Methods Human donor eyes (4 pairs for spotted oligonucleotide microarrays, 3 pairs for Gene 1.0 ST arrays) consented for research were included in this study with due ethical approval of the Nottingham Research Ethics Committee. Eye retrieval was performed within 36 hours of post-mortem period. The dissected corneoscleral buttons were immersed in OCT media and frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at −80°C till further use. Microscopic tissue sections of interest were taken on PALM slides and stained with Toluidine Blue for laser microdissection with PALM microbeam systems. Optimisation of the laser microdissection technique was crucial for efficient and cost effective sample collection. Results The starting concentration of RNA as stipulated by the protocol of microarray platforms was taken as the cut-off concentration of RNA samples in our studies. The area of LMD tissue processed for spotted oligonucleotide microarray study ranged from 86,253 μm2 in LEC to 392,887 μm2 in LEC stroma. The RNA concentration of the LMD samples ranged from 22 to 92 pg/μl. The recommended starting concentration of the RNA samples used for Gene 1.0 ST arrays was 6 ng/5 μl. To achieve the desired RNA concentration the area of ocular surface epithelial tissue sample processed for the Gene 1.0 ST array experiments was approximately 100,0000 μm2 to 130,0000 μm2. RNA

  10. Effects of alpha-particles on survival and chromosomal aberrations in human mammary epithelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durante, M.; Grossi, G. F.; Gialanella, G.; Pugliese, M.; Nappo, M.; Yang, T. C.

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the radiation responses of a human mammary epithelial cell line, H184B5 F5-1 M/10. This cell line was derived from primary mammary cells after treatment with chemicals and heavy ions. The F5-1 M/10 cells are immortal, density-inhibited in growth, and non-tumorigenic in athymic nude mice and represent an in vitro model of the human epithelium for radiation studies. Because epithelial cells are the target of alpha-particles emitted from radon daughters, we concentrated our studies on the efficiency of alpha-particles. Confluent cultures of M/10 cells were exposed to accelerated alpha-particles [beam energy incident at the cell monolayer = 3.85 MeV, incident linear energy transfer (LET) in cell = 109 keV/microns] and, for comparison, to 80 kVp x-rays. The following endpoints were studied: (1) survival, (2) chromosome aberrations at the first postirradiation mitosis, and (3) chromosome alterations at later passages following irradiation. The survival curve was exponential for alpha-particles (D0 = 0.73 +/- 0.04 Gy), while a shoulder was observed for x-rays (alpha/beta = 2.9 Gy; D0 = 2.5 Gy, extrapolation number 1.6). The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of high-LET alpha-particles for human epithelial cell killing was 3.3 at 37% survival. Dose-response curves for the induction of chromosome aberrations were linear for alpha-particles and linearquadratic for x-rays. The RBE for the induction of chromosome aberrations varied with the type of aberration scored and was high (about 5) for chromosome breaks and low (about 2) for chromosome exchanges.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  11. Functional Domains of Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) Modulate INS-VNTR Transcription in Human Thymic Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Avis E; Chen, Chiachen; Breslin, Mary B; Lan, Michael S

    2016-05-20

    INS-VNTR (insulin-variable number of tandem repeats) and AIRE (autoimmune regulator) have been associated with the modulation of insulin gene expression in thymus, which is essential to induce either insulin tolerance or the development of insulin autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes. We sought to analyze whether each functional domain of AIRE is critical for the activation of INS-VNTR in human thymic epithelial cells. Twelve missense or nonsense mutations in AIRE and two chimeric AIRE constructs were generated. A luciferase reporter assay and a pulldown assay using biotinylated INS-class I VNTR probe were performed to examine the transactivation and binding activities of WT, mutant, and chimeric AIREs on the INS-VNTR promoter. Confocal microscopy analysis was performed for WT or mutant AIRE cellular localization. We found that all of the AIRE mutations resulted in loss of transcriptional activation of INS-VNTR except mutant P252L. Using WT/mutant AIRE heterozygous forms to modulate the INS-VNTR target revealed five mutations (R257X, G228W, C311fsX376, L397fsX478, and R433fsX502) that functioned in a dominant negative fashion. The LXXLL-3 motif is identified for the first time to be essential for DNA binding to INS-VNTR, whereas the intact PHD1, PHD2, LXXLL-3, and LXXLL-4 motifs were important for successful transcriptional activation. AIRE nuclear localization in the human thymic epithelial cell line was disrupted by mutations in the homogenously staining region domain and the R257X mutation in the PHD1 domain. This study supports the notion that AIRE mutation could specifically affect human insulin gene expression in thymic epithelial cells through INS-VNTR and subsequently induce either insulin tolerance or autoimmunity. PMID:27048654

  12. Regulation of proinflammatory cytokines in human lung epithelial cells infected with Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Hooper, W Craig; Phillips, Donald J; Talkington, Deborah F

    2002-07-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a small bacterium without a cell wall that causes tracheobronchitis and atypical pneumonia in humans. It has also been associated with chronic conditions, such as arthritis, and extrapulmonary complications, such as encephalitis. Although the interaction of mycoplasmas with respiratory epithelial cells is a critical early phase of pathogenesis, little is known about the cascade of events initiated by infection of respiratory epithelial cells by mycoplasmas. Previous studies have shown that M. pneumoniae can induce proinflammatory cytokines in several different study systems including cultured murine and human monocytes. In this study, we demonstrate that M. pneumoniae infection also induces proinflammatory cytokine expression in A549 human lung carcinoma cells. Infection of A549 cells resulted in increased levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor alpha mRNA, and both proteins were secreted into culture medium. IL-1 beta mRNA also increased after infection and IL-1 beta protein was synthesized, but it remained intracellular. In contrast, levels of IL-6 and gamma interferon mRNA and protein remained unchanged or undetectable. Using protease digestion and antibody blocking methods, we found that M. pneumoniae cytoadherence is important for the induction of cytokines. On the other hand, while M. pneumoniae protein synthesis and DNA synthesis do not appear to be prerequisites for the induction of cytokine gene expression, A549 cellular de novo protein synthesis is responsible for the increased cytokine protein levels. These results suggest a novel role for lung epithelial cells in the pathogenesis of M. pneumoniae infection and provide a better understanding of M. pneumoniae pathology at the cellular level. PMID:12065506

  13. Human oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets imaging with high-resolution phase-diversity homodyne OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senda, Naoko; Osawa, Kentaro

    2015-03-01

    There is a need for development of non-invasive technique to evaluate regenerative tissues such as cell sheets for transplantation. We demonstrated non-invasive imaging inside living cell sheets of human oral mucosal epithelial cells by phase-diversity homodyne optical coherence tomography (OCT). The new method OCT developed in Hitachi enables cell imaging because of high resolution (axial resolution; ~2.6 μm, lateral resolution; ~1 μm, in the air). Nuclei inside cell sheets were imaged with sufficient spatial resolution to identify each cell. It suggested that the new method OCT could be useful for non-invasive cell sheet evaluation test.

  14. Loss of chromosomal integrity in human mammary epithelial cells subsequent to escape from senescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tlsty, T. D.; Romanov, S. R.; Kozakiewicz, B. K.; Holst, C. R.; Haupt, L. M.; Crawford, Y. G.

    2001-01-01

    The genomic changes that foster cancer can be either genetic or epigenetic in nature. Early studies focused on genetic changes and how mutational events contribute to changes in gene expression. These point mutations, deletions and amplifications are known to activate oncogenes and inactivate tumor suppressor genes. More recently, multiple epigenetic changes that can have a profound effect on carcinogenesis have been identified. These epigenetic events, such as the methylation of promoter sequences in genes, are under active investigation. In this review we will describe a methylation event that occurs during the propagation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) in culture and detail the accompanying genetic alterations that have been observed.

  15. Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells. A promising epithelial-like cell source.

    PubMed

    Garzón, I; Martin-Piedra, M A; Alaminos, M

    2015-05-01

    Several models of tissue-engineered human skin based on three-dimensional (3D) co-culture techniques have been proposed to the date. However, normal skin biopsies are not always available, especially in patients with a high percentage of skin affected by deep burning, and the generation of large amounts of cultured keratinocytes may take very long time, with an associated risk for the patients' survival. For those reasons, the search of alternative cell sources for tissue reconstruction is a clinical need. In this context, Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells (HDPSC) have the potential to differentiate into multiple cell lineages by the appropriate differentiation conditions, but skin epidermis differentiation has not been demonstrated so far. Here, we hypothesize that HDPSC may have pluripotent differentiation capability, and may be able to differentiate into skin epithelial keratinocytes in culture using organotypic 3D models based on the interaction with the subjacent dermal fibroblasts. By using HDPSC, the problems associated to the donor site availability and the proliferation capability of the epithelial cells could be solved. The rapid accessibility to these cells could be translated to a more immediate generation of a bioengineered human skin substitute for the future clinical treatment. PMID:25764965

  16. Alterations of p53 in tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cells correlate with metastatic potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piao, C. Q.; Willey, J. C.; Hei, T. K.; Hall, E. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms of radiation-induced lung cancer are not known. In the present study, alterations of p53 in tumorigenic human papillomavirus-immortalized human bronchial epithelial (BEP2D) cells induced by a single low dose of either alpha-particles or 1 GeV/nucleon (56)Fe were analyzed by PCR-single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) coupled with sequencing analysis and immunoprecipitation assay. A total of nine primary and four secondary tumor cell lines, three of which were metastatic, together with the parental BEP2D and primary human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells were studied. The immunoprecipitation assay showed overexpression of mutant p53 proteins in all the tumor lines but not in NHBE and BEP2D cells. PCR-SSCP and sequencing analysis found band shifts and gene mutations in all four of the secondary tumors. A G-->T transversion in codon 139 in exon 5 that replaced Lys with Asn was detected in two tumor lines. One mutation each, involving a G-->T transversion in codon 215 in exon 6 (Ser-->lle) and a G-->A transition in codon 373 in exon 8 (Arg-->His), was identified in the remaining two secondary tumors. These results suggest that p53 alterations correlate with tumorigenesis in the BEP2D cell model and that mutations in the p53 gene may be indicative of metastatic potential.

  17. Respiratory epithelial cell expression of human transforming growth factor-alpha induces lung fibrosis in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Korfhagen, T R; Swantz, R J; Wert, S E; McCarty, J M; Kerlakian, C B; Glasser, S W; Whitsett, J A

    1994-01-01

    Increased production of EGF or TGF-alpha by the respiratory epithelial cells has been associated with the pathogenesis of various forms of lung injury. Growth factors and cytokines are thought to act locally, via paracrine and autocrine mechanisms, to stimulate cell proliferation and matrix deposition by interstitial lung cells resulting in pulmonary fibrosis. To test whether TGF-alpha mediates pulmonary fibrotic responses, we have generated transgenic mice expressing human TGF-alpha under control of regulatory regions of the human surfactant protein C (SP-C) gene. Human TGF-alpha mRNA was expressed in pulmonary epithelial cells in the lungs of the transgenic mice. Adult mice bearing the SP-C-TGF-alpha transgene developed severe pulmonary fibrosis. Fibrotic lesions were observed in peribronchial, peribronchiolar, and perivascular regions, as well as subjacent to pleural surfaces. Lesions consisted of fibrous tissue that included groups of epithelial cells expressing endogenous SP-C mRNA, consistent with their identification as distal respiratory epithelial cells. Peripheral fibrotic regions consisted of thickened pleura associated with extensive collagen deposition. Alveolar architecture was disrupted in the transgenic mice with loss of alveoli in the lung parenchyma. Pulmonary epithelial cell expression of TGF-alpha in transgenic mice disrupts alveolar morphogenesis and produces fibrotic lesions mediated by paracrine signaling between respiratory epithelial and interstitial cells of the lung. Images PMID:8163670

  18. Fibulin-5 localisation in human endometrial cancer shifts from epithelial to stromal with increasing tumour grade, and silencing promotes endometrial epithelial cancer cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    WINSHIP, AMY LOUISE; RAINCZUK, KATE; TON, AMANDA; DIMITRIADIS, EVA

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common invasive gynaecological malignancy. While endocrine, genetic and inflammatory factors are thought to contribute to its pathogenesis, its precise etiology and molecular regulators remain poorly understood. Fibulin-5 is an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein that inhibits cell growth and invasion in several cancer cell types and is downregulated in a number of types of human cancer. However, it is unknown whether fibulin-5 plays a role in endometrial tumourigenesis. In the current report, the expression and localisation of fibulin-5 in type I endometrioid human endometrial cancers of grades (G) 1–3 was investigated using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Fibulin-5 mRNA was found to be significantly reduced in whole tumour tissues from women across G1-3 compared with benign endometrium (P<0.0001). Consistently, fibulin-5 protein was also reduced in the tumour epithelial compartment across increasing tumour grades. By contrast, increased protein localisation to the tumour stroma was observed with increasing grade. Knockdown by small interfering RNA in Ishikawa endometrial epithelial cancer cells expressing fibulin-5 stimulated cell adhesion and proliferation in vitro. Fibulin-5 mRNA expression in Ishikawa cells was induced by transforming growth factor-β and fibulin-5 in turn activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), suggesting that it may act via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. In summary, the present study identified fibulin-5 as a downregulated ECM gene in human endometrial cancer and observed a shift from epithelial to stromal protein localisation with increasing tumour grade in women. These data suggest that loss of fibulin-5 function may promote endometrial cancer progression by enhancing epithelial cell adhesion and proliferation. PMID:27347195

  19. Silver nanowire interactions with primary human alveolar type-II epithelial cell secretions: contrasting bioreactivity with human alveolar type-I and type-II epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Theodorou, Ioannis G.; Zambianchi, Marta; Chen, Shu; Gow, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Chung, Kian Fan; Shaffer, Milo S. P.; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Tetley, Teresa D.

    2015-06-01

    Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in the alveolar units of the deep lung. The alveolar epithelium is composed of type-I and type-II epithelial cells (ATI and ATII respectively) and is bathed in pulmonary surfactant. The effect of native human ATII cell secretions on nanoparticle toxicity is not known. We investigated the cellular uptake and toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs; 70 nm diameter, 1.5 μm length) with human ATI-like cells (TT1), in the absence or presence of Curosurf® (a natural porcine pulmonary surfactant with a low amount of protein) or harvested primary human ATII cell secretions (HAS; containing both the complete lipid as well as the full protein complement of human pulmonary surfactant i.e. SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D). We hypothesised that Curosurf® or HAS would confer improved protection for TT1 cells, limiting the toxicity of AgNWs. In agreement with our hypothesis, HAS reduced the inflammatory and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating potential of AgNWs with exposed TT1 cells. For example, IL-8 release and ROS generation was reduced by 38% and 29%, respectively, resulting in similar levels to that of the non-treated controls. However in contrast to our hypothesis, Curosurf® had no effect. We found a significant reduction in AgNW uptake by TT1 cells in the presence of HAS but not Curosurf. Furthermore, we show that the SP-A and SP-D are likely to be involved in this process as they were found to be specifically bound to the AgNWs. While ATI cells appear to be protected by HAS, evidence suggested that ATII cells, despite no uptake, were vulnerable to AgNW exposure (indicated by increased IL-8 release and ROS generation and decreased intracellular SP-A levels one day post-exposure). This study provides unique findings that may be important for the study of lung epithelial-endothelial translocation of nanoparticles in general and associated toxicity within the alveolar unit.Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in

  20. Isolation of Human Amnion Epithelial Cells According to Current Good Manufacturing Procedures.

    PubMed

    Gramignoli, Roberto; Srinivasan, Raghuraman C; Kannisto, Kristina; Strom, Stephen C

    2016-01-01

    Different cell types can be isolated from human placental tissues, and some have been reported to retain phenotypic plasticity and characteristics that make them a promising source of cells for regenerative medicine. Among these are human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs). Adoption of current good manufacturing practices (cGMP) and enhanced quality control is essential when isolating hAECs in order to deliver a safe and effective cellular product for clinical purposes. This unit describes a detailed protocol for selective isolation of hAECs from human term placenta with little to no contamination by other cell types. A method for characterizing the heterogeneity of the hAEC suspension is also provided. The resulting cell product will be useful for clinical as well as basic research applications. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27171794

  1. Diesel Exhaust Particle-Exposed Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Induce Dendritic Cell Maturation and Polarization via Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin

    PubMed Central

    Bleck, Bertram; Tse, Doris B.; Curotto de Lafaille, Maria A.; Zhang, Feijie

    2009-01-01

    Human exposure to air pollutants, including ambient particulate matter, has been proposed as a mechanism for the rise in allergic disorders. Diesel exhaust particles, a major component of ambient particulate matter, induce sensitization to neoallergens, but the mechanisms by which sensitization occur remain unclear. We show that diesel exhaust particles upregulate thymic stromal lymphopoietin in human bronchial epithelial cells in an oxidant-dependent manner. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin induced by diesel exhaust particles was associated with maturation of myeloid dendritic cells, which was blocked by anti-thymic stromal lymphopoietin antibodies or silencing epithelial cell-derived thymic stromal lymphopoietin. Dendritic cells exposed to diesel exhaust particle-treated human bronchial epithelial cells induced Th2 polarization in a thymic stromal lymphopoietin-dependent manner. These findings provide new insight into the mechanisms by which diesel exhaust particles modify human lung mucosal immunity. PMID:18049884

  2. Validation of Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells as a Model for Influenza A Infections in Human Distal Trachea

    PubMed Central

    Davis, A. Sally; Chertow, Daniel S.; Moyer, Jenna E.; Suzich, Jon; Sandouk, Aline; Dorward, David W.; Logun, Carolea; Shelhamer, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Primary normal human bronchial/tracheal epithelial (NHBE) cells, derived from the distal-most aspect of the trachea at the bifurcation, have been used for a number of studies in respiratory disease research. Differences between the source tissue and the differentiated primary cells may impact infection studies based on this model. Therefore, we examined how well-differentiated NHBE cells compared with their source tissue, the human distal trachea, as well as the ramifications of these differences on influenza A viral pathogenesis research using this model. We employed a histological analysis including morphological measurements, electron microscopy, multi-label immunofluorescence confocal microscopy, lectin histochemistry, and microarray expression analysis to compare differentiated NHBEs to human distal tracheal epithelium. Pseudostratified epithelial height, cell type variety and distribution varied significantly. Electron microscopy confirmed differences in cellular attachment and paracellular junctions. Influenza receptor lectin histochemistry revealed that α2,3 sialic acids were rarely present on the apical aspect of the differentiated NHBE cells, but were present in low numbers in the distal trachea. We bound fluorochrome bioconjugated virus to respiratory tissue and NHBE cells and infected NHBE cells with human influenza A viruses. Both indicated that the pattern of infection progression in these cells correlated with autopsy studies of fatal cases from the 2009 pandemic. PMID:25604814

  3. Cultured human airway epithelial cells (calu-3): a model of human respiratory function, structure, and inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; Chidekel, Aaron; Shaffer, Thomas H

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the application of the human airway Calu-3 cell line as a respiratory model for studying the effects of gas concentrations, exposure time, biophysical stress, and biological agents on human airway epithelial cells. Calu-3 cells are grown to confluence at an air-liquid interface on permeable supports. To model human respiratory conditions and treatment modalities, monolayers are placed in an environmental chamber, and exposed to specific levels of oxygen or other therapeutic modalities such as positive pressure and medications to assess the effect of interventions on inflammatory mediators, immunologic proteins, and antibacterial outcomes. Monolayer integrity and permeability and cell histology and viability also measure cellular response to therapeutic interventions. Calu-3 cells exposed to graded oxygen concentrations demonstrate cell dysfunction and inflammation in a dose-dependent manner. Modeling positive airway pressure reveals that pressure may exert a greater injurious effect and cytokine response than oxygen. In experiments with pharmacological agents, Lucinactant is protective of Calu-3 cells compared with Beractant and control, and perfluorocarbons also protect against hyperoxia-induced airway epithelial cell injury. The Calu-3 cell preparation is a sensitive and efficient preclinical model to study human respiratory processes and diseases related to oxygen- and ventilator-induced lung injury. PMID:20948883

  4. Androgen-Sensitized Apoptosis of HPr-1AR Human Prostate Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Congcong; Dienhart, Jason A.; Bolton, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is crucial to the development and homeostasis of the prostate gland, and its dysregulation mediates common prostate pathologies. The mechanisms whereby AR regulates growth suppression and differentiation of luminal epithelial cells in the prostate gland and proliferation of malignant versions of these cells have been investigated in human and rodent adult prostate. However, the cellular stress response of human prostate epithelial cells is not well understood, though it is central to prostate health and pathology. Here, we report that androgen sensitizes HPr-1AR and RWPE-AR human prostate epithelial cells to cell stress agents and apoptotic cell death. Although 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment alone did not induce cell death, co-treatment of HPr-1AR cells with DHT and an apoptosis inducer, such as staurosporine (STS), TNFt, or hydrogen peroxide, synergistically increased cell death in comparison to treatment with each apoptosis inducer by itself. We found that the synergy between DHT and apoptosis inducer led to activation of the intrinsic/mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which is supported by robust cleavage activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Further, the dramatic depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential that we observed upon co-treatment with DHT and STS is consistent with increased mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) in the pro-apoptotic mechanism. Interestingly, the synergy between DHT and apoptosis inducer was abolished by AR antagonists and inhibitors of transcription and protein synthesis, suggesting that AR mediates pro-apoptotic synergy through transcriptional regulation of MOMP genes. Expression analysis revealed that pro-apoptotic genes (BCL2L11/BIM and AIFM2) were DHT-induced, whereas pro-survival genes (BCL2L1/BCL-XL and MCL1) were DHT-repressed. Hence, we propose that the net effect of these AR-mediated expression changes shifts the balance of BCL2-family proteins, such that

  5. α1-Antitrypsin reduces rhinovirus infection in primary human airway epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Reena; Jiang, Di; Wu, Qun; Chu, Hong Wei

    2016-01-01

    Human rhinovirus (HRV) infections target airway epithelium and are the leading cause of acute exacerbations of COPD. Cigarette smoke (CS) increases the severity of viral infections, but there is no effective therapy for HRV infection. We determined whether α1-antitrypsin (A1AT) reduces HRV-16 infection in CS-exposed primary human airway epithelial cells. Brushed bronchial epithelial cells from normal subjects and patients diagnosed with COPD were cultured at air–liquid interface to induce mucociliary differentiation. These cells were treated with A1AT or bovine serum albumin for 2 hours and then exposed to air or whole cigarette smoke (WCS) with or without HRV-16 (5×104 50% Tissue Culture Infective Dose [TCID50]/transwell) infection for 24 hours. WCS exposure significantly increased viral load by an average of fivefold and decreased the expression of antiviral genes interferon-λ1, OAS1, and MX1. When A1AT was added to WCS-exposed cells, viral load significantly decreased by an average of 29-fold. HRV-16 infection significantly increased HRV-16 receptor intercellular adhesion molecule-1 messenger RNA expression in air-exposed cells, which was decreased by A1AT. A1AT-mediated reduction of viral load was not accompanied by increased epithelial antiviral gene expression or by inhibiting the activity of 3C protease involved in viral replication or maturation. Our findings demonstrate that A1AT treatment prevents a WCS-induced increase in viral load and for the first time suggest a therapeutic effect of A1AT on HRV infection. PMID:27354786

  6. Altered aldose reductase gene regulation in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Henry, D N; Del Monte, M; Greene, D A; Killen, P D

    1993-01-01

    Aldose reductase (AR2), a putative "hypertonicity stress protein" whose gene is induced by hyperosmolarity, protects renal medullary cells against the interstitial hyperosmolarity of antidiuresis by catalyzing the synthesis of millimolar concentrations of intracellular sorbitol from glucose. Although AR2 gene induction has been noted in a variety of renal and nonrenal cells subjected to hypertonic stress in vitro, the functional significance of AR2 gene expression in cells not normally exposed to a hyperosmolar milieu is not fully understood. The physiological impact of basal AR2 expression in such cells may be limited to hyperglycemic states in which AR2 promotes pathological polyol accumulation, a mechanism invoked in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Since AR2 overexpression in the retinal pigment epithelium has been associated with diabetic retinopathy, the regulation of AR2 gene expression and associated changes in sorbitol and myo-inositol were studied in human retinal pigment epithelial cells in culture. The relative abundance of aldehyde reductase (AR1) and AR2 mRNA was quantitated by filter hybridization of RNA from several human retinal pigment epithelial cell lines exposed to hyperglycemic and hyperosmolar conditions in vitro. AR2 but not AR1 mRNA was significantly increased some 11- to 18-fold by hyperosmolarity in several retinal pigment epithelial cell lines. A single cell line with a 15-fold higher basal level of AR2 mRNA than other cell lines tested demonstrated no significant increase in AR2 mRNA in response to hypertonic stress. This cell line demonstrated accelerated and exaggerated production of sorbitol and depletion of myo-inositol upon exposure to 20 mM glucose. Therefore, abnormal AR2 expression may enhance the sensitivity of cells to the biochemical consequences of hyperglycemia potentiating the development of diabetic complications. Images PMID:8349800

  7. Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection protects human endocervical epithelial cells from apoptosis via expression of host antiapoptotic proteins.

    PubMed

    Follows, S A; Murlidharan, J; Massari, P; Wetzler, L M; Genco, C A

    2009-09-01

    Several microbial pathogens can modulate the host apoptotic response to infection, which may contribute to immune evasion. Various studies have reported that infection with the sexually transmitted disease pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae can either inhibit or induce apoptosis. N. gonorrhoeae infection initiates at the mucosal epithelium, and in women, cells from the ectocervix and endocervix are among the first host cells encountered by this pathogen. In this study, we defined the antiapoptotic effect of N. gonorrhoeae infection in human endocervical epithelial cells (End/E6E7 cells). We first established that N. gonorrhoeae strain FA1090B failed to induce cell death in End/E6E7 cells. Subsequently, we demonstrated that stimulation with N. gonorrhoeae protected these cells from staurosporine (STS)-induced apoptosis. Importantly, only End/E6E7 cells incubated with live bacteria and in direct association with N. gonorrhoeae were protected from STS-induced apoptosis, while heat-killed and antibiotic-killed bacteria failed to induce protection. Stimulation of End/E6E7 cells with live N. gonorrhoeae induced NF-kappaB activation and resulted in increased gene expression of the NF-kappaB-regulated antiapoptotic genes bfl-1, cIAP-2, and c-FLIP. Furthermore, cIAP-2 protein levels also increased in End/E6E7 cells incubated with gonococci. Collectively, our results indicate that the antiapoptotic effect of N. gonorrhoeae in human endocervical epithelial cells results from live infection via expression of host antiapoptotic proteins. Securing an intracellular niche through the inhibition of apoptosis may be an important mechanism utilized by N. gonorrhoeae for microbial survival and immune evasion in cervical epithelial cells. PMID:19546192

  8. Sirtuin 3 Protects against Urban Particulate Matter-Induced Autophagy in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Chieh; Huang, Hsin-Hsiu; Chen, Pei-Fen; Chiang, Hung-Che

    2016-07-01

    Urban particulate matter (urban PM) is a heterogeneous mixture of various types of particles originating from different sources. Exposure to high concentrations of urban PM leading to adverse health effects is evaluated by using in vitro cultures of human lung epithelial cells. However, the mechanism underlying the correlation between high concentrations of urban PM exposure and adverse health effects has not been fully elucidated; urban PM-induced oxidative stress is considered as an important mechanism of urban PM-mediated cytotoxicity. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), a primary mitrochondrial deacetylase, controls cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and expression of antioxidant enzymes. In this study, we examined the role of SIRT3 in the regulation of urban PM-induced oxidative stress in normal primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEpiCs). Cell viability showed a time- and concentration-dependent decrease when exposed to urban PM, which could indicate that the amount of lactate dehydrogenase released from the cell in response to urban PM is related to cell viability in HBEpiC. The effects of urban PM on morphological and biochemical markers of autophagy in HBEpiC were analyzed by electron microscopy and Western blotting. Overexpression of SIRT3 inhibited urban PM-induced ROS generation, while concomitantly increasing the expression of antioxidant enzymes, and decreasing NF-κB activation and release of inflammation factors. Up-regulation of SIRT3 significantly inhibited the expression of autophagy markers and autophagic vacuole formation. Our findings provide a valuable insight into the potential role of the SIRT3 enzyme in regulating urban PM-induced autophagy by mediating urban PM-induced oxidative stress, which may contribute to urban PM-induced impairment of airway epithelial cell function. PMID:27125970

  9. Effect of Hangeshashinto on calprotectin expression in human oral epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hiroshima, Yuka; Bando, Mika; Inagaki, Yuji; Kido, Reiko; Kataoka, Masatoshi; Nagata, Toshihiko; Kido, Jun-Ichi

    2016-05-01

    Oral epithelial cells produce antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) to prevent microbial infection. Calprotectin (S100A8/S100A9) is one of these AMPs in oral epithelial cells, the expression of which is up-regulated by interleukin-1α (IL-1α). Hangeshashinto (HST) is a traditional Japanese herbal medicine that has anti-inflammatory effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of HST on the expression of calprotectin through the regulation of IL-1α in oral epithelial cells. Human oral epithelial cells (TR146) were cultured with HST in the presence or absence of anti-IL-1α antibody or IL-1 receptor antagonist, or with six major components of HST (3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, baicalin, ginsenoside Rb1, glycyrrhizin, oleanolic acid and berberine). The expression of S100A8, S100A9, other AMPs and cytokine mRNAs was examined by RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR. Calprotectin expression and IL-1α secretion were investigated by ELISA. HST (6 μg/ml) increased the expression of S100A8/S100A9 mRNAs and calprotectin protein, and also up-regulated β-defensin 2 (DEFB4) and S100A7 expression. The expression of IL-1α mRNA and its protein was slightly but significantly increased by HST. A neutralizing antibody against IL-1α and IL-1 receptor antagonist inhibited HST-up-regulated S100A8/S100A9 mRNA expression. Although 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, baicalin and ginsenoside Rb1 as HST components increased S100A8/S100A9 expression, oleanolic acid and berberine decreased their expression. These results suggest that HST increases the expression of calprotectin, DEFB4 and S100A7 in oral epithelial cells. In response to HST, up-regulation of calprotectin expression may be partially induced via IL-1α. PMID:25649126

  10. Tacrolimus Modulates TGF-β Signaling to Induce Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Human Renal Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Jason; Cassidy, Hilary; Slattery, Craig; Ryan, Michael P; McMorrow, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process which describes the trans-differentiation of epithelial cells into motile mesenchymal cells, is pivotal in stem cell behavior, development and wound healing, as well as contributing to disease processes including fibrosis and cancer progression. Maintenance immunosuppression with calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) has become routine management for renal transplant patient, but unfortunately the nephrotoxicity of these drugs has been well documented. HK-2 cells were exposed to Tacrolimus (FK506) and EMT markers were assessed by RT PCR and western blot. FK506 effects on TGF-β mRNA were assessed by RT PCR and TGF-β secretion was measured by ELISA. The impact of increased TGF-β secretion on Smad signaling pathways was investigated. The impact of inhibition of TGF-β signaling on EMT processes was assessed by scratch-wound assay. The results presented in this study suggest that FK506 initiates EMT processes in the HK-2 cell line, with altered expression of epithelial and myofibroblast markers evident. Additionally, the study demonstrates that FK506 activation of the TGF-β/ SMAD pathways is an essential step in the EMT process. Overall the results demonstrate that EMT is heavily involved in renal fibrosis associated with CNI nephrotoxicity. PMID:27128949

  11. Tacrolimus Modulates TGF-β Signaling to Induce Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Human Renal Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Jason; Cassidy, Hilary; Slattery, Craig; Ryan, Michael P.; McMorrow, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process which describes the trans-differentiation of epithelial cells into motile mesenchymal cells, is pivotal in stem cell behavior, development and wound healing, as well as contributing to disease processes including fibrosis and cancer progression. Maintenance immunosuppression with calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) has become routine management for renal transplant patient, but unfortunately the nephrotoxicity of these drugs has been well documented. HK-2 cells were exposed to Tacrolimus (FK506) and EMT markers were assessed by RT PCR and western blot. FK506 effects on TGF-β mRNA were assessed by RT PCR and TGF-β secretion was measured by ELISA. The impact of increased TGF-β secretion on Smad signaling pathways was investigated. The impact of inhibition of TGF-β signaling on EMT processes was assessed by scratch-wound assay. The results presented in this study suggest that FK506 initiates EMT processes in the HK-2 cell line, with altered expression of epithelial and myofibroblast markers evident. Additionally, the study demonstrates that FK506 activation of the TGF-β/ SMAD pathways is an essential step in the EMT process. Overall the results demonstrate that EMT is heavily involved in renal fibrosis associated with CNI nephrotoxicity. PMID:27128949

  12. ZN2+-INDUCED IL-8 EXPRESSION INVOLVES AP-1, JNK, AND ERK ACTIVITIES IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to zinc-laden particulate matter (PM) in ambient and occupational settings has been associated with proinflammatory responses in the lung. IL-8 is an important proinflammatory cytokine in the human lung and is induced in human airway epithelial cells exposed to zin...

  13. Analysis of differential protein expression in normal and neoplastic human breast epithelial cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.; Chubb, C.; Huberman, E.; Giometti, C.S.

    1997-07-01

    High resolution two dimensional get electrophoresis (2DE) and database analysis was used to establish protein expression patterns for cultured normal human mammary epithelial cells and thirteen breast cancer cell lines. The Human Breast Epithelial Cell database contains the 2DE protein patterns, including relative protein abundances, for each cell line, plus a composite pattern that contains all the common and specifically expressed proteins from all the cell lines. Significant differences in protein expression, both qualitative and quantitative, were observed not only between normal cells and tumor cells, but also among the tumor cell lines. Eight percent of the consistently detected proteins were found in significantly (P < 0.001) variable levels among the cell lines. Using a combination of immunostaining, comigration with purified protein, subcellular fractionation, and amino-terminal protein sequencing, we identified a subset of the differentially expressed proteins. These identified proteins include the cytoskeletal proteins actin, tubulin, vimentin, and cytokeratins. The cell lines can be classified into four distinct groups based on their intermediate filament protein profile. We also identified heat shock proteins; hsp27, hsp60, and hsp70 varied in abundance and in some cases in the relative phosphorylation levels among the cell lines. Finally, we identified IMP dehydrogenase in each of the cell lines, and found the levels of this enzyme in the tumor cell lines elevated 2- to 20-fold relative to the levels in normal cells.

  14. Cellular localization of BARF1 oncoprotein and its cell stimulating activity in human epithelial cell.

    PubMed

    Sakka, Emna; Zur Hausen, Axel; Houali, Karim; Liu, Haying; Fiorini, Sylvie; Ooka, Tadamasa

    2013-06-01

    BARF1 gene encoded by Epstein-Barr virus is capable of immortalizing the primary monkey epithelial cells and of inducing malignant transformation in human EBV-negative B cell lines as well as rodent fibroblast. This oncoprotein is a secreted protein capable of acting as a powerful mitogen. We have studied the effect of BARF1 protein in transfected or BARF1 protein treated human HaCaT epithelial cells. In BARF1-transfected cells, cell growth was activated and its protein was found both in culture medium and cellular compartment (membrane, cytoplasm and nuclei). When purified BARF1 protein was exogenously added in the cell culture medium of HaCaT cells in absence of fetal calf serum led to its entrance into cells and its intracellular localization in cytoplasm, nuclear periphery and nuclei at 14h treatment, determined by confocal and immunoelectron microscopy. Cell fractionation confirmed its nuclear localization. Nuclear localization was observed in both systems. More interestingly, purified BARF1 protein p29 exogenously added in the cell culture medium activated cell passage of G1 to S phase. S phase activation by its autocrine activity and its tumorigenic activity would be associated with the development of EBV-associated carcinomas. PMID:23458996

  15. Hydrogen sulfide induces apoptosis in epithelial cells derived from human gingiva.

    PubMed

    Murata, T; Yaegaki, K; Qian, W; Herai, M; Calenic, B; Imai, T; Sato, T; Tanaka, T; Kamoda, T; Ii, H

    2008-03-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is not only one of the main causes of halitosis but is also an agent of toxicity against periodontal cells and tissues in biofilm-related periodontal diseases. Also, apoptosis of gingival epithelial cells may play an important role in the onset and progress of periodontitis. We examined the effect of H(2)S on the induction of apoptosis, using human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and keratinocyte-like Ca9-22 cells derived from human gingiva. The cells were incubated with H(2)S (100 ng ml(-1)) for 24, 48 or 72 h by adding H(2)S to air containing 5% CO(2), supplied constantly to the culture environment during incubation. The incidence of apoptosis caused by H(2)S was determined with Annexin V staining by flow cytometry. The proportion of apoptotic cells was significantly increased by exposure to H(2)S for 48 h in comparison with the control in both Ca9-22 cells and HGF. A concentration of 100 ng ml(-1) H(2)S in air is possible in the gingival sulcus. This study indicates that apoptosis in gingival epithelial cells and HGF by H(2)S may occur in the oral cavity, which may cause a periodontal condition. PMID:21386151

  16. Cigarette smoke alters primary human bronchial epithelial cell differentiation at the air-liquid interface

    PubMed Central

    Schamberger, Andrea C.; Staab-Weijnitz, Claudia A.; Mise-Racek, Nikica; Eickelberg, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The differentiated human airway epithelium consists of different cell types forming a polarized and pseudostratified epithelium. This is dramatically altered in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), characterized by basal and goblet cell hyperplasia, and squamous cell metaplasia. The effect of cigarette smoke on human bronchial epithelial cell (HBEC) differentiation remains to be elucidated. We analysed whether cigarette smoke extract (CSE) affected primary (p)HBEC differentiation and function. pHBEC were differentiated at the air-liquid interface (ALI) and differentiation was quantified after 7, 14, 21, or 28 days by assessing acetylated tubulin, CC10, or MUC5AC for ciliated, Clara, or goblet cells, respectively. Exposure of differentiating pHBEC to CSE impaired epithelial barrier formation, as assessed by resistance measurements (TEER). Importantly, CSE exposure significantly reduced the number of ciliated cells, while it increased the number of Clara and goblet cells. CSE-dependent cell number changes were reflected by a reduction of acetylated tubulin levels, an increased expression of the basal cell marker KRT14, and increased secretion of CC10, but not by changes in transcript levels of CC10, MUC5AC, or FOXJ1. Our data demonstrate that cigarette smoke specifically alters the cellular composition of the airway epithelium by affecting basal cell differentiation in a post-transcriptional manner. PMID:25641363

  17. Normal human mammary epithelial cells spontaneously escape senescence and acquire genomic changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanov, S. R.; Kozakiewicz, B. K.; Holst, C. R.; Stampfer, M. R.; Haupt, L. M.; Tlsty, T. D.

    2001-01-01

    Senescence and genomic integrity are thought to be important barriers in the development of malignant lesions. Human fibroblasts undergo a limited number of cell divisions before entering an irreversible arrest, called senescence. Here we show that human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) do not conform to this paradigm of senescence. In contrast to fibroblasts, HMECs exhibit an initial growth phase that is followed by a transient growth plateau (termed selection or M0; refs 3-5), from which proliferative cells emerge to undergo further population doublings (approximately 20-70), before entering a second growth plateau (previously termed senescence or M1; refs 4-6). We find that the first growth plateau exhibits characteristics of senescence but is not an insurmountable barrier to further growth. HMECs emerge from senescence, exhibit eroding telomeric sequences and ultimately enter telomere-based crisis to generate the types of chromosomal abnormalities seen in the earliest lesions of breast cancer. Growth past senescent barriers may be a pivotal event in the earliest steps of carcinogenesis, providing many genetic changes that predicate oncogenic evolution. The differences between epithelial cells and fibroblasts provide new insights into the mechanistic basis of neoplastic transformation.

  18. Group A Streptococcus exploits human plasminogen for bacterial translocation across epithelial barrier via tricellular tight junctions

    PubMed Central

    Sumitomo, Tomoko; Nakata, Masanobu; Higashino, Miharu; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Kawabata, Shigetada

    2016-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a human-specific pathogen responsible for local suppurative and life-threatening invasive systemic diseases. Interaction of GAS with human plasminogen (PLG) is a salient characteristic for promoting their systemic dissemination. In the present study, a serotype M28 strain was found predominantly localized in tricellular tight junctions of epithelial cells cultured in the presence of PLG. Several lines of evidence indicated that interaction of PLG with tricellulin, a major component of tricellular tight junctions, is crucial for bacterial localization. A site-directed mutagenesis approach revealed that lysine residues at positions 217 and 252 within the extracellular loop of tricellulin play important roles in PLG-binding activity. Additionally, we demonstrated that PLG functions as a molecular bridge between tricellulin and streptococcal surface enolase (SEN). The wild type strain efficiently translocated across the epithelial monolayer, accompanied by cleavage of transmembrane junctional proteins. In contrast, amino acid substitutions in the PLG-binding motif of SEN markedly compromised those activities. Notably, the interaction of PLG with SEN was dependent on PLG species specificity, which influenced the efficiency of bacterial penetration. Our findings provide insight into the mechanism by which GAS exploits host PLG for acceleration of bacterial invasion into deeper tissues via tricellular tight junctions. PMID:26822058

  19. Cytogenetic characterization of HB2 epithelial cells from the human breast.

    PubMed

    Caradonna, Fabio; Luparello, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    HB2 is a cell line originated by subcloning of MTSV1-7 mammary luminal epithelial cells isolated from human milk and immortalization via introduction of the gene encoding simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen. Despite its wide utilization as non-neoplastic counterpart in assays aimed to elucidating various biochemical and genetical aspects of normal and tumoral breast cells, to our knowledge no literature data have so far appeared concerning the chromosomal characterization of the HB2 cells. Here, we report the cytogenetic characterization of the karyotype of HB2 cells, which puts in evidence the occurrence of changes in chromosomal number and structure and the presence of unidentified chromosomal markers in variable amount. Our results do not detract from the utility of HB2 cells in illustrating fundamental aspects of breast cell biology, but rather interject a note of caution into generalizing results obtained with this cell line to other non-immortalized epithelial cell populations from the human breast. Therefore, this work represents a useful resource for all who want to perform appropriate and focused future studies on this cell line and proposes precise indications for a knowledgeable use of HB2 cells. PMID:23982912

  20. Generation of retinal pigment epithelial cells from human embryonic stem cell-derived spherical neural masses.

    PubMed

    Cho, Myung Soo; Kim, Sang Jin; Ku, Seung-Yup; Park, Jung Hyun; Lee, Haksup; Yoo, Dae Hoon; Park, Un Chul; Song, Seul Ae; Choi, Young Min; Yu, Hyeong Gon

    2012-09-01

    Dysfunction and loss of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) are major pathologic changes observed in various retinal degenerative diseases such as aged-related macular degeneration. RPE generated from human pluripotent stem cells can be a good candidate for RPE replacement therapy. Here, we show the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) toward RPE with the generation of spherical neural masses (SNMs), which are pure masses of hESCs-derived neural precursors. During the early passaging of SNMs, cystic structures arising from opened neural tube-like structures showed pigmented epithelial morphology. These pigmented cells were differentiated into functional RPE by neuroectodermal induction and mechanical purification. Most of the differentiated cells showed typical RPE morphologies, such as a polygonal-shaped epithelial monolayer, and transmission electron microscopy revealed apical microvilli, pigment granules, and tight junctions. These cells also expressed molecular markers of RPE, including Mitf, ZO-1, RPE65, CRALBP, and bestrophin. The generated RPE also showed phagocytosis of isolated bovine photoreceptor outer segment and secreting pigment epithelium-derived factor and vascular endothelial growth factor. Functional RPE could be generated from SNM in our method. Because SNMs have several advantages, including the capability of expansion for long periods without loss of differentiation capability, easy storage and thawing, and no need for feeder cells, our method for RPE differentiation may be used as an efficient strategy for generating functional RPE cells for retinal regeneration therapy. PMID:22683799

  1. Frequency of micronucleus in oral epithelial cells after exposure to mate-tea in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Campagnoli, Eduardo B.; Milan, José R.; Reinheimer, Angélica; Masson, Maicon; Capella, Diogo L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of technique simplification for cytology slides in order to evaluate the frequency of micronuclei (FMic) and conduct a experiment looking to know the FMic of oral epithelial cells of healthy volunteers exposed to mate tea (Ilex paraguarariensis). Material and Methods: This is a laboratorial and nonrandomized trial (quasi-experiment), where the nonusers subjects were exposed to mate-tea, consumed in the traditional way, two drinks, two times a day for a single week. Two cytology of exfoliated epithelial cells were obtained before and after the mate tea exposition. Results: The sample was composed by 10 volunteers. The age ranged from 18 to 33 years (Mean 23; SD5.5). The use of mate tea did not showed significant variation in the FMic (Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test p= .24). Conclusions: The proposed technique simplification showed to be reliable, without losses when compared to the conventional technique and with the advantage of eliminate toxic substances, becoming simple and practical tool for research in dentistry. The acute exposure to mate tea did not induce an increase of FMic in exfoliated buccal cells of healthy nondrinkers and nonsmokers subjects and may not have genotoxic effect. More human studies are needed before a conclusion can be made on the oral carcinogenic risk of mate tea to humans. Key words:Micronucleus, Oral Cancer, Cytology, Mate tea, Ilex paraguariensis. PMID:24608213

  2. Chlorobenzene induces oxidative stress in human lung epithelial cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Feltens, Ralph; Moegel, Iljana; Roeder-Stolinski, Carmen; Simon, Jan-Christoph; Herberth, Gunda; Lehmann, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Chlorobenzene is a volatile organic compound (VOC) that is widely used as a solvent, degreasing agent and chemical intermediate in many industrial settings. Occupational studies have shown that acute and chronic exposure to chlorobenzene can cause irritation of the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract and eyes. Using in vitro assays, we have shown in a previous study that human bronchial epithelial cells release inflammatory mediators such as the cytokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in response to chlorobenzene. This response is mediated through the NF-kappaB signaling pathway. Here, we investigated the effects of monochlorobenzene on human lung cells, with emphasis on potential alterations of the redox equilibrium to clarify whether the chlorobenzene-induced inflammatory response in lung epithelial cells is caused via an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism. We found that expression of cellular markers for oxidative stress, such as heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), glutathione S-transferase pi1 (GSTP1), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) and dual specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1), were elevated in the presence of monochlorobenzene. Likewise, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were increased in response to exposure. However, in the presence of the antioxidants N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)-glycine (MPG) or bucillamine, chlorobenzene-induced upregulation of marker proteins and release of the inflammatory mediator MCP-1 are suppressed. These results complement our previous findings and point to an oxidative stress-mediated inflammatory response following chlorobenzene exposure.

  3. Quantitative changes in human epithelial cancers and osteogenesis imperfecta disease detected using nonlinear multicontrast microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adur, Javier; Pelegati, Vitor B.; de Thomaz, Andre A.; D'Souza-Li, Lilia; Assunção, Maria do Carmo; Bottcher-Luiz, Fátima; Andrade, Liliana A. L. A.; Cesar, Carlos L.

    2012-08-01

    We show that combined multimodal nonlinear optical (NLO) microscopies, including two-photon excitation fluorescence, second-harmonic generation (SHG), third harmonic generation, and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) can be used to detect morphological and metabolic changes associated with stroma and epithelial transformation during the progression of cancer and osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) disease. NLO microscopes provide complementary information about tissue microstructure, showing distinctive patterns for different types of human breast cancer, mucinous ovarian tumors, and skin dermis of patients with OI. Using a set of scoring methods (anisotropy, correlation, uniformity, entropy, and lifetime components), we found significant differences in the content, distribution and organization of collagen fibrils in the stroma of breast and ovary as well as in the dermis of skin. We suggest that our results provide a framework for using NLO techniques as a clinical diagnostic tool for human cancer and OI. We further suggest that the SHG and FLIM metrics described could be applied to other connective or epithelial tissue disorders that are characterized by abnormal cells proliferation and collagen assembly.

  4. Ghrelin ameliorates the human alveolar epithelial A549 cell apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chunrong; Zheng, Haichong; He, Wanmei; Lu, Guifang; Li, Xia; Deng, Yubin; Zeng, Mian

    2016-05-20

    Ghrelin is a gastric acyl-peptide that plays an inhibitory role in cell apoptosis. Herein we investigate the protective effects of ghrelin in LPS-induced apoptosis of human alveolar epithelial A549 cells, along with the possible molecular mechanisms. LPS exposure impaired cell viability and increased apoptosis of A549 cells significantly in concentration- and time-dependent manners embodied in increased Bax and cleaved caspase-3 production, coupled with decreased Bcl-2 levels. Simultaneously, LPS remarkably decreased the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinas (ERK) in A549 cells. However, ghrelin'pretreatment ameliorated LPS-caused alterations in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 expression, whereas activated the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling. These results demonstrate that ghrelin lightens LPS-induced apoptosis of human alveolar epithelial cells partly through activating the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathway and thereby might benefit alleviating septic ALI. PMID:27103436

  5. Bifidobacteria Prevent Tunicamycin-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Subsequent Barrier Disruption in Human Intestinal Epithelial Caco-2 Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Takuya; Oishi, Kenji; Wullaert, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is caused by accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the ER, thereby compromising its vital cellular functions in protein production and secretion. Genome wide association studies in humans as well as experimental animal models linked ER stress in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) with intestinal disorders including inflammatory bowel diseases. However, the mechanisms linking the outcomes of ER stress in IECs to intestinal disease have not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the impact of ER stress on intestinal epithelial barrier function using human colon carcinoma-derived Caco-2 monolayers. Tunicamycin-induced ER stress decreased the trans-epithelial electrical resistance of Caco-2 monolayers, concomitant with loss of cellular plasma membrane integrity. Epithelial barrier disruption in Caco-2 cells after ER stress was not caused by caspase- or RIPK1-dependent cell death but was accompanied by lysosomal rupture and up-regulation of the ER stress markers Grp78, sXBP1 and Chop. Interestingly, several bifidobacteria species inhibited tunicamycin-induced ER stress and thereby diminished barrier disruption in Caco-2 monolayers. Together, these results showed that ER stress compromises the epithelial barrier function of Caco-2 monolayers and demonstrate beneficial impacts of bifidobacteria on ER stress in IECs. Our results identify epithelial barrier loss as a potential link between ER stress and intestinal disease development, and suggest that bifidobacteria could exert beneficial effects on this phenomenon. PMID:27611782

  6. Derivation of Epithelial Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells as an In Vitro Model of Vocal Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Lungova, Vlasta; Leydon, Ciara; Thibeault, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Vocal fold epithelial cells are very difficult to study as the vocal fold epithelial cell lines do not exist and they cannot be removed from the healthy larynx without engendering a significant and unacceptable risk to vocal fold function. Here, we describe the procedure to create an engineered vocal fold tissue construct consisting of the scaffold composed of the collagen 1 gel seeded with human fibroblasts and simple epithelial progenitors seeded on the scaffold and cultivated at air-liquid interface for 19-21 days to derive the stratified squamous epithelium. This model of vocal fold mucosa is very similar in morphology, gene expression, and phenotypic characteristics to native vocal fold epithelial cells and the underlying lamina propria and, therefore, offers a promising approach to studying vocal fold biology and biomechanics in health and disease. PMID:25403465

  7. Normal Human Lung Epithelial Cells Inhibit Transforming Growth Factor-β Induced Myofibroblast Differentiation via Prostaglandin E2

    PubMed Central

    Epa, Amali P.; Thatcher, Thomas H.; Pollock, Stephen J.; Wahl, Lindsay A.; Lyda, Elizabeth; Kottmann, R. M.; Phipps, Richard P.; Sime, Patricia J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive disease with very few effective treatments. The key effector cells in fibrosis are believed to be fibroblasts, which differentiate to a contractile myofibroblast phenotype with enhanced capacity to proliferate and produce extracellular matrix. The role of the lung epithelium in fibrosis is unclear. While there is evidence that the epithelium is disrupted in IPF, it is not known whether this is a cause or a result of the fibroblast pathology. We hypothesized that healthy epithelial cells are required to maintain normal lung homeostasis and can inhibit the activation and differentiation of lung fibroblasts to the myofibroblast phenotype. To investigate this hypothesis, we employed a novel co-culture model with primary human lung epithelial cells and fibroblasts to investigate whether epithelial cells inhibit myofibroblast differentiation. Measurements and Main Results In the presence of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, fibroblasts co-cultured with epithelial cells expressed significantly less α-smooth muscle actin and collagen and showed marked reduction in cell migration, collagen gel contraction, and cell proliferation compared to fibroblasts grown without epithelial cells. Epithelial cells from non-matching tissue origins were capable of inhibiting TGF-β induced myofibroblast differentiation in lung, keloid and Graves’ orbital fibroblasts. TGF-β promoted production of prostaglandin (PG) E2 in lung epithelial cells, and a PGE2 neutralizing antibody blocked the protective effect of epithelial cell co-culture. Conclusions We provide the first direct experimental evidence that lung epithelial cells inhibit TGF-β induced myofibroblast differentiation and pro-fibrotic phenotypes in fibroblasts. This effect is not restricted by tissue origin, and is mediated, at least in part, by PGE2. Our data support the hypothesis that the epithelium plays a crucial role in maintaining lung homeostasis

  8. Leptin enhances ICAM-1 expression, induces migration and cytokine synthesis, and prolongs survival of human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Suzukawa, Maho; Koketsu, Rikiya; Baba, Shintaro; Igarashi, Sayaka; Nagase, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Masao; Matsutani, Noriyuki; Kawamura, Masafumi; Shoji, Shunsuke; Hebisawa, Akira; Ohta, Ken

    2015-10-15

    There is rising interest in how obesity affects respiratory diseases, since epidemiological findings indicate a strong relationship between the two conditions. Leptin is a potent adipokine produced mainly by adipocytes. It regulates energy storage and expenditure and also induces inflammation. Previous studies have shown that leptin is able to activate inflammatory cells such as lymphocytes and granulocytes, but little is known about its effect on lung structural cells. The present study investigated the effects of leptin on human airway epithelial cells by using human primary airway epithelial cells and a human airway epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B. Flow cytometry showed enhanced ICAM-1 expression by both of those cells in response to leptin, and that effect was abrogated by dexamethasone or NF-κB inhibitor. Flow cytometry and quantitative PCR showed that airway epithelial cells expressed leptin receptor (Ob-R), whose expression level was downregulated by leptin itself. Multiplex cytokine analysis demonstrated enhanced production of CCL11, G-CSF, VEGF, and IL-6 by BEAS-2B cells stimulated with leptin. Furthermore, transfection of Ob-R small interference RNA decreased the effect of leptin on CCL11 production as assessed by quantitative PCR. Finally, leptin induced migration of primary airway epithelial cells toward leptin, suppressed BEAS-2B apoptosis induced with TNF-α and IFN-γ, and enhanced proliferation of primary airway epithelial cells. In summary, leptin was able to directly activate human airway epithelial cells by binding to Ob-R and by NF-κB activation, resulting in upregulation of ICAM-1 expression, induction of CCL11, VEGF, G-CSF, and IL-6 synthesis, induction of migration, inhibition of apoptosis, and enhancement of proliferation. PMID:26276826

  9. In vivo gene expression profiling of human intestinal epithelial cells: analysis by laser microdissection of formalin fixed tissues

    PubMed Central

    George, Michael D; Wehkamp, Jan; Kays, Robert J; Leutenegger, Christian M; Sabir, Sadiah; Grishina, Irina; Dandekar, Satya; Bevins, Charles L

    2008-01-01

    Background The small intestinal epithelium mediates vital functions of nutrient absorption and host defense. The spatial organization of the epithelial cells along the crypt-villus axis segregates them into regions of specialized function. However, the differences in transcriptional programming and the molecular machinery that governs the migration, adhesion, and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cell lineages in humans remain under-explored. To increase our understanding of these mechanisms, we have evaluated gene expression patterns of ileal epithelial cells isolated by laser capture microdissection from either the villus epithelial or crypt cell regions of healthy human small intestinal mucosa. Expression profiles in villus and crypt epithelium were determined by DNA microarray, quantitative real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry based methods. The expression levels of selected epithelial biomarkers were also compared between gastrointestinal tissues. Results Previously established biomarkers as well as a novel and distinct set of genes believed to be linked to epithelial cell motility, adhesion, and differentiation were found to be enriched in each of the two corresponding cell populations (GEO accession: GSE10629). Additionally, high baseline expression levels of innate antimicrobials, alpha defensin 5 (HD5) and regenerating islet-derived 3 alpha (Reg3A), were detected exclusively within the small bowel crypt, most notably in the ileum in comparison to other sites along the gastrointestinal tract. Conclusion The elucidation of differential gene expression patterns between crypt and villus epithelial cell lineages in human ileal tissue provides novel insights into the molecular machinery that mediates their functions and spatial organization. Moreover, our findings establish an important framework of knowledge for future investigations of human gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:18457593

  10. Theophylline prevents NAD{sup +} depletion via PARP-1 inhibition in human pulmonary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Moonen, Harald J.J. . E-mail: h.moonen@grat.unimaas.nl; Geraets, Liesbeth; Vaarhorst, Anika; Bast, Aalt; Wouters, Emiel F.M.; Hageman, Geja J.

    2005-12-30

    Oxidative DNA damage, as occurs during exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), highly activates the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1). This can lead to cellular depletion of its substrate NAD{sup +}, resulting in an energy crisis and ultimately in cell death. Inhibition of PARP-1 results in preservation of the intracellular NAD{sup +} pool, and of NAD{sup +}-dependent cellular processes. In this study, PARP-1 activation by hydrogen peroxide decreased intracellular NAD{sup +} levels in human pulmonary epithelial cells, which was found to be prevented in a dose-dependent manner by theophylline, a widely used compound in the treatment of COPD. This enzyme inhibition by theophylline was confirmed in an ELISA using purified human PARP-1 and was found to be competitive by nature. These findings provide new mechanistic insights into the therapeutic effect of theophylline in oxidative stress-induced lung pathologies.

  11. Cdx2 modulates proliferation in normal human intestinal epithelial crypt cells

    SciTech Connect

    Escaffit, Fabrice; Pare, Frederic; Gauthier, Remy; Rivard, Nathalie; Boudreau, Francois; Beaulieu, Jean-Francois . E-mail: Jean-Francois.Beaulieu@USherbrooke.ca

    2006-03-31

    The homeobox gene Cdx2 is involved in the regulation of the expression of intestine specific markers such as sucrase-isomaltase and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. Previous studies performed with immortalized or transformed intestinal cell lines have provided evidence that Cdx2 can promote morphological and functional differentiation in these experimental models. However, no data exist concerning the implication of this factor in normal human intestinal cell physiology. In the present work, we have investigated the role of Cdx2 in normal human intestinal epithelial crypt (HIEC) cells that lack this transcription factor. The establishment of HIEC cells expressing Cdx2 in an inducible manner shows that forced expression of Cdx2 significantly alters the proliferation of intestinal crypt cells and stimulates dipeptidylpeptidase IV expression but is not sufficient to trigger intestinal terminal differentiation. These observations suggest that Cdx2 requires additional factors to activate the enterocyte differentiation program in normal undifferentiated cells.

  12. Lacritin Salvages Human Corneal Epithelial Cells from Lipopolysaccharide Induced Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Vantaku, Venkat Rao; Gupta, Geetika; Rapalli, Krishna Chaitanya; Karnati, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Innate immunity of the corneal epithelium is conferred by proteinaceous secretions from the epithelium and associated lacrimal and meibomian glands. Lacritin, an eye-specific protein with anti-microbial, cytoprotective and wound-healing properties, predominantly secreted by lacrimal glands, is absent in conditions such as Dry eye and Keratitis. In view of the biological significance of lacritin in human eye, we investigated its role in human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced infection. LPS-challenged HCE cells demonstrated apoptosis-mediated cell death and elevated lacritin levels. The LPS-induced cell death is alleviated with exogenous supplementation of recombinant lacritin. This cytoprotective effect of lacritin is mediated through Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). This study is the first to highlight the protective role of lacritin and mechanism of its action during bacterial infection of cornea in vitro. PMID:26670139

  13. Lacritin Salvages Human Corneal Epithelial Cells from Lipopolysaccharide Induced Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Vantaku, Venkat Rao; Gupta, Geetika; Rapalli, Krishna Chaitanya; Karnati, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Innate immunity of the corneal epithelium is conferred by proteinaceous secretions from the epithelium and associated lacrimal and meibomian glands. Lacritin, an eye-specific protein with anti-microbial, cytoprotective and wound-healing properties, predominantly secreted by lacrimal glands, is absent in conditions such as Dry eye and Keratitis. In view of the biological significance of lacritin in human eye, we investigated its role in human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced infection. LPS-challenged HCE cells demonstrated apoptosis-mediated cell death and elevated lacritin levels. The LPS-induced cell death is alleviated with exogenous supplementation of recombinant lacritin. This cytoprotective effect of lacritin is mediated through Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). This study is the first to highlight the protective role of lacritin and mechanism of its action during bacterial infection of cornea in vitro. PMID:26670139

  14. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition events during human embryonic stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Eastham, Angela M; Spencer, Helen; Soncin, Francesca; Ritson, Sarah; Merry, Catherine L R; Stern, Peter L; Ward, Christopher M

    2007-12-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurs during embryonic development and may also be associated with the metastatic spread of epithelial tumors. During EMT, E-cadherin is down-regulated and this correlates with increased motility and invasion of cells. We show that differentiation of human embryonic stem (ES) cells in monolayer culture is associated with an E- to N-cadherin switch, increased vimentin expression, up-regulation of E-cadherin repressor molecules (Snail and Slug proteins), and increased gelatinase (matrix metalloproteinases; MMP-2 and MMP-9) activity and cellular motility, all characteristic EMT events. The 5T4 oncofetal antigen, previously shown to be associated with early human ES cell differentiation, is also part of this process. Abrogation of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contact in undifferentiated ES cells using neutralizing antibody (nAb) SHE78.7 resulted in increased cellular motility, altered actin cytoskeleton arrangement and a mesenchymal phenotype together with presentation of the 5T4 antigen at the cell surface. nAb-treated ES cells remained in an undifferentiated state, as assessed by OCT-4 protein expression, and did not express EMT-associated transcripts. Removal of nAb from ES cells resulted in the restoration of cell-cell contact, absence of cell surface 5T4, decreased mesenchymal cellular morphology and motility, and enabled the differentiation of the cells to the three germ layers upon their removal from the fibroblast feeder layer. We conclude that E-cadherin functions in human ES cells to stabilize the cortical actin cyoskeletal arrangement and this prevents cell surface localization of the 5T4 antigen. Furthermore, human ES cells represent a useful model system with which to study EMT events relevant to embryonic development and tumor cell metastasis. PMID:18056451

  15. N-acetylcysteine inhibits Na+ absorption across human nasal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rochat, Thierry; Lacroix, Jean-Silvain; Jornot, Lan

    2004-10-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a widely used mucolytic drug in patients with a variety of respiratory disorders. The mechanism of action is based on rupture of the disulfide bridges of the high molecular glycoproteins present in the mucus, resulting in smaller subunits of the glycoproteins and reduced viscosity of the mucus. Because Na(+) absorption regulates airway surface liquid volume and thus the efficiency of mucociliary clearance, we asked whether NAC affects the bioelectric properties of human nasal epithelial cells. A 24-h basolateral treatment with 10 mM of NAC decreased the transepithelial potential difference and short-circuit current (I(SC)) by 40%, and reduced the amiloride-sensitive current by 50%, without affecting the transepithelial resistance. After permeabilization of the basolateral membranes of cells with amphotericin B in the presence of a mucosal-to-serosal Na(+) gradient (135:25 mM), NAC inhibited 45% of the amiloride-sensitive current. The Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pump activity and the basolateral K(+) conductance were not affected by NAC treatment. NAC did not alter total cell mRNA and protein levels of alpha-epithelial Na(+) channel (EnaC) subunit, but reduced abundance of alpha-ENaC subunits in the apical cell membrane as quantified by biotinylation. This effect can be ascribed to the sulphydryl (SH) group of NAC, since N-acetylserine and S-carboxymethyl-l-cysteine were ineffective. Given the importance of epithelial Na(+) channels in controlling the thin layer of fluid that covers the surface of the airways, the increase in the fluidity of the airway mucus following NAC treatment in vivo might be in part related to downregulation of Na(+) absorption and consequently water transport. PMID:15281093

  16. Modulation of endocytic trafficking and apical stability of CFTR in primary human airway epithelial cultures.

    PubMed

    Cholon, Deborah M; O'Neal, Wanda K; Randell, Scott H; Riordan, John R; Gentzsch, Martina

    2010-03-01

    CFTR is a highly regulated apical chloride channel of epithelial cells that is mutated in cystic fibrosis (CF). In this study, we characterized the apical stability and intracellular trafficking of wild-type and mutant CFTR in its native environment, i.e., highly differentiated primary human airway epithelial (HAE) cultures. We labeled the apical pool of CFTR and subsequently visualized the protein in intracellular compartments. CFTR moved from the apical surface to endosomes and then efficiently recycled back to the surface. CFTR endocytosis occurred more slowly in polarized than in nonpolarized HAE cells or in a polarized epithelial cell line. The most common mutation in CF, DeltaF508 CFTR, was rescued from endoplasmic reticulum retention by low-temperature incubation but transited from the apical membrane to endocytic compartments more rapidly and recycled less efficiently than wild-type CFTR. Incubation with small-molecule correctors resulted in DeltaF508 CFTR at the apical membrane but did not restore apical stability. To stabilize the mutant protein at the apical membrane, we found that the dynamin inhibitor Dynasore and the cholesterol-extracting agent cyclodextrin dramatically reduced internalization of DeltaF508, whereas the proteasomal inhibitor MG-132 completely blocked endocytosis of DeltaF508. On examination of intrinsic properties of CFTR that may affect its apical stability, we found that N-linked oligosaccharides were not necessary for transport to the apical membrane but were required for efficient apical recycling and, therefore, influenced the turnover of surface CFTR. Thus apical stability of CFTR in its native environment is affected by properties of the protein and modulation of endocytic trafficking. PMID:20008117

  17. Modulation of endocytic trafficking and apical stability of CFTR in primary human airway epithelial cultures

    PubMed Central

    Cholon, Deborah M.; O'Neal, Wanda K.; Randell, Scott H.; Riordan, John R.

    2010-01-01

    CFTR is a highly regulated apical chloride channel of epithelial cells that is mutated in cystic fibrosis (CF). In this study, we characterized the apical stability and intracellular trafficking of wild-type and mutant CFTR in its native environment, i.e., highly differentiated primary human airway epithelial (HAE) cultures. We labeled the apical pool of CFTR and subsequently visualized the protein in intracellular compartments. CFTR moved from the apical surface to endosomes and then efficiently recycled back to the surface. CFTR endocytosis occurred more slowly in polarized than in nonpolarized HAE cells or in a polarized epithelial cell line. The most common mutation in CF, ΔF508 CFTR, was rescued from endoplasmic reticulum retention by low-temperature incubation but transited from the apical membrane to endocytic compartments more rapidly and recycled less efficiently than wild-type CFTR. Incubation with small-molecule correctors resulted in ΔF508 CFTR at the apical membrane but did not restore apical stability. To stabilize the mutant protein at the apical membrane, we found that the dynamin inhibitor Dynasore and the cholesterol-extracting agent cyclodextrin dramatically reduced internalization of ΔF508, whereas the proteasomal inhibitor MG-132 completely blocked endocytosis of ΔF508. On examination of intrinsic properties of CFTR that may affect its apical stability, we found that N-linked oligosaccharides were not necessary for transport to the apical membrane but were required for efficient apical recycling and, therefore, influenced the turnover of surface CFTR. Thus apical stability of CFTR in its native environment is affected by properties of the protein and modulation of endocytic trafficking. PMID:20008117

  18. Activation of Egr-1 in Human Lung Epithelial Cells Exposed to Silica through MAPKs Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Ling; Wang, Tiansheng; Hu, Yongbin; Gu, Yonghong; Su, Zanshan; Jiang, Haiying

    2013-01-01

    The alveolar type II epithelial cell, regarded historically as a key target cell in initial injury by silica, now appears to be important in both defense from lung damage as well as elaboration of chemokines and cytokines. The molecular basis for silica-induced epithelial cell injury is poorly understood. In this study we explored the activation of nuclear factor Egr-1 and related signal pathway. Human II alveolar epithelial line A549 cells were exposed to silica for indicated time to assay the expression and activation of Egr-1 and upstream MAPKs. Immunofluorescence, western-blot techniques, RT-PCR, Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), transient transfection assay, kinase inhibitor experiments were performed. It was found that the expression of Egr-1 at mRNA and protein level was significantly increased in A549 cells after administration with silica and the activity of Egr-1 peaked by silica treatment for 60 minutes. Furthermore, phosphorylated-ERK1/2, P38 MAPKs (the upstream kinase of Egr-1) ballooned during 15-30minutes, 30-60minutes respectively after silica exposure in A549 cells. By administration of ERK1/2, P38 inhibitor, the expression and transcription of Egr-1 were both markedly decreased. But PKC inhibitor did not prevent the increase of Egr-1. These results indicated Egr-1 played a critical role in silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis in an ERK1/2, P38 MAPKs-dependent manner, which suggests Egr-1 is an essential regulator in silicosis, and underlines a new molecular mechanism for fibrosis induced by silica. PMID:23874821

  19. IL-17A induces Pendrin expression and chloride-bicarbonate exchange in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Adams, Kelly M; Abraham, Valsamma; Spielman, Daniel; Kolls, Jay K; Rubenstein, Ronald C; Conner, Gregory E; Cohen, Noam A; Kreindler, James L

    2014-01-01

    The epithelium plays an active role in the response to inhaled pathogens in part by responding to signals from the immune system. Epithelial responses may include changes in chemokine expression, increased mucin production and antimicrobial peptide secretion, and changes in ion transport. We previously demonstrated that interleukin-17A (IL-17A), which is critical for lung host defense against extracellular bacteria, significantly raised airway surface pH in vitro, a finding that is common to a number of inflammatory diseases. Using microarray analysis of normal human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells treated with IL-17A, we identified the electroneutral chloride-bicarbonate exchanger Pendrin (SLC26A4) as a potential mediator of this effect. These data were verified by real-time, quantitative PCR that demonstrated a time-dependent increase in Pendrin mRNA expression in HBE cells treated with IL-17A up to 48 h. Using immunoblotting and immunofluorescence, we confirmed that Pendrin protein expression is increased in IL-17 treated HBE cells and that it is primarily localized to the mucosal surface of the cells. Functional studies using live-cell fluorescence to measure intracellular pH demonstrated that IL-17A induced chloride-bicarbonate exchange in HBE cells that was not present in the absence of IL-17A. Furthermore, HBE cells treated with short interfering RNA against Pendrin showed substantially reduced chloride-bicarbonate exchange. These data suggest that Pendrin is part of IL-17A-dependent epithelial changes and that Pendrin may therefore be a therapeutic target in IL-17A-dependent lung disease. PMID:25141009

  20. Flotillin-1 protein is upregulated in human endometrial cancer and localization shifts from epithelial to stromal with increasing tumor grade.

    PubMed

    Winship, Amy Louise; Rainczuk, Kate; Dimitriadis, Evdokia

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common invasive gynecological malignancy. Flotillin-1 is an integral membrane protein and estrogen responsive gene. Flotillin-1 expression and localization in human endometrial cancers grades 1-3 was investigated using real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Flotillin-1 mRNA levels were unchanged in endometrial cancer versus benign endometrium. Flotillin-1 protein was significantly reduced in the epithelial compartment with increasing tumor grade, although levels increased in the tumor stroma across grades. We have identified a novel factor in human endometrial cancer and observed a shift in epithelial to stromal localization with increasing tumor grade in women. PMID:26682635

  1. Human adenovirus type 8 epidemic keratoconjunctivitis with large corneal epithelial full-layer detachment: an endemic outbreak with uncommon manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yueh-Chang; Chen, Nancy; Huang, I-Tsong; Yang, Hui-Hua; Huang, Chin-Te; Chen, Li-Kuang; Sheu, Min-Muh

    2015-01-01

    Epidemic viral conjunctivitis is a highly contagious disease that is encountered year-round. The causative agents are mainly adenoviruses and enteroviruses. It occurs most commonly upon infection with subgroup D adenoviruses of types 8, 19, or 37. For common corneal involvement of human adenovirus type 8 epidemic keratoconjunctivitis, full-layer epithelial detachment is rarely seen. Herein, we report three cases of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis during an outbreak which manifested as large corneal epithelial full-layer detachment within a few days. The lesions healed without severe sequelae under proper treatment. The unique manifestation of this outbreak may indicate the evolution of human adenovirus type 8. PMID:26060391

  2. HOXA13 exerts a beneficial effect in albumin-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition via the glucocorticoid receptor signaling pathway in human renal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Li; He, Qingnan; Li, Xiaoyan; Shuai, Lanjun; Chen, Haixia; Li, Yongzhen; Yi, Zhuwen

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have suggested that albumin-induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury contributes to renal interstitial fibrosis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is known to be a key mechanism in the pathogenesis and progression of renal interstitial fibrosis. Homeobox protein HOX‑A13 (HOXA13) is a nuclear transcriptional factor that has been reported to be involved in renal fibrosis. However, the mechanism underlying the effect of HOXA13 in human serum albumin (HSA)‑induced EMT in HKC renal tubular epithelial cells remains to be elucidated. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the role of HOXA13 in HSA‑induced EMT in HKC cells and the potential mechanism of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling pathway. The protein and mRNA expression levels of HOXA13, cytokeratin, and vimentin were determined by western blot analysis and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction in HKC cells, which were co‑incubated with HSA at different concentrations or for different time periods. The results demonstrated that HOXA13 mRNA and protein expression decreased in a dose‑ and time‑dependent manner when induced by HSA in HCK cells. The liposomal transfection experiment suggested that overexpression of HOXA13 activated the GR signal, which inhibits HSA-induced EMT. HOXA13 is involved in HSA‑induced EMT in HKC cells and upregulation of HOXA13 exerts a beneficial effect in EMT, which may be associated with the GR signaling pathway. PMID:27176855

  3. A distinct array of proinflammatory cytokines is expressed in human colon epithelial cells in response to bacterial invasion.

    PubMed Central

    Jung, H C; Eckmann, L; Yang, S K; Panja, A; Fierer, J; Morzycka-Wroblewska, E; Kagnoff, M F

    1995-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria that penetrate the intestinal epithelial barrier stimulate an inflammatory response in the adjacent intestinal mucosa. The present studies asked whether colon epithelial cells can provide signals that are important for the initiation and amplification of an acute mucosal inflammatory response. Infection of monolayers of human colon epithelial cell lines (T84, HT29, Caco-2) with invasive strains of bacteria (Salmonella dublin, Shigella dysenteriae, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, enteroinvasive Escherichia coli) resulted in the coordinate expression and upregulation of a specific array of four proinflammatory cytokines, IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, GM-CSF, and TNF alpha, as assessed by mRNA levels and cytokine secretion. Expression of the same cytokines was upregulated after TNF alpha or IL-1 stimulation of these cells. In contrast, cytokine gene expression was not altered after infection of colon epithelial cells with noninvasive bacteria or the noninvasive protozoan parasite, G. lamblia. Notably, none of the cell lines expressed mRNA for IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12p40, IFN-gamma, or significant levels of IL-1 or IL-10 in response to the identical stimuli. The coordinate expression of IL-8, MCP-1, GM-CSF and TNF alpha appears to be a general property of human colon epithelial cells since an identical array of cytokines, as well as IL-6, also was expressed by freshly isolated human colon epithelial cells. Since the cytokines expressed in response to bacterial invasion or other proinflammatory agonists have a well documented role in chemotaxis and activation of inflammatory cells, colon epithelial cells appear to be programmed to provide a set of signals for the activation of the mucosal inflammatory response in the earliest phases after microbial invasion. Images PMID:7814646

  4. Interleukin-13–induced MUC5AC Is Regulated by 15-Lipoxygenase 1 Pathway in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinming; Maskrey, Ben; Balzar, Silvana; Chibana, Kazuyuki; Mustovich, Anthony; Hu, Haizhen; Trudeau, John B.; O'Donnell, Valerie; Wenzel, Sally E.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: 15-Lipoxygenase-1 (15LO1) and MUC5AC are highly expressed in asthmatic epithelial cells. IL-13 is known to induce 15LO1 and MUC5AC in human airway epithelial cells in vitro. Whether 15LO1 and/or its product 15-HETE modulate MUC5AC expression is unknown. Objectives: To determine the expression of 15LO1 in freshly harvested epithelial cells from subjects with asthma and normal control subjects and to determine whether IL-13–induced 15LO1 expression and activation regulate MUC5AC expression in human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. Methods: Human airway epithelial cells from subjects with asthma and normal subjects were evaluated ex vivo for 15LO1 and MUC5AC expression. The impact of 15LO1 on MUC5AC expression in vitro was analyzed by inhibiting 15LO1 through pharmacologic (PD146176) and siRNA approaches in human bronchial epithelial cells cultured under air–liquid interface. We analyzed 15 hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) by liquid chromatography/UV/mass spectrometry. MUC5AC and 15LO1 were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR, immunofluoresence, and Western blot. Measurements and Main Results: Epithelial 15LO1 expression increased with asthma severity (P < 0.0001). 15LO1 significantly correlated with MUC5AC ex vivo and in vitro. IL-13 increased 15LO1 expression and stimulated formation of two molecular species of 15-HETE esterified to phosphotidylethanolamine (15-HETE-PE). Inhibition of 15LO1 suppressed 15-HETE-PE and decreased MUC5AC expression in the presence of IL-13 stimulation. The addition of exogenous 15-HETE partially restored MUC5AC expression. Conclusions: Epithelial 15LO1 expression increases with increasing asthma severity. IL-13 induction of 15-HETE-PE enhances MUC5AC expression in human airway epithelial cells. High levels of 15LO1 activity could contribute to the increases of MUC5AC observed in asthma. PMID:19218191

  5. Modulation of Candida albicans attachment to human epithelial cells by bacteria and carbohydrates.

    PubMed Central

    Centeno, A; Davis, C P; Cohen, M S; Warren, M M

    1983-01-01

    The effects of carbohydrates (mannose and dextrose). Escherichia coli 07KL. and Klebsiella pneumoniae on Candida albicans attachment to epithelial cells was studied. Dextrose had no effect on yeast attachment to epithelial cells. Conversely, mannose significantly decreased both yeast and piliated bacterial attachment (E. coli 07KL, heavily piliated K. pneumoniae) whereas having no effect on nonpiliated K. pneumoniae attachment to epithelial cells. The number of yeasts attaching to epithelial cells was enhanced by preincubation of epithelial cells with piliated strains of bacteria, whereas preincubation with nonpiliated strains of bacteria had no effect on yeast attachment. Scanning electron microscopy showed that piliated bacteria and yeasts were juxtaposed on the epithelial cell surface. These data suggest that certain piliated strains of bacteria can enhance C. albicans attachment to epithelial cells and that type 1 pili of bacteria can be a factor in the enhanced attachment of C. albicans to epithelial cells. Images PMID:6132878

  6. Genes involved in TGFβ1-driven epithelial-mesenchymal transition of renal epithelial cells are topologically related in the human interactome map

    PubMed Central

    Campanaro, Stefano; Picelli, Simone; Torregrossa, Rossella; Colluto, Laura; Ceol, Monica; Del Prete, Dorella; D'Angelo, Angela; Valle, Giorgio; Anglani, Franca

    2007-01-01

    Background Understanding how mesenchymal cells arise from epithelial cells could have a strong impact in unveiling mechanisms of epithelial cell plasticity underlying kidney regeneration and repair. In primary human tubular epithelial cells (HUTEC) under different TGFβ1 concentrations we had observed epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) but not epithelial-myofibroblast transdifferentiation. We hypothesized that the process triggered by TGFβ1 could be a dedifferentiation event. The purpose of this study is to comprehensively delineate genetic programs associated with TGFβ1-driven EMT in our in vitro model using gene expression profile on large-scale oligonucleotide microarrays. Results In HUTEC under TGFβ1 stimulus, 977 genes were found differentially expressed. Thirty genes were identified whose expression depended directly on TGFβ1 concentration. By mapping the differentially expressed genes in the Human Interactome Map using Cytoscape software, we identified a single scale-free network consisting of 2630 interacting proteins and containing 449 differentially expressed proteins. We identified 27 hub proteins in the interactome with more than 29 edges incident on them and encoded by differentially expressed genes. The Gene Ontology analysis showed an excess of up-regulated proteins involved in biological processes, such as "morphogenesis", "cell fate determination" and "regulation of development", and the most up-regulated genes belonged to these categories. In addition, 267 genes were mapped to the KEGG pathways and 14 pathways with more than nine differentially expressed genes were identified. In our model, Smad signaling was not the TGFβ1 action effector; instead, the engagement of RAS/MAPK signaling pathway seems mainly to regulate genes involved in the cell cycle and proliferation/apoptosis. Conclusion Our present findings support the hypothesis that context-dependent EMT generated in our model by TGFβ1 might be the outcome of a dedifferentiation

  7. Recurrent exposure to nicotine differentiates human bronchial epithelial cells via epidermal growth factor receptor activation

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Garcia, Eva; Irigoyen, Marta; Anso, Elena; Martinez-Irujo, Juan Jose; Rouzaut, Ana

    2008-05-01

    Cigarette smoking is the major preventable cause of lung cancer in developed countries. Nicotine (3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-pyridine) is one of the major alkaloids present in tobacco. Besides its addictive properties, its effects have been described in panoply of cell types. In fact, recent studies have shown that nicotine behaves as a tumor promoter in transformed epithelial cells. This research focuses on the effects of acute repetitive nicotine exposure on normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE cells). Here we show that treatment of NHBE cells with recurrent doses of nicotine up to 500 {mu}M triggered cell differentiation towards a neuronal-like phenotype: cells emitted filopodia and expressed neuronal markers such as neuronal cell adhesion molecule, neurofilament-M and the transcription factors neuronal N and Pax-3. We also demonstrate that nicotine treatment induced NF-kB translocation to the nucleus, phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and accumulation of heparin binding-EGF in the extracellular medium. Moreover, addition of AG1478, an inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation, or cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that precludes ligand binding to the same receptor, prevented cell differentiation by nicotine. Lastly, we show that differentiated cells increased their adhesion to the extracellular matrix and their protease activity. Given that several lung pathologies are strongly related to tobacco consumption, these results may help to better understand the damaging consequences of nicotine exposure.

  8. Temporal proteomic profiling of Chlamydia trachomatis-infected HeLa-229 human cervical epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Grace Min Yi; Lim, Hui Jing; Yeow, Tee Cian; Movahed, Elaheh; Looi, Chung Yeng; Gupta, Rishein; Arulanandam, Bernard P; Abu Bakar, Sazaly; Sabet, Negar Shafiei; Chang, Li-Yen; Wong, Won Fen

    2016-05-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading causative agent of bacterial sexually transmitted infections worldwide which can lead to female pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. A greater understanding of host response during chlamydial infection is essential to design intervention technique to reduce the increasing incidence rate of genital chlamydial infection. In this study, we investigated proteome changes in epithelial cells during C. trachomatis infection by using an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling technique coupled with a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS(3) ) analysis. C. trachomatis (serovar D, MOI 1)-infected HeLa-229 human cervical carcinoma epithelial cells (at 2, 4 and 8 h) showed profound modifications of proteome profile which involved 606 host proteins. MGST1, SUGP2 and ATXN10 were among the top in the list of the differentially upregulated protein. Through pathway analysis, we suggested the involvement of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in host cells upon C. trachomatis infection. Network analysis underscored the participation of DNA repair mechanism during C. trachomatis infection. In summary, intense modifications of proteome profile in C. trachomatis-infected HeLa-229 cells indicate complex host-pathogen interactions at early phase of chlamydial infection. PMID:27134121

  9. Interleukin-8 stimulates the migration of human colonic epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A J; Byron, K; Gibson, P R

    1999-09-01

    The migration of colonic epithelial cells (restitution) is an important event in the repair of mucosal injuries. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a physiological initiator of the chemotactic migration of leucocytes. This study aimed to determine whether IL-8 had a similar effect on migration in an in vitro model of wounded colonic epithelium. Cell migration over 24 h was assessed in circular wounds made in confluent monolayers of the human colon cancer cell line LIM1215. This migration was stimulated in a concentration-dependent manner by IL-8, with maximal effects of approx. 1.75-fold above basal migration. The motogenic effect of IL-8 was mediated independently of effects on cell proliferation. In contrast, it was partially dependent upon gene transcription and protein synthesis and involved the activation of pertussis-toxin-sensitive G-proteins. The short-chain fatty acids, acetate, propionate, butyrate and valerate, the activator of protein kinase C (phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) all stimulated the secretion of IL-8. However, only the motogenic effect of TNF-alpha was dependent upon IL-8. In conclusion, IL-8 stimulated cell migration in an in vitro model of colonic epithelium, whereas the motogenic effect of at least one physiologically relevant factor was dependent upon an increase in its endogenous levels. If IL-8 stimulates colonic epithelial restitution in vivo, this would have ramifications for the control of repair processes following wounding of the colonic mucosa. PMID:10464065

  10. Using Organotypic Epithelial Tissue Culture to Study the Human Papillomavirus Life Cycle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Denis; Norby, Kathryn; Hayes, Mitchell; Chiu, Ya-Fang; Sugden, Bill; Lambert, Paul F

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are small double-stranded DNA viruses that are associated with greater than 95% of cervical cancers and 20% of head and neck cancers. These cancers arise from persistent infections in which there is continued expression of the HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, often as a consequence of integration of HPV DNA into the host genome. Such cancers represent "dead ends" for the virus as integration disrupts the viral genome and because the cancers are defective in normal epithelial differentiation, which is required for production of progeny papillomavirus. In order to study the full viral life cycle, from the establishment to maintenance to productive stages, our lab makes use of the organotypic epithelial tissue culture system. This system allows us to mimic the three-dimensional structure of epithelia whose differentiation is tightly linked to the completion of the HPV viral life cycle. In this chapter we describe how various aspects of the HPV life cycle are monitored in raft cultures making use of an immortalized keratinocyte cell line. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27153383

  11. Antiherpetic potential of 6-bromoindirubin-3'-acetoxime (BIO-acetoxime) in human oral epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Mei-Ju; Hung, Shan-Ling

    2013-06-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) functions in the regulation of glycogen metabolism, in the cell cycle, and in immune responses and is targeted by some viruses to favor the viral life cycle. Inhibition of GSK-3 by 6-bromoindirubin-3'-acetoxime (BIO-acetoxime), a synthetic derivative of a compound from the Mediterranean mollusk Hexaplex trunculus, protects cells from varicella infection. In this study, we examined the effects of BIO-acetoxime against herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection in human oral epithelial cells, which represent a natural target cell type. The results revealed that BIO-acetoxime relieves HSV-1-induced cytopathic effects and apoptosis. We also found that BIO-acetoxime reduced viral yields and the expression of different classes of viral proteins. Furthermore, addition of BIO-acetoxime before, simultaneously with or after HSV-1 infection significantly reduced viral yields. Collectively, BIO-acetoxime may suppress viral gene expression and protect oral epithelial cells from HSV-1 infection. These results suggest the possible involvement of GSK-3 in HSV-1 infection. PMID:23392633

  12. Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Amniotic Epithelial Cells and Its Application in Alveolar Defect Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Jiawen, Si; Jianjun, Zhang; Jiewen, Dai; Dedong, Yu; Hongbo, Yu; Jun, Shi; Xudong, Wang; Shen, Steve G.F.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the detailed in vitro osteogenic differentiation process and in vivo bone regenerative property of human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs). The in vitro osteogenic differentiation process of hAECs was evaluated by biochemical staining, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunofluorescence. Next, β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds alone or loaded with hAECs were implanted into the alveolar defects of rats. Micro-computed tomography evaluation and histologic studies were conducted. Our results validated the in vitro osteogenic capacity of hAECs by upregulation of Runx2, osterix, alkaline phosphatase, collagen I, and osteopontin, with positive biochemical staining for osteoblasts. An epithelial-mesenchymal transformation process might be involved in the osteogenic differentiation of hAECs by increased expression of transforming growth factor-β1. Our data also demonstrated that in vivo implantation of hAECs loaded on β-TCP scaffolds, not only improved bone regeneration by direct participation, but also reduced the early host immune response to the scaffolds. The presented data indicate that hAECs possess proper osteogenic differentiation potential and a modulatory influence on the early tissue remodeling process, making these cells a potential source of progenitor cells for clinical restoration of the alveolar defect. PMID:25368378

  13. Serum-Induced Keratinization Processes in an Immortalized Human Meibomian Gland Epithelial Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Hampel, Ulrike; Schröder, Antje; Mitchell, Todd; Brown, Simon; Snikeris, Peta; Garreis, Fabian; Kunnen, Carolina; Willcox, Mark; Paulsen, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate a human meibomian gland epithelial cell line (HMGEC) as a model for meibomian gland (patho)physiology in vitro. Methods HMGEC were cultured in the absence or presence of serum. Sudan III lipid staining, ultrastructural analysis and lipidomic analyses were performed. Impedance sensing, desmoplakin 1/2 mRNA and cytokeratin (CK) 1, 5, 6, 14 levels were evaluated. Serum containing medium supplemented with higher serum, glucose, an omega-3 lipid cocktail, eicosapentaenoic acid or sebomed medium were investigated for lipid accumulation and ultrastructural morphology. Results Lipid droplet accumulation in HMGEC was induced by serum containing media after 1 day, but decreased over time. Cultivation in serum induced desmosome and cytokeratin filament formation. Desmoplakin 1/2 gene levels were significantly upregulated after 1d of serum treatment. Furthermore, the normalized impedance increased significantly. Lipidome analysis revealed high levels of phospholipids (over 50%), but very low levels of wax ester and cholesteryl esters (under 1%). Stimulation with eicosapentaenoic acid increased lipid accumulation after one day. Conclusion Serum treatment of HMGEC caused lipid droplet formation to some extent but also induced keratinization. The cells did not produce typical meibum lipids under these growth conditions. HMGEC are well suited to study (hyper)keratinization processes of meibomian gland epithelial cells in vitro. PMID:26042605

  14. Human proximal tubule epithelial cells cultured on hollow fibers: living membranes that actively transport organic cations.

    PubMed

    Jansen, J; De Napoli, I E; Fedecostante, M; Schophuizen, C M S; Chevtchik, N V; Wilmer, M J; van Asbeck, A H; Croes, H J; Pertijs, J C; Wetzels, J F M; Hilbrands, L B; van den Heuvel, L P; Hoenderop, J G; Stamatialis, D; Masereeuw, R

    2015-01-01

    The bioartificial kidney (BAK) aims at improving dialysis by developing 'living membranes' for cells-aided removal of uremic metabolites. Here, unique human conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell (ciPTEC) monolayers were cultured on biofunctionalized MicroPES (polyethersulfone) hollow fiber membranes (HFM) and functionally tested using microfluidics. Tight monolayer formation was demonstrated by abundant zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) protein expression along the tight junctions of matured ciPTEC on HFM. A clear barrier function of the monolayer was confirmed by limited diffusion of FITC-inulin. The activity of the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) in ciPTEC was evaluated in real-time using a perfusion system by confocal microscopy using 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP(+)) as a fluorescent substrate. Initial ASP(+) uptake was inhibited by a cationic uremic metabolites mixture and by the histamine H2-receptor antagonist, cimetidine. In conclusion, a 'living membrane' of renal epithelial cells on MicroPES HFM with demonstrated active organic cation transport was successfully established as a first step in BAK engineering. PMID:26567716

  15. Activation of CFTR by genistein in human airway epithelial cell lines.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Charlotte; Servetnyk, Zhanna; Roomans, Godfried M

    2003-08-29

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by a mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a chloride channel expressed in epithelial cells. The effects of genistein and 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) on CFTR were studied in three human airway epithelial cell lines expressing wild-type or DeltaF508 CFTR: Calu-3, CFSMEo-, and CFBE41o- cells. The cells were loaded with the fluorescent dye N-(ethoxycarbonylmethyl)-6-methoxyquinolinium bromide (MQAE) and chloride efflux was studied. Forskolin and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) induced chloride efflux in Calu-3 cells but not in CF lines. Genistein (2.5-50 microM) alone was able to induce chloride efflux in all cell lines. Genistein did not enhance the effect of forskolin and IBMX. PBA had little or no effect on genistein-induced chloride efflux. The effect of genistein seen at low concentrations makes genistein interesting for possible pharmacological treatment of CF, since it is known that similar concentrations can be obtained in plasma by a soy-rich diet. PMID:12914781

  16. Human Airway Primary Epithelial Cells Show Distinct Architectures on Membrane Supports Under Different Culture Conditions.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyoung Ah; Rosania, Gus R; Shin, Meong Cheol

    2016-06-01

    To facilitate drug development for lung delivery, it is highly demanding to establish appropriate airway epithelial cell models as transport barriers to evaluate pharmacokinetic profiles of drug molecules. Besides the cancer-derived cell lines, as the primary cell model, normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells have been used for drug screenings because of physiological relevance to in vivo. Therefore, to accurately interpret drug transport data in NHBE measured by different laboratories, it is important to know biophysical characteristics of NHBE grown on membranes in different culture conditions. In this study, NHBE was grown on the polyester membrane in a different medium and its transport barrier properties as well as cell architectures were fully characterized by functional assays and confocal imaging throughout the days of cultures. Moreover, NHBE cells on inserts in a different medium were subject to either of air-interfaced culture (AIC) or liquid-covered culture (LCC) condition. Cells in the AIC condition were cultivated on the membrane with medium in the basolateral side only, whereas cells with medium in apical and basolateral sides under the LCC condition. Quantitative microscopic imaging with biophysical examination revealed distinct multilayered architectures of differentiated NHBE cells, suggesting NHBE as functional cell barriers for the lung-targeting drug transport. PMID:26818810

  17. A pure population of lung alveolar epithelial type II cells derived from human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dachun; Haviland, David L; Burns, Alan R; Zsigmond, Eva; Wetsel, Rick A

    2007-03-13

    Alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cells are small, cuboidal cells that constitute approximately 60% of the pulmonary alveolar epithelium. These cells are crucial for repair of the injured alveolus by differentiating into alveolar epithelial type I cells. ATII cells derived from human ES (hES) cells are a promising source of cells that could be used therapeutically to treat distal lung diseases. We have developed a reliable transfection and culture procedure, which facilitates, via genetic selection, the differentiation of hES cells into an essentially pure (>99%) population of ATII cells (hES-ATII). Purity, as well as biological features and morphological characteristics of normal ATII cells, was demonstrated for the hES-ATII cells, including lamellar body formation, expression of surfactant proteins A, B, and C, alpha-1-antitrypsin, and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance receptor, as well as the synthesis and secretion of complement proteins C3 and C5. Collectively, these data document the successful generation of a pure population of ATII cells derived from hES cells, providing a practical source of ATII cells to explore in disease models their potential in the regeneration and repair of the injured alveolus and in the therapeutic treatment of genetic diseases affecting the lung. PMID:17360544

  18. Human corneal stromal stem cells support limbal epithelial cells cultured on RAFT tissue equivalents

    PubMed Central

    Kureshi, Alvena K; Dziasko, Marc; Funderburgh, James L; Daniels, Julie T

    2015-01-01

    Human limbal epithelial cells (HLE) and corneal stromal stem cells (CSSC) reside in close proximity in vivo in the corneal limbal stem cell niche. However, HLE are typically cultured in vitro without supporting niche cells. Here, we re-create the cell-cell juxtaposition of the native environment in vitro, to provide a tool for investigation of epithelial-stromal cell interactions and to optimize HLE culture conditions for potential therapeutic application. RAFT (Real Architecture For 3D Tissue) tissue equivalents (TEs) were used as a 3-dimensional substrate for co-culturing HLE and CSSC. Our results demonstrate that a monolayer of HLE that maintained expression of p63α, ABCB5, CK8 and CK15 (HLE markers), formed on the surface of RAFT TEs within 13 days of culture. CSSC remained in close proximity to HLE and maintained expression of mesenchymal stem cell markers. This simple technique has a short preparation time of only 15 days with the onset of HLE layering and differentiation observed. Furthermore, co-cultivation of HLE with another niche cell type (CSSC) directly on RAFT TEs, eliminates the requirement for animal-derived feeder cells. RAFT TEs may be useful for future therapeutic delivery of multiple cell types to restore the limbal niche following ocular surface injury or disease. PMID:26531048

  19. Barrier responses of human bronchial epithelial cells to grass pollen exposure.

    PubMed

    Blume, Cornelia; Swindle, Emily J; Dennison, Patrick; Jayasekera, Nivenka P; Dudley, Sarah; Monk, Phillip; Behrendt, Heidrun; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten B; Holgate, Stephen T; Howarth, Peter H; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Davies, Donna E

    2013-07-01

    The airway epithelium forms a physical, chemical and immunological barrier against inhaled environmental substances. In asthma, these barrier properties are thought to be abnormal. In this study, we analysed the effect of grass pollen on the physical and immunological barrier properties of differentiated human primary bronchial epithelial cells. Following exposure to Timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen extract, the integrity of the physical barrier was not impaired as monitored by measuring the transepithelial resistance and immunofluorescence staining of tight junction proteins. In contrast, pollen exposure affected the immunological barrier properties by modulating vectorial mediator release. CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)8/interleukin (IL)-8 showed the greatest increase in response to pollen exposure with preferential release to the apical compartment. Inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways selectively blocked apical CXCL8/IL-8 release via a post-transcriptional mechanism. Apical release of CC chemokine ligand (CCL)20/macrophage inflammatory protein-3α, CCL22/monocyte-derived chemokine and tumour necrosis factor-α was significantly increased only in severe asthma cultures, while CCL11/eotaxin-1 and CXCL10/interferon-γ-induced protein-10 were reduced in nonasthmatic cultures. The bronchial epithelial barrier modulates polarised release of mediators in response to pollen without direct effects on its physical barrier properties. The differential response of cells from normal and asthmatic donors suggests the potential for the bronchial epithelium to promote immune dysfunction in asthma. PMID:23143548

  20. Human proximal tubule epithelial cells cultured on hollow fibers: living membranes that actively transport organic cations

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, J.; De Napoli, I. E; Fedecostante, M.; Schophuizen, C. M. S.; Chevtchik, N. V.; Wilmer, M. J.; van Asbeck, A. H.; Croes, H. J.; Pertijs, J. C.; Wetzels, J. F. M.; Hilbrands, L. B.; van den Heuvel, L. P.; Hoenderop, J. G.; Stamatialis, D.; Masereeuw, R.

    2015-01-01

    The bioartificial kidney (BAK) aims at improving dialysis by developing ‘living membranes’ for cells-aided removal of uremic metabolites. Here, unique human conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell (ciPTEC) monolayers were cultured on biofunctionalized MicroPES (polyethersulfone) hollow fiber membranes (HFM) and functionally tested using microfluidics. Tight monolayer formation was demonstrated by abundant zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) protein expression along the tight junctions of matured ciPTEC on HFM. A clear barrier function of the monolayer was confirmed by limited diffusion of FITC-inulin. The activity of the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) in ciPTEC was evaluated in real-time using a perfusion system by confocal microscopy using 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP+) as a fluorescent substrate. Initial ASP+ uptake was inhibited by a cationic uremic metabolites mixture and by the histamine H2-receptor antagonist, cimetidine. In conclusion, a ‘living membrane’ of renal epithelial cells on MicroPES HFM with demonstrated active organic cation transport was successfully established as a first step in BAK engineering. PMID:26567716

  1. Cytotoxicity of Different Excipients on RPMI 2650 Human Nasal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Tamás; Bartos, Csilla; Bocsik, Alexandra; Kiss, Lóránd; Veszelka, Szilvia; Deli, Mária A; Újhelyi, Gabriella; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Ambrus, Rita

    2016-01-01

    The nasal route receives a great deal of attention as a non-invasive method for the systemic administration of drugs. For nasal delivery, specific formulations containing excipients are used. Because of the sensitive respiratory mucosa, not only the active ingredients, but also additives need to be tested in appropriate models for toxicity. The aim of the study was to measure the cytotoxicity of six pharmaceutical excipients, which could help to reach larger residence time, better permeability, and increased solubility dissolution rate. The following excipients were investigated on RPMI 2650 human nasal septum tumor epithelial cells: β-d-mannitol, sodium hyaluronate, α and β-cyclodextrin, polyvinyl alcohol and methylcellulose. 3-(4,5-dimethyltiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye conversion assay and real-time impedance analysis were used to investigate cytotoxicity. No excipient showed toxicity at 0.3% (w/v) concentration or below while 1% concentration a significantly reduced metabolic activity was measured by MTT assay for methylcellulose and cyclodextrins. Using impedance measurements, only β-cyclodextrin (1%) was toxic to cells. Mannitol at 1% concentration had a barrier opening effect on epithelial cells, but caused no cellular damage. Based on the results, all additives at 0.3%, sodium hyaluronate and polyvinyl alcohol at 1% concentrations can be safely used for nasal formulations. PMID:27213303

  2. Src family kinase inhibitor PP2 accelerates differentiation in human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Seltana, Amira; Guezguez, Amel; Lepage, Manon; Basora, Nuria; Beaulieu, Jean-François

    2013-01-25

    The proto-oncogene Src is an important protein tyrosine kinase involved in signaling pathways that control cell adhesion, growth, migration and survival. Here, we investigated the involvement of Src family kinases (SFKs) in human intestinal cell differentiation. We first observed that Src activity peaked in early stages of Caco-2/15 cell differentiation. Inhibition of SFKs with PP2, a selective SFK inhibitor, accelerated the overall differentiation program. Interestingly, all polarization and terminal differentiation markers tested, including sucrase-isomaltase, lactase-phlorizin hydrolase and E and Li-cadherins were found to be significantly up-regulated after only 3 days of treatment in the newly differentiating cells. Further investigation of the effects of PP2 revealed a significant up-regulation of the two main intestinal epithelial cell-specific transcription factors Cdx2 and HNF1α and a reduction of polycomb PRC2-related epigenetic repressing activity as measured by a decrease in H3K27me3, two events closely related to the control of cell terminal differentiation in the intestine. Taken together, these data suggest that SFKs play a key role in the control of intestinal epithelial cell terminal differentiation. PMID:23274493

  3. Cell Surface Glycoprotein of Reactive Stromal Fibroblasts as a Potential Antibody Target in Human Epithelial Cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garin-Chesa, Pilar; Old, Lloyd J.; Rettig, Wolfgang J.

    1990-09-01

    The F19 antigen is a cell surface glycoprotein (M_r, 95,000) of human sarcomas and proliferating, cultured fibroblasts that is absent from resting fibroblasts in normal adult tissues. Normal and malignant epithelial cells are also F19^-. The present immunohistochemical study describes induction of F19 in the reactive mesenchyme of epithelial tumors. F19^+ fibroblasts were found in primary and metastatic carcinomas, including colorectal (18 of 18 cases studied), breast (14/14), ovarian (21/21), bladder (9/10), and lung carcinomas (13/13). In contrast, the stroma of benign colorectal adenomas, fibrocystic disease and fibroadenomas of breast, benign prostate hyperplasia, in situ bladder carcinomas, and benign ovarian tumors showed no or only moderate numbers of F19^+ fibroblasts. Analysis of dermal incision wounds revealed that F19 is strongly induced during scar formation. Comparison of F19 with the extracellular matrix protein tenascin, a putative marker of tumor mesenchyme, showed a cellular staining pattern for F19 vs. the extracellular matrix pattern for tenascin and widespread expression of tenascin in F19^- normal tissues and benign tumors. Our results suggest that the F19^+ phenotype correlates with specialized fibroblast functions in wound healing and malignant tumor growth. Because of its abundance in tumor mesenchyme, F19 may serve as a target for antibodies labeled with radioisotopes or toxic agents, or inflammatogenic antibodies, in carcinoma patients.

  4. Effects of ethanol on cytokine generation and NFkappaB activity in human lung epithelial cell.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Anne-Sofie M; Lidén, Johan; Okret, Sam; Palmblad, Jan E W

    2005-08-15

    Alcohol abuse is associated with enhanced risk for pulmonary infections, but the mechanisms remain obscure. We assessed whether ethanol reduced generation of cytokines from a human lung epithelial cell line (A549) in vitro and if effects on the NFkappaB transcription factor were involved. Exposure of A549 to ethanol (0.1-1%) dose-dependently inhibited (by 15-49%) the release of G-CSF and IL-8, but not of M-CSF, triggered by IL1beta or TNFalpha. Ethanol also inhibited by 49% the IL-1beta stimulated translocation of the p65 subunit of NFkappaB from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. Using a kappaB binding and luciferase coupled construct, transfected into A549 cells, we found that 1% ethanol specifically reduced IL-1beta and TNFalpha induced luciferase activity with 34 and 40%, respectively. Thus, in vitro exposure of lung epithelial cells to ethanol reduced the generation of cytokines, as well as translocation and gene activation by NFkappaB. PMID:15993849

  5. Pseudomonas pyocyanin increases interleukin-8 expression by human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Denning, G M; Wollenweber, L A; Railsback, M A; Cox, C D; Stoll, L L; Britigan, B E

    1998-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic human pathogen, causes acute pneumonia in patients with hospital-acquired infections and is commonly associated with chronic lung disease in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). Evidence suggests that the pathophysiological effects of P. aeruginosa are mediated in part by virulence factors secreted by the bacterium. Among these factors is pyocyanin, a redox active compound that increases intracellular oxidant stress. We find that pyocyanin increases release of interleukin-8 (IL-8) by both normal and CF airway epithelial cell lines and by primary airway epithelial cells. Moreover, pyocyanin synergizes with the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-1alpha. RNase protection assays indicate that increased IL-8 release is accompanied by increased levels of IL-8 mRNA. The antioxidant n-acetyl cysteine, general inhibitors of protein tyrosine kinases, and specific inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinases diminish pyocyanin-dependent increases in IL-8 release. Conversely, inhibitors of protein kinases C (PKC) and PKA have no effect. In contrast to its effects on IL-8 expression, pyocyanin inhibits cytokine-dependent expression of the monocyte/macrophage/T-cell chemokine RANTES. Increased release of IL-8, a potent neutrophil chemoattractant, in response to pyocyanin could contribute to the marked infiltration of neutrophils and subsequent neutrophil-mediated tissue damage that are observed in Pseudomonas-associated lung disease. PMID:9826354

  6. Pseudomonas Pyocyanin Increases Interleukin-8 Expression by Human Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Denning, Gerene M.; Wollenweber, Laura A.; Railsback, Michelle A.; Cox, Charles D.; Stoll, Lynn L.; Britigan, Bradley E.

    1998-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic human pathogen, causes acute pneumonia in patients with hospital-acquired infections and is commonly associated with chronic lung disease in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). Evidence suggests that the pathophysiological effects of P. aeruginosa are mediated in part by virulence factors secreted by the bacterium. Among these factors is pyocyanin, a redox active compound that increases intracellular oxidant stress. We find that pyocyanin increases release of interleukin-8 (IL-8) by both normal and CF airway epithelial cell lines and by primary airway epithelial cells. Moreover, pyocyanin synergizes with the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-1α. RNase protection assays indicate that increased IL-8 release is accompanied by increased levels of IL-8 mRNA. The antioxidant n-acetyl cysteine, general inhibitors of protein tyrosine kinases, and specific inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinases diminish pyocyanin-dependent increases in IL-8 release. Conversely, inhibitors of protein kinases C (PKC) and PKA have no effect. In contrast to its effects on IL-8 expression, pyocyanin inhibits cytokine-dependent expression of the monocyte/macrophage/T-cell chemokine RANTES. Increased release of IL-8, a potent neutrophil chemoattractant, in response to pyocyanin could contribute to the marked infiltration of neutrophils and subsequent neutrophil-mediated tissue damage that are observed in Pseudomonas-associated lung disease. PMID:9826354

  7. Distribution and location of Daxx in cervical epithelial cells with high risk human papillomavirus positive

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aims To provide the basis for further exploring the effect and its mechanism of Death domain associated protein (Daxx) on the progress of cervical carcinoma induced by human papillomavirus (HPV), the distribution and location of Daxx in cervical carcinoma with high risk HPV(HR-HPV) positive was analyzed. Methods The samples of normal cervical epithelial cells, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade I (CINI), CINII CINIII and cervical cancers were collected. Immunohistochemistry assay was used to analyze the distributions and locations of Daxx in the cervical tissue. Indirect immunoinfluorescence test was utilized to observe the locations of Daxx in Caski cells with HPV16 positive. Results Under the light microscopy, the brown signals of Daxx distributed in the nuclei of normal cervical epithelial cells; Daxx mainly distributed in nuclear membrane and there were a small amount of Daxx in the nuclei in CINI. Daxx intensively distributed in the cytoplasm and cell membrane in CINII, CINIII and cervical cancer. Under fluorescent microscopy, the distribution and location of Daxx in Caski cells was similarly to that in cervical cells of CINII, CINIII and cervical cancer. Conclusion In the progress of the cervical cancer, Daxx gradually translocates from nucleus into nuclear membrane, cytoplasm and cell membrane. Daxx locates in the cytoplasm and cell membrane in CINII, CINIII and cervical cancer. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/4671548951113870. PMID:24398161

  8. Evaluation of Differentiated Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Culture Systems for Asthma Research

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Ceri E.; Torr, Elizabeth E.; Mohd Jamili, Nur H.; Bosquillon, Cynthia; Sayers, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate primary (human bronchial epithelial cells, HBEC) and non-primary (Calu-3, BEAS-2B, BEAS-2B R1) bronchial epithelial cell culture systems as air-liquid interface- (ALI-) differentiated models for asthma research. Ability to differentiate into goblet (MUC5AC+) and ciliated (β-Tubulin IV+) cells was evaluated by confocal imaging and qPCR. Expression of tight junction/adhesion proteins (ZO-1, E-Cadherin) and development of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) were assessed. Primary cells showed localised MUC5AC, β-Tubulin IV, ZO-1, and E-Cadherin and developed TEER with, however, a large degree of inter- and intradonor variation. Calu-3 cells developed a more reproducible TEER and a phenotype similar to primary cells although with diffuse β-Tubulin IV staining. BEAS-2B cells did not differentiate or develop tight junctions. These data highlight the challenges in working with primary cell models and the need for careful characterisation and selection of systems to answer specific research questions. PMID:22287976

  9. Differential interaction of bacterial species from the Burkholderia cepacia complex with human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Moura, Jane A; Cristina de Assis, Maria; Ventura, Grasiella C; Saliba, Alessandra M; Gonzaga, Luiz; Si-Tahar, Mustapha; Marques, Elizabeth de A; Plotkowski, Maria Cristina

    2008-01-01

    To increase knowledge of the pathogenic potential of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC), we investigated the effects of reference strains of the nine BCC species on human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. B. multivorans exhibited the highest rates of adherence to and internalization by host cells. Two out of three clinical isolates recovered from cystic fibrosis patients confirmed the B. multivorans high adhesiveness. All four B. multivorans isolates exhibited an aggregated pattern of adherence but any of them expressed cable pili. When bacteria were centrifuged onto cell cultures to circumvent their poor adhesiveness, B. pyrrocinia exhibited the highest internalization rate, followed by B. multivorans. The percentages of apoptotic cells in cultures infected with B. cepacia, B. multivorans, B. cenocepacia (subgroups IIIA and IIIB), B. stabilis and B. vietnamiensis were significantly higher than in control non-infected cultures. All nine BCC species triggered a similar release of the inflammatory cytokine IL-8, that was not reduced by cell treatment with cytochalasin D. Hence, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that all BCC species exhibit a similar ability to induce the expression of host immune mediators whereas they differ on their ability to adhere to, invade and kill airway epithelial cells. PMID:18068390

  10. Overexpression of Notch3 and pS6 Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Human Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Rongna; Yu, Xiaolin; Huang, Genhua; Tan, Buzhen

    2016-01-01

    Notch3 and pS6 play important roles in tumor angiogenesis. To assess the expression of Notch3 and pS6 in Chinese ovarian epithelial cancer patients, a ten-year follow-up study was performed in ovarian epithelial cancer tissues from 120 specimens of human ovarian epithelial cancer, 30 specimens from benign ovarian tumors, and 30 samples from healthy ovaries by immunohistochemistry. The results indicate that the expression of Notch3 and pS6 was higher in ovarian epithelial cancer than in normal ovary tissues and in benign ovarian tumor tissues (p < 0.01). In tumor tissues, Notch3 expression and pS6 expression were negatively associated with age (p > 0.05) but positively associated with clinical stage, pathological grading, histologic type, lymph node metastasis, and ascites (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). A follow-up survey of 64 patients with ovarian epithelial cancer showed that patients with high Notch3 and pS6 expression had a shorter survival time (p < 0.01), in which the clinical stage (p < 0.05) and Notch3 expression (p < 0.01) played important roles. In conclusion, Notch3 and pS6 are significantly related to ovarian epithelial cancer development and prognosis, and their combination represents a potential biomarker and therapeutic target in ovarian tumor angiogenesis. PMID:27445438

  11. EGFR, HER-2 and KRAS in canine gastric epithelial tumors: a potential human model?

    PubMed

    Terragni, Rossella; Casadei Gardini, Andrea; Sabattini, Silvia; Bettini, Giuliano; Amadori, Dino; Talamonti, Chiara; Vignoli, Massimo; Capelli, Laura; Saunders, Jimmy H; Ricci, Marianna; Ricci, Marianna; Ulivi, Paola; Ulivi, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR or HER-1) and its analog c-erbB-2 (HER-2) are protein tyrosine kinases correlated with prognosis and response to therapy in a variety of human cancers. KRAS mediates the transduction of signals between EGFR and the nucleus, and its mutation has been identified as a predictor of resistance to anti-EGFR drugs. In human oncology, the importance of the EGFR/HER-2/KRAS signalling pathway in gastric cancer is well established, and HER-2 testing is required before initiating therapy. Conversely, this pathway has never been investigated in canine gastric tumours. A total of 19 canine gastric epithelial neoplasms (5 adenomas and 14 carcinomas) were retrospectively evaluated for EGFR/HER-2 immunohistochemical expression and KRAS mutational status. Five (35.7%) carcinomas were classified as intestinal-type and 9 (64.3%) as diffuse-type. EGFR was overexpressed (≥ 1+) in 8 (42.1%) cases and HER-2 (3+) in 11 (57.9%) cases, regardless of tumour location or biological behaviour. The percentage of EGFR-positive tumours was significantly higher in the intestinal-type (80%) than in the diffuse-type (11.1%, p = 0.023). KRAS gene was wild type in 18 cases, whereas one mucinous carcinoma harboured a point mutation at codon 12 (G12R). EGFR and HER-2 may be promising prognostic and therapeutic targets in canine gastric epithelial neoplasms. The potential presence of KRAS mutation should be taken into account as a possible mechanism of drug resistance. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the role of dog as a model for human gastric cancer. PMID:24454858

  12. EGFR, HER-2 and KRAS in Canine Gastric Epithelial Tumors: A Potential Human Model?

    PubMed Central

    Bettini, Giuliano; Amadori, Dino; Talamonti, Chiara; Vignoli, Massimo; Capelli, Laura; Saunders, Jimmy H.; Ricci, Marianna; Ulivi, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR or HER-1) and its analog c-erbB-2 (HER-2) are protein tyrosine kinases correlated with prognosis and response to therapy in a variety of human cancers. KRAS mediates the transduction of signals between EGFR and the nucleus, and its mutation has been identified as a predictor of resistance to anti-EGFR drugs. In human oncology, the importance of the EGFR/HER-2/KRAS signalling pathway in gastric cancer is well established, and HER-2 testing is required before initiating therapy. Conversely, this pathway has never been investigated in canine gastric tumours. A total of 19 canine gastric epithelial neoplasms (5 adenomas and 14 carcinomas) were retrospectively evaluated for EGFR/HER-2 immunohistochemical expression and KRAS mutational status. Five (35.7%) carcinomas were classified as intestinal-type and 9 (64.3%) as diffuse-type. EGFR was overexpressed (≥1+) in 8 (42.1%) cases and HER-2 (3+) in 11 (57.9%) cases, regardless of tumour location or biological behaviour. The percentage of EGFR-positive tumours was significantly higher in the intestinal-type (80%) than in the diffuse-type (11.1%, p = 0.023). KRAS gene was wild type in 18 cases, whereas one mucinous carcinoma harboured a point mutation at codon 12 (G12R). EGFR and HER-2 may be promising prognostic and therapeutic targets in canine gastric epithelial neoplasms. The potential presence of KRAS mutation should be taken into account as a possible mechanism of drug resistance. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the role of dog as a model for human gastric cancer. PMID:24454858

  13. Role of mesothelin in carbon nanotube-induced carcinogenic transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoqing; Despeaux, Emily; Stueckle, Todd A; Chi, Alexander; Castranova, Vincent; Dinu, Cerasela Zoica; Wang, Liying; Rojanasakul, Yon

    2016-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been likened to asbestos in terms of morphology and toxicity. CNT exposure can lead to pulmonary fibrosis and promotion of tumorigenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying CNT-induced carcinogenesis are not well defined. Mesothelin (MSLN) is overexpressed in many human tumors, including mesotheliomas and pancreatic and ovarian carcinomas. In this study, the role of MSLN in the carcinogenic transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells chronically exposed to single-walled CNT (BSW) was investigated. MSLN overexpression was found in human lung tumors, lung cancer cell lines, and BSW cells. The functional role of MSLN in the BSW cells was then investigated by using stably transfected MSLN knockdown (BSW shMSLN) cells. MSLN knockdown resulted in significantly decreased invasion, migration, colonies on soft agar, and tumor sphere formation. In vivo, BSW shMSLN cells formed smaller primary tumors and less metastases. The mechanism by which MSLN contributes to these more aggressive behaviors was investigated by using ingenuity pathway analysis, which predicted that increased MSLN could induce cyclin E expression. We found that BSW shMSLN cells had decreased cyclin E, and their proliferation rate was reverted to nearly that of untransformed cells. Cell cycle analysis showed that the BSW shMSLN cells had an increased G2 population and a decreased S phase population, which is consistent with the decreased rate of proliferation. Together, our results indicate a novel role of MSLN in the malignant transformation of bronchial epithelial cells following CNT exposure, suggesting its utility as a potential biomarker and drug target for CNT-induced malignancies. PMID:27422997

  14. CHRFAM7A: a human-specific α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene shows differential responsiveness of human intestinal epithelial cells to LPS

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Xitong; Eliceiri, Brian P.; Baird, Andrew; Costantini, Todd W.

    2015-01-01

    The human genome contains a unique, distinct, and human-specific α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) gene [CHRNA7 (gene-encoding α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor)] called CHRFAM7A (gene-encoding dup-α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor) on a locus of chromosome 15 associated with mental illness, including schizophrenia. Located 5′ upstream from the “wild-type” CHRNA7 gene that is found in other vertebrates, we demonstrate CHRFAM7A expression in a broad range of epithelial cells and sequenced the CHRFAM7A transcript found in normal human fetal small intestine epithelial (FHs) cells to prove its identity. We then compared its expression to CHRNA7 in 11 gut epithelial cell lines, showed that there is a differential response to LPS when compared to CHRNA7, and characterized the CHRFAM7A promoter. We report that both CHRFAM7A and CHRNA7 gene expression are widely distributed in human epithelial cell lines but that the levels of CHRFAM7A gene expression vary up to 5000-fold between different gut epithelial cells. A 3-hour treatment of epithelial cells with 100 ng/ml LPS increased CHRFAM7A gene expression by almost 1000-fold but had little effect on CHRNA7 gene expression. Mapping the regulatory elements responsible for CHRFAM7A gene expression identifies a 1 kb sequence in the UTR of the CHRFAM7A gene that is modulated by LPS. Taken together, these data establish the presence, identity, and differential regulation of the human-specific CHRFAM7A gene in human gut epithelial cells. In light of the fact that CHRFAM7A expression is reported to modulate ligand binding to, and alter the activity of, the wild-type α7nAChR ligand-gated pentameric ion channel, the findings point to the existence of a species-specific α7nAChR response that might regulate gut epithelial function in a human-specific fashion.—Dang, X., Eliceiri, B. P., Baird, A., Costantini, T. W. CHRFAM7A: a human-specific α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene shows differential

  15. Vitamin D3 analog maxacalcitol (OCT) induces hCAP-18/LL-37 production in human oral epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tada, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Takamitsu; Nagaoka, Isao; Takada, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Maxacalcitol (22-oxacalcitriol: OCT) is a synthetic vitamin D3 analog with a limited calcemic effect. In this study, we investigated whether OCT increases the production of LL-37/CAP-18, a human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide, in human gingival/oral epithelial cells. A human gingival epithelial cell line (Ca9-22) and human oral epithelial cell lines (HSC-2, HSC-3, and HSC-4) exhibited the enhanced expression of LL-37 mRNA upon stimulation with OCT as well as active metabolites of vitamins D3 and D2. Among the human epithelial cell lines, Ca9-22 exhibited the strongest response to these vitamin D-related compounds. OCT induced the higher production of CAP-18 (ng/mL order) until 6 days time-dependently in Ca9-22 cells in culture. The periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis was killed by treatment with the LL-37 peptide. These findings suggest that OCT induces the production of hCAP-18/LL-37 in a manner similar to that induced by the active metabolite of vitamin D3. PMID:27356607

  16. Agonist binding to β-adrenergic receptors on human airway epithelial cells inhibits migration and wound repair.

    PubMed

    Peitzman, Elizabeth R; Zaidman, Nathan A; Maniak, Peter J; O'Grady, Scott M

    2015-12-15

    Human airway epithelial cells express β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs), which regulate mucociliary clearance by stimulating transepithelial anion transport and ciliary beat frequency. Previous studies using airway epithelial cells showed that stimulation with isoproterenol increased cell migration and wound repair by a cAMP-dependent mechanism. In the present study, impedance-sensing arrays were used to measure cell migration and epithelial restitution following wounding of confluent normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) and Calu-3 cells by electroporation. Stimulation with epinephrine or the β2-AR-selective agonist salbutamol significantly delayed wound closure and reduced the mean surface area of lamellipodia protruding into the wound. Treatment with the β-AR bias agonist carvedilol or isoetharine also produced a delay in epithelial restitution similar in magnitude to epinephrine and salbutamol. Measurements of extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation following salbutamol or carvedilol stimulation showed no significant change in the level of phosphorylation compared with untreated control cells. However, inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A activity completely blocked the delay in wound closure produced by β-AR agonists. In Calu-3 cells, where CFTR expression was inhibited by RNAi, salbutamol did not inhibit wound repair, suggesting that β-AR agonist stimulation and loss of CFTR function share a common pathway leading to inhibition of epithelial repair. Confocal images of the basal membrane of Calu-3 cells labeled with anti-β1-integrin (clone HUTS-4) antibody showed that treatment with epinephrine or carvedilol reduced the level of activated integrin in the membrane. These findings suggest that treatment with β-AR agonists delays airway epithelial repair by a G protein- and cAMP-independent mechanism involving protein phosphatase 2A and a reduction in β1-integrin activation in the basal membrane. PMID:26491049

  17. Reciprocal Paracrine Interactions Between Normal Human Epithelial and Mesenchymal Cells Protect Cellular DNA from Radiation-Induced Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Nakazawa, Yuka; Saenko, Vladimir Rogounovitch, Tatiana; Suzuki, Keiji; Mitsutake, Norisato; Matsuse, Michiko; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: To explore whether interactions between normal epithelial and mesenchymal cells can modulate the extent of radiation-induced DNA damage in one or both types of cells. Methods and Materials: Human primary thyrocytes (PT), diploid fibroblasts BJ, MRC-5, and WI-38, normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC), and endothelial human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUV-EC-C), cultured either individually or in co-cultures or after conditioned medium transfer, were irradiated with 0.25 to 5 Gy of {gamma}-rays and assayed for the extent of DNA damage. Results: The number of {gamma}-H2AX foci in co-cultures of PT and BJ fibroblasts was approximately 25% lower than in individual cultures at 1 Gy in both types of cells. Reciprocal conditioned medium transfer to individual cultures before irradiation resulted in approximately a 35% reduction of the number {gamma}-H2AX foci at 1 Gy in both types of cells, demonstrating the role of paracrine soluble factors. The DNA-protected state of cells was achieved within 15 min after conditioned medium transfer; it was reproducible and reciprocal in several lines of epithelial cells and fibroblasts, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells but not in epithelial and endothelial cells. Unlike normal cells, human epithelial cancer cells failed to establish DNA-protected states in fibroblasts and vice versa. Conclusions: The results imply the existence of a network of reciprocal interactions between normal epithelial and some types of mesenchymal cells mediated by soluble factors that act in a paracrine manner to protect DNA from genotoxic stress.

  18. Sustained co-cultivation with human placenta-derived MSCs enhances ALK5/Smad3 signaling in human breast epithelial cells, leading to EMT and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Young A; Kang, Myoung Hee; Kim, Byung Soo; Kim, Jun Suk; Seo, Jae Hong

    2009-06-01

    The interaction between mammary epithelial cells and their surrounding microenvironment are important in the development of the mammary gland. Thus, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which retain pluripotency for various mesenchymal lineages, may provide a permissive environment for the morphologic alteration and differentiation of mammary epithelial cells. To this end, we investigated whether the interactions between mammary epithelial cells and human placenta-derived MSCs (hPMSC) affect the morphology, proliferation, and differentiation of epithelial cells in a co-culture system. We show that after co-culture with hPMSCs, human mammary epithelial cell lines (MCF-10F and HEMC) underwent significant morphologic alterations and a dramatic increase in ductal-alveolar branching, which was accompanied by a decrease or loss of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and a gain of the mesenchymal markers, alpha-SMA and vimentin. MCF-10F and HEMC proliferation was also inhibited in the presence of hPMSCs, and this retardation in growth was due to cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, in MCF-10F and HMEC cells, hPMSCs induced the production of lipid droplets, milk fat globule protein, and milk protein lactoferrin, which are markers of functional mammary differentiation. We also noticed an elevation in ALK5 and phosphorylated Smad3 protein levels upon hPMSC co-culture. Strikingly, the changes in morphology, proliferation, and differentiation were reversed by treatment with ALK5 or Smad3 knockdown in MCF-10F/hPMSC co-cultures. Collectively, our findings suggest that co-cultivation with hPMSCs leads to epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and differentiation of human breast epithelial cells through the ALK5/Smad3 signaling pathway. PMID:19375841

  19. Sulfidation of silver nanowires inside human alveolar epithelial cells: a potential detoxification mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shu; Goode, Angela E.; Sweeney, Sinbad; Theodorou, Ioannis G.; Thorley, Andrew J.; Ruenraroengsak, Pakatip; Chang, Yan; Gow, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Skepper, Jeremy; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Shaffer, Milo S.; Chung, Kian Fan; Tetley, Teresa D.; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.

    2013-09-01

    Silver nanowires (AgNWs) are being developed for use in optoelectronics. However before widespread usage, it is crucial to determine their potential effects on human health. It is accepted that Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) exert toxic effects by releasing Ag+ ions, but much less is known about whether Ag+ reacts with compounds, or any downstream bioactive effects of transformed AgNPs. Analytical high-resolution transmission electron microscopy has been employed to elucidate cellular uptake and reactivity of AgNWs inside human alveolar epithelial type 1-like cells. AgNWs were observed in the cytoplasm and membrane-bound vesicles, and precipitation of Ag2S within the cell occurred after 1 h exposure. Cell viability studies showed no evidence of cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species were not observed on exposure of cells to AgNWs. We suggest that Ag2S formation acts as a `trap' for free Ag+, significantly limiting short-term toxicological effects - with important consequences for the safety of Ag-nanomaterials to human health.Silver nanowires (AgNWs) are being developed for use in optoelectronics. However before widespread usage, it is crucial to determine their potential effects on human health. It is accepted that Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) exert toxic effects by releasing Ag+ ions, but much less is known about whether Ag+ reacts with compounds, or any downstream bioactive effects of transformed AgNPs. Analytical high-resolution transmission electron microscopy has been employed to elucidate cellular uptake and reactivity of AgNWs inside human alveolar epithelial type 1-like cells. AgNWs were observed in the cytoplasm and membrane-bound vesicles, and precipitation of Ag2S within the cell occurred after 1 h exposure. Cell viability studies showed no evidence of cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species were not observed on exposure of cells to AgNWs. We suggest that Ag2S formation acts as a `trap' for free Ag+, significantly limiting short-term toxicological effects

  20. Transgenic Expression of Human Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor LPA2 in Mouse Intestinal Epithelial Cells Induces Intestinal Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Michihiro; He, Peijian; Yun, C. Chris

    2016-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) acts on LPA2 receptor to mediate multiple pathological effects that are associated with tumorigenesis. The absence of LPA2 attenuates tumor progression in rodent models of colorectal cancer, but whether overexpression of LPA2 alone can lead to malignant transformation in the intestinal tract has not been studied. In this study, we expressed human LPA2 in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) under control of the villin promoter. Less than 4% of F1-generation mice had germline transmission of transgenic (TG) human LPA2; as such only 3 F1 mice out of 72 genotyped had TG expression. These TG mice appeared anemic with hematochezia and died shortly after birth. TG mice were smaller in size compared with the wild type mouse of the same age and sex. Morphological analysis showed that TG LPA2 colon had hyper-proliferation of IECs resulting in increased colonic crypt depth. Surprisingly, TG small intestine had villus blunting and decreased IEC proliferation and dysplasia. In both intestine and colon, TG expression of LPA2 compromised the terminal epithelial differentiation, consistent with epithelial dysplasia. Furthermore, we showed that epithelial dysplasia was observed in founder mouse intestine, correlating LPA2 overexpression with epithelial dysplasia. The current study demonstrates that overexpression of LPA2 alone can lead to intestinal dysplasia. PMID:27124742

  1. Cellular and molecular alterations in human epithelial cells transformed by high let radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hei, T. K.; Piao, C. Q.; Sutter, T.; Willey, J. C.; Suzuki, K.

    An understanding of the radiobiological effects of high LET radiation is essential for human risk estimation and radiation protection. In the present study, we show that a single, 30 cGy dose of 150 keV/mum ^4He ions can malignantly transform human papillomavirus immortalized human bronchial epithelial [BEP2D] cells. Transformed cells produce progressively growing tumors in nude mice. The transformation frequency by the single dose of alpha particles is estimated to be approximately 4 x 10^-7. Based on the average cross-sectional area of BEP2D cells, it can be calculated that a mean traversal of 1.4 particles per cell is sufficient to induce tumorigenic conversion of these cells 3 to 4 months post-irradiation. Tumorigenic BEP2D cells overexpress mutated p53 tumor suppressor oncoproteins in addition to the cell cycle control gene cyclin D1 and D2. This model provides an opportunity to study the cellular and molecular changes at the various stages in radiation carcinogenesis involving human cells.

  2. TR3 is preferentially expressed by bulge epithelial stem cells in human hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lin; Yang, Ruifeng; Liu, Shujing; Lyle, Stephen; Cotsarelis, George; Xiang, Leihong; Zhang, Litao; Li, Bin; Wan, Miaojian; Xu, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    TR3 is an orphan member of the steroid/thyroid/retinoid nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors and it plays a pivotal role in regulating cell growth and apoptosis. The expression and function of TR3 in skin have not been well investigated. Using a cDNA expression assay, we discover that TR3 is significantly enriched in human telogen bulge compared with anagen bulb. Immunohistochemical staining confirms that TR3 is highly expressed in the bulge region of human hair follicles and it colocalizes with cytokeratin 15 (K15), an epithelial stem cell marker. To study the function of TR3 in the effect of androgens in keratinocytes, we treat HaCaT keratinocytes and primary human keratinocytes with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and testosterone (T). The treated keratinocytes show a dose-dependent growth reduction to DHT and T. DHT increases the expression of TR3 in keratinocytes, associated with a concomitant increase of BAD and decrease of Bcl-2 expression. Knockdown TR3 expression by siRNA blocks the inhibitory effect of DHT on keratinocyte proliferation. Our results demonstrate that TR3 is localized to the stem cell compartment in the human hair follicles. Androgen increases TR3 expression in cultured keratinocytes. Our data suggest that TR3 mediates at least part of the inhibitory effect of androgens on keratinocytes. PMID:26707825

  3. TR3 is preferentially expressed by bulge epithelial stem cells in human hair follicles

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Lin; Yang, Ruifeng; Liu, Shujing; Lyle, Stephen; Cotsarelis, George; Xiang, Leihong; Zhang, Litao; Li, Bin; Wan, Miaojian; Xu, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    TR3 is an orphan member of the steroid/thyroid/retinoid nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors and it plays a pivotal role in regulating cell growth and apoptosis. The expression and function of TR3 in skin have not been well investigated. Using a cDNA expression assay, we discover that TR3 is significantly enriched in human telogen bulge compared with anagen bulb. Immunohistochemical staining confirms that TR3 is highly expressed in the bulge region of human hair follicles and it colocalizes with cytokeratin 15 (K15), an epithelial stem cell marker. To study the function of TR3 in the effect of androgens in keratinocytes, we treat HaCaT keratinocytes and primary human keratinocytes with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and testosterone (T). The treated keratinocytes show a dose-dependent growth reduction to DHT and T. DHT increases the expression of TR3 in keratinocytes, associated with a concomitant increase of BAD and decrease of Bcl-2 expression. Knockdown TR3 expression by siRNA blocks the inhibitory effect of DHT on keratinocyte proliferation. Our results demonstrate that TR3 is localized to the stem cell compartment in the human hair follicles. Androgen increases TR3 expression in cultured keratinocytes. Our data suggest that TR3 mediates at least part of the inhibitory effect of androgens on keratinocytes. PMID:26707825

  4. Proteomic study of human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to SiC nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokarski, Caroline; Hirano, Seishiro; Rolando, Christian

    2011-07-01

    The presented work proposes an optimized methodology for the study of cell exposure to nanomaterials at protein level. The study was investigated on proteins extracted from human bronchial epithelial cells exposed and non-exposed to silicon carbide nanoparticles (SiC). The analytical strategy was based on high resolution measurement using Fourier transform mass spectrometer 9.4 T. The methodology proposed succeeds in identifying over 300 proteins; most of the identified proteins are present in both exposed and non exposed cells to SiC nanoparticles. More interestingly, cytokines as Macrophage migration inhibitory factor protein could be identified only in the cells exposed to SiC nanoparticles indicating cell inflammatory response.

  5. Continuous mucociliary transport by primary human airway epithelial cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Patrick R.; Yin, Wei-Ning

    2015-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance (MCC) is an important innate defense mechanism that continuously removes inhaled pathogens and particulates from the airways. Normal MCC is essential for maintaining a healthy respiratory system, and impaired MCC is a feature of many airway diseases, including both genetic (cystic fibrosis, primary ciliary dyskinesia) and acquired (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis) disorders. Research into the fundamental processes controlling MCC, therefore, has direct clinical application, but has been limited in part due to the difficulty of studying this complex multicomponent system in vitro. In this study, we have characterized a novel method that allows human airway epithelial cells to differentiate into a mucociliary epithelium that transports mucus in a continuous circular track. The mucociliary transport device allows the measurement and manipulation of all features of mucociliary transport in a controlled in vitro system. In this initial study, the effect of ciliary beat frequency and mucus concentration on the speed of mucociliary transport was investigated. PMID:25979076

  6. Accessibility to intracellular antigens within nutritionally deprived human mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dairkee, S.H.; Puett, L.; Counelis, A.M.; Hackett, A.J. )

    1991-01-01

    The authors have previously demonstrated immunolocalization of antikeratin antibodies in apparently random subpopulations of malignant cells in fresh surgical specimens of breast carcinoma. The goal of the present study was to determine whether deficiencies in essential nutrients contribute toward cellular alterations in membrane integrity, consequently allowing antikeratin to bind to the cytoskeleton within live, unfixed cells. They have demonstrated here that in an in vitro model in which human mammary epithelial cells are subjected to an oxygen-glucose gradient, immunolocalization of antikeratin within the cells is observed in a dose-dependent manner in the depleted regions of the gradient, even though the cell appear to be morphologically unaltered. The potential use of antibodies to intracellular antigens for immunotargeting solid tumors and the use of this method in anti-body-loading studies toward understanding functional aspects of specific cellular antigens, as well as determining differential response of various cell types under these culture conditions, are discussed.

  7. Characteristics of functionalized nano-hydroxyapatite and internalization by human epithelial cell

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite is the main inorganic component of biological bone and tooth enamel, and synthetic hydroxyapatite has been widely used as biomaterials. In this study, a facile method has been developed for the fabrication of arginine-functionalized and europium-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (Arg-Eu-HAP). The synthesized nanoparticles characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared, and Zeta potential analyzer. Its biological properties with DNA binding, cell toxicity, cell binding and intracellular distribution were tested by agarose gel electrophoresis assay, flow cytometry, and fluorescence microscope and laser scanning confocal microscope. The synthesized Arg-Eu-HAP could effectively bind DNA without any cytotoxicity and be internalized into the cytoplasm and perinuclear of human lung epithelial cells. PMID:22108000

  8. Cancer Risk-Assessment of Radiation Damage in Ataxia Telangiectasia Heterozygous Human Breast Epithelial Cell Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applewhite, Lisa C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the study of the markers of cellular changes that are found during the onset of carcinogenesis. Several of the biological factors are markers of stress response, oncoprotein expression, and differentiation factors. Oxidative stress response agents such as heat shock proteins (HSPs) protect cells from oxidative stresses such as ionizing radiation. The onocoprotein HER-2/neu, a specific breast cancer marker, indicates early onset of cancer. Additional structural and morphogenetic markers of differentiation were considered in order to determine initial cellular changes at the initial onset of cancer. As an additional consideration, all-trans retinoic acid (RA), a differentiation agent, was considered because of its known role in regulating normal differentiation and inhibiting tumor proliferation via specific nuclear receptors. This paper discusses study and results of the preliminary analyses of gamma irradiation of AT heterozygous human breast epithelial cells (WH). Comparisons are also made of the effects various RA concentrations post-irradiation.

  9. Cell and Molecular Biology of Ataxia Telangiectasia Heterozygous Human Mammary Epithelial Cells Irradiated in Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    Autologous isolates of cell types from obligate heterozygotes with the autosomal disorder ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T)were used to begin a tissue culture model for assessing pathways of radiation-induced cancer formation in this target tissue. This was done by establishing cultures of stromal fibroblasts and long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) in standard 2-dimensional tissue culture in order to establish expression of markers detailing early steps of carcinogenesis. The presumptive breast cancer susceptibility of A-T heterozygotes as a sequel to damage caused by ionizing radiation provided reason to study expression of markers in irradiated HMEC. Findings from our study with HMEC have included determination of differences in specific protein expression amongst growth phase (e.g., log vs stationary) and growth progression (e.g., pass 7 vs pass 9), as well as differences in morphologic markers within populations of irradiated HMEC (e.g., development of multinucleated cells).

  10. Two-photon excited autofluorescence imaging of human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Meng; Bindewald-Wittich, Almut; Holz, Frank G; Giese, Guenter; Niemz, Markolf H; Snyder, Sarah; Sun, Hui; Yu, Jiayi; Agopov, Michael; La Schiazza, Olivier; Bille, Josef F

    2006-01-01

    Degeneration of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells severely impairs the visual function of retina photoreceptors. However, little is known about the events that trigger the death of RPE cells at the subcellular level. Two-photon excited autofluorescence (TPEF) imaging of RPE cells proves to be well suited to investigate both the morphological and the spectral characteristics of the human RPE cells. The dominant fluorophores of autofluorescence derive from lipofuscin (LF) granules that accumulate in the cytoplasm of the RPE cells with increasing age. Spectral TPEF imaging reveals the existence of abnormal LF granules with blue shifted autofluorescence in RPE cells of aging patients and brings new insights into the complicated composition of the LF granules. Based on a proposed two-photon laser scanning ophthalmoscope, TPEF imaging of the living retina may be valuable for diagnostic and pathological studies of age related eye diseases. PMID:16526877

  11. Emergence of fractal geometry on the surface of human cervical epithelial cells during progression towards cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokukin, M. E.; Guz, N. V.; Woodworth, C. D.; Sokolov, I.

    2015-03-01

    Despite considerable advances in understanding the molecular nature of cancer, many biophysical aspects of malignant development are still unclear. Here we study physical alterations of the surface of human cervical epithelial cells during stepwise in vitro development of cancer (from normal to immortal (premalignant), to malignant). We use atomic force microscopy to demonstrate that development of cancer is associated with emergence of simple fractal geometry on the cell surface. Contrary to the previously expected correlation between cancer and fractals, we find that fractal geometry occurs only at a limited period of development when immortal cells become cancerous; further cancer progression demonstrates deviation from fractal. Because of the connection between fractal behaviour and chaos (or far from equilibrium behaviour), these results suggest that chaotic behaviour coincides with the cancer transformation of the immortalization stage of cancer development, whereas further cancer progression recovers determinism of processes responsible for cell surface formation.

  12. Emerging of fractal geometry on surface of human cervical epithelial cells during progression towards cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dokukin, M. E.; Guz, N. V.; Woodworth, C.D.; Sokolov, I.

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable advances in understanding the molecular nature of cancer, many biophysical aspects of malignant development are still unclear. Here we study physical alterations of the surface of human cervical epithelial cells during stepwise in vitro development of cancer (from normal to immortal (premalignant), to malignant). We use atomic force microscopy to demonstrate that development of cancer is associated with emergence of simple fractal geometry on the cell surface. Contrary to the previously expected correlation between cancer and fractals, we find that fractal geometry occurs only at a limited period of development when immortal cells become cancerous; further cancer progression demonstrates deviation from fractal. Because of the connection between fractal behaviour and chaos (or far from equilibrium behaviour), these results suggest that chaotic behaviour coincides with the cancer transformation of the immortalization stage of cancer development, whereas further cancer progression recovers determinism of processes responsible for cell surface formation. PMID:25844044

  13. Surface modification of microparticles causes differential uptake responses in normal and tumoral human breast epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patiño, Tania; Soriano, Jorge; Barrios, Lleonard; Ibáñez, Elena; Nogués, Carme

    2015-06-01

    The use of micro- and nanodevices as multifunctional systems for biomedical applications has experienced an exponential growth during the past decades. Although a large number of studies have focused on the design and fabrication of new micro- and nanosystems capable of developing multiple functions, a deeper understanding of their interaction with cells is required. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of different microparticle surfaces on their interaction with normal and tumoral human breast epithelial cell lines. For this, AlexaFluor488 IgG functionalized polystyrene microparticles (3 μm) were coated with Polyethyleneimine (PEI) at two different molecular weights, 25 and 750 kDa. The effect of microparticle surface properties on cytotoxicity, cellular uptake and endocytic pathways were assessed for both normal and tumoral cell lines. Results showed a differential response between the two cell lines regarding uptake efficiency and mechanisms of endocytosis, highlighting the potential role of microparticle surface tunning for specific cell targeting.

  14. Enhanced growth medium and method for culturing human mammary epithelial cells

    DOEpatents

    Stampfer, Martha R.; Smith, Helene S.; Hackett, Adeline J.

    1983-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for isolating and culturing human mammary epithelial cells of both normal and malignant origin. Tissue samples are digested with a mixture including the enzymes collagenase and hyaluronidase to produce clumps of cells substantially free from stroma and other undesired cellular material. Growing the clumps of cells in mass culture in an enriched medium containing particular growth factors allows for active cell proliferation and subculture. Clonal culture having plating efficiencies of up to 40% or greater may be obtained using individual cells derived from the mass culture by plating the cells on appropriate substrates in the enriched media. The clonal growth of cells so obtained is suitable for a quantitative assessment of the cytotoxicity of particular treatment. An exemplary assay for assessing the cytotoxicity of the drug adriamycin is presented.

  15. A new expert system for histopathological diagnosis of human ovarian epithelial cancer.

    PubMed

    Protopapa, E; Miaoulis, G; Ferreiro, M; Panayiotides, J; Katsikas, S K; Delides, G

    1993-01-01

    A new rule-based expert system designed to assist pathologists in the histological diagnosis of human ovarian epithelial cancer has been developed. The system was implemented using the INSIGHT II+ EXPERT System Shell and runs on IBM compatible microcomputers. It operates using knowledge acquired through the literature, research and experience, formulated into a total of 195 IF-THEN rules. The WHO International Histological Classification of Tumours is being used throughout. The system can quickly focus on a differential problem, thereby reducing the time necessary to reach a conclusion. It has been tested on a set of 34 cases, previously examined by pathologists of the Metaxas Memorial Cancer Institute, and has been found to reach good agreement with the pathologists' diagnoses. PMID:8218981

  16. Characteristics of functionalized nano-hydroxyapatite and internalization by human epithelial cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan-Zhong, Zhao; Yan-Yan, Huang; Jun, Zhu; Shai-Hong, Zhu; Zhi-You, Li; Ke-Chao, Zhou

    2011-11-01

    Hydroxyapatite is the main inorganic component of biological bone and tooth enamel, and synthetic hydroxyapatite has been widely used as biomaterials. In this study, a facile method has been developed for the fabrication of arginine-functionalized and europium-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (Arg-Eu-HAP). The synthesized nanoparticles characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared, and Zeta potential analyzer. Its biological properties with DNA binding, cell toxicity, cell binding and intracellular distribution were tested by agarose gel electrophoresis assay, flow cytometry, and fluorescence microscope and laser scanning confocal microscope. The synthesized Arg-Eu-HAP could effectively bind DNA without any cytotoxicity and be internalized into the cytoplasm and perinuclear of human lung epithelial cells.

  17. Human lung epithelial cell A549 proteome data after treatment with titanium dioxide and carbon black.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Ngoc Q; Goegan, Patrick; Mohottalage, Susantha; Breznan, Dalibor; Ariganello, Marianne; Williams, Andrew; Elisma, Fred; Karthikeyan, Subramanian; Vincent, Renaud; Kumarathasan, Premkumari

    2016-09-01

    Here, we have described the dataset relevant to the A549 cellular proteome changes after exposure to either titanium dioxide or carbon black particles as compared to the non-exposed controls, "Proteomic changes in human lung epithelial cells (A549) in response to carbon black and titanium dioxide exposures" (Vuong et al., 2016) [1]. Detailed methodologies on the separation of cellular proteins by 2D-GE and the subsequent mass spectrometry analyses using MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS are documented. Particle exposure-specific protein expression changes were measured via 2D-GE spot volume analysis. Protein identification was done by querying mass spectrometry data against SwissProt and RefSeq protein databases using Mascot search engine. Two-way ANOVA analysis data provided information on statistically significant A549 protein expression changes associated with particle exposures. PMID:27508218

  18. Oleanolic Acid, a Compound Present in Grapes and Olives, Protects against Genotoxicity in Human Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Quesada, Cristina; López-Biedma, Alicia; Gaforio, José J

    2015-01-01

    Oleanolic acid (AO) and maslinic acid (MA) are constituents of the skins of different fruits, including olives and white or red grapes. Although both compounds are known to have beneficial properties against different types of cancers, thus far, there are no studies about their chemopreventive effects in human breast cancer. Thus, we sought to elucidate whether both compounds possess chemopreventive activity. Two cell lines of human breast cancer cells and one noncancerous human mammary epithelial cells were used to determine the effects of OA and MA. The results showed that OA inhibited the proliferation and increased the oxidative stress of highly invasive cells. Additionally, OA decreased oxidative stress and oxidative damage to the DNA in human mammary epithelial cells. These results suggest that OA could act as a chemopreventive agent in human breast cancer and could inhibit the proliferation of highly invasive breast cancer cells. PMID:26225949

  19. Enrichment of Oct3/4-positive cells from a human bronchial epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Jia, Lanling; Jia, Xinshan; Shi, Mumu; Li, Xiaolei; Ye, Xulv; Wang, Ruiyue; Xiong, Yanlei; Wang, Enhua; Li, Fang

    2013-07-01

    Most adult stem cells are in the G0 phase of the cell cycle, accounting for only a small percentage of the cells in the tissue. Thus, isolation of stem cells from tissues for further study represents a major challenge. The anti-tumor drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) selectively kills proliferating cells, sparing cells in the G0 phase. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine whether 5-FU can be used to enrich stem cells in a human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cell population in vitro. Side population (SP) cells were isolated from untreated HBE cells or HBE cells treated with 5-FU, and the resulting cells were subjected to colony formation assays, culturing of cell spheres, and tumorigenicity assays. Expression of Oct3/4, Sox2, PCK, and β-catenin were examined by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. Treatment with 5-FU increased the percentage of SP cells from 0.3% to 1.5%, and the clonogenic ability of 5-FU-treated cells was more than twofold higher than that of HBE cells. Cells that survived after 5-FU treatment exhibited a higher capacity for sphere formation. Furthermore, spheres formed from 5-FU-treated cells possessed the capacity to generate differentiated progenies. Cells treated with 5-FU also exhibited tumorigenic potential, based on tumor formation assays in nude mice, and Oct3/4-positive cell aggregates were identified in the resulting tumors. In this study, we have shown that 5-FU treatment enriched the population of cells expressing the putative embryonic markers Oct3/4 and Sox2 and exhibiting nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. Furthermore, 5-FU-treated cells expressed low levels of the epithelial differentiation marker PCK. Analysis of epigenetic modifications suggested that Oct3/4-positive cells possessed characteristics of stem cells. These results demonstrate that treatment with 5-FU can enrich the stem cell population present in a human bronchial epithelial cell line, and implicate combined treatment with 5-FU and serum-free medium as

  20. Induction of the plasminogen activator system by mechanical stimulation of human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chu, Eric K; Cheng, Jason; Foley, John S; Mecham, Brigham H; Owen, Caroline A; Haley, Kathleen J; Mariani, Thomas J; Kohane, Isaac S; Tschumperlin, Daniel J; Drazen, Jeffrey M

    2006-12-01

    Mechanical stimulation of the airway epithelium, as would occur during bronchoconstriction, is a potent stimulus and can activate profibrotic pathways. We used DNA microarray technology to examine gene expression in compressed normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE). Compressive stress applied continuously over an 8-h period to NHBE cells led to the upregulation of several families of genes, including a family of plasminogen-related genes that were previously not known to be regulated in this system. Real-time PCR demonstrated a peak increase in gene expression of 8.0-fold for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), 16.2-fold for urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), 4.2-fold for plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and 3.9-fold for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Compressive stress also increased uPA protein levels in the cell lysates (112.0 versus 82.0 ng/ml, P = 0.0004), and increased uPA (4.7 versus 3.3 ng/ml, P = 0.02), uPAR (1.3 versus 0.86 ng/ml, P = 0.007), and PAI-1 (50 versus 36 ng/ml, P = 0.006) protein levels in cell culture media. Functional studies demonstrated increased urokinase-dependent plasmin generation in compression-stimulated cells (0.0090 versus 0.0033 OD/min, P = 0.03). In addition, compression led to increased activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-2 in a urokinase-dependent manner. In postmortem human lung tissue, we observed an increase in epithelial uPA and uPAR immunostaining in the airways of two patients who died in status asthmaticus compared with minimal immunoreactivity noted in airways from seven lung donors without asthma. Together these observations suggest an integrated response of airway epithelial cells to mechanical stimulation, acting through the plasminogen-activating system to modify the airway microenvironment. PMID:16794260

  1. Mucin Characteristics of Human Corneal-Limbal Epithelial Cells that Exclude the Rose Bengal Anionic Dye

    PubMed Central

    Argüeso, Pablo; Tisdale, Ann; Spurr-Michaud, Sandra; Sumiyoshi, Mika; Gipson, Ilene K.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose Rose bengal is an organic anionic dye used to assess damage of the ocular surface epithelium in ocular surface disease. It has been proposed that mucins have a protective role, preventing rose bengal staining of normal ocular surface epithelial cells. The current study was undertaken to evaluate rose bengal staining in a human corneal-limbal epithelial (HCLE) cell line known to produce and glycosylate membrane-associated mucins. Methods HCLE cells were grown to confluence in serum-free medium and switched to DMEM/F12 with 10% serum to promote differentiation. Immunolocalization of the membrane-associated mucins MUC1 and MUC16 and the T-antigen carbohydrate epitope was performed with the monoclonal antibodies HMFG-2 and OC125 and jacalin lectin, respectively. To assess dye uptake, cultures were incubated for 5 minutes with 0.1% rose bengal and photographed. To determine whether exclusion of negatively charged rose bengal requires a negative charge at the cell surface, cells were incubated with fluoresceinated cationized ferritin. The effect of hyperosmotic stress on rose bengal staining in vitro was evaluated by increasing the ion concentration (Ca+2 and Mg+2) in the rose bengal uptake assay. Results The cytoplasm and nucleus of confluent HCLE cells cultured in media without serum, lacking the expression of MUC16 but not MUC1, as well as human corneal fibroblasts, which do not express mucins, stained with rose bengal. Culture of HCLE cells in medium containing serum resulted in the formation of islands of stratified cells that excluded rose bengal. Apical cells of the stratified islands produced MUC16 and the T-antigen carbohydrate epitope on their apical surfaces. Colocalization experiments demonstrated that fluoresceinated cationized ferritin did not bind to these stratified cells, indicating that rose bengal is excluded from cells that lack negative charges. Increasing the amounts of divalent cations in the media reduced the cellular area protected

  2. A technique to harvest viable tracheobronchial epithelial cells from living human donors.

    PubMed

    Kelsen, S G; Mardini, I A; Zhou, S; Benovic, J L; Higgins, N C

    1992-07-01

    The ability to obtain airway epithelial cells from the lower respiratory tract in living human donors will facilitate study of the biologic properties of these cells. We report our experience harvesting tracheobronchial epithelial cells from living human donors by brushing the mucosal surface of the trachea and mainstem bronchi. Cells were obtained on 21 occasions from 18 healthy adult subjects under direct vision with a brush-tipped catheter during fiberoptic bronchoscopy. The average number of cells harvested per subject was 14 +/- 2 x 10(6), and cell viability determined by trypan blue exclusion averaged 36 +/- 4%. Of note, cell viability was significantly enhanced when lidocaine was confined to the nares. Lidocaine was also observed to diminish cell viability in vitro in a dose-dependent fashion. Morphologic and staining properties were used to classify harvested cells into the three major cell types present in the mucosa (i.e., ciliated, secretory, and basal cells). All three subtypes were obtained. The percentage of ciliated, secretory, and basal-like cells was 24 +/- 2%, 11 +/- 1%, 29 +/- 1%, respectively, while the remaining 36% were difficult to type. In one subject in whom brushing was performed on three occasions over a 7-wk period, the percentage of each of the three subtypes was similar across procedures. Harvested cells could be successfully placed in primary culture with a plating efficiency of 50 to 60% and could be subcultured for up to seven passages. Acutely dissociated cells could be used to study the beta-adrenergic receptor adenylyl cyclase system since they produced cAMP in response to isoproterenol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1320903

  3. Identification of human metapneumovirus-induced gene networks in airway epithelial cells by microarray analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, X.; Sinha, M. |; Liu, T.; Hong, C.; Luxon, B.A. |; Garofalo, R.P. ||; Casola, A. ||

    2008-04-25

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants, elderly and immunocompromised patients. Little is known about the response to hMPV infection of airway epithelial cells, which play a pivotal role in initiating and shaping innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptional profiles of airway epithelial cells infected with hMPV using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. Of the 47,400 transcripts and variants represented on the Affimetrix GeneChip Human Genome HG-U133 plus 2 array, 1601 genes were significantly altered following hMPV infection. Altered genes were then assigned to functional categories and mapped to signaling pathways. Many up-regulated genes are involved in the initiation of pro-inflammatory and antiviral immune responses, including chemokines, cytokines, type I interferon and interferon-inducible proteins. Other important functional classes up-regulated by hMPV infection include cellular signaling, gene transcription and apoptosis. Notably, genes associated with antioxidant and membrane transport activity, several metabolic pathways and cell proliferation were down-regulated in response to hMPV infection. Real-time PCR and Western blot assays were used to confirm the expression of genes related to several of these functional groups. The overall result of this study provides novel information on host gene expression upon infection with hMPV and also serves as a foundation for future investigations of genes and pathways involved in the pathogenesis of this important viral infection. Furthermore, it can facilitate a comparative analysis of other paramyxoviral infections to determine the transcriptional changes that are conserved versus the one that are specific to individual pathogens.

  4. Oxidative stress mediated cytotoxicity of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of biologically prepared small size of silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cells A549. Herein, we describe a facile method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by treating the supernatant from a culture of Escherichia coli with silver nitrate. The formation of silver nanoparticles was characterized using various analytical techniques. The results from UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis show a characteristic strong resonance centered at 420 nm and a single crystalline nature, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the possible bio-molecules responsible for the reduction of silver from silver nitrate into nanoparticles. The particle size analyzer and transmission electron microscopy results suggest that silver nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average diameter of 15 nm. The results derived from in vitro studies showed a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability when A549 cells were exposed to silver nanoparticles. This decrease in cell viability corresponded to increased leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), increased intracellular reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), and decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP). Furthermore, uptake and intracellular localization of silver nanoparticles were observed and were accompanied by accumulation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes in A549 cells. The results indicate that silver nanoparticles play a significant role in apoptosis. Interestingly, biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles showed more potent cytotoxicity at the concentrations tested compared to that shown by chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles. Therefore, our results demonstrated that human lung epithelial A549 cells could provide a valuable model to assess the cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles. PMID:25242904

  5. Human epithelial cells exposed to functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes: interactions and cell surface modifications.

    PubMed

    Fanizza, C; Casciardi, S; Incoronato, F; Cavallo, D; Ursini, C L; Ciervo, A; Maiello, R; Fresegna, A M; Marcelloni, A M; Lega, D; Alvino, A; Baiguera, S

    2015-09-01

    With the expansion of the production and applications of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in several industrial and science branches, the potential adverse effects on human health have attracted attention. Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate how chemical functionalization may affect MWCNT effects; however, controversial data have been reported, showing either increased or reduced toxicity. In particular, the impact of carboxylation on MWCNT cytotoxicity is far from being completely understood. The aim of this work was the evaluation of the modifications induced by carboxylated-MWCNTs (MWCNTs-COOH) on cell surface and the study of cell-MWCNT-COOH interactions by means of field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549) were incubated with MWCNTs-COOH for different exposure times and concentrations (10 μg/mL for 1, 2, 4 h; 5, 10, 20 μg/mL for 24 h). At short incubation time, MWCNTs-COOH were easily observed associated with plasma membrane and in contact with microvilli. After 24 h exposure, FESEM analysis revealed that MWCNTs-COOH induced evident changes in the cellular surface in comparison to control cells: treated cells showed blebs, holes and a depletion of the microvilli density in association with structure modifications, such as widening and/or lengthening. In particular, an increase of cells showing holes and microvilli structure alterations was observed at 20 μg/mL concentration. FESEM analysis showed nanotube agglomerates, of different sizes, entering into the cell with two different mechanisms: inward bending of the membrane followed by nanotube sinking, and nanotube internalization directly through holes. The observed morphological microvilli modifications, induced by MWCNTs-COOH, could affect epithelial functions, such as the control of surfactant production and secretion, leading to pathological conditions, such as alveolar proteinosis. More detailed studies will be, however, necessary to

  6. Burkholderia pseudomallei Biofilm Promotes Adhesion, Internalization and Stimulates Proinflammatory Cytokines in Human Epithelial A549 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kunyanee, Chanikarn; Kamjumphol, Watcharaporn; Taweechaisupapong, Suwimol; Kanthawong, Sakawrat; Wongwajana, Suwin; Wongratanacheewin, Surasak; Hahnvajanawong, Chariya

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes melioidosis. Inhalational exposure leading to pulmonary melioidosis is the most common clinical manifestation with significant mortality. However, the role of B. pseudomallei biofilm phenotype during bacterial-host interaction remains unclear. We hypothesize that biofilm phenotype may play a role in such interactions. In this study, B. pseudomallei H777 (biofilm wild type), B. pseudomallei M10 (biofilm mutant) and B. pseudomallei C17 (biofilm-complemented) strains were used to assess the contribution of biofilm to adhesion to human lung epithelial cells (A549), intracellular interactions, apoptosis/necrosis and impact on proinflammatory responses. Confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that B. pseudomallei H777 and C17 produced biofilm, whereas M10 did not. To determine the role of biofilm in host interaction, we assessed the ability of each of the three strains to interact with the A549 cells at MOI 10. Strain H777 exhibited higher levels of attachment and invasion compared to strain M10 (p < 0.05). In addition, the biofilm-complemented strain, C17 exhibited restored bacterial invasion ability. Flow cytometry combined with a double-staining assay using annexin V and propidium iodide revealed significantly higher numbers of early apoptotic and late apoptotic A549 cells when these were infected with strain H777 (1.52%) and C17 (1.43%) compared to strain M10 (0.85%) (p < 0.05). Strains H777 and C17 were able to stimulate significant secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 compared with the biofilm mutant (p < 0.05). Together, these findings demonstrated the role of biofilm-associated phenotypes of B. pseudomallei in cellular pathogenesis of human lung epithelial cells with respect to initial attachment and invasion, apoptosis and proinflammatory responses. PMID:27529172

  7. Isolation and culture of adult epithelial stem cells from human skin.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhiru; Draheim, Kyle; Lyle, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The homeostasis of all self-renewing tissues is dependent on adult stem cells. As undifferentiated stem cells undergo asymmetric divisions, they generate daughter cells that retain the stem cell phenotype and transit-amplifying cells (TA cells) that migrate from the stem cell niche, undergo rapid proliferation and terminally differentiate to repopulate the tissue. Epithelial stem cells have been identified in the epidermis, hair follicle, and intestine as cells with a high in vitro proliferative potential and as slow-cycling label-retaining cells in vivo (1-3). Adult, tissue-specific stem cells are responsible for the regeneration of the tissues in which they reside during normal physiologic turnover as well as during times of stress (4-5). Moreover, stem cells are generally considered to be multi-potent, possessing the capacity to give rise to multiple cell types within the tissue (6). For example, rodent hair follicle stem cells can generate epidermis, sebaceous glands, and hair follicles (7-9). We have shown that stem cells from the human hair follicle bulge region exhibit multi-potentiality (10). Stem cells have become a valuable tool in biomedical research, due to their utility as an in vitro system for studying developmental biology, differentiation, tumorigenesis and for their possible therapeutic utility. It is likely that adult epithelial stem cells will be useful in the treatment of diseases such as ectodermal dysplasias, monilethrix, Netherton syndrome, Menkes disease, hereditary epidermolysis bullosa and alopecias (11-13). Additionally, other skin problems such as burn wounds, chronic wounds and ulcers will benefit from stem cell related therapies (14,15). Given the potential for reprogramming of adult cells into a pluripotent state (iPS cells)(16,17), the readily accessible and expandable adult stem cells in human skin may provide a valuable source of cells for induction and downstream therapy for a wide range of disease including diabetes and

  8. Expression of acetylcholine receptor genes in human thymic epithelial cells: implications for myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Wakkach, A; Guyon, T; Bruand, C; Tzartos, S; Cohen-Kaminsky, S; Berrih-Aknin, S

    1996-10-15

    The intrathymic presence of the muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR) is controversial, and the nature of the cell(s) expressing it is unclear. We thus analyzed the molecular expression of muscle AChR in human thymi. mRNA studies indicated that the two isoforms (P3A+ and P3A-) of the alpha-subunit were present in thymic extracts and in cultured thymic epithelial cells (TEC), while expression in thymocytes was low and not consistently detectable. The amount of mRNA coding for the alpha-subunit, evaluated by means of quantitative PCR, was about 20 times less in TEC than in muscle, and was similar in TEC from normal subjects and from patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). The beta- and epsilon-subunits present in adult AChR were also expressed in TEC (but not in thymocytes), while the embryonic subunit (gamma) was absent. In TEC cultures, the AChR alpha- and epsilon-subunit mRNA levels were down-regulated by forskolin, as also observed in the TE671 rhabdomyosarcoma cell line, suggesting similar regulation of AChR subunits in thymus and muscle. Protein expression was evidenced on TEC (but not on thymocytes), by Western blotting as well as by immunofluorescence, thus demonstrating AChR expression on human thymic epithelial cells. There was no difference in the expression of AChR between TEC from MG patients and controls, meaning that the expression of AChR subunits alone is not sufficient to explain the onset of MG. PMID:8871679

  9. Interleukin-8 production by the human colon epithelial cell line HT-29: modulation by interleukin-13.

    PubMed Central

    Kolios, G.; Robertson, D. A.; Jordan, N. J.; Minty, A.; Caput, D.; Ferrara, P.; Westwick, J.

    1996-01-01

    1. We have determined which cytokines induce and modulate the production of the chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) by the human colonic epithelial cell line HT-29. 2. Growth arrested cell cultures were stimulated with the human recombinant cytokines interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-13 (IL-13), interleukin-10 (IL-10) or vehicle added alone or in combination. The production of IL-8 was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and IL-8 messenger RNA expression by Northern blot analysis. 3. The production of IL-8 in unstimulated cells was undetectable by both ELISA and Northern blot analysis. 4. HT-29 cells produced IL-8 following stimulation with IL-1 alpha or TNF-alpha in a time- and a concentration-dependent manner, while IFN-gamma, IL-10 and IL-13 did not induce IL-8 production by HT-29 cells. 5. IL-13 was found to up-regulate significantly (P < 0.01) the IL-1 alpha but not the TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 generation by HT-29 cells. In contrast, IL-10 had no effect on either IL-1 alpha or TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 production. 6. Experiments using cycloheximide demonstrated that this synergistic effect of IL-13 and IL-1 alpha on IL-8 secretion was not through de novo protein synthesis. Using actinomycin-D, we demonstrated that the IL-13 up-regulation was at the level of transcription rather than messenger RNA stability. 7. These findings suggest that colonic epithelial cells have a functional IL-13 receptor, which is coupled to an up-regulation of IL-1 alpha, but not TNF-alpha induced IL-8 generation. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:8886420

  10. Commensal Streptococcus salivarius Modulates PPARγ Transcriptional Activity in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Couvigny, Benoît; de Wouters, Tomas; Kaci, Ghalia; Jacouton, Elsa; Delorme, Christine; Doré, Joël; Renault, Pierre; Blottière, Hervé M.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of commensal bacteria in eukaryotic transcriptional regulation has increasingly been demonstrated over the last decades. A multitude of studies have shown direct effects of commensal bacteria from local transcriptional activity to systemic impact. The commensal bacterium Streptococcus salivarius is one of the early bacteria colonizing the oral and gut mucosal surfaces. It has been shown to down-regulate nuclear transcription factor (NF-кB) in human intestinal cells, a central regulator of the host mucosal immune system response to the microbiota. In order to evaluate its impact on a further important transcription factor shown to link metabolism and inflammation in the intestine, namely PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor), we used human intestinal epithelial cell-lines engineered to monitor PPARγ transcriptional activity in response to a wide range of S. salivarius strains. We demonstrated that different strains from this bacterial group share the property to inhibit PPARγ activation independently of the ligand used. First attempts to identify the nature of the active compounds showed that it is a low-molecular-weight, DNase-, proteases- and heat-resistant metabolite secreted by S. salivarius strains. Among PPARγ-targeted metabolic genes, I-FABP and Angptl4 expression levels were dramatically reduced in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to S. salivarius supernatant. Both gene products modulate lipid accumulation in cells and down-regulating their expression might consequently affect host health. Our study shows that species belonging to the salivarius group of streptococci impact both host inflammatory and metabolic regulation suggesting a possible role in the host homeostasis and health. PMID:25946041

  11. Commensal Streptococcus salivarius Modulates PPARγ Transcriptional Activity in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Couvigny, Benoît; de Wouters, Tomas; Kaci, Ghalia; Jacouton, Elsa; Delorme, Christine; Doré, Joël; Renault, Pierre; Blottière, Hervé M; Guédon, Eric; Lapaque, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The impact of commensal bacteria in eukaryotic transcriptional regulation has increasingly been demonstrated over the last decades. A multitude of studies have shown direct effects of commensal bacteria from local transcriptional activity to systemic impact. The commensal bacterium Streptococcus salivarius is one of the early bacteria colonizing the oral and gut mucosal surfaces. It has been shown to down-regulate nuclear transcription factor (NF-кB) in human intestinal cells, a central regulator of the host mucosal immune system response to the microbiota. In order to evaluate its impact on a further important transcription factor shown to link metabolism and inflammation in the intestine, namely PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor), we used human intestinal epithelial cell-lines engineered to monitor PPARγ transcriptional activity in response to a wide range of S. salivarius strains. We demonstrated that different strains from this bacterial group share the property to inhibit PPARγ activation independently of the ligand used. First attempts to identify the nature of the active compounds showed that it is a low-molecular-weight, DNase-, proteases- and heat-resistant metabolite secreted by S. salivarius strains. Among PPARγ-targeted metabolic genes, I-FABP and Angptl4 expression levels were dramatically reduced in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to S. salivarius supernatant. Both gene products modulate lipid accumulation in cells and down-regulating their expression might consequently affect host health. Our study shows that species belonging to the salivarius group of streptococci impact both host inflammatory and metabolic regulation suggesting a possible role in the host homeostasis and health. PMID:25946041

  12. Transcriptomic Analysis of Human Primary Bronchial Epithelial Cells after Chloropicrin Treatment.

    PubMed

    Pesonen, Maija; Storvik, Markus; Kokkola, Tarja; Rysä, Jaana; Vähäkangas, Kirsi; Pasanen, Markku

    2015-10-19

    Chloropicrin is a vaporizing toxic irritant that poses a risk to human health if inhaled, but the mechanism of its toxicity in the respiratory tract is poorly understood. Here, we exposed human primary bronchial epithelial cells (HBEpC) to two concentrations of chloropicrin (10-50 μM) for 6 or 48 h and used genomic microarray, flow cytometry, and TEM-analysis to monitor cellular responses to the exposures. The overall number of differentially expressed transcripts with a fold-change > ± 2 compared to controls increased with longer exposure times. The initial response was activation of genes with a higher number of up- (512 by 10 μM and 408 by 40 μM chloropicrin) rather than down-regulated transcripts (40 by 10 μM and 215 by 40 μM chloropicrin) at 6 h seen with both exposure concentrations. The number of down-regulated transcripts, however, increased with the exposure time. The differentially regulated transcripts were further examined for enriched Gene Ontology Terms (GO) and KEGG-pathways. According to this analysis, the "ribosome" and "oxidative phosphorylation" were the KEGG-pathways predominantly affected by the exposure. The predominantly affected (GO) biological processes were "protein metabolic process" including "translation," "cellular protein complex assembly," and "response to unfolded protein." Furthermore, the top pathways, "NRF2-activated oxidative stress" and "Ah-receptor signaling," were enriched in our data sets by IPA-analysis. Real time qPCR assay of six selected genes agreed with the microarray analysis. In addition, chloropicrin exposure increased the numbers of late S and/or G2/M-phase cells as analyzed by flow cytometry and induced autophagy as revealed by electron microscopy. The targets identified are critical for vital cellular functions reflecting acute toxic responses and are potential causes for the reduced viability of epithelial cells after chloropicrin exposure. PMID:26352163

  13. SHP-2 Mediates Cryptosporidium parvum Infectivity in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Varughese, Eunice A.; Kasper, Susan; Anneken, Emily M.; Yadav, Jagjit S.

    2015-01-01

    The parasite, Cryptosporidium parvum, induces human gastroenteritis through infection of host epithelial cells in the small intestine. During the initial stage of infection, C. parvum is reported to engage host mechanisms at the host cell-parasite interface to form a parasitophorous vacuole. We determined that upon infection, the larger molecular weight proteins in human small intestinal epithelial host cells (FHs 74 Int) appeared to globally undergo tyrosine dephosphorylation. In parallel, expression of the cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase Src homology-2 domain-containing phosphatase 2 (SHP-2) increased in a time-dependent manner. SHP-2 co-localized with the C. parvum sporozoite and this interaction increased the rate of C. parvum infectivity through SH2-mediated SHP-2 activity. Furthermore, we show that one potential target that SHP-2 acts upon is the focal adhesion protein, paxillin, which undergoes moderate dephosphorylation following infection, with inhibition of SHP-2 rescuing paxillin phosphorylation. Importantly, treatment with an inhibitor to SHP-2 and with an inhibitor to paxillin and Src family kinases, effectively decreased the multiplicity of C. parvum infection in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, our study reveals an important role for SHP-2 in the pathogenesis of C. parvum. Furthermore, while host proteins can be recruited to participate in the development of the electron dense band at the host cell-parasite interface, our study implies for the first time that SHP-2 appears to be recruited by the C. parvum sporozoite to regulate infectivity. Taken together, these findings suggest that SHP-2 and its down-stream target paxillin could serve as targets for intervention. PMID:26556238

  14. Transport of stearic acid-based solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) into human epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rohan M; Rajasekaran, Dhivya; Ludford-Menting, Mandy; Eldridge, Daniel S; Palombo, Enzo A; Harding, Ian H

    2016-04-01

    Development of drug delivery systems, as much as the drug molecule itself, is an important consideration for improving drug absorption and bioavailability. The mechanisms by which drug carriers enter target cells can differ depending on their size, surface properties and components. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have gained an increased attention in recent years and are the drug carriers of interest in this paper. They are known to breach the cell-membrane barrier and have been actively sought to transport biomolecules. Previous studies by our group, and also other groups, provided an extensive characterization of SLNs. However, few studies have investigated the uptake of SLNs and these have had limited mechanistic focus. The aim of this work was to investigate the pathway of uptake of SLNs by human epithelial cells i.e., lung A549 and cervical HeLa cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is first study that investigates the cellular uptake of SLNs by human epithelial cells. The mechanism of cellular uptake was deciphered using pharmacologic inhibitors (sucrose, potassium-free buffer, filipin and cytochalasin B). Imaging techniques and flow assisted cell sorting (FACS) were used to assess the cellular uptake of SLNs loaded with rhodamine 123 as a fluorescent probe. This study provided evidence that the cellular uptake of SLNs was energy-dependent, and the endocytosis of SLNs was mainly dependent on clathrin-mediated mechanisms. The establishment of entry mechanism of SLNs is of fundamental importance for future facilitation of SLNs as biological or drug carriers. PMID:26764103

  15. Biodiesel exhaust-induced cytotoxicity and proinflammatory mediator production in human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Benjamin J; Kicic, Anthony; Ling, Kak-Ming; Mead-Hunter, Ryan; Larcombe, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Increasing use of biodiesel has prompted research into the potential health effects of biodiesel exhaust exposure. Few studies directly compare the health consequences of mineral diesel, biodiesel, or blend exhaust exposures. Here, we exposed human epithelial cell cultures to diluted exhaust generated by the combustion of Australian ultralow-sulfur-diesel (ULSD), unprocessed canola oil, 100% canola biodiesel (B100), and a blend of 20% canola biodiesel mixed with 80% ULSD. The physicochemical characteristics of the exhaust were assessed and we compared cellular viability, apoptosis, and levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and Regulated on Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) in exposed cultured cells. Different fuel types produced significantly different amounts of exhaust gases and different particle characteristics. All exposures resulted in significant apoptosis and loss of viability when compared with control, with an increasing proportion of biodiesel being correlated with a decrease in viability. In most cases, exposure to exhaust resulted in an increase in mediator production, with the greatest increases most often in response to B100. Exposure to pure canola oil (PCO) exhaust did not increase mediator production, but resulted in a significant decrease in IL-8 and RANTES in some cases. Our results show that canola biodiesel exhaust exposure elicits inflammation and reduces viability of human epithelial cell cultures in vitro when compared with ULSD exhaust exposure. This may be related to an increase in particle surface area and number in B100 exhaust when compared with ULSD exhaust. Exposure to PCO exhaust elicited the greatest loss of cellular viability, but virtually no inflammatory response, likely due to an overall increase in average particle size. PMID:25045158

  16. PIK3CA mutations and EGFR overexpression predict for lithium sensitivity in human breast epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Michaela J; Beaver, Julia A; Wong, Hong yuen; Gustin, John P; Lauring, Josh D; Garay, Joseph P; Konishi, Hiroyuki; Mohseni, Morassa; Wang, Grace M; Cidado, Justin; Jelovac, Danijela; Cosgrove, David P; Tamaki, Akina; Park, Ben Ho

    2011-01-01

    A high frequency of somatic mutations has been found in breast cancers within the gene encoding the catalytic p110α subunit of PI3K, PIK3CA. Using isogenic human breast epithelial cells, we have previously demonstrated that oncogenic PIK3CA “hotspot” mutations predict for response to the toxic effects of lithium. However, other somatic genetic alterations occur within this pathway in breast cancers, and it is possible that these changes may also predict for lithium sensitivity. We overexpressed the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) into the non-tumorigenic human breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A, and compared these cells to isogenic cell lines previously created via somatic cell gene targeting to model Pten loss, PIK3CA mutations, and the invariant AKT1 mutation, E17K. EGFR overexpressing clones were capable of cellular proliferation in the absence of EGF and were sensitive to lithium similar to the results previously seen with cells harboring PIK3CA mutations. In contrast, AKT1 E17K cells and PTEN−/− cells displayed resistance or partial sensitivity to lithium, respectively. Western blot analysis demonstrated that lithium sensitivity correlated with significant decreases in both PI3K and MAPK signaling that were observed only in EGFR overexpressing and mutant PIK3CA cell lines. These studies demonstrate that EGFR overexpression and PIK3CA mutations are predictors of response to lithium, whereas Pten loss and AKT1 E17K mutations do not predict for lithium sensitivity. Our findings may have important implications for the use of these genetic lesions in breast cancer patients as predictive markers of response to emerging PI3K pathway inhibitors. PMID:21124076

  17. RhoA-JNK Regulates the E-Cadherin Junctions of Human Gingival Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, G; Kim, H J; Kim, H-M

    2016-03-01

    The junctional epithelium (JE) is unique with regard to its wide intercellular spaces and sparsely developed intercellular junctions. Thus, knowledge of the molecular mechanisms that regulate the formation of the intercellular junctions of the junctional epithelium may be essential to understand the pathophysiology of the JE. HOK-16B cells, a normal human gingival epithelial cell line, were used to identify the molecules involved in the regulation of the formation of intercellular E-cadherin junctions between human gingival epithelial cells. Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) disrupted the intercellular junctions through the dissociation of E-cadherin. The role of JNK in the formation of these E-cadherin junctions was further confirmed by demonstrating that JNK inhibition induced the formation of intercellular E-cadherin junctions. The upstream signaling of JNK was also examined. Activation of the small GTPase RhoA disrupted the formation of E-cadherin junctions between HOK-16B cells, which was accompanied by JNK activation. Disruption of these intercellular junctions upon RhoA activation was prevented when JNK activity was inhibited. In contrast, RhoA inactivation led to HOK-16B cell aggregation and the formation of intercellular junctions, even under conditions in which the cellular junctions were naturally disrupted by growth on a strongly adhesive surface. Furthermore, the JE of mouse molars had high JNK activity associated with low E-cadherin expression, which was reversed in the other gingival epithelia, including the sulcular epithelium. Interestingly, JNK activity was increased in cells grown on a solid surface, where cells showed higher RhoA activity than those grown on soft surfaces. Together, these results indicate that the decreased formation of intercellular E-cadherin junctions within the JE may be coupled to high JNK activity, which is activated by the upregulation of RhoA on solid tooth surfaces. PMID:26635280

  18. Oxidative stress mediated cytotoxicity of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jae Woong; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Choi, Yun-Jung; Kwon, Deug-Nam; Park, Jin-Ki; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-09-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of biologically prepared small size of silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cells A549. Herein, we describe a facile method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by treating the supernatant from a culture of Escherichia coli with silver nitrate . The formation of silver nanoparticles was characterized using various analytical techniques. The results from UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis show a characteristic strong resonance centered at 420 nm and a single crystalline nature, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the possible bio-molecules responsible for the reduction of silver from silver nitrate into nanoparticles. The particle size analyzer and transmission electron microscopy results suggest that silver nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average diameter of 15 nm. The results derived from in vitro studies showed a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability when A549 cells were exposed to silver nanoparticles. This decrease in cell viability corresponded to increased leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), increased intracellular reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), and decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP). Furthermore, uptake and intracellular localization of silver nanoparticles were observed and were accompanied by accumulation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes in A549 cells. The results indicate that silver nanoparticles play a significant role in apoptosis. Interestingly, biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles showed more potent cytotoxicity at the concentrations tested compared to that shown by chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles. Therefore, our results demonstrated that human lung epithelial A549 cells could provide a valuable model to assess the cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles.

  19. Uptake and cytotoxic effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Seishiro; Fujitani, Yuji; Furuyama, Akiko; Kanno, Sanae

    2010-11-15

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are cytotoxic to several cell types. However, the mechanism of CNT toxicity has not been fully studied, and dosimetric analyses of CNT in the cell culture system are lacking. Here, we describe a novel, high throughput method to measure cellular uptake of CNT using turbimetry. BEAS-2B, a human bronchial epithelial cell line, was used to investigate cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and inflammatory effects of multi-walled CNT (MWCNT). The cytotoxicity of MWCNT was higher than that of crocidolite asbestos in BEAS-2B cells. The IC{sub 50} of MWCNT was 12 {mu}g/ml, whereas that of asbestos (crocidolite) was 678 {mu}g/ml. Over the course of 5 to 8 h, BEAS-2B cells took up 17-18% of the MWCNT when they were added to the culture medium at a concentration of 10 {mu}g/ml. BEAS-2B cells were exposed to 2, 5, or 10 {mu}g/ml of MWCNT, and total RNA was extracted for cytokine cDNA primer array assays. The culture supernatant was collected for cytokine antibody array assays. Cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 increased in a dose dependent manner at both the mRNA and protein levels. Migration inhibitory factor (MIF) also increased in the culture supernatant in response to MWCNT. A phosphokinase array study using lysates from BEAS-2B cells exposed to MWCNT indicated that phosphorylation of p38, ERK1, and HSP27 increased significantly in response to MWCNT. Results from a reporter gene assays using the NF-{kappa}B or AP-1 promoter linked to the luciferase gene in transiently transfected CHO-KI cells revealed that NF-{kappa}B was activated following MWCNT exposure, while AP-1 was not changed. Collectively, MWCNT activated NF-{kappa}B, enhanced phosphorylation of MAP kinase pathway components, and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines in human bronchial epithelial cells.

  20. Phototoxicity and cytotoxicity of fullerol in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wielgus, Albert R.; Zhao, Baozhong; Chignell, Colin F.; Hu, Dan-Ning; Roberts, Joan E.

    2010-01-01

    The water-soluble nanoparticle hydroxylated fullerene [fullerol, nano-C{sub 60}(OH){sub 22-26}] has several clinical applications including use as a drug carrier to bypass the blood ocular barriers. We have previously found that fullerol is both cytotoxic and phototoxic to human lens epithelial cells (HLE B-3) and that the endogenous antioxidant lutein blocked some of this phototoxicity. In the present study we have found that fullerol induces cytotoxic and phototoxic damage to human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Accumulation of nano-C{sub 60}(OH){sub 22-26} in the cells was confirmed spectrophotometrically at 405 nm, and cell viability, cell metabolism and membrane permeability were estimated using trypan blue, MTS and LDH assays, respectively. Fullerol was cytotoxic toward hRPE cells maintained in the dark at concentrations higher than 10 muM. Exposure to an 8.5 J.cm{sup -2} dose of visible light in the presence of > 5 muM fullerol induced TBARS formation and early apoptosis, indicating phototoxic damage in the form of lipid peroxidation. Pretreatment with 10 and 20 muM lutein offered some protection against fullerol photodamage. Using time resolved photophysical techniques, we have now confirmed that fullerol produces singlet oxygen with a quantum yield of PHI = 0.05 in D{sub 2}O and with a range of 0.002-0.139 in various solvents. As our previous studies have shown that fullerol also produces superoxide in the presence of light, retinal phototoxic damage may occur through both type I (free radical) and type II (singlet oxygen) mechanisms. In conclusion, ocular exposure to fullerol, particularly in the presence of sunlight, may lead to retinal damage.

  1. INDUCTION OF MUTATIONS BY CHEMICAL AGENTS AT THE HYPOXANTHINE-GUANINE PHOSPHORIBOSYL TRANSFERASE LOCUS IN HUMAN EPITHELIAL TERATOMA CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Induction of 6-thioguanine (TG) resistance by chemical mutagens was examined in a line of cells derived from a human epithelial teratocarcinoma cell clone. The cells, designated as P3 cells, have a stable diploid karyotype with 46(XX) chromosomes, including a translocation betwee...

  2. ULTRAFINE CARBON PARTICLES INDUCE IL-8 EXPRESSION IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS THROUGH A POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL MECHANISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ultrafine carbon particles induce IL-8 expression in human airway
    epithelial cells through a post-transcritpional mechanism
    Epidemiological studies suggest that ultrafine particles contribute to
    particulate matter (PM) - induced adverse health effects. IL-8 is an
    i...

  3. INCREASED IL-8 AND IL-6 EXPRESSION IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO CARBON ULTRAFINE PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    INCREASED IL-6 AND IL-8 EXPRESSION IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO CARBON ULTRAFINE PARTICLES.
    R Silbajoris1, A G Lenz2, I Jaspers3, J M Samet1. 1NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA; 2GSF-Institute for Inhalation Biology, Neuherberg, Germany; 3 CEMLB, UNC-CH, Chapel Hill, ...

  4. Zinc Induced G2/M Blockage is p53 and p21 Dependent in Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The involvement of the p53 and p21 signal pathway in the G2/M cell cycle progression of zinc supplemented normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells was examined using the siRNA approach. Cells were cultured for one passage in different concentrations of zinc: <0.4 microM (ZD) as zinc-deficient;...

  5. THE RESPONSE OF A HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELL LINE TO HISTAMINE: INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM CHANGES AND EXTRACELLULAR RELEASE OF INFLAMMATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of airway epithelium-derived factors to inflammation and tissue repair is unclear. ecause human airway epithelia are infrequently available for in vitro studies, transformed epithelial cell lines are of interest as models. e therefore investigated the response of...

  6. INHIBITION OF RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS (RSV)-INDUCED INFLAMMATION BY 3-NITROTYROSINE IN HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhibition of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)-Induced Inflammation by 3-Nitrotyrosine in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells. J. M. Soukup, MPH 1, ZW. Li, MD 2 and YC. T. Huang, MD 1. 1 NHEERL, US Environmental Protection Agency, RTP, NC and 2 CEMALB, University of North Carolina,...

  7. Effect of guaifenesin on mucin production, rheology, and mucociliary transport in differentiated human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Seagrave, JeanClare; Albrecht, Helmut; Park, Yong Sung; Rubin, Bruce; Solomon, Gail; Kim, K Chul

    2011-12-01

    Guaifenesin is widely used to alleviate symptoms of excessive mucus accumulation in the respiratory tract. However, its mechanism of action is poorly understood. The authors hypothesized that guaifenesin improves mucociliary clearance in humans by reducing mucin release, by decreasing mucus viscoelasticity, and by increasing mucociliary transport. To test these hypotheses, human differentiated airway epithelial cells, cultured at an air-liquid interface, were treated with clinically relevant concentrations of guaifenesin by addition to the basolateral medium. To evaluate the effect on mucin secretion, the authors used an anzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure the amounts of MUC5AC protein in apical surface fluid and cell lysates. To measure mucociliary transportability, additional cultures were treated for 1 or 6 hours with guaifenesin, and the movement of cell debris was measured from video data. Further, the authors measured mucus dynamic viscoelasticity using a micro cone and plate rheometer with nondestructive creep transformation. Guaifenesin suppressed mucin production in a dose-dependent manner at clinically relevant concentrations. The reduced mucin production was associated with increased mucociliary transport and decreased viscoelasticity of the mucus. Viability of the cultures was not significantly affected. These results suggest that guaifenesin could improve mucociliary clearance in humans by reducing the release and/or production of mucins, thereby altering mucus rheology. PMID:22044398

  8. Effects of light-emitting diode radiations on human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, Eva; Bonnin-Arias, Cristina; Pérez-Carrasco, María Jesús; Muñoz de Luna, Javier; Vázquez, Daniel; Sánchez-Ramos, Celia

    2013-01-01

    Human visual system is exposed to high levels of natural and artificial lights of different spectra and intensities along lifetime. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are the basic lighting components in screens of PCs, phones and TV sets; hence it is so important to know the implications of LED radiations on the human visual system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of LEDs radiations on human retinal pigment epithelial cells (HRPEpiC). They were exposed to three light-darkness (12 h/12 h) cycles, using blue-468 nm, green-525 nm, red-616 nm and white light. Cellular viability of HRPEpiC was evaluated by labeling all nuclei with DAPI; Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined by H2DCFDA staining; mitochondrial membrane potential was quantified by TMRM staining; DNA damage was determined by H2AX histone activation, and apoptosis was evaluated by caspases-3,-7 activation. It is shown that LED radiations decrease 75-99% cellular viability, and increase 66-89% cellular apoptosis. They also increase ROS production and DNA damage. Fluorescence intensity of apoptosis was 3.7% in nonirradiated cells and 88.8%, 86.1%, 83.9% and 65.5% in cells exposed to white, blue, green or red light, respectively. This study indicates three light-darkness (12 h/12 h) cycles of exposure to LED lighting affect in vitro HRPEpiC. PMID:22989198

  9. Atrazine Affects Phosphoprotein and Protein Expression in MCF-10A Human Breast Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Peixin; Yang, John; Song, Qisheng; Sheehan, David

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine, a member of the 2-chloro-s-triazine family of herbicides, is the most widely used pesticide in the world and often detected in agriculture watersheds. Although it was generally considered as an endocrine disruptor, posing a potential threat to human health, the molecular mechanisms of atrazine effects remain unclear. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we identified a panel of differentially expressed phosphoproteins and total proteins in human breast epithelial MCF-10A cells after being exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of atrazine. Atrazine treatments for 6 h resulted in differential expression of 4 phosphoproteins and 8 total-proteins as compared to the control cells (>1.5-fold, p < 0.05). MALDI-TOF MS/MS analysis revealed that the differentially expressed proteins belong to various cellular compartments (nucleus, cytosol, membrane) and varied in function, including those regulating the stress response such as peroxiredoxin I, HSP70 and HSP27; structural proteins such as tropomyosin and profilin 1; and oncogenesis proteins such as ANP32A. Six of the 12 identified proteins were verified by quantitative PCR for their transcript levels. The most up-regulated phosphoprotein by atrazine treatment, ANP32A, was further analyzed for its expression, distribution and cellular localization using Western blot and immunocytochemical approaches. The results revealed that ANP32 expression after atrazine treatment increased dose and time dependently and was primarily located in the nucleus. This study may provide new evidence on the potential toxicity of atrazine in human cells. PMID:25275270

  10. Genotoxic effects of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human and rat mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mane, S.S.; Purnell, D.M.; Hsu, Ih-chang )

    1990-01-01

    Five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of different carcinogenic activities were evaluated for their effects on DNA synthesis ({sup 3}HTdR labeling index (L.I.)) of rat and human mammary epithelial cells (MEC) and for their effects on chromosomes in MEC-mediated sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assays. When compared with DMSO-treated cells, exposures of rat MEC to the two most potent carcinogens, i.e., 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), resulted in a 45-62% reduction in the L.I. of rat MEC. Another carcinogen, 20-methylcholanthrene (MCA), produced a 35-48% reduction in L.I., while the noncarcinogenic PAHs, 1,2-benzanthracene (BA) and benzo(e)pyrene (B(e)P), showed no effect. Similarly, exposures of human MEC to DMBA and B(a)P resulted in a 50-90% depression in L.I. while BA was significantly less effective. When co-cultivated with Chinese hamster V-79 cells in the presence of PAH, both rat and human MEC can activate and release the active metabolites to induce SCE in V-79 cells. Comparing depression of L.I., SCE, and in vivo carcinogenicity for the 5 PAHs, SCE mediated by rat MEC is better correlated with carcinogenicity in rat than L.I. depression.

  11. 4-hydroxynonenal regulates mitochondrial function in human small airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Galam, Lakshmi; Failla, Athena; Soundararajan, Ramani; Lockey, Richard F; Kolliputi, Narasaiah

    2015-12-01

    Prolonged exposure to oxidative stress causes Acute Lung Injury (ALI) and significantly impairs pulmonary function. Previously we have demonstrated that mitochondrial dysfunction is a key pathological factor in hyperoxic ALI. While it is known that hyperoxia induces the production of stable, but toxic 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) molecule, it is unknown how the reactive aldehyde disrupts mitochondrial function. Our previous in vivo study indicated that exposure to hyperoxia significantly increases 4-HNE-Protein adducts, as well as levels of MDA in total lung homogenates. Based on the in vivo studies, we explored the effects of 4-HNE in human small airway epithelial cells (SAECs). Human SAECs treated with 25 μM of 4-HNE showed a significant decrease in cellular viability and increased caspase-3 activity. Moreover, 4-HNE treated SAECs showed impaired mitochondrial function and energy production indicated by reduced ATP levels, mitochondrial membrane potential, and aconitase activity. This was followed by a significant decrease in mitochondrial oxygen consumption and depletion of the reserve capacity. The direct effect of 4-HNE on the mitochondrial respiratory chain was confirmed using Rotenone. Furthermore, SAECs treated with 25 μM 4-HNE showed a time-dependent depletion of total Thioredoxin (Trx) proteins and Trx activity. Taken together, our results indicate that 4-HNE induces cellular and mitochondrial dysfunction in human SAECs, leading to an impaired endogenous antioxidant response. PMID:26484418

  12. Chronic inorganic arsenic exposure in vitro induces a cancer cell phenotype in human peripheral lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Person, Rachel J.; Olive Ngalame, Ntube N.; Makia, Ngome L.; Bell, Matthew W.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Tokar, Erik J.

    2015-07-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a human lung carcinogen. We studied the ability of chronic inorganic arsenic (2 μM; as sodium arsenite) exposure to induce a cancer phenotype in the immortalized, non-tumorigenic human lung peripheral epithelial cell line, HPL-1D. After 38 weeks of continuous arsenic exposure, secreted matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) activity increased to over 200% of control, levels linked to arsenic-induced cancer phenotypes in other cell lines. The invasive capacity of these chronic arsenic-treated lung epithelial (CATLE) cells increased to 320% of control and colony formation increased to 280% of control. CATLE cells showed enhanced proliferation in serum-free media indicative of autonomous growth. Compared to control cells, CATLE cells showed reduced protein expression of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN (decreased to 26% of control) and the putative tumor suppressor gene SLC38A3 (14% of control). Morphological evidence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurred in CATLE cells together with appropriate changes in expression of the EMT markers vimentin (VIM; increased to 300% of control) and e-cadherin (CDH1; decreased to 16% of control). EMT is common in carcinogenic transformation of epithelial cells. CATLE cells showed increased KRAS (291%), ERK1/2 (274%), phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK; 152%), and phosphorylated AKT1 (p-AKT1; 170%) protein expression. Increased transcript expression of metallothioneins, MT1A and MT2A and the stress response genes HMOX1 (690%) and HIF1A (247%) occurred in CATLE cells possibly in adaptation to chronic arsenic exposure. Thus, arsenic induced multiple cancer cell characteristics in human peripheral lung epithelial cells. This model may be useful to assess mechanisms of arsenic-induced lung cancer. - Highlights: • Chronic arsenic exposure transforms a human peripheral lung epithelia cell line. • Cells acquire characteristics in common with human lung adenocarcinoma cells. • These transformed cells provide a

  13. Interferon-gamma increased epithelial barrier function via upregulating claudin-7 expression in human submandibular gland duct epithelium.

    PubMed

    Abe, Ayumi; Takano, Kenichi; Kojima, Takashi; Nomura, Kazuaki; Kakuki, Takuya; Kaneko, Yakuto; Yamamoto, Motohisa; Takahashi, Hiroki; Himi, Tetsuo

    2016-06-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are necessary for salivary gland function and may serve as indicators of salivary gland epithelial dysfunction. IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a newly recognized fibro-inflammatory condition which disrupts the TJ associated epithelial barrier. The salivary glands are one of the most frequently involved organs in IgG4-RD, however, changes of the TJ associated epithelial barrier in salivary gland duct epithelium is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the regulation and function of TJs in human submandibular gland ductal epithelial cells (HSDECs) in normal and IgG4-RD. We examined submandibular gland (SMG) tissue from eight control individuals and 22 patients with IgG4-RD and established an HSDEC culture system. Immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, western blotting, and measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) were performed. Claudin-4, claudin-7, occludin, and JAM-A were expressed at the apical side of the duct epithelium in submandibular gland (SMG) tissue and at the cell borders in HSDECs of normal and IgG4-RD. The expression and distribution of TJs in SMG tissue were not different in control individuals and patients with IgG4-RD in vivo and in vitro. Although interferon-gamma (IFNγ) generally disrupts the integrity and function of TJs, as manifested by decreased epithelial barrier function, IFNγ markedly increased the epithelial barrier function of HSDECs via upregulation of claudin-7 expression in HSDECs from patients with IgG4-RD. This is the first report showing an IFNγ-dependent increase in epithelial barrier function in the salivary gland duct epithelium. Our results provide insights into the functional significance of TJs in salivary gland duct epithelium in physiological and pathological conditions, including IgG4-RD. PMID:26956365

  14. Enediyne lidamycin enhances the effect of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, gefitinib, in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells and lung carcinoma H460 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Li, Liang; Li, Xing-Qi; Liu, Xiu-Jun; Zhen, Yong-Su

    2009-01-01

    Gefitinib, a low-molecular-weight epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is effective in a wide variety of tumor types. Preclinical studies have shown potentiated antitumor efficacies of this agent in combination with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The antitumor antibiotic lidamycin (LDM) showed extremely potent cytotoxicity in vitro and marked therapeutic effect in vivo. In this report, the cytotoxic and biochemical activity of LDM and gefitinib on human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells and human large cell lung cancer H460 cells as a single agent or in combination has been evaluated. In the MTT assay, LDM showed much more potent cytotoxicity than gefitinib to both cell lines. A431 cells with a highly EGFR-expressing level were more sensitive to gefitinib than H460 cells, which expressed EGFR at an intermediate level. LDM plus gefitinib showed potentiation of antiproliferative activity and apoptosis induction, which were associated with downregulation of EGFR signaling pathway and nuclear factor-kappa B expression, and the increase of cleaved poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase in the two cell lines, although to a lesser degree in H460 cells. Combined treatment induced G1 phase arrest similar to that of gefitinib alone in A431 cells and intensified G2/M phase accumulation in H460 cells. The above results indicate that LDM potentiates the effects of gefitinib in both gefitinib sensitive and less sensitive cells in association with enhanced inhibition of EGFR-dependent signaling. PMID:19342999

  15. Protein 4.1-mediated membrane targeting of human discs large in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hanada, Toshihiko; Takeuchi, Atsuko; Sondarva, Gautam; Chishti, Athar H

    2003-09-01

    Human discs large (hDlg) protein binds to protein 4.1R via a motif encoded by an alternatively spliced exon located between the SH3 and the C-terminal guanylate kinase-like domains. To evaluate the functional significance of protein 4.1R binding for subcellular localization of hDlg in vivo, we expressed full-length recombinant constructs of two naturally occurring isoforms of hDlg termed hDlg-I2 and hDlg-I3. The hDlg-I3 but not the hDlg-I2 isoform binds to the FERM (Four.1-Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin) domain of protein 4.1R in vitro. Upon transient transfection into subconfluent Madine-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells, the hDlg-I3 fused with the green fluorescent protein accumulated predominantly at the plasma membrane of cell-cell contact sites, whereas the hDlg-I2 fusion protein distributed in the cytoplasm. In contrast, in stably transfected confluent MDCK cells, both hDlg-I2 and -I3 isoforms localized efficiently to the lateral membrane, consistent with the previous notion that the N-terminal domain of hDlg mediates its membrane targeting in polarized epithelial cells. We introduced a double mutation (I38A/I40A) into the N-terminal domain of hDlg, which disrupted its interaction with DLG2, a key event in the membrane targeting of hDlg. Interestingly, the hDlg-I2 isoform harboring the I38A/I40A mutation mislocalized from the membrane into cytoplasm. Importantly, the hDlg-I3 isoform with the same mutation localized efficiently to the membrane of confluent MDCK cells. Together, our results demonstrate that in addition to the N-terminal targeting domain, the alternatively spliced I3 insertion plays a critical role in recruiting hDlg to the lateral membrane in epithelial cells via its interaction with protein 4.1R. PMID:12807908

  16. Ocimum sanctum extracts attenuate hydrogen peroxide induced cytotoxic ultrastructural changes in human lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Halder, Nabanita; Joshi, Sujata; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Tandon, Radhika; Gupta, Suresh Kumar

    2009-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is the major oxidant involved in cataract formation. The present study investigated the effect of an aqueous leaf extract of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) against H2O2 induced cytotoxic changes in human lens epithelial cells (HLEC). Donor eyes of the age range 20-40 years were procured within 5-8 h of death. After several washings with gentamicin (50 mL/L) and betadine (10 mL/L), clear transparent lenses (n=6 in each group) were incubated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) alone (normal) or in DMEM containing 100 microm of H2O2 (control) or in DMEM containing both H2O2 (100 microm) and 150 microg/mL of Ocimum sanctum extract (treated) for 30 min at 37 degrees C with 5% CO2 and 95% air. Following incubation, the semi-hardened epithelium of each lens was carefully removed, fixed and processed for electron microscopic studies. Thin sections (60-70 mm) were contrasted with uranyl acetate and lead citrate and viewed under a transmission electron microscope. Normal epithelial cells showed intact, euchromatic nucleus with few small vacuoles (diameter 0.58+/-0.6 microm) in well-demarcated cytoplasm. After treatment with H2O2, they showed pyknotic nuclei with clumping of chromatin and ill-defined edges. The cytoplasm was full of vacuoles (diameter 1.61+/-0.7 microm). The overall cellular morphology was typical of dying cells. Treatment of cells with Ocimum sanctum extract protected the epithelial cells from H2O2 insult and maintained their normal architecture. The mean diameter of the vacuoles was 0.66+/-0.2 microm. The results indicate that extracts of O. sanctum have an important protective role against H2O2 injury in HLEC by maintaining the normal cellular architecture. The protection could be due to its ability to reduce H2O2 through its antioxidant property and thus reinforcing the concept that the extracts can penetrate the HLEC membrane. PMID:19441070

  17. Phenotypic and genotypic association of epithelial IL1RL1 to human TH2-like asthma

    PubMed Central

    Traister, Russell S.; Uvalle, Crystal E.; Hawkins, Gregory A.; Meyers, Deborah A.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Wenzel, Sally E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe asthma remains poorly characterized, although it likely consists of at least 1 phenotype with features of TH2-like inflammation. IL1RL1, encoding both the IL-33 receptor, ST2L, and decoy receptor, sST2, has been genetically associated with asthma, though the mechanism for susceptibility remains unknown. Objective Given previous data supporting a role for IL1RL1 in TH2 inflammation, we hypothesized that ST2L expression might be increased in TH2-like asthma and that expression levels would be associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms in IL1RL1, possibly explaining its genetic relationship with asthma. We also sought to evaluate the regulation of ST2L and sST2 in vitro. Methods Endobronchial brushings and biopsies were obtained and expression of ST2L compared by severity levels, as well as by TH2-like biomarkers. Subjects were genotyped and the relationship of dichotomous expression of ST2L and sST2 to single nucleotide polymorphisms in IL1RL1 were determined. Epithelial cells were grown in air-liquid interface culture, and ST2L and sST2 responses to IFN-γ and IL-13 were evaluated. Results ST2L expression was increased in severe asthma (P = .02) and associated with multiple indicators of TH2-like inflammation, including blood eosinophils (P = .001), exhaled nitric oxide (P = .003), and epithelial CLCA1 (P < .0001) and eotaxin-3 (P = .001) mRNA expression. Multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms in IL1RL1 were found in relation to dichotomous expression of both ST2L and sST2. sST2 expression was associated with IFN-γ expression in bronchoalveolar lavage, while inducing its expression in vitro in primary human epithelial cells. Conclusion Both pathologic and genetic approaches support a role for IL1RL1 in severe asthma, as well as TH2-lke asthma, suggesting that targeting this pathway may have therapeutic benefits. PMID:25091434

  18. Clarifying CB2 receptor-dependent and independent effects of THC on human lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sarafian, Theodore Montes, Cindy; Harui, Airi; Beedanagari, Sudheer R.; Kiertscher, Sylvia; Stripecke, Renata; Hossepian, Derik; Kitchen, Christina; Kern, Rita; Belperio, John; Roth, Michael D.

    2008-09-15

    Marijuana smoking is associated with a number of abnormal findings in the lungs of habitual smokers. Previous studies revealed that {delta}{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) caused mitochondrial injury in primary lung epithelial cells and in the cell line, A549 [Sarafian, T. A., Kouyoumjian, S., Khoshaghideh, F., Tashkin, D. P., and Roth, M. D. (2003). Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol disrupts mitochondrial function and cell energetics. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 284, L298-306; Sarafian, T., Habib, N., Mao, J. T., Tsu, I. H., Yamamoto, M. L., Hsu, E., Tashkin, D. P., and Roth, M. D. (2005). Gene expression changes in human small airway epithelial cells exposed to Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Toxicol Lett 158, 95-107]. The role of cannabinoid receptors in this injury was unclear, as was the potential impact on cell function. In order to investigate these questions, A549 cells were engineered to over-express the type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) using a self-inactivating lentiviral vector. This transduction resulted in a 60-fold increase in CB2R mRNA relative to cells transduced with a control vector. Transduced cell lines were used to study the effects of THC on chemotactic activity and mitochondrial function. Chemotaxis in response to a 10% serum gradient was suppressed in a concentration-dependent manner by exposure to THC. CB2R-transduced cells exhibited less intrinsic chemotactic activity (p < 0.05) and were 80- to 100-fold more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of THC. Studies using SR144528, a selective CB2R antagonist, verified that these effects were mediated by the CB2R. Marijuana smoke extract, but not smoke extracts from tobacco or placebo marijuana cigarettes, reproduced these effects (p < 0.05). THC decreased ATP level and mitochondrial membrane potential ({psi}{sub m}) in both control and CB2R-transduced cells. However, these decreases did not play a significant role in chemotaxis inhibition since cyclosporine A, which protected against ATP loss

  19. The response of a human bronchial epithelial cell line to histamine: Intracellular calcium changes and extracellular release of inflammatory mediators

    SciTech Connect

    Noah, T.L.; Paradiso, A.M.; Madden, M.C.; McKinnon, K.P.; Devlin, R.B. )

    1991-11-01

    Epithelial cells are likely to modulate inflammation and tissue repair in the airways, but the factors responsible for these processes remain unclear. Because human airway epithelia are infrequently available for in vitro studies, transformed epithelial cell lines are of interest as models. The authors therefore investigated the response of an SV-40/adenovirus-transformed human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) to histamine, a mediator with relevance for airway diseases. The intracellular calcium response to histamine (10(-4) M) was measured, using Fura-2 and microspectrofluorimetry. Histamine induced a transient increase in intracellular calcium that originated from intracellular sources; this effect was inhibited by the H1 receptor antagonist diphenhydramine, suggesting that BEAS cells retain functioning histamine receptors. BEAS cells were grown to confluence on microporous, collagen-coated filters, allowing measurement of vectorial release of soluble mediators. Monolayers exposed to histamine for 30 min released interleukin-6 and fibronectin in the apical direction, in a dose-dependent manner. Little eicosanoid production was induced by histamine, either in the apical or the basolateral direction, although BEAS cells constitutively produced small amounts of prostaglandin E2 and 15-HETE. However, these cells formed large amounts of eicosanoids in response to ozone exposure as a positive control. Comparison of their data with published reports for human airway epithelia in primary culture suggests that the BEAS cell line is, in a number of respects, a relevant model for the study of airway epithelial responses to a variety of stimuli.

  20. CsrRS and environmental pH regulate group B streptococcus adherence to human epithelial cells and extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Park, Su Eun; Jiang, Shengmei; Wessels, Michael R

    2012-11-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus or GBS) is a common colonizer of the gastrointestinal and genital tracts and an important cause of invasive infections in newborn infants and in adults with predisposing chronic conditions or advanced age. Attachment to epithelial surfaces at mucosal sites is a critical step in the successful colonization of a human host, and regulation of this process is likely to play an important role in both commensalism and dissemination to cause invasive disease. We found that inactivation of the CsrRS (or CovRS) two-component system increased GBS adherence to epithelial cells derived from human vaginal, cervical, and respiratory epithelium, as well as increasing adherence to extracellular matrix proteins and increasing biofilm formation on polystyrene. Neutral (as opposed to acidic) pH enhanced GBS binding to vaginal epithelial cells and to fibrinogen and fibronectin, effects that were partially dependent on CsrRS. The regulatory effects of CsrRS and environmental pH on bacterial adherence correlated with their effects on the expression of multiple surface adhesins, as assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. We conclude that GBS adherence to epithelial and abiotic surfaces is regulated by the CsrRS two-component system and by environmental pH through their regulatory effects on the expression of bacterial surface adhesins. Dynamic regulation of GBS adherence enhances the organism's adaptability to survival in multiple niches in the human host. PMID:22949550

  1. CsrRS and Environmental pH Regulate Group B Streptococcus Adherence to Human Epithelial Cells and Extracellular Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Park, Su Eun; Jiang, Shengmei

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus or GBS) is a common colonizer of the gastrointestinal and genital tracts and an important cause of invasive infections in newborn infants and in adults with predisposing chronic conditions or advanced age. Attachment to epithelial surfaces at mucosal sites is a critical step in the successful colonization of a human host, and regulation of this process is likely to play an important role in both commensalism and dissemination to cause invasive disease. We found that inactivation of the CsrRS (or CovRS) two-component system increased GBS adherence to epithelial cells derived from human vaginal, cervical, and respiratory epithelium, as well as increasing adherence to extracellular matrix proteins and increasing biofilm formation on polystyrene. Neutral (as opposed to acidic) pH enhanced GBS binding to vaginal epithelial cells and to fibrinogen and fibronectin, effects that were partially dependent on CsrRS. The regulatory effects of CsrRS and environmental pH on bacterial adherence correlated with their effects on the expression of multiple surface adhesins, as assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. We conclude that GBS adherence to epithelial and abiotic surfaces is regulated by the CsrRS two-component system and by environmental pH through their regulatory effects on the expression of bacterial surface adhesins. Dynamic regulation of GBS adherence enhances the organism's adaptability to survival in multiple niches in the human host. PMID:22949550

  2. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Modulates Cell Death in Human Endocervical Epithelial Cells through Export of Exosome-Associated cIAP2

    PubMed Central

    Nudel, Kathleen; Massari, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Several bacterial pathogens persist and survive in the host by modulating host cell death pathways. We previously demonstrated that Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a Gram-negative pathogen responsible for the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea, protects against exogenous induction of apoptosis in human cervical epithelial cells. However, induction of cell death by N. gonorrhoeae has also been reported in other cell types. The mechanisms by which N. gonorrhoeae modulates cell death are not clear, although a role for the inhibitor of apoptosis-2 (cIAP2) has been proposed. In this study, we confirmed that N. gonorrhoeae induces production of cIAP2 in human cervical epithelial cells. High levels of intracellular cIAP2 were detected early after N. gonorrhoeae stimulation, which was followed by a marked decrease at 24 h. At this time point, we observed increased levels of extracellular cIAP2 associated with exosomes and an overall increase in production of exosomes. Inhibition of cIAP2 in N. gonorrhoeae-stimulated epithelial cells resulted in increased cell death and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production. Collectively these results indicate that N. gonorrhoeae stimulation of human endocervical epithelial cells induces the release of cIAP2, an essential regulator of cell death and immune signaling. PMID:26077759

  3. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Modulates Cell Death in Human Endocervical Epithelial Cells through Export of Exosome-Associated cIAP2.

    PubMed

    Nudel, Kathleen; Massari, Paola; Genco, Caroline A

    2015-09-01

    Several bacterial pathogens persist and survive in the host by modulating host cell death pathways. We previously demonstrated that Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a Gram-negative pathogen responsible for the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea, protects against exogenous induction of apoptosis in human cervical epithelial cells. However, induction of cell death by N. gonorrhoeae has also been reported in other cell types. The mechanisms by which N. gonorrhoeae modulates cell death are not clear, although a role for the inhibitor of apoptosis-2 (cIAP2) has been proposed. In this study, we confirmed that N. gonorrhoeae induces production of cIAP2 in human cervical epithelial cells. High levels of intracellular cIAP2 were detected early after N. gonorrhoeae stimulation, which was followed by a marked decrease at 24 h. At this time point, we observed increased levels of extracellular cIAP2 associated with exosomes and an overall increase in production of exosomes. Inhibition of cIAP2 in N. gonorrhoeae-stimulated epithelial cells resulted in increased cell death and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production. Collectively these results indicate that N. gonorrhoeae stimulation of human endocervical epithelial cells induces the release of cIAP2, an essential regulator of cell death and immune signaling. PMID:26077759

  4. Effects of the Probiotic Enterococcus faecium and Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strains in a Pig and Human Epithelial Intestinal Cell Model

    PubMed Central

    Lodemann, Ulrike; Strahlendorf, Julia; Schierack, Peter; Klingspor, Shanti; Aschenbach, Jörg R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to elucidate the effect of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 on epithelial integrity in intestinal epithelial cells and whether pre- and coincubation with this strain can reproducibly prevent damage induced by enterotoxigenic (ETEC) and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). Porcine (IPEC-J2) and human (Caco-2) intestinal epithelial cells were incubated with bacterial strains and epithelial integrity was assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and mannitol flux rates. E. faecium alone increased TEER of Caco-2 cells without affecting mannitol fluxes whereas the E. coli strains decreased TEER and concomitantly increased mannitol flux rates in both cell lines. Preincubation with E. faecium had no effect on the TEER decrease induced by E. coli in preliminary experiments. However, in a second set of experiments using a slightly different protocol, E. faecium ameliorated the TEER decrease induced by ETEC at 4 h in IPEC-J2 and at 2, 4, and 6 h in Caco-2 cells. We conclude that E. faecium positively affected epithelial integrity in monoinfected Caco-2 cells and could ameliorate the damage on TEER induced by an ETEC strain. Reproducibility of the results is, however, limited when experiments are performed with living bacteria over longer periods. PMID:25883829

  5. E-Cigarette Affects the Metabolome of Primary Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aug, Argo; Altraja, Siiri; Kilk, Kalle; Porosk, Rando; Soomets, Ursel; Altraja, Alan

    2015-01-01

    E-cigarettes are widely believed to be safer than conventional cigarettes and have been even suggested as aids for smoking cessation. However, while reasonable with some regards, this judgment is not yet supported by adequate biomedical research data. Since bronchial epithelial cells are the immediate target of inhaled toxicants, we hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes may affect the metabolome of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) and that the changes are, at least in part, induced by oxidant-driven mechanisms. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of e-cigarette liquid (ECL) on the metabolome of HBEC and examined the potency of antioxidants to protect the cells. We assessed the changes of the intracellular metabolome upon treatment with ECL in comparison of the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) with mass spectrometry and principal component analysis on air-liquid interface model of normal HBEC. Thereafter, we evaluated the capability of the novel antioxidant tetrapeptide O-methyl-l-tyrosinyl-γ-l-glutamyl-l-cysteinylglycine (UPF1) to attenuate the effect of ECL. ECL caused a significant shift in the metabolome that gradually gained its maximum by the 5th hour and receded by the 7th hour. A second alteration followed at the 13th hour. Treatment with CSC caused a significant initial shift already by the 1st hour. ECL, but not CSC, significantly increased the concentrations of arginine, histidine, and xanthine. ECL, in parallel with CSC, increased the content of adenosine diphosphate and decreased that of three lipid species from the phosphatidylcholine family. UPF1 partially counteracted the ECL-induced deviations, UPF1’s maximum effect occurred at the 5th hour. The data support our hypothesis that ECL profoundly alters the metabolome of HBEC in a manner, which is comparable and partially overlapping with the effect of CSC. Hence, our results do not support the concept of harmlessness of e-cigarettes. PMID:26536230

  6. Human lung epithelial cells progressed to malignancy through specific oncogenic manipulations

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Mitsuo; Larsen, Jill E.; Lee, Woochang; Sun, Han; Shames, David S.; Dalvi, Maithili P.; Ramirez, Ruben D.; Tang, Hao; DiMaio, J. Michael; Gao, Boning; Xie, Yang; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Gazdar, Adi F.; Shay, Jerry W.; Minna, John D.

    2013-01-01

    We used CDK4/hTERT-immortalized normal human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) from several individuals to study lung cancer pathogenesis by introducing combinations of common lung cancer oncogenic changes (p53, KRAS, MYC) and followed the stepwise transformation of HBECs to full malignancy. This model demonstrated that: 1) the combination of five genetic alterations (CDK4, hTERT, sh-p53, KRASV12, and c-MYC) is sufficient for full tumorigenic conversion of HBECs; 2) genetically-identical clones of transformed HBECs exhibit pronounced differences in tumor growth, histology, and differentiation; 3) HBECs from different individuals vary in their sensitivity to transformation by these oncogenic manipulations; 4) high levels of KRASV12 are required for full malignant transformation of HBECs, however prior loss of p53 function is required to prevent oncogene-induced senescence; 5) over-expression of c-MYC greatly enhances malignancy but only in the context of sh-p53+KRASV12; 6) growth of parental HBECs in serum-containing medium induces differentiation while growth of oncogenically manipulated HBECs in serum increases in vivo tumorigenicity, decreases tumor latency, produces more undifferentiated tumors, and induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT); 7) oncogenic transformation of HBECs leads to increased sensitivity to standard chemotherapy doublets; 8) an mRNA signature derived by comparing tumorigenic vs. non-tumorigenic clones was predictive of outcome in lung cancer patients. Collectively, our findings demonstrate this HBEC model system can be used to study the effect of oncogenic mutations, their expression levels, and serum-derived environmental effects in malignant transformation, while also providing clinically translatable applications such as development of prognostic signatures and drug response phenotypes. PMID:23449933

  7. Regulation of sucrase-isomaltase gene expression in human intestinal epithelial cells by inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Ziambaras, T; Rubin, D C; Perlmutter, D H

    1996-01-12

    Using metabolic labeling techniques in human intestinal epithelial cell lines in tissue culture and in situ hybridization techniques in normal and inflamed (Crohn's) intestine, recent studies have shown that there is synthesis of acute phase proteins in enterocytes. Moreover, these studies have shown that acute phase protein biosynthesis in enterocytes is regulated by inflammatory cytokines in a manner characteristic of the physiologic acute phase response. In the course of these studies it was noticed that one inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), mediated selective down-regulation of the enterocyte-specific, differentiation-dependent integral membrane protein sucrase-isomaltase (SI) in the Caco2 intestinal epithelial cell line. In the current study we examined the effect of several other inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1 beta), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), and interferon gamma (IFN gamma) on synthesis of SI in Caco2 cells, examined the possibility that inflammatory cytokines affect the synthesis of other enterocyte integral membrane proteins using lactase as a prototype, and examined the possibility that SI gene expression was down-regulated in villous enterocytes in vivo during the local inflammatory response of Crohn's disease. The results show that IL-6 and IFN gamma each mediate a decrease and TNF alpha mediates an increase in synthesis of SI in Caco2 cells. The magnitude of down-regulation by IL-6 and IFN gamma is significantly greater than the up-regulation by TNF alpha. IL-1 beta has no effect on synthesis of SI. Synthesis of lactase is not affected by any of the cytokines. There is a marked specific decrease in SI gene expression in villous enterocytes in acutely inflamed Crohn's ileum as compared to adjacent uninflamed ileum and normal ileum. Taken together, these data show that inflammatory cytokines have specific and selective effects on the expression of the brush border hydrolase SI in tissue culture and in vivo and

  8. Ozonolysis products of membrane fatty acids activate eicosanoid metabolism in human airway epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Leikauf, G.D.; Zhao, Q.; Zhou, S.; Santrock, J. )

    1993-12-01

    When inhaled, ozone reacts at the airway luminal surface with unsaturated fatty acids contained in the extracellular fluid and plasma membrane to form an aldehyde and hydroxyhydroperoxide. The resulting hydroxyhydroperoxide degrades in aqueous systems to yield a second aldehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Previously, we demonstrated that ozone can augment eicosanoid metabolism in bovine airway epithelial cells. To examine structure-activity relationships of ozone-fatty acid degradation products on eicosanoid metabolism in human airway epithelial cells, 3-, 6-, and 9-carbon saturated aldehydes and hydroxyhydroperoxides were synthesized and purified. Eicosanoid metabolism was evaluated by determination of total 3H-activity release from confluent cells previously incubated with [3H]arachidonic acid and by identification of specific metabolites with high performance liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay. The major metabolites detected were prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2 alpha, and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid. The 9-carbon aldehyde, nonanal, in contrast to 3- or 6-carbon aldehydes, stimulated release at concentrations > or = 100 microM, suggesting that the stimulatory effect increases with increasing chain length. When tested under identical conditions, the 3-, 6-, and 9-carbon hydroxyhydroperoxides were more potent than the corresponding aldehydes. Again, a greater effect was noted when the chain length was increased. One possible explanation for the increased potency of the hydroxyhydroperoxides over the aldehydes could be due to degradation of the hydroxyhydroperoxide into H2O2 and aldehyde. We consider this an unlikely explanation because responses varied with chain length (although each hydroxyhydroperoxide would produce an equivalent amount of H2O2) and because exposure to H2O2 alone or H2O2 plus hexanal produced a response dissimilar to 1-hydroxy-1-hexanehydroperoxide.

  9. CULTURE CONDITIONS PROFOUNDLY IMPACT PHENOTYPE IN BEAS-2B, A HUMAN PULMONARY EPITHELIAL MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Fei; Klimecki, Walter T.

    2015-01-01

    BEAS-2B, an immortalized, human lung epithelial cell line, has been used to model pulmonary epithelial function for over 30 years. The BEAS-2B phenotype can be modulated by culture conditions that include the presence or absence of fetal bovine serum (FBS). The popularity of BEAS-2B as a model of arsenic toxicology, and the common use of BEAS-2B cultured both with and without FBS, led us to investigate the impact of FBS on BEAS-2B in the context of arsenic toxicology. Comparison of genome-wide gene expression in BEAS-2B cultured with or without FBS revealed altered expression in several biological pathways, including those related to carcinogenesis and energy metabolism. Real-time measurements of oxygen consumption and glycolysis in BEAS-2B demonstrated that FBS culture conditions were associated with a 1.4-fold increase in total glycolytic capacity, a 1.9-fold increase in basal respiration, a 2.0-fold increase in oxygen consumed for ATP production, and a 2.8-fold increase in maximal respiration, compared to BEAS-2B cultured without FBS. Comparisons of the transcriptome changes in BEAS-2B resulting from FBS exposure to the transcriptome changes resulting from exposure to 1 μM sodium arsenite revealed that mRNA levels of 43% of the arsenite-modulated genes were also modulated by FBS. Cytotoxicity studies revealed that BEAS-2B cells exposed to 5% FBS for 8 weeks were almost 5 times more sensitive to arsenite cytotoxicity than non-FBS-exposed BEAS-2B cells. Phenotype changes induced in BEAS-2B by FBS suggest that culture conditions should be carefully considered when using BEAS-2B as an experimental model of arsenic toxicity. PMID:25524072

  10. Calcium dependent and independent cytokine synthesis by air pollution particle-exposed human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Noriho; Hayashi, Shizu; Gosselink, John; Ishii, Hiroshi; Ishimatsu, Yuji; Mukae, Hiroshi; Hogg, James C.; Eeden, Stephan F. van

    2007-12-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution particles with a diameter of < 10 {mu}m (PM{sub 10}) has been associated with increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. We have shown that human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) exposed to PM{sub 10} produce pro-inflammatory mediators that contribute to a local and systemic inflammatory response. Changes in intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) have been demonstrated to regulate several functions of the airway epithelium including the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. The aim of the present study was to determine the nature and mechanism of calcium responses induced by PM{sub 10} in HBECs and its relationship to cytokine synthesis. Methods: Primary HBECs were exposed to urban air pollution particles (EHC-93) and [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} responses were measured using the fluoroprobe (Fura-2). Cytokine levels were measured at mRNA and protein levels using real-time PCR and ELISA. Results: PM{sub 10} increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in a dose-dependent manner. This calcium response was reduced by blocking the influx of calcium into cells (i.e. calcium-free medium, NiCl{sub 2}, LaCl{sub 3}). PM{sub 10} also decreased the activity of calcium pumps. PM{sub 10} increased the production of IL-1{beta}, IL-8, GM-CSF and LIF. Preincubation with intracellular calcium chelator (BAPTA-AM) attenuated IL-1{beta} and IL-8 production, but not GM-CSF and LIF production. Conclusion: We conclude that exposure to PM{sub 10} induces an increase in cytosolic calcium and cytokine production in bronchial epithelial cells. Our results also suggest that PM{sub 10} induces the production of pro-inflammatory mediators via either intracellular calcium-dependent (IL-1{beta}, IL-8) or -independent (GM-CSF, LIF) pathways.

  11. Nicotine-Induced Apoptosis in Human Renal Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Soo Yeon; Bae, Eun Hui; Ma, Seong Kwon; Lee, JongUn; Kim, Soo Wan

    2016-01-01

    Background Nicotine is, to a large extent, responsible for smoking-mediated renal dysfunction. This study investigated nicotine’s effects on renal tubular epithelial cell apoptosis in vitro and it explored the mechanisms underlying its effects. Methods Human proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells were treated with nicotine. Cell viability was examined by using the WST-1 assay. Intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) proteins were determined. The messenger ribonucleic acid and the protein expression associated with the nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in HK-2 cells was examined, and apoptosis was detected using flow cytometry, cell cycle analysis, and immunoblot analysis. Results The HK-2 cells were endowed with nAChRs. Nicotine treatment reduced cell viability dose dependently, increased ROS levels, and increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 MAPK expression. Nicotine increased NF-κB activation, which was attenuated by N-acetyl-L-cysteine, and ERK and JNK inhibitors, but was not affected by a p38 MAPK inhibitor. Nicotine increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, which was attenuated by N-acetyl-L-cysteine, the NF-κB inhibitor, Bay 11–7082, and hexamethonium, a non-specific nAChR blocker. Flow cytometry revealed nicotine-induced G2/M phase arrest. While nicotine treatment increased the expression of phosphorylated cdc2 and histone H3, a marker of G2/M phase arrest, hexamethonium and Bay 11–7082 pretreatment reduced their expression. Conclusions Nicotine caused apoptosis in HK-2 cells by inducing ROS generation that activated the NF-κB signaling pathway via the MAPK pathway and it arrested the cell cycle at the G2/M phase. Nicotine-induced apoptosis in HK-2 cells involves the nAChRs. PMID:27028622

  12. Marijuana smoke condensate induces p53-mediated apoptosis in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ha Ryong; Jung, Mi Hyun; Lee, Soo Yeun; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2013-01-01

    Since the largely abused worldwide used of marijuana, there have been many ongoing debates regarding the adverse health effects of marijuana smoking. Marijuana smoking was recently proved to cause pulmonary toxicity by inducing genotoxic effects or generating reactive oxygen species. Because p53, a tumor suppressor gene, has an important pathophysiologic role in the regulation of lung epithelial cell DNA damage responses, we hypothesized that p53 may be involved in the oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis induced by marijuana smoking. First, we confirmed that marijuana smoke condensate (MSC) induces oxidative stress in BEAS-2B cells. We observed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was increased by MSC in the DCFH-DA assay. Also, antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase, catalase) activity and their mRNA expressions were up-regulated by MSC. Second, we investigated p53 involvement in the MSC-induced apoptotic pathway in BEAS-2B cells. The results showed that MSC increased caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation as markers of apoptosis. In addition, the mRNA levels of apoptosis-related genes (p53 and Bax) were increased by MSC and phospho-p53, along with the increase of Bax protein expression by MSC. Apoptosis and apoptosis-related gene expression were partially blocked by an inhibitor of p53-dependent transcriptional activation (pifithrin-α). The results indicate that p53 plays a role in MSC-induced apoptosis. Taken together, the findings of the present study suggest that MSC partially induces p53-mediated apoptosis through ROS generation in human lung epithelial cells and this may have broader implications for our understanding of pulmonary diseases. PMID:23665932

  13. Architectural Transcription Factor HMGI(Y) Promotes Tumor Progression and Mesenchymal Transition of Human Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Raymond; Edberg, Dale D.; Li, Ying

    2001-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that overexpression or aberrant expression of the HMGI(Y) family of architectural transcription factors is frequently associated with both neoplastic transformation of cells and metastatic tumor progression. Little is known, however, about the molecular roles played by the HMGI(Y) proteins in these events. Here we report that human breast epithelial cells harboring tetracycline-regulated HMGI(Y) transgenes acquire the ability to form both primary and metastatic tumors in nude mice only when the transgenes are actively expressed. Unexpectedly, the HMG-Y, rather than the HMG-I, isoform of these proteins is the most effective elicitor of both neoplastic transformation and metastatic progression in vivo. Furthermore, expression of either antisense or dominant-negative HMGI(Y) constructs inhibits both the rate of proliferation of tumor cells and their ability to grow anchorage independently in soft agar. Array analysis of transcription profiles demonstrates that the HMG-I and HMG-Y isoform proteins each modulate the expression of distinctive constellations of genes known to be involved in signal transduction, cell proliferation, tumor initiation, invasion, migration, induction of angiogenesis, and colonization. Immunohistochemical analyses of tumors formed in nude mice indicate that many have undergone an epithelial-mesenchymal transition in vivo. Together, these findings demonstrate that overexpression of the HMGI(Y) proteins, more specifically, the HMG-Y isoform protein, is causally associated with both neoplastic transformation and metastatic progression and suggest that induction of integrins and their signaling pathways may play significant molecular roles in these biological events. PMID:11134344

  14. Increased GADD gene expression in human colon epithelial cells exposed to deoxycholate.

    PubMed

    Scott, David W; Mutamba, Sophia; Hopkins, Robin G; Loo, George

    2005-01-01

    The colonic epithelium is often exposed to high concentrations of secondary bile acids, which stresses the epithelial cells, leading potentially to activation of stress-response genes. To examine this possibility in vitro, the purpose of this study was to determine if expression of certain growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible genes (GADD) is upregulated in human colonic epithelial cells exposed to deoxycholate (DOC). DNA macroarray screening of a small cluster of stress/apoptosis-related genes in DOC-treated HCT-116 colonocytes revealed clearly higher expression of only GADD45, which was confirmed by gene-specific relative RT-PCR analysis. Subsequently, it was found that DOC also increased GADD34 mRNA expression. However, mRNA expression of GADD153 was increased most markedly in DOC-treated HCT-116 colonocytes, which express wild-type p53. However, the upregulation of GADD34, GADD45, and GADD153 mRNA expression apparently did not require p53, based on the finding that DOC increased expression of all three GADD genes in HCT-15 colonocytes, which express mutant p53. In further studying GADD153 in particular, the effect of DOC on GADD153 mRNA was prevented by actinomycin-D (Act-D), but not by antioxidants or MAPK inhibitors. DOC also caused GADD153 protein to be expressed in close parallel with increased GADD153 mRNA expression. Induction of GADD153 protein by DOC was prevented by either anisomycin or cycloheximide. These findings suggest that DOC-induced upregulation of GADD153 mRNA expression occurred at the level of transcription without involving reactive oxygen species and MAPK signaling, and that the expression of GADD153 protein was due also to translation of pre-existing, and not just newly synthesized, mRNA. PMID:15316935

  15. Architectural transcription factor HMGI(Y) promotes tumor progression and mesenchymal transition of human epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Reeves, R; Edberg, D D; Li, Y

    2001-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that overexpression or aberrant expression of the HMGI(Y) family of architectural transcription factors is frequently associated with both neoplastic transformation of cells and metastatic tumor progression. Little is known, however, about the molecular roles played by the HMGI(Y) proteins in these events. Here we report that human breast epithelial cells harboring tetracycline-regulated HMGI(Y) transgenes acquire the ability to form both primary and metastatic tumors in nude mice only when the transgenes are actively expressed. Unexpectedly, the HMG-Y, rather than the HMG-I, isoform of these proteins is the most effective elicitor of both neoplastic transformation and metastatic progression in vivo. Furthermore, expression of either antisense or dominant-negative HMGI(Y) constructs inhibits both the rate of proliferation of tumor cells and their ability to grow anchorage independently in soft agar. Array analysis of transcription profiles demonstrates that the HMG-I and HMG-Y isoform proteins each modulate the expression of distinctive constellations of genes known to be involved in signal transduction, cell proliferation, tumor initiation, invasion, migration, induction of angiogenesis, and colonization. Immunohistochemical analyses of tumors formed in nude mice indicate that many have undergone an epithelial-mesenchymal transition in vivo. Together, these findings demonstrate that overexpression of the HMGI(Y) proteins, more specifically, the HMG-Y isoform protein, is causally associated with both neoplastic transformation and metastatic progression and suggest that induction of integrins and their signaling pathways may play significant molecular roles in these biological events. PMID:11134344

  16. Long-term exposure of MCF-12A normal human breast epithelial cells to ethanol induces epithelial mesenchymal transition and oncogenic features.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Robert; Vernet, Dolores; Bruhn, Kevin; Vadgama, Jaydutt; Gonzalez-Cadavid, Nestor F

    2016-06-01

    Alcoholism is associated with breast cancer incidence and progression, and moderate chronic consumption of ethanol is a risk factor. The mechanisms involved in alcohol's oncogenic effects are unknown, but it has been speculated that they may be mediated by acetaldehyde. We used the immortalized normal human epithelial breast cell line MCF-12A to determine whether short- or long-term exposure to ethanol or to acetaldehyde, using in vivo compatible ethanol concentrations, induces their oncogenic transformation and/or the acquisition of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Cultures of MCF-12A cells were incubated with 25 mM ethanol or 2.5 mM acetaldehyde for 1 week, or with lower concentrations (1.0-2.5 mM for ethanol, 1.0 mM for acetaldehyde) for 4 weeks. In the 4-week incubation, cells were also tested for anchorage-independence, including isolation of soft agar selected cells (SASC) from the 2.5 mM ethanol incubations. Cells were analyzed by immunocytofluorescence, flow cytometry, western blotting, DNA microarrays, RT/PCR, and assays for miRs. We found that short-term exposure to ethanol, but not, in general, to acetaldehyde, was associated with transcriptional upregulation of the metallothionein family genes, alcohol metabolism genes, and genes suggesting the initiation of EMT, but without related phenotypic changes. Long-term exposure to the lower concentrations of ethanol or acetaldehyde induced frank EMT changes in the monolayer cultures and in SASC as demonstrated by changes in cellular phenotype, mRNA expression, and microRNA expression. This suggests that low concentrations of ethanol, with little or no mediation by acetaldehyde, induce EMT and some traits of oncogenic transformation such as anchorage-independence in normal breast epithelial cells. PMID:27035792

  17. Long-term exposure of MCF-12A normal human breast epithelial cells to ethanol induces epithelial mesenchymal transition and oncogenic features

    PubMed Central

    GELFAND, ROBERT; VERNET, DOLORES; BRUHN, KEVIN; VADGAMA, JAYDUTT; GONZALEZ-CADAVID, NESTOR F.

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholism is associated with breast cancer incidence and progression, and moderate chronic consumption of ethanol is a risk factor. The mechanisms involved in alcohol's oncogenic effects are unknown, but it has been speculated that they may be mediated by acetaldehyde. We used the immortalized normal human epithelial breast cell line MCF-12A to determine whether short- or long-term exposure to ethanol or to acetaldehyde, using in vivo compatible ethanol concentrations, induces their oncogenic transformation and/or the acquisition of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Cultures of MCF-12A cells were incubated with 25 mM ethanol or 2.5 mM acetaldehyde for 1 week, or with lower concentrations (1.0–2.5 mM for ethanol, 1.0 mM for acetaldehyde) for 4 weeks. In the 4-week incubation, cells were also tested for anchorage-independence, including isolation of soft agar selected cells (SASC) from the 2.5 mM ethanol incubations. Cells were analyzed by immunocytofluorescence, flow cytometry, western blotting, DNA microarrays, RT/PCR, and assays for miRs. We found that short-term exposure to ethanol, but not, in general, to acetaldehyde, was associated with transcriptional upregulation of the metallothionein family genes, alcohol metabolism genes, and genes suggesting the initiation of EMT, but without related phenotypic changes. Long-term exposure to the lower concentrations of ethanol or acetaldehyde induced frank EMT changes in the monolayer cultures and in SASC as demonstrated by changes in cellular phenotype, mRNA expression, and microRNA expression. This suggests that low concentrations of ethanol, with little or no mediation by acetaldehyde, induce EMT and some traits of oncogenic transformation such as anchorage-independence in normal breast epithelial cells. PMID:27035792

  18. Enhanced Lung Epithelial Specification of Human iPSCs on Decellularized Lung Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, Sarah E.; Ren, Xi; Okamoto, Tatsuya; Guyette, Jacques P.; Mou, Hongmei; Rajagopal, Jayaraj; Mathisen, Douglas J.; Vacanti, Joseph P.; Ott, Harald C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Whole lung scaffolds can be created by perfusion decellularization of cadaveric donor lungs. The resulting matrices can then be recellularized to regenerate functional organs. This study evaluates the capacity of acellular lung scaffolds to support recellularization with human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived lung progenitors. Methods Whole rat and human lungs were decellularized by constant-pressure perfusion with 0.1% SDS solution. Resulting lung scaffolds were either cryosectioned into slices or left intact. Human iPSCs were differentiated to definitive endoderm, anteriorized to a foregut fate, and then ventralized to an Nkx2.1-expressing population. Cells were seeded onto slices and whole lungs, which were maintained under constant-perfusion biomimetic culture. Lineage specification was assessed by quantitative PCR and immunofluorescent staining. Regenerated left lungs were transplanted in orthotopic position. Results Activin-A treatment followed by TGF-β inhibition induced differentiation of human iPSCs to anterior foregut endoderm as confirmed by FOXA2, SOX17, and SOX2 expression. Cells cultured on decellularized lung slices demonstrated proliferation and lineage commitment after 5 days. Nkx2.1-expressing cells were identified at 40–60% efficiency. Within whole lung scaffolds and under perfusion culture, cells further up-regulated Nkx2.1 expression. After orthotopic transplantation, grafts were perfused and ventilated via host vasculature and airways. Conclusions Decellularized lung matrix supports the culture and lineage commitment of human iPSC-derived lung progenitor cells. Whole organ scaffolds and biomimetic culture enable co-seeding of iPSC-derived endothelial and epithelial progenitors and enhance early lung fate. Orthotopic transplantation may enable further in vivo graft maturation. PMID:25149047

  19. A novel function of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor in hTERT immortalization of human epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, N F; Kocher, H M; Salako, M A; Obermueller, E; Sandle, J; Balkwill, F

    2009-02-01

    The receptor for macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) is a product of the proto-oncogene c-fms and a member of the class III transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor family. Earlier, we described increased mRNA expression of CSF1R in human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) immortalized human ovarian surface epithelial (IOSE) cell lines derived from a single donor. Here, we further describe that CSF1R is upregulated at both the mRNA and protein level in hTERT immortalized human normal OSE cells from two different donors and in hTERT immortalized human pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. CSF1R was not upregulated in hTERT immortalized epithelial clones that subsequently underwent senescence or in immortalized fibroblasts. Upon stimulation by the CSF1R ligand CSF1, the immortalized epithelial cell lines showed rapid internalization of CSF1R with concomitant down-modulation and colocalization of phosphorylated NFkappaBp65 with hTERT protein, hTERT translocation into the nucleus and the binding of c-Myc to the hTERT promoter region. Reducing the expression of CSF1R using short hairpin interfering RNA abolished these effects and also decreased cell survival and the number of population doublings under suboptimal culture conditions. The telomerase inhibitor GRN163L confirmed a role for telomerase in the cleavage of the intracellular domain of CSF1R. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that CSF1R may be a critical factor facilitating hTERT immortalization of epithelial cells. PMID:18997822

  20. Proteolytic Activation of the Human Epithelial Sodium Channel by Trypsin IV and Trypsin I Involves Distinct Cleavage Sites*

    PubMed Central

    Haerteis, Silke; Krappitz, Annabel; Krappitz, Matteus; Murphy, Jane E.; Bertog, Marko; Krueger, Bettina; Nacken, Regina; Chung, Hyunjae; Hollenberg, Morley D.; Knecht, Wolfgang; Bunnett, Nigel W.; Korbmacher, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Proteolytic activation is a unique feature of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and the physiologically relevant proteases remain to be identified. The serine protease trypsin I can activate ENaC in vitro but is unlikely to be the physiologically relevant activating protease in ENaC-expressing tissues in vivo. Herein, we investigated whether human trypsin IV, a form of trypsin that is co-expressed in several extrapancreatic epithelial cells with ENaC, can activate human ENaC. In Xenopus laevis oocytes, we monitored proteolytic activation of ENaC currents and the appearance of γENaC cleavage products at the cell surface. We demonstrated that trypsin IV and trypsin I can stimulate ENaC heterologously expressed in oocytes. ENaC cleavage and activation by trypsin IV but not by trypsin I required a critical cleavage site (Lys-189) in the extracellular domain of the γ-subunit. In contrast, channel activation by trypsin I was prevented by mutating three putative cleavage sites (Lys-168, Lys-170, and Arg-172) in addition to mutating previously described prostasin (RKRK178), plasmin (Lys-189), and neutrophil elastase (Val-182 and Val-193) sites. Moreover, we found that trypsin IV is expressed in human renal epithelial cells and can increase ENaC-mediated sodium transport in cultured human airway epithelial cells. Thus, trypsin IV may regulate ENaC function in epithelial tissues. Our results show, for the first time, that trypsin IV can stimulate ENaC and that trypsin IV and trypsin I activate ENaC by cleavage at distinct sites. The presence of distinct cleavage sites may be important for ENaC regulation by tissue-specific proteases. PMID:24841206

  1. Human Airway Epithelial Cell Responses to Single Walled Carbon Nanotube Exposure: Nanorope-Residual Body Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Panessa-Warren, Barbara J.; Warren, John B.; Kisslinger, Kim; Crosson, Kenya; Maye, Mathew M.

    2012-11-01

    This investigation examines the 'first contact responses' of in vitro human epithelial airway cells exposed to unrefined single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) [containing metal catalyst, carbon black, amorphous carbon, graphitic shells, and SWCNTs], and refined acid/peroxide cleaned and cut SWCNTs at low and high dose exposures (0.16 ug/L and 1.60 ug/L) for 2, 3 and 3.5 hours. FTIR, X-ray compositional analysis, morphological TEM analysis and UV-Vis were used to physicochemically characterize the SWCNTs in this study. Following SWCNT exposure to human lung NCI-H292 epithelial monolayers, the airway cells were prepared for light microscopy vital staining, or fixed in glutaraldehyde for SEM/TEM imaging to determine SWCNT binding, uptake, intracellular processing and organellar/SWCNT fate within the exposure period. At 2 hr exposures to both unrefined Carbolex, and refined SWCNTs (at both high and low doses), there were no increases in lung cell necrosis compared to controls. However high dose, 3 hr exposures to unrefined Carbolex material produced severe cell damage (apical and basal plasma membrane holes, decreased mitochondria, numerous intracellular vesicles containing nanomaterial and membrane fragments) and increased cell necrosis. The refined SWCNTs exposed for 3 hr at low dose produced no increase in cell death, although high dose exposure produced significant cell death. By TEM, Acid/peroxide cleaned SWCNT 3 hr exposures at high and low doses, revealed SWCNTs attachment to cell surface mucin, and SWCNT uptake into the cells during membrane recycling. Membranes and SWCNTs were seen within cytoplasmic lamellar body-type vesicles, where vesicular contents were bio-degraded, eventually forming long SWCNT-nanoropes, which were subsequently released into the cytoplasm as clusters of attached nanoropes, as the vesicle membranes fragmented. These Nanorope-Residual Bodies did not cause damage to the surrounding organelles or cytoplasm, and seemed very stabile in the

  2. Microsatellite instability in human mammary epithelial cells transformed by heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanada, S.; Yang, T. C.; George, K.; Okayasu, R.; Ando, K.; Tsujii, H.

    1998-11-01

    We analyzed DNA and proteins obtained from normal and transformed human mammary epithelial cells for studying the neoplastic transformation by high-LET irradiation in vitro. We also examined microsatellite instability in human mammary cells transformed to various stages of carcinogenesis, such as normal, growth variant and tumorigenic, using microsatellite marker D5S177 on the chromosome 5 and CY17 on the Chromosome 10. Microsatellite instabilities were detected in the tumorigenic stage. These results suggest that microsatellite instability may play a role in the progression of tumorigenecity. The cause of the genomic instability has been suggested as abnormalities of DNA-repair systems which may be due to one of the three reasons: 1) alterations of cell cycle regulating genes. 2) mutations in any of the DNA mismatch repair genes, 3) mutation in any of the DNA strand breaks repair genes. No abnormality of these genes and encoded proteins, however was found in the present studies. These studies thus suggest that the microsatellite instability is induced by an alternative mechanism.

  3. Fimbria-mediated adherence of Candida albicans to glycosphingolipid receptors on human buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, L; Lee, K K; Sheth, H B; Lane-Bell, P; Srivastava, G; Hindsgaul, O; Paranchych, W; Hodges, R S; Irvin, R T

    1994-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunist fungal pathogen that has the ability to adhere to host cell surface receptors via a number of adhesins. Yu et al. (L. Yu, K. K. Lee, K. Ens, P. C. Doig, M. R. Carpenter, W. Staddon, R. S. Hodges, W. Paranchych, and R. T. Irvin, Infect. Immun. 62:2834-2842, 1994) described the purification and initial characterization of a fimbrial adhesin from C. albicans. In this paper, we show that C. albicans fimbriae also bind to asialo-GM1 [gangliotetraosylceramide: beta Gal(1-3)beta GalNAc(1-4) beta Gal(1-4)beta Glc(1-1)Cer] immobilized on microtiter plates in a saturable and concentration-dependent manner. C. albicans fimbrial binding to exfoliated human buccal epithelial cells (BECs) was inhibited by asialo-GM1 in in vitro binding assays. The fimbriae interact with the glycosphingolipid receptors via the carbohydrate portion of the receptors, since fimbriae were observed to bind to synthetic beta GalNAc(1-4)beta Gal-protein conjugates and the disaccharide was able to inhibit binding of fimbriae to BECs in in vitro binding assays. We conclude from these results that the C. albicans yeast form expresses a fimbrial adhesin that binds to glycosphingolipids displayed on the surface of human BECs. Images PMID:8005674

  4. Melissa Officinalis L. Extracts Protect Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Jeung, In Cheul; Jee, Donghyun; Rho, Chang-Rae; Kang, Seungbum

    2016-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the protective effect of ALS-L1023, an extract of Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae; lemon balm) against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19 cells). Methods: ARPE-19 cells were incubated with ALS-L1023 for 24 h and then treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed by flow cytometry. Caspase-3/7 activation and cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) were measured to investigate the protective role of ALS-L1023 against apoptosis. The protective effect of ALS-L1023 against oxidative stress through activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) was evaluated by Western blot analysis. Results: ALS-L1023 clearly reduced H2O2-induced cell apoptosis and intracellular production of ROS. H2O2-induced oxidative stress increased caspase-3/7 activity and apoptotic PARP cleavage, which were significantly inhibited by ALS-L1023. Activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway was associated with the protective effect of ALS-L1023 on ARPE-19 cells. Conclusions: ALS-L1023 protected human RPE cells against oxidative damage. This suggests that ALS-L1023 has therapeutic potential for the prevention of dry age-related macular degeneration. PMID:26941573

  5. Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus Inhibits Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation and Invasion into Human Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Monnappa, Ajay K.; Dwidar, Mohammed; Seo, Jeong Kon; Hur, Jin-Hoe; Mitchell, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100 is a predatory bacterium that attacks many Gram-negative human pathogens. A serious drawback of this strain, however, is its ineffectiveness against Gram-positive strains, such as the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Here we demonstrate that the extracellular proteases produced by a host-independent B. bacteriovorus (HIB) effectively degrade/inhibit the formation of S. aureus biofilms and reduce its virulence. A 10% addition of HIB supernatant caused a 75% or greater reduction in S. aureus biofilm formation as well as 75% dispersal of pre-formed biofilms. LC-MS-MS analyses identified various B. bacteriovorus proteases within the supernatant, including the serine proteases Bd2269 and Bd2321. Tests with AEBSF confirmed that serine proteases were active in the supernatant and that they impacted S. aureus biofilm formation. The supernatant also possessed a slight DNAse activity. Furthermore, treatment of planktonic S. aureus with the supernatant diminished its ability to invade MCF-10a epithelial cells by 5-fold but did not affect the MCF-10a viability. In conclusion, this study illustrates the hitherto unknown ability of B. bacteriovorus to disperse Gram-positive pathogenic biofilms and mitigate their virulence. PMID:24448451

  6. Mitochondrial alteration in malignantly transformed human small airway epithelial cells induced by alpha particles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Suping; Wen, Gengyun; Huang, Sarah XL; Wang, Jianrong; Tong, Jian; Hei, Tom K.

    2012-01-01

    Human small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) immortalized with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (h-TERT) were exposed to either a single or multiple doses of α particles. Irradiated cells showed a dose-dependent cytotoxicity and progressive neoplastic transformation phenotype. These included an increase in saturation density of growth, a greater resistance to PALA, faster anchorage-independent growth, reinforced cell invasion and c-Myc expression. In addition, the transformed cells formed progressively growing tumors upon inoculation into athymic nude mice. Specifically, α-irradiation induced damage to both mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and mitochondrial functions in transformed cells as evidenced by increased mtDNA copy number and common deletion, decreased oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) activity as measured by cytochrome C oxidase (COX) activity and oxygen consumption. There was a linear correlation between mtDNA copy number, common deletion, COX activity and cellular transformation represented by soft agar colony formation and c-Myc expression. These results suggest that mitochondria are associated with neoplastic transformation of SAEC cells induced by α particles, and that the oncogenesis process may depend not only on the genomes inside the nucleus, but also on the mitochondrial DNA outside the nucleus. PMID:22644783

  7. Genomic instability and tumorigenic induction in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells by heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hei, T. K.; Piao, C. Q.; Wu, L. J.; Willey, J. C.; Hall, E. J.

    1998-11-01

    Carcinogenesis is postulated to be a progressive multistage process characterized by an increase in genomic instability and clonal selection with each mutational event endowing a selective growth advantage. Genomic instability as manifested by the amplification of specific gene fragments is common among tumor and transformed cells. In the present study, immortalized human bronchial (BEP2D) cells were irradiated with graded doses of either 1GeV/nucleon 56Fe ions or 150 keV/μm alpha particles. Transformed cells developed through a series of successive steps before becoming tumorigenic in nude mice. Tumorigenic cells showed neither ras mutations nor deletion in the p16 tumor suppressor gene. In contrast, they harbored mutations in the p53 gene and over-expressed cyclin D1. Genomic instability among transformed cells at various stage of the carcinogenic process was examined based on frequencies of PALA resistance. Incidence of genomic instability was highest among established tumor cell lines relative to transformed, non-tumorigenic and control cell lines. Treatment of BEP2D cells with a 4 mM dose of the aminothiol WR-1065 significantly reduced their neoplastic transforming response to 56Fe particles. This model provides an opportunity to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in malignant transformation of human epithelial cells by heavy ions.

  8. Genomic instability and tumorigenic induction in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells by heavy ions.

    PubMed

    Hei, T K; Piao, C Q; Wu, L J; Willey, J C; Hall, E J

    1998-01-01

    Carcinogenesis is postulated to be a progressive multistage process characterized by an increase in genomic instability and clonal selection with each mutational event endowing a selective growth advantage. Genomic instability as manifested by the amplification of specific gene fragments is common among tumor and transformed cells. In the present study, immortalized human bronchial (BEP2D) cells were irradiated with graded doses of either 1GeV/nucleon 56Fe ions or 150 keV/micrometer alpha particles. Transformed cells developed through a series of successive steps before becoming tumorigenic in nude mice. Tumorigenic cells showed neither ras mutations nor deletion in the p16 tumor suppressor gene. In contrast, they harbored mutations in the p53 gene and over-expressed cyclin D1. Genomic instability among transformed cells at various stage of the carcinogenic process was examined based on frequencies of PALA resistance. Incidence of genomic instability was highest among established tumor cell lines relative to transformed, non-tumorigenic and control cell lines. Treatment of BEP2D cells with a 4 mM dose of the aminothiol WR-1065 significantly reduced their neoplastic transforming response to 56Fe particles. This model provides an opportunity to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in malignant transformation of human epithelial cells by heavy ions. PMID:11542414

  9. Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus Inhibits Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation and Invasion into Human Epithelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnappa, Ajay K.; Dwidar, Mohammed; Seo, Jeong Kon; Hur, Jin-Hoe; Mitchell, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100 is a predatory bacterium that attacks many Gram-negative human pathogens. A serious drawback of this strain, however, is its ineffectiveness against Gram-positive strains, such as the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Here we demonstrate that the extracellular proteases produced by a host-independent B. bacteriovorus (HIB) effectively degrade/inhibit the formation of S. aureus biofilms and reduce its virulence. A 10% addition of HIB supernatant caused a 75% or greater reduction in S. aureus biofilm formation as well as 75% dispersal of pre-formed biofilms. LC-MS-MS analyses identified various B. bacteriovorus proteases within the supernatant, including the serine proteases Bd2269 and Bd2321. Tests with AEBSF confirmed that serine proteases were active in the supernatant and that they impacted S. aureus biofilm formation. The supernatant also possessed a slight DNAse activity. Furthermore, treatment of planktonic S. aureus with the supernatant diminished its ability to invade MCF-10a epithelial cells by 5-fold but did not affect the MCF-10a viability. In conclusion, this study illustrates the hitherto unknown ability of B. bacteriovorus to disperse Gram-positive pathogenic biofilms and mitigate their virulence.

  10. On physical changes on surface of human cervical epithelial cells during cancer transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Igor; Dokukin, Maxim; Guz, Nataliia; Woodworth, Craig

    2013-03-01

    Physical changes of the cell surface of cells during transformation from normal to cancerous state are rather poorly studied. Here we describe our recent studies of such changes done on human cervical epithelial cells during their transformation from normal through infected with human papillomavirus type-16 (HPV-16), immortalized (precancerous), to cancerous cells. The changes were studied with the help of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and through the measurement of physical adhesion of fluorescent silica beads to the cell surface. Based on the adhesion experiments, we clearly see the difference in nonspecific adhesion which occurs at the stage of immortalization of cells, precancerous cells. The analysis done with the help of AFM shows that the difference observed comes presumably from the alteration of the cellular ``brush,'' a layer that surrounds cells and which consists of mostly microvilli, microridges, and glycocalyx. Further AFM analysis reveals the emergence of fractal scaling behavior on the surface of cells when normal cells turn into cancerous. The possible causes and potential significance of these observations will be discussed.

  11. Apoptosis induced by ozone and oxysterols in human alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Kosmider, Beata; Loader, Joan E.; Murphy, Robert C.; Mason, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of ozone-induced lung cell injury is poorly understood. One hypothesis is that ozone induces lipid peroxidation and that these peroxidased lipids produce oxidative stress and DNA damage. Oxysterols are lipid peroxide formed by the direct effect of ozone on pulmonary surfactant and cell membranes. We studied the effects of ozone and the oxysterol 5β,6β-epoxycholesterol (β-epoxide) and its metabolite cholestan-6-oxo-3,5-diol (6-oxo-3,5-diol) on human alveolar epithelial type I-like cells (ATI-like cells) and type II cells (ATII cells). Ozone and oxysterols induced apoptosis and cytotoxicity in ATI-like cells. They also generated reactive oxygen species and DNA damage. Ozone and β-epoxide were strong inducers of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra1) protein expressions. Furthermore, we found higher sensitivity of ATI-like cells than ATII cells exposed to ozone or treated with β-epoxide or 6-oxo-3,5-diol. In general the response to the cholesterol epoxides was similar to the effect of ozone. The importance of understanding the response of human ATI-like cells and ATII cells to oxysterols may be useful for further studies, because these compounds may represent useful biomarkers in other diseases. PMID:20219673

  12. Intestinal-fatty acid binding protein and lipid transport in human intestinal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Montoudis, Alain; Delvin, Edgard; Menard, Daniel

    2006-01-06

    Intestinal-fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) is a 14-15 kDa cytoplasmic molecule highly expressed in the enterocyte. Although different functions have been proposed for various FABP family members, the specific function of I-FABP in human intestine remains unclear. Here, we studied the role of I-FABP in molecularly modified normal human intestinal epithelial cells (HIEC-6). cDNA transfection resulted in 90-fold I-FABP overexpression compared to cells treated with empty pQCXIP vector. The high-resolution immunogold technique revealed labeling mainly in the cytosol and confirmed the marked phenotype abundance of I-FABP in cDNA transfected cells. I-FABP overexpression was not associated with alterations in cell proliferation and viability. Studies using these transfected cells cultured with [{sup 14}C]oleic acid did not reveal higher efficiency in de novo synthesis or secretion of triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesteryl esters compared to cells treated with empty pQCXIP vector only. Similarly, the incubation with [{sup 35}S]methionine did not disclose a superiority in the biogenesis of apolipoproteins (apo) A-I, A-IV, B-48, and B-100. Finally, cells transfected with I-FABP did not exhibit an increased production of chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, and HDL. Our observations establish that I-FABP overexpression in normal HIEC-6 is not related to cell proliferation, lipid esterification, apo synthesis, and lipoprotein assembly, and, therefore, exclude its role in intestinal fat transport.

  13. Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin is cytotoxic for human renal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Fernandez Miyakawa, Mariano E; Zabal, Osvaldo; Silberstein, Claudia

    2011-04-01

    Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (ETX) is responsible for a fatal enterotoxemia in different animal species, producing extensive renal damage, neurological disturbance and edema of lungs, heart and kidneys. However, there is no information about the susceptibility of humans to ETX. Here, we report that primary cultures of human renal tubular epithelial cells (HRTEC) exposed to ETX showed a marked swelling with subsequent large blebs surrounding most cells. The incubation of HRTEC with ETX produced a reduction of cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The CD(50) after 1-hour and 24-hour incubation were 3 µg/mL and 0.5 µg/mL, respectively. The pulse with ETX for 3 min was enough to produce a significant cytotoxic effect on HRTEC after 1-hour incubation. ETX binds to HRTEC forming a large complex of about 160 kDa similar to what was found in the Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line. The HRTEC could be a useful cell model to improve the understanding of the mechanisms involved on the cell damage mediated by ETX. PMID:20488848

  14. Role of primary human alveolar epithelial cells in host defense against Francisella tularensis infection.

    PubMed

    Gentry, Megan; Taormina, Joanna; Pyles, Richard B; Yeager, Linsey; Kirtley, Michelle; Popov, Vsevolod L; Klimpel, Gary; Eaves-Pyles, Tonyia

    2007-08-01

    Francisella tularensis, an intracellular pathogen, is highly virulent when inhaled. Alveolar epithelial type I (ATI) and type II (ATII) cells line the majority of the alveolar surface and respond to inhaled pathogenic bacteria via cytokine secretion. We hypothesized that these cells contribute to the lung innate immune response to F. tularensis. Results demonstrated that the live vaccine strain (LVS) contacted ATI and ATII cells by 2 h following intranasal inoculation of mice. In culture, primary human ATI or ATII cells, grown on transwell filters, were stimulated on the apical (AP) surface with virulent F. tularensis Schu 4 or LVS. Basolateral (BL) conditioned medium (CM), collected 6 and 24 h later, was added to the BL surfaces of transwell cultures of primary human pulmonary microvasculature endothelial cells (HPMEC) prior to the addition of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) or dendritic cells (DCs) to the AP surface. HPMEC responded to S4- or LVS-stimulated ATII, but not ATI, CM as evidenced by PMN and DC migration. Analysis of the AP and BL ATII CM revealed that both F. tularensis strains induced various levels of a variety of cytokines via NF-kappaB activation. ATII cells pretreated with an NF-kappaB inhibitor prior to F. tularensis stimulation substantially decreased interleukin-8 secretion, which did not occur through Toll-like receptor 2, 2/6, 4, or 5 stimulation. These data indicate a crucial role for ATII cells in the innate immune response to F. tularensis. PMID:17502386

  15. Role of Primary Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells in Host Defense against Francisella tularensis Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Gentry, Megan; Taormina, Joanna; Pyles, Richard B.; Yeager, Linsey; Kirtley, Michelle; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Klimpel, Gary; Eaves-Pyles, Tonyia

    2007-01-01

    Francisella tularensis, an intracellular pathogen, is highly virulent when inhaled. Alveolar epithelial type I (ATI) and type II (ATII) cells line the majority of the alveolar surface and respond to inhaled pathogenic bacteria via cytokine secretion. We hypothesized that these cells contribute to the lung innate immune response to F. tularensis. Results demonstrated that the live vaccine strain (LVS) contacted ATI and ATII cells by 2 h following intranasal inoculation of mice. In culture, primary human ATI or ATII cells, grown on transwell filters, were stimulated on the apical (AP) surface with virulent F. tularensis Schu 4 or LVS. Basolateral (BL) conditioned medium (CM), collected 6 and 24 h later, was added to the BL surfaces of transwell cultures of primary human pulmonary microvasculature endothelial cells (HPMEC) prior to the addition of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) or dendritic cells (DCs) to the AP surface. HPMEC responded to S4- or LVS-stimulated ATII, but not ATI, CM as evidenced by PMN and DC migration. Analysis of the AP and BL ATII CM revealed that both F. tularensis strains induced various levels of a variety of cytokines via NF-κB activation. ATII cells pretreated with an NF-κB inhibitor prior to F. tularensis stimulation substantially decreased interleukin-8 secretion, which did not occur through Toll-like receptor 2, 2/6, 4, or 5 stimulation. These data indicate a crucial role for ATII cells in the innate immune response to F. tularensis. PMID:17502386

  16. Quantitative proteomic analysis of human breast epithelial cells with differential telomere length

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Li-Rong . E-mail: lyu@ncifcrf.gov; Chan, King C.; Tahara, Hidetoshi; Lucas, David A.; Chatterjee, Koushik; Issaq, Haleem J.; Veenstra, Timothy D. . E-mail: veenstra@ncifcrf.gov

    2007-05-18

    Telomeres play important functional roles in cell proliferation, cell cycle regulation, and genetic stability, in which telomere length is critical. In this study, quantitative proteome comparisons for the human breast epithelial cells with short and long telomeres (184-hTERT{sub L} vs. 184-hTERT{sub S} and 90P-hTERT{sub L} vs. 90P-hTERT{sub S}), resulting from transfection of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene, were performed using cleavable isotope-coded affinity tags. More than 2000 proteins were quantified in each comparative experiment, with approximately 77% of the proteins identified in both analyses. In the cells with long telomeres, significant and consistent alterations were observed in metabolism (amino acid, nucleotide, and lipid metabolism), genetic information transmission (transcription and translation regulation, spliceosome and ribosome complexes), and cell signaling. Interestingly, the DNA excision repair pathway is enhanced, while integrin and its ligands are downregulated in the cells with long telomeres. These results may provide valuable information related to telomere functions.

  17. Transdifferentiation of human amniotic epithelial cells into acinar cells using a double-chamber system.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gui-Lin; Zhang, Ni-Ni; Wang, Jun-Sheng; Yao, Li; Zhao, Yu-Jie; Wang, Yu-Ying

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the transdifferentiation of stem cells from human amnion tissue into functional acinar cells (ACs) using a co-culture system. Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) were isolated from amnion tissue by mechanical mincing and enzymatic digestion. After primary culture, the phenotype of the cells was identified by flow cytometry (FCM) and immunocytochemical staining. hAECs were co-cultured with submandibular gland acinar cells of SD rats using a double-chamber system. The expression of α-amylase was determined by immunocytochemical method and fluorescent real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after induction for 1 and 2 weeks, respectively. Digestion with trypsin is an effective method for isolating hAECs from amnion tissue. These cells were positive for CD29 and CK19 and weakly positive for CD44 and α-amylase. Within 2 weeks, α-amylase in hAECs increased with induction time. The expression of α-amylase in hAECs was increased 3.38-fold after co-culturing for 1 week. This ratio increased to 6.6-fold, and these cells were positive for mucins, after co-culturing for 2 weeks. hAECs possess the potential to differentiate into ACs in vitro. They might be a stem cell resource for clinical applications of cell replacement therapy in salivary gland dysfunction diseases. PMID:22800093

  18. Poloxamer bioadhesive hydrogel for buccal drug delivery: Cytotoxicity and trans-epithelial permeability evaluations using TR146 human buccal epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ni; Mignet, Nathalie; Dumortier, Gilles; Olivier, Elodie; Seguin, Johanne; Maury, Marc; Scherman, Daniel; Rat, Patrice; Boudy, Vincent

    2015-11-30

    A salbutamol sulfate (SS)-Poloxamer bioadhesive hydrogel specially developed for buccal administration was investigated by studying interactions with TR146 human buccal epithelium cells (i.e. cellular toxicity (i) and trans-epithelial SS diffusion (ii)). The assessment of cell viability (MTT, Alamar Blue), membrane integrity (Neutral Red), and apoptosis assay (Hoechst 33342), were performed and associated to Digital Holographic Microscopy analysis. After the treatment of 2h, SS solution induced drastic cellular alterations that were prevented by hydrogels in relation with the concentrations of poloxamer and xanthan gum. The formulation containing P407 19%/P188 1%/Satiaxane 0.1% showed the best tolerance after single and multiple administrations and significantly reduced the trans-epithelial permeability from 5.00±0.29 (×10(3)) (SS solution) to 1.83±0.22 cm/h. Digital Holographic Microscopy images in good agreement with the viability data confirmed the great interest of this direct technique. In conclusion, the proposed hydrogels represent a safe and efficient buccal drug delivery platform. PMID:26403384

  19. An Extensive Survey of Tyrosine Phosphorylation Revealing New Sites in Human Mammary Epithelial Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Heibeck, Tyler H.; Ding, Shi-Jian; Opresko, Lee K.; Zhao, Rui; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Yang, Feng; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Wiley, H. S.; Qian, Weijun

    2009-08-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a central regulatory mechanism in cell signaling. To extensively characterize the site-specific tyrosine phosphorylation in human cells, we present here a global survey of tyrosine phosphorylation sites in a normal-derived human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) line by applying anti-phosphotyrosine (pTyr) peptide immunoaffinity purification (IP) coupled with high sensitivity LC-MS/MS. A total of 481 tyrosine phosphorylation sites (covered by 716 unique peptides) from 285 proteins were confidently identified in HMEC following the analysis of both the basal condition and an acute stimulated condition with epidermal growth factor (EGF). The estimated false discovery rate is 1.0% as measured by comparison against a scrambled database search. Comparison of these data to the literature showed significant agreement in site matches. Additionally 281 sites were not previously observed in HMEC culture were found. Twenty-nine of these sites have not been reported in any human cell or tissue system. The global profiling also allowed us to examine the phosphorylation stoichiometry differences based on spectral count information. Comparison of the data to a previous global proteome profiling study illustrates that most of the highly phoshorylated proteins are of relatively low-abundance. Large differences in phosphorylation stoichiometry for sites within the same protein were also observed for many of the identified proteins, suggesting potentially more important functional roles for those highly phosphorylated pTyr sites within a given protein. By mapping to major signaling networks such as EGF receptor and insulin growth factor-1 receptor signaling pathways, many known proteins involved in these pathways were revealed to be tyrosine phosphorylated, which should allow us to select interesting targeted involved in a given pathway for more directed studies. This extensive HMEC tyrosine phosphorylation dataset represents an important database

  20. The ectopic expression of Snail in MDBK cells does not induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    IZAWA, GENYA; KOBAYASHI, WAKAKO; HARAGUCHI, MISAKO; SUDO, AKIHARU; OZAWA, MASAYUKI

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key process in the tumor metastatic cascade, is characterized by the loss of cell-cell junctions and cell polarity, as well as by the acquisition of migratory and invasive properties. However, the precise molecular events that initiate this complex EMT process are poorly understood. Snail expression induces EMT in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and the human epidermoid carcinoma cell line, A431. Snail is a zinc finger transcription factor and triggers EMT by suppressing E-cadherin expression. In the present study, to broaden our knowledge of Snail-induced EMT, we generated stable Snail transfectants using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. Contrary to the MDCK or A431 cells examined in our previous studies, the MDBK cells transfected with the Snail construct maintained an epithelial morphology and showed no sign of reduced cell-cell adhesiveness compared to the control cells. Consistent with these observations, the down-regulation of epithelial marker proteins, e.g. E-cadherin and desmoglein, and the upregulation of mesenchymal marker proteins, e.g., N-cadherin and fibronectin, were not detected. Furthermore, the E-cadherin promoter was not methylated. Therefore, in the MDBK cells, the ectopic expression of Snail failed to induce EMT. As previously demonstrated, in MDCK cells, Snail expression is accompanied by the increased expression of other EMT-inducing transcription factors, e.g., Slug and zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1). However, the MDBK cells transfected with the Snail construct did not exhibit an increased expression of these factors. Thus, it is possible that the failure to upregulate other EMT-related transcription factors may explain the lack of Snail-mediated induction of EMT in MDBK cells. PMID:25998899

  1. Effect of ozone on platelet-activating factor production in phorbol-differentiated HL60 cells, a human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS S6), and primary human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, J.M.; Noah, T.L.; Devlin, R.B.; Yankaskas, J.R.; McKinnon, K.; Dailey, L.A.; Friedman, M. )

    1992-11-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a phospholipid with a wide spectrum of pro-inflammatory properties. In the lung, PAF induces airway hyperresponsiveness, neutrophil sequestration, and increased vascular permeability. The alveolar macrophage and the bronchial epithelium are tissues that are exposed to inhaled ozone (O3). We studied the effect of an in vitro O3 exposure on PAF production in a macrophage-like HL60 human cell line (dHL60), a human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS S6), and also in primary human bronchial epithelial cells. PAF was quantified by thin-layer chromatographic separation of lipid extracts from cells radiolabeled with [3H]lysoPAF and by radioimmunoassay. In vitro exposure of dHL60 cells to 0.05 to 1.0 ppm O3 for 15 to 120 min was found to significantly increase PAF levels above air control values at all exposure levels and time points (average increase of 92%). Similarly, BEAS S6 cells grown on collagen-coated filter supports and exposed to 0.05 to 1.0 ppm O3 for 60 min released an average increase in PAF of 626% above control values. Primary human bronchial epithelial cells also demonstrated significant increases in [3H]PAF release (average increase of 289% after exposure to 1.0 ppm O3 for 60 min) compared with paired air controls. These findings suggest that some of the effects of O3 inhalation may be mediated by PAF.

  2. Human amniotic epithelial cell transplantation for the repair of injured brachial plexus nerve: evaluation of nerve viscoelastic properties

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hua; Yang, Qi; Ji, Feng; Zhang, Ya-jie; Zhao, Yan; Luo, Min

    2015-01-01

    The transplantation of embryonic stem cells can effectively improve the creeping strength of nerves near an injury site in animals. Amniotic epithelial cells have similar biological properties as embryonic stem cells; therefore, we hypothesized that transplantation of amniotic epithelial cells can repair peripheral nerve injury and recover the creeping strength of the brachial plexus nerve. In the present study, a brachial plexus injury model was established in rabbits using the C6 root avulsion method. A suspension of human amniotic epithelial cells was repeatedly injected over an area 4.0 mm lateral to the cephal and caudal ends of the C6 brachial plexus injury site (1 × 106 cells/mL, 3 μL/injection, 25 injections) immediately after the injury. The results showed that the decrease in stress and increase in strain at 7,200 seconds in the injured rabbit C6 brachial plexus nerve were mitigated by the cell transplantation, restoring the viscoelastic stress relaxation and creep properties of the brachial plexus nerve. The forepaw functions were also significantly improved at 26 weeks after injury. These data indicate that transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells can effectively restore the mechanical properties of the brachial plexus nerve after injury in rabbits and that viscoelasticity may be an important index for the evaluation of brachial plexus injury in animals. PMID:25883625

  3. MICAL2 is a novel human cancer gene controlling mesenchymal to epithelial transition involved in cancer growth and invasion.

    PubMed

    Mariotti, Sara; Barravecchia, Ivana; Vindigni, Carla; Pucci, Angela; Balsamo, Michele; Libro, Rosaliana; Senchenko, Vera; Dmitriev, Alexey; Jacchetti, Emanuela; Cecchini, Marco; Roviello, Franco; Lai, Michele; Broccoli, Vania; Andreazzoli, Massimiliano; Mazzanti, Chiara M; Angeloni, Debora

    2016-01-12

    The MICAL (Molecules Interacting with CasL) proteins catalyze actin oxidation-reduction reactions destabilizing F-actin in cytoskeletal dynamics. Here we show for the first time that MICAL2 mRNA is significantly over-expressed in aggressive, poorly differentiated/undifferentiated, primary human epithelial cancers (gastric and renal). Immunohistochemistry showed MICAL2-positive cells on the cancer invasive front and in metastasizing cancer cells inside emboli, but not at sites of metastasis, suggesting MICAL2 expression was 'on' in a subpopulation of primary cancer cells seemingly detaching from the tissue of origin, enter emboli and travel to distant sites, and was turned 'off' upon homing at metastatic sites. In vitro, MICAL2 knock-down resulted in mesenchymal to epithelial transition, reduction of viability, and loss of motility and invasion properties of human cancer cells. Moreover, expression of MICAL2 cDNA in MICAL2-depleted cells induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Altogether our data indicate that MICAL2 over-expression is associated with cancer progression and metastatic disease. MICAL2 might be an important regulator of epithelial to mesenchymal transition and therefore a promising target for anti-metastatic therapy. PMID:26689989

  4. MICAL2 is a novel human cancer gene controlling mesenchymal to epithelial transition involved in cancer growth and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Vindigni, Carla; Pucci, Angela; Balsamo, Michele; Libro, Rosaliana; Senchenko, Vera; Dmitriev, Alexey; Jacchetti, Emanuela; Cecchini, Marco; Roviello, Franco; Lai, Michele; Broccoli, Vania; Andreazzoli, Massimiliano; Mazzanti, Chiara M.; Angeloni, Debora

    2016-01-01

    The MICAL (Molecules Interacting with CasL) proteins catalyze actin oxidation-reduction reactions destabilizing F-actin in cytoskeletal dynamics. Here we show for the first time that MICAL2 mRNA is significantly over-expressed in aggressive, poorly differentiated/undifferentiated, primary human epithelial cancers (gastric and renal). Immunohistochemistry showed MICAL2-positive cells on the cancer invasive front and in metastasizing cancer cells inside emboli, but not at sites of metastasis, suggesting MICAL2 expression was 'on' in a subpopulation of primary cancer cells seemingly detaching from the tissue of origin, enter emboli and travel to distant sites, and was turned 'off' upon homing at metastatic sites. In vitro, MICAL2 knock-down resulted in mesenchymal to epithelial transition, reduction of viability, and loss of motility and invasion properties of human cancer cells. Moreover, expression of MICAL2 cDNA in MICAL2-depleted cells induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Altogether our data indicate that MICAL2 over-expression is associated with cancer progression and metastatic disease. MICAL2 might be an important regulator of epithelial to mesenchymal transition and therefore a promising target for anti-metastatic therapy. PMID:26689989

  5. Paramyxovirus Infection Mimics In Vivo Cellular Dynamics in Three-Demensional Human Bronchio-Epithelial Tissue-Like Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deatly, Anne M.; Lin, Yen-Huei; McCarthy, Maureen; Chen, Wei; Miller, Lynn Z.; Quiroz, Jorge; Nowak, Becky M.; Lerch, Robert A.; Udem, Stephen A.; Goodwin, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus cause severe respiratory disease, especially in infants, children and the elderly. An in vitro model that accurately mimics infection of the human respiratory epithelium (HRE) would facilitate vaccine development greatly. Monolayer cultures traditionally used to study these viruses do not accurately and precisely differentiate the replication efficiencies of wild type and attenuated viruses. Therefore, we engineered novel three-dimensional (3D) tissue-like assemblies (TLAs) of human broncho-epithelial (HBE) cells to produce a more physiologically relevant in vitro model of the HRE. TLAs resemble HRE structurally and by expression of differentiated epithelial cell markers. Most significantly, wild type viruses exhibited a clear growth advantage over attenuated strains in TLAs unlike monolayer cultures. In addition, the TLAs responded to virus infection by secreting pro-inflammatory mediators similar to the respiratory epithelia of infected children. These characteristics make the TLA model a valuable platform technology to develop and evaluate live, attenuated respiratory virus vaccine candidates for human use. Respiratory virus diseases, the most frequent and least preventable of all infectious diseases, range in severity from the common cold to severe bronchiolitis and pneumonia . Two paramyxoviruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3), are responsible for a majority of the most severe respiratory diseases of infants and young children. RSV causes 70% of all bronchiolitis cases and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in infants. PIV3 causes 10-15% of bronchiolitis and pneumonia during infancy, second only to RSV, and 40% of croup in infants To date, licensed vaccines are not available to prevent these respiratory diseases. At present, traditional monkey kidney (Vero and LLC-MK2) and human (HEp-2) tissue culture cells and small animal models (mouse

  6. Evidence for Active Electrolyte Transport by Two-Dimensional Monolayers of Human Salivary Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Hegyesi, Orsolya; Földes, Anna; Bori, Erzsébet; Németh, Zsolt; Barabás, József; Steward, Martin C; Varga, Gábor

    2015-12-01

    Functional reconstruction of lost tissue by regenerative therapy of salivary glands would be of immense benefit following radiotherapy or in the treatment of Sjogren's syndrome. The purpose of this study was to develop primary cultures of human salivary gland cells as potential regenerative resources and to characterize their acinar/ductal phenotype using electrophysiological measurements of ion transport. Human salivary gland cultures were prepared either from adherent submandibular gland cells (huSMG) or from mixed adherent and nonadherent cells (PTHSG) and were cultivated in Hepato-STIM or minimum essential medium (MEM). Expression of key epithelial marker proteins was determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) was monitored following seeding the cells on Transwell membranes. Transepithelial ion transport was estimated by short-circuit current (Isc) measurements in an Ussing chamber. Both huSMG and PTHSG cells showed epithelial characteristics when cultivated in Hepato-STIM, while fibroblast-like elements dominated in MEM. Compared to intact tissue, cultivation of the cells resulted in substantial decreases in AQP5 and NKCC1 expression and moderate increases in claudin-1 and ENaC expression. Both cultures achieved high TER and transepithelial electrolyte movement in Hepato-STIM, but not in MEM. The Isc was substantially reduced by basolateral Cl(-) and bicarbonate withdrawal, indicating the involvement of basolateral-to-apical anion transport, and by the blockade of apical ENaC by amiloride, indicating the involvement of apical-to-basolateral Na(+) transport. An almost complete inhibition was observed following simultaneous ENaC block and withdrawal of the two anions. Isc was enhanced by either apical adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or basolateral carbachol application, but not by forskolin, confirming the expected role of Ca(2+)-activated regulatory pathways in electrolyte

  7. Brd4 Is Essential for IL-1β-Induced Inflammation in Human Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Younis M.; Kirkham, Paul; Barnes, Peter J.; Adcock, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are key features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Oxidative stress enhances COPD inflammation under the control of the pro-inflammatory redox-sensitive transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). Histone acetylation plays a critical role in chronic inflammation and bromodomain and extra terminal (BET) proteins act as “readers” of acetylated histones. Therefore, we examined the role of BET proteins in particular Brd2 and Brd4 and their inhibitors (JQ1 and PFI-1) in oxidative stress- enhanced inflammation in human bronchial epithelial cells. Methods Human primary epithelial (NHBE) cells and BEAS-2B cell lines were stimulated with IL-1β (inflammatory stimulus) in the presence or absence of H2O2 (oxidative stress) and the effect of pre-treatment with bromodomain inhibitors (JQ1 and PFI-1) was investigated. Pro-inflammatory mediators (CXCL8 and IL-6) were measured by ELISA and transcripts by RT-PCR. H3 and H4 acetylation and recruitment of p65 and Brd4 to the native IL-8 and IL-6 promoters was investigated using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). The impact of Brd2 and Brd4 siRNA knockdown on inflammatory mediators was also investigated. Result H2O2 enhanced IL1β-induced IL-6 and CXCL8 expression in NHBE and BEAS-2B cells whereas H2O2 alone did not have any affect. H3 acetylation at the IL-6 and IL-8 promoters was associated with recruitment of p65 and Brd4 proteins. Although p65 acetylation was increased this was not directly targeted by Brd4. The BET inhibitors JQ1 and PFI-1 significantly reduced IL-6 and CXCL8 expression whereas no effect was seen with the inactive enantiomer JQ1(-). Brd4, but not Brd2, knockdown markedly reduced IL-6 and CXCL8 release. JQ1 also inhibited p65 and Brd4 recruitment to the IL-6 and IL-8 promoters. Conclusion Oxidative stress enhanced IL1β-induced IL-6 and CXCL8 expression was significantly reduced by Brd4 inhibition. Brd4 plays an important role in

  8. Junctional abnormalities in human airway epithelial cells expressing F508del CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Stauffer, Brandon; Moriarty, Hannah K.; Kim, Agnes H.; McCarty, Nael A.; Koval, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) has a profound impact on airway physiology. Accumulating evidence suggests that intercellular junctions are impaired in CF. We examined changes to CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function, tight junctions, and gap junctions in NuLi-1 (CFTRwt/wt) and CuFi-5 (CFTRΔF508/ΔF508) cells. Cells were studied at air-liquid interface (ALI) and compared with primary human bronchial epithelial cells. On the basis of fluorescent lectin binding, the phenotype of the NuLi-1 and CuFi-5 cells at week 8 resembled that of serous, glycoprotein-rich airway cells. After week 7, CuFi-5 cells possessed 130% of the epithelial Na+ channel activity and 17% of the CFTR activity of NuLi-1 cells. In both cell types, expression levels of CFTR were comparable to those in primary airway epithelia. Transepithelial resistance of NuLi-1 and CuFi-5 cells stabilized during maturation in ALI culture, with significantly lower transepithelial resistance for CuFi-5 than NuLi-1 cells. We also found that F508del CFTR negatively affects gap junction function in the airway. NuLi-1 and CuFi-5 cells express the connexins Cx43 and Cx26. While both connexins were properly trafficked by NuLi-1 cells, Cx43 was mistrafficked by CuFi-5 cells. Cx43 trafficking was rescued in CuFi-5 cells treated with 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), as assessed by intracellular dye transfer. 4-PBA-treated CuFi-5 cells also exhibited an increase in forskolin-induced CFTR-mediated currents. The Cx43 trafficking defect was confirmed using IB3-1 cells and found to be corrected by 4-PBA treatment. These data support the use of NuLi-1 and CuFi-5 cells to examine the effects of F508del CFTR expression on tight junction and gap junction function in the context of serous human airway cells. PMID:26115671

  9. Junctional abnormalities in human airway epithelial cells expressing F508del CFTR.

    PubMed

    Molina, Samuel A; Stauffer, Brandon; Moriarty, Hannah K; Kim, Agnes H; McCarty, Nael A; Koval, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) has a profound impact on airway physiology. Accumulating evidence suggests that intercellular junctions are impaired in CF. We examined changes to CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function, tight junctions, and gap junctions in NuLi-1 (CFTR(wt/wt)) and CuFi-5 (CFTR(ΔF508/ΔF508)) cells. Cells were studied at air-liquid interface (ALI) and compared with primary human bronchial epithelial cells. On the basis of fluorescent lectin binding, the phenotype of the NuLi-1 and CuFi-5 cells at week 8 resembled that of serous, glycoprotein-rich airway cells. After week 7, CuFi-5 cells possessed 130% of the epithelial Na(+) channel activity and 17% of the CFTR activity of NuLi-1 cells. In both cell types, expression levels of CFTR were comparable to those in primary airway epithelia. Transepithelial resistance of NuLi-1 and CuFi-5 cells stabilized during maturation in ALI culture, with significantly lower transepithelial resistance for CuFi-5 than NuLi-1 cells. We also found that F508del CFTR negatively affects gap junction function in the airway. NuLi-1 and CuFi-5 cells express the connexins Cx43 and Cx26. While both connexins were properly trafficked by NuLi-1 cells, Cx43 was mistrafficked by CuFi-5 cells. Cx43 trafficking was rescued in CuFi-5 cells treated with 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), as assessed by intracellular dye transfer. 4-PBA-treated CuFi-5 cells also exhibited an increase in forskolin-induced CFTR-mediated currents. The Cx43 trafficking defect was confirmed using IB3-1 cells and found to be corrected by 4-PBA treatment. These data support the use of NuLi-1 and CuFi-5 cells to examine the effects of F508del CFTR expression on tight junction and gap junction function in the context of serous human airway cells. PMID:26115671

  10. Ozone exposure of human tracheal epithelial cells inactivates cyclooxygenase and increases 15-HETE production.

    PubMed

    Alpert, S E; Walenga, R W

    1995-12-01

    We assessed the immediate and prolonged effects of ozone on arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism by primary cultured human tracheal epithelial (TE) cells. TE monolayers were exposed at a gas-fluid interface to air or 0.1, 0.25, or 0.5 ppm ozone (15 min air, then 45 min air/ozone), and serially collected effluents were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and/or high-performance liquid chromatography. Release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and AA, but not 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) or its metabolites, was detected from cultures prelabeled with [14C]AA. PGE2 production, measured by immunoassay, was nearly constant during air exposure. In contrast, PGE2 increased two- to threefold during the first 15-min exposure to all concentrations of ozone, but then progressively declined to 78 +/- 17, 57 +/- 12 (P < or = 0.05), and 45 +/- 15% (P < or = 0.05) of air controls after exposure to 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 ppm ozone. Ozone did not induce a new spectrum of AA metabolites; only PGE2, lesser amounts of PGF2 alpha, and 15-HETE were present in media and cell extracts of air- or ozone-exposed cultures provided with 30 microM exogenous AA. However, cyclooxygenase (CO) activity (PGE2 produced from 30 microM AA) decreased to 82 +/- 9, 53 +/- 8 (P < or = 0.05), and 28 +/- 6% (P < or = 0.05) vs. controls after 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 ppm ozone, whereas 15-HETE production was unimpaired. When cells exposed to 0.5 ppm ozone were maintained for up to 6 h in 5% CO2-air, spontaneous PGE2 production remained decreased and recovery of CO activity was extremely slow. TLC analysis of lipid extracts from [14C]AA-labeled cells revealed a nearly twofold increase in free intracellular 15-HETE, and hydrolysis of phospholipids demonstrated increased esterified 15-HETE. Exposure of human TE cells to ozone leads to a transient increase followed by prolonged decrease in PGE2 production and increased intracellular retention of 15-HETE. Loss of the bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory properties

  11. Human Epithelial Cells Discriminate between Commensal and Pathogenic Interactions with Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Rast, Timothy J.; Kullas, Amy L.; Southern, Peter J.; Davis, Dana A.

    2016-01-01

    The commensal fungus, Candida albicans, can cause life-threatening infections in at risk individuals. C. albicans colonizes mucosal surfaces of most people, adhering to and interacting with epithelial cells. At low concentrations, C. albicans is not pathogenic nor does it cause epithelial cell damage in vitro; at high concentrations, C. albicans causes mucosal infections and kills epithelial cells in vitro. Here we show that while there are quantitative dose-dependent differences in exposed epithelial cell populations, these reflect a fundamental qualitative difference in host cell response to C. albicans. Using transcriptional profiling experiments and real time PCR, we found that wild-type C. albicans induce dose-dependent responses from a FaDu epithelial cell line. However, real time PCR and Western blot analysis using a high dose of various C. albicans strains demonstrated that these dose-dependent responses are associated with ability to promote host cell damage. Our studies support the idea that epithelial cells play a key role in the immune system by monitoring the microbial community at mucosal surfaces and initiating defensive responses when this community is dysfunctional. This places epithelial cells at a pivotal position in the interaction with C. albicans as epithelial cells themselves promote C. albicans stimulated damage. PMID:27088599

  12. Transcriptomic Analysis of PNN- and ESRP1-Regulated Alternative Pre-mRNA Splicing in Human Corneal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Jeong-Hoon; Correia, Greg P.; Li, Jian-Liang; Lopez, Maria-Cecilia; Baker, Henry V.; Sugrue, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We investigated the impact of PININ (PNN) and epithelial splicing regulatory protein 1 (ESRP1) on alternative pre-mRNA splicing in the corneal epithelial context. Methods. Isoform-specific RT-PCR assays were performed on wild-type and Pnn knockout mouse cornea. Protein interactions were examined by deconvolution microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation. For genome-wide alternative splicing study, immortalized human corneal epithelial cells (HCET) harboring doxycycline-inducible shRNA against PNN or ESRP1 were created. Total RNA was isolated from four biological replicates of control and knockdown HCET cells, and subjected to hGlue3_0 transcriptome array analysis. Results. Pnn depletion in developing mouse corneal epithelium led to disrupted alternative splicing of multiple ESRP-regulated epithelial-type exons. In HCET cells, ESRP1 and PNN displayed close localization in and around nuclear speckles, and their physical association in protein complexes was identified. Whole transcriptome array analysis on ESRP1 or PNN knockdown HCET cells revealed clear alterations in transcript profiles and splicing patterns of specific subsets of genes. Separate RT-PCR validation assays confirmed successfully specific changes in exon usage of several representative splice variants, including PAX6(5a), FOXJ3, ARHGEF11, and SLC37A2. Gene ontologic analyses on ESRP1- or PNN-regulated alternative exons suggested their roles in epithelial phenotypes, such as cell morphology and movement. Conclusions. Our data suggested that ESRP1 and PNN modulate alternative splicing of a specific subset of target genes, but not general splicing events, in HCET cells to maintain or enhance epithelial characteristics. PMID:23299472

  13. Cadmium Induces p53-Dependent Apoptosis in Human Prostate Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aimola, Pierpaolo; Carmignani, Marco; Volpe, Anna Rita; Di Benedetto, Altomare; Claudio, Luigi; Waalkes, Michael P.; van Bokhoven, Adrie; Tokar, Erik J.; Claudio, Pier Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium, a widespread toxic pollutant of occupational and environmental concern, is a known human carcinogen. The prostate is a potential target for cadmium carcinogenesis, although the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Furthermore, cadmium may induce cell death by apoptosis in various cell types, and it has been hypothesized that a key factor in cadmium-induced malignant transformation is acquisition of apoptotic resistance. We investigated the in vitro effects produced by cadmium exposure in normal or tumor cells derived from human prostate epithelium, including RWPE-1 and its cadmium-transformed derivative CTPE, the primary adenocarcinoma 22Rv1 and CWR-R1 cells and LNCaP, PC-3 and DU145 metastatic cancer cell lines. Cells were treated for 24 hours with different concentrations of CdCl2 and apoptosis, cell cycle distribution and expression of tumor suppressor proteins were analyzed. Subsequently, cellular response to cadmium was evaluated after siRNA-mediated p53 silencing in wild type p53-expressing RWPE-1 and LNCaP cells, and after adenoviral p53 overexpression in p53-deficient DU145 and PC-3 cell lines. The cell lines exhibited different sensitivity to cadmium, and 24-hour exposure to different CdCl2 concentrations induced dose- and cell type-dependent apoptotic response and inhibition of cell proliferation that correlated with accumulation of functional p53 and overexpression of p21 in wild type p53-expressing cell lines. On the other hand, p53 silencing was able to suppress cadmium-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that cadmium can induce p53-dependent apoptosis in human prostate epithelial cells and suggest p53 mutation as a possible contributing factor for the acquisition of apoptotic resistance in cadmium prostatic carcinogenesis. PMID:22448262

  14. Sodium metavanadate exhibits carcinogenic tendencies in vitro in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells†

    PubMed Central

    Passantino, Lisa; Muñoz, Alexandra B.

    2014-01-01

    Pentavalent vanadium compounds induce intracellular changes in vitro that are consistent with those of other carcinogenic substances. While there is no clear evidence that vanadium compounds cause cancer in humans, vanadium pentoxide causes lung cancer in rodents after long-term inhalation exposures and in turn IARC has categorized it as a group 2B possible human carcinogen. The goal of this study was to investigate the carcinogenicity of NaVO3 in the human immortalized bronchial epithelial cell line, Beas-2B. Cells were treated with 10 μM NaVO3 for 5 weeks, with or without recovery time, followed by gene expression microarray analysis. In a separate experiment, cells were exposed to 1–10 μM NaVO3 for 4 weeks and then grown in soft agar to test for anchorage-independent growth. A dose-dependent increase in the number of colonies was observed. In scratch tests, NaVO3-transformed clones could repair a wound faster than controls. In a gene expression microarray analysis of soft agar clones there were 2010 differentially expressed genes (DEG) (adjusted p-value ≤ 0.05) in NaVO3-transformed clones relative to control clones. DEG from this experiment were compared with the DEG of 5 week NaVO3 exposure with or without recovery, all with adjusted p-values < 0.05, and 469 genes were altered in the same direction for transformed clones, 5 week NaVO3-treated cells, and the recovered cells. The data from this study imply that chronic exposure to NaVO3 causes changes that are consistent with cellular transformation including anchorage-independent growth, enhanced migration ability, and gene expression changes that were likely epigenetically inherited. PMID:23963610

  15. Osteogenic differentiation of human lens epithelial cells might contribute to lens calcification.

    PubMed

    Balogh, Enikő; Tóth, Andrea; Tolnai, Emese; Bodó, Tímea; Bányai, Emese; Szabó, Dóra Júlia; Petrovski, Goran; Jeney, Viktória

    2016-09-01

    Calcification of the human lens has been described in senile cataracts and in young patients with congenital cataract or chronic uveitis. Lens calcification is also a major complication of cataract surgery and plays a role in the opacification of intraocular lenses. A cell-mediated process has been suggested in the background of lens calcification, but so far the exact mechanism remained unexplored. Lens calcification shares remarkable similarities with vascular calcification; in both pathological processes hydroxyapatite accumulates in the soft tissue. Vascular calcification is a regulated, cell-mediated process in which vascular cells undergo osteogenic differentiation. Our objective was to investigate whether human lens epithelial cells (HuLECs) can undergo osteogenic transition in vitro, and whether this process contributes to lens calcification. We used inorganic phosphate (Pi) and Ca to stimulate osteogenic differentiation of HuLECs. Osteogenic stimuli (2.5mmol/L Pi and 1.2mmol/L Ca) induced extracellular matrix mineralization and Ca deposition in HuLECs with the critical involvement of active Pi uptake. Osteogenic stimuli almost doubled mRNA expressions of osteo-/chondrogenic transcription factors Runx2 and Sox9, which was accompanied by a 1.9-fold increase in Runx2 and a 5.5-fold increase in Sox9 protein expressions. Osteogenic stimuli induced mRNA and protein expressions of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin in HuLEC. Ca content was higher in human cataractous lenses, compared to non-cataractous controls (n=10). Osteocalcin, an osteoblast-specific protein, was expressed in 2 out of 10 cataractous lenses. We conclude that osteogenic stimuli induce osteogenic differentiation of HuLECs and propose that this mechanism might play a role in lens calcification. PMID:27318027

  16. Molecular basis of arsenite (As+3)-induced acute cytotoxicity in human cervical epithelial carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, Muhammad Nauman; Nisar, Muhammad Atif; Khurshid, Mohsin; Hussain, Syed Zajif; Maqsood, Umer; Asghar, Muhammad Tahir; Nazir, Jawad

    2015-01-01

    Background Rapid industrialization is discharging toxic heavy metals into the environment, disturbing human health in many ways and causing various neurologic, cardiovascular, and dermatologic abnormalities and certain types of cancer. The presence of arsenic in drinking water from different urban and rural areas of the major cities of Pakistan, for example, Lahore, Faisalabad, and Kasur, was found to be beyond the permissible limit of 10 parts per billion set by the World Health Organization. Therefore the present study was initiated to examine the effects of arsenite (As+3) on DNA biosynthesis and cell death. Methods After performing cytotoxic assays on a human epithelial carcinoma cell line, expression analysis was done by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and flow cytometry. Results We show that As+3 ions have a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect through the activation of the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. In contrast to previous research, the present study was designed to explore the early cytotoxic effects produced in human cells during exposure to heavy dosage of As+3 (7.5 µg/ml). Even treatment for 1 h significantly increased the mRNA levels of p21 and p27 and caspases 3, 7, and 9. It was interesting that there was no change in the expression levels of p53, which plays an important role in G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. Conclusion Our results indicate that sudden exposure of cells to arsenite (As+3) resulted in cytotoxicity and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis resulting from up-regulation of caspases. PMID:25922308

  17. Cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 controls human colonic epithelial restitution, migration, and Rac1 activation.

    PubMed

    Seidelin, Jakob Benedict; Larsen, Sylvester; Linnemann, Dorte; Vainer, Ben; Coskun, Mehmet; Troelsen, Jesper Thorvald; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2015-01-15

    Identification of pathways involved in wound healing is important for understanding the pathogenesis of various intestinal diseases. Cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (cIAP2) regulates proliferation and migration in nonepithelial cells and is expressed in human colonocytes. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of cIAP2 for wound healing in the normal human colon. Wound tissue was generated by taking rectosigmoidal biopsies across an experimental ulcer in healthy subjects after 5, 24, and 48 h. In experimental ulcers, the expression of cIAP2 in regenerating intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) was increased at the wound edge after 24 h (P < 0.05), returned to normal after reepithelialization, and correlated with the inflammatory reaction in the experimental wounds (P < 0.001). cIAP2 was induced in vitro in regenerating Caco2 IECs after wound infliction (P < 0.01). Knockdown of cIAP2 caused a substantial impairment of the IEC regeneration through inhibition of migration (P < 0.005). cIAP2 overexpression lead to formation of migrating IECs and upregulation of expression of RhoA and Rac1 as well as GTP-activation of Rac1. Transforming growth factor-β1 enhanced the expression of cIAP2 but was not upregulated in wounds in vivo and in vitro. NF-κB and MAPK pathways did not affect cIAP2 expression. cIAP2 is in conclusion a regulator of human intestinal wound healing through enhanced migration along with activation of Rac1, and the findings suggest that cIAP2 could be a future therapeutic target to improve intestinal wound healing. PMID:25394657

  18. Alisertib, an Aurora kinase A inhibitor, induces apoptosis and autophagy but inhibits epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human epithelial ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yong-Hui; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Ha, Chun-Fang; Zhang, Xue-Yu; Pan, Shu-Ting; He, Zhi-Xu; Edelman, Jeffrey L; Wang, Dong; Yang, Yin-Xue; Zhang, Xueji; Duan, Wei; Yang, Tianxin; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a leading killer of women, and no cure for advanced ovarian cancer is available. Alisertib (ALS), a selective Aurora kinase A (AURKA) inhibitor, has shown potent anticancer effects, and is under clinical investigation for the treatment of advanced solid tumor and hematologic malignancies. However, the role of ALS in the treatment of ovarian cancer remains unclear. This study investigated the effects of ALS on cell growth, apoptosis, autophagy, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and the underlying mechanisms in human epithelial ovarian cancer SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cells. Our docking study showed that ALS, MLN8054, and VX-680 preferentially bound to AURKA over AURKB via hydrogen bond formation, charge interaction, and π-π stacking. ALS had potent growth-inhibitory, proapoptotic, proautophagic, and EMT-inhibitory effects on SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cells. ALS arrested SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cells in G2/M phase and induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and autophagy in both SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. ALS suppressed phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways but activated 5′-AMP-dependent kinase, as indicated by their altered phosphorylation, contributing to the proautophagic activity of ALS. Modulation of autophagy altered basal and ALS-induced apoptosis in SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cells. Further, ALS suppressed the EMT-like phenotype in both cell lines by restoring the balance between E-cadherin and N-cadherin. ALS downregulated sirtuin 1 and pre-B cell colony enhancing factor (PBEF/visfatin) expression levels and inhibited phosphorylation of AURKA in both cell lines. These findings indicate that ALS blocks the cell cycle by G2/M phase arrest and promotes cellular apoptosis and autophagy, but inhibits EMT via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mTOR-mediated and sirtuin 1-mediated pathways in human epithelial ovarian cancer

  19. Differential Response of Human Nasal and Bronchial Epithelial Cells upon Exposure to Size-fractionated Dairy Dust

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Brie; Schaeffer, Joshua; Poole, Jill A.; Dooley, Gregory P.; Reynolds, Stephen; Volckens, John

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to organic dusts is associated with increased respiratory morbidity and mortality in agricultural workers. Organic dusts in dairy farm environments are complex, polydisperse mixtures of toxic and immunogenic compounds. Previous toxicological studies focused primarily on exposures to the respirable size fraction, however, organic dusts in dairy farm environments are known to contain larger particles. Given the size distribution of dusts from dairy farm environments, the nasal and bronchial epithelia represent targets of agricultural dust exposures. In this study, well-differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells and human nasal epithelial cells were exposed to two different size fractions (PM10 and PM>10) of dairy parlor dust using a novel aerosol-to-cell exposure system. Levels of pro-inflammatory transcripts (IL-8, IL-6, and TNF-α) were measured two hr after exposure. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release was also measured as an indicator of cytotoxicity. Cell exposure to dust was measured in each size fraction as a function of mass, endotoxin, and muramic acid levels. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the effects of distinct size fractions of agricultural dust on human airway epithelial cells. Our results suggest that both PM10 and PM>10 size fractions elicit a pro-inflammatory response in airway epithelial cells and that the entire inhalable size fraction needs to be considered when assessing potential risks from exposure to agricultural dusts. Further, data suggest that human bronchial cells respond differently to these dusts than human nasal cells and, therefore, the two cell types need to be considered separately in airway cell models of agricultural dust toxicity. PMID:25965193

  20. Human Vγ9Vδ2-T cells efficiently kill influenza virus-infected lung alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong; Xiang, Zheng; Feng, Ting; Li, Jinrong; Liu, Yinping; Fan, Yingying; Lu, Qiao; Yin, Zhongwei; Yu, Meixing; Shen, Chongyang; Tu, Wenwei

    2013-01-01

    γδ-T cells play an indispensable role in host defense against different viruses, including influenza A virus. However, whether these cells have cytotoxic activity against influenza virus-infected lung alveolar epithelial cells and subsequently contribute to virus clearance remains unknown. Using influenza virus-infected A549 cells, human lung alveolar epithelial cells, we investigated the cytotoxic activity of aminobisphosphonate pamidronate (PAM)-expanded human Vγ9Vδ2-T cells and their underlying mechanisms. We found that PAM could selectively activate and expand human Vγ9Vδ2-T cells. PAM-expanded human Vγ9Vδ2-T cells efficiently killed influenza virus-infected lung alveolar epithelial cells and inhibited virus replication. The cytotoxic activity of PAM-expanded Vγ9Vδ2-T cells was dependent on cell-to-cell contact and required NKG2D activation. Perforin–granzyme B, tumor-necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and Fas–Fas ligand (FasL) pathways were involved in their cytotoxicity. Our study suggests that targeting γδ-T cells by PAM can potentially offer an alternative option for the treatment of influenza virus. PMID:23353835

  1. EMMPRIN Is Secreted by Human Uterine Epithelial Cells in Microvesicles and Stimulates Metalloproteinase Production by Human Uterine Fibroblast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dayger, C. A.; Mehrotra, P.; Belton, R. J.; Nowak, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    Endometrial remodeling is a physiological process involved in the gynecological disease, endometriosis. Tissue remodeling is directed by uterine fibroblast production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Several MMPs are regulated directly by the protein extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) and also by proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)1-α/β. We hypothesized that human uterine epithelial cells (HESs) secrete intact EMMPRIN to stimulate MMPs. Microvesicles from HES cell-conditioned medium (CM) expressed intact EMMPRIN protein. Treatment of HES cells wi