Sample records for a5 gene apoa5

  1. Interactions of Environmental Factors and APOA1-APOC3-APOA4-APOA5 Gene Cluster Gene Polymorphisms with Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanhua; Yu, Yaqin; Zhao, Tiancheng; Wang, Shibin; Fu, Yingli; Qi, Yue; Yang, Guang; Yao, Wenwang; Su, Yingying; Ma, Yue; Shi, Jieping; Jiang, Jing; Kou, Changgui

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence and risk factors for Metabolic syndrome. We evaluated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the apolipoprotein APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster and the MetS risk and analyzed the interactions of environmental factors and APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster polymorphisms with MetS. A study on the prevalence and risk factors for MetS was conducted using data from a large cross-sectional survey representative of the population of Jilin Province situated in northeastern China. A total of 16,831 participations were randomly chosen by multistage stratified cluster sampling of residents aged from 18 to 79 years in all nine administrative areas of the province. Environmental factors associated with MetS were examined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses based on the weighted sample data. A sub-sample of 1813 survey subjects who met the criteria for MetS patients and 2037 controls from this case-control study were used to evaluate the association between SNPs and MetS risk. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes, and SNP genotyping was determined by MALDI-TOF-MS. The associations between SNPs and MetS were examined using a case-control study design. The interactions of environmental factors and APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster polymorphisms with MetS were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The overall adjusted prevalence of MetS was 32.86% in Jilin province. The prevalence of MetS in men was 36.64%, which was significantly higher than the prevalence in women (29.66%). MetS was more common in urban areas (33.86%) than in rural areas (31.80%). The prevalence of MetS significantly increased with age (OR = 8.621, 95%CI = 6.594-11.272). Mental labor (OR = 1.098, 95%CI = 1.008-1.195), current smoking (OR = 1.259, 95%CI = 1.108-1.429), excess salt intake (OR = 1.252, 95%CI = 1.149-1.363), and a fruit and dairy intake less than 2 servings a week were

  2. Association of APOA5 and APOC3 gene polymorphisms with plasma apolipoprotein A5 level in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Niculescu, Loredan S; Vlădică, Maria; Sima, Anca V

    2010-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) variants are associated with increased plasma triglycerides, a risk factor for the metabolic syndrome (MS), but a correlation with apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3) genotypes is controversial. We investigated the correlation of APOA5 genotypes with plasma apoA5 levels and APOC3 genotypes in MS patients from a Romanian population. APOA5 (-1131T>C, c.56C>G) and APOC3 (-482C>T, -455T>C) genotypes and plasma apoA5 concentration were determined in MS patients and healthy subjects. Results showed higher apoA5 levels in plasma and high density lipoproteins (HDL) from MS patients, carriers of the APOA5 c.56G allele, as compared to MS carriers of APOA5 -1131C allele or the common genotype. ApoA5 levels in plasma and HDL fraction from MS carriers of -1131C and c.56G alleles correlated positively with plasma triglycerides levels and negatively with HDL-cholesterol in MS carriers of c.56G allele. Higher frequencies of APOC3 -482T and -455C alleles were detected in MS patients compared with healthy subjects. We demonstrated the association of APOC3 -482T and -455C with APOA5 -1131C allele, but not with c.56G allele in MS patients. We propose APOA5c.56C>G as a functional polymorphism, whereas APOA5 -1131T>C is not an independent risk factor, being effective only when associated with APOC3 -482T or -455C alleles. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Two novel rare variants of APOA5 gene found in subjects with severe hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Pisciotta, Livia; Fresa, Raffaele; Bellocchio, Antonella; Guido, Virgilia; Priore Oliva, Claudio; Calandra, Sebastiano; Bertolini, Stefano

    2011-11-20

    Common variants of APOA5 gene affect plasma triglyceride (TG) in the population and a number of rare variants APOA5 have been reported in individuals with hypertriglyceridemia (HTG). APOA5 was analysed in 98 HTG individuals (plasma TG >9 mmol/L) in whom no mutations in LPL and APOC2 had been found. Two patients were found to be heterozygous for two novel APOA5 variants. The first variant (p.L253P) was identified in an obese male who consumed a diet rich in fat and simple sugars. He was also a carrier in trans of the common TG-raising p.S19W SNP (5*3 haplotype). The second variant (c.295-297 del GAG, p.E99 del) was found in a lean male with no life style or metabolic factors known to affect plasma TG. He was a carrier in trans of the TG-raising 5*2 haplotype and was homozygous for the rare c.1337T allele of a SNP of GCKR gene. No mutations in other genes affecting plasma TG (LMF1 and GPIHBP1) were found in these patients. These APOA5 variants, resulted to be deleterious in silico, were not found in 350 control subjects. These novel APOA5 variants predispose to HTG in combination with other genetic or nutritional factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. In Vivo Characterization of Human APOA5 Haplotypes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ahituv, Nadav; Akiyama, Jennifer; Chapman-Helleboid, Audrey

    2006-10-01

    Increased plasma triglycerides concentrations are an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Numerous studies support a reproducible genetic association between two minor haplotypes in the human apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) and increased plasma triglyceride concentrations. We thus sought to investigate the effect of these minor haplotypes (APOA5*2 and APOA5*3) on ApoAV plasma levels through the precise insertion of single-copy intact APOA5 haplotypes at a targeted location in the mouse genome. While we found no difference in the amount of human plasma ApoAV in mice containing the common APOA5*1 and minor APOA5*2 haplotype, the introduction of the single APOA5*3 defining allelemore » (19W) resulted in 3-fold lower ApoAV plasma levels consistent with existing genetic association studies. These results indicate that S19W polymorphism is likely to be functional and explain the strong association of this variant with plasma triglycerides supporting the value of sensitive in vivo assays to define the functional nature of human haplotypes.« less

  5. Significant association of APOA5 and APOC3 gene polymorphisms with meat quality traits in Kele pigs.

    PubMed

    Hui, Y T; Yang, Y Q; Liu, R Y; Zhang, Y Y; Xiang, C J; Liu, Z Z; Ding, Y H; Zhang, Y L; Wang, B R

    2013-09-13

    Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) and C3 (APOC3) genes are involved in the PPAR lipid metabolism pathway and thus associated with elevated triglyceride levels. However, whether APOA5 and APOC3 genetic polymorphisms affect intramuscular fat deposition and other meat quality traits remains unknown in pigs. One hundred and seventy-one Kele pigs were sampled to investigate genetic variants in the APOA5 and APOC3 genes and their association with seven pork quality traits. We identified 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region of the APOA5 gene and 17 SNPs in the APOC3 gene. Linkage disequilibrium analysis revealed 5 complete linkage disequilibria among these 22 SNPs. We found that 10 SNPs were significantly correlated with meat quality traits, including the mutation A5/-769 in the APOA5 gene, which was significantly associated with cooked weight percentage, and 9 SNPs in the APOC3 gene that were significantly associated with drip loss rate, meat color value of longissimus dorsi muscle and shear force. Therefore, these SNP markers will be useful for marker-assisted selection for improved pork quality.

  6. Associations of Polymorphisms in the Apolipoprotein APOA1-C3-A5 Gene Cluster with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yan; Zhu, Ming An; Wang, Zhi Xiao; Zhu, Jing; Feng, Jing Bo; Li, Dong Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Background. Acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) are clinically cardiovascular events associated with dyslipidemia in common. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes in the APOA1/C3/A5 gene cluster are associated with diabetes and familial combined hyperlipidaemia (FCH). Little is known about whether the polymorphisms in these genes affect lipid homeostasis in patients with ACSs. The present paper aimed to examine these associations with 4 SNPs in the APOA1 −75G > A, the APOC3 −455T > C, and APOA5 −1131T > C, c.553G > T variant to ACSs in Chinese Han. Methods. Chinese Han of 229 patients with ACSs and 254 unrelated controls were analyzed. Four SNPs in APOA1/C3/A5 cluster were genotyped and lipid was determined. Results. Our data show that minor allelic frequencies of APOC3 −455T > C, APOA5 −1131T > C, and c.553G > T polymorphisms in patients with ACSs were significantly higher than control group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the 3 polymorphic sites were strongly of linkage disequilibrium, and minor alleles of 3 SNP sites had higher TG level than wild alleles (P < 0.05), APOC3 −455C and APOA5 c.553T allele carriers also had lower level of HDL-C. Conclusions. The minor alleles of APOC3 −455T > C, APOA5 −1131T > C, and c.553G > T polymorphisms are closely associated with ACSs. PMID:22675253

  7. An APOA5 3′ UTR Variant Associated with Plasma Triglycerides Triggers APOA5 Downregulation by Creating a Functional miR-485-5p Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Caussy, Cyrielle; Charrière, Sybil; Marçais, Christophe; Di Filippo, Mathilde; Sassolas, Agnès; Delay, Mireille; Euthine, Vanessa; Jalabert, Audrey; Lefai, Etienne; Rome, Sophie; Moulin, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    APOA5 c.∗158C>T (rs2266788), located in the 3′ UTR, belongs to APOA5 haplotype 2 (APOA5∗2), which is strongly associated with plasma triglyceride levels and modulates the occurrence of both moderate and severe hypertriglyceridemia. Individuals with APOA5∗2 display reduced APOA5 expression at the posttranscriptional level. However, the functionality of this haplotype remains unclear. We hypothesized that the hypertriglyceridemic effects of APOA5∗2 could involve miRNA regulation in the APOA5 3′ UTR. Bioinformatic studies have identified the creation of a potential miRNA binding site for liver-expressed miR-485-5p (MIRN485-5p) in the mutant APOA5 3′ UTR with the c.∗158C allele. In human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK293T) cells cotransfected with an APOA5 3′ UTR luciferase reporter vector and a miR485-5p precursor, c.∗158C allele expression was significantly decreased. Moreover, in HuH-7 cells endogenously expressing miR-485-5p, we observed that luciferase activity was significantly lower in the presence of the c.∗158C allele than in the presence of the c.∗158T allele, which was completely reversed by a miR-485-5p inhibitor. We demonstrated that the rare c.∗158C APOA5 allele creates a functional target site for liver-expressed miR-485-5p. Therefore, we propose that the well-documented hypertriglyceridemic effect of APOA5∗2 involves an APOA5 posttranscriptional downregulation mediated by miR-485-5p. PMID:24387992

  8. A promoter variant of the APOA5 gene increases atherogenic LDL levels and arterial stiffness in hypertriglyceridemic patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjoo; Kim, Minkyung; Yoo, Hye Jin; Lee, Eunji; Chae, Jey Sook; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is recognized as an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. The apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) is a key regulator of triglyceride levels. We aimed to evaluate the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in APOA5, including -1131T>C and c.553G>T, with hypertriglyceridemia, apoA5 concentrations, atherogenic LDL cholesterol levels, and arterial stiffness in hypertriglyceridemic patients. The study population included 599 hypertriglyceridemic patients (case) and 1,549 untreated normotriglyceridemic subjects (control). We genotyped two APOA5 variants, -1131T>C (rs662799) and c.553G>T (rs2075291). The frequencies of the CC genotype of -1131T>C (0.165) and the T allele of c.553G>T (0.119) were significantly higher in hypertriglyceridemic patients than in normotriglyceridemic subjects (0.061 and 0.070, respectively; all p<0.001). In the control and case groups, both the -1131T>C and c.553G>T variants were associated with higher triglyceride and lower HDL cholesterol levels. Controls with the -1131CC variant had lower apoA5 concentrations than controls with the -1131TT variant. Similar effects of the -1131T>C variant on apoA5 were observed in the cases. In the hypertriglyceridemic group, the -1131T>C variant was associated with a smaller LDL particle size, higher levels of oxidized LDL and malondialdehyde, and higher brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. The -1131T>C and c.553G>T polymorphisms were associated with hypertriglyceridemia in the study population, but only the -1131T>C polymorphism directly affected apoA5 concentrations. Hypertriglyceridemic patients carrying the APOA5 -1131T>C polymorphism exhibited increased atherogenic LDL levels and arterial stiffness, probably due to an effect of the -1131T>C polymorphism on apoA5 concentrations.

  9. Effects of Polymorphisms in APOA4-APOA5-ZNF259-BUD13 Gene Cluster on Plasma Levels of Triglycerides and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Su, Li; Zhang, Mingjun; Wang, Long; Jing, Jinjin; Zhou, Li

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim Recent genome-wide association studies have identified several loci influencing lipid levels. The present study focused on the triglycerides (TG)-associated locus, the APOA4-APOA5-ZNF259-BUD13 gene cluster on chromosome 11, to explore the role of genetic variants in this gene cluster in the development of increasing TG levels and coronary heart disease (CHD). Methodology/Principal Findings Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs4417316, rs651821, rs6589566, rs7396835, rs964184 and rs17119975, in the APOA4-APOA5-ZNF259-BUD13 gene cluster were selected and genotyped in 5374 healthy Chinese subjects. There were strong significant associations between the six SNPs and TG levels (P<1.0×10−8). Moreover, a weighted genotype score was found to be associated with TG levels (P = 3.28×10−13). The frequencies of three common haplotypes were observed to be significantly different between the high TG group and the low TG group (P<0.05). However, no significant effects were found for the SNPs regarding susceptibility to CHD in the Chinese case-control populations. Conclusions/Significance This study highlights the genotypes, genotype scores and haplotypes of the APOA4-APOA5-ZNF259-BUD13 gene cluster that were associated with TG levels in a Chinese population; however, the genetic variants in this gene cluster did not increase the risk of CHD in the Chinese population. PMID:26397108

  10. APOA5 Gene Variation Interacts with Dietary Fat Intake to Modulate Obesity and Circulating Triglycerides in a Mediterranean Population12

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Moreno, Carmen; Ordovás, Jose M.; Smith, Caren E.; Baraza, Juan C.; Lee, Yu-Chi; Garaulet, Marta

    2011-01-01

    APOA5 is one of the strongest regulators of plasma TG concentrations; nevertheless, its mechanisms of action are poorly characterized. Genetic variability at the APOA5 locus has also been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk; however, this predisposition could be attenuated in the context of a prudent diet as traditionally consumed in the Mediterranean countries. We have investigated the interaction between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at the APOA5 gene (-1131T > C) and dietary fat that may modulate TG-rich lipoprotein concentrations and anthropometric measures in overweight and obese participants. We recruited 1465 participants from a Spanish population (20–65 y old; BMI 25–40 kg/m2) attending outpatient obesity clinics. Consistent with previous reports, we found an association between the APOA5-1131T > C SNP and TG-rich lipoprotein concentrations that were higher in carriers of the minor allele than in noncarriers (P < 0.001). Moreover, we found a significant genotype-dietary fat interaction for obesity traits. Participants homozygous for the −1131T major allele had a positive association between fat intake and obesity, whereas in those carrying the APOA5−1131C minor allele, higher fat intakes were not associated with higher BMI. Likewise, we found genotype-dietary fat interactions for TG-rich lipoproteins (P < 0.001). In conclusion, we have replicated previous gene-diet interactions between APOA5 -1131T > C SNP and fat intake for obesity traits and detected a novel interaction for TG-rich lipoprotein concentrations. Our data support the hypothesis that the minor C-allele may protect those consuming a high-fat diet from obesity and elevated concentrations of TG-rich lipoproteins. PMID:21209257

  11. Association between glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) and apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) gene polymorphisms and triacylglycerol concentrations in fasting, postprandial, and fenofibrate-treated states.

    PubMed

    Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Corella, Dolores; Shen, Jian; Arnett, Donna K; Yiannakouris, Nikos; Tai, E Syong; Orho-Melander, Marju; Tucker, Katherine L; Tsai, Michael; Straka, Robert J; Province, Michael; Kai, Chew Suok; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Guillen, Marisa; Parnell, Laurence D; Borecki, Ingrid; Kathiresan, Sekar; Ordovas, Jose M

    2009-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Variation in the apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) and glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) genes has been associated with fasting plasma triacylglycerol. We investigated the combined effects of the GCKR rs780094C-->T, APOA5 -1131T-->C, and APOA5 56C-->G single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on fasting triacylglycerol in several independent populations and the response to a high-fat meal and fenofibrate interventions. We used a cross-sectional design to investigate the association with fasting triacylglycerol in 8 populations from America, Asia, and Europe (n = 7,730 men and women) and 2 intervention studies in US whites (n = 1,061) to examine postprandial triacylglycerol after a high-fat meal and the response to fenofibrate. We defined 3 combined genotype groups: 1) protective (homozygous for the wild-type allele for all 3 SNPs); 2) intermediate (any mixed genotype not included in groups 1 and 3); and 3) risk (carriers of the variant alleles at both genes). Subjects within the risk group had significantly higher fasting triacylglycerol and a higher prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia than did subjects in the protective group across all populations. Moreover, subjects in the risk group had a greater postprandial triacylglycerol response to a high-fat meal and greater fenofibrate-induced reduction of fasting triacylglycerol than did the other groups, especially among persons with hypertriglyceridemia. Subjects with the intermediate genotype had intermediate values (P for trend <0.001). SNPs in GCKR and APOA5 have an additive effect on both fasting and postprandial triacylglycerol and contribute to the interindividual variability in response to fenofibrate treatment.

  12. Association between glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) and apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) gene polymorphisms and triacylglycerol concentrations in fasting, postprandial, and fenofibrate-treated states123

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Corella, Dolores; Shen, Jian; Arnett, Donna K; Yiannakouris, Nikos; Tai, E Syong; Orho-Melander, Marju; Tucker, Katherine L; Tsai, Michael; Straka, Robert J; Province, Michael; Kai, Chew Suok; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Guillen, Marisa; Parnell, Laurence D; Borecki, Ingrid; Kathiresan, Sekar; Ordovas, Jose M

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Variation in the apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) and glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) genes has been associated with fasting plasma triacylglycerol. Objective: We investigated the combined effects of the GCKR rs780094C→T, APOA5 −1131T→C, and APOA5 56C→G single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on fasting triacylglycerol in several independent populations and the response to a high-fat meal and fenofibrate interventions. Design: We used a cross-sectional design to investigate the association with fasting triacylglycerol in 8 populations from America, Asia, and Europe (n = 7730 men and women) and 2 intervention studies in US whites (n = 1061) to examine postprandial triacylglycerol after a high-fat meal and the response to fenofibrate. We defined 3 combined genotype groups: 1) protective (homozygous for the wild-type allele for all 3 SNPs); 2) intermediate (any mixed genotype not included in groups 1 and 3); and 3) risk (carriers of the variant alleles at both genes). Results: Subjects within the risk group had significantly higher fasting triacylglycerol and a higher prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia than did subjects in the protective group across all populations. Moreover, subjects in the risk group had a greater postprandial triacylglycerol response to a high-fat meal and greater fenofibrate-induced reduction of fasting triacylglycerol than did the other groups, especially among persons with hypertriglyceridemia. Subjects with the intermediate genotype had intermediate values (P for trend <0.001). Conclusions: SNPs in GCKR and APOA5 have an additive effect on both fasting and postprandial triacylglycerol and contribute to the interindividual variability in response to fenofibrate treatment. PMID:19056598

  13. Relationship of the APOA5/A4/C3/A1 gene cluster and APOB gene polymorphisms with dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Ou, H J; Huang, G; Liu, W; Ma, X L; Wei, Y; Zhou, T; Pan, Z M

    2015-08-10

    We determined the alleles of ten single nucleotide poly-morphisms (SNPs) in the APOA5/A4/C3/A1 gene cluster and in APOB in Han Chinese from Xinjiang Shihezi, China using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and explored the correlation between these SNPs and dyslipidemia through a case-control study design with 250 pa-tients and 250 normal controls. All SNPs except for APOA5 rs2072560 conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (all P > 0.05). APOA5 rs651821, APOA4 rs5104, APOC3 rs734104, and APOC3 rs5128 geno-type and allele frequencies were significantly different between groups (all P < 0.01). For rs651821, the risks of dyslipidemia for the CC or CC+CT genotypes were 9.917 or 1.859 times that of TT, and the risk of the C vs T allele was 2.027. For rs5104, the AG, GG, or AG+GG risks were 1.797, 1.861, and 1.809 times AA, and the G vs A risk was 1.427. For rs734104, the CT, CC, or CC+CT risks were 1.851, 2.570, and 1.958 times TT, and the C vs T risk was 1.610. For rs5128, the GC or CC+GC risks were 1.738 or 1.749 times GG, and the C vs G risk was 1.477. Compared with the wild-type haplotype TATG, the risks of dyslipidemia with CGCC, TGCC, or CATG haplotypes (odds ratios = 2.434, 1.503, and 2.740, respectively) were significantly higher. Our results suggested that these four SNPs were significantly associated with dyslipidemia in Xinjiang Shihezi Han Chinese, and might serve as risk factors for dyslipidemia. Individuals carrying the CGCC, TGCC, or CATG haplotypes were prone to dyslipidemia.

  14. Triglyceride associated polymorphisms of the APOA5 gene have very different allele frequencies in Pune, India compared to Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Chandak, Giriraj R; Ward, Kirsten J; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Pandit, Anand N; Bavdekar, Ashish; Joglekar, Charu V; Fall, Caroline HD; Mohankrishna, P; Wilkin, Terence J; Metcalf, Bradley S; Weedon, Michael N; Frayling, Timothy M; Hattersley, Andrew T

    2006-01-01

    Background The APOA5 gene variants, -1131T>C and S19W, are associated with altered triglyceride concentrations in studies of subjects of Caucasian and East Asian descent. There are few studies of these variants in South Asians. We investigated whether the two APOA5 variants also show similar association with various lipid parameters in Indian population as in the UK white subjects. Methods We genotyped 557 Indian adults from Pune, India, and 237 UK white adults for -1131T>C and S19W variants in the APOA5 gene, compared their allelic and genotype frequency and determined their association with fasting serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol levels using univariate general linear analysis. APOC3 SstI polymorphism was also analyzed in 175 Pune Indian subjects for analysis of linkage disequilibrium with the APOA5 variants. Results The APOA5 -1131C allele was more prevalent in Indians from Pune (Pune Indians) compared to UK white subjects (allele frequency 20% vs. 4%, p = 0.00001), whereas the 19W allele was less prevalent (3% vs. 6% p = 0.0015). Patterns of linkage disequilibrium between the two variants were similar between the two populations and confirmed that they occur on two different haplotypes. In Pune Indians, the presence of -1131C allele and the 19W allele was associated with a 19% and 15% increase respectively in triglyceride concentrations although only -1131C was significant (p = 0.0003). This effect size was similar to that seen in the UK white subjects. Analysis of the APOC3 SstI polymorphism in 175 Pune Indian subjects showed that this variant is not in appreciable linkage disequilibrium with the APOA5 -1131T>C variant (r2 = 0.07). Conclusion This is the first study to look at the role of APOA5 in Asian Indian subjects that reside in India. The -1131C allele is more prevalent and the 19W allele is less prevalent in Pune Indians compared to UK Caucasians. We confirm that the APOA5 variants are associated with triglyceride levels

  15. Impact of apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) polymorphisms on serum triglyceride levels in schizophrenic patients under long-term atypical antipsychotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chen-Jee; Chen, Tzu-Ting; Bai, Ya Mei; Liou, Ying-Jay; Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenic patients treated with clozapine or olanzapine often develop hypertriglyceridemia. The apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5), which affects VLDL production and lipolysis, has been implicated in the triglyceride (TG) metabolism. This study examined the association of common APOA5 genetic variants and TG levels in chronically institutionalized schizophrenic patients, on a stable dose of atypical antipsychotic (clozapine, olanzapine or risperidone. The TG levels in 466 schizophrenic patients treated with clozapine (n = 182), olanzapine (n = 89) or risperidone (n = 195) were measured. Patients were genotyped for the three APOA5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs662799 (-1131T > C), rs651821 (3A > G) and rs2266788 (1891T > C). A gene × drug interaction with TG levels was observed. In single-marker-based analysis, the minor alleles of the two polymorphisms (-1131C and -3G) were observed to be associated with increased TGs in patients treated with risperidone, but not with clozapine or olanzapine. Haplotype analysis further revealed that carriers of the haplotype constructed with the three minor alleles had higher TG levels than those who did not carry this haplotype in patients taking risperidone (CGC((+/+)) vs. = 125.4 ± 59.1 vs. 82.2 ± 65.8, P = 0.015; CGC((-/+ )) vs. CGC((-/-)) = 113.7 ± 80.4 vs. 82.2 ± 65.8, P = 0.012). Our findings extend and add new information to the existing data regarding the association between APOA5 and TG regulation during long-term atypical antipsychotic treatment.

  16. Glucose Regulates the Expression of the Apolipoprotein A5 Gene

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Fruchart, Jamila; Nowak, Maxime; Helleboid-Chapman, Audrey

    2008-04-07

    The apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) is a key player in determining triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. Since diabetes is often associated with hypertriglyceridemia, this study explores whether APOA5 gene expression is regulated by alteration in glucose homeostasis and the related pathways. D-glucose activates APOA5 gene expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner in hepatocytes, and the glycolytic pathway involved was determined using D-glucose analogs and metabolites. Together, transient transfections, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that this regulation occurs at the transcriptional level through an increase of USF1/2 binding to an E-box in the APOA5 promoter.more » We show that this phenomenon is not due to an increase of mRNA or protein expression levels of USF. Using protein phosphatases 1 and 2A inhibitor, we demonstrate that D-glucose regulates APOA5 gene via a dephosphorylation mechanism, thereby resulting in an enhanced USF1/2-promoter binding. Last, subsequent suppressions of USF1/2 and phosphatases mRNA through siRNA gene silencing abolished the regulation. We demonstrate that APOA5 gene is up regulated by D-glucose and USF through phosphatase activation. These findings may provide a new cross talk between glucose and lipid metabolism.« less

  17. Apolipoprotein A5: A newly identified gene impacting plasmatriglyceride levels in humans and mice

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2002-09-15

    Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) is a newly described member of theapolipoprotein gene family whose initial discovery arose from comparativesequence analysis of the mammalian APOA1/C3/A4 gene cluster. Functionalstudies in mice indicated that alteration in the level of APOA5significantly impacted plasma triglyceride concentrations. Miceover-expressing human APOA5 displayed significantly reducedtriglycerides, while mice lacking apoA5 had a large increase in thislipid parameter. Studies in humans have also suggested an important rolefor APOA5 in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations. In theseexperiments, polymorphisms in the human gene were found to define severalcommon haplotypes that were associated with significant changes intriglyceride concentrations in multiple populations. Several separateclinical studies havemore » provided consistent and strong support for theeffect with 24 percent of Caucasians, 35 percent of African-Americans and53 percent of Hispanics carrying APOA5 haplotypes associated withincreased plasma triglyceride levels. In summary, APOA5 represents anewly discovered gene involved in triglyceride metabolism in both humansand mice whose mechanism of action remains to be deciphered.« less

  18. Linkage and association of haplotypes at the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 genecluster to familial combined hyperlipidemia

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Eichenbaum-Voline, Sophie; Olivier, Michael; Jones, Emma L.

    2002-09-15

    Combined hyperlipidemia (CHL) is a common disorder of lipidmetabolism that leads to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Thelipid profile of CHL is characterised by high levels of atherogeniclipoproteins and low levels of high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol.Apolipoprotein (APO) A5 is a newly discovered gene involved in lipidmetabolism located within 30kbp of the APOA1/C3/A4 gene cluster. Previousstudies have indicated that sequence variants in this cluster areassociated with increased plasma lipid levels. To establish whethervariation at the APOA5 gene contributes to the transmission of CHL, weperformed linkage and linkage disequilibrium (LD) tests on a large cohortof families (n=128) with familial CHL (FCHL). The linkage datamore » producedevidence for linkage of the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 genomic interval to FCHL (NPL= 1.7, P = 0.042). The LD studies substantiated these data. Twoindependent rare alleles, APOA5c.56G and APOC3c.386G of this gene clusterwere over-transmitted in FCHL (P = 0.004 and 0.007, respectively), andthis was associated with a reduced transmission of the most commonAPOA1/C3/A4/A5 haplotype (frequency 0.4425) to affected subjects (P =0.013). The APOA5c.56G allele was associated with increased plasmatriglyceride levels in FCHL probands, whereas the second, andindependent, APOC3c.386G allele was associated with increased plasmatriglyceride levels in FCHL pedigree founders. Thus, this allele (or anallele in LD) may mark a quantitative trait associated with FCHL, as wellas representing a disease susceptibility locus for the condition. Thisstudy establishes that sequence variation in the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 genecluster contributes to the transmission of FCHL in a substantialproportion of affected families, and that these sequence variants mayalso contribute to the lipid abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome,which is present in up to 40 percent of persons with cardiovasculardisease.« less

  19. The impact of APOA5, APOB, APOC3 and ABCA1 gene polymorphisms on ischemic stroke: Evidence from a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony; Griffiths, Lyn R; Irene, Looi; Kooi, Cheah Wee; Wei, Loo Keat

    2017-10-01

    Genetic studies have been reported on the association between APOA5, APOB, APOC3 and ABCA1 gene polymorphisms and ischemic stroke, but results remain controversial. Hence, this meta-analysis aimed to infer the causal relationships of APOA5 (rs662799, rs3135506), APOB (rs693, rs1042031, rs1801701), APOC3 (rs4520, rs5128, rs2854116, rs2854117) and ABCA1 rs2230806 with ischemic stroke risk. A systematic review was performed for all the articles retrieved from multiple databases, up until March 2017. Data were extracted from all eligible studies, and meta-analysis was carried out using RevMan 5.3 and R package 3.2.1. The strength of association between each studied polymorphism and ischemic stroke risk was measured as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), under fixed- and random-effect models. A total of 79 studies reporting on the association between the studied polymorphisms and ischemic stroke risk were identified. The pooled data indicated that all genetic models of APOA5 rs662799 (ORs = 1.23-1.43), allelic and over-dominant models of APOA5 rs3135506 (ORs = 1.77-1.97), APOB rs1801701 (ORs = 1.72-2.13) and APOB rs1042031 (ORs = 1.66-1.88) as well as dominant model of ABCA1 rs2230806 (OR = 1.31) were significantly associated with higher risk of ischemic stroke. However, no significant associations were observed between ischemic stroke and the other five polymorphisms, namely ApoB (rs693) and APOC3 (rs4520, rs5128, rs2854116 and rs2854117), under any genetic model. The present meta-analysis confirmed a significant association of APOA5 rs662799 CC, APOA5 rs3135506 CG, APOB rs1801701 GA, APOB rs1042031 GA and ABCA1 rs2230806 GG with increased risk of ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Longitudinal analysis of haplotypes and polymorphisms of the APOA5 and APOC3 genes associated with variation in serum triglyceride levels: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Hallman, D Michael; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Chen, Wei; Boerwinkle, Eric; Berenson, Gerald S

    2006-12-01

    Polymorphisms in the APOC3 and APOA5 genes, from the APOA1/APOC3/APOA4/APOA5 gene cluster on chromosome 11q23, have been associated with interindividual variation in plasma triglycerides. APOA5 polymorphisms implicated include 2 in the promoter region (-1131 T/C and -3 A/G) and 1 in exon 2 (+56 C/G). APOC3 polymorphisms implicated include 1 (SstI) in the 3' untranslated region and 1 (-2854 G/T) in the APOC3-APOA4 intergenic region. We analyzed the associations of haplotypes and multilocus genotypes of these polymorphisms on longitudinal serum triglyceride profiles in 360 African American and 823 white subjects from the Bogalusa Heart Study. Subjects were examined from 2 to 8 times (mean +/- SD, 5.4 +/- 1.3) between 1973 and 1996, at ages ranging from 4 to 38 years, with 1978 observations in African Americans and 4465 in whites. Serum triglycerides were significantly higher among whites across all ages. Allele frequencies differed significantly between African Americans and whites at all but the APOA5 +56 C/G locus. Linkage disequilibrium among the loci was higher in whites and haplotype diversity lower: 6 haplotypes had estimated frequencies of more than 1% in African Americans, 5 in whites. Individually, all polymorphisms except APOC3 -2854 G/T showed significant associations with triglyceride levels in the full sample. However, genotype models including all 5 loci showed significant triglyceride associations for only 3 (APOC3 SstI, APOA5 -1131 T/C, and APOA5 +56 C/G); significant interactions among them indicated their effects were not independent. Neither APOC3 -2854 G/T nor APOA5 -3 A/G had significant effects when the other 3 loci were in the models. The EM algorithm was used to estimate haplotype frequencies and assign haplotype probabilities to individuals, which is conditional on their genotypes; individuals' haplotype probability vectors were then used as predictors in multilevel mixed models of longitudinal triglyceride profiles. Of haplotypes comprising

  1. Genetic Association and Interaction Analysis of USF1 and APOA5 on Lipid Levels and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Laurila, Pirkka-Pekka; Naukkarinen, Jussi; Kristiansson, Kati; Ripatti, Samuli; Kauttu, Tuuli; Silander, Kaisa; Salomaa, Veikko; Perola, Markus; Karhunen, Pekka J.; Barter, Philip J.; Ehnholm, Christian; Peltonen, Leena

    2011-01-01

    Objective USF1 is a ubiquitous transcription factor governing the expression of numerous genes of lipid and glucose metabolism. APOA5 is a well-established candidate gene regulating triglyceride (TG) levels and has been identified as a downstream target of upstream stimulatory factor. No detailed studies about the effect of APOA5 on atherosclerotic lesion formation have been conducted, nor has its potential interaction with USF1 been examined. Methods and Results We analyzed allelic variants of USF1 and APOA5 in families (n=516) ascertained for atherogenic dyslipidemia and in an autopsy series of middle-aged men (n=300) with precise quantitative measurements of atherosclerotic lesions. The impact of previously associated APOA5 variants on TGs was observed in the dyslipidemic families, and variant rs3135506 was associated with size of fibrotic aortic lesions in the autopsy series. The USF1 variant rs2516839, associated previously with atherosclerotic lesions, showed an effect on TGs in members of the dyslipidemic families with documented coronary artery disease. We provide preliminary evidence of gene-gene interaction between these variants in an autopsy series with a fibrotic lesion area in the abdominal aorta (P=0.0028), with TGs in dyslipidemic coronary artery disease subjects (P=0.03), and with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.008) in a large population cohort of coronary artery disease patients (n=1065) in which the interaction for TGs was not replicated. Conclusion Our findings in these unique samples reinforce the roles of APOA5 and USF1 variants on cardiovascular phenotypes and suggest that both genes contribute to lipid levels and aortic atherosclerosis individually and possibly through epistatic effects. PMID:19910639

  2. Association of USF1 and APOA5 polymorphisms with familial combined hyperlipidemia in an Italian population.

    PubMed

    Di Taranto, Maria Donata; Staiano, Antonino; D'Agostino, Maria Nicoletta; D'Angelo, Antonietta; Bloise, Elena; Morgante, Alberto; Marotta, Gennaro; Gentile, Marco; Rubba, Paolo; Fortunato, Giuliana

    2015-02-01

    Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) is a polygenic and multifactorial disease characterized by a variable phenotype showing increased levels of triglycerides and/or cholesterol. The aim of this study was to identify single nucleotides (SNPs) in lipid-related genes associated with FCH. Twenty SNPs in lipid-related genes were studied in 142 control subjects and 165 FCH patients after excluding patients with mutations in the LDLR gene and patients with the E2/E2 genotype of APOE. In particular, we studied the 9996G > A (rs2073658) and 11235C > T (rs3737787) variants in the Upstream Stimulatory Factor 1 gene (USF1), and the -1131T > C (rs662799) and S19W (rs3135506) variants in the Apolipoprotein A-V gene (APOA5). We found that the frequencies of these variants differed between patients and controls and that are associated with different lipid profiles. At multivariate logistic regression SNP S19W in APOA5 remained significantly associated with FCH independently of age, sex, BMI, cholesterol and triglycerides. Our results show that the USF1 and APOA5 polymorphisms are associated with FCH and that the S19W SNP in the APOA5 gene is associated to the disease independently of total cholesterol, triglycerides and BMI. However, more extensive studies including other SNPs such as rs2516839 in USF1, are required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Paradox of ApoA5 Modulation of Triglycerides: Evidences from Clinical and Basic Research

    PubMed Central

    Garelnabi, Mahdi; Lor, Kenton; Jin, Jun; Chai, Fei; Santanam, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A5 (ApoA5) is a key regulator of plasma triglycerides (TG), although its plasma concentration is very low compared to other known apoproteins. Over the years, researchers have attempted to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which ApoA5 regulates plasma TG in vivo. Though still under debate, two theories broadly describe how ApoA5 modulates TG levels: (i) ApoA5 enhances the catabolism of TG-rich lipoproteins and (ii) it inhibits the rate of production of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), the major carrier of TGs. This review will summarize the basic and clinical studies that have attempted to describe the importance of ApoA5 in TG metabolism. Population studies conducted in various countries have demonstrated an association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ApoA5 and the increased risk to cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome (including diabetes and obesity). ApoA5 is also highly expressed during liver regeneration and is an acute phase protein associated with HDL which was independent of its effects on TG metabolism. Conclusion Despite considerable evidences available from clinical and basic research studies, on the role of ApoA5 in TG metabolism and its indirect link to metabolic diseases, additional investigations are needed to understand the paradoxical role of this important apoprotein shown modulated by diet and from it polymorphism variants. PMID:23000317

  4. The paradox of ApoA5 modulation of triglycerides: evidence from clinical and basic research.

    PubMed

    Garelnabi, Mahdi; Lor, Kenton; Jin, Jun; Chai, Fei; Santanam, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A5 (ApoA5) is a key regulator of plasma triglycerides (TG), even though its plasma concentration is very low compared to other known apoproteins. Over the years, researchers have attempted to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which ApoA5 regulates plasma TG in vivo. Though still under debate, two theories broadly describe how ApoA5 modulates TG levels: (i) ApoA5 enhances the catabolism of TG-rich lipoproteins and (ii) it inhibits the rate of production of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), the major carrier of TGs. This review will summarize the basic and clinical studies that describe the importance of ApoA5 in TG metabolism. Population studies conducted in various countries have demonstrated an association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ApoA5 and the increased risk to cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome (including diabetes and obesity). ApoA5 is also highly expressed during liver regeneration and is an acute phase protein associated with HDL, which is independent of its effects on TG metabolism. Despite considerable evidences available from clinical and basic research studies on the role of ApoA5 in TG metabolism and its indirect link to metabolic diseases, additional investigations are needed to understand the paradoxical role of this important apoprotein is modulated by both diet and its polymorphism variants. Copyright © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. All rights reserved.

  5. APOA5 gene variation interacts with dietary fat intake to modulate obesity and circulating triglycerides in a Mediterranean population

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    APOA5 is one of the strongest regulators of plasma TG concentrations; nevertheless, its mechanisms of action are poorly characterized. Genetic variability at the APOA5 locus has also been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk; however, this predisposition could be attenuated in the c...

  6. APOA5 Q97X mutation identified through homozygosity mapping causes severe hypertriglyceridemia in a Chilean consanguineous family.

    PubMed

    Dussaillant, Catalina; Serrano, Valentina; Maiz, Alberto; Eyheramendy, Susana; Cataldo, Luis Rodrigo; Chavez, Matías; Smalley, Susan V; Fuentes, Marcela; Rigotti, Attilio; Rubio, Lorena; Lagos, Carlos F; Martinez, José Alfredo; Santos, José Luis

    2012-11-15

    Severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) has been linked to defects in LPL, APOC2, APOA5, LMF1 and GBIHBP1 genes. However, a number of severe HTG cases are probably caused by as yet unidentified mutations. Very high triglyceride plasma levels (>112 mmol/L at diagnosis) were found in two sisters of a Chilean consanguineous family, which is strongly suggestive of a recessive highly penetrant mutation. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic locus responsible for the severe HTG in this family. We carried out a genome-wide linkage study with nearly 300,000 biallelic markers (Illumina Human CytoSNP-12 panel). Using the homozygosity mapping strategy, we searched for chromosome regions with excess of homozygous genotypes in the affected cases compared to non-affected relatives. A large homozygous segment was found in the long arm of chromosome 11, with more than 2,500 consecutive homozygous SNP shared by the proband with her affected sister, and containing the APOA5/A4/C3/A1 cluster. Direct sequencing of the APOA5 gene revealed a known homozygous nonsense Q97X mutation (p.Gln97Ter) found in both affected sisters but not in non-affected relatives nor in a sample of unrelated controls. The Q97X mutation of the APOA5 gene in homozygous status is responsible for the severe hypertriglyceridemia in this family. We have shown that homozygosity mapping correctly pinpointed the genomic region containing the gene responsible for severe hypertriglyceridemia in this consanguineous Chilean family.

  7. APOA5 Q97X Mutation Identified through homozygosity mapping causes severe hypertriglyceridemia in a Chilean consanguineous family

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) has been linked to defects in LPL, APOC2, APOA5, LMF1 and GBIHBP1 genes. However, a number of severe HTG cases are probably caused by as yet unidentified mutations. Very high triglyceride plasma levels (>112 mmol/L at diagnosis) were found in two sisters of a Chilean consanguineous family, which is strongly suggestive of a recessive highly penetrant mutation. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic locus responsible for the severe HTG in this family. Methods We carried out a genome-wide linkage study with nearly 300,000 biallelic markers (Illumina Human CytoSNP-12 panel). Using the homozygosity mapping strategy, we searched for chromosome regions with excess of homozygous genotypes in the affected cases compared to non-affected relatives. Results A large homozygous segment was found in the long arm of chromosome 11, with more than 2,500 consecutive homozygous SNP shared by the proband with her affected sister, and containing the APOA5/A4/C3/A1 cluster. Direct sequencing of the APOA5 gene revealed a known homozygous nonsense Q97X mutation (p.Gln97Ter) found in both affected sisters but not in non-affected relatives nor in a sample of unrelated controls. Conclusion The Q97X mutation of the APOA5 gene in homozygous status is responsible for the severe hypertriglyceridemia in this family. We have shown that homozygosity mapping correctly pinpointed the genomic region containing the gene responsible for severe hypertriglyceridemia in this consanguineous Chilean family. PMID:23151256

  8. Haplotypes in the APOA1-C3-A4-A5 gene cluster affect plasma lipids in both humans and baboons

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wang, Qian-fei; Liu, Xin; O'Connell, Jeff

    2003-09-15

    Genetic studies in non-human primates serve as a potential strategy for identifying genomic intervals where polymorphisms impact upon human disease-related phenotypes. It remains unclear, however, whether independently arising polymorphisms in orthologous regions of non-human primates leads to similar variation in a quantitative trait found in both species. To explore this paradigm, we studied a baboon apolipoprotein gene cluster (APOA1/C3/A4/A5) for which the human gene orthologs have well established roles in influencing plasma HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. Our extensive polymorphism analysis of this 68 kb gene cluster in 96 pedigreed baboons identified several haplotype blocks each with limited diversity, consistent withmore » haplotype findings in humans. To determine whether baboons, like humans, also have particular haplotypes associated with lipid phenotypes, we genotyped 634 well characterized baboons using 16 haplotype tagging SNPs. Genetic analysis of single SNPs, as well as haplotypes, revealed an association of APOA5 and APOC3 variants with HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, respectively. Thus, independent variation in orthologous genomic intervals does associate with similar quantitative lipid traits in both species, supporting the possibility of uncovering human QTL genes in a highly controlled non-human primate model.« less

  9. APOA5 and APOA1 polymorphisms are associated with triglyceride levels in Mexican children.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Sánchez, F; Klunder-Klunder, M; Valladares-Salgado, A; Gómez-Zamudio, J; Peralta-Romero, J; Meyre, D; Burguete-García, A; Cruz, M

    2017-08-01

    Dyslipidemia is an important risk factor for the development of several diseases. The genetic component of hypertriglyceridemia has been studied in adults, but little is known in children. The objective is to evaluate the association of two variants in APOA5 (rs662799) and APOA1 (rs5072) with triglyceride (TG) levels in Mexican children. Anthropometric parameters were measured in 1559 Mexican children 5-14 years of age. DNA was isolated from blood samples. Lipid profiles and glucose concentrations were determined from serum and genotyping of rs662799, and rs5072 was performed using TaqMan® technology. Additive and dominant models adjusted for age, gender and body mass index were used to evaluate the association of these single nucleotide polymorphisms with TG levels. Children with high TG levels were found to have a higher body mass index and waist circumference as well as a worse lipids profile and glucose levels (p < 0.001). Additive and dominant models demonstrated a significant association between the rs662799 and rs5072 with TG. The dominant model showed the strongest significant association (OR = 1.81; 95% CI 1.46-2.24; p = 5.40 × 10 -08 for rs662799 and OR = 1.54; 95% CI 1.05-2.25; p = 2.60 × 10 -02 for rs5072). The minor alleles of rs662799 (APOA5) and rs5072 (APOA1) modulate TG levels in Mexican children. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  10. Rare and common variants in LPL and APOA5 in Thai subjects with severe hypertriglyceridemia: A resequencing approach.

    PubMed

    Khovidhunkit, Weerapan; Charoen, Supannika; Kiateprungvej, Arunrat; Chartyingcharoen, Palm; Muanpetch, Suwanna; Plengpanich, Wanee

    2016-01-01

    Severe hypertriglyceridemia usually results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Few data exist on the genetics of severe hypertriglyceridemia in Asian populations. To examine the genetic variants of 3 candidate genes known to influence triglyceride metabolism, LPL, APOC2, and APOA5, which encode lipoprotein lipase, apolipoprotein C-II, and apolipoprotein A-V, respectively, in a large group of Thai subjects with severe hypertriglyceridemia. We identified sequence variants of LPL, APOC2, and APOA5 by sequencing exons and exon-intron junctions in 101 subjects with triglyceride levels ≥ 10 mmol/L (886 mg/dL) and compared with those of 111 normotriglyceridemic subjects. Six different rare variants in LPL were found in 13 patients, 2 of which were novel (1 heterozygous missense variant: p.Arg270Gly and 1 frameshift variant: p.Asp308Glyfs*3). Four previously identified heterozygous missense variants in LPL were p.Ala98Thr, p.Leu279Val, p.Leu279Arg, and p.Arg432Thr. Collectively, these rare variants were found only in the hypertriglyceridemic group but not in the control group (13% vs 0%, P < .0001). One common variant in APOA5 (p.Gly185Cys, rs2075291) was found at a higher frequency in the hypertriglyceridemic group compared with the control group (25% vs 6%, respectively, P < .0005). Altogether, rare variants in LPL or APOA5 and/or the common APOA5 p.Gly185Cys variant were found in 37% of the hypertriglyceridemic group vs 6% in the controls (P = 3.1 × 10(-8)). No rare variant in APOC2 was identified. Rare variants in LPL and a common variant in APOA5 were more commonly found in Thai subjects with severe hypertriglyceridemia. A common p.Gly185Cys APOA5 variant, in particular, was quite prevalent and potentially contributed to hypertriglyceridemia in this group of patients. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The c.553G>T Genetic Variant of the APOA5 Gene and Altered Triglyceride Levels in the Asian Population: A Meta-Analysis of Case-Control Studies.

    PubMed

    He, Hongjuan; Lei, Lei; Chen, Erfei; Dong, Jing; Zhang, Kejin; Yang, Jin

    2016-12-01

    To explore the association of the APOA5 gene c.553G>T polymorphism with hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) susceptibility and altered triglyceride levels. We searched the PubMed, Google Scholar, and CNKI databases for published studies relating to analyses of these associations. Case-control and comparative studies of the association between the APOA5 c.553G>T variant and altered triglyceride levels were included. In total, the meta-analysis involved 10 studies on HTG, which provided 2219 cases and 3401 controls. To measure the correlation between the c.553G>T polymorphism and HTG susceptibility, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The overall OR was calculated using a random-effects model. Compared with APOA5 c.553 GG carriers, c.553T carriers displayed an increased risk of HTG in the Asian population, with an overall random effects OR of 3.55 (95% CI: 2.46-5.13) in the dominant model. There was significant heterogeneity among the studies (P heterogeneity : Chi 2  = 45.80, I 2  = 75.98%), which may be largely explained by certain patient types. Both the sensitivity analysis and publication bias suggested that the overall result was acceptable. Subgroup analysis showed a large difference in serum triglyceride levels based on the c.553 G > T polymorphism in healthy individuals and HTG patients. APOA5 c.553T carriers exhibit higher triglyceride levels than GG carriers. Our results suggest that APOA5 c. 553T is an independent risk factor for HTG and increased triglyceride levels in the Asian population. APOA5 c. 553T could be employed as a genetic risk marker for HTG and increased triglyceride levels.

  12. Genetic studies on the APOA1-C3-A5 gene cluster in Asian Indians with premature coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Shanker, Jayashree; Perumal, Ganapathy; Rao, Veena S; Khadrinarasimhiah, Natesha B; John, Shibu; Hebbagodi, Sridhara; Mukherjee, Manjari; Kakkar, Vijay V

    2008-01-01

    Background The APOA1-C3-A5 gene cluster plays an important role in the regulation of lipids. Asian Indians have an increased tendency for abnormal lipid levels and high risk of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). Therefore, the present study aimed to elucidate the relationship of four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Apo11q cluster, namely the -75G>A, +83C>T SNPs in the APOA1 gene, the Sac1 SNP in the APOC3 gene and the S19W variant in the APOA5 gene to plasma lipids and CAD in 190 affected sibling pairs (ASPs) belonging to Asian Indian families with a strong CAD history. Methods & results Genotyping and lipid assays were carried out using standard protocols. Plasma lipids showed a strong heritability (h2 48% – 70%; P < 0.0001). A subset of 77 ASPs with positive sign of Logarithm of Odds (LOD) score showed significant linkage to CAD trait by multi-point analysis (LOD score 7.42, P < 0.001) and to Sac1 (LOD score 4.49) and -75G>A (LOD score 2.77) SNPs by single-point analysis (P < 0.001). There was significant proportion of mean allele sharing (pi) for the Sac1 (pi 0.59), -75G>A (pi 0.56) and +83C>T (pi 0.52) (P < 0.001) SNPs, respectively. QTL analysis showed suggestive evidence of linkage of the Sac1 SNP to Total Cholesterol (TC), High Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) with LOD scores of 1.42, 1.72 and 1.19, respectively (P < 0.01). The Sac1 and -75G>A SNPs along with hypertension showed maximized correlations with TC, TG and Apo B by association analysis. Conclusion The APOC3-Sac1 SNP is an important genetic variant that is associated with CAD through its interaction with plasma lipids and other standard risk factors among Asian Indians. PMID:18801202

  13. Interaction of dietary fat intake with APOA2, APOA5 and LEPR polymorphisms and its relationship with obesity and dyslipidemia in young subjects.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Reyes, Teresa; Astudillo-López, Constanza C; Salgado-Goytia, Lorenzo; Muñoz-Valle, José F; Salgado-Bernabé, Aralia B; Guzmán-Guzmán, Iris P; Castro-Alarcón, Natividad; Moreno-Godínez, Ma E; Parra-Rojas, Isela

    2015-09-13

    Diet is an important environmental factor that interacts with genes to modulate the likelihood of developing disorders in lipid metabolism and the relationship between diet and genes in the presence of other chronic diseases such as obesity. The objective of this study was to analyze the interaction of a high fat diet with the APOA2 (rs3813627 and rs5082), APOA5 (rs662799 and rs3135506) and LEPR (rs8179183 and rs1137101) polymorphisms and its relationship with obesity and dyslipidemia in young subjects. The study included 200 young subjects aged 18 to 25 years (100 normal-weight and 100 obese subjects). Dietary fat intake was measured using the frequency food consumption questionnaire. Genotyping of polymorphisms was performed by PCR-RFLP. Individuals carrying the APOA5 56 G/G genotype with a high saturated fatty acid consumption (OR = 2.7, p = 0.006) and/or total fat (OR = 2.4, p = 0.018), associated with an increased risk of obesity. We also found that A/G + G/G genotypes of the 668 A/G polymorphism in the LEPR gene with an intake ≥ 12 g/d of saturated fatty acids, have 2.9 times higher risk of obesity (p = 0.002), 3.8 times higher risk of hypercholesterolemia (p = 0.002) and 2.4 times higher risk of hypertriglyceridemia (p = 0.02), than those with an intake <12 g/d of saturated fatty acids. Similarly, LEPR 668 A/G + G/G carriers with a high fat total intake had 3.0 times higher risk of obesity (p = 0.002) and 4.1 times higher risk of hypercholesterolemia (p = 0.001). Our results suggest that dietary fat intake modifies the effect of APOA5 and LEPR polymorphisms on serum triglycerides, cholesterol levels and obesity in young subjects.

  14. APOA5-1131T>C genotype effects on apolipoprotein A5 and triglyceride levels in response to dietary intervention and regular exercise (DIRE) in hypertriglyceridemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yangsoo; Chae, Jey Sook; Kim, Oh Yoen; Park, Hey Jun; Kim, Ji Young; Paik, Jean Kyung; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jong Ho

    2010-08-01

    We aimed to determine the influence of apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5)-1131T>C single nucleotide polymorphism on the effects of dietary intervention and regular exercise (DIRE) targeting ApoA5 and triglyceride (TG) concentrations. Hypertriglyceridemia patients (TG, 150-500mg/dL, n=283) undertook a 12-week DIRE (replacing 1/3 of refined rice in their diets with legumes, increasing vegetable intake, and regular walking). Pre-treatment, no genotype-related differences were detected in ApoA5, TG, or HDL cholesterol levels; however, post-treatment, subjects homozygous (T/T) for the T allele had lower serum TG (P=0.009) and higher HDL cholesterol (P=0.036) than other subjects. In T/T subjects, after adjustments for age, sex and weight changes (r1) or initial TG levels (r2), changes in ApoA5 levels negatively correlated with TG changes (r1=-0.29, P=0.05, r2=-0.28, P<0.1) and positively correlated with changes in HDL cholesterol (r1=0.30, P<0.05, r2=0.32, P<0.05) and free fatty acid (r1=0.38, P<0.01, r2=0.40, P<0.01). In those with moderate hypertriglyceridemia (TG, 200-500mg/dL, n=130), APOA5-1131T/T carriers achieved significantly lower TG (P=0.007) and higher HDL cholesterol (P<0.001) than -1131C allele carriers. Additionally, statistically significant interactions between the -1131T>C and the compliance of DIRE were found for the change in TG (P=0.002) and HDL cholesterol (P=0.039). In good compliance group, T/T subjects showed greater reduction of TG and higher increase of HDL cholesterol than other subjects. On the other hand, non-good compliance group had no significant improvement in these variables. APOA5-1131T/T carriers may benefit more from the DIRE than C allele carriers. These effects were remarkable in patients with moderate hypertriglyceridemia and the individuals with good compliance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A single nucleotide polymorphism in APOA5 determines triglyceride levels in Hong Kong and Guangzhou Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chao Qiang; Liu, Bin; Cheung, Bernard MY; Lam, Tai Hing; Lin, Jie Ming; Li Jin, Ya; Yue, Xiao Jun; Ong, Kwok Leung; Tam, Sidney; Wong, Ka Sing; Tomlinson, Brian; Lam, Karen SL; Thomas, G Neil

    2010-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) gene have been associated with hypertriglyceridaemia. We investigated which SNPs in the APOA5 gene were associated with triglyceride levels in two independent Chinese populations. In all, 1375 subjects in the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study were genotyped for five tagging SNPs chosen from HapMap. Replication was sought in 1996 subjects from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study. Among the five SNPs, rs662799 (-1131T>C) was strongly related to log-transformed triglyceride levels among Hong Kong subjects (β=0.192, P=2.6 × 10−13). Plasma triglyceride level was 36.1% higher in CC compared to TT genotype. This association was confirmed in Guangzhou subjects (β=0.159, P=1.3 × 10−12), and was significantly irrespective of sex, age group, obesity, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, diabetes, smoking and alcohol drinking. The odds ratios and 95% confidence interval for plasma triglycerides ≥1.7 mmol/l associated with TC and CC genotypes were, respectively, 1.81 (1.37–2.39) and 2.22 (1.44–3.43) in Hong Kong and 1.27 (1.05–1.54) and 1.97 (1.42–2.73) in Guangzhou. Haplotype analysis suggested the association was due to rs662799 only. The corroborative findings in two independent populations indicate that the APOA5-1131T>C polymorphism is an important and clinically relevant determinant of plasma triglyceride levels in the Chinese population. PMID:20571505

  16. Phosphorylation-dependent down-regulation of apolipoprotein A5 by insulin

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Nowak, Maxine; Helleboid-Chapman, Audrey; Jakel, Heidelinde

    2004-02-15

    The apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) gene has been shown to be important in lowering plasma triglyceride levels. Since several studies have shown that hyperinsulinemia is associated with hypertriglyceridemia, we sought to determine whether APOA5 gene is regulated by insulin. We show here that cell and mouse treatments with insulin down-regulated APOA5 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we determined that insulin decreases APOA5 promoter activity and subsequent deletion analyses revealed an E-box-containing fragment. We showed that Upstream Stimulatory Factors, USF1/USF2, bind to the identified E-box in the APOA5 promoter. Moreover, in cotransfection studies, USF1 stimulates APOA5 promoter activity. The treatment withmore » insulin reduces the binding of USF1/USF2 to APOA5 promoter. The inhibition of PI3K pathway with wortmannin abolished the insulin s effect on APOA5 gene transcription. Using oligoprecipitation method of USF from nuclear extracts, we demonstrated that phosphorylated USF1 failed to bind to APOA5 promoter. This indicates that the APOA5 gene transrepression by insulin involves a phosphorylation of USF through PI3K, that modulate their binding to APOA5 promoter and results in APOA5 down-regulation. The effect of exogenous hyperinsulinemia in healthy men shows a decrease of the plasma ApoAV level. These data suggest a potential mechanism involving APOA5 gene in hypertriglyceridemia associated with hyperinsulinemia.« less

  17. Structural and functional analysis of APOA5 mutations identified in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia[S

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Barberá, Elena; Julve, Josep; Nilsson, Stefan K.; Lookene, Aivar; Martín-Campos, Jesús M.; Roig, Rosa; Lechuga-Sancho, Alfonso M.; Sloan, John H.; Fuentes-Prior, Pablo; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    During the diagnosis of three unrelated patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia, three APOA5 mutations [p.(Ser232_Leu235)del, p.Leu253Pro, and p.Asp332ValfsX4] were found without evidence of concomitant LPL, APOC2, or GPIHBP1 mutations. The molecular mechanisms by which APOA5 mutations result in severe hypertriglyceridemia remain poorly understood, and the functional impairment/s induced by these specific mutations was not obvious. Therefore, we performed a thorough structural and functional analysis that included follow-up of patients and their closest relatives, measurement of apoA-V serum concentrations, and sequencing of the APOA5 gene in 200 nonhyperlipidemic controls. Further, we cloned, overexpressed, and purified both wild-type and mutant apoA-V variants and characterized their capacity to activate LPL. The interactions of recombinant wild-type and mutated apoA-V variants with liposomes of different composition, heparin, LRP1, sortilin, and SorLA/LR11 were also analyzed. Finally, to explore the possible structural consequences of these mutations, we developed a three-dimensional model of full-length, lipid-free human apoA-V. A complex, wide array of impairments was found in each of the three mutants, suggesting that the specific residues affected are critical structural determinants for apoA-V function in lipoprotein metabolism and, therefore, that these APOA5 mutations are a direct cause of hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:23307945

  18. Mutations in LPL, APOC2, APOA5, GPIHBP1 and LMF1 in patients with severe hypertriglyceridaemia

    PubMed Central

    Surendran, R Preethi; Visser, Maartje E; Heemelaar, Steffie; Wang, Jian; Peter, Jorge; Defesche, Joep C; Kuivenhoven, Jan A; Hosseini, Maryam; Péterfy, Miklós; Kastelein, John JP; Johansen, Chris T; Hegele, Robert A; Stroes, Erik SG; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M

    2014-01-01

    Objective The severe forms of hypertriglyceridaemia (HTG) are caused by mutations in genes that lead to loss of function of lipoprotein lipase (LPL). In most patients with severe HTG (TG >10 mmol/L) it is a challenge to define the underlying cause. We investigated the molecular basis of severe HTG in patients referred to the Lipid Clinic at the Academic Medical Center Amsterdam. Methods The coding regions of LPL, APOC2, APOA5 and two novel genes, lipase maturation factor 1 (LMF1) and GPI-anchored HDL-binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1), were sequenced in 86 patients with type 1 and type 5 HTG and 327 controls. Results In 46 patients (54%) rare DNA sequence variants were identified, comprising variants in LPL (n=19), APOC2 (n=1), APOA5 (n=2), GPIHBP1 (n=3) and LMF1 (n=8). In 22 patients (26%) only common variants in LPL (p.Asp36Asn, p.Asn318Ser and p.Ser474Ter) and APOA5 (p.Ser19Trp) could be identified, whereas no mutations were found in 18 patients (21%). In vitro validation revealed that the mutations in LMF1 were not associated with compromised LPL function. Consistent with this, five of the eight LMF1 variants were also found in controls and therefore cannot account for the observed phenotype. Conclusion The prevalence of mutations in LPL was 34% and mostly restricted to patients with type 1 HTG. Mutations in GPIHBP1 (n=3), APOC2 (n=1) and APOA5 (n=2) were rare but the associated clinical phenotype was severe. Routine sequencing of candidate genes in severe HTG has improved our understanding of the molecular basis of this phenotype associated with acute pancreatitis, and may help to guide future individualized therapeutic strategies. PMID:22239554

  19. Influences of APOA5 Variants on Plasma Triglyceride Levels in Uyghur Population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Wu, Di; Jin, Li; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Objective Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) gene are associated with triglyceride (TG) levels. However, the minor allele frequencies and linkage disequilibriums (LDs) of the SNPs in addition to their effects on TG levels vary greatly between Caucasians and East Asians. The distributions of the SNPs/haplotypes and their associations with TG levels in Uyghur population, an admixture population of Caucasians and East Asians, have not been reported to date. Here, we performed a cross-sectional study to address these. Methods Genotyping of four SNPs in APOA5 (rs662799, rs3135506, rs2075291, and rs2266788) was performed in 1174 unrelated Uyghur subjects. SNP/haplotype and TG association analyses were conducted. Results The frequencies of the SNPs in Uyghurs were in between those in Caucasians and East Asians. The LD between rs662799 and rs2266788 in Uyghurs was stronger than that in East Asians but weaker than that in Caucasians, and the four SNPs resulted in four haplotypes (TGGT, CGGC, TCGT, and CGTT arranged in the order of rs662799, rs3135506, rs2075291, and rs2266788) representing 99.2% of the population. All the four SNPs were significantly associated with TG levels. Compared with non-carriers, carriers of rs662799-C, rs3135506-C, rs2075291-T, and rs2266788-C alleles had 16.0%, 15.1%, 17.1%, and 12.4% higher TG levels, respectively. When haplotype TGGT was defined as the reference, the haplotypes CGGC, TCGT, and CGTT resulted in 16.1%, 19.0%, and 19.8% higher TG levels, respectively. The proportions of variance in TG explained by APOA5 locus were 2.5%, 0.3%, 0.4%, and 1.9% for single SNP rs662799, rs3135506, rs2075291, and rs2266788, respectively, and 3.0% for the haplotypes constructed by them. Conclusions The association profiles between the SNPs and haplotypes at APOA5 locus and TG levels in this admixture population differed from those in Caucasians and East Asians. The functions of these SNPs and haplotypes need to be

  20. ACE, APOA5, and MTP Gene Polymorphisms Analysis in Relation to Triglyceride and Insulin Levels in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Carranza-González, Lilia; León-Cachón, Rafael B R; González-Zavala, María Antonia; Ríos-Ibarra, Clara; Morlett-Chávez, Jesús; Sánchez-Domínguez, Celia; Cepeda-Nieto, Ana; Salinas-Santander, Mauricio

    2018-04-25

    Obesity is a complex, chronic, and multifactorial disease that has become a major, and worldwide, public health problem contributing to an increased number of pathologies, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia, and metabolic syndrome, thus suggesting a commolon origin. A diet high in sugar and fats coupled with a sedentary lifestyle has a major role in the development of obesity. However, the genetic background has also been associated with body fat accumulation. The aim of this study was to assess the effect ofACE-rs4646994, APOA5-rs662799, and MTP-rs1800591 gene polymorphisms on clinical and biochemical parameters and to evaluate the association with body phenotypes in children and adolescent population of Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. Anthropometric, clinical, biochemical parameters and BMI were obtained from 405 children and adolescents. The BMI was used to determine the body phenotype. The rs4646994 gene polymorphism was determined by PCR, whereas rs662799 and rs1800591 were determined by PCR-RFLP. The obtained results were analyzed to determine their association of these single nucleotide polymorphisms with body phenotype and biochemical parameters. TT genotype for APOA5-rs662799 was associated with increased levels of HDL-C in the analyzed population (p <0.05). The ACErs4646994gene polymorphism is associated with high Insulin levels, HOMAIR index, and triglyceride levels, mainly when presenting a I/I genotype (p <0.05). The polymorphic allele of the ACE gene is capable of modulating triglyceride levels, insulin levels and HOMA-IR index in the evaluated population; it must be highlighted that this has not been reported in other studied populations elsewhere. Copyright © 2018 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Allelic variation in ApoC3, ApoA5 and LPL genes and first and second generation antipsychotic effects on serum lipids in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Smith, R C; Segman, R H; Golcer-Dubner, T; Pavlov, V; Lerer, B

    2008-06-01

    Schizophrenic patients who are treated with antipsychotics, especially second generation antipsychotics, such as clozapine and olanzapine, manifest an increase in cholesterol and triglycerides as well as other changes associated with diabetes or the metabolic syndrome. Previous studies have shown that polymorphisms in several genes that regulate lipid metabolism can influence the levels of these lipids and response to drug treatment. We have investigated in an exploratory study whether polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein C-III (ApoC3), apolipoprotein A-V gene (ApoA5) and lipoprotein lipase genes influence differential lipid response to treatment with three second generation antipsychotics-olanzapine, clozapine and risperidone-or treatment with a first generation antipsychotic. A total of 189 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who were being treated with a single antipsychotic were studied in a cross-sectional study design in which fasting serum cholesterol and triglycerides and selected single-nucleotide polymorphosms (SNPs) in the three lipid metabolism genes were assessed. The treatment with antipsychotic monotherapy makes drug haplotype ascertainment less complex. Our analyses showed several nominally significant drug x gene and drug x haplotype interactions. The rarer C allele or the ApoA5_1131 (T/C) SNP was associated with higher cholesterol levels in patients treated with first generation antipsychotics and lower cholesterol levels in patients treated with olanzapine or clozapine. The rarer C allele of the ApoA5_SW19 (G/C) SNP was associated with higher cholesterol in risperidone-treated patients. An ApoA5 CG haplotype was associated with decreased cholesterol in olanzapine- or clozapine-treated patients and higher cholesterol in patients treated with first generation antipsychotics. The presence of the rarer T allele of the ApoC3_1100 (C/T) SNP or the presence of the ApoC3 TG haplotype was associated with decreased triglyceride levels in

  2. Triglyceride-raising APOA5 genetic variants are associated with obesity and non-HDL-C in Chinese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei-Fen; Wang, Chun-Lin; Liang, Li; Shen, Zheng; Fu, Jun-Fen; Liu, Pei-Ning; Lv, Lan-Qiu; Zhu, Yi-Min

    2014-06-05

    Although the association between the apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) genetic variants and hypertriglyceridemia has been extensively studied, there have been few studies, particularly in children and adolescents, on the association between APOA5 genetic variants and obesity or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels. The objective of this study was to examine whether APOA5 gene polymorphisms affect body mass index (BMI) or plasma non-HDL-C levels in Chinese child population. This was a case-control study. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for an association study in 569 obese or overweight and 194 healthy Chinese children and adolescents. Genotype distributions for all polymorphisms in both cohorts were in accordance with the Hardy-Weinberg distribution. The frequencies of the risk alleles in rs662799 and rs651821 SNPs in APOA5 gene were all increased in obese or overweight patients compared to the controls. After adjusted for age and sex, C carriers in rs662799 had a 1.496-fold [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.074-2.084, P = 0.017] higher risk for developing obesity or overweight than subjects with TT genotype, while C carriers in rs651821 had a 1.515-fold higher risk than subjects with TT genotype (95% CI: 1.088-2.100, P = 0.014). Triglyceride (TG) and non-HDL-C concentrations were significantly different among rs662799 variants and both were higher in carriers of minor allele than in noncarriers for TG (1.64 ± 0.96 vs. 1.33 ± 0.67 mmol/L) (P < 0.001), and for non-HDL-C (3.23 ± 0.92 vs. 3.02 ± 0.80 mmol/L) (P = 0.005), respectively. There was also a trend towards increased TG and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels for rs651821 C carriers (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). Furthermore, to confirm the independence of the associations between APOA5 gene and TG or non-HDL-C levels

  3. Triglyceride-raising APOA5 genetic variants are associated with obesity and non-HDL-C in Chinese children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the association between the apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) genetic variants and hypertriglyceridemia has been extensively studied, there have been few studies, particularly in children and adolescents, on the association between APOA5 genetic variants and obesity or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels. The objective of this study was to examine whether APOA5 gene polymorphisms affect body mass index (BMI) or plasma non-HDL-C levels in Chinese child population. Methods This was a case–control study. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for an association study in 569 obese or overweight and 194 healthy Chinese children and adolescents. Results Genotype distributions for all polymorphisms in both cohorts were in accordance with the Hardy-Weinberg distribution. The frequencies of the risk alleles in rs662799 and rs651821 SNPs in APOA5 gene were all increased in obese or overweight patients compared to the controls. After adjusted for age and sex, C carriers in rs662799 had a 1.496-fold [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.074-2.084, P = 0.017] higher risk for developing obesity or overweight than subjects with TT genotype, while C carriers in rs651821 had a 1.515-fold higher risk than subjects with TT genotype (95% CI: 1.088-2.100, P = 0.014). Triglyceride (TG) and non-HDL-C concentrations were significantly different among rs662799 variants and both were higher in carriers of minor allele than in noncarriers for TG (1.64 ± 0.96 vs. 1.33 ± 0.67 mmol/L) (P < 0.001), and for non-HDL-C (3.23 ± 0.92 vs. 3.02 ± 0.80 mmol/L) (P = 0.005), respectively. There was also a trend towards increased TG and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels for rs651821 C carriers (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). Furthermore, to confirm the independence of the associations between APOA5 gene and TG

  4. Frameshift mutation in the APOA5 gene causing hypertriglyceridemia in a Pakistani family: Management and considerations for cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Thériault, Sébastien; Don-Wauchope, Andrew; Chong, Michael; Lali, Ricky; Morrison, Katherine M; Paré, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel homozygous apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) frameshift mutation (c.G425del-C, p.Arg143AlafsTer57) identified in a 12-year-old boy of Pakistani origin with severe hypertriglyceridemia (up to 35 mmol/L) and type V hyperlipoproteinemia. The patient did not respond to fibrate therapy, but his condition improved under a very low fat diet, although compliance was suboptimal. Heterozygous status was detected in both parents (consanguineous union) and one sibling, all showing moderate hypertriglyceridemia (between 5 and 10 mmol/L). There was a significant family history of premature cardiovascular disease. The index case was also diagnosed with a coronary artery anomaly. Considering the recently reported association of rare mutations in APOA5 with the risk of early myocardial infarction, we discuss the implications of these findings for the young man and his family. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mutations in LPL, APOC2, APOA5, GPIHBP1 and LMF1 in patients with severe hypertriglyceridaemia.

    PubMed

    Surendran, R P; Visser, M E; Heemelaar, S; Wang, J; Peter, J; Defesche, J C; Kuivenhoven, J A; Hosseini, M; Péterfy, M; Kastelein, J J P; Johansen, C T; Hegele, R A; Stroes, E S G; Dallinga-Thie, G M

    2012-08-01

    The severe forms of hypertriglyceridaemia (HTG) are caused by mutations in genes that lead to the loss of function of lipoprotein lipase (LPL). In most patients with severe HTG (TG > 10 mmol L(-1) ), it is a challenge to define the underlying cause. We investigated the molecular basis of severe HTG in patients referred to the Lipid Clinic at the Academic Medical Center Amsterdam. The coding regions of LPL, APOC2, APOA5 and two novel genes, lipase maturation factor 1 (LMF1) and GPI-anchored high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1), were sequenced in 86 patients with type 1 and type 5 HTG and 327 controls. In 46 patients (54%), rare DNA sequence variants were identified, comprising variants in LPL (n = 19), APOC2 (n = 1), APOA5 (n = 2), GPIHBP1 (n = 3) and LMF1 (n = 8). In 22 patients (26%), only common variants in LPL (p.Asp36Asn, p.Asn318Ser and p.Ser474Ter) and APOA5 (p.Ser19Trp) could be identified, whereas no mutations were found in 18 patients (21%). In vitro validation revealed that the mutations in LMF1 were not associated with compromised LPL function. Consistent with this, five of the eight LMF1 variants were also found in controls and therefore cannot account for the observed phenotype. The prevalence of mutations in LPL was 34% and mostly restricted to patients with type 1 HTG. Mutations in GPIHBP1 (n = 3), APOC2 (n = 1) and APOA5 (n = 2) were rare but the associated clinical phenotype was severe. Routine sequencing of candidate genes in severe HTG has improved our understanding of the molecular basis of this phenotype associated with acute pancreatitis and may help to guide future individualized therapeutic strategies. © 2012 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  6. Haplotype analysis of the apolipoprotein A5 gene in obese pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Horvatovich, Katalin; Bokor, Szilvia; Baráth, Akos; Maász, Anita; Kisfali, Péter; Járomi, Luca; Polgár, Noémi; Tóth, Dénes; Répásy, Judit; Endreffy, Emoke; Molnár, Dénes; Melegh, Béla

    2011-06-01

    Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) gene variants have been shown to be associated with elevated TG levels; the T-1131C (rs662799) variant has been reported to confer risk for the metabolic syndrome in adult populations. Little is known about the APOA5 variants in pediatric population, no such information is available for pediatric obesity at all. Here we examined four haplotype-tagging polymorphisms (T-1131C, IVS3 + G476A [rs2072560], T1259C [rs2266788] and C56G [rs3135506]) and studied also the frequency of major naturally occurring haplotypes of APOA5 in obese children. The polymorphisms were analyzed in 232 obese children, and in 137 healthy, normal weight controls, using PCR-RFLP methods. In the pediatric patients we could confirm the already known adult subjects based association of -1131C, IVS3 + 476A and 1259C variants with elevated triglyceride concentrations, both in obese patients and in the controls. The prevalence of the APOA5*2 haplotype (containing the minor allele of T-1131C, IVS3 + G476A and T1259C SNPs together) was 15.5% in obese children, and 5.80% in the controls (p<0.001); multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that this haplotype confers susceptibility for development of obesity (OR=2.87; 95% CI: 1.29-6.37; p≤0.01). By contrast, the APOA5*4 haplotype (with -1131C alone) did not show similar associations. Our findings also suggest that the APOA5*5 haplotype (1259C alone) can be protective against obesity (OR=0.25; 95% CI: 0.07-0.80; p<0.05). While previous studies in adults demonstrated, that the APOA5 -1131C minor allele confers risk for adult metabolic syndrome, here we show, that the susceptibility nature of this SNP restricted to the APOA5*2 haplotype in pediatric obese subjects.

  7. Transcriptional Regulation of Apolipoprotein A5 Gene Expression by the Nuclear Receptor ROR alpha

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Genoux, Annelise; Dehondt, Helene; Helleboid-Chapman, Audrey

    2004-10-01

    Apolipoprotein A5 has recently been identified as a crucial determinant of plasma triglyceride levels. Our results showed that RORa up-regulates human APOA5 but has no effect on mouse apoa5 promoter. These data suggest an additional important physiological role for RORa in the regulation of genes involved in plasma triglyceride homeostasis in human and probably in the development of atherosclerosis

  8. Common functional variants of APOA5 and GCKR accumulate gradually in association with triglyceride increase in metabolic syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Hadarits, Ferenc; Kisfali, Péter; Mohás, Márton; Maász, Anita; Duga, Balázs; Janicsek, Ingrid; Wittmann, István; Melegh, Béla

    2012-02-01

    The common functional variants of the apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) and the glucokinase regulatory protein genes (GCKR) have been shown to associate with increased fasting triglyceride (TG) levels. Albeit the basic association has been extensively investigated in several populations of different origin, less is known about quantitative traits of them. In our study accumulation rates of four APOA5 (T-1131, IVS3 + G476A, T1259C and C56G) and two GCKR (C1337T and rs780094) functional SNPs were analyzed in patients stratified into four TG quartile groups. Randomly selected 325 metabolic syndrome patients were separated into four quartile (q) groups based on the TG levels as follows q1: TG <1.38 mmol/l; q2: 1.38-1.93 mmol/l; q3: 1.94-2.83 mmol/l; and q4: TG >2.83 mmol/l. We observed significant stepwise increase of prevalence rates of minor allele frequencies in the four plasma TG quartiles for three APOA5 SNPs: -1131C (q1: 4.94%; q2: 8.64%; q3: 11.6%; q4: 12.3%), IVS3 + 476A (q1: 4.32%; q2: 7.4%; q3: 10.36%; q4: 11.1%), and 1259C (q1: 4.94%; q2: 7.41%; q3: 10.4%; q4: 11.7%). The haplotype analysis revealed, that the frequency of APOA5*2 haplotype gradually increased in q2, q3 and q4 (q1: 9.87%; q2: 14.8%; q3: 18.3%; q4: 21%). The distribution of the homozygotes of the two analyzed GCKR variants resembled to the APOA5 pattern. Contrary to the hypothetically predictable linear association coming from the current knowledge about the APOA5 and GCKR functions, the findings presented here revealed a unique, TG raise dependent gradual accumulation of the functional variants of in MS patients. Thus, the findings of the current study serve indirect evidence for the existence of rare APOA5 and GCKR haplotypes in metabolic syndrome patients with higher TG levels, which contribute to the complex lipid metabolism alteration in this disease.

  9. Exome sequencing identifies rare LDLR and APOA5 alleles conferring risk for myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Do, Ron; Stitziel, Nathan O; Won, Hong-Hee; Jørgensen, Anders Berg; Duga, Stefano; Angelica Merlini, Pier; Kiezun, Adam; Farrall, Martin; Goel, Anuj; Zuk, Or; Guella, Illaria; Asselta, Rosanna; Lange, Leslie A; Peloso, Gina M; Auer, Paul L; Girelli, Domenico; Martinelli, Nicola; Farlow, Deborah N; DePristo, Mark A; Roberts, Robert; Stewart, Alexander F R; Saleheen, Danish; Danesh, John; Epstein, Stephen E; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Hovingh, G Kees; Kastelein, John J; Samani, Nilesh J; Schunkert, Heribert; Erdmann, Jeanette; Shah, Svati H; Kraus, William E; Davies, Robert; Nikpay, Majid; Johansen, Christopher T; Wang, Jian; Hegele, Robert A; Hechter, Eliana; Marz, Winfried; Kleber, Marcus E; Huang, Jie; Johnson, Andrew D; Li, Mingyao; Burke, Greg L; Gross, Myron; Liu, Yongmei; Assimes, Themistocles L; Heiss, Gerardo; Lange, Ethan M; Folsom, Aaron R; Taylor, Herman A; Olivieri, Oliviero; Hamsten, Anders; Clarke, Robert; Reilly, Dermot F; Yin, Wu; Rivas, Manuel A; Donnelly, Peter; Rossouw, Jacques E; Psaty, Bruce M; Herrington, David M; Wilson, James G; Rich, Stephen S; Bamshad, Michael J; Tracy, Russell P; Cupples, L Adrienne; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P; Spertus, John A; Cresci, Sharon; Hartiala, Jaana; Tang, W H Wilson; Hazen, Stanley L; Allayee, Hooman; Reiner, Alex P; Carlson, Christopher S; Kooperberg, Charles; Jackson, Rebecca D; Boerwinkle, Eric; Lander, Eric S; Schwartz, Stephen M; Siscovick, David S; McPherson, Ruth; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Watkins, Hugh; Nickerson, Deborah A; Ardissino, Diego; Sunyaev, Shamil R; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Altshuler, David; Gabriel, Stacey; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2015-02-05

    Myocardial infarction (MI), a leading cause of death around the world, displays a complex pattern of inheritance. When MI occurs early in life, genetic inheritance is a major component to risk. Previously, rare mutations in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) genes have been shown to contribute to MI risk in individual families, whereas common variants at more than 45 loci have been associated with MI risk in the population. Here we evaluate how rare mutations contribute to early-onset MI risk in the population. We sequenced the protein-coding regions of 9,793 genomes from patients with MI at an early age (≤50 years in males and ≤60 years in females) along with MI-free controls. We identified two genes in which rare coding-sequence mutations were more frequent in MI cases versus controls at exome-wide significance. At low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), carriers of rare non-synonymous mutations were at 4.2-fold increased risk for MI; carriers of null alleles at LDLR were at even higher risk (13-fold difference). Approximately 2% of early MI cases harbour a rare, damaging mutation in LDLR; this estimate is similar to one made more than 40 years ago using an analysis of total cholesterol. Among controls, about 1 in 217 carried an LDLR coding-sequence mutation and had plasma LDL cholesterol > 190 mg dl(-1). At apolipoprotein A-V (APOA5), carriers of rare non-synonymous mutations were at 2.2-fold increased risk for MI. When compared with non-carriers, LDLR mutation carriers had higher plasma LDL cholesterol, whereas APOA5 mutation carriers had higher plasma triglycerides. Recent evidence has connected MI risk with coding-sequence mutations at two genes functionally related to APOA5, namely lipoprotein lipase and apolipoprotein C-III (refs 18, 19). Combined, these observations suggest that, as well as LDL cholesterol, disordered metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins contributes to MI risk.

  10. Common variants APOC3, APOA5, APOE and PON1 are associated with variation in plasma lipoprotein traits in Greenlanders.

    PubMed

    Lahiry, Piya; Ban, Matthew R; Pollex, Rebecca L; Feldman, Ross D; Sawyez, Cynthia G; Huff, Murray W; Young, T Kue; Bjerregaard, Peter; Hegele, Robert A

    2007-12-01

    We undertook studies of the association between common genomic variations in APOC3, APOA5, APOE and PON1 genes and variation in biochemical phenotypes in a sample of Greenlanders. Genetic association study of quantitative lipoprotein traits. In a sample of 1,310 adult Greenlanders, fasting plasma lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein (apo) concentrations were assessed for association with known functional genomic variants of APOC3, APOA5, APOE and PON1. For significantly associated polymorphisms, between-genotype differences were examined in closer detail. We found that (1) the APOE restriction isotype was associated with variation in plasma total and LDL cholesterol and apo B (all p < .0001); (2) the APOC3 promoter genotype was associated with variation in plasma triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and apo A-I (all p < .002); (3) the APOA5 codon 19 genotype was associated with variation in plasma triglycerides (p = .027); and (4) the PON1 codon 192 genotype was associated with variation in total and LDL cholesterol and apo B (all p < .05). Taken together, our results suggest that common genetic variations in APOC3, APOA5, APOE and PON1 are associated with significant variation in intermediate traits in plasma lipoprotein metabolism in Greenlanders; the associations are similar to those observed for these variants in other populations.

  11. Stepwise positive association between APOA5 minor allele frequencies and increasing plasma triglyceride quartiles in random patients with hypertriglyceridemia of unclarified origin.

    PubMed

    Hadarits, Ferenc; Kisfali, Péter; Mohás, Márton; Maász, Anita; Sümegi, Katalin; Szabó, Melinda; Hetyésy, Katalin; Valasek, Andrea; Janicsek, Ingrid; Wittmann, István; Melegh, Béla

    2011-03-01

    Apolipoprotein A5 (ApoA5) gene and its protein product play a central role in the complex regulation of circulating triglyceride levels in humans. Naturally occurring variants of the apolipoprotein A5 gene have been associated with increased triglyceride levels and have been found to confer risk for cardiovascular diseases. In our study, four polymorphisms, the T-1131C, IVS3+G476A, T1259C, and C56G alleles of APOA5 were analyzed in a total of 436 patients by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. The randomly selected patients were classified into four quartile (q) groups based on triglyceride levels (q1: TG<1.31 mmol/l; q2: 1.31-2.90 mmol/l; q3: 2.91-4.85 mmol/l; q4: TG>4.85 mmol/l). We observed significant stepwise increasing association between the four APOA5 minor allele carrier frequencies and plasma triglyceride quartiles: -1131C (q1: 4.44%; q2: 8.95%; q3: 12.9%; q4: 20.6%), IVS3 + 476A (q1: 4.44%; q2: 5.79%; q3: 11.1%; q4: 19.7%), 1259C (q1: 4.44%; q2: 6.84%; q3: 11.1%; q4: 20.6%) and 56G (q1: 5.64%; q2: 6.31%; q3: 11.16%; q4: 11.9%). The serum total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels also showed allele-dependent differences in the quartiles. The findings presented here revealed a special arrangement of APOA5 minor alleles in patients with different serum triglyceride ranges in Hungarians.

  12. Interactions between the APOA5 -1131T>C and the FEN1 10154G>T polymorphisms on ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in serum phospholipids and coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju Yeon; Paik, Jean Kyung; Kim, Oh Yoen; Chae, Jey Sook; Jang, Yangsoo; Lee, Jong Ho

    2010-01-01

    We determined the contribution of the combination of FEN1 10154G>T with the most significant association in the analysis of plasma arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4ω6) and the APOA5-1131T>C on phospholipid ω6PUFA and coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients with CAD (n = 807, 27–81 years of age) and healthy controls (n = 1123) were genotyped for FEN1 10154G>T and APOA5-1131T>C. We found a significant interaction between these two genes for CAD risk (P = 0.007) adjusted for confounding factors. APOA5-1131C allele carriers had a higher CAD risk [odds ratio (OR):1.484, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.31–1.96; P = 0.005] compared with APOA5-1131TT individuals in the FEN1 10154GG genotype group but not in the FEN1 10154T allele group (OR:1.096, 95%CI:0.84–1.43; P = 0.504). Significant interactions between these two genes were also observed for the AA proportion (P = 0.04) and the ratio of AA/linoleic acid (LA, 18:2ω6) (P = 0.004) in serum phospholipids of controls. The APOA5-1131C allele was associated with lower AA (P = 0.027) and AA/LA (P = 0.014) only in controls carrying the FEN1 10154T allele. In conclusion, the interaction between these genes suggests that the FEN1 10154T variant allele decreases AA and AA/LA in the serum phospholipids of carriers of the APOA5-1131C allele, but contributes no significant increase in CAD risk for this population subset despite their increased triglylcerides and decreased apoA5. PMID:20802161

  13. Association analysis of APOA5 rs662799 and rs3135506 polymorphisms with obesity in Moroccan patients.

    PubMed

    Lakbakbi El Yaagoubi, F; Charoute, H; Bakhchane, A; Ajjemami, M; Benrahma, H; Errouagui, A; Kandil, M; Rouba, H; Barakat, A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to explore the association between the APOA5 polymorphisms and haplotypes with obesity in Moroccan patients. The study was performed in 459 subjects, Obese (n=164) and non-obese (n=295). All subjects were genotyped for the APOA5 -1131T>C (rs662799) and c.56C>G (rs3135506) polymorphisms. The contribution of APOA5 polymorphisms and haplotypes in the increased risk of obesity were explored using logistic regression analyses. The -1131T>C and c.56C>G polymorphisms were significantly associated with obesity. Both polymorphisms were strongly associated with increased BMI. Analysis of constructed haplotypes showed a significant association between CG haplotype and susceptibility to obesity (OR [95%CI]=3.09 [1.93-4.97]; P<0.001). These results support a potential role for APOA5 common variants and related haplotypes as risk factors for obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Decreased expression of the APOA1-APOC3-APOA4 gene cluster is associated with risk of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiao; Cao, Yunpeng; Gao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein is genetically associated with the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The APOA1, APOC3, and APOA4 genes are closely linked and located on human chromosome 11. Therefore, this gene cluster may be related to the risk of AD. A total of 147 AD patients and 160 healthy controls were randomly recruited from June 2013 to August 2014. APOA1, APOC3, and APOA4 levels were measured using real-time quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. APOA1, APOC3 and APOA4 levels were significantly lower in AD patients than controls (P<0.01). APOA1, APOC3, and APOA4 levels were negatively related with the severities of AD determined by Clinical Dementia Rating scores (P<0.01). APOA1, APOC3, and APOA4 levels showed a negative relation with Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale scores and a positive relation with RAND 36-item health-survey scores (P<0.01). There was a decreased trend for levels of APOA1, APOC3, and APOA4 in AD patients. Low levels of APOA1, APOC3, and APOA4 are associated with risk of AD. APOA1, APOC3, and APOA4 should be developed as combined drugs for the therapy of AD.

  15. The effect of APOA5 and APOC3 variants on lipid parameters in European Whites, Indian Asians and Afro-Caribbeans with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Dorfmeister, Birgit; Cooper, Jackie A; Stephens, Jeffrey W; Ireland, Helen; Hurel, Steven J; Humphries, Steve E; Talmud, Philippa J

    2007-03-01

    Common variants in APOA5 and APOC3 have been associated with differences in plasma triglyceride (TG) levels in healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to examine the association of APOA5 (-1131T>C, S19W) and APOC3 (-482C>T, 1100C>T) polymorphisms in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) of European White (EW) (n=931), Indian Asian (IA) (n=610) and Afro-Caribbean (AC) (n=167) origin, with lipid and T2D parameters. Rare allele frequencies and linkage disequilibrium differed significantly amongst ethnic groups. Compared to APOA5 -1131T and 19S homozygotes, -1131C and 19W carriers had higher TGs in all groups, but this effect was only statistically significant for the -1131C in the EWs (P=0.04) and 19W in the IAs (P<0.001). APOC3 SNPs showed no significant association with lipid levels in any ethnic group. While haplotypes carrying -1131C allele showed significant TG-raising in the EWs only, the 19W defined haplotype showed significant TG-raising in both IAs and EWs. Comparing all four SNPs in EW T2D subjects with healthy EWs (n=2579), the APOC3 1100C>T frequency was significantly higher in T2D [0.26 (0.24, 0.28)] vs. healthy EWs [0.22 (0.20, 0.23)], P=0.001. While the variable size effects of the two APOA5 SNPs on TG levels may result from ethnically different gene-gene or gene-environment interactions, APOA5 and APOC3 variants did not affect parameters of T2D. However, comparison between EWs with T2D and healthy EWs suggest APOC3 1100C>T is associated with increased risk of diabetes probably through mechanisms other than direct effects on TG.

  16. Dietary oxidized linoleic acid lowers triglycerides via APOA5/APOClll dependent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Garelnabi, Mahdi; Selvarajan, Krithika; Litvinov, Dmitry; Santanam, Nalini; Parthasarathy, Sampath

    2008-01-01

    Previously we have shown that intestinal cells efficiently take up oxidized fatty acids (OxFAs) and that atherosclerosis is increased when animals are fed a high cholesterol diet in the presence of oxidized linoleic acid. Interestingly, we found that in the absence of dietary cholesterol, the oxidized fatty acid fed low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor negative mice appeared to have lower plasma triglyceride (TG) levels as compared to animals fed oleic acid. In the present study, we fed C57BL6 mice a normal mice diet supplemented with oleic acid or oxidized linoleic acid (at 18 mg/animal/day) for 2 weeks. After the mice were sacrificed, we measured the plasma lipids and collected livers for the isolation of RNA. The results showed that while there were no significant changes in the levels of total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), there was a significant decrease (41.14%) in the levels of plasma TG in the mice that were fed oxidized fatty acids. The decreases in plasma TG levels were accompanied by significant increases (P < 0.001) in the expressions of APOA5 and acetyl-CoA oxidase genes as well as a significant (P < 0.04) decrease in APOClll gene expression. Oxidized lipids have been suggested to be ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARα). However, there were no increases in the mRNA or protein levels of PPARα in the oxidized linoleic acid fed animals. These results suggest that oxidized fatty acids may act through an APOA5/APOClll mechanism that contributes to lowering of TG levels other than PPARα induction. PMID:18243209

  17. A candidate gene study in low HDL-cholesterol families provides evidence for the involvement of the APOA2 gene and the APOA1C3A4 gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Lilja, Heidi E; Soro, Aino; Ylitalo, Kati; Nuotio, Ilpo; Viikari, Jorma S A; Salomaa, Veikko; Vartiainen, Erkki; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Peltonen, Leena; Pajukanta, Päivi

    2002-09-01

    In patients with premature coronary heart disease, the most common lipoprotein abnormality is high-density lipoprotein (HDL) deficiency. To assess the genetic background of the low HDL-cholesterol trait, we performed a candidate gene study in 25 families with low HDL, collected from the genetically isolated population of Finland. We studied 21 genes encoding essential proteins involved in the HDL metabolism by genotyping intragenic and flanking markers for these genes. We found suggestive evidence for linkage in two candidate regions: Marker D1S2844, in the apolipoprotein A-II (APOA2) region, yielded a LOD score of 2.14 and marker D11S939 flanking the apolipoprotein A-I/C-III/A-IV gene cluster (APOA1C3A4) produced a LOD score of 1.69. Interestingly, we identified potential shared haplotypes in these two regions in a subset of low HDL families. These families also contributed to the obtained positive LOD scores, whereas the rest of the families produced negative LOD scores. None of the remaining candidate regions provided any evidence for linkage. Since only a limited number of loci were tested in this candidate gene study, these LOD scores suggest significant involvement of the APOA2 gene and the APOA1C3A4 gene cluster, or loci in their immediate vicinity, in the pathogenesis of low HDL.

  18. Sequence Analysis of APOA5 Among the Kuwaiti Population Identifies Association of rs2072560, rs2266788, and rs662799 With TG and VLDL Levels

    PubMed Central

    Jasim, Anfal A.; Al-Bustan, Suzanne A.; Al-Kandari, Wafa; Al-Serri, Ahmad; AlAskar, Huda

    2018-01-01

    Common variants of Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) have been associated with lipid levels yet very few studies have reported full sequence data from various ethnic groups. The purpose of this study was to analyse the full APOA5 gene sequence to identify variants in 100 healthy Kuwaitis of Arab ethnicities and assess their association with variation in lipid levels in a cohort of 733 samples. Sanger method was used in the direct sequencing of the full 3.7 Kb APOA5 and multiple sequence alignment was used to identify variants. The complete APOA5 sequence in Kuwaiti Arabs has been deposited in GenBank (KJ401315). A total of 20 reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified. Two novel SNPs were also identified: a synonymous 2197G>A polymorphism at genomic position 116661525 and a 3′ UTR 3222 C>T polymorphism at genomic position 116660500 based on human genome assembly GRCh37/hg:19. Five SNPs along with the two novel SNPs were selected for validation in the cohort. Association of those SNPs with lipid levels was tested and minor alleles of three SNPs (rs2072560, rs2266788, and rs662799) were found significantly associated with TG and VLDL levels. This is the first study to report the full APOA5 sequence and SNPs in an Arab ethnic group. Analysis of the variants identified and comparison to other populations suggests a distinctive genetic component in Arabs. The positive association observed for rs2072560 and rs2266788 with TG and VLDL levels confirms their role in lipid metabolism. PMID:29686695

  19. Sequence Analysis of APOA5 Among the Kuwaiti Population Identifies Association of rs2072560, rs2266788, and rs662799 With TG and VLDL Levels.

    PubMed

    Jasim, Anfal A; Al-Bustan, Suzanne A; Al-Kandari, Wafa; Al-Serri, Ahmad; AlAskar, Huda

    2018-01-01

    Common variants of Apolipoprotein A5 ( APOA 5) have been associated with lipid levels yet very few studies have reported full sequence data from various ethnic groups. The purpose of this study was to analyse the full APOA5 gene sequence to identify variants in 100 healthy Kuwaitis of Arab ethnicities and assess their association with variation in lipid levels in a cohort of 733 samples. Sanger method was used in the direct sequencing of the full 3.7 Kb APOA5 and multiple sequence alignment was used to identify variants. The complete APOA5 sequence in Kuwaiti Arabs has been deposited in GenBank (KJ401315). A total of 20 reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified. Two novel SNPs were also identified: a synonymous 2197G>A polymorphism at genomic position 116661525 and a 3' UTR 3222 C>T polymorphism at genomic position 116660500 based on human genome assembly GRCh37/hg:19. Five SNPs along with the two novel SNPs were selected for validation in the cohort. Association of those SNPs with lipid levels was tested and minor alleles of three SNPs (rs2072560, rs2266788, and rs662799) were found significantly associated with TG and VLDL levels. This is the first study to report the full APOA5 sequence and SNPs in an Arab ethnic group. Analysis of the variants identified and comparison to other populations suggests a distinctive genetic component in Arabs. The positive association observed for rs2072560 and rs2266788 with TG and VLDL levels confirms their role in lipid metabolism.

  20. Genetic association with lipids in Filipinos: waist circumference modifies an APOA5 effect on triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying; Marvelle, Amanda F; Li, Jin; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Feranil, Alan B; Kuzawa, Christopher W; Li, Yun; Adair, Linda S; Mohlke, Karen L

    2013-11-01

    Blood levels of lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides (TGs) are highly heritable and are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Approximately 100 lipid-associated loci have been identified in populations of European ancestry. We performed a genome-wide association study of lipid traits in 1,782 Filipino women from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, and tested for evidence of interactions with waist circumference. We conducted additional association and interaction analyses in 1,719 of their young adult offspring. Genome-wide significant associations (P < 5 × 10⁻⁸) were detected at APOE for low density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol, and at APOA5 for TGs. Suggestive associations (P < 10⁻⁶) were detected at GCKR for TGs, and at CETP and TOM1 for high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Our data also supported the existence of allelic heterogeneity at APOA5, CETP, LIPC, and APOE. The secondary signal (Gly185Cys) at APOA5 exhibited a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-by-waist circumference interaction affecting TGs (Pinteraction = 1.6 × 10⁻⁴), manifested by stronger SNP effects as waist circumference increased. These findings provide the first evidence that central obesity may accentuate the effect of the TG-increasing allele of the APOA5 signal, emphasizing that CVD risk could be reduced by central obesity control.

  1. Genetic association with lipids in Filipinos: waist circumference modifies an APOA5 effect on triglyceride levels[S

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ying; Marvelle, Amanda F.; Li, Jin; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Feranil, Alan B.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Li, Yun; Adair, Linda S.; Mohlke, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Blood levels of lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides (TGs) are highly heritable and are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Approximately 100 lipid-associated loci have been identified in populations of European ancestry. We performed a genome-wide association study of lipid traits in 1,782 Filipino women from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, and tested for evidence of interactions with waist circumference. We conducted additional association and interaction analyses in 1,719 of their young adult offspring. Genome-wide significant associations (P < 5 × 10−8) were detected at APOE for low density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol, and at APOA5 for TGs. Suggestive associations (P < 10−6) were detected at GCKR for TGs, and at CETP and TOM1 for high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Our data also supported the existence of allelic heterogeneity at APOA5, CETP, LIPC, and APOE. The secondary signal (Gly185Cys) at APOA5 exhibited a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-by-waist circumference interaction affecting TGs (Pinteraction = 1.6 × 10−4), manifested by stronger SNP effects as waist circumference increased. These findings provide the first evidence that central obesity may accentuate the effect of the TG-increasing allele of the APOA5 signal, emphasizing that CVD risk could be reduced by central obesity control. PMID:24023260

  2. Decreased expression of the APOA1–APOC3–APOA4 gene cluster is associated with risk of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qiao; Cao, Yunpeng; Gao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Background Apolipoprotein is genetically associated with the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The APOA1, APOC3, and APOA4 genes are closely linked and located on human chromosome 11. Therefore, this gene cluster may be related to the risk of AD. Patients and methods A total of 147 AD patients and 160 healthy controls were randomly recruited from June 2013 to August 2014. APOA1, APOC3, and APOA4 levels were measured using real-time quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results APOA1, APOC3 and APOA4 levels were significantly lower in AD patients than controls (P<0.01). APOA1, APOC3, and APOA4 levels were negatively related with the severities of AD determined by Clinical Dementia Rating scores (P<0.01). APOA1, APOC3, and APOA4 levels showed a negative relation with Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale scores and a positive relation with RAND 36-item health-survey scores (P<0.01). There was a decreased trend for levels of APOA1, APOC3, and APOA4 in AD patients. Conclusion Low levels of APOA1, APOC3, and APOA4 are associated with risk of AD. APOA1, APOC3, and APOA4 should be developed as combined drugs for the therapy of AD. PMID:26491253

  3. Habitual aerobic exercise, gene APOA5 named rs662799 SNP and response of blood lipid and lipoprotein phenotypes among older Chinese adult.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangyun; Huang, Guoyuan; Niu, Zhanbin; Wei, Yuqin; Wang, Ru

    2018-05-18

    The genetic component of dyslipidemia has been studied in adults but little in older population. It is remains unknown regarding influence and interaction of APOA5 gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and habitual aerobic exercise (HAE) on changes of blood lipids and lipoprotein phenotypes in older Chinese adults. Four-hundred-twenty-three old Chinese individuals with HAE were divided into hyperlipidemia and normal groups. We genotyped polymorphic loci using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry detection technology (MALDI-TOF). HAE level was assessed by International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) scale. For three genotypes of rs662799 site, the AG + GG gene carriers presented higher risk of hyperlipidemia compared to the AA carriers, with the ratio of 1.676 (P = .018, 95% CI: 1.092-2.571) for the AG and 1.812 (P = .002, 95% CI: 1.247-2.632) for the GG, respectively. The rs662799 G allele was significantly associated with lower HDL-C but higher TG levels. In relation to different HAE levels, less interaction was observed between the AA carriers and different HAE levels on corresponding lipids changes. The AG + GG carriers with higher HAE levels had significantly lower TG responses compared to those with lower HAE levels (1.45 ± 0.74 mmol/L vs. 1.86 ± 1.15 mmol/L). Excess risk for low HDL-C and hyperlipidemia was associated with rs662799 genotype alleles of APOA5 SNPs in older Chinese adults. Interaction of gene-HAE and HAE levels may induce different responses of blood lipids and lipoprotein phenotypes. HAE levels have less influence on TG changes in the AA carriers; however, high HAE levels appeared to greatly impact TG responses in the AG + GG carriers. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Association of APOA5 -1131T>C polymorphism and serum lipid levels in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Celap, Ivana; Simundic, Ana-Maria; Nikolac, Nora; Kackov, Sanja; Katalinic, Darko

    2013-10-01

    Significant abnormalities in lipid metabolism are frequently present in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Hypertriglyceridemia, a highly proatherogenic state, is associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease. Genetic polymorphism APOA5 -1131T>C has been recognized as a significant contributor to hypertriglyceridemia in both healthy and diabetic populations. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of APOA5 -1131T>C polymorphism with the serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in patients with T2DM. In total, 234 DNA samples from patients with T2DM were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP method. Serum lipid levels were measured using standard laboratory methods. Obtained APOA5 -1131T>C genotype frequencies were 89% (T/T) and 11% (T/C+C/C). There was no significant association between APOA5 -1131T>C genotypes and triglyceride levels (1.90 mM [1.32-2.74] vs. 1.78 mM [1.54-3.05] for T/T vs. T/C+C/C genotype; p=0.553), HDL cholesterol levels (1.30 mM [1.10-1.40] vs. 1.30 mM [1.05-1.40] for T/T vs. T/C+C/C; p=0.534), and LDL cholesterol levels (3.1 mM [2.3-3.8] vs. 3.0 mM [2.2-3.5] for T/T vs. T/C+C/C; p=0.313). Our results suggest that hypertriglyceridemia in patients with T2DM is not likely to be associated with the APOA5 -1131T>C polymorphism.

  5. Increased risk of obesity related to total energy intake with the APOA5-1131T > C polymorphism in Korean premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyo Hee; Choi, Miok; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Jong Ho; Kim, Oh Yoen

    2014-10-01

    We hypothesized that triglyceride-raising apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5)-1131T > C may contribute to the increased risk of obesity associated with dietary intake in Korean premenopausal women whose minor allele frequency is higher than that in Western people. Genetically unrelated Korean premenopausal women (approximately 20-59 years, n = 1128) were genotyped for APOA5-1131T > C. Anthropometric, metabolic parameters and dietary intakes were analyzed. Odds ratios (ORs) for obesity risk (body mass index, ≥25.0 kg/m(2)) were calculated. Genotype distribution of APOA5-1131T > C of study subjects were like TT: 49.9%, TC: 40.8%, and CC: 9.3%. We found a significant interaction between APOA5-1131T > C and total energy intake (TEI) for obesity after adjusted for age, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption (P < .001). The risk of obesity in CC homozygotes compared with T carriers (TT + TC) was significantly increased, when the subjects consume higher TEI (≥2001 kcal/d (8372 kJ/d), median value of the population) (OR, 2.495; 95% confidence intervals, 1.325-4.696; P = .005), particularly, when they maintain negative balance between total energy expenditure and TEI (total energy expenditure/TEI, <1) (OR, 2.917; 95% confidence intervals, 1.451-5.864; P = .003). The contributions of APOA5-1131CC homozygotes to obesity risk in those who consume higher TEI were all significantly high regardless of percentage of energy intake from dietary macronutrients. Whereas, no significant association was observed in those who consume lower TEI (<2001 kcal/d). In addition, serum levels of triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and apolipoprotein A5 were associated with APOA5-1131T > C and TEI. These findings suggest that APOA5-1131CC homozygotes may influence the susceptibility of the individual to obesity, particularly, when they consume higher TEI, but the genetic effect may be attenuated, when people maintain low or adequate energy intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All

  6. Two independent apolipoprotein A5 haplotypes influence human plasma triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Pennacchio, Len A; Olivier, Michael; Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Krauss, Ronald M; Rubin, Edward M; Cohen, Jonathan C

    2002-11-15

    The recently identified apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) has been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. We previously identified an APOA5 haplotype (designated APOA5*2) that is present in approximately 16% of Caucasians and is associated with increased plasma triglyceride concentrations. In this report we describe another APOA5 haplotype (APOA5*3) containing the rare allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism c.56C>G that changes serine to tryptophan at codon 19 and is independently associated with high plasma triglyceride levels in three different populations. In a sample of 264 Caucasian men and women with plasma triglyceride concentrations above the 90th percentile or below the 10th percentile, the APOA5*3 haplotype was more than three-fold more common in the group with high plasma triglyceride levels. In a second independently ascertained sample of Caucasian men and women (n=419) who were studied while consuming their self-selected diets as well as after high-carbohydrate diets and high-fat diets, the APOA5*3 haplotype was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels on all three dietary regimens. In a third population comprising 2660 randomly selected individuals, the APOA5*3 haplotype was found in 12% of Caucasians, 14% of African-Americans and 28% of Hispanics and was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels in both men and women in each ethnic group. These findings establish that the APOA5 locus contributes significantly to inter-individual variation in plasma triglyceride levels in humans. Together, the APOA5*2 and APOA5*3 haplotypes are found in 25-50% of African-Americans, Hispanics and Caucasians and support the contribution of common human variation to quantitative phenotypes in the general population.

  7. Two independent apolipoprotein a5 Haplotypes influence human plasma triglyceride levels

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Pennacchio, Len A.; Olivier, Michael; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.

    2002-09-16

    The recently identified apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) has been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. We previously identified an APOA5 haplotype (designated APOA5*2) that is present in {approx}16 percent of Caucasians and is associated with increased plasma triglyceride concentrations. In this report we describe another APOA5 haplotype (APOA5*3) containing the rare allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism c.56C>G that changes serine to tryptophan at codon 19 and is independently associated with high plasma triglyceride levels in three different populations. In a sample of 264 Caucasian men and women with plasma triglyceridemore » concentrations above the 90th percentile or below the 10th percentile, the APOA5*3 haplotype was more than three-fold more common in the group with high plasma triglyceride levels. In a second independently ascertained sample of Caucasian men and women (n 1/4 419) who were studied while consuming their self-selected diets as well as after high-carbohydrate diets and high-fat diets, the APOA5*3 haplotype was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels on all three dietary regimens. In a third population comprising 2660 randomly selected individuals, the APOA5*3 haplotype was found in 12 percent of Caucasians, 14 percent of African-Americans and 28 percent of Hispanics and was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels in both men and women in each ethnic group. These findings establish that the APOA5 locus contributes significantly to inter-individual variation in plasma triglyceride levels in humans. Together, the APOA5*2 and APOA5*3 haplotypes are found in 25 50 percent of African-Americans, Hispanics and Caucasians and support the contribution of common human variation to quantitative phenotypes in the general population.« less

  8. Relative contribution of variation within the APOC3/A4/A5 gene cluster in determining plasma triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Talmud, Philippa J; Hawe, Emma; Martin, Steve; Olivier, Michael; Miller, George J; Rubin, Edward M; Pennacchio, Len A; Humphries, Steve E

    2002-11-15

    Since triglycerides (TG) are a major independent risk factor for coronary heart disease, understanding their genetic and environmental determinants is of major importance. Mouse models indicate an inverse relationship between levels of the newly identified apolipoprotein AV (APOAV) and TG concentrations. We have examined the relative influence of human APOA5 variants on plasma lipids, compared to the impact of variation in APOC3 and APOA4 which lie in the same cluster. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in APOA5 (S19W, -1131T>C) and APOA4 (T347S, Q360H) and an APOA4/A5 intergenic T>C SNP were examined in a large study of healthy middle-aged men (n=2808). APOA5 19WW and -1131CC men had 52% and 40% higher TG (P<0.003) compared to common allele homozygotes, respectively, effects which were independent and additive. APOA4 347SS men had 23% lower TG compared to TT men (P<0.002). Haplotype analysis was carried out to identify TG-raising alleles and included, in addition, four previously genotyped APOC3 SNPs (-2845T>G, -482C>T, 1100C>T, and 3238C>G). The major TG-raising alleles were defined by APOA5 W19 and APOC3 -482T. This suggests that the TG-lowering effect of APOA4 S347 might merely reflect the strong negative linkage disequilibrium with the common alleles of these variants. Thus variation in APOA5 is associated with differences in TGs in healthy men, independent of those previously reported for APOC3, while association between APOA4 and TG reflects linkage disequilibrium with these sites. The molecular mechanisms for these effects remain to be determined.

  9. A case-control study of apoA5 -1131T-->C polymorphism that examines the role of triglyceride levels in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Baum, Larry; Ng, Maggie C Y; So, Wing-Yee; Poon, Emily; Wang, Ying; Lam, Vincent K L; Tomlinson, Brian; Chan, Juliana C N

    2007-01-01

    Patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) have increased plasma fasting triglyceride (TG) levels, and most prospective studies report that elevated TG precedes DN. TG-rich lipoprotein particles might promote progression of DN. To test the hypothesis that elevated TG levels contribute to the development of DN, one may examine whether a polymorphism strongly associated with TG levels affects DN risk. The apolipoprotein A5 (apoA5) -1131T-->C polymorphism has a large effect on the TG level, and all three genotypes are relatively common in East Asians. Therefore, we sought to examine the association of this polymorphism with DN. We genotyped the apoA5 -1131T-->C polymorphism in a case-control study involving 367 Chinese Type 2 diabetes patients with DN and 382 without DN, as well as 198 subjects without diabetes. Mean fasting TG levels were higher in CC than in TT carriers by 41%, 54%, and 62% in each of the three subject groups, respectively. However, the genotype distributions did not differ between patients with and without nephropathy (P=.69). Therefore, these results weigh against the hypothesis that high fasting TG per se causes DN. The strong association between TG level and DN may be due to a factor that is usually closely linked to TG level but that is not affected by the apoA5 polymorphism.

  10. The influence of the S19W SNP of the APOA5 gene on triglyceride levels in southern Brazil: interactions with the APOE gene, sex and menopause status.

    PubMed

    De Andrade, F M; Maluf, S W; Schuch, J B; Voigt, F; Barros, A C; Lucatelli, J F; Hutz, M H

    2011-08-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is an important independent risk factor for coronary artery diseases and is determined by a wide range of factors, both genetic and exogenous. The A5 apolipoprotein, which is associated with the synthesis and removal of triglycerides (TG), is encoded by the APOA5 gene. One of the polymorphisms of this gene that has been the focus of a large number of studies, and which appears to be associated with increased TG, is S19W (rs 3135506). In this study, we examined the influence of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on TG levels of a sample of southern Brazilians. Samples obtained from 567 people of European descent were genotyped; interactions between this variant and anthropometric variables were analyzed, and the effects of lifestyle, sex, menopause, and variations of the APOE gene were evaluated. We found that the 19W allele is associated with increased TG (p = 0.025) and that this influence was modulated by sex (p = 0.003), menopause (p = 0.022) and the presence of the E*4 allele (p = 0.027). Our data showed, for the first time, the importance and magnitude of the influence of the S19W variant in a southern Brazilian population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. APOC3/A5 haplotypes, lipid levels, and risk of myocardial infarction in the Central Valley of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Yang, Yadong; Nakanishi, Yukiko; Kirchdorfer, Jill; Campos, Hannia

    2005-12-01

    Genetic variation in the APOC3 and APOA5 genes has been associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations and may affect the risk of myocardial infarction (MI). To assess whether APOC3/A5 haplotypes are associated with risk of MI, we examined three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in APOC3 (3238C>G, -455T>C, and -482C>T) and six SNPs in the APOA5 gene (-1131T>C, c.-3A>G, c.56C>G, IVS3+476G>A, c.553G>T, and c.1259T>C) in incident cases (n = 1,703) of a first nonfatal MI matched for gender, age, and area of residence with population-based controls (n = 1,703). Conditional logistic regression models, adjusted for potential environmental confounders, were used for analysis. The common APOC3*222 haplotype was more frequent in cases than in controls (17.4% and 13.7%, respectively, P < 0.001) and was associated with increased risk of MI [odds ratio (OR) = 1.27; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.09, 1.48] compared with APOC3*111 wild-type haplotype. This association was independent of the APOA5 SNPs. Although the APOC3 3238G, APOA5 -1131C, APOA5 c.-3G, and APOA5 c.1259C alleles were associated with higher triglyceride plasma concentrations, these effects could not explain the associations with MI in this population. In summary, this study supports the hypothesis that haplotypes in the APOC3 gene but not in the APOA5 gene increase susceptibility to MI.

  12. Association of G894T eNOS, 4G/5G PAI and T1131C APOA5 polymorphisms with susceptibility to myocardial infarction in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Hassani Idrissi, Hind; Hmimech, Wiam; Diakite, Brehima; Korchi, Farah; Baghdadi, Dalila; Habbal, Rachida; Nadifi, Sellama

    2016-09-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a common multifactorial disease. Numerous studies have found that genetic plays an essential role in MI occurrence. The main objective of our case-control study is to explore the association of G894T eNOS (rs1799983), 4G/5G PAI (rs1799889) and T1131C APOA5 (rs662799) polymorphisms with MI susceptibility in the Moroccan population. 118 MI patients were recruited vs 184 healthy controls. DNA samples were genotyped by PCR-RFLP method using MboI, BslI and MseI restriction enzymes respectively for the G894T eNOS, 4G/5G PAI and T1131C APOA5 polymorphisms. Our results show that the G894T eNOS was significantly associated with increased risk of MI under the three genetic transmission models (dominant: OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.05-2.58, P = 0.003; recessive: OR = 2.15, 95% CI = 0.74-6.16, P = 0.03; additive: OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.06-2.23, P = 0.001). The T1131C APOA5 polymorphism was associated to MI risk in recessive and additive models (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 0.72-3.2, P = 0.04 and OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.26-2.51, P = 0.03 respectively). For the 4G/5G PAI variant, even the cases and controls groups were not in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE), the dominant and additive models show a statistically significant association with MI risk (OR = 7.96, 95%CI = 3.83-16.36, P = 0.01 and OR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.4-2.72, P = 0.03 respectively). Our results suggest that G894T eNOS and T1131C APOA5 polymorphisms may be considered as genetic markers of MI among the Moroccan population. Further studies including larger sample sizes and exploring more genetic associations are needed to confirm our results and to better understand the susceptibility to MI.

  13. The genes for apolipoprotein all (APOA2) and the Duffy blood group (FY) are linked on chromosome 1 in man.

    PubMed

    Rogne, S; Myklebost, O; Høyheim, B; Olaisen, B; Gedde-Dahl, T

    1989-02-01

    We have cloned a cDNA probe for human apolipoprotein AII and used it to analyze linkage relationships on chromosome 1. We found no recombinations between APOA2 and the gene coding for the Duffy blood group antigens (FY) in the 19 meioses examined. Our maximal lod score is 4.2 at zero recombination rate. K. Berg (1987, Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 46:579) found a maximal score of 2.5 at recombination fraction 0.14 in 54 meioses. When results from both studies are combined, the most likely distance between FY and APOA2 is about 10% recombination with a combined lod score of 5.6 for both sexes.

  14. The polymorphism -1131T>C in apolipoprotein A5 gene is associated with dyslipidemia in Brazilian subjects.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Cláudia N; Carvalho, Maria G; Fernandes, Ana P; Santos, Izabela R; Rodrigues, Kathryna F; Lana, Angela M Q; Almeida, Cristina R; Loures-Vale, Andréia A; Gomes, Karina B; Sousa, Marinez O

    2013-03-01

    Polymorphisms in apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) have been associated with higher triglyceride levels in many populations. The aim of the study was to determine the allelic and genotypic distribution of the APOA5 -1131T>C polymorphism and to identify the association of the genetic variant and the risk for dyslipidemia. We genotyped 109 dyslipidemic subjects and 107 controls. The total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL-c were determined enzymatically. Comparison of means among groups was calculated by ANOVA. Significant differences among groups were evaluated by Student-Newman-Keuls test. The minor allele C was more frequent in dyslipidemic subjects than controls (p=0.019) and confers an increased individual risk for dyslipidemia (OR=1.726, CI 95%=1.095-2.721). The genotype analysis by gender showed that this allele was more frequent in dyslipidemic males (p=0.037; OR=2.050, CI 95%=1.042-4.023). When participants were analyzed according to genotypes TT and TC/CC, C-carriers presented higher cholesterol and triglycerides levels than TT homozygous (p=0.046 and 0.049, respectively). The allele C confers higher total cholesterol and triglycerides levels in dyslipidemic adults. The APOA5 -1131T>C polymorphism is associated with dyslipidemia in male subjects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Association of rs662799 in APOA5 with CAD in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua; Ding, Shifang; Zhou, Mi; Wu, Xiayin; Liu, Xi; Wu, Yun; Liu, Dechao

    2018-01-08

    CAD (Coronary Artery Disease) is a complex disease that influenced by various environmental and genetic factors. Previous studies have found many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the risk of CAD occurrence. However, the results are inconsistent. In this study, we aim to investigate genetic etiology in Chinese Han population by analysis of 7 SNPs in lipid metabolism pathway that previously has been reported to be associated with CAD. A total of 631 samples were used in this study, including 435 CAD cases and 196 normal healthy controls. SNP genotyping were conducted via multiplex PCR amplifying followed by NGS (next-generation sequencing). Rs662799 in APOA5 (Apolipoprotein A5) gene was associated with CAD in Chinese Han population (Odds-ratio = 1.374, P-value = 0.03). No significant association was observed between the rest of SNPs and CAD. Stratified association analysis revealed rs5882 was associated with CAD in non-hypertension group (Odds-ratio = 1.593, P-value = 0.023). Rs1800588 was associated with CAD in smoking group (Odds-ratio = 1.603, P-value = 0.035). The minor allele of rs662799 was the risk factor of CAD occurrences in Chinese Han population.

  16. A Thumbwheel Mechanism for APOA1 Activation of LCAT Activity in HDL.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Allison L; Morris, Jamie; Melchior, John T; Street, Scott E; Jerome, W Gray; Huang, Rong; Herr, Andrew B; Smith, Loren E; Segrest, Jere P; Remaley, Alan T; Shah, Amy S; Thompson, Thomas B; Davidson, W Sean

    2018-05-17

    APOA1 is the most abundant protein in HDL. It modulates interactions that affect HDLs cardioprotective functions, in part via its activation of the enzyme LCAT. On nascent, discoidal HDL, APOA1 comprises 10 alpha-helical repeats arranged in an anti-parallel, stacked-ring structure that encapsulates a lipid bilayer. Previous chemical cross-linking studies suggested that these APOA1 rings can adopt at least two different orientations, or registries, with respect to each other; however, the functional impact of these structural changes is unknown. Here, we placed Cys-residues at locations predicted to form disulfide bonds in each orientation and then measured APOA1s ability to adopt the two registries during HDL particle formation. We found that most APOA1 oriented with the fifth helix of one molecule across from fifth helix of the other (5/5 helical registry), but a fraction adopted a 5/2 registry. Engineered HDL that were locked in 5/5 or 5/2 registries by disulfide bonds equally promoted cholesterol efflux from macrophages - indicating functional particles. However, unlike the 5/5 registry or the wild-type, the 5/2 registry impaired LCAT cholesteryl esterification activity (p<0.001), despite LCAT binding equally to all particles. Chemical cross-linking studies suggest that full LCAT activity requires a hybrid epitope composed of helices 5-7 on one APOA1 molecule and 3-4 on the other. Thus, APOA1 may use a reciprocating, thumbwheel-like mechanism to activate HDL-remodeling proteins. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. A single nucleotide polymorphism -1131T>C in the apolipoprotein A5 gene is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease and alters triglyceride metabolism in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Bi, Nan; Yan, Sheng-kai; Li, Guo-ping; Yin, Zhi-nong; Chen, Bao-sheng

    2004-11-01

    The disorder of triglyceride (TG) metabolism leading to hypertriglyceridemia is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). Variants in the newly identified apolipoprotein APOA5 gene were found to be strongly associated with elevated TG levels in different racial groups. In this study, we investigated the phenotypic effects of two polymorphisms (APOA5-1131T>C and APOC3-482C>T) on susceptibility to CAD in 312 Chinese CAD patients diagnosed by angiography. The frequency of the APOA5-1131C allele in these patients was significantly higher than that of the control group (39.9 vs. 33.3%, P=0.02). Compared with the wild type TT, CC homozygotes had a significantly increased CAD risk (OR=1.93 and OR=1.80 using unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models, respectively). This association still existed after adjustment for the APOC3-482 variant. The APOA5-1131C allele also showed a correlation with increasing plasma TG levels (P<0.001). These data suggest that the APOA5-1131T>C polymorphism might contribute to an increased risk of CAD among Chinese as a result of its effect on TG metabolism; this effect was found to be independent of the APOC3-482C>T variant.

  18. Novel polymorphisms of the APOA2 gene and its promoter region affect body traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Li, Caixia; Cai, Hanfang; Xu, Yao; Lan, Xianyong; Lei, Chuzhao; Chen, Hong

    2013-12-01

    Apolipoprotein A-II (APOA2) is one of the major constituents of high-density lipoprotein and plays a critical role in lipid metabolism and obesity. However, similar research for the bovine APOA2 gene is lacking. In this study, polymorphisms of the bovine APOA2 gene and its promoter region were detected in 1021 cows from four breeds by sequencing and PCR-RFLP methods. Totally, we detected six novel mutations which included one mutation in the promoter region, two mutations in the exons and three mutations in the introns. There were four polymorphisms within APOA2 gene were analyzed. The allele A, T, T and G frequencies of the four loci were predominant in the four breeds when in separate or combinations analysis which suggested cows with those alleles to be more adapted to the steppe environment. The association analysis indicated three SVs in Nangyang cows, two SVs in Qinchun cows and the 9 haplotypes in Nangyang cows were significantly associated with body traits (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The results of this study suggested the bovine APOA2 gene may be a strong candidate gene for body traits in the cattle breeding program. © 2013.

  19. Haplotype Analysis in Multiple Crosses to Identify a QTL Gene

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaosong; Korstanje, Ron; Higgins, David; Paigen, Beverly

    2004-01-01

    Identifying quantitative trait locus (QTL) genes is a challenging task. Herein, we report using a two-step process to identify Apoa2 as the gene underlying Hdlq5, a QTL for plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) levels on mouse chromosome 1. First, we performed a sequence analysis of the Apoa2 coding region in 46 genetically diverse mouse strains and found five different APOA2 protein variants, which we named APOA2a to APOA2e. Second, we conducted a haplotype analysis of the strains in 21 crosses that have so far detected HDL QTLs; we found that Hdlq5 was detected only in the nine crosses where one parent had the APOA2b protein variant characterized by an Ala61-to-Val61 substitution. We then found that strains with the APOA2b variant had significantly higher (P ≤ 0.002) plasma HDL levels than those with either the APOA2a or the APOA2c variant. These findings support Apoa2 as the underlying Hdlq5 gene and suggest the Apoa2 polymorphisms responsible for the Hdlq5 phenotype. Therefore, haplotype analysis in multiple crosses can be used to support a candidate QTL gene. PMID:15310659

  20. Haplotype analysis in multiple crosses to identify a QTL gene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaosong; Korstanje, Ron; Higgins, David; Paigen, Beverly

    2004-09-01

    Identifying quantitative trait locus (QTL) genes is a challenging task. Herein, we report using a two-step process to identify Apoa2 as the gene underlying Hdlq5, a QTL for plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) levels on mouse chromosome 1. First, we performed a sequence analysis of the Apoa2 coding region in 46 genetically diverse mouse strains and found five different APOA2 protein variants, which we named APOA2a to APOA2e. Second, we conducted a haplotype analysis of the strains in 21 crosses that have so far detected HDL QTLs; we found that Hdlq5 was detected only in the nine crosses where one parent had the APOA2b protein variant characterized by an Ala61-to-Val61 substitution. We then found that strains with the APOA2b variant had significantly higher (P < or = 0.002) plasma HDL levels than those with either the APOA2a or the APOA2c variant. These findings support Apoa2 as the underlying Hdlq5 gene and suggest the Apoa2 polymorphisms responsible for the Hdlq5 phenotype. Therefore, haplotype analysis in multiple crosses can be used to support a candidate QTL gene.

  1. The APOA1/C3/A4/A5 cluster and markers of allostatic load in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The APOA1/C3/A4/A5 cluster encodes key regulators of plasma lipids. Interactions between dietary factors and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the cluster have been reported. Allostatic load, or physiological dysregulation in response to stress, has been implicated in shaping health disparit...

  2. Haplotype analysis of the apolipoprotein gene cluster on human chromosome 11

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, Michael; Wang, Xujing; Cole, Regina; Gau, Brian; Kim, Jessica; Rubin, Edward M.; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2009-01-01

    Members of the apolipoprotein gene cluster (APOA1/C3/A4/A5) on human chromosome 11q23 play an important role in lipid metabolism. Polymorphisms in both APOA5 and APOC3 are strongly associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations. The close genomic locations of these two genes as well as their functional similarity have hindered efforts to define whether each gene independently influences human triglyceride concentrations. In this study, we examined the linkage disequilibrium and haplotype structure of 49 SNPs in a 150-kb region spanning the gene cluster. We identified a total of five common APOA5 haplotypes with a frequency of greater than 8% in samples of northern European origin. The APOA5 haplotype block did not extend past the 7 SNPs in the gene and was separated from the other apolipoprotein gene in the cluster by a region of significantly increased recombination. Furthermore, one previously identified triglyceride risk haplotype of APOA5 (APOA5*3) showed no association with three APOC3 SNPs previously associated with triglyceride concentrations, in contrast to the other risk haplotype (APOA5*2), which was associated with all three minor APOC3 SNP alleles. These results highlight the complex genetic relationship between APOA5 and APOC3 and support the notion that APOA5 represents an independent risk gene affecting plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans. PMID:15081120

  3. Consumption of whole grains and legumes modulates the genetic effect of the APOA5 -1131C variant on changes in triglyceride and apolipoprotein A-V concentrations in patients with impaired fasting glucose or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) -1131 T > C polymorphism is associated with mild hypertriglyceridemia in type 2 diabetic subjects, and interacts with dietary fat in the determination of triglyceride concentrations. We examined whether a substitution of whole grains and legumes for refined rice in a high carbohydrate diet (about 65% of energy derived from carbohydrate) may modify the effect of this variant on changes in apolipoprotein A-V (apoA-V) and triglyceride concentrations. Methods We genotyped the APOA5 -1131 T > C in individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, who were randomly assigned to either a group ingesting whole grain and legume meals daily or a control group for 12 weeks. Results After dietary intervention, we observed significant interactions between the APOA5 -1131 T > C polymorphism and carbohydrate sources (whole grains and legumes versus refined rice) in the determination of mean percent changes in triglyceride and apoA-V (P interactions <0.001 and =0.038, respectively). In the refined rice group (n = 93), the carriers of the risk C allele (n = 50) showed a greater increase in the mean percent changes of triglyceride and apoA-V than noncarriers after adjusting for HOMA-IR (P = 0.004 and 0.021, respectively). The whole grain and legume group (n = 92), however, showed a decrease in fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, and triglyceride, and an increase in apoA-V, irrespective of genotype. Conclusions The data showed that the magnitude of the genetic effect of the APOA5 -1131C variant on triglyceride and apoA-V levels was modulated when substituting consumption of whole grains and legumes for refined rice as a carbohydrate source in IFG or diabetic subjects. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01784952. PMID:24690159

  4. Consumption of whole grains and legumes modulates the genetic effect of the APOA5 -1131C variant on changes in triglyceride and apolipoprotein A-V concentrations in patients with impaired fasting glucose or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ryungwoo; Kim, Minjoo; Chae, Jey Sook; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jong Ho

    2014-04-01

    The apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) -1131 T > C polymorphism is associated with mild hypertriglyceridemia in type 2 diabetic subjects, and interacts with dietary fat in the determination of triglyceride concentrations. We examined whether a substitution of whole grains and legumes for refined rice in a high carbohydrate diet (about 65% of energy derived from carbohydrate) may modify the effect of this variant on changes in apolipoprotein A-V (apoA-V) and triglyceride concentrations. We genotyped the APOA5 -1131 T > C in individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, who were randomly assigned to either a group ingesting whole grain and legume meals daily or a control group for 12 weeks. After dietary intervention, we observed significant interactions between the APOA5 -1131 T > C polymorphism and carbohydrate sources (whole grains and legumes versus refined rice) in the determination of mean percent changes in triglyceride and apoA-V (P interactions <0.001 and =0.038, respectively). In the refined rice group (n = 93), the carriers of the risk C allele (n = 50) showed a greater increase in the mean percent changes of triglyceride and apoA-V than noncarriers after adjusting for HOMA-IR (P = 0.004 and 0.021, respectively). The whole grain and legume group (n = 92), however, showed a decrease in fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, and triglyceride, and an increase in apoA-V, irrespective of genotype. The data showed that the magnitude of the genetic effect of the APOA5 -1131C variant on triglyceride and apoA-V levels was modulated when substituting consumption of whole grains and legumes for refined rice as a carbohydrate source in IFG or diabetic subjects. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01784952.

  5. APOA5 -1131T>C and APOC3 -455T>C polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Zhou, R B; Chen, D M

    2015-12-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate correlations between apolipoprotein A-V (APOA5) -1131T>C and apolipoprotein C-III (APOC3) -455T>C polymorphisms and coronary heart disease (CHD). PubMed, Ovid, Cochrane Library, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang databases were searched using combinations of keywords relating to these polymorphisms and CHD. Studies retrieved from database searches were screened using our stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria, and Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 2.0 software was used for statistical analyses. In total, 115 studies were initially retrieved and after further selection, 11 were included in the meta-analysis. These 11 articles comprised 4840 patients with CHD in the case group and 4913 healthy participants in the control group. Meta-analysis revealed that APOA5 -1131T>C and APOC3 -455T>C polymorphisms increased CHD risk. In addition, subgroup analysis by ethnicity showed that while the -1131T>C polymorphism elevated the risk of CHD in the Caucasian population under both allelic and dominant models, this increased risk was observed only under a dominant model in the Asian population. The results of our meta-analysis point to a strong link between both APOA5 -1131T>C and APOC3 -455T>C polymorphisms and an increased risk of CHD. Thus, these polymorphisms constitute important predictive indicators of CHD susceptibility.

  6. Analysis of the porcine APOA2 gene expression in liver, polymorphism identification and association with fatty acid composition traits.

    PubMed

    Ballester, M; Revilla, M; Puig-Oliveras, A; Marchesi, J A P; Castelló, A; Corominas, J; Fernández, A I; Folch, J M

    2016-10-01

    APOA2 is a protein implicated in triglyceride, fatty acid and glucose metabolism. In pigs, the APOA2 gene is located on pig chromosome 4 (SSC4) in a QTL region affecting fatty acid composition, fatness and growth traits. In this study, we evaluated APOA2 as a candidate gene for meat quality traits in an Iberian × Landrace backcross population. The APOA2:c.131T>A polymorphism, located in exon 3 of APOA2 and determining a missense mutation, was associated with the percentage of hexadecenoic acid [C16:1(n-9)], linoleic acid [C18:2(n-6)], α-linolenic acid [C18:3(n-3)], dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid [C20:3(n-6)] and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in backfat. Furthermore, this SNP was associated with the global mRNA expression levels of APOA2 in liver and was used as a marker to determine allelic expression imbalance by pyrosequencing. We determined an overexpression of the T allele in heterozygous samples with a mean ratio of 2.8 (T/A), observing a high variability in the allelic expression among individuals. This result suggests that complex regulatory mechanisms, beyond a single polymorphism (e.g. epigenetic effects or multiple cis-acting polymorphisms), may be regulating APOA2 gene expression. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  7. A prospective study of the APOA1 XmnI and APOC3 SstI polymorphisms in the APOA1/C3/A4 gene cluster and risk of incident myocardial infarction in men.

    PubMed

    Liu, Simin; Song, Yiqing; Hu, Frank B; Niu, Tianhua; Ma, Jing; Gaziano, Michael; Stampfer, Meir J

    2004-11-01

    Apolipoproteins AI/CIII/AIV play important roles in the metabolism of triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. However, whether genetic variations in the APOA1/C3/A4 gene cluster are associated with the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) remains uncertain and prospective data are sparse. In a prospective nested case-control study of 385 incident cases of MI and 373 age- and smoking-matched controls from the Physicians' Health Study, we examined the relationship between 2 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (APOA1 XmnI and APOC3 SstI) in the APOA1/C3/A4 gene cluster and haplotypes defined by these SNPs and risk of incident MI. No significant differences in allele or genotype frequency for the APOA1 XmnI and APOC3 SstI polymorphisms were detected between cases and controls. After adjusting for non-lipid coronary risk factors, the relative risks for incident MI were 1.00 (95% CI 0.68-1.47) for men carrying the X2 allele compared with those homozygous for the X1 allele in the APOA1 XmnI site and 1.07 (95% CI 0.69-1.64) for men carrying the S2 versus those homozygous for the S1 allele in the APOC3 SstI site. Moreover, we did not observe any effect modification by HDL or TG levels for the associations of these APOA1 and APOC3 genotypes with MI risk. There were significant differences in TG levels among men carrying different haplotypes (P=0.01) and men carrying the X1-S2 haplotype had higher levels of TG than those carrying the X2-S1 haplotype (202 mg/dl versus 157 mg/dl, P=0.03); however, haplotype frequencies defined by these two polymorphisms did not differ significantly between cases and controls. In this prospective study of apparently healthy middle-aged US men, carriers of the X1-S2 haplotype in the APOA1 XmnI and APOC3 SstI variants across the APOA1/C3/A4 gene cluster had higher TG levels, but there was no evidence for significant associations between these two common variants or haplotypes defined by them and risk of incident MI in

  8. Apolipoprotein A5 deficiency aggravates high-fat diet-induced obesity due to impaired central regulation of food intake.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Sjoerd A A; Heemskerk, Mattijs M; Geerling, Janine J; van Klinken, Jan-Bert; Schaap, Frank G; Bijland, Silvia; Berbée, Jimmy F P; van Harmelen, Vanessa J A; Pronk, Amanda C M; Schreurs, Marijke; Havekes, Louis M; Rensen, Patrick C N; van Dijk, Ko Willems

    2013-08-01

    Mutations in apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) have been associated with hypertriglyceridemia in humans and mice. This has been attributed to a stimulating role for APOA5 in lipoprotein lipase-mediated triglyceride hydrolysis and hepatic clearance of lipoprotein remnant particles. However, because of the low APOA5 plasma abundance, we investigated an additional signaling role for APOA5 in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Wild-type (WT) and Apoa5(-/-) mice fed a chow diet showed no difference in body weight or 24-h food intake (Apoa5(-/-), 4.5±0.6 g; WT, 4.2±0.5 g), while Apoa5(-/-) mice fed an HFD ate more in 24 h (Apoa5(-/-), 2.8±0.4 g; WT, 2.5±0.3 g, P<0.05) and became more obese than WT mice. Also, intravenous injection of APOA5-loaded VLDL-like particles lowered food intake (VLDL control, 0.26±0.04 g; VLDL+APOA5, 0.11±0.07 g, P<0.01). In addition, the HFD-induced hyperphagia of Apoa5(-/-) mice was prevented by adenovirus-mediated hepatic overexpression of APOA5. Finally, intracerebroventricular injection of APOA5 reduced food intake compared to injection of the same mouse with artificial cerebral spinal fluid (0.40±0.11 g; APOA5, 0.23±0.08 g, P<0.01). These data indicate that the increased HFD-induced obesity of Apoa5(-/-) mice as compared to WT mice is at least partly explained by hyperphagia and that APOA5 plays a role in the central regulation of food intake.

  9. A pentanucleotide repeat polymorphism in the 5' control region of the apolipoprotein(a) gene is associated with lipoprotein(a) plasma concentrations in Caucasians.

    PubMed Central

    Trommsdorff, M; Köchl, S; Lingenhel, A; Kronenberg, F; Delport, R; Vermaak, H; Lemming, L; Klausen, I C; Faergeman, O; Utermann, G

    1995-01-01

    The enormous interindividual variation in the plasma concentrations of the atherogenic lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is almost entirely controlled by the apo(a) locus on chromosome 6q26-q27. A variable number of transcribed kringle4 repeats (K4-VNTR) in the gene explains a large fraction of this variation, whereas the rest is presently unexplained. We here have analyzed the effect of the K4-VNTR and of a pentanucleotide repeat polymorphism (TTTTA)n (n = 6-11) in the 5' control region of the apo(a) gene on plasma Lp(a) levels in unrelated healthy Tyroleans (n = 130), Danes (n = 154), and Black South Africans (n = 112). The K4-VNTR had a significant effect on plasma Lp(a) levels in Caucasians and explained 41 and 45% of the variation in Lp(a) plasma concentration in Tyroleans and Danes, respectively. Both, the pentanucleotide repeat (PNR) allele frequencies and their effects on Lp(a) concentrations were heterogeneous among populations. A significant negative correlation between the number of pentanucleotide repeats and the plasma Lp(a) concentration was observed in Tyroleans and Danes. The effect of the 5' PNRP on plasma Lp(a) concentrations was independent from the K4-VNTR and explained from 10 to 14% of the variation in Lp(a) concentrations in Caucasians. No significant effect of the PNRP was present in Black Africans. This suggests allelic association between PNR alleles and sequences affecting Lp(a) levels in Caucasians. Thus, in Caucasians but not in Blacks, concentrations of the atherogenic Lp(a) particle are strongly associated with two repeat polymorphisms in the apo(a) gene. Images PMID:7615785

  10. Admixture mapping in two Mexican samples identifies significant associations of locus ancestry with triglyceride levels in the BUD13/ZNF259/APOA5 region and fine mapping points to rs964184 as the main driver of the association signal.

    PubMed

    Parra, Esteban J; Mazurek, Andrew; Gignoux, Christopher R; Sockell, Alexandra; Agostino, Michael; Morris, Andrew P; Petty, Lauren E; Hanis, Craig L; Cox, Nancy J; Valladares-Salgado, Adan; Below, Jennifer E; Cruz, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    We carried out an admixture mapping study of lipid traits in two samples from Mexico City. Native American locus ancestry was significantly associated with triglyceride levels in a broad region of chromosome 11 overlapping the BUD13, ZNF259 and APOA5 genes. In our fine-mapping analysis of this region using dense genome-wide data, rs964184 is the only marker included in the 99% credible set of SNPs, providing strong support for rs964184 as the causal variant within this region. The frequency of the allele associated with increased triglyceride concentrations (rs964184-G) is between 30-40% higher in Native American populations from Mexico than in European populations. The evidence currently available for this variant indicates that it may be exerting its effect through three potential mechanisms: 1) modification of enhancer activity, 2) regulation of the expression of several genes in cis and/or trans, or 3) modification of the methylation patterns of the promoter of the APOA5 gene.

  11. Admixture mapping in two Mexican samples identifies significant associations of locus ancestry with triglyceride levels in the BUD13/ZNF259/APOA5 region and fine mapping points to rs964184 as the main driver of the association signal

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, Andrew; Sockell, Alexandra; Morris, Andrew P.; Petty, Lauren E.; Hanis, Craig L.; Cox, Nancy J.; Cruz, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    We carried out an admixture mapping study of lipid traits in two samples from Mexico City. Native American locus ancestry was significantly associated with triglyceride levels in a broad region of chromosome 11 overlapping the BUD13, ZNF259 and APOA5 genes. In our fine-mapping analysis of this region using dense genome-wide data, rs964184 is the only marker included in the 99% credible set of SNPs, providing strong support for rs964184 as the causal variant within this region. The frequency of the allele associated with increased triglyceride concentrations (rs964184-G) is between 30–40% higher in Native American populations from Mexico than in European populations. The evidence currently available for this variant indicates that it may be exerting its effect through three potential mechanisms: 1) modification of enhancer activity, 2) regulation of the expression of several genes in cis and/or trans, or 3) modification of the methylation patterns of the promoter of the APOA5 gene. PMID:28245265

  12. Identification of a New Single-nucleotide Polymorphism within the Apolipoprotein A5 Gene, Which is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Samaneh; Emadi-Baygi, Modjtaba; Rezaei, Majdaddin; Kelishadi, Roya; Nikpour, Parvaneh

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a common disorder which is a constellation of clinical features including abdominal obesity, increased level of serum triglycerides (TGs) and decrease of serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), elevated blood pressure, and glucose intolerance. The apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) is involved in lipid metabolism, influencing the level of plasma TG and HDL-C. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the associations between four INDEL variants of APOA5 gene and the MetS risk. In this case-control study, we genotyped 116 Iranian children and adolescents with/without MetS by using Sanger sequencing method for these INDELs. Then, we explored the association of INDELs with MetS risk and their clinical components by logistic regression and one-way analysis of variance analyses. We identified a novel insertion polymorphism, c. *282-283 insAG/c. *282-283 insG variant, which appears among case and control groups. rs72525532 showed a significant difference for TG levels between various genotype groups. In addition, there were significant associations between newly identified single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and rs72525532 with MetS risk. These results show that rs72525532 and the newly identified SNP may influence the susceptibility of the individuals to MetS.

  13. A genetic variant c.553G > T in the apolipoprotein A5 gene is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease and altered triglyceride levels in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yibo; Sun, Ping; Guo, Dongping; Ferro, Albert; Ji, Yong; Chen, Qi; Fan, Leming

    2006-04-01

    Elevation in plasma triglycerides (TG) has been widely accepted as a coronary artery disease (CAD) risk predictor. Recently, a new apolipoprotein playing an important role in TG metabolism named apolipoprotein AV (apoAV) was discovered, which is encoded by the APOA5 gene. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of APOA5 associated with increased TG concentrations have been identified. We here report that a recently identified genetic variant, c.553G>T in the APOA5 gene which causes a substitution of a cysteine for a glycine residue at amino acid residue 185(G185C) is also associated with increased TG levels. To investigate the association between this genetic variation and the risk of CAD, a case-control study comprising 232 patients with CAD and 302 controls from the same area of China was performed. The minor allele frequencies of c.553G > T for the CAD and control groups were 7.76 and 3.97%, respectively (P = 0.008). In both the CAD and control groups, the T allele carriers had higher serum TG levels than homozygous carriers of the major G allele (CAD group: 2.67 +/- 1.48 mmol/l versus 1.95 +/- 1.02 mmol/l, P = 0.021; controls: 2.31 +/- 1.20 mmol/l versus 1.68 +/- 0.95 mmol/l, P = 0.002). After adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, smoking status, glucose and presence of hypertension, the odds ratio (OR) for CAD in the T allele carriers was 2.089 (95% CI = 1.140-3.830, P = 0.017), in comparison to the individuals without the T allele. These results suggest that the APOA5 c.553G > T polymorphism is an important predictor for hypertriglyceridemia and CAD.

  14. Mechanism of lipid lowering in mice expressing human apolipoprotein A5

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Fruchart-Najib, Jamila; Bauge, Eric; Niculescu, Loredan-Stefan

    2004-01-15

    Recently, we reported that apoAV plays key role in triglycerides lowering. Here, we attempted to determine the mechanism underlying this hypotriglyceridemic effect. We showed that triglyceride turnover is faster in hAPOA5 transgenic compared to wild type mice. Moreover, both apoB and apoCIII are decreased and LPL activity is increased in postheparin plasma of hAPOA5 transgenic mice. These data suggest a decrease in size and number of VLDL. To further investigate the mechanism of hAPOA5 in hyperlipidemic background, we intercrossed hAPOA5 and hAPOC3 transgenic mice. The effect resulted in a marked decreased of VLDL triglyceride, cholesterol, apolipoproteins B and CIII. Inmore » postprandial state, the triglyceride response is abolished in hAPOA5 transgenic mice. We demonstrated that in response to the fat load in hAPOA5XhAPOC3 mice, apoAV shifted from HDL to VLDL, probably to limit the elevation of triglycerides. In vitro, apoAV activates lipoprotein lipase. However, apoAV does not interact with LPL but interacts physically with apoCIII. This interaction does not seem to displace apoCIII from VLDL but may induce conformational change in apoCIII and consequently change in its function leading the activation of lipoprotein lipase.« less

  15. Analysis of apolipoprotein A5, C3 and plasma triglyceride concentrations in genetically engineered mice

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Baroukh, Nadine; Bauge, Eric; Akiyama, Jennifer

    2004-03-11

    To address the relationship between the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes, we generated independent lines of mice that either over-expressed or completely lacked both genes. We report both lines display normal triglyceride concentrations compared to over-expression or deletion of either gene alone. Together, these data support that APOA5 and APOC3 independently influence plasma triglyceride concentrations but in an opposing manner.

  16. APOA2, dietary fat, and body mass index: replication of a gene-diet interaction in 3 independent populations.

    PubMed

    Corella, Dolores; Peloso, Gina; Arnett, Donna K; Demissie, Serkalem; Cupples, L Adrienne; Tucker, Katherine; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Parnell, Laurence D; Coltell, Oscar; Lee, Yu-Chi; Ordovas, Jose M

    2009-11-09

    Nutrigenetics studies the role of genetic variation on interactions between diet and health, aiming to provide more personalized dietary advice. However, replication has been low. Our aim was to study interaction among a functional APOA2 polymorphism, food intake, and body mass index (BMI) in independent populations to replicate findings and to increase their evidence level. Cross-sectional, follow-up (20 years), and case-control analyses were undertaken in 3 independent populations. We analyzed gene-diet interactions between the APOA2 -265T>C polymorphism and saturated fat intake on BMI and obesity in 3462 individuals from 3 populations in the United States: the Framingham Offspring Study (1454 whites), the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network Study (1078 whites), and Boston-Puerto Rican Centers on Population Health and Health Disparities Study (930 Hispanics of Caribbean origin). Prevalence of the CC genotype in study participants ranged from 10.5% to 16.2%. We identified statistically significant interactions between the APOA2 -265T>C and saturated fat regarding BMI in all 3 populations. Thus, the magnitude of the difference in BMI between the individuals with the CC and TT+TC genotypes differed by saturated fat. A mean increase in BMI of 6.2% (range, 4.3%-7.9%; P = .01) was observed between genotypes with high- (> or =22 g/d) but not with low- saturated fat intake in all studies. Likewise, the CC genotype was significantly associated with higher obesity prevalence in all populations only in the high-saturated fat stratum. Meta-analysis estimations of obesity for individuals with the CC genotype compared with the TT+TC genotype were an odds ratio of 1.84 (95% confidence interval, 1.38-2.47; P < .001) in the high-saturated fat stratum, but no association was detected in the low-saturated fat stratum (odds ratio, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.59-1.11; P = .18). For the first time to our knowledge, a gene-diet interaction influencing BMI and obesity

  17. Association between the APOA2 promoter polymorphism and body weight in Mediterranean and Asia populations: replication of a gene-saturated fat interaction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: The APOA2 gene has been associated with obesity and insulin resistance (IR) in animal and human studies with controversial results. We have reported an APOA2–saturated fat interaction determining body mass index (BMI) and obesity in American populations. This work aims to extend our findi...

  18. Rs964184 (APOA5-A4-C3-A1) is related to elevated plasma triglyceride levels, but not to an increased risk for vascular events in patients with clinically manifest vascular disease.

    PubMed

    van de Woestijne, Anton P; van der Graaf, Yolanda; de Bakker, Paul I W; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Spiering, Wilko; Visseren, Frank L J

    2014-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the APOA5-A4-C3-A1 gene complex are associated with elevated plasma triglycerides and elevated vascular risk in healthy populations. In patients with clinically manifest vascular disease, hypertriglyceridemia and metabolic syndrome are frequently present, but the contribution of these single nucleotide polymorphisms to plasma triglycerides, effect modification by obesity and risk of recurrent vascular events is unknown in these patients. Prospective cohort study of 5547 patients with vascular disease. Rs964184 (APOA5-A4-C3-A1 gene complex) was genotyped, and we evaluated the relation with plasma lipid levels, presence of metabolic syndrome and the risk for new vascular events. The minor allele of rs964184 was strongly associated with log plasma triglycerides (β 0.12; 95%CI 0.10-0.15, p = 1.1*10(-19)), and was also associated with 0.03 mmol/L lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (95%CI 0.01-0.04), and 0.14 mmol/L higher non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (95%CI 0.09-0.20). The minor allele frequency increased from 10.9% in patients with plasma triglycerides <1 mmol/L to 24.6% in patients with plasma triglycerides between 4 and 10 mmol/L. The relation between rs964184 and plasma triglycerides was modified by body mass index in patients with one minor allele (β 0.02; (95%CI -0.04-0.09) if body mass index <24 kg/m2, β 0.17 (95%CI 0.12-0.22) if body mass index >27 kg/m2, p for interaction = 0.02). The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome increased from 52% for patients with two copies of the major allele to 62% for patients with two copies of the minor allele (p = 0.01). Rs964184 was not related with recurrent vascular events (HR 0.99; 95%CI 0.86-1.13). The single nucleotide polymorphism rs964184 (APOA5-A4-C3-A1) is associated with elevated plasma triglycerides concentrations in patients with clinically manifest vascular disease. In carriers of one minor allele, the effect on plasma triglycerides was modified

  19. Association between the APOA2 promoter polymorphism and body-weight in Mediterranean and Asian populations. Replication of a gene-saturated fat interaction

    PubMed Central

    Corella, Dolores; Tai, E Shyong; Sorlí, Jose V; Kai Chew, Suok; Coltell, Oscar; Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; García-Rios, Antonio; Estruch, Ramón; Ordovas, Jose M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The APOA2 gene has been associated with obesity and insulin resistance (IR) in animal and human studies with controversial results. We have reported an APOA2-saturated fat interaction determining body mass index (BMI) and obesity in American populations. This work aims to extend our findings to European and Asian populations. Methods Cross-sectional study in 4602 subjects from 2 independent populations: A high cardiovascular risk Mediterranean population (n=907 men and women; aged 67+/−6 years) and a multiethnic Asian population (n=2506 Chinese, n=605 Malays and n=494 Asian Indians; aged 39+/−12 years), participating in a Singapore National Health Survey. Anthropometric, clinical, biochemical, lifestyle and dietary variables were determined. Homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) was used in Asians. We analyzed gene-diet interactions between the APOA2 −265T>C polymorphism and saturated fat intake (=22 g/d) on anthropometric measures and IR. Results Frequency of CC subjects differed among populations (1%–15%). We confirmed a recessive effect of the APOA2 polymorphism, and replicated the APOA2–saturated fat interaction on body-weight. In Mediterranean individuals, the CC genotype was associated with a 6.8% greater BMI in those consuming a high (P=0.018), but not a low (P=0.316) saturated fat diet. Likewise, the CC genotype was significantly associated with higher obesity prevalence in Chinese and Asian Indians only with a high-saturated fat intake (P=0.036). We also found a significant APOA2-saturated fat interaction in determining IR in Chinese and Asian Indians (P=0.026). Conclusion The influence of the APOA2 −265T>C polymorphism on body-weight-related measures was modulated by saturated fat in Mediterranean and Asian populations. PMID:20975728

  20. Association between the APOA2 promoter polymorphism and body weight in Mediterranean and Asian populations: replication of a gene-saturated fat interaction.

    PubMed

    Corella, D; Tai, E S; Sorlí, J V; Chew, S K; Coltell, O; Sotos-Prieto, M; García-Rios, A; Estruch, R; Ordovas, J M

    2011-05-01

    The APOA2 gene has been associated with obesity and insulin resistance (IR) in animal and human studies with controversial results. We have reported an APOA2-saturated fat interaction determining body mass index (BMI) and obesity in American populations. This work aims to extend our findings to European and Asian populations. Cross-sectional study in 4602 subjects from two independent populations: a high-cardiovascular risk Mediterranean population (n = 907 men and women; aged 67 ± 6 years) and a multiethnic Asian population (n = 2506 Chinese, n = 605 Malays and n = 494 Asian Indians; aged 39 ± 12 years) participating in a Singapore National Health Survey. Anthropometric, clinical, biochemical, lifestyle and dietary variables were determined. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was used in Asians. We analyzed gene-diet interactions between the APOA2 -265T>C polymorphism and saturated fat intake (a recessive effect of the APOA2 polymorphism and replicated the APOA2-saturated fat interaction on body weight. In Mediterranean individuals, the CC genotype was associated with a 6.8% greater BMI in those consuming a high (P = 0.018), but not a low (P = 0.316) saturated fat diet. Likewise, the CC genotype was significantly associated with higher obesity prevalence in Chinese and Asian Indians only, with a high-saturated fat intake (P = 0.036). We also found a significant APOA2-saturated fat interaction in determining IR in Chinese and Asian Indians (P = 0.026). The influence of the APOA2 -265T>C polymorphism on body-weight-related measures was modulated by saturated fat in Mediterranean and Asian populations.

  1. Additive effects of LPL, APOA5 and APOE variant combinations on triglyceride levels and hypertriglyceridemia: results of the ICARIA genetic sub-study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a well-established independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the influence of several genetic variants in genes related with triglyceride (TG) metabolism has been described, including LPL, APOA5 and APOE. The combined analysis of these polymorphisms could produce clinically meaningful complementary information. Methods A subgroup of the ICARIA study comprising 1825 Spanish subjects (80% men, mean age 36 years) was genotyped for the LPL-HindIII (rs320), S447X (rs328), D9N (rs1801177) and N291S (rs268) polymorphisms, the APOA5-S19W (rs3135506) and -1131T/C (rs662799) variants, and the APOE polymorphism (rs429358; rs7412) using PCR and restriction analysis and TaqMan assays. We used regression analyses to examine their combined effects on TG levels (with the log-transformed variable) and the association of variant combinations with TG levels and hypertriglyceridemia (TG ≥ 1.69 mmol/L), including the covariates: gender, age, waist circumference, blood glucose, blood pressure, smoking and alcohol consumption. Results We found a significant lowering effect of the LPL-HindIII and S447X polymorphisms (p < 0.0001). In addition, the D9N, N291S, S19W and -1131T/C variants and the APOE-ε4 allele were significantly associated with an independent additive TG-raising effect (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.001, p < 0.0001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Grouping individuals according to the presence of TG-lowering or TG-raising polymorphisms showed significant differences in TG levels (p < 0.0001), with the lowest levels exhibited by carriers of two lowering variants (10.2% reduction in TG geometric mean with respect to individuals who were homozygous for the frequent alleles of all the variants), and the highest levels in carriers of raising combinations (25.1% mean TG increase). Thus, carrying two lowering variants was protective against HTG (OR = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.39-0.98; p = 0.042) and having one single raising polymorphism (OR

  2. Amyloidosis in transgenic mice expressing murine amyloidogenic apolipoprotein A-II (Apoa2c).

    PubMed

    Ge, Fengxia; Yao, Junjie; Fu, Xiaoying; Guo, Zhanjun; Yan, Jingmin; Zhang, Beiru; Zhang, Huanyu; Tomozawa, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Junichi; Sawashita, Jinko; Mori, Masayuki; Higuchi, Keiichi

    2007-07-01

    In mice, apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II) self-associates to form amyloid fibrils (AApoAII) in an age-associated manner. We postulated that the two most important factors in apoA-II amyloidosis are the Apoa2(c) allele, which codes for the amyloidogenic protein APOA2C (Gln5, Ala38) and transmission of amyloid fibrils. To characterize further the contribution of the Apoa2(c) allele to amyloidogenesis and improve detection of amyloidogenic materials, we established transgenic mice that overexpress APOA2C protein under the cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate early gene (CMV-IE) enhancer/chicken beta promoter. Compared to transgene negative (Tg(-/-)) mice that express apoA-II protein mainly in the liver, mice homozygous (Tg(+/+)) and heterozygous (Tg(+/-)) for the transgene express a high level of apoA-II protein in many tissues. They also have higher plasma concentrations of apoA-II, higher ratios of ApoA-II/apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) and higher concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Following injection of AApoAII fibrils into Tg(+/+) mice, amyloid deposition was observed in the testis, liver, kidney, heart, lungs, spleen, tongue, stomach and intestine but not in the brain. In Tg(+/+) mice, but not in Tg(-/-) mice, amyloid deposition was induced by injection of less than 10(-8) mug AApoAII fibrils. Furthermore, deposition in Tg(+/+) mice occurred more rapidly and to a greater extent than in Tg(-/-) mice. These studies indicate that increased levels of APOA2C protein lead to earlier and greater amyloid deposition and enhanced sensitivity to the transmission of amyloid fibrils in transgenic mice. This transgenic mouse model should prove valuable for studies of amyloidosis.

  3. Efficient purification of Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) from plasma by HEA HyperCel™: An alternative approach.

    PubMed

    G, Arun Govind; Kamalanathan, Agamudi Shivasankaran; Vijayalakshmi, Mookambeswaran Arunachalam; Venkataraman, Krishnan

    2018-01-15

    HDL-ApoA1 plays a pivotal role in the prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. ApoA1 purification from blood plasma has always remained tedious, involving multiple steps, large volumes of plasma and substantial loss in the final yield of pure ApoA1. In this study, a two-step method has been developed and optimized for the purification of ApoA1 from plasma. Plasma was first subjected to 60% ammonium sulphate (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 precipitation and subsequently, ApoA1 was recovered using mixed mode chromatographic sorbent, HEA HyperCel™. ApoA1 was found to be enriched in 60% (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 supernatant that was dialyzed and injected onto HEA sorbent with 50 mM phosphate buffer pH 7.4. The bound proteins were eluted by decreasing the pH in step-gradient from pH 7.4 to pH 4.0 and subsequently to pH 3.5 using 50 mM sodium acetate buffer. Gel electrophoresis showed elution of homogeneous apoA1 at pH 3.5, with purity and yield of 63%. An interesting feature of this approach is that the purified ApoA1 was monomeric with a mass of 28,079.30 Da as confirmed by MS analysis. This simple and efficient method of purification of apoA1 serves as an alternative method which can be combined with traditional approaches and has a great potential for biochemical and clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of apolipoprotein A5 haplotypes on the ratio of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the risk for metabolic syndrome in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Cha, Seongwon; Yu, Hyunjoo; Park, Ah Yeon; Song, Kwang Hoon

    2014-03-12

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) around the apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) have pleiotropic effects on the levels of triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). APOA5 SNPs have also been associated with metabolic syndrome (MS). Here, we constructed haplotypes with SNPs spanning APOA5 and ZNF259, which are approximately 1.3 kb apart, to perform association analyses with the risk for MS and the levels of TG and HDL-C in terms of a TG:HDL-C ratio. The effects of three constructed haplotypes (TAA, CGG, and CGA, in the order of rs662799, rs651821, and rs6589566) on the TG:HDL-C ratio and MS were estimated using multiple regression analyses in 2,949 Koreans and in each gender separately (1,082 men and 1,867 women). The haplotypes, CGG and CGA, were associated with the TG:HDL-C ratio and the risk of MS development in both genders. That is, the minor alleles of the rs662799 and rs651821 in APOA5, irrespective of which allele was present at rs6589566, had the marked effects. Interestingly, a C-G-A haplotype at these three SNPs had the most marked effects on the TG:HDL-C ratio and the risk of MS development in women. We have identified the novel APOA5-ZNF259 haplotype manifesting sex-dependent effects on elevation of the TG:HDL-C ratio as well as the increased risk for MS.

  5. Gene-Gene Combination Effect and Interactions among ABCA1, APOA1, SR-B1, and CETP Polymorphisms for Serum High-Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol in the Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Akihiko; Niimura, Hideshi; Kuwabara, Kazuyo; Takezaki, Toshiro; Morita, Emi; Wakai, Kenji; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Nishida, Yuichiro; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury; Suzuki, Sadao; Ohnaka, Keizo; Uemura, Hirokazu; Ozaki, Etsuko; Hosono, Satoyo; Mikami, Haruo; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objective Gene-gene interactions in the reverse cholesterol transport system for high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) are poorly understood. The present study observed gene-gene combination effect and interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ABCA1, APOA1, SR-B1, and CETP in serum HDL-C from a cross-sectional study in the Japanese population. Methods The study population comprised 1,535 men and 1,515 women aged 35–69 years who were enrolled in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study. We selected 13 SNPs in the ABCA1, APOA1, CETP, and SR-B1 genes in the reverse cholesterol transport system. The effects of genetic and environmental factors were assessed using general linear and logistic regression models after adjusting for age, sex, and region. Principal Findings Alcohol consumption and daily activity were positively associated with HDL-C levels, whereas smoking had a negative relationship. The T allele of CETP, rs3764261, was correlated with higher HDL-C levels and had the highest coefficient (2.93 mg/dL/allele) among the 13 SNPs, which was statistically significant after applying the Bonferroni correction (p<0.001). Gene-gene combination analysis revealed that CETP rs3764261 was associated with high HDL-C levels with any combination of SNPs from ABCA1, APOA1, and SR-B1, although no gene-gene interaction was apparent. An increasing trend for serum HDL-C was also observed with an increasing number of alleles (p<0.001). Conclusions The present study identified a multiplier effect from a polymorphism in CETP with ABCA1, APOA1, and SR-B1, as well as a dose-dependence according to the number of alleles present. PMID:24376512

  6. APOA2, dietary fat and body mass index: replication of a gene-diet interaction in three independent populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Nutrigenetics studies the role of genetic variation on interactions between diet and health aimed at providing more personalized dietary advice. However, replication has been very low and our aim was to study the interaction between a functional polymorphism of the APOA2 gene, food intak...

  7. Apolipoprotein gene polymorphisms as cause of cholesterol QTLs in mice.

    PubMed

    Suto, Jun-ichi

    2005-06-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses of plasma cholesterol levels were carried out in three sets of F(2) mice that were formed in a 'round-robin' manner from C57BL/6J, KK (-A(y)), and RR strains. Six QTLs were identified on chromosomes 1 (Cq1, Cq2, and Cq6), 3 (Cq3), and 9 (Cq4 and Cq5); of these, Cq2 colocalized with Cq6, and Cq4 colocalized with Cq5. The major candidate gene for Cq2 and Cq6 is Apoa2, and that for Cq4 and Cq5 is Apoa4. The adequacy of polymorphisms in candidate genes as cause of QTLs was investigated in this study. For Apoa2, three different alleles (Apoa2(a), Apoa2(b), and Apoa2(c)) are known. Since there was no significant physiologic difference between Apoa2(a) and Apoa2(c) alleles, previous hypothesis that Apoa2(b) was different from Apoa2(a) and Apoa2(c) in the ability to increase cholesterol levels was further supported. Presumably, G-to-A substitution at nucleotide 84 and/or C-to-T substitution at nucleotide 182 are crucial to make the Apoa2(b) unique. On the other hand, for Apoa4, the most striking polymorphism was the number of Glu-Gln-Ala/Val-Gln repeats in carboxyl end; however, this might not be responsible for QTLs. Instead, a silent mutation, C-to-T substitution at nucleotide 771, was shown to be completely correlated with the occurrence of QTLs in a total of six F(2) intercrosses. Provisionally, but reasonably, these base substitutions are qualified as primary causes that constitute QTL effect. The potential strategy for identifying genes and base substitutions underlying QTLs is discussed.

  8. Effects of apolipoprotein A5 haplotypes on the ratio of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the risk for metabolic syndrome in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) around the apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) have pleiotropic effects on the levels of triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). APOA5 SNPs have also been associated with metabolic syndrome (MS). Here, we constructed haplotypes with SNPs spanning APOA5 and ZNF259, which are approximately 1.3 kb apart, to perform association analyses with the risk for MS and the levels of TG and HDL-C in terms of a TG:HDL-C ratio. Methods The effects of three constructed haplotypes (TAA, CGG, and CGA, in the order of rs662799, rs651821, and rs6589566) on the TG:HDL-C ratio and MS were estimated using multiple regression analyses in 2,949 Koreans and in each gender separately (1,082 men and 1,867 women). Results The haplotypes, CGG and CGA, were associated with the TG:HDL-C ratio and the risk of MS development in both genders. That is, the minor alleles of the rs662799 and rs651821 in APOA5, irrespective of which allele was present at rs6589566, had the marked effects. Interestingly, a C–G–A haplotype at these three SNPs had the most marked effects on the TG:HDL-C ratio and the risk of MS development in women. Conclusions We have identified the novel APOA5-ZNF259 haplotype manifesting sex-dependent effects on elevation of the TG:HDL-C ratio as well as the increased risk for MS. PMID:24618354

  9. Magnolol-mediated regulation of plasma triglyceride through affecting lipoprotein lipase activity in apolipoprotein A5 knock-in mice.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Kai; Lin, Xiu-Ru; Lin, Yen-Lin; Fang, Woei-Horng; Lin, Shu-Wha; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Kao, Jau-Tsuen

    2018-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a risk factor of arteriosclerosis, stroke, and other coronary heart disease, which has been shown to correlate with single nucleotide polymorphisms of genes essential for lipid metabolism, such as lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5). In this study, the effect of magnolol, the main active component extracted from Magnolia officinalis, on LPL activity was investigated. A dose-dependent up-regulation of LPL activity, possibly through increasing LPL mRNA transcription, was observed in mouse 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes cultured in the presence of magnolol for 6 days. Subsequently, a transgenic knock-in mice carrying APOA5 c.553G>T variant was established and then fed with corn oil with or without magnolol for four days. The baseline plasma triglyceride levels in transgenic knock-in mice were higher than those in wild-type mice, with the highest increase occurred in homozygous transgenic mice (106 mg/dL vs 51 mg/dL, p<0.01). After the induction of hyperglyceridemia along with the administration of magnolol, the plasma triglyceride level in heterozygous transgenic mice was significantly reduced by half. In summary, magnolol could effectively lower the plasma triglyceride levels in APOA5 c.553G>T variant carrier mice and facilitate the triglyceride metabolism in postprandial hypertriglyceridemia.

  10. Quantitative trait locus analysis of plasma cholesterol levels and body weight by controlling the effects of the Apoa2 allele in mice.

    PubMed

    Suto, Jun-ichi

    2007-04-01

    Colleagues and I previously performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis on plasma total-cholesterol (T-CHO) levels in C57BL/6J (B6) x RR F2 mice. We identified only one significant QTL (Cq6) on chromosome 1 in a region containing the Apoa2 gene locus, a convincing candidate gene for Cq6. Because Cq6 was a highly significant QTL, we considered that the detection of other potential QTLs might be hindered. In the present study, QTL analysis was performed in B6.KK-Apoa2b N(8) x RR F2 mice [B6.KK-Apoa2b N(8) is a partial congenic strain carrying the Apoa2b allele from the KK strain, and RR also has the Apoa2b allele] by controlling of the effects of the Apoa2 allele, for identifying additional QTLs. Although no significant QTLs were identified, 2 suggestive QTLs were found on chromosomes 2 and 3 in place of the effects of the Apoa2 allele. A significant body weight QTL was identified on chromosome 3 (Bwq7, peak LOD score 5.2); its effect on body weight was not significant in previously analyzed B6 x RR F2 mice. Suggestive body weight QTL that had been identified in B6 x RR F2 mice on chromosome 4 (LOD score 3.8) was not identified in B6.KK-Apoa2b N(8) x RR F2 mice. Thus, contrary to expectation, the genetic control of body weight was also altered significantly by controlling of the effects of the Apoa2 allele. The QTL mapping strategy by controlling of the effects of a major QTL facilitated the identification of additional QTLs.

  11. The Apo(a) gene is the major determinant of variation in plasma Lp(a) levels in African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Mooser, V; Scheer, D; Marcovina, S M; Wang, J; Guerra, R; Cohen, J; Hobbs, H H

    1997-01-01

    The distributions of plasma lipoprotein(a), or Lp(a), levels differ significantly among ethnic groups. Individuals of African descent have a two- to threefold higher mean plasma level of Lp(a) than either Caucasians or Orientals. In Caucasians, variation in the plasma Lp(a) levels has been shown to be largely determined by sequence differences at the apo(a) locus, but little is known about either the genetic architecture of plasma Lp(a) levels in Africans or why they have higher levels of plasma Lp(a). In this paper we analyze the plasma Lp(a) levels of 257 sibling pairs from 49 independent African American families. The plasma Lp(a) levels were much more similar in the sibling pairs who inherited both apo(a) alleles identical by descent (IBD) (r = .85) than in those that shared one (r = .48) or no (r = .22) parental apo(a) alleles in common. On the basis of these findings, it was estimated that 78% of the variation in plasma Lp(a) levels in African Americans is attributable to polymorphism at either the apo(a) locus or sequences closely linked to it. Thus, the apo(a) locus is the major determinant of variation in plasma Lp(a) levels in African Americans, as well as in Caucasians. No molecular evidence was found for a common "high-expressing" apo(a) allele in the African Americans. We propose that the higher plasma levels of Lp(a) in Africans are likely due to a yet-to-be-identified trans-acting factor(s) that causes an increase in the rate of secretion of apo(a) or a decrease in its catabolism. PMID:9311746

  12. Magnolol-mediated regulation of plasma triglyceride through affecting lipoprotein lipase activity in apolipoprotein A5 knock-in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yen-Lin; Fang, Woei-Horng; Lin, Shu-Wha; Kao, Jau-Tsuen

    2018-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a risk factor of arteriosclerosis, stroke, and other coronary heart disease, which has been shown to correlate with single nucleotide polymorphisms of genes essential for lipid metabolism, such as lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5). In this study, the effect of magnolol, the main active component extracted from Magnolia officinalis, on LPL activity was investigated. A dose-dependent up-regulation of LPL activity, possibly through increasing LPL mRNA transcription, was observed in mouse 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes cultured in the presence of magnolol for 6 days. Subsequently, a transgenic knock-in mice carrying APOA5 c.553G>T variant was established and then fed with corn oil with or without magnolol for four days. The baseline plasma triglyceride levels in transgenic knock-in mice were higher than those in wild-type mice, with the highest increase occurred in homozygous transgenic mice (106 mg/dL vs 51 mg/dL, p<0.01). After the induction of hyperglyceridemia along with the administration of magnolol, the plasma triglyceride level in heterozygous transgenic mice was significantly reduced by half. In summary, magnolol could effectively lower the plasma triglyceride levels in APOA5 c.553G>T variant carrier mice and facilitate the triglyceride metabolism in postprandial hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:29425239

  13. Implication of the rs670 variant of APOA1 gene with lipid profile, serum adipokine levels and components of metabolic syndrome in adult obese subjects.

    PubMed

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Izaola, Olatz; Primo, David; Aller, Rocio

    2017-12-15

    A G-to-A transition located 75 base pairs upstream (rs670) from transcription start site of the APOA1 gene is related with metabolic parameters. The aim of the present investigation was to describe the association of rs670 with metabolic syndrome and metabolic parameters. The study involved a population of 1000 obese subjects. Measurements of anthropometric parameters, arterial blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), insulin concentration, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid profile, adipokines levels and prevalence of MetS was recorded. Genotype of ApoA1 gene polymorphism (rs670) was evaluated. A sample of 1000 obese subjects with a mean BMI of 36.5 ± 5.0 kg/m 2 was enrolled. In males, weight (delta: 3.3 ± 1.2 kg; p = 0.01), fat mass (delta: 2.7 ± 1.1 kg; p = 0.01), waist circumference (delta: 2.8 ± 1.1 cm; p = 0.02), fasting glucose (delta: 8.9 ± 2.2 mg/dl; p = 0.01), insulin levels (delta: 3.7 ± 1.2 UI/L; p = 0.04) and HOMA-IR (delta: 1.2 ± 1.1 units; p = 0.02) were higher in non-A allele carriers than A allele carriers. In males without A allele, an increased risk of hyperglycemia (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.09-2.09, p = 0.04), percentage of central obesity (OR = 4.55, 95% CI = 1.36-15.39, p = 0.01), percentage of low HDL-C (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.02-4.03, p = 0.03) and prevalence of diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.03-5.04, p = 0.03) were reported. rs670 of APOA1 gene has a gender specific influence on serum glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, fat mass, weight and waist circumference. Males without A allele showed high rates of central obesity, low levels of HDL, hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  14. Serum Levels of ApoA1 and ApoA2 Are Associated with Cognitive Status in Older Men.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cheng; Li, Jin; Bao, Zhijun; Ruan, Qingwei; Yu, Zhuowei

    2015-01-01

    Background. Advancing age, chronic inflammation, oxidative damage, and disorders of lipid metabolism are positively linked to the late-life cognitive impairment. Serum biomarkers may be associated with the cognitive status in older men. Methods. 440 old male subjects with different cognitive functions were recruited to investigate probable serum markers. Pearson Chi-Squared test, univariate analysis, and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate biomarkers which may be associated with cognitive status. Results. Levels of fundus atherosclerosis (AS) (P < 0.001), age (P < 0.001), serum biomarkers peroxidase (POD) (P = 0.026) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) (P = 0.001), serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (P < 0.001), apolipoprotein A2 (ApoA2) (P = 0.001), and ApoC2 (P = 0.005) showed significant differences. Compared to group 3, ApoA1 in group 1 (OR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.01-1.67) and group 2 (OR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.11-1.94) were higher, while ApoA2 were lower (group 1: OR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.18-1.02; group 2: OR = 0.21, 95% CI 0.08-0.54) after adjusting for control variables. Conclusion. The results demonstrated that age, AS levels, POD, IL-6, HDL-C, ApoA2, and ApoC2 were significantly related to cognitive status. Moreover, ApoA1 and ApoA2 were independently associated with cognitive impairment and late-life dementia.

  15. Serum Levels of ApoA1 and ApoA2 Are Associated with Cognitive Status in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Cheng; Li, Jin; Bao, Zhijun; Ruan, Qingwei; Yu, Zhuowei

    2015-01-01

    Background. Advancing age, chronic inflammation, oxidative damage, and disorders of lipid metabolism are positively linked to the late-life cognitive impairment. Serum biomarkers may be associated with the cognitive status in older men. Methods. 440 old male subjects with different cognitive functions were recruited to investigate probable serum markers. Pearson Chi-Squared test, univariate analysis, and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate biomarkers which may be associated with cognitive status. Results. Levels of fundus atherosclerosis (AS) (P < 0.001), age (P < 0.001), serum biomarkers peroxidase (POD) (P = 0.026) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) (P = 0.001), serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (P < 0.001), apolipoprotein A2 (ApoA2) (P = 0.001), and ApoC2 (P = 0.005) showed significant differences. Compared to group 3, ApoA1 in group 1 (OR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.01–1.67) and group 2 (OR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.11–1.94) were higher, while ApoA2 were lower (group 1: OR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.18–1.02; group 2: OR = 0.21, 95% CI 0.08–0.54) after adjusting for control variables. Conclusion. The results demonstrated that age, AS levels, POD, IL-6, HDL-C, ApoA2, and ApoC2 were significantly related to cognitive status. Moreover, ApoA1 and ApoA2 were independently associated with cognitive impairment and late-life dementia. PMID:26682220

  16. APOA2, Dietary Fat and Body Mass Index: Replication of a Gene-Diet Interaction in Three Independent Populations

    PubMed Central

    Corella, Dolores; Peloso, Gina; Arnett, Donna K.; Demissie, Serkalem; Cupples, L Adrienne; Tucker, Katherine; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Parnell, Laurence D.; Coltell, Oscar; Lee, Yu-Chi; Ordovas, Jose M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Nutrigenetics studies the role of genetic variation on interactions between diet and health aimed at providing more personalized dietary advice. However, replication has been very low. Our aim was to study the interaction between a functional APOA2 polymorphism, food intake and body mass index (BMI) in independent populations to replicate findings and to increase their evidence level. Methods Cross-sectional, follow-up (20 years) and case-control analyses were undertaken in three independent populations. We analyzed gene-diet interactions between the APOA2 -265T>C polymorphism and saturated fat (SATFAT) intake on BMI and obesity in 3,462 subjects from three American populations: Framingham (1,454 Whites), GOLDN (1,078 Whites) and Boston-Puerto Rican studies (930 Hispanics of Caribbean origin). Results Prevalence of CC subjects ranged from 11-15%. We identified statistically significant interactions between the APOA2 -265T>C and SATFAT on BMI in all three populations. Thus, the magnitude of the difference in BMI between the CC and TT+TC subjects differed by SATFAT. A mean increase of 6.2% BMI (ranging from 4.3%-7.9%; P<0.05), was observed between genotypes with high (>=22g/d), but not with low SATFAT intake in all studies. Likewise, the CC genotype was significantly associated with higher obesity prevalence in all populations only in the high-SATFAT stratum. Meta-analysis estimations of obesity for CC compared with TT+TC subjects were: OR=1.84, 95%CI:1.38-2.47; P<0.0001 in the high-SATFAT stratum, but no association was detected in the low-SATFAT stratum (OR=0.81, 95%CI:0.59-1.11;P=0.181). Conclusions For the first time, a gene-diet interaction influencing BMI and obesity has been strongly and consistently replicated in three independent populations. PMID:19901143

  17. Different effects of apolipoprotein A5 SNPs and haplotypes on triglyceride concentration in three ethnic origins.

    PubMed

    Ken-Dror, Gie; Goldbourt, Uri; Dankner, Rachel

    2010-05-01

    Several polymorphisms in the ApoA5 gene emerged as important candidate genes in triglyceride metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between ApoA5 polymorphisms, plasma triglyceride concentrations and the presence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in three ethnic origins. Genotypes for 15 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were determined in 659 older adults (mean age 71+/-7 years) who immigrated to Israel or whose ancestors originated from East Europe (Ashkenazi), North Africa, Asia (Sephardic) or Yemen (Yemenite). The minor alleles of the four common SNPs (rs662799, rs651821, rs2072560 and rs2266788) are associated with an increase of 27-38% in triglyceride concentration among Ashkenazi and Yemenite Jews compared with the major alleles, but not among those of Sephardic origin. Conversely, among the Sephardic group, the presence of the minor allele in SNP rs3135506 compared with the major allele was associated with an increase of 34% in triglyceride concentration. The four SNPs were in significant linkage disequilibrium (D'=0.96-0.99), resulting in three haplotypes H1, H2 and H3, representing 98-99% of the population. Haplotype H2 was significantly associated with triglyceride concentration among Ashkenazi and Yemenite but not among Sephardic Jews. Conversely, haplotype H3 was associated with triglyceride concentration in Sephardic but not in Ashkenazi and Yemenite Jews. Ashkenazi carriers of H2 haplotype had a CVD odds ratio of 2.19 (95% CI: 1.05-4.58) compared with H1 (the most frequent), after adjustment for all other risk factors. These results suggest that different SNPs in ApoA5 polymorphisms may be associated with triglyceride concentration and CVD in each of these ethnic origins.

  18. Interactions of six SNPs in APOA1 gene and types of obesity on low HDL-C disease in Xinjiang pastoral area of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinping; He, Jia; Guo, Heng; Mu, Lati; Hu, Yunhua; Ma, Jiaolong; Yan, Yizhong; Ma, Rulin; Li, Shugang; Ding, Yusong; Zhang, Mei; Niu, Qiang; Liu, Jiaming; Zhang, Jingyu; Guo, Shuxia

    2017-10-02

    This study aims to investigate association between six single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs) in APOA1 gene and types of obesity with the risk of low level HDL-C in the pastoral area of northwest China. A total of 1267 individuals including 424 patients with low HDL-C disease and 843 health subjects were analyzed based on matched for age, sex. SNPShot technique was used to detect the genotypes of rs670, rs5069, rs5072, rs7116797, rs2070665 and rs1799837 in APOA1 gene. The relationship between above six SNPs and types of obesity with low HDL-C disease was analyzed by binary logistic regression. Carriers with rs670 G allele were more likely to get low HDL-C disease (OR = 1.46, OR95%CI: 1.118-1.915; P = 0.005); The genotypic and allelic frequencies of rs5069, rs5072, rs7116797, rs2070665, rs1799837 revealed no significant differences between cases and controls (P < 0.05); with reference to normal weight, Waist circumference (WC), Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) individuals, respectively, general obesity measured by BMI had 2.686 times (OR95%CI: 1.695-4.256; P < 0.01), abdominal obesity measured by WC had 1.925 times (OR95%CI: 1.273-2.910; P = 0.002) and abdominal obesity measured by WHR had 1.640 times (OR95%CI: 1.114-2.416; P = 0.012) risk to get low HDL-C disease; APOA1 rs670 interacted with obesity (no matter general obesity or abdominal obesity) on low HDL-C disease. APOA1 gene may be associated with low HDL-C disease in the pastoral area of northwest China; obesity was the risk factor for low HDL-C disease; the low HDL-C disease is influenced by APOA1, obesity, and their interactions.

  19. Effects of a 3-year dietary intervention on age-related changes in triglyceride and apolipoprotein A-V levels in patients with impaired fasting glucose or new-onset type 2 diabetes as a function of the APOA5 -1131 T > C polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjoo; Chae, Jey Sook; Kim, Miri; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jong Ho

    2014-04-28

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of a 3-year dietary intervention on age-related changes in triglyceride and apolipoprotein (apo A-V) levels in patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or new-onset type 2 diabetes as a function of the APOA5 -1131 T > C polymorphism. We genotyped the APOA5 -1131 T > C polymorphism in 203 Korean individuals with IFG or new-onset type 2 diabetes for the TT (n = 91), TC (n = 98), and CC (n = 14) alleles. Plasma apo A-V and triglyceride levels were evaluated at baseline and after a 3-year dietary intervention. Our results showed that HDL, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR index, free fatty acids, and apo A-V decreased and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased at the 3-year follow-up visit compared with baseline. Plasma apo A-V levels were reduced in subjects with the C allele (TC or CC) (P = 0.036) and triglyceride levels were reduced in subjects with the TT allele (P = 0.047). Subjects with the C allele showed lower post-treatment apo A-V and higher post-treatment fasting triglyceride levels than subjects with the TT allele. Changes in apo A-V and triglyceride levels were negatively correlated in subjects with the TT allele and positively correlated in subjects with the C allele. This study showed that the dietary intervention prevented an age-related increase in triglyceride levels in individuals with IFG or new-onset type 2 diabetes who possess the TT allele, but not the CT or CC allele, of the APOA5 -1131 T > C polymorphism.

  20. A case report of hereditary apolipoprotein A-I amyloidosis associated with a novel APOA1 mutation and variable phenotype.

    PubMed

    Tougaard, Birgitte G; Pedersen, Katja Venborg; Krag, Søren Rasmus; Gilbertson, Janet A; Rowczenio, Dorota; Gillmore, Julian D; Birn, Henrik

    2016-09-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) amyloidosis is a non-AL, non-AA, and non-transthyretin type of amyloidosis associated with mutations in the APOA1 gene inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. It is a form of systemic amyloidosis, but at presentation, can also mimic localized amyloidosis. The renal presentation generally involves interstitial and medullary deposition of apo A-I amyloid protein. We describe the identification of apo A-I amyloidosis by mass spectrometry in a 52-year old male, with no family history of amyloidosis, presenting with nephrotic syndrome and associated with heterozygosity for a novel APOA1 mutation (c.220 T > A) which encodes the known amyloidogenic Trp50Arg variant. Renal amyloid deposits in this case were confined to the glomeruli alone, and the patient developed progressive renal impairment. One year after diagnosis, the patient had a successful kidney transplant from an unrelated donor. Pathogenic mutations in the APOA1 gene are generally associated with symptoms of amyloidosis. In this family however, genotyping of family members identified several unaffected carriers suggesting a variable disease penetrance, which has not been described before in this form of amyloidosis and has implications when counselling those with APOA1 mutations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimization of PCR Condition: The First Study of High Resolution Melting Technique for Screening of APOA1 Variance.

    PubMed

    Wahyuningsih, Hesty; K Cayami, Ferdy; Bahrudin, Udin; A Sobirin, Mochamad; Ep Mundhofir, Farmaditya; Mh Faradz, Sultana; Hisatome, Ichiro

    2017-03-01

    High resolution melting (HRM) is a post-PCR technique for variant screening and genotyping based on the different melting points of DNA fragments. The advantages of this technique are that it is fast, simple, and efficient and has a high output, particularly for screening of a large number of samples. APOA1 encodes apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) which is a major component of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). This study aimed to obtain an optimal quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-HRM condition for screening of APOA1 variance. Genomic DNA was isolated from a peripheral blood sample using the salting out method. APOA1 was amplified using the RotorGeneQ 5Plex HRM. The PCR product was visualized with the HRM amplification curve and confirmed using gel electrophoresis. The melting profile was confirmed by looking at the melting curve. Five sets of primers covering the translated region of APOA1 exons were designed with expected PCR product size of 100-400 bps. The amplified segments of DNA were amplicons 2, 3, 4A, 4B, and 4C. Amplicons 2, 3 and 4B were optimized at an annealing temperature of 60 °C at 40 PCR cycles. Amplicon 4A was optimized at an annealing temperature of 62 °C at 45 PCR cycles. Amplicon 4C was optimized at an annealing temperature of 63 °C at 50 PCR cycles. In addition to the suitable procedures of DNA isolation and quantification, primer design and an estimated PCR product size, the data of this study showed that appropriate annealing temperature and PCR cycles were important factors in optimization of HRM technique for variant screening in APOA1 .

  2. Optimization of PCR Condition: The First Study of High Resolution Melting Technique for Screening of APOA1 Variance

    PubMed Central

    Wahyuningsih, Hesty; K Cayami, Ferdy; Bahrudin, Udin; A Sobirin, Mochamad; EP Mundhofir, Farmaditya; MH Faradz, Sultana; Hisatome, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Background High resolution melting (HRM) is a post-PCR technique for variant screening and genotyping based on the different melting points of DNA fragments. The advantages of this technique are that it is fast, simple, and efficient and has a high output, particularly for screening of a large number of samples. APOA1 encodes apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) which is a major component of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). This study aimed to obtain an optimal quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-HRM condition for screening of APOA1 variance. Methods Genomic DNA was isolated from a peripheral blood sample using the salting out method. APOA1 was amplified using the RotorGeneQ 5Plex HRM. The PCR product was visualized with the HRM amplification curve and confirmed using gel electrophoresis. The melting profile was confirmed by looking at the melting curve. Results Five sets of primers covering the translated region of APOA1 exons were designed with expected PCR product size of 100–400 bps. The amplified segments of DNA were amplicons 2, 3, 4A, 4B, and 4C. Amplicons 2, 3 and 4B were optimized at an annealing temperature of 60 °C at 40 PCR cycles. Amplicon 4A was optimized at an annealing temperature of 62 °C at 45 PCR cycles. Amplicon 4C was optimized at an annealing temperature of 63 °C at 50 PCR cycles. Conclusion In addition to the suitable procedures of DNA isolation and quantification, primer design and an estimated PCR product size, the data of this study showed that appropriate annealing temperature and PCR cycles were important factors in optimization of HRM technique for variant screening in APOA1. PMID:28331418

  3. Effects of a 3-year dietary intervention on age-related changes in triglyceride and apolipoprotein A-V levels in patients with impaired fasting glucose or new-onset type 2 diabetes as a function of the APOA5 -1131 T > C polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of a 3-year dietary intervention on age-related changes in triglyceride and apolipoprotein (apo A-V) levels in patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or new-onset type 2 diabetes as a function of the APOA5 -1131 T > C polymorphism. Methods We genotyped the APOA5 -1131 T > C polymorphism in 203 Korean individuals with IFG or new-onset type 2 diabetes for the TT (n = 91), TC (n = 98), and CC (n = 14) alleles. Plasma apo A-V and triglyceride levels were evaluated at baseline and after a 3-year dietary intervention. Results Our results showed that HDL, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR index, free fatty acids, and apo A-V decreased and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased at the 3-year follow-up visit compared with baseline. Plasma apo A-V levels were reduced in subjects with the C allele (TC or CC) (P = 0.036) and triglyceride levels were reduced in subjects with the TT allele (P = 0.047). Subjects with the C allele showed lower post-treatment apo A-V and higher post-treatment fasting triglyceride levels than subjects with the TT allele. Changes in apo A-V and triglyceride levels were negatively correlated in subjects with the TT allele and positively correlated in subjects with the C allele. Conclusions This study showed that the dietary intervention prevented an age-related increase in triglyceride levels in individuals with IFG or new-onset type 2 diabetes who possess the TT allele, but not the CT or CC allele, of the APOA5 -1131 T > C polymorphism. PMID:24775272

  4. Evaluating the association of common APOA2 variants with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Duesing, Konsta; Charpentier, Guillaume; Marre, Michel; Tichet, Jean; Hercberg, Serge; Balkau, Beverley; Froguel, Philippe; Gibson, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Background APOA2 is a positional and biological candidate gene for type 2 diabetes at the chromosome 1q21-q24 susceptibility locus. The aim of this study was to examine if HapMap phase II tag SNPs in APOA2 are associated with type 2 diabetes and quantitative traits in French Caucasian subjects. Methods We genotyped the three HapMap phase II tagging SNPs (rs6413453, rs5085 and rs5082) required to capture the common variation spanning the APOA2 locus in our type 2 diabetes case-control cohort comprising 3,093 French Caucasian subjects. The association between these variants and quantitative traits was also examined in the normoglycaemic adults of the control cohort. In addition, meta-analysis of publicly available whole genome association data was performed. Results None of the APOA2 tag SNPs were associated with type 2 diabetes in the French Caucasian case-control cohort (rs6413453, P = 0.619; rs5085, P = 0.245; rs5082, P = 0.591). However, rs5082 was marginally associated with total cholesterol levels (P = 0.026) and waist-to-hip ratio (P = 0.029). The meta-analysis of data from 12,387 subjects confirmed our finding that common variation at the APOA2 locus is not associated with type 2 diabetes. Conclusion The available data does not support a role for common variants in APOA2 on type 2 diabetes susceptibility or related quantitative traits in Northern Europeans. PMID:19216768

  5. Evaluating the association of common APOA2 variants with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Duesing, Konsta; Charpentier, Guillaume; Marre, Michel; Tichet, Jean; Hercberg, Serge; Balkau, Beverley; Froguel, Philippe; Gibson, Fernando

    2009-02-13

    APOA2 is a positional and biological candidate gene for type 2 diabetes at the chromosome 1q21-q24 susceptibility locus. The aim of this study was to examine if HapMap phase II tag SNPs in APOA2 are associated with type 2 diabetes and quantitative traits in French Caucasian subjects. We genotyped the three HapMap phase II tagging SNPs (rs6413453, rs5085 and rs5082) required to capture the common variation spanning the APOA2 locus in our type 2 diabetes case-control cohort comprising 3,093 French Caucasian subjects. The association between these variants and quantitative traits was also examined in the normoglycaemic adults of the control cohort. In addition, meta-analysis of publicly available whole genome association data was performed. None of the APOA2 tag SNPs were associated with type 2 diabetes in the French Caucasian case-control cohort (rs6413453, P = 0.619; rs5085, P = 0.245; rs5082, P = 0.591). However, rs5082 was marginally associated with total cholesterol levels (P = 0.026) and waist-to-hip ratio (P = 0.029). The meta-analysis of data from 12,387 subjects confirmed our finding that common variation at the APOA2 locus is not associated with type 2 diabetes. The available data does not support a role for common variants in APOA2 on type 2 diabetes susceptibility or related quantitative traits in Northern Europeans.

  6. Idiopathic hirsutism: local and peripheral expression of aromatase (CYP19A) and 5α-reductase genes (SRD5A1 and SRD5A2).

    PubMed

    Caglayan, A Okay; Dundar, Munis; Tanriverdi, Fatih; Baysal, Nuran A; Unluhizarci, Kursad; Ozkul, Yusuf; Borlu, Murat; Batukan, Cem; Kelestimur, Fahrettin

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate idiopathic hirsutism etiology via molecular studies testing peripheral and local aromatase and 5α-reductase expression. Assessment of the expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) for type 1 and 2,5α-reductase isoenzyme gene (SDR5A1, SDR5A2) and aromatase (CYP19A) in dermal papillae cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. University hospital. 28 untreated idiopathic hirsute patients and 20 healthy women (controls). Human skin biopsies and peripheral venous blood. SDR5A1, SDR5A2, CYP19A gene expression in skin biopsies and peripheral blood. A statistically significant reduction of SRD5A1, SRD5A2, and CYP19A gene expression was found in the dermal papillae cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cell between the study and control group. Further study, including protein expression and enzyme activity assays, are warranted to characterize the paradoxically low gene expression levels of local 5α-reductase and aromatase in women with idiopathic hirsutism. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Elevated levels of triglyceride and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein triglyceride induced by a high-carbohydrate diet is associated with polymorphisms of APOA5-1131T>C and APOC3-482C>T in Chinese healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia; Fang, Ding Zhi; Du, Juan; Shigdar, Sarah; Xiao, Li Ying; Zhou, Xue Dong; Duan, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Changes in lipid profiles have been shown to be associated with diet and apolipoprotein (APO) polymorphisms. Therefore, 2 polymorphisms, i.e. APOA5-1131T>C and APOC3-482C>T, and serum lipids were examined in a Chinese healthy young population with high-carbohydrate/low-fat (HC/LF) diet intervention. After a wash-out diet for 7 days, 56 young adults (22.89 ± 1.80 years) received the HC/LF diet for 6 days. Body mass index (BMI) and fasting serum lipid profiles at baseline, after the wash-out diet, and after the HC/LF diet were measured. APOA5-1131C carriers had higher triglyceride (TG) and TG-rich lipoprotein TG (TRL-TG) levels at baseline and after the HC/LF diet, though this mainly corresponded to the female cohort. APOC3-482T carriers had higher TRL-TG levels following the wash-out and HC/LF diets, but these were not directly attributable to a single gender. Both polymorphisms may play an important role in the elevated TG and TRL-TG levels induced by the HC/LF diet, especially in females, thus indicating a potential dietary prevention of coronary heart disease in this Chinese cohort. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Genes In Space-5

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-04-13

    iss055e020319 (April 13, 2018) --- Flight Engineer Ricky Arnold processes of samples inside the Miniature Polymerase Chain Reaction (miniPCR) for the Genes In Space-5 experiment. The research gathered from Genes in Space-5 may be valuable in the development of procedures to maintain astronaut health and prevent an increased risk of cancer on deep space missions. The investigation also provides a deeper understanding of the human immune system, while giving student researchers a direct connection to the space program and offering hands-on educational experiences on Earth and promoting involvement in STEM fields.

  9. STAT5A and STAT5B have opposite correlations with drug response gene expression

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lamba, V., E-mail: vlamba@ufl.edu; Jia, B.; Liang, F.

    Introduction: STAT5A and STAT5B are important transcription factors that play a key role in regulation of several important physiological processes including proliferation, survival, mediation of responses to cytokines and in regulating gender differences in drug response genes such as the hepatic cytochrome P450s (CYPs) that are responsible for a large majority of drug metabolism reactions in the human body. STAT5A and STAT5b have a high degree of sequence homology and have been reported to have largely similar functions. Recent studies have, however, indicated that they can also often have distinct and unique roles in regulating gene expression. Objective: In thismore » study, we evaluated the association of STAT5A and STAT5B mRNA expression levels with those of several key hepatic cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and hepatic transcription factors (TFs) and evaluated the potential roles of STAT5A and 5b in mediating gender differences in these CYPs and TFs. Methods: Expression profiling for major hepatic CYP isoforms and transcription factors was performed using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) in 102 human liver samples (57 female, 45 male). Real time PCR gene expression data for selected CYPs and TFs was available on a subset of 50 human liver samples (25 female, 25 male) and was used to validate the RNA-seq findings. Results: While STAT5A demonstrated significant negative correlation with expression levels of multiple hepatic transcription factors (including NR1I2 and HNF4A) and DMEs such as CYP3A4 and CYP2C19, STAT5B expression was observed to demonstrate positive associations with several CYPs and TFs analyzed. As STAT5A and STAT5B have been shown to be important in regulation of gender differences in CYPs, we also analyzed STAT5A and 5b associations with CYPs and TFs separately in males and females and observed gender dependent differential associations of STATs with several CYPs and TFs. Results from the real time PCR validation largely supported our RNA-seq findings

  10. Contribution of 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms of 13 genes to dyslipidemia associated with antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Arnedo, Mireia; Taffé, Patrick; Sahli, Roland; Furrer, Hansjakob; Hirschel, Bernard; Elzi, Luigia; Weber, Rainer; Vernazza, Pietro; Bernasconi, Enos; Darioli, Roger; Bergmann, Sven; Beckmann, Jacques S; Telenti, Amalio; Tarr, Philip E

    2007-09-01

    HIV-1 infected individuals have an increased cardiovascular risk which is partially mediated by dyslipidemia. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in multiple genes involved in lipid transport and metabolism are presumed to modulate the risk of dyslipidemia in response to antiretroviral therapy. The contribution to dyslipidemia of 20 selected single nucleotide polymorphisms of 13 genes reported in the literature to be associated with plasma lipid levels (ABCA1, ADRB2, APOA5, APOC3, APOE, CETP, LIPC, LIPG, LPL, MDR1, MTP, SCARB1, and TNF) was assessed by longitudinally modeling more than 4400 plasma lipid determinations in 438 antiretroviral therapy-treated participants during a median period of 4.8 years. An exploratory genetic score was tested that takes into account the cumulative contribution of multiple gene variants to plasma lipids. Variants of ABCA1, APOA5, APOC3, APOE, and CETP contributed to plasma triglyceride levels, particularly in the setting of ritonavir-containing antiretroviral therapy. Variants of APOA5 and CETP contributed to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. Variants of CETP and LIPG contributed to non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, a finding not reported previously. Sustained hypertriglyceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol during the study period was significantly associated with the genetic score. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of ABCA1, APOA5, APOC3, APOE, and CETP contribute to plasma triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels during antiretroviral therapy exposure. Genetic profiling may contribute to the identification of patients at risk for antiretroviral therapy-related dyslipidemia.

  11. Characterization of mGluR5R, a novel, metabotropic glutamate receptor 5-related gene.

    PubMed

    Bates, Brian; Xie, Yuhong; Taylor, Noel; Johnson, Jeremy; Wu, Leeying; Kwak, Seung; Blatcher, Maria; Gulukota, Kamalakar; Paulsen, Janet E

    2002-12-30

    We report here the isolation of a novel gene termed mGluR5R (mGluR5-related). The N-terminus of mGluR5R is highly similar to the extracellular domain of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) whereas the C-terminus bears similarity to the testis-specific gene, RNF18. mGluR5R is expressed in the human CNS in a coordinate fashion with mGluR5. Although the sequence suggests that mGluR5R may be a secreted glutamate binding protein, we found that when expressed in HEK293 cells it was membrane associated and not secreted. Furthermore, mGluR5R was incapable of binding the metabotropic glutamate receptor class I selective agonist, quisqualate. Although mGluR5R could not form disulfide-mediated covalent homodimers, it was able to form a homomeric complex, presumably through noncovalent interactions. mGluR5R also formed noncovalent heteromeric associations with an engineered construct of the extracellular domain of mGluR5 as well as with full-length mGluR5 and mGluR1alpha. The ability of mGluR5R to associate with mGluR1alpha and mGluR5 suggests that it may be a modulator of class I metabotropic glutamate receptor function.

  12. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in CETP, SLC46A1, SLC19A1, CD36, BCMO1, APOA5, and ABCA1 are significant predictors of plasma HDL in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In a marker-trait association study we estimated the statistical significance of 65 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 23 candidate genes on HDL levels of two independent Caucasian populations. Each population consisted of men and women and their HDL levels were adjusted for gender and body weight. We used a linear regression model. Selected genes corresponded to folate metabolism, vitamins B-12, A, and E, and cholesterol pathways or lipid metabolism. Methods Extracted DNA from both the Sacramento and Beltsville populations was analyzed using an allele discrimination assay with a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry platform. The adjusted phenotype, y, was HDL levels adjusted for gender and body weight only statistical analyses were performed using the genotype association and regression modules from the SNP Variation Suite v7. Results Statistically significant SNP (where P values were adjusted for false discovery rate) included: CETP (rs7499892 and rs5882); SLC46A1 (rs37514694; rs739439); SLC19A1 (rs3788199); CD36 (rs3211956); BCMO1 (rs6564851), APOA5 (rs662799), and ABCA1 (rs4149267). Many prior association trends of the SNP with HDL were replicated in our cross-validation study. Significantly, the association of SNP in folate transporters (SLC46A1 rs37514694 and rs739439; SLC19A1 rs3788199) with HDL was identified in our study. Conclusions Given recent literature on the role of niacin in the biogenesis of HDL, focus on status and metabolism of B-vitamins and metabolites of eccentric cleavage of β-carotene with lipid metabolism is exciting for future study. PMID:23656756

  13. Genetic association of APOA5 and APOE with metabolic syndrome and their interaction with health-related behavior in Korean men.

    PubMed

    Son, Ki Young; Son, Ho-Young; Chae, Jeesoo; Hwang, Jinha; Jang, SeSong; Yun, Jae Moon; Cho, BeLong; Park, Jin Ho; Kim, Jong-Il

    2015-09-13

    Genome-wide association studies have been used extensively to identify genetic variants linked to metabolic syndrome (MetS), but most of them have been conducted in non-Asian populations. This study aimed to evaluate the association between MetS and previously studied single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and their interaction with health-related behavior in Korean men. Seventeen SNPs were genotyped and their association with MetS and its components was tested in 1193 men who enrolled in the study at Seoul National University Hospital. We found that rs662799 near APOA5 and rs769450 in APOE had significant association with MetS and its components. The SNP rs662799 was associated with increased risk of MetS, elevated triglyceride (TG) and low levels of high-density lipoprotein, while rs769450 was associated with a decreased risk of TG. The SNPs showed interactions between alcohol drinking and physical activity, and TG levels in Korean men. We have identified the genetic association and environmental interaction for MetS in Korean men. These results suggest that a strategy of prevention and treatment should be tailored to personal genotype and the population.

  14. Apolipoprotein A5 and apolipoprotein C3 single nucleotide polymorphisms are correlated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease: a case-control and meta-analysis study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Lei, Ming-Ming; Yu, Chun-Lei; Liu, Xiao-Xiao; An, Zhe; Song, Chun-Li

    2015-09-19

    Triglycerides (TGs) are proatherogenic lipoproteins involving the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), while apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) and apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3) are main lipoproteins composing TG-rich lipoproteins. In this study, we aim to explore the correlation of CHD with APOA5 -1131 T > C and APOC3 -455 T > C single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A sum of 210 CHD patients, hospitalized between Jan. 2013 and Mar. 2015 at China-Japan Union Hospital, Jilin University, were selected as our case group and 223 healthy individuals who had physical examination at same hospital at the same period were selected as control group. The frequency distribution of genotypes of APOA5 -1131 T > C and APOC3 -455 T > C SNPs were measured by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The Stata 12.0 software was utilized for statistical analyses. There was no significant difference on age and sex between case and control group (P > 0.05). History of smoking, drinking, hypertension and diabetes mellitus, body mass index and levels of TG and fasting blood sugar in case group were shown to be higher than control group (P < 0.05), while levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in case group were lower than control group (P < 0.05). Both CC and TC' + CC frequencies of APOA5 -1131 T > C and APOC3 -455 T > C in case group were higher compared to control group (both P < 0.05). Additionally, T allele frequencies of the two SNPs in case group were lower than control group, while C allele in case group has higher frequencies compared to control group (both P < 0.05). The results of meta-analysis under allele and dominant models showed that APOA5 -1131 T > C and APOC3 -455 T > C SNPs are likely to increase the risk of CHD (both P < 0.05). APOA5 -1131 T > C and APOC3 -455 T > C SNPs may play potent roles in the development

  15. Serotonergic gene polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR, 5HTR1A, 5HTR2A), and population differences in aggression: traditional (Hadza and Datoga) and industrial (Russians) populations compared.

    PubMed

    Butovskaya, Marina L; Butovskaya, Polina R; Vasilyev, Vasiliy A; Sukhodolskaya, Jane M; Fekhredtinova, Dania I; Karelin, Dmitri V; Fedenok, Julia N; Mabulla, Audax Z P; Ryskov, Alexey P; Lazebny, Oleg E

    2018-04-16

    Current knowledge on genetic basis of aggressive behavior is still contradictory. This may be due to the fact that the majority of studies targeting associations between candidate genes and aggression are conducted on industrial societies and mainly dealing with various types of psychopathology and disorders. Because of that, our study was carried on healthy adult individuals of both sex (n = 853). Three populations were examined: two traditional (Hadza and Datoga) and one industrial (Russians), and the association of aggression with the following polymorphisms 5-HTTLPR, rs6295 (5HTR1A gene), and rs6311 (5HTR2A gene) were tested. Aggression was measured as total self-ratings on Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Distributions of allelic frequencies of 5-HTTLPR and 5HTR1A polymorphisms were significantly different among the three populations. Consequently, the association analyses for these two candidate genes were carried out separately for each population, while for the 5HTR2A polymorphism, it was conducted on the pooled data that made possible to introduce ethnic factor in the ANOVA model. The traditional biometrical approach revealed no sex differences in total aggression in all three samples. The three-way ANOVA (μ + 5-HTTLPR + 5HTR1A + 5HTR2A +ε) with measures of self-reported total aggression as dependent variable revealed significant effect of the second serotonin receptor gene polymorphism for the Hadza sample. For the Datoga, the interaction effect between 5-HTTLPR and 5HTR1A was significant. No significant effects of the used polymorphisms were obtained for Russians. The results of two-way ANOVA with ethnicity and the 5HTR2A polymorphism as main effects and their interactions revealed the highly significant effect of ethnicity, 5HTR2A polymorphism, and their interaction on total aggression. Our data provided obvious confirmation for the necessity to consider the population origin, as well as cultural background of tested individuals, while

  16. Influence of 5'-flanking sequence on 4.5SI RNA gene transcription by RNA polymerase III.

    PubMed

    Gogolevskaya, Irina K; Stasenko, Danil V; Tatosyan, Karina A; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2018-05-01

    Short nuclear 4.5SI RNA can be found in three related rodent families. Its function remains unknown. The genes of 4.5SI RNA contain an internal promoter of RNA polymerase III composed of the boxes A and B. Here, the effect of the sequence immediately upstream of the mouse 4.5SI RNA gene on its transcription was studied. The gene with deletions and substitutions in the 5'-flanking sequence was used to transfect HeLa cells and its transcriptional activity was evaluated from the cellular level of 4.5SI RNA. Single-nucleotide substitutions in the region adjacent to the transcription start site (positions -2 to -8) decreased the expression activity of the gene down to 40%-60% of the control. The substitution of the conserved pentanucleotide AGAAT (positions -14 to -18) could either decrease (43%-56%) or increase (134%) the gene expression. A TATA-like box (TACATGA) was found at positions -24 to -30 of the 4.5SI RNA gene. Its replacement with a polylinker fragment of the vector did not decrease the transcription level, while its replacement with a GC-rich sequence almost completely (down to 2%-5%) suppressed the transcription of the 4.5SI RNA gene. The effect of plasmid sequences bordering the gene on its transcription by RNA polymerase III is discussed.

  17. Association of 5-hydroxymethylation and 5-methylation of DNA cytosine with tissue-specific gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Ponnaluri, V. K. Chaithanya; Ehrlich, Kenneth C.; Zhang, Guoqiang; Lacey, Michelle; Johnston, Douglas; Pradhan, Sriharsa; Ehrlich, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Differentially methylated or hydroxymethylated regions (DMRs) in mammalian DNA are often associated with tissue-specific gene expression but the functional relationships are still being unraveled. To elucidate these relationships, we studied 16 human genes containing myogenic DMRs by analyzing profiles of their epigenetics and transcription and quantitatively assaying 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and 5-methylcytosine (5mC) at specific sites in these genes in skeletal muscle (SkM), myoblasts, heart, brain, and diverse other samples. Although most human promoters have little or no methylation regardless of expression, more than half of the genes that we chose to study—owing to their myogenic DMRs—overlapped tissue-specific alternative or cryptic promoters displaying corresponding tissue-specific differences in histone modifications. The 5mC levels in myoblast DMRs were significantly associated with 5hmC levels in SkM at the same site. Hypermethylated myogenic DMRs within CDH15, a muscle- and cerebellum-specific cell adhesion gene, and PITX3, a homeobox gene, were used for transfection in reporter gene constructs. These intragenic DMRs had bidirectional tissue-specific promoter activity that was silenced by in vivo-like methylation. The CDH15 DMR, which was previously associated with an imprinted maternal germline DMR in mice, had especially strong promoter activity in myogenic host cells. These findings are consistent with the controversial hypothesis that intragenic DNA methylation can facilitate transcription and is not just a passive consequence of it. Our results support varied roles for tissue-specific 5mC- or 5hmC-enrichment in suppressing inappropriate gene expression from cryptic or alternative promoters and in increasing the plasticity of gene expression required for development and rapid responses to tissue stress or damage. PMID:27911668

  18. [ASSOCIATION BETWEEN FOUR SEROTONIC GENES POLYMORPHISM (5HTTL, 5HT1A, 5HT2A, AND MAOA) AND PERSONALITY TRAITS IN WRESTLERS AND CONTROL GROUP].

    PubMed

    Butovskaya, P R; Lazebnij, O E; Fekhretdionva, D I; Vasil'ev, V A; Prosikova, E A; Lysenko, V V; Udina, I G; Butovskaya, M L

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the data on the polymorphisms of the serotonin system genes (5-HTTL, 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and MAOA) in male and female wrestlers and in the control group. The population genetics analysis of the 5HTTL gene showed the highest frequency of the SS genotype 5-HTTLPR in sportsmen (p = 0.04), as well as the trend toward higher frequency of united genotypes of the locus of 5-HTTLPR VNTR and SNP rs25531--SASA (p = 0.06) in comparison with the control group. As for the polymorphisms for other genes 5-HT1A (rs6295), 5-HT2A (rs6311), and MAOA (VNTR), we found no significant differences between the groups tested. Using the NEO PI-R questionnaire we analyzed the possible correlations between the genotypes and the psychological traits in our samples. It was demonstrated that the athletic success in elite sportsmen was associated with lower openness to experience and higher conscientiousness. The interaction effect of the gender and 5-HT2A on the self-rating for openness to experience, interaction effect of the level of the sport success and 5-HT2A, and the interaction effect of the gender and 5-HT1A genotype on self-reported conscientiousness were observed as a trend.

  19. APOA2 Polymorphism in Relation to Obesity and Lipid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Moushira Erfan; Amr, Khalda Sayed; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study aims to analysis the relationship between c.-492T>C polymorphism in APOA2 gene and the risk for obesity in a sample of Egyptian adolescents and investigates its effect on body fat distribution and lipid metabolism. Material and Methods. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted on 303 adolescents. They were 196 obese and 107 nonobese, aged 16-19 years old. Variables examined included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), body fat percentage (BF%), abdominal visceral fat layer, and dietary intake. Abdominal visceral fat thickness was determined by ultrasonography. The polymorphism in the APOA2 c.-492T>C was analyzed by PCR amplification. Results. Genotype frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The frequency of the mutant C allele was significantly higher in obese cases compared to nonobese. After multivariate adjustment, waist, BF% and visceral adipose layer, food consumption, and HDL-C were significantly higher in homozygous allele CC carriers than TT+TC carriers. Conclusions. Homozygous individuals for the C allele had higher obesity risk than carriers of the T allele and had elevated levels of visceral adipose tissue and serum HDL-C. Moreover, the study shows association between the APOA2 c.-492T>C polymorphism and food consumption.

  20. APOA2 Polymorphism in Relation to Obesity and Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Moushira Erfan; Amr, Khalda Sayed; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study aims to analysis the relationship between c.-492T>C polymorphism in APOA2 gene and the risk for obesity in a sample of Egyptian adolescents and investigates its effect on body fat distribution and lipid metabolism. Material and Methods. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted on 303 adolescents. They were 196 obese and 107 nonobese, aged 16–19 years old. Variables examined included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), body fat percentage (BF%), abdominal visceral fat layer, and dietary intake. Abdominal visceral fat thickness was determined by ultrasonography. The polymorphism in the APOA2 c.-492T>C was analyzed by PCR amplification. Results. Genotype frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The frequency of the mutant C allele was significantly higher in obese cases compared to nonobese. After multivariate adjustment, waist, BF% and visceral adipose layer, food consumption, and HDL-C were significantly higher in homozygous allele CC carriers than TT+TC carriers. Conclusions. Homozygous individuals for the C allele had higher obesity risk than carriers of the T allele and had elevated levels of visceral adipose tissue and serum HDL-C. Moreover, the study shows association between the APOA2 c.-492T>C polymorphism and food consumption. PMID:24382995

  1. Activity of etv5a and etv5b genes in the hypothalamus of fasted zebrafish is influenced by serotonin.

    PubMed

    Mechaly, Alejandro S; Richardson, Ebony; Rinkwitz, Silke

    2017-05-15

    Serotonin has been implicated in the inhibition of food intake in vertebrates. However, the mechanisms through which serotonin acts has yet to be elucidated. Recently, ETV5 (ets variant gene 5) has been associated with obesity and food intake control mechanisms in mammals. We have analyzed a putative physiological function of the two etv5 paralogous genes (etv5a and etv5b) in neuronal food intake control in adult zebrafish that have been exposed to different nutritional conditions. A feeding assay was established and fluoxetine, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI), was applied. Gene expression changes in the hypothalamus were determined using real-time PCR. Fasting induced an up-regulation of etv5a and etv5b in the hypothalamus, whereas increased serotonin levels in the fasted fish counteracted the increase in expression. To investigate potential mechanisms the expression of further food intake control genes was determined. The results show that an increase of serotonin in fasting fish causes a reduction in the activity of genes stimulating food intake. This is in line with a previously demonstrated anorexigenic function of serotonin. Our results suggest that obesity-associated ETV5 has a food intake stimulating function and that this function is modulated through serotonin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The 5S RNA gene minichromosome of Euplotes.

    PubMed Central

    Roberson, A E; Wolffe, A P; Hauser, L J; Olins, D E

    1989-01-01

    The macronucleus of the ciliated protozoan Euplotes eurystomus contains about 10(6) copies of a single type of 5S ribosomal RNA gene. This 5S gene DNA is only 930 bp long, is flanked by telomeres, and contains a single coding region of 120 bp which serves as a template for transcription in vivo and in vitro. The 5S gene minichromatin possesses four positioned nucleosomes and hypersensitive cleavage sites in the telomeric regions. Images PMID:2501759

  3. Analysis of SCN5A Gene Variants in East Slovak Patients with Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Priganc, Mariana; Zigová, Michaela; Boroňová, Iveta; Bernasovská, Jarmila; Dojčáková, Dana; Szabadosová, Viktória; Mydlárová Blaščáková, Marta; Tóthová, Iveta; Kmec, Ján; Bernasovský, Ivan

    2017-03-01

    Mutations in ion channels genes are potential cause of cardiomyopathy. The SCN5A gene (sodium channel, voltage gated, type V alpha subunit gene; 3p21) belongs to the family of cardiac sodium channel genes. Mutations in SCN5A gene lead to decreased Na+ current and ion unbalance. The SCN5A gene mutations are found in approximately 2% of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and they may be potential phenotype modifiers in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The role of SCN5A gene mutations in cardiomyopathy is not fully elucidated. Three selected exons (12, 20, and 21) of the SCN5A gene in the cohort of 58 East Slovak patients with dilated and HCM were analyzed by the Sanger sequencing method in order to detect etiopathogenic mutations associated with dilated and HCM. The mutation screening of three selected exons of SCN5A gene in the cohort of 27 DCM, 12 HCM patients, and 16 controls identified 10 missense genetic variants. Three of them (T1247I, A1260D, and G1262S), all in exon 21 of the SCN5A gene, were potentially damaging and disease-causing variants. Data from this study demonstrate that SCN5A gene variants have important role in the etiopathogenesis of dilated and HCM. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A Novel Missense Mutation in SLC5A5 Gene in a Sudanese Family with Congenital Hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yui; Ebrhim, Reham S; Abdullah, Mohamed A; Weiss, Roy E

    2018-06-05

    Thyroid hormone synthesis requires the presence of iodide. The sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) is a glycoprotein that mediates the active uptake of iodide from the blood stream into the thyroid grand. NIS defects due to SLC5A5 gene mutations are known to cause congenital hypothyroidism (CH). The proposita is a 28-year-old female whose origin is North Sudan where neonatal screening for CH is not available. She presented with severe constipation and a goiter at the age of 40 days. Laboratory testing confirmed CH, and she was started on levothyroxine. Presumably due to the delayed treatment, the patient developed mental retardation. Her younger sister presented with a goiter, tongue protrusion, and umbilical hernia, and the youngest brother was also diagnosed with CH based on a thyrotropin level >100 μIU/mL at the age of 22 days and 8 days, respectively. The two siblings were treated with levothyroxine and had normal development. Their consanguineous parents had no history of thyroid disorders. Whole-exome sequencing was performed on the proposita. This identified a novel homozygous missense mutation in the SLC5A5 gene-c.1042T>G, p.Y348D-which was subsequently confirmed by Sanger sequencing. All affected children were homozygous for the same mutation, and their unaffected mother was heterozygous. The NIS protein is composed of 13 transmembrane segments (TMS), an extracellular amino-terminus, and an intracellular carboxy-terminus. The mutation is located in the TMS IX, which has the most β-OH group-containing amino acids (serine and threonine), which is implicated in Na + binding and translocation. In conclusion, a novel homozygous missense mutation in the SLC5A5 gene was identified in this Sudanese family with CH. The mutation is located in the TMS IX of the NIS protein, which is essential for NIS function. Low iodine intake in Sudan is considered to affect the severity of hypothyroidism in patients.

  5. LPA gene: interaction between the apolipoprotein(a) size ('kringle IV' repeat) polymorphism and a pentanucleotide repeat polymorphism influences Lp(a) lipoprotein level.

    PubMed

    Røsby, O; Berg, K

    2000-01-01

    In order to search for factors influencing the Lp(a) lipoprotein level, we have examined the apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)) size polymorphism as well as a pentanucleotide (TTTTA) repeat polymorphism in the 5' control region of the LPA gene. Lp(a) lipoprotein levels were compared between individuals with different genotypes as defined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis of DNA plugs, and PCR of DNA samples followed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. DNA plugs and DNA were prepared from blood samples collected from blood donors. Twenty-seven different K IV repeat alleles were observed in the 71 women and 92 men from which apo(a) size polymorphism results were obtained. Alleles encoding 26-32 Kringle IV repeats were the most frequent. Alleles encoding seven to 11 TTTTA repeats were detected in the 84 women and 122 men included in the pentanucleotide polymorphism study, and homozygosity for eight TTTTA repeats was the most common genotype. The eight TTTTA repeat allele occurred with almost any apo(a) allele. An inverse relationship between number of K IV repeats and Lp(a) concentration was confirmed. The contributions of the apo(a) size polymorphism and the pentanucleotide repeat polymorphism to the interindividual variance of Lp(a) lipoprotein concentrations were 9.7 and 3.5%, respectively (type IV sum of squares). Nineteen per cent of the variance in Lp(a) lipoprotein level appeared to be the result of the multiplication product (interaction) between the apo(a) size polymorphism and the pentanucleotide repeat polymorphism. The contribution of the apo(a) size polymorphism alone to the variation in Lp(a) lipoprotein level was lower than previously reported. However, the multiplicative interaction effect between the K IV repeat polymorphism and the pentanucleotide repeat polymorphism may be an important factor explaining the variation in Lp(a) lipoprotein levels among the populations.

  6. Epigenomics and metabolomics reveal the mechanism of the APOA2-saturated fat intake interaction affecting obesity.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chao-Qiang; Smith, Caren E; Parnell, Laurence D; Lee, Yu-Chi; Corella, Dolores; Hopkins, Paul; Hidalgo, Bertha A; Aslibekyan, Stella; Province, Michael A; Absher, Devin; Arnett, Donna K; Tucker, Katherine L; Ordovas, Jose M

    2018-06-12

    The putative functional variant -265T>C (rs5082) within the APOA2 promoter has shown consistent interactions with saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake to influence the risk of obesity. The aim of this study was to implement an integrative approach to characterize the molecular basis of this interaction. We conducted an epigenome-wide scan on 80 participants carrying either the rs5082 CC or TT genotypes and consuming either a low-SFA (<22 g/d) or high-SFA diet (≥22 g/d), matched for age, sex, BMI, and diabetes status in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (BPRHS). We then validated the findings in selected participants in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) Study (n = 379) and the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) (n = 243). Transcription and metabolomics analyses were conducted to determine the relation between epigenetic status, APOA2 mRNA expression, and blood metabolites. In the BPRHS, we identified methylation site cg04436964 as exhibiting significant differences between CC and TT participants consuming a high-SFA diet, but not among those consuming low-SFA. Similar results were observed in the GOLDN Study and the FHS. Additionally, in the FHS, cg04436964 methylation was negatively correlated with APOA2 expression in the blood of participants consuming a high-SFA diet. Furthermore, when consuming a high-SFA diet, CC carriers had lower APOA2 expression than those with the TT genotype. Lastly, metabolomic analysis identified 4 pathways as overrepresented by metabolite differences between CC and TT genotypes with high-SFA intake, including tryptophan and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) pathways. Interestingly, these pathways were linked to rs5082-specific cg04436964 methylation differences in high-SFA consumers. The epigenetic status of the APOA2 regulatory region is associated with SFA intake and APOA2 -265T>C genotype, promoting an APOA2 expression difference between APOA2 genotypes on a high-SFA diet, and modulating BCAA and tryptophan

  7. Simultaneous detection of 5-fluorocytosine and 5-fluorouracil in human cells carrying CD/5-FC suicide gene system by using capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yajing; Zhu, Pan; Huang, Zhiwei; Zhou, Li; Shi, Ping

    2018-02-15

    A well-known suicide gene therapy approach, cytosine deaminase (CD) in combination with prodrug 5-flurocytosine (5-FC), has become an effective strategy of tumor treatment. However, there are short of simple and convenient detection methods to evaluate the efficiency of 5-FC conversion to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in human cells carrying various CD/5-FC systems. In this study, we developed an effective capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method to simultaneously measure 5-FC and 5-FU in cells carrying CD/5-FC suicide gene system. Under the condition of 60 mM borate buffer (pH 9.5) and 25 kV separation voltage with 0.5 psi × 15 s injection in 210 nm, the separation of 5-FC and 5-FU could be completely achieved within 15 min. The linearity of the calibration curve of standard 5-FC and 5-FU was in the range from 1 to 1000 μM (r 2  > 0.999) and their recoveries were 98.4% and 96.0%, respectively. Due to the simple sample preparation and easy detection, this method is suitable for the study of the conversion efficiency of CD/5-FC suicide gene system. It aims to intuitively evaluate CD/5-FC systems and helps to guide the improvement of more effective CD/5-FC suicide gene systems. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering of the Cholesterol Incorporation into Human ApoA1-POPC Discoidal Particles

    PubMed Central

    Midtgaard, Søren Roi; Pedersen, Martin Cramer; Arleth, Lise

    2015-01-01

    Structural and functional aspects of high-density lipoproteins have been studied for over half a century. Due to the plasticity of this highly complex system, new aspects continue to be discovered. Here, we present a structural study of the human Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) and investigate the role of its N-terminal domain, the so-called globular domain of ApoA1, in discoidal complexes with phospholipids and increasing amounts of cholesterol. Using a combination of solution-based small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and molecular constrained data modeling, we show that the ApoA1-1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC)-based particles are disk shaped with an elliptical cross section and composed by a central lipid bilayer surrounded by two stabilizing ApoA1 proteins. This structure is very similar to the particles formed in the so-called nanodisc system, which is based on N-terminal truncated ApoA1 protein. Although it is commonly agreed that the nanodisc is plain disk shaped, several more advanced structures have been proposed for the full-length ApoA1 in combination with POPC and cholesterol. This prompted us to make a detailed comparative study of the ApoA1 and nanodisc systems upon cholesterol uptake. Based on the presented SAXS analysis it is found that the N-terminal domains of ApoA1-POPC-cholesterol particles are not globular but instead an integrated part of the protein belt stabilizing the particles. Upon incorporation of increasing amounts of cholesterol, the presence of the N-terminal domain allows the bilayer thickness to increase while maintaining an overall flat bilayer structure. This is contrasted by the energetically more strained and less favorable lens shape required to fit the SAXS data from the N-terminal truncated nanodisc system upon cholesterol incorporation. This suggests that the N-terminal domain of ApoA1 actively participates in the stabilization of the ApoA1-POPC-cholesterol discoidal particle and allows for a more optimal

  9. Novel QTLs for HDL levels identified in mice by controlling for Apoa2 allelic effects: confirmation of a chromosome 6 locus in a congenic strain.

    PubMed

    Welch, Carrie L; Bretschger, Sara; Wen, Ping-Zi; Mehrabian, Margarete; Latib, Nashat; Fruchart-Najib, Jamila; Fruchart, Jean Charles; Myrick, Christy; Lusis, Aldons J

    2004-03-12

    Atherosclerosis is a complex disease resulting from the interaction of multiple genes, including those causing dyslipidemia. Relatively few of the causative genes have been identified. Previously, we identified Apoa2 as a major determinant of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in the mouse model. To identify additional HDL-C level quantitative trait loci (QTLs), while controlling for the effect of the Apoa2 locus, we performed linkage analysis in 179 standard diet-fed F(2) mice derived from strains BALB/cJ and B6.C-H25(c) (a congenic strain carrying the BALB/c Apoa2 allele). Three significant QTLs and one suggestive locus were identified. A female-specific locus mapping to chromosome 6 (Chr 6) also exhibited effects on plasma non-HDL-C, apolipoprotein AII (apoAII), apoB, and apoE levels. A Chr 6 QTL was independently isolated in a related congenic strain (C57BL/6J vs. B6.NODc6: P = 0.003 and P = 0.0001 for HDL-C and non-HDL-C levels, respectively). These data are consistent with polygenic inheritance of HDL-C levels in the mouse model and provide candidate loci for HDL-C and non-HDL-C level determination in humans.

  10. 5. OVERHEAD VIEW OF GENE CAMP LOOKING SOUTH. GENE PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. OVERHEAD VIEW OF GENE CAMP LOOKING SOUTH. GENE PUMP PLANT IS AT CENTER WITH ADMINISTRATIVE COMPLEX IN FOREGROUND AND RESIDENTIAL AREA BEYOND PLANT. - Gene Pump Plant, South of Gene Wash Reservoir, 2 miles west of Whitsett Pump Plant, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  11. Childhood maltreatment and methylation of FK506 binding protein 5 gene (FKBP5).

    PubMed

    Tyrka, Audrey R; Ridout, Kathryn K; Parade, Stephanie H; Paquette, Alison; Marsit, Carmen J; Seifer, Ronald

    2015-11-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that alterations of the stress response system may be a mechanism by which childhood maltreatment alters risk for psychopathology. FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5) binds to the glucocorticoid receptor and alters its ability to respond to stress signaling. The aim of the present study was to examine methylation of the FKBP5 gene (FKBP5), and the role of an FKBP5 genetic variant, in relation to childhood maltreatment in a sample of impoverished preschool-aged children. One hundred seventy-four families participated in this study, including 69 with child welfare documentation of moderate to severe maltreatment in the past 6 months. The children, who ranged in age from 3 to 5 years, were racially and ethnically diverse. Structured record review and interviews in the home were used to assess a history of maltreatment, other traumas, and contextual life stressors; and a composite variable assessed the number exposures to these adversities. Methylation of two sites in intron 7 of FKBP5 was measured via sodium bisulfite pyrosequencing. Maltreated children had significantly lower levels of methylation at both CpG sites (p < .05). Lifetime contextual stress exposure showed a trend for lower levels of methylation at one of the sites, and a trend for an interaction with the FKBP5 polymorphism. A composite adversity variable was associated with lower levels of methylation at one of the sites as well (p < .05). FKBP5 alters glucocorticoid receptor responsiveness, and FKBP5 gene methylation may be a mechanism of the biobehavioral effects of adverse exposures in young children.

  12. Genetic variation in lipoprotein (a) levels in families enriched for coronary artery disease is determined almost entirely by the apolipoprotein (a) gene locus.

    PubMed Central

    DeMeester, C A; Bu, X; Gray, R J; Lusis, A J; Rotter, J I

    1995-01-01

    Lipoprotein (a) (Lp[a]) is a cholesterol-rich lipoprotein resembling LDL but also containing a large polypeptide designated apolipoprotein (a) (apo[a]). Its levels are highly variable among individuals and, in a number of studies, are strongly correlated with the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). In an effort to determine which genes control Lp(a) levels, we have studied 25 multiplex families (comprising 298 members) enriched for CAD. The apo(a) gene was genotyped among the families, using a highly informative pulse-field gel electrophoresis procedure. In addition, polymorphisms of the gene for the other major protein of Lp(a), apolipoprotein B (apoB), were examined. Quantitative sib-pair linkage analysis indicates that apo(a) is the major gene controlling Lp(a) levels in this CAD population (P = .001; 99 sib pairs), whereas the apoB gene demonstrated no significant quantitative linkage effect. We estimate that the apo(a) locus accounts for < or = 98% of variance of Lp(a) serum levels. Approximately 43% of this variation is explained by size polymorphisms within the apo(a) gene. These results indicate that the apo(a) gene is the major determinant of Lp(a) serum levels not only in the general population but also in a high-risk CAD population. Images Figure 2 PMID:7825589

  13. [Linkage analysis of a family with familial hypertriglyceridemia].

    PubMed

    Tang, Xin; Lin, Ying; Liu, Bing; Ma, Shi; Yang, Yang; Yang, Zheng-lin

    2009-10-01

    To perform linkage analysis and mutation screening in a Chinese family with familial hpertriglyceridemia (FHTG). Thirty-two family members including 12 hypertriglyceridemia patients participated in the study. Genotyping and haplotype analysis for 22 subjects were performed using short tandem repeat (STR) microsatellite polymorphism markers on 16 candidate genes and/or loci related to lipid metabolism. Two of the sixteen known candidate genes, APOA2 and USF1 were screened for mutation by direct DNA sequencing. No linkage was found between the candidate genes/loci of APOA5, LIPI, RP1, APOC2, ABC1, LMF1, APOA1-APOC3-APOA4, LPL, APOB, CETP, LCAT, LDLR, APOE and the phenotype in this family. The two-point Lod scores (theta =0) were all less than-1.0 for all the markers tested. Linkage analysis suggested linkage to chromosome 1q23.3-24.2 between the disease phenotype and STR marker D1S194 with a two-point maximum Lod score of 2.44 at theta =0. Fine mapping indicated that the disease gene was localized to a 5.87 cM interval between D1S104 and D1S196. No disease-causing mutation was detected in the APOA2 and USF1 genes. The above mentioned candidate genes were excluded as the disease causing genes for this family. The results implied that there might be a novel gene/locus for FHTG on chromosome 1q23.3-1q24.2.

  14. Up-regulation of autophagy-related gene 5 (ATG5) protects dopaminergic neurons in a zebrafish model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhan-Ying; Chen, Bo; Zhang, Jing-Pu; Ma, Yuan-Yuan

    2017-11-03

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most epidemic neurodegenerative diseases and is characterized by movement disorders arising from loss of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Recently, the relationship between PD and autophagy has received considerable attention, but information about the mechanisms involved is lacking. Here, we report that autophagy-related gene 5 ( ATG5 ) is potentially important in protecting dopaminergic neurons in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD model in zebrafish. Using analyses of zebrafish swimming behavior, in situ hybridization, immunofluorescence, and expressions of genes and proteins related to PD and autophagy, we found that the ATG5 expression level was decreased and autophagy flux was blocked in this model. The ATG5 down-regulation led to the upgrade of PD-associated proteins, such as β-synuclein, Parkin, and PINK1, aggravation of MPTP-induced PD-mimicking pathological locomotor behavior, DA neuron loss labeled by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) or dopamine transporter (DAT), and blocked autophagy flux in the zebrafish model. ATG5 overexpression alleviated or reversed these PD pathological features, rescued DA neuron cells as indicated by elevated TH/DAT levels, and restored autophagy flux. The role of ATG5 in protecting DA neurons was confirmed by expression of the human atg5 gene in the zebrafish model. Our findings reveal that ATG5 has a role in neuroprotection, and up-regulation of ATG5 may serve as a goal in the development of drugs for PD prevention and management. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. 5S rRNA gene arrangements in protists: a case of nonadaptive evolution.

    PubMed

    Drouin, Guy; Tsang, Corey

    2012-06-01

    Given their high copy number and high level of expression, one might expect that both the sequence and organization of eukaryotic ribosomal RNA genes would be conserved during evolution. Although the organization of 18S, 5.8S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes is indeed relatively well conserved, that of 5S rRNA genes is much more variable. Here, we review the different types of 5S rRNA gene arrangements which have been observed in protists. This includes linkages to the other ribosomal RNA genes as well as linkages to ubiquitin, splice-leader, snRNA and tRNA genes. Mapping these linkages to independently derived phylogenies shows that these diverse linkages have repeatedly been gained and lost during evolution. This argues against such linkages being the primitive condition not only in protists but also in other eukaryote species. Because the only characteristic the diverse genes with which 5S rRNA genes are found linked with is that they are tandemly repeated, these arrangements are unlikely to provide any selective advantage. Rather, the observed high variability in 5S rRNA genes arrangements is likely the result of the fact that 5S rRNA genes contain internal promoters, that these genes are often transposed by diverse recombination mechanisms and that these new gene arrangements are rapidly homogenized by unequal crossingovers and/or by gene conversions events in species with short generation times and frequent founder events.

  16. Identification of DLG5 and SLC22A5 gene polymorphisms in Malaysian patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Chua, Kek Heng; Lian, Lay Hoong; Kee, Boon Pin; Thum, Chooi Mei; Lee, Way Seah; Hilmi, Ida; Goh, Khean Lee

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of DLG5 and SLC22A5 gene polymorphisms with the onset of Crohn's disease (CD) in a Malaysian cohort. Genomic DNA of 80 CD patients and 100 healthy unrelated control individuals was extracted and analyzed via polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) on DLG5 (4136 C/A), DLG5_e26 and SLC22A5 (-207 G/C) genetic polymorphisms. Data obtained from the study were then subjected to statistical analysis to test for risk association. Significant associations of both DLG5 polymorphisms with the development of CD in the Malaysian patients were observed in this study. The homozygous C genotype of the DLG5 polymorphism was significantly related to CD patients (P = 0.0023, OR = 2.5320), while the homozygous A was significant in control individuals (P = 0.0224, OR = 0.4480). In DLG5_e26 polymorphisms, we found a significant distribution of the homozygous insA genotype in CD patients (P = 0.0006, OR = 2.8916), whereas the heterozygous insA/delA genotype was significant in controls (P = 0.0007, OR = 0.3487). We hypothesized that there might be a complex interaction of both alleles, which confered a protective effect against the onset of CD. However, we did not observe any significant correlation of SLC22A5 polymorphisms with this disease. In our study, both polymorphisms in the DLG5 gene were found to be associated with CD patients in Malaysia. Therefore, these loci can be potentially used as susceptibility markers in the Malaysian population. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Digestive Diseases © 2011 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. An APOA1 promoter polymorphism is associated with cognitive performance in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Koutsis, G; Panas, M; Giogkaraki, E; Karadima, G; Sfagos, C; Vassilopoulos, D

    2009-02-01

    Elevated ApoA1 levels have been associated with decreased dementia risk. The A-allele of the APOA1 -75G/A promoter polymorphism has been associated with elevated ApoA1 levels. We sought to investigate the effect of the APOA1 -75G/A promoter polymorphism on cognitive performance in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). A total of 138 patients with MS and 43 controls were studied and underwent neuropsychological assessment with Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery and the Stroop test. All patients were genotyped for APOA1. APOA1 A-allele carriers displayed superior overall cognitive performance compared with non-carriers (P 0.008) and had a three-fold decrease in the relative risk of overall cognitive impairment (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.11-0.74). Regarding performance on individual cognitive domains, although APOA1 A-allele carriers performed better than non-carriers on all tests, this was significant only for semantic verbal fluency and the Stroop interference task (P 0.036 and 0.018, respectively). We found an association of the APOA1 -75G/A promoter polymorphism with cognitive performance in MS. This effect was most prominent on semantic verbal fluency and the Stroop interference task.

  18. Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) gene variants are associated with multiple sclerosis in three distinct populations

    PubMed Central

    Kristjansdottir, G; Sandling, J K; Bonetti, A; Roos, I M; Milani, L; Wang, C; Gustafsdottir, S M; Sigurdsson, S; Lundmark, A; Tienari, P J; Koivisto, K; Elovaara, I; Pirttilä, T; Reunanen, M; Peltonen, L; Saarela, J; Hillert, J; Olsson, T; Landegren, U; Alcina, A; Fernández, O; Leyva, L; Guerrero, M; Lucas, M; Izquierdo, G; Matesanz, F; Syvänen, A-C

    2008-01-01

    Background: IRF5 is a transcription factor involved both in the type I interferon and the toll-like receptor signalling pathways. Previously, IRF5 has been found to be associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel diseases. Here we investigated whether polymorphisms in the IRF5 gene would be associated with yet another disease with features of autoimmunity, multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: We genotyped nine single nucleotide polymorphisms and one insertion-deletion polymorphism in the IRF5 gene in a collection of 2337 patients with MS and 2813 controls from three populations: two case–control cohorts from Spain and Sweden, and a set of MS trio families from Finland. Results: Two single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) (rs4728142, rs3807306), and a 5 bp insertion-deletion polymorphism located in the promoter and first intron of the IRF5 gene, showed association signals with values of p<0.001 when the data from all cohorts were combined. The predisposing alleles were present on the same common haplotype in all populations. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays we observed allele specific differences in protein binding for the SNP rs4728142 and the 5 bp indel, and by a proximity ligation assay we demonstrated increased binding of the transcription factor SP1 to the risk allele of the 5 bp indel. Conclusion: These findings add IRF5 to the short list of genes shown to be associated with MS in more than one population. Our study adds to the evidence that there might be genes or pathways that are common in multiple autoimmune diseases, and that the type I interferon system is likely to be involved in the development of these diseases. PMID:18285424

  19. Interleukin-5 regulates genes involved in B-cell terminal maturation.

    PubMed

    Horikawa, Keisuke; Takatsu, Kiyoshi

    2006-08-01

    Interleukin (IL)-5 induces CD38-activated splenic B cells to differentiate into immunoglobulin M-secreting cells and undergo micro to gamma 1 class switch recombination (CSR) at the DNA level, resulting in immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) production. Interestingly, IL-4, a well-known IgG1-inducing factor does not induce immunoglobulin production or micro to gamma 1 CSR in CD38-activated B cells. In the present study, we implemented complementary DNA microarrays to investigate the contribution of IL-5-induced gene expression in CD38-stimulated B cells to immunoglobulin-secreting cell differentiation and micro to gamma 1 CSR. IL-5 and IL-4 stimulation of CD38-activated B cells induced the expression of 418 and 289 genes, respectively, that consisted of several clusters. Surprisingly, IL-5-inducible 78 genes were redundantly regulated by IL-4. IL-5 and IL-4 also suppressed the gene expression of 319 and 325 genes, respectively, 97 of which were overlapped. Genes critically regulated by IL-5 include immunoglobulin-related genes such as J chain and immunoglobulinkappa, and genes involved in B-cell maturation such as BCL6, activation-induced cytidine deaminase (Aid) and B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1) and tend to be induced slowly after IL-5 stimulation. Intriguingly, among genes, the retroviral induction of Blimp-1 and Aid in CD38-activated B cells could induce IL-4-dependent maturation to Syndecan-1+ antibody-secreting cells and micro to gamma 1 CSR, respectively, in CD38-activated B cells. Taken together, preferential Aid and Blimp-1 expression plays a critical role in IL-5-induced immunoglobulin-secreting cell differentiation and micro to gamma 1 CSR in CD38-activated B cells.

  20. Retinal expression of Wnt-pathway mediated genes in low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (Lrp5) knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Stahl, Andreas; Krah, Nathan M; Seaward, Molly R; Joyal, Jean-Sebastian; Juan, Aimee M; Hatton, Colman J; Aderman, Christopher M; Dennison, Roberta J; Willett, Keirnan L; Sapieha, Przemyslaw; Smith, Lois E H

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (Lrp5) impair retinal angiogenesis in patients with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR), a rare type of blinding vascular eye disease. The defective retinal vasculature phenotype in human FEVR patients is recapitulated in Lrp5 knockout (Lrp5(-/-)) mouse with delayed and incomplete development of retinal vessels. In this study we examined gene expression changes in the developing Lrp5(-/-) mouse retina to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms that underlie the pathology of FEVR in humans. Gene expression levels were assessed with an Illumina microarray on total RNA from Lrp5(-/-) and WT retinas isolated on postnatal day (P) 8. Regulated genes were confirmed using RT-qPCR analysis. Consistent with a role in vascular development, we identified expression changes in genes involved in cell-cell adhesion, blood vessel morphogenesis and membrane transport in Lrp5(-/-) retina compared to WT retina. In particular, tight junction protein claudin5 and amino acid transporter slc38a5 are both highly down-regulated in Lrp5(-/-) retina. Similarly, several Wnt ligands including Wnt7b show decreased expression levels. Plasmalemma vesicle associated protein (plvap), an endothelial permeability marker, in contrast, is up-regulated consistent with increased permeability in Lrp5(-/-) retinas. Together these data suggest that Lrp5 regulates multiple groups of genes that influence retinal angiogenesis and may contribute to the pathogenesis of FEVR.

  1. Increased hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression and effects of pharmacologic 5-HT2A receptor inactivation in obese A{sup y} mice

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Nonogaki, Katsunori; Nozue, Kana; Oka, Yoshitomo

    2006-12-29

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) 2A receptors contribute to the effects of 5-HT on platelet aggregation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, and are reportedly involved in decreases in plasma levels of adiponectin, an adipokine, in diabetic subjects. Here, we report that systemic administration of sarpogrelate, a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, suppressed appetite and increased hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, corticotropin releasing hormone, 5-HT2C, and 5-HT1B receptor gene expression. A{sup y} mice, which have ectopic expression of the agouti protein, significantly increased hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression in association with obesity compared with wild-type mice matched for age. Systemic administration ofmore » sarpogrelate suppressed overfeeding, body weight gain, and hyperglycemia in obese A{sup y} mice, whereas it did not increase plasma adiponectin levels. These results suggest that obesity increases hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression, and pharmacologic inactivation of 5-HT2A receptors inhibits overfeeding and obesity in A{sup y} mice, but did not increase plasma adiponectin levels.« less

  2. Lipoprotein(a) levels, apo(a) isoform size, and coronary heart disease risk in the Framingham Offspring Study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of this study was to assess the independent contributions of plasma levels of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], Lp(a) cholesterol, and of apo(a) isoform size to prospective coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Plasma Lp(a) and Lp(a) cholesterol levels, and apo(a) isoform size were measured at examinati...

  3. Novel mutation of SRD5A2 gene in a patient with 5α-reductase 2 deficiency from India.

    PubMed

    Shabir, Iram; Marumudi, Eunice; Khurana, Madan L; Khadgawat, Rajesh

    2012-10-30

    Master N had genital malformation at birth and had bilateral gonads in the labial fold. He was reared as a boy and corrective surgery was done at the age of 4 years and was reassessed at the age of 14 years. His testosterone/dihydrotestosterone (DHT) was 11.8 (reference range <=10). Molecular analysis of SRD5A2 gene indicated the presence of a novel heterozygous missense mutation of p.A52T in exon 1, which was also detected in mother. The father, sister and maternal grandfather were found to have normal SRD5A2 gene sequence. We also detected an intronic (1-2) homozygous T>C transition in patient, whereas both parents were found to have the same transition in heterozygous form. Although 5α-steroid reductase 2 deficiency is an autosomal-recessive disorder, in this case, it appears that there may be a dominant inheritance because only one identified mutation was present which was passed from mother to son.

  4. A novel mutation in the X-linked cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene associated with a severe Rett phenotype.

    PubMed

    Sprovieri, T; Conforti, F L; Fiumara, A; Mazzei, R; Ungaro, C; Citrigno, L; Muglia, M; Arena, A; Quattrone, A

    2009-02-15

    Mutations in the X-linked cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene have recently been reported in patients with severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by early-onset seizures, infantile spasms, severe psychomotor impairment and very recently, in patients with Rett syndrome (RTT)-like phenotype. Although the involvement of CDKL5 in specific biological pathways and its neurodevelopmental role have not been completely elucidated, the CDKL5 appears to be physiologically related to the MECP2 gene. Here we report on the clinical and CDKL5 molecular investigation in a very unusual RTT case, with severe, early-neurological involvement in which we have shown in a previous report, a novel P388S MECP2 mutation [Conforti et al. (2003); Am J Med Genet A 117A: 184-187]. The patient has had severe psychomotor delay since the first month of life and infantile spasms since age 5 months. Moreover, at age 5 years the patient suddenly presented with renal failure. The severe pattern of symptoms in our patient, similar to a CDKL5 phenotype, prompted us to perform an analysis of the CDKL5, which revealed a novel missense mutation never previously described. The X-inactivation assay was non-informative. In conclusion, this report reinforces the observation that the CDKL5 phenotype overlaps with RTT and that CDKL5 analysis is recommended in patients with a seizure disorder commencing during the first months of life.

  5. A polymorphism in the 5'-flanking region of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene affects fear-related behaviors of adult domestic chickens.

    PubMed

    Krause, E Tobias; Kjaer, Joergen B; Lüders, Carolin; van, Loc Phi

    2017-07-14

    The neural serotonin (5-HT)/serotonin transporter (5-HTT) system is involved in the regulation of physiological processes and emotional states. In humans, the short (S) allele in the 5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region, which decreases 5-HTT expression, has been shown to be associated with behavioral changes including an increased level of anxiety. Also in birds a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene is described, a deletion (D) has been found to have functional consequences on growth and locomotion. Furthermore, the D-allele leads to an increased 5-HTT expression compared to the wild type (W), a feature which is linked to lower levels of fear in mammalian species. Thus, we aimed here to test whether the polymorphism in the chicken 5-HTT gene also leads to respective alternations of fear-related behaviors. We tested 268 hens of three genotypes (W/W, W/D, D/D) in two behavioral paradigms (open field, light-dark test) to assess fear-related behavior. Both tests revealed that hens possessing the D-allele showed lower levels of fear than those having the W-allele. These similar outcomes in fear-related behaviors in an avian and a mammalian species are associated with an increased 5-HTT expression. In the human 5-HTT gene, the long (L) allele is linked to such increased expression, whereas in chickens it is the D-allele. Thus, increased 5-HTT expression causing decreased fear may be a general mechanism in vertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of mutations in the SCN5A gene in cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Zaklyazminskaya, Elena; Dzemeshkevich, Sergei

    2016-07-01

    The SCN5A gene encodes the alpha-subunit of the Nav1.5 ion channel protein, which is responsible for the sodium inward current (INa). Since 1995 several hundred mutations in this gene have been found to be causative for inherited arrhythmias including Long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, cardiac conduction disease, sudden infant death syndrome, etc. As expected these syndromes are primarily electrical heart diseases leading to life-threatening arrhythmias with an "apparently normal heart". In 2003 a new form of dilated cardiomyopathy was identified associated with mutations in the SCN5A gene. Recently mutations have been also found in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and atrial standstill. The purpose of this review is to outline and analyze the following four topics: 1) SCN5A genetic variants linked to different cardiomyopathies; 2) clinical manifestations of the known mutations; 3) possible molecular mechanisms of myocardial remodeling; and 4) the potential implications of gene-specific treatment for those disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Gene-centric Association Signals for Lipids and Apolipoproteins Identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip

    PubMed Central

    Talmud, Philippa J.; Drenos, Fotios; Shah, Sonia; Shah, Tina; Palmen, Jutta; Verzilli, Claudio; Gaunt, Tom R.; Pallas, Jacky; Lovering, Ruth; Li, Kawah; Casas, Juan Pablo; Sofat, Reecha; Kumari, Meena; Rodriguez, Santiago; Johnson, Toby; Newhouse, Stephen J.; Dominiczak, Anna; Samani, Nilesh J.; Caulfield, Mark; Sever, Peter; Stanton, Alice; Shields, Denis C.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Melander, Olle; Hastie, Claire; Delles, Christian; Ebrahim, Shah; Marmot, Michael G.; Smith, George Davey; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Day, Ian N.; Kivimaki, Mika; Whittaker, John; Humphries, Steve E.; Hingorani, Aroon D.

    2009-01-01

    Blood lipids are important cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors with both genetic and environmental determinants. The Whitehall II study (n = 5592) was genotyped with the gene-centric HumanCVD BeadChip (Illumina). We identified 195 SNPs in 16 genes/regions associated with 3 major lipid fractions and 2 apolipoprotein components at p < 10−5, with the associations being broadly concordant with prior genome-wide analysis. SNPs associated with LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were located in LDLR, PCSK9, APOB, CELSR2, HMGCR, CETP, the TOMM40-APOE-C1-C2-C4 cluster, and the APOA5-A4-C3-A1 cluster; SNPs associated with HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein AI were in CETP, LPL, LIPC, APOA5-A4-C3-A1, and ABCA1; and SNPs associated with triglycerides in GCKR, BAZ1B, MLXIPL, LPL, and APOA5-A4-C3-A1. For 48 SNPs in previously unreported loci that were significant at p < 10−4 in Whitehall II, in silico analysis including the British Women's Heart and Health Study, BRIGHT, ASCOT, and NORDIL studies (total n > 12,500) revealed previously unreported associations of SH2B3 (p < 2.2 × 10−6), BMPR2 (p < 2.3 × 10−7), BCL3/PVRL2 (flanking APOE; p < 4.4 × 10−8), and SMARCA4 (flanking LDLR; p < 2.5 × 10−7) with LDL cholesterol. Common alleles in these genes explained 6.1%–14.7% of the variance in the five lipid-related traits, and individuals at opposite tails of the additive allele score exhibited substantial differences in trait levels (e.g., >1 mmol/L in LDL cholesterol [∼1 SD of the trait distribution]). These data suggest that multiple common alleles of small effect can make important contributions to individual differences in blood lipids potentially relevant to the assessment of CVD risk. These genes provide further insights into lipid metabolism and the likely effects of modifying the encoded targets therapeutically. PMID:19913121

  8. Association between the GABA(A) receptor alpha5 subunit gene locus (GABRA5) and bipolar affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, G N; Dikeos, D G; Karadima, G; Avramopoulos, D; Daskalopoulou, E G; Vassilopoulos, D; Stefanis, C N

    1998-02-07

    Genetic factors seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of affective disorder. The candidate gene strategies are being used, among others, to identify the genes conferring vulnerability to the disease. The genes coding for the receptors of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) have been proposed as candidates for affective disorder, since the GABA neurotransmitter system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the illness. We examined the possible genetic association between the GABA(A) receptor alpha5 subunit gene locus (GABRA5) on chromosome 15 and affective disorder, in 48 bipolar patients (BP), 40 unipolar patients (UP), and 50 healthy individuals, age- and sex-matched to the patients. All patients and controls were unrelated Greeks. Diagnoses were made after direct interviews according to the DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. For the genotyping, a dinucleotide (CA) repeat marker was used. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products found were nine alleles with lengths between 272 and 290 base pairs (bp). The distribution of allelic frequencies of the GABRA5 locus differed significantly between BP patients and controls with the 282-bp allele found to be associated with BP affective disorder, while no such difference was observed between the groups of UP patients and controls nor between the two patient groups. The presence or absence of the 282-bp allele in the genotype of BP patients was not shown to influence the age of onset and the overall clinical severity, but was found to be associated with a preponderance of manic over depressive episodes in the course of the illness.

  9. AAV5-Factor VIII Gene Transfer in Severe Hemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Rangarajan, Savita; Walsh, Liron; Lester, Will; Perry, David; Madan, Bella; Laffan, Michael; Yu, Hua; Vettermann, Christian; Pierce, Glenn F; Wong, Wing Y; Pasi, K John

    2017-12-28

    Patients with hemophilia A rely on exogenous factor VIII to prevent bleeding in joints, soft tissue, and the central nervous system. Although successful gene transfer has been reported in patients with hemophilia B, the large size of the factor VIII coding region has precluded improved outcomes with gene therapy in patients with hemophilia A. We infused a single intravenous dose of a codon-optimized adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5) vector encoding a B-domain-deleted human factor VIII (AAV5-hFVIII-SQ) in nine men with severe hemophilia A. Participants were enrolled sequentially into one of three dose cohorts (low dose [one participant], intermediate dose [one participant], and high dose [seven participants]) and were followed through 52 weeks. Factor VIII activity levels remained at 3 IU or less per deciliter in the recipients of the low or intermediate dose. In the high-dose cohort, the factor VIII activity level was more than 5 IU per deciliter between weeks 2 and 9 after gene transfer in all seven participants, and the level in six participants increased to a normal value (>50 IU per deciliter) that was maintained at 1 year after receipt of the dose. In the high-dose cohort, the median annualized bleeding rate among participants who had previously received prophylactic therapy decreased from 16 events before the study to 1 event after gene transfer, and factor VIII use for participant-reported bleeding ceased in all the participants in this cohort by week 22. The primary adverse event was an elevation in the serum alanine aminotransferase level to 1.5 times the upper limit of the normal range or less. Progression of preexisting chronic arthropathy in one participant was the only serious adverse event. No neutralizing antibodies to factor VIII were detected. The infusion of AAV5-hFVIII-SQ was associated with the sustained normalization of factor VIII activity level over a period of 1 year in six of seven participants who received a high dose, with

  10. The pink gene encodes the Drosophila orthologue of the human Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 5 (HPS5) gene.

    PubMed

    Syrzycka, Monika; McEachern, Lori A; Kinneard, Jennifer; Prabhu, Kristel; Fitzpatrick, Kathleen; Schulze, Sandra; Rawls, John M; Lloyd, Vett K; Sinclair, Donald A R; Honda, Barry M

    2007-06-01

    Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) consists of a set of human autosomal recessive disorders, with symptoms resulting from defects in genes required for protein trafficking in lysosome-related organelles such as melanosomes and platelet dense granules. A number of human HPS genes and rodent orthologues have been identified whose protein products are key components of 1 of 4 different protein complexes (AP-3 or BLOC-1, -2, and -3) that are key participants in the process. Drosophila melanogaster has been a key model organism in demonstrating the in vivo significance of many genes involved in protein trafficking pathways; for example, mutations in the "granule group" genes lead to changes in eye colour arising from improper protein trafficking to pigment granules in the developing eye. An examination of the chromosomal positioning of Drosophila HPS gene orthologues suggested that CG9770, the Drosophila HPS5 orthologue, might correspond to the pink locus. Here we confirm this gene assignment, making pink the first eye colour gene in flies to be identified as a BLOC complex gene.

  11. Transcriptome Reveals 1400-Fold Upregulation of APOA4-APOC3 and 1100-Fold Downregulation of GIF in the Patients with Polycythemia-Induced Gastric Injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Kang; Gesang, Luobu; Dan, Zeng; Gusang, Lamu; Dawa, Ciren; Nie, Yuqiang

    2015-01-01

    High-altitude polycythemia (HAPC) inducing gastric mucosal lesion (GML) is still out of control and molecular mechanisms remain widely unknown. To address the issues, endoscopy and histopathological analyses were performed. Meanwhile, microarray-based transcriptome profiling was conducted in the gastric mucosa from 3 pairs of healthy subjects and HAPC-induced GML patients. HAPC caused morphological changes and pathological damages of the gastric mucosa of GML patients. A total of 10304 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 4941 up-regulated and 5363 down-regulated DEGs in gastric mucosa of GML patients compared with healthy controls (fold change ≥2, P<0.01 and FDR <0.01). Particularly, apolipoprotein genes APOA4 and APOC3 were 1473-fold and 1468-fold up-regulated in GML patients compared with the controls. In contrast, gastric intrinsic factor (GIF) was 1102-fold down-regulated in GML patients compared with the controls. APOA4 (chr11:116691770-116691711), APOC3 (chr11:116703530-116703589) and GIF (chr11:59603362-59603303) genes are all located on chromosome 11. APOA4 and APOC3 act as an inhibitor of gastric acid secretion while gastric acid promotes ulceration. GIF deficiency activates a program of acute anemia, which may antagonize polycythemia while polycythemia raises the risk of GML. Therefore, the present findings reveal that HAPC-induced GML inspires the protection responses by up-regulating APOA4 and APOC3, and down-regulating GIF. These results may offer the basic information for the treatment of HAPC-induced gastric lesion in the future.

  12. Cdk5 Regulates Activity-Dependent Gene Expression and Dendrite Development.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhuoyi; Ye, Tao; Zhou, Xiaopu; Lai, Kwok-On; Fu, Amy K Y; Ip, Nancy Y

    2015-11-11

    The proper growth and arborization of dendrites in response to sensory experience are essential for neural connectivity and information processing in the brain. Although neuronal activity is important for sculpting dendrite morphology, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we report that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5)-mediated transcriptional regulation is a key mechanism that controls activity-dependent dendrite development in cultured rat neurons. During membrane depolarization, Cdk5 accumulates in the nucleus to regulate the expression of a subset of genes, including that of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor, for subsequent dendritic growth. Furthermore, Cdk5 function is mediated through the phosphorylation of methyl-CpG-binding protein 2, a key transcriptional repressor that is mutated in the mental disorder Rett syndrome. These findings collectively suggest that the nuclear import of Cdk5 is crucial for activity-dependent dendrite development by regulating neuronal gene transcription during neural development. Neural activity directs dendrite development through the regulation of gene transcription. However, how molecular signals link extracellular stimuli to the transcriptional program in the nucleus remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that neuronal activity stimulates the translocation of the kinase Cdk5 from the cytoplasmic compartment into the nucleus; furthermore, the nuclear localization of Cdk5 is required for dendrite development in cultured neurons. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis shows that Cdk5 deficiency specifically disrupts activity-dependent gene transcription of bdnf. The action of Cdk5 is mediated through the modulation of the transcriptional repressor methyl-CpG-binding protein 2. Therefore, this study elucidates the role of nuclear Cdk5 in the regulation of activity-dependent gene transcription and dendritic growth. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3515127-08$15.00/0.

  13. A high-fat diet induces bone loss in mice lacking the Alox5 gene.

    PubMed

    Le, Phuong; Kawai, Masanobu; Bornstein, Sheila; DeMambro, Victoria E; Horowitz, Mark C; Rosen, Clifford J

    2012-01-01

    5-Lipoxygenase catalyzes leukotriene generation from arachidonic acid. The gene that encodes 5-lipoxygenase, Alox5, has been identified in genome-wide association and mouse Quantitative Trait Locus studies as a candidate gene for obesity and low bone mass. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that Alox5(-/-) mice would exhibit metabolic and skeletal changes when challenged by a high-fat diet (HFD). On a regular diet, Alox5(-/-) mice did not differ in total body weight, percent fat mass, or bone mineral density compared with wild-type (WT) controls (P < 0.05). However, when placed on a HFD, Alox5(-/-) gained more fat mass and lost greater areal bone mass vs. WT (P < 0.05). Microarchitectural analyses revealed that on a HFD, WT showed increases in cortical area (P < 0.01) and trabecular thickness (P < 0.01), whereas Alox5(-/-) showed no change in cortical parameters but a decrease in trabecular number (P < 0.05) and bone volume fraction compared with WT controls (P < 0.05). By histomorphometry, a HFD did not change bone formation rates of either strain but produced an increase in osteoclast number per bone perimeter in Alox5(-/-) mice (P < 0.03). In vitro, osteoclastogenesis of marrow stromal cells was enhanced in mutant but not WT mice fed a HFD. Gene expression for Rankl, Pparg, and Cox-2 was greater in the femur of Alox5(-/-) than WT mice on a HFD (P < 0.01), but these increases were suppressed in the Alox5(-/-) mice after 8 wk of treatment with celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor. In sum, there is a strong gene by environmental interaction for bone mass when mice lacking the Alox5 gene are fed a HFD.

  14. A High-Fat Diet Induces Bone Loss in Mice Lacking the Alox5 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Le, Phuong; Kawai, Masanobu; Bornstein, Sheila; DeMambro, Victoria E.; Horowitz, Mark C.

    2012-01-01

    5-Lipoxygenase catalyzes leukotriene generation from arachidonic acid. The gene that encodes 5-lipoxygenase, Alox5, has been identified in genome-wide association and mouse Quantitative Trait Locus studies as a candidate gene for obesity and low bone mass. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that Alox5−/− mice would exhibit metabolic and skeletal changes when challenged by a high-fat diet (HFD). On a regular diet, Alox5−/− mice did not differ in total body weight, percent fat mass, or bone mineral density compared with wild-type (WT) controls (P < 0.05). However, when placed on a HFD, Alox5−/− gained more fat mass and lost greater areal bone mass vs. WT (P < 0.05). Microarchitectural analyses revealed that on a HFD, WT showed increases in cortical area (P < 0.01) and trabecular thickness (P < 0.01), whereas Alox5−/− showed no change in cortical parameters but a decrease in trabecular number (P < 0.05) and bone volume fraction compared with WT controls (P < 0.05). By histomorphometry, a HFD did not change bone formation rates of either strain but produced an increase in osteoclast number per bone perimeter in Alox5−/− mice (P < 0.03). In vitro, osteoclastogenesis of marrow stromal cells was enhanced in mutant but not WT mice fed a HFD. Gene expression for Rankl, Pparg, and Cox-2 was greater in the femur of Alox5−/− than WT mice on a HFD (P < 0.01), but these increases were suppressed in the Alox5−/− mice after 8 wk of treatment with celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor. In sum, there is a strong gene by environmental interaction for bone mass when mice lacking the Alox5 gene are fed a HFD. PMID:22128029

  15. Genome-wide Analyses Identify KIF5A as a Novel ALS Gene.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Aude; Kenna, Kevin P; Renton, Alan E; Ticozzi, Nicola; Faghri, Faraz; Chia, Ruth; Dominov, Janice A; Kenna, Brendan J; Nalls, Mike A; Keagle, Pamela; Rivera, Alberto M; van Rheenen, Wouter; Murphy, Natalie A; van Vugt, Joke J F A; Geiger, Joshua T; Van der Spek, Rick A; Pliner, Hannah A; Shankaracharya; Smith, Bradley N; Marangi, Giuseppe; Topp, Simon D; Abramzon, Yevgeniya; Gkazi, Athina Soragia; Eicher, John D; Kenna, Aoife; Mora, Gabriele; Calvo, Andrea; Mazzini, Letizia; Riva, Nilo; Mandrioli, Jessica; Caponnetto, Claudia; Battistini, Stefania; Volanti, Paolo; La Bella, Vincenzo; Conforti, Francesca L; Borghero, Giuseppe; Messina, Sonia; Simone, Isabella L; Trojsi, Francesca; Salvi, Fabrizio; Logullo, Francesco O; D'Alfonso, Sandra; Corrado, Lucia; Capasso, Margherita; Ferrucci, Luigi; Moreno, Cristiane de Araujo Martins; Kamalakaran, Sitharthan; Goldstein, David B; Gitler, Aaron D; Harris, Tim; Myers, Richard M; Phatnani, Hemali; Musunuri, Rajeeva Lochan; Evani, Uday Shankar; Abhyankar, Avinash; Zody, Michael C; Kaye, Julia; Finkbeiner, Steven; Wyman, Stacia K; LeNail, Alex; Lima, Leandro; Fraenkel, Ernest; Svendsen, Clive N; Thompson, Leslie M; Van Eyk, Jennifer E; Berry, James D; Miller, Timothy M; Kolb, Stephen J; Cudkowicz, Merit; Baxi, Emily; Benatar, Michael; Taylor, J Paul; Rampersaud, Evadnie; Wu, Gang; Wuu, Joanne; Lauria, Giuseppe; Verde, Federico; Fogh, Isabella; Tiloca, Cinzia; Comi, Giacomo P; Sorarù, Gianni; Cereda, Cristina; Corcia, Philippe; Laaksovirta, Hannu; Myllykangas, Liisa; Jansson, Lilja; Valori, Miko; Ealing, John; Hamdalla, Hisham; Rollinson, Sara; Pickering-Brown, Stuart; Orrell, Richard W; Sidle, Katie C; Malaspina, Andrea; Hardy, John; Singleton, Andrew B; Johnson, Janel O; Arepalli, Sampath; Sapp, Peter C; McKenna-Yasek, Diane; Polak, Meraida; Asress, Seneshaw; Al-Sarraj, Safa; King, Andrew; Troakes, Claire; Vance, Caroline; de Belleroche, Jacqueline; Baas, Frank; Ten Asbroek, Anneloor L M A; Muñoz-Blanco, José Luis; Hernandez, Dena G; Ding, Jinhui; Gibbs, J Raphael; Scholz, Sonja W; Floeter, Mary Kay; Campbell, Roy H; Landi, Francesco; Bowser, Robert; Pulst, Stefan M; Ravits, John M; MacGowan, Daniel J L; Kirby, Janine; Pioro, Erik P; Pamphlett, Roger; Broach, James; Gerhard, Glenn; Dunckley, Travis L; Brady, Christopher B; Kowall, Neil W; Troncoso, Juan C; Le Ber, Isabelle; Mouzat, Kevin; Lumbroso, Serge; Heiman-Patterson, Terry D; Kamel, Freya; Van Den Bosch, Ludo; Baloh, Robert H; Strom, Tim M; Meitinger, Thomas; Shatunov, Aleksey; Van Eijk, Kristel R; de Carvalho, Mamede; Kooyman, Maarten; Middelkoop, Bas; Moisse, Matthieu; McLaughlin, Russell L; Van Es, Michael A; Weber, Markus; Boylan, Kevin B; Van Blitterswijk, Marka; Rademakers, Rosa; Morrison, Karen E; Basak, A Nazli; Mora, Jesús S; Drory, Vivian E; Shaw, Pamela J; Turner, Martin R; Talbot, Kevin; Hardiman, Orla; Williams, Kelly L; Fifita, Jennifer A; Nicholson, Garth A; Blair, Ian P; Rouleau, Guy A; Esteban-Pérez, Jesús; García-Redondo, Alberto; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Zinman, Lorne; Ostrow, Lyle W; Maragakis, Nicholas J; Rothstein, Jeffrey D; Simmons, Zachary; Cooper-Knock, Johnathan; Brice, Alexis; Goutman, Stephen A; Feldman, Eva L; Gibson, Summer B; Taroni, Franco; Ratti, Antonia; Gellera, Cinzia; Van Damme, Philip; Robberecht, Wim; Fratta, Pietro; Sabatelli, Mario; Lunetta, Christian; Ludolph, Albert C; Andersen, Peter M; Weishaupt, Jochen H; Camu, William; Trojanowski, John Q; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M; Brown, Robert H; van den Berg, Leonard H; Veldink, Jan H; Harms, Matthew B; Glass, Jonathan D; Stone, David J; Tienari, Pentti; Silani, Vincenzo; Chiò, Adriano; Shaw, Christopher E; Traynor, Bryan J; Landers, John E

    2018-03-21

    To identify novel genes associated with ALS, we undertook two lines of investigation. We carried out a genome-wide association study comparing 20,806 ALS cases and 59,804 controls. Independently, we performed a rare variant burden analysis comparing 1,138 index familial ALS cases and 19,494 controls. Through both approaches, we identified kinesin family member 5A (KIF5A) as a novel gene associated with ALS. Interestingly, mutations predominantly in the N-terminal motor domain of KIF5A are causative for two neurodegenerative diseases: hereditary spastic paraplegia (SPG10) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2 (CMT2). In contrast, ALS-associated mutations are primarily located at the C-terminal cargo-binding tail domain and patients harboring loss-of-function mutations displayed an extended survival relative to typical ALS cases. Taken together, these results broaden the phenotype spectrum resulting from mutations in KIF5A and strengthen the role of cytoskeletal defects in the pathogenesis of ALS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of Sequence Variation in the Apolipoprotein A2 Gene and Their Relationship with Serum High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels.

    PubMed

    Bandarian, Fatemeh; Daneshpour, Maryam Sadat; Hedayati, Mehdi; Naseri, Mohsen; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A2 (APOA2) is the second major apolipoprotein of the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The study aim was to identify APOA2 gene variation in individuals within two extreme tails of HDL-C levels and its relationship with HDL-C level. This cross-sectional survey was conducted on participants from Tehran Glucose and Lipid Study (TLGS) at Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Tehran, Iran from April 2012 to February 2013. In total, 79 individuals with extreme low HDL-C levels (≤5th percentile for age and gender) and 63 individuals with extreme high HDL-C levels (≥95th percentile for age and gender) were selected. Variants were identified using DNA amplification and direct sequencing. Screen of all exons and the core promoter region of APOA2 gene identified nine single nucleotide substitutions and one microsatellite; five of which were known and four were new variants. Of these nine variants, two were common tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and seven were rare SNPs. Both exonic substitutions were missense mutations and caused an amino acid change. There was a significant association between the new missense mutation (variant Chr.1:16119226, Ala98Pro) and HDL-C level. None of two common tag SNPs of rs6413453 and rs5082 contributes to the HDL-C trait in Iranian population, but a new missense mutation in APOA2 in our population has a significant association with HDL-C.

  17. Identification of Sequence Variation in the Apolipoprotein A2 Gene and Their Relationship with Serum High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Bandarian, Fatemeh; Daneshpour, Maryam Sadat; Hedayati, Mehdi; Naseri, Mohsen; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Apolipoprotein A2 (APOA2) is the second major apolipoprotein of the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The study aim was to identify APOA2 gene variation in individuals within two extreme tails of HDL-C levels and its relationship with HDL-C level. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted on participants from Tehran Glucose and Lipid Study (TLGS) at Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Tehran, Iran from April 2012 to February 2013. In total, 79 individuals with extreme low HDL-C levels (≤5th percentile for age and gender) and 63 individuals with extreme high HDL-C levels (≥95th percentile for age and gender) were selected. Variants were identified using DNA amplification and direct sequencing. Results: Screen of all exons and the core promoter region of APOA2 gene identified nine single nucleotide substitutions and one microsatellite; five of which were known and four were new variants. Of these nine variants, two were common tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and seven were rare SNPs. Both exonic substitutions were missense mutations and caused an amino acid change. There was a significant association between the new missense mutation (variant Chr.1:16119226, Ala98Pro) and HDL-C level. Conclusion: None of two common tag SNPs of rs6413453 and rs5082 contributes to the HDL-C trait in Iranian population, but a new missense mutation in APOA2 in our population has a significant association with HDL-C. PMID:26590203

  18. Effects of abhydrolase domain containing 5 gene (ABHD5) expression and variations on chicken fat metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Hongjia; Liu, Qing; Xu, Jiguo; Zeng, Fang; Pang, Xiaolin; Jebessa, Endashaw; Liang, Shaodong; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-01-01

    Abhydrolase domain containing 5 gene (ABHD5), also known as comparative gene identification 58 (CGI-58), is a member of the α/β-hydrolase family as a protein cofactor of ATGL stimulating its triacylglycerol hydrolase activity. In this study, we aim to characterize the expression and variations of ABHD5 and to study their functions in chicken fat metabolism. We compared the ABHD5 expression level in various tissues and under different nutrition conditions, identified the variations of ABHD5, and associated them with production traits in an F2 resource population of chickens. Overexpression analysis with two different genotypes and siRNA interfering analysis of ABHD5 were performed in chicken preadipocytes. Chicken ABDH5 was expressed widely and most predominantly in adipose tissue. Five SNPs of the ABHD5 gene were identified and genotyped in the F2 resource population. The c.490C > T SNP was associated with subcutaneous fat thickness (P < 0.01), carcass weight (P < 0.05), body weight (P < 0.05), shank diameter (P < 0.05), and shank length (P < 0.05). The c.423T > C SNP was also associated with chicken body weight (P < 0.05) and shank diameter (P < 0.05). In chicken preadipocytes, overexpression of wild type ABDH5 did not affect the mRNA level of ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase) but markedly decreased (P < 0.05) the TG (triglyceride) content of the cell, whereas overexpression of mutation type ABHD5 did not affect either ATGL expression or TG content of the cell. The expression of ATGL and TG content of the cell were decreased (P < 0.05) after ABHD5 knockdown in preadipocytes. The mRNA level of ABHD5 was regulated by both feeding and fasting, and by consumption of a high fat diet. It was increased greatly by fasting (P < 0.05) and was returned to control levels after re-feeding in the adipose tissues, and down-regulated in abdominal fat (P < 0.05) and the liver (P < 0.01) of chickens with a high fat diet. These results suggest that expression and variations

  19. Sequence polymorphism at the human apolipoprotein AII gene ( APOA2): unexpected deficit of variation in an African-American sample.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Stephanie M; Clark, Andrew G; Weiss, Kenneth M; Taylor, Scott L; Stengård, Jari H; Salomaa, Veikko; Boerwinkle, Eric; Nickerson, Deborah A

    2002-07-01

    A 3.3-kb region, encompassing the APOA2 gene and 2 kb of 5' and 3' flanking DNA, was re-sequenced in a "core" sample of 24 individuals, sampled without regard to the health from each of three populations: African-Americans from Jackson (Miss., USA), Europeans from North Karelia (Finland), and non-Hispanic European-Americans from Rochester, (Minn., USA). Fifteen variable sites were identified (14 SNPs and one multi-allelic microsatellite, all silent), and these sites segregated as 18 sequence haplotypes (or nine, if SNPs only are considered). The haplotype distribution in the core African-American sample was unusual, with a deficit of particular haplotypes compared with those found in the other two samples, and a significantly (P<0.05) low level of nucleotide diversity relative to patterns of polymorphism and divergence at other human loci. Six of the 14 SNPs, whose variation captured the haplotype structure of the core data, were then genotyped by oligonucleotide ligation assay in an additional 2183 individuals from the same three populations (n=843, n=452, and n=888, respectively). All six sites varied in each of the larger "epidemiological" samples, and together, they defined 19 SNP haplotypes, seven with relative frequencies greater than 1% in the total sample; all of these common haplotypes had been identified earlier in the core re-sequencing survey. Here also, the African-American sample showed significantly lower SNP heterozygosity and haplotype diversity than the other two samples. The deficit of polymorphism is consistent with a population-specific non-neutral increase in the relative frequency of several haplotypes in Jackson.

  20. Multiple independent insertions of 5S rRNA genes in the spliced-leader gene family of trypanosome species.

    PubMed

    Beauparlant, Marc A; Drouin, Guy

    2014-02-01

    Analyses of the 5S rRNA genes found in the spliced-leader (SL) gene repeat units of numerous trypanosome species suggest that such linkages were not inherited from a common ancestor, but were the result of independent 5S rRNA gene insertions. In trypanosomes, 5S rRNA genes are found either in the tandemly repeated units coding for SL genes or in independent tandemly repeated units. Given that trypanosome species where 5S rRNA genes are within the tandemly repeated units coding for SL genes are phylogenetically related, one might hypothesize that this arrangement is the result of an ancestral insertion of 5S rRNA genes into the tandemly repeated SL gene family of trypanosomes. Here, we use the types of 5S rRNA genes found associated with SL genes, the flanking regions of the inserted 5S rRNA genes and the position of these insertions to show that most of the 5S rRNA genes found within SL gene repeat units of trypanosome species were not acquired from a common ancestor but are the results of independent insertions. These multiple 5S rRNA genes insertion events in trypanosomes are likely the result of frequent founder events in different hosts and/or geographical locations in species having short generation times.

  1. CHD5, a brain-specific paralog of Mi2 chromatin remodeling enzymes, regulates expression of neuronal genes.

    PubMed

    Potts, Rebecca Casaday; Zhang, Peisu; Wurster, Andrea L; Precht, Patricia; Mughal, Mohamed R; Wood, William H; Zhang, Yonqing; Becker, Kevin G; Mattson, Mark P; Pazin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    CHD5 is frequently deleted in neuroblastoma and is a tumor suppressor gene. However, little is known about the role of CHD5 other than it is homologous to chromatin remodeling ATPases. We found CHD5 mRNA was restricted to the brain; by contrast, most remodeling ATPases were broadly expressed. CHD5 protein isolated from mouse brain was associated with HDAC2, p66ß, MTA3 and RbAp46 in a megadalton complex. CHD5 protein was detected in several rat brain regions and appeared to be enriched in neurons. CHD5 protein was predominantly nuclear in primary rat neurons and brain sections. Microarray analysis revealed genes that were upregulated and downregulated when CHD5 was depleted from primary neurons. CHD5 depletion altered expression of neuronal genes, transcription factors, and brain-specific subunits of the SWI/SNF remodeling enzyme. Expression of gene sets linked to aging and Alzheimer's disease were strongly altered by CHD5 depletion from primary neurons. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed CHD5 bound to these genes, suggesting the regulation was direct. Together, these results indicate that CHD5 protein is found in a NuRD-like multi-protein complex. CHD5 expression is restricted to the brain, unlike the closely related family members CHD3 and CHD4. CHD5 regulates expression of neuronal genes, cell cycle genes and remodeling genes. CHD5 is linked to regulation of genes implicated in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

  2. CHD5, a Brain-Specific Paralog of Mi2 Chromatin Remodeling Enzymes, Regulates Expression of Neuronal Genes

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Rebecca Casaday; Zhang, Peisu; Wurster, Andrea L.; Precht, Patricia; Mughal, Mohamed R.; Wood, William H.; Zhang, Yonqing; Becker, Kevin G.; Mattson, Mark P.; Pazin, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    CHD5 is frequently deleted in neuroblastoma and is a tumor suppressor gene. However, little is known about the role of CHD5 other than it is homologous to chromatin remodeling ATPases. We found CHD5 mRNA was restricted to the brain; by contrast, most remodeling ATPases were broadly expressed. CHD5 protein isolated from mouse brain was associated with HDAC2, p66ß, MTA3 and RbAp46 in a megadalton complex. CHD5 protein was detected in several rat brain regions and appeared to be enriched in neurons. CHD5 protein was predominantly nuclear in primary rat neurons and brain sections. Microarray analysis revealed genes that were upregulated and downregulated when CHD5 was depleted from primary neurons. CHD5 depletion altered expression of neuronal genes, transcription factors, and brain-specific subunits of the SWI/SNF remodeling enzyme. Expression of gene sets linked to aging and Alzheimer's disease were strongly altered by CHD5 depletion from primary neurons. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed CHD5 bound to these genes, suggesting the regulation was direct. Together, these results indicate that CHD5 protein is found in a NuRD-like multi-protein complex. CHD5 expression is restricted to the brain, unlike the closely related family members CHD3 and CHD4. CHD5 regulates expression of neuronal genes, cell cycle genes and remodeling genes. CHD5 is linked to regulation of genes implicated in aging and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:21931736

  3. The genome of Chelonid herpesvirus 5 harbors atypical genes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackermann, Mathias; Koriabine, Maxim; Hartmann-Fritsch, Fabienne; de Jong, Pieter J.; Lewis, Teresa D.; Schetle, Nelli; Work, Thierry M.; Dagenais, Julie; Balazs, George H.; Leong, Jo-Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    The Chelonid fibropapilloma-associated herpesvirus (CFPHV; ChHV5) is believed to be the causative agent of fibropapillomatosis (FP), a neoplastic disease of marine turtles. While clinical signs and pathology of FP are well known, research on ChHV5 has been impeded because no cell culture system for its propagation exists. We have cloned a BAC containing ChHV5 in pTARBAC2.1 and determined its nucleotide sequence. Accordingly, ChHV5 has a type D genome and its predominant gene order is typical for the varicellovirus genus within thealphaherpesvirinae. However, at least four genes that are atypical for an alphaherpesvirus genome were also detected, i.e. two members of the C-type lectin-like domain superfamily (F-lec1, F-lec2), an orthologue to the mouse cytomegalovirus M04 (F-M04) and a viral sialyltransferase (F-sial). Four lines of evidence suggest that these atypical genes are truly part of the ChHV5 genome: (1) the pTARBAC insertion interrupted the UL52 ORF, leaving parts of the gene to either side of the insertion and suggesting that an intact molecule had been cloned. (2) Using FP-associated UL52 (F-UL52) as an anchor and the BAC-derived sequences as a means to generate primers, overlapping PCR was performed with tumor-derived DNA as template, which confirmed the presence of the same stretch of “atypical” DNA in independent FP cases. (3) Pyrosequencing of DNA from independent tumors did not reveal previously undetected viral sequences, suggesting that no apparent loss of viral sequence had happened due to the cloning strategy. (4) The simultaneous presence of previously known ChHV5 sequences and F-sial as well as F-M04 sequences was also confirmed in geographically distinct Australian cases of FP. Finally, transcripts of F-sial and F-M04 but not transcripts of lytic viral genes were detected in tumors from Hawaiian FP-cases. Therefore, we suggest that F-sial and F-M04 may play a role in FP pathogenesis

  4. CDKL5 is a brain MeCP2 target gene regulated by DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Carouge, Delphine; Host, Lionel; Aunis, Dominique; Zwiller, Jean; Anglard, Patrick

    2010-06-01

    Rett syndrome and its "early-onset seizure" variant are severe neurodevelopmental disorders associated with mutations within the MECP2 and the CDKL5 genes. Antidepressants and drugs of abuse induce the expression of the epigenetic factor MeCP2, thereby influencing chromatin remodeling. We show that increased MeCP2 levels resulted in the repression of Cdkl5 in rat brain structures in response to cocaine, as well as in cells exposed to serotonin, or overexpressing MeCP2. In contrast, Cdkl5 was induced by siRNA-mediated knockdown of Mecp2 and by DNA-methyltransferase inhibitors, demonstrating its regulation by MeCP2 and by DNA methylation. Cdkl5 gene methylation and its methylation-dependent binding to MeCP2 were increased in the striatum of cocaine-treated rats. Our data demonstrate that Cdkl5 is a MeCP2-repressed target gene providing a link between genes the mutation of which generates overlapping symptoms. They highlight DNA methylation changes as a potential mechanism participating in the long-term plasticity triggered by pharmacological agents.

  5. Low levels of ApoA1 improve risk prediction of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xing; Yu, Zhexin; Su, Wen; Isquith, Daniel A; Neradilek, Moni B; Lu, Ning; Gu, Fusheng; Li, Hongwei; Zhao, Xue-Qiao

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has reported to be a major public health crisis in China. We examined the incidence of new T2DM over 4 years for association of clinical factors and lipids with development of T2DM in a community-based population. We included 923 Chinese subjects who participated in community-organized health checkout in both 2009 and 2013. Health history was collected; physical examination was performed; biochemistry, lipids, and glucose were measured. Of 923, 819 were confirmed without T2DM in 2009 and included in the analysis. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of clinical factors and biomarkers on the risk of new T2DM. Of 819 subjects without T2DM in 2009, 65 were identified as T2DM in 2013, 8% over 4 years. These 65 subjects, compared with those 754 without new T2DM, were older, more likely to be male and smokers. They had higher body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose, blood pressure and triglycerides, and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1). Multivariate logistic regression identified larger BMI (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-2.39, P = .002), higher fasting glucose levels (OR = 4.2, 95% CI, 2.90-6.19, P < .001), and low levels of ApoA1 (OR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.33-0.76, P = .002) were independently associated with new T2DM. Furthermore, receiver operating characteristics curves for multivariate models for new T2DM showed that area under the curve improved from 0.87 to 0.89 when adding ApoA1 to the Framingham Diabetes Risk Scoring Model and from 0.85 to 0.89 when adding ApoA1 to a 4-variable (age, BMI, glucose, and triglycerides) Chinese model. There is a high incidence of new T2DM at 8% over 4 years among Chinese. Larger BMI, higher glucose levels, and lower levels of ApoA1 are significantly and independently associated with new T2DM. Lower ApoA1 improves the risk prediction of new type 2 diabetes when it was

  6. Gene analysis of steroid 5 alpha-reductase 1 in hyperandrogenic women.

    PubMed

    Eminović, Izet; Komel, Radovan; Prezelj, Janez; Karamehić, Jasenko; Gavrankapetanović, Faris; Heljić, Becir

    2005-08-01

    To examine the gene encoding for 5alpha-reductase type 1 in hyperandrogenic women, and assess the association of its eventual mutations or polymorphisms with the development of the hyperandrogenic female pattern. Sixteen hyperandrogenic women were included in the study. Single-stranded conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) and DNA sequencing were performed after polymerase chain reaction amplification of each of the 5 exons of the SRD5A1 gene in both hyperandrogenic and control group (16 participants). Sequence analysis identified the existence of many polymorphisms; in codon 24 of exon 1, GGC (Gly) into GAC (Asp); in codon 30 of exon 1, CGG (Arg) into CGC (Arg); in exon 3 codon 169, ACA to ACG (both encoding for threonine); in exon 5, AGA to AGG (both encoding for arginine, codon 260); and T/C polymorphism in intron 2. Polymorphisms were found in both groups. Polymorphisms of SRD5A1 gene were the same in both hyperandrogenic and healthy women, indicating no significant associations of genetic polymorphisms/variations of SRD5A1 gene with clinical manifestations of hyperandrogenic disorders in women.

  7. The combined effects of the 5-HTTLPR and 5-HTR1A genes modulates the relationship between negative life events and major depressive disorder in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kerang; Xu, Qi; Xu, Yong; Yang, Hong; Luo, Jinxiu; Sun, Yan; Sun, Ning; Wang, Shan; Shen, Yan

    2009-04-01

    Serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and 5-HT receptor (5-HTR) involved in the neurotransmission of 5-HT may play an important role in the development of major depression disorder (MDD). Several lines of evidence suggested that the gene-environment interaction may confer susceptibility to depression. The aim of this study is to analyze the combined effect of four serotonin-related genes and two environmental factors on MDD in a Chinese population. This study recruited a total of 401 patients with MDD and 391 age- and gender-matched control subjects. They were all Chinese Han origin. Negative life events and objective social supports were assessed using standard rating scales. Six polymorphisms in the four serotonin-related genes (5-HTT, 5-HTR1A, 5-HTR1B and 5-HTR2A) were selected to detect. The analyses of the gene-environment interactions were performed by the Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR). Allelic associations between patients with MDD and controls were observed for the polymorphism of 5-HTTLPR and for rs6295 at the 5-HTR1A locus. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism was associated with negative life events on MDD. A three-way interaction between the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism, rs6295 and negative life events on MDD was found in the individuals aged from 20 years to 29 years. In addition, the individuals carrying the L/L genotype of 5-HTTLPR could be susceptible to MDD when exposed to negative life events. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism may modify the interaction between negative life events and MDD in the Chinese population. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the combined effect for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and 5-HTR1A genes on modifying the response to negative life events conferring susceptibility to MDD in the 20-29 year group.

  8. Mutations in the PP2A regulatory subunit B family genes PPP2R5B, PPP2R5C and PPP2R5D cause human overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Loveday, Chey; Tatton-Brown, Katrina; Clarke, Matthew; Westwood, Isaac; Renwick, Anthony; Ramsay, Emma; Nemeth, Andrea; Campbell, Jennifer; Joss, Shelagh; Gardner, McKinlay; Zachariou, Anna; Elliott, Anna; Ruark, Elise; van Montfort, Rob; Rahman, Nazneen

    2015-09-01

    Overgrowth syndromes comprise a group of heterogeneous disorders characterised by excessive growth parameters, often in association with intellectual disability. To identify new causes of human overgrowth, we have been undertaking trio-based exome sequencing studies in overgrowth patients and their unaffected parents. Prioritisation of functionally relevant genes with multiple unique de novo mutations revealed four mutations in protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulatory subunit B family genes protein phosphatase 2, regulatory Subunit B', beta (PPP2R5B); protein phosphatase 2, regulatory Subunit B', gamma (PPP2R5C); and protein phosphatase 2, regulatory Subunit B', delta (PPP2R5D). This observation in 3 related genes in 111 individuals with a similar phenotype is greatly in excess of the expected number, as determined from gene-specific de novo mutation rates (P = 1.43 × 10(-10)). Analysis of exome-sequencing data from a follow-up series of overgrowth probands identified a further pathogenic mutation, bringing the total number of affected individuals to 5. Heterozygotes shared similar phenotypic features including increased height, increased head circumference and intellectual disability. The mutations clustered within a region of nine amino acid residues in the aligned protein sequences (P = 1.6 × 10(-5)). We mapped the mutations onto the crystal structure of the PP2A holoenzyme complex to predict their molecular and functional consequences. These studies suggest that the mutations may affect substrate binding, thus perturbing the ability of PP2A to dephosphorylate particular protein substrates. PP2A is a major negative regulator of v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT). Thus, our data further expand the list of genes encoding components of the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signalling cascade that are disrupted in human overgrowth conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. C57BL/6J mouse apolipoprotein A2 gene is deterministic for apnea.

    PubMed

    Gillombardo, Carl B; Darrah, Rebecca; Dick, Thomas E; Moore, Michael; Kong, Nathan; Decker, Michael J; Han, Fang; Yamauchi, Motoo; Dutschmann, Mathias; Azzam, Sausan; Strohl, Kingman P

    2017-01-01

    Brainstem apolipoprotein AII (apoa2) mRNA expression correlates with apnea in breathing present in the adult C57Bl/6J (B6) sleep apnea model. To test the hypothesis that the B6 apoa2 gene contributes to the trait, we performed plethysmographic testing in apoa2 knock out (KO: -/-) mice, an in situ brainstem-spinal cord preparation comparing KO to WT (+/+) mice, and B6xDBA recombinant inbred strains (RISs). Apoa2 WT do, but KO and heterozygote (+/-) mice do not exhibit apnea during post-hypoxic breathing, measured in vivo. In the in situ model, pauses and instability in fictive phrenic bursting are substantially reduced in KO vs. WT preparations. In 24 RISs, apnea number in vivo was higher in strains with B6 apoa2 than with DBA apoa2 alleles. The B6 apoa2 polymorphism is directly involved in breath production, and its identification suggests a novel pathway influencing risk for adult sleep apnea. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Monoallelic expression of Pax5: a paradigm for the haploinsufficiency of mammalian Pax genes?

    PubMed

    Nutt, S L; Busslinger, M

    1999-06-01

    It is generally assumed that most mammalian genes are transcribed from both alleles. Hence, the diploid state of the genome offers the advantage that a loss-of-function mutation in one allele can be compensated for by the remaining wild-type allele of the same gene. Indeed, the vast majority of human disease syndromes and engineered mutations in the mouse genome are recessive, indicating that recessiveness is the 'default' state. However, a minority of genes are semi-dominant, as heterozygous loss-of-function mutation in these genes leads to phenotypic abnormalities. This condition, known as haploinsufficiency, has been described for five of the nine mammalian Pax genes, which are associated with mouse developmental mutants and human disease syndromes. Recently we have reported that the Pax5 gene is subject to allele-specific regulation during B cell development. Pax5 is predominantly transcribed from only one of its two alleles in early B-lymphoid progenitors and mature B cells, while it transiently switches to a biallelic mode of transcription in pre-B and immature B cells. As a consequence, B-lymphoid tissues are mosaic with regard to the transcribed allele, and heterozygous mutation of Pax5 therefore results in deletion of B lymphocytes expressing only the mutant allele. The allele-specific regulation of Pax5 raises the intriguing possibility that monoallelic expression may also be the mechanism causing the haploinsufficiency of other Pax genes. In this review, we discuss different models accounting for the haploinsufficiency of mammalian Pax genes, provide further evidence in support of the allele-specific regulation of Pax5 and discuss the implication of these findings in the context of the recent literature describing the stochastic and monoallelic activation of other hematopoietic genes.

  11. Effects of CASP5 gene overexpression on angiogenesis of HMEC-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan; Li, Yuzhen; Cai, Limin; Bai, Bingxue; Wang, Yanhua

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of gene overexpression of CASP5, a caspase family member, in angiogenesis in vitro and its mechanisms were clarified. Human full-length CASP5 gene was delivered into human microvascular endothelial HMEC-1 cells by recombinant lentivirus. The infection was estimated by green fluorescent protein. MTT method was used to analyze the efficacy of gene overexpression in cell proliferation ability, and Matrigel was used to estimate its effects in angiogenesis ability of cells. Meanwhile, Western blot was used to analyze the effects of CASP5 gene overexpression on the expression levels of angpt-1, angpt-2, Tie2 and VEGF-1 in the cells, which were signaling pathway factors related to angiogenesis. Recombinant lentivirus containing human full-length CASP5 gene was packed and purified successfully, with virus titer of 1×10(8) TU/ml. The recombinant lentivirus was used to infect HMEC-1 cells with MOI of 1, leading to a cell infection rate of 100%. There were no significant effects of CASP5 gene overexpression on both cell proliferation ability and the expression level of angpt-1. Meanwhile, expressions of angpt-2 and VEGF-1 were both enhanced, while Tie2 expression was inhibited. Results indicated that CASP5 gene overexpression promoted angiogenesis of HMEC-1 cells. CASP5 gene overexpression significantly promoted angiogenesis ability of HMEC-1 cells, which was probably achieved by inhibiting angpt-1/Tie2 and promoting VEGF-1 signal pathway.

  12. ABCG5/G8 gene is associated with hypercholesterolemias without mutation in candidate genes and noncholesterol sterols.

    PubMed

    Lamiquiz-Moneo, Itziar; Baila-Rueda, Lucía; Bea, Ana M; Mateo-Gallego, Rocío; Pérez-Calahorra, Sofía; Marco-Benedí, Victoria; Martín-Navarro, Antonio; Ros, Emilio; Cofán, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Rey, José Carlos; Pocovi, Miguel; Cenarro, Ana; Civeira, Fernando

    Approximately 20% to 40% of clinically defined familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) cases do not show a causative mutation in candidate genes (mutation-negative FH), and some of them may have a polygenic origin. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of ABCG5/G8 genetic variants in mutation-negative FH, as defects in these genes relate to intestinal hyperabsorption of cholesterol and thus ABCG5/G8 variants could explain in part the mechanism of hypercholesterolemia. We sequenced the ABCG5/G8 genes in 214 mutation-negative FH and 97 controls. Surrogate markers of cholesterol absorption (5α-cholestanol, β-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, and sitostanol) were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in both studied groups. We found 8 mutation-negative FH patients (3.73%) with a pathogenic mutation in ABCG5/G8 genes. We observed significantly higher concentration of surrogate markers of cholesterol absorption in mutation-negative FH than in controls. In addition, we found significantly higher concentrations of cholesterol absorption markers in mutation-negative FH with ABCG5/G8 defects than in mutation-negative, ABCG5/G8-negative FH. A gene score reflecting the number of common single nucleotide variants associated with hypercholesterolemia was significantly higher in cases than in controls (P = .032). Subjects with a gene score above the mean had significantly higher 5α-cholestanol and stigmasterol than those with a lower gene score. Mutation-negative FH subjects accumulate an excess of rare and common gene variations in ABCG5/G8 genes. This variation is associated with increased intestinal absorption of cholesterol, as determined by surrogate makers, suggesting that these loci contribute to hypercholesterolemia by enhancing intestinal cholesterol absorption. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of a gene encoding a membrane-anchored toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5M) in Oplegnathus fasciatus that responds to flagellin challenge and activates NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Bathige, S D N K; Thulasitha, William Shanthakumar; Jayasooriya, R G P T; Shin, Younhee; Lee, Jehee

    2017-03-01

    Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) recognizes bacterial flagellin and induces the downstream signaling through the myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) protein to produce proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, we describe a TLR5 membrane form (OfTLR5M) and its adaptor protein MyD88 (OfMyD88) in rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus. Both Oftlr5m (6.7 kb) and Ofmyd88 (3.7 kb) genes displayed a quinquepartite structure with five exons and four introns. Protein structure of OfTLR5M revealed the conventional architecture of TLRs featured by an extracellular domain with 22 leucine rich repeats (LRR), a transmembrane domain and an endodomain with TIR motif. Primary OfTLR5M sequence shared a higher homology with teleost TLR5M. The evolutional analysis confirmed that TLR5 identified in the current study is a membrane receptor and the data further suggested the co-evolution of the membrane-anchored and soluble forms of TLR5 in teleosts. Inter-lineage comparison of gene structures in vertebrates indicated that the tlr5m gene has evolved with extensive rearrangement; whereas, the myd88 gene has maintained a stable structure throughout the evolution. Inspection of 5' flanking region of these genes disclosed the presence of several transcription factor binding sites including NF-κB. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) detected Oftlr5m mRNA in eleven tissues with the highest abundance in liver. In vivo flagellin administration strongly induced the transcripts of both Oftlr5m and Ofmyd88 in gills and head kidney tissues suggesting their ligand-mediated upregulation. In a luciferase assay, HEK293T cells transiently transfected with Oftlr5m and Ofmyd88 demonstrated a higher NF-κB activity than the mock control, and the luciferase activity was intensified when cells were stimulated with flagellin. Collectively, our study represents the genomic, evolutional, expressional and functional insights into a receptor and adaptor molecules of teleost origin that are involved

  14. Apolipoprotein A-V: a potential modulator of plasma triglyceride levels in Turks.

    PubMed

    Hodoglugil, Ugur; Tanyolaç, Sinan; Williamson, David W; Huang, Yadong; Mahley, Robert W

    2006-01-01

    The apolipoprotein A-V gene (APOA5) plays an important role in determining plasma triglyceride levels. We studied the effects of APOA5 polymorphisms on plasma triglyceride levels in Turks, a population with low levels of HDL cholesterol and a high prevalence of coronary artery disease. We found 15 polymorphisms, three of which were novel. Seven haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were chosen and genotyped in approximately 3,000 subjects. The rare alleles of the -1464T>C, -1131T>C, S19W, and 1259T>C SNPs were significantly associated with increased triglyceride levels (19-86 mg/dl; P < 0.05) and had clear gene-dose effects. Haplotype analysis of the nine common APOA5 haplotypes revealed significant effects on triglyceride levels (P < 0.001). Detailed analysis of haplotypes clearly showed that the -1464T>C polymorphism had no effect by itself but was a marker for the -1131T>C, S19W, and 1259T>C polymorphisms. The -1131T>C and 1259T>C polymorphisms were in a strong but incomplete linkage disequilibrium and appeared to have independent effects. Thus, the APOA5 -1131T>C, S19W, and 1259T>C rare alleles were associated with significant increases in plasma triglyceride levels. At least one of these alleles was present in approximately 40% of the Turks. Similar associations were observed for -1131T>C and S19W in white Americans living in San Francisco, California.

  15. Novel mutations in cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene in Indian cases of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Das, Dhanjit Kumar; Mehta, Bhakti; Menon, Shyla R; Raha, Sarbani; Udani, Vrajesh

    2013-03-01

    Rett syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder, almost exclusively affecting females and characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Both the classic and atypical forms of Rett syndrome are primarily due to mutations in the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. Mutations in the X-linked cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene have been identified in patients with atypical Rett syndrome, X-linked infantile spasms sharing common features of generally early-onset seizures and mental retardation. CDKL5 is known as serine/threonine protein kinase 9 (STK9) and is mapped to the Xp22 region. It has a conserved serine/threonine kinase domain within its amino terminus and a large C-terminal region. Disease-causing mutations are distributed in both the amino terminal domain and in the large C-terminal domain. We have screened the CDKL5 gene in 44 patients with atypical Rett syndrome who had tested negative for MECP2 gene mutations and have identified 6 sequence variants, out of which three were novel and three known mutations. Two of these novel mutations p.V966I and p.A1011V were missense and p.H589H a silent mutation. Other known mutations identified were p.V999M, p.Q791P and p.T734A. Sequence homology for all the mutations revealed that the two mutations (p.Q791P and p.T734A) were conserved across species. This indicated the importance of these residues in structure and function of the protein. The damaging effects of these mutations were analysed in silico using PolyPhen-2 online software. The PolyPhen-2 scores of p.Q791P and p.T734A were 0.998 and 0.48, revealing that these mutations could be deleterious and might have potential functional effect. All other mutations had a low score suggesting that they might not alter the activity of CDKL5. We have also analysed the position of the mutations in the CDKL5 protein and found that all the mutations were present in the C-terminal domain of the protein. The C-terminal domain is required for

  16. Evidence that steroid 5alpha-reductase isozyme genes are differentially methylated in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Dorantes, M; Lizano-Soberón, M; Camacho-Arroyo, I; Calzada-León, R; Morimoto, S; Téllez-Ascencio, N; Cerbón, M A

    2002-03-01

    The synthesis of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is catalyzed by steroid 5alpha-reductase isozymes 1 and 2, and this function determines the development of the male phenotype during embriogenesis and the growth of androgen sensitive tissues during puberty. The aim of this study was to determine the cytosine methylation status of 5alpha-reductase isozymes types 1 and 2 genes in normal and in 5alpha-reductase deficient men. Genomic DNA was obtained from lymphocytes of both normal subjects and patients with primary 5alpha-reductase deficiency due to point mutations in 5alpha-reductase 2 gene. Southern blot analysis of 5alpha-reductase types 1 and 2 genes from DNA samples digested with HpaII presented a different cytosine methylation pattern compared to that observed with its isoschizomer MspI, indicating that both genes are methylated in CCGG sequences. The analysis of 5alpha-reductase 1 gene from DNA samples digested with Sau3AI and its isoschizomer MboI which recognize methylation in GATC sequences showed an identical methylation pattern. In contrast, 5alpha-reductase 2 gene digested with Sau3AI presented a different methylation pattern to that of the samples digested with MboI, indicating that steroid 5alpha-reductase 2 gene possess methylated cytosines in GATC sequences. Analysis of exon 4 of 5alpha-reductase 2 gene after metabisulfite PCR showed that normal and deficient subjects present a different methylation pattern, being more methylated in patients with 5alpha-reductase 2 mutated gene. The overall results suggest that 5alpha-reductase genes 1 and 2 are differentially methylated in lymphocytes from normal and 5alpha-reductase deficient patients. Moreover, the extensive cytosine methylation pattern observed in exon 4 of 5alpha-reductase 2 gene in deficient patients, points out to an increased rate of mutations in this gene.

  17. Age-related obesity and type 2 diabetes dysregulate neuronal associated genes and proteins in humans

    PubMed Central

    Daghighi, Mojtaba; Özcan, Behiye; Akbarkhanzadeh, Vishtaseb; Sheedfar, Fareeba; Amini, Marzyeh; Mazza, Tommaso; Pazienza, Valerio; Motazacker, Mahdi M.; Mahmoudi, Morteza; De Rooij, Felix W. M.; Sijbrands, Eric; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Rezaee, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous developed drugs based on glucose metabolism interventions for treatment of age-related diseases such as diabetes neuropathies (DNs), DNs are still increasing in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes (T1D, T2D). We aimed to identify novel candidates in adipose tissue (AT) and pancreas with T2D for targeting to develop new drugs for DNs therapy. AT-T2D displayed 15 (e.g. SYT4 up-regulated and VGF down-regulated) and pancreas-T2D showed 10 (e.g. BAG3 up-regulated, VAV3 and APOA1 down-regulated) highly differentially expressed genes with neuronal functions as compared to control tissues. ELISA was blindly performed to measure proteins of 5 most differentially expressed genes in 41 human subjects. SYT4 protein was upregulated, VAV3 and APOA1 were down-regulated, and BAG3 remained unchanged in 1- Obese and 2- Obese-T2D without insulin, VGF protein was higher in these two groups as well as in group 3- Obese-T2D receiving insulin than 4-lean subjects. Interaction networks analysis of these 5 genes showed several metabolic pathways (e.g. lipid metabolism and insulin signaling). Pancreas is a novel site for APOA1 synthesis. VGF is synthesized in AT and could be considered as good diagnostic, and even prognostic, marker for age-induced diseases obesity and T2D. This study provides new targets for rational drugs development for the therapy of age-related DNs. PMID:26337083

  18. Major COL4A5 gene rearrangements in patients with juvenile type Alport syndrome

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Renieri, A.; Galli, L.; Bruttini, M.

    1995-11-20

    Mutations in the COL4A5 gene, which encodes the {alpha}5 chain of type IV collagen, are found in a large fraction of patients with X-linked Alport syndrome. The recently discovered COL4A6, tightly linked and highly homologous to COL4A5, represents a second candidate gene for Alport syndrome. We analyzed 177 Italian Alport syndrome families by Southern blotting using cDNA probes from both COL4A5 and COL4A6. Nine unrelated families, accounting for 5% of the cases, were found to have a rearrangement in COL4A5. No rearrangements were found in COL4A6, with the exception of a deletion encompassing the 5{prime} ends of both COL4A5 andmore » COL4A6 genes in a patient with Alport syndrome and leiomyomatosis. COL4A5 rearrangements were all intragenic and included 1 duplication and 7 deletions. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was carried out to characterize deletion and duplication boundaries and to predict the resulting protein abnormality. The two smallest deletions involved a single exon (exons 17 and 40, respectively), while the largest ones spanned exons 1 to 36. The clinical phenotype of patients in whom a rearrangement in COL4A5 was detected was severe, with progression to end-stage renal failure in juvenile age and hypoacusis occurring in most cases. These data have some important implications in the diagnosis of patients with Alport syndrome. 34 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.« less

  19. Evaluating the association of APOA2 polymorphism with insulin resistance in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Moushira Erfan; Amr, Khalda Sayed; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    265T>C SNP in the APOA-II gene promoter may be associated with obesity risk and insulin resistance (IR). This study aims to analyze the association between the APOA2 - 265T>C SNP and risk for obesity and IR in adolescents. The study was conducted on 500 adolescents. They were 240 obese and 260 non-obese individuals, aged 16-21 years old. Their mean age was 18.25 ± 2.54 years. Variables examined body weight, height, waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), body fat percentage (BF%), and abdominal visceral fat layer. Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) was used as a biomarker for IR. BF% was assessed by body composition analyzer and abdominal visceral fat thickness was determined by ultrasonography. The APOA2 - 265T>C polymorphism genotype was analyzed by PCR amplification of a 273-bp fragment. Genotype frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The frequency of the mutant C allele was significantly higher in obese cases than non-obese cases. After multivariate adjustment, waist, BF%, visceral adipose layer and HOMA-IR were significantly higher in homozygous allele CC carriers than TT + TC carriers. Homozygous individuals for the CC allele had statistically higher values of energy intake, total fat (g/day) and saturated fat (SATFAT) than carriers of the T allele. Homozygous individuals for the C allele had higher obesity risk than carriers of the T allele and had elevated levels of visceral adipose tissue. Moreover, the present study shows that the CC polymorphism is associated with the development of IR [OR 1.89 (1.35-2.91), P = .012] and remains significant after adjusting for gender, age and body mass index.

  20. Evaluating the association of APOA2 polymorphism with insulin resistance in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Moushira Erfan; Amr, Khalda Sayed; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Background 265T>C SNP in the APOA-II gene promoter may be associated with obesity risk and insulin resistance (IR). This study aims to analyze the association between the APOA2 − 265T>C SNP and risk for obesity and IR in adolescents. Material and methods The study was conducted on 500 adolescents. They were 240 obese and 260 non-obese individuals, aged 16–21 years old. Their mean age was 18.25 ± 2.54 years. Variables examined body weight, height, waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), body fat percentage (BF%), and abdominal visceral fat layer. Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) was used as a biomarker for IR. BF% was assessed by body composition analyzer and abdominal visceral fat thickness was determined by ultrasonography. The APOA2 − 265T>C polymorphism genotype was analyzed by PCR amplification of a 273-bp fragment. Results Genotype frequencies were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. The frequency of the mutant C allele was significantly higher in obese cases than non-obese cases. After multivariate adjustment, waist, BF%, visceral adipose layer and HOMA-IR were significantly higher in homozygous allele CC carriers than TT + TC carriers. Homozygous individuals for the CC allele had statistically higher values of energy intake, total fat (g/day) and saturated fat (SATFAT) than carriers of the T allele. Conclusions Homozygous individuals for the C allele had higher obesity risk than carriers of the T allele and had elevated levels of visceral adipose tissue. Moreover, the present study shows that the CC polymorphism is associated with the development of IR [OR 1.89 (1.35–2.91), P = .012] and remains significant after adjusting for gender, age and body mass index. PMID:25606421

  1. Polymorphisms of steroid 5-alpha-reductase type I (SRD5A1) gene are associated to peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Signorelli, S S; Barresi, V; Musso, N; Anzaldi, M; Croce, E; Fiore, V; Condorelli, D F

    2008-12-01

    Although animal studies support the hypothesis that androgenic biological actions may affect experimental atherosclerosis progression, evidence for a relationship between androgen effects and peripheral arterial disease (PAD), a common clinical form of atherosclerosis, is weak or contradictory. Testosterone, the main androgen hormone, is converted in a 5alpha-reduced form by enzymatic activities in the target cells and some specific actions are mediated by such metabolites. Steroid 5-alpha reductase isoenzymes (SRD5A1 and SRD5A2) catalyze the conversion to the bioactive potent androgen dihydrotestosterone and other reduced metabolites and represent relevant regulators of local hormonal actions. In the present study we tested for the association of selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 with symptomatic PAD patients. Two different SNP in the SRD5A1 were significantly associated which the PAD phenotype (p<0.03, odds ratio 1.73), while no association was found between PAD phenotypes and SRD5A2. Since the examined SRDA1 gene variant was previously associated with a low enzymatic activity, we suggest that a decreased local enzymatic conversion of testosterone may contribute to PAD genetic susceptibility.

  2. C57BL/6J Mouse Apolipoprotein A2 Gene is Deterministic for Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Gillombardo, Carl B.; Darrah, Rebecca; Dick, Thomas E.; Moore, Michael; Kong, Nathan; Decker, Michael J.; Han, Fang; Yamauchi, Motoo; Dutschmann, Mathias; Azzam, Sausan; Strohl, Kingman P.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Brainstem apolipoprotein AII (apoa2) mRNA expression correlates with apnea in breathing present in the adult C57Bl/6J (B6) sleep apnea model. Objectives To test the hypothesis that the B6 apoa2 gene contributes to the trait, we performed plethysmographic testing in apoa2 knock out (KO: −/−) mice, an in situ brainstem-spinal cord preparation comparing KO to WT (+/+) mice, and B6xDBA recombinant inbred strains (RISs). Measurements and Main Results Apoa2 WT do, but KO and heterozygote (+/−) mice do not exhibit apnea during post-hypoxic breathing, measured in vivo. In the in situ model, pauses and instability in fictive phrenic bursting are substantially reduced in KO vs. WT preparations. In 24 RISs, apnea number in vivo was higher in strains with B6 apoa2 than with DBA apoa2 alleles. Conclusions The B6 apoa2 polymorphism is directly involved in breath production, and its identification suggests a novel pathway influencing risk for adult sleep apnea PMID:27756649

  3. The Drosophila pigmentation gene pink (p) encodes a homologue of human Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 5 (HPS5).

    PubMed

    Falcón-Pérez, Juan M; Romero-Calderón, Rafael; Brooks, Elizabeth S; Krantz, David E; Dell'Angelica, Esteban C

    2007-02-01

    Lysosome-related organelles comprise a group of specialized intracellular compartments that include melanosomes and platelet dense granules (in mammals) and eye pigment granules (in insects). In humans, the biogenesis of these organelles is defective in genetic disorders collectively known as Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS). Patients with HPS-2, and two murine HPS models, carry mutations in genes encoding subunits of adaptor protein (AP)-3. Other genes mutated in rodent models include those encoding VPS33A and Rab38. Orthologs of all of these genes in Drosophila melanogaster belong to the 'granule group' of eye pigmentation genes. Other genes associated with HPS encode subunits of three complexes of unknown function, named biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex (BLOC)-1, -2 and -3, for which the Drosophila counterparts had not been characterized. Here, we report that the gene encoding the Drosophila ortholog of the HPS5 subunit of BLOC-2 is identical to the granule group gene pink (p), which was first studied in 1910 but had not been identified at the molecular level. The phenotype of pink mutants was exacerbated by mutations in AP-3 subunits or in the orthologs of VPS33A and Rab38. These results validate D. melanogaster as a genetic model to study the function of the BLOCs.

  4. Hepatic gene expression profiling of 5'-AMP-induced hypometabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhaoyang; Miki, Takao; Van Oort-Jansen, Anita; Matsumoto, Tomoko; Loose, David S; Lee, Cheng Chi

    2011-04-12

    There is currently much interest in clinical applications of therapeutic hypothermia. Hypothermia can be a consequence of hypometabolism. We have recently established a procedure for the induction of a reversible deep hypometabolic state in mice using 5'-adenosine monophosphate (5'-AMP) in conjunction with moderate ambient temperature. The current study aims at investigating the impact of this technology at the gene expression level in a major metabolic organ, the liver. Our findings reveal that expression levels of the majority of genes in liver are not significantly altered by deep hypometabolism. However, among those affected by hypometabolism, more genes are differentially upregulated than downregulated both in a deep hypometabolic state and in the early arousal state. These altered gene expression levels during 5'-AMP induced hypometabolism are largely restored to normal levels within 2 days of the treatment. Our data also suggest that temporal control of circadian genes is largely stalled during deep hypometabolism.

  5. Novel variants of the 5S rRNA genes in Eruca sativa.

    PubMed

    Singh, K; Bhatia, S; Lakshmikumaran, M

    1994-02-01

    The 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes of Eruca sativa were cloned and characterized. They are organized into clusters of tandemly repeated units. Each repeat unit consists of a 119-bp coding region followed by a noncoding spacer region that separates it from the coding region of the next repeat unit. Our study reports novel gene variants of the 5S rRNA genes in plants. Two families of the 5S rDNA, the 0.5-kb size family and the 1-kb size family, coexist in the E. sativa genome. The 0.5-kb size family consists of the 5S rRNA genes (S4) that have coding regions similar to those of other reported plant 5S rDNA sequences, whereas the 1-kb size family consists of the 5S rRNA gene variants (S1) that exist as 1-kb BamHI tandem repeats. S1 is made up of two variant units (V1 and V2) of 5S rDNA where the BamHI site between the two units is mutated. Sequence heterogeneity among S4, V1, and V2 units exists throughout the sequence and is not limited to the noncoding spacer region only. The coding regions of V1 and V2 show approximately 20% dissimilarity to the coding regions of S4 and other reported plant 5S rDNA sequences. Such a large variation in the coding regions of the 5S rDNA units within the same plant species has been observed for the first time. Restriction site variation is observed between the two size classes of 5S rDNA in E. sativa.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. 2′-deoxy-5,6-dihydro-5-azacytidine—a less toxic alternative of 2′-deoxy-5-azacytidine

    PubMed Central

    Matoušová, Marika; Votruba, Ivan; Otmar, Miroslav; Tloušťová, Eva; Günterová, Jana

    2011-01-01

    Restoration of transcriptionally silenced genes by means of methyltransferases inhibitors plays a crucial role in the current therapy of myelodysplastic syndromes and certain types of leukemias. A comparative study of hypomethylating activities of a series of 5-azacytidine nucleosides: 5-azacytidine (AC), 2′-deoxy-5-azacytidine (DAC) and its α-anomer (α-DAC), 5,6-dihydro-5-azacytidine (DHAC), 2′-deoxy-5,6-dihydro-5-azacytidine (DHDAC, KP-1212) and its α-anomer (α-DHDAC), and of a 2-pyrimidone ribonucleoside (zebularine) was conducted. Methylation-specific PCR was employed to detect the efficiency of individual agents on cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B and thrombospondin-1 hypermethylated gene loci. Overall changes in DNA methylation level were quantified by direct estimation of 5-methyl-2′-deoxycytidine-5′-monophosphate by HPLC using digested genomic DNA. Flow cytometric analysis of cell cycle progression and apoptotic markers was used to determine cytotoxicity of the compounds. mRNA expression was measured using qRT-PCR. 2′-deoxy-5,6-dihydro-5-azacytidine was found to be less cytotoxic and more stable than 2′-deoxy-5-azacytidine at the doses that induce comparable DNA hypomethylation and gene reactivation. This makes it a valuable tool for epigenetic research and worth further investigations to elucidate its possible therapeutic potential. PMID:21566456

  7. Genetic variants in the LAMA5 gene in pediatric nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Braun, Daniela A; Warejko, Jillian K; Ashraf, Shazia; Tan, Weizhen; Daga, Ankana; Schneider, Ronen; Hermle, Tobias; Jobst-Schwan, Tilman; Widmeier, Eugen; Majmundar, Amar J; Nakayama, Makiko; Schapiro, David; Rao, Jia; Schmidt, Johanna Magdalena; Hoogstraten, Charlotte A; Hugo, Hannah; Bakkaloglu, Sevcan A; Kari, Jameela A; El Desoky, Sherif; Daouk, Ghaleb; Mane, Shrikant; Lifton, Richard P; Shril, Shirlee; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2018-03-09

    Nephrotic syndrome (NS), a chronic kidney disease, is characterized by significant loss of protein in the urine causing hypoalbuminemia and edema. In general, ∼15% of childhood-onset cases do not respond to steroid therapy and are classified as steroid-resistant NS (SRNS). In ∼30% of cases with SRNS, a causative mutation can be detected in one of 44 monogenic SRNS genes. The gene LAMA5 encodes laminin-α5, an essential component of the glomerular basement membrane. Mice with a hypomorphic mutation in the orthologous gene Lama5 develop proteinuria and hematuria. To identify additional monogenic causes of NS, we performed whole exome sequencing in 300 families with pediatric NS. In consanguineous families we applied homozygosity mapping to identify genomic candidate loci for the underlying recessive mutation. In three families, in whom mutations in known NS genes were excluded, but in whom a recessive, monogenic cause of NS was strongly suspected based on pedigree information, we identified homozygous variants of unknown significance (VUS) in the gene LAMA5. While all affected individuals had nonsyndromic NS with an early onset of disease, their clinical outcome and response to immunosuppressive therapy differed notably. We here identify recessive VUS in the gene LAMA5 in patients with partially treatment-responsive NS. More data will be needed to determine the impact of these VUS in disease management. However, familial occurrence of disease, data from genetic mapping and a mouse model that recapitulates the NS phenotypes suggest that these genetic variants may be inherited factors that contribute to the development of NS in pediatric patients.

  8. Expression of the homeotic gene mab-5 during Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cowing, D W; Kenyon, C

    1992-10-01

    mab-5 is a member of a complex of homeobox-containing genes evolutionarily related to the Antennapedia and bithorax complexes of Drosophila melanogaster. Like the homeotic genes in Drosophila, mab-5 is required in a particular region along the anterior-posterior body axis, and acts during postembryonic development to give cells in this region their characteristic identities. We have used a mab-5-lacZ fusion integrated into the C. elegans genome to study the posterior-specific expression of mab-5 during embryogenesis. The mab-5-lacZ fusion was expressed in the posterior of the embryo by 180 minutes after the first cleavage, indicating that the mechanisms responsible for the position-specific expression of mab-5-lacZ act at a relatively early stage of embryogenesis. In embryos homozygous for mutations in the par genes, which disrupt segregation of factors during early cleavages, expression of mab-5-lacZ was no longer localized to the posterior. This suggests that posterior-specific expression of mab-5 depends on the appropriate segregation of developmental factors during early embryogenesis. After extrusion of any blastomere of the four-cell embryo, descendants of the remaining three cells could still express the mab-5-lacZ fusion. In these partial embryos, however, the fusion was often expressed in cells scattered throughout the embryo, suggesting that cell-cell interactions and/or proper positioning of early blastomeres are required for mab-5 expression to be localized to the posterior.

  9. Bipartite Structure of the 5s Ribosomal Gene Family in a Drosophila Melanogaster Strain, and Its Evolutionary Implications

    PubMed Central

    Samson, M. L.; Wegnez, M.

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge of multigenic family organization should provide insight into their mode of evolution. Accordingly, we characterized the 5S ribosomal gene family in the Drosophila melanogaster strain ry(506). The 5S genes in this strain display a striking HindIII restriction difference compared to the ``standard'' D. melanogaster 5S genes. The sequence of three ry(506) 5S genes was determined. We show that the HindIII restriction site heterogeneity within the ry(506) 5S family most probably results from the same point mutation, suggesting that a single 5S variant was propagated into the 5S cluster of this strain. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the structural organization of the 5S genes in ry(506) is a bipartite structure, i.e., that about 40% of the 5S genes constitute a HindIII(+)/HindIII(-) mixed cluster, while those remaining constitute an homogeneous HindIII(-) cluster. The events which might lead to such an heterogeneous pattern are discussed from an evolutionary point of view. PMID:2835290

  10. Apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1) deposition in, and release from, the enterocyte brush border: a possible role in transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE)?

    PubMed

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Rasmussen, Karina; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte; Frenzel, Franz

    2012-03-01

    Transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) has been proposed to represent a non-hepatobiliary route of cholesterol secretion directly "from blood to gut" and to play a physiologically significant role in excretion of neutral sterols, but so far little is known about the proteins involved in the process. We have previously observed that apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1) synthesized by enterocytes of the small intestine is mainly secreted apically into the gut lumen during fasting where its assembly into chylomicrons and basolateral discharge is at a minimal level. In the present work we showed, both by immunomicroscopy and subcellular fractionation, that a fraction of the apically secreted apoA-1 in porcine small intestine was not released from the cell surface but instead deposited in the brush border. Cholesterol was detected in immunoisolated microvillar apoA-1, and it was partially associated with detergent resistant membranes (DRMs), indicative of localization in lipid raft microdomains. The apolipoprotein was not readily released from microvillar vesicles by high salt or by incubation with phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C or trypsin, indicating a relatively firm attachment to the membrane bilayer. However, whole bile or taurocholate efficiently released apoA-1 at low concentrations that did not solubilize the transmembrane microvillar protein aminopeptidase N. Based on these findings and the well known role played by apoA-1 in extrahepatic cellular cholesterol removal and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), we propose that brush border-deposited apoA-1 in the small intestine acts in TICE by mediating cholesterol efflux into the gut lumen. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Social isolation stress induces ATF-7 phosphorylation and impairs silencing of the 5-HT 5B receptor gene

    PubMed Central

    Maekawa, Toshio; Kim, Seungjoon; Nakai, Daisuke; Makino, Chieko; Takagi, Tsuyoshi; Ogura, Hiroo; Yamada, Kazuyuki; Chatton, Bruno; Ishii, Shunsuke

    2010-01-01

    Many symptoms induced by isolation rearing of rodents may be relevant to neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression. However, identities of transcription factors that regulate gene expression in response to chronic social isolation stress remain elusive. The transcription factor ATF-7 is structurally related to ATF-2, which is activated by various stresses, including inflammatory cytokines. Here, we report that Atf-7-deficient mice exhibit abnormal behaviours and increased 5-HT receptor 5B (Htr5b) mRNA levels in the dorsal raphe nuclei. ATF-7 silences the transcription of Htr5B by directly binding to its 5′-regulatory region, and mediates histone H3-K9 trimethylation via interaction with the ESET histone methyltransferase. Isolation-reared wild-type (WT) mice exhibit abnormal behaviours that resemble those of Atf-7-deficient mice. Upon social isolation stress, ATF-7 in the dorsal raphe nucleus is phosphorylated via p38 and is released from the Htr5b promoter, leading to the upregulation of Htr5b. Thus, ATF-7 may have a critical role in gene expression induced by social isolation stress. PMID:19893493

  12. Clinical phenotype of 5 females with a CDKL5 mutation.

    PubMed

    Stalpers, Xenia L; Spruijt, Liesbeth; Yntema, Helger G; Verrips, Aad

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the X-linked cyclin dependent kinase like 5 (CDKL5) gene have been reported in approximately 80 patients since the first description in 2003. The clinical presentation partly corresponds with Rett syndrome, considering clinical features as intellectual disability, hypotonia, and poor visual, language, and motor development. However, these patients do not meet the consensus criteria for Rett syndrome since they lack the clear period of regression. Furthermore, in contrast to Rett syndrome, patients with CDKL5 mutations, have seizures or infantile spasms starting in the first weeks of life. We present clinical phenotype of 5 girls having a mutation in the CDKL5 gene. All mutations are novel and are pathogenic since they either lead to a frameshift in the reading frame or affect a consensus splice site. Four of the mutations are detected de novo in the affected girl.

  13. Association of polymorphisms of genes involved in lipid metabolism with blood pressure and lipid values in mexican hypertensive individuals.

    PubMed

    Ríos-González, Blanca Estela; Ibarra-Cortés, Bertha; Ramírez-López, Guadalupe; Sánchez-Corona, José; Magaña-Torres, María Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension and dyslipidemia exhibit an important clinical relationship because an increase in blood lipids yields an increase in blood pressure (BP). We analyzed the associations of seven polymorphisms of genes involved in lipid metabolism (APOA5 rs3135506, APOB rs1042031, FABP2 rs1799883, LDLR rs5925, LIPC rs1800588, LPL rs328, and MTTP rs1800591) with blood pressure and lipid values in Mexican hypertensive (HT) patients. A total of 160 HT patients and 160 normotensive individuals were included. Genotyping was performed through PCR-RFLP, PCR-AIRS, and sequencing. The results showed significant associations in the HT group and HT subgroups classified as normolipemic and hyperlipemic. The alleles FABP2 p.55T, LIPC -514T, and MTTP -493T were associated with elevated systolic BP. Five alleles were associated with lipids. LPL p.474X and FABP2 p.55T were associated with decreased total cholesterol and LDL-C, respectively; APOA5 p.19W with increased HDL-C; APOA5 p.19W and FABP2 p.55T with increased triglycerides; and APOB p.4181K and LDLR c.1959T with decreased triglycerides. The APOB p.E4181K polymorphism increases the risk for HT (OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.17-2.93; P = 0.001) under the dominant model. These findings indicate that polymorphisms of lipid metabolism genes modify systolic BP and lipid levels and may be important in the development of essential hypertension and dyslipidemia in Mexican HT patients.

  14. Association of Polymorphisms of Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism with Blood Pressure and Lipid Values in Mexican Hypertensive Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ríos-González, Blanca Estela; Ibarra-Cortés, Bertha; Ramírez-López, Guadalupe; Sánchez-Corona, José; Magaña-Torres, María Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension and dyslipidemia exhibit an important clinical relationship because an increase in blood lipids yields an increase in blood pressure (BP). We analyzed the associations of seven polymorphisms of genes involved in lipid metabolism (APOA5 rs3135506, APOB rs1042031, FABP2 rs1799883, LDLR rs5925, LIPC rs1800588, LPL rs328, and MTTP rs1800591) with blood pressure and lipid values in Mexican hypertensive (HT) patients. A total of 160 HT patients and 160 normotensive individuals were included. Genotyping was performed through PCR-RFLP, PCR-AIRS, and sequencing. The results showed significant associations in the HT group and HT subgroups classified as normolipemic and hyperlipemic. The alleles FABP2 p.55T, LIPC −514T, and MTTP −493T were associated with elevated systolic BP. Five alleles were associated with lipids. LPL p.474X and FABP2 p.55T were associated with decreased total cholesterol and LDL-C, respectively; APOA5 p.19W with increased HDL-C; APOA5 p.19W and FABP2 p.55T with increased triglycerides; and APOB p.4181K and LDLR c.1959T with decreased triglycerides. The APOB p.E4181K polymorphism increases the risk for HT (OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.17–2.93; P = 0.001) under the dominant model. These findings indicate that polymorphisms of lipid metabolism genes modify systolic BP and lipid levels and may be important in the development of essential hypertension and dyslipidemia in Mexican HT patients. PMID:25587205

  15. Cytochrome b5 gene and protein of Candida tropicalis and methods relating thereto

    DOEpatents

    Craft, David L.; Madduri, Krishna M.; Loper, John C.

    2003-01-01

    A novel gene has been isolated which encodes cytochrome b5 (CYTb5) protein of the .omega.-hydroxylase complex of C. tropicalis 20336. Vectors including this gene, and transformed host cells are provided. Methods of increasing the production of a CYTb5 protein are also provided which involve transforming a host cell with a gene encoding this protein and culturing the cells. Methods of increasing the production of a dicarboxylic acid are also provided which involve increasing in the host cell the number of genes encoding this protein.

  16. Copy number variation analysis implicates the cell polarity gene glypican 5 as a human spina bifida candidate gene

    PubMed Central

    Bassuk, Alexander G.; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi B.; Boland, Riley; Smith, Tiffany L.; Hulstrand, Alissa M.; Northrup, Hope; Hakeman, Matthew; Dierdorff, Jason M.; Yung, Christina K.; Long, Abby; Brouillette, Rachel B.; Au, Kit Sing; Gurnett, Christina; Houston, Douglas W.; Cornell, Robert A.; Manak, J. Robert

    2013-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common birth defects of complex etiology. Family and population-based studies have confirmed a genetic component to NTDs. However, despite more than three decades of research, the genes involved in human NTDs remain largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that rare copy number variants (CNVs), especially de novo germline CNVs, are a significant risk factor for NTDs. We used array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to identify rare CNVs in 128 Caucasian and 61 Hispanic patients with non-syndromic lumbar-sacral myelomeningocele. We also performed aCGH analysis on the parents of affected individuals with rare CNVs where parental DNA was available (42 sets). Among the eight de novo CNVs that we identified, three generated copy number changes of entire genes. One large heterozygous deletion removed 27 genes, including PAX3, a known spina bifida-associated gene. A second CNV altered genes (PGPD8, ZC3H6) for which little is known regarding function or expression. A third heterozygous deletion removed GPC5 and part of GPC6, genes encoding glypicans. Glypicans are proteoglycans that modulate the activity of morphogens such as Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), both of which have been implicated in NTDs. Additionally, glypicans function in the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, and several PCP genes have been associated with NTDs. Here, we show that GPC5 orthologs are expressed in the neural tube, and that inhibiting their expression in frog and fish embryos results in NTDs. These results implicate GPC5 as a gene required for normal neural tube development. PMID:23223018

  17. The Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-based vector: a new and versatile gene delivery platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Frank R.; Gabitzsch, Elizabeth S.; Balint, Joseph P.

    2015-05-01

    Based upon advances in gene sequencing and construction, it is now possible to identify specific genes or sequences thereof for gene delivery applications. Recombinant adenovirus serotype-5 (Ad5) viral vectors have been utilized in the settings of gene therapy, vaccination, and immunotherapy but have encountered clinical challenges because they are recognized as foreign entities to the host. This recognition leads to an immunologic clearance of the vector that contains the inserted gene of interest and prevents effective immunization(s). We have reported on a new Ad5-based viral vector technology that can be utilized as an immunization modality to induce immune responses even in the presence of Ad5 vector immunity. We have reported successful immunization and immunotherapy results to infectious diseases and cancers. This improved recombinant viral platform (Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]) can now be utilized in the development of multiple vaccines and immunotherapies.

  18. Association between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism and immunoglobulin A nephropathy susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tian-Biao; Jiang, Zong-Pei

    2015-02-01

    The association between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4 G/5 G gene polymorphism and immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) risk is still controversial. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association between PAI-1 4 G/5 G gene polymorphism and IgAN susceptibility. A predefined literature search and selection of eligible relevant studies were performed to collect data from electronic database. Four articles were identified for the analysis of association between PAI-1 4 G/5 G gene polymorphism and IgAN risk. 4 G allele was not associated with IgAN susceptibility in overall populations and in Asians. Furthermore, 4 G/4 G and 5 G/5 G genotype were not associated with IgAN for overall populations, Asians. In conclusion, PAI-1 4 G/5 G gene polymorphism was not associated with IgAN risk in overall populations and in Asians. However, more studies should be performed in the future.

  19. Reassortant highly pathogenic influenza A H5N2 virus containing gene segments related to Eurasian H5N8 in British Columbia, Canada, 2014.

    PubMed

    Pasick, John; Berhane, Yohannes; Joseph, Tomy; Bowes, Victoria; Hisanaga, Tamiko; Handel, Katherine; Alexandersen, Soren

    2015-03-25

    In late November 2014 higher than normal death losses in a meat turkey and chicken broiler breeder farm in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia initiated a diagnostic investigation that led to the discovery of a novel reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2 virus. This virus, composed of 5 gene segments (PB2, PA, HA, M and NS) related to Eurasian HPAI H5N8 and the remaining gene segments (PB1, NP and NA) related to North American lineage waterfowl viruses, represents the first HPAI outbreak in North American poultry due to a virus with Eurasian lineage genes. Since its first appearance in Korea in January 2014, HPAI H5N8 spread to Western Europe in November 2014. These European outbreaks happened to temporally coincide with migratory waterfowl movements. The fact that the British Columbia outbreaks also occurred at a time associated with increased migratory waterfowl activity along with reports by the USA of a wholly Eurasian H5N8 virus detected in wild birds in Washington State, strongly suggest that migratory waterfowl were responsible for bringing Eurasian H5N8 to North America where it subsequently reassorted with indigenous viruses.

  20. Reassortant Highly Pathogenic Influenza A H5N2 Virus Containing Gene Segments Related to Eurasian H5N8 in British Columbia, Canada, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Pasick, John; Berhane, Yohannes; Joseph, Tomy; Bowes, Victoria; Hisanaga, Tamiko; Handel, Katherine; Alexandersen, Soren

    2015-01-01

    In late November 2014 higher than normal death losses in a meat turkey and chicken broiler breeder farm in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia initiated a diagnostic investigation that led to the discovery of a novel reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2 virus. This virus, composed of 5 gene segments (PB2, PA, HA, M and NS) related to Eurasian HPAI H5N8 and the remaining gene segments (PB1, NP and NA) related to North American lineage waterfowl viruses, represents the first HPAI outbreak in North American poultry due to a virus with Eurasian lineage genes. Since its first appearance in Korea in January 2014, HPAI H5N8 spread to Western Europe in November 2014. These European outbreaks happened to temporally coincide with migratory waterfowl movements. The fact that the British Columbia outbreaks also occurred at a time associated with increased migratory waterfowl activity along with reports by the USA of a wholly Eurasian H5N8 virus detected in wild birds in Washington State, strongly suggest that migratory waterfowl were responsible for bringing Eurasian H5N8 to North America where it subsequently reassorted with indigenous viruses. PMID:25804829

  1. Up-regulation of Wnt5a gene expression in the nitrofen-induced hypoplastic lung.

    PubMed

    Doi, Takashi; Puri, Prem

    2009-12-01

    The pathogenesis of pulmonary hypoplasia in nitrofen-induced congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) still remains unclear. Wnt signaling pathways play a critical role in lung development. Whereas canonical Wnt signaling regulates branching morphogenesis during early lung development, the noncanonical Wnt5a controls late lung morphogenesis, including patterning of distal airway and vascular tubulogenesis (alveolarization). Overexpression of Wnt5a in transgenic mice and in the chick has been reported to result in severe pulmonary hypoplasia. We designed this study to test the hypothesis that the pulmonary Wnt5a gene expression is up-regulated in late stages of lung morphogenesis in CDH. Pregnant rats were exposed to either olive oil or nitrofen on day 9 of gestation (D9). Fetal lungs were harvested on D15, D18, and D21 and divided into 3 groups: control; nitrofen without CDH, CDH(-); and nitrofen with CDH, CDH(+) (n = 8 at each time-point, respectively). Wnt5a pulmonary gene expression was analyzed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate Wnt5a protein expression at each time-point. Pulmonary relative mRNA expression levels of Wnt5a were significantly increased in CDH(-) and CDH(+) at D18 (1.61 +/- 0.92 and 1.81 +/- 1.20, respectively) and D21 (2.40 +/- 0.74* and 2.65 +/- 0.35*, respectively) compared to controls at D18 and D21 (0.90 +/- 0.17* and 1.69 +/- 0.53**, respectively) (*P < .05, **P < .001 vs control ). Strong Wnt5a immunoreactivity was seen in the distal epithelium at D18 and D21 in nitrofen-induced hypoplastic lung compared to controls. Up-regulation of pulmonary Wnt5a gene expression in the late lung morphogenesis may interfere with patterning of alveolarization, causing pulmonary hypoplasia in the nitrofen-induced CDH.

  2. Clinical features and gene mutational spectrum of CDKL5-related diseases in a cohort of Chinese patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mutations in the cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) (NM_003159.2) gene have been associated with early-onset epileptic encephalopathies or Hanefeld variants of RTT(Rett syndrome). In order to clarify the CDKL5 genotype-phenotype correlations in Chinese patients, CDKL5 mutational screening in cases with early-onset epileptic encephalopathies and RTT without MECP2 mutation were performed. Methods The detailed clinical information including clinical manifestation, electroencephalogram (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), blood, urine amino acid and organic acid screening of 102 Chinese patients with early-onset epileptic encephalopathies and RTT were collected. CDKL5 gene mutations were analyzed by PCR, direct sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). The patterns of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) were studied in the female patients with CDKL5 gene mutation. Results De novo CDKL5 gene mutations were found in ten patients including one missense mutation (c.533G > A, p.R178Q) which had been reported, two splicing mutations (ISV6 + 1A > G, ISV13 + 1A > G), three micro-deletions (c.1111delC, c.2360delA, c.234delA), two insertions (c.1791 ins G, c.891_892 ins TT in a pair of twins) and one nonsense mutation (c.1375C > T, p.Q459X). Out of ten patients, 7 of 9 females with Hanefeld variants of RTT and the remaining 2 females with early onset epileptic encephalopathy, were detected while only one male with infantile spasms was detected. The common features of all female patients with CDKL5 gene mutations included refractory seizures starting before 4 months of age, severe psychomotor retardation, Rett-like features such as hand stereotypies, deceleration of head growth after birth and poor prognosis. In contrast, the only one male patient with CDKL5 mutation showed no obvious Rett-like features as females in our cohort. The X-chromosome inactivation patterns of all the female patients were random. Conclusions Mutations in CDKL

  3. Clinical features and gene mutational spectrum of CDKL5-related diseases in a cohort of Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Xiaoying; Bao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qingping; Zhang, Jingjing; Cao, Guangna; Zhang, Jie; Li, Jiarui; Wei, Liping; Pan, Hong; Wu, Xiru

    2014-02-25

    Mutations in the cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) (NM_003159.2) gene have been associated with early-onset epileptic encephalopathies or Hanefeld variants of RTT(Rett syndrome). In order to clarify the CDKL5 genotype-phenotype correlations in Chinese patients, CDKL5 mutational screening in cases with early-onset epileptic encephalopathies and RTT without MECP2 mutation were performed. The detailed clinical information including clinical manifestation, electroencephalogram (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), blood, urine amino acid and organic acid screening of 102 Chinese patients with early-onset epileptic encephalopathies and RTT were collected. CDKL5 gene mutations were analyzed by PCR, direct sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). The patterns of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) were studied in the female patients with CDKL5 gene mutation. De novo CDKL5 gene mutations were found in ten patients including one missense mutation (c.533G > A, p.R178Q) which had been reported, two splicing mutations (ISV6 + 1A > G, ISV13 + 1A > G), three micro-deletions (c.1111delC, c.2360delA, c.234delA), two insertions (c.1791 ins G, c.891_892 ins TT in a pair of twins) and one nonsense mutation (c.1375C > T, p.Q459X). Out of ten patients, 7 of 9 females with Hanefeld variants of RTT and the remaining 2 females with early onset epileptic encephalopathy, were detected while only one male with infantile spasms was detected. The common features of all female patients with CDKL5 gene mutations included refractory seizures starting before 4 months of age, severe psychomotor retardation, Rett-like features such as hand stereotypies, deceleration of head growth after birth and poor prognosis. In contrast, the only one male patient with CDKL5 mutation showed no obvious Rett-like features as females in our cohort. The X-chromosome inactivation patterns of all the female patients were random. Mutations in CDKL5 gene are responsible for 7 with

  4. Linking Yeast Gcn5p Catalytic Function and Gene Regulation Using a Quantitative, Graded Dominant Mutant Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, Amanda M.; Blazeck, John J.; Crook, Nathan C.; Alper, Hal S.

    2012-01-01

    Establishing causative links between protein functional domains and global gene regulation is critical for advancements in genetics, biotechnology, disease treatment, and systems biology. This task is challenging for multifunctional proteins when relying on traditional approaches such as gene deletions since they remove all domains simultaneously. Here, we describe a novel approach to extract quantitative, causative links by modulating the expression of a dominant mutant allele to create a function-specific competitive inhibition. Using the yeast histone acetyltransferase Gcn5p as a case study, we demonstrate the utility of this approach and (1) find evidence that Gcn5p is more involved in cell-wide gene repression, instead of the accepted gene activation associated with HATs, (2) identify previously unknown gene targets and interactions for Gcn5p-based acetylation, (3) quantify the strength of some Gcn5p-DNA associations, (4) demonstrate that this approach can be used to correctly identify canonical chromatin modifications, (5) establish the role of acetyltransferase activity on synthetic lethal interactions, and (6) identify new functional classes of genes regulated by Gcn5p acetyltransferase activity—all six of these major conclusions were unattainable by using standard gene knockout studies alone. We recommend that a graded dominant mutant approach be utilized in conjunction with a traditional knockout to study multifunctional proteins and generate higher-resolution data that more accurately probes protein domain function and influence. PMID:22558379

  5. Hepatic gene expression profiling of 5′-AMP-induced hypometabolism in mice

    PubMed Central

    Miki, Takao; Van Oort-Jansen, Anita; Matsumoto, Tomoko; Loose, David S.; Lee, Cheng Chi

    2011-01-01

    There is currently much interest in clinical applications of therapeutic hypothermia. Hypothermia can be a consequence of hypometabolism. We have recently established a procedure for the induction of a reversible deep hypometabolic state in mice using 5′-adenosine monophosphate (5′-AMP) in conjunction with moderate ambient temperature. The current study aims at investigating the impact of this technology at the gene expression level in a major metabolic organ, the liver. Our findings reveal that expression levels of the majority of genes in liver are not significantly altered by deep hypometabolism. However, among those affected by hypometabolism, more genes are differentially upregulated than downregulated both in a deep hypometabolic state and in the early arousal state. These altered gene expression levels during 5′-AMP induced hypometabolism are largely restored to normal levels within 2 days of the treatment. Our data also suggest that temporal control of circadian genes is largely stalled during deep hypometabolism. PMID:21224422

  6. Brachdactyly Instigated as a Result of Mutation in GDF5 and NOG Genes in Pakistani Population.

    PubMed

    Khan, Samiullah; Mudassir, Muhammad; Khan, Naqab; Marwat, Asmatullah

    2018-01-01

    Brachdactyly a genetic disorder associated with the abnormal development of metacarpals, phalanges or both which results in the shortening of hands and feet. Mutations in the contributing genes has been recognized with the majority of the investigated syndromic form of brachdactyly. The current study was proposed to examine mutation in NOG and GDF5 genes in a Pakistani family. Poly Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis and Polymerase Chain Reaction was used for the genomic screening and linkage analysis to observe the mutation in genes. The samples were collected from Luckki Marwat district, KPK, while the research study was conducted in the department of Biochemistry, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. After survey, family was identified with brachdactyly type A2 and investigated a heterozygous arginine to glutamine exchange in the growth demarcation factor 5 in all the victim persons. Different types of skeletal dysplasia resulted due to mutation in the GDF5 genes. Novel GDF5 genes mutations were reported with distinct limb malformation and sequencing of coding region revealed that the mildly affected individuals were heterozygous while the harshly affected individuals were homozygous. The current study reported the genetic variability and concluded that the Brachdacytyly type A2 and type B2 resulted due to mutation in GDF5 and NOG genes respectively. A new subtype of brachydactyly (BDB2) was instigated as a result of novel mutations in NOG. The mutation has been reported for the first time in Pakistani population and especially in Pushtoon ethnic population.

  7. MTA3 regulates CGB5 and Snail genes in trophoblast

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chen, Ying; Miyazaki, Jun; Division of Molecular Genetics, Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University, Toyoake

    Highlights: •Impaired MTA3, raised CGB5 and Snail expression are associated with preeclampsia. •Knock-down of MTA3 causes up-regulation of CGB5 and Snail genes in BeWo cells. •MTA3 occupies CGB5 and Snail gene promoters in BeWo cells. -- Abstract: Secreted by the placental trophoblast, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is an important hormone during pregnancy and is required for the maintenance of pregnancy. Previous studies have shown that dys-regulation of hCG expression is associated with preeclampsia. However, the exact relationship between altered hCG levels and development of preeclampsia is unknown. Metastasis associated protein 3 (MTA3), a chromatin remodeling protein, is abundantly expressed inmore » the placental trophoblasts, but its function is unknown. In breast cancer, MTA3 has been shown to repress the expression of Snail and cell migration. However, whether MTA3 acts similarly in the trophoblast has not been investigated. In the present study, we examined the role of MTA3 in regulating the hCG β-subunit gene (gene name: CGB5) and Snail expression in the trophoblast cell line, BeWo, as well as its relevance to the high hCG expression levels seen in preeclampsia. First, we investigated MTA3 expression in preeclamptic placenta as compared to normal control placenta via gene expression microarray and qRT-PCR and found that MTA3 was significantly down-regulated, whereas both CGB5 and Snail were up-regulated in preeclamptic placenta. Secondly, we knocked down MTA3 gene in trophoblast cell line BeWo and found Snail and hCG were both up-regulated, suggesting that MTA3 represses Snail and hCG gene expression in trophoblasts. Next, we cloned the CGB5 and Snail promoters into the pGL3-basic vector individually and found that silencing of MTA3 by siRNA resulted in an increase of both CGB5 and Snail promoter activities. To confirm that this MTA3 inhibition is a direct effect, we performed a chromatin immune-precipitation (ChIP) assay and found that MTA

  8. A common polymorphism of the SRD5A2 gene and transsexualism.

    PubMed

    Bentz, Eva-Katrin; Schneeberger, Christian; Hefler, Lukas A; van Trotsenburg, Mick; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Huber, Johannes C; Tempfer, Clemens B

    2007-10-01

    The relation between genetic variation of the androgen metabolism and transsexualism is unknown. In a case-control study of 100 male-to-female (MtF) transsexuals, 47 female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals, and 1670 controls, the authors assess allele and genotype frequencies of the steroid 5-alpha reductase (SRD5A2) Val89Leu polymorphism using polymerase chain reaction. Allele and genotype frequencies are not significantly different between MtF transsexuals and male controls (SRD5A2 V: 137/200 [69%] and SRD5A2 L: 63/200 [31%] vs 1065/1510 [71%] and 445/1510 [29%], respectively; P = .6; odds ratio [OR], 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76-1.58; SRD5A2 V/V+V/L: 92/100 [92%] and L/L 8/100 [8%] vs SRD5A2 683/755 [91%] and 72/755 [9%], respectively, P = .7; OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.24-2.84). Allele and genotype frequencies are also not significantly different between FtM transsexuals and female controls (SRD5A2 V: 70/94 [74%] and SRD5A2 L: 24/94 [26%] vs 1253/1830 [69%] and 573/1830 [31%], respectively; P = .3; OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.45-1.26; SRD5A2 V/V+V/L: 44/47 [93%] and L/L 3/47 [7%] vs 823/915 [90%] and 92/915 [10%], respectively, P = .6; OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.11-3.32). Of note, there is no gender-specific genotype distribution among controls. The SRD5A2 Val89Leu SNP is not associated with transsexualism, refuting SRD5A2 as a candidate gene of transsexualism.

  9. Umchs5, a gene coding for a class IV chitin synthase in Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Xoconostle-Cázares, B; Specht, C A; Robbins, P W; Liu, Y; León, C; Ruiz-Herrera, J

    1997-12-01

    A fragment corresponding to a conserved region of a fifth gene coding for chitin synthase in the plant pathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis was amplified by means of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplified fragment was utilized as a probe for the identification of the whole gene in a genomic library of the fungus. The predicted gene product of Umchs5 has highest similarity with class IV chitin synthases encoded by the CHS3 genes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans, chs-4 from Neurospora crassa, and chsE from Aspergillus nidulans. Umchs5 null mutants were constructed by substitution of most of the coding sequence with the hygromycin B resistance cassette. Mutants displayed significant reduction in growth rate, chitin content, and chitin synthase activity, specially in the mycelial form. Virulence to corn plantules was also reduced in the mutants. PCR was also used to obtain a fragment of a sixth chitin synthase, Umchs6. It is suggested that multigenic control of chitin synthesis in U. maydis operates as a protection mechanism for fungal viability in which the loss of one activity is partially compensated by the remaining enzymes. Copyright 1997 Academic Press.

  10. Insertion of part of an intron into the 5[prime] untranslated region of a Caenorhabditis elegans gene converts it into a trans-spliced gene

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Conrad, R.; Thomas, J.; Spieth, J.

    In nematodes, the RNA products of some genes are trans-spliced to a 22-nucleotide spliced leader (SL), while the RNA products of other genes are not. In Caenorhabditis elegans, there are two SLs, Sl1 and SL2, donated by two distinct small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles in a process functionally quite similar to nuclear intron removal. The authors demonstrate here that it is possible to convert a non-trans-spliced gene into a trans-spliced gene by placement of an intron missing only the 5[prime] splice site into the 5[prime] untranslated region. Stable transgenic strains were isolated expressing a gene in which 69 nucleotides of amore » vit-5 intron, including the 3[prime] splice site, were inserted into the 5[prime] untranslated region of a vit-2/vit-6 fusion gene. The RNA product of this gene was examined by primer extension and PCR amplification. Although the vit-2/vit-6 transgene product is not normally trans-spliced, the majority of transcripts from this altered gene were trans-spliced to SL1. They termed the region of a trans-spliced mRNA precursor between the 5[prime] end and the first 3[prime] splice site an 'outrun'. The results suggest that if a transcript begins with intronlike sequence followed by a 3[prime] splice site, this alone may constitute an outrun and be sufficient to demarcate a transcript as a trans-splice acceptor. These findings leave open the possibility that specific sequences are required to increase the efficiency of trans-splicing.« less

  11. 2´-deoxy-5,6-dihydro-5-azacytidine - a less toxic alternative of 2´-deoxy-5-azacytidine: a comparative study of hypomethylating potential.

    PubMed

    Matoušová, Marika; Votruba, Ivan; Otmar, Miroslav; Tloušťová, Eva; Günterová, Jana; Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Helena

    2011-06-01

    Restoration of transcriptionally silenced genes by means of methyltransferases inhibitors plays a crucial role in the current therapy of myelodysplastic syndromes and certain types of leukemias. A comparative study of hypomethylating activities of a series of 5-azacytidine nucleosides: 5-azacytidine (AC), 2'-deoxy-5-azacytidine (DAC) and its α-anomer (α-DAC), 5,6-dihydro-5-azacytidine (DHAC), 2'-deoxy-5,6-dihydro-5-azacytidine (DHDAC, KP-1212) and its α-anomer (α-DHDAC), and of a 2-pyrimidone ribonucleoside (zebularine) was conducted. Methylation-specific PCR was employed to detect the efficiency of individual agents on cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B and thrombospondin-1 hypermethylated gene loci. Overall changes in DNA methylation level were quantified by direct estimation of 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine-5'-monophosphate by HPLC using digested genomic DNA. Flow cytometric analysis of cell cycle progression and apoptotic markers was used to determine cytotoxicity of the compounds. mRNA expression was measured using qRT-PCR. 2'-deoxy-5,6-dihydro-5-azacytidine was found to be less cytotoxic and more stable than 2'-deoxy-5-azacytidine at the doses that induce comparable DNA hypomethylation and gene reactivation. This makes it a valuable tool for epigenetic research and worth further investigations to elucidate its possible therapeutic potential.

  12. Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus BM5 protein regulates progeny virus production and viral gene expression

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kokusho, Ryuhei, E-mail: kokusho@ss.ab.a.u-tokyo.a

    2016-11-15

    Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) orf5 (Bm5) is a core gene of lepidopteran baculoviruses and encodes the protein with the conserved amino acid residues (DUF3627) in its C-terminus. Here, we found that Bm5 disruption resulted in lower titers of budded viruses and fewer numbers of occlusion bodies (OBs) in B. mori cultured cells and larvae, although viral genome replication was not affected. Bm5 disruption also caused aberrant expression of various viral genes at the very late stage of infection. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that BM5 localized to the nuclear membrane. We also found that DUF3627 is important for OB production, transcriptional regulationmore » of viral genes, and subcellular localization of BM5. Compared with wild-type BmNPV infection, larval death was delayed when B. mori larvae were infected with Bm5 mutants. These results suggest that BM5 is involved in progeny virus production and regulation of viral gene expression at the very late stage of infection. -- Highlights: •The role of BmNPV BM5 protein was examined in B. mori cultured cells and larvae. •BM5 contributes to efficient production of budded viruses and occlusion bodies. •BM5 regulates viral gene expression at the very late stage of infection. •BM5 dominantly localizes to the nuclear membrane. •Bm5 mutant showed v-cath down-regulation and resulting delay of larval death.« less

  13. LCR 5' hypersensitive site specificity for globin gene activation within the active chromatin hub.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kenneth R; Fedosyuk, Halyna; Harju-Baker, Susanna

    2012-12-01

    The DNaseI hypersensitive sites (HSs) of the human β-globin locus control region (LCR) may function as part of an LCR holocomplex within a larger active chromatin hub (ACH). Differential activation of the globin genes during development may be controlled in part by preferential interaction of each gene with specific individual HSs during globin gene switching, a change in conformation of the LCR holocomplex, or both. To distinguish between these possibilities, human β-globin locus yeast artificial chromosome (β-YAC) lines were produced in which the ε-globin gene was replaced with a second marked β-globin gene (β(m)), coupled to an intact LCR, a 5'HS3 complete deletion (5'ΔHS3) or a 5'HS3 core deletion (5'ΔHS3c). The 5'ΔHS3c mice expressed β(m)-globin throughout development; γ-globin was co-expressed in the embryonic yolk sac, but not in the fetal liver; and wild-type β-globin was co-expressed in adult mice. Although the 5'HS3 core was not required for β(m)-globin expression, previous work showed that the 5'HS3 core is necessary for ε-globin expression during embryonic erythropoiesis. A similar phenotype was observed in 5'HS complete deletion mice, except β(m)-globin expression was higher during primitive erythropoiesis and γ-globin expression continued into fetal definitive erythropoiesis. These data support a site specificity model of LCR HS-globin gene interaction.

  14. Specific haplotypes of the CALPAIN-5 gene are associated with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    González, A; Sáez, M E; Aragón, M J; Galán, J J; Vettori, P; Molina, L; Rubio, C; Real, L M; Ruiz, Agustín; Ramírez-Lorca, R

    2006-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of CALPAIN-5 (CAPN5) gene in PCOS susceptibility. We analysed four intronic polymorphisms of the CAPN5 gene in 148 well-characterized women with PCOS and 606 unrelated controls. We performed a case-control study and an intracohort analysis of clinical characteristics associated with PCOS. Analysis of haplotypes distribution between PCOS population compared to controls showed a strong deviation (P = 0.00029). The haplotypes GGCA and GGTG were overrepresented in PCOS patients (P = 0.009 and P = 0.001, respectively). In addition, we identified several CAPN5 haplotypes associated with phenotypic differences observed between PCOS patients, such as the presence of obesity (P = 0.02), cardiovascular complications (P = 0.02), familial antecedents of obesity (P = 0.003) and of hypertension (P = 0.007) and type 2 diabetes mellitus aggregation (P = 0.04). These results suggest a role of CAPN5 gene in PCOS susceptibility in humans. Moreover, novel candidate risk alleles have been identified, within CAPN5 gene, which could be associated with important phenotypic and prognosis differences observed in PCOS patients.

  15. The Wilms tumor protein WT1 stimulates transcription of the gene encoding insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (IGFBP5).

    PubMed

    Müller, Miriam; Persson, Anja Bondke; Krueger, Katharina; Kirschner, Karin M; Scholz, Holger

    2017-07-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding proteins (IGFBPs) constitute a family of six secreted proteins that regulate the signaling of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). IGFBP5 is the most conserved family member in vertebrates and the major IGF binding protein in bone. IGFBP5 is required for normal development of the musculoskeletal system, and various types of cancer frequently express high levels of IGFP5. Here we identify the gene encoding IGFBP5 as a novel downstream target of the Wilms tumor protein WT1. IGFBP5 and WT1 are expressed in an overlapping pattern in the condensing metanephric mesenchyme of embryonic murine kidneys. Down-regulation of WT1 by transfection with antisense vivo-morpholino significantly decreased Igfbp5 transcripts in murine embryonic kidney explants. Likewise, silencing of Wt1 in a mouse mesonephros-derived cell line reduced Igfbp5 mRNA levels by approximately 80%. Conversely, induction of the WT1(-KTS) isoform, whose role as transcriptional regulator has been firmly established, significantly increased IGFBP5 mRNA and protein levels in osteosarcoma cells. IGFBP5 expression was not significantly changed by WT1(+KTS) protein, which exhibits lower DNA binding affinity than the WT1(-KTS) isoform and has a presumed role in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Luciferase reporter constructs harboring 0.8 and 1.6 kilobases of the murine Igfbp5 promoter, respectively, were stimulated approximately 5-fold by co-transfection of WT1(-KTS). The WT1(+KTS) variant had no significant effect on IGFBP5 promoter activity. Binding of WT1(-KTS), but not of WT1(+KTS) protein, to the IGFBP5 promoter in human osteosarcoma cells was proven by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. These findings demonstrate that WT1 activates transcription of the IGFBP5 gene with possible implications for kidney development and bone (patho)physiology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Engineering fire blight resistance into the apple cultivar 'Gala' using the FB_MR5 CC-NBS-LRR resistance gene of Malus × robusta 5.

    PubMed

    Broggini, Giovanni A L; Wöhner, Thomas; Fahrentrapp, Johannes; Kost, Thomas D; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Maria-Viola; Richter, Klaus; Patocchi, Andrea; Gessler, Cesare

    2014-08-01

    The fire blight susceptible apple cultivar Malus × domestica Borkh. cv. 'Gala' was transformed with the candidate fire blight resistance gene FB_MR5 originating from the crab apple accession Malus × robusta 5 (Mr5). A total of five different transgenic lines were obtained. All transgenic lines were shown to be stably transformed and originate from different transgenic events. The transgenic lines express the FB_MR5 either driven by the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter and the ocs terminator or by its native promoter and terminator sequences. Phenotyping experiments were performed with Mr5-virulent and Mr5-avirulent strains of Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. Significantly less disease symptoms were detected on transgenic lines after inoculation with two different Mr5-avirulent E. amylovora strains, while significantly more shoot necrosis was observed after inoculation with the Mr5-virulent mutant strain ZYRKD3_1. The results of these experiments demonstrated the ability of a single gene isolated from the native gene pool of apple to protect a susceptible cultivar from fire blight. Furthermore, this gene is confirmed to be the resistance determinant of Mr5 as the transformed lines undergo the same gene-for-gene interaction in the host-pathogen relationship Mr5-E. amylovora. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. MiR-34b-5p Suppresses Melanoma Differentiation-Associated Gene 5 (MDA5) Signaling Pathway to Promote Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J (ALV-J)-Infected Cells Proliferaction and ALV-J Replication

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenhui; Luo, Qingbin; Xu, Haiping; Zheng, Ming; Abdalla, Bahareldin Ali; Feng, Min; Cai, Bolin; Zhang, Xiaocui; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan

    2017-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an oncogenic retrovirus that has a similar replication cycle to multiple viruses and therefore can be used as a model system for viral entry into host cells. However, there are few reports on the genes or microRNAs (miRNAs) that are responsible for the replication of ALV-J. Our previous miRNA and RNA sequencing data showed that the expression of miR-34b-5p was significantly upregulated in ALV-J-infected chicken spleens compared to non-infected chicken spleens, but melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) had the opposite expression pattern. In this study, a dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that MDA5 is a direct target of miR-34b-5p. In vitro, overexpression of miR-34b-5p accelerated the proliferation of ALV-J-infected cells by inducing the progression from G2 to S phase and it promoted cell migration. Ectopic expression of MDA5 inhibited ALV-J-infected cell proliferation, the cell cycle and cell migration, and knockdown of MDA5 promoted proliferation, the cell cycle and migration. In addition, during ALV-J infections, MDA5 can detect virus invasion and it triggers the MDA5 signaling pathway. MDA5 overexpression can activate the MDA5 signaling pathway, and thus it can inhibit the mRNA and protein expression of the ALV-J env gene and it can suppress virion secretion. In contrast, in response to the knockdown of MDA5 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) or an miR-34b-5p mimic, genes in the MDA5 signaling pathway were significantly downregulated (P < 0.05), but the mRNA and protein expression of ALV-J env and the sample-to-positive ratio of virion in the supernatants were increased. This indicates that miR-34b-5p is able to trigger the MDA5 signaling pathway and affect ALV-J infections. Together, these results suggest that miR-34b-5p targets MDA5 to accelerate the proliferation and migration of ALV-J-infected cells, and it promotes ALV-J replication, via the MDA5 signaling pathway. PMID:28194372

  18. MiR-34b-5p Suppresses Melanoma Differentiation-Associated Gene 5 (MDA5) Signaling Pathway to Promote Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J (ALV-J)-Infected Cells Proliferaction and ALV-J Replication.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenhui; Luo, Qingbin; Xu, Haiping; Zheng, Ming; Abdalla, Bahareldin Ali; Feng, Min; Cai, Bolin; Zhang, Xiaocui; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan

    2017-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an oncogenic retrovirus that has a similar replication cycle to multiple viruses and therefore can be used as a model system for viral entry into host cells. However, there are few reports on the genes or microRNAs (miRNAs) that are responsible for the replication of ALV-J. Our previous miRNA and RNA sequencing data showed that the expression of miR-34b-5p was significantly upregulated in ALV-J-infected chicken spleens compared to non-infected chicken spleens, but melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 ( MDA5 ) had the opposite expression pattern. In this study, a dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that MDA5 is a direct target of miR-34b-5p. In vitro , overexpression of miR-34b-5p accelerated the proliferation of ALV-J-infected cells by inducing the progression from G2 to S phase and it promoted cell migration. Ectopic expression of MDA5 inhibited ALV-J-infected cell proliferation, the cell cycle and cell migration, and knockdown of MDA5 promoted proliferation, the cell cycle and migration. In addition, during ALV-J infections, MDA5 can detect virus invasion and it triggers the MDA5 signaling pathway. MDA5 overexpression can activate the MDA5 signaling pathway, and thus it can inhibit the mRNA and protein expression of the ALV-J env gene and it can suppress virion secretion. In contrast, in response to the knockdown of MDA5 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) or an miR-34b-5p mimic, genes in the MDA5 signaling pathway were significantly downregulated ( P < 0.05), but the mRNA and protein expression of ALV-J env and the sample-to-positive ratio of virion in the supernatants were increased. This indicates that miR-34b-5p is able to trigger the MDA5 signaling pathway and affect ALV-J infections. Together, these results suggest that miR-34b-5p targets MDA5 to accelerate the proliferation and migration of ALV-J-infected cells, and it promotes ALV-J replication, via the MDA5 signaling pathway.

  19. Characterization of the "CCR5" Chemokine Receptor Gene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, John C.

    2004-01-01

    The life cycle of retroviruses is an essential topic of modern cell biology instruction. Furthermore, the process of HIV viral entry into the cell is a question of great interest in basic and clinical biology. This paper describes how students can easily recover their own DNA, amplify a portion of the "CCR5" chemokine receptor gene, characterize…

  20. 5-Lipoxygenase gene expression in the thymus.

    PubMed

    Hostein, I; Dorion-Bonnet, F; Bloch, B; Vaillier, D; Juzan, M; Gualde, N

    1992-09-01

    Eicosanoids are arachidonic acid metabolites issued both the cyclooxygenase and the lipoxygenase pathways. Many of these products were reported to modulate the immune response. Since most of eicosanoids have a short half life they are considered as local immunomodulators. Interactions between eicosanoids and thymocytes appear to be complex within the thymus. It was reported that cyclooxegenase derivatives of arachidonic acid are produced in this primary lymphoid organ mostly by cells of the thymic microenvironment. On the other hand it is not yet clearly established (1) what is the location of the lipoxygenase-positive cells within the gland and (2) what is the ratio of cells producing lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid when compared to the whole thymocyte population. Using two oligonucleotides complementary to the rat 5-lipoxygenase mRNA we demonstrated (by both hybridization on Northern blots and in situ hybridization) the expression of the 5-lipoxygenase gene in the thymus. 5-lipoxygenase positive cells appear to be associated in "clusters" and are mostly located in the thymic cortex. It is likely that they belong to the thymic microenvironment.

  1. CCR5 gene polymorphism is a genetic risk factor for radiographic severity of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Han, S W; Sa, K H; Kim, S I; Lee, S I; Park, Y W; Lee, S S; Yoo, W H; Soe, J S; Nam, E J; Lee, J; Park, J Y; Kang, Y M

    2012-11-01

    The chemokine receptor [C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5)] is expressed on diverse immune effecter cells and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study sought to determine whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CCR5 gene and their haplotypes were associated with susceptibility to and severity of RA. Three hundred fifty-seven patients with RA and 383 healthy unrelated controls were recruited. Using a pyrosequencing assay, we examined four polymorphisms -1118 CTAT(ins) (/del) (rs10577983), 303 A>G (rs1799987), 927 C>T (rs1800024), and 4838 G>T (rs1800874) of the CCR5 gene, which were distributed over the promoter region as well as the 5' and 3' untranslated regions. No significant difference in the genotype, allele, and haplotype frequencies of the four selected SNPs was observed between RA patients and controls. CCR5 polymorphisms of -1118 CTAT(del) (P = 0.012; corrected P = 0.048) and 303 A>G (P = 0.012; corrected P = 0.048) showed a significant association with radiographic severity in a recessive model, and, as a result of multivariate logistic regression analysis, were found to be an independent predictor of radiographic severity. When we separated the erosion score from the total Sharp score, the statistical significance of CCR5 polymorphisms showed an increase; -1118 CTAT(ins) (/del) (P = 0.007; corrected P = 0.028) and 303 A>G (P = 0.007; corrected P = 0.028). Neither SNPs nor haplotypes of the CCR5 gene showed a significant association with joint space narrowing score. These results indicate that genetic polymorphisms of CCR5 are an independent risk factor for radiographic severity denoted by modified Sharp score, particularly joint erosion in RA. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Identification and expression analyses of a novel serotonin receptor gene, 5-HT2β, in the field cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Aonuma, H

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT) modulates various aspects of behaviors such as aggressive behavior and circadian behavior in the cricket. In our previous report, in order to elucidate the molecular basis of the cricket 5-HT system, we identified three genes involved in 5-HT biosynthesis, as well as four 5-HT receptor genes (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2α, and 5-HT7) expressed in the brain of the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer [7]. In the present study, we identified Gryllus 5-HT2β gene, an additional 5-HT receptor gene expressed in the cricket brain, and examined its tissue-specific distribution and embryonic stage-dependent expression. Gryllus 5-HT2β gene was ubiquitously expressed in the all examined adult tissues, and was expressed during early embryonic development, as well as during later stages. This study suggests functional differences between two 5-HT2 receptors in the cricket.

  3. Prevalence of the Prefoldin Subunit 5 Gene Deletion in Canine Mammary Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Bornemann-Kolatzki, Kirsten; Neumann, Stephan; Escobar, Hugo Murua; Nolte, Ingo; Hammer, Susanne Conradine; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Junginger, Johannes; Kaup, Franz-Josef; Brenig, Bertram; Schütz, Ekkehard

    2015-01-01

    Background A somatic deletion at the proximal end of canine chromosome 27 (CFA27) was recently reported in 50% of malignant mammary tumors. This region harbours the tumor suppressor gene prefoldin subunit 5 (PFDN5) and the deletion correlated with a higher Ki-67 score. PFDN5 has been described to repress c-MYC and is, therefore, a candidate tumor-suppressor and cancer-driver gene in canine mammary cancer. Aim of this study was to confirm the recurrent deletion in a larger number of tumors. Methods Droplet digital PCR for PFDN5 was performed in DNA from 102 malignant, 40 benign mammary tumors/dysplasias, 11 non-neoplastic mammary tissues and each corresponding genomic DNA from leukocytes. The copy number of PFDN5 was normalized to a reference amplicon on canine chromosome 32 (CFA32). Z-scores were calculated, based on Gaussian distributed normalized PFDN5 copy numbers of the leukocyte DNA. Z-scores ≤ -3.0 in tissue were considered as being indicative of the PFDN5 deletion and called as such. The Ki-67 proliferation index was assessed in a subset of 79 tissue samples by immunohistochemistry. Results The deletion was confirmed in 24% of all malignant tumors, detected in only 7.5% of the benign tumors and was not present in any normal mammary tissue sample. The subgroup of solid carcinomas (n = 9) showed the highest frequency of the deletion (67%) and those malignomas without microscopical high fraction of benign tissue (n = 71) had a 32% frequency (p<0.01 vs. benign samples). The Ki-67 score was found to be significantly higher (p<0.05) in the PFDN5-deleted group compared to malignant tumors without the deletion. Conclusions A somatic deletion of the PFDN5 gene is recurrently present in canine mammary cancer, supporting a potential role in carcinogenesis. The association of this deletion with higher Ki-67 indicates an increased proliferation rate and thus a link to tumor aggressiveness can be hypothesized. The confirmation of earlier results warrants further studies

  4. Association of Polymorphisms of Serotonin Transporter (5HTTLPR) and 5-HT2C Receptor Genes with Criminal Behavior in Russian Criminal Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Toshchakova, Valentina A.; Bakhtiari, Yalda; Kulikov, Alexander V.; Gusev, Sergey I.; Trofimova, Marina V.; Fedorenko, Olga Yu.; Mikhalitskaya, Ekaterina V.; Popova, Nina K.; Bokhan, Nikolay A.; Hovens, Johannes E.; Loonen, Anton J.M.; Wilffert, Bob; Ivanova, Svetlana A.

    2018-01-01

    Background Human aggression is a heterogeneous behavior with biological, psychological, and social backgrounds. As the biological mechanisms that regulate aggression are components of both reward-seeking and adversity-fleeing behavior, these phenomena are difficult to disentangle into separate neurochemical processes. Nevertheless, evidence exists linking some forms of aggression to aberrant serotonergic neurotransmission. We determined possible associations between 6 serotonergic neurotransmission-related gene variants and severe criminal offenses. Methods Male Russian prisoners who were convicted for murder (n = 117) or theft (n = 77) were genotyped for variants of the serotonin transporter (5HTTLPR), tryptophan hydroxylase, tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase, or type 2C (5-HT2C) receptor genes and compared with general-population male controls (n = 161). Prisoners were psychologically phenotyped using the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory. Results No differences were found between murderers and thieves either concerning genotypes or concerning psychological measures. Comparison of polymorphism distribution between groups of prisoners and controls revealed highly significant associations of 5HTTLPR and 5-HTR2C (rs6318) gene polymorphisms with being convicted for criminal behavior. Conclusions The lack of biological differences between the 2 groups of prisoners indicates that the studied 5HT-related genes do not differentiate between the types of crimes committed. PMID:29621775

  5. Effect of KCNJ5 Mutations on Gene Expression in Aldosterone-Producing Adenomas and Adrenocortical Cells

    PubMed Central

    Monticone, Silvia; Hattangady, Namita G.; Nishimoto, Koshiro; Mantero, Franco; Rubin, Beatrice; Cicala, Maria Verena; Pezzani, Raffaele; Auchus, Richard J.; Ghayee, Hans K.; Shibata, Hirotaka; Kurihara, Isao; Williams, Tracy A.; Giri, Judith G.; Bollag, Roni J.; Edwards, Michael A.; Isales, Carlos M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Primary aldosteronism is a heterogeneous disease that includes both sporadic and familial forms. A point mutation in the KCNJ5 gene is responsible for familial hyperaldosteronism type III. Somatic mutations in KCNJ5 also occur in sporadic aldosterone producing adenomas (APA). Objective: The objective of the study was to define the effect of the KCNJ5 mutations on gene expression and aldosterone production using APA tissue and human adrenocortical cells. Methods: A microarray analysis was used to compare the transcriptome profiles of female-derived APA samples with and without KCNJ5 mutations and HAC15 adrenal cells overexpressing either mutated or wild-type KCNJ5. Real-time PCR validated a set of differentially expressed genes. Immunohistochemical staining localized the KCNJ5 expression in normal adrenals and APA. Results: We report a 38% (18 of 47) prevalence of KCNJ5 mutations in APA. KCNJ5 immunostaining was highest in the zona glomerulosa of NA and heterogeneous in APA tissue, and KCNJ5 mRNA was 4-fold higher in APA compared with normal adrenals (P < 0.05). APA with and without KCNJ5 mutations displayed slightly different gene expression patterns, notably the aldosterone synthase gene (CYP11B2) was more highly expressed in APA with KCNJ5 mutations. Overexpression of KCNJ5 mutations in HAC15 increased aldosterone production and altered expression of 36 genes by greater than 2.5-fold (P < 0.05). Real-time PCR confirmed increases in CYP11B2 and its transcriptional regulator, NR4A2. Conclusions: KCNJ5 mutations are prevalent in APA, and our data suggest that these mutations increase expression of CYP11B2 and NR4A2, thus increasing aldosterone production. PMID:22628608

  6. Linkage approach and direct COL4A5 gene mutation screening in Alport syndrome

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Turco, A.E.; Rossetti, S.; Biasi, O.

    1994-09-01

    Alport Syndrome (AS) is transmitted as an X-linked dominant trait in the majority of families, the defective gene being COL4A5 at Xq22. In the remaining cases AS appears to be autosomally inherited. Recently, mutations in COL4A3 and COL4A4 genes at 2q35-q37 were identified in families with autosomal recessive AS. Mutation detection screening is being performed by non-radioactive single stand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), heteroduplex analysis, and automated DNA sequencing in over 170 AS patients enrolled in the ongoing Italian Multicenter Study on AS. So far twenty-five different mutations have been found, including missense, splicing, and frameshifts. Moreover, by using six tightlymore » linked COL4A5 informative makers, we have also typed two larger AS families, and have shown compatible sex-linked transmission in one other, suggesting autosomal recessive inheritance. In this latter three-generation COL4A5-unlinked family we are now looking for linkage and for mutations in the candidate COL4A3 and COL4A4 genes on chromosome 2q.« less

  7. Compound heterozygous mutations in the SRD5A2 gene exon 4 in a male pseudohermaphrodite patient of Chinese origin.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Cancio, Mónica; Nistal, Manuel; Gracia, Ricardo; Molina, M Antonia; Tovar, Juan Antonio; Esteban, Cristina; Carrascosa, Antonio; Audí, Laura

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to perform 5-alpha-reductase type 2 gene (SRD5A2) analysis in a male pseudohermaphrodite (MPH) patient with normal testosterone (T) production and normal androgen receptor (AR) gene coding sequences. A patient of Chinese origin with ambiguous genitalia at 14 months, a 46,XY karyotype, and normal T secretion under human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulation underwent a gonadectomy at 20 months. Exons 1-8 of the AR gene and exons 1-5 of the SRD5A2 gene were sequenced from peripheral blood DNA. AR gene coding sequences were normal. SRD5A2 gene analysis revealed 2 consecutive mutations in exon 4, each located in a different allele: 1) a T nucleotide deletion, which predicts a frameshift mutation from codon 219, and 2) a missense mutation at codon 227, where the substitution of guanine (CGA) by adenine (CAA) predicts a glutamine replacement of arginine (R227Q). Testes located in the inguinal canal showed a normal morphology for age. The patient was a compound heterozygote for SRD5A2 mutations, carrying 2 mutations in exon 4. The patient showed an R227Q mutation that has been described in an Asian population and MPH patients, along with a novel frameshift mutation, Tdel219. Testis morphology showed that, during early infancy, the 5-alpha-reductase enzyme deficiency may not have affected interstitial or tubular development.

  8. Serotonin receptor 5-HT5A in rat hippocampus decrease by leptin treatment.

    PubMed

    García-Alcocer, Guadalupe; Rodríguez, Angelina; Moreno-Layseca, Paulina; Berumen, Laura C; Escobar, Jesica; Miledi, Ricardo

    2010-12-17

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is involved in a variety of different physiological processes and behaviors through the activation of equally diverse receptors subtypes. In this work we studied the changes on the expression of 5-HT(5A) receptors in rat hippocampus induced by leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone that has been reported to participate in the modulation of food intake and in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. To study the effect of leptin on the 5-HT(5A) receptor gene expression a qRT-PCR was used and the distribution of those receptors in the hippocampus was visualized by immunohistochemistry. Rats were separated in four groups: control (untreated rats), leptin-treated, serotonin-treated and leptin+serotonin treated. The results showed that even though the 5-HT(5A) gene expression did not change in the hippocampus of any of the treated groups, in the rats treated with leptin and serotonin, the specific immunostaining for the 5-HT(5A) serotonin receptor decreased significantly in the dentate gyrus. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evidence of post-transcriptional readthrough regulation in FGF5 gene of alpaca.

    PubMed

    Pallotti, Stefano; Pediconi, Dario; Subramanian, Dharaneedharan; Molina, María Gabriela; Antonini, Marco; Morelli, Maria Beatrice; Renieri, Carlo; La Terza, Antonietta

    2018-03-20

    Two different phenotypes are described in alpaca, identified as suri and huacaya, which differ in the type of fleece. The huacaya fleece is characterized by compact, soft and highly crimped fibers, while the suri fleece is longer, straight, less-crimped and lustrous. In our study, the Fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) was investigated as a possible candidate gene for hair length in alpaca (Vicugna pacos). As previously identified in other mammals, our results show that the alpaca FGF5 gene gives rise to a short (FGF5S) and a long (FGF5) isoform. Interestingly, in the long isoform, we observed a point mutation (i.e., a transition C>T at position 499 downstream of the ATG codon) that is able to generate a premature termination codon (PTC). The highly conserved nucleotide and amino acid sequence after PTC suggested a readthrough event (RT) that was confirmed by western blot analysis. The analysis of cDNA sequence revealed motifs and structures of mRNA undergoing RT. In fact, the event is positively influenced by particular signals harbored by the transcript. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a readthrough event on PTC reported for the FGF5 gene and the first case of this translational mechanism in alpaca. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic loci associated with changes in lipid levels leading to constitution-based discrepancy in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Abnormal lipid concentrations are risk factors for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. The pathological susceptibility to cardiovascular disease risks such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, insulin resistance, and so on differs between Sasang constitutional types. Methods We used multiple regression analyses to study the association between lipid-related traits and genetic variants from several genome-wide association studies according to Sasang constitutional types, considering that the Tae-Eum (TE) has predominant cardiovascular risk. Results By analyzing 26 variants of 20 loci in two Korean populations (8,597 subjects), we found that 12 and 5 variants, respectively, were replicably associated with lipid levels and dyslipidemia risk. By analyzing TE and non-TE type (each 2,664 subjects) populations classified on the basis of Sasang constitutional medicine, we found that the minor allele effects of three variants enriched in TE type had a harmful influence on lipid risk (near apolipoprotein A-V (APOA5)-APOA4-APOC3-APOA1 on increased triglyceride: p = 8.90 × 10-11, in APOE-APOC1-APOC4 on increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: p = 1.63 × 10-5, and near endothelial lipase gene on decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: p = 4.28 × 10-3), whereas those of three variants (near angiopoietin-like 3 gene, APOA5-APOA4-APOC3-APOA1, and near lipoprotein lipase gene on triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) associated in non-TE type had neutral influences because of a compensating effect. Conclusions These results implied that the minor allele effects of lipid-associated variants may predispose TE type subjects to high cardiovascular disease risk because of their genetic susceptibility to lipid-related disorders. PMID:25005712

  11. The APOA4 T347S variant is associated with reduced plasma TAOS in subjects with diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wai-Man R; Stephens, Jeffrey W; Acharya, Jayshree; Hurel, Steven J; Humphries, Steve E; Talmud, Philippa J

    2004-08-01

    Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) has been postulated to be antiatherogenic. Transgenic APOA4/Apoe-/- mice are protected against atherosclerosis, with plasma apoA-IV displaying antioxidant activity in vitro. In humans, there is an inverse relationship between apoA-IV levels and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Furthermore, the APOA4 T347S rare allele has been associated with increased risk of CHD and reduced apoA-IV levels. Reduced total antioxidant status (TAOS) due to increased oxidative stress is implicated in the process of atherogenesis. Thus, this study aimed to examine the association between the APOA4 T347S variant and TAOS in diabetic patients with (n = 196) or without (n = 509) cardiovascular disease (CVD). A higher percentage of CVD patients were present in the lowest quartile of TAOS, compared with the rest (P = 0.04). Overall, there was no association between genotype and TAOS. However, in patients with CVD, homozygotes for the S347 allele had significantly lower TAOS compared with TT and TS subjects (31.2 +/- 9.89% and 42.5 +/- 13.04% TAOS, respectively; P = 0.0024), an effect that was not seen in the patients without CVD. This study offers direct support for an antioxidant capacity of apoA-IV, thus providing some explanation for the antiatherogenic role of apoA-IV and the higher CVD risk in S347 homozygotes. Copyright 2004 American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Abscisic acid affects transcription of chloroplast genes via protein phosphatase 2C-dependent activation of nuclear genes: repression by guanosine-3'-5'-bisdiphosphate and activation by sigma factor 5.

    PubMed

    Yamburenko, Maria V; Zubo, Yan O; Börner, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) represses the transcriptional activity of chloroplast genes (determined by run-on assays), with the exception of psbD and a few other genes in wild-type Arabidopsis seedlings and mature rosette leaves. Abscisic acid does not influence chloroplast transcription in the mutant lines abi1-1 and abi2-1 with constitutive protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) activity, suggesting that ABA affects chloroplast gene activity by binding to the pyrabactin resistance (PYR)/PYR1-like or regulatory component of ABA receptor protein family (PYR/PYL/RCAR) and signaling via PP2Cs and sucrose non-fermenting protein-related kinases 2 (SnRK2s). Further we show by quantitative PCR that ABA enhances the transcript levels of RSH2, RSH3, PTF1 and SIG5. RelA/SpoT homolog 2 (RSH2) and RSH3 are known to synthesize guanosine-3'-5'-bisdiphosphate (ppGpp), an inhibitor of the plastid-gene-encoded chloroplast RNA polymerase. We propose, therefore, that ABA leads to an inhibition of chloroplast gene expression via stimulation of ppGpp synthesis. On the other hand, sigma factor 5 (SIG5) and plastid transcription factor 1 (PTF1) are known to be necessary for the transcription of psbD from a specific light- and stress-induced promoter (the blue light responsive promoter, BLRP). We demonstrate that ABA activates the psbD gene by stimulation of transcription initiation at BLRP. Taken together, our data suggest that ABA affects the transcription of chloroplast genes by a PP2C-dependent activation of nuclear genes encoding proteins involved in chloroplast transcription. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. 5-HT2A receptor gene polymorphisms in Croatian subjects with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Hranilovic, Dubravka; Blazevic, Sofia; Babic, Marina; Smurinic, Maja; Bujas-Petkovic, Zorana; Jernej, Branimir

    2010-08-15

    Disturbances in the expression/function of the 5-HT2A receptor are implicated in autism. The association of the 5-HT2A receptor gene with autism was studied in the Croatian population. Distribution frequencies for alleles, genotypes and haplotypes of -1438 A/G and His452Tyr polymorphisms were compared in samples of 103 autistic and 214 control subjects. Significant overrepresentation of the G allele and the GG genotype of the -1438 A/G polymorphism was observed in group of autistic subjects, supporting the possible involvement of the 5-HT2A receptor in the development of autism. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Cytochrome b5 dependent C-5(6) sterol desaturase DES5A from the endoplasmic reticulum of Tetrahymena thermophila complements ergosterol biosynthesis mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Poklepovich, Tomas J.; Rinaldi, Mauro A.; Tomazic, Mariela L.; Favale, Nicolas O.; Turkewitz, Aaron P.; Nudel, Clara B.; Nusblat, Alejandro D.

    2012-01-01

    Tetrahymena thermophila is a free-living ciliate with no exogenous sterol requirement. However, it can perform several modifications on externally added sterols including desaturation at C5(6), C7(8), and C22(23). Sterol desaturases in Tetrahymena are microsomal enzymes that require Cyt b5, Cyt b5 reductase, oxygen, and reduced NAD(P)H for their activity, and some of the genes encoding these functions have recently been identified. The DES5A gene encodes a C-5(6) sterol desaturase, as shown by gene knockout in Tetrahymena. To confirm and extend that result, and to develop new approaches to gene characterization in Tetrahymena, we have now, expressed DES5A in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The DES5A gene was codon optimized and expressed in a yeast mutant, erg3Δ, which is disrupted for the gene encoding the S. cerevisiae C-5(6) sterol desaturase ERG3. The complemented strain was able to accumulate 74% of the wild type level of ergosterol, and also lost the hypersensitivity to cycloheximide associated with the lack of ERG3 function. C-5(6) sterol desaturases are expected to function at the endoplasmic reticulum. Consistent with this, a GFP-tagged copy of Des5Ap was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum in both Tetrahymena and yeast. This work shows for the first time that both function and localization are conserved for a microsomal enzyme between ciliates and fungi, notwithstanding the enormous evolutionary distance between these lineages. The results suggest that heterologous expression of ciliate genes in S. cerevisiae provides a useful tool for the characterization of genes in Tetrahymena, including genes encoding membrane protein complexes. PMID:22982564

  15. Cytochrome P450 2A5 and bilirubin: Mechanisms of gene regulation and cytoprotection

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kim, Sangsoo Daniel; Antenos, Monica; Squires, E. James

    2013-07-15

    Bilirubin (BR) has recently been identified as the first endogenous substrate for cytochrome P450 2A5 (CYP2A5) and it has been suggested that CYP2A5 plays a major role in BR clearance as an alternative mechanism to BR conjugation by uridine-diphosphate glucuronyltransferase 1A1. This study investigated the mechanisms of Cyp2a5 gene regulation by BR and the cytoprotective role of CYP2A5 in BR hepatotoxicity. BR induced CYP2A5 expression at the mRNA and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner in primary mouse hepatocytes. BR treatment also caused nuclear translocation of Nuclear factor-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in hepatocytes. In reporter assays, BR treatment ofmore » primary hepatocytes transfected with a Cyp2a5 promoter-luciferase reporter construct resulted in a 2-fold induction of Cyp2a5 reporter activity. Furthermore, cotransfection of the hepatocytes with a Nrf2 expression vector without BR treatment resulted in an increase in Cyp2a5 reporter activity of approximately 2-fold and BR treatment of Nrf2 cotransfectants further increased reporter activity by 4-fold. In addition, site-directed mutation of the ARE in the reporter construct completely abolished both the BR- and Nrf2-mediated increases in reporter activity. The cytoprotective role of CYP2A5 against BR-mediated apoptosis was also examined in Hepa 1–6 cells that lack endogenous CYP2A5. Transient overexpression of CYP2A5 partially blocked BR-induced caspase-3 cleavage in Hepa 1–6 cells. Furthermore, in vitro degradation of BR was increased by microsomes from Hepa 1–6 cells overexpressing CYP2A5 compared to control cells transfected with an empty vector. Collectively, these results suggest that Nrf2-mediated CYP2A5 transactivation in response to BR may provide an additional mechanism for adaptive cytoprotection against BR hepatotoxicity. - Highlights: • The mechanism of Cyp2a5 gene regulation by BR was investigated. • The cytoprotective role of CYP2A5 in BR hepatotoxicity was determined

  16. Mod5 protein binds to tRNA gene complexes and affects local transcriptional silencing

    PubMed Central

    Pratt-Hyatt, Matthew; Pai, Dave A.; Haeusler, Rebecca A.; Wozniak, Glenn G.; Good, Paul D.; Miller, Erin L.; McLeod, Ian X.; Yates, John R.; Hopper, Anita K.; Engelke, David R.

    2013-01-01

    The tRNA gene-mediated (tgm) silencing of RNA polymerase II promoters is dependent on subnuclear clustering of the tRNA genes, but genetic analysis shows that the silencing requires additional mechanisms. We have identified proteins that bind tRNA gene transcription complexes and are required for tgm silencing but not required for gene clustering. One of the proteins, Mod5, is a tRNA modifying enzyme that adds an N6-isopentenyl adenosine modification at position 37 on a small number of tRNAs in the cytoplasm, although a subpopulation of Mod5 is also found in the nucleus. Recent publications have also shown that Mod5 has tumor suppressor characteristics in humans as well as confers drug resistance through prion-like misfolding in yeast. Here, we show that a subpopulation of Mod5 associates with tRNA gene complexes in the nucleolus. This association occurs and is required for tgm silencing regardless of whether the pre-tRNA transcripts are substrates for Mod5 modification. In addition, Mod5 is bound to nuclear pre-tRNA transcripts, although they are not substrates for the A37 modification. Lastly, we show that truncation of the tRNA transcript to remove the normal tRNA structure also alleviates silencing, suggesting that synthesis of intact pre-tRNAs is required for the silencing mechanism. These results are discussed in light of recent results showing that silencing near tRNA genes also requires chromatin modification. PMID:23898186

  17. Association of SRD5A2 gene mutations with risk of hypospadias in the Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, M; Ghanbari, M; Fazeli, Z; Rouzrokh, M; Omrani, S; Mirfakhraie, R; Omrani, M D

    2017-04-01

    Hypospadias is one of the most common forms of congenital malformation of the male external genitalia worldwide. The ratio in the Iranian population is one in 250 live male births. The conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the presence of steroid 5α-reductase 2, which is encoded by SRD5A2 gene, plays an important role in the normal development of the male reproductive system. We examined whether SRD5A2 gene mutations (V89L and A49T polymorphisms) are associated with the risk of hypospadias in the Iranian population. We performed exons sequencing for SRD5A2 gene in 109 hypospadias patients. We identified two new mutations in the subgroups of affected cases: including a substitution of the nucleotide T > A in the codon 73 [c.219T > A (p.Leu73_Ser74insHisPro)] and an insertion of an extra A nucleotide in the codon 77 [c.229insA* (p.Gly77*)]. Additionally, we performed PCR-RFLP for the two identified polymorphisms and revealed that V89L [OR = 5.8, 95% CI (3.8-8.8), p value < 0.001] and A49T [OR = 10.16, 95% CI (3.94-26.25), p value < 0.001] are significantly associated with hypospadias occurrence in patients. Our haplotype analysis further indicated that the Leu-Ala haplotype increases risk of hypospadias; conversely, the Val-Ala haplotype decreases the risk of hypospadias in the studied patients. This study demonstrates that polymorphisms in the SRD5A2 gene could be considered as a risk factor for hypospadias disease emergence.

  18. Gene-for-gene relationship in the host-pathogen system Malus × robusta 5-Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Isabelle; Wöhner, Thomas; Richter, Klaus; Flachowsky, Henryk; Sundin, George W; Wensing, Annette; Savory, Elizabeth A; Geider, Klaus; Day, Brad; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Peil, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Fire blight is a destructive bacterial disease caused by Erwinia amylovora affecting plants in the family Rosaceae, including apple. Host resistance to fire blight is present mainly in accessions of Malus spp. and is thought to be quantitative in this pathosystem. In this study we analyzed the importance of the E. amylovora effector avrRpt2(EA) , a homolog of Pseudomonas syringae avrRpt2, for resistance of Malus × robusta 5 (Mr5). The deletion mutant E. amylovora Ea1189ΔavrRpt2(EA) was able to overcome the fire blight resistance of Mr5. One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), resulting in an exchange of cysteine to serine in the encoded protein, was detected in avrRpt2(EA) of several Erwinia strains differing in virulence to Mr5. E. amylovora strains encoding serine (S-allele) were able to overcome resistance of Mr5, whereas strains encoding cysteine (C-allele) were not. Allele specificity was also observed in a coexpression assay with Arabidopsis thaliana RIN4 in Nicotiana benthamiana. A homolog of RIN4 has been detected and isolated in Mr5. These results suggest a system similar to the interaction of RPS2 from A. thaliana and AvrRpt2 from P. syringae with RIN4 as guard. Our data are suggestive of a gene-for-gene relationship for the host-pathogen system Mr5 and E. amylovora. No claim to original US government works. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Calpain-5 gene variants are associated with diastolic blood pressure and cholesterol levels

    PubMed Central

    Sáez, María E; Martínez-Larrad, María T; Ramírez-Lorca, Reposo; González-Sánchez, José L; Zabena, Carina; Martinez-Calatrava, María J; González, Alejandro; Morón, Francisco J; Ruiz, Agustín; Serrano-Ríos, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Background Genes implicated in common complex disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or cardiovascular diseases are not disease specific, since clinically related disorders also share genetic components. Cysteine protease Calpain 10 (CAPN10) has been associated with T2DM, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, increased body mass index (BMI) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a reproductive disorder of women in which isunlin resistance seems to play a pathogenic role. The calpain 5 gene (CAPN5) encodes a protein homologue of CAPN10. CAPN5 has been previously associated with PCOS by our group. In this new study, we have analysed the association of four CAPN5 gene variants(rs948976A>G, rs4945140G>A, rs2233546C>T and rs2233549G>A) with several cardiovascular risk factors related to metabolic syndrome in general population. Methods Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, insulin, glucose and lipid profiles were determined in 606 individuals randomly chosen from a cross-sectional population-based epidemiological survey in the province of Segovia in Central Spain (Castille), recruited to investigate the prevalence of anthropometric and physiological parameters related to obesity and other components of the metabolic syndrome. Genotypes at the four polymorphic loci in CAPN5 gene were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results Genotype association analysis was significant for BMI (p ≤ 0.041), diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.015) and HDL-cholesterol levels (p = 0.025). Different CAPN5 haplotypes were also associated with diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (0.0005 ≤ p ≤ 0.006) and total cholesterol levels (0.001 ≤ p ≤ 0.029). In addition, the AACA haplotype, over-represented in obese individuals, is also more frequent in individuals with metabolic syndrome defined by ATPIII criteria (p = 0.029). Conclusion As its homologue CAPN10, CAPN5 seems to influence traits related to increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Our results also

  20. GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA SEEDLING ROOTS EXPOSED TO THE MUNITION HEXAHYDRO-1,3,5-TRINITRO-1,3,5-TRIAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arabidopsis thaliana root transcriptome responses to the munition, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), were assessed using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Comparison of the transcriptional profile for the RDX response to a profile previously described for Ar...

  1. A novel method to generate unmarked gene deletions in the intracellular pathogen Rhodococcus equi using 5-fluorocytosine conditional lethality

    PubMed Central

    van der Geize, R.; de Jong, W.; Hessels, G. I.; Grommen, A. W. F.; Jacobs, A. A. C.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2008-01-01

    A novel method to efficiently generate unmarked in-frame gene deletions in Rhodococcus equi was developed, exploiting the cytotoxic effect of 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) by the action of cytosine deaminase (CD) and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) enzymes. The opportunistic, intracellular pathogen R. equi is resistant to high concentrations of 5-FC. Introduction of Escherichia coli genes encoding CD and UPRT conferred conditional lethality to R. equi cells incubated with 5-FC. To exemplify the use of the codA::upp cassette as counter-selectable marker, an unmarked in-frame gene deletion mutant of R. equi was constructed. The supA and supB genes, part of a putative cholesterol catabolic gene cluster, were efficiently deleted from the R. equi wild-type genome. Phenotypic analysis of the generated ΔsupAB mutant confirmed that supAB are essential for growth of R. equi on cholesterol. Macrophage survival assays revealed that the ΔsupAB mutant is able to survive and proliferate in macrophages comparable to wild type. Thus, cholesterol metabolism does not appear to be essential for macrophage survival of R. equi. The CD-UPRT based 5-FC counter-selection may become a useful asset in the generation of unmarked in-frame gene deletions in other actinobacteria as well, as actinobacteria generally appear to be 5-FC resistant and 5-FU sensitive. PMID:18984616

  2. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is a novel coactivator of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kanno, Yuichiro, E-mail: ykanno@phar.toho-u.ac.jp; Inajima, Jun; Kato, Sayaka

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) plays a key role in the expression of xenobiotic/steroid and drug metabolizing enzymes and their transporters. In this study, we demonstrated that protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is a novel CAR-interacting protein. Furthermore, the PRMT-dependent induction of a CAR reporter gene, which was independent of methyltransferase activity, was enhanced in the presence of steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) or DEAD box DNA/RNA helicase DP97. Using tetracycline inducible-hCAR system in HepG2 cells, we showed that knockdown of PRMT5 with small interfering RNA suppressed tetracycline -induced mRNA expression of CYP2B6more » but not of CYP2C9 or CYP3A4. PRMT5 enhanced phenobarbital-mediated transactivation of a phenobarbital-responsive enhancer module (PBREM)-driven reporter gene in co-operation with PGC-1α in rat primary hepatocytes. Based on these findings, we suggest PRMT5 to be a gene (or promoter)-selective coactivator of CAR by mediating the formation of complexes between hCAR and appropriate coactivators. - Highlights: • Nuclear receptor CAR interact with PRMT5. • PRMT5 enhances transcriptional activity of CAR. • PRMT5 synergistically enhances transactivity of CAR by the co-expression of SRC-1, DP97 or PGC1α. • PRMT5 is a gene-selective co-activator for hCAR.« less

  3. Genetic diversity of FLO1 and FLO5 genes in wine flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    PubMed

    Tofalo, Rosanna; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Di Gianvito, Paola; Schirone, Maria; Corsetti, Aldo; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2014-11-17

    Twenty-eight flocculent wine strains were tested for adhesion and flocculation phenotypic variability. Moreover, the expression patterns of the main genes involved in flocculation (FLO1, FLO5 and FLO8) were studied both in synthetic medium and in presence of ethanol stress. Molecular identification and typing were achieved by PCR-RFLP of the 5.8S ITS rRNA region and microsatellite PCR fingerprinting, respectively. All isolates belong to Saccharomyces cerevisiae species. The analysis of microsatellites highlighted the intraspecific genetic diversity of flocculent wine S. cerevisiae strains allowing obtaining strain-specific profiles. Moreover, strains were characterized on the basis of adhesive properties. A wide biodiversity was observed even if none of the tested strains were able to form biofilms (or 'mats'), or to adhere to polystyrene. Moreover, genetic diversity of FLO1 and FLO5 flocculating genes was determined by PCR. Genetic diversity was detected for both genes, but a relationship with the flocculation degree was not found. So, the expression patterns of FLO1, FLO5 and FLO8 genes was investigated in a synthetic medium and a relationship between the expression of FLO5 gene and the flocculation capacity was established. To study the expression of FLO1, FLO5 and FLO8 genes in floc formation and ethanol stress resistance qRT-PCR was carried out and also in this case strains with flocculent capacity showed higher levels of FLO5 gene expression. This study confirmed the diversity of flocculation phenotype and genotype in wine yeasts. Moreover, the importance of FLO5 gene in development of high flocculent characteristic of wine yeasts was highlighted. The obtained collection of S. cerevisiae flocculent wine strains could be useful to study the relationship between the genetic variation and flocculation phenotype in wine yeasts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Genome-wide gene by lead exposure interaction analysis identifies UNC5D as a candidate gene for neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaoxi; Claus Henn, Birgit; Wang, Chaolong; Wei, Yongyue; Su, Li; Sun, Ryan; Chen, Han; Wagner, Peter J; Lu, Quan; Lin, Xihong; Wright, Robert; Bellinger, David; Kile, Molly; Mazumdar, Maitreyi; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Schnaas, Lourdes; Christiani, David C

    2017-07-28

    Neurodevelopment is a complex process involving both genetic and environmental factors. Prenatal exposure to lead (Pb) has been associated with lower performance on neurodevelopmental tests. Adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes are more frequent and/or more severe when toxic exposures interact with genetic susceptibility. To explore possible loci associated with increased susceptibility to prenatal Pb exposure, we performed a genome-wide gene-environment interaction study (GWIS) in young children from Mexico (n = 390) and Bangladesh (n = 497). Prenatal Pb exposure was estimated by cord blood Pb concentration. Neurodevelopment was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. We identified a locus on chromosome 8, containing UNC5D, and demonstrated evidence of its genome-wide significance with mental composite scores (rs9642758, p meta  = 4.35 × 10 -6 ). Within this locus, the joint effects of two independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, rs9642758 and rs10503970) had a p-value of 4.38 × 10 -9 for mental composite scores. Correlating GWIS results with in vitro transcriptomic profiles identified one common gene, SLC1A5, which is involved in synaptic function, neuronal development, and excitotoxicity. Further analysis revealed interconnected interactions that formed a large network of 52 genes enriched with oxidative stress genes and neurodevelopmental genes. Our findings suggest that certain genetic polymorphisms within/near genes relevant to neurodevelopment might modify the toxic effects of Pb exposure via oxidative stress.

  5. Haplotypes in SLC24A5 Gene as Ancestry Informative Markers in Different Populations

    PubMed Central

    Giardina, Emiliano; Pietrangeli, Ilenia; Martínez-Labarga, Cristina; Martone, Claudia; de Angelis, Flavio; Spinella, Aldo; De Stefano, Gianfranco; Rickards, Olga; Novelli, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Ancestry informative markers (AIMs) are human polymorphisms that exhibit substantially allele frequency differences among populations. These markers can be useful to provide information about ancestry of samples which may be useful in predicting a perpetrator’s ethnic origin to aid criminal investigations. Variations in human pigmentation are the most obvious phenotypes to distinguish individuals. It has been recently shown that the variation of a G in an A allele of the coding single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1426654 within SLC24A5 gene varies in frequency among several population samples according to skin pigmentation. Because of these observations, the SLC24A5 locus has been evaluated as Ancestry Informative Region (AIR) by typing rs1426654 together with two additional intragenic markers (rs2555364 and rs16960620) in 471 unrelated individuals originating from three different continents (Africa, Asia and Europe). This study further supports the role of human SLC24A5 gene in skin pigmentation suggesting that variations in SLC24A5 haplotypes can correlate with human migration and ancestry. Furthermore, our data do reveal the utility of haplotype and combined unphased genotype analysis of SLC24A5 in predicting ancestry and provide a good example of usefulness of genetic characterization of larger regions, in addition to single polymorphisms, as candidates for population-specific sweeps in the ancestral population. PMID:19440451

  6. Temperature-sensitive albino gene TCD5, encoding a monooxygenase, affects chloroplast development at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yufeng; Zhang, Jianhui; Shi, Xiaoliang; Peng, Yu; Li, Ping; Lin, Dongzhi; Dong, Yanjun; Teng, Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Chloroplasts are essential for photosynthesis and play critical roles in plant development. In this study, we characterized the temperature-sensitive chlorophyll-deficient rice mutant tcd5, which develops albino leaves at low temperatures (20 °C) and normal green leaves at high temperatures (32 °C). The development of chloroplasts and etioplasts is impaired in tcd5 plants at 20 °C, and the temperature-sensitive period for the albino phenotype is the P4 stage of leaf development. The development of thylakoid membranes is arrested at the mid-P4 stage in tcd5 plants at 20 °C. We performed positional cloning of TCD5 and then complementation and knock-down experiments, and the results showed that the transcript LOC_Os05g34040.1 from the LOC_Os05g34040 gene corresponded to the tcd5 phenotype. TCD5 encodes a conserved plastid-targeted monooxygenase family protein which has not been previously reported associated with a temperature-sensitive albino phenotype in plants. TCD5 is abundantly expressed in young leaves and immature spikes, and low temperatures increased this expression. The transcription of some genes involved in plastid transcription/translation and photosynthesis varied in the tcd5 mutant. Although the phenotype and temperature dependence of the TCD5 orthologous mutant phenotype were different in rice and Arabidopsis, OsTCD5 could rescue the phenotype of the Arabidopsis mutant, suggesting that TCD5 function is conserved between monocots and dicots. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  7. LCR 5′ hypersensitive site specificity for globin gene activation within the active chromatin hub

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Kenneth R.; Fedosyuk, Halyna; Harju-Baker, Susanna

    2012-01-01

    The DNaseI hypersensitive sites (HSs) of the human β-globin locus control region (LCR) may function as part of an LCR holocomplex within a larger active chromatin hub (ACH). Differential activation of the globin genes during development may be controlled in part by preferential interaction of each gene with specific individual HSs during globin gene switching, a change in conformation of the LCR holocomplex, or both. To distinguish between these possibilities, human β-globin locus yeast artificial chromosome (β-YAC) lines were produced in which the ε-globin gene was replaced with a second marked β-globin gene (βm), coupled to an intact LCR, a 5′HS3 complete deletion (5′ΔHS3) or a 5′HS3 core deletion (5′ΔHS3c). The 5′ΔHS3c mice expressed βm-globin throughout development; γ-globin was co-expressed in the embryonic yolk sac, but not in the fetal liver; and wild-type β-globin was co-expressed in adult mice. Although the 5′HS3 core was not required for βm-globin expression, previous work showed that the 5′HS3 core is necessary for ε-globin expression during embryonic erythropoiesis. A similar phenotype was observed in 5′HS complete deletion mice, except βm-globin expression was higher during primitive erythropoiesis and γ-globin expression continued into fetal definitive erythropoiesis. These data support a site specificity model of LCR HS-globin gene interaction. PMID:23042246

  8. LRP5 gene polymorphism and cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Lauretani, Fulvio; Cepollaro, Chiara; Bandinelli, Stefania; Cherubini, Antonio; Gozzini, Alessia; Masi, Laura; Falchetti, Alberto; Del Monte, Francesca; Carbonell-Sala, Silvia; Marini, Francesca; Tanini, Annalisa; Corsi, Anna Maria; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2010-08-01

    There is evidence that distinct genetic polymorphisms of LRP5 are associated with low Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and the risk of fracture. However, relationships between LRP5 polymorphisms and micro- and macro architectural bone characteristics assessed by pQCT have not been studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of Ala1330Val and Val667Met polymorphisms in LRP5 gene with volumetric BMD (vBMD) and macro-architectural bone parameters in a population-based sample of men and women. We studied 959 participants of the InCHIANTI study (451 men and 508 women, age range: 21-94 yrs). Trabecular vBMD (vBMDt, mg/cm3), cortical vBMD (vBMDc, mg/cm3), cortical bone area (CBA, mm2) and cortical thickness (Ct.Th, mm) at the level of the tibia were assessed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Ala1330Val and Val667Met genotypes were determined on genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). In age-adjusted analyses both LRP 1330-valine and LRP 667-metionin variants were associated with lower vBMDt in men (p<0.05), and lower vBMDt (p<0.05), Ct.Th (p<0.05) and CBA (p<0.05) in women. After adjusting for multiple confounders, only the association of LRP5 1330-valine and 667-metionin with CBA remained statistically significant (p=0.04 and p=0.01, respectively) in women. These findings suggest that both Ala1330Val and Val667Met LRP5 polymorphisms may affect the determination of geometric bone parameters in women.

  9. Molecular characterization of 5S ribosomal RNA genes and transcripts in the protozoan parasite Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Campos, Rodrigo; Florencio-Martínez, Luis E; Nepomuceno-Mejía, Tomás; Rojas-Sánchez, Saúl; Vélez-Ramírez, Daniel E; Padilla-Mejía, Norma E; Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa; Manning-Cela, Rebeca; Martínez-Calvillo, Santiago

    2016-12-01

    Eukaryotic 5S rRNA, synthesized by RNA polymerase III (Pol III), is an essential component of the large ribosomal subunit. Most organisms contain hundreds of 5S rRNA genes organized into tandem arrays. However, the genome of the protozoan parasite Leishmania major contains only 11 copies of the 5S rRNA gene, which are interspersed and associated with other Pol III-transcribed genes. Here we report that, in general, the number and order of the 5S rRNA genes is conserved between different species of Leishmania. While in most organisms 5S rRNA genes are normally associated with the nucleolus, combined fluorescent in situ hybridization and indirect immunofluorescence experiments showed that 5S rRNA genes are mainly located at the nuclear periphery in L. major. Similarly, the tandemly repeated 5S rRNA genes in Trypanosoma cruzi are dispersed throughout the nucleus. In contrast, 5S rRNA transcripts in L. major were localized within the nucleolus, and scattered throughout the cytoplasm, where mature ribosomes are located. Unlike other rRNA species, stable antisense RNA complementary to 5S rRNA is not detected in L. major.

  10. Transgenic rescue demonstrates involvement of the Ian5 gene in T cell development in the rat.

    PubMed

    Michalkiewicz, Mieczyslaw; Michalkiewicz, Teresa; Ettinger, Ruth A; Rutledge, Elizabeth A; Fuller, Jessica M; Moralejo, Daniel H; Van Yserloo, Brian; MacMurray, Armand J; Kwitek, Anne E; Jacob, Howard J; Lander, Eric S; Lernmark, Ake

    2004-10-04

    A single point mutation in a novel immune-associated nucleotide gene 5 (Ian5) coincides with severe T cell lymphopenia in BB rats. We used a transgenic rescue approach in lymphopenic BB-derived congenic F344.lyp/lyp rats to determine whether this mutation is responsible for lymphopenia and to establish the functional importance of this novel gene. A 150-kb P1 artificial chromosome (PAC) transgene harboring a wild-type allele of the rat Ian5 gene restored Ian5 transcript and protein levels, completely rescuing the T cell lymphopenia in the F344.lyp/lyp rats. This successful complementation provides direct functional evidence that the Ian5 gene product is essential for maintaining normal T cell levels. It also demonstrates that transgenic rescue in the rat is a practical and definitive method for revealing the function of a novel gene.

  11. Association of VNTR polymorphisms in DRD4, 5-HTT and DAT1 genes with obesity.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Mustafa; Saglar, Emel; Kucukyildirim, Sibel; Erdem, Beril; Unlu, Hande; Mergen, Hatice

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the association between VNTR polymorphisms of DRD4, DAT1 and 5-HTT genes and obesity. Peripheral blood samples of 234 obese (BMI ≥ 30) and 148 healthy individuals (BMI ≤ 25) were objected to PCR to detect the VNTR of the 2nd intron of 5-HTT, 3rd exon of DRD4 and 3'UTR of DAT1 genes. The association between obesity and genotype distributions of 5-HTT, DAT1 and DRD4 genes and between obesity and distributions of allele frequencies were tested by Chi Square (χ(2)) test and were not found statistically significant. BMI values for genotype of obese and morbidly obese (BMI > 40) individuals were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and not found statistically significant differences between BMI values for the most frequent genotypes of 5-HTT, DAT1 and DRD4 genes. As a conclusion, there was no association between 5-HTT, DAT1 and DRD4 genes VNTR polymorphisms and obesity.

  12. Molecular cloning, structure, and chromosomal localization of the mouse LIM/homeobox gene Lhx5

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bertuzzi, S.; Sheng, Hui Z.; Westphal, H.

    1996-09-01

    Lhx5, the mouse ortholog of the Xenopus Xlim-5, is a LIM/homeobox gene expressed in the central nervous system during both embryonic development and adulthood. During development its domain of expression is mainly localized at the most anterior portion of the neural tube, and it precedes the morphological differentiation of the forebrain; for this reason we believe that Lhx5 could play an important role in forebrain patterning. Here we present the structural organization and the chromosomal localization of the Lhx5 gene. The gene is composed of five exons spanning more than 10 kb of genomic sequence. The first and second LIMmore » domains are encoded by the first and second exon, while the codons of the homeobox are split between the third and the fourth exons. The structure of Lhx5 is similar to that of other LIM/homeodomain proteins, Lxh1/lim1 and Lhx3/lim3, but differs from that of other LIM genes, such as mec3 and LMO1/Rbtn1, in which the codons for the LIM domains are interrupted by introns. We have mapped Lhx5 to the central region of mouse chromosome 5. 38 refs., 4 figs.« less

  13. A novel APOC2 gene mutation identified in a Chinese patient with severe hypertriglyceridemia and recurrent pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jingjing; Wang, Yuhui; Ling, Yan; Kayoumu, Abudurexiti; Liu, George; Gao, Xin

    2016-01-16

    The severe forms of hypertriglyceridemia are usually caused by genetic defects. In this study, we described a Chinese female with severe hypertriglyceridemia caused by a novel homozygous mutation in the APOC2 gene. Lipid profiles of the pedigree were studied in detail. LPL and HL activity were also measured. The coding regions of 5 candidate genes (namely LPL, APOC2, APOA5, LMF1, and GPIHBP1) were sequenced using genomic DNA from peripheral leucocytes. The ApoE gene was also genotyped. Serum triglyceride level was extremely high in the proband, compared with other family members. Plasma LPL activity was also significantly reduced in the proband. Serum ApoCII was very low in the proband as well as in the heterozygous mutation carriers. A novel mutation (c.86A > CC) was identified on exon 3 [corrected] of the APOC2 gene, which converted the Asp [corrected] codon at position 29 into Ala, followed by a termination codon (TGA). This study presented the first case of ApoCII deficiency in the Chinese population, with a novel mutation c.86A > CC in the APOC2 gene identified. Serum ApoCII protein might be a useful screening test for identifying mutation carriers.

  14. Myeloproliferative disease induced by TEL-PDGFRB displays dynamic range sensitivity to Stat5 gene dosage

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Jennifer A.; Xiang, Zhifu; O'Neal, Julie; Kreisel, Friederike; Colson, AnnaLynn; Luo, Hui; Hennighausen, Lothar

    2007-01-01

    Expression of the constitutively activated TEL/PDGFβR fusion protein is associated with the t(5;12)(q33;p13) chromosomal translocation found in a subset of patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. TEL/PDGFβR activates multiple signal transduction pathways in cell-culture systems, and expression of the TEL-PDGFRB fusion gene induces myeloproliferative disease (MPD) in mice. We used gene-targeted mice to characterize the contribution of signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) and Src family genes to TEL-PDGFRB–mediated transformation in methylcellulose colony and murine bone marrow transduction/transplantation assays. Fetal liver hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells harboring targeted deletion of both Stat5a and Stat5b (Stat5abnull/null) genes were refractory to transformation by TEL-PDGFRB in methylcellulose colony assays. Notably, these cell populations were maintained in Stat5abnull/null fetal livers and succumbed to transformation by c-Myc. Surprisingly, targeted disruption of either Stat5a or Stat5b alone also impaired TEL-PDGFRB–mediated transformation. Survival of TPiGFP→Stat5a−/− and TPiGFP→Stat5a+/− mice was significantly prolonged, demonstrating significant sensitivity of TEL-PDGFRB–induced MPD to the dosage of Stat5a. TEL-PDGFRB–mediated MPD was incompletely penetrant in TPiGFP→Stat5b−/− mice. In contrast, Src family kinases Lyn, Hck, and Fgr and the Stat family member Stat1 were dispensable for TEL-PDGFRB disease. Together, these data demonstrate that Stat5a and Stat5b are dose-limiting mediators of TEL-PDGFRB–induced myeloproliferation. PMID:17218386

  15. Deletion of the human beta-globin LCR 5'HS4 or 5'HS1 differentially affects beta-like globin gene expression in beta-YAC transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Fedosyuk, Halyna; Peterson, Kenneth R

    2007-01-01

    A 213 kb human beta-globin locus yeast artificial chromosome (beta-YAC) was modified by homologous recombination to delete 2.9 kb of cross-species conserved sequence similarity encompassing the LCR 5' hypersensitive site (HS) 4 (Delta5'HS4 beta-YAC). In three transgenic mouse lines, completion of the gamma- to beta-globin switch during definitive erythropoiesis was delayed relative to wild-type beta-YAC mice. In addition, quantitative per-copy human beta-like globin mRNA levels were similar to wild-type beta-YAC transgenic lines, although beta-globin gene expression was slightly decreased in the day 12 fetal liver of Delta5'HS4 beta-YAC mice. A 0.8 kb 5'HS1 fragment was similarly deleted in the YAC. Three Delta5'HS1 beta-YAC transgenic lines were established. epsilon-globin gene expression was markedly reduced, approximately 16 fold, during primitive erythropoiesis compared to wild-type beta-YAC mice, but gamma-globin expression levels were unaffected. However, during the fetal stage of definitive erythropoiesis, gamma-globin gene expression was decreased approximately 4 fold at day 12 and approximately 5 fold at day 14. Temporal developmental expression profiles of the beta-like globin genes were unaffected by deletion of 5'HS1. Decreased expression of the epsilon- and gamma-globin genes is the first phenotype ascribed to a 5'HS1 mutation in the human beta-globin locus, suggesting that this HS does indeed have a role in LCR function beyond simply a combined synergism with the other LCR HSs.

  16. Recombinant Parainfluenza Virus 5 Expressing Hemagglutinin of Influenza A Virus H5N1 Protected Mice against Lethal Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhuo; Mooney, Alaina J.; Gabbard, Jon D.; Gao, Xiudan; Xu, Pei; Place, Ryan J.; Hogan, Robert J.; Tompkins, S. Mark

    2013-01-01

    A safe and effective vaccine is the best way to prevent large-scale highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks in the human population. The current FDA-approved H5N1 vaccine has serious limitations. A more efficacious H5N1 vaccine is urgently needed. Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5), a paramyxovirus, is not known to cause any illness in humans. PIV5 is an attractive vaccine vector. In our studies, a single dose of a live recombinant PIV5 expressing a hemagglutinin (HA) gene of H5N1 (rPIV5-H5) from the H5N1 subtype provided sterilizing immunity against lethal doses of HPAI H5N1 infection in mice. Furthermore, we have examined the effect of insertion of H5N1 HA at different locations within the PIV5 genome on the efficacy of a PIV5-based vaccine. Interestingly, insertion of H5N1 HA between the leader sequence, the de facto promoter of PIV5, and the first viral gene, nucleoprotein (NP), did not lead to a viable virus. Insertion of H5N1 HA between NP and the next gene, V/phosphorprotein (V/P), led to a virus that was defective in growth. We have found that insertion of H5N1 HA at the junction between the small hydrophobic (SH) gene and the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene gave the best immunity against HPAI H5N1 challenge: a dose as low as 1,000 PFU was sufficient to protect against lethal HPAI H5N1 challenge in mice. The work suggests that recombinant PIV5 expressing H5N1 HA has great potential as an HPAI H5N1 vaccine. PMID:23077314

  17. Nuclear localization of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2 (PDC-E2), a mitochondrial enzyme, and its role in signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5)-dependent gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Chueh, Fu-Yu; Leong, King-Fu; Cronk, Robert J; Venkitachalam, Srividya; Pabich, Samantha; Yu, Chao-Lan

    2011-07-01

    STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) proteins play a critical role in cellular response to a wide variety of cytokines and growth factors by regulating specific nuclear genes. STAT-dependent gene transcription can be finely tuned through the association with co-factors in the nucleus. We showed previously that STAT5 (including 5a and 5b) specifically interacts with a mitochondrial enzyme PDC-E2 (E2 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex) in both leukemic T cells and cytokine-stimulated cells. However, the functional significance of this novel association remains largely unknown. Here we report that PDC-E2 may function as a co-activator in STAT5-dependent nuclear gene expression. Subcellular fractionation analysis revealed that a substantial amount of PDC-E2 was constitutively present in the nucleus of BaF3, an interleukin-3 (IL-3)-dependent cell line. IL-3-induced tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT5 associated with nuclear PDC-E2 in co-immunoprecipitation analysis. These findings were confirmed by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy showing constant nuclear localization of PDC-E2 and its co-localization with STAT5 after IL-3 stimulation. Similar to mitochondrial PDC-E2, nuclear PDC-E2 was lipoylated and associated with PDC-E1. Overexpression of PDC-E2 in BaF3 cells augmented IL-3-induced STAT5 activity as measured by reporter assay with consensus STAT5-binding sites. Consistent with the reporter data, PDC-E2 overexpression in BaF3 cells led to elevated mRNA levels of endogenous SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signaling 3) gene, a known STAT5 target. We further identified two functional STAT5-binding sites in the SOCS3 gene promoter important for its IL-3-inducibility. The observation that both cis-acting elements were essential to detect the stimulatory effect by PDC-E2 strongly supports the role of PDC-E2 in up-regulating the transactivating ability of STAT5. All together, our results reveal a novel function of PDC-E2 in the nucleus. It also

  18. Nuclear localization of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2 (PDC-E2), a mitochondrial enzyme, and its role in signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5)-dependent gene transcription

    PubMed Central

    Chueh, Fu-Yu; Leong, King-Fu; Cronk, Robert J.; Venkitachalam, Srividya; Pabich, Samantha; Yu, Chao-Lan

    2011-01-01

    STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) proteins play a critical role in cellular response to a wide variety of cytokines and growth factors by regulating specific nuclear genes. STAT-dependent gene transcription can be finely tuned through the association with cofactors in the nucleus. We showed previously that STAT5 (including 5a and 5b) specifically interacts with a mitochondrial enzyme PDC-E2 (E2 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex) in both leukemic T cells and cytokine-stimulated cells. However, the functional significance of this novel association remains largely unknown. Here we report that PDC-E2 may function as a co-activator in STAT5-dependent nuclear gene expression. Subcellular fractionation analysis revealed that a substantial amount of PDC-E2 was constitutively present in the nucleus of BaF3, an interleukin-3 (IL-3)-dependent cell line. IL-3-induced tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT5 associated with nuclear PDC-E2 in co-immunoprecipitation analysis. These findings were confirmed by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy showing constant nuclear localization of PDC-E2 and its co-localization with STAT5 after IL-3 stimulation. Similar to mitochondrial PDC-E2, nuclear PDC-E2 was lipoylated and associated with PDC-E1. Overexpression of PDC-E2 in BaF3 cells augmented IL-3-induced STAT5 activity as measured by reporter assay with consensus STAT5-binding sites. Consistent with the reporter data, PDC-E2 overexpression in BaF3 cells led to elevated mRNA levels of endogenous SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signaling 3) gene, a known STAT5 target. We further identified two functional STAT5-binding sites in the SOCS3 gene promoter important for its IL-3-inducibility. The observation that both cis-acting elements were essential to detect the stimulatory effect by PDC-E2 strongly supports the role of PDC-E2 in up-regulating the transactivating ability of STAT5. All together, our results reveal a novel function of PDC-E2 in the nucleus. It also raises

  19. Prdm5 Regulates Collagen Gene Transcription by Association with RNA Polymerase II in Developing Bone

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Giorgio Giacomo; Honnens de Lichtenberg, Kristian; Carrara, Matteo; Hans, Wolfgang; Wuelling, Manuela; Mentz, Bettina; Multhaupt, Hinke Arnolda; Fog, Cathrine Kolster; Jensen, Klaus Thorleif; Rappsilber, Juri; Vortkamp, Andrea; Coulton, Les; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Calogero, Raffaele Adolfo; Couchman, John Robert; Lund, Anders Henrik

    2012-01-01

    PRDM family members are transcriptional regulators involved in tissue specific differentiation. PRDM5 has been reported to predominantly repress transcription, but a characterization of its molecular functions in a relevant biological context is lacking. We demonstrate here that Prdm5 is highly expressed in developing bones; and, by genome-wide mapping of Prdm5 occupancy in pre-osteoblastic cells, we uncover a novel and unique role for Prdm5 in targeting all mouse collagen genes as well as several SLRP proteoglycan genes. In particular, we show that Prdm5 controls both Collagen I transcription and fibrillogenesis by binding inside the Col1a1 gene body and maintaining RNA polymerase II occupancy. In vivo, Prdm5 loss results in delayed ossification involving a pronounced impairment in the assembly of fibrillar collagens. Collectively, our results define a novel role for Prdm5 in sustaining the transcriptional program necessary to the proper assembly of osteoblastic extracellular matrix. PMID:22589746

  20. LRP5 gene polymorphism and cortical bone

    PubMed Central

    Lauretani, Fulvio; Cepollaro, Chiara; Bandinelli, Stefania; Cherubini, Antonio; Gozzini, Alessia; Masi, Laura; Falchetti, Alberto; Del Monte, Francesca; Carbonell-Sala, Silvia; Marini, Francesca; Tanini, Annalisa; Corsi, Anna Maria; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims There is evidence that distinct genetic polymorphisms of LRP5 are associated with low Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and the risk of fracture. However, relationships between LRP5 polymorphisms and micro- and macro-architectural bone characteristics assessed by pQCT have not been studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of Ala1330Val and Val667Met polymorphisms in LRP5 gene with volumetric BMD (vBMD) and macro-architectural bone parameters in a population-based sample of men and women. Methods We studied 959 participants of the InCHIANTI study (451 men and 508 women, age range: 21–94 yrs). Trabecular vBMD (vBMDt, mg/cm3), cortical vBMD (vBMDc, mg/cm3), cortical bone area (CBA, mm2) and cortical thickness (Ct.Th, mm) at the level of the tibia were assessed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Ala1330Val and Val667Met genotypes were determined on genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results In age-adjusted analyses both LRP 1330-valine and LRP 667-metionin variants were associated with lower vBMDt in men (p<0.05), and lower vBMDt (p<0.05), Ct.Th (p<0.05) and CBA (p<0.05) in women. After adjusting for multiple confounders, only the association of LRP5 1330-valine and 667-metionin with CBA remained statistically significant (p=0.04 and p=0.01, respectively) in women. Conclusion These findings suggest that both Ala1330Val and Val667Met LRP5 polymorphisms may affect the determination of geometric bone parameters in women. PMID:21116122

  1. APOA-1Milano muteins, orally delivered via genetically modified rice, show anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in Apoe-/- atherosclerotic mice.

    PubMed

    Romano, Gabriele; Reggi, Serena; Kutryb-Zajac, Barbara; Facoetti, Amanda; Chisci, Elisa; Pettinato, Mariateresa; Giuffrè, Maria Rita; Vecchio, Federica; Leoni, Silvia; De Giorgi, Marco; Avezza, Federica; Cadamuro, Massimiliano; Crippa, Luca; Leone, Biagio Eugenio; Lavitrano, Marialuisa; Rivolta, Ilaria; Barisani, Donatella; Smolenski, Ryszard Tomasz; Giovannoni, Roberto

    2018-06-11

    Atherosclerosis is a slowly progressing, chronic multifactorial disease characterized by the accumulation of lipids, inflammatory cells, and fibrous tissue that drives to the formation of asymmetric focal thickenings in the tunica intima of large and mid-sized arteries. Despite the high therapeutic potential of ApoA-1 proteins, the purification and delivery into the disordered organisms of these drugs is still limited by low efficiency in these processes. We report here a novel production and delivery system of anti-atherogenic APOA-1Milano muteins (APOA-1M) by means of genetically modified rice plants. APOA-1M, delivered as protein extracts from transgenic rice seeds, significantly reduced macrophage activation and foam cell formation in vitro in oxLDL-loaded THP-1 model. The APOA-1M delivery method and therapeutic efficacy was tested in healthy mice and in Apoe -/- mice fed with high cholesterol diet (Western Diet, WD). APOA-1M rice milk significantly reduced atherosclerotic plaque size and lipids composition in aortic sinus and aortic arch of WD-fed Apoe -/- mice as compared to wild type rice milk-treated, WD-fed Apoe -/- mice. APOA-1M rice milk also significantly reduced macrophage number in liver of WD-fed Apoe -/- mice as compared to WT rice milk treated mice. The delivery of therapeutic APOA-1M full length proteins via oral administration of rice seeds protein extracts (the 'rice milk') to the disordered organism, without any need of purification, might overcome the main APOA1-based therapies' limitations and improve the use of this molecules as therapeutic agents for cardiovascular patients. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular diversity and population structure at the Cytochrome P450 3A5 gene in Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cytochrome P450 3A5 (CYP3A5) is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of many therapeutic drugs. CYP3A5 expression levels vary between individuals and populations, and this contributes to adverse clinical outcomes. Variable expression is largely attributed to four alleles, CYP3A5*1 (expresser allele); CYP3A5*3 (rs776746), CYP3A5*6 (rs10264272) and CYP3A5*7 (rs41303343) (low/non-expresser alleles). Little is known about CYP3A5 variability in Africa, a region with considerable genetic diversity. Here we used a multi-disciplinary approach to characterize CYP3A5 variation in geographically and ethnically diverse populations from in and around Africa, and infer the evolutionary processes that have shaped patterns of diversity in this gene. We genotyped 2538 individuals from 36 diverse populations in and around Africa for common low/non-expresser CYP3A5 alleles, and re-sequenced the CYP3A5 gene in five Ethiopian ethnic groups. We estimated the ages of low/non-expresser CYP3A5 alleles using a linked microsatellite and assuming a step-wise mutation model of evolution. Finally, we examined a hypothesis that CYP3A5 is important in salt retention adaptation by performing correlations with ecological data relating to aridity for the present day, 10,000 and 50,000 years ago. Results We estimate that ~43% of individuals within our African dataset express CYP3A5, which is lower than previous independent estimates for the region. We found significant intra-African variability in CYP3A5 expression phenotypes. Within Africa the highest frequencies of high-activity alleles were observed in equatorial and Niger-Congo speaking populations. Ethiopian allele frequencies were intermediate between those of other sub-Saharan African and non-African groups. Re-sequencing of CYP3A5 identified few additional variants likely to affect CYP3A5 expression. We estimate the ages of CYP3A5*3 as ~76,400 years and CYP3A5*6 as ~218,400 years. Finally we report that global CYP3A5 expression

  3. Effect of the g.-723G-->T polymorphism in the bovine myogenic factor 5 (Myf5) gene promoter region on gene transcript level in the longissimus dorsi muscle and on meat traits of Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle.

    PubMed

    Robakowska-Hyzorek, Dagmara; Oprzadek, Jolanta; Zelazowska, Beata; Olbromski, Rafał; Zwierzchowski, Lech

    2010-06-01

    Myogenic factor 5 (Myf5), a product of the Myf5 gene, belongs to the MRF family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that regulate myogenesis. Their roles in muscle growth and development make their genes candidates for molecular markers of meat production in livestock, but nucleotide sequence polymorphism has not been thoroughly studied in MRF genes. We detected four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within exon 1 of the Myf5 gene, encoding the NH-terminal transactivation domain of the Myf5 protein. Three of these mutations change the amino acid sequence. The distribution of these SNPs was highly skewed in cattle populations; most of the mutations were found in only a few or even single individuals. Of the nine SNPs found in the promoter region of Myf5, one (transversion g.-723G-->T) was represented by all three genotypes distributed in the cattle populations studied. This polymorphism showed an influence on Myf5 gene expression in the longissimus dorsi muscle and was associated with sirloin weight and fat weight in sirloin in carcasses of Holstein-Friesian cattle.

  4. Differentially regulated gene expression in quiescence versus senescence and identification of ARID5A as a quiescence associated marker.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Tarique; Sen, Bijoya; Aggarwal, Savera; Nath, Rhisita; Pathak, Niteen; Katoch, Ajay; Aiyaz, Mohamed; Trehanpati, Nirupma; Khosla, Sanjeev; Ramakrishna, Gayatri

    2018-05-01

    In multicellular organisms majority of the cells remain in a non-dividing states of either quiescence (reversible) or senescence (irreversible). In the present study, gene expression signatures unique to quiescence and senescence were identified using microarray in osteosarcoma cell line, U2OS. It was noted that certain genes and pathways like NOD pathway was shared by both the growth arrest conditions. A major highlight of the present study was increased expression of number of chemokines and cytokines in both quiescence and senescence. While senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) is well known, the quiescence-associated secretory phenotype (QASP) is relatively unknown and appeared novel in this study. ARID5A, a subunit of SWI/SNF complex was identified as a quiescence associated gene. The endogenous expression of ARID5A increased during serum starved condition of quiescence. Overexpression of ARID5A resulted in more number of cells in G0/G1 phase of cell cycle. Further ARID5A overexpressing cells when subjected to serum starvation showed a pronounced secretory phenotype. Overall, the present work has identified gene expression signatures which can distinguish quiescence from senescence. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. New steroid 5alpha-reductase type I (SRD5A1) homologous sequences on human chromosomes 6 and 8.

    PubMed

    Eminović, I; Liović, M; Prezelj, J; Kocijancic, A; Rozman, D; Komel, R

    2001-01-01

    To date, two genes encoding 5alpha-reductase isoenzymes are known (type I, type II), and one type I pseudogene. The divergent localization of these genes and the still not fully understood function of the encoded enzymes as well as the perplexing results we obtained after sequencing PCR-amplified SRD5A1 gene fragments (out of genomic DNA), made us assume that, in addition to the known SRD5A1 gene, one or more different human 5alpha-reductase type I coding genes may exist. Our research provide the first evidence for the existence of two new SRD5A1 related, previously unidentified sequences in the human genome. These sequences which were localized to chromosomes 6 and 8 are highly homologous (> 99%) to SRD5A1, and also do not contain any deletions or insertions that are otherwise a characteristic of the SRD5API pseudogene. Our results imply that these sequences may be either coding parts of yet unknown, active SRD5A1 genes, and/or of previously unidentified pseudogenes. These findings additionally support data of Chen et al. who confirmed the existence of various SRD5A1 proteins in cultured human skin cells.

  6. Genetic diversity and prevalence of CCR2-CCR5 gene polymorphisms in the Omani population

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mahruqi, Samira H.; Zadjali, Fahad; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Koh, Crystal Y.; Balkhair, Abdullah; Al-Jabri, Ali A.

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphisms in the regulatory region of the CCR5 gene affect protein expression and modulate the progress of HIV-1 disease. Because of this prominent role, variations in this gene have been under differential pressure and their frequencies vary among human populations. The CCR2V64I mutation is tightly linked to certain polymorphisms in the CCR5 gene. The current Omani population is genetically diverse, a reflection of their history as traders who ruled extensive regions around the Indian Ocean. In this study, we examined the CCR2-CCR5 haplotypes in Omanis and compared the patterns of genetic diversity with those of other populations. Blood samples were collected from 115 Omani adults and genomic DNA was screened to identify the polymorphic sites in the CCR5 gene and the CCR2V64I mutation. Four minor alleles were common: CCR5-2554T and CCR5-2086G showed frequencies of 49% and 46%, respectively, whereas CCR5-2459A and CCR5-2135C both had a frequency of 36%. These alleles showed moderate levels of heterozygosity, indicating that they were under balancing selection. However, the well-known allele CCR5Δ32 was relatively rare. Eleven haplotypes were identified, four of which were common: HHC (46%), HHE (20%), HHA (14%) and HHF*2 (12%). PMID:24688285

  7. Quantitative trait locus analysis of plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels in C57BL/6J x RR F2 mice.

    PubMed

    Suto, Jun-ichi; Takahashi, Yuji; Sekikawa, Kenji

    2004-10-01

    A highly significant cholesterol quantitative trait locus (QTL) (Cq6) was identified on chromosome 1 in C57BL/6J x RR F2 mice. The Cq6 was located over the gene for apolipoprotein A-Il (Apoa2), and the RR allele was associated with increased plasma cholesterol. C57BL/6J has Apoa2a alleles and RR has Apoa2b alleles. Three different Apoa2 alleles are known on the basis of amino acid substitutions at four residues. Analysis with partial Apoa2 congenic strains possessing Apoa2a, Apoa2b, and Apoa2C alleles revealed that the Apoa2b allele is unique in the ability to increase cholesterol among the three Apoa2 alleles, and that the Ala-to-Val substitution at residue 61 may be crucial as far as cholesterol metabolism is concerned. We also investigated the question of whether the Apoa1 gene is responsible for the cholesterol QTLs (Cq4 and Cq5) that had been identified previously on chromosome 9 in C57BL/6J x KK-Ay/a F2 and in KK x RR F2, but not in C57BL/6J x RR F2 mice. Similar to Apoa2 alleles, three different Apoal alleles with two successive amino acid substitutions were revealed among the strains. However, we could not correlate Apoal polymorphisms with the occurrence of QTLs in these three sets of F2 mice.

  8. Gene Silencing of Argonaute5 Negatively Affects the Establishment of the Legume-Rhizobia Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Reyero-Saavedra, María del Rocio; Qiao, Zhenzhen; Sánchez-Correa, María del Socorro; Díaz-Pineda, M. Enrique; Covarrubias, Alejandra A.; Libault, Marc; Valdés-López, Oswaldo

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of the symbiosis between legumes and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia is finely regulated at the transcriptional, posttranscriptional and posttranslational levels. Argonaute5 (AGO5), a protein involved in RNA silencing, can bind both viral RNAs and microRNAs to control plant-microbe interactions and plant physiology. For instance, AGO5 regulates the systemic resistance of Arabidopsis against Potato Virus X as well as the pigmentation of soybean (Glycine max) seeds. Here, we show that AGO5 is also playing a central role in legume nodulation based on its preferential expression in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soybean roots and nodules. We also report that the expression of AGO5 is induced after 1 h of inoculation with rhizobia. Down-regulation of AGO5 gene in P. vulgaris and G. max causes diminished root hair curling, reduces nodule formation and interferes with the induction of three critical symbiotic genes: Nuclear Factor Y-B (NF-YB), Nodule Inception (NIN) and Flotillin2 (FLOT2). Our findings provide evidence that the common bean and soybean AGO5 genes play an essential role in the establishment of the symbiosis with rhizobia. PMID:29182547

  9. Gene Silencing of Argonaute5 Negatively Affects the Establishment of the Legume-Rhizobia Symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Reyero-Saavedra, María Del Rocio; Qiao, Zhenzhen; Sánchez-Correa, María Del Socorro; Díaz-Pineda, M Enrique; Reyes, Jose L; Covarrubias, Alejandra A; Libault, Marc; Valdés-López, Oswaldo

    2017-11-28

    The establishment of the symbiosis between legumes and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia is finely regulated at the transcriptional, posttranscriptional and posttranslational levels. Argonaute5 (AGO5), a protein involved in RNA silencing, can bind both viral RNAs and microRNAs to control plant-microbe interactions and plant physiology. For instance, AGO5 regulates the systemic resistance of Arabidopsis against Potato Virus X as well as the pigmentation of soybean ( Glycine max ) seeds. Here, we show that AGO5 is also playing a central role in legume nodulation based on its preferential expression in common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) and soybean roots and nodules. We also report that the expression of AGO5 is induced after 1 h of inoculation with rhizobia. Down-regulation of AGO5 gene in P. vulgaris and G. max causes diminished root hair curling, reduces nodule formation and interferes with the induction of three critical symbiotic genes: Nuclear Factor Y-B ( NF-YB ), Nodule Inception ( NIN ) and Flotillin2 ( FLOT2 ). Our findings provide evidence that the common bean and soybean AGO5 genes play an essential role in the establishment of the symbiosis with rhizobia.

  10. A Novel Method for Gene-Specific Enhancement of Protein Translation by Targeting 5’UTRs of Selected Tumor Suppressors

    PubMed Central

    Master, Adam; Wójcicka, Anna; Giżewska, Kamilla; Popławski, Piotr; Williams, Graham R.; Nauman, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    Background Translational control is a mechanism of protein synthesis regulation emerging as an important target for new therapeutics. Naturally occurring microRNAs and synthetic small inhibitory RNAs (siRNAs) are the most recognized regulatory molecules acting via RNA interference. Surprisingly, recent studies have shown that interfering RNAs may also activate gene transcription via the newly discovered phenomenon of small RNA-induced gene activation (RNAa). Thus far, the small activating RNAs (saRNAs) have only been demonstrated as promoter-specific transcriptional activators. Findings We demonstrate that oligonucleotide-based trans-acting factors can also specifically enhance gene expression at the level of protein translation by acting at sequence-specific targets within the messenger RNA 5’-untranslated region (5’UTR). We designed a set of short synthetic oligonucleotides (dGoligos), specifically targeting alternatively spliced 5’UTRs in transcripts expressed from the THRB and CDKN2A suppressor genes. The in vitro translation efficiency of reporter constructs containing alternative TRβ1 5’UTRs was increased by up to more than 55-fold following exposure to specific dGoligos. Moreover, we found that the most folded 5’UTR has higher translational regulatory potential when compared to the weakly folded TRβ1 variant. This suggests such a strategy may be especially applied to enhance translation from relatively inactive transcripts containing long 5’UTRs of complex structure. Significance This report represents the first method for gene-specific translation enhancement using selective trans-acting factors designed to target specific 5’UTR cis-acting elements. This simple strategy may be developed further to complement other available methods for gene expression regulation including gene silencing. The dGoligo-mediated translation-enhancing approach has the potential to be transferred to increase the translation efficiency of any suitable target gene

  11. Identification of four novel mutations in the COL4A5 gene of patients with Alport syndrome

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lemmink, H.H.; Schroeder, C.H.; Brunner, H.G.

    1993-08-01

    The type IV collagen [alpha]5 chain (COL4A5) genes of patients with Alport syndrome were tested for major gene rearrangements by Southern blot analysis, using COL4A5 cDNA clones as probes. In addition, individual exons were screened for small mutations by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Four new COL4A5 mutations were detected. A duplication of the nine most 3[prime] located nucleotides of exon 49 and the first nucleotide of intron 49 was identified in the COL4A5 gene of one patient. Two patients displayed single base substitutions leading to, respectively, a proline to threonine and an arginine to glutamine substitution in the C-terminalmore » end. Both substitutions involve amino acids conserved through evolution. In COL4A5 intron 41 a mutation changing the splice acceptor site from AG to AA was identified. All mutations cosegregate with the clinical phenotype of Alport syndrome in affected family members. In a control population of 50 individuals tested by PCR-SSCP these mutations were never identified. Together with two mutations reported previously, a total of six mutations were found in 26 patients with Alport syndrome (23%) after systematic screening of about 30% of the COL4A5 coding region. The clinical features of these six patients are described in detail. 21 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  12. The association of 5-HTR2A-1438A/G, COMTVal158Met, MAOA-LPR, DATVNTR and 5-HTTVNTR gene polymorphisms and borderline personality disorder in female heroin-dependent Chinese subjects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mei; Mamy, Jules; Wang, Qiang; Liao, Yan-Hui; Seewoobudul, Vasish; Xiao, Shui-Yuan; Hao, Wei

    2014-04-03

    To explore the association between the 5-HTR2A-1438A/G, COMTVal158Met, MAOA-LPR, DATVNTR and 5-HTTVNTR polymorphisms with co-morbid borderline personality disorder (BPD) in female heroin-dependent patients. In a case control study, we compared the polymorphic distributions of 5-HTR2A-1438A/G, COMTVal158Met, MAOA-LPR, DATVNTR and 5-HTTVNTR in 296 female heroin-dependent patients (including 61 patients with BPD and 235 without BPD) and 101 normal females by genotypes, alleles, and interaction between genes. Female heroin-dependent subjects with BPD have lower frequency of the high activity allele (L: 4 repeats (4R)) of MAOA-LPR than those female heroin-dependent subjects without BPD, and have higher 5-HTTVNTR 10R/10R genotype frequency than normal female controls, with adjusted P-value<0.05 (after adjusted for multiple testing by 1000-fold permutation tests) respectively. By MDR (Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction) analyses, the interactive effects between MAOA-LPR and 5-HTTVNTR, and among MAOA-LPR, 5-HTTVNTR and rs6311 were close to the significance level (P=0.05) in predicting the risk of co-morbidity of BPD and heroin dependence relative to normal female controls, with 1000-fold permutation testing P-value<0.06 however >0.05 respectively. 5-HTTVNTR and MAOA-LPR may have independent predictive effects on co-morbid BPD in female heroin-dependent patients; the gene-gene interactions between MAOA-LPR and 5-HTTVNTR, and among MAOA-LPR, 5-HTTVNTR and rs6311 might also be involved in the etiology of this co-morbidity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. ALOX5 gene variants affect eicosanoid production and response to fish oil supplementation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine whether 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) gene variants associated with cardiovascular disease affect eicosanoid production by monocytes. The study was a randomized, double-masked, parallel intervention trial with fish oil (5.0 g of fish oil daily, containing 2.0 g ...

  14. Molecular characterization of ferulate 5-hydroxylase gene from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this research was to clone and characterize the expression pattern of a kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) F5H gene that encodes ferulate 5-hydroxylase in the phenylpropanoid pathway. Kenaf is well known as a fast growing dicotyledonous plant, which makes it a valuable biomass plant. The ...

  15. Mutations in the Cholesterol Transporter Gene ABCA5 Are Associated with Excessive Hair Overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    DeStefano, Gina M.; Kurban, Mazen; Anyane-Yeboa, Kwame; Dall'Armi, Claudia; Di Paolo, Gilbert; Feenstra, Heather; Silverberg, Nanette; Rohena, Luis; López-Cepeda, Larissa D.; Jobanputra, Vaidehi; Fantauzzo, Katherine A.; Kiuru, Maija; Tadin-Strapps, Marija; Sobrino, Antonio; Vitebsky, Anna; Warburton, Dorothy; Levy, Brynn; Salas-Alanis, Julio C.; Christiano, Angela M.

    2014-01-01

    Inherited hypertrichoses are rare syndromes characterized by excessive hair growth that does not result from androgen stimulation, and are often associated with additional congenital abnormalities. In this study, we investigated the genetic defect in a case of autosomal recessive congenital generalized hypertrichosis terminalis (CGHT) (OMIM135400) using whole-exome sequencing. We identified a single base pair substitution in the 5′ donor splice site of intron 32 in the ABC lipid transporter gene ABCA5 that leads to aberrant splicing of the transcript and a decrease in protein levels throughout patient hair follicles. The homozygous recessive disruption of ABCA5 leads to reduced lysosome function, which results in an accumulation of autophagosomes, autophagosomal cargos as well as increased endolysosomal cholesterol in CGHT keratinocytes. In an unrelated sporadic case of CGHT, we identified a 1.3 Mb cryptic deletion of chr17q24.2-q24.3 encompassing ABCA5 and found that ABCA5 levels are dramatically reduced throughout patient hair follicles. Collectively, our findings support ABCA5 as a gene underlying the CGHT phenotype and suggest a novel, previously unrecognized role for this gene in regulating hair growth. PMID:24831815

  16. Cyp2a5 Promoter-based Gene Reporter Assay: A Novel Design of Cell-based Bioassay for Toxicity Prediction.

    PubMed

    Abu-Bakar, A'edah; Hu, Hao; Lang, Matti A

    2018-05-22

    The murine cytochrome P450 2a5 (Cyp2a5) gene is regulated by complex interactions of various stress-activated transcription factors (TFs). Elevated Cyp2a5 transcription under chemical-induced stress conditions is achieved by interplay between the various TFs-including as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 wild-type (Nrf2)-at the "stress-responding" cluster of response elements on the Cyp2a5 promoter, as well as through mRNA stabilisation mediated by interaction of the stress-activated heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) with the 3'UTR of the CYP2A5 mRNA. We design a unique toxicity pathway-based reporter assay to include regulatory regions from both the 5' and the 3' untranslated regions of Cyp2a5 in a luciferase reporter plasmid to reflect in vivo responses to chemical insult. Human breast cancer, MCF-7 cells were stably transfected with pGL4.38-Cyp2a5_Wt3k (wildtype) or mutants-pGL4.38-Cyp2a5-StREMut and pGL4.38-Cyp2a5-XREMut-reporter gene to monitor chemical-induced cellular response mediated by AhR and Nrf2 signalling. The recombinant cells were treated with representative of AhR agonist, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, brominated flame retardant, fluorosurfactant, aromatic organic compound and metal, to determine sensitivity of the Cyp2a5 promoter-based gene reporter assays to chemical insults by measuring the LC 50 and EC 50 of the respective chemicals. The three assays are sensitive to sub-lethal cellular responses of chemicals, which is an ideal feature for toxicity pathway-based bioassay for toxicity prediction. The wildtype reporter responded well to chemicals that activate cross-talk between the AhR and Nrf2, whilst the mutant reporters effectively gauge cellular response driven by either Nrf2/StRE or AhR/XRE signalling. Thus, the three gene reporter assays could be used tandemly to determine the predominant toxicity pathway of a given compound. This article is protected by copyright. All

  17. X-linked lymphocyte regulated gene 5c-like (Xlr5c-like) Is a Novel Target of Progesterone Action in Granulosa Cells of Periovulatory Rat Ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Birendra; Park, Ji Yeon; Wilson, Kalin; Jo, Misung

    2015-01-01

    Progesterone (P4), acting through its nuclear receptor (PGR), plays an essential role in ovulation by mediating the expression of genes involved in ovulation and/or luteal formation. To identify ovulatory specific PGR-regulated genes, a preliminary microarray analysis was performed using rat granulosa cells treated with hCG ± RU486 (PGR antagonist). The transcript most highly down-regulated by RU486 was an EST (Expressed Sequence Tag) sequence (gb: BI289578.1) that matches with predicted sequence for Xlr5c-like mRNA. Since nothing is known about Xlr5c-like, we first characterized the expression pattern of Xlr5c-like mRNA in the rat ovary. The level of mRNA for Xlr5c-like is transiently up-regulated in granulosa cells of periovulatory follicles after hCG stimulation in PMSG-primed rat ovaries. The transient induction of Xlr5c-like mRNA was mimicked by hCG treatment in cultured granulosa cells from preovulatory ovaries. We further demonstrated that the LH-activated PKA, MEK, PI3K, and p38 signaling is involved in the increase in Xlr5c-like mRNA. The increase in Xlr5c-like mRNA was abolished by RU486. The inhibitory effect of RU486 was reversed by MPA (synthetic progestin), but not by dexamethasone (synthetic glucocorticoid). Furthermore, mutation of SP1/SP3 and PGR response element sites in the promoter region of Xlr5c-like decreased Xlr5c-like reporter activity. RU486 also inhibited Xlr5c-like reporter activity. ChIP assay verified the binding of PGR and SP3 to the Xlr5c-like promoter in periovulatory granulosa cells. Functionally, siRNA-mediated Xlr5c-like knockdown in granulosa cell cultures resulted in reduced levels of mRNA for Snap25, Cxcr4, and Adamts1. Recombinant Xlr5c-like protein expressed using an adenoviral approach was localized predominantly to the nucleus and to a lesser extent to the cytoplasm of rat granulosa cells. In conclusion, this is the first report showing the spatiotemporally regulated expression of Xlr5c-like mRNA by hCG in rat

  18. Bayesian logistic regression in detection of gene-steroid interaction for cancer at PDLIM5 locus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke-Sheng; Owusu, Daniel; Pan, Yue; Xie, Changchun

    2016-06-01

    The PDZ and LIM domain 5 (PDLIM5) gene may play a role in cancer, bipolar disorder, major depression, alcohol dependence and schizophrenia; however, little is known about the interaction effect of steroid and PDLIM5 gene on cancer. This study examined 47 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the PDLIM5 gene in the Marshfield sample with 716 cancer patients (any diagnosed cancer, excluding minor skin cancer) and 2848 noncancer controls. Multiple logistic regression model in PLINK software was used to examine the association of each SNP with cancer. Bayesian logistic regression in PROC GENMOD in SAS statistical software, ver. 9.4 was used to detect gene- steroid interactions influencing cancer. Single marker analysis using PLINK identified 12 SNPs associated with cancer (P< 0.05); especially, SNP rs6532496 revealed the strongest association with cancer (P = 6.84 × 10⁻³); while the next best signal was rs951613 (P = 7.46 × 10⁻³). Classic logistic regression in PROC GENMOD showed that both rs6532496 and rs951613 revealed strong gene-steroid interaction effects (OR=2.18, 95% CI=1.31-3.63 with P = 2.9 × 10⁻³ for rs6532496 and OR=2.07, 95% CI=1.24-3.45 with P = 5.43 × 10⁻³ for rs951613, respectively). Results from Bayesian logistic regression showed stronger interaction effects (OR=2.26, 95% CI=1.2-3.38 for rs6532496 and OR=2.14, 95% CI=1.14-3.2 for rs951613, respectively). All the 12 SNPs associated with cancer revealed significant gene-steroid interaction effects (P < 0.05); whereas 13 SNPs showed gene-steroid interaction effects without main effect on cancer. SNP rs4634230 revealed the strongest gene-steroid interaction effect (OR=2.49, 95% CI=1.5-4.13 with P = 4.0 × 10⁻⁴ based on the classic logistic regression and OR=2.59, 95% CI=1.4-3.97 from Bayesian logistic regression; respectively). This study provides evidence of common genetic variants within the PDLIM5 gene and interactions between PLDIM5 gene polymorphisms and steroid use

  19. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in the canine cytochrome b5 reductase (CYB5R3) gene is associated with sulfonamide hypersensitivity and is overrepresented in Doberman Pinschers.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, J M; Ekena, J; Cioffi, A C; Trepanier, L A

    2018-06-01

    Canine sulfonamide hypersensitivity (HS) has been associated with a variant in the cytochrome b 5 reductase gene (CYB5R3 729A>G), which encodes a drug-detoxifying enzyme. Study objectives were to determine variant allele frequency in Doberman Pinschers (DOBE), a breed which may be predisposed to sulfonamide HS, and to characterize the effects of CYB5R3 729G on gene expression and function. CYB5R3 729A>G allele frequencies were compared between DOBE (n = 24) vs. non-Doberman (non-DOBE; n = 60) dogs. CYB5R3mRNA expression, protein expression, and reduction of sulfamethoxazole hydroxylamine were compared between banked canine liver samples of 729AA vs. GG genotype. The 729G allele was overrepresented in DOBE (1.00) vs. non-DOBE dogs (0.567, p < .0001). mRNA and protein expressions as well as cyt b 5 reductase activity were similar between livers of AA and GG genotype. All Doberman Pinschers in this study were homozygous for CYB5R3 729G, which could contribute to this breed's apparent predisposition to sulfonamide HS. However, CYB5R3 729G does not alter sulfamethoxazole detoxification capacity, so a direct role could not be demonstrated. It is possible that this marker is linked to another contributing variant. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Androgenic correlates of genetic variation in the gene encoding 5alpha-reductase type 1.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Justine A; Panagiotopoulos, Sianna; Akdeniz, Aysel; Jerums, George; Harrap, Stephen B

    2005-01-01

    Androgens determine male secondary sexual characteristics and influence a variety of metabolic pathways. Circulating levels of androgens are highly heritable; however, the genes involved are largely unknown. The 5alpha-reductase enzymes types 1 and 2 responsible for converting testosterone to the more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone are encoded by the SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 genes, respectively. We performed indirect genetic association studies of SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 and the dihydrotestosterone/testosterone ratio that reflects the activity of 5alpha-reductase in 57 males with type 2 diabetes. We found evidence of significant association between a single nucleotide polymorphism in SRD5A1 and the dihydrotestosterone/testosterone ratio (median 0.10, interquartile range 0.08 vs. median 0.06, interquartile range 0.04, P = 0.009). The polymorphism was not associated with any diabetic phenotypes. These results suggest that functional genetic variants might exist in or around SRD5A1 that affect the activity of the 5alpha-reductase enzyme type 1 and influence androgen levels.

  1. Identification and expressional analysis of NLRC5 inflammasome gene in smolting Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Pontigo, Juan Pablo; Agüero, María José; Sánchez, Patricio; Oyarzún, Ricardo; Vargas-Lagos, Carolina; Mancilla, Jorge; Kossmann, Hans; Morera, Francisco J; Yáñez, Alejandro J; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis

    2016-11-01

    The NOD-like receptors (NLRs) were recently identified as an intracellular pathogen recognition receptor family in vertebrates. While the immune system participation of NLRs has been characterized and analyzed in various mammalian models, few studies have considered NLRs in teleost species. Therefore, this study analyzed the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) NLRC5. Structurally, Atlantic salmon NLRC5 presented leucine-rich repeat subfamily genes. Phylogenetically, NLRC5 was moderately conserved between S. salar and other species. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed NLRC5 expression in almost all analyzed organs, with greatest expressions in the head kidney, spleen, and hindgut. Furthermore, NLRC5 gene expression decreased during smolt stage. These data suggest that NLRC5 participates in the Atlantic salmon immune response and is regulated, at least partly, by the smoltification process, suggesting that there is a depression of immune system from parr at smolt stage. This is the first report on the NLRC5 gene in salmonid smolts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Isolation and functional analysis of a homolog of flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase gene from Pericallis × hybrida.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Huang, He; Meng, Li; Hu, Ke; Dai, Si-Lan

    2013-10-01

    As the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of blue flower color pigments, flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) can catalyze the conversion of its major substrates, 2-S naringenin and dihydrokaempferol, into 3',4',5'-hydroxylated pentahydroxyflavanone and dihydromyricetin, respectively. Unlike other F3'5'Hs belonging to the CYP75A subfamily, Asteraceae-specific F3'5'Hs belong to the CYP75B subfamily. Furthermore, cineraria F3'5'H expressed in yeast exhibited not only F3'H (flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase) activity but also F3'5'H activity in vitro. In this study, Southern blotting showed that there was only one copy of a homolog of the F3'5'H gene PCFH in the Pericallis × hybrida genome. This gene could be detected by Northern blot in the primary developmental stages of ligulate florets of the purple- and blue-flowered cultivars, and its transcripts also accumulated in the leaves. Heterologous expression of PCFH could produce new delphinidin derivatives in the corollas of transgenic tobacco plants, increased the content of cyanidin derivatives and lead to the blue- and red-shifting of flower color in T₀ generation plants. These results indicate that cineraria F3'5'H exhibited both F3'5'H- and F3'H-activity in vivo. The types and contents of anthocyanins and flower color phenotypes of the T₁ generation were similar to those of T₀ generation plants. PCFH exhibited stable inheritance and normal functions between generations. This study supplies new evidence to understand Asteraceae-specific F3'5'Hs and provides important references for the further study of molecular breeding of blue-flowered chrysanthemums using the PCFH gene. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  3. Regulatory divergence of homeologous Atlantic salmon elovl5 genes following the salmonid-specific whole-genome duplication.

    PubMed

    Carmona-Antoñanzas, Greta; Zheng, Xiaozhong; Tocher, Douglas R; Leaver, Michael J

    2016-10-10

    Fatty acyl elongase 5 (elovl5) is a critical enzyme in the vertebrate biosynthetic pathway which produces the physiologically essential long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), docosahexenoic acid (DHA), and eicosapentenoic acid (EPA) from 18 carbon fatty acids precursors. In contrast to most other vertebrates, Atlantic salmon possess two copies of elovl5 (elovl5a and elovl5b) as a result of a whole-genome duplication (WGD) which occurred at the base of the salmonid lineage. WGDs have had a major influence on vertebrate evolution, providing extra genetic material, enabling neofunctionalization to accelerate adaptation and speciation. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which such duplicated homeologous genes diverge. Here we show that homeologous Atlantic salmon elovl5a and elovl5b genes have been asymmetrically colonised by transposon-like elements. Identical locations and identities of insertions are also present in the rainbow trout duplicate elovl5 genes, but not in the nearest extant representative preduplicated teleost, the northern pike. Both elovl5 salmon duplicates possessed conserved regulatory elements that promoted Srebp1- and Srebp2-dependent transcription, and differences in the magnitude of Srebp response between promoters could be attributed to a tandem duplication of SRE and NF-Y cofactor binding sites in elovl5b. Furthermore, an insertion in the promoter region of elovl5a confers responsiveness to Lxr/Rxr transcriptional activation. Our results indicate that most, but not all, transposon mobilisation into elovl5 genes occurred after the split from the common ancestor of pike and salmon, but before more recent salmonid speciations, and that divergence of elovl5 regulatory regions have enabled neofuntionalization by promoting differential expression of these homeologous genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes on chromosome 1q21-24.

    PubMed

    Hasstedt, S J; Chu, W S; Das, S K; Wang, H; Elbein, S C

    2008-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been linked to chromosome 1q21-24 in multiple samples, including a Utah family sample. Variants in 13 of the numerous candidate genes in the 1q region were tested for association with T2D in a Utah case-control sample. The most promising, 19 variants in 6 candidates, were genotyped on the Utah family sample. Herein, we tested the 19 variants individually and in pairs for an effect on T2D risk in family members using a logistic regression model that accounted for gender, age, and BMI and attributed residual genetic effects to a polygenic component. Seven variants increased risk significantly through 5 pairs of interactions. The significant variant pairs were apolipoprotein A-II (APOA2) rs6413453 interacting with calsequestrin 1 (CASQ1) rs617698, dual specificity phosphatase 12 (DUSP12) rs1503814, and retinoid X receptor gamma (RXRG) rs10918169, a poly-T insertion-deletion polymorphism in liver pyruvate kinase (PKLR) interacting with APOA2 rs12143180, and DUSP12 rs1027702 interacting with RXRG rs10918169. Genotypes of these 5 variant pairs accounted for 25.8% of the genetic variance in T2D in these pedigrees.

  5. Genetic and epigenetic variation in 5S ribosomal RNA genes reveals genome dynamics in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Lauriane; Rabanal, Fernando A; Dubos, Tristan; Oliver, Cecilia; Lauber, Damien; Poulet, Axel; Vogt, Alexander; Mandlbauer, Ariane; Le Goff, Samuel; Sommer, Andreas; Duborjal, Hervé; Tatout, Christophe

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Organized in tandem repeat arrays in most eukaryotes and transcribed by RNA polymerase III, expression of 5S rRNA genes is under epigenetic control. To unveil mechanisms of transcriptional regulation, we obtained here in depth sequence information on 5S rRNA genes from the Arabidopsis thaliana genome and identified differential enrichment in epigenetic marks between the three 5S rDNA loci situated on chromosomes 3, 4 and 5. We reveal the chromosome 5 locus as the major source of an atypical, long 5S rRNA transcript characteristic of an open chromatin structure. 5S rRNA genes from this locus translocated in the Landsberg erecta ecotype as shown by linkage mapping and chromosome-specific FISH analysis. These variations in 5S rDNA locus organization cause changes in the spatial arrangement of chromosomes in the nucleus. Furthermore, 5S rRNA gene arrangements are highly dynamic with alterations in chromosomal positions through translocations in certain mutants of the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway and important copy number variations among ecotypes. Finally, variations in 5S rRNA gene sequence, chromatin organization and transcripts indicate differential usage of 5S rDNA loci in distinct ecotypes. We suggest that both the usage of existing and new 5S rDNA loci resulting from translocations may impact neighboring chromatin organization. PMID:29518237

  6. Genetic and epigenetic variation in 5S ribosomal RNA genes reveals genome dynamics in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Simon, Lauriane; Rabanal, Fernando A; Dubos, Tristan; Oliver, Cecilia; Lauber, Damien; Poulet, Axel; Vogt, Alexander; Mandlbauer, Ariane; Le Goff, Samuel; Sommer, Andreas; Duborjal, Hervé; Tatout, Christophe; Probst, Aline V

    2018-04-06

    Organized in tandem repeat arrays in most eukaryotes and transcribed by RNA polymerase III, expression of 5S rRNA genes is under epigenetic control. To unveil mechanisms of transcriptional regulation, we obtained here in depth sequence information on 5S rRNA genes from the Arabidopsis thaliana genome and identified differential enrichment in epigenetic marks between the three 5S rDNA loci situated on chromosomes 3, 4 and 5. We reveal the chromosome 5 locus as the major source of an atypical, long 5S rRNA transcript characteristic of an open chromatin structure. 5S rRNA genes from this locus translocated in the Landsberg erecta ecotype as shown by linkage mapping and chromosome-specific FISH analysis. These variations in 5S rDNA locus organization cause changes in the spatial arrangement of chromosomes in the nucleus. Furthermore, 5S rRNA gene arrangements are highly dynamic with alterations in chromosomal positions through translocations in certain mutants of the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway and important copy number variations among ecotypes. Finally, variations in 5S rRNA gene sequence, chromatin organization and transcripts indicate differential usage of 5S rDNA loci in distinct ecotypes. We suggest that both the usage of existing and new 5S rDNA loci resulting from translocations may impact neighboring chromatin organization.

  7. Microsatellite DNA assays reveal an allelic imbalance in p16(Ink4), GALT, p53, and APOA2 loci in patients with endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Goumenou, A G; Arvanitis, D A; Matalliotakis, I M; Koumantakis, E E; Spandidos, D A

    2001-01-01

    To detect allelic imbalance on specific genetic loci occurring in endometriosis. Microsatellite analysis. Paraffin-embedded tissues histologically confirmed as endometriotic or normal endometrium. Premenopausal women undergoing laparoscopy for suspected endometriosis. Laparoscopic excision of specimens. Allelic imbalance and alterations of intensity of microsatellite alleles. Five of 17 microsatellite DNA markers (29.4%) showed allelic imbalance. Eight samples (36.4%) showed allelic imbalance in at least one locus. Loci 9p21, 1q21, and 17p13.1 exhibited imbalance in 27.3%, 4.5%, and 4.5%, respectively. A 3-fold increase of the fractional allelic loss was observed from disease stage II to III and IV, whereas only 1.3-fold was found between patients of 41-50 and 20-40 years. We found that loss of heterozygosity on p16(Ink4), GALT, and p53, as well as on APOA2, a region frequently lost in ovarian cancer, occurs in endometriosis, even in stage II of the disease. The occurrence of such genomic alterations may represent important events in the development of endometriosis. The 9p21 locus may contain a gene associated with the pathogenesis of the disease, and therefore its loss may be a prognostic marker of the disease.

  8. Association of genetic variants and expression levels of porcine FABP4 and FABP5 genes.

    PubMed

    Ballester, M; Puig-Oliveras, A; Castelló, A; Revilla, M; Fernández, A I; Folch, J M

    2017-12-01

    The FABP4 and FABP5 genes, coding for fatty acid transport proteins, have long been studied as positional candidate genes for SSC4 QTL affecting fat deposition and composition traits in pigs. Polymorphisms in these genes, FABP4:g.2634_2635insC and FABP5:g.3000T>G, have previously been associated with fatness traits in an Iberian by Landrace cross (IBMAP). The aim of the present work was to evaluate the functional implication of these genetic variants. For this purpose, FABP4 and FABP5 mRNA expression levels in 114 BC1_LD animals (25% Iberian × 75% Landrace) were analyzed using real-time quantitative PCR in backfat and muscle. FABP4 gene expression in backfat, but not in muscle, was associated with FABP4:g.2634_2635insC. In contrast, FABP5:g.3000T>G was not associated with gene expression levels. An expression-based genome-wide association study highlighted the FABP4:g.2634_2635insC polymorphism as the polymorphism most associated with FABP4 gene expression in backfat. Furthermore, other genomic regions associated in trans with the mRNA expression of FABP4 in backfat and FABP5 in muscle were also identified. Finally, two putative transcription binding sites for PPARG and NR4A2 may be affected by the FABP4:g.2634_2635insC polymorphism, modifying FABP4 gene expression. Our results reinforce FABP4 as a candidate gene for fatness traits on SSC4. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  9. Apolipoprotein AIF gene variant S347 is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and lower apolipoprotein AIV plasma concentrations

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wong, Wai-man R.; Hawe, Emma; Li, Lai K.

    2003-01-30

    The impact of common variants in the apolipoprotein gene cluster (APOC3-A4-A5) on prospective CHD risk was examined in healthy UK men. Of the 2808 men followed over nine years, 187 had a clinically defined CHD event. Examination of 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this group revealed that homozygotes for APOA4 S347 had significantly increased risk of CHD [Hazard ratio (HR) of 2.07 (95%CI 1.04-4.12)] while men homozygous for APOC3 1100T were protected (HR 0.28 (95%CI 0.09-0.87)). In stepwise multiple regression analysis, after entering all the variants and adjusting for established risk factors APOA4 T347S alone remained in the model.more » Using nine-SNP haplotype analysis, highest risk-estimate haplotypes carried APOA4 S347 and rare alleles of the two flanking intergenic markers. The protective effect of APOC31100T could be explained by negative linkage disequilibrium with these alleles. To determine the association of APOA4 T347S with apoAIVlevels, the relationship was examined in over 1600 healthy young European men and women. S347 homozygotes had significantly lower apoAIV plasma levels (13.48 + 0.6mg/dl) compared to carriers of the T347 allele (14.85 + 0.12 mg/dl) (p=0.025). These results demonstrate that genetic variation in and around APOA4, independent of effects of TG, is associated with risk of CHD and apoAIV levels, supporting an anti-atherogenic role for apoAIV.« less

  10. Interstitial deletion of chromosome 1q [del(1)(q24q25.3)] identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization and gene dosage analysis of apolipoprotein A-II, coagulation factor V, and antithrombin III

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Takano, Takako; Yamanouchi, Yasuko; Mori, Yosuke

    We report on a 12-month-old Japanese boy with an interstitial deletion of the long-arm of chromosome 1 and meningomyelocele, hydrocephalus, anal atresia, atrial septal defect, left renal agenesis, bilateral cryptorchidism, talipes equinovarus, low birth weight, growth/developmental retardation, and many minor anomalies. By conventional GTG-banding, his karyotype was first interpreted as 46,XY,de1(1)(q23q24), but it was corrected as 46,XY.ish del(1)(q24q25.3) by fluorescence in situ hybridization using 11 known cosmid clones as probes. His serum levels of apolipoprotein A-II (gene symbol: APOA2, previously assigned to 1q21-q23) and coagulation factor V (F5, 1q21-q25) were normal, while serum concentration and activity of antithrombin III (AT3,more » 1q23-q25.1) was low. The results indicated that localization of APOA2 and F5 are proximal to the deleted region and AT3 is located within the deletion extent in the patient. 16 refs., 4 figs.« less

  11. ICAM-1 and SRD5A1 gene polymorphisms in symptomatic peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Barresi, Vincenza; Signorelli, Salvatore S; Musso, Nicolò; Anzaldi, Massimiliano; Fiore, Valerio; Alberghina, Mario; Condorelli, Daniele Filippo

    2014-06-01

    The genotype distribution of two gene polymorphisms, previously associated with peripheral artery disease (PAD), has been evaluated in a population of diabetic (DPAD) and non-diabetic (NDPAD) patients affected by symptomatic PAD (stages II-IV). A decreased frequency of the AA genotype of rs5498 (ICAM-1) was observed in the PAD subjects compared to controls but this result did not reach statistical significance (p=0.06 by chi-squared test). On the contrary, a significant increase in the frequency of the GG homozygous genotype of rs248793 (SRD5A1) was observed in the PAD patient group in comparison to controls (p=0.01). These data confirm that the GG genotype of rs248793 in the SRD5A1 gene is significantly associated with symptomatic PAD and show a trend towards a stronger association with the non-diabetic status. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Association of ATG5 Gene Polymorphisms With Behçet's Disease and ATG10 Gene Polymorphisms With VKH Syndrome in a Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Minming; Yu, Hongsong; Zhang, Lijun; Li, Hua; Liu, Yunjia; Kijlstra, Aize; Yang, Peizeng

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to explore the association of autophagy-related genes (ATGs) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with Behçet's disease (BD) and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) syndrome in a Chinese Han population. A two-stage association study was carried out in 940 BD, 1061 VKH, and 2007 healthy controls. Genotyping for genetic variants of 10 autophagy family genes (ATG5, ATG7, ATG10, ATG16L1, IRGM, LKKR2, ATG2A, DAP, ULK1, and TSC1) was performed using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) or TaqMan SNP assays. Gene expression was quantified by real-time PCR. In the cohort of BD patients, we observed that the TT genotype of rs573775/ATG5 decreased susceptibility to BD (Pc = 8.35 × 10-6, OR = 0.490). In the case of VKH patients, the AC genotype of rs4703863/ATG10 increased susceptibility to VKH syndrome (Pc = 9.94 × 10-5, OR = 1.444), whereas the A allele and AA genotype of rs4703863 (Pc = 7.06 × 10-5, OR = 0.745; Pc = 6.34 × 10-6, OR = 0.669, respectively) acted as protective factors for VKH. Functional experiments showed an increased ATG5 expression by LPS stimulated PBMCs in TT cases of rs573775 compared with controls. The level of ATG5 mRNA in active BD patients not receiving immunosuppression was significantly higher than that in healthy controls. This study demonstrated an association of ATG5 rs573775 with BD and ATG10 rs4703863 with VKH syndrome in a Chinese Han population. Furthermore, a variant of the ATG5 gene was shown to be correlated with ATG5 expression.

  13. CTCF-KDM4A complex correlates with histone modifications that negatively regulate CHD5 gene expression in cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Guerra-Calderas, Lissania; González-Barrios, Rodrigo; Patiño, Carlos César; Alcaraz, Nicolás; Salgado-Albarrán, Marisol; de León, David Cantú; Hernández, Clementina Castro; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia; Maldonado-Martínez, Héctor Aquiles; De la Rosa-Velazquez, Inti A.; Vargas-Romero, Fernanda; Herrera, Luis A.; García-Carrancá, Alejandro; Soto-Reyes, Ernesto

    2018-01-01

    Histone demethylase KDM4A is involved in H3K9me3 and H3K36me3 demethylation, which are epigenetic modifications associated with gene silencing and RNA Polymerase II elongation, respectively. KDM4A is abnormally expressed in cancer, affecting the expression of multiple targets, such as the CHD5 gene. This enzyme localizes at the first intron of CHD5, and the dissociation of KDM4A increases gene expression. In vitro assays showed that KDM4A-mediated demethylation is enhanced in the presence of CTCF, suggesting that CTCF could increase its enzymatic activity in vivo, however the specific mechanism by which CTCF and KDM4A might be involved in the CHD5 gene repression is poorly understood. Here, we show that CTCF and KDM4A form a protein complex, which is recruited into the first intron of CHD5. This is related to a decrease in H3K36me3/2 histone marks and is associated with its transcriptional downregulation. Depletion of CTCF or KDM4A by siRNA, triggered the reactivation of CHD5 expression, suggesting that both proteins are involved in the negative regulation of this gene. Furthermore, the knockout of KDM4A restored the CHD5 expression and H3K36me3 and H3K36me2 histone marks. Such mechanism acts independently of CHD5 promoter DNA methylation. Our findings support a novel mechanism of epigenetic repression at the gene body that does not involve promoter silencing. PMID:29682202

  14. A novel lipoprotein lipase gene missense mutation in Chinese patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia and pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alterations or mutations in the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene contribute to severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG). This study reported on two patients in a Chinese family with LPL gene mutations and severe HTG and acute pancreatitis. Methods Two patients with other five family members were included in this study for DNA-sequences of hyperlipidemia-related genes (such as LPL, APOC2, APOA5, LMF1, and GPIHBP1) and 43 healthy individuals and 70 HTG subjects were included for the screening of LPL gene mutations. Results Both patients were found to have a compound heterozygote for a novel LPL gene mutation (L279V) and a known mutation (A98T). Furthermore, one HTG subject out of 70 was found to carry this novel LPL L279V mutation. Conclusions The data from this study showed that compound heterozygote mutations of A98T and L279V inactivate lipoprotein lipase enzymatic activity and contribute to severe HTG and acute pancreatitis in two Chinese patients. Further study will investigate how these LPL gene mutations genetically inactivate the LPL enzyme. PMID:24646025

  15. The Binding Sites of miR-619-5p in the mRNAs of Human and Orthologous Genes.

    PubMed

    Atambayeva, Shara; Niyazova, Raigul; Ivashchenko, Anatoliy; Pyrkova, Anna; Pinsky, Ilya; Akimniyazova, Aigul; Labeit, Siegfried

    2017-06-01

    Normally, one miRNA interacts with the mRNA of one gene. However, there are miRNAs that can bind to many mRNAs, and one mRNA can be the target of many miRNAs. This significantly complicates the study of the properties of miRNAs and their diagnostic and medical applications. The search of 2,750 human microRNAs (miRNAs) binding sites in 12,175 mRNAs of human genes using the MirTarget program has been completed. For the binding sites of the miR-619-5p the hybridization free energy of the bonds was equal to 100% of the maximum potential free energy. The mRNAs of 201 human genes have complete complementary binding sites of miR-619-5p in the 3'UTR (214 sites), CDS (3 sites), and 5'UTR (4 sites). The mRNAs of CATAD1, ICA1L, GK5, POLH, and PRR11 genes have six miR-619-5p binding sites, and the mRNAs of OPA3 and CYP20A1 genes have eight and ten binding sites, respectively. All of these miR-619-5p binding sites are located in the 3'UTRs. The miR-619-5p binding site in the 5'UTR of mRNA of human USP29 gene is found in the mRNAs of orthologous genes of primates. Binding sites of miR-619-5p in the coding regions of mRNAs of C8H8orf44, C8orf44, and ISY1 genes encode the WLMPVIP oligopeptide, which is present in the orthologous proteins. Binding sites of miR-619-5p in the mRNAs of transcription factor genes ZNF429 and ZNF429 encode the AHACNP oligopeptide in another reading frame. Binding sites of miR-619-5p in the 3'UTRs of all human target genes are also present in the 3'UTRs of orthologous genes of mammals. The completely complementary binding sites for miR-619-5p are conservative in the orthologous mammalian genes. The majority of miR-619-5p binding sites are located in the 3'UTRs but some genes have miRNA binding sites in the 5'UTRs of mRNAs. Several genes have binding sites for miRNAs in the CDSs that are read in different open reading frames. Identical nucleotide sequences of binding sites encode different amino acids in different proteins. The binding sites of miR-619-5p

  16. [The value of 5-HTT gene polymorphism for the assessment and prediction of male adolescence violence].

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Liu, Xiang; Yang, Zhen-xing; Qiu, Chang-jian; Ma, Xiao-hong

    2012-08-01

    To establish an adolescent violence crime prediction model, and to assess the value of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene polymorphism for the assessment and prediction of violent crime. Investigative tools were used to analyze the difference in personality dimensions, social support, coping styles, aggressiveness, impulsivity, and family condition scale between 223 adolescents with violence behavior and 148 adolescents without violence behavior. The distribution of 5-HTT gene polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR and 5-HTTVNTR) was compared between the two groups. The role of 5-HTT gene polymorphism on adolescent personality, impulsion and aggression scale also was also analyzed. Stepwise logistic regression was used to establish a predictive model for adolescent violent crime. Significant difference was found between the violence group and the control group on multiple dimensions of psychology and environment scales. However, no statistical difference was found with regard to the 5-HTT genotypes and alleles between adolescents with violent behaviors and normal controls. The rate of prediction accuracy was not significantly improved when 5-HTT gene polymorphism was taken into the model. The violent crime of adolescents was closely related with social and environmental factors. No association was found between 5-HTT polymorphisms and adolescent violence criminal behavior.

  17. Stat5-mediated regulation of the human type II 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta5-delta4 isomerase gene: activation by prolactin.

    PubMed

    Feltus, F A; Groner, B; Melner, M H

    1999-07-01

    Altered PRL levels are associated with infertility in women. Molecular targets at which PRL elicits these effects have yet to be determined. These studies demonstrate transcriptional regulation by PRL of the gene encoding the final enzymatic step in progesterone biosynthesis: 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta5-delta4 isomerase (3beta-HSD). A 9/9 match with the consensus Stat5 response element was identified at -110 to -118 in the human Type II 3beta-HSD promoter. 3beta-HSD chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter constructs containing either an intact or mutated Stat5 element were tested for PRL activation. Expression vectors for Stat5 and the PRL receptor were cotransfected with a -300 --> +45 3beta-HSD CAT reporter construct into HeLa cells, which resulted in a 21-fold increase in reporter activity in the presence of PRL. Promoter activity showed an increased response with a stepwise elevation of transfected Stat5 expression or by treatment with increasing concentrations of PRL (max, 250 ng/ml). This effect was dramatically reduced when the putative Stat5 response element was removed by 5'-deletion of the promoter or by the introduction of a 3-bp mutation into critical nucleotides in the element. Furthermore, 32P-labeled promoter fragments containing the Stat5 element were shifted in electrophoretic mobility shift assay experiments using nuclear extracts from cells treated with PRL, and this complex was supershifted with antibodies to Stat5. These results demonstrate that PRL has the ability to regulate expression of a key human enzyme gene (type II 3beta-HSD) in the progesterone biosynthetic pathway, which is essential for maintaining pregnancy.

  18. Molecular organization of the 5S rDNA gene type II in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Castro, Sergio I; Hleap, Jose S; Cárdenas, Heiber; Blouin, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The 5S rDNA gene is a non-coding RNA that can be found in 2 copies (type I and type II) in bony and cartilaginous fish. Previous studies have pointed out that type II gene is a paralog derived from type I. We analyzed the molecular organization of 5S rDNA type II in elasmobranchs. Although the structure of the 5S rDNA is supposed to be highly conserved, our results show that the secondary structure in this group possesses some variability and is different than the consensus secondary structure. One of these differences in Selachii is an internal loop at nucleotides 7 and 112. These mutations observed in the transcribed region suggest an independent origin of the gene among Batoids and Selachii. All promoters were highly conserved with the exception of BoxA, possibly due to its affinity to polymerase III. This latter enzyme recognizes a dT4 sequence as stop signal, however in Rajiformes this signal was doubled in length to dT8. This could be an adaptation toward a higher efficiency in the termination process. Our results suggest that there is no TATA box in elasmobranchs in the NTS region. We also provide some evidence suggesting that the complexity of the microsatellites present in the NTS region play an important role in the 5S rRNA gene since it is significantly correlated with the length of the NTS.

  19. Molecular organization of the 5S rDNA gene type II in elasmobranchs

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Sergio I.; Hleap, Jose S.; Cárdenas, Heiber; Blouin, Christian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The 5S rDNA gene is a non-coding RNA that can be found in 2 copies (type I and type II) in bony and cartilaginous fish. Previous studies have pointed out that type II gene is a paralog derived from type I. We analyzed the molecular organization of 5S rDNA type II in elasmobranchs. Although the structure of the 5S rDNA is supposed to be highly conserved, our results show that the secondary structure in this group possesses some variability and is different than the consensus secondary structure. One of these differences in Selachii is an internal loop at nucleotides 7 and 112. These mutations observed in the transcribed region suggest an independent origin of the gene among Batoids and Selachii. All promoters were highly conserved with the exception of BoxA, possibly due to its affinity to polymerase III. This latter enzyme recognizes a dT4 sequence as stop signal, however in Rajiformes this signal was doubled in length to dT8. This could be an adaptation toward a higher efficiency in the termination process. Our results suggest that there is no TATA box in elasmobranchs in the NTS region. We also provide some evidence suggesting that the complexity of the microsatellites present in the NTS region play an important role in the 5S rRNA gene since it is significantly correlated with the length of the NTS. PMID:26488198

  20. Relationship between genetic polymorphisms in the DRD5 gene and paranoid schizophrenia in northern Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Ding, M; Pang, H; Xu, X M; Wang, B J

    2014-03-12

    Dopamine (DA) has been implicated in the pathophysiol-ogy of several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Thus, genes related to the dopaminergic (DAergic) system are good candidate genes for schizophrenia. One of receptors of the DA receptor system is dopa-mine receptor 5 (DRD5). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory regions of DRD5 gene may affect gene expression, influence biosynthesis of DA and underlie various neuropsychiatric disorders re-lated to DA dysfunction. The present study explored the association of SNPs within the DRD5 gene with paranoid schizophrenia in Han Chinese. A total of 176 patients with schizophrenia and 206 healthy controls were genotyped for four DRD5 SNPs (rs77434921, rs2076907, rs6283, and rs1800762). Significant group differences were observed in the allele and genotype frequencies of rs77434921 and rs1800762 and in the frequen-cies of GC haplotypes corresponding to rs77434921-rs1800762. Our find-ings suggest that common genetic variations of DRD5 are likely to con-tribute to genetic susceptibility to paranoid schizophrenia in Han Chinese. Further studies in larger samples are needed to replicate this association.

  1. Arid5b facilitates chondrogenesis by recruiting the histone demethylase Phf2 to Sox9-regulated genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Kenji; Takashima, Rikako; Amano, Katsuhiko; Ono, Koichiro; Nakanishi, Masako; Yoshida, Michiko; Wakabayashi, Makoto; Matsuda, Akio; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sugano, Sumio; Whitson, Robert H.; Nishimura, Riko; Yoneda, Toshiyuki

    2013-11-01

    Histone modification, a critical step for epigenetic regulation, is an important modulator of biological events. Sox9 is a transcription factor critical for endochondral ossification; however, proof of its epigenetic regulation remains elusive. Here we identify AT-rich interactive domain 5b (Arid5b) as a transcriptional co-regulator of Sox9. Arid5b physically associates with Sox9 and synergistically induces chondrogenesis. Growth of Arid5b-/- mice is retarded with delayed endochondral ossification. Sox9-dependent chondrogenesis is attenuated in Arid5b-deficient cells. Arid5b recruits Phf2, a histone lysine demethylase, to the promoter region of Sox9 target genes and stimulates H3K9me2 demethylation of these genes. In the promoters of chondrogenic marker genes, H3K9me2 levels are increased in Arid5b-/- chondrocytes. Finally, we show that Phf2 knockdown inhibits Sox9-induced chondrocyte differentiation. Our findings establish an epigenomic mechanism of skeletal development, whereby Arid5b promotes chondrogenesis by facilitating Phf2-mediated histone demethylation of Sox9-regulated chondrogenic gene promoters.

  2. Cyclin-dependent Kinase 5: Novel role of gene variants identified in ADHD.

    PubMed

    Maitra, Subhamita; Chatterjee, Mahasweta; Sinha, Swagata; Mukhopadhyay, Kanchan

    2017-07-28

    Cortical neuronal migration and formation of filamentous actin cytoskeleton, needed for development, normal cell growth and differentiation, are regulated by the cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with delayed maturation of the brain and hence we hypothesized that cdk5 may have a role in ADHD. Eight functional CDK5 gene variants were analyzed in 848 Indo-Caucasoid individuals including 217 families with ADHD probands and 250 healthy volunteers. Only three variants, rs2069454, rs2069456 and rs2069459, predicted to affect transcription, were found to be bimorphic. Significant difference in rs2069456 "AC" genotype frequency was noticed in the probands, more specifically in the males. Family based analysis revealed over transmission of rs2069454 "C" and rs2069456 "A" to the probands. Quantitative trait analysis exhibited association of haplotypes with inattention, domain specific impulsivity, and behavioral problem, though no significant contribution was noticed on the age of onset of ADHD. Gene variants also showed significant association with cognitive function and co-morbidity. Probands having rs2069459 "TT" showed betterment during follow up. It may be inferred from this pilot study that CDK5 may affect ADHD etiology, possibly by attenuating synaptic neurotransmission and could be a useful target for therapeutic intervention.

  3. A case-based evaluation of SRD5A1, SRD5A2, AR, and ADRA1A as candidate genes for severity of BPH.

    PubMed

    Klotsman, M; Weinberg, C R; Davis, K; Binnie, C G; Hartmann, K E

    2004-01-01

    In men with a clinical diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), polytomous logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate associations between two silent polymorphisms in SRD5A1 (codon positions 30 and 116), two polymorphisms in SRD5A2 (Val89Leu substitution and C to T transition in intron 1), a trinucleotide (CAG)n repeat in androgen receptor (AR), and an Arg492Cys substitution in ADRA1A and clinical parameters that characterize severity of BPH. Candidate gene selection was based on two mechanistic pathways targeted by pharmacotherapy for BPH: (1) androgen metabolic loci contributing to prostate growth (static obstruction); and (2) factors affecting smooth muscle tone (dynamic obstruction). Polymorphisms in SRD5A2 were not associated with severity of BPH; however, SRD5A1 polymorphisms were associated with severity of BPH. The process(es) in which these silent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influence BPH phenotypes is unknown and additional studies will be needed to assess whether these SNPs have direct functional consequences. The characterization of additional molecular factors that contribute to static and dynamic obstruction may help predict response to pharmacotherapy and serve to identify novel drug targets for the clinical management of BPH.

  4. The interaction between ApoA2 -265T>C polymorphism and dietary fatty acids intake on oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Elham; Sadrzadeh-Yeganeh, Haleh; Sotoudeh, Gity; Keramat, Laleh; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Rafiee, Masoumeh; Koohdani, Fariba

    2017-08-01

    Apolipoprotein A2 (APOA2) -265T>C polymorphism has been studied in relation to oxidative stress and various dietary fatty acids. Since the interaction between APOA2 polymorphism and dietary fatty acids on oxidative stress has not yet discussed, we aimed to investigate the interaction on oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. The subjects were 180 T2DM patients with known APOA2 genotype, either TT, TC or CC. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was determined by colorimetric method. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and serum level of 8-isoprostane F2α were measured by spectrophotometry and ELISA, respectively. Dietary intake was collected through a food frequency questionnaire. Based on the median intake, fatty acids intake was dichotomized into high or low groups. The interaction between APOA2 polymorphism and dietary fatty acids intake was analyzed by ANCOVA multivariate interaction model. Higher than median intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFA) was associated with increased serum level of 8-isoprostane F2α in subjects with TT/TC genotype (p = 0.004), and higher than median intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) was associated with increased serum SOD activity in CC genotype (p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant interaction between APOA2 polymorphism and n-6 PUFA intake on 8-isoprostane F2α concentration as well as n-3 PUFA intake on serum SOD activity (p-interaction = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). The current study shows the interaction between APOA2 polymorphism and dietary fatty acids intake on oxidative stress. More investigations on different populations are required to confirm the interaction.

  5. Establishment of a molecular genetic map of distal mouse chromosome 1: further definition of a conserved linkage group syntenic with human chromosome 1q.

    PubMed

    Seldin, M F; Morse, H C; LeBoeuf, R C; Steinberg, A D

    1988-01-01

    A linkage map of distal mouse chromosome 1 was constructed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of DNAs from seven sets of recombinant inbred (RI) strains. The data obtained with seven probes on Southern hybridization combined with data from previous studies suggest the gene order Cfh, Pep-3/Ren-1,2, Ly-5, Lamb-2, At-3, Apoa-2/Ly-17,Spna-1. These results confirm and extend analyses of a large linkage group which includes genes present on a 20-30 cM span of mouse chromosome 1 and those localized to human chromosome 1q21-32. Moreover, the data indicate similar relative positions of human and mouse complement receptor-related genes REN, CD45, LAMB2, AT3, APOA2, and SPTA. These results suggest that mouse gene analyses may help in detailed mapping of human genes within such a syntenic group.

  6. [The Role of 5-Aza-CdR on Methylation of Promoter in RASSF1A Gene in Endometrial Carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-ping; Chen, Chen; Wang, Xue-ping; Liu, Hui

    2015-05-01

    To explore the effect of demethylating drug 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR) on methtylation status of the Ras-association domain familylA gene (RASSF1A) in human endometrial carcinoma. Randomly'assign the human endometrial carcinoma cell line HEC-1-B into groups and use demethylating drug 5-Aza-CdR of different concentration to treat them. Then Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP), real-time PCR, Western blot, TUNEL technology were used to analyze methylation status of RASSF1A promoter CpG islands, RASSF1A mRNA expression, RASSF1A protein expression and apoptosis of HEC-1-B cell. High DNA methylation in RASSF1A gene promoter region, low RASSF1A mRNA level and protein expression and out of control of human endometrial carcinoma cell HEC-1-B apoptosis were observed. 5-Aza-CdR of different concentration could reverse RASSF1A gene's methylation status, recover the expression of mRNA and protein, and control the growth of HEC-1-B by inducing apoptosis. Aberrant methylation of RASSF1A in endometrial cancer as a therapeutic target, demethylating agent 5-Aza-CdR could be an effective way of gene therapy.

  7. Associations between plasma lipid parameters and APOC3 and APOA4 genotypes in a healthy population are independent of dietary cholesterol intake.

    PubMed

    Herron, Kristin L; Lofgren, Ingrid E; Adiconis, Xian; Ordovas, Jose M; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether APOC3 and APOA4 genotypes influence plasma cholesterol fluctuations following a high cholesterol diet, a healthy population of 40 men and 51 women were studied. The crossover intervention randomly assigned participants to an EGG (640 mg/d cholesterol) or placebo (0 mg/d cholesterol) diet for 30 days, with a 3-week washout between periods. Allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization was utilized to determine the presence or absence of APOC3 and APOA4 polymorphisms. Differences in plasma cholesterol between hyper- and hypo-responders were not influenced by genotype. However, an interaction (P < 0.0001) did exist between APOA4 allele, diet and gender with regard to triglycerides (TG). While female carriers of the APOA4(347) S allele had lower TG concentrations than those with the common T/T allele, males with the S allele had higher concentrations. The APOC3 SstI polymorphism analysis revealed that heterozygous carriers of the S2 allele had higher (P < 0.05) plasma apo C-III and TG concentrations, regardless of gender or dietary period. In addition, carriers of the S2 allele had smaller LDL peak particle diameter than those having the common APOC3 genotype. The presence of individual alleles in this population was associated with differences in plasma lipids and LDL size. However, these relationships were independent of dietary cholesterol.

  8. Identification of Differentially Expressed IGFBP5-Related Genes in Breast Cancer Tumor Tissues Using cDNA Microarray Experiments.

    PubMed

    Akkiprik, Mustafa; Peker, İrem; Özmen, Tolga; Amuran, Gökçe Güllü; Güllüoğlu, Bahadır M; Kaya, Handan; Özer, Ayşe

    2015-11-10

    IGFBP5 is an important regulatory protein in breast cancer progression. We tried to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between breast tumor tissues with IGFBP5 overexpression and their adjacent normal tissues. In this study, thirty-eight breast cancer and adjacent normal breast tissue samples were used to determine IGFBP5 expression by qPCR. cDNA microarrays were applied to the highest IGFBP5 overexpressed tumor samples compared to their adjacent normal breast tissue. Microarray analysis revealed that a total of 186 genes were differentially expressed in breast cancer compared with normal breast tissues. Of the 186 genes, 169 genes were downregulated and 17 genes were upregulated in the tumor samples. KEGG pathway analyses showed that protein digestion and absorption, focal adhesion, salivary secretion, drug metabolism-cytochrome P450, and phenylalanine metabolism pathways are involved. Among these DEGs, the prominent top two genes (MMP11 and COL1A1) which potentially correlated with IGFBP5 were selected for validation using real time RT-qPCR. Only COL1A1 expression showed a consistent upregulation with IGFBP5 expression and COL1A1 and MMP11 were significantly positively correlated. We concluded that the discovery of coordinately expressed genes related with IGFBP5 might contribute to understanding of the molecular mechanism of the function of IGFBP5 in breast cancer. Further functional studies on DEGs and association with IGFBP5 may identify novel biomarkers for clinical applications in breast cancer.

  9. Naturally occurring mutations in the human 5-lipoxygenase gene promoter that modify transcription factor binding and reporter gene transcription.

    PubMed

    In, K H; Asano, K; Beier, D; Grobholz, J; Finn, P W; Silverman, E K; Silverman, E S; Collins, T; Fischer, A R; Keith, T P; Serino, K; Kim, S W; De Sanctis, G T; Yandava, C; Pillari, A; Rubin, P; Kemp, J; Israel, E; Busse, W; Ledford, D; Murray, J J; Segal, A; Tinkleman, D; Drazen, J M

    1997-03-01

    Five lipoxygenase (5-LO) is the first committed enzyme in the metabolic pathway leading to the synthesis of the leukotrienes. We examined genomic DNA isolated from 25 normal subjects and 31 patients with asthma (6 of whom had aspirin-sensitive asthma) for mutations in the known transcription factor binding regions and the protein encoding region of the 5-LO gene. A family of mutations in the G + C-rich transcription factor binding region was identified consisting of the deletion of one, deletion of two, or addition of one zinc finger (Sp1/Egr-1) binding sites in the region 176 to 147 bp upstream from the ATG translation start site where there are normally 5 Sp1 binding motifs in tandem. Reporter gene activity directed by any of the mutant forms of the transcription factor binding region was significantly (P < 0.05) less effective than the activity driven by the wild type transcription factor binding region. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) demonstrated the capacity of wild type and mutant transcription factor binding regions to bind nuclear extracts from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). These data are consistent with a family of mutations in the 5-LO gene that can modify reporter gene transcription possibly through differences in Sp1 and Egr-1 transactivation.

  10. SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 are associated with treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia with the combination of 5α-reductase inhibitors and α-adrenergic receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xin; Na, Rong; Huang, Tao; Wang, Li; Tao, Sha; Tian, Lu; Chen, Zhuo; Jiao, Yang; Kang, Jian; Zheng, Siqun; Xu, Jianfeng; Sun, Jielin; Qi, Jun

    2013-08-01

    Common treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia include 5α-reductase inhibitors and α-adrenergic receptor antagonists. However, these treatments can only partially decrease the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia progression. SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 are 5α-reductase inhibitor targets. We investigated the association between drug efficacy and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 genes in a Chinese population. We genotyped 11 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms in the SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 genes in a total of 426 benign prostatic hyperplasia cases and 1,008 controls from Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Cases were treated with type II 5α-reductase inhibitors and α-adrenergic receptor antagonists. We tested the association of tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms with benign prostatic hyperplasia risk/progression, clinical characteristics at baseline, including the I-PSS (International Prostate Symptom Score) and total prostate volume, and changes in clinical characteristics after treatment. The 11 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms were not significantly associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia risk or progression (each p >0.05). In the SRD5A1 gene rs6884552 and rs3797177 were significantly associated with baseline I-PSS (p = 0.04 and 0.003, respectively). In the SRD5A2 gene rs523349 (V89L) and rs9332975 were significantly associated with baseline total prostate volume (p = 0.01 and 0.001, respectively). In SRD5A1 rs166050 was significantly associated with the posttreatment change in total prostate volume (p = 0.04). In SRD5A2 rs523349 and rs612224 were significantly associated with the posttreatment I-PSS change (p = 0.03 and 0.009, respectively). SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 single nucleotide polymorphisms are significantly associated with the clinical characteristics of benign prostatic hyperplasia and the efficacy of benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and

  11. [Association between 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to occupational stress in oilfield workers].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y; Palizhati, Abudoureyimu; Gao, X Y; Guan, S Z; Liu, J W

    2016-10-20

    Objective: To investigate the association between 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A (5-HT2A) receptor gene polymorphisms and occupational stress in oilfield workers. Methods: Cluster sampling was used to select 826 oilfield workers from January to August, 2013. The SNaPshot single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping method was used to determine the genotypes of rs6313, rs1923884, and rs2070040 in 5-HT2A receptor gene, and the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised Edition was used to analyze occupational stress in these workers. Results: There were no significant differences in occupational stress between groups with different individual characteristics ( P >0.05 ) . As for the comparison of occupational stress scores between workers with different genotypes of each SNP of 5-HT2A receptor gene, the workers with CC and CT genotypes of rs6313 had significantly higher role boundary scores than those with TT genotype ( P <0.05) , and the workers with CC genotype had a significantly higher vocational stress score than those with CT genotype ( P <0.05) ; the workers with CT genotype of rs1923884 had a significantly higher occupational role score than those with CC genotype ( P <0.05) and a significantly higher coping resources score than those with CC and TT genotypes ( P <0.05) ; the workers with AG genotype of rs2070040 had a significantly higher vocational stress score than those with AA genotype ( P <0.05) . The ordinal multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that workers with CT genotype of rs1923884 were susceptible to occupational stress ( OR =1.56, 95% CI 1.10~2.20) . Conclusion: CT genotype of rs1923884 in 5-HT2A receptor gene may be associated with the susceptibility to occupational stress in oilfield workers.

  12. Optimizing the molecular diagnosis of CDKL5 gene-related epileptic encephalopathy in boys.

    PubMed

    Mei, Davide; Darra, Francesca; Barba, Carmen; Marini, Carla; Fontana, Elena; Chiti, Laura; Parrini, Elena; Dalla Bernardina, Bernardo; Guerrini, Renzo

    2014-11-01

    Mutations involving the cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene cause an early onset epileptic encephalopathy (EE) with severe neurologic impairment and a skewed 12:1 female-to-male ratio. To date, 18 mutations have been described in boys. We analyzed our cohort of boys with early onset EE to assess the diagnostic yield of our molecular approach. We studied 74 boys who presented early onset severe seizures, including infantile spasms and developmental delay, in the setting of EE, using Sanger sequencing, next-generation sequencing (NGS) and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). We identified alterations involving CDKL5 in four boys (5.4%) using NGS in one and MLPA in three. Three of four mutations were indicative of somatic mosaicism. CDKL5 gene mutations accounted for 5.4% of boys with early onset EE. Somatic mosaic mutations might be even more represented than germline mutations, probably because their less deleterious effect enhances viability of the male embryo. The molecular approach used for CDKL5 screening remarkably influences the diagnostic yield in boys. Diagnosis is optimized by Sanger sequencing combined with array-based methods or MLPA; alternatively, NGS targeted resequencing designed to also detect copy number alterations, may be performed. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  13. Relation between osteonecrosis of the femoral head and PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zheng; Wang, Bing; Pan, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G gene polymorphism and osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). The pooled relative risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using the the RevMan 5.0 software. The present study included 969 patients with ONFH and 419 healthy controls. The Meta analysis results showed: There is association between PAI-1 gene 4G/5G polymorphism and the increasing risk of ONFH (allele model: RR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.16 ~ 1.33; dominant genetic model: RR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.05 ~ 1.18). It was found that the association between PAI-1 gene 4 G/5 G polymorphism and the susceptibility of ONFH (P < 0.05) through the comparison of Caucasian population and Asian people according to the analysis of different races. There is association between PAI-1 gene 4 G/5 G polymorphism and the increasing of the susceptibility of ONFH.

  14. Interactions between COL5A1 Gene and Risk of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture.

    PubMed

    Lulińska-Kuklik, Ewelina; Rahim, Masouda; Domańska-Senderowska, Daria; Ficek, Krzysztof; Michałowska-Sawczyn, Monika; Moska, Waldemar; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Brzeziański, Michał; Brzeziańska-Lasota, Ewa; Cięszczyk, Paweł; September, Alison V

    2018-06-01

    Collagen alpha-1(V) chain, encoded by the COL5A1 gene, plays a crucial role in abundant fibrillar collagens supporting many tissues in the body containing type I collagen and appears to regulate the association between heterotypic fibers composed of both type I and type V collagen occurring among others in muscles, tendons and ligaments. Taking this fact into consideration we decided to examine the association between COL5A1 rs12722 and rs13946 polymorphisms, individually and as inferred haplotypes, with anterior cruciate ligament rupture risk (ACLR) in professional soccer players. A total of 134 male professional soccer players with surgically diagnosed primary anterior cruciate ligament ruptures and 211 apparently healthy male professional soccer players, who were without any self-reported history of ligament or tendon injury, were included in the study. Both the cases and the healthy controls were recruited from the same soccer teams, of a similar age category, and had a comparable level of exposure to anterior cruciate ligament injury. Genomic DNA was extracted from oral epithelial cells using GenElute Mammalian Genomic DNA MiniprepKit. All samples were genotyped for the rs12722 and rs13946 polymorphisms using a Rotor-Gene realtime polymerase chain reaction. Statistically significant differences in the genotype frequencies for the COL5A1 rs13946 polymorphisms in dominant modes of inheritance occurred (p = 0.039). Statistically significant differences were documented only in the dominant model under the representation tendency of the C-C haplotype in the ACLR group compared to controls (p = 0.038). Our results suggest that variation in the COL5A1 gene may be one of the non-modifiable factors associated with the ACL injury in professional soccer players. The C-C rs12722-rs13946 haplotype provides a protective effect against the ACL tear.

  15. Identification of 5 novel mutations in the AGXT gene.

    PubMed

    Basmaison, O; Rolland, M O; Cochat, P; Bozon, D

    2000-06-01

    In order to identify additional genotypes in primary hyperoxaluria type 1, we sequenced the AGXT genes of 9 patients. We report 5 new mutations. Three are splice-site mutations situated at the end of intron 4 and 8 (647-1G>A, 969-1G>C, 969-3C>G), one is a missense mutation in exon 5 (D183N), and one is a short duplication in exon 2 (349ins7). Their consequence is always a lack of enzymatic activity of the Alanine-Glyoxylate Aminotransferase (AGT); for 4 of them, we were able to deduce that they were associated to the absence of AGT protein. These mutations are rare, as they have been found on one allele in our study (except 969-3C>G present in 2 unrelated families), and have not been previously reported.

  16. Null Mutation of 5α-Reductase Type I Gene Alters Ethanol Consumption Patterns in a Sex-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, Jeffrey D.; Kaufman, Moriah N.; Finn, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    The neuroactive steroid allopregnanolone (ALLO) is a positive modulator of GABAA receptors, and manipulation of neuroactive steroid levels via injection of ALLO or the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride alters ethanol self-administration patterns in male, but not female, mice. The Srd5a1 gene encodes the enzyme 5α-reductase-1, which is required for the synthesis of ALLO. The current studies investigated the influence of Srd5a1 deletion on voluntary ethanol consumption in male and female wildtype (WT) and knockout (KO) mice. Under a continuous access condition, 6 and 10 % ethanol intake was significantly greater in KO versus WT females, but significantly lower in KO versus WT males. In 2-h limited access sessions, Srd5a1 deletion retarded acquisition of 10 % ethanol intake in female mice, but facilitated it in males, versus respective WT mice. The present findings demonstrate that the Srd5a1 gene modulates ethanol consumption in a sex-dependent manner that is also contingent upon ethanol access condition and concentration. PMID:25416204

  17. Null mutation of 5α-reductase type I gene alters ethanol consumption patterns in a sex-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Ford, Matthew M; Nickel, Jeffrey D; Kaufman, Moriah N; Finn, Deborah A

    2015-05-01

    The neuroactive steroid allopregnanolone (ALLO) is a positive modulator of GABAA receptors, and manipulation of neuroactive steroid levels via injection of ALLO or the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride alters ethanol self-administration patterns in male, but not female, mice. The Srd5a1 gene encodes the enzyme 5α-reductase-1, which is required for the synthesis of ALLO. The current studies investigated the influence of Srd5a1 deletion on voluntary ethanol consumption in male and female wildtype (WT) and knockout (KO) mice. Under a continuous access condition, 6 and 10 % ethanol intake was significantly greater in KO versus WT females, but significantly lower in KO versus WT males. In 2-h limited access sessions, Srd5a1 deletion retarded acquisition of 10 % ethanol intake in female mice, but facilitated it in males, versus respective WT mice. The present findings demonstrate that the Srd5a1 gene modulates ethanol consumption in a sex-dependent manner that is also contingent upon ethanol access condition and concentration.

  18. Treacher Collins syndrome with a de Novo 5-bp deletion in the TCOF1 gene.

    PubMed

    Su, Pen-Hua; Chen, Jia-Yu; Chen, Suh-Jen; Yu, Ju-Shan

    2006-06-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder of craniofacial development with features including malar hypoplasia, micrognathia, microtia, downward slanting palpebral fissures, lower eyelid coloboma, conductive hearing loss, and cleft palate. TCS is caused by mutations in the TCOF1 gene, which encodes the nuclear phosphoprotein treacle. Here, we describe a 1-day-old male infant with classical TCS presentation. A 5-bp deletion in exon 22 of the TCOF1 gene (3469del ACTCT) was found to cause a premature stop codon. This is the first report of TCOF1 gene mutation in the Taiwanese population.

  19. Evaluation of STAT5A Gene Expression in Aflatoxin B1 Treated Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Forouharmehr, Ali; Harkinezhad, Taher; Qasemi-Panahi, Babak

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent mycotoxin which has been produced by fungi such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus as secondary metabolites due to their growth on food stuffs and induces hepatocellular carcinoma in many animal species, including humans. In the present study, the effect of AFB1 on STAT5A gene expression was investigated in bovine mammary epithelial cells using real time RT-PCR. Methods: Bovine mammary epithelial cells were seeded in a 24-well culture plate for three-dimensional (3D) culture in Matrigel matrix. After 21 days of 3D culture and reaching the required number of cells, cells were treated with AFB1 and incubated for 8 h. For real time PCR reaction, total RNA from the cultured and treated cells was extracted and used for complementary DNA synthesis. Results: The expression of STAT5A gene was significantly down regulated by AFB1 in dose- dependent manner and led to the reduction of proliferation and differentiation of epithelial cells, which has direct effect in milk protein quantity and quality. Conclusion: According to the results, it seems that down regulation of STAT5A gene in AFB1-treated cells maybe due to DNA damage induced by AFB1 in bovine mammary epithelial cells. PMID:24312879

  20. The cancer-promoting gene fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) is epigenetically regulated during human prostate carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Koichiro; Kinameri, Ayumi; Suzuki, Shunsuke; Senga, Shogo; Ke, Youqiang; Fujii, Hiroshi

    2016-02-15

    FABPs (fatty-acid-binding proteins) are a family of low-molecular-mass intracellular lipid-binding proteins consisting of ten isoforms. FABPs are involved in binding and storing hydrophobic ligands such as long-chain fatty acids, as well as transporting these ligands to the appropriate compartments in the cell. FABP5 is overexpressed in multiple types of tumours. Furthermore, up-regulation of FABP5 is strongly associated with poor survival in triple-negative breast cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying the specific up-regulation of the FABP5 gene in these cancers remain poorly characterized. In the present study, we determined that FABP5 has a typical CpG island around its promoter region. The DNA methylation status of the CpG island in the FABP5 promoter of benign prostate cells (PNT2), prostate cancer cells (PC-3, DU-145, 22Rv1 and LNCaP) and human normal or tumour tissue was assessed by bisulfite sequencing analysis, and then confirmed by COBRA (combined bisulfite restriction analysis) and qAMP (quantitative analysis of DNA methylation using real-time PCR). These results demonstrated that overexpression of FABP5 in prostate cancer cells can be attributed to hypomethylation of the CpG island in its promoter region, along with up-regulation of the direct trans-acting factors Sp1 (specificity protein 1) and c-Myc. Together, these mechanisms result in the transcriptional activation of FABP5 expression during human prostate carcinogenesis. Importantly, silencing of Sp1, c-Myc or FABP5 expression led to a significant decrease in cell proliferation, indicating that up-regulation of FABP5 expression by Sp1 and c-Myc is critical for the proliferation of prostate cancer cells. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  1. Characterization of contiguous gene deletions in COL4A6 and COL4A5 in Alport syndrome-diffuse leiomyomatosis.

    PubMed

    Nozu, Kandai; Minamikawa, Shogo; Yamada, Shiro; Oka, Masafumi; Yanagita, Motoko; Morisada, Naoya; Fujinaga, Shuichiro; Nagano, China; Gotoh, Yoshimitsu; Takahashi, Eihiko; Morishita, Takahiro; Yamamura, Tomohiko; Ninchoji, Takeshi; Kaito, Hiroshi; Morioka, Ichiro; Nakanishi, Koichi; Vorechovsky, Igor; Iijima, Kazumoto

    2017-07-01

    Alport syndrome-diffuse leiomyomatosis (AS-DL, OMIM: 308940) is a rare variant of the X-linked Alport syndrome that shows overgrowth of visceral smooth muscles in the gastrointestinal, respiratory and female reproductive tracts in addition to renal symptoms. AS-DL results from deletions that encompass the 5' ends of the COL4A5 and COL4A6 genes, but deletion breakpoints between COL4A5 and COL4A6 have been determined in only four cases. Here, we characterize deletion breakpoints in five AS-DL patients and show a contiguous COL4A6/COL4A5 deletion in each case. We also demonstrate that eight out of nine deletion alleles involved sequences homologous between COL4A5 and COL4A6. Most breakpoints took place in recognizable transposed elements, including long and short interspersed repeats, DNA transposons and long-terminal repeat retrotransposons. Because deletions involved the bidirectional promoter region in each case, we suggest that the occurrence of leiomyomatosis in AS-DL requires inactivation of both genes. Altogether, our study highlights the importance of homologous recombination involving multiple transposed elements for the development of this continuous gene syndrome and other atypical loss-of-function phenotypes.

  2. Methylation analysis of p16, SLIT2, SCARA5, and Runx3 genes in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Gaofeng; Zhang, Chen; Feng, Min; Liu, Wensheng; Xie, Huifang; Qin, Qin; Zhao, E.; Wan, Li

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study is to investigate the methylation status of multiple tumor suppressor 1 (p16), secreted glycoprotein 2 (SLIT2), scavenger receptor class A, member 5 putative (SCARA5), and human runt-related transcription factor 3 (Runx3) genes in the peripheral blood of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This is a case–control study. The peripheral blood samples were collected from 25 HCC patients, 25 patients with high risk of HCC (defined as “internal control group”), and 25 healthy individuals (defined as “external control group”), respectively. Then the methylation status of p16, SLIT2, SCARA5, and Runx3 genes in the blood samples were analyzed by pyrosequencing. The relationship between the methylation and the clinical features of HCC patients were evaluated. The methylation levels in the 7 CpG loci of p16 gene in HCC patients were low and without statistically significant difference (P > .05) compared to the control groups. Although the methylation levels of CpG3 and CpG4 in SLIT2 gene loci were higher than those of the control groups, there was no statistically significant difference (P > .05). However, the methylation rate of CpG2 locus in SCARA5 gene in HCC patients was significantly higher (P < .05). And the methylation rates of CpG1, CpG2, CpG3, CpG4, CpG5, and CpG8 in Runx3 gene in HCC patients were significantly different to that of control groups (P < .05). We also have analyzed the correlations between the CpG islands methylation of Runx3 or SCARA5 genes and the age, gender, hepatitis B, liver cirrhosis, alpha fetal protein, or hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) of the HCC patients, which all showed no significant correlations (P > .05). The methylation status of SCARA5 and Runx3 genes are abnormal in HCC patients, which may further be used as molecular markers for early auxiliary diagnosis of liver cancer. PMID:29019900

  3. The b Gene of Pea Encodes a Defective Flavonoid 3′,5′-Hydroxylase, and Confers Pink Flower Color1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Carol; Ambrose, Mike J.; Turner, Lynda; Hill, Lionel; Ellis, T.H. Noel; Hofer, Julie M.I.

    2012-01-01

    The inheritance of flower color in pea (Pisum sativum) has been studied for more than a century, but many of the genes corresponding to these classical loci remain unidentified. Anthocyanins are the main flower pigments in pea. These are generated via the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, which has been studied in detail and is well conserved among higher plants. A previous proposal that the Clariroseus (B) gene of pea controls hydroxylation at the 5′ position of the B ring of flavonoid precursors of the anthocyanins suggested to us that the gene encoding flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase (F3′5′H), the enzyme that hydroxylates the 5′ position of the B ring, was a good candidate for B. In order to test this hypothesis, we examined mutants generated by fast neutron bombardment. We found allelic pink-flowered b mutant lines that carried a variety of lesions in an F3′5′H gene, including complete gene deletions. The b mutants lacked glycosylated delphinidin and petunidin, the major pigments present in the progenitor purple-flowered wild-type pea. These results, combined with the finding that the F3′5′H gene cosegregates with b in a genetic mapping population, strongly support our hypothesis that the B gene of pea corresponds to a F3′5′H gene. The molecular characterization of genes involved in pigmentation in pea provides valuable anchor markers for comparative legume genomics and will help to identify differences in anthocyanin biosynthesis that lead to variation in pigmentation among legume species. PMID:22492867

  4. Prediction of target genes for miR-140-5p in pulmonary arterial hypertension using bioinformatics methods.

    PubMed

    Li, Fangwei; Shi, Wenhua; Wan, Yixin; Wang, Qingting; Feng, Wei; Yan, Xin; Wang, Jian; Chai, Limin; Zhang, Qianqian; Li, Manxiang

    2017-12-01

    The expression of microRNA (miR)-140-5p is known to be reduced in both pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients and monocrotaline-induced PAH models in rat. Identification of target genes for miR-140-5p with bioinformatics analysis may reveal new pathways and connections in PAH. This study aimed to explore downstream target genes and relevant signaling pathways regulated by miR-140-5p to provide theoretical evidences for further researches on role of miR-140-5p in PAH. Multiple downstream target genes and upstream transcription factors (TFs) of miR-140-5p were predicted in the analysis. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis indicated that downstream target genes of miR-140-5p were enriched in many biological processes, such as biological regulation, signal transduction, response to chemical stimulus, stem cell proliferation, cell surface receptor signaling pathways. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) pathway analysis found that downstream target genes were mainly located in Notch, TGF-beta, PI3K/Akt, and Hippo signaling pathway. According to TF-miRNA-mRNA network, the important downstream target genes of miR-140-5p were PPI, TGF-betaR1, smad4, JAG1, ADAM10, FGF9, PDGFRA, VEGFA, LAMC1, TLR4, and CREB. After thoroughly reviewing published literature, we found that 23 target genes and seven signaling pathways were truly inhibited by miR-140-5p in various tissues or cells; most of these verified targets were in accordance with our present prediction. Other predicted targets still need further verification in vivo and in vitro .

  5. Genetic Variants Associated with Gestational Hypertriglyceridemia and Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xie-Lin; Chen, Chao; Jin, Rong; Huang, Zhi-Ming; Zhou, Meng-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Severe hypertriglyceridemia is a well-known cause of pancreatitis. Usually, there is a moderate increase in plasma triglyceride level during pregnancy. Additionally, certain pre-existing genetic traits may render a pregnant woman susceptible to development of severe hypertriglyceridemia and pancreatitis, especially in the third trimester. To elucidate the underlying mechanism of gestational hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis, we undertook DNA mutation analysis of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL), apolipoprotein C2 (APOC2), apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5), lipase maturation factor 1 (LMF1), and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1) genes in five unrelated pregnant Chinese women with severe hypertriglyceridemia and pancreatitis. DNA sequencing showed that three out of five patients had the same homozygous variation, p.G185C, in APOA5 gene. One patient had a compound heterozygous mutation, p.A98T and p.L279V, in LPL gene. Another patient had a compound heterozygous mutation, p.A98T & p.C14F in LPL and GPIHBP1 gene, respectively. No mutations were seen in APOC2 or LMF1 genes. All patients were diagnosed with partial LPL deficiency in non-pregnant state. As revealed in our study, genetic variants appear to play an important role in the development of severe gestational hypertriglyceridemia, and, p.G185C mutation in APOA5 gene appears to be the most common variant implicated in the Chinese population. Antenatal screening for mutations in susceptible women, combined with subsequent interventions may be invaluable in the prevention of potentially life threatening gestational hypertriglyceridemia-induced pancreatitis. PMID:26079787

  6. [Exon-intron structure of the fet5+ gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe and physical mapping of genome encompassing regions].

    PubMed

    Shpakovskiĭ, G V; Lebedenko, E N

    1998-01-01

    Plasmid pYUK3 bearing the fet5+ gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe was isolated from a genomic library of the fission yeast, and a detailed physical map of the whole genomic insert (ca. 9.6 Kbp) was constructed. The primary structure of the fet5+ gene and its flanking regions is established. The gene contains a single 45-bp intron in its distal part. A typical TATA-box (TATAAG) was found in the 5'-noncoding region ca. 50 bp upstream of the putative start of transcription, and the 3'-noncoding region contains AT-rich palindromes, which are probably involved in termination of the fet5+ transcription. A previously unidentified gene of Sz. pombe encoding a protein with some similarity to one of the transcriptional activators from the TBP (TATA-binding protein) group of SPT factors of transcription was found in the vicinity of the fet5+ gene. Taking into account that cDNA of the fet5(+)-gene was isolated as a suppressor of the genetic-defect of nuclear RNA polymerases I-III (Bioorg. Khim., 1997, vol. 23, No 3, pp. 234-237), this vicinity may be the first evidence of possible clustering, in the genome of the fission yeast, of genes participating in transcription regulation.

  7. Cutin monomer induces expression of the rice OsLTP5 lipid transfer protein gene.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Park, Jong Ho; Kim, Moon Chul; Cho, Sung Ho

    2008-01-01

    Treatment with the cutin monomer 16-hydroxypalmitic acid (HPA), a major component of cutin, elicited the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in rice leaves and induced the expression of the lipid transfer protein gene OsLTP5. Treatment with HPA also induced expression of OsLTP1, OsLTP2, and the pathogen-related PR-10 genes to a lesser extent. The OsLTP5 transcript was expressed prominently in stems and flowers, but was barely detectable in leaves. Expression of OsLTP5 was induced in shoots in response to ABA and salicylic acid. It is proposed that HPA is perceived by rice as a signal, inducing defense reactions.

  8. Naturally occurring mutations in the human 5-lipoxygenase gene promoter that modify transcription factor binding and reporter gene transcription.

    PubMed Central

    In, K H; Asano, K; Beier, D; Grobholz, J; Finn, P W; Silverman, E K; Silverman, E S; Collins, T; Fischer, A R; Keith, T P; Serino, K; Kim, S W; De Sanctis, G T; Yandava, C; Pillari, A; Rubin, P; Kemp, J; Israel, E; Busse, W; Ledford, D; Murray, J J; Segal, A; Tinkleman, D; Drazen, J M

    1997-01-01

    Five lipoxygenase (5-LO) is the first committed enzyme in the metabolic pathway leading to the synthesis of the leukotrienes. We examined genomic DNA isolated from 25 normal subjects and 31 patients with asthma (6 of whom had aspirin-sensitive asthma) for mutations in the known transcription factor binding regions and the protein encoding region of the 5-LO gene. A family of mutations in the G + C-rich transcription factor binding region was identified consisting of the deletion of one, deletion of two, or addition of one zinc finger (Sp1/Egr-1) binding sites in the region 176 to 147 bp upstream from the ATG translation start site where there are normally 5 Sp1 binding motifs in tandem. Reporter gene activity directed by any of the mutant forms of the transcription factor binding region was significantly (P < 0.05) less effective than the activity driven by the wild type transcription factor binding region. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) demonstrated the capacity of wild type and mutant transcription factor binding regions to bind nuclear extracts from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). These data are consistent with a family of mutations in the 5-LO gene that can modify reporter gene transcription possibly through differences in Sp1 and Egr-1 transactivation. PMID:9062372

  9. Immunohistochemical loss of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine expression in acute myeloid leukaemia: relationship to somatic gene mutations affecting epigenetic pathways.

    PubMed

    Magotra, Minoti; Sakhdari, Ali; Lee, Paul J; Tomaszewicz, Keith; Dresser, Karen; Hutchinson, Lloyd M; Woda, Bruce A; Chen, Benjamin J

    2016-12-01

    Genes affecting epigenetic pathways are frequently mutated in myeloid malignancies, including acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). The genes encoding TET2, IDH1 and IDH2 are among the most commonly mutated genes, and cause defective conversion of 5-methylcytosine into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), impairing demethylation of DNA, and presumably serving as driver mutations in leukaemogenesis. The aim of this study was to correlate 5hmC immunohistochemical loss with the mutation status of genes involved in epigenetic pathways in AML. Immunohistochemical staining with an anti-5hmC antibody was performed on 41 decalcified, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) bone marrow biopsies from patients with AML. Archived DNA was subjected to next-generation sequencing for analysis of a panel of genes, including TET2, IDH1, IDH2, WT1 and DNMT3A. TET2, IDH1, IDH2, WT1 and DNMT3A mutations were found in 46% (19/41) of the cases. Ten of 15 cases (67%) with TET2, IDH1, IDH2 or WT1 mutations showed deficient 5hmC staining, whereas nine of 26 cases (35%) without a mutation in these genes showed loss of 5hmC. It is of note that all four cases with TET2 mutations showed deficient 5hmC staining. Overall, somatic mutations in TET2, IDH1, IDH2, WT1 and DNMT3A were common in our cohort of AML cases. Immunohistochemical staining for 5hmC was lost in the majority of cases harbouring mutations in these genes, reflecting the proposed relationship between dysfunctional epigenetic pathways and leukaemogenesis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Characterization of SLCO5A1/OATP5A1, a Solute Carrier Transport Protein with Non-Classical Function

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, Katrin; Detro-Dassen, Silvia; Rinis, Natalie; Fahrenkamp, Dirk; Müller-Newen, Gerhard; Merk, Hans F.; Schmalzing, Günther

    2013-01-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP/SLCO) have been identified to mediate the uptake of a broad range of mainly amphipathic molecules. Human OATP5A1 was found to be expressed in the epithelium of many cancerous and non-cancerous tissues throughout the body but protein characterization and functional analysis have not yet been performed. This study focused on the biochemical characterization of OATP5A1 using Xenopus laevis oocytes and Flp-In T-REx-HeLa cells providing evidence regarding a possible OATP5A1 function. SLCO5A1 is highly expressed in mature dendritic cells compared to immature dendritic cells (∼6.5-fold) and SLCO5A1 expression correlates with the differentiation status of primary blood cells. A core- and complex- N-glycosylated polypeptide monomer of ∼105 kDa and ∼130 kDa could be localized in intracellular membranes and on the plasma membrane, respectively. Inducible expression of SLCO5A1 in HeLa cells led to an inhibitory effect of ∼20% after 96 h on cell proliferation. Gene expression profiling with these cells identified immunologically relevant genes (e.g. CCL20) and genes implicated in developmental processes (e.g. TGM2). A single nucleotide polymorphism leading to the exchange of amino acid 33 (L→F) revealed no differences regarding protein expression and function. In conclusion, we provide evidence that OATP5A1 might be a non-classical OATP family member which is involved in biological processes that require the reorganization of the cell shape, such as differentiation and migration. PMID:24376674

  11. 5-Methyldeoxycytidine in the Physarum minichromosome containing the ribosomal RNA genes.

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, C A; Matthews, H R; Bradbury, E M

    1984-01-01

    5-Methyldeoxycytidine (5MC) was analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and by restriction enzyme digestion in rDNA isolated from Physarum polycephalum. rDNA from Physarum M3C strain microplasmodia has a significant 5MC content (about half that of the whole genomic DNA). This rDNA contains many C5MCGG sites because it is clearly digested further by Msp I than by Hpa II. However, most 5MC is in other sites. In particular, alternating CG sequences appear to be highly methylated. HPLC of deoxyribonucleosides shows tha most of the transcribed regions contain little or no 5MC. Restriction digestion indicates that there is little or no 5MC in any of the transcribed regions including the transcription origin and adjacent sequences. Over 90% of the total 5MC is in or near the central nontranscribed spacer and most methylated restriction sites are in inverted repeats of this spacer. rDNA is very heterogeneous with respect to 5MC. The 5MC pattern doesn't appear to change with inactivation of the rRNA genes during reversible differentiation from microplasmodia (growing) to microsclerotia (dormant), showing that inactivation is due to changes in other chromatin variables. The 5MC pattern is different between Physarum strains. The possible involvement of this 5MC in rDNA chromatin structure and in cruciform and Z-DNA formation is discussed. Images PMID:6322108

  12. Robust gene network analysis reveals alteration of the STAT5a network as a hallmark of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Anupama; Huang, C Chris; Liu, Huiqing; Delisi, Charles; Nevalainen, Marja T; Szalma, Sandor; Bhanot, Gyan

    2010-01-01

    We develop a general method to identify gene networks from pair-wise correlations between genes in a microarray data set and apply it to a public prostate cancer gene expression data from 69 primary prostate tumors. We define the degree of a node as the number of genes significantly associated with the node and identify hub genes as those with the highest degree. The correlation network was pruned using transcription factor binding information in VisANT (http://visant.bu.edu/) as a biological filter. The reliability of hub genes was determined using a strict permutation test. Separate networks for normal prostate samples, and prostate cancer samples from African Americans (AA) and European Americans (EA) were generated and compared. We found that the same hubs control disease progression in AA and EA networks. Combining AA and EA samples, we generated networks for low low (<7) and high (≥7) Gleason grade tumors. A comparison of their major hubs with those of the network for normal samples identified two types of changes associated with disease: (i) Some hub genes increased their degree in the tumor network compared to their degree in the normal network, suggesting that these genes are associated with gain of regulatory control in cancer (e.g. possible turning on of oncogenes). (ii) Some hubs reduced their degree in the tumor network compared to their degree in the normal network, suggesting that these genes are associated with loss of regulatory control in cancer (e.g. possible loss of tumor suppressor genes). A striking result was that for both AA and EA tumor samples, STAT5a, CEBPB and EGR1 are major hubs that gain neighbors compared to the normal prostate network. Conversely, HIF-lα is a major hub that loses connections in the prostate cancer network compared to the normal prostate network. We also find that the degree of these hubs changes progressively from normal to low grade to high grade disease, suggesting that these hubs are master regulators of

  13. Localization of the Netherton Syndrome Gene to Chromosome 5q32, by Linkage Analysis and Homozygosity Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Chavanas, Stéphane; Garner, Chad; Bodemer, Christine; Ali, Mohsin; Teillac, Dominique Hamel-; Wilkinson, John; Bonafé, Jean-Louis; Paradisi, Mauro; Kelsell, David P.; Ansai, Shin-ichi; Mitsuhashi, Yoshihiko; Larrègue, Marc; Leigh, Irene M.; Harper, John I.; Taïeb, Alain; Prost, Yves de; Cardon, Lon R.; Hovnanian, Alain

    2000-01-01

    Netherton syndrome (NS [MIM 256500]) is a rare and severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital ichthyosis, a specific hair-shaft defect (trichorrhexis invaginata), and atopic manifestations. Infants with this syndrome often fail to thrive; life-threatening complications result in high postnatal mortality. We report the assignment of the NS gene to chromosome 5q32, by linkage analysis and homozygosity mapping in 20 families affected with NS. Significant evidence for linkage (maximum multipoint LOD score 10.11) between markers D5S2017 and D5S413 was obtained, with no evidence for locus heterogeneity. Analysis of critical recombinants mapped the NS locus between markers D5S463 and D5S2013, within an <3.5-cM genetic interval. The NS locus is telomeric to the cytokine gene cluster in 5q31. The five known genes encoding casein kinase Iα, the α subunit of retinal rod cGMP phosphodiesterase, the regulator of mitotic-spindle assembly, adrenergic receptor β2, and the diastrophic dysplasia sulfate–transporter gene, as well as the 38 expressed-sequence tags mapped within the critical region, are not obvious candidates. Our study is the first step toward the positional cloning of the NS gene. This finding promises a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control epidermal differentiation and immunity. PMID:10712206

  14. CDK5RAP2 gene and tau pathophysiology in late-onset sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Miron, Justin; Picard, Cynthia; Nilsson, Nathalie; Frappier, Josée; Dea, Doris; Théroux, Louise; Poirier, Judes

    2018-06-01

    Because currently known Alzheimer's disease (AD) single-nucleotide polymorphisms only account for a small fraction of the genetic variance in this disease, there is a need to identify new variants associated with AD. Our team performed a genome-wide association study in the Quebec Founder Population isolate to identify novel protective or risk genetic factors for late-onset sporadic AD and examined the impact of these variants on gene expression and AD pathology. The rs10984186 variant is associated with an increased risk of developing AD and with a higher CDK5RAP2 mRNA prevalence in the hippocampus. On the other hand, the rs4837766 variant, which is among the best cis-expression quantitative trait loci in the CDK5RAP2 gene, is associated with lower mild cognitive impairment/AD risk and conversion rate. The rs10984186 risk and rs4837766 protective polymorphic variants of the CDK5RAP2 gene might act as potent genetic modifiers for AD risk and/or conversion by modulating the expression of this gene. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. AAV-Mediated Gene Transfer of the Obesity-Associated Gene Etv5 in Rat Midbrain Does Not Affect Energy Balance or Motivated Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Boender, Arjen J.; Koning, Nivard A.; van den Heuvel, José K.; Luijendijk, Mieneke C. M.; van Rozen, Andrea J.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Adan, Roger A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Several genome-wide association studies have implicated the transcription factor E-twenty- six version 5 (Etv5) in the regulation of body mass index. Further substantiating the role of Etv5 in feeding behavior are the findings that targeted disruption of Etv5 in mice leads to decreased body weight gain and that expression of Etv5 is decreased in the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra pars compacta (VTA/SNpc) after food restriction. As Etv5 has been suggested to influence dopaminergic neurotransmission by driving the expression of genes that are responsible for the synthesis and release of dopamine, we investigated if expression levels of Etv5 are dependent on nutritional state and subsequently influence the expression levels of tyrosine hydroxylase. While it was shown that Etv5 expression in the VTA/SNpc increases after central administration of leptin and that Etv5 was able to drive expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in vitro, AAV-mediated gene transfer of Etv5 into the VTA/SNpc of rats did not alter expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in vivo. Moreover, AAV-mediated gene transfer of Etv5 in the VTA/SNpc did not affect measures of energy balance or performances in a progressive ratio schedule. Thus, these data do not support a role for increased expression of Etv5 in the VTA/SNpc in the regulation of feeding behavior. PMID:24710089

  16. APOA2 -256T>C polymorphism interacts with saturated fatty acids intake to affect anthropometric and hormonal variables in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Basiri, Marjan Ghane; Sotoudeh, Gity; Alvandi, Ehsan; Djalali, Mahmood; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Noorshahi, Neda; Koohdani, Fariba

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies have established the interaction between APOA2 -256T>C polymorphism and dietary saturated fatty acids intake in relation to obesity on healthy individuals. In the current study, we investigate the effects of this interaction on anthropometric variables and serum levels of leptin and ghrelin in patients with type 2 diabetes. In this cross-sectional study, 737 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (290 males and 447 females) were recruited from diabetes clinics in Tehran. The usual dietary intake of all participants during the last year was obtained by validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. APOA2 genotyping was performed by real-time PCR on genomic DNA. No significant relation was obtained by univariate analysis between anthropometric variables and APOA2 genotypes. However, after adjusting for age, gender, physical activity and total energy intake, we identified a significant interaction between APOA2-saturated fatty acids intake and body mass index (BMI). After adjusting for potential confounders, serum levels of ghrelin in CC genotype patients were significantly higher than T allele carriers (p = 0.03), whereas the case with leptin did not reveal a significant difference. The result of this study confirmed the interaction between APOA2 -256T>C polymorphism and SFAs intake with BMI in type 2 diabetic patients. In fact, homozygous patients for the C allele with high saturated fatty acids intake had higher BMI. The APOA2 -256T>C polymorphism was associated with elevated levels of serum ghrelin.

  17. IRF5, PTPN22, CD28, IL2RA, KIF5A, BLK and TNFAIP3 genes polymorphisms and lupus susceptibility in a cohort from the Egypt Delta; relation to other ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Elghzaly, Ashraf A; Metwally, Shereen S; El-Chennawi, Farha A; Elgayaar, Maha A; Mosaad, Youssef M; El-Toraby, Ehab E; Hegab, Mohsen M; Ibrahim, Saleh M

    2015-07-01

    To replicate a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of known genes for lupus (IRF5 rs10488631, PTPN22 rs2476601, BLK rs2736340 and TNFAIP3 rs5029939) and other autoimmune diseases (CD28 rs1980422, IL2RA rs2104286 and KIF5A rs1678542) on a newly studied Egyptian cohort to investigate the genetic disparity with different studied ethnic groups in relation to lupus susceptibility. 170 Egyptian patients from Egypt Delta with SLE and 241 matched healthy controls were genotyped by Taqman real time PCR for the selected SNPs. The results revealed significant association with IRF5 (p<0.0001) and PTPN22 (p=0.008) and insignificant association with KIF5A, CD28, IL2RA, BLK and TNFAIP3 genes. This study may provide an additional evidence for the association between IRF5 and PTPN22 and lupus susceptibility and may exclude it for CD28, IL2RA, and KIF5A. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The interactive effects of child maltreatment and the FK506 binding protein 5 gene (FKBP5) on dissociative symptoms in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Yaylaci, Fatima Tuba; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A; Bulut, Okan; Hetzel, Susan R

    2017-08-01

    The FK506 binding protein 5 gene (FKBP5) has been associated with susceptibility to pathogenic effects of childhood trauma including dissociative symptoms. This study examines the impact of maltreatment on dissociative tendencies in adolescence as moderated by the FKBP5 gene. Dissociative symptoms and variation within FKBP5 were assessed in a high-risk, low socioeconomic status community sample of 279 maltreated and 171 nonmaltreated adolescents. Following the assignment of haplotypes across four single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs3800373, rs9296158, rs1360780, and rs9470080), individuals with one or more copies of the CATT haplotype (N = 230) were grouped together and compared to individuals with zero copies of this haplotype (N = 185). Analyses of covariance were conducted to test hypotheses regarding the effects of developmental timing and the chronicity of maltreatment and the CATT haplotype. We found a significant interactive effect of timing/chronicity of maltreatment and the CATT haplotype on dissociative symptoms. Among adolescents who had no copies of the CATT haplotype, dissociative symptoms were higher for chronically maltreated adolescents who had an infancy onset compared to those who were not maltreated or whose maltreatment experience was either relatively less chronic or not started in infancy. The groups did not differ significantly among subjects who carry one or more copies of the CATT haplotype.

  19. Correlation between chemotherapy resistance in osteosarcoma patients and PAK5 and Ezrin gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qian; Xu, Bo; Zhou, Wanshan

    2018-01-01

    The correlation between PAK5 (P21-activated kinase 5) and Ezrin gene expression and chemotherapy resistance of osteosarcoma patients was investigated. The cisplatin (CDDP)-resistance model of osteosarcoma cells SOSP-9607/CDDP was established to detect the cell growth curve. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to detect the drug resistance of cells to chemotherapy drugs. Transwell assay was used to detect the invasive capacity of cells. Semi-quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression levels in the drug resistance-related genes PAK5 and Ezrin. Western blot analysis was used to detect the protein expression levels in PAK5 and Ezrin. Tumor tissues were taken from the osteosarcoma patients with chemotherapy resistance to detect the expression levels of PAK5 and Ezrin via immunohistochemical detection, and the correlation between PAK5 and Ezrin expressions was studied. The results of MTT assay showed that the growth rate of SOSP-9607 was similar to that of SOSP-9607/CDDP, and the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The sensitivity of SOSP-9607 to CDDP was significantly higher than that of SOSP-9607/CDDP, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01). Transwell assay showed that the migration capacity of SOSP-9607/CDDP was significantly better than that of SOSP-9607 (P<0.01), indicating that the drug resistance cell lines of osteosarcoma were constructed successfully. Semi-qPCR and western blot analysis showed that the protein expression levels in PAK5 and Ezrin in SOSP-9607/CDDP were significantly higher than those in SOSP-9607 (P<0.01). The results of immunohistochemistry showed that the expression quantities of PAK5 and Ezrin in osteosarcoma tissues were significantly higher than those in para-tumor tissues (P<0.01). Pearson's correlation analysis showed that expression of PAK5 and Ezrin was positively correlated (r=0.197, P=0.023). The osteosarcoma resistance is closely related to the expression levels

  20. Analysis of the 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) of the alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) gene in recombinant protein expression in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Staley, Chris A.; Huang, Amy; Nattestad, Maria; Oshiro, Kristin T.; Ray, Laura E.; Mulye, Tejas; Li, Zhiguo Harry; Le, Thu; Stephens, Justin J.; Gomez, Seth R.; Moy, Allison D.; Nguyen, Jackson C.; Franz, Andreas H.; Lin-Cereghino, Joan; Lin-Cereghino, Geoff P.

    2012-01-01

    Pichia pastoris is a methylotrophic yeast that has been genetically engineered to express over one thousand heterologous proteins valued for industrial, pharmaceutical and basic research purposes. In most cases, the 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of the alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) gene is fused to the coding sequence of the recombinant gene for protein expression in this yeast. Because the effect of the AOX1 5′UTR on protein expression is not known, site-directed mutagenesis was performed in order to decrease or increase the length of this region. Both of these types of changes were shown to affect translational efficiency, not transcript stability. While increasing the length of the 5′UTR clearly decreased expression of a β-galactosidase reporter in a proportional manner, a deletion analysis demonstrated that the AOX1 5′UTR contains a complex mixture of both positive and negative cis-acting elements, suggesting that the construction of a synthetic 5′UTR optimized for a higher level of expression may be challenging. PMID:22285974

  1. Methionine-supplemented diet affects the expression of cardiovascular disease-related genes and increases inflammatory cytokines in mice heart and liver.

    PubMed

    Aissa, Alexandre Ferro; Amaral, Catia Lira do; Venancio, Vinicius Paula; Machado, Carla da Silva; Hernandes, Lívia Cristina; Santos, Patrick Wellington da Silva; Curi, Rui; Bianchi, Maria de Lourdes Pires; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi

    2017-01-01

    Some important environmental factors that influence the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) include tobacco, excess alcohol, and unhealthy diet. Methionine obtained from the diet participates in the synthesis of DNA, proteins, lipids and affects homocysteine levels, which is associated with the elevated risk for CVD development. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the manner in which dietary methionine might affect cellular mechanisms underlying CVD occurrence. Swiss albino mice were fed either control (0.3% DL-methionine), methionine-supplemented (2% DL-methionine), or a methionine-deprived diet (0% DL-methionine) over a 10-week period. The parameters measured included plasma homocysteine concentrations, oxidative stress by reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6, as well as expression of genes associated with CVD. The levels of apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5), a regulator of plasma triglycerides, were measured. The methionine-supplemented diet increased oxidative stress by lowering the GSH/GSSG ratio in heart tissues and decreased expression of the genes Apob, Ctgf, Serpinb2, Spp1, Il1b, and Sell, but elevated expression of Thbs4, Tgfb2, Ccr1, and Vegfa. Methionine-deprived diet reduced expression of Col3a1, Cdh5, Fabp3, Bax, and Hbegf and increased expression of Sell, Ccl5, Itga2, Birc3, Msr1, Bcl2a1a, Il1r2, and Selp. Methionine-deprived diet exerted pro-inflammatory consequences as evidenced by elevated levels of cytokines IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6 noted in liver. Methionine-supplemented diet increased hepatic IL-6 and cardiac TNF-α. Both methionine supplementation and deprivation lowered hepatic levels of APOA5. In conclusion, data demonstrated that a methionine-supplemented diet modulated important biological processes associated with high risk of CVD development.

  2. Role of 2 common variants of 5HT2A gene in medication overuse headache.

    PubMed

    Terrazzino, Salvatore; Sances, Grazia; Balsamo, Francesca; Viana, Michele; Monaco, Francesco; Bellomo, Giorgio; Martignoni, Emilia; Tassorelli, Cristina; Nappi, Giuseppe; Canonico, Pier Luigi; Genazzani, Armando A

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate a possible involvement of 2 polymorphisms of the serotonin 5HT2A receptor gene (A-1438G and C516T) as risk factors for medication overuse headache (MOH) and whether the presence of these polymorphic variants might determine differences within MOH patients in monthly drug consumption. Despite a growing scientific interest in the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of MOH, few studies have focused on the role of genetics in the development of the disease, as well as on the genetic determinants of the inter-individual variability in the number of drug doses taken per month. Our study was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism on genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood of 227 MOH patients and 312 control subjects. Genotype-specific risks were estimated as odds ratios with associated 95% confidence intervals by unconditional logistic regression and adjusted for age and gender. A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was employed to identify significant predictors of the number of drug doses taken per month. No significant association was found between 5HT2A A and 1438G and C516T gene polymorphisms and MOH risk. In contrast, a higher consumption of monthly drug doses was observed among 516T 5HT2A carriers (median 50, range 13-120) compared to 516CC patients (median 30, range 12-128) (Mann-Whitney U-test, P = .018). In the stepwise multiple regression analysis, C516T 5HT2A polymorphism (P = .018) and class of overused drug (P = .047) emerged as significant, independent predictors of the monthly drug consumption in MOH patients. Although our results do not support a major role of the A-1438G and C516T polymorphic variants of the 5HT2A gene in the susceptibility of MOH, our findings support an influence of the C516T polymorphism on the number of symptomatic drug doses taken and, possibly, on the drug-seeking behavior in these patients. © 2010 American

  3. Encephalopathy and bilateral cataract in a boy with an interstitial deletion of Xp22 comprising the CDKL5 and NHS genes.

    PubMed

    Van Esch, Hilde; Jansen, Anna; Bauters, Marijke; Froyen, Guy; Fryns, Jean-Pierre

    2007-02-15

    We describe a male patient with a deletion at Xp22, detected by high resolution X-array CGH. The clinical phenotype present in this infant boy, consists of severe encephalopathy, congenital cataracts and tetralogy of Fallot and can be attributed to the deletion of the genes within the interval. Among these deleted genes are the gene for Nance-Horan syndrome and the cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 gene (CDKL5), responsible for the early seizure variant of Rett syndrome. This is the first description of a male patient with a deletion of these genes, showing the involvement of CDKL5 in severe epileptic encephalopathy in males. Moreover it illustrates the added value of high resolution array-CGH in molecular diagnosis of mental retardation-multiple congenital anomaly cases. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Independent effects of apolipoprotein AV and apolipoprotein CIII on plasma triglyceride concentrations

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Baroukh, Nadine N.; Bauge, Eric; Akiyama, Jennifer

    2003-08-15

    Both the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes have repeatedly been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. In mice, transgenic and knockout experiments indicate that plasma triglyceride levels are negatively and positively correlated with APOA5 and APOC3 expression, respectively. In humans, common polymorphisms in both genes have also been associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations. The evolutionary relationship among these two apolipoprotein genes and their close proximity on human chromosome 11q23 have largely precluded the determination of their relative contribution to altered Both the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes have repeatedly been shownmore » to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. In mice, transgenic and knockout experiments indicate that plasma triglyceride levels are negatively and positively correlated with APOA5 and APOC3 expression, respectively. In humans, common polymorphisms in both genes have also been associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations. The evolutionary relationship among these two apolipoprotein genes and their close proximity on human chromosome 11q23 have largely precluded the determination of their relative contribution to altered triglycerides. To overcome these confounding factors and address their relationship, we generated independent lines of mice that either over-expressed (''double transgenic'') or completely lacked (''double knockout'') both apolipoprotein genes. We report that both ''double transgenic'' and ''double knockout'' mice display intermedia tetriglyceride concentrations compared to over-expression or deletion of either gene alone. Furthermore, we find that human ApoAV plasma protein levels in the ''double transgenic'' mice are approximately 500-fold lower than human ApoCIII levels, supporting ApoAV is a potent triglyceride modulator despite its low concentration. Together, these data

  5. Voltage-gated Na+ channel SCN5A is a key regulator of a gene transcriptional network that controls colon cancer invasion

    PubMed Central

    House, Carrie D.; Vaske, Charles J.; Schwartz, Arnold M.; Obias, Vincent; Frank, Bryan; Luu, Truong; Sarvazyan, Narine; Irby, Rosalyn; Strausberg, Robert L.; Hales, Tim G.; Stuart, Joshua M.; Lee, Norman H.

    2010-01-01

    Voltage-gated Na+ channels (VGSCs) have been implicated in the metastatic potential of human breast, prostate and lung cancer cells. Specifically, the SCN5A gene encoding the VGSC isotype Nav1.5 has been defined as a key driver of human cancer cell invasion. In this study, we examined the expression and function of VGSCs in a panel of colon cancer cell lines by electrophysiological recordings. Na+ channel activity and invasive potential were inhibited pharmacologically by tetrodotoxin or genetically by siRNAs specifically targeting SCN5A. Clinical relevance was established by immunohistochemistry of patient biopsies, where there was strong Nav1.5 protein staining in colon cancer specimens but little to no staining in matched-paired normal colon tissues. We explored the mechanism of VGSC-mediated invasive potential on the basis of reported links between VGSC activity and gene expression in excitable cells. Probabilistic modeling of loss-of-function screens and microarray data established an unequivocal role of VGSC SCN5A as a high level regulator of a colon cancer invasion network, involving genes that encompass Wnt signaling, cell migration, ectoderm development, response to biotic stimulus, steroid metabolic process and cell cycle control. siRNA-mediated knockdown of predicted downstream network components caused a loss of invasive behavior, demonstrating network connectivity and its function in driving colon cancer invasion. PMID:20651255

  6. Gene Expression Ratios Lead to Accurate and Translatable Predictors of DR5 Agonism across Multiple Tumor Lineages.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Anupama; Growney, Joseph D; Wilson, Nick S; Emery, Caroline M; Johnson, Jennifer A; Ward, Rebecca; Monaco, Kelli A; Korn, Joshua; Monahan, John E; Stump, Mark D; Mapa, Felipa A; Wilson, Christopher J; Steiger, Janine; Ledell, Jebediah; Rickles, Richard J; Myer, Vic E; Ettenberg, Seth A; Schlegel, Robert; Sellers, William R; Huet, Heather A; Lehár, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Death Receptor 5 (DR5) agonists demonstrate anti-tumor activity in preclinical models but have yet to demonstrate robust clinical responses. A key limitation may be the lack of patient selection strategies to identify those most likely to respond to treatment. To overcome this limitation, we screened a DR5 agonist Nanobody across >600 cell lines representing 21 tumor lineages and assessed molecular features associated with response. High expression of DR5 and Casp8 were significantly associated with sensitivity, but their expression thresholds were difficult to translate due to low dynamic ranges. To address the translational challenge of establishing thresholds of gene expression, we developed a classifier based on ratios of genes that predicted response across lineages. The ratio classifier outperformed the DR5+Casp8 classifier, as well as standard approaches for feature selection and classification using genes, instead of ratios. This classifier was independently validated using 11 primary patient-derived pancreatic xenograft models showing perfect predictions as well as a striking linearity between prediction probability and anti-tumor response. A network analysis of the genes in the ratio classifier captured important biological relationships mediating drug response, specifically identifying key positive and negative regulators of DR5 mediated apoptosis, including DR5, CASP8, BID, cFLIP, XIAP and PEA15. Importantly, the ratio classifier shows translatability across gene expression platforms (from Affymetrix microarrays to RNA-seq) and across model systems (in vitro to in vivo). Our approach of using gene expression ratios presents a robust and novel method for constructing translatable biomarkers of compound response, which can also probe the underlying biology of treatment response.

  7. Gene Expression Ratios Lead to Accurate and Translatable Predictors of DR5 Agonism across Multiple Tumor Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Anupama; Growney, Joseph D.; Wilson, Nick S.; Emery, Caroline M.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Ward, Rebecca; Monaco, Kelli A.; Korn, Joshua; Monahan, John E.; Stump, Mark D.; Mapa, Felipa A.; Wilson, Christopher J.; Steiger, Janine; Ledell, Jebediah; Rickles, Richard J.; Myer, Vic E.; Ettenberg, Seth A.; Schlegel, Robert; Sellers, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Death Receptor 5 (DR5) agonists demonstrate anti-tumor activity in preclinical models but have yet to demonstrate robust clinical responses. A key limitation may be the lack of patient selection strategies to identify those most likely to respond to treatment. To overcome this limitation, we screened a DR5 agonist Nanobody across >600 cell lines representing 21 tumor lineages and assessed molecular features associated with response. High expression of DR5 and Casp8 were significantly associated with sensitivity, but their expression thresholds were difficult to translate due to low dynamic ranges. To address the translational challenge of establishing thresholds of gene expression, we developed a classifier based on ratios of genes that predicted response across lineages. The ratio classifier outperformed the DR5+Casp8 classifier, as well as standard approaches for feature selection and classification using genes, instead of ratios. This classifier was independently validated using 11 primary patient-derived pancreatic xenograft models showing perfect predictions as well as a striking linearity between prediction probability and anti-tumor response. A network analysis of the genes in the ratio classifier captured important biological relationships mediating drug response, specifically identifying key positive and negative regulators of DR5 mediated apoptosis, including DR5, CASP8, BID, cFLIP, XIAP and PEA15. Importantly, the ratio classifier shows translatability across gene expression platforms (from Affymetrix microarrays to RNA-seq) and across model systems (in vitro to in vivo). Our approach of using gene expression ratios presents a robust and novel method for constructing translatable biomarkers of compound response, which can also probe the underlying biology of treatment response. PMID:26378449

  8. Mutation analysis of metastatic melanomas in the central nervous system: results of a panel of 5 genes in 48 cases.

    PubMed

    Gamsizkan, Mehmet; Yilmaz, Ismail; Simsek, Hasan Aktug; Onguru, Onder; Griffin, Ann; Tihan, Tarik

    2016-01-01

    Melanocytic lesions in the central nervous system (CNS) may be primary to the site but are more commonly metastases from cutaneous primaries. In fact, melanomas are one of the most common malignancies that can metastasize to the brain, and some patients may not have a diagnosis of melanoma prior to the discovery of the CNS lesion. In such cases, identifying the primary site may be challenging. We reviewed the archives of a large referral center for melanocytic tumors involving the CNS and selected 48 patients for this study based on our inclusion criteria. We used sequencing to identify mutation status of these tumors and compared these with clinicopathological features. Mutations in exon 9, 11, 13, 17, and 18 of KIT gene, exon 15 of BRAF gene, exon 2 and 3 of NRAS gene, exon 4 and 5 of GNAQ and GNA11 genes were analyzed. Mutations in BRAF-exon 15 were the most common among tumors (58.3%). NRAS-exon 2 and NRAS-exon 3 mutations were detected in 3 and 7 cases, respectively. GNAQ-exon 4, GNAQ-exon 5 and GNA11-exon 5 mutation were present in 1 tumor each. Eight tumors were wild type for all 5 genes, and 6 of these were not known primary despite a work-up and clinical follow-up. Only 1 of these tumors showed a mutation in exon 11 of KIT gene. When compared to primary melanocytic lesions of the CNS, metastatic melanomas were characterized by BRAF gene mutations and wild-type GNAQ and GNA11 genes.

  9. Splice Site Variants in the KCNQ1 and SCN5A Genes: Transcript Analysis as a Tool in Supporting Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Ivone U.S.; Dryland, Philippa A.; Prosser, Debra O.; Lai, Stella W.-S.; Graham, Mandy; Stiles, Martin; Crawford, Jackie; Skinner, Jonathan R.; Love, Donald R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Approximately 75% of clinically definite long QT syndrome (LQTS) cases are caused by mutations in the KCNQ1, KCNH2 and SCN5A genes. Of these mutations, a small proportion (3.2-9.2%) are predicted to affect splicing. These mutations present a particular challenge in ascribing pathogenicity. Methods Here we report an analysis of the transcriptional consequences of two mutations, one in the KCNQ1 gene (c.781_782delinsTC) and one in the SCN5A gene (c.2437-5C>A), which are predicted to affect splicing. We isolated RNA from lymphocytes and used a directed PCR amplification strategy of cDNA to show mis-spliced transcripts in mutation-positive patients. Results The loss of an exon in each mis-spliced transcript had no deduced effect on the translational reading frame. The clinical phenotype corresponded closely with genotypic status in family members carrying the KCNQ1 splice variant, but not in family members with the SCN5A splice variant. These results are put in the context of a literature review, where only 20% of all splice variants reported in the KCNQ1, KCNH2 and SCN5A gene entries in the HGMDPro 2015.4 database have been evaluated using transcriptional assays. Conclusions Prediction programmes play a strong role in most diagnostic laboratories in classifying variants located at splice sites; however, transcriptional analysis should be considered critical to confirm mis-splicing. Critically, this study shows that genuine mis- splicing may not always imply clinical significance, and genotype/phenotype cosegregation remains important even when mis-splicing is confirmed. PMID:28725320

  10. Molecular Analysis of the SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 Genes in Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia with Regard to Metabolic Parameters and Selected Hormone Levels.

    PubMed

    Rył, Aleksandra; Rotter, Iwona; Grzywacz, Anna; Małecka, Iwona; Skonieczna-Żydecka, Karolina; Grzesiak, Katarzyna; Słojewski, Marcin; Szylińska, Aleksandra; Sipak-Szmigiel, Olimpia; Piasecka, Małgorzata; Walczakiewicz, Kinga; Laszczyńska, Maria

    2017-10-30

    Introduction : The etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has not so far been fully explicated. However, it is assumed that changes in the levels of hormones associated with aging can contribute to the development of prostatic hyperplasia. Dihydrotestosterone combines with the androgen receptor (AR) proteins of the prostate gland. Enzyme activity is based on two isoenzymes: type 1 and type 2. 5α-reductase type 1 is encoded by the SRD5A1 gene, and type 2 is encoded by the SRD5A2 gene. The aim of our study was to determine the frequency of the SRD5A1 (rs6884552, rs3797177) and SRD5A2 (rs523349, rs12470143) genes' polymorphisms, and to assess the relationships between the genotypes of the tested mutations, and the levels of biochemical and hormonal parameters in patients with BPH. Material and Methods : The study involved 299 men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. We determined the serum levels of particular biochemical parameters-fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides (TG)-by the spectrophotometric method, using ready reagent kits. The ELISA method was used to determine the levels of the following hormonal parameters and proteins: total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), insulin (I), luteinizing hormone (LH), and sex hormone binding protein (SHBG). Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed. Genotyping was performed by real-time PCR. Results : We analyzed the relationships between the incidence of particular diseases and the genotypes of the SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 polymorphisms among patients with BPH. The BPH patients with the CC genotype of the SRD5A2 rs523349 and rs12470143 polymorphisms were considerably less frequently diagnosed with metabolic syndrome (MetS) ( p = 0.022 and p = 0.023 respectively). Our analysis revealed that homozygotes with the CC of the SDR5A2 rs12470143 polymorphism had visibly higher HDL levels than those with the TT and CT genotypes ( p = 0

  11. The gene for creatine kinase, mitochondrial 2 (sarcomeric; CKMT2), maps to chromosome 5q13. 3

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Richard, I.; Devaud, C.; Cherif, D.

    1993-10-01

    YAC clones for the creatine kinase, mitochrondial 2 (sarcomeric; CKMT2), gene were isolated. One of these YACs was localized on chromosome 5q13.3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. A polymorphic dinucleotide repeat (heterozygosity 0.77) was identified within the seventh intron of the CKMT2 gene. Genotyping of CEPH families allowed positioning of CKMT2 on the multipoint map of chromosome 5 between D5S424 and D5S428, distal to spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) (5q12-q14). 8 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  12. Promoter analysis of the rabbit POU5F1 gene and its expression in preimplantation stage embryos.

    PubMed

    Kobolak, Julianna; Kiss, Katalin; Polgar, Zsuzsanna; Mamo, Solomon; Rogel-Gaillard, Claire; Tancos, Zsuzsanna; Bock, Istvan; Baji, Arpad G; Tar, Krisztina; Pirity, Melinda K; Dinnyes, Andras

    2009-09-04

    The POU5F1 gene encodes the octamer-binding transcription factor-4 (Oct4). It is crucial in the regulation of pluripotency during embryonic development and widely used as molecular marker of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The objective of this study was to identify and to analyse the promoter region of rabbit POU5F1 gene; furthermore to examine its expression pattern in preimplantation stage rabbit embryos. The upstream region of rabbit POU5F1 was subcloned sequenced and four highly conserved promoter regions (CR1-4) were identified. The highest degree of similarity on sequence level was found among the conserved domains between rabbit and human. Among the enhancers the proximal enhancer region (PE-1A) exhibited the highest degree of homology (96.4%). Furthermore, the CR4 regulator domain containing the distal enhancer (DE-2A) was responsible for stem cell-specific expression. Also, BAC library screen revealed the existence of a processed pseudogene of rabbit POU5F1. The results of quantitative real-time PCR experiments showed that POU5F1 mRNA was abundantly present in oocytes and zygotes, but it was gradually reduced until the activation of the embryonic genome, thereafter a continuous increase in POU5F1 mRNA level was observed until blastocyst stage. By using the XYClone laser system the inner cell mass (ICM) and trophoblast portions of embryos were microdissected and examined separately and POU5F1 mRNA was detected in both cell types. In this study we provide a comparative sequence analysis of the regulatory region of rabbit POU5F1 gene. Our data suggest that the POU5F1 gene is strictly regulated during early mammalian development. We proposed that the well conserved CR4 region containing the DE-2A enhancer is responsible for the highly conserved ESC specific gene expression. Notably, we are the first to report that the rabbit POU5F1 is not restricted to ICM cells only, but it is expressed in trophoblast cells as well. This information may be well applicable to

  13. Interaction between Calpain 5, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta genes: a polygenic approach to obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sáez, María E; Grilo, Antonio; Morón, Francisco J; Manzano, Luis; Martínez-Larrad, María T; González-Pérez, Antonio; Serrano-Hernando, Javier; Ruiz, Agustín; Ramírez-Lorca, Reposo; Serrano-Ríos, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Context Obesity is a multifactorial disorder, that is, a disease determined by the combined effect of genes and environment. In this context, polygenic approaches are needed. Objective To investigate the possibility of the existence of a crosstalk between the CALPAIN 10 homologue CALPAIN 5 and nuclear receptors of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors family. Design Cross-sectional, genetic association study and gene-gene interaction analysis. Subjects The study sample comprise 1953 individuals, 725 obese (defined as body mass index ≥ 30) and 1228 non obese subjects. Results In the monogenic analysis, only the peroxisome proliferator