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Sample records for a5 gene expression

  1. Glucose Regulates the Expression of the Apolipoprotein A5 Gene

    SciTech Connect

    Fruchart, Jamila; Nowak, Maxime; Helleboid-Chapman, Audrey

    2008-04-07

    The apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) is a key player in determining triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. Since diabetes is often associated with hypertriglyceridemia, this study explores whether APOA5 gene expression is regulated by alteration in glucose homeostasis and the related pathways. D-glucose activates APOA5 gene expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner in hepatocytes, and the glycolytic pathway involved was determined using D-glucose analogs and metabolites. Together, transient transfections, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that this regulation occurs at the transcriptional level through an increase of USF1/2 binding to an E-box in the APOA5 promoter.more » We show that this phenomenon is not due to an increase of mRNA or protein expression levels of USF. Using protein phosphatases 1 and 2A inhibitor, we demonstrate that D-glucose regulates APOA5 gene via a dephosphorylation mechanism, thereby resulting in an enhanced USF1/2-promoter binding. Last, subsequent suppressions of USF1/2 and phosphatases mRNA through siRNA gene silencing abolished the regulation. We demonstrate that APOA5 gene is up regulated by D-glucose and USF through phosphatase activation. These findings may provide a new cross talk between glucose and lipid metabolism.« less

  2. Transcriptional Regulation of Apolipoprotein A5 Gene Expression by the Nuclear Receptor ROR alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Genoux, Annelise; Dehondt, Helene; Helleboid-Chapman, Audrey

    2004-10-01

    Apolipoprotein A5 has recently been identified as a crucial determinant of plasma triglyceride levels. Our results showed that RORa up-regulates human APOA5 but has no effect on mouse apoa5 promoter. These data suggest an additional important physiological role for RORa in the regulation of genes involved in plasma triglyceride homeostasis in human and probably in the development of atherosclerosis

  3. Aging and calorie restriction regulate the expression of miR-125a-5p and its target genes Stat3, Casp2 and Stard13.

    PubMed

    Makwana, Kuldeep; Patel, Sonal Arvind; Velingkaar, Nikkhil; Ebron, Jey Sabith; Shukla, Girish C; Kondratov, Roman V Kondratov V

    2017-07-31

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a dietary intervention known to delay aging. In order, to understand molecular mechanisms of CR, we analyzed the expression of 983 MicroRNAs (miRNAs) in the liver of female mice after 2 years of 30% CR using micro-array. 16 miRNAs demonstrated significant changes in their expression upon CR in comparison with age-matched control. mmu-miR-125a-5p (miR-125a-5p) was significantly upregulated upon CR, and in agreement with this, the expression of mRNAs for its three predicted target genes: Stat3, Casp2, and Stard13 was significantly downregulated in the liver of CR animals. The expression of precursor miRNA for miR-125a-5p was also upregulated upon CR, which suggests its regulation at the level of transcription. Upon aging miR-125a-5p expression was downregulated while the expression of its target genes was upregulated. Thus, CR prevented age-associated changes in the expression of miR-125a-5p and its targets. We propose that miR-125a-5p dependent downregulation of Stat3, Casp2, and Stard13 contributes to the calorie restriction-mediated delay of aging.

  4. Whole Blood Gene Expression Profiling Predicts Severe Morbidity and Mortality in Cystic Fibrosis: A 5-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Milene T; Quon, Bradley S; Faino, Anna; Caceres, Silvia M; Poch, Katie R; Sanders, Linda A; Malcolm, Kenneth C; Nichols, David P; Sagel, Scott D; Taylor-Cousar, Jennifer L; Leach, Sonia M; Strand, Matthew; Nick, Jerry A

    2018-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis pulmonary exacerbations accelerate pulmonary decline and increase mortality. Previously, we identified a 10-gene leukocyte panel measured directly from whole blood, which indicates response to exacerbation treatment. We hypothesized that molecular characteristics of exacerbations could also predict future disease severity. We tested whether a 10-gene panel measured from whole blood could identify patient cohorts at increased risk for severe morbidity and mortality, beyond standard clinical measures. Transcript abundance for the 10-gene panel was measured from whole blood at the beginning of exacerbation treatment (n = 57). A hierarchical cluster analysis of subjects based on their gene expression was performed, yielding four molecular clusters. An analysis of cluster membership and outcomes incorporating an independent cohort (n = 21) was completed to evaluate robustness of cluster partitioning of genes to predict severe morbidity and mortality. The four molecular clusters were analyzed for differences in forced expiratory volume in 1 second, C-reactive protein, return to baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 second after treatment, time to next exacerbation, and time to morbidity or mortality events (defined as lung transplant referral, lung transplant, intensive care unit admission for respiratory insufficiency, or death). Clustering based on gene expression discriminated between patient groups with significant differences in forced expiratory volume in 1 second, admission frequency, and overall morbidity and mortality. At 5 years, all subjects in cluster 1 (very low risk) were alive and well, whereas 90% of subjects in cluster 4 (high risk) had suffered a major event (P = 0.0001). In multivariable analysis, the ability of gene expression to predict clinical outcomes remained significant, despite adjustment for forced expiratory volume in 1 second, sex, and admission frequency. The robustness of gene clustering to categorize patients

  5. Possible involvement of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 in the gene expression of Cyp2b10 and Cyp2a5.

    PubMed

    Ashino, Takashi; Ohkubo-Morita, Haruyo; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Yoshida, Takemi; Numazawa, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 gene expression is altered by various chemical compounds. In this study, we used nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-deficient (Nrf2(-⧸-)) mice to investigate the involvement of Nrf2 in Cyp2b10 and Cyp2a5 gene expression. Phorone, an Nrf2 activator, strongly increased Cyp2b10 and Cyp2a5 mRNA as well as Nrf2 target genes, including NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase-1 and heme oxygenase-1, in wild-type mouse livers 8 h after treatment. The phorone-induced mRNA levels in Nrf2(-⧸-) mouse livers were lower than that in wild-type mouse livers. Nrf2(-⧸-) mice showed attenuated Cyp2b10 and Cyp2a5 induction by phenobarbital, a classical Cyp2b inducer. These findings suggest that the Nrf2 pathway is involved in Cyp2b10 and Cyp2a5 gene expression.

  6. Possible involvement of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 in the gene expression of Cyp2b10 and Cyp2a5

    PubMed Central

    Ashino, Takashi; Ohkubo-Morita, Haruyo; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Yoshida, Takemi; Numazawa, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 gene expression is altered by various chemical compounds. In this study, we used nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)–deficient (Nrf2−⧸−) mice to investigate the involvement of Nrf2 in Cyp2b10 and Cyp2a5 gene expression. Phorone, an Nrf2 activator, strongly increased Cyp2b10 and Cyp2a5 mRNA as well as Nrf2 target genes, including NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase-1 and heme oxygenase-1, in wild-type mouse livers 8 h after treatment. The phorone-induced mRNA levels in Nrf2−⧸− mouse livers were lower than that in wild-type mouse livers. Nrf2−⧸− mice showed attenuated Cyp2b10 and Cyp2a5 induction by phenobarbital, a classical Cyp2b inducer. These findings suggest that the Nrf2 pathway is involved in Cyp2b10 and Cyp2a5 gene expression. PMID:24494203

  7. GENE EXPRESSION NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    "Gene expression network" is the term used to describe the interplay, simple or complex, between two or more gene products in performing a specific cellular function. Although the delineation of such networks is complicated by the existence of multiple and subtle types of intera...

  8. Differential gene expression in Xylella fastidiosa 9a5c during co-cultivation with the endophytic bacterium Methylobacterium mesophilicum SR1.6/6.

    PubMed

    Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Santos, Daiene Souza; Nunes, Luiz Roberto; Costa de Oliveira, Regina Lúcia Batista da; de Oliveira, Marcus Vinicius; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2015-12-01

    Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), colonizes plant xylem, reducing sap flow, and inducing internerval chlorosis, leaf size reduction, necrosis, and harder and smaller fruits. This bacterium may be transmitted from plant to plant by sharpshooter insects, including Bucephalogonia xanthopis. The citrus endophytic bacterium Methylobacterium mesophilicum SR1.6/6 colonizes citrus xylem and previous studies showed that this strain is also transferred from plant to plant by B. xanthopis (Insecta), suggesting that this endophytic bacterium may interact with X. fastidiosa in planta and inside the insect vector during co-transmission by the same insect vector. To better understand the X. fastidiosa behavior in the presence of M. mesophilicum, we evaluated the X. fastidiosa transcriptional profile during in vitro interaction with M. mesophilicum SR1.6/6. The results showed that during co-cultivation, X. fastidiosa down-regulated genes related to growth and up-regulated genes related to energy production, stress, transport, and motility, suggesting the existence of a specific adaptive response to the presence of M. mesophilicum in the culture medium. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Gene Expression in Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ambrogio, A.

    Skeletal system has two main functions, to provide mechanical integrity for both locomotion and protection and to play an important role in mineral homeostasis. There is extensive evidence showing loss of bone mass during long-term Space-Flights. The loss is due to a break in the equilibrium between the activity of osteoblasts (the cells that forms bone) and the activity of osteoclasts (the cells that resorbs bone). Surprisingly, there is scanty information about the possible altered gene expression occurring in cells that form bone in microgravity.(Just 69 articles result from a "gene expression in microgravity" MedLine query.) Gene-chip or microarray technology allows to screen thousands of genes at the same time: the use of this technology on samples coming from cells exposed to microgravity could provide us with many important informations. For example, the identification of the molecules or structures which are the first sensors of the mechanical stress derived from lack of gravity, could help in understanding which is the first event leading to bone loss due to long-term exposure to microgravity. Consequently, this structure could become a target for a custom-designed drug. It is evident that bone mass loss, observed during long-time stay in Space, represents an accelerated model of what happens in aging osteoporosis. Therefore, the discovery and design of drugs able to interfere with the bone-loss process, could help also in preventing negative physiological processes normally observed on Earth. Considering the aims stated above, my research is designed to:

  10. Arabidopsis gene expression patterns during spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, A.-L.; Ferl, R. J.

    The exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) plants to spaceflight environments resulted in the differential expression of hundreds of genes. A 5 day mission on orbiter Columbia in 1999 (STS-93) carried transgenic Arabidopsis plants engineered with a transgene composed of the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter linked to the β -Glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The plants were used to evaluate the effects of spaceflight on two fronts. First, expression patterns visualized with the Adh/GUS transgene were used to address specifically the possibility that spaceflight induces a hypoxic stress response, and to assess whether any spaceflight response was similar to control terrestrial hypoxia-induced gene expression patterns. (Paul et al., Plant Physiol. 2001, 126:613). Second, genome-wide patterns of native gene expression were evaluated utilizing the Affymetrix ATH1 GeneChip? array of 8,000 Arabidopsis genes. As a control for the veracity of the array analyses, a selection of genes identified with the arrays was further characterized with quantitative Real-Time RT PCR (ABI - TaqmanTM). Comparison of the patterns of expression for arrays of hybridized with RNA isolated from plants exposed to spaceflight compared to the control arrays revealed hundreds of genes that were differentially expressed in response to spaceflight, yet most genes that are hallmarks of hypoxic stress were unaffected. These results will be discussed in light of current models for plant responses to the spaceflight environment, and with regard to potential future flight opportunities.

  11. Aberrant Gene Expression in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ence; Ji, Guoli; Brinkmeyer-Langford, Candice L.; Cai, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression as an intermediate molecular phenotype has been a focus of research interest. In particular, studies of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) have offered promise for understanding gene regulation through the discovery of genetic variants that explain variation in gene expression levels. Existing eQTL methods are designed for assessing the effects of common variants, but not rare variants. Here, we address the problem by establishing a novel analytical framework for evaluating the effects of rare or private variants on gene expression. Our method starts from the identification of outlier individuals that show markedly different gene expression from the majority of a population, and then reveals the contributions of private SNPs to the aberrant gene expression in these outliers. Using population-scale mRNA sequencing data, we identify outlier individuals using a multivariate approach. We find that outlier individuals are more readily detected with respect to gene sets that include genes involved in cellular regulation and signal transduction, and less likely to be detected with respect to the gene sets with genes involved in metabolic pathways and other fundamental molecular functions. Analysis of polymorphic data suggests that private SNPs of outlier individuals are enriched in the enhancer and promoter regions of corresponding aberrantly-expressed genes, suggesting a specific regulatory role of private SNPs, while the commonly-occurring regulatory genetic variants (i.e., eQTL SNPs) show little evidence of involvement. Additional data suggest that non-genetic factors may also underlie aberrant gene expression. Taken together, our findings advance a novel viewpoint relevant to situations wherein common eQTLs fail to predict gene expression when heritable, rare inter-individual variation exists. The analytical framework we describe, taking into consideration the reality of differential phenotypic robustness, may be valuable for investigating

  12. Method of controlling gene expression

    DOEpatents

    Peters, Norman K.; Frost, John W.; Long, Sharon R.

    1991-12-03

    A method of controlling expression of a DNA segment under the control of a nod gene promoter which comprises administering to a host containing a nod gene promoter an amount sufficient to control expression of the DNA segment of a compound of the formula: ##STR1## in which each R is independently H or OH, is described.

  13. Gene expression systems in corynebacteria.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Preeti; Deb, J K

    2005-04-01

    Corynebacterium belongs to a group of gram-positive bacteria having moderate to high G+C content, the other members being Mycobacterium, Nocardia, and Rhodococcus. Considerable information is now available on the plasmids, gene regulatory elements, and gene expression in corynebacteria, especially in soil corynebacteria such as Corynebacterium glutamicum. These bacteria are non-pathogenic and, unlike Bacillus and Streptomyces, are low in proteolytic activity and thus have the potential of becoming attractive systems for expression of heterologous proteins. This review discusses recent advances in our understanding of the organization of various regulatory elements, such as promoters, transcription terminators, and development of vectors for cloning and gene expression.

  14. Monoallelic Gene Expression in Mammals.

    PubMed

    Chess, Andrew

    2016-11-23

    Monoallelic expression not due to cis-regulatory sequence polymorphism poses an intriguing problem in epigenetics because it requires the unequal treatment of two segments of DNA that are present in the same nucleus and that can indeed have absolutely identical sequences. Here, I focus on a few recent developments in the field of monoallelic expression that are of particular interest and raise interesting questions for future work. One development is regarding analyses of imprinted genes, in which recent work suggests the possibility that intriguing networks of imprinted genes exist and are important for genetic and physiological studies. Another issue that has been raised in recent years by a number of publications is the question of how skewed allelic expression should be for it to be designated as monoallelic expression and, further, what methods are appropriate or inappropriate for analyzing genomic data to examine allele-specific expression. Perhaps the most exciting recent development in mammalian monoallelic expression is a clever and carefully executed analysis of genetic diversity of autosomal genes subject to random monoallelic expression (RMAE), which provides compelling evidence for distinct evolutionary forces acting on random monoallelically expressed genes.

  15. Molecular diversity and population structure at the Cytochrome P450 3A5 gene in Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cytochrome P450 3A5 (CYP3A5) is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of many therapeutic drugs. CYP3A5 expression levels vary between individuals and populations, and this contributes to adverse clinical outcomes. Variable expression is largely attributed to four alleles, CYP3A5*1 (expresser allele); CYP3A5*3 (rs776746), CYP3A5*6 (rs10264272) and CYP3A5*7 (rs41303343) (low/non-expresser alleles). Little is known about CYP3A5 variability in Africa, a region with considerable genetic diversity. Here we used a multi-disciplinary approach to characterize CYP3A5 variation in geographically and ethnically diverse populations from in and around Africa, and infer the evolutionary processes that have shaped patterns of diversity in this gene. We genotyped 2538 individuals from 36 diverse populations in and around Africa for common low/non-expresser CYP3A5 alleles, and re-sequenced the CYP3A5 gene in five Ethiopian ethnic groups. We estimated the ages of low/non-expresser CYP3A5 alleles using a linked microsatellite and assuming a step-wise mutation model of evolution. Finally, we examined a hypothesis that CYP3A5 is important in salt retention adaptation by performing correlations with ecological data relating to aridity for the present day, 10,000 and 50,000 years ago. Results We estimate that ~43% of individuals within our African dataset express CYP3A5, which is lower than previous independent estimates for the region. We found significant intra-African variability in CYP3A5 expression phenotypes. Within Africa the highest frequencies of high-activity alleles were observed in equatorial and Niger-Congo speaking populations. Ethiopian allele frequencies were intermediate between those of other sub-Saharan African and non-African groups. Re-sequencing of CYP3A5 identified few additional variants likely to affect CYP3A5 expression. We estimate the ages of CYP3A5*3 as ~76,400 years and CYP3A5*6 as ~218,400 years. Finally we report that global CYP3A5 expression

  16. Hematopoietic progenitors express neural genes

    PubMed Central

    Goolsby, James; Marty, Marie C.; Heletz, Dafna; Chiappelli, Joshua; Tashko, Gerti; Yarnell, Deborah; Fishman, Paul S.; Dhib-Jalbut, Suhayl; Bever, Christopher T.; Pessac, Bernard; Trisler, David

    2003-01-01

    Bone marrow, or cells selected from bone marrow, were reported recently to give rise to cells with a neural phenotype after in vitro treatment with neural-inducing factors or after delivery into the brain. However, we showed previously that untreated bone marrow cells express products of the neural myelin basic protein gene, and we demonstrate here that a subset of ex vivo bone marrow cells expresses the neurogenic transcription factor Pax-6 as well as neuronal genes encoding neurofilament H, NeuN (neuronal nuclear protein), HuC/HuD (Hu-antigen C/Hu-antigen D), and GAD65 (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65), as well as the oligodendroglial gene encoding CNPase (2′,3′ cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphohydrolase). In contrast, astroglial glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was not detected. These cells also were CD34+, a marker of hematopoietic stem cells. Cultures of these highly proliferative CD34+ cells, derived from adult mouse bone marrow, uniformly displayed a phenotype comparable with that of hematopoietic progenitor cells (CD45+, CD34+, Sca-1+, AA4.1+, cKit+, GATA-2+, and LMO-2+). The neuronal and oligodendroglial genes expressed in ex vivo bone marrow also were expressed in all cultured CD34+ cells, and GFAP was not observed. After CD34+ cell transplantation into adult brain, neuronal or oligodendroglial markers segregated into distinct nonoverlapping cell populations, whereas astroglial GFAP appeared, in the absence of other neural markers, in a separate set of implanted cells. Thus, neuronal and oligodendroglial gene products are present in a subset of bone marrow cells, and the expression of these genes can be regulated in brain. The fact that these CD34+ cells also express transcription factors (Rex-1 and Oct-4) that are found in early development elicits the hypothesis that they may be pluripotent embryonic-like stem cells. PMID:14634211

  17. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  18. Zipf's Law in Gene Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusawa, Chikara; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2003-02-01

    Using data from gene expression databases on various organisms and tissues, including yeast, nematodes, human normal and cancer tissues, and embryonic stem cells, we found that the abundances of expressed genes exhibit a power-law distribution with an exponent close to -1; i.e., they obey Zipf’s law. Furthermore, by simulations of a simple model with an intracellular reaction network, we found that Zipf’s law of chemical abundance is a universal feature of cells where such a network optimizes the efficiency and faithfulness of self-reproduction. These findings provide novel insights into the nature of the organization of reaction dynamics in living cells.

  19. Cytochrome P450 2A5 and bilirubin: Mechanisms of gene regulation and cytoprotection

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sangsoo Daniel; Antenos, Monica; Squires, E. James

    2013-07-15

    Bilirubin (BR) has recently been identified as the first endogenous substrate for cytochrome P450 2A5 (CYP2A5) and it has been suggested that CYP2A5 plays a major role in BR clearance as an alternative mechanism to BR conjugation by uridine-diphosphate glucuronyltransferase 1A1. This study investigated the mechanisms of Cyp2a5 gene regulation by BR and the cytoprotective role of CYP2A5 in BR hepatotoxicity. BR induced CYP2A5 expression at the mRNA and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner in primary mouse hepatocytes. BR treatment also caused nuclear translocation of Nuclear factor-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in hepatocytes. In reporter assays, BR treatment ofmore » primary hepatocytes transfected with a Cyp2a5 promoter-luciferase reporter construct resulted in a 2-fold induction of Cyp2a5 reporter activity. Furthermore, cotransfection of the hepatocytes with a Nrf2 expression vector without BR treatment resulted in an increase in Cyp2a5 reporter activity of approximately 2-fold and BR treatment of Nrf2 cotransfectants further increased reporter activity by 4-fold. In addition, site-directed mutation of the ARE in the reporter construct completely abolished both the BR- and Nrf2-mediated increases in reporter activity. The cytoprotective role of CYP2A5 against BR-mediated apoptosis was also examined in Hepa 1–6 cells that lack endogenous CYP2A5. Transient overexpression of CYP2A5 partially blocked BR-induced caspase-3 cleavage in Hepa 1–6 cells. Furthermore, in vitro degradation of BR was increased by microsomes from Hepa 1–6 cells overexpressing CYP2A5 compared to control cells transfected with an empty vector. Collectively, these results suggest that Nrf2-mediated CYP2A5 transactivation in response to BR may provide an additional mechanism for adaptive cytoprotection against BR hepatotoxicity. - Highlights: • The mechanism of Cyp2a5 gene regulation by BR was investigated. • The cytoprotective role of CYP2A5 in BR hepatotoxicity was determined

  20. Models of stochastic gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsson, Johan

    2005-06-01

    Gene expression is an inherently stochastic process: Genes are activated and inactivated by random association and dissociation events, transcription is typically rare, and many proteins are present in low numbers per cell. The last few years have seen an explosion in the stochastic modeling of these processes, predicting protein fluctuations in terms of the frequencies of the probabilistic events. Here I discuss commonalities between theoretical descriptions, focusing on a gene-mRNA-protein model that includes most published studies as special cases. I also show how expression bursts can be explained as simplistic time-averaging, and how generic approximations can allow for concrete interpretations without requiring concrete assumptions. Measures and nomenclature are discussed to some extent and the modeling literature is briefly reviewed.

  1. Neighboring Genes Show Correlated Evolution in Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbarian, Avazeh T.; Hurst, Laurence D.

    2015-01-01

    When considering the evolution of a gene’s expression profile, we commonly assume that this is unaffected by its genomic neighborhood. This is, however, in contrast to what we know about the lack of autonomy between neighboring genes in gene expression profiles in extant taxa. Indeed, in all eukaryotic genomes genes of similar expression-profile tend to cluster, reflecting chromatin level dynamics. Does it follow that if a gene increases expression in a particular lineage then the genomic neighbors will also increase in their expression or is gene expression evolution autonomous? To address this here we consider evolution of human gene expression since the human-chimp common ancestor, allowing for both variation in estimation of current expression level and error in Bayesian estimation of the ancestral state. We find that in all tissues and both sexes, the change in gene expression of a focal gene on average predicts the change in gene expression of neighbors. The effect is highly pronounced in the immediate vicinity (<100 kb) but extends much further. Sex-specific expression change is also genomically clustered. As genes increasing their expression in humans tend to avoid nuclear lamina domains and be enriched for the gene activator 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, we conclude that, most probably owing to chromatin level control of gene expression, a change in gene expression of one gene likely affects the expression evolution of neighbors, what we term expression piggybacking, an analog of hitchhiking. PMID:25743543

  2. Vascular gene expression: a hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Navarro, Angélica C.; Galván-Gordillo, Santiago V.; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The phloem is the conduit through which photoassimilates are distributed from autotrophic to heterotrophic tissues and is involved in the distribution of signaling molecules that coordinate plant growth and responses to the environment. Phloem function depends on the coordinate expression of a large array of genes. We have previously identified conserved motifs in upstream regions of the Arabidopsis genes, encoding the homologs of pumpkin phloem sap mRNAs, displaying expression in vascular tissues. This tissue-specific expression in Arabidopsis is predicted by the overrepresentation of GA/CT-rich motifs in gene promoters. In this work we have searched for common motifs in upstream regions of the homologous genes from plants considered to possess a “primitive” vascular tissue (a lycophyte), as well as from others that lack a true vascular tissue (a bryophyte), and finally from chlorophytes. Both lycophyte and bryophyte display motifs similar to those found in Arabidopsis with a significantly low E-value, while the chlorophytes showed either a different conserved motif or no conserved motif at all. These results suggest that these same genes are expressed coordinately in non-vascular plants; this coordinate expression may have been one of the prerequisites for the development of conducting tissues in plants. We have also analyzed the phylogeny of conserved proteins that may be involved in phloem function and development. The presence of CmPP16, APL, FT, and YDA in chlorophytes suggests the recruitment of ancient regulatory networks for the development of the vascular tissue during evolution while OPS is a novel protein specific to vascular plants. PMID:23882276

  3. Ikaros gene expression and leukemia.

    PubMed

    Tonnelle, Cécile; Calmels, Boris; Maroc, Christine; Gabert, Jean; Chabannon, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The Ikaros (Ik) protein, or LyF1, was initially described as a protein binding to regulatory sequences of a number of genes expressed in murine lymphoid cells. Ikaros is a critical regulator of normal hematopoietic stem cell differentiation, as evidenced by dramatic defects in the lymphoid compartments, in homozygous animals with gene inactivation. Because differential splicing produces multiple isoforms with potentially different functions, Ikaros provides a unique model to study how post-transcriptional mechanisms may be involved in neoplastic processes. Indeed, several groups including ours have underlined evidences that expression of different Ikaros isoforms vary among different types of leukemias. The predominance of short isoforms in certain subsets is intriguing. Here, additional observations reinforced the hypothesis that Ikaros expression may be deregulated in human leukemias. Whether this is a cause or a consequence of the leukemic process remains speculative. Other human diseases however, provide examples of abnormal post-transcriptional regulations that have been further characterized.

  4. Systems Biophysics of Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, Jose M.G.; Saiz, Leonor

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression is a process central to any form of life. It involves multiple temporal and functional scales that extend from specific protein-DNA interactions to the coordinated regulation of multiple genes in response to intracellular and extracellular changes. This diversity in scales poses fundamental challenges to the use of traditional approaches to fully understand even the simplest gene expression systems. Recent advances in computational systems biophysics have provided promising avenues to reliably integrate the molecular detail of biophysical process into the system behavior. Here, we review recent advances in the description of gene regulation as a system of biophysical processes that extend from specific protein-DNA interactions to the combinatorial assembly of nucleoprotein complexes. There is now basic mechanistic understanding on how promoters controlled by multiple, local and distal, DNA binding sites for transcription factors can actively control transcriptional noise, cell-to-cell variability, and other properties of gene regulation, including precision and flexibility of the transcriptional responses. PMID:23790365

  5. The Gene Expression Omnibus Database.

    PubMed

    Clough, Emily; Barrett, Tanya

    2016-01-01

    The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database is an international public repository that archives and freely distributes high-throughput gene expression and other functional genomics data sets. Created in 2000 as a worldwide resource for gene expression studies, GEO has evolved with rapidly changing technologies and now accepts high-throughput data for many other data applications, including those that examine genome methylation, chromatin structure, and genome-protein interactions. GEO supports community-derived reporting standards that specify provision of several critical study elements including raw data, processed data, and descriptive metadata. The database not only provides access to data for tens of thousands of studies, but also offers various Web-based tools and strategies that enable users to locate data relevant to their specific interests, as well as to visualize and analyze the data. This chapter includes detailed descriptions of methods to query and download GEO data and use the analysis and visualization tools. The GEO homepage is at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/.

  6. The Gene Expression Omnibus database

    PubMed Central

    Clough, Emily; Barrett, Tanya

    2016-01-01

    The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database is an international public repository that archives and freely distributes high-throughput gene expression and other functional genomics data sets. Created in 2000 as a worldwide resource for gene expression studies, GEO has evolved with rapidly changing technologies and now accepts high-throughput data for many other data applications, including those that examine genome methylation, chromatin structure, and genome–protein interactions. GEO supports community-derived reporting standards that specify provision of several critical study elements including raw data, processed data, and descriptive metadata. The database not only provides access to data for tens of thousands of studies, but also offers various Web-based tools and strategies that enable users to locate data relevant to their specific interests, as well as to visualize and analyze the data. This chapter includes detailed descriptions of methods to query and download GEO data and use the analysis and visualization tools. The GEO homepage is at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/. PMID:27008011

  7. Altered miR-193a-5p expression in children with cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    D'Argenio, V; Del Monaco, V; Paparo, L; De Palma, F D E; Nocerino, R; D'Alessio, F; Visconte, F; Discepolo, V; Del Vecchio, L; Salvatore, F; Berni Canani, R

    2018-02-01

    Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is one of the most common food allergies in children. Epigenetic mechanisms have been suggested to play a role in CMA pathogenesis. We have shown that DNA methylation of Th1/Th2 cytokine genes and FoxP3 affects CMA disease course. Preliminary evidence suggests that also the miRNome could be implicated in the pathogenesis of allergy. Main study outcome was to comparatively evaluate miRNome in children with CMA and in healthy controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from children aged 4-18 months: 10 CMA patients, 9 CMA patients who outgrew CMA, and 11 healthy controls. Small RNA libraries were sequenced using a next-generation sequencing-based approach. Functional assessment of IL-4 expression was also performed. Among the miRNAs differently expressed, 2 were upregulated and 14 were downregulated in children with active CMA compared to healthy controls. miR-193a-5p resulted the most downregulated miRNA in children with active CMA compared to healthy controls. The predicted targets of miR-193a-5p resulted upregulated in CMA patients compared to healthy controls. Peripheral blood CD4 + T cells transfected with a miR193a-5 inhibitor showed a significant upregulation of IL-4 mRNA and its protein expression. Children who outgrew CMA showed miRNA-193a-5p level, and its related targets expression, similar to that observed in healthy controls. Our results suggest that miR-193a-5p is a post-transcriptional regulator of IL-4 expression and could have a role in IgE-mediated CMA. This miRNA could be a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for this common form of food allergy in childhood. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  8. Neighboring Genes Show Correlated Evolution in Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarian, Avazeh T; Hurst, Laurence D

    2015-07-01

    When considering the evolution of a gene's expression profile, we commonly assume that this is unaffected by its genomic neighborhood. This is, however, in contrast to what we know about the lack of autonomy between neighboring genes in gene expression profiles in extant taxa. Indeed, in all eukaryotic genomes genes of similar expression-profile tend to cluster, reflecting chromatin level dynamics. Does it follow that if a gene increases expression in a particular lineage then the genomic neighbors will also increase in their expression or is gene expression evolution autonomous? To address this here we consider evolution of human gene expression since the human-chimp common ancestor, allowing for both variation in estimation of current expression level and error in Bayesian estimation of the ancestral state. We find that in all tissues and both sexes, the change in gene expression of a focal gene on average predicts the change in gene expression of neighbors. The effect is highly pronounced in the immediate vicinity (<100 kb) but extends much further. Sex-specific expression change is also genomically clustered. As genes increasing their expression in humans tend to avoid nuclear lamina domains and be enriched for the gene activator 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, we conclude that, most probably owing to chromatin level control of gene expression, a change in gene expression of one gene likely affects the expression evolution of neighbors, what we term expression piggybacking, an analog of hitchhiking. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  9. Gene expression in Chromobacterium violaceum.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rosane; Araripe, Júlia R; Rondinelli, Edson; Urményi, Turán P

    2004-03-31

    The repertoire of 4,431 open reading frames (ORFs), eight rRNA operons and 98 tRNA genes of Chromobacterium violaceum must be expressed in a regulated manner for successful adaptation to a wide variety of environmental conditions. To accomplish this feat, the organism relies on protein machineries involved in transcription, RNA processing and translation. Analysis of the C. violaceum genome showed that transcription initiation, elongation and termination are performed by the five well-known RNA polymerase subunits, five categories of sigma 70 factors, one sigma 54 factor, as well as six auxiliary elongation and termination factors. RNA processing is performed by a variety of endonucleases and exonucleases, such as ribonuclease H, ribonuclease E, ribonuclease P, and ribonuclease III, in addition to poly(A) polymerase and specific methyltransferases and pseudouridine synthases. ORFs for all ribosomal proteins, except S22, were found. Only 19 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases were found, in addition to three aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-related proteins. Asparaginyl-tRNA (Asn) is probably obtained by enzymatic modification of a mischarged aminoacyl-tRNA. The translation factors IF-1, IF-2, IF-3, EF-Ts, EF-Tu, EF-G, RF-1, RF-2 and RF-3 are all present in the C. violaceum genome, although the absence of selB suggests that C. violaceum does not synthesize selenoproteins. The components of trans-translation, tmRNA and associated proteins, are present in the C. violaceum genome. Finally, a large number of ORFs related to regulation of gene expression were also found, which was expected, considering the apparent adaptability of this bacterium.

  10. Gene Expression: Sizing it all up

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genomic architecture appears to be a largely unexplored component of gene expression. Although surely not the end of the story, we are learning that when it comes to gene expression, size is important. We have been surprised to find that certain patterns of expression, tissue-specific versus constit...

  11. Apolipoprotein A5: A newly identified gene impacting plasmatriglyceride levels in humans and mice

    SciTech Connect

    Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2002-09-15

    Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) is a newly described member of theapolipoprotein gene family whose initial discovery arose from comparativesequence analysis of the mammalian APOA1/C3/A4 gene cluster. Functionalstudies in mice indicated that alteration in the level of APOA5significantly impacted plasma triglyceride concentrations. Miceover-expressing human APOA5 displayed significantly reducedtriglycerides, while mice lacking apoA5 had a large increase in thislipid parameter. Studies in humans have also suggested an important rolefor APOA5 in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations. In theseexperiments, polymorphisms in the human gene were found to define severalcommon haplotypes that were associated with significant changes intriglyceride concentrations in multiple populations. Several separateclinical studies havemore » provided consistent and strong support for theeffect with 24 percent of Caucasians, 35 percent of African-Americans and53 percent of Hispanics carrying APOA5 haplotypes associated withincreased plasma triglyceride levels. In summary, APOA5 represents anewly discovered gene involved in triglyceride metabolism in both humansand mice whose mechanism of action remains to be deciphered.« less

  12. Familial aggregation analysis of gene expressions

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Shao-Qi; Xu, Liang-De; Zhang, Guang-Mei; Li, Xia; Li, Lin; Shen, Gong-Qing; Jiang, Yang; Yang, Yue-Ying; Gong, Bin-Sheng; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Fan; Xiao, Yun; Wang, Qing K

    2007-01-01

    Traditional studies of familial aggregation are aimed at defining the genetic (and non-genetic) causes of a disease from physiological or clinical traits. However, there has been little attempt to use genome-wide gene expressions, the direct phenotypic measures of genes, as the traits to investigate several extended issues regarding the distributions of familially aggregated genes on chromosomes or in functions. In this study we conducted a genome-wide familial aggregation analysis by using the in vitro cell gene expressions of 3300 human autosome genes (Problem 1 data provided to Genetic Analysis Workshop 15) in order to answer three basic genetics questions. First, we investigated how gene expressions aggregate among different types (degrees) of relative pairs. Second, we conducted a bioinformatics analysis of highly familially aggregated genes to see how they are distributed on chromosomes. Third, we performed a gene ontology enrichment test of familially aggregated genes to find evidence to support their functional consensus. The results indicated that 1) gene expressions did aggregate in families, especially between sibs. Of 3300 human genes analyzed, there were a total of 1105 genes with one or more significant (empirical p < 0.05) familial correlation; 2) there were several genomic hot spots where highly familially aggregated genes (e.g., the chromosome 6 HLA genes cluster) were clustered; 3) as we expected, gene ontology enrichment tests revealed that the 1105 genes were aggregating not only in families but also in functional categories. PMID:18466548

  13. Methods for monitoring multiple gene expression

    DOEpatents

    Berka, Randy; Bachkirova, Elena; Rey, Michael

    2013-10-01

    The present invention relates to methods for monitoring differential expression of a plurality of genes in a first filamentous fungal cell relative to expression of the same genes in one or more second filamentous fungal cells using microarrays containing Trichoderma reesei ESTs or SSH clones, or a combination thereof. The present invention also relates to computer readable media and substrates containing such array features for monitoring expression of a plurality of genes in filamentous fungal cells.

  14. Methods for monitoring multiple gene expression

    DOEpatents

    Berka, Randy [Davis, CA; Bachkirova, Elena [Davis, CA; Rey, Michael [Davis, CA

    2012-05-01

    The present invention relates to methods for monitoring differential expression of a plurality of genes in a first filamentous fungal cell relative to expression of the same genes in one or more second filamentous fungal cells using microarrays containing Trichoderma reesei ESTs or SSH clones, or a combination thereof. The present invention also relates to computer readable media and substrates containing such array features for monitoring expression of a plurality of genes in filamentous fungal cells.

  15. Methods for monitoring multiple gene expression

    DOEpatents

    Berka, Randy [Davis, CA; Bachkirova, Elena [Davis, CA; Rey, Michael [Davis, CA

    2008-06-01

    The present invention relates to methods for monitoring differential expression of a plurality of genes in a first filamentous fungal cell relative to expression of the same genes in one or more second filamentous fungal cells using microarrays containing Trichoderma reesei ESTs or SSH clones, or a combination thereof. The present invention also relates to computer readable media and substrates containing such array features for monitoring expression of a plurality of genes in filamentous fungal cells.

  16. Arabidopsis gene expression patterns are altered during spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Popp, Michael P.; Gurley, William B.; Guy, Charles; Norwood, Kelly L.; Ferl, Robert J.

    The exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) plants to spaceflight environments results in differential gene expression. A 5-day mission on orbiter Columbia in 1999 (STS-93) carried transgenic Arabidopsis plants engineered with a transgene composed of the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter linked to the β-Glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The plants were used to evaluate the effects of spaceflight on gene expression patterns initially by using the Adh/GUS transgene to address specifically the possibility that spaceflight induces a hypoxic stress response (Paul, A.L., Daugherty, C.J., Bihn, E.A., Chapman, D.K., Norwood, K.L., Ferl, R.J., 2001. Transgene expression patterns indicate that spaceflight affects stress signal perception and transduction in arabidopsis, Plant Physiol. 126, 613-621). As a follow-on to the reporter gene analysis, we report here the evaluation of genome-wide patterns of native gene expression within Arabidopsis shoots utilizing the Agilent DNA array of 21,000 Arabidopsis genes. As a control for the veracity of the array analyses, a selection of genes was further characterized with quantitative Real-Time RT PCR (ABI - Taqman®). Comparison of the patterns of expression for arrays probed with RNA isolated from plants exposed to spaceflight compared to RNA isolated from ground control plants revealed 182 genes that were differentially expressed in response to the spaceflight mission by more than 4-fold, and of those only 50 genes were expressed at levels chosen to support a conservative change call. None of the genes that are hallmarks of hypoxic stress were induced to this level. However, genes related to heat shock were dramatically induced - but in a pattern and under growth conditions that are not easily explained by elevated temperatures. These gene expression data are discussed in light of current models for plant responses to the spaceflight environment and with regard to potential future spaceflight experiment

  17. Gene expression inference with deep learning

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yifei; Li, Yi; Narayan, Rajiv; Subramanian, Aravind; Xie, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Large-scale gene expression profiling has been widely used to characterize cellular states in response to various disease conditions, genetic perturbations, etc. Although the cost of whole-genome expression profiles has been dropping steadily, generating a compendium of expression profiling over thousands of samples is still very expensive. Recognizing that gene expressions are often highly correlated, researchers from the NIH LINCS program have developed a cost-effective strategy of profiling only ∼1000 carefully selected landmark genes and relying on computational methods to infer the expression of remaining target genes. However, the computational approach adopted by the LINCS program is currently based on linear regression (LR), limiting its accuracy since it does not capture complex nonlinear relationship between expressions of genes. Results: We present a deep learning method (abbreviated as D-GEX) to infer the expression of target genes from the expression of landmark genes. We used the microarray-based Gene Expression Omnibus dataset, consisting of 111K expression profiles, to train our model and compare its performance to those from other methods. In terms of mean absolute error averaged across all genes, deep learning significantly outperforms LR with 15.33% relative improvement. A gene-wise comparative analysis shows that deep learning achieves lower error than LR in 99.97% of the target genes. We also tested the performance of our learned model on an independent RNA-Seq-based GTEx dataset, which consists of 2921 expression profiles. Deep learning still outperforms LR with 6.57% relative improvement, and achieves lower error in 81.31% of the target genes. Availability and implementation: D-GEX is available at https://github.com/uci-cbcl/D-GEX. Contact: xhx@ics.uci.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26873929

  18. Gene expression inference with deep learning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yifei; Li, Yi; Narayan, Rajiv; Subramanian, Aravind; Xie, Xiaohui

    2016-06-15

    Large-scale gene expression profiling has been widely used to characterize cellular states in response to various disease conditions, genetic perturbations, etc. Although the cost of whole-genome expression profiles has been dropping steadily, generating a compendium of expression profiling over thousands of samples is still very expensive. Recognizing that gene expressions are often highly correlated, researchers from the NIH LINCS program have developed a cost-effective strategy of profiling only ∼1000 carefully selected landmark genes and relying on computational methods to infer the expression of remaining target genes. However, the computational approach adopted by the LINCS program is currently based on linear regression (LR), limiting its accuracy since it does not capture complex nonlinear relationship between expressions of genes. We present a deep learning method (abbreviated as D-GEX) to infer the expression of target genes from the expression of landmark genes. We used the microarray-based Gene Expression Omnibus dataset, consisting of 111K expression profiles, to train our model and compare its performance to those from other methods. In terms of mean absolute error averaged across all genes, deep learning significantly outperforms LR with 15.33% relative improvement. A gene-wise comparative analysis shows that deep learning achieves lower error than LR in 99.97% of the target genes. We also tested the performance of our learned model on an independent RNA-Seq-based GTEx dataset, which consists of 2921 expression profiles. Deep learning still outperforms LR with 6.57% relative improvement, and achieves lower error in 81.31% of the target genes. D-GEX is available at https://github.com/uci-cbcl/D-GEX CONTACT: xhx@ics.uci.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. HOXB homeobox gene expression in cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    López, R; Garrido, E; Piña, P; Hidalgo, A; Lazos, M; Ochoa, R; Salcedo, M

    2006-01-01

    The homeobox (HOX) genes are a family of transcription factors that bind to specific DNA sequences in target genes regulating gene expression. Thirty-nine HOX genes have been mapped in four conserved clusters: A, B, C, and D; they act as master genes regulating the identity of body segments along the anteroposterior axis of the embryo. The role played by HOX genes in adult cell differentiation is unclear to date, but growing evidence suggests that they may play an important role in the development of cancer. To study the role played by HOX genes in cervical cancer, in the present work, we analyzed the expression of HOXB genes and the localization of their transcripts in human cervical tissues. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis and nonradioactive RNA in situ hybridization were used to detect HOXB expression in 11 normal cervical tissues and 17 cervical carcinomas. It was determined that HOXB1, B3, B5, B6, B7, B8, and B9 genes are expressed in normal adult cervical epithelium and squamous cervical carcinomas. Interestingly, HOXB2, HOXB4, and HOXB13 gene expression was found only in tumor tissues. Our findings suggest that the new expression of HOXB2, HOXB4, and B13 genes is involved in cervical cancer.

  20. Gene Expression Profiling of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marimuthu, Arivusudar; Jacob, Harrys K.C.; Jakharia, Aniruddha; Subbannayya, Yashwanth; Keerthikumar, Shivakumar; Kashyap, Manoj Kumar; Goel, Renu; Balakrishnan, Lavanya; Dwivedi, Sutopa; Pathare, Swapnali; Dikshit, Jyoti Bajpai; Maharudraiah, Jagadeesha; Singh, Sujay; Sameer Kumar, Ghantasala S; Vijayakumar, M.; Veerendra Kumar, Kariyanakatte Veeraiah; Premalatha, Chennagiri Shrinivasamurthy; Tata, Pramila; Hariharan, Ramesh; Roa, Juan Carlos; Prasad, T.S.K; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Kumar, Rekha Vijay; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide, both in men and women. A genomewide gene expression analysis was carried out to identify differentially expressed genes in gastric adenocarcinoma tissues as compared to adjacent normal tissues. We used Agilent’s whole human genome oligonucleotide microarray platform representing ~41,000 genes to carry out gene expression analysis. Two-color microarray analysis was employed to directly compare the expression of genes between tumor and normal tissues. Through this approach, we identified several previously known candidate genes along with a number of novel candidate genes in gastric cancer. Testican-1 (SPOCK1) was one of the novel molecules that was 10-fold upregulated in tumors. Using tissue microarrays, we validated the expression of testican-1 by immunohistochemical staining. It was overexpressed in 56% (160/282) of the cases tested. Pathway analysis led to the identification of several networks in which SPOCK1 was among the topmost networks of interacting genes. By gene enrichment analysis, we identified several genes involved in cell adhesion and cell proliferation to be significantly upregulated while those corresponding to metabolic pathways were significantly downregulated. The differentially expressed genes identified in this study are candidate biomarkers for gastric adenoacarcinoma. PMID:27030788

  1. Polycistronic gene expression in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Schuetze, Tabea; Meyer, Vera

    2017-09-25

    Genome mining approaches predict dozens of biosynthetic gene clusters in each of the filamentous fungal genomes sequenced so far. However, the majority of these gene clusters still remain cryptic because they are not expressed in their natural host. Simultaneous expression of all genes belonging to a biosynthetic pathway in a heterologous host is one approach to activate biosynthetic gene clusters and to screen the metabolites produced for bioactivities. Polycistronic expression of all pathway genes under control of a single and tunable promoter would be the method of choice, as this does not only simplify cloning procedures, but also offers control on timing and strength of expression. However, polycistronic gene expression is a feature not commonly found in eukaryotic host systems, such as Aspergillus niger. In this study, we tested the suitability of the viral P2A peptide for co-expression of three genes in A. niger. Two genes descend from Fusarium oxysporum and are essential to produce the secondary metabolite enniatin (esyn1, ekivR). The third gene (luc) encodes the reporter luciferase which was included to study position effects. Expression of the polycistronic gene cassette was put under control of the Tet-On system to ensure tunable gene expression in A. niger. In total, three polycistronic expression cassettes which differed in the position of luc were constructed and targeted to the pyrG locus in A. niger. This allowed direct comparison of the luciferase activity based on the position of the luciferase gene. Doxycycline-mediated induction of the Tet-On expression cassettes resulted in the production of one long polycistronic mRNA as proven by Northern analyses, and ensured comparable production of enniatin in all three strains. Notably, gene position within the polycistronic expression cassette matters, as, luciferase activity was lowest at position one and had a comparable activity at positions two and three. The P2A peptide can be used to express at

  2. Gene Expression Studies in Lygus lineolaris

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genes are expressed in insect cells, as in all living organisms, by transcription of DNA into RNA followed by translation of RNA into proteins. The intricate patterns of differential gene expression in time and space directly influence the development and function of every aspect of the organism. Wh...

  3. Reconstructing directed gene regulatory network by only gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Feng, Xi Kang; Ng, Yen Kaow; Li, Shuai Cheng

    2016-08-18

    Accurately identifying gene regulatory network is an important task in understanding in vivo biological activities. The inference of such networks is often accomplished through the use of gene expression data. Many methods have been developed to evaluate gene expression dependencies between transcription factor and its target genes, and some methods also eliminate transitive interactions. The regulatory (or edge) direction is undetermined if the target gene is also a transcription factor. Some methods predict the regulatory directions in the gene regulatory networks by locating the eQTL single nucleotide polymorphism, or by observing the gene expression changes when knocking out/down the candidate transcript factors; regrettably, these additional data are usually unavailable, especially for the samples deriving from human tissues. In this study, we propose the Context Based Dependency Network (CBDN), a method that is able to infer gene regulatory networks with the regulatory directions from gene expression data only. To determine the regulatory direction, CBDN computes the influence of source to target by evaluating the magnitude changes of expression dependencies between the target gene and the others with conditioning on the source gene. CBDN extends the data processing inequality by involving the dependency direction to distinguish between direct and transitive relationship between genes. We also define two types of important regulators which can influence a majority of the genes in the network directly or indirectly. CBDN can detect both of these two types of important regulators by averaging the influence functions of candidate regulator to the other genes. In our experiments with simulated and real data, even with the regulatory direction taken into account, CBDN outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches for inferring gene regulatory network. CBDN identifies the important regulators in the predicted network: 1. TYROBP influences a batch of genes that are

  4. Gene Architectures that Minimize Cost of Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Frumkin, Idan; Schirman, Dvir; Rotman, Aviv; Li, Fangfei; Zahavi, Liron; Mordret, Ernest; Asraf, Omer; Wu, Song; Levy, Sasha F; Pilpel, Yitzhak

    2017-01-05

    Gene expression burdens cells by consuming resources and energy. While numerous studies have investigated regulation of expression level, little is known about gene design elements that govern expression costs. Here, we ask how cells minimize production costs while maintaining a given protein expression level and whether there are gene architectures that optimize this process. We measured fitness of ∼14,000 E. coli strains, each expressing a reporter gene with a unique 5' architecture. By comparing cost-effective and ineffective architectures, we found that cost per protein molecule could be minimized by lowering transcription levels, regulating translation speeds, and utilizing amino acids that are cheap to synthesize and that are less hydrophobic. We then examined natural E. coli genes and found that highly expressed genes have evolved more forcefully to minimize costs associated with their expression. Our study thus elucidates gene design elements that improve the economy of protein expression in natural and heterologous systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Gene Expression Noise, Fitness Landscapes, and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlebois, Daniel

    The stochastic (or noisy) process of gene expression can have fitness consequences for living organisms. For example, gene expression noise facilitates the development of drug resistance by increasing the time scale at which beneficial phenotypic states can be maintained. The present work investigates the relationship between gene expression noise and the fitness landscape. By incorporating the costs and benefits of gene expression, we track how the fluctuation magnitude and timescale of expression noise evolve in simulations of cell populations under stress. We find that properties of expression noise evolve to maximize fitness on the fitness landscape, and that low levels of expression noise emerge when the fitness benefits of gene expression exceed the fitness costs (and that high levels of noise emerge when the costs of expression exceed the benefits). The findings from our theoretical/computational work offer new hypotheses on the development of drug resistance, some of which are now being investigated in evolution experiments in our laboratory using well-characterized synthetic gene regulatory networks in budding yeast. Nserc Postdoctoral Fellowship (Grant No. PDF-453977-2014).

  6. CYP3A5 as a candidate gene for hypertension: no support from an unselected indigenous West African population.

    PubMed

    Fisher, D L; Plange-Rhule, J; Moreton, M; Eastwood, J B; Kerry, S M; Micah, F; Johnston, A; Cappuccio, F P; MacPhee, I A M

    2016-12-01

    CYP3A5 (cytochrome P450, family 3, subfamily A, polypeptide 5) expression stimulates the sodium retentive actions of the mineralocorticoid receptor causative of hypertension, probably by means of its ability to substantially increase the level of 6β-hydroxylase activity. Most Black individuals are functional CYP3A5 expressers, and this is a candidate gene for the high incidence of hypertension in Black populations. The study investigates whether CYP3A5 expression results in higher blood pressure in a Ghanaian population. Real-time PCR was used to genotype 898 DNA samples for the CYP3A5*3 and CYP3A5*6 single-nucleotide polymorphisms with technically adequate genotyping for 881 samples. Of these, 803 were genetic CYP3A5 expressers, 44 nonexpressers and 34 uncertain (CYP3A5*3/*6). Although there was a trend in the proportion of hypertensive individuals as CYP3A5 expression decreased, using a two-sided t-test, no statistically significant relationship was established between systolic or diastolic pressure and CYP3A5*3 or CYP3A5*6 genotypes, or their haplotypes (Systolic confidence interval: -8.44 to -7.70, P=0.93, Diastolic confidence interval: -4.89 to 4.85, P=0.99). We conclude, therefore, that there is either no association between CYP3A5 expression and blood pressure or, if there is a relationship, the strength of the association is very small.

  7. Abnormal expression of ephrin-A5 affects brain development of congenital hypothyroidism rats.

    PubMed

    Suo, Guihai; Shen, Feifei; Sun, Baolan; Song, Honghua; Xu, Meiyu; Wu, Youjia

    2018-05-14

    EphA5 and its ligand ephrin-A5 interaction can trigger synaptogenesis during early hippocampus development. We have previously reported that abnormal EphA5 expression can result in synaptogenesis disorder in congenital hypothyroidism (CH) rats. To better understand its precise molecular mechanism, we further analyzed the characteristics of ephrin-A5 expression in the hippocampus of CH rats. Our study revealed that ephrin-A5 expression was downregulated by thyroid hormone deficiency in the developing hippocampus and hippocampal neurons in rats. Thyroxine treatment for hypothyroid hippocampus and triiodothyronine treatment for hypothyroid hippocampal neurons significantly improved ephrin-A5 expression but could not restore its expression to control levels. Hypothyroid hippocampal neurons in-vitro showed synaptogenesis disorder characterized by a reduction in the number and length of neurites. Furthermore, the synaptogenesis-associated molecular expressions of NMDAR-1 (NR1), PSD95 and CaMKII were all downregulated correspondingly. These results suggest that ephrin-A5 expression may be decreased in CH, and abnormal activation of ephrin-A5/EphA5 signaling affects synaptogenesis during brain development. Such findings provide an important basis for exploring the pathogenesis of CH genetically.

  8. Stochastic gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Ilka Schultheiß; Pietsch, Jessica Magdalena; Keizer, Emma Mathilde; Greese, Bettina; Balkunde, Rachappa; Fleck, Christian; Hülskamp, Martin

    2017-12-14

    Although plant development is highly reproducible, some stochasticity exists. This developmental stochasticity may be caused by noisy gene expression. Here we analyze the fluctuation of protein expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using the photoconvertible KikGR marker, we show that the protein expressions of individual cells fluctuate over time. A dual reporter system was used to study extrinsic and intrinsic noise of marker gene expression. We report that extrinsic noise is higher than intrinsic noise and that extrinsic noise in stomata is clearly lower in comparison to several other tissues/cell types. Finally, we show that cells are coupled with respect to stochastic protein expression in young leaves, hypocotyls and roots but not in mature leaves. Our data indicate that stochasticity of gene expression can vary between tissues/cell types and that it can be coupled in a non-cell-autonomous manner.

  9. Regulation of gene expression in protozoa parasites.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Consuelo; Esther Ramirez, M; Calixto-Galvez, Mercedes; Medel, Olivia; Rodríguez, Mario A

    2010-01-01

    Infections with protozoa parasites are associated with high burdens of morbidity and mortality across the developing world. Despite extensive efforts to control the transmission of these parasites, the spread of populations resistant to drugs and the lack of effective vaccines against them contribute to their persistence as major public health problems. Parasites should perform a strict control on the expression of genes involved in their pathogenicity, differentiation, immune evasion, or drug resistance, and the comprehension of the mechanisms implicated in that control could help to develop novel therapeutic strategies. However, until now these mechanisms are poorly understood in protozoa. Recent investigations into gene expression in protozoa parasites suggest that they possess many of the canonical machineries employed by higher eukaryotes for the control of gene expression at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and epigenetic levels, but they also contain exclusive mechanisms. Here, we review the current understanding about the regulation of gene expression in Plasmodium sp., Trypanosomatids, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis.

  10. Candidate genes for panhypopituitarism identified by gene expression profiling

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Amanda H.; MacDonald, James W.; Ghosh, Debashis

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the transcription factors PROP1 and PIT1 (POU1F1) lead to pituitary hormone deficiency and hypopituitarism in mice and humans. The dysmorphology of developing Prop1 mutant pituitaries readily distinguishes them from those of Pit1 mutants and normal mice. This and other features suggest that Prop1 controls the expression of genes besides Pit1 that are important for pituitary cell migration, survival, and differentiation. To identify genes involved in these processes we used microarray analysis of gene expression to compare pituitary RNA from newborn Prop1 and Pit1 mutants and wild-type littermates. Significant differences in gene expression were noted between each mutant and their normal littermates, as well as between Prop1 and Pit1 mutants. Otx2, a gene critical for normal eye and pituitary development in humans and mice, exhibited elevated expression specifically in Prop1 mutant pituitaries. We report the spatial and temporal regulation of Otx2 in normal mice and Prop1 mutants, and the results suggest Otx2 could influence pituitary development by affecting signaling from the ventral diencephalon and regulation of gene expression in Rathke's pouch. The discovery that Otx2 expression is affected by Prop1 deficiency provides support for our hypothesis that identifying molecular differences in mutants will contribute to understanding the molecular mechanisms that control pituitary organogenesis and lead to human pituitary disease. PMID:21828248

  11. Optimal Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Odelta; de Vargas Rigo, Graziela; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomonosis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. This infection is associated with several health consequences, including cervical and prostate cancers and HIV acquisition. Gene expression analysis has been facilitated because of available genome sequences and large-scale transcriptomes in T. vaginalis, particularly using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), one of the most used methods for molecular studies. Reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy of this method. However, to the best of our knowledge, a systematic validation of reference genes has not been performed for T. vaginalis. In this study, the transcripts of nine candidate reference genes were quantified using qRT-PCR under different cultivation conditions, and the stability of these genes was compared using the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The most stable reference genes were α-tubulin, actin and DNATopII, and, conversely, the widely used T. vaginalis reference genes GAPDH and β-tubulin were less stable. The PFOR gene was used to validate the reliability of the use of these candidate reference genes. As expected, the PFOR gene was upregulated when the trophozoites were cultivated with ferrous ammonium sulfate when the DNATopII, α-tubulin and actin genes were used as normalizing gene. By contrast, the PFOR gene was downregulated when the GAPDH gene was used as an internal control, leading to misinterpretation of the data. These results provide an important starting point for reference gene selection and gene expression analysis with qRT-PCR studies of T. vaginalis. PMID:26393928

  12. Optimal Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Odelta; de Vargas Rigo, Graziela; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomonosis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. This infection is associated with several health consequences, including cervical and prostate cancers and HIV acquisition. Gene expression analysis has been facilitated because of available genome sequences and large-scale transcriptomes in T. vaginalis, particularly using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), one of the most used methods for molecular studies. Reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy of this method. However, to the best of our knowledge, a systematic validation of reference genes has not been performed for T. vaginalis. In this study, the transcripts of nine candidate reference genes were quantified using qRT-PCR under different cultivation conditions, and the stability of these genes was compared using the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The most stable reference genes were α-tubulin, actin and DNATopII, and, conversely, the widely used T. vaginalis reference genes GAPDH and β-tubulin were less stable. The PFOR gene was used to validate the reliability of the use of these candidate reference genes. As expected, the PFOR gene was upregulated when the trophozoites were cultivated with ferrous ammonium sulfate when the DNATopII, α-tubulin and actin genes were used as normalizing gene. By contrast, the PFOR gene was downregulated when the GAPDH gene was used as an internal control, leading to misinterpretation of the data. These results provide an important starting point for reference gene selection and gene expression analysis with qRT-PCR studies of T. vaginalis.

  13. Perspectives: Gene Expression in Fisheries Management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Pavey, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Functional genes and gene expression have been connected to physiological traits linked to effective production and broodstock selection in aquaculture, selective implications of commercial fish harvest, and adaptive changes reflected in non-commercial fish populations subject to human disturbance and climate change. Gene mapping using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to identify functional genes, gene expression (analogue microarrays and real-time PCR), and digital sequencing technologies looking at RNA transcripts present new concepts and opportunities in support of effective and sustainable fisheries. Genomic tools have been rapidly growing in aquaculture research addressing aspects of fish health, toxicology, and early development. Genomic technologies linking effects in functional genes involved in growth, maturation and life history development have been tied to selection resulting from harvest practices. Incorporating new and ever-increasing knowledge of fish genomes is opening a different perspective on local adaptation that will prove invaluable in wild fish conservation and management. Conservation of fish stocks is rapidly incorporating research on critical adaptive responses directed at the effects of human disturbance and climate change through gene expression studies. Genomic studies of fish populations can be generally grouped into three broad categories: 1) evolutionary genomics and biodiversity; 2) adaptive physiological responses to a changing environment; and 3) adaptive behavioral genomics and life history diversity. We review current genomic research in fisheries focusing on those that use microarrays to explore differences in gene expression among phenotypes and within or across populations, information that is critically important to the conservation of fish and their relationship to humans.

  14. Chemical Approaches to Control Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Gottesfeld, Joel M.; Turner, James M.; Dervan, Peter B.

    2000-01-01

    A current goal in molecular medicine is the development of new strategies to interfere with gene expression in living cells in the hope that novel therapies for human disease will result from these efforts. This review focuses on small-molecule or chemical approaches to manipulate gene expression by modulating either transcription of messenger RNA-coding genes or protein translation. The molecules under study include natural products, designed ligands, and compounds identified through functional screens of combinatorial libraries. The cellular targets for these molecules include DNA, messenger RNA, and the protein components of the transcription, RNA processing, and translational machinery. Studies with model systems have shown promise in the inhibition of both cellular and viral gene transcription and mRNA utilization. Moreover, strategies for both repression and activation of gene transcription have been described. These studies offer promise for treatment of diseases of pathogenic (viral, bacterial, etc.) and cellular origin (cancer, genetic diseases, etc.). PMID:11097426

  15. Hepatic Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Gene Expression ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND: Differences in responses to environmental chemicals and drugs between life stages are likely due in part to differences in the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and transporters (XMETs). No comprehensive analysis of the mRNA expression of XMETs has been carried out through life stages in any species. RESULTS: Using full-genome arrays, the mRNA expression of all XMETs and their regulatory proteins was examined during fetal (gestation day (GD) 19), neonatal (postnatal day (PND) 7), prepubescent (PND32), middle age (12 months), and old age (18 and 24 months) in the C57BL/6J (C57) mouse liver and compared to adults. Fetal and neonatal life stages exhibited dramatic differences in XMET mRNA expression compared to the relatively minor effects of old age. The total number of XMET probe sets that differed from adults was 636, 500, 84, 5, 43, and 102 for GD19, PND7, PND32, 12 months, 18 months and 24 months, respectively. At all life stages except PND32, under-expressed genes outnumbered over-expressed genes. The altered XMETs included those in all of the major metabolic and transport phases including introduction of reactive or polar groups (Phase I), conjugation (Phase II) and excretion (Phase III). In the fetus and neonate, parallel increases in expression were noted in the dioxin receptor, Nrf2 components and their regulated genes while nuclear receptors and regulated genes were generally down-regulated. Suppression of male-specific XMETs w

  16. Methylomics of gene expression in human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yongmei; Ding, Jingzhong; Reynolds, Lindsay M.; Lohman, Kurt; Register, Thomas C.; De La Fuente, Alberto; Howard, Timothy D.; Hawkins, Greg A.; Cui, Wei; Morris, Jessica; Smith, Shelly G.; Barr, R. Graham; Kaufman, Joel D.; Burke, Gregory L.; Post, Wendy; Shea, Steven; Mccall, Charles E.; Siscovick, David; Jacobs, David R.; Tracy, Russell P.; Herrington, David M.; Hoeschele, Ina

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation is one of several epigenetic mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of gene expression; however, the extent to which methylation of CpG dinucleotides correlates with gene expression at the genome-wide level is still largely unknown. Using purified primary monocytes from subjects in a large community-based cohort (n = 1264), we characterized methylation (>485 000 CpG sites) and mRNA expression (>48K transcripts) and carried out genome-wide association analyses of 8370 expression phenotypes. We identified 11 203 potential cis-acting CpG loci whose degree of methylation was associated with gene expression (eMS) at a false discovery rate threshold of 0.001. Most of the associations were consistent in effect size and direction of effect across sex and three ethnicities. Contrary to expectation, these eMS were not predominately enriched in promoter regions, or CpG islands, but rather in the 3′ UTR, gene bodies, CpG shores or ‘offshore’ sites, and both positive and negative correlations between methylation and expression were observed across all locations. eMS were enriched for regions predicted to be regulatory by ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) data in multiple cell types, particularly enhancers. One of the strongest association signals detected (P < 2.2 × 10−308) was a methylation probe (cg17005068) in the promoter/enhancer region of the glutathione S-transferase theta 1 gene (GSTT1, encoding the detoxification enzyme) with GSTT1 mRNA expression. Our study provides a detailed description of the epigenetic architecture in human monocytes and its relationship to gene expression. These data may help prioritize interrogation of biologically relevant methylation loci and provide new insights into the epigenetic basis of human health and diseases. PMID:23900078

  17. Differential Connectivity in Colorectal Cancer Gene Expression Network

    PubMed

    Izadi, Fereshteh

    2018-05-30

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the challenging types of cancers; thus, exploring effective biomarkers related to colorectal could lead to significant progresses toward the treatment of this disease. In the present study, CRC gene expression datasets have been reanalyzed. Mutual differentially expressed genes across 294 normal mucosa and adjacent tumoral samples were then utilized in order to build two independent transcriptional regulatory networks. By analyzing the networks topologically, genes with differential global connectivity related to cancer state were determined for which the potential transcriptional regulators including transcription factors were identified. The majority of differentially connected genes (DCGs) were up-regulated in colorectal transcriptome experiments. Moreover, a number of these genes have been experimentally validated as cancer or CRC-associated genes. The DCGs, including GART, TGFB1, ITGA2, SLC16A5, SOX9, and MMP7, were investigated across 12 cancer types. Functional enrichment analysis followed by detailed data mining exhibited that these candidate genes could be related to CRC by mediating in metastatic cascade in addition to shared pathways with 12 cancer types by triggering the inflammatory events Our study uncovered correlated alterations in gene expression related to CRC susceptibility and progression that the potent candidate biomarkers could provide a link to disease.

  18. Human AZU-1 gene, variants thereof and expressed gene products

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Huei-Mei; Bissell, Mina

    2004-06-22

    A human AZU-1 gene, mutants, variants and fragments thereof. Protein products encoded by the AZU-1 gene and homologs encoded by the variants of AZU-1 gene acting as tumor suppressors or markers of malignancy progression and tumorigenicity reversion. Identification, isolation and characterization of AZU-1 and AZU-2 genes localized to a tumor suppressive locus at chromosome 10q26, highly expressed in nonmalignant and premalignant cells derived from a human breast tumor progression model. A recombinant full length protein sequences encoded by the AZU-1 gene and nucleotide sequences of AZU-1 and AZU-2 genes and variant and fragments thereof. Monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies specific to AZU-1, AZU-2 encoded protein and to AZU-1, or AZU-2 encoded protein homologs.

  19. Dlx homeobox gene family expression in osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Lézot, F; Thomas, B L; Blin-Wakkach, C; Castaneda, B; Bolanos, A; Hotton, D; Sharpe, P T; Heymann, D; Carles, G F; Grigoriadis, A E; Berdal, A

    2010-06-01

    Skeletal growth and homeostasis require the finely orchestrated secretion of mineralized tissue matrices by highly specialized cells, balanced with their degradation by osteoclasts. Time- and site-specific expression of Dlx and Msx homeobox genes in the cells secreting these matrices have been identified as important elements in the regulation of skeletal morphology. Such specific expression patterns have also been reported in osteoclasts for Msx genes. The aim of the present study was to establish the expression patterns of Dlx genes in osteoclasts and identify their function in regulating skeletal morphology. The expression patterns of all Dlx genes were examined during the whole osteoclastogenesis using different in vitro models. The results revealed that Dlx1 and Dlx2 are the only Dlx family members with a possible function in osteoclastogenesis as well as in mature osteoclasts. Dlx5 and Dlx6 were detected in the cultures but appear to be markers of monocytes and their derivatives. In vivo, Dlx2 expression in osteoclasts was examined using a Dlx2/LacZ transgenic mouse. Dlx2 is expressed in a subpopulation of osteoclasts in association with tooth, brain, nerve, and bone marrow volumetric growths. Altogether the present data suggest a role for Dlx2 in regulation of skeletal morphogenesis via functions within osteoclasts. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Alternative-splicing-mediated gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qianliang; Zhou, Tianshou

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is a fundamental process during gene expression and has been found to be ubiquitous in eukaryotes. However, how AS impacts gene expression levels both quantitatively and qualitatively remains to be fully explored. Here, we analyze two common models of gene expression, each incorporating a simple splice mechanism that a pre-mRNA is spliced into two mature mRNA isoforms in a probabilistic manner. In the constitutive expression case, we show that the steady-state molecular numbers of two mature mRNA isoforms follow mutually independent Poisson distributions. In the bursting expression case, we demonstrate that the tail decay of the steady-state distribution for both mature mRNA isoforms that in general are not mutually independent can be characterized by the product of mean burst size and splicing probability. In both cases, we find that AS can efficiently modulate both the variability (measured by variance) and the noise level of the total mature mRNA, and in particular, the latter is always lower than the noise level of the pre-mRNA, implying that AS always reduces the noise. These results altogether reveal that AS is a mechanism of efficiently controlling the gene expression noise.

  1. Gene expression analysis of flax seed development

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is an important crop whose seed oil and stem fiber have multiple industrial applications. Flax seeds are also well-known for their nutritional attributes, viz., omega-3 fatty acids in the oil and lignans and mucilage from the seed coat. In spite of the importance of this crop, there are few molecular resources that can be utilized toward improving seed traits. Here, we describe flax embryo and seed development and generation of comprehensive genomic resources for the flax seed. Results We describe a large-scale generation and analysis of expressed sequences in various tissues. Collectively, the 13 libraries we have used provide a broad representation of genes active in developing embryos (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledon and mature stages) seed coats (globular and torpedo stages) and endosperm (pooled globular to torpedo stages) and genes expressed in flowers, etiolated seedlings, leaves, and stem tissue. A total of 261,272 expressed sequence tags (EST) (GenBank accessions LIBEST_026995 to LIBEST_027011) were generated. These EST libraries included transcription factor genes that are typically expressed at low levels, indicating that the depth is adequate for in silico expression analysis. Assembly of the ESTs resulted in 30,640 unigenes and 82% of these could be identified on the basis of homology to known and hypothetical genes from other plants. When compared with fully sequenced plant genomes, the flax unigenes resembled poplar and castor bean more than grape, sorghum, rice or Arabidopsis. Nearly one-fifth of these (5,152) had no homologs in sequences reported for any organism, suggesting that this category represents genes that are likely unique to flax. Digital analyses revealed gene expression dynamics for the biosynthesis of a number of important seed constituents during seed development. Conclusions We have developed a foundational database of expressed sequences and collection of plasmid clones that comprise

  2. Regulation of gene expression in plasmid ColE1: delayed expression of the kil gene.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S P; Yan, L F; Zubay, G

    1988-01-01

    cea, imm, and kil are a cluster of three functionally related genes of the plasmid ColE1. The cea and kil genes are in the same inducible operon, with transcription being initiated from a promoter adjacent to the cea gene. The imm gene is located between the cea and kil genes, but it is transcribed in the opposite direction. Complementary interaction between the imm mRNA and the anti-imm sequences in the middle of the cea-kil transcript causes a pronounced delay in expression of the kil gene when the cea-kil operon is induced. A segment in the overlapping region between the cea and imm genes causes delayed expression of the kil gene in the absence of imm gene transcription. This delay effect increases the yields of colicin synthesized in induced cells. Images PMID:3142845

  3. MiR-2964a-5p binding site SNP regulates ATM expression contributing to age-related cataract risk.

    PubMed

    Rong, Han; Gu, Shanshan; Zhang, Guowei; Kang, Lihua; Yang, Mei; Zhang, Junfang; Shen, Xinyue; Guan, Huaijin

    2017-10-17

    This study was to explore the involvement of DNA repair genes in the pathogenesis of age-related cataract (ARC). We genotyped nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes responsible to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in 804 ARC cases and 804 controls in a cohort of eye diseases in Chinese population and found that the ataxia telangiectasia mutated ( ATM ) gene-rs4585:G>T was significantly associated with ARC risk. An in vitro functional test found that miR-2964a-5p specifically down-regulated luciferase reporter expression and ATM expression in the cell lines transfected with rs4585 T allele compared to rs4585 G allele. The molecular assay on human tissue samples discovered that ATM expression was down-regulated in majority of ARC tissues and correlated with ATM genotypes. In addition, the Comet assay of cellular DNA damage of peripheral lymphocytes indicated that individuals carrying the G allele (GG/GT) of ATM -rs4585 had lower DNA breaks compared to individuals with TT genotype. These findings suggested that the SNP rs4585 in ATM might affect ARC risk through modulating the regulatory affinity of miR-2964a-5p. The reduced DSBs repair might be involved in ARC pathogenesis.

  4. Polyandry and sex-specific gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Mank, Judith E.; Wedell, Nina; Hosken, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Polyandry is widespread in nature, and has important evolutionary consequences for the evolution of sexual dimorphism and sexual conflict. Although many of the phenotypic consequences of polyandry have been elucidated, our understanding of the impacts of polyandry and mating systems on the genome is in its infancy. Polyandry can intensify selection on sexual characters and generate more intense sexual conflict. This has consequences for sequence evolution, but also for sex-biased gene expression, which acts as a link between mating systems, sex-specific selection and the evolution of sexual dimorphism. We discuss this and the remarkable confluence of sexual-conflict theory and patterns of gene expression, while also making predictions about transcription patterns, mating systems and sexual conflict. Gene expression is a key link in the genotype–phenotype chain, and although in its early stages, understanding the sexual selection–transcription relationship will provide significant insights into this critical association. PMID:23339238

  5. Evolutionary Approach for Relative Gene Expression Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Czajkowski, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    A Relative Expression Analysis (RXA) uses ordering relationships in a small collection of genes and is successfully applied to classiffication using microarray data. As checking all possible subsets of genes is computationally infeasible, the RXA algorithms require feature selection and multiple restrictive assumptions. Our main contribution is a specialized evolutionary algorithm (EA) for top-scoring pairs called EvoTSP which allows finding more advanced gene relations. We managed to unify the major variants of relative expression algorithms through EA and introduce weights to the top-scoring pairs. Experimental validation of EvoTSP on public available microarray datasets showed that the proposed solution significantly outperforms in terms of accuracy other relative expression algorithms and allows exploring much larger solution space. PMID:24790574

  6. Renal Gene Expression Database (RGED): a relational database of gene expression profiles in kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingzhou; Yang, Bo; Chen, Xujiao; Xu, Jing; Mei, Changlin; Mao, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    We present a bioinformatics database named Renal Gene Expression Database (RGED), which contains comprehensive gene expression data sets from renal disease research. The web-based interface of RGED allows users to query the gene expression profiles in various kidney-related samples, including renal cell lines, human kidney tissues and murine model kidneys. Researchers can explore certain gene profiles, the relationships between genes of interests and identify biomarkers or even drug targets in kidney diseases. The aim of this work is to provide a user-friendly utility for the renal disease research community to query expression profiles of genes of their own interest without the requirement of advanced computational skills. Availability and implementation: Website is implemented in PHP, R, MySQL and Nginx and freely available from http://rged.wall-eva.net. Database URL: http://rged.wall-eva.net PMID:25252782

  7. Renal Gene Expression Database (RGED): a relational database of gene expression profiles in kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingzhou; Yang, Bo; Chen, Xujiao; Xu, Jing; Mei, Changlin; Mao, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    We present a bioinformatics database named Renal Gene Expression Database (RGED), which contains comprehensive gene expression data sets from renal disease research. The web-based interface of RGED allows users to query the gene expression profiles in various kidney-related samples, including renal cell lines, human kidney tissues and murine model kidneys. Researchers can explore certain gene profiles, the relationships between genes of interests and identify biomarkers or even drug targets in kidney diseases. The aim of this work is to provide a user-friendly utility for the renal disease research community to query expression profiles of genes of their own interest without the requirement of advanced computational skills. Website is implemented in PHP, R, MySQL and Nginx and freely available from http://rged.wall-eva.net. http://rged.wall-eva.net. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Mechanical Feedback and Arrest in Gene Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevier, Stuart; Levine, Herbert

    The ability to watch biochemical events at the single-molecule level has increasingly revealed that stochasticity plays a leading role in many biological phenomena. One important and well know example is the noisy, ``bursty'' manner of transcription. Recent experiments have revealed relationships between the level and noise in gene expression hinting at deeper stochastic connections. In this talk we will discuss how the mechanical nature of transcription can explain this relationship and examine the limits that the physical aspects of transcription place on gene expression.

  9. Analysis of baseline gene expression levels from ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The use of gene expression profiling to predict chemical mode of action would be enhanced by better characterization of variance due to individual, environmental, and technical factors. Meta-analysis of microarray data from untreated or vehicle-treated animals within the control arm of toxicogenomics studies has yielded useful information on baseline fluctuations in gene expression. A dataset of control animal microarray expression data was assembled by a working group of the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's Technical Committee on the Application of Genomics in Mechanism Based Risk Assessment in order to provide a public resource for assessments of variability in baseline gene expression. Data from over 500 Affymetrix microarrays from control rat liver and kidney were collected from 16 different institutions. Thirty-five biological and technical factors were obtained for each animal, describing a wide range of study characteristics, and a subset were evaluated in detail for their contribution to total variability using multivariate statistical and graphical techniques. The study factors that emerged as key sources of variability included gender, organ section, strain, and fasting state. These and other study factors were identified as key descriptors that should be included in the minimal information about a toxicogenomics study needed for interpretation of results by an independent source. Genes that are the most and least variable, gender-selectiv

  10. The low noise limit in gene expression

    DOE PAGES

    Dar, Roy D.; Weinberger, Leor S.; Cox, Chris D.; ...

    2015-10-21

    Protein noise measurements are increasingly used to elucidate biophysical parameters. Unfortunately noise analyses are often at odds with directly measured parameters. Here we show that these inconsistencies arise from two problematic analytical choices: (i) the assumption that protein translation rate is invariant for different proteins of different abundances, which has inadvertently led to (ii) the assumption that a large constitutive extrinsic noise sets the low noise limit in gene expression. While growing evidence suggests that transcriptional bursting may set the low noise limit, variability in translational bursting has been largely ignored. We show that genome-wide systematic variation in translational efficiencymore » can-and in the case of E. coli does-control the low noise limit in gene expression. Therefore constitutive extrinsic noise is small and only plays a role in the absence of a systematic variation in translational efficiency. Lastly, these results show the existence of two distinct expression noise patterns: (1) a global noise floor uniformly imposed on all genes by expression bursting; and (2) high noise distributed to only a select group of genes.« less

  11. Annotation of gene function in citrus using gene expression information and co-expression networks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The genus Citrus encompasses major cultivated plants such as sweet orange, mandarin, lemon and grapefruit, among the world’s most economically important fruit crops. With increasing volumes of transcriptomics data available for these species, Gene Co-expression Network (GCN) analysis is a viable option for predicting gene function at a genome-wide scale. GCN analysis is based on a “guilt-by-association” principle whereby genes encoding proteins involved in similar and/or related biological processes may exhibit similar expression patterns across diverse sets of experimental conditions. While bioinformatics resources such as GCN analysis are widely available for efficient gene function prediction in model plant species including Arabidopsis, soybean and rice, in citrus these tools are not yet developed. Results We have constructed a comprehensive GCN for citrus inferred from 297 publicly available Affymetrix Genechip Citrus Genome microarray datasets, providing gene co-expression relationships at a genome-wide scale (33,000 transcripts). The comprehensive citrus GCN consists of a global GCN (condition-independent) and four condition-dependent GCNs that survey the sweet orange species only, all citrus fruit tissues, all citrus leaf tissues, or stress-exposed plants. All of these GCNs are clustered using genome-wide, gene-centric (guide) and graph clustering algorithms for flexibility of gene function prediction. For each putative cluster, gene ontology (GO) enrichment and gene expression specificity analyses were performed to enhance gene function, expression and regulation pattern prediction. The guide-gene approach was used to infer novel roles of genes involved in disease susceptibility and vitamin C metabolism, and graph-clustering approaches were used to investigate isoprenoid/phenylpropanoid metabolism in citrus peel, and citric acid catabolism via the GABA shunt in citrus fruit. Conclusions Integration of citrus gene co-expression networks

  12. Fluid Mechanics, Arterial Disease, and Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Tarbell, John M; Shi, Zhong-Dong; Dunn, Jessilyn; Jo, Hanjoong

    2014-01-01

    This review places modern research developments in vascular mechanobiology in the context of hemodynamic phenomena in the cardiovascular system and the discrete localization of vascular disease. The modern origins of this field are traced, beginning in the 1960s when associations between flow characteristics, particularly blood flow-induced wall shear stress, and the localization of atherosclerotic plaques were uncovered, and continuing to fluid shear stress effects on the vascular lining endothelial) cells (ECs), including their effects on EC morphology, biochemical production, and gene expression. The earliest single-gene studies and genome-wide analyses are considered. The final section moves from the ECs lining the vessel wall to the smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts within the wall that are fluid me chanically activated by interstitial flow that imposes shear stresses on their surfaces comparable with those of flowing blood on EC surfaces. Interstitial flow stimulates biochemical production and gene expression, much like blood flow on ECs.

  13. MEPD: a Medaka gene expression pattern database

    PubMed Central

    Henrich, Thorsten; Ramialison, Mirana; Quiring, Rebecca; Wittbrodt, Beate; Furutani-Seiki, Makoto; Wittbrodt, Joachim; Kondoh, Hisato

    2003-01-01

    The Medaka Expression Pattern Database (MEPD) stores and integrates information of gene expression during embryonic development of the small freshwater fish Medaka (Oryzias latipes). Expression patterns of genes identified by ESTs are documented by images and by descriptions through parameters such as staining intensity, category and comments and through a comprehensive, hierarchically organized dictionary of anatomical terms. Sequences of the ESTs are available and searchable through BLAST. ESTs in the database are clustered upon entry and have been blasted against public data-bases. The BLAST results are updated regularly, stored within the database and searchable. The MEPD is a project within the Medaka Genome Initiative (MGI) and entries will be interconnected to integrated genomic map databases. MEPD is accessible through the WWW at http://medaka.dsp.jst.go.jp/MEPD. PMID:12519950

  14. Dynamic changes in prefrontal cortex gene expression following lysergic acid diethylamide administration.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Charles D; Garcia, Efrain E; Sanders-Bush, Elaine

    2003-03-17

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a psychoactive drug that transiently alters human perception, behavior, and mood at extremely low doses. Certain aspects of the behavior elicited by acute doses of LSD closely resemble symptoms of mental disorders such as schizophrenia. Characterizing gene expression profiles after LSD will be important for understanding how it alters behavior, and will lead to novel insights into disorders, such as schizophrenia, whose behavioral symptoms resemble the temporary effects of hallucinogenic drugs. We previously identified a small collection of genes within the rat prefrontal cortex that respond to LSD. Many of the products of these genes are involved in the process of synaptic plasticity. In the current report, we present a detailed analysis of the expression of these genes within the brain using RNase protection analysis. We find that the gene response to LSD is quite dynamic. The expression of some genes increases rapidly and decreases rapidly, while other genes change more gradually. Dose-response studies show two classes of expression; gene expression maximally stimulated at lower doses, versus gene expression that continues to rise at the higher doses. The role of the 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptor in mediating the increases in gene expression was examined in a series of experiments using receptor specific antagonists. Most expression increases were due to activation of the 5-HT(2A) receptor, however expression of two genes had neither a 5-HT(1A) nor a 5-HT(2A) receptor component.

  15. The human phospholamban gene: structure and expression.

    PubMed

    McTiernan, C F; Frye, C S; Lemster, B H; Kinder, E A; Ogletree-Hughes, M L; Moravec, C S; Feldman, A M

    1999-03-01

    Phospholamban, through modulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase activity, is a key regulator of cardiac diastolic function. Alterations in phospholamban expression may define parameters of muscle relaxation. In experimental animals, phospholamban is differentially expressed in various striated and smooth muscles, and within the four chambers of the heart. Decreased phospholamban expression within the heart during heart failure has also been observed. Furthermore, regulatory elements of mammalian phospholamban genes remain poorly defined. To extend these studies to humans, we (1) characterized phospholamban expression in various human organs, (2) isolated genomic clones encoding the human phospholamban gene, and (3) prepared human phospholamban promoter/luciferase reporter constructs and performed transient transfection assays to begin identification of regulatory elements. We observed that human ventricle and quadriceps displayed high levels of phospholamban transcripts and proteins, with markedly lower expression observed in smooth muscles, while the right atria also expressed low levels of phospholamban. The human phospholamban gene structure closely resembles that reported for chicken, rabbit, rat, and mouse. Comparison of the human to other mammalian phospholamban genes indicates a marked conservation of sequence for at least 217 bp upstream of the transcription start site, which contains conserved motifs for GATA, CP1/NFY, M-CAT-like, and E-box elements. Transient transfection assays with a series of plasmids containing deleted 5' flanking regions (between -2530 and -66 through +85) showed that sequences between -169 and the CP1-box at -93 were required for maximal promoter activity in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Activity of these reporters in HeLa cells was markedly lower than that observed in rat cardiomyocytes, suggesting at least a partial tissue selectivity of these reporter constructs.

  16. Digital gene expression analysis of gene expression differences within Brassica diploids and allopolyploids.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jinjin; Wang, Yue; Zhu, Bao; Fang, Tingting; Fang, Yujie; Wang, Youping

    2015-01-27

    Brassica includes many successfully cultivated crop species of polyploid origin, either by ancestral genome triplication or by hybridization between two diploid progenitors, displaying complex repetitive sequences and transposons. The U's triangle, which consists of three diploids and three amphidiploids, is optimal for the analysis of complicated genomes after polyploidization. Next-generation sequencing enables the transcriptome profiling of polyploids on a global scale. We examined the gene expression patterns of three diploids (Brassica rapa, B. nigra, and B. oleracea) and three amphidiploids (B. napus, B. juncea, and B. carinata) via digital gene expression analysis. In total, the libraries generated between 5.7 and 6.1 million raw reads, and the clean tags of each library were mapped to 18547-21995 genes of B. rapa genome. The unambiguous tag-mapped genes in the libraries were compared. Moreover, the majority of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were explored among diploids as well as between diploids and amphidiploids. Gene ontological analysis was performed to functionally categorize these DEGs into different classes. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis was performed to assign these DEGs into approximately 120 pathways, among which the metabolic pathway, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and peroxisomal pathway were enriched. The non-additive genes in Brassica amphidiploids were analyzed, and the results indicated that orthologous genes in polyploids are frequently expressed in a non-additive pattern. Methyltransferase genes showed differential expression pattern in Brassica species. Our results provided an understanding of the transcriptome complexity of natural Brassica species. The gene expression changes in diploids and allopolyploids may help elucidate the morphological and physiological differences among Brassica species.

  17. Determining Physical Mechanisms of Gene Expression Regulation from Single Cell Gene Expression Data.

    PubMed

    Ezer, Daphne; Moignard, Victoria; Göttgens, Berthold; Adryan, Boris

    2016-08-01

    Many genes are expressed in bursts, which can contribute to cell-to-cell heterogeneity. It is now possible to measure this heterogeneity with high throughput single cell gene expression assays (single cell qPCR and RNA-seq). These experimental approaches generate gene expression distributions which can be used to estimate the kinetic parameters of gene expression bursting, namely the rate that genes turn on, the rate that genes turn off, and the rate of transcription. We construct a complete pipeline for the analysis of single cell qPCR data that uses the mathematics behind bursty expression to develop more accurate and robust algorithms for analyzing the origin of heterogeneity in experimental samples, specifically an algorithm for clustering cells by their bursting behavior (Simulated Annealing for Bursty Expression Clustering, SABEC) and a statistical tool for comparing the kinetic parameters of bursty expression across populations of cells (Estimation of Parameter changes in Kinetics, EPiK). We applied these methods to hematopoiesis, including a new single cell dataset in which transcription factors (TFs) involved in the earliest branchpoint of blood differentiation were individually up- and down-regulated. We could identify two unique sub-populations within a seemingly homogenous group of hematopoietic stem cells. In addition, we could predict regulatory mechanisms controlling the expression levels of eighteen key hematopoietic transcription factors throughout differentiation. Detailed information about gene regulatory mechanisms can therefore be obtained simply from high throughput single cell gene expression data, which should be widely applicable given the rapid expansion of single cell genomics.

  18. Transcriptome-Level Signatures in Gene Expression and Gene Expression Variability during Bacterial Adaptive Evolution.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Keesha E; Otoupal, Peter B; Chatterjee, Anushree

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are an increasingly serious public health concern, as strains emerge that demonstrate resistance to almost all available treatments. One factor that contributes to the crisis is the adaptive ability of bacteria, which exhibit remarkable phenotypic and gene expression heterogeneity in order to gain a survival advantage in damaging environments. This high degree of variability in gene expression across biological populations makes it a challenging task to identify key regulators of bacterial adaptation. Here, we research the regulation of adaptive resistance by investigating transcriptome profiles of Escherichia coli upon adaptation to disparate toxins, including antibiotics and biofuels. We locate potential target genes via conventional gene expression analysis as well as using a new analysis technique examining differential gene expression variability. By investigating trends across the diverse adaptation conditions, we identify a focused set of genes with conserved behavior, including those involved in cell motility, metabolism, membrane structure, and transport, and several genes of unknown function. To validate the biological relevance of the observed changes, we synthetically perturb gene expression using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-dCas9. Manipulation of select genes in combination with antibiotic treatment promotes adaptive resistance as demonstrated by an increased degree of antibiotic tolerance and heterogeneity in MICs. We study the mechanisms by which identified genes influence adaptation and find that select differentially variable genes have the potential to impact metabolic rates, mutation rates, and motility. Overall, this work provides evidence for a complex nongenetic response, encompassing shifts in gene expression and gene expression variability, which underlies adaptive resistance. IMPORTANCE Even initially sensitive bacteria can rapidly thwart antibiotic treatment through stress

  19. T-cell lymphomas associated gene expression signature: Bioinformatics analysis based on gene expression Omnibus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei-Lei; Xu, Xiao-Yue; Ni, Jie; Zhao, Xia; Zhou, Jian-Wei; Feng, Ji-Feng

    2018-06-01

    Due to the low incidence and the heterogeneity of subtypes, the biological process of T-cell lymphomas is largely unknown. Although many genes have been detected in T-cell lymphomas, the role of these genes in biological process of T-cell lymphomas was not further analyzed. Two qualified datasets were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. The biological functions of differentially expressed genes were evaluated by gene ontology enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis. The network for intersection genes was constructed by the cytoscape v3.0 software. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and log-rank test were employed to assess the association between differentially expressed genes and clinical characters. The intersection mRNAs were proved to be associated with fundamental processes of T-cell lymphoma cells. These intersection mRNAs were involved in the activation of some cancer-related pathways, including PI3K/AKT, Ras, JAK-STAT, and NF-kappa B signaling pathway. PDGFRA, CXCL12, and CCL19 were the most significant central genes in the signal-net analysis. The results of survival analysis are not entirely credible. Our findings uncovered aberrantly expressed genes and a complex RNA signal network in T-cell lymphomas and indicated cancer-related pathways involved in disease initiation and progression, providing a new insight for biotargeted therapy in T-cell lymphomas. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. FARO server: Meta-analysis of gene expression by matching gene expression signatures to a compendium of public gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Manijak, Mieszko P; Nielsen, Henrik B

    2011-06-11

    Although, systematic analysis of gene annotation is a powerful tool for interpreting gene expression data, it sometimes is blurred by incomplete gene annotation, missing expression response of key genes and secondary gene expression responses. These shortcomings may be partially circumvented by instead matching gene expression signatures to signatures of other experiments. To facilitate this we present the Functional Association Response by Overlap (FARO) server, that match input signatures to a compendium of 242 gene expression signatures, extracted from more than 1700 Arabidopsis microarray experiments. Hereby we present a publicly available tool for robust characterization of Arabidopsis gene expression experiments which can point to similar experimental factors in other experiments. The server is available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/faro/.

  1. Programming gene expression with combinatorial promoters

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Robert Sidney; Surette, Michael G; Elowitz, Michael B

    2007-01-01

    Promoters control the expression of genes in response to one or more transcription factors (TFs). The architecture of a promoter is the arrangement and type of binding sites within it. To understand natural genetic circuits and to design promoters for synthetic biology, it is essential to understand the relationship between promoter function and architecture. We constructed a combinatorial library of random promoter architectures. We characterized 288 promoters in Escherichia coli, each containing up to three inputs from four different TFs. The library design allowed for multiple −10 and −35 boxes, and we observed varied promoter strength over five decades. To further analyze the functional repertoire, we defined a representation of promoter function in terms of regulatory range, logic type, and symmetry. Using these results, we identified heuristic rules for programming gene expression with combinatorial promoters. PMID:18004278

  2. Cell-Free Optogenetic Gene Expression System.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Premkumar; Yeoh, Jing Wui; Jayaraman, Sudhaghar; Teh, Ai Ying; Zhang, Jingyun; Poh, Chueh Loo

    2018-04-20

    Optogenetic tools provide a new and efficient way to dynamically program gene expression with unmatched spatiotemporal precision. To date, their vast potential remains untapped in the field of cell-free synthetic biology, largely due to the lack of simple and efficient light-switchable systems. Here, to bridge the gap between cell-free systems and optogenetics, we studied our previously engineered one component-based blue light-inducible Escherichia coli promoter in a cell-free environment through experimental characterization and mathematical modeling. We achieved >10-fold dynamic expression and demonstrated rapid and reversible activation of the target gene to generate oscillatory response. The deterministic model developed was able to recapitulate the system behavior and helped to provide quantitative insights to optimize dynamic response. This in vitro optogenetic approach could be a powerful new high-throughput screening technology for rapid prototyping of complex biological networks in both space and time without the need for chemical induction.

  3. Blood Gene Expression Predicts Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Danger, Richard; Royer, Pierre-Joseph; Reboulleau, Damien; Durand, Eugénie; Loy, Jennifer; Tissot, Adrien; Lacoste, Philippe; Roux, Antoine; Reynaud-Gaubert, Martine; Gomez, Carine; Kessler, Romain; Mussot, Sacha; Dromer, Claire; Brugière, Olivier; Mornex, Jean-François; Guillemain, Romain; Dahan, Marcel; Knoop, Christiane; Botturi, Karine; Foureau, Aurore; Pison, Christophe; Koutsokera, Angela; Nicod, Laurent P.; Brouard, Sophie; Magnan, Antoine; Jougon, J.

    2018-01-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), the main manifestation of chronic lung allograft dysfunction, leads to poor long-term survival after lung transplantation. Identifying predictors of BOS is essential to prevent the progression of dysfunction before irreversible damage occurs. By using a large set of 107 samples from lung recipients, we performed microarray gene expression profiling of whole blood to identify early biomarkers of BOS, including samples from 49 patients with stable function for at least 3 years, 32 samples collected at least 6 months before BOS diagnosis (prediction group), and 26 samples at or after BOS diagnosis (diagnosis group). An independent set from 25 lung recipients was used for validation by quantitative PCR (13 stables, 11 in the prediction group, and 8 in the diagnosis group). We identified 50 transcripts differentially expressed between stable and BOS recipients. Three genes, namely POU class 2 associating factor 1 (POU2AF1), T-cell leukemia/lymphoma protein 1A (TCL1A), and B cell lymphocyte kinase, were validated as predictive biomarkers of BOS more than 6 months before diagnosis, with areas under the curve of 0.83, 0.77, and 0.78 respectively. These genes allow stratification based on BOS risk (log-rank test p < 0.01) and are not associated with time posttransplantation. This is the first published large-scale gene expression analysis of blood after lung transplantation. The three-gene blood signature could provide clinicians with new tools to improve follow-up and adapt treatment of patients likely to develop BOS. PMID:29375549

  4. Expression of foreign genes in filamentous cyanobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Kuritz, T.; Wolk, C.P.

    1993-06-01

    Several advantages make cyanobacteria attractive hosts for biodegradative genes and possibly for other exogenous genes that have practical uses. The authors have obtained expression in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 and Nostoc ellipsosporum of a dechlorination operon, fcbAB, from Arthrobacter globiformis, and have also developed a simple method for qualitative assessment of dechlorination by microorganisms, such as cyanobacteria, whose metabolism is dependent on the presence of chloride in the medium. Transcription of fcbAB under the control of a variety of promoters was monitored by placing luxAB (encoding luciferase) downstream from fcbAB, and by measuring light emission from luciferase. They believemore » that the system that they have described has value as a means to screen for factors influencing transcription of foreign genes in cyanobacteria.« less

  5. A gene expression biomarker accurately predicts estrogen ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA’s vision for the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) in the 21st Century (EDSP21) includes utilization of high-throughput screening (HTS) assays coupled with computational modeling to prioritize chemicals with the goal of eventually replacing current Tier 1 screening tests. The ToxCast program currently includes 18 HTS in vitro assays that evaluate the ability of chemicals to modulate estrogen receptor α (ERα), an important endocrine target. We propose microarray-based gene expression profiling as a complementary approach to predict ERα modulation and have developed computational methods to identify ERα modulators in an existing database of whole-genome microarray data. The ERα biomarker consisted of 46 ERα-regulated genes with consistent expression patterns across 7 known ER agonists and 3 known ER antagonists. The biomarker was evaluated as a predictive tool using the fold-change rank-based Running Fisher algorithm by comparison to annotated gene expression data sets from experiments in MCF-7 cells. Using 141 comparisons from chemical- and hormone-treated cells, the biomarker gave a balanced accuracy for prediction of ERα activation or suppression of 94% or 93%, respectively. The biomarker was able to correctly classify 18 out of 21 (86%) OECD ER reference chemicals including “very weak” agonists and replicated predictions based on 18 in vitro ER-associated HTS assays. For 114 chemicals present in both the HTS data and the MCF-7 c

  6. Global gene expression analysis by combinatorial optimization.

    PubMed

    Ameur, Adam; Aurell, Erik; Carlsson, Mats; Westholm, Jakub Orzechowski

    2004-01-01

    Generally, there is a trade-off between methods of gene expression analysis that are precise but labor-intensive, e.g. RT-PCR, and methods that scale up to global coverage but are not quite as quantitative, e.g. microarrays. In the present paper, we show how how a known method of gene expression profiling (K. Kato, Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 3685-3690 (1995)), which relies on a fairly small number of steps, can be turned into a global gene expression measurement by advanced data post-processing, with potentially little loss of accuracy. Post-processing here entails solving an ancillary combinatorial optimization problem. Validation is performed on in silico experiments generated from the FANTOM data base of full-length mouse cDNA. We present two variants of the method. One uses state-of-the-art commercial software for solving problems of this kind, the other a code developed by us specifically for this purpose, released in the public domain under GPL license.

  7. Major COL4A5 gene rearrangements in patients with juvenile type Alport syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Renieri, A.; Galli, L.; Bruttini, M.

    1995-11-20

    Mutations in the COL4A5 gene, which encodes the {alpha}5 chain of type IV collagen, are found in a large fraction of patients with X-linked Alport syndrome. The recently discovered COL4A6, tightly linked and highly homologous to COL4A5, represents a second candidate gene for Alport syndrome. We analyzed 177 Italian Alport syndrome families by Southern blotting using cDNA probes from both COL4A5 and COL4A6. Nine unrelated families, accounting for 5% of the cases, were found to have a rearrangement in COL4A5. No rearrangements were found in COL4A6, with the exception of a deletion encompassing the 5{prime} ends of both COL4A5 andmore » COL4A6 genes in a patient with Alport syndrome and leiomyomatosis. COL4A5 rearrangements were all intragenic and included 1 duplication and 7 deletions. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was carried out to characterize deletion and duplication boundaries and to predict the resulting protein abnormality. The two smallest deletions involved a single exon (exons 17 and 40, respectively), while the largest ones spanned exons 1 to 36. The clinical phenotype of patients in whom a rearrangement in COL4A5 was detected was severe, with progression to end-stage renal failure in juvenile age and hypoacusis occurring in most cases. These data have some important implications in the diagnosis of patients with Alport syndrome. 34 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.« less

  8. Three gene expression vector sets for concurrently expressing multiple genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Jun; Kondo, Takashi; Makino, Harumi; Ogura, Akira; Matsuda, Fumio; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-05-01

    Yeast has the potential to be used in bulk-scale fermentative production of fuels and chemicals due to its tolerance for low pH and robustness for autolysis. However, expression of multiple external genes in one host yeast strain is considerably labor-intensive due to the lack of polycistronic transcription. To promote the metabolic engineering of yeast, we generated systematic and convenient genetic engineering tools to express multiple genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We constructed a series of multi-copy and integration vector sets for concurrently expressing two or three genes in S. cerevisiae by embedding three classical promoters. The comparative expression capabilities of the constructed vectors were monitored with green fluorescent protein, and the concurrent expression of genes was monitored with three different fluorescent proteins. Our multiple gene expression tool will be helpful to the advanced construction of genetically engineered yeast strains in a variety of research fields other than metabolic engineering. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. HYDROXYCHLOROQUINE REDUCES BINDING OF ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES TO SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS AND RESTORES ANNEXIN A5 EXPRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao-Xuan; Guller, Seth; Rand, Jacob H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Antibody-mediated disruption of the annexin A5 (AnxA5) anticoagulant shield has been posited to be a thrombogenic mechanism in the antiphospholipid syndrome. We recently showed that the antimalarial drug, hydroxychloroquine, dissociates antiphospholipid immune complexes and restores AnxA5 binding to planar phospholipid bilayer. Using quantitative immunoassays, we demonstrated similar effects on BeWo trophoblasts. We therefore investigated the effects of the drug on localization of AnxA5 in primary cultures of human placental syncytiotrophoblasts (SCTs). Study Laser confocal microscopy with computer-based morphometric analysis was used to localize AnxA5 and antiphospholipid antibodies on SCTs exposed to polyclonal and monoclonal antiphospholipid and control IgGs. Results Hydroxychloroquine reversed the effects of the antiphospholipid antibodies on the SCTs by markedly reducing IgG binding and restoring AnxA5 expression. Conclusions These results provide the first morphologic evidence for this effect of hydroxychloroquine on human placental SCTs and support the possibility of novel treatments that target antiphospholipid antibody binding. PMID:21871597

  10. Haplotypes in SLC24A5 Gene as Ancestry Informative Markers in Different Populations

    PubMed Central

    Giardina, Emiliano; Pietrangeli, Ilenia; Martínez-Labarga, Cristina; Martone, Claudia; de Angelis, Flavio; Spinella, Aldo; De Stefano, Gianfranco; Rickards, Olga; Novelli, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Ancestry informative markers (AIMs) are human polymorphisms that exhibit substantially allele frequency differences among populations. These markers can be useful to provide information about ancestry of samples which may be useful in predicting a perpetrator’s ethnic origin to aid criminal investigations. Variations in human pigmentation are the most obvious phenotypes to distinguish individuals. It has been recently shown that the variation of a G in an A allele of the coding single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1426654 within SLC24A5 gene varies in frequency among several population samples according to skin pigmentation. Because of these observations, the SLC24A5 locus has been evaluated as Ancestry Informative Region (AIR) by typing rs1426654 together with two additional intragenic markers (rs2555364 and rs16960620) in 471 unrelated individuals originating from three different continents (Africa, Asia and Europe). This study further supports the role of human SLC24A5 gene in skin pigmentation suggesting that variations in SLC24A5 haplotypes can correlate with human migration and ancestry. Furthermore, our data do reveal the utility of haplotype and combined unphased genotype analysis of SLC24A5 in predicting ancestry and provide a good example of usefulness of genetic characterization of larger regions, in addition to single polymorphisms, as candidates for population-specific sweeps in the ancestral population. PMID:19440451

  11. Digital gene expression analysis of the zebra finch genome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In order to understand patterns of adaptation and molecular evolution it is important to quantify both variation in gene expression and nucleotide sequence divergence. Gene expression profiling in non-model organisms has recently been facilitated by the advent of massively parallel sequencing technology. Here we investigate tissue specific gene expression patterns in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) with special emphasis on the genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Results Almost 2 million 454-sequencing reads from cDNA of six different tissues were assembled and analysed. A total of 11,793 zebra finch transcripts were represented in this EST data, indicating a transcriptome coverage of about 65%. There was a positive correlation between the tissue specificity of gene expression and non-synonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution ratio of genes, suggesting that genes with a specialised function are evolving at a higher rate (or with less constraint) than genes with a more general function. In line with this, there was also a negative correlation between overall expression levels and expression specificity of contigs. We found evidence for expression of 10 different genes related to the MHC. MHC genes showed relatively tissue specific expression levels and were in general primarily expressed in spleen. Several MHC genes, including MHC class I also showed expression in brain. Furthermore, for all genes with highest levels of expression in spleen there was an overrepresentation of several gene ontology terms related to immune function. Conclusions Our study highlights the usefulness of next-generation sequence data for quantifying gene expression in the genome as a whole as well as in specific candidate genes. Overall, the data show predicted patterns of gene expression profiles and molecular evolution in the zebra finch genome. Expression of MHC genes in particular, corresponds well with expression patterns in other vertebrates

  12. Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit

    PubMed Central

    Wechter, W Patrick; Levi, Amnon; Harris, Karen R; Davis, Angela R; Fei, Zhangjun; Katzir, Nurit; Giovannoni, James J; Salman-Minkov, Ayelet; Hernandez, Alvaro; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Tadmor, Yaakov; Portnoy, Vitaly; Trebitsh, Tova

    2008-01-01

    Background Cultivated watermelon form large fruits that are highly variable in size, shape, color, and content, yet have extremely narrow genetic diversity. Whereas a plethora of genes involved in cell wall metabolism, ethylene biosynthesis, fruit softening, and secondary metabolism during fruit development and ripening have been identified in other plant species, little is known of the genes involved in these processes in watermelon. A microarray and quantitative Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruits, as well as leaf, were collected from field grown plants during three consecutive years, and analyzed for gene expression using high-density photolithography microarrays and quantitative PCR. Results High-density photolithography arrays, composed of probes of 832 EST-unigenes from a subtracted, fruit development, cDNA library of watermelon were utilized to examine gene expression at three distinct time-points in watermelon fruit development. Analysis was performed with field-grown fruits over three consecutive growing seasons. Microarray analysis identified three hundred and thirty-five unique ESTs that are differentially regulated by at least two-fold in watermelon fruits during the early, ripening, or mature stage when compared to leaf. Of the 335 ESTs identified, 211 share significant homology with known gene products and 96 had no significant matches with any database accession. Of the modulated watermelon ESTs related to annotated genes, a significant number were found to be associated with or involved in the vascular system, carotenoid biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation, pathogen and stress response, and ethylene biosynthesis. Ethylene bioassays, performed with a closely related watermelon genotype with a similar

  13. A 5.8S nuclear ribosomal RNA gene sequence database: applications to ecology and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullings, K. W.; Vogler, D. R.

    1998-01-01

    We complied a 5.8S nuclear ribosomal gene sequence database for animals, plants, and fungi using both newly generated and GenBank sequences. We demonstrate the utility of this database as an internal check to determine whether the target organism and not a contaminant has been sequenced, as a diagnostic tool for ecologists and evolutionary biologists to determine the placement of asexual fungi within larger taxonomic groups, and as a tool to help identify fungi that form ectomycorrhizae.

  14. Molecular mechanisms of curcumin action: gene expression.

    PubMed

    Shishodia, Shishir

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin derived from the tropical plant Curcuma longa has a long history of use as a dietary agent, food preservative, and in traditional Asian medicine. It has been used for centuries to treat biliary disorders, anorexia, cough, diabetic wounds, hepatic disorders, rheumatism, and sinusitis. The preventive and therapeutic properties of curcumin are associated with its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. Extensive research over several decades has attempted to identify the molecular mechanisms of curcumin action. Curcumin modulates numerous molecular targets by altering their gene expression, signaling pathways, or through direct interaction. Curcumin regulates the expression of inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF, IL-1), growth factors (e.g., VEGF, EGF, FGF), growth factor receptors (e.g., EGFR, HER-2, AR), enzymes (e.g., COX-2, LOX, MMP9, MAPK, mTOR, Akt), adhesion molecules (e.g., ELAM-1, ICAM-1, VCAM-1), apoptosis related proteins (e.g., Bcl-2, caspases, DR, Fas), and cell cycle proteins (e.g., cyclin D1). Curcumin modulates the activity of several transcription factors (e.g., NF-κB, AP-1, STAT) and their signaling pathways. Based on its ability to affect multiple targets, curcumin has the potential for the prevention and treatment of various diseases including cancers, arthritis, allergies, atherosclerosis, aging, neurodegenerative disease, hepatic disorders, obesity, diabetes, psoriasis, and autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms of modulation of gene expression by curcumin. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. GPR48 Increases Mineralocorticoid Receptor Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiqiu; Li, Xiaoying; Ke, Yingying; Lu, Yan; Wang, Feng; Fan, Nengguang; Sun, Haiyan; Zhang, Huijie; Liu, Ruixin; Yang, Jun; Ye, Lei; Liu, Mingyao

    2012-01-01

    Aldosterone and the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) are critical to the maintenance of electrolyte and BP homeostasis. Mutations in the MR cause aldosterone resistance known as pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1); however, some cases consistent with PHA1 do not exhibit known gene mutations, suggesting the possibility of alternative genetic variants. We observed that G protein–coupled receptor 48 (Gpr48/Lgr4) hypomorphic mutant (Gpr48m/m) mice had hyperkalemia and increased water loss and salt excretion despite elevated plasma aldosterone levels, suggesting aldosterone resistance. When we challenged the mice with a low-sodium diet, these features became more obvious; the mice also developed hyponatremia and increased renin expression and activity, resembling a mild state of PHA1. There was marked renal downregulation of MR and its downstream targets (e.g., the α-subunit of the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel), which could provide a mechanism for the aldosterone resistance. We identified a noncanonical cAMP-responsive element located in the MR promoter and demonstrated that GPR48 upregulates MR expression via the cAMP/protein kinase A pathway in vitro. Taken together, our data demonstrate that GPR48 enhances aldosterone responsiveness by activating MR expression, suggesting that GPR48 contributes to homeostasis of electrolytes and BP and may be a candidate gene for PHA1. PMID:22135314

  16. miR-199a-5p regulates HIF-1α and OSGIN2 and its expression is correlated to soft-tissue sarcoma patients' outcome

    PubMed Central

    Keßler, Jacqueline; Rot, Swetlana; Bache, Matthias; Kappler, Matthias; Würl, Peter; Vordermark, Dirk; Taubert, Helge; Greither, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant neoplasms of mesenchymal origin. Partly due to hypoxia, an aggressive and radioresistant phenotype frequently develops, resulting in poorer patient outcome. microRNAs (miRNAs) are tiny, non-coding regulators of gene expression and in situations of cellular stress situations may predict clinical progression and patient outcome. In the present study, hypoxia-associated miR-199a-5p expression in 96 soft tissue sarcoma samples was analysed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and associations between miR-199a-5p expression and patient clinicopathological characteristics and survival were measured. Additionally, luciferase reporter assays analyzed the post-transcriptional regulation of hypoxia-associated genes hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), oxidative stress induced growth inhibitor 2 (OSGIN2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by miR-199a-5p. Survival analyses indicated that low expression of miR-199a-5p was significantly correlated with poorer tumor-specific survival (univariate Cox's-Regression analyses; relative risk=1.92, P=0.029). Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the 3′UTR of HIF-1α and OSGIN2 genes were regulated by miR-199a-5p in-vitro, although the 3′UTR of VEGF was not. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the regulation of the 3′untranslated region of the OSGIN2 gene by miR-199a-5p and a significant correlation between low miR-199a-5p expression and a poor outcome of patients with soft tissue sarcoma. PMID:28101243

  17. Covariance Structure Models for Gene Expression Microarray Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Jun; Bentler, Peter M.

    2003-01-01

    Covariance structure models are applied to gene expression data using a factor model, a path model, and their combination. The factor model is based on a few factors that capture most of the expression information. A common factor of a group of genes may represent a common protein factor for the transcript of the co-expressed genes, and hence, it…

  18. Linkage approach and direct COL4A5 gene mutation screening in Alport syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Turco, A.E.; Rossetti, S.; Biasi, O.

    1994-09-01

    Alport Syndrome (AS) is transmitted as an X-linked dominant trait in the majority of families, the defective gene being COL4A5 at Xq22. In the remaining cases AS appears to be autosomally inherited. Recently, mutations in COL4A3 and COL4A4 genes at 2q35-q37 were identified in families with autosomal recessive AS. Mutation detection screening is being performed by non-radioactive single stand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), heteroduplex analysis, and automated DNA sequencing in over 170 AS patients enrolled in the ongoing Italian Multicenter Study on AS. So far twenty-five different mutations have been found, including missense, splicing, and frameshifts. Moreover, by using six tightlymore » linked COL4A5 informative makers, we have also typed two larger AS families, and have shown compatible sex-linked transmission in one other, suggesting autosomal recessive inheritance. In this latter three-generation COL4A5-unlinked family we are now looking for linkage and for mutations in the candidate COL4A3 and COL4A4 genes on chromosome 2q.« less

  19. Scleral gene expression during recovery from myopia compared with expression during myopia development in tree shrew.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lin; Frost, Michael R; Siegwart, John T; Norton, Thomas T

    2014-01-01

    During postnatal refractive development, the sclera receives retinally generated signals that regulate its biochemical properties. Hyperopic refractive error causes the retina to produce "GO" signals that, through the direct emmetropization pathway, cause scleral remodeling that increases the axial elongation rate of the eye, reducing the hyperopia. Myopia causes the retina to generate "STOP" signals that produce scleral remodeling, slowing the axial elongation rate and reducing the myopia. Our aim was to compare the pattern of gene expression produced in the sclera by the STOP signals with the GO gene expression signature we described previously. The GO gene expression signature was produced by monocular -5 diopter (D) lens wear for 2 days (ML-2) or 4 days (ML-4); an additional "STAY" condition was examined after eyes had fully compensated for a -5 D lens after 11 days of lens wear (ML-11). After 11 days of -5 D lens wear had produced full refractive compensation, gene expression in the STOP condition was examined during recovery (without the lens) for 2 days (REC-2) or 4 days (REC-4). The untreated contralateral eyes served as a control in all groups. Two age-matched normal groups provided a comparison with the treated groups. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure mRNA levels for 55 candidate genes. The STAY group compensated fully for the lens (treated eye versus control eye, -5.1±0.2 D). Wearing the lens, the hyperopic signal for elongation had dissipated (-0.3±0.3 D). In the STOP groups, the refraction in the recovering eyes became less myopic relative to the control eyes (REC-2, +1.3±0.3 D; REC-4, +2.6±0.4 D). In the STAY group, three genes showed significant downregulation. However, many genes that were significantly altered in GO showed smaller, nonsignificant, expression differences in the same direction in STAY, suggesting the gene expression signature in STAY is a greatly weakened form of the GO signature. In the STOP groups, a different

  20. Nicotine suppresses bone sialoprotein gene expression.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Y; Mezawa, M; Araki, S; Sasaki, Y; Wang, S; Han, J; Li, X; Takai, H; Ogata, Y

    2009-10-01

    Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for periodontitis and osteoporosis. Nicotine is a major component of tobacco, and has been reported to inhibit proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a mineralized tissue-specific protein expressed by differentiated osteoblasts that appears to function in the initial mineralization of bone. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of nicotine on bone metabolism. We used rat osteobast-like UMR106 and ROS 17/2.8 cells and rat stromal bone marrow RBMC-D8 cells. To determine the molecular basis of the transcriptional regulation of the BSP gene by nicotine, we conducted Northern hybridization, transient transfection analyses with chimeric constructs of the BSP gene promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene and gel mobility shift assays. Nicotine (250 microg/mL) decreased the BSP mRNA levels at 12 and 24 h in UMR106 and ROS 17/2.8 cells. From transient transfection assays using various sized BSP promoter-luciferase constructs, nicotine decreased the luciferase activities of the construct, including the promoter sequence nucleotides -116 to +60, in UMR106 and RBMC-D8 cells. Nicotine decreased the nuclear protein binding to the cAMP response element (CRE), fibroblast growth factor 2 response element (FRE) and homeodomain protein-binding site (HOX) at 12 and 24 h. This study indicates that nicotine suppresses BSP transcription mediated through CRE, FRE and HOX elements in the proximal promoter of the rat BSP gene.

  1. Retrotransposons as regulators of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Elbarbary, Reyad A; Lucas, Bronwyn A; Maquat, Lynne E

    2016-02-12

    Transposable elements (TEs) are both a boon and a bane to eukaryotic organisms, depending on where they integrate into the genome and how their sequences function once integrated. We focus on two types of TEs: long interspersed elements (LINEs) and short interspersed elements (SINEs). LINEs and SINEs are retrotransposons; that is, they transpose via an RNA intermediate. We discuss how LINEs and SINEs have expanded in eukaryotic genomes and contribute to genome evolution. An emerging body of evidence indicates that LINEs and SINEs function to regulate gene expression by affecting chromatin structure, gene transcription, pre-mRNA processing, or aspects of mRNA metabolism. We also describe how adenosine-to-inosine editing influences SINE function and how ongoing retrotransposition is countered by the body's defense mechanisms. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Retrotransposons as regulators of gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Elbarbary, Reyad A.; Lucas, Bronwyn A.; Maquat, Lynne E.

    2016-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are both a boon and a bane to eukaryotic organisms, depending on where they integrate into the genome and how their sequences function once integrated. We focus on two types of TEs: long interspersed elements (LINEs) and short interspersed elements (SINEs). LINEs and SINEs are retrotransposons; that is, they transpose via an RNA intermediate. We discuss how LINEs and SINEs have expanded in eukaryotic genomes and contribute to genome evolution. An emerging body of evidence indicates that LINEs and SINEs function to regulate gene expression by affecting chromatin structure, gene transcription, pre-mRNA processing, or aspects of mRNA metabolism. We also describe how adenosine-to-inosine editing influences SINE function and how ongoing retrotransposition is countered by the body’s defense mechanisms. PMID:26912865

  3. Cell-specific Expression of CYP2A5 in the Mouse Respiratory Tract: Effects of Olfactory Toxicants

    PubMed Central

    Piras, Elena; Franzén, Anna; Fernández, Estíbaliz L.; Bergström, Ulrika; Raffalli-Mathieu, Françoise; Lang, Matti; Brittebo, Eva B.

    2003-01-01

    We performed a detailed analysis of mouse cytochrome P450 2A5 (CYP2A5) expression by in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the respiratory tissues of mice. The CYP2A5 mRNA and the corresponding protein co-localized at most sites and were predominantly detected in the olfactory region, with an expression in sustentacular cells, Bowman's gland, and duct cells. In the respiratory and transitional epithelium there was no or only weak expression. The nasolacrimal duct and the excretory ducts of nasal and salivary glands displayed expression, whereas no expression occurred in the acini. There was decreasing expression along the epithelial linings of the trachea and lower respiratory tract, whereas no expression occurred in the alveoli. The hepatic CYP2A5 inducers pyrazole and phenobarbital neither changed the CYP2A5 expression pattern nor damaged the olfactory mucosa. In contrast, the olfactory toxicants dichlobenil and methimazole induced characteristic changes. The damaged Bowman's glands displayed no expression, whereas the damaged epithelium expressed the enzyme. The CYP2A5 expression pattern is in accordance with previously reported localization of protein and DNA adducts and the toxicity of some CYP2A5 substrates. This suggests that CYP2A5 is an important determinant for the susceptibility of the nasal and respiratory epithelia to protoxicants and procarcinogens. PMID:14566026

  4. Heterologous gene expression driven by carbonic anhydrase gene promoter in Dunaliella salina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Yurong; Lu, Yumin; Wang, Tianyun; Hou, Weihong; Xue, Lexun

    2006-12-01

    Dunaliella salina, a halotolerant unicellular green alga without a rigid cell wall, can live in salinities ranging from 0.05 to 5 mol/L NaCl. These features of D. salina make it an ideal host for the production of antibodies, oral vaccine, and commercially valuable polypeptides. To produce high level of heterologous proteins from D. salina, highly efficient promoters are required to drive expression of target genes under controlled condition. In the present study, we cloned a 5' franking region of 1.4 kb from the carbonic anhydrase ( CAH) gene of D. salina by genomic walking and PCR. The fragment was ligated to the pMD18-T vector and characterized. Sequence analysis indicated that this region contained conserved motifs, including a TATA- like box and CAAT-box. Tandem (GT)n repeats that had a potential role of transcriptional control, were also found in this region. The transcription start site (TSS) of the CAH gene was determined by 5' RACE and nested PCR method. Transformation assays showed that the 1.4 kb fragment was able to drive expression of the selectable bar (bialaphos resistance) gene when the fusion was transformed into D. salina by biolistics. Northern blotting hybridizations showed that the bar transcript was most abundant in cells grown in 2 mol/L NaCl, and less abundant in 0.5 mol/L NaCl, indicating that expression of the bar gene was induced at high salinity. These results suggest the potential use of the CAH gene promoter to induce the expression of heterologous genes in D. salina under varied salt condition.

  5. The Effects of Hallucinogens on Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Martin, David A; Nichols, Charles D

    2018-01-01

    The classic serotonergic hallucinogens, or psychedelics, have the ability to profoundly alter perception and behavior. These can include visual distortions, hallucinations, detachment from reality, and mystical experiences. Some psychedelics, like LSD, are able to produce these effects with remarkably low doses of drug. Others, like psilocybin, have recently been demonstrated to have significant clinical efficacy in the treatment of depression, anxiety, and addiction that persist for at least several months after only a single therapeutic session. How does this occur? Much work has recently been published from imaging studies showing that psychedelics alter brain network connectivity. They facilitate a disintegration of the default mode network, producing a hyperconnectivity between brain regions that allow centers that do not normally communicate with each other to do so. The immediate and acute effects on both behaviors and network connectivity are likely mediated by effector pathways downstream of serotonin 5-HT2A receptor activation. These acute molecular processes also influence gene expression changes, which likely influence synaptic plasticity and facilitate more long-term changes in brain neurochemistry ultimately underlying the therapeutic efficacy of a single administration to achieve long-lasting effects. In this review, we summarize what is currently known about the molecular genetic responses to psychedelics within the brain and discuss how gene expression changes may contribute to altered cellular physiology and behaviors.

  6. Gene transfer and expression in plants.

    PubMed

    Lorence, Argelia; Verpoorte, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Until recently, agriculture and plant breeding relied solely on the accumulated experience of generations of farmers and breeders that is, on sexual transfer of genes between plant species. However, recent developments in plant molecular biology and genomics now give us access to knowledge and understanding of plant genomes and the possibility of modifying them. This chapter presents an updated overview of the two most powerful technologies for transferring genetic material (DNA) into plants: Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and microparticle bombardment (biolistics). Some of the topics that are discussed in detail are the main variables controlling the transformation efficiency that can be achieved using each one of these approaches; the advantages and limitations of each methodology; transient versus stable transformation approaches; the potential of some in planta transformation systems; alternatives to developing transgenic plants without selection markers; the availability of diverse genetic tools generated as part of the genome sequencing of different plant species; transgene expression, gene silencing, and their association with regulatory elements; and prospects and ways to possibly overcome some transgene expression difficulties, in particular the use of matrix-attachment regions (MARs).

  7. Identification of Human HK Genes and Gene Expression Regulation Study in Cancer from Transcriptomics Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhang; Liu, Jingxing; Wu, Jiayan; Yu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The regulation of gene expression is essential for eukaryotes, as it drives the processes of cellular differentiation and morphogenesis, leading to the creation of different cell types in multicellular organisms. RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) provides researchers with a powerful toolbox for characterization and quantification of transcriptome. Many different human tissue/cell transcriptome datasets coming from RNA-Seq technology are available on public data resource. The fundamental issue here is how to develop an effective analysis method to estimate expression pattern similarities between different tumor tissues and their corresponding normal tissues. We define the gene expression pattern from three directions: 1) expression breadth, which reflects gene expression on/off status, and mainly concerns ubiquitously expressed genes; 2) low/high or constant/variable expression genes, based on gene expression level and variation; and 3) the regulation of gene expression at the gene structure level. The cluster analysis indicates that gene expression pattern is higher related to physiological condition rather than tissue spatial distance. Two sets of human housekeeping (HK) genes are defined according to cell/tissue types, respectively. To characterize the gene expression pattern in gene expression level and variation, we firstly apply improved K-means algorithm and a gene expression variance model. We find that cancer-associated HK genes (a HK gene is specific in cancer group, while not in normal group) are expressed higher and more variable in cancer condition than in normal condition. Cancer-associated HK genes prefer to AT-rich genes, and they are enriched in cell cycle regulation related functions and constitute some cancer signatures. The expression of large genes is also avoided in cancer group. These studies will help us understand which cell type-specific patterns of gene expression differ among different cell types, and particularly for cancer. PMID:23382867

  8. Expressing genes do not forget their LINEs: transposable elements and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Kines, Kristine J.; Belancio, Victoria P.

    2012-01-01

    1. ABSTRACT Historically the accumulated mass of mammalian transposable elements (TEs), particularly those located within gene boundaries, was viewed as a genetic burden potentially detrimental to the genomic landscape. This notion has been strengthened by the discovery that transposable sequences can alter the architecture of the transcriptome, not only through insertion, but also long after the integration process is completed. Insertions previously considered harmless are now known to impact the expression of host genes via modification of the transcript quality or quantity, transcriptional interference, or by the control of pathways that affect the mRNA life-cycle. Conversely, several examples of the evolutionary advantageous impact of TEs on the host gene structure that diversified the cellular transcriptome are reported. TE-induced changes in gene expression can be tissue-or disease-specific, raising the possibility that the impact of TE sequences may vary during development, among normal cell types, and between normal and disease-affected tissues. The understanding of the rules and abundance of TE-interference with gene expression is in its infancy, and its contribution to human disease and/or evolution remains largely unexplored. PMID:22201807

  9. Analysis of multiplex gene expression maps obtained by voxelation.

    PubMed

    An, Li; Xie, Hongbo; Chin, Mark H; Obradovic, Zoran; Smith, Desmond J; Megalooikonomou, Vasileios

    2009-04-29

    Gene expression signatures in the mammalian brain hold the key to understanding neural development and neurological disease. Researchers have previously used voxelation in combination with microarrays for acquisition of genome-wide atlases of expression patterns in the mouse brain. On the other hand, some work has been performed on studying gene functions, without taking into account the location information of a gene's expression in a mouse brain. In this paper, we present an approach for identifying the relation between gene expression maps obtained by voxelation and gene functions. To analyze the dataset, we chose typical genes as queries and aimed at discovering similar gene groups. Gene similarity was determined by using the wavelet features extracted from the left and right hemispheres averaged gene expression maps, and by the Euclidean distance between each pair of feature vectors. We also performed a multiple clustering approach on the gene expression maps, combined with hierarchical clustering. Among each group of similar genes and clusters, the gene function similarity was measured by calculating the average gene function distances in the gene ontology structure. By applying our methodology to find similar genes to certain target genes we were able to improve our understanding of gene expression patterns and gene functions. By applying the clustering analysis method, we obtained significant clusters, which have both very similar gene expression maps and very similar gene functions respectively to their corresponding gene ontologies. The cellular component ontology resulted in prominent clusters expressed in cortex and corpus callosum. The molecular function ontology gave prominent clusters in cortex, corpus callosum and hypothalamus. The biological process ontology resulted in clusters in cortex, hypothalamus and choroid plexus. Clusters from all three ontologies combined were most prominently expressed in cortex and corpus callosum. The experimental

  10. Expression of miR-146a-5p in patients with intracranial aneurysms and its association with prognosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H-L; Li, L; Cheng, C-J; Sun, X-C

    2018-02-01

    The study aims to detect the association of miR-146a-5p with intracranial aneurysms (IAs). The expression of miR-146a-5p was compared from plasma samples between 72 patients with intracranial aneurysms (IAs) and 40 healthy volunteers by quantitative Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Statistical analysis was performed to analyze the relationship between miR-146a-5p expression and clinical data and overall survival (OS) time of IAs patients. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards have also been performed. Notably, higher miR-146a-5p expression was found in plasma samples from 72 patients with intracranial aneurysms (IAs) compared with 40 healthy controls. Higher miR-146a-5p expression was significantly associated with rupture and Hunt-Hess level in IAs patients. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis verified that higher miR-146a-5p expression predicted a shorter overall survival (OS) compared with lower miR-146a-5p expression in IAs patients. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards demonstrated that higher miR-146a-5p expression, rupture, and Hunt-Hess were independent risk factors of OS in patients with intracranial aneurysms (IAs). MiR-146a-5p expression may serve as a biomarker for predicting prognosis in patients with IAs.

  11. Codon usage and amino acid usage influence genes expression level.

    PubMed

    Paul, Prosenjit; Malakar, Arup Kumar; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2018-02-01

    Highly expressed genes in any species differ in the usage frequency of synonymous codons. The relative recurrence of an event of the favored codon pair (amino acid pairs) varies between gene and genomes due to varying gene expression and different base composition. Here we propose a new measure for predicting the gene expression level, i.e., codon plus amino bias index (CABI). Our approach is based on the relative bias of the favored codon pair inclination among the genes, illustrated by analyzing the CABI score of the Medicago truncatula genes. CABI showed strong correlation with all other widely used measures (CAI, RCBS, SCUO) for gene expression analysis. Surprisingly, CABI outperforms all other measures by showing better correlation with the wet-lab data. This emphasizes the importance of the neighboring codons of the favored codon in a synonymous group while estimating the expression level of a gene.

  12. Evaluating Fumonisin Gene Expression in Fusarium verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Scala, Valeria; Visentin, Ivan; Cardinale, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Transcript levels of key genes in a biosynthetic pathway are often taken as a proxy for metabolite production. This is the case of FUM1, encoding the first dedicated enzyme in the metabolic pathway leading to the production of the mycotoxins Fumonisins by fungal species belonging to the genus Fusarium. FUM1 expression can be quantified by different methods; here, we detail a protocol based on quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), by which relative or absolute transcript abundance can be estimated in Fusaria grown in vitro or in planta. As very seldom commercial kits for RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis are optimized for fungal samples, we developed a protocol tailored for these organisms, which stands alone but can be also easily integrated with specific reagents and kits commercially available.

  13. Peak flood estimation using gene expression programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorn, Conrad R.; Shamseldin, Asaad Y.

    2015-12-01

    As a case study for the Auckland Region of New Zealand, this paper investigates the potential use of gene-expression programming (GEP) in predicting specific return period events in comparison to the established and widely used Regional Flood Estimation (RFE) method. Initially calibrated to 14 gauged sites, the GEP derived model was further validated to 10 and 100 year flood events with a relative errors of 29% and 18%, respectively. This is compared to the RFE method providing 48% and 44% errors for the same flood events. While the effectiveness of GEP in predicting specific return period events is made apparent, it is argued that the derived equations should be used in conjunction with those existing methodologies rather than as a replacement.

  14. RNA-Seq for Bacterial Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Line Dahl; Vinther, Jeppe

    2018-06-01

    RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has become the preferred method for global quantification of bacterial gene expression. With the continued improvements in sequencing technology and data analysis tools, the most labor-intensive and expensive part of an RNA-seq experiment is the preparation of sequencing libraries, which is also essential for the quality of the data obtained. Here, we present a straightforward and inexpensive basic protocol for preparation of strand-specific RNA-seq libraries from bacterial RNA as well as a computational pipeline for the data analysis of sequencing reads. The protocol is based on the Illumina platform and allows easy multiplexing of samples and the removal of sequencing reads that are PCR duplicates. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. Evolution under monogamy feminizes gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Brian; Houle, David; Yan, Zheng; Kawecki, Tadeusz J; Keller, Laurent

    2014-03-18

    Many genes have evolved sexually dimorphic expression as a consequence of divergent selection on males and females. However, because the sexes share a genome, the extent to which evolution can shape gene expression independently in each sex is controversial. Here, we use experimental evolution to reveal suboptimal sex-specific expression for much of the genome. By enforcing a monogamous mating system in populations of Drosophila melanogaster for over 100 generations, we eliminated major components of selection on males: female choice and male-male competition. If gene expression is subject to sexually antagonistic selection, relaxed selection on males should cause evolution towards female optima. Monogamous males and females show this pattern of feminization in both the whole-body and head transcriptomes. Genes with male-biased expression patterns evolved decreased expression under monogamy, while genes with female-biased expression evolved increased expression, relative to polygamous populations. Our results demonstrate persistent and widespread evolutionary tension between male and female adaptation.

  16. Reference genes for measuring mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Dundas, Jitesh; Ling, Maurice

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this review is to find answers to some of the questions surrounding reference genes and their reliability for quantitative experiments. Reference genes are assumed to be at a constant expression level, over a range of conditions such as temperature. These genes, such as GADPH and beta-actin, are used extensively for gene expression studies using techniques like quantitative PCR. There have been several studies carried out on identifying reference genes. However, a lot of evidence indicates issues to the general suitability of these genes. Recent studies had shown that different factors, including the environment and methods, play an important role in changing the expression levels of the reference genes. Thus, we conclude that there is no reference gene that can deemed suitable for all the experimental conditions. In addition, we believe that every experiment will require the scientific evaluation and selection of the best candidate gene for use as a reference gene to obtain reliable scientific results.

  17. Monoallelic expression of the human FOXP2 speech gene

    PubMed Central

    Adegbola, Abidemi A.; Cox, Gerald F.; Bradshaw, Elizabeth M.; Hafler, David A.; Gimelbrant, Alexander; Chess, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The recent descriptions of widespread random monoallelic expression (RMAE) of genes distributed throughout the autosomal genome indicate that there are more genes subject to RMAE on autosomes than the number of genes on the X chromosome where X-inactivation dictates RMAE of X-linked genes. Several of the autosomal genes that undergo RMAE have independently been implicated in human Mendelian disorders. Thus, parsing the relationship between allele-specific expression of these genes and disease is of interest. Mutations in the human forkhead box P2 gene, FOXP2, cause developmental verbal dyspraxia with profound speech and language deficits. Here, we show that the human FOXP2 gene undergoes RMAE. Studying an individual with developmental verbal dyspraxia, we identify a deletion 3 Mb away from the FOXP2 gene, which impacts FOXP2 gene expression in cis. Together these data suggest the intriguing possibility that RMAE impacts the haploinsufficiency phenotypes observed for FOXP2 mutations. PMID:25422445

  18. Monoallelic expression of the human FOXP2 speech gene.

    PubMed

    Adegbola, Abidemi A; Cox, Gerald F; Bradshaw, Elizabeth M; Hafler, David A; Gimelbrant, Alexander; Chess, Andrew

    2015-06-02

    The recent descriptions of widespread random monoallelic expression (RMAE) of genes distributed throughout the autosomal genome indicate that there are more genes subject to RMAE on autosomes than the number of genes on the X chromosome where X-inactivation dictates RMAE of X-linked genes. Several of the autosomal genes that undergo RMAE have independently been implicated in human Mendelian disorders. Thus, parsing the relationship between allele-specific expression of these genes and disease is of interest. Mutations in the human forkhead box P2 gene, FOXP2, cause developmental verbal dyspraxia with profound speech and language deficits. Here, we show that the human FOXP2 gene undergoes RMAE. Studying an individual with developmental verbal dyspraxia, we identify a deletion 3 Mb away from the FOXP2 gene, which impacts FOXP2 gene expression in cis. Together these data suggest the intriguing possibility that RMAE impacts the haploinsufficiency phenotypes observed for FOXP2 mutations.

  19. Validating internal controls for quantitative plant gene expression studies

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Amy M; Yakovlev, Igor A; Strauss, Steven H

    2004-01-01

    Background Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) has greatly improved the ease and sensitivity of quantitative gene expression studies. However, accurate measurement of gene expression with this method relies on the choice of a valid reference for data normalization. Studies rarely verify that gene expression levels for reference genes are adequately consistent among the samples used, nor compare alternative genes to assess which are most reliable for the experimental conditions analyzed. Results Using real-time RT-PCR to study the expression of 10 poplar (genus Populus) housekeeping genes, we demonstrate a simple method for determining the degree of stability of gene expression over a set of experimental conditions. Based on a traditional method for analyzing the stability of varieties in plant breeding, it defines measures of gene expression stability from analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear regression. We found that the potential internal control genes differed widely in their expression stability over the different tissues, developmental stages and environmental conditions studied. Conclusion Our results support that quantitative comparisons of candidate reference genes are an important part of real-time RT-PCR studies that seek to precisely evaluate variation in gene expression. The method we demonstrated facilitates statistical and graphical evaluation of gene expression stability. Selection of the best reference gene for a given set of experimental conditions should enable detection of biologically significant changes in gene expression that are too small to be revealed by less precise methods, or when highly variable reference genes are unknowingly used in real-time RT-PCR experiments. PMID:15317655

  20. Validating internal controls for quantitative plant gene expression studies.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Amy M; Yakovlev, Igor A; Strauss, Steven H

    2004-08-18

    Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) has greatly improved the ease and sensitivity of quantitative gene expression studies. However, accurate measurement of gene expression with this method relies on the choice of a valid reference for data normalization. Studies rarely verify that gene expression levels for reference genes are adequately consistent among the samples used, nor compare alternative genes to assess which are most reliable for the experimental conditions analyzed. Using real-time RT-PCR to study the expression of 10 poplar (genus Populus) housekeeping genes, we demonstrate a simple method for determining the degree of stability of gene expression over a set of experimental conditions. Based on a traditional method for analyzing the stability of varieties in plant breeding, it defines measures of gene expression stability from analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear regression. We found that the potential internal control genes differed widely in their expression stability over the different tissues, developmental stages and environmental conditions studied. Our results support that quantitative comparisons of candidate reference genes are an important part of real-time RT-PCR studies that seek to precisely evaluate variation in gene expression. The method we demonstrated facilitates statistical and graphical evaluation of gene expression stability. Selection of the best reference gene for a given set of experimental conditions should enable detection of biologically significant changes in gene expression that are too small to be revealed by less precise methods, or when highly variable reference genes are unknowingly used in real-time RT-PCR experiments.

  1. Gene Expression Profiling in Pachyonychia Congenita Skin

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yu-An; Hickerson, Robyn P.; Seegmiller, Brandon L.; Grapov, Dmitry; Gross, Maren M.; Bessette, Marc R.; Phinney, Brett S.; Flores, Manuel A.; Speaker, Tycho J.; Vermeulen, Annaleen; Bravo, Albert A.; Bruckner, Anna L.; Milstone, Leonard M.; Schwartz, Mary E.; Rice, Robert H.; Kaspar, Roger L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is a skin disorder resulting from mutations in keratin (K) proteins including K6a, K6b, K16, and K17. One of the major symptoms is painful plantar keratoderma. The pathogenic sequelae resulting from the keratin mutations remain unclear. Objective To better understand PC pathogenesis. Methods RNA profiling was performed on biopsies taken from PC-involved and uninvolved plantar skin of seven genotyped PC patients (two K6a, one K6b, three K16, and one K17) as well as from control volunteers. Protein profiling was generated from tape-stripping samples. Results A comparison of PC-involved skin biopsies to adjacent uninvolved plantar skin identified 112 differentially-expressed mRNAs common to patient groups harboring K6 (i.e., both K6a and K6b) and K16 mutations. Among these mRNAs, 25 encode structural proteins including keratins, small proline-rich and late cornified envelope proteins, 20 are related to metabolism and 16 encode proteases, peptidases, and their inhibitors including kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs), and serine protease inhibitors (SERPINs). mRNAs were also identified to be differentially expressed only in K6 (81) or K16 (141) patient samples. Furthermore, 13 mRNAs were identified that may be involved in pain including nociception and neuropathy. Protein profiling, comparing three K6a plantar tape-stripping samples to non-PC controls, showed changes in the PC corneocytes similar, but not identical, to the mRNA analysis. Conclusion Many differentially-expressed genes identified in PC-involved skin encode components critical for skin barrier homeostasis including keratinocyte proliferation, differentiation, cornification, and desquamation. The profiling data provide a foundation for unraveling the pathogenesis of PC and identifying targets for developing effective PC therapeutics. PMID:25656049

  2. Using RNA-Seq data to select refence genes for normalizing gene expression in apple roots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gene expression in apple roots in response to various stress conditions is a less-explored research subject. Reliable reference genes for normalizing quantitative gene expression data have not been carefully investigated. In this study, the suitability of a set of 15 apple genes were evaluated for t...

  3. Discovering causal signaling pathways through gene-expression patterns

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Jignesh R.; Klinger, Bertram; Xia, Yu; Marto, Jarrod A.; Blüthgen, Nils

    2010-01-01

    High-throughput gene-expression studies result in lists of differentially expressed genes. Most current meta-analyses of these gene lists include searching for significant membership of the translated proteins in various signaling pathways. However, such membership enrichment algorithms do not provide insight into which pathways caused the genes to be differentially expressed in the first place. Here, we present an intuitive approach for discovering upstream signaling pathways responsible for regulating these differentially expressed genes. We identify consistently regulated signature genes specific for signal transduction pathways from a panel of single-pathway perturbation experiments. An algorithm that detects overrepresentation of these signature genes in a gene group of interest is used to infer the signaling pathway responsible for regulation. We expose our novel resource and algorithm through a web server called SPEED: Signaling Pathway Enrichment using Experimental Data sets. SPEED can be freely accessed at http://speed.sys-bio.net/. PMID:20494976

  4. [Differential expression genes of bone tissues surrounding implants in diabetic rats by gene chip].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-xin; Ma, Yue; Li, Qing; Jiang, Bao-qi; Lan, Jing

    2012-10-01

    To compare mRNA expression profiles of bone tissues surrounding implants between normal rats and rats with diabetes using microarray technology. Six Wistar rats were randomly selected and divided into normal model group and diabetic group. Diabetic model condition was established by injecting Streptozotocin into peritoneal space. Titanium implants were implanted into the epiphyseal end of the rats' tibia. Bone tissues surrounding implant were harvested and sampled after 3 months to perform comprehensive RNA gene expression profiling, including 17983 for genome-wide association study.GO analysis was used to compare different gene expression and real-time PCR was used to confirm the results on core samples. The results indicated that there were 1084 differential gene expression. In the diabetic model, there were 352 enhanced expression genes, 732 suppressed expression genes. GO analysis involved 1154 different functional type. Osteoblast related gene expressions in bone tissue samples of diabetic rats were decreased, and lipid metabolism pathway related gene expression was increased.

  5. GSEH: A Novel Approach to Select Prostate Cancer-Associated Genes Using Gene Expression Heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunjin; Choi, Sang-Min; Park, Sanghyun

    2018-01-01

    When a gene shows varying levels of expression among normal people but similar levels in disease patients or shows similar levels of expression among normal people but different levels in disease patients, we can assume that the gene is associated with the disease. By utilizing this gene expression heterogeneity, we can obtain additional information that abets discovery of disease-associated genes. In this study, we used collaborative filtering to calculate the degree of gene expression heterogeneity between classes and then scored the genes on the basis of the degree of gene expression heterogeneity to find "differentially predicted" genes. Through the proposed method, we discovered more prostate cancer-associated genes than 10 comparable methods. The genes prioritized by the proposed method are potentially significant to biological processes of a disease and can provide insight into them.

  6. Automated Discovery of Functional Generality of Human Gene Expression Programs

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Georg K; Dowell, Robin D; Jaakkola, Tommi S; Gifford, David K

    2007-01-01

    An important research problem in computational biology is the identification of expression programs, sets of co-expressed genes orchestrating normal or pathological processes, and the characterization of the functional breadth of these programs. The use of human expression data compendia for discovery of such programs presents several challenges including cellular inhomogeneity within samples, genetic and environmental variation across samples, uncertainty in the numbers of programs and sample populations, and temporal behavior. We developed GeneProgram, a new unsupervised computational framework based on Hierarchical Dirichlet Processes that addresses each of the above challenges. GeneProgram uses expression data to simultaneously organize tissues into groups and genes into overlapping programs with consistent temporal behavior, to produce maps of expression programs, which are sorted by generality scores that exploit the automatically learned groupings. Using synthetic and real gene expression data, we showed that GeneProgram outperformed several popular expression analysis methods. We applied GeneProgram to a compendium of 62 short time-series gene expression datasets exploring the responses of human cells to infectious agents and immune-modulating molecules. GeneProgram produced a map of 104 expression programs, a substantial number of which were significantly enriched for genes involved in key signaling pathways and/or bound by NF-κB transcription factors in genome-wide experiments. Further, GeneProgram discovered expression programs that appear to implicate surprising signaling pathways or receptor types in the response to infection, including Wnt signaling and neurotransmitter receptors. We believe the discovered map of expression programs involved in the response to infection will be useful for guiding future biological experiments; genes from programs with low generality scores might serve as new drug targets that exhibit minimal “cross-talk,” and

  7. Carcinogen-induced trans activation of gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Kleinberger, T; Flint, Y B; Blank, M; Etkin, S; Lavi, S

    1988-01-01

    We report a new mechanism of carcinogen action by which the expression of several genes was concomitantly enhanced. This mechanism involved the altered activity of cellular factors which modulate the expression of genes under their control. The increased expression was regulated at least in part on the transcriptional level and did not require amplification of the overexpressed genes. This phenomenon was transient; it was apparent as early as 24 h after carcinogen treatment and declined a few days later. Images PMID:2835673

  8. Clustering cancer gene expression data by projective clustering ensemble

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xianxue; Yu, Guoxian

    2017-01-01

    Gene expression data analysis has paramount implications for gene treatments, cancer diagnosis and other domains. Clustering is an important and promising tool to analyze gene expression data. Gene expression data is often characterized by a large amount of genes but with limited samples, thus various projective clustering techniques and ensemble techniques have been suggested to combat with these challenges. However, it is rather challenging to synergy these two kinds of techniques together to avoid the curse of dimensionality problem and to boost the performance of gene expression data clustering. In this paper, we employ a projective clustering ensemble (PCE) to integrate the advantages of projective clustering and ensemble clustering, and to avoid the dilemma of combining multiple projective clusterings. Our experimental results on publicly available cancer gene expression data show PCE can improve the quality of clustering gene expression data by at least 4.5% (on average) than other related techniques, including dimensionality reduction based single clustering and ensemble approaches. The empirical study demonstrates that, to further boost the performance of clustering cancer gene expression data, it is necessary and promising to synergy projective clustering with ensemble clustering. PCE can serve as an effective alternative technique for clustering gene expression data. PMID:28234920

  9. Partitioning of functional gene expression data using principal points.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaehee; Kim, Haseong

    2017-10-12

    DNA microarrays offer motivation and hope for the simultaneous study of variations in multiple genes. Gene expression is a temporal process that allows variations in expression levels with a characterized gene function over a period of time. Temporal gene expression curves can be treated as functional data since they are considered as independent realizations of a stochastic process. This process requires appropriate models to identify patterns of gene functions. The partitioning of the functional data can find homogeneous subgroups of entities for the massive genes within the inherent biological networks. Therefor it can be a useful technique for the analysis of time-course gene expression data. We propose a new self-consistent partitioning method of functional coefficients for individual expression profiles based on the orthonormal basis system. A principal points based functional partitioning method is proposed for time-course gene expression data. The method explores the relationship between genes using Legendre coefficients as principal points to extract the features of gene functions. Our proposed method provides high connectivity in connectedness after clustering for simulated data and finds a significant subsets of genes with the increased connectivity. Our approach has comparative advantages that fewer coefficients are used from the functional data and self-consistency of principal points for partitioning. As real data applications, we are able to find partitioned genes through the gene expressions found in budding yeast data and Escherichia coli data. The proposed method benefitted from the use of principal points, dimension reduction, and choice of orthogonal basis system as well as provides appropriately connected genes in the resulting subsets. We illustrate our method by applying with each set of cell-cycle-regulated time-course yeast genes and E. coli genes. The proposed method is able to identify highly connected genes and to explore the complex

  10. The complexity of gene expression dynamics revealed by permutation entropy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background High complexity is considered a hallmark of living systems. Here we investigate the complexity of temporal gene expression patterns using the concept of Permutation Entropy (PE) first introduced in dynamical systems theory. The analysis of gene expression data has so far focused primarily on the identification of differentially expressed genes, or on the elucidation of pathway and regulatory relationships. We aim to study gene expression time series data from the viewpoint of complexity. Results Applying the PE complexity metric to abiotic stress response time series data in Arabidopsis thaliana, genes involved in stress response and signaling were found to be associated with the highest complexity not only under stress, but surprisingly, also under reference, non-stress conditions. Genes with house-keeping functions exhibited lower PE complexity. Compared to reference conditions, the PE of temporal gene expression patterns generally increased upon stress exposure. High-complexity genes were found to have longer upstream intergenic regions and more cis-regulatory motifs in their promoter regions indicative of a more complex regulatory apparatus needed to orchestrate their expression, and to be associated with higher correlation network connectivity degree. Arabidopsis genes also present in other plant species were observed to exhibit decreased PE complexity compared to Arabidopsis specific genes. Conclusions We show that Permutation Entropy is a simple yet robust and powerful approach to identify temporal gene expression profiles of varying complexity that is equally applicable to other types of molecular profile data. PMID:21176199

  11. Changes in Gene Expression with Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Thimgan, Matthew S.; Duntley, Stephen P.; Shaw, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    There is general agreement within the sleep community and among public health officials of the need for an accessible biomarker of sleepiness. As the foregoing discussions emphasize, however, it may be more difficult to reach consensus on how to define such a biomarker than to identify candidate molecules that can be then evaluated to determine if they might be useful to solve a variety of real-world problems related to insufficient sleep. With that in mind, a goal of our laboratories has been to develop a rational strategy to expedite the identification of candidate biomarkers. 1 We began with the assumption that since both the genetic and environmental context of a gene can influence its behavior, an effective test of sleep loss will likely be composed of a panel of multiple biomarkers. That is, we believe that it is premature to exclude a candidate analyte simply because it might also be modulated in response to other conditions (e.g., illness, metabolism, sympathetic tone, etc.). Our next assumption was that an easily accessible biomarker would be more useful in real-world settings. Thus, we have focused on saliva, as opposed to urine or blood, as a rich source of biological analytes that can be mined to optimize the chances of bringing a biomarker out into the field. Finally, we recognize that conducting validation studies in humans can be expensive and time consuming. Thus, we have exploited genetic and pharmacological tools in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster to more fully characterize the behavior of the most exciting candidate biomarkers. Citation: Thimgan MS; Duntley SP; Shaw PJ. Changes in gene expression with sleep. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(5):Supplement S26-S27. PMID:22003326

  12. Transient, Inducible, Placenta-Specific Gene Expression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiujun; Petitt, Matthew; Gamboa, Matthew; Huang, Mei; Dhal, Sabita; Druzin, Maurice L.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular understanding of placental functions and pregnancy disorders is limited by the absence of methods for placenta-specific gene manipulation. Although persistent placenta-specific gene expression has been achieved by lentivirus-based gene delivery methods, developmentally and physiologically important placental genes have highly stage-specific functions, requiring controllable, transient expression systems for functional analysis. Here, we describe an inducible, placenta-specific gene expression system that enables high-level, transient transgene expression and monitoring of gene expression by live bioluminescence imaging in mouse placenta at different stages of pregnancy. We used the third generation tetracycline-responsive tranactivator protein Tet-On 3G, with 10- to 100-fold increased sensitivity to doxycycline (Dox) compared with previous versions, enabling unusually sensitive on-off control of gene expression in vivo. Transgenic mice expressing Tet-On 3G were created using a new integrase-based, site-specific approach, yielding high-level transgene expression driven by a ubiquitous promoter. Blastocysts from these mice were transduced with the Tet-On 3G-response element promoter-driving firefly luciferase using lentivirus-mediated placenta-specific gene delivery and transferred into wild-type pseudopregnant recipients for placenta-specific, Dox-inducible gene expression. Systemic Dox administration at various time points during pregnancy led to transient, placenta-specific firefly luciferase expression as early as d 5 of pregnancy in a Dox dose-dependent manner. This system enables, for the first time, reliable pregnancy stage-specific induction of gene expression in the placenta and live monitoring of gene expression during pregnancy. It will be widely applicable to studies of both placental development and pregnancy, and the site-specific Tet-On G3 mouse will be valuable for studies in a broad range of tissues. PMID:23011919

  13. Gene and enhancer trap tagging of vascular-expressed genes in poplar trees

    Treesearch

    Andrew Groover; Joseph R. Fontana; Gayle Dupper; Caiping Ma; Robert Martienssen; Steven Strauss; Richard Meilan

    2004-01-01

    We report a gene discovery system for poplar trees based on gene and enhancer traps. Gene and enhancer trap vectors carrying the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene were inserted into the poplar genome via Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation, where they reveal the expression pattern of genes at or near the insertion sites. Because GUS...

  14. Faster-X Evolution of Gene Expression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Meisel, Richard P.; Malone, John H.; Clark, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    DNA sequences on X chromosomes often have a faster rate of evolution when compared to similar loci on the autosomes, and well articulated models provide reasons why the X-linked mode of inheritance may be responsible for the faster evolution of X-linked genes. We analyzed microarray and RNA–seq data collected from females and males of six Drosophila species and found that the expression levels of X-linked genes also diverge faster than autosomal gene expression, similar to the “faster-X” effect often observed in DNA sequence evolution. Faster-X evolution of gene expression was recently described in mammals, but it was limited to the evolutionary lineages shortly following the creation of the therian X chromosome. In contrast, we detect a faster-X effect along both deep lineages and those on the tips of the Drosophila phylogeny. In Drosophila males, the dosage compensation complex (DCC) binds the X chromosome, creating a unique chromatin environment that promotes the hyper-expression of X-linked genes. We find that DCC binding, chromatin environment, and breadth of expression are all predictive of the rate of gene expression evolution. In addition, estimates of the intraspecific genetic polymorphism underlying gene expression variation suggest that X-linked expression levels are not under relaxed selective constraints. We therefore hypothesize that the faster-X evolution of gene expression is the result of the adaptive fixation of beneficial mutations at X-linked loci that change expression level in cis. This adaptive faster-X evolution of gene expression is limited to genes that are narrowly expressed in a single tissue, suggesting that relaxed pleiotropic constraints permit a faster response to selection. Finally, we present a conceptional framework to explain faster-X expression evolution, and we use this framework to examine differences in the faster-X effect between Drosophila and mammals. PMID:23071459

  15. Cell cycle gene expression under clinorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemenko, Olga

    2016-07-01

    Cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) are main regulators of the cell cycle of eukaryotes. It's assumes a significant change of their level in cells under microgravity conditions and by other physical factors actions. The clinorotation use enables to determine the influence of gravity on simulated events in the cell during the cell cycle - exit from the state of quiet stage and promotion presynthetic phase (G1) and DNA synthesis phase (S) of the cell cycle. For the clinorotation effect study on cell proliferation activity is the necessary studies of molecular mechanisms of cell cycle regulation and development of plants under altered gravity condition. The activity of cyclin D, which is responsible for the events of the cell cycle in presynthetic phase can be controlled by the action of endogenous as well as exogenous factors, but clinorotation is one of the factors that influence on genes expression that regulate the cell cycle.These data can be used as a model for further research of cyclin - CDK complex for study of molecular mechanisms regulation of growth and proliferation. In this investigation we tried to summarize and analyze known literature and own data we obtained relatively the main regulators of the cell cycle in altered gravity condition.

  16. Diatoms morphology and gene expression in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iudicone, D.; Amato, A.; Ferrante, M. I.; Ribera, M.

    2016-02-01

    Diatoms are an ecologically important algal group that prospers in turbulent environments. Despite previous efforts, a general scenario that explains mesocosm and in situ observations is missing. Importantly, according to the present theories, the main effect of microscale turbulence is the increase of nutrient uptake efficiency in nutrient-depleted conditions and for very large cells. We will present evidences from laboratory experiments in nutrient-repleted conditions that chain-forming diatoms sense and respond to turbulence by varying their chain length spectra and tuning their metabolism. Further, we compared growth and gene expressions of small-sized cells in turbulent and in still conditions and found that turbulence sensing activates a series of pathways suggesting a partial metabolic switch in response to agitation. In addition, a long-time exposure experiment showed that when silicates become depleted these same diatoms take up other nutrients differently than in still condition. This implies that in natural environment prolonged turbulence would shape the phytoplankton community structure and succession.

  17. 5-Lipoxygenase gene expression in the thymus.

    PubMed

    Hostein, I; Dorion-Bonnet, F; Bloch, B; Vaillier, D; Juzan, M; Gualde, N

    1992-09-01

    Eicosanoids are arachidonic acid metabolites issued both the cyclooxygenase and the lipoxygenase pathways. Many of these products were reported to modulate the immune response. Since most of eicosanoids have a short half life they are considered as local immunomodulators. Interactions between eicosanoids and thymocytes appear to be complex within the thymus. It was reported that cyclooxegenase derivatives of arachidonic acid are produced in this primary lymphoid organ mostly by cells of the thymic microenvironment. On the other hand it is not yet clearly established (1) what is the location of the lipoxygenase-positive cells within the gland and (2) what is the ratio of cells producing lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid when compared to the whole thymocyte population. Using two oligonucleotides complementary to the rat 5-lipoxygenase mRNA we demonstrated (by both hybridization on Northern blots and in situ hybridization) the expression of the 5-lipoxygenase gene in the thymus. 5-lipoxygenase positive cells appear to be associated in "clusters" and are mostly located in the thymic cortex. It is likely that they belong to the thymic microenvironment.

  18. Unstable Expression of Commonly Used Reference Genes in Rat Pancreatic Islets Early after Isolation Affects Results of Gene Expression Studies.

    PubMed

    Kosinová, Lucie; Cahová, Monika; Fábryová, Eva; Týcová, Irena; Koblas, Tomáš; Leontovyč, Ivan; Saudek, František; Kříž, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The use of RT-qPCR provides a powerful tool for gene expression studies; however, the proper interpretation of the obtained data is crucially dependent on accurate normalization based on stable reference genes. Recently, strong evidence has been shown indicating that the expression of many commonly used reference genes may vary significantly due to diverse experimental conditions. The isolation of pancreatic islets is a complicated procedure which creates severe mechanical and metabolic stress leading possibly to cellular damage and alteration of gene expression. Despite of this, freshly isolated islets frequently serve as a control in various gene expression and intervention studies. The aim of our study was to determine expression of 16 candidate reference genes and one gene of interest (F3) in isolated rat pancreatic islets during short-term cultivation in order to find a suitable endogenous control for gene expression studies. We compared the expression stability of the most commonly used reference genes and evaluated the reliability of relative and absolute quantification using RT-qPCR during 0-120 hrs after isolation. In freshly isolated islets, the expression of all tested genes was markedly depressed and it increased several times throughout the first 48 hrs of cultivation. We observed significant variability among samples at 0 and 24 hrs but substantial stabilization from 48 hrs onwards. During the first 48 hrs, relative quantification failed to reflect the real changes in respective mRNA concentrations while in the interval 48-120 hrs, the relative expression generally paralleled the results determined by absolute quantification. Thus, our data call into question the suitability of relative quantification for gene expression analysis in pancreatic islets during the first 48 hrs of cultivation, as the results may be significantly affected by unstable expression of reference genes. However, this method could provide reliable information from 48 hrs onwards.

  19. The novel putative bile acid transporter SLC10A5 is highly expressed in liver and kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, Carla F.; Godoy, Jose R.; Doering, Barbara

    2007-09-14

    Here we report the identification, cloning, and characterization of SLC10A5, which is a new member of Solute Carrier Family 10 (SLC10), also known as the 'sodium/bile acid cotransporter family'. Expression of SLC10A5/Slc10a5 was examined by quantitative real-time PCR and revealed its highest expression levels in liver and kidney in humans, rat and mouse. In rat liver and kidney, Slc10a5 expression was localized by in situ hybridization to hepatocytes and proximal tubules, respectively. A SLC10A5-FLAG fusion protein was expressed in HEK293 cells and showed an apparent molecular weight of 42 kDa after immunoprecipitation. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, the SLC10A5-FLAGmore » protein was detected in the oocyte's plasma membrane but showed no transport activity for taurocholate, cholate, estrone-3-sulfate, or dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. As bile acid carriers are the most related carriers to SLC10A5 though, we strongly suppose that SLC10A5 is an orphan carrier with yet non-identified substrates.« less

  20. Gene Expression Measurement Module (GEMM) - a fully automated, miniaturized instrument for measuring gene expression in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karouia, Fathi; Ricco, Antonio; Pohorille, Andrew; Peyvan, Kianoosh

    2012-07-01

    The capability to measure gene expression on board spacecrafts opens the doors to a large number of experiments on the influence of space environment on biological systems that will profoundly impact our ability to conduct safe and effective space travel, and might also shed light on terrestrial physiology or biological function and human disease and aging processes. Measurements of gene expression will help us to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions beyond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment on a wide range of organisms from microbes to humans, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, determine metabolic basis of microbial pathogenicity and drug resistance, test our ability to sustain and grow in space organisms that can be used for life support and in situ resource utilization during long-duration space exploration, and monitor both the spacecraft environment and crew health. These and other applications hold significant potential for discoveries in space biology, biotechnology and medicine. Accordingly, supported by funding from the NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development Program, we are developing a fully automated, miniaturized, integrated fluidic system for small spacecraft capable of in-situ measuring microbial expression of thousands of genes from multiple samples. The instrument will be capable of (1) lysing bacterial cell walls, (2) extracting and purifying RNA released from cells, (3) hybridizing it on a microarray and (4) providing electrochemical readout, all in a microfluidics cartridge. The prototype under development is suitable for deployment on nanosatellite platforms developed by the NASA Small Spacecraft Office. The first target application is to cultivate and measure gene expression of the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus, i.e. a cyanobacterium known to exhibit remarkable metabolic diversity and resilience to adverse conditions

  1. Different stress-related gene expression in depression and suicide.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J; Qi, X-R; Gao, S-F; Lu, J; van Wamelen, D J; Kamphuis, W; Bao, A-M; Swaab, D F

    2015-09-01

    Suicide occurs in some, but not all depressed patients. So far, it remains unknown whether the studied stress-related candidate genes change in depression, suicide or both. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in, among other things, impulse control and inhibitory behavior and plays an important role in both suicide and depression. We have employed qPCR to study 124 anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) brain samples, obtained from two brain banks, from: i) young depressed patients (average age 43 years) who committed suicide (MDD-S) and depressed patients who died from causes other than suicide (MDD-NS) and from ii) elderly depressed patients (average age 75 years) who did not commit suicide (DEP). Both cohorts were individually matched with non-psychiatric non-suicide control subjects. We determined the transcript levels of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis-regulating molecules (corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), CRH receptors, CRH binding protein, mineralocorticoid receptor/glucocorticoid receptor), transcription factors that regulate CRH expression, CRH-stimulating cytokines, chaperone proteins, retinoid signaling, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tropomyosin-related kinase B, cytochrome proteins, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and monoamines. In the MDD-S group, expression levels of CRH and neuronal NOS-interacting DHHC domain-containing protein with dendritic mRNA (NIDD) were increased. Other changes were only present in the DEP group, i.e. decreased NIDD, and increased and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A (5-HT1A) expression levels. Changes were found to be more pronounced in the anterior cingulate cortex than in the dorsolateral PFC. Depressed patients who committed suicide have different gene expression patterns than depressed patients who died of causes other than suicide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. GeneSigDB—a curated database of gene expression signatures

    PubMed Central

    Culhane, Aedín C.; Schwarzl, Thomas; Sultana, Razvan; Picard, Kermshlise C.; Picard, Shaita C.; Lu, Tim H.; Franklin, Katherine R.; French, Simon J.; Papenhausen, Gerald; Correll, Mick; Quackenbush, John

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of most gene expression studies is the identification of one or more gene signatures; lists of genes whose transcriptional levels are uniquely associated with a specific biological phenotype. Whilst thousands of experimentally derived gene signatures are published, their potential value to the community is limited by their computational inaccessibility. Gene signatures are embedded in published article figures, tables or in supplementary materials, and are frequently presented using non-standard gene or probeset nomenclature. We present GeneSigDB (http://compbio.dfci.harvard.edu/genesigdb) a manually curated database of gene expression signatures. GeneSigDB release 1.0 focuses on cancer and stem cells gene signatures and was constructed from more than 850 publications from which we manually transcribed 575 gene signatures. Most gene signatures (n = 560) were successfully mapped to the genome to extract standardized lists of EnsEMBL gene identifiers. GeneSigDB provides the original gene signature, the standardized gene list and a fully traceable gene mapping history for each gene from the original transcribed data table through to the standardized list of genes. The GeneSigDB web portal is easy to search, allows users to compare their own gene list to those in the database, and download gene signatures in most common gene identifier formats. PMID:19934259

  3. c-Fos downregulation positively regulates EphA5 expression in a congenital hypothyroidism rat model.

    PubMed

    Song, Honghua; Zheng, Yuqin; Cai, Fuying; Ma, Yanyan; Yang, Jingyue; Wu, Youjia

    2018-04-01

    The EphA5 receptor is well established as an axon guidance molecule during neural system development and plays an important role in dendritic spine formation and synaptogenesis. Our previous study has showed that EphA5 is decreased in the developing brain of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) and the EphA5 promoter methylation modification participates in its decrease. c-Fos, a well-kown transcription factor, has been considered in association with brain development. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the EphA5 promoter region contained five putative c-fos binding sites. The chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were used to assess the direct binding of c-fos to the EphA5 promoter. Furthermore, dual-luciferase assays showed that these three c-fos protein binding sites were positive regulatory elements for EphA5 expression in PC12 cells. Moreover, We verified c-fos positively regulation for EphA5 expression in CH model. Q-PCR and Western blot showed that c-fos overexpression could upregulate EphA5 expression in hippocampal neurons of rats with CH. Our results suggest that c-fos positively regulates EphA5 expression in CH rat model.

  4. The Role of Multiple Transcription Factors In Archaeal Gene Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Charles J. Daniels

    2008-09-23

    Since the inception of this research program, the project has focused on two central questions: What is the relationship between the 'eukaryal-like' transcription machinery of archaeal cells and its counterparts in eukaryal cells? And, how does the archaeal cell control gene expression using its mosaic of eukaryal core transcription machinery and its bacterial-like transcription regulatory proteins? During the grant period we have addressed these questions using a variety of in vivo approaches and have sought to specifically define the roles of the multiple TATA binding protein (TBP) and TFIIB-like (TFB) proteins in controlling gene expression in Haloferax volcanii. H. volcaniimore » was initially chosen as a model for the Archaea based on the availability of suitable genetic tools; however, later studies showed that all haloarchaea possessed multiple tbp and tfb genes, which led to the proposal that multiple TBP and TFB proteins may function in a manner similar to alternative sigma factors in bacterial cells. In vivo transcription and promoter analysis established a clear relationship between the promoter requirements of haloarchaeal genes and those of the eukaryal RNA polymerase II promoter. Studies on heat shock gene promoters, and the demonstration that specific tfb genes were induced by heat shock, provided the first indication that TFB proteins may direct expression of specific gene families. The construction of strains lacking tbp or tfb genes, coupled with the finding that many of these genes are differentially expressed under varying growth conditions, provided further support for this model. Genetic tools were also developed that led to the construction of insertion and deletion mutants, and a novel gene expression scheme was designed that allowed the controlled expression of these genes in vivo. More recent studies have used a whole genome array to examine the expression of these genes and we have established a linkage between the expression of

  5. Using differential gene expression to study Entamoeba histolytica pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gilchrist, Carol A.; Petri, William A.

    2010-01-01

    The release of the Entamoeba histolytica genome has facilitated the development of techniques to survey rapidly and to relate gene expression with biology. The association and potential contribution of differential gene expression to the life cycle and the virulence of this protozoan parasite of humans are reviewed here. PMID:19217826

  6. An Exercise to Estimate Differential Gene Expression in Human Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhry, M. Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    The expression of genes in cells of various tissue types varies considerably and is correlated with the function of a particular organ. The pattern of gene expression changes in diseased tissues, in response to therapy or infection and exposure to environmental mutagens, chemicals, ultraviolet light, and ionizing radiation. To better understand…

  7. Gene expression in cerebral ischemia: a new approach for neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Millán, Mónica; Arenillas, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia is one of the strongest stimuli for gene induction in the brain. Hundreds of genes have been found to be induced by brain ischemia. Many genes are involved in neurodestructive functions such as excitotoxicity, inflammatory response and neuronal apoptosis. However, cerebral ischemia is also a powerful reformatting and reprogramming stimulus for the brain through neuroprotective gene expression. Several genes may participate in both cellular responses. Thus, isolation of candidate genes for neuroprotection strategies and interpretation of expression changes have been proven difficult. Nevertheless, many studies are being carried out to improve the knowledge of the gene activation and protein expression following ischemic stroke, as well as in the development of new therapies that modify biochemical, molecular and genetic changes underlying cerebral ischemia. Owing to the complexity of the process involving numerous critical genes expressed differentially in time, space and concentration, ongoing therapeutic efforts should be based on multiple interventions at different levels. By modification of the acute gene expression induced by ischemia or the apoptotic gene program, gene therapy is a promising treatment but is still in a very experimental phase. Some hurdles will have to be overcome before these therapies can be introduced into human clinical stroke trials. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Direct Introduction of Genes into Rats and Expression of the Genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenisty, Nissim; Reshef, Lea

    1986-12-01

    A method of introducing actively expressed genes into intact mammals is described. DNA precipitated with calcium phosphate has been injected intraperitoneally into newborn rats. The injected genes have been taken up and expressed by the animal tissues. To examine the generality of the method we have injected newborn rats with the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase prokaryotic gene fused with various viral and cellular gene promoters and the gene for hepatitis B surface antigen, and we observed appearance of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity and hepatitis B surface antigen in liver and spleen. In addition, administration of genes coding for hormones (insulin or growth hormone) resulted in their expression.

  9. Dimensionality of Data Matrices with Applications to Gene Expression Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Xingdong

    2009-01-01

    Probe-level microarray data are usually stored in matrices. Take a given probe set (gene), for example, each row of the matrix corresponds to an array, and each column corresponds to a probe. Often, people summarize each array by the gene expression level. Is one number sufficient to summarize a whole probe set for a specific gene in an array?…

  10. Evaluating the consistency of gene sets used in the analysis of bacterial gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Tintle, Nathan L; Sitarik, Alexandra; Boerema, Benjamin; Young, Kylie; Best, Aaron A; Dejongh, Matthew

    2012-08-08

    Statistical analyses of whole genome expression data require functional information about genes in order to yield meaningful biological conclusions. The Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) are common sources of functionally grouped gene sets. For bacteria, the SEED and MicrobesOnline provide alternative, complementary sources of gene sets. To date, no comprehensive evaluation of the data obtained from these resources has been performed. We define a series of gene set consistency metrics directly related to the most common classes of statistical analyses for gene expression data, and then perform a comprehensive analysis of 3581 Affymetrix® gene expression arrays across 17 diverse bacteria. We find that gene sets obtained from GO and KEGG demonstrate lower consistency than those obtained from the SEED and MicrobesOnline, regardless of gene set size. Despite the widespread use of GO and KEGG gene sets in bacterial gene expression data analysis, the SEED and MicrobesOnline provide more consistent sets for a wide variety of statistical analyses. Increased use of the SEED and MicrobesOnline gene sets in the analysis of bacterial gene expression data may improve statistical power and utility of expression data.

  11. Differential expression of miR-672-5p and miR-146a-5p in osteoblasts in rats after steroid intervention.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengfei; Sun, Nan; Zeng, Jianchun; Zeng, Yirong; Fan, Yueguang; Feng, Wenjun; Li, Jie

    2016-10-10

    Apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes is one cause of steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head; however, the molecular mechanism of steroid affecting osteoblasts at the genetic level is unclear. The aim of the present work is to examine differential expression of osteoblasts in rats after steroid intervention and to verify expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Primary culture, passaging and identification of osteoblasts of SD neonatal rats were conducted; osteoblasts were divided into two groups, the control group, and the steroid group. Total RNA was extracted separately, and quality control was performed; by means of RNA labeling and microarray hybridization, data were collected and then standardized to ascertain differences in miRNA expression between the two groups. The gene expression spectrum was analyzed. Obvious differential expression of miR-672-5p and miR-146a-5p was verified by RT-PCR. Miranda, microcosm and mirdb bioinformatics software were used to predict target genes. Compared with the control group, morphologically, the osteoblasts in the steroid group were more irregular and showed various shapes. The number of miRNAs (fold change >2) in the steroid group was six. Four miRNAs were upregulated and two miRNAs were downregulated. In particular, upregulated miR-672-5p expression and downregulated miR-146a-5p expression were significant. RT-PCR results showed that the 2(-△△) CT value of miR-672-5p in the steroid group was 3.743-fold of that in the control group, and the 2(-△△) CT value of miR-146a-5p in the steroid group was 0.322-fold of that in the control group. Angptl4, Ccdc51, Ssbp3 and RGD1306991 were predicted as the target gene of miR-672-5p, while Hrp12 was that of miR-146a-5p. Expression profiles of miR-672-5p and miR-146a-5p had the most significant changes in the osteoblasts of rats with steroid intervention, which may provide a new viewpoint to pathogenesis of osteonecrosis of the femoral head

  12. Rethinking cell-cycle-dependent gene expression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Stephen

    2017-11-01

    Three studies of gene expression during the division cycle of Schizosaccharomyces pombe led to the proposal that a large number of genes are expressed at particular times during the S. pombe cell cycle. Yet only a small fraction of genes proposed to be expressed in a cell-cycle-dependent manner are reproducible in all three published studies. In addition to reproducibility problems, questions about expression amplitudes, cell-cycle timing of expression, synchronization artifacts, and the problem with methods for synchronizing cells must be considered. These problems and complications prompt the idea that caution should be used before accepting the conclusion that there are a large number of genes expressed in a cell-cycle-dependent manner in S. pombe.

  13. Chamber Specific Gene Expression Landscape of the Zebrafish Heart

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Angom Ramcharan; Sivadas, Ambily; Sabharwal, Ankit; Vellarikal, Shamsudheen Karuthedath; Jayarajan, Rijith; Verma, Ankit; Kapoor, Shruti; Joshi, Adita; Scaria, Vinod; Sivasubbu, Sridhar

    2016-01-01

    The organization of structure and function of cardiac chambers in vertebrates is defined by chamber-specific distinct gene expression. This peculiarity and uniqueness of the genetic signatures demonstrates functional resolution attributed to the different chambers of the heart. Altered expression of the cardiac chamber genes can lead to individual chamber related dysfunctions and disease patho-physiologies. Information on transcriptional repertoire of cardiac compartments is important to understand the spectrum of chamber specific anomalies. We have carried out a genome wide transcriptome profiling study of the three cardiac chambers in the zebrafish heart using RNA sequencing. We have captured the gene expression patterns of 13,396 protein coding genes in the three cardiac chambers—atrium, ventricle and bulbus arteriosus. Of these, 7,260 known protein coding genes are highly expressed (≥10 FPKM) in the zebrafish heart. Thus, this study represents nearly an all-inclusive information on the zebrafish cardiac transcriptome. In this study, a total of 96 differentially expressed genes across the three cardiac chambers in zebrafish were identified. The atrium, ventricle and bulbus arteriosus displayed 20, 32 and 44 uniquely expressing genes respectively. We validated the expression of predicted chamber-restricted genes using independent semi-quantitative and qualitative experimental techniques. In addition, we identified 23 putative novel protein coding genes that are specifically restricted to the ventricle and not in the atrium or bulbus arteriosus. In our knowledge, these 23 novel genes have either not been investigated in detail or are sparsely studied. The transcriptome identified in this study includes 68 differentially expressing zebrafish cardiac chamber genes that have a human ortholog. We also carried out spatiotemporal gene expression profiling of the 96 differentially expressed genes throughout the three cardiac chambers in 11 developmental stages and 6

  14. Dynamic changes in gene expression during human trophoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Handwerger, Stuart; Aronow, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    The genetic program that directs human placental differentiation is poorly understood. In a recent study, we used DNA microarray analyses to determine genes that are dynamically regulated during human placental development in an in vitro model system in which highly purified cytotrophoblast cells aggregate spontaneously and fuse to form a multinucleated syncytium that expresses placental lactogen, human chorionic gonadotropin, and other proteins normally expressed by fully differentiated syncytiotrophoblast cells. Of the 6918 genes present on the Incyte Human GEM V microarray that we analyzed over a 9-day period, 141 were induced and 256 were downregulated by more than 2-fold. The dynamically regulated genes fell into nine distinct kinetic patterns of induction or repression, as detected by the K-means algorithm. Classifying the genes according to functional characteristics, the regulated genes could be divided into six overall categories: cell and tissue structural dynamics, cell cycle and apoptosis, intercellular communication, metabolism, regulation of gene expression, and expressed sequence tags and function unknown. Gene expression changes within key functional categories were tightly coupled to the morphological changes that occurred during trophoblast differentiation. Within several key gene categories (e.g., cell and tissue structure), many genes were strongly activated, while others with related function were strongly repressed. These findings suggest that trophoblast differentiation is augmented by "categorical reprogramming" in which the ability of induced genes to function is enhanced by diminished synthesis of other genes within the same category. We also observed categorical reprogramming in human decidual fibroblasts decidualized in vitro in response to progesterone, estradiol, and cyclic AMP. While there was little overlap between genes that are dynamically regulated during trophoblast differentiation versus decidualization, many of the categories

  15. Expression profile of genes associated with mastitis in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    In order to characterize the expression of genes associated with immune response mechanisms to mastitis, we quantified the relative expression of the IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-γ and TNF- α genes in milk cells of healthy cows and cows with clinical mastitis. Total RNA was extracted from milk cells of six Black and White Holstein (BW) cows and six Gyr cows, including three animals with and three without mastitis per breed. Gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. IL-10 gene expression was higher in the group of BW and Gyr cows with mastitis compared to animals free of infection from both breeds (p < 0.05). It was also higher in BW Holstein animals with clinical mastitis (p < 0.001), but it was not significant when Gyr cows with and without mastitis were compared (0.05 < p < 0.10). Among healthy cows, BW Holstein animals tended to present a higher expression of all genes studied, with a significant difference for the IL-2 and IFN- γ genes (p < 0.001). For animals with mastitis no significant difference in gene expression was observed between the two breeds. These findings suggest that animals with mastitis develop a preferentially cell-mediated immune response. Further studies including larger samples are necessary to better characterize the gene expression profile in cows with mastitis. PMID:21637453

  16. Magnetic field-controlled gene expression in encapsulated cells

    PubMed Central

    Ortner, Viktoria; Kaspar, Cornelius; Halter, Christian; Töllner, Lars; Mykhaylyk, Olga; Walzer, Johann; Günzburg, Walter H.; Dangerfield, John A.; Hohenadl, Christine; Czerny, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Cell and gene therapies have an enormous range of potential applications, but as for most other therapies, dosing is a critical issue, which makes regulated gene expression a prerequisite for advanced strategies. Several inducible expression systems have been established, which mainly rely on small molecules as inducers, such as hormones or antibiotics. The application of these inducers is difficult to control and the effects on gene regulation are slow. Here we describe a novel system for induction of gene expression in encapsulated cells. This involves the modification of cells to express potential therapeutic genes under the control of a heat inducible promoter and the co-encapsulation of these cells with magnetic nanoparticles. These nanoparticles produce heat when subjected to an alternating magnetic field; the elevated temperatures in the capsules then induce gene expression. In the present study we define the parameters of such systems and provide proof-of-principle using reporter gene constructs. The fine-tuned heating of nanoparticles in the magnetic field allows regulation of gene expression from the outside over a broad range and within short time. Such a system has great potential for advancement of cell and gene therapy approaches. PMID:22197778

  17. Clustering Algorithms: Their Application to Gene Expression Data

    PubMed Central

    Oyelade, Jelili; Isewon, Itunuoluwa; Oladipupo, Funke; Aromolaran, Olufemi; Uwoghiren, Efosa; Ameh, Faridah; Achas, Moses; Adebiyi, Ezekiel

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression data hide vital information required to understand the biological process that takes place in a particular organism in relation to its environment. Deciphering the hidden patterns in gene expression data proffers a prodigious preference to strengthen the understanding of functional genomics. The complexity of biological networks and the volume of genes present increase the challenges of comprehending and interpretation of the resulting mass of data, which consists of millions of measurements; these data also inhibit vagueness, imprecision, and noise. Therefore, the use of clustering techniques is a first step toward addressing these challenges, which is essential in the data mining process to reveal natural structures and identify interesting patterns in the underlying data. The clustering of gene expression data has been proven to be useful in making known the natural structure inherent in gene expression data, understanding gene functions, cellular processes, and subtypes of cells, mining useful information from noisy data, and understanding gene regulation. The other benefit of clustering gene expression data is the identification of homology, which is very important in vaccine design. This review examines the various clustering algorithms applicable to the gene expression data in order to discover and provide useful knowledge of the appropriate clustering technique that will guarantee stability and high degree of accuracy in its analysis procedure. PMID:27932867

  18. Transposon Variants and Their Effects on Gene Expression in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xi; Weigel, Detlef; Smith, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) make up the majority of many plant genomes. Their transcription and transposition is controlled through siRNAs and epigenetic marks including DNA methylation. To dissect the interplay of siRNA–mediated regulation and TE evolution, and to examine how TE differences affect nearby gene expression, we investigated genome-wide differences in TEs, siRNAs, and gene expression among three Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. Both TE sequence polymorphisms and presence of linked TEs are positively correlated with intraspecific variation in gene expression. The expression of genes within 2 kb of conserved TEs is more stable than that of genes next to variant TEs harboring sequence polymorphisms. Polymorphism levels of TEs and closely linked adjacent genes are positively correlated as well. We also investigated the distribution of 24-nt-long siRNAs, which mediate TE repression. TEs targeted by uniquely mapping siRNAs are on average farther from coding genes, apparently because they more strongly suppress expression of adjacent genes. Furthermore, siRNAs, and especially uniquely mapping siRNAs, are enriched in TE regions missing in other accessions. Thus, targeting by uniquely mapping siRNAs appears to promote sequence deletions in TEs. Overall, our work indicates that siRNA–targeting of TEs may influence removal of sequences from the genome and hence evolution of gene expression in plants. PMID:23408902

  19. With Reference to Reference Genes: A Systematic Review of Endogenous Controls in Gene Expression Studies.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Joanne R; Waldenström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The choice of reference genes that are stably expressed amongst treatment groups is a crucial step in real-time quantitative PCR gene expression studies. Recent guidelines have specified that a minimum of two validated reference genes should be used for normalisation. However, a quantitative review of the literature showed that the average number of reference genes used across all studies was 1.2. Thus, the vast majority of studies continue to use a single gene, with β-actin (ACTB) and/or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) being commonly selected in studies of vertebrate gene expression. Few studies (15%) tested a panel of potential reference genes for stability of expression before using them to normalise data. Amongst studies specifically testing reference gene stability, few found ACTB or GAPDH to be optimal, whereby these genes were significantly less likely to be chosen when larger panels of potential reference genes were screened. Fewer reference genes were tested for stability in non-model organisms, presumably owing to a dearth of available primers in less well characterised species. Furthermore, the experimental conditions under which real-time quantitative PCR analyses were conducted had a large influence on the choice of reference genes, whereby different studies of rat brain tissue showed different reference genes to be the most stable. These results highlight the importance of validating the choice of normalising reference genes before conducting gene expression studies.

  20. Nephron segment-specific gene expression using AAV vectors.

    PubMed

    Asico, Laureano D; Cuevas, Santiago; Ma, Xiaobo; Jose, Pedro A; Armando, Ines; Konkalmatt, Prasad R

    2018-02-26

    AAV9 vector provides efficient gene transfer in all segments of the renal nephron, with minimum expression in non-renal cells, when administered retrogradely via the ureter. It is important to restrict the transgene expression to the desired cell type within the kidney, so that the physiological endpoints represent the function of the transgene expressed in that specific cell type within kidney. We hypothesized that segment-specific gene expression within the kidney can be accomplished using the highly efficient AAV9 vectors carrying the promoters of genes that are expressed exclusively in the desired segment of the nephron in combination with administration by retrograde infusion into the kidney via the ureter. We constructed AAV vectors carrying eGFP under the control of: kidney-specific cadherin (KSPC) gene promoter for expression in the entire nephron; Na + /glucose co-transporter (SGLT2) gene promoter for expression in the S1 and S2 segments of the proximal tubule; sodium, potassium, 2 chloride co-transporter (NKCC2) gene promoter for expression in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TALH); E-cadherin (ECAD) gene promoter for expression in the collecting duct (CD); and cytomegalovirus (CMV) early promoter that provides expression in most of the mammalian cells, as control. We tested the specificity of the promoter constructs in vitro for cell type-specific expression in mouse kidney cells in primary culture, followed by retrograde infusion of the AAV vectors via the ureter in the mouse. Our data show that AAV9 vector, in combination with the segment-specific promoters administered by retrograde infusion via the ureter, provides renal nephron segment-specific gene expression. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Up regulation of phenylacetate to glioma homeobox gene expression].

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Yang, Chaohua; Zhao, Conghai

    2002-03-01

    Even though phenylacetate (PA) bas been shown to inhibit the growth and induce differentiation in rat C6 glioma cell line, its mechanisms are still poorly understood. This study is aimed to identify which Hox gene is related to glioma and to observe the change in expression on mRNA level as treated by phenylasetate. Twenty-two kinds of Hox gene were divided into 3 groups according to their primer sequence. Semiquantitative reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to investigate the mRNA expression of Hox gene groups and some Hox gene in rat C6 glioma cell line following differentiation induced by PA. The level of Hox gene expression was expressed as ratio expression rate (RER) of Hox gene/beta-actin according to computer image analysis and the difference between C6 cells and PA treated C6 cells was analyzed by student t-test. It was found that Hox genes matching to primers P2 were mildly expressed in C6 cells and the expression of HoxB2 mRNA was significantly up-regulated in PA treated C6 cells (P < 0.001). The weak expression of HoxB2 may be involved in glioma origin and the mechanisms of PA action are correlated with transcription process in the glioma cells.

  2. Gene Expression by Mouse Inner Ear Hair Cells during Development

    PubMed Central

    Scheffer, Déborah I.; Shen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Hair cells of the inner ear are essential for hearing and balance. As a consequence, pathogenic variants in genes specifically expressed in hair cells often cause hereditary deafness. Hair cells are few in number and not easily isolated from the adjacent supporting cells, so the biochemistry and molecular biology of hair cells can be difficult to study. To study gene expression in hair cells, we developed a protocol for hair cell isolation by FACS. With nearly pure hair cells and surrounding cells, from cochlea and utricle and from E16 to P7, we performed a comprehensive cell type-specific RNA-Seq study of gene expression during mouse inner ear development. Expression profiling revealed new hair cell genes with distinct expression patterns: some are specific for vestibular hair cells, others for cochlear hair cells, and some are expressed just before or after maturation of mechanosensitivity. We found that many of the known hereditary deafness genes are much more highly expressed in hair cells than surrounding cells, suggesting that genes preferentially expressed in hair cells are good candidates for unknown deafness genes. PMID:25904789

  3. An internal regulatory element controls troponin I gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Yutzey, K E; Kline, R L; Konieczny, S F

    1989-01-01

    During skeletal myogenesis, approximately 20 contractile proteins and related gene products temporally accumulate as the cells fuse to form multinucleated muscle fibers. In most instances, the contractile protein genes are regulated transcriptionally, which suggests that a common molecular mechanism may coordinate the expression of this diverse and evolutionarily unrelated gene set. Recent studies have examined the muscle-specific cis-acting elements associated with numerous contractile protein genes. All of the identified regulatory elements are positioned in the 5'-flanking regions, usually within 1,500 base pairs of the transcription start site. Surprisingly, a DNA consensus sequence that is common to each contractile protein gene has not been identified. In contrast to the results of these earlier studies, we have found that the 5'-flanking region of the quail troponin I (TnI) gene is not sufficient to permit the normal myofiber transcriptional activation of the gene. Instead, the TnI gene utilizes a unique internal regulatory element that is responsible for the correct myofiber-specific expression pattern associated with the TnI gene. This is the first example in which a contractile protein gene has been shown to rely primarily on an internal regulatory element to elicit transcriptional activation during myogenesis. The diversity of regulatory elements associated with the contractile protein genes suggests that the temporal expression of the genes may involve individual cis-trans regulatory components specific for each gene. Images PMID:2725509

  4. Soybean kinome: functional classification and gene expression patterns

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinyi; Chen, Nana; Grant, Joshua N.; Cheng, Zong-Ming (Max); Stewart, C. Neal; Hewezi, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    The protein kinase (PK) gene family is one of the largest and most highly conserved gene families in plants and plays a role in nearly all biological functions. While a large number of genes have been predicted to encode PKs in soybean, a comprehensive functional classification and global analysis of expression patterns of this large gene family is lacking. In this study, we identified the entire soybean PK repertoire or kinome, which comprised 2166 putative PK genes, representing 4.67% of all soybean protein-coding genes. The soybean kinome was classified into 19 groups, 81 families, and 122 subfamilies. The receptor-like kinase (RLK) group was remarkably large, containing 1418 genes. Collinearity analysis indicated that whole-genome segmental duplication events may have played a key role in the expansion of the soybean kinome, whereas tandem duplications might have contributed to the expansion of specific subfamilies. Gene structure, subcellular localization prediction, and gene expression patterns indicated extensive functional divergence of PK subfamilies. Global gene expression analysis of soybean PK subfamilies revealed tissue- and stress-specific expression patterns, implying regulatory functions over a wide range of developmental and physiological processes. In addition, tissue and stress co-expression network analysis uncovered specific subfamilies with narrow or wide interconnected relationships, indicative of their association with particular or broad signalling pathways, respectively. Taken together, our analyses provide a foundation for further functional studies to reveal the biological and molecular functions of PKs in soybean. PMID:25614662

  5. An atlas of gene expression and gene co-regulation in the human retina.

    PubMed

    Pinelli, Michele; Carissimo, Annamaria; Cutillo, Luisa; Lai, Ching-Hung; Mutarelli, Margherita; Moretti, Maria Nicoletta; Singh, Marwah Veer; Karali, Marianthi; Carrella, Diego; Pizzo, Mariateresa; Russo, Francesco; Ferrari, Stefano; Ponzin, Diego; Angelini, Claudia; Banfi, Sandro; di Bernardo, Diego

    2016-07-08

    The human retina is a specialized tissue involved in light stimulus transduction. Despite its unique biology, an accurate reference transcriptome is still missing. Here, we performed gene expression analysis (RNA-seq) of 50 retinal samples from non-visually impaired post-mortem donors. We identified novel transcripts with high confidence (Observed Transcriptome (ObsT)) and quantified the expression level of known transcripts (Reference Transcriptome (RefT)). The ObsT included 77 623 transcripts (23 960 genes) covering 137 Mb (35 Mb new transcribed genome). Most of the transcripts (92%) were multi-exonic: 81% with known isoforms, 16% with new isoforms and 3% belonging to new genes. The RefT included 13 792 genes across 94 521 known transcripts. Mitochondrial genes were among the most highly expressed, accounting for about 10% of the reads. Of all the protein-coding genes in Gencode, 65% are expressed in the retina. We exploited inter-individual variability in gene expression to infer a gene co-expression network and to identify genes specifically expressed in photoreceptor cells. We experimentally validated the photoreceptors localization of three genes in human retina that had not been previously reported. RNA-seq data and the gene co-expression network are available online (http://retina.tigem.it). © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Improved genetic counseling in Alport syndrome by new variants of COL4A5 gene.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Rosado, Francisco; Campos, Ana; Alvarez-Cubero, Maria Jesus; Ruiz, Ana; Entrala-Bernal, Carmen

    2015-07-01

    There are current requirements of using genetic databases for offering a better genetic assistance to patients of some syndromes, especially those with X-linked heredity patterns (like Alport Syndrome) for the high probability of having descendants affected by the disease. We describe the first reported case of COL4A5 gene missense c.1499 G>T mutation in a 16-year-old girl confirmed to be affected by Alport Syndrome after genetic counseling. Next Generation Sequencing procedures let discover this mutation and offer an accurate clinical treatment to this patient. Current scientific understanding of genetic syndromes suggests the high importance of updated databases and the inclusion of Variant of Unknown Significance related to clinical cases. All of this updating could enable patients to have a better opportunity of diagnosis and having genetic and clinical counseling. This event is even more important in women planning to start a family to have correct genetic counseling regarding the risk posed to offspring, and allowing the decision to undergo prenatal testing. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  7. Dynamic association rules for gene expression data analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-Chuan; Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chung, Cheng-Han; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2015-10-14

    The purpose of gene expression analysis is to look for the association between regulation of gene expression levels and phenotypic variations. This association based on gene expression profile has been used to determine whether the induction/repression of genes correspond to phenotypic variations including cell regulations, clinical diagnoses and drug development. Statistical analyses on microarray data have been developed to resolve gene selection issue. However, these methods do not inform us of causality between genes and phenotypes. In this paper, we propose the dynamic association rule algorithm (DAR algorithm) which helps ones to efficiently select a subset of significant genes for subsequent analysis. The DAR algorithm is based on association rules from market basket analysis in marketing. We first propose a statistical way, based on constructing a one-sided confidence interval and hypothesis testing, to determine if an association rule is meaningful. Based on the proposed statistical method, we then developed the DAR algorithm for gene expression data analysis. The method was applied to analyze four microarray datasets and one Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) dataset: the Mice Apo A1 dataset, the whole genome expression dataset of mouse embryonic stem cells, expression profiling of the bone marrow of Leukemia patients, Microarray Quality Control (MAQC) data set and the RNA-seq dataset of a mouse genomic imprinting study. A comparison of the proposed method with the t-test on the expression profiling of the bone marrow of Leukemia patients was conducted. We developed a statistical way, based on the concept of confidence interval, to determine the minimum support and minimum confidence for mining association relationships among items. With the minimum support and minimum confidence, one can find significant rules in one single step. The DAR algorithm was then developed for gene expression data analysis. Four gene expression datasets showed that the proposed

  8. Pre-gastrula expression of zebrafish extraembryonic genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many species form extraembryonic tissues during embryogenesis, such as the placenta of humans and other viviparous mammals. Extraembryonic tissues have various roles in protecting, nourishing and patterning embryos. Prior to gastrulation in zebrafish, the yolk syncytial layer - an extraembryonic nuclear syncytium - produces signals that induce mesoderm and endoderm formation. Mesoderm and endoderm precursor cells are situated in the embryonic margin, an external ring of cells along the embryo-yolk interface. The yolk syncytial layer initially forms below the margin, in a domain called the external yolk syncytial layer (E-YSL). Results We hypothesize that key components of the yolk syncytial layer's mesoderm and endoderm inducing activity are expressed as mRNAs in the E-YSL. To identify genes expressed in the E-YSL, we used microarrays to compare the transcription profiles of intact pre-gastrula embryos with pre-gastrula embryonic cells that we had separated from the yolk and yolk syncytial layer. This identified a cohort of genes with enriched expression in intact embryos. Here we describe our whole mount in situ hybridization analysis of sixty-eight of them. This includes ten genes with E-YSL expression (camsap1l1, gata3, znf503, hnf1ba, slc26a1, slc40a1, gata6, gpr137bb, otop1 and cebpa), four genes with expression in the enveloping layer (EVL), a superficial epithelium that protects the embryo (zgc:136817, zgc:152778, slc14a2 and elovl6l), three EVL genes whose expression is transiently confined to the animal pole (elovl6l, zgc:136359 and clica), and six genes with transient maternal expression (mtf1, wu:fj59f04, mospd2, rftn2, arrdc1a and pho). We also assessed the requirement of Nodal signaling for the expression of selected genes in the E-YSL, EVL and margin. Margin expression was Nodal dependent for all genes we tested, including the concentrated margin expression of an EVL gene: zgc:110712. All other instances of EVL and E-YSL expression that we

  9. Regulatory systems for hypoxia-inducible gene expression in ischemic heart disease gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Ah; Rhim, Taiyoun; Lee, Minhyung

    2011-07-18

    Ischemic heart diseases are caused by narrowed coronary arteries that decrease the blood supply to the myocardium. In the ischemic myocardium, hypoxia-responsive genes are up-regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). Gene therapy for ischemic heart diseases uses genes encoding angiogenic growth factors and anti-apoptotic proteins as therapeutic genes. These genes increase blood supply into the myocardium by angiogenesis and protect cardiomyocytes from cell death. However, non-specific expression of these genes in normal tissues may be harmful, since growth factors and anti-apoptotic proteins may induce tumor growth. Therefore, tight gene regulation is required to limit gene expression to ischemic tissues, to avoid unwanted side effects. For this purpose, various gene expression strategies have been developed for ischemic-specific gene expression. Transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational regulatory strategies have been developed and evaluated in ischemic heart disease animal models. The regulatory systems can limit therapeutic gene expression to ischemic tissues and increase the efficiency of gene therapy. In this review, recent progresses in ischemic-specific gene expression systems are presented, and their applications to ischemic heart diseases are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Identifying potential maternal genes of Bombyx mori using digital gene expression profiling

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pingzhen

    2018-01-01

    Maternal genes present in mature oocytes play a crucial role in the early development of silkworm. Although maternal genes have been widely studied in many other species, there has been limited research in Bombyx mori. High-throughput next generation sequencing provides a practical method for gene discovery on a genome-wide level. Herein, a transcriptome study was used to identify maternal-related genes from silkworm eggs. Unfertilized eggs from five different stages of early development were used to detect the changing situation of gene expression. The expressed genes showed different patterns over time. Seventy-six maternal genes were annotated according to homology analysis with Drosophila melanogaster. More than half of the differentially expressed maternal genes fell into four expression patterns, while the expression patterns showed a downward trend over time. The functional annotation of these material genes was mainly related to transcription factor activity, growth factor activity, nucleic acid binding, RNA binding, ATP binding, and ion binding. Additionally, twenty-two gene clusters including maternal genes were identified from 18 scaffolds. Altogether, we plotted a profile for the maternal genes of Bombyx mori using a digital gene expression profiling method. This will provide the basis for maternal-specific signature research and improve the understanding of the early development of silkworm. PMID:29462160

  11. Using RNA-seq data to select reference genes for normalizing gene expression in apple roots.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhe; Cong, Peihua; Tian, Yi; Zhu, Yanmin

    2017-01-01

    Gene expression in apple roots in response to various stress conditions is a less-explored research subject. Reliable reference genes for normalizing quantitative gene expression data have not been carefully investigated. In this study, the suitability of a set of 15 apple genes were evaluated for their potential use as reliable reference genes. These genes were selected based on their low variance of gene expression in apple root tissues from a recent RNA-seq data set, and a few previously reported apple reference genes for other tissue types. Four methods, Delta Ct, geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper, were used to evaluate their stability in apple root tissues of various genotypes and under different experimental conditions. A small panel of stably expressed genes, MDP0000095375, MDP0000147424, MDP0000233640, MDP0000326399 and MDP0000173025 were recommended for normalizing quantitative gene expression data in apple roots under various abiotic or biotic stresses. When the most stable and least stable reference genes were used for data normalization, significant differences were observed on the expression patterns of two target genes, MdLecRLK5 (MDP0000228426, a gene encoding a lectin receptor like kinase) and MdMAPK3 (MDP0000187103, a gene encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase). Our data also indicated that for those carefully validated reference genes, a single reference gene is sufficient for reliable normalization of the quantitative gene expression. Depending on the experimental conditions, the most suitable reference genes can be specific to the sample of interest for more reliable RT-qPCR data normalization.

  12. Using RNA-seq data to select reference genes for normalizing gene expression in apple roots

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhe; Cong, Peihua; Tian, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Gene expression in apple roots in response to various stress conditions is a less-explored research subject. Reliable reference genes for normalizing quantitative gene expression data have not been carefully investigated. In this study, the suitability of a set of 15 apple genes were evaluated for their potential use as reliable reference genes. These genes were selected based on their low variance of gene expression in apple root tissues from a recent RNA-seq data set, and a few previously reported apple reference genes for other tissue types. Four methods, Delta Ct, geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper, were used to evaluate their stability in apple root tissues of various genotypes and under different experimental conditions. A small panel of stably expressed genes, MDP0000095375, MDP0000147424, MDP0000233640, MDP0000326399 and MDP0000173025 were recommended for normalizing quantitative gene expression data in apple roots under various abiotic or biotic stresses. When the most stable and least stable reference genes were used for data normalization, significant differences were observed on the expression patterns of two target genes, MdLecRLK5 (MDP0000228426, a gene encoding a lectin receptor like kinase) and MdMAPK3 (MDP0000187103, a gene encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase). Our data also indicated that for those carefully validated reference genes, a single reference gene is sufficient for reliable normalization of the quantitative gene expression. Depending on the experimental conditions, the most suitable reference genes can be specific to the sample of interest for more reliable RT-qPCR data normalization. PMID:28934340

  13. Building predictive gene signatures through simultaneous assessment of transcription factor activation and gene expression.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building predictive gene signatures through simultaneous assessment of transcription factor activation and gene expression Exposure to many drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals can cause adverse outcomes. These adverse outcomes, such as cancer, have been linked to mol...

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF BIOLOGICALLY RELEVANT GENES USING A DATABASE OF RAT LIVER AND KIDNEY BASELINE GENE EXPRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microarray data from independent labs and studies can be compared to potentially identify toxicologically and biologically relevant genes. The Baseline Animal Database working group of HESI was formed to assess baseline gene expression from microarray data derived from control or...

  15. Noise in gene expression is coupled to growth rate.

    PubMed

    Keren, Leeat; van Dijk, David; Weingarten-Gabbay, Shira; Davidi, Dan; Jona, Ghil; Weinberger, Adina; Milo, Ron; Segal, Eran

    2015-12-01

    Genetically identical cells exposed to the same environment display variability in gene expression (noise), with important consequences for the fidelity of cellular regulation and biological function. Although population average gene expression is tightly coupled to growth rate, the effects of changes in environmental conditions on expression variability are not known. Here, we measure the single-cell expression distributions of approximately 900 Saccharomyces cerevisiae promoters across four environmental conditions using flow cytometry, and find that gene expression noise is tightly coupled to the environment and is generally higher at lower growth rates. Nutrient-poor conditions, which support lower growth rates, display elevated levels of noise for most promoters, regardless of their specific expression values. We present a simple model of noise in expression that results from having an asynchronous population, with cells at different cell-cycle stages, and with different partitioning of the cells between the stages at different growth rates. This model predicts non-monotonic global changes in noise at different growth rates as well as overall higher variability in expression for cell-cycle-regulated genes in all conditions. The consistency between this model and our data, as well as with noise measurements of cells growing in a chemostat at well-defined growth rates, suggests that cell-cycle heterogeneity is a major contributor to gene expression noise. Finally, we identify gene and promoter features that play a role in gene expression noise across conditions. Our results show the existence of growth-related global changes in gene expression noise and suggest their potential phenotypic implications. © 2015 Keren et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  16. Noise in gene expression is coupled to growth rate

    PubMed Central

    Keren, Leeat; van Dijk, David; Weingarten-Gabbay, Shira; Davidi, Dan; Jona, Ghil; Weinberger, Adina; Milo, Ron; Segal, Eran

    2015-01-01

    Genetically identical cells exposed to the same environment display variability in gene expression (noise), with important consequences for the fidelity of cellular regulation and biological function. Although population average gene expression is tightly coupled to growth rate, the effects of changes in environmental conditions on expression variability are not known. Here, we measure the single-cell expression distributions of approximately 900 Saccharomyces cerevisiae promoters across four environmental conditions using flow cytometry, and find that gene expression noise is tightly coupled to the environment and is generally higher at lower growth rates. Nutrient-poor conditions, which support lower growth rates, display elevated levels of noise for most promoters, regardless of their specific expression values. We present a simple model of noise in expression that results from having an asynchronous population, with cells at different cell-cycle stages, and with different partitioning of the cells between the stages at different growth rates. This model predicts non-monotonic global changes in noise at different growth rates as well as overall higher variability in expression for cell-cycle–regulated genes in all conditions. The consistency between this model and our data, as well as with noise measurements of cells growing in a chemostat at well-defined growth rates, suggests that cell-cycle heterogeneity is a major contributor to gene expression noise. Finally, we identify gene and promoter features that play a role in gene expression noise across conditions. Our results show the existence of growth-related global changes in gene expression noise and suggest their potential phenotypic implications. PMID:26355006

  17. Validation of reference genes for quantitative gene expression analysis in experimental epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Sadangi, Chinmaya; Rosenow, Felix; Norwood, Braxton A

    2017-12-01

    To grasp the molecular mechanisms and pathophysiology underlying epilepsy development (epileptogenesis) and epilepsy itself, it is important to understand the gene expression changes that occur during these phases. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a technique that rapidly and accurately determines gene expression changes. It is crucial, however, that stable reference genes are selected for each experimental condition to ensure that accurate values are obtained for genes of interest. If reference genes are unstably expressed, this can lead to inaccurate data and erroneous conclusions. To date, epilepsy studies have used mostly single, nonvalidated reference genes. This is the first study to systematically evaluate reference genes in male Sprague-Dawley rat models of epilepsy. We assessed 15 potential reference genes in hippocampal tissue obtained from 2 different models during epileptogenesis, 1 model during chronic epilepsy, and a model of noninjurious seizures. Reference gene ranking varied between models and also differed between epileptogenesis and chronic epilepsy time points. There was also some variance between the four mathematical models used to rank reference genes. Notably, we found novel reference genes to be more stably expressed than those most often used in experimental epilepsy studies. The consequence of these findings is that reference genes suitable for one epilepsy model may not be appropriate for others and that reference genes can change over time. It is, therefore, critically important to validate potential reference genes before using them as normalizing factors in expression analysis in order to ensure accurate, valid results. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Integrated analysis of gene expression and methylation profiles of 48 candidate genes in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Zibo; Heng, Jianfu; Yan, Jinhua; Guo, Xinwu; Tang, Lili; Chen, Ming; Peng, Limin; Wu, Yepeng; Wang, Shouman; Xiao, Zhi; Deng, Zhongping; Dai, Lizhong; Wang, Jun

    2016-11-01

    Gene-specific methylation and expression have shown biological and clinical importance for breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Integrated analysis of gene methylation and gene expression may identify genes associated with biology mechanism and clinical outcome of breast cancer and aid in clinical management. Using high-throughput microfluidic quantitative PCR, we analyzed the expression profiles of 48 candidate genes in 96 Chinese breast cancer patients and investigated their correlation with gene methylation and associations with breast cancer clinical parameters. Breast cancer-specific gene expression alternation was found in 25 genes with significant expression difference between paired tumor and normal tissues. A total of 9 genes (CCND2, EGFR, GSTP1, PGR, PTGS2, RECK, SOX17, TNFRSF10D, and WIF1) showed significant negative correlation between methylation and gene expression, which were validated in the TCGA database. Total 23 genes (ACADL, APC, BRCA2, CADM1, CAV1, CCND2, CST6, EGFR, ESR2, GSTP1, ICAM5, NPY, PGR, PTGS2, RECK, RUNX3, SFRP1, SOX17, SYK, TGFBR2, TNFRSF10D, WIF1, and WRN) annotated with potential TFBSs in the promoter regions showed negative correlation between methylation and expression. In logistics regression analysis, 31 of the 48 genes showed improved performance in disease prediction with combination of methylation and expression coefficient. Our results demonstrated the complex correlation and the possible regulatory mechanisms between DNA methylation and gene expression. Integration analysis of methylation and expression of candidate genes could improve performance in breast cancer prediction. These findings would contribute to molecular characterization and identification of biomarkers for potential clinical applications.

  19. Promoting gene expression in plants by permissive histone lysine methylation

    PubMed Central

    Millar, Tony; Finnegan, E Jean

    2009-01-01

    Plants utilize sophisticated epigenetic regulatory mechanisms to coordinate changes in gene expression during development and in response to environmental stimuli. Epigenetics refers to the modification of DNA and chromatin associated proteins, which affect gene expression and cell function, without changing the DNA sequence. Such modifications are inherited through mitosis, and in rare instances through meiosis, although it can be reversible and thus regulatory. Epigenetic modifications are controlled by groups of proteins, such as the family of histone lysine methytransferases (HKMTs). The catalytic core known as the SET domain encodes HKMT activity and either promotes or represses gene expression. A large family of SET domain proteins is present in Arabidopsis where there is growing evidence that two classes of these genes are involved in promoting gene expression in a diverse range of developmental processes. This review will focus on the function of these two classes and the processes that they control, highlighting the huge potential this regulatory mechanism has in plants. PMID:19816124

  20. Adipose Gene Expression Profile Changes With Lung Allograft Reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Joshua M; Arcasoy, Selim; McDonnough, Jamiela A; Sonett, Joshua R; Bacchetta, Matthew; D'Ovidio, Frank; Cantu, Edward; Bermudez, Christian A; McBurnie, Amika; Rushefski, Melanie; Kalman, Laurel H; Oyster, Michelle; D'Errico, Carly; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Giles, Jon T; Ferrante, Anthony; Lippel, Matthew; Singh, Gopal; Lederer, David J; Christie, Jason D

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for primary graft dysfunction (PGD), a form of lung injury resulting from ischemia-reperfusion after lung transplantation, but the impact of ischemia-reperfusion on adipose tissue is unknown. We evaluated differential gene expression in thoracic visceral adipose tissue (VAT) before and after lung reperfusion. Total RNA was isolated from thoracic VAT sampled from six subjects enrolled in the Lung Transplant Body Composition study before and after allograft reperfusion and quantified using the Human Gene 2.0 ST array. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis revealed enrichment for genes involved in complement and coagulation cascades and Jak-STAT signaling pathways. Overall, 72 genes were upregulated and 56 genes were downregulated in the postreperfusion time compared with baseline. Long pentraxin-3, a gene and plasma protein previously associated with PGD, was the most upregulated gene (19.5-fold increase, p = 0.04). Fibronectin leucine-rich transmembrane protein-3, a gene associated with cell adhesion and receptor signaling, was the most downregulated gene (4.3-fold decrease, p = 0.04). Ischemia-reperfusion has a demonstrable impact on gene expression in visceral adipose tissue in our pilot study of nonobese, non-PGD lung transplant recipients. Future evaluation will focus on differential adipose tissue gene expression and the development of PGD after transplant. © Copyright 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  1. An internal regulatory element controls troponin I gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Yutzey, K.E.; Kline, R.L.; Konieczmy, S.F.

    1989-04-01

    During skeletal myogenesis, approximately 20 contractile proteins and related gene products temporally accumulate as the cells fuse to form multinucleated muscle fibers. In most instances, the contractile protein genes are regulated transcriptionally, which suggests that a common molecular mechanism may coordinate the expression of this diverse and evolutionarily unrelated gene set. Recent studies have examined the muscle-specific cis-acting elements associated with numerous contractile protein genes. All of the identified regulatory elements are positioned in the 5'-flanking regions, usually within 1,500 base pairs of the transcription start site. Surprisingly, a DNA consensus sequence that is common to each contractile protein genemore » has not been identified. In contrast to the results of these earlier studies, the authors have found that the 5'-flanking region of the quail troponin I (TnI) gene is not sufficient to permit the normal myofiber transcriptional activation of the gene. Instead, the TnI gene utilizes a unique internal regulatory element that is responsible for the correct myofiber-specific expression pattern associated with the TnI gene. This is the first example in which a contractile protein gene has been shown to rely primarily on an internal regulatory element to elicit transcriptional activation during myogenesis. The diversity of regulatory elements associated with the contractile protein genes suggests that the temporal expression of the genes may involve individual cis-trans regulatory components specific for each gene.« less

  2. Interplay of bistable kinetics of gene expression during cellular growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2009-02-01

    In cells, the bistable kinetics of gene expression can be observed on the level of (i) one gene with positive feedback between protein and mRNA production, (ii) two genes with negative mutual feedback between protein and mRNA production, or (iii) in more complex cases. We analyse the interplay of two genes of type (ii) governed by a gene of type (i) during cellular growth. In particular, using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, we show that in the case where gene 1, operating in the bistable regime, regulates mutually inhibiting genes 2 and 3, also operating in the bistable regime, the latter genes may eventually be trapped either to the state with high transcriptional activity of gene 2 and low activity of gene 3 or to the state with high transcriptional activity of gene 3 and low activity of gene 2. The probability to get to one of these states depends on the values of the model parameters. If genes 2 and 3 are kinetically equivalent, the probability is equal to 0.5. Thus, our model illustrates how different intracellular states can be chosen at random with predetermined probabilities. This type of kinetics of gene expression may be behind complex processes occurring in cells, e.g., behind the choice of the fate by stem cells.

  3. Prediction of gene expression in embryonic structures of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Samsonova, Anastasia A; Niranjan, Mahesan; Russell, Steven; Brazma, Alvis

    2007-07-01

    Understanding how sets of genes are coordinately regulated in space and time to generate the diversity of cell types that characterise complex metazoans is a major challenge in modern biology. The use of high-throughput approaches, such as large-scale in situ hybridisation and genome-wide expression profiling via DNA microarrays, is beginning to provide insights into the complexities of development. However, in many organisms the collection and annotation of comprehensive in situ localisation data is a difficult and time-consuming task. Here, we present a widely applicable computational approach, integrating developmental time-course microarray data with annotated in situ hybridisation studies, that facilitates the de novo prediction of tissue-specific expression for genes that have no in vivo gene expression localisation data available. Using a classification approach, trained with data from microarray and in situ hybridisation studies of gene expression during Drosophila embryonic development, we made a set of predictions on the tissue-specific expression of Drosophila genes that have not been systematically characterised by in situ hybridisation experiments. The reliability of our predictions is confirmed by literature-derived annotations in FlyBase, by overrepresentation of Gene Ontology biological process annotations, and, in a selected set, by detailed gene-specific studies from the literature. Our novel organism-independent method will be of considerable utility in enriching the annotation of gene function and expression in complex multicellular organisms.

  4. Prediction of Gene Expression in Embryonic Structures of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Samsonova, Anastasia A; Niranjan, Mahesan; Russell, Steven; Brazma, Alvis

    2007-01-01

    Understanding how sets of genes are coordinately regulated in space and time to generate the diversity of cell types that characterise complex metazoans is a major challenge in modern biology. The use of high-throughput approaches, such as large-scale in situ hybridisation and genome-wide expression profiling via DNA microarrays, is beginning to provide insights into the complexities of development. However, in many organisms the collection and annotation of comprehensive in situ localisation data is a difficult and time-consuming task. Here, we present a widely applicable computational approach, integrating developmental time-course microarray data with annotated in situ hybridisation studies, that facilitates the de novo prediction of tissue-specific expression for genes that have no in vivo gene expression localisation data available. Using a classification approach, trained with data from microarray and in situ hybridisation studies of gene expression during Drosophila embryonic development, we made a set of predictions on the tissue-specific expression of Drosophila genes that have not been systematically characterised by in situ hybridisation experiments. The reliability of our predictions is confirmed by literature-derived annotations in FlyBase, by overrepresentation of Gene Ontology biological process annotations, and, in a selected set, by detailed gene-specific studies from the literature. Our novel organism-independent method will be of considerable utility in enriching the annotation of gene function and expression in complex multicellular organisms. PMID:17658945

  5. Gene expression correlates of postinfective fatigue syndrome after infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Barbara; Galbraith, Sally; Zhang, Yun; Davenport, Tracey; Vollmer-Conna, Ute; Wakefield, Denis; Hickie, Ian; Dunsmuir, William; Whistler, Toni; Vernon, Suzanne; Reeves, William C; Lloyd, Andrew R

    2007-07-01

    Infectious mononucleosis (IM) commonly triggers a protracted postinfective fatigue syndrome (PIFS) of unknown pathogenesis. Seven subjects with PIFS with 6 or more months of disabling symptoms and 8 matched control subjects who had recovered promptly from documented IM were studied. The expression of 30,000 genes was examined in the peripheral blood by microarray analysis in 65 longitudinally collected samples. Gene expression patterns associated with PIFS were sought by correlation with symptom factor scores. Differential expression of 733 genes was identified when samples collected early during the illness and at the late (recovered) time point were compared. Of these genes, 234 were found to be significantly correlated with the reported severity of the fatigue symptom factor, and 180 were found to be correlated with the musculoskeletal pain symptom factor. Validation by analysis of the longitudinal expression pattern revealed 35 genes for which changes in expression were consistent with the illness course. These genes included several that are involved in signal transduction pathways, metal ion binding, and ion channel activity. Gene expression correlates of the cardinal symptoms of PIFS after IM have been identified. Further studies of these gene products may help to elucidate the pathogenesis of PIFS.

  6. Computational gene expression profiling under salt stress reveals patterns of co-expression

    PubMed Central

    Sanchita; Sharma, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond differently to environmental conditions. Among various abiotic stresses, salt stress is a condition where excess salt in soil causes inhibition of plant growth. To understand the response of plants to the stress conditions, identification of the responsible genes is required. Clustering is a data mining technique used to group the genes with similar expression. The genes of a cluster show similar expression and function. We applied clustering algorithms on gene expression data of Solanum tuberosum showing differential expression in Capsicum annuum under salt stress. The clusters, which were common in multiple algorithms were taken further for analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) further validated the findings of other cluster algorithms by visualizing their clusters in three-dimensional space. Functional annotation results revealed that most of the genes were involved in stress related responses. Our findings suggest that these algorithms may be helpful in the prediction of the function of co-expressed genes. PMID:26981411

  7. Regulated Expression of Adenoviral Vectors-Based Gene Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Curtin, James F.; Candolfi, Marianela; Puntel, Mariana; Xiong, Weidong; Muhammad, A. K. M.; Kroeger, Kurt; Mondkar, Sonali; Liu, Chunyan; Bondale, Niyati; Lowenstein, Pedro R.; Castro, Maria G.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Regulatable promoter systems allow gene expression to be tightly controlled in vivo. This is highly desirable for the development of safe, efficacious adenoviral vectors that can be used to treat human diseases in the clinic. Ideally, regulatable cassettes should have minimal gene expression in the “OFF” state, and expression should quickly reach therapeutic levels in the “ON” state. In addition, the components of regulatable cassettes should be non-toxic at physiological concentrations and should not be immunogenic, especially when treating chronic illness that requires long-lasting gene expression. In this chapter, we will describe in detail protocols to develop and validate first generation (Ad) and high-capacity adenoviral (HC-Ad) vectors that express therapeutic genes under the control of the TetON regulatable system. Our laboratory has successfully used these protocols to regulate the expression of marker genes, immune stimulatory genes, and toxins for cancer gene therapeutics, i.e., glioma that is a deadly form of brain cancer. We have shown that this third generation TetON regulatable system, incorporating a doxycycline (DOX)-sensitive rtTA2S-M2 inducer and tTSKid silencer, is non-toxic, relatively non-immunogenic, and can tightly regulate reporter transgene expression downstream of a TRE promoter from adenoviral vectors in vitro and also in vivo. PMID:18470649

  8. Adult mouse brain gene expression patterns bear an embryologic imprint

    PubMed Central

    Zapala, Matthew A.; Hovatta, Iiris; Ellison, Julie A.; Wodicka, Lisa; Del Rio, Jo A.; Tennant, Richard; Tynan, Wendy; Broide, Ron S.; Helton, Rob; Stoveken, Barbara S.; Winrow, Christopher; Lockhart, Daniel J.; Reilly, John F.; Young, Warren G.; Bloom, Floyd E.; Lockhart, David J.; Barlow, Carrolee

    2005-01-01

    The current model to explain the organization of the mammalian nervous system is based on studies of anatomy, embryology, and evolution. To further investigate the molecular organization of the adult mammalian brain, we have built a gene expression-based brain map. We measured gene expression patterns for 24 neural tissues covering the mouse central nervous system and found, surprisingly, that the adult brain bears a transcriptional “imprint” consistent with both embryological origins and classic evolutionary relationships. Embryonic cellular position along the anterior–posterior axis of the neural tube was shown to be closely associated with, and possibly a determinant of, the gene expression patterns in adult structures. We also observed a significant number of embryonic patterning and homeobox genes with region-specific expression in the adult nervous system. The relationships between global expression patterns for different anatomical regions and the nature of the observed region-specific genes suggest that the adult brain retains a degree of overall gene expression established during embryogenesis that is important for regional specificity and the functional relationships between regions in the adult. The complete collection of extensively annotated gene expression data along with data mining and visualization tools have been made available on a publicly accessible web site (www.barlow-lockhart-brainmapnimhgrant.org). PMID:16002470

  9. Novel redox nanomedicine improves gene expression of polyion complex vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toh, Kazuko; Yoshitomi, Toru; Ikeda, Yutaka; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2011-12-01

    Gene therapy has generated worldwide attention as a new medical technology. While non-viral gene vectors are promising candidates as gene carriers, they have several issues such as toxicity and low transfection efficiency. We have hypothesized that the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) affects gene expression in polyplex supported gene delivery systems. The effect of ROS on the gene expression of polyplex was evaluated using a nitroxide radical-containing nanoparticle (RNP) as an ROS scavenger. When polyethyleneimine (PEI)/pGL3 or PEI alone was added to the HeLa cells, ROS levels increased significantly. In contrast, when (PEI)/pGL3 or PEI was added with RNP, the ROS levels were suppressed. The luciferase expression was increased by the treatment with RNP in a dose-dependent manner and the cellular uptake of pDNA was also increased. Inflammatory cytokines play an important role in ROS generation in vivo. In particular, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α caused intracellular ROS generation in HeLa cells and decreased gene expression. RNP treatment suppressed ROS production even in the presence of TNF-α and increased gene expression. This anti-inflammatory property of RNP suggests that it may be used as an effective adjuvant for non-viral gene delivery systems.

  10. Identifying a gene expression signature of cluster headache in blood

    PubMed Central

    Eising, Else; Pelzer, Nadine; Vijfhuizen, Lisanne S.; Vries, Boukje de; Ferrari, Michel D.; ‘t Hoen, Peter A. C.; Terwindt, Gisela M.; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Cluster headache is a relatively rare headache disorder, typically characterized by multiple daily, short-lasting attacks of excruciating, unilateral (peri-)orbital or temporal pain associated with autonomic symptoms and restlessness. To better understand the pathophysiology of cluster headache, we used RNA sequencing to identify differentially expressed genes and pathways in whole blood of patients with episodic (n = 19) or chronic (n = 20) cluster headache in comparison with headache-free controls (n = 20). Gene expression data were analysed by gene and by module of co-expressed genes with particular attention to previously implicated disease pathways including hypocretin dysregulation. Only moderate gene expression differences were identified and no associations were found with previously reported pathogenic mechanisms. At the level of functional gene sets, associations were observed for genes involved in several brain-related mechanisms such as GABA receptor function and voltage-gated channels. In addition, genes and modules of co-expressed genes showed a role for intracellular signalling cascades, mitochondria and inflammation. Although larger study samples may be required to identify the full range of involved pathways, these results indicate a role for mitochondria, intracellular signalling and inflammation in cluster headache. PMID:28074859

  11. The evolution of duplicate gene expression in mammalian organs

    PubMed Central

    Guschanski, Katerina; Warnefors, Maria; Kaessmann, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Gene duplications generate genomic raw material that allows the emergence of novel functions, likely facilitating adaptive evolutionary innovations. However, global assessments of the functional and evolutionary relevance of duplicate genes in mammals were until recently limited by the lack of appropriate comparative data. Here, we report a large-scale study of the expression evolution of DNA-based functional gene duplicates in three major mammalian lineages (placental mammals, marsupials, egg-laying monotremes) and birds, on the basis of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data from nine species and eight organs. We observe dynamic changes in tissue expression preference of paralogs with different duplication ages, suggesting differential contribution of paralogs to specific organ functions during vertebrate evolution. Specifically, we show that paralogs that emerged in the common ancestor of bony vertebrates are enriched for genes with brain-specific expression and provide evidence for differential forces underlying the preferential emergence of young testis- and liver-specific expressed genes. Further analyses uncovered that the overall spatial expression profiles of gene families tend to be conserved, with several exceptions of pronounced tissue specificity shifts among lineage-specific gene family expansions. Finally, we trace new lineage-specific genes that may have contributed to the specific biology of mammalian organs, including the little-studied placenta. Overall, our study provides novel and taxonomically broad evidence for the differential contribution of duplicate genes to tissue-specific transcriptomes and for their importance for the phenotypic evolution of vertebrates. PMID:28743766

  12. Base composition and expression level of human genes.

    PubMed

    Arhondakis, Stilianos; Auletta, Fabio; Torelli, Giuseppe; D'Onofrio, Giuseppe

    2004-01-21

    It is well known that the gene distribution is non-uniform in the human genome, reaching the highest concentration in the GC-rich isochores. Also the amino acid frequencies, and the hydrophobicity, of the corresponding encoded proteins are affected by the high GC level of the genes localized in the GC-rich isochores. It was hypothesized that the gene expression level as well is higher in GC-rich compared to GC-poor isochores [Mol. Biol. Evol. 10 (1993) 186]. Several features of human genes and proteins, namely expression level, coding and non-coding lengths, and hydrophobicity were investigated in the present paper. The results support the hypothesis reported above, since all the parameters so far studied converge to the same conclusion, that the average expression level of the GC-rich genes is significantly higher than that of the GC-poor genes.

  13. Identification of reference genes in human myelomonocytic cells for gene expression studies in altered gravity.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Cora S; Hauschild, Swantje; Tauber, Svantje; Paulsen, Katrin; Raig, Christiane; Raem, Arnold; Biskup, Josefine; Gutewort, Annett; Hürlimann, Eva; Unverdorben, Felix; Buttron, Isabell; Lauber, Beatrice; Philpot, Claudia; Lier, Hartwin; Engelmann, Frank; Layer, Liliana E; Ullrich, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression studies are indispensable for investigation and elucidation of molecular mechanisms. For the process of normalization, reference genes ("housekeeping genes") are essential to verify gene expression analysis. Thus, it is assumed that these reference genes demonstrate similar expression levels over all experimental conditions. However, common recommendations about reference genes were established during 1 g conditions and therefore their applicability in studies with altered gravity has not been demonstrated yet. The microarray technology is frequently used to generate expression profiles under defined conditions and to determine the relative difference in expression levels between two or more different states. In our study, we searched for potential reference genes with stable expression during different gravitational conditions (microgravity, normogravity, and hypergravity) which are additionally not altered in different hardware systems. We were able to identify eight genes (ALB, B4GALT6, GAPDH, HMBS, YWHAZ, ABCA5, ABCA9, and ABCC1) which demonstrated no altered gene expression levels in all tested conditions and therefore represent good candidates for the standardization of gene expression studies in altered gravity.

  14. Personality and gene expression: Do individual differences exist in the leukocyte transcriptome?

    PubMed

    Vedhara, Kavita; Gill, Sana; Eldesouky, Lameese; Campbell, Bruce K; Arevalo, Jesusa M G; Ma, Jeffrey; Cole, Steven W

    2015-02-01

    The temporal and situational stability of personality has led generations of researchers to hypothesize that personality may have enduring effects on health, but the biological mechanisms of such relationships remain poorly understood. In the present study, we utilized a functional genomics approach to examine the relationship between the 5 major dimensions of personality and patterns of gene expression as predicted by 'behavioural immune response' theory. We specifically focussed on two sets of genes previously linked to stress, threat, and adverse socio-environmental conditions: pro-inflammatory genes and genes involved in Type I interferon and antibody responses. An opportunity sample of 121 healthy individuals was recruited (86 females; mean age 24 years). Individuals completed a validated measure of personality; questions relating to current health behaviours; and provided a 5ml sample of peripheral blood for gene expression analysis. Extraversion was associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory genes and Conscientiousness was associated with reduced expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Both associations were independent of health behaviours, negative affect, and leukocyte subset distributions. Antiviral and antibody-related gene expression was not associated with any personality dimension. The present data shed new light on the long-observed epidemiological associations between personality, physical health, and human longevity. Further research is required to elucidate the biological mechanisms underlying these associations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Personality and gene expression: Do individual differences exist in the leukocyte transcriptome?

    PubMed Central

    Vedhara, Kavita; Gill, Sana; Eldesouky, Lameese; Campbell, Bruce K.; Arevalo, Jesusa M. G.; Ma, Jeffrey; Cole, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Background The temporal and situational stability of personality has led generations of researchers to hypothesise that personality may have enduring effects on health, but the biological mechanisms of such relationships remain poorly understood. In the present study, we utilized a functional genomics approach to examine the relationship between the 5 major dimensions of personality and patterns of gene expression as predicted by ‘behavioural immune response’ theory. We specifically focussed on two sets of genes previously linked to stress, threat, and adverse socio-environmental conditions: pro-inflammatory genes and genes involved in Type I interferon and antibody responses. Methods An opportunity sample of 121 healthy individuals was recruited (86 females; mean age 24 years). Individuals completed a validated measure of personality; questions relating to current health behaviours; and provided a 5 ml sample of peripheral blood for gene expression analysis. Results Extraversion was associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory genes and Conscientiousness was associated with reduced expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Both associations were independent of health behaviours, negative affect, and leukocyte subset distributions. Antiviral and antibody-related gene expression was not associated with any personality dimension. Conclusions The present data shed new light on the long-observed epidemiological associations between personality, physical health, and human longevity. Further research is required to elucidate the biological mechanisms underlying these associations. PMID:25459894

  16. Analysis of bHLH coding genes using gene co-expression network approach.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Swati; Sanchita; Singh, Garima; Singh, Noopur; Srivastava, Gaurava; Sharma, Ashok

    2016-07-01

    Network analysis provides a powerful framework for the interpretation of data. It uses novel reference network-based metrices for module evolution. These could be used to identify module of highly connected genes showing variation in co-expression network. In this study, a co-expression network-based approach was used for analyzing the genes from microarray data. Our approach consists of a simple but robust rank-based network construction. The publicly available gene expression data of Solanum tuberosum under cold and heat stresses were considered to create and analyze a gene co-expression network. The analysis provide highly co-expressed module of bHLH coding genes based on correlation values. Our approach was to analyze the variation of genes expression, according to the time period of stress through co-expression network approach. As the result, the seed genes were identified showing multiple connections with other genes in the same cluster. Seed genes were found to be vary in different time periods of stress. These analyzed seed genes may be utilized further as marker genes for developing the stress tolerant plant species.

  17. The gsdf gene locus harbors evolutionary conserved and clustered genes preferentially expressed in fish previtellogenic oocytes.

    PubMed

    Gautier, Aude; Le Gac, Florence; Lareyre, Jean-Jacques

    2011-02-01

    The gonadal soma-derived factor (GSDF) belongs to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily and is conserved in teleostean fish species. Gsdf is specifically expressed in the gonads, and gene expression is restricted to the granulosa and Sertoli cells in trout and medaka. The gsdf gene expression is correlated to early testis differentiation in medaka and was shown to stimulate primordial germ cell and spermatogonia proliferation in trout. In the present study, we show that the gsdf gene localizes to a syntenic chromosomal fragment conserved among vertebrates although no gsdf-related gene is detected on the corresponding genomic region in tetrapods. We demonstrate using quantitative RT-PCR that most of the genes localized in the synteny are specifically expressed in medaka gonads. Gsdf is the only gene of the synteny with a much higher expression in the testis compared to the ovary. In contrast, gene expression pattern analysis of the gsdf surrounding genes (nup54, aff1, klhl8, sdad1, and ptpn13) indicates that these genes are preferentially expressed in the female gonads. The tissue distribution of these genes is highly similar in medaka and zebrafish, two teleostean species that have diverged more than 110 million years ago. The cellular localization of these genes was determined in medaka gonads using the whole-mount in situ hybridization technique. We confirm that gsdf gene expression is restricted to Sertoli and granulosa cells in contact with the premeiotic and meiotic cells. The nup54 gene is expressed in spermatocytes and previtellogenic oocytes. Transcripts corresponding to the ovary-specific genes (aff1, klhl8, and sdad1) are detected only in previtellogenic oocytes. No expression was detected in the gonocytes in 10 dpf embryos. In conclusion, we show that the gsdf gene localizes to a syntenic chromosomal fragment harboring evolutionary conserved genes in vertebrates. These genes are preferentially expressed in previtelloogenic oocytes, and thus, they

  18. [Preliminary analysis of retinal gene expression profile of diabetic rat].

    PubMed

    Mei, Yan; Zhou, Hong-ying; Xiang, Tao; Lu, You-guang; Li, Ai-dong; Tang, En-jie; Yang, Hui-jun

    2005-10-01

    Establishing the retinal gene expression profiles of non-diabetic rat and diabetic rat and comparing the profiles in order to analyze the possible genes related with diabetic retinopathy. The whole retinal transcriptional fragments of non-diabetic rat and 8-week diabetic rat were obtained by restriction fragments differential display-PCR (RFDD-PCR). Bioinformatic analysis of retinal gene expression was performed using soft wares, including Fragment Analysis. After comparison of the expression profiles, the related gene fragments of diabetic retinopathy were initially selected as the target gene of further approach. A total of 3639 significant fragments were obtained. By means of more than 3-fold contrast of fluorescent intensity as the differential expression standard, the authors got 840 differential fragments, accounting for 23.08% of the expressed numbers and including 5 visual related genes, 13 excitatory neruotransmitter genes and 3 inhibitory neurotransmitter genes. At the 8th week, the expression of Rhodopsin kinase, beta-arrestin, Phosducinìrod photoreceptor cGMP-gated channel and Rpe65 as well as iGlu R1-4 were down-regulated. mGluRs and GABA-Rs were all up-regulated, whereas the expression of GlyR was unchanged. These results prompt again that the changes in retinal nervous layer of rat have occurred at an early stage of diabetes. The genes expression pattern of visual related genes and excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in rat diabetic retina have been involved in neuro-dysfunctions of diabetic retina.

  19. Plasticity-Related Gene Expression During Eszopiclone-Induced Sleep.

    PubMed

    Gerashchenko, Dmitry; Pasumarthi, Ravi K; Kilduff, Thomas S

    2017-07-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that restorative processes depend on synaptic plasticity changes in the brain during sleep. We used the expression of plasticity-related genes to assess synaptic plasticity changes during drug-induced sleep. We first characterized sleep induced by eszopiclone in mice during baseline conditions and during the recovery from sleep deprivation. We then compared the expression of 18 genes and two miRNAs critically involved in synaptic plasticity in these mice. Gene expression was assessed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus by the TaqMan reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and correlated with sleep parameters. Eszopiclone reduced the latency to nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and increased NREM sleep amounts. Eszopiclone had no effect on slow wave activity (SWA) during baseline conditions but reduced the SWA increase during recovery sleep (RS) after sleep deprivation. Gene expression analyses revealed three distinct patterns: (1) four genes had higher expression either in the cortex or hippocampus in the group of mice with increased amounts of wakefulness; (2) a large proportion of plasticity-related genes (7 out of 18 genes) had higher expression during RS in the cortex but not in the hippocampus; and (3) six genes and the two miRNAs showed no significant changes across conditions. Even at a relatively high dose (20 mg/kg), eszopiclone did not reduce the expression of plasticity-related genes during RS period in the cortex. These results indicate that gene expression associated with synaptic plasticity occurs in the cortex in the presence of a hypnotic medication. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Digital gene expression for non-model organisms

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Lewis Z.; Li, Jun; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Warren, Wesley C.; Barsh, Gregory S.

    2011-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies offer new approaches for global measurements of gene expression but are mostly limited to organisms for which a high-quality assembled reference genome sequence is available. We present a method for gene expression profiling called EDGE, or EcoP15I-tagged Digital Gene Expression, based on ultra-high-throughput sequencing of 27-bp cDNA fragments that uniquely tag the corresponding gene, thereby allowing direct quantification of transcript abundance. We show that EDGE is capable of assaying for expression in >99% of genes in the genome and achieves saturation after 6–8 million reads. EDGE exhibits very little technical noise, reveals a large (106) dynamic range of gene expression, and is particularly suited for quantification of transcript abundance in non-model organisms where a high-quality annotated genome is not available. In a direct comparison with RNA-seq, both methods provide similar assessments of relative transcript abundance, but EDGE does better at detecting gene expression differences for poorly expressed genes and does not exhibit transcript length bias. Applying EDGE to laboratory mice, we show that a loss-of-function mutation in the melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r), recognized as a Mendelian determinant of yellow hair color in many different mammals, also causes reduced expression of genes involved in the interferon response. To illustrate the application of EDGE to a non-model organism, we examine skin biopsy samples from a cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and identify genes likely to control differences in the color of spotted versus non-spotted regions. PMID:21844123

  1. Gene expression in obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Muhammad Aliff, M; Muhammad Shazwan, S; Nur Fariha, M M; Hayati, A R; Nur Syahrina, A R; Maizatul Azma, M; Nazefah, A H; Jameela, S; Asral Wirda, A A

    2016-12-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a multisystem disease that may present as venous or arterial thrombosis and/or pregnancy complications with the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. Until today, heterogeneity of pathogenic mechanism fits well with various clinical manifestations. Moreover, previous studies have indicated that genes are differentially expressed between normal and in the disease state. Hence, this study systematically searched the literature on human gene expression that was differentially expressed in Obstetric APS. Electronic search was performed until 31st March 2015 through PubMed and Embase databases; where the following Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms were used and they had been specified as the primary focus of the articles; gene, antiphospholipid, obstetric, and pregnancy in the title or abstract. From 502 studies retrieved from the search, only original publications that had performed gene expression analyses of human placental tissue that reported on differentially expressed gene in pregnancies with Obstetric APS were included. Two reviewers independently scrutinized the titles and the abstracts before examining the eligibility of studies that met the inclusion criteria. For each study; diagnostic criteria for APS, method for analysis, and the gene signature were extracted independently by two reviewers. The genes listed were further analysed with the DAVID and the KEGG pathways. Three eligible gene expression studies involving obstetric APS, comprising the datasets on gene expression, were identified. All three studies showed a reduction in transcript expression on PRL, STAT5, TF, DAF, ABCA1, and HBEGF in Obstetric APS. The high enrichment score for functionality in DAVID had been positive regulation of cell proliferation. Meanwhile, pertaining to the KEGG pathway, two pathways were associated with some of the listed genes, which were ErBb signalling pathway and JAK-STAT signalling pathway. Ultimately, studies on a genetic level

  2. Biased gene expression in early honeybee larval development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Female larvae of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) develop into either queens or workers depending on nutrition. This nutritional stimulus triggers different developmental trajectories, resulting in adults that differ from each other in physiology, behaviour and life span. Results To understand how these trajectories are established we have generated a comprehensive atlas of gene expression throughout larval development. We found substantial differences in gene expression between worker and queen-destined larvae at 6 hours after hatching. Some of these early changes in gene expression are maintained throughout larval development, indicating that caste-specific developmental trajectories are established much earlier than previously thought. Within our gene expression data we identified processes that potentially underlie caste differentiation. Queen-destined larvae have higher expression of genes involved in transcription, translation and protein folding early in development with a later switch to genes involved in energy generation. Using RNA interference, we were able to demonstrate that one of these genes, hexamerin 70b, has a role in caste differentiation. Both queen and worker developmental trajectories are associated with the expression of genes that have alternative splice variants, although only a single variant of a gene tends to be differentially expressed in a given caste. Conclusions Our data, based on the biases in gene expression early in development together with published data, supports the idea that caste development in the honeybee consists of two phases; an initial biased phase of development, where larvae can still switch to the other caste by differential feeding, followed by commitment to a particular developmental trajectory. PMID:24350621

  3. Bovine mammary gene expression profiling during the onset of lactation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuanyuan; Lin, Xueyan; Shi, Kerong; Yan, Zhengui; Wang, Zhonghua

    2013-01-01

    Lactogenesis includes two stages. Stage I begins a few weeks before parturition. Stage II is initiated around the time of parturition and extends for several days afterwards. To better understand the molecular events underlying these changes, genome-wide gene expression profiling was conducted using digital gene expression (DGE) on bovine mammary tissue at three time points (on approximately day 35 before parturition (-35 d), day 7 before parturition (-7 d) and day 3 after parturition (+3 d)). Approximately 6.2 million (M), 5.8 million (M) and 6.1 million (M) 21-nt cDNA tags were sequenced in the three cDNA libraries (-35 d, -7 d and +3 d), respectively. After aligning to the reference sequences, the three cDNA libraries included 8,662, 8,363 and 8,359 genes, respectively. With a fold change cutoff criteria of ≥ 2 or ≤-2 and a false discovery rate (FDR) of ≤ 0.001, a total of 812 genes were significantly differentially expressed at -7 d compared with -35 d (stage I). Gene ontology analysis showed that those significantly differentially expressed genes were mainly associated with cell cycle, lipid metabolism, immune response and biological adhesion. A total of 1,189 genes were significantly differentially expressed at +3 d compared with -7 d (stage II), and these genes were mainly associated with the immune response and cell cycle. Moreover, there were 1,672 genes significantly differentially expressed at +3 d compared with -35 d. Gene ontology analysis showed that the main differentially expressed genes were those associated with metabolic processes. The results suggest that the mammary gland begins to lactate not only by a gain of function but also by a broad suppression of function to effectively push most of the cell's resources towards lactation.

  4. Divergent and nonuniform gene expression patterns in mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Morris, John A.; Royall, Joshua J.; Bertagnolli, Darren; Boe, Andrew F.; Burnell, Josh J.; Byrnes, Emi J.; Copeland, Cathy; Desta, Tsega; Fischer, Shanna R.; Goldy, Jeff; Glattfelder, Katie J.; Kidney, Jolene M.; Lemon, Tracy; Orta, Geralyn J.; Parry, Sheana E.; Pathak, Sayan D.; Pearson, Owen C.; Reding, Melissa; Shapouri, Sheila; Smith, Kimberly A.; Soden, Chad; Solan, Beth M.; Weller, John; Takahashi, Joseph S.; Overly, Caroline C.; Lein, Ed S.; Hawrylycz, Michael J.; Hohmann, John G.; Jones, Allan R.

    2010-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in understanding variations in gene sequence and expression level associated with phenotype, yet how genetic diversity translates into complex phenotypic differences remains poorly understood. Here, we examine the relationship between genetic background and spatial patterns of gene expression across seven strains of mice, providing the most extensive cellular-resolution comparative analysis of gene expression in the mammalian brain to date. Using comprehensive brainwide anatomic coverage (more than 200 brain regions), we applied in situ hybridization to analyze the spatial expression patterns of 49 genes encoding well-known pharmaceutical drug targets. Remarkably, over 50% of the genes examined showed interstrain expression variation. In addition, the variability was nonuniformly distributed across strain and neuroanatomic region, suggesting certain organizing principles. First, the degree of expression variance among strains mirrors genealogic relationships. Second, expression pattern differences were concentrated in higher-order brain regions such as the cortex and hippocampus. Divergence in gene expression patterns across the brain could contribute significantly to variations in behavior and responses to neuroactive drugs in laboratory mouse strains and may help to explain individual differences in human responsiveness to neuroactive drugs. PMID:20956311

  5. Anterior-posterior regionalized gene expression in the Ciona notochord

    PubMed Central

    Veeman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background In the simple ascidian chordate Ciona the signaling pathways and gene regulatory networks giving rise to initial notochord induction are largely understood and the mechanisms of notochord morphogenesis are being systematically elucidated. The notochord has generally been thought of as a non-compartmentalized or regionalized organ that is not finely patterned at the level of gene expression. Quantitative imaging methods have recently shown, however, that notochord cell size, shape and behavior vary consistently along the anterior-posterior (AP) axis. Results Here we screen candidate genes by whole mount in situ hybridization for potential AP asymmetry. We identify 4 genes that show non-uniform expression in the notochord. Ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) is expressed more strongly in the secondary notochord lineage than the primary. CTGF is expressed stochastically in a subset of notochord cells. A novel calmodulin-like gene (BCamL) is expressed more strongly at both the anterior and posterior tips of the notochord. A TGF-β ortholog is expressed in a gradient from posterior to anterior. The asymmetries in ERM, BCamL and TGF-β expression are evident even before the notochord cells have intercalated into a single-file column. Conclusions We conclude that the Ciona notochord is not a homogeneous tissue but instead shows distinct patterns of regionalized gene expression. PMID:24288133

  6. Anterior-posterior regionalized gene expression in the Ciona notochord.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Wendy; Thayer, Rachel; Veeman, Michael

    2014-04-01

    In the simple ascidian chordate Ciona, the signaling pathways and gene regulatory networks giving rise to initial notochord induction are largely understood and the mechanisms of notochord morphogenesis are being systematically elucidated. The notochord has generally been thought of as a non-compartmentalized or regionalized organ that is not finely patterned at the level of gene expression. Quantitative imaging methods have recently shown, however, that notochord cell size, shape, and behavior vary consistently along the anterior-posterior (AP) axis. Here we screen candidate genes by whole mount in situ hybridization for potential AP asymmetry. We identify 4 genes that show non-uniform expression in the notochord. Ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) is expressed more strongly in the secondary notochord lineage than the primary. CTGF is expressed stochastically in a subset of notochord cells. A novel calmodulin-like gene (BCamL) is expressed more strongly at both the anterior and posterior tips of the notochord. A TGF-β ortholog is expressed in a gradient from posterior to anterior. The asymmetries in ERM, BCamL, and TGF-β expression are evident even before the notochord cells have intercalated into a single-file column. We conclude that the Ciona notochord is not a homogeneous tissue but instead shows distinct patterns of regionalized gene expression. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. VH gene family expression in mice with the xid defect

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Preferential use of particular VH gene families in the response to specific antigens has been demonstrated in several systems. The lack of responses to certain types of antigens, therefore, could be the result of deletion of or failure to express some VH genes. Because CBA/N mice, which carry the X-linked immunodeficiency (xid) gene defect, have been shown to be unresponsive to thymus-independent polysaccharide antigens, it was of interest to examine if this unresponsiveness could be accounted for by abnormal expression of particular VH gene families. Using in situ hybridization on B cell colonies, we determined the expression of nine VH gene families in CBA/CaHN females (genotypically normal), CBA/N males (xid) and females (xid), and (CBA/N x CBA/CaHN)F1 males (xid) and females (phenotypically normal). Our results indicate that VH gene family expression, including the S107 family, in CBA/N males and F1 males, is similar to that of CBA/CaHN and F1 females with predominant expression of J558, the largest gene family, in all individuals. Interestingly, CBA/N female mice, which carry two defective X chromosomes, as a group expressed significantly reduced levels of the J558 gene family, and as individuals showed variation in which family was predominantly expressed. We conclude that the unresponsiveness of mice with the xid defect to polysaccharide antigens can not attributed to a failure to express the nine VH gene families that we examined. Our findings do not support previous studies (Primi, D., and P.-A. Cazenave 1986. J. Exp. Med. 165:357), which found an absence of expression of the S107 family in xid mice. PMID:1711566

  8. A deep auto-encoder model for gene expression prediction.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rui; Wen, Jia; Quitadamo, Andrew; Cheng, Jianlin; Shi, Xinghua

    2017-11-17

    Gene expression is a key intermediate level that genotypes lead to a particular trait. Gene expression is affected by various factors including genotypes of genetic variants. With an aim of delineating the genetic impact on gene expression, we build a deep auto-encoder model to assess how good genetic variants will contribute to gene expression changes. This new deep learning model is a regression-based predictive model based on the MultiLayer Perceptron and Stacked Denoising Auto-encoder (MLP-SAE). The model is trained using a stacked denoising auto-encoder for feature selection and a multilayer perceptron framework for backpropagation. We further improve the model by introducing dropout to prevent overfitting and improve performance. To demonstrate the usage of this model, we apply MLP-SAE to a real genomic datasets with genotypes and gene expression profiles measured in yeast. Our results show that the MLP-SAE model with dropout outperforms other models including Lasso, Random Forests and the MLP-SAE model without dropout. Using the MLP-SAE model with dropout, we show that gene expression quantifications predicted by the model solely based on genotypes, align well with true gene expression patterns. We provide a deep auto-encoder model for predicting gene expression from SNP genotypes. This study demonstrates that deep learning is appropriate for tackling another genomic problem, i.e., building predictive models to understand genotypes' contribution to gene expression. With the emerging availability of richer genomic data, we anticipate that deep learning models play a bigger role in modeling and interpreting genomics.

  9. Complexity of Gene Expression Evolution after Duplication: Protein Dosage Rebalancing

    PubMed Central

    Rogozin, Igor B.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing debates about functional importance of gene duplications have been recently intensified by a heated discussion of the “ortholog conjecture” (OC). Under the OC, which is central to functional annotation of genomes, orthologous genes are functionally more similar than paralogous genes at the same level of sequence divergence. However, a recent study challenged the OC by reporting a greater functional similarity, in terms of gene ontology (GO) annotations and expression profiles, among within-species paralogs compared to orthologs. These findings were taken to indicate that functional similarity of homologous genes is primarily determined by the cellular context of the genes, rather than evolutionary history. Subsequent studies suggested that the OC appears to be generally valid when applied to mammalian evolution but the complete picture of evolution of gene expression also has to incorporate lineage-specific aspects of paralogy. The observed complexity of gene expression evolution after duplication can be explained through selection for gene dosage effect combined with the duplication-degeneration-complementation model. This paper discusses expression divergence of recent duplications occurring before functional divergence of proteins encoded by duplicate genes. PMID:25197576

  10. Systematic identification of human housekeeping genes possibly useful as references in gene expression studies.

    PubMed

    Caracausi, Maria; Piovesan, Allison; Antonaros, Francesca; Strippoli, Pierluigi; Vitale, Lorenza; Pelleri, Maria Chiara

    2017-09-01

    The ideal reference, or control, gene for the study of gene expression in a given organism should be expressed at a medium‑high level for easy detection, should be expressed at a constant/stable level throughout different cell types and within the same cell type undergoing different treatments, and should maintain these features through as many different tissues of the organism. From a biological point of view, these theoretical requirements of an ideal reference gene appear to be best suited to housekeeping (HK) genes. Recent advancements in the quality and completeness of human expression microarray data and in their statistical analysis may provide new clues toward the quantitative standardization of human gene expression studies in biology and medicine, both cross‑ and within‑tissue. The systematic approach used by the present study is based on the Transcriptome Mapper tool and exploits the automated reassignment of probes to corresponding genes, intra‑ and inter‑sample normalization, elaboration and representation of gene expression values in linear form within an indexed and searchable database with a graphical interface recording quantitative levels of expression, expression variability and cross‑tissue width of expression for more than 31,000 transcripts. The present study conducted a meta‑analysis of a pool of 646 expression profile data sets from 54 different human tissues and identified actin γ 1 as the HK gene that best fits the combination of all the traditional criteria to be used as a reference gene for general use; two ribosomal protein genes, RPS18 and RPS27, and one aquaporin gene, POM121 transmembrane nucleporin C, were also identified. The present study provided a list of tissue‑ and organ‑specific genes that may be most suited for the following individual tissues/organs: Adipose tissue, bone marrow, brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, ovary, skeletal muscle and testis; and also provides in these cases a representative

  11. Selection and validation of reference genes for gene expression analysis in apomictic and sexual Cenchrus ciliaris

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Apomixis is a naturally occurring asexual mode of seed reproduction resulting in offspring genetically identical to the maternal plant. Identifying differential gene expression patterns between apomictic and sexual plants is valuable to help deconstruct the trait. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is a popular method for analyzing gene expression. Normalizing gene expression data using proper reference genes which show stable expression under investigated conditions is critical in qRT-PCR analysis. We used qRT-PCR to validate expression and stability of six potential reference genes (EF1alpha, EIF4A, UBCE, GAPDH, ACT2 and TUBA) in vegetative and reproductive tissues of B-2S and B-12-9 accessions of C. ciliaris. Findings Among tissue types evaluated, EF1alpha showed the highest level of expression while TUBA showed the lowest. When all tissue types were evaluated and compared between genotypes, EIF4A was the most stable reference gene. Gene expression stability for specific ovary stages of B-2S and B-12-9 was also determined. Except for TUBA, all other tested reference genes could be used for any stage-specific ovary tissue normalization, irrespective of the mode of reproduction. Conclusion Our gene expression stability assay using six reference genes, in sexual and apomictic accessions of C. ciliaris, suggests that EIF4A is the most stable gene across all tissue types analyzed. All other tested reference genes, with the exception of TUBA, could be used for gene expression comparison studies between sexual and apomictic ovaries over multiple developmental stages. This reference gene validation data in C. ciliaris will serve as an important base for future apomixis-related transcriptome data validation. PMID:24083672

  12. Haplotype analysis of the apolipoprotein A5 gene in obese pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Horvatovich, Katalin; Bokor, Szilvia; Baráth, Akos; Maász, Anita; Kisfali, Péter; Járomi, Luca; Polgár, Noémi; Tóth, Dénes; Répásy, Judit; Endreffy, Emoke; Molnár, Dénes; Melegh, Béla

    2011-06-01

    Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) gene variants have been shown to be associated with elevated TG levels; the T-1131C (rs662799) variant has been reported to confer risk for the metabolic syndrome in adult populations. Little is known about the APOA5 variants in pediatric population, no such information is available for pediatric obesity at all. Here we examined four haplotype-tagging polymorphisms (T-1131C, IVS3 + G476A [rs2072560], T1259C [rs2266788] and C56G [rs3135506]) and studied also the frequency of major naturally occurring haplotypes of APOA5 in obese children. The polymorphisms were analyzed in 232 obese children, and in 137 healthy, normal weight controls, using PCR-RFLP methods. In the pediatric patients we could confirm the already known adult subjects based association of -1131C, IVS3 + 476A and 1259C variants with elevated triglyceride concentrations, both in obese patients and in the controls. The prevalence of the APOA5*2 haplotype (containing the minor allele of T-1131C, IVS3 + G476A and T1259C SNPs together) was 15.5% in obese children, and 5.80% in the controls (p<0.001); multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that this haplotype confers susceptibility for development of obesity (OR=2.87; 95% CI: 1.29-6.37; p≤0.01). By contrast, the APOA5*4 haplotype (with -1131C alone) did not show similar associations. Our findings also suggest that the APOA5*5 haplotype (1259C alone) can be protective against obesity (OR=0.25; 95% CI: 0.07-0.80; p<0.05). While previous studies in adults demonstrated, that the APOA5 -1131C minor allele confers risk for adult metabolic syndrome, here we show, that the susceptibility nature of this SNP restricted to the APOA5*2 haplotype in pediatric obese subjects.

  13. Integration of biological networks and gene expression data using Cytoscape

    PubMed Central

    Cline, Melissa S; Smoot, Michael; Cerami, Ethan; Kuchinsky, Allan; Landys, Nerius; Workman, Chris; Christmas, Rowan; Avila-Campilo, Iliana; Creech, Michael; Gross, Benjamin; Hanspers, Kristina; Isserlin, Ruth; Kelley, Ryan; Killcoyne, Sarah; Lotia, Samad; Maere, Steven; Morris, John; Ono, Keiichiro; Pavlovic, Vuk; Pico, Alexander R; Vailaya, Aditya; Wang, Peng-Liang; Adler, Annette; Conklin, Bruce R; Hood, Leroy; Kuiper, Martin; Sander, Chris; Schmulevich, Ilya; Schwikowski, Benno; Warner, Guy J; Ideker, Trey; Bader, Gary D

    2013-01-01

    Cytoscape is a free software package for visualizing, modeling and analyzing molecular and genetic interaction networks. This protocol explains how to use Cytoscape to analyze the results of mRNA expression profiling, and other functional genomics and proteomics experiments, in the context of an interaction network obtained for genes of interest. Five major steps are described: (i) obtaining a gene or protein network, (ii) displaying the network using layout algorithms, (iii) integrating with gene expression and other functional attributes, (iv) identifying putative complexes and functional modules and (v) identifying enriched Gene Ontology annotations in the network. These steps provide a broad sample of the types of analyses performed by Cytoscape. PMID:17947979

  14. Structure and expression of canary myc family genes.

    PubMed Central

    Collum, R G; Clayton, D F; Alt, F W

    1991-01-01

    We found that the canary N-myc gene is highly related to mammalian N-myc genes in both the protein-coding region and the long 3' untranslated region. Examined coding regions of the canary c-myc gene were also highly related to their mammalian counterparts, but in contrast to N-myc, the canary and mammalian c-myc genes were quite divergent in their 3' untranslated regions. We readily detected N-myc and c-myc expression in the adult canary brain and found N-myc expression both at sites of proliferating neuronal precursors and in mature neurons. Images PMID:1996121

  15. Reference genes for gene expression studies in wheat flag leaves grown under different farming conditions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Internal control genes with highly uniform expression throughout the experimental conditions are required for accurate gene expression analysis as no universal reference genes exists. In this study, the expression stability of 24 candidate genes from Triticum aestivum cv. Cubus flag leaves grown under organic and conventional farming systems was evaluated in two locations in order to select suitable genes that can be used for normalization of real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) reactions. The genes were selected among the most common used reference genes as well as genes encoding proteins involved in several metabolic pathways. Findings Individual genes displayed different expression rates across all samples assayed. Applying geNorm, a set of three potential reference genes were suitable for normalization of RT-qPCR reactions in winter wheat flag leaves cv. Cubus: TaFNRII (ferredoxin-NADP(H) oxidoreductase; AJ457980.1), ACT2 (actin 2; TC234027), and rrn26 (a putative homologue to RNA 26S gene; AL827977.1). In addition of these three genes that were also top-ranked by NormFinder, two extra genes: CYP18-2 (Cyclophilin A, AY456122.1) and TaWIN1 (14-3-3 like protein, AB042193) were most consistently stably expressed. Furthermore, we showed that TaFNRII, ACT2, and CYP18-2 are suitable for gene expression normalization in other two winter wheat varieties (Tommi and Centenaire) grown under three treatments (organic, conventional and no nitrogen) and a different environment than the one tested with cv. Cubus. Conclusions This study provides a new set of reference genes which should improve the accuracy of gene expression analyses when using wheat flag leaves as those related to the improvement of nitrogen use efficiency for cereal production. PMID:21951810

  16. Stochastic and epigenetic changes of gene expression in Arabidopsis polyploids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianlin; Tian, Lu; Madlung, Andreas; Lee, Hyeon-Se; Chen, Meng; Lee, Jinsuk J; Watson, Brian; Kagochi, Trevor; Comai, Luca; Chen, Z Jeffrey

    2004-08-01

    Polyploidization is an abrupt speciation mechanism for eukaryotes and is especially common in plants. However, little is known about patterns and mechanisms of gene regulation during early stages of polyploid formation. Here we analyzed differential expression patterns of the progenitors' genes among successive selfing generations and independent lineages. The synthetic Arabidopsis allotetraploid lines were produced by a genetic cross between A. thaliana and A. arenosa autotetraploids. We found that some progenitors' genes are differentially expressed in early generations, whereas other genes are silenced in late generations or among different siblings within a selfing generation, suggesting that the silencing of progenitors' genes is rapidly and/or stochastically established. Moreover, a subset of genes is affected in autotetraploid and multiple independent allotetraploid lines and in A. suecica, a natural allotetraploid derived from A. thaliana and A. arenosa, indicating locus-specific susceptibility to ploidy-dependent gene regulation. The role of DNA methylation in silencing progenitors' genes is tested in DNA-hypomethylation transgenic lines of A. suecica using RNA interference (RNAi). Two silenced genes are reactivated in both ddm1- and met1-RNAi lines, consistent with the demethylation of centromeric repeats and gene-specific regions in the genome. A rapid and stochastic process of differential gene expression is reinforced by epigenetic regulation during polyploid formation and evolution. Copyright 2004 Genetics Society of America

  17. Evolutionary Analysis and Expression Profiling of Zebra Finch Immune Genes

    PubMed Central

    Ekblom, Robert; French, Lisa; Slate, Jon; Burke, Terry

    2010-01-01

    Genes of the immune system are generally considered to evolve rapidly due to host–parasite coevolution. They are therefore of great interest in evolutionary biology and molecular ecology. In this study, we manually annotated 144 avian immune genes from the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) genome and conducted evolutionary analyses of these by comparing them with their orthologs in the chicken (Gallus gallus). Genes classified as immune receptors showed elevated dN/dS ratios compared with other classes of immune genes. Immune genes in general also appear to be evolving more rapidly than other genes, as inferred from a higher dN/dS ratio compared with the rest of the genome. Furthermore, ten genes (of 27) for which sequence data were available from at least three bird species showed evidence of positive selection acting on specific codons. From transcriptome data of eight different tissues, we found evidence for expression of 106 of the studied immune genes, with primary expression of most of these in bursa, blood, and spleen. These immune-related genes showed a more tissue-specific expression pattern than other genes in the zebra finch genome. Several of the avian immune genes investigated here provide strong candidates for in-depth studies of molecular adaptation in birds. PMID:20884724

  18. Gene duplication, silencing and expression alteration govern the molecular evolution of PRC2 genes in plants.

    PubMed

    Furihata, Hazuka Y; Suenaga, Kazuya; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Yoshida, Takanori; Kawabe, Akira

    2016-10-13

    PRC2 genes were analyzed for their number of gene duplications, d N /d S ratios and expression patterns among Brassicaceae and Gramineae species. Although both amino acid sequences and copy number of the PRC2 genes were generally well conserved in both Brassicaceae and Gramineae species, we observed that some rapidly evolving genes experienced duplications and expression pattern changes. After multiple duplication events, all but one or two of the duplicated copies tend to be silenced. Silenced copies were reactivated in the endosperm and showed ectopic expression in developing seeds. The results indicated that rapid evolution of some PRC2 genes is initially caused by a relaxation of selective constraint following the gene duplication events. Several loci could become maternally expressed imprinted genes and acquired functional roles in the endosperm.

  19. Gene expression studies of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR: an overview in insects.

    PubMed

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Rodriguez, Alicia; Tahir, Urfa Bin; Jin, Fengliang

    2018-02-01

    Whenever gene expression is being examined, it is essential that a normalization process is carried out to eliminate non-biological variations. The use of reference genes, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, actin, and ribosomal protein genes, is the usual method of choice for normalizing gene expression. Although reference genes are used to normalize target gene expression, a major problem is that the stability of these genes differs among tissues, developmental stages, species, and responses to abiotic factors. Therefore, the use and validation of multiple reference genes are required. This review discusses the reasons that why RT-qPCR has become the preferred method for validating results of gene expression profiles, the use of specific and non-specific dyes and the importance of use of primers and probes for qPCR as well as to discuss several statistical algorithms developed to help the validation of potential reference genes. The conflicts arising in the use of classical reference genes in gene normalization and their replacement with novel references are also discussed by citing the high stability and low stability of classical and novel reference genes under various biotic and abiotic experimental conditions by employing various methods applied for the reference genes amplification.

  20. Expression of HES and HEY genes in infantile hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Adepoju, Omotinuwe; Wong, Alvin; Kitajewski, Alex; Tong, Karen; Boscolo, Elisa; Bischoff, Joyce; Kitajewski, Jan; Wu, June K

    2011-08-11

    Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common benign tumor of infancy, yet their pathogenesis is poorly understood. IHs are believed to originate from a progenitor cell, the hemangioma stem cell (HemSC). Recent studies by our group showed that NOTCH proteins and NOTCH ligands are expressed in hemangiomas, indicating Notch signaling may be active in IHs. We sought to investigate downstream activation of Notch signaling in hemangioma cells by evaluating the expression of the basic HLH family proteins, HES/HEY, in IHs. HemSCs and hemangioma endothelial cells (HemECs) are isolated from freshly resected hemangioma specimens. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed to probe for relative gene transcript levels (normalized to beta-actin). Immunofluorescence was performed to evaluate protein expression. Co-localization studies were performed with CD31 (endothelial cells) and NOTCH3 (peri-vascular, non-endothelial cells). HemSCs were treated with the gamma secretase inhibitor (GSI) Compound E, and gene transcript levels were quantified with real-time PCR. HEY1, HEYL, and HES1 are highly expressed in HemSCs, while HEY2 is highly expressed in HemECs. Protein expression evaluation by immunofluorescence confirms that HEY2 is expressed by HemECs (CD31+ cells), while HEY1, HEYL, and HES1 are more widely expressed and mostly expressed by perivascular cells of hemangiomas. Inhibition of Notch signaling by addition of GSI resulted in down-regulation of HES/HEY genes. HES/HEY genes are expressed in IHs in cell type specific patterns; HEY2 is expressed in HemECs and HEY1, HEYL, HES1 are expressed in HemSCs. This pattern suggests that HEY/HES genes act downstream of Notch receptors that function in distinct cell types of IHs. HES/HEY gene transcripts are decreased with the addition of a gamma-secretase inhibitor, Compound E, demonstrating that Notch signaling is active in infantile hemangioma cells.

  1. Gene Expression Measurement Module (GEMM) - A Fully Automated, Miniaturized Instrument for Measuring Gene Expression in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Peyvan, Kia; Karouia, Fathi; Ricco, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The capability to measure gene expression on board spacecraft opens the door to a large number of high-value experiments on the influence of the space environment on biological systems. For example, measurements of gene expression will help us to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions beyond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment on a wide range of organisms from microbes to humans, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, and determine the metabolic bases of microbial pathogenicity and drug resistance. These and other applications hold significant potential for discoveries in space biology, biotechnology, and medicine. Supported by funding from the NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development Program, we are developing a fully automated, miniaturized, integrated fluidic system for small spacecraft capable of in-situ measurement of expression of several hundreds of microbial genes from multiple samples. The instrument will be capable of (1) lysing cell walls of bacteria sampled from cultures grown in space, (2) extracting and purifying RNA released from cells, (3) hybridizing the RNA on a microarray and (4) providing readout of the microarray signal, all in a single microfluidics cartridge. The device is suitable for deployment on nanosatellite platforms developed by NASA Ames' Small Spacecraft Division. To meet space and other technical constraints imposed by these platforms, a number of technical innovations are being implemented. The integration and end-to-end technological and biological validation of the instrument are carried out using as a model the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus, known for its remarkable metabolic diversity and resilience to adverse conditions. Each step in the measurement process-lysis, nucleic acid extraction, purification, and hybridization to an array-is assessed through comparison of the results obtained using the instrument with

  2. Gene Expression in Human Accessory Lacrimal Glands of Wolfring

    PubMed Central

    Ubels, John L.; Gipson, Ilene K.; Spurr-Michaud, Sandra J.; Tisdale, Ann S.; Van Dyken, Rachel E.; Hatton, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The accessory lacrimal glands are assumed to contribute to the production of tear fluid, but little is known about their function. The goal of this study was to conduct an analysis of gene expression by glands of Wolfring that would provide a more complete picture of the function of these glands. Methods. Glands of Wolfring were isolated from frozen sections of human eyelids by laser microdissection. RNA was extracted from the cells and hybridized to gene expression arrays. The expression of several of the major genes was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Results. Of the 24 most highly expressed genes, 9 were of direct relevance to lacrimal function. These included lysozyme, lactoferrin, tear lipocalin, and lacritin. The glands of Wolfring are enriched in genes related to protein synthesis, targeting, and secretion, and a large number of genes for proteins with antimicrobial activity were detected. Ion channels and transporters, carbonic anhydrase, and aquaporins were abundantly expressed. Genes for control of lacrimal function, including cholinergic, adrenergic, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, purinergic, androgen, and prolactin receptors were also expressed in gland of Wolfring. Conclusions. The data suggest that the function of glands of Wolfring is similar to that of main lacrimal glands and are consistent with secretion electrolytes, fluid, and protein under nervous and hormonal control. Since these glands secrete directly onto the ocular surface, their location may allow rapid response to exogenous stimuli and makes them readily accessible to topical drugs. PMID:22956620

  3. Identification of Reference Genes in Human Myelomonocytic Cells for Gene Expression Studies in Altered Gravity

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Cora S.; Hauschild, Swantje; Tauber, Svantje; Paulsen, Katrin; Raig, Christiane; Raem, Arnold; Biskup, Josefine; Gutewort, Annett; Hürlimann, Eva; Philpot, Claudia; Lier, Hartwin; Engelmann, Frank; Layer, Liliana E.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression studies are indispensable for investigation and elucidation of molecular mechanisms. For the process of normalization, reference genes (“housekeeping genes”) are essential to verify gene expression analysis. Thus, it is assumed that these reference genes demonstrate similar expression levels over all experimental conditions. However, common recommendations about reference genes were established during 1 g conditions and therefore their applicability in studies with altered gravity has not been demonstrated yet. The microarray technology is frequently used to generate expression profiles under defined conditions and to determine the relative difference in expression levels between two or more different states. In our study, we searched for potential reference genes with stable expression during different gravitational conditions (microgravity, normogravity, and hypergravity) which are additionally not altered in different hardware systems. We were able to identify eight genes (ALB, B4GALT6, GAPDH, HMBS, YWHAZ, ABCA5, ABCA9, and ABCC1) which demonstrated no altered gene expression levels in all tested conditions and therefore represent good candidates for the standardization of gene expression studies in altered gravity. PMID:25654098

  4. GESearch: An Interactive GUI Tool for Identifying Gene Expression Signature.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ning; Yin, Hengfu; Liu, Jingjing; Dai, Xiaogang; Yin, Tongming

    2015-01-01

    The huge amount of gene expression data generated by microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies present challenges to exploit their biological meanings. When searching for the coexpression genes, the data mining process is largely affected by selection of algorithms. Thus, it is highly desirable to provide multiple options of algorithms in the user-friendly analytical toolkit to explore the gene expression signatures. For this purpose, we developed GESearch, an interactive graphical user interface (GUI) toolkit, which is written in MATLAB and supports a variety of gene expression data files. This analytical toolkit provides four models, including the mean, the regression, the delegate, and the ensemble models, to identify the coexpression genes, and enables the users to filter data and to select gene expression patterns by browsing the display window or by importing knowledge-based genes. Subsequently, the utility of this analytical toolkit is demonstrated by analyzing two sets of real-life microarray datasets from cell-cycle experiments. Overall, we have developed an interactive GUI toolkit that allows for choosing multiple algorithms for analyzing the gene expression signatures.

  5. Imprinted gene expression in fetal growth and development.

    PubMed

    Lambertini, L; Marsit, C J; Sharma, P; Maccani, M; Ma, Y; Hu, J; Chen, J

    2012-06-01

    Experimental studies showed that genomic imprinting is fundamental in fetoplacental development by timely regulating the expression of the imprinted genes to overlook a set of events determining placenta implantation, growth and embryogenesis. We examined the expression profile of 22 imprinted genes which have been linked to pregnancy abnormalities that may ultimately influence childhood development. The study was conducted in a subset of 106 placenta samples, overrepresented with small and large for gestational age cases, from the Rhode Island Child Health Study. We investigated associations between imprinted gene expression and three fetal development parameters: newborn head circumference, birth weight, and size for gestational age. Results from our investigation show that the maternally imprinted/paternally expressed gene ZNF331 inversely associates with each parameter to drive smaller fetal size, while paternally imprinted/maternally expressed gene SLC22A18 directly associates with the newborn head circumference promoting growth. Multidimensional Scaling analysis revealed two clusters within the 22 imprinted genes which are independently associated with fetoplacental development. Our data suggest that cluster 1 genes work by assuring cell growth and tissue development, while cluster 2 genes act by coordinating these processes. Results from this epidemiologic study offer solid support for the key role of imprinting in fetoplacental development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Transposon integration enhances expression of stress response genes.

    PubMed

    Feng, Gang; Leem, Young-Eun; Levin, Henry L

    2013-01-01

    Transposable elements possess specific patterns of integration. The biological impact of these integration profiles is not well understood. Tf1, a long-terminal repeat retrotransposon in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, integrates into promoters with a preference for the promoters of stress response genes. To determine the biological significance of Tf1 integration, we took advantage of saturated maps of insertion activity and studied how integration at hot spots affected the expression of the adjacent genes. Our study revealed that Tf1 integration did not reduce gene expression. Importantly, the insertions activated the expression of 6 of 32 genes tested. We found that Tf1 increased gene expression by inserting enhancer activity. Interestingly, the enhancer activity of Tf1 could be limited by Abp1, a host surveillance factor that sequesters transposon sequences into structures containing histone deacetylases. We found the Tf1 promoter was activated by heat treatment and, remarkably, only genes that themselves were induced by heat could be activated by Tf1 integration, suggesting a synergy of Tf1 enhancer sequence with the stress response elements of target promoters. We propose that the integration preference of Tf1 for the promoters of stress response genes and the ability of Tf1 to enhance the expression of these genes co-evolved to promote the survival of cells under stress.

  7. Ion channel gene expression predicts survival in glioma patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rong; Gurguis, Christopher I.; Gu, Wanjun; Ko, Eun A; Lim, Inja; Bang, Hyoweon; Zhou, Tong; Ko, Jae-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Ion channels are important regulators in cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis. The malfunction and/or aberrant expression of ion channels may disrupt these important biological processes and influence cancer progression. In this study, we investigate the expression pattern of ion channel genes in glioma. We designate 18 ion channel genes that are differentially expressed in high-grade glioma as a prognostic molecular signature. This ion channel gene expression based signature predicts glioma outcome in three independent validation cohorts. Interestingly, 16 of these 18 genes were down-regulated in high-grade glioma. This signature is independent of traditional clinical, molecular, and histological factors. Resampling tests indicate that the prognostic power of the signature outperforms random gene sets selected from human genome in all the validation cohorts. More importantly, this signature performs better than the random gene signatures selected from glioma-associated genes in two out of three validation datasets. This study implicates ion channels in brain cancer, thus expanding on knowledge of their roles in other cancers. Individualized profiling of ion channel gene expression serves as a superior and independent prognostic tool for glioma patients. PMID:26235283

  8. Transposon integration enhances expression of stress response genes

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Gang; Leem, Young-Eun; Levin, Henry L.

    2013-01-01

    Transposable elements possess specific patterns of integration. The biological impact of these integration profiles is not well understood. Tf1, a long-terminal repeat retrotransposon in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, integrates into promoters with a preference for the promoters of stress response genes. To determine the biological significance of Tf1 integration, we took advantage of saturated maps of insertion activity and studied how integration at hot spots affected the expression of the adjacent genes. Our study revealed that Tf1 integration did not reduce gene expression. Importantly, the insertions activated the expression of 6 of 32 genes tested. We found that Tf1 increased gene expression by inserting enhancer activity. Interestingly, the enhancer activity of Tf1 could be limited by Abp1, a host surveillance factor that sequesters transposon sequences into structures containing histone deacetylases. We found the Tf1 promoter was activated by heat treatment and, remarkably, only genes that themselves were induced by heat could be activated by Tf1 integration, suggesting a synergy of Tf1 enhancer sequence with the stress response elements of target promoters. We propose that the integration preference of Tf1 for the promoters of stress response genes and the ability of Tf1 to enhance the expression of these genes co-evolved to promote the survival of cells under stress. PMID:23193295

  9. VH gene expression and regulation in the mutant Alicia rabbit. Rescue of VHa2 allotype expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, H T; Alexander, C B; Young-Cooper, G O; Mage, R G

    1993-04-01

    Rabbits of the Alicia strain, derived from rabbits expressing the VHa2 allotype, have a mutation in the H chain locus that has a cis effect upon the expression of VHa2 and VHa- genes. A small deletion at the most J-proximal (3') end of the VH locus leads to low expression of all the genes on the entire chromosome in heterozygous ali mutants and altered relative expression of VH genes in homozygotes. To study VH gene expression and regulation, we used the polymerase chain reaction to amplify the VH genes expressed in spleens of young and adult wild-type and mutant Alicia rabbits. The cDNA from reverse transcription of splenic mRNA was amplified and polymerase chain reaction libraries were constructed and screened with oligonucleotides from framework regions 1 and 3, as well as JH. Thirty-three VH-positive clones were sequenced and analyzed. We found that in mutant Alicia rabbits, products of the first functional VH gene (VH4a2), (or VH4a2-like genes) were expressed in 2- to 8-wk-olds. Expression of both the VHx and VHy types of VHa- genes was also elevated but the relative proportions of VHx and VHy, especially VHx, decreased whereas the relative levels of expression of VH4a2 or VH4a2-like genes increased with age. Our results suggest that the appearance of sequences resembling that of the VH1a2, which is deleted in the mutant ali rabbits, could be caused by alterations of the sequences of the rearranged VH4a2 genes by gene conversions and/or rearrangement of upstream VH1a2-like genes later in development.

  10. Estradiol-induced gene expression in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowman, C.J.; Kroll, K.J.; Gross, T.G.; Denslow, N.D.

    2002-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vtg) and estrogen receptor (ER) gene expression levels were measured in largemouth bass to evaluate the activation of the ER-mediated pathway by estradiol (E2). Single injections of E2 ranging from 0.0005 to 5 mg/kg up-regulated plasma Vtg in a dose-dependent manner. Vtg and ER mRNAs were measured using partial cDNA sequences corresponding to the C-terminal domain for Vtg and the ligand-binding domain of ER?? sequences. After acute E2-exposures (2 mg/kg), Vtg and ER mRNAs and plasma Vtg levels peaked after 2 days. The rate of ER mRNA accumulation peaked 36-42 h earlier than Vtg mRNA. The expression window for ER defines the primary response to E2 in largemouth bass and that for Vtg a delayed primary response. The specific effect of E2 on other estrogen-regulated genes was tested during these same time windows using differential display RT-PCR. Specific up-regulated genes that are expressed in the same time window as Vtg were ERp72 (a membrane-bound disulfide isomerase) and a gene with homology to an expressed gene identified in zebrafish. Genes that were expressed in a pattern that mimics the ER include the gene for zona radiata protein ZP2, and a gene with homology to an expressed gene found in winter flounder. One gene for fibrinogen ?? was down-regulated and an unidentified gene was transiently up-regulated after 12 h of exposure and returned to basal levels by 48 h. Taken together these studies indicate that the acute molecular response to E2 involves a complex network of responses over time. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sex-Biased Gene Expression and Sexual Conflict throughout Development

    PubMed Central

    Ingleby, Fiona C.; Flis, Ilona; Morrow, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    Sex-biased gene expression is likely to account for most sexually dimorphic traits because males and females share much of their genome. When fitness optima differ between sexes for a shared trait, sexual dimorphism can allow each sex to express their optimum trait phenotype, and in this way, the evolution of sex-biased gene expression is one mechanism that could help to resolve intralocus sexual conflict. Genome-wide patterns of sex-biased gene expression have been identified in a number of studies, which we review here. However, very little is known about how sex-biased gene expression relates to sex-specific fitness and about how sex-biased gene expression and conflict vary throughout development or across different genotypes, populations, and environments. We discuss the importance of these neglected areas of research and use data from a small-scale experiment on sex-specific expression of genes throughout development to highlight potentially interesting avenues for future research. PMID:25376837

  12. Gene expression distribution deconvolution in single-cell RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingshu; Huang, Mo; Torre, Eduardo; Dueck, Hannah; Shaffer, Sydney; Murray, John; Raj, Arjun; Li, Mingyao; Zhang, Nancy R

    2018-06-26

    Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) enables the quantification of each gene's expression distribution across cells, thus allowing the assessment of the dispersion, nonzero fraction, and other aspects of its distribution beyond the mean. These statistical characterizations of the gene expression distribution are critical for understanding expression variation and for selecting marker genes for population heterogeneity. However, scRNA-seq data are noisy, with each cell typically sequenced at low coverage, thus making it difficult to infer properties of the gene expression distribution from raw counts. Based on a reexamination of nine public datasets, we propose a simple technical noise model for scRNA-seq data with unique molecular identifiers (UMI). We develop deconvolution of single-cell expression distribution (DESCEND), a method that deconvolves the true cross-cell gene expression distribution from observed scRNA-seq counts, leading to improved estimates of properties of the distribution such as dispersion and nonzero fraction. DESCEND can adjust for cell-level covariates such as cell size, cell cycle, and batch effects. DESCEND's noise model and estimation accuracy are further evaluated through comparisons to RNA FISH data, through data splitting and simulations and through its effectiveness in removing known batch effects. We demonstrate how DESCEND can clarify and improve downstream analyses such as finding differentially expressed genes, identifying cell types, and selecting differentiation markers. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  13. Nucleus-Selective Expression of Laccase Genes in the Dikaryotic Strain of Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Ha, Byeongsuk; Lee, Sieun; Kim, Sinil; Kim, Minseek; Moon, Yoon Jung; Song, Yelin; Ro, Hyeon-Su

    2017-12-01

    In mating of Lentinula edodes , dikaryotic strains generated from certain monokaryotic strains such as the B2 used in this study tend to show better quality of fruiting bodies regardless of the mated monokaryotic strains. Unlike B2, dikaryotic strains generated from B16 generally show low yields, with deformed or underdeveloped fruiting bodies. This indicates that the two nuclei in the cytoplasm do not contribute equally to the physiology of dikaryotic L. edodes , suggesting an expression bias in the allelic genes of the two nuclei. To understand the role of each nucleus in dikaryotic strains, we investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in laccase genes of monokaryotic strains to reveal nuclear origin of the expressed mRNAs in dikaryotic strain. We performed reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis using total RNAs extracted from dikaryotic strains (A5B2, A18B2, and A2B16) as well as from compatible monokaryotic strains (A5, A18, and B2 for A5B2 and A18B2; A2 and B16 for A2B16). RT-PCR results revealed that Lcc1, Lcc2, Lcc4, Lcc7, and Lcc10 were the mainly expressed laccase genes in the L. edodes genome. To determine the nuclear origin of these laccase genes, the genomic DNA sequences in monokaryotic strains were analyzed, thereby revealing five SNPs in Lcc4 and two in Lcc7. Subsequent sequence analysis of laccase mRNAs expressed in dikaryotic strains revealed that these were almost exclusively expressed from B2-originated nuclei in A5B2 and A18B2 whereas B16 nucleus did not contribute to laccase expression in A2B16 strain. This suggests that B2 nucleus dominates the expression of allelic genes, thereby governing the physiology of dikaryons.

  14. Nucleus-Selective Expression of Laccase Genes in the Dikaryotic Strain of Lentinula edodes

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Byeongsuk; Lee, Sieun; Kim, Sinil; Kim, Minseek; Moon, Yoon Jung; Song, Yelin

    2017-01-01

    In mating of Lentinula edodes, dikaryotic strains generated from certain monokaryotic strains such as the B2 used in this study tend to show better quality of fruiting bodies regardless of the mated monokaryotic strains. Unlike B2, dikaryotic strains generated from B16 generally show low yields, with deformed or underdeveloped fruiting bodies. This indicates that the two nuclei in the cytoplasm do not contribute equally to the physiology of dikaryotic L. edodes, suggesting an expression bias in the allelic genes of the two nuclei. To understand the role of each nucleus in dikaryotic strains, we investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in laccase genes of monokaryotic strains to reveal nuclear origin of the expressed mRNAs in dikaryotic strain. We performed reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis using total RNAs extracted from dikaryotic strains (A5B2, A18B2, and A2B16) as well as from compatible monokaryotic strains (A5, A18, and B2 for A5B2 and A18B2; A2 and B16 for A2B16). RT-PCR results revealed that Lcc1, Lcc2, Lcc4, Lcc7, and Lcc10 were the mainly expressed laccase genes in the L. edodes genome. To determine the nuclear origin of these laccase genes, the genomic DNA sequences in monokaryotic strains were analyzed, thereby revealing five SNPs in Lcc4 and two in Lcc7. Subsequent sequence analysis of laccase mRNAs expressed in dikaryotic strains revealed that these were almost exclusively expressed from B2-originated nuclei in A5B2 and A18B2 whereas B16 nucleus did not contribute to laccase expression in A2B16 strain. This suggests that B2 nucleus dominates the expression of allelic genes, thereby governing the physiology of dikaryons. PMID:29371806

  15. Targeting gene expression selectively in cancer cells by using the progression-elevated gene-3 promoter.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhao-Zhong; Sarkar, Devanand; Emdad, Luni; Duigou, Gregory J; Young, Charles S H; Ware, Joy; Randolph, Aaron; Valerie, Kristoffer; Fisher, Paul B

    2005-01-25

    One impediment to effective cancer-specific gene therapy is the rarity of regulatory sequences targeting gene expression selectively in tumor cells. Although many tissue-specific promoters are recognized, few cancer-selective gene promoters are available. Progression-elevated gene-3 (PEG-3) is a rodent gene identified by subtraction hybridization that displays elevated expression as a function of transformation by diversely acting oncogenes, DNA damage, and cancer cell progression. The promoter of PEG-3, PEG-Prom, displays robust expression in a broad spectrum of human cancer cell lines with marginal expression in normal cellular counterparts. Whereas GFP expression, when under the control of a CMV promoter, is detected in both normal and cancer cells, when GFP is expressed under the control of the PEG-Prom, cancer-selective expression is evident. Mutational analysis identifies the AP-1 and PEA-3 transcription factors as primary mediators of selective, cancer-specific expression of the PEG-Prom. Synthesis of apoptosis-inducing genes, under the control of the CMV promoter, inhibits the growth of both normal and cancer cells, whereas PEG-Prom-mediated expression of these genes kills only cancer cells and spares normal cells. The efficacy of the PEG-Prom as part of a cancer gene therapeutic regimen is further documented by in vivo experiments in which PEG-Prom-controlled expression of an apoptosis-inducing gene completely inhibited prostate cancer xenograft growth in nude mice. These compelling observations indicate that the PEG-Prom, with its cancer-specific expression, provides a means of selectively delivering genes to cancer cells, thereby providing a crucial component in developing effective cancer gene therapies.

  16. The human cumulus--oocyte complex gene-expression profile

    PubMed Central

    Assou, Said; Anahory, Tal; Pantesco, Véronique; Le Carrour, Tanguy; Pellestor, Franck; Klein, Bernard; Reyftmann, Lionel; Dechaud, Hervé; De Vos, John; Hamamah, Samir

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND The understanding of the mechanisms regulating human oocyte maturation is still rudimentary. We have identified transcripts differentially expressed between immature and mature oocytes, and cumulus cells. METHODS Using oligonucleotides microarrays, genome wide gene expression was studied in pooled immature and mature oocytes or cumulus cells from patients who underwent IVF. RESULTS In addition to known genes such as DAZL, BMP15 or GDF9, oocytes upregulated 1514 genes. We show that PTTG3 and AURKC are respectively the securin and the Aurora kinase preferentially expressed during oocyte meiosis. Strikingly, oocytes overexpressed previously unreported growth factors such as TNFSF13/APRIL, FGF9, FGF14, and IL4, and transcription factors including OTX2, SOX15 and SOX30. Conversely, cumulus cells, in addition to known genes such as LHCGR or BMPR2, overexpressed cell-tocell signaling genes including TNFSF11/RANKL, numerous complement components, semaphorins (SEMA3A, SEMA6A, SEMA6D) and CD genes such as CD200. We also identified 52 genes progressively increasing during oocyte maturation, comprising CDC25A and SOCS7. CONCLUSION The identification of genes up and down regulated during oocyte maturation greatly improves our understanding of oocyte biology and will provide new markers that signal viable and competent oocytes. Furthermore, genes found expressed in cumulus cells are potential markers of granulosa cell tumors. PMID:16571642

  17. Quantifying the Effect of DNA Packaging on Gene Expression Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Harold

    2010-10-01

    Gene expression, the process by which the genetic code comes alive in the form of proteins, is one of the most important biological processes in living cells, and begins when transcription factors bind to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region upstream of a gene. The relationship between gene expression output and transcription factor input which is termed the gene regulation function is specific to each promoter, and predicting this gene regulation function from the locations of transcription factor binding sites is one of the challenges in biology. In eukaryotic organisms (for example, animals, plants, fungi etc), DNA is highly compacted into nucleosomes, 147-bp segments of DNA tightly wrapped around histone protein core, and therefore, the accessibility of transcription factor binding sites depends on their locations with respect to nucleosomes - sites inside nucleosomes are less accessible than those outside nucleosomes. To understand how transcription factor binding sites contribute to gene expression in a quantitative manner, we obtain gene regulation functions of promoters with various configurations of transcription factor binding sites by using fluorescent protein reporters to measure transcription factor input and gene expression output in single yeast cells. In this talk, I will show that the affinity of a transcription factor binding site inside and outside the nucleosome controls different aspects of the gene regulation function, and explain this finding based on a mass-action kinetic model that includes competition between nucleosomes and transcription factors.

  18. Genes Expressed During Fruiting Body Formation of Agrocybe cylindracea

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Sung Mi; Kim, Sang Beom; Kim, Hey Young; Rho, Hyun-Su; Lee, Hyun Sook; Lee, Min Woong; Lee, U Youn; Im, Kyung Hoan

    2006-01-01

    Agrocybe cylindracea, an edible mushroom belonging to Bolbitiaceae, Agaricales, is widely used as invaluable medicinal material in the oriental countries. This study was initiated to find the genes expressed during the fruiting body formation of A. cylindracea. The cDNAs expressed differentially during fruiting body morphogenesis of A. cylindracea were isolated through subtractive hybridization between vegetative mycelia and fruiting bodies. The cDNAs expressed in the fruiting body morphogenesis of A. cylindracea were cloned and twenty genes were identified. Eleven were homologous to genes of known functions, three were homologous to genes in other organism without any function known. Six were completely novel genes specific to A. cylindracea so far examined. Some genes with known functions were a pleurotolysin, a self-assembling poreforming cytolysins; Aa-Pri1 and Pir2p, specifically induced genes during fruiting initiation of other mushroom, Agrocybe aegerita; an amino acid permease; a cytochrome P450; a MADS-box gene; a peptidylprolyl isomerase; and a serine proteinase. For other clones, no clear function was annotated so far. We believe the first report of the differentially expressed genes in fruiting process of A. cylindracea will be great helps for further research. PMID:24039501

  19. Pervasive Effects of Aging on Gene Expression in Wild Wolves

    PubMed Central

    Charruau, Pauline; Johnston, Rachel A.; Stahler, Daniel R.; Lea, Amanda; Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Smith, Douglas W.; vonHoldt, Bridgett M.; Cole, Steven W.; Tung, Jenny; Wayne, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gene expression levels change as an individual ages and responds to environmental conditions. With the exception of humans, such patterns have principally been studied under controlled conditions, overlooking the array of developmental and environmental influences that organisms encounter under conditions in which natural selection operates. We used high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of whole blood to assess the relative impacts of social status, age, disease, and sex on gene expression levels in a natural population of gray wolves (Canis lupus). Our findings suggest that age is broadly associated with gene expression levels, whereas other examined factors have minimal effects on gene expression patterns. Further, our results reveal evolutionarily conserved signatures of senescence, such as immunosenescence and metabolic aging, between wolves and humans despite major differences in life history and environment. The effects of aging on gene expression levels in wolves exhibit conservation with humans, but the more rapid expression differences observed in aging wolves is evolutionarily appropriate given the species’ high level of extrinsic mortality due to intraspecific aggression. Some expression changes that occur with age can facilitate physical age-related changes that may enhance fitness in older wolves. However, the expression of these ancestral patterns of aging in descendant modern dogs living in highly modified domestic environments may be maladaptive and cause disease. This work provides evolutionary insight into aging patterns observed in domestic dogs and demonstrates the applicability of studying natural populations to investigate the mechanisms of aging. PMID:27189566

  20. Periodontal therapy alters gene expression of peripheral blood monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Papapanou, Panos N.; Sedaghatfar, Michael H.; Demmer, Ryan T.; Wolf, Dana L.; Yang, Jun; Roth, Georg A.; Celenti, Romanita; Belusko, Paul B.; Lalla, Evanthia; Pavlidis, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Aims We investigated the effects of periodontal therapy on gene expression of peripheral blood monocytes. Methods Fifteen patients with periodontitis gave blood samples at four time points: 1 week before periodontal treatment (#1), at treatment initiation (baseline, #2), 6-week (#3) and 10-week post-baseline (#4). At baseline and 10 weeks, periodontal status was recorded and subgingival plaque samples were obtained. Periodontal therapy (periodontal surgery and extractions without adjunctive antibiotics) was completed within 6 weeks. At each time point, serum concentrations of 19 biomarkers were determined. Peripheral blood monocytes were purified, RNA was extracted, reverse-transcribed, labelled and hybridized with AffymetrixU133Plus2.0 chips. Expression profiles were analysed using linear random-effects models. Further analysis of gene ontology terms summarized the expression patterns into biologically relevant categories. Differential expression of selected genes was confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in a subset of patients. Results Treatment resulted in a substantial improvement in clinical periodontal status and reduction in the levels of several periodontal pathogens. Expression profiling over time revealed more than 11,000 probe sets differentially expressed at a false discovery rate of <0.05. Approximately 1/3 of the patients showed substantial changes in expression in genes relevant to innate immunity, apoptosis and cell signalling. Conclusions The data suggest that periodontal therapy may alter monocytic gene expression in a manner consistent with a systemic anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:17716309

  1. Gene Expression Profiling of Soft and Firm Atlantic Salmon Fillet

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Thomas; Mørkøre, Turid; Kolstad, Kari; Østbye, Tone-Kari; Afanasyev, Sergey; Krasnov, Aleksei

    2012-01-01

    Texture of salmon fillets is an important quality trait for consumer acceptance as well as for the suitability for processing. In the present work we measured fillet firmness in a population of farmed Atlantic salmon with known pedigree and investigated the relationship between this trait and gene expression. Transcriptomic analyses performed with a 21 K oligonucleotide microarray revealed strong correlations between firmness and a large number of genes. Highly similar expression profiles were observed in several functional groups. Positive regression was found between firmness and genes encoding proteasome components (41 genes) and mitochondrial proteins (129 genes), proteins involved in stress responses (12 genes), and lipid metabolism (30 genes). Coefficients of determination (R2) were in the range of 0.64–0.74. A weaker though highly significant negative regression was seen in sugar metabolism (26 genes, R2 = 0.66) and myofiber proteins (42 genes, R2 = 0.54). Among individual genes that showed a strong association with firmness, there were extracellular matrix proteins (negative correlation), immune genes, and intracellular proteases (positive correlation). Several genes can be regarded as candidate markers of flesh quality (coiled-coil transcriptional coactivator b, AMP deaminase 3, and oligopeptide transporter 15) though their functional roles are unclear. To conclude, fillet firmness of Atlantic salmon depends largely on metabolic properties of the skeletal muscle; where aerobic metabolism using lipids as fuel, and the rapid removal of damaged proteins, appear to play a major role. PMID:22745718

  2. Gene expression profiling of soft and firm Atlantic salmon fillet.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Thomas; Mørkøre, Turid; Kolstad, Kari; Østbye, Tone-Kari; Afanasyev, Sergey; Krasnov, Aleksei

    2012-01-01

    Texture of salmon fillets is an important quality trait for consumer acceptance as well as for the suitability for processing. In the present work we measured fillet firmness in a population of farmed Atlantic salmon with known pedigree and investigated the relationship between this trait and gene expression. Transcriptomic analyses performed with a 21 K oligonucleotide microarray revealed strong correlations between firmness and a large number of genes. Highly similar expression profiles were observed in several functional groups. Positive regression was found between firmness and genes encoding proteasome components (41 genes) and mitochondrial proteins (129 genes), proteins involved in stress responses (12 genes), and lipid metabolism (30 genes). Coefficients of determination (R(2)) were in the range of 0.64-0.74. A weaker though highly significant negative regression was seen in sugar metabolism (26 genes, R(2) = 0.66) and myofiber proteins (42 genes, R(2) = 0.54). Among individual genes that showed a strong association with firmness, there were extracellular matrix proteins (negative correlation), immune genes, and intracellular proteases (positive correlation). Several genes can be regarded as candidate markers of flesh quality (coiled-coil transcriptional coactivator b, AMP deaminase 3, and oligopeptide transporter 15) though their functional roles are unclear. To conclude, fillet firmness of Atlantic salmon depends largely on metabolic properties of the skeletal muscle; where aerobic metabolism using lipids as fuel, and the rapid removal of damaged proteins, appear to play a major role.

  3. Multiscale Embedded Gene Co-expression Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Won-Min; Zhang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Gene co-expression network analysis has been shown effective in identifying functional co-expressed gene modules associated with complex human diseases. However, existing techniques to construct co-expression networks require some critical prior information such as predefined number of clusters, numerical thresholds for defining co-expression/interaction, or do not naturally reproduce the hallmarks of complex systems such as the scale-free degree distribution of small-worldness. Previously, a graph filtering technique called Planar Maximally Filtered Graph (PMFG) has been applied to many real-world data sets such as financial stock prices and gene expression to extract meaningful and relevant interactions. However, PMFG is not suitable for large-scale genomic data due to several drawbacks, such as the high computation complexity O(|V|3), the presence of false-positives due to the maximal planarity constraint, and the inadequacy of the clustering framework. Here, we developed a new co-expression network analysis framework called Multiscale Embedded Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (MEGENA) by: i) introducing quality control of co-expression similarities, ii) parallelizing embedded network construction, and iii) developing a novel clustering technique to identify multi-scale clustering structures in Planar Filtered Networks (PFNs). We applied MEGENA to a series of simulated data and the gene expression data in breast carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). MEGENA showed improved performance over well-established clustering methods and co-expression network construction approaches. MEGENA revealed not only meaningful multi-scale organizations of co-expressed gene clusters but also novel targets in breast carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:26618778

  4. Multiscale Embedded Gene Co-expression Network Analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Won-Min; Zhang, Bin

    2015-11-01

    Gene co-expression network analysis has been shown effective in identifying functional co-expressed gene modules associated with complex human diseases. However, existing techniques to construct co-expression networks require some critical prior information such as predefined number of clusters, numerical thresholds for defining co-expression/interaction, or do not naturally reproduce the hallmarks of complex systems such as the scale-free degree distribution of small-worldness. Previously, a graph filtering technique called Planar Maximally Filtered Graph (PMFG) has been applied to many real-world data sets such as financial stock prices and gene expression to extract meaningful and relevant interactions. However, PMFG is not suitable for large-scale genomic data due to several drawbacks, such as the high computation complexity O(|V|3), the presence of false-positives due to the maximal planarity constraint, and the inadequacy of the clustering framework. Here, we developed a new co-expression network analysis framework called Multiscale Embedded Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (MEGENA) by: i) introducing quality control of co-expression similarities, ii) parallelizing embedded network construction, and iii) developing a novel clustering technique to identify multi-scale clustering structures in Planar Filtered Networks (PFNs). We applied MEGENA to a series of simulated data and the gene expression data in breast carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). MEGENA showed improved performance over well-established clustering methods and co-expression network construction approaches. MEGENA revealed not only meaningful multi-scale organizations of co-expressed gene clusters but also novel targets in breast carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma.

  5. Strong Magnetic Field Induced Changes of Gene Expression in Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, A.-L.; Ferl, R. J.; Klingenberg, B.; Brooks, J. S.; Morgan, A. N.; Yowtak, J.; Meisel, M. W.

    2005-07-01

    We review our studies of the biological impact of magnetic field strengths of up to 30 T on transgenic arabidopsis plants engineered with a stress response gene consisting of the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene promoter driving the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene reporter. Field strengths in excess of 15 T induce expression of the Adh/GUS transgene in the roots and leaves. Microarray analyses indicate that such field strengths have a far reaching effect on the genome. Wide spread induction of stress-related genes and transcription factors, and a depression of genes associated with cell wall metabolism are prominent examples.

  6. Gene expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa exposed to hydroxyl-radicals.

    PubMed

    Aharoni, Noa; Mamane, Hadas; Biran, Dvora; Lakretz, Anat; Ron, Eliora Z

    2018-05-01

    Recent studies have shown the efficiency of hydroxyl radicals generated via ultraviolet (UV)-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) combined with hydrogen peroxide (UV/H 2 O 2 ) as a treatment process in water. The effects of AOP treatments on bacterial gene expression was examined using Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 as a model-organism bacterium. Many bacterial genes are not expressed all the time, but their expression is regulated. The regulation is at the beginning of the gene, in a genetic region called "promoter" and affects the level of transcription (synthesis of messenger RNA) and translation (synthesis of protein). The level of expression of the regulated genes can change as a function of environmental conditions, and they can be expressed more (induced, upregulated) or less (downregulated). Exposure of strain PAO1 to UV/H 2 O 2 treatment resulted in a major change in gene expression, including elevated expression of several genes. One interesting gene is PA3237, which was significantly upregulated under UV/H 2 O 2 as compared to UV or H 2 O 2 treatments alone. The induction of this gene is probably due to formation of radicals, as it is abolished in the presence of the radical scavenger tert-butanol (TBA) and is seen even when the bacteria are added after the treatment (post-treatment exposure). Upregulation of the PA3237 promoter could also be detected using a reporter gene, suggesting the use of such genetic constructs to develop biosensors for monitoring AOPs in water-treatment plants. Currently biosensors for AOPs do not exist, consequently impairing the ability to monitor these processes on-line according to radical exposure in natural waters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gene Expression Profiling in the Hibernating Primate, Cheirogaleus Medius

    PubMed Central

    Faherty, Sheena L.; Villanueva-Cañas, José Luis; Klopfer, Peter H.; Albà, M. Mar; Yoder, Anne D.

    2016-01-01

    Hibernation is a complex physiological response that some mammalian species employ to evade energetic demands. Previous work in mammalian hibernators suggests that hibernation is activated not by a set of genes unique to hibernators, but by differential expression of genes that are present in all mammals. This question of universal genetic mechanisms requires further investigation and can only be tested through additional investigations of phylogenetically dispersed species. To explore this question, we use RNA-Seq to investigate gene expression dynamics as they relate to the varying physiological states experienced throughout the year in a group of primate hibernators—Madagascar’s dwarf lemurs (genus Cheirogaleus). In a novel experimental approach, we use longitudinal sampling of biological tissues as a method for capturing gene expression profiles from the same individuals throughout their annual hibernation cycle. We identify 90 candidate genes that have variable expression patterns when comparing two active states (Active 1 and Active 2) with a torpor state. These include genes that are involved in metabolic pathways, feeding behavior, and circadian rhythms, as might be expected to correlate with seasonal physiological state changes. The identified genes appear to be critical for maintaining the health of an animal that undergoes prolonged periods of metabolic depression concurrent with the hibernation phenotype. By focusing on these differentially expressed genes in dwarf lemurs, we compare gene expression patterns in previously studied mammalian hibernators. Additionally, by employing evolutionary rate analysis, we find that hibernation-related genes do not evolve under positive selection in hibernating species relative to nonhibernators. PMID:27412611

  8. Quantification of multiple gene expression in individual cells.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, António; Monteiro, Marta; Rocha, Benedita; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique

    2004-10-01

    Quantitative gene expression analysis aims to define the gene expression patterns determining cell behavior. So far, these assessments can only be performed at the population level. Therefore, they determine the average gene expression within a population, overlooking possible cell-to-cell heterogeneity that could lead to different cell behaviors/cell fates. Understanding individual cell behavior requires multiple gene expression analyses of single cells, and may be fundamental for the understanding of all types of biological events and/or differentiation processes. We here describe a new reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) approach allowing the simultaneous quantification of the expression of 20 genes in the same single cell. This method has broad application, in different species and any type of gene combination. RT efficiency is evaluated. Uniform and maximized amplification conditions for all genes are provided. Abundance relationships are maintained, allowing the precise quantification of the absolute number of mRNA molecules per cell, ranging from 2 to 1.28 x 10(9) for each individual gene. We evaluated the impact of this approach on functional genetic read-outs by studying an apparently homogeneous population (monoclonal T cells recovered 4 d after antigen stimulation), using either this method or conventional real-time RT-PCR. Single-cell studies revealed considerable cell-to-cell variation: All T cells did not express all individual genes. Gene coexpression patterns were very heterogeneous. mRNA copy numbers varied between different transcripts and in different cells. As a consequence, this single-cell assay introduces new and fundamental information regarding functional genomic read-outs. By comparison, we also show that conventional quantitative assays determining population averages supply insufficient information, and may even be highly misleading.

  9. Caffeine exposure alters cardiac gene expression in embryonic cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiefan; Mei, Wenbin; Barbazuk, William B.; Rivkees, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that in utero caffeine treatment at embryonic day (E) 8.5 alters DNA methylation patterns, gene expression, and cardiac function in adult mice. To provide insight into the mechanisms, we examined cardiac gene and microRNA (miRNA) expression in cardiomyocytes shortly after exposure to physiologically relevant doses of caffeine. In HL-1 and primary embryonic cardiomyocytes, caffeine treatment for 48 h significantly altered the expression of cardiac structural genes (Myh6, Myh7, Myh7b, Tnni3), hormonal genes (Anp and BnP), cardiac transcription factors (Gata4, Mef2c, Mef2d, Nfatc1), and microRNAs (miRNAs; miR208a, miR208b, miR499). In addition, expressions of these genes were significantly altered in embryonic hearts exposed to in utero caffeine. For in utero experiments, pregnant CD-1 dams were treated with 20–60 mg/kg of caffeine, which resulted in maternal circulation levels of 37.3–65.3 μM 2 h after treatment. RNA sequencing was performed on embryonic ventricles treated with vehicle or 20 mg/kg of caffeine daily from E6.5-9.5. Differential expression (DE) analysis revealed that 124 genes and 849 transcripts were significantly altered, and differential exon usage (DEU) analysis identified 597 exons that were changed in response to prenatal caffeine exposure. Among the DE genes identified by RNA sequencing were several cardiac structural genes and genes that control DNA methylation and histone modification. Pathway analysis revealed that pathways related to cardiovascular development and diseases were significantly affected by caffeine. In addition, global cardiac DNA methylation was reduced in caffeine-treated cardiomyocytes. Collectively, these data demonstrate that caffeine exposure alters gene expression and DNA methylation in embryonic cardiomyocytes. PMID:25354728

  10. The Regulation of Gene Expression in Cnidarian-Algal Associations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-13

    symbiotic cnidarians , Aiptasia pallida, Anthopleura eligantissima, synbiosis-specific proteins, cDNA libraries, O. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OP REPORT...gene expression in cnidarian -algal associations Award Period: 1 July 1995-30 June 1998 Objectives: A. To identify and characterize heat shock...Exploring Symbiosis-Specific Gene Expression in Cnidarian /Algal Associations. In: Molecular Approaches to the Study of the Ocean.. Ed. K. Cooksey, Chapman

  11. On the robustness of complex heterogeneous gene expression networks.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Moreno, Yamir; Floría, Luis M

    2005-04-01

    We analyze a continuous gene expression model on the underlying topology of a complex heterogeneous network. Numerical simulations aimed at studying the chaotic and periodic dynamics of the model are performed. The results clearly indicate that there is a region in which the dynamical and structural complexity of the system avoid chaotic attractors. However, contrary to what has been reported for Random Boolean Networks, the chaotic phase cannot be completely suppressed, which has important bearings on network robustness and gene expression modeling.

  12. Identifying key genes in rheumatoid arthritis by weighted gene co-expression network analysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunhui; Lv, Qi; Teng, Songsong; Yu, Yinxian; Niu, Kerun; Yi, Chengqin

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to identify rheumatoid arthritis (RA) related genes based on microarray data using the WGCNA (weighted gene co-expression network analysis) method. Two gene expression profile datasets GSE55235 (10 RA samples and 10 healthy controls) and GSE77298 (16 RA samples and seven healthy controls) were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. Characteristic genes were identified using metaDE package. WGCNA was used to find disease-related networks based on gene expression correlation coefficients, and module significance was defined as the average gene significance of all genes used to assess the correlation between the module and RA status. Genes in the disease-related gene co-expression network were subject to functional annotation and pathway enrichment analysis using Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Characteristic genes were also mapped to the Connectivity Map to screen small molecules. A total of 599 characteristic genes were identified. For each dataset, characteristic genes in the green, red and turquoise modules were most closely associated with RA, with gene numbers of 54, 43 and 79, respectively. These genes were enriched in totally enriched in 17 Gene Ontology terms, mainly related to immune response (CD97, FYB, CXCL1, IKBKE, CCR1, etc.), inflammatory response (CD97, CXCL1, C3AR1, CCR1, LYZ, etc.) and homeostasis (C3AR1, CCR1, PLN, CCL19, PPT1, etc.). Two small-molecule drugs sanguinarine and papaverine were predicted to have a therapeutic effect against RA. Genes related to immune response, inflammatory response and homeostasis presumably have critical roles in RA pathogenesis. Sanguinarine and papaverine have a potential therapeutic effect against RA. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Structure and expression of the attacin genes in Hyalophora cecropia.

    PubMed

    Sun, S C; Lindström, I; Lee, J Y; Faye, I

    1991-02-26

    To study the regulation of the immune genes in insects, we have cloned and sequenced the attacin gene locus of the giant silk moth Hyalophora cecropia. The locus contains one acidic and one basic attacin gene as well as two pseudogenes, which are remnants of basic attacin genes. A small insertion element was found within the locus. The two functional attacin genes are transcribed in opposite directions and have two introns inserted at homologous positions. A common sequence, GGGGATTCCT, is found at nucleotide position -48 in the acidic gene and at nucleotide position -58 in the basic gene. Interestingly, this decanucleotide is similar to the consensus of the NF-k B-binding site. Expression studies revealed that both attacins are strongly induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, lipopolysaccharide and bacteria. However, only the acidic attacin gene showed a clear response to injury.

  14. Maternal residential air pollution and placental imprinted gene expression.

    PubMed

    Kingsley, Samantha L; Deyssenroth, Maya A; Kelsey, Karl T; Awad, Yara Abu; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel D; Lambertini, Luca; Chen, Jia; Marsit, Carmen J; Wellenius, Gregory A

    2017-11-01

    Maternal exposure to air pollution is associated with reduced fetal growth, but its relationship with expression of placental imprinted genes (important regulators of fetal growth) has not yet been studied. To examine relationships between maternal residential air pollution and expression of placental imprinted genes in the Rhode Island Child Health Study (RICHS). Women-infant pairs were enrolled following delivery between 2009 and 2013. We geocoded maternal residential addresses at delivery, estimated daily levels of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ; n=355) and black carbon (BC; n=336) using spatial-temporal models, and estimated residential distance to nearest major roadway (n=355). Using linear regression models we investigated the associations between each exposure metric and expression of nine candidate genes previously associated with infant birthweight in RICHS, with secondary analyses of a panel of 108 imprinted genes expressed in the placenta. We also explored effect measure modification by infant sex. PM 2.5 and BC were associated with altered expression for seven and one candidate genes, respectively, previously linked with birthweight in this cohort. Adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found that PM 2.5 and BC were associated with changes in expression of 41 and 12 of 108 placental imprinted genes, respectively. Infant sex modified the association between PM 2.5 and expression of CHD7 and between proximity to major roadways and expression of ZDBF2. We found that maternal exposure to residential PM 2.5 and BC was associated with changes in placental imprinted gene expression, which suggests a plausible line of investigation of how air pollution affects fetal growth and development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gene expression profile of isolated rat adipocytes treated with anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Takanori; Ueno, Yuki; Kojo, Hitoshi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Osawa, Toshihiko

    2005-04-15

    Adipocyte dysfunction is strongly associated with the development of obesity and insulin resistance. It is accepted that the regulation of adipocytokine secretion or the adipocyte specific gene expression is one of the most important targets for the prevention of obesity and amelioration of insulin sensitivity. Recently, we demonstrated that anthocyanins, which are pigments widespread in the plant kingdom, have the potency of anti-obesity in mice and the enhancement adipocytokine secretion and adipocyte gene expression in adipocytes. In this study, we have shown for the first time the gene expression profile in isolated rat adipocytes treated with anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-glucoside; C3G or cyanidin; Cy). The rat adipocytes were treated with 100 muM C3G, Cy or vehicle for 24 h. The total RNA from the adipocytes was isolated and carried out GeneChip microarray analysis. A total of 633 or 427 genes was up-regulated (>1.5-fold) by the treatment of adipocytes with C3G or Cy, respectively. The up-regulated genes include lipid metabolism and signal transduction-related genes, however, the altered genes were partly different between the C3G- and Cy-treated groups. Based on the gene expression profile, we demonstrated the up-regulation of hormone sensitive lipase and enhancement of the lipolytic activity by the treatment of adipocytes with C3G or Cy. These data have provided an overview of the gene expression profiles in adipocytes treated with anthocyanins and identified new responsive genes with potentially important functions in adipocytes related with obesity and diabetes that merit further investigation.

  16. Gene expression profiling in melasma in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Chung, Bo Young; Noh, Tai Kyung; Yang, Sang Hwa; Kim, Il Hwan; Lee, Mi Woo; Yoon, Tae Jin; Chang, Sung Eun

    2014-01-01

    There has been a paucity of data about the difference in gene expression between melasma lesional skin and normal adjacent one. Our aim was to identify novel genes involved in the pathogenesis of melasma. We performed a microarray analysis and confirmed the results on quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in Korean women with melasma. There were 334 genes whose degree of expression showed a significant difference between melasma lesional skin and normal adjacent one. Of these, five were confirmed on qRT-PCR. In melasma lesional skin, there were down-regulation of genes involved in the PPAR signaling pathway and up-regulation of genes involved in neuronal component and the functions of stratum corneum barrier. This result suggests that the pathogenesis of melasma might be associated with novel genes involved in the above signaling pathway in Korean women.

  17. Blood gene expression profiling of an early acetaminophen response.

    PubMed

    Bushel, P R; Fannin, R D; Gerrish, K; Watkins, P B; Paules, R S

    2017-06-01

    Acetaminophen can adversely affect the liver especially when overdosed. We used whole blood as a surrogate to identify genes as potential early indicators of an acetaminophen-induced response. In a clinical study, healthy human subjects were dosed daily with 4 g of either acetaminophen or placebo pills for 7 days and evaluated over the course of 14 days. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels for responders to acetaminophen increased between days 4 and 9 after dosing, and 12 genes were detected with expression profiles significantly altered within 24 h. The early responsive genes separated the subjects by class and dose period. In addition, the genes clustered patients who overdosed on acetaminophen apart from controls and also predicted the exposure classifications with 100% accuracy. The responsive genes serve as early indicators of an acetaminophen exposure, and their gene expression profiles can potentially be evaluated as molecular indicators for further consideration.

  18. Blood Gene Expression Profiling of an Early Acetaminophen Response

    PubMed Central

    Bushel, Pierre R.; Fannin, Rick D.; Gerrish, Kevin; Watkins, Paul B.; Paules, Richard S.

    2018-01-01

    Acetaminophen can adversely affect the liver especially when overdosed. We used whole blood as a surrogate to identify genes as potential early indicators of an acetaminophen-induced response. In a clinical study, healthy human subjects were dosed daily with 4g of either acetaminophen or placebo pills for 7 days and evaluated over the course of 14 days. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels for responders to acetaminophen increased between days 4 and 9 after dosing and 12 genes were detected with expression profiles significantly altered within 24 hrs. The early responsive genes separated the subjects by class and dose period. In addition, the genes clustered patients who overdosed on acetaminophen apart from controls and also predicted the exposure classifications with 100% accuracy. The responsive genes serve as early indicators of an acetaminophen exposure and their gene expression profiles can potentially be evaluated as molecular indicators for further consideration. PMID:26927286

  19. Low expression of miR-30a-5p induced the proliferation and invasion of oral cancer via promoting the expression of FAP.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Peng; Tao, Zezhang; Tan, Aili

    2018-02-28

    The study aimed at investigating the effects of miR-30a-5p on the biological functions of oral cancer cells and figuring out the potential mechanism. We first verified the low expression of miR-30a-5p and high expression of FAP ( Homo sapiens fibroblast activation protein α) in oral cancerous tissues and their negative correlation. Then, the target relationship between miR-30a-5p and FAP was validated by dual luciferase reporter assay and biotin-coupled miRNA pulldown assay. After transfection in Tca-8113 cells and SCC-15 cells, MTT, colony formation, Transwell, and wound healing assays were performed to investigate how miR-30a-5p and FAP adjusted propagation, invasiveness, and migration, respectively. Mounting evidence supported that miR-30a-5p directly targetted FAP and suppressed its expression in oral cavity cancer cells (OSCCs). By suppressing FAP expression, miR-30a-5p significantly inhibited cell propagation, migration, and invasion. Therefore, miR-30a-5p might be a new therapeutic target for oral cancer treatment. © 2018 The Author(s).

  20. Low expression of miR-30a-5p induced the proliferation and invasion of oral cancer via promoting the expression of FAP

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Peng; Tao, Zezhang

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed at investigating the effects of miR-30a-5p on the biological functions of oral cancer cells and figuring out the potential mechanism. We first verified the low expression of miR-30a-5p and high expression of FAP (Homo sapiens fibroblast activation protein α) in oral cancerous tissues and their negative correlation. Then, the target relationship between miR-30a-5p and FAP was validated by dual luciferase reporter assay and biotin-coupled miRNA pulldown assay. After transfection in Tca-8113 cells and SCC-15 cells, MTT, colony formation, Transwell, and wound healing assays were performed to investigate how miR-30a-5p and FAP adjusted propagation, invasiveness, and migration, respectively. Mounting evidence supported that miR-30a-5p directly targetted FAP and suppressed its expression in oral cavity cancer cells (OSCCs). By suppressing FAP expression, miR-30a-5p significantly inhibited cell propagation, migration, and invasion. Therefore, miR-30a-5p might be a new therapeutic target for oral cancer treatment. PMID:29026005

  1. Ebola virus infection induces irregular dendritic cell gene expression.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Vanessa R; Kalina, Warren V; Williams, Priscilla

    2015-02-01

    Filoviruses subvert the human immune system in part by infecting and replicating in dendritic cells (DCs). Using gene arrays, a phenotypic profile of filovirus infection in human monocyte-derived DCs was assessed. Monocytes from human donors were cultured in GM-CSF and IL-4 and were infected with Ebola virus Kikwit variant for up to 48 h. Extracted DC RNA was analyzed on SuperArray's Dendritic and Antigen Presenting Cell Oligo GEArray and compared to uninfected controls. Infected DCs exhibited increased expression of cytokine, chemokine, antiviral, and anti-apoptotic genes not seen in uninfected controls. Significant increases of intracellular antiviral and MHC I and II genes were also noted in EBOV-infected DCs. However, infected DCs failed to show any significant difference in co-stimulatory T-cell gene expression from uninfected DCs. Moreover, several chemokine genes were activated, but there was sparse expression of chemokine receptors that enabled activated DCs to home to lymph nodes. Overall, statistically significant expression of several intracellular antiviral genes was noted, which may limit viral load but fails to stop replication. EBOV gene expression profiling is of vital importance in understanding pathogenesis and devising novel therapeutic treatments such as small-molecule inhibitors.

  2. Analytical workflow profiling gene expression in murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, Scott E.; González-Peña, Dianelys; Lawson, Marcus A.; McCusker, Robert H.; Hernandez, Alvaro G.; O’Connor, Jason C.; Dantzer, Robert; Kelley, Keith W.

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive and simultaneous analysis of all genes in a biological sample is a capability of RNA-Seq technology. Analysis of the entire transcriptome benefits from summarization of genes at the functional level. As a cellular response of interest not previously explored with RNA-Seq, peritoneal macrophages from mice under two conditions (control and immunologically challenged) were analyzed for gene expression differences. Quantification of individual transcripts modeled RNA-Seq read distribution and uncertainty (using a Beta Negative Binomial distribution), then tested for differential transcript expression (False Discovery Rate-adjusted p-value < 0.05). Enrichment of functional categories utilized the list of differentially expressed genes. A total of 2079 differentially expressed transcripts representing 1884 genes were detected. Enrichment of 92 categories from Gene Ontology Biological Processes and Molecular Functions, and KEGG pathways were grouped into 6 clusters. Clusters included defense and inflammatory response (Enrichment Score = 11.24) and ribosomal activity (Enrichment Score = 17.89). Our work provides a context to the fine detail of individual gene expression differences in murine peritoneal macrophages during immunological challenge with high throughput RNA-Seq. PMID:25708305

  3. Vascular Gene Expression in Nonneoplastic and Malignant Brain

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Stephen L.; Cook, Brian P.; Nacht, Mariana; Weber, William D.; Callahan, Michelle R.; Jiang, Yide; Dufault, Michael R.; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Wen; Walter-Yohrling, Jennifer; Rouleau, Cecile; Akmaev, Viatcheslav R.; Wang, Clarence J.; Cao, Xiaohong; St. Martin, Thia B.; Roberts, Bruce L.; Teicher, Beverly A.; Klinger, Katherine W.; Stan, Radu-Virgil; Lucey, Brenden; Carson-Walter, Eleanor B.; Laterra, John; Walter, Kevin A.

    2004-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are uniformly lethal tumors whose morbidity is mediated in large part by the angiogenic response of the brain to the invading tumor. This profound angiogenic response leads to aggressive tumor invasion and destruction of surrounding brain tissue as well as blood-brain barrier breakdown and life-threatening cerebral edema. To investigate the molecular mechanisms governing the proliferation of abnormal microvasculature in malignant brain tumor patients, we have undertaken a cell-specific transcriptome analysis from surgically harvested nonneoplastic and tumor-associated endothelial cells. SAGE-derived endothelial cell gene expression patterns from glioma and nonneoplastic brain tissue reveal distinct gene expression patterns and consistent up-regulation of certain glioma endothelial marker genes across patient samples. We define the G-protein-coupled receptor RDC1 as a tumor endothelial marker whose expression is distinctly induced in tumor endothelial cells of both brain and peripheral vasculature. Further, we demonstrate that the glioma-induced gene, PV1, shows expression both restricted to endothelial cells and coincident with endothelial cell tube formation. As PV1 provides a framework for endothelial cell caveolar diaphragms, this protein may serve to enhance glioma-induced disruption of the blood-brain barrier and transendothelial exchange. Additional characterization of this extensive brain endothelial cell gene expression database will provide unique molecular insights into vascular gene expression. PMID:15277233

  4. Constrained clusters of gene expression profiles with pathological features.

    PubMed

    Sese, Jun; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Monden, Morito; Kato, Kikuya; Morishita, Shinichi

    2004-11-22

    Gene expression profiles should be useful in distinguishing variations in disease, since they reflect accurately the status of cells. The primary clustering of gene expression reveals the genotypes that are responsible for the proximity of members within each cluster, while further clustering elucidates the pathological features of the individual members of each cluster. However, since the first clustering process and the second classification step, in which the features are associated with clusters, are performed independently, the initial set of clusters may omit genes that are associated with pathologically meaningful features. Therefore, it is important to devise a way of identifying gene expression clusters that are associated with pathological features. We present the novel technique of 'itemset constrained clustering' (IC-Clustering), which computes the optimal cluster that maximizes the interclass variance of gene expression between groups, which are divided according to the restriction that only divisions that can be expressed using common features are allowed. This constraint automatically labels each cluster with a set of pathological features which characterize that cluster. When applied to liver cancer datasets, IC-Clustering revealed informative gene expression clusters, which could be annotated with various pathological features, such as 'tumor' and 'man', or 'except tumor' and 'normal liver function'. In contrast, the k-means method overlooked these clusters.

  5. Construction of two vectors for gene expression in Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    Lv, Dandan; Wang, Wei; Wei, Dongzhi

    2012-01-01

    We report the construction of two filamentous fungi Trichoderma reesei expression vectors, pWEF31 and pWEF32. Both vectors possess the hygromycin phosphotransferase B gene expression cassette and the strong promoter and terminator of the cellobiohydrolase 1 gene (cbh1) from T. reesei. The two newly constructed vectors can be efficiently transformed into T. reesei with Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The difference between pWEF31 and pWEF32 is that pWEF32 has two longer homologous arms. As a result, pWEF32 easily undergoes homologous recombination. On the other hand, pWEF31 undergoes random recombination. The applicability of both vectors was tested by first generating the expression vectors pWEF31-red and pWEF32-red and then detecting the expression of the DsRed2 gene in T. reesei Rut C30. Additionally, we measured the exo-1,4-β-glucanase activity of the recombinant cells. Our work provides an effective transformation system for homologous and heterologous gene expression and gene knockout in T. reesei. It also provides a method for recombination at a specific chromosomal location. Finally, both vectors will be useful for the large-scale gene expression industry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Regulatory states in the developmental control of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Peter, Isabelle S

    2017-09-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that gene expression in multicellular organisms is controlled by the combinatorial function of multiple transcription factors. This indicates that not the individual transcription factors or signaling molecules, but the combination of expressed regulatory molecules, the regulatory state, should be viewed as the functional unit in gene regulation. Here, I discuss the concept of the regulatory state and its proposed role in the genome-wide control of gene expression. Recent analyses of regulatory gene expression in sea urchin embryos have been instrumental for solving the genomic control of cell fate specification in this system. Some of the approaches that were used to determine the expression of regulatory states during sea urchin embryogenesis are reviewed. Significant developmental changes in regulatory state expression leading to the distinct specification of cell fates are regulated by gene regulatory network circuits. How these regulatory state transitions are encoded in the genome is illuminated using the sea urchin endoderm-mesoderms cell fate decision circuit as an example. These observations highlight the importance of considering developmental gene regulation, and the function of individual transcription factors, in the context of regulatory states. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Signaling coupled epigenomic regulation of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Deivendran, S; Santhoshkumar, T R; Pillai, M R

    2017-10-26

    Inheritance of genomic information independent of the DNA sequence, the epigenetics, as well as gene transcription are profoundly shaped by serine/threonine and tyrosine signaling kinases and components of the chromatin remodeling complexes. To precisely respond to a changing external milieu, human cells efficiently translate upstream signals into post-translational modifications (PTMs) on histones and coregulators such as corepressors, coactivators, DNA-binding factors and PTM modifying enzymes. Because a protein with multiple residues for putative PTMs is expected to undergo more than one PTM in cells stimulated with growth factors, the outcome of combinational PTM codes on histones and coregulators is profoundly shaped by regulatory interplays between PTMs. The genomic functions of signaling kinases in cancer cells are manifested by the downstream effectors of cytoplasmic signaling cascades as well as translocation of the cytoplasmic signaling kinases to the nucleus. Signaling-mediated phosphorylation of histones serves as a regulatory switch for other PTMs, and connects chromatin remodeling complexes into gene transcription and gene activity. Here, we will discuss the recent advances in signaling-dependent epigenomic regulation of gene transcription using a few representative cancer-relevant serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases and their interplay with chromatin remodeling factors in cancer cells.

  8. Identifying osteosarcoma metastasis associated genes by weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA).

    PubMed

    Tian, Honglai; Guan, Donghui; Li, Jianmin

    2018-06-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS), the most common malignant bone tumor, accounts for the heavy healthy threat in the period of children and adolescents. OS occurrence usually correlates with early metastasis and high death rate. This study aimed to better understand the mechanism of OS metastasis.Based on Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, we downloaded 4 expression profile data sets associated with OS metastasis, and selected differential expressed genes. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) approach allowed us to investigate the most OS metastasis-correlated module. Gene Ontology functional and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were used to give annotation of selected OS metastasis-associated genes.We select 897 differential expressed genes from OS metastasis and OS non-metastasis groups. Based on these selected genes, WGCNA further explored 142 genes included in the most OS metastasis-correlated module. Gene Ontology functional and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses showed that significantly OS metastasis-associated genes were involved in pathway correlated with insulin-like growth factor binding.Our research figured out several potential molecules participating in metastasis process and factors acting as biomarker. With this study, we could better explore the mechanism of OS metastasis and further discover more therapy targets.

  9. NORMAL NASAL GENE EXPRESSION LEVELS USING CDNA ARRAY TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Normal Nasal Gene Expression Levels Using cDNA Array Technology.

    The nasal epithelium is a target site for chemically-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. To detect and analyze genetic events which contribute to nasal tumor development, we first defined the gene expressi...

  10. Identification of Common Differentially Expressed Genes in Urinary Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zaravinos, Apostolos; Lambrou, George I.; Boulalas, Ioannis; Delakas, Dimitris; Spandidos, Demetrios A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Current diagnosis and treatment of urinary bladder cancer (BC) has shown great progress with the utilization of microarrays. Purpose Our goal was to identify common differentially expressed (DE) genes among clinically relevant subclasses of BC using microarrays. Methodology/Principal Findings BC samples and controls, both experimental and publicly available datasets, were analyzed by whole genome microarrays. We grouped the samples according to their histology and defined the DE genes in each sample individually, as well as in each tumor group. A dual analysis strategy was followed. First, experimental samples were analyzed and conclusions were formulated; and second, experimental sets were combined with publicly available microarray datasets and were further analyzed in search of common DE genes. The experimental dataset identified 831 genes that were DE in all tumor samples, simultaneously. Moreover, 33 genes were up-regulated and 85 genes were down-regulated in all 10 BC samples compared to the 5 normal tissues, simultaneously. Hierarchical clustering partitioned tumor groups in accordance to their histology. K-means clustering of all genes and all samples, as well as clustering of tumor groups, presented 49 clusters. K-means clustering of common DE genes in all samples revealed 24 clusters. Genes manifested various differential patterns of expression, based on PCA. YY1 and NFκB were among the most common transcription factors that regulated the expression of the identified DE genes. Chromosome 1 contained 32 DE genes, followed by chromosomes 2 and 11, which contained 25 and 23 DE genes, respectively. Chromosome 21 had the least number of DE genes. GO analysis revealed the prevalence of transport and binding genes in the common down-regulated DE genes; the prevalence of RNA metabolism and processing genes in the up-regulated DE genes; as well as the prevalence of genes responsible for cell communication and signal transduction in the DE genes that

  11. GSNFS: Gene subnetwork biomarker identification of lung cancer expression data.

    PubMed

    Doungpan, Narumol; Engchuan, Worrawat; Chan, Jonathan H; Meechai, Asawin

    2016-12-05

    Gene expression has been used to identify disease gene biomarkers, but there are ongoing challenges. Single gene or gene-set biomarkers are inadequate to provide sufficient understanding of complex disease mechanisms and the relationship among those genes. Network-based methods have thus been considered for inferring the interaction within a group of genes to further study the disease mechanism. Recently, the Gene-Network-based Feature Set (GNFS), which is capable of handling case-control and multiclass expression for gene biomarker identification, has been proposed, partly taking into account of network topology. However, its performance relies on a greedy search for building subnetworks and thus requires further improvement. In this work, we establish a new approach named Gene Sub-Network-based Feature Selection (GSNFS) by implementing the GNFS framework with two proposed searching and scoring algorithms, namely gene-set-based (GS) search and parent-node-based (PN) search, to identify subnetworks. An additional dataset is used to validate the results. The two proposed searching algorithms of the GSNFS method for subnetwork expansion are concerned with the degree of connectivity and the scoring scheme for building subnetworks and their topology. For each iteration of expansion, the neighbour genes of a current subnetwork, whose expression data improved the overall subnetwork score, is recruited. While the GS search calculated the subnetwork score using an activity score of a current subnetwork and the gene expression values of its neighbours, the PN search uses the expression value of the corresponding parent of each neighbour gene. Four lung cancer expression datasets were used for subnetwork identification. In addition, using pathway data and protein-protein interaction as network data in order to consider the interaction among significant genes were discussed. Classification was performed to compare the performance of the identified gene subnetworks with three

  12. Alteration of gene expression by alcohol exposure at early neurulation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Feng C; Zhao, Qianqian; Liu, Yunlong; Goodlett, Charles R; Liang, Tiebing; McClintick, Jeanette N; Edenberg, Howard J; Li, Lang

    2011-02-21

    We have previously demonstrated that alcohol exposure at early neurulation induces growth retardation, neural tube abnormalities, and alteration of DNA methylation. To explore the global gene expression changes which may underline these developmental defects, microarray analyses were performed in a whole embryo mouse culture model that allows control over alcohol and embryonic variables. Alcohol caused teratogenesis in brain, heart, forelimb, and optic vesicle; a subset of the embryos also showed cranial neural tube defects. In microarray analysis (accession number GSM9545), adopting hypothesis-driven Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) informatics and intersection analysis of two independent experiments, we found that there was a collective reduction in expression of neural specification genes (neurogenin, Sox5, Bhlhe22), neural growth factor genes [Igf1, Efemp1, Klf10 (Tieg), and Edil3], and alteration of genes involved in cell growth, apoptosis, histone variants, eye and heart development. There was also a reduction of retinol binding protein 1 (Rbp1), and de novo expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1B1 (Aldh1B1). Remarkably, four key hematopoiesis genes (glycophorin A, adducin 2, beta-2 microglobulin, and ceruloplasmin) were absent after alcohol treatment, and histone variant genes were reduced. The down-regulation of the neurospecification and the neurotrophic genes were further confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. Furthermore, the gene expression profile demonstrated distinct subgroups which corresponded with two distinct alcohol-related neural tube phenotypes: an open (ALC-NTO) and a closed neural tube (ALC-NTC). Further, the epidermal growth factor signaling pathway and histone variants were specifically altered in ALC-NTO, and a greater number of neurotrophic/growth factor genes were down-regulated in the ALC-NTO than in the ALC-NTC embryos. This study revealed a set of genes vulnerable to alcohol exposure and genes that were associated with neural tube

  13. DNA Methylation of Gene Expression in Acanthamoeba castellanii Encystation.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Kyung; Hong, Yeonchul; Lee, Hae-Ahm; Quan, Fu-Shi; Kong, Hyun-Hee

    2017-04-01

    Encystation mediating cyst specific cysteine proteinase (CSCP) of Acanthamoeba castellanii is expressed remarkably during encystation. However, the molecular mechanism involved in the regulation of CSCP gene expression remains unclear. In this study, we focused on epigenetic regulation of gene expression during encystation of Acanthamoeba . To evaluate methylation as a potential mechanism involved in the regulation of CSCP expression, we first investigated the correlation between promoter methylation status of CSCP gene and its expression. A 2,878 bp of promoter sequence of CSCP gene was amplified by PCR. Three CpG islands (island 1-3) were detected in this sequence using bioinformatics tools. Methylation of CpG island in trophozoites and cysts was measured by bisulfite sequence PCR. CSCP promoter methylation of CpG island 1 (1,633 bp) was found in 8.2% of trophozoites and 7.3% of cysts. Methylation of CpG island 2 (625 bp) was observed in 4.2% of trophozoites and 5.8% of cysts. Methylation of CpG island 3 (367 bp) in trophozoites and cysts was both 3.6%. These results suggest that DNA methylation system is present in CSCP gene expression of Acanthamoeba . In addition, the expression of encystation mediating CSCP is correlated with promoter CpG island 1 hypomethylation.

  14. Stochastic model of transcription factor-regulated gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Rajesh; Bose, Indrani

    2006-09-01

    We consider a stochastic model of transcription factor (TF)-regulated gene expression. The model describes two genes, gene A and gene B, which synthesize the TFs and the target gene proteins, respectively. We show through analytic calculations that the TF fluctuations have a significant effect on the distribution of the target gene protein levels when the mean TF level falls in the highest sensitive region of the dose-response curve. We further study the effect of reducing the copy number of gene A from two to one. The enhanced TF fluctuations yield results different from those in the deterministic case. The probability that the target gene protein level exceeds a threshold value is calculated with the knowledge of the probability density functions associated with the TF and target gene protein levels. Numerical simulation results for a more detailed stochastic model are shown to be in agreement with those obtained through analytic calculations. The relevance of these results in the context of the genetic disorder haploinsufficiency is pointed out. Some experimental observations on the haploinsufficiency of the tumour suppressor gene, Nkx 3.1, are explained with the help of the stochastic model of TF-regulated gene expression.

  15. MicroRNA396a-5p and -3p induce tomato disease susceptibility by suppressing target genes and upregulating salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Meng, Jun; Zhai, Junmiao; Xu, Pinsan; Luan, Yushi

    2017-12-01

    Plants have evolved a variety of mechanisms to perceive and resist the assault of pathogens. The biotrophs, necrotrophs and hemibiotrophs are types of plant pathogens that activate diverse salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways. In this study we showed that the expressions of miR396a-5p and -3p in Solanum lycopersicum (S. lycopersicum) were both down-regulated after infection by hemibiotroph Phytophthora infestans (P. infestans) and necrotroph Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea) infection. Overexpression of miR396a-5p and -3p in transgenic tomato enhanced the susceptibility of S. lycopersicum to P. infestans and B. cinerea infection and the tendency to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) under pathogen-related biotic stress. Additionally, miR396a regulated growth-regulating factor1 (GRF1), salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (SAMT), glycosyl hydrolases (GH) and nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) and down-regulated their levels. This ultimately led to inhibition of the expression of pathogenesis-related 1 (PR1), TGA transcription factors1 and 2 (TGA1 and TGA2) and JA-dependent proteinase inhibitors I and II (PI I and II), but enhanced the endogenous SA content and nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1) expression. Taken together, our results showed that negative regulation of target genes and their downstream genes expressions by miR396a-5p and -3p are critical for tomato abiotic stresses via affecting SA or JA signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. GeneSigDB: a manually curated database and resource for analysis of gene expression signatures

    PubMed Central

    Culhane, Aedín C.; Schröder, Markus S.; Sultana, Razvan; Picard, Shaita C.; Martinelli, Enzo N.; Kelly, Caroline; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Kapushesky, Misha; St Pierre, Anne-Alyssa; Flahive, William; Picard, Kermshlise C.; Gusenleitner, Daniel; Papenhausen, Gerald; O'Connor, Niall; Correll, Mick; Quackenbush, John

    2012-01-01

    GeneSigDB (http://www.genesigdb.org or http://compbio.dfci.harvard.edu/genesigdb/) is a database of gene signatures that have been extracted and manually curated from the published literature. It provides a standardized resource of published prognostic, diagnostic and other gene signatures of cancer and related disease to the community so they can compare the predictive power of gene signatures or use these in gene set enrichment analysis. Since GeneSigDB release 1.0, we have expanded from 575 to 3515 gene signatures, which were collected and transcribed from 1604 published articles largely focused on gene expression in cancer, stem cells, immune cells, development and lung disease. We have made substantial upgrades to the GeneSigDB website to improve accessibility and usability, including adding a tag cloud browse function, facetted navigation and a ‘basket’ feature to store genes or gene signatures of interest. Users can analyze GeneSigDB gene signatures, or upload their own gene list, to identify gene signatures with significant gene overlap and results can be viewed on a dynamic editable heatmap that can be downloaded as a publication quality image. All data in GeneSigDB can be downloaded in numerous formats including .gmt file format for gene set enrichment analysis or as a R/Bioconductor data file. GeneSigDB is available from http://www.genesigdb.org. PMID:22110038

  17. Random forests-based differential analysis of gene sets for gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Huey-Miin; Zhou, Da-Wei; Tsai, Chen-An

    2013-04-10

    In DNA microarray studies, gene-set analysis (GSA) has become the focus of gene expression data analysis. GSA utilizes the gene expression profiles of functionally related gene sets in Gene Ontology (GO) categories or priori-defined biological classes to assess the significance of gene sets associated with clinical outcomes or phenotypes. Many statistical approaches have been proposed to determine whether such functionally related gene sets express differentially (enrichment and/or deletion) in variations of phenotypes. However, little attention has been given to the discriminatory power of gene sets and classification of patients. In this study, we propose a method of gene set analysis, in which gene sets are used to develop classifications of patients based on the Random Forest (RF) algorithm. The corresponding empirical p-value of an observed out-of-bag (OOB) error rate of the classifier is introduced to identify differentially expressed gene sets using an adequate resampling method. In addition, we discuss the impacts and correlations of genes within each gene set based on the measures of variable importance in the RF algorithm. Significant classifications are reported and visualized together with the underlying gene sets and their contribution to the phenotypes of interest. Numerical studies using both synthesized data and a series of publicly available gene expression data sets are conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed methods. Compared with other hypothesis testing approaches, our proposed methods are reliable and successful in identifying enriched gene sets and in discovering the contributions of genes within a gene set. The classification results of identified gene sets can provide an valuable alternative to gene set testing to reveal the unknown, biologically relevant classes of samples or patients. In summary, our proposed method allows one to simultaneously assess the discriminatory ability of gene sets and the importance of genes for

  18. Insect and wound induced GUS gene expression from a Beta vulgaris proteinase inhibitor gene promoter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Inducible gene promoters that are specifically activated by pathogen invasion or insect pest attack are needed for effective expression of resistance genes to control plant diseases. In the present study, a promoter from a serine proteinase inhibitor gene (BvSTI) shown to be up-regulated in resist...

  19. Validation of reference genes for gene expression studies in soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a common tool for quantifying mRNA transcripts. To normalize results, a reference gene is mandatory. Aphis glycines is a significant soybean pest, yet gene expression and functional genomics studies are hindered by a lack of stable reference genes. We evalu...

  20. Global Expression Profiling in Atopic Eczema Reveals Reciprocal Expression of Inflammatory and Lipid Genes

    PubMed Central

    Sääf, Annika M.; Tengvall-Linder, Maria; Chang, Howard Y.; Adler, Adam S.; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik; Scheynius, Annika; Nordenskjöld, Magnus; Bradley, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Background Atopic eczema (AE) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disorder. In order to dissect the genetic background several linkage and genetic association studies have been performed. Yet very little is known about specific genes involved in this complex skin disease, and the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Methodology/Findings We used human DNA microarrays to identify a molecular picture of the programmed responses of the human genome to AE. The transcriptional program was analyzed in skin biopsy samples from lesional and patch-tested skin from AE patients sensitized to Malassezia sympodialis (M. sympodialis), and corresponding biopsies from healthy individuals. The most notable feature of the global gene-expression pattern observed in AE skin was a reciprocal expression of induced inflammatory genes and repressed lipid metabolism genes. The overall transcriptional response in M. sympodialis patch-tested AE skin was similar to the gene-expression signature identified in lesional AE skin. In the constellation of genes differentially expressed in AE skin compared to healthy control skin, we have identified several potential susceptibility genes that may play a critical role in the pathological condition of AE. Many of these genes, including genes with a role in immune responses, lipid homeostasis, and epidermal differentiation, are localized on chromosomal regions previously linked to AE. Conclusions/Significance Through genome-wide expression profiling, we were able to discover a distinct reciprocal expression pattern of induced inflammatory genes and repressed lipid metabolism genes in skin from AE patients. We found a significant enrichment of differentially expressed genes in AE with cytobands associated to the disease, and furthermore new chromosomal regions were found that could potentially guide future region-specific linkage mapping in AE. The full data set is available at http://microarray-pubs.stanford.edu/eczema. PMID

  1. Constitutive androstane receptor activation evokes the expression of glycolytic genes

    SciTech Connect

    Yarushkin, Andrei A.; Kazantseva, Yuliya A.; Prokopyeva, Elena A.

    It is well-known that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation by 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) increases the liver-to-body weight ratio. CAR-mediated liver growth is correlated with increased expression of the pleiotropic transcription factor cMyc, which stimulates cell cycle regulatory genes and drives proliferating cells into S phase. Because glycolysis supports cell proliferation and cMyc is essential for the activation of glycolytic genes, we hypothesized that CAR-mediated up-regulation of cMyc in mouse livers might play a role in inducing the expression of glycolytic genes. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of long-term CAR activation on glycolytic genes in amore » mouse model not subjected to metabolic stress. We demonstrated that long-term CAR activation by TCPOBOP increases expression of cMyc, which was correlated with reduced expression of gluconeogenic genes and up-regulation of glucose transporter, glycolytic and mitochondrial pyruvate metabolising genes. These changes in gene expression after TCPOBOP treatment were strongly correlated with changes in levels of glycolytic intermediates in mouse livers. Moreover, we demonstrated a significant positive regulatory effect of TCPOBOP-activated CAR on both mRNA and protein levels of Pkm2, a master regulator of glucose metabolism and cell proliferation. Thus, our findings provide evidence to support the conclusion that CAR activation initiates a transcriptional program that facilitates the coordinated metabolic activities required for cell proliferation. - Highlights: • CAR-mediated liver growth is correlated with increased expression of cMyc. • CAR activation increased the expression of glycolytic genes in mouse livers. • CAR activation increased the level of Pkm2 in mouse livers.« less

  2. Vaginal Gene Expression During Treatment With Aromatase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kallak, Theodora Kunovac; Baumgart, Juliane; Nilsson, Kerstin; Åkerud, Helena; Poromaa, Inger Sundström; Stavreus-Evers, Anneli

    2015-12-01

    Aromatase inhibitor (AI) treatment suppresses estrogen biosynthesis and causes genitourinary symptoms of menopause such as vaginal symptoms, ultimately affecting the quality of life for many postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine vaginal gene expression in women during treatment with AIs compared with estrogen-treated women. The secondary aim was to study the presence and localization of vaginal aromatase. Vaginal biopsies were collected from postmenopausal women treated with AIs and from age-matched control women treated with vaginal estrogen therapy. Differential gene expression was studied with the Affymetrix Gene Chip Gene 1.0 ST Array (Affymetrix Inc, Santa Clara, CA) system, Ingenuity pathway analysis, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. The expression of 279 genes differed between the 2 groups; AI-treated women had low expression of genes involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, and cell adhesion. Some differentially expressed genes were found to interact indirectly with the estrogen receptor alpha. In addition, aromatase protein staining was evident in the basal and the intermediate vaginal epithelium layers, and also in stromal cells with a slightly stronger staining intensity found in AI-treated women. In this study, we demonstrated that genes involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, and cell adhesion are differentially expressed in AI-treated women. The expression of vaginal aromatase suggests that this could be the result of local and systemic inhibition of aromatase. Our results emphasize the role of estrogen for vaginal cell differentiation and proliferation and future drug candidates should be aimed at improving cell differentiation and proliferation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Salmonella induces prominent gene expression in the rat colon

    PubMed Central

    Rodenburg, Wendy; Keijer, Jaap; Kramer, Evelien; Roosing, Susanne; Vink, Carolien; Katan, Martijn B; van der Meer, Roelof; Bovee-Oudenhoven, Ingeborg MJ

    2007-01-01

    Background Salmonella enteritidis is suggested to translocate in the small intestine. In vivo it induces gene expression changes in the ileal mucosa and Peyer's patches. Stimulation of Salmonella translocation by dietary prebiotics fermented in colon suggests involvement of the colon as well. However, effects of Salmonella on colonic gene expression in vivo are largely unknown. We aimed to characterize time dependent Salmonella-induced changes of colonic mucosal gene expression in rats using whole genome microarrays. For this, rats were orally infected with Salmonella enteritidis to mimic a foodborne infection and colonic gene expression was determined at days 1, 3 and 6 post-infection (n = 8 rats per time-point). As fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) affect colonic physiology, we analyzed colonic mucosal gene expression of FOS-fed versus cellulose-fed rats infected with Salmonella in a separate experiment. Colonic mucosal samples were isolated at day 2 post-infection. Results Salmonella affected transport (e.g. Chloride channel calcium activated 6, H+/K+ transporting Atp-ase), antimicrobial defense (e.g. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein, Defensin 5 and phospholipase A2), inflammation (e.g. calprotectin), oxidative stress related genes (e.g. Dual oxidase 2 and Glutathione peroxidase 2) and Proteolysis (e.g. Ubiquitin D and Proteosome subunit beta type 9). Furthermore, Salmonella translocation increased serum IFNγ and many interferon-related genes in colonic mucosa. The gene most strongly induced by Salmonella infection was Pancreatitis Associated Protein (Pap), showing >100-fold induction at day 6 after oral infection. Results were confirmed by Q-PCR in individual rats. Stimulation of Salmonella translocation by dietary FOS was accompanied by enhancement of the Salmonella-induced mucosal processes, not by induction of other processes. Conclusion We conclude that the colon is a target tissue for Salmonella, considering the abundant changes in mucosal gene expression

  4. Salmonella induces prominent gene expression in the rat colon.

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, Wendy; Keijer, Jaap; Kramer, Evelien; Roosing, Susanne; Vink, Carolien; Katan, Martijn B; van der Meer, Roelof; Bovee-Oudenhoven, Ingeborg M J

    2007-09-12

    Salmonella enteritidis is suggested to translocate in the small intestine. In vivo it induces gene expression changes in the ileal mucosa and Peyer's patches. Stimulation of Salmonella translocation by dietary prebiotics fermented in colon suggests involvement of the colon as well. However, effects of Salmonella on colonic gene expression in vivo are largely unknown. We aimed to characterize time dependent Salmonella-induced changes of colonic mucosal gene expression in rats using whole genome microarrays. For this, rats were orally infected with Salmonella enteritidis to mimic a foodborne infection and colonic gene expression was determined at days 1, 3 and 6 post-infection (n = 8 rats per time-point). As fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) affect colonic physiology, we analyzed colonic mucosal gene expression of FOS-fed versus cellulose-fed rats infected with Salmonella in a separate experiment. Colonic mucosal samples were isolated at day 2 post-infection. Salmonella affected transport (e.g. Chloride channel calcium activated 6, H+/K+ transporting Atp-ase), antimicrobial defense (e.g. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein, Defensin 5 and phospholipase A2), inflammation (e.g. calprotectin), oxidative stress related genes (e.g. Dual oxidase 2 and Glutathione peroxidase 2) and Proteolysis (e.g. Ubiquitin D and Proteosome subunit beta type 9). Furthermore, Salmonella translocation increased serum IFN gamma and many interferon-related genes in colonic mucosa. The gene most strongly induced by Salmonella infection was Pancreatitis Associated Protein (Pap), showing >100-fold induction at day 6 after oral infection. Results were confirmed by Q-PCR in individual rats. Stimulation of Salmonella translocation by dietary FOS was accompanied by enhancement of the Salmonella-induced mucosal processes, not by induction of other processes. We conclude that the colon is a target tissue for Salmonella, considering the abundant changes in mucosal gene expression.

  5. Gene Expression Profiling Predicts the Development of Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saintigny, Pierre; Zhang, Li; Fan, You-Hong; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vali; Feng, Lei; Lee, J. Jack; Kim, Edward S.; Hong, Waun Ki; Mao, Li

    2011-01-01

    Patients with oral preneoplastic lesion (OPL) have high risk of developing oral cancer. Although certain risk factors such as smoking status and histology are known, our ability to predict oral cancer risk remains poor. The study objective was to determine the value of gene expression profiling in predicting oral cancer development. Gene expression profile was measured in 86 of 162 OPL patients who were enrolled in a clinical chemoprevention trial that used the incidence of oral cancer development as a prespecified endpoint. The median follow-up time was 6.08 years and 35 of the 86 patients developed oral cancer over the course. Gene expression profiles were associated with oral cancer-free survival and used to develope multivariate predictive models for oral cancer prediction. We developed a 29-transcript predictive model which showed marked improvement in terms of prediction accuracy (with 8% predicting error rate) over the models using previously known clinico-pathological risk factors. Based on the gene expression profile data, we also identified 2182 transcripts significantly associated with oral cancer risk associated genes (P-value<0.01, single variate Cox proportional hazards model). Functional pathway analysis revealed proteasome machinery, MYC, and ribosomes components as the top gene sets associated with oral cancer risk. In multiple independent datasets, the expression profiles of the genes can differentiate head and neck cancer from normal mucosa. Our results show that gene expression profiles may improve the prediction of oral cancer risk in OPL patients and the significant genes identified may serve as potential targets for oral cancer chemoprevention. PMID:21292635

  6. Hypergravity-induced changes in gene expression in Arabidopsis hypocotyls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, R.; Soga, K.; Wakabayashi, K.; Takeba, G.; Hoson, T.

    2003-05-01

    Under hypergravity conditions, the cell wall of stem organs becomes mechanically rigid and elongation growth is suppressed, which can be recognized as the mechanism for plants to resist gravitational force. The changes in gene expression by hypergravity treatment were analyzed in Arabidopsis hypocotyls by the differential display method, for identifying genes involved in hypergravity-induced growth suppression. Sixty-two cDNA clones were expressed differentially between the control and 300 g conditions: the expression levels of 39 clones increased, whereas those of 23 clones decreased under hypergravity conditions. Sequence analysis and database searching revealed that 12 clones, 9 up-regulated and 3 down-regulated, have homology to known proteins. The expression of these genes was further analyzed using RT-PCR. Finally, six genes were confirmed to be up-regulated by hypergravity. One of such genes encoded 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A reductase (HMGR), which catalyzes a reaction producing mevalonic acid, a key precursor ofterpenoids such as membrane sterols and several types of hormones. The expression of HMGR gene increased within several hours after hypergravity treatment. Also, compactin, an inhibitor of HMGR, prevented hypergravity-induced growth suppression, suggesting that HMGR is involved in suppression of Arabidopsis hypocotyl growth by hypergravity. In addition, hypergravity increased the expression levels of genes encoding CCR1 and ERD15, which were shown to take part in the signaling pathway of environmental stimuli such as temperature and water, and those of the α-tubulin gene. These genes may be involved in a series of cellular events leading to growth suppression of stem organs under hypergravity conditions.

  7. Identification of four novel mutations in the COL4A5 gene of patients with Alport syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Lemmink, H.H.; Schroeder, C.H.; Brunner, H.G.

    1993-08-01

    The type IV collagen [alpha]5 chain (COL4A5) genes of patients with Alport syndrome were tested for major gene rearrangements by Southern blot analysis, using COL4A5 cDNA clones as probes. In addition, individual exons were screened for small mutations by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Four new COL4A5 mutations were detected. A duplication of the nine most 3[prime] located nucleotides of exon 49 and the first nucleotide of intron 49 was identified in the COL4A5 gene of one patient. Two patients displayed single base substitutions leading to, respectively, a proline to threonine and an arginine to glutamine substitution in the C-terminalmore » end. Both substitutions involve amino acids conserved through evolution. In COL4A5 intron 41 a mutation changing the splice acceptor site from AG to AA was identified. All mutations cosegregate with the clinical phenotype of Alport syndrome in affected family members. In a control population of 50 individuals tested by PCR-SSCP these mutations were never identified. Together with two mutations reported previously, a total of six mutations were found in 26 patients with Alport syndrome (23%) after systematic screening of about 30% of the COL4A5 coding region. The clinical features of these six patients are described in detail. 21 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  8. Analysis of lamprey clustered Fox genes: insight into Fox gene evolution and expression in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Wotton, Karl R; Shimeld, Sebastian M

    2011-12-01

    In the human genome, members of the FoxC, FoxF, FoxL1, and FoxQ1 gene families are found in two paralagous clusters. One cluster contains the genes FOXQ1, FOXF2, FOXC1 and the second consists of FOXF1, FOXC2, and FOXL1. In jawed vertebrates these genes are known to be expressed in different pharyngeal tissues and all, except FoxQ1, are involved in patterning the early embryonic mesoderm. We have previously traced the evolution of this cluster in the bony vertebrates, and the gene content is identical in the dogfish, a member of the most basally branching lineage of the jawed vertebrates. Here we extend these analyses to jawless vertebrates. Using genomic searches and molecular approaches we have identified homologues of these genes from lampreys. We identify two FoxC genes, two FoxF genes, two FoxQ1 genes and single FoxL1 gene. We examine the embryonic expression of one predominantly mesodermally expressed gene family, FoxC, and the endodermally expressed member of the cluster, FoxQ1. We identified FoxQ1 transcripts in the pharyngeal endoderm, while the two FoxC genes are differentially expressed in the pharyngeal mesenchyme and ectoderm. Furthermore we identify conserved expression of lamprey FoxC genes in the paraxial and intermediate mesoderms. We interpret our results through a chordate-wide comparison of expression patterns and discuss gene content in the context of theories on the evolution of the vertebrate genome. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Geometry of the Gene Expression Space of Individual Cells

    PubMed Central

    Korem, Yael; Szekely, Pablo; Hart, Yuval; Sheftel, Hila; Hausser, Jean; Mayo, Avi; Rothenberg, Michael E.; Kalisky, Tomer; Alon, Uri

    2015-01-01

    There is a revolution in the ability to analyze gene expression of single cells in a tissue. To understand this data we must comprehend how cells are distributed in a high-dimensional gene expression space. One open question is whether cell types form discrete clusters or whether gene expression forms a continuum of states. If such a continuum exists, what is its geometry? Recent theory on evolutionary trade-offs suggests that cells that need to perform multiple tasks are arranged in a polygon or polyhedron (line, triangle, tetrahedron and so on, generally called polytopes) in gene expression space, whose vertices are the expression profiles optimal for each task. Here, we analyze single-cell data from human and mouse tissues profiled using a variety of single-cell technologies. We fit the data to shapes with different numbers of vertices, compute their statistical significance, and infer their tasks. We find cases in which single cells fill out a continuum of expression states within a polyhedron. This occurs in intestinal progenitor cells, which fill out a tetrahedron in gene expression space. The four vertices of this tetrahedron are each enriched with genes for a specific task related to stemness and early differentiation. A polyhedral continuum of states is also found in spleen dendritic cells, known to perform multiple immune tasks: cells fill out a tetrahedron whose vertices correspond to key tasks related to maturation, pathogen sensing and communication with lymphocytes. A mixture of continuum-like distributions and discrete clusters is found in other cell types, including bone marrow and differentiated intestinal crypt cells. This approach can be used to understand the geometry and biological tasks of a wide range of single-cell datasets. The present results suggest that the concept of cell type may be expanded. In addition to discreet clusters in gene-expression space, we suggest a new possibility: a continuum of states within a polyhedron, in which the

  10. Mucin gene expression in human male urogenital tract epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Cindy Leigh; Spurr-Michaud, Sandra; Tisdale, Ann; Pudney, Jeffrey; Anderson, Deborah; Gipson, Ilene K.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mucins are large, hydrophilic glycoproteins that protect wet-surfaced epithelia from pathogen invasion as well as provide lubrication. At least 17 mucin genes have been cloned to date. This study sought to determine the mucin gene expression profile of the human male urogenital tract epithelia, to determine if mucins are present in seminal fluid, and to assess the effect of androgens on mucin expression. METHODS AND RESULTS Testis, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicle, prostate, bladder, urethra and foreskin were assessed for mucin expression by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Epithelia of the vas deferens, prostate and urethra expressed the greatest number of mucins, each expressing 5–8 mucins. Messenger RNA of MUC1 and MUC20, both membrane-associated mucins, were detected in most tissues analyzed. Conversely, MUC6 was predominantly detected in seminal vesicle. MUC1, MUC5B and MUC6 were detected in seminal fluid samples by immunoblot analysis. Androgens had no effect on mucin expression by cultured human prostatic epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS Each region of urogenital tract epithelium expressed a unique mucin gene repertoire. Secretory mucins are present in seminal fluid, and androgens do not appear to regulate mucin gene expression. PMID:16997931

  11. PLEXdb: Gene expression resources for plants and plant pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    PLEXdb (Plant Expression Database), in partnership with community databases, supports comparisons of gene expression across multiple plant and pathogen species, promoting individuals and/or consortia to upload genome-scale data sets to contrast them to previously archived data. These analyses facili...

  12. Finding Groups in Gene Expression Data

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The vast potential of the genomic insight offered by microarray technologies has led to their widespread use since they were introduced a decade ago. Application areas include gene function discovery, disease diagnosis, and inferring regulatory networks. Microarray experiments enable large-scale, high-throughput investigations of gene activity and have thus provided the data analyst with a distinctive, high-dimensional field of study. Many questions in this field relate to finding subgroups of data profiles which are very similar. A popular type of exploratory tool for finding subgroups is cluster analysis, and many different flavors of algorithms have been used and indeed tailored for microarray data. Cluster analysis, however, implies a partitioning of the entire data set, and this does not always match the objective. Sometimes pattern discovery or bump hunting tools are more appropriate. This paper reviews these various tools for finding interesting subgroups. PMID:16046827

  13. Novel gene expression tools for rice biotechnology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biotechnology is an effective and important method of improving both quality and agronomic traits in rice. We are developing novel molecular tools for genetic engineering, with a focus on developing novel transgene expression control elements (i.e. promoters) for rice. A suite of monocot grass promo...

  14. Redox regulation, gene expression and longevity.

    PubMed

    Honda, Yoko; Tanaka, Masashi; Honda, Shuji

    2010-07-01

    Lifespan can be lengthened by genetic and environmental modifications. Study of these might provide valuable insights into the mechanism of aging. Low doses of radiation and short-term exposure to heat and high concentrations of oxygen prolong the lifespan of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. These might be caused by adaptive responses to harmful environmental conditions. Single-gene mutations have been found to extend lifespan in C. elegans, Drosophila and mice. So far, the best-characterized system is the C. elegans mutant in the daf-2, insulin/IGF-I receptor gene that is the component of the insulin/IGF-I signaling pathway. The mutant animals live twice as long as the wild type. The insulin/IGF-I signaling pathway regulates the activity of DAF-16, a FOXO transcription factor. However, the unified explanation for the function of DAF-16 transcription targets in the lifespan extension is not yet fully established. As both of the Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) isoforms (sod-2 and sod-3) are found to be targets of DAF-16, we attempted to assess their functions in regulating lifespan and oxidative stress responsivity. We show that the double deletions of sod-2 and sod-3 genes induced oxidative-stress sensitivity but do not shorten lifespan in the daf-2 mutant background, indicating that oxidative stress is not necessarily a limiting factor for longevity. Furthermore, the deletion in the sod-3 gene lengthens lifespan in the daf-2 mutant. We conclude that the MnSOD systems in C. elegans fine-tune the insulin/IGF-I-signaling based regulation of longevity by acting not as anti-oxidants but as physiological-redox-signaling modulators.

  15. Gene expression analysis of pancreatic cell lines reveals genes overexpressed in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Alldinger, Ingo; Dittert, Dag; Peiper, Matthias; Fusco, Alberto; Chiappetta, Gennaro; Staub, Eike; Lohr, Matthias; Jesnowski, Ralf; Baretton, Gustavo; Ockert, Detlef; Saeger, Hans-Detlev; Grützmann, Robert; Pilarsky, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Using DNA gene expression analysis based on a custom made Affymetrix cancer array, we investigated the expression pattern of both primary and established pancreatic carcinoma cell lines. We analyzed the gene expression of 5 established pancreatic cancer cell lines (AsPC-1, BxPC-3, Capan-1, Capan-2 and HPAF II) and 5 primary isolates, 1 of them derived from benign pancreatic duct cells. Out of 1,540 genes which were expressed in at least 3 experiments, we found 122 genes upregulated and 18 downregulated in tumor cell lines compared to benign cells with a fold change >3. Several of the upregulated genes (like Prefoldin 5, ADAM9 and E-cadherin) have been associated with pancreatic cancer before. The other differentially regulated genes, however, play a so far unknown role in the course of human pancreatic carcinoma. By means of immunohistochemistry we could show that thymosin beta-10 (TMSB10), upregulated in tumor cell lines, is expressed in human pancreatic carcinoma, but not in non-neoplastic pancreatic tissue, suggesting a role for TMSB10 in the carcinogenesis of pancreatic carcinoma. Using gene expression profiling of pancreatic cell lines we were able to identify genes differentially expressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, which might contribute to pancreatic cancer development. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Selection of reference genes for gene expression studies in heart failure for left and right ventricles.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengmeng; Rao, Man; Chen, Kai; Zhou, Jianye; Song, Jiangping

    2017-07-15

    Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRT-PCR) is a feasible tool for determining gene expression profiles, but the accuracy and reliability of the results depends on the stable expression of selected housekeeping genes in different samples. By far, researches on stable housekeeping genes in human heart failure samples are rare. Moreover the effect of heart failure on the expression of housekeeping genes in right and left ventricles is yet to be studied. Therefore we aim to provide stable housekeeping genes for both ventricles in heart failure and normal heart samples. In this study, we selected seven commonly used housekeeping genes as candidates. By using the qRT-PCR, the expression levels of ACTB, RAB7A, GAPDH, REEP5, RPL5, PSMB4 and VCP in eight heart failure and four normal heart samples were assessed. The stability of candidate housekeeping genes was evaluated by geNorm and Normfinder softwares. GAPDH showed the least variation in all heart samples. Results also indicated the difference of gene expression existed in heart failure left and right ventricles. GAPDH had the highest expression stability in both heart failure and normal heart samples. We also propose using different sets of housekeeping genes for left and right ventricles respectively. The combination of RPL5, GAPDH and PSMB4 is suitable for the right ventricle and the combination of GAPDH, REEP5 and RAB7A is suitable for the left ventricle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Gene expression changes in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy skin biopsies.

    PubMed

    Puttini, Stefania; Panaite, Petrica-Adrian; Mermod, Nicolas; Renaud, Susanne; Steck, Andreas J; Kuntzer, Thierry

    2014-05-15

    Chronic-inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an immune-mediated disease with no known biomarkers for diagnosing the disease or assessing its prognosis. We performed transcriptional profiling microarray analysis on skin punch biopsies from 20 CIDP patients and 17 healthy controls to identify disease-associated gene expression changes. We demonstrate changes in expression of genes involved in immune and chemokine regulation, growth and repair. We also found a combination of two upregulated genes that can be proposed as a novel biomarker of the disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Repressor-mediated tissue-specific gene expression in plants

    DOEpatents

    Meagher, Richard B [Athens, GA; Balish, Rebecca S [Oxford, OH; Tehryung, Kim [Athens, GA; McKinney, Elizabeth C [Athens, GA

    2009-02-17

    Plant tissue specific gene expression by way of repressor-operator complexes, has enabled outcomes including, without limitation, male sterility and engineered plants having root-specific gene expression of relevant proteins to clean environmental pollutants from soil and water. A mercury hyperaccumulation strategy requires that mercuric ion reductase coding sequence is strongly expressed. The actin promoter vector, A2pot, engineered to contain bacterial lac operator sequences, directed strong expression in all plant vegetative organs and tissues. In contrast, the expression from the A2pot construct was restricted primarily to root tissues when a modified bacterial repressor (LacIn) was coexpressed from the light-regulated rubisco small subunit promoter in above-ground tissues. Also provided are analogous repressor operator complexes for selective expression in other plant tissues, for example, to produce male sterile plants.

  19. Novel gene sets improve set-level classification of prokaryotic gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Holec, Matěj; Kuželka, Ondřej; Železný, Filip

    2015-10-28

    Set-level classification of gene expression data has received significant attention recently. In this setting, high-dimensional vectors of features corresponding to genes are converted into lower-dimensional vectors of features corresponding to biologically interpretable gene sets. The dimensionality reduction brings the promise of a decreased risk of overfitting, potentially resulting in improved accuracy of the learned classifiers. However, recent empirical research has not confirmed this expectation. Here we hypothesize that the reported unfavorable classification results in the set-level framework were due to the adoption of unsuitable gene sets defined typically on the basis of the Gene ontology and the KEGG database of metabolic networks. We explore an alternative approach to defining gene sets, based on regulatory interactions, which we expect to collect genes with more correlated expression. We hypothesize that such more correlated gene sets will enable to learn more accurate classifiers. We define two families of gene sets using information on regulatory interactions, and evaluate them on phenotype-classification tasks using public prokaryotic gene expression data sets. From each of the two gene-set families, we first select the best-performing subtype. The two selected subtypes are then evaluated on independent (testing) data sets against state-of-the-art gene sets and against the conventional gene-level approach. The novel gene sets are indeed more correlated than the conventional ones, and lead to significantly more accurate classifiers. The novel gene sets are indeed more correlated than the conventional ones, and lead to significantly more accurate classifiers. Novel gene sets defined on the basis of regulatory interactions improve set-level classification of gene expression data. The experimental scripts and other material needed to reproduce the experiments are available at http://ida.felk.cvut.cz/novelgenesets.tar.gz.

  20. Moraxella osloensis gene expression in the slug host Deroceras reticulatum.

    PubMed

    An, Ruisheng; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Grewal, Parwinder S

    2008-01-28

    The bacterium Moraxella osloensis is a mutualistic symbiont of the slug-parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita. In nature, P. hermaphrodita vectors M. osloensis into the shell cavity of the slug host Deroceras reticulatum in which the bacteria multiply and kill the slug. As M. osloensis is the main killing agent, genes expressed by M. osloensis in the slug are likely to play important roles in virulence. Studies on pathogenic interactions between bacteria and lower order hosts are few, but such studies have the potential to shed light on the evolution of bacterial virulence. Therefore, we investigated such an interaction by determining gene expression of M. osloensis in its slug host D. reticulatum by selectively capturing transcribed sequences. Thirteen M. osloensis genes were identified to be up-regulated post infection in D. reticulatum. Compared to the in vitro expressed genes in the stationary phase, we found that genes of ubiquinone synthetase (ubiS) and acyl-coA synthetase (acs) were up-regulated in both D. reticulatum and stationary phase in vitro cultures, but the remaining 11 genes were exclusively expressed in D. reticulatum and are hence infection specific. Mutational analysis on genes of protein-disulfide isomerase (dsbC) and ubiS showed that the virulence of both mutants to slugs was markedly reduced and could be complemented. Further, compared to the growth rate of wild-type M. osloensis, the dsbC and ubiS mutants showed normal and reduced growth rate in vitro, respectively. We conclude that 11 out of the 13 up-regulated M. osloensis genes are infection specific. Distribution of these identified genes in various bacterial pathogens indicates that the virulence genes are conserved among different pathogen-host interactions. Mutagenesis, growth rate and virulence bioassays further confirmed that ubiS and dsbC genes play important roles in M. osloensis survival and virulence, respectively in D. reticulatum.

  1. Moraxella osloensis Gene Expression in the Slug Host Deroceras reticulatum

    PubMed Central

    An, Ruisheng; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Grewal, Parwinder S

    2008-01-01

    Background The bacterium Moraxella osloensis is a mutualistic symbiont of the slug-parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita. In nature, P. hermaphrodita vectors M. osloensis into the shell cavity of the slug host Deroceras reticulatum in which the bacteria multiply and kill the slug. As M. osloensis is the main killing agent, genes expressed by M. osloensis in the slug are likely to play important roles in virulence. Studies on pathogenic interactions between bacteria and lower order hosts are few, but such studies have the potential to shed light on the evolution of bacterial virulence. Therefore, we investigated such an interaction by determining gene expression of M. osloensis in its slug host D. reticulatum by selectively capturing transcribed sequences. Results Thirteen M. osloensis genes were identified to be up-regulated post infection in D. reticulatum. Compared to the in vitro expressed genes in the stationary phase, we found that genes of ubiquinone synthetase (ubiS) and acyl-coA synthetase (acs) were up-regulated in both D. reticulatum and stationary phase in vitro cultures, but the remaining 11 genes were exclusively expressed in D. reticulatum and are hence infection specific. Mutational analysis on genes of protein-disulfide isomerase (dsbC) and ubiS showed that the virulence of both mutants to slugs was markedly reduced and could be complemented. Further, compared to the growth rate of wild-type M. osloensis, the dsbC and ubiS mutants showed normal and reduced growth rate in vitro, respectively. Conclusion We conclude that 11 out of the 13 up-regulated M. osloensis genes are infection specific. Distribution of these identified genes in various bacterial pathogens indicates that the virulence genes are conserved among different pathogen-host interactions. Mutagenesis, growth rate and virulence bioassays further confirmed that ubiS and dsbC genes play important roles in M. osloensis survival and virulence, respectively in D. reticulatum. PMID

  2. Microarray expression profiling identifies genes with altered expression in HDL-deficient mice

    SciTech Connect

    Callow, Matthew J.; Dudoit, Sandrine; Gong, Elaine L.

    2000-05-05

    Based on the assumption that severe alterations in the expression of genes known to be involved in HDL metabolism may affect the expression of other genes we screened an array of over 5000 mouse expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for altered gene expression in the livers of two lines of mice with dramatic decreases in HDL plasma concentrations. Labeled cDNA from livers of apolipoprotein AI (apo AI) knockout mice, Scavenger Receptor BI (SR-BI) transgenic mice and control mice were co-hybridized to microarrays. Two-sample t-statistics were used to identify genes with altered expression levels in the knockout or transgenic mice compared withmore » the control mice. In the SR-BI group we found 9 array elements representing at least 5 genes to be significantly altered on the basis of an adjusted p value of less than 0.05. In the apo AI knockout group 8 array elements representing 4 genes were altered compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Several of the genes identified in the SR-BI transgenic suggest altered sterol metabolism and oxidative processes. These studies illustrate the use of multiple-testing methods for the identification of genes with altered expression in replicated microarray experiments of apo AI knockout and SR-BI transgenic mice.« less

  3. Gene expression characterizes different nutritional strategies among three mixotrophic protists.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenfeng; Campbell, Victoria; Heidelberg, Karla B; Caron, David A

    2016-07-01

    Mixotrophic protists, i.e. protists that can carry out both phototrophy and heterotrophy, are a group of organisms with a wide range of nutritional strategies. The ecological and biogeochemical importance of these species has recently been recognized. In this study, we investigated and compared the gene expression of three mixotrophic protists, Prymnesium parvum, Dinobyron sp. and Ochromonas sp. under light and dark conditions in the presence of prey using RNA-Seq. Gene expression of the obligately phototrophic P. parvum and Dinobryon sp. changed significantly between light and dark treatments, while that of primarily heterotrophic Ochromonas sp. was largely unchanged. Gene expression of P. parvum and Dinobryon sp. shared many similarities, especially in the expression patterns of genes related to reproduction. However, key genes involved in central carbon metabolism and phagotrophy had different expression patterns between these two species, suggesting differences in prey consumption and heterotrophic nutrition in the dark. Transcriptomic data also offered clues to other physiological traits of these organisms such as preference of nitrogen sources and photo-oxidative stress. These results provide potential target genes for further exploration of the mechanisms of mixotrophic physiology and demonstrate the potential usefulness of molecular approaches in characterizing the nutritional modes of mixotrophic protists. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Origins of extrinsic variability in eukaryotic gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volfson, Dmitri; Marciniak, Jennifer; Blake, William J.; Ostroff, Natalie; Tsimring, Lev S.; Hasty, Jeff

    2006-02-01

    Variable gene expression within a clonal population of cells has been implicated in a number of important processes including mutation and evolution, determination of cell fates and the development of genetic disease. Recent studies have demonstrated that a significant component of expression variability arises from extrinsic factors thought to influence multiple genes simultaneously, yet the biological origins of this extrinsic variability have received little attention. Here we combine computational modelling with fluorescence data generated from multiple promoter-gene inserts in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify two major sources of extrinsic variability. One unavoidable source arising from the coupling of gene expression with population dynamics leads to a ubiquitous lower limit for expression variability. A second source, which is modelled as originating from a common upstream transcription factor, exemplifies how regulatory networks can convert noise in upstream regulator expression into extrinsic noise at the output of a target gene. Our results highlight the importance of the interplay of gene regulatory networks with population heterogeneity for understanding the origins of cellular diversity.

  5. Origins of extrinsic variability in eukaryotic gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volfson, Dmitri; Marciniak, Jennifer; Blake, William J.; Ostroff, Natalie; Tsimring, Lev S.; Hasty, Jeff

    2006-03-01

    Variable gene expression within a clonal population of cells has been implicated in a number of important processes including mutation and evolution, determination of cell fates and the development of genetic disease. Recent studies have demonstrated that a significant component of expression variability arises from extrinsic factors thought to influence multiple genes in concert, yet the biological origins of this extrinsic variability have received little attention. Here we combine computational modeling with fluorescence data generated from multiple promoter-gene inserts in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify two major sources of extrinsic variability. One unavoidable source arising from the coupling of gene expression with population dynamics leads to a ubiquitous noise floor in expression variability. A second source which is modeled as originating from a common upstream transcription factor exemplifies how regulatory networks can convert noise in upstream regulator expression into extrinsic noise at the output of a target gene. Our results highlight the importance of the interplay of gene regulatory networks with population heterogeneity for understanding the origins of cellular diversity.

  6. Novel expression of the stanniocalcin gene in fish.

    PubMed

    McCudden, C R; Kogon, M R; DiMattia, G E; Wagner, G F

    2001-10-01

    It is currently accepted that the fish stanniocalcin (STC) gene is expressed exclusively in the corpuscles of Stannius (CS), unique endocrine glands on the kidneys of bony fishes. In this study, we have re-examined the pattern of fish STC gene expression in the light of the recent evidence for widespread expression of the gene in mammals. Surprisingly, we found by Northern blotting that the fish gene was also expressed in the kidneys and gonads, in addition to the CS glands. Moreover, Southern blotting of RT-PCR products revealed STC mRNA transcripts in all tissues assayed, including brain, heart, gill, muscle and intestine. In situ hybridization studies using digoxigenin-labeled riboprobes localized STC mRNA to chondrocytes, and both mature and developing nephritic tubules. Immunocytochemical staining indicated that the STC protein was widespread in cells of the gill, kidney, brain, eye, pseudobranch and skin. We also characterized the salmon STC gene, establishing that it was comprised of five exons as opposed to four in mammals. A single transcription start site was identified by primer extension 99 bp upstream of the start codon. This is the first evidence of STC gene expression in fish tissues other than the CS glands and suggests that, as in mammals, fish STC operates via both local and endocrine pathways.

  7. Comparative modular analysis of gene expression in vertebrate organs.

    PubMed

    Piasecka, Barbara; Kutalik, Zoltán; Roux, Julien; Bergmann, Sven; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc

    2012-03-29

    The degree of conservation of gene expression between homologous organs largely remains an open question. Several recent studies reported some evidence in favor of such conservation. Most studies compute organs' similarity across all orthologous genes, whereas the expression level of many genes are not informative about organ specificity. Here, we use a modularization algorithm to overcome this limitation through the identification of inter-species co-modules of organs and genes. We identify such co-modules using mouse and human microarray expression data. They are functionally coherent both in terms of genes and of organs from both organisms. We show that a large proportion of genes belonging to the same co-module are orthologous between mouse and human. Moreover, their zebrafish orthologs also tend to be expressed in the corresponding homologous organs. Notable exceptions to the general pattern of conservation are the testis and the olfactory bulb. Interestingly, some co-modules consist of single organs, while others combine several functionally related organs. For instance, amygdala, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and spinal cord form a clearly discernible unit of expression, both in mouse and human. Our study provides a new framework for comparative analysis which will be applicable also to other sets of large-scale phenotypic data collected across different species.

  8. Expression analysis of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase genes in Petunia hybrida.

    PubMed

    Chu, Y X; Chen, H R; Wu, A Z; Cai, R; Pan, J S

    2015-05-12

    Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) genes from Rosa chinensis (Asn type) and Calibrachoa hybrida (Asp type), driven by a CaMV 35S promoter, were integrated into the petunia (Petunia hybrida) cultivar 9702. Exogenous DFR gene expression characteristics were similar to flower-color changes, and effects on anthocyanin concentration were observed in both types of DFR gene transformants. Expression analysis showed that exogenous DFR genes were expressed in all of the tissues, but the expression levels were significantly different. However, both of them exhibited a high expression level in petals that were starting to open. The introgression of DFR genes may significantly change DFR enzyme activity. Anthocyanin ultra-performance liquid chromatography results showed that anthocyanin concentrations changed according to DFR enzyme activity. Therefore, the change in flower color was probably the result of a DFR enzyme change. Pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside was found in two different transgenic petunias, indicating that both CaDFR and RoDFR could catalyze dihydrokaempferol. Our results also suggest that transgenic petunias with DFR gene of Asp type could biosynthesize pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside.

  9. Low-rank regularization for learning gene expression programs.

    PubMed

    Ye, Guibo; Tang, Mengfan; Cai, Jian-Feng; Nie, Qing; Xie, Xiaohui

    2013-01-01

    Learning gene expression programs directly from a set of observations is challenging due to the complexity of gene regulation, high noise of experimental measurements, and insufficient number of experimental measurements. Imposing additional constraints with strong and biologically motivated regularizations is critical in developing reliable and effective algorithms for inferring gene expression programs. Here we propose a new form of regulation that constrains the number of independent connectivity patterns between regulators and targets, motivated by the modular design of gene regulatory programs and the belief that the total number of independent regulatory modules should be small. We formulate a multi-target linear regression framework to incorporate this type of regulation, in which the number of independent connectivity patterns is expressed as the rank of the connectivity matrix between regulators and targets. We then generalize the linear framework to nonlinear cases, and prove that the generalized low-rank regularization model is still convex. Efficient algorithms are derived to solve both the linear and nonlinear low-rank regularized problems. Finally, we test the algorithms on three gene expression datasets, and show that the low-rank regularization improves the accuracy of gene expression prediction in these three datasets.

  10. [Expression of acylamidase gene in Rhodococcus erythropolis strains].

    PubMed

    Lavrov, K V; Novikov, A D; Riabchenko, L E; Ianenko, A S

    2014-09-01

    The expression of a new acylamidase gene from R. erythropolis 37 was studied in Rhodococcus erythropolis strains. This acylamidase, as a result of its unique substrate specificity, can hydrolyse N-substituted amides (4'-nitroacetanilide, N-isopropylacrylamide, N'N-dimethylaminopropylacrylamide). A new expression system based on the use of the promoter region of nitrilhydratase genes from R. rhodochrous M8 was created to achieve constitutive synthesis of acylamidase in R. erythropolis cells. A fourfold improvement in the acylamidase activity of recombinant R. erythropolis cells as compared with the parent wild-type strain was obtained through the use of the new expression system.

  11. The genetic architecture of gene expression levels in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jenny; Zhou, Xiang; Alberts, Susan C; Stephens, Matthew; Gilad, Yoav

    2015-02-25

    Primate evolution has been argued to result, in part, from changes in how genes are regulated. However, we still know little about gene regulation in natural primate populations. We conducted an RNA sequencing (RNA-seq)-based study of baboons from an intensively studied wild population. We performed complementary expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping and allele-specific expression analyses, discovering substantial evidence for, and surprising power to detect, genetic effects on gene expression levels in the baboons. eQTL were most likely to be identified for lineage-specific, rapidly evolving genes; interestingly, genes with eQTL significantly overlapped between baboons and a comparable human eQTL data set. Our results suggest that genes vary in their tolerance of genetic perturbation, and that this property may be conserved across species. Further, they establish the feasibility of eQTL mapping using RNA-seq data alone, and represent an important step towards understanding the genetic architecture of gene expression in primates.

  12. The genetic architecture of gene expression levels in wild baboons

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jenny; Zhou, Xiang; Alberts, Susan C; Stephens, Matthew; Gilad, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    Primate evolution has been argued to result, in part, from changes in how genes are regulated. However, we still know little about gene regulation in natural primate populations. We conducted an RNA sequencing (RNA-seq)-based study of baboons from an intensively studied wild population. We performed complementary expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping and allele-specific expression analyses, discovering substantial evidence for, and surprising power to detect, genetic effects on gene expression levels in the baboons. eQTL were most likely to be identified for lineage-specific, rapidly evolving genes; interestingly, genes with eQTL significantly overlapped between baboons and a comparable human eQTL data set. Our results suggest that genes vary in their tolerance of genetic perturbation, and that this property may be conserved across species. Further, they establish the feasibility of eQTL mapping using RNA-seq data alone, and represent an important step towards understanding the genetic architecture of gene expression in primates. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04729.001 PMID:25714927

  13. Genetic effects on gene expression across human tissues.

    PubMed

    Battle, Alexis; Brown, Christopher D; Engelhardt, Barbara E; Montgomery, Stephen B

    2017-10-11

    Characterization of the molecular function of the human genome and its variation across individuals is essential for identifying the cellular mechanisms that underlie human genetic traits and diseases. The Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project aims to characterize variation in gene expression levels across individuals and diverse tissues of the human body, many of which are not easily accessible. Here we describe genetic effects on gene expression levels across 44 human tissues. We find that local genetic variation affects gene expression levels for the majority of genes, and we further identify inter-chromosomal genetic effects for 93 genes and 112 loci. On the basis of the identified genetic effects, we characterize patterns of tissue specificity, compare local and distal effects, and evaluate the functional properties of the genetic effects. We also demonstrate that multi-tissue, multi-individual data can be used to identify genes and pathways affected by human disease-associated variation, enabling a mechanistic interpretation of gene regulation and the genetic basis of disease.

  14. Genetic effects on gene expression across human tissues

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Characterization of the molecular function of the human genome and its variation across individuals is essential for identifying the cellular mechanisms that underlie human genetic traits and diseases. The Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project aims to characterize variation in gene expression levels across individuals and diverse tissues of the human body, many of which are not easily accessible. Here we describe genetic effects on gene expression levels across 44 human tissues. We find that local genetic variation affects gene expression levels for the majority of genes, and we further identify inter-chromosomal genetic effects for 93 genes and 112 loci. On the basis of the identified genetic effects, we characterize patterns of tissue specificity, compare local and distal effects, and evaluate the functional properties of the genetic effects. We also demonstrate that multi-tissue, multi-individual data can be used to identify genes and pathways affected by human disease-associated variation, enabling a mechanistic interpretation of gene regulation and the genetic basis of disease. PMID:29022597

  15. Msn2 Coordinates a Stoichiometric Gene Expression Program

    PubMed Central

    Stewart-Ornstein, Jacob; Nelson, Christopher; DeRisi, Joe; Weissman, Jonathan S.; El-Samad, Hana

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Many cellular processes operate in an “analog” regime in which the magnitude of the response is precisely tailored to the intensity of the stimulus. In order to maintain the coherence of such responses, the cell must provide for proportional expression of multiple target genes across a wide dynamic range of induction states. Our understanding of the strategies used to achieve graded gene regulation is limited. Results In this work, we document a relationship between stress responsive gene expression and the transcription factor Msn2 that is graded over a large range of Msn2 cocnentrations. We use computational modeling, in vivo, and in vitro analysis to dissect the roots of this relationship. Our studies reveal a simple and general strategy based on non-cooperative low-affinity interactions between Msn2 and its cognate binding sites, as well as competition over a large number of Msn2 binding sites in the genome relative to the number of Msn2 molecules. Conclusions In addition to enabling precise tuning of gene expression to the state of the environment, this strategy ensures co-linear activation of target genes, allowing for stoichiometric expression of large groups of genes without extensive promoter tuning. Furthermore, such a strategy enables precise modulation of the activity of any given promoter by addition of binding sites without altering the qualitative relationship between different genes in a regulon. This feature renders a given regulon highly ‘evolvable’. PMID:24210615

  16. Mining microarray data at NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO)*.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Tanya; Edgar, Ron

    2006-01-01

    The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) has emerged as the leading fully public repository for gene expression data. This chapter describes how to use Web-based interfaces, applications, and graphics to effectively explore, visualize, and interpret the hundreds of microarray studies and millions of gene expression patterns stored in GEO. Data can be examined from both experiment-centric and gene-centric perspectives using user-friendly tools that do not require specialized expertise in microarray analysis or time-consuming download of massive data sets. The GEO database is publicly accessible through the World Wide Web at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo.

  17. Bayesian median regression for temporal gene expression data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Keming; Vinciotti, Veronica; Liu, Xiaohui; 't Hoen, Peter A. C.

    2007-09-01

    Most of the existing methods for the identification of biologically interesting genes in a temporal expression profiling dataset do not fully exploit the temporal ordering in the dataset and are based on normality assumptions for the gene expression. In this paper, we introduce a Bayesian median regression model to detect genes whose temporal profile is significantly different across a number of biological conditions. The regression model is defined by a polynomial function where both time and condition effects as well as interactions between the two are included. MCMC-based inference returns the posterior distribution of the polynomial coefficients. From this a simple Bayes factor test is proposed to test for significance. The estimation of the median rather than the mean, and within a Bayesian framework, increases the robustness of the method compared to a Hotelling T2-test previously suggested. This is shown on simulated data and on muscular dystrophy gene expression data.

  18. Expression Atlas: gene and protein expression across multiple studies and organisms

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Y Amy; Bazant, Wojciech; Burke, Melissa; Fuentes, Alfonso Muñoz-Pomer; George, Nancy; Koskinen, Satu; Mohammed, Suhaib; Geniza, Matthew; Preece, Justin; Jarnuczak, Andrew F; Huber, Wolfgang; Stegle, Oliver; Brazma, Alvis; Petryszak, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Expression Atlas (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/gxa) is an added value database that provides information about gene and protein expression in different species and contexts, such as tissue, developmental stage, disease or cell type. The available public and controlled access data sets from different sources are curated and re-analysed using standardized, open source pipelines and made available for queries, download and visualization. As of August 2017, Expression Atlas holds data from 3,126 studies across 33 different species, including 731 from plants. Data from large-scale RNA sequencing studies including Blueprint, PCAWG, ENCODE, GTEx and HipSci can be visualized next to each other. In Expression Atlas, users can query genes or gene-sets of interest and explore their expression across or within species, tissues, developmental stages in a constitutive or differential context, representing the effects of diseases, conditions or experimental interventions. All processed data matrices are available for direct download in tab-delimited format or as R-data. In addition to the web interface, data sets can now be searched and downloaded through the Expression Atlas R package. Novel features and visualizations include the on-the-fly analysis of gene set overlaps and the option to view gene co-expression in experiments investigating constitutive gene expression across tissues or other conditions. PMID:29165655

  19. Aging and Gene Expression in the Primate Brain

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, Hunter B.; Khaitovich, Philipp; Plotkin, Joshua B.

    2005-02-18

    It is well established that gene expression levels in many organisms change during the aging process, and the advent of DNA microarrays has allowed genome-wide patterns of transcriptional changes associated with aging to be studied in both model organisms and various human tissues. Understanding the effects of aging on gene expression in the human brain is of particular interest, because of its relation to both normal and pathological neurodegeneration. Here we show that human cerebral cortex, human cerebellum, and chimpanzee cortex each undergo different patterns of age-related gene expression alterations. In humans, many more genes undergo consistent expression changes inmore » the cortex than in the cerebellum; in chimpanzees, many genes change expression with age in cortex, but the pattern of changes in expression bears almost no resemblance to that of human cortex. These results demonstrate the diversity of aging patterns present within the human brain, as well as how rapidly genome-wide patterns of aging can evolve between species; they may also have implications for the oxidative free radical theory of aging, and help to improve our understanding of human neurodegenerative diseases.« less

  20. Modification of Schwann Cell Gene Expression by Electroporation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Aspalter, Manuela; Vyas, Alka; Feiner, Jeffrey; Griffin, John; Brushart, Thomas; Redett, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Clinical outcomes of nerve grafting are often inferior to those of end-to-end nerve repair. This may be due, in part, to the routine use of cutaneous nerve to support motor axon regeneration. In previous work, we have demonstrated that Schwann cells express distinct sensory and motor phenotypes, and that these promote regeneration in a modality-specific fashion. Intra-operative modification of graft Schwann cell phenotype might therefore improve clinical outcomes. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of electroporating genes into intact nerve to modify Schwann cell gene expression. Initial trials established 70 V, 5 ms as optimum electroporation parameters. Intact, denervated, and reinnervated rat tibial nerves were electroporated with the YFP gene and evaluated serially by counting S-100 positive cells that expressed YFP. In intact nerve, a mean of 28% of Schwann cells expressed the gene at 3 days, falling to 20% at 7 days with little expression at later times. There were no significant differences among the three groups at each time period. Electronmicroscopic evaluation of treated, intact nerve revealed only occasional demyelination and axon degeneration. Intraoperative electroporation of nerve graft is thus a practical means of altering Schwann cell gene expression without the risks inherent in viral transfection. PMID:18834904

  1. Gene expression meta-analysis identifies chromosomal regions and candidate genes involved in breast cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Mads; Tan, Qihua; Kruse, Torben A

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer cells exhibit complex karyotypic alterations causing deregulation of numerous genes. Some of these genes are probably causal for cancer formation and local growth whereas others are causal for the various steps of metastasis. In a fraction of tumors deregulation of the same genes might be caused by epigenetic modulations, point mutations or the influence of other genes. We have investigated the relation of gene expression and chromosomal position, using eight datasets including more than 1200 breast tumors, to identify chromosomal regions and candidate genes possibly causal for breast cancer metastasis. By use of "Gene Set Enrichment Analysis" we have ranked chromosomal regions according to their relation to metastasis. Overrepresentation analysis identified regions with increased expression for chromosome 1q41-42, 8q24, 12q14, 16q22, 16q24, 17q12-21.2, 17q21-23, 17q25, 20q11, and 20q13 among metastasizing tumors and reduced gene expression at 1p31-21, 8p22-21, and 14q24. By analysis of genes with extremely imbalanced expression in these regions we identified DIRAS3 at 1p31, PSD3, LPL, EPHX2 at 8p21-22, and FOS at 14q24 as candidate metastasis suppressor genes. Potential metastasis promoting genes includes RECQL4 at 8q24, PRMT7 at 16q22, GINS2 at 16q24, and AURKA at 20q13.

  2. Analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genes: potential implications for the metabolism of HIV drugs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Drug metabolism via the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) system has emerged as an important determinant in the occurrence of several drug interactions (adverse drug reactions, reduced pharmacological effect, drug toxicities). In particular, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 (interacting with more than 60% of licensed drugs) exhibit the most individual variations of gene expression, mostly caused by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the regulatory region of the CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genes which might affect the level of enzyme production. In this study, we sought to improve the performance of sensitive screening for CYP3A polymorphism detection in twenty HIV-1 infected patients undergoing lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) monotherapy. Methods The study was performed by an effective, easy and inexpensive home-made Polymerase Chain Reaction Direct Sequencing approach for analyzing CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genes which can detect both reported and unreported genetic variants potentially associated with altered or decreased functions of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 proteins. Proportions and tests of association were used. Results Among the genetic variants considered, CYP3A4*1B (expression of altered function) was only found in 3 patients (15%) and CYP3A5*3 (expression of splicing defect) in 3 other patients (15%). CYP3A5*3 did not appear to be associated with decreased efficacy of LPV/r in any patient, since none of the patients carrying this variant showed virological rebound during LPV/r treatment or low levels of TDM. In contrast, low-level virological rebound was observed in one patient and a low TDM level was found in another; both were carrying CYP3A4*1B. Conclusions Our method exhibited an overall efficiency of 100% (DNA amplification and sequencing in our group of patients). This may contribute to producing innovative results for better understanding the inter-genotypic variability in gene coding for CYP3A, and investigating SNPs as biological markers of individual response to drugs

  3. Evolution and Expression Patterns of TCP Genes in Asparagales

    PubMed Central

    Madrigal, Yesenia; Alzate, Juan F.; Pabón-Mora, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    CYCLOIDEA-like genes are involved in the symmetry gene network, limiting cell proliferation in the dorsal regions of bilateral flowers in core eudicots. CYC-like and closely related TCP genes (acronym for TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, and PROLIFERATION CELL FACTOR) have been poorly studied in Asparagales, the largest order of monocots that includes both bilateral flowers in Orchidaceae (ca. 25.000 spp) and radially symmetrical flowers in Hypoxidaceae (ca. 200 spp). With the aim of assessing TCP gene evolution in the Asparagales, we isolated TCP-like genes from publicly available databases and our own transcriptomes of Cattleya trianae (Orchidaceae) and Hypoxis decumbens (Hypoxidaceae). Our matrix contains 452 sequences representing the three major clades of TCP genes. Besides the previously identified CYC specific core eudicot duplications, our ML phylogenetic analyses recovered an early CIN-like duplication predating all angiosperms, two CIN-like Asparagales-specific duplications and a duplication prior to the diversification of Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae. In addition, we provide evidence of at least three duplications of PCF-like genes in Asparagales. While CIN-like and PCF-like genes have multiplied in Asparagales, likely enhancing the genetic network for cell proliferation, CYC-like genes remain as single, shorter copies with low expression. Homogeneous expression of CYC-like genes in the labellum as well as the lateral petals suggests little contribution to the bilateral perianth in C. trianae. CIN-like and PCF-like gene expression suggests conserved roles in cell proliferation in leaves, sepals and petals, carpels, ovules and fruits in Asparagales by comparison with previously reported functions in core eudicots and monocots. This is the first large scale analysis of TCP-like genes in Asparagales that will serve as a platform for in-depth functional studies in emerging model monocots. PMID:28144250

  4. Network Security via Biometric Recognition of Patterns of Gene Expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Harry C.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular biology provides the ability to implement forms of information and network security completely outside the bounds of legacy security protocols and algorithms. This paper addresses an approach which instantiates the power of gene expression for security. Molecular biology provides a rich source of gene expression and regulation mechanisms, which can be adopted to use in the information and electronic communication domains. Conventional security protocols are becoming increasingly vulnerable due to more intensive, highly capable attacks on the underlying mathematics of cryptography. Security protocols are being undermined by social engineering and substandard implementations by IT organizations. Molecular biology can provide countermeasures to these weak points with the current security approaches. Future advances in instruments for analyzing assays will also enable this protocol to advance from one of cryptographic algorithms to an integrated system of cryptographic algorithms and real-time expression and assay of gene expression products.

  5. Interdependence of cell growth and gene expression: origins and consequences.

    PubMed

    Scott, Matthew; Gunderson, Carl W; Mateescu, Eduard M; Zhang, Zhongge; Hwa, Terence

    2010-11-19

    In bacteria, the rate of cell proliferation and the level of gene expression are intimately intertwined. Elucidating these relations is important both for understanding the physiological functions of endogenous genetic circuits and for designing robust synthetic systems. We describe a phenomenological study that reveals intrinsic constraints governing the allocation of resources toward protein synthesis and other aspects of cell growth. A theory incorporating these constraints can accurately predict how cell proliferation and gene expression affect one another, quantitatively accounting for the effect of translation-inhibiting antibiotics on gene expression and the effect of gratuitous protein expression on cell growth. The use of such empirical relations, analogous to phenomenological laws, may facilitate our understanding and manipulation of complex biological systems before underlying regulatory circuits are elucidated.

  6. DigOut: viewing differential expression genes as outliers.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Tu, Kang; Xie, Lu; Li, Yuan-Yuan

    2010-12-01

    With regards to well-replicated two-conditional microarray datasets, the selection of differentially expressed (DE) genes is a well-studied computational topic, but for multi-conditional microarray datasets with limited or no replication, the same task is not properly addressed by previous studies. This paper adopts multivariate outlier analysis to analyze replication-lacking multi-conditional microarray datasets, finding that it performs significantly better than the widely used limit fold change (LFC) model in a simulated comparative experiment. Compared with the LFC model, the multivariate outlier analysis also demonstrates improved stability against sample variations in a series of manipulated real expression datasets. The reanalysis of a real non-replicated multi-conditional expression dataset series leads to satisfactory results. In conclusion, a multivariate outlier analysis algorithm, like DigOut, is particularly useful for selecting DE genes from non-replicated multi-conditional gene expression dataset.

  7. A Compendium of Canine Normal Tissue Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qing-Rong; Wen, Xinyu; Khan, Javed; Khanna, Chand

    2011-01-01

    Background Our understanding of disease is increasingly informed by changes in gene expression between normal and abnormal tissues. The release of the canine genome sequence in 2005 provided an opportunity to better understand human health and disease using the dog as clinically relevant model. Accordingly, we now present the first genome-wide, canine normal tissue gene expression compendium with corresponding human cross-species analysis. Methodology/Principal Findings The Affymetrix platform was utilized to catalogue gene expression signatures of 10 normal canine tissues including: liver, kidney, heart, lung, cerebrum, lymph node, spleen, jejunum, pancreas and skeletal muscle. The quality of the database was assessed in several ways. Organ defining gene sets were identified for each tissue and functional enrichment analysis revealed themes consistent with known physio-anatomic functions for each organ. In addition, a comparison of orthologous gene expression between matched canine and human normal tissues uncovered remarkable similarity. To demonstrate the utility of this dataset, novel canine gene annotations were established based on comparative analysis of dog and human tissue selective gene expression and manual curation of canine probeset mapping. Public access, using infrastructure identical to that currently in use for human normal tissues, has been established and allows for additional comparisons across species. Conclusions/Significance These data advance our understanding of the canine genome through a comprehensive analysis of gene expression in a diverse set of tissues, contributing to improved functional annotation that has been lacking. Importantly, it will be used to inform future studies of disease in the dog as a model for human translational research and provides a novel resource to the community at large. PMID:21655323

  8. Bacterial reference genes for gene expression studies by RT-qPCR: survey and analysis.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Danilo J P; Santos, Carolina S; Pacheco, Luis G C

    2015-09-01

    The appropriate choice of reference genes is essential for accurate normalization of gene expression data obtained by the method of reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). In 2009, a guideline called the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) highlighted the importance of the selection and validation of more than one suitable reference gene for obtaining reliable RT-qPCR results. Herein, we searched the recent literature in order to identify the bacterial reference genes that have been most commonly validated in gene expression studies by RT-qPCR (in the first 5 years following publication of the MIQE guidelines). Through a combination of different search parameters with the text mining tool MedlineRanker, we identified 145 unique bacterial genes that were recently tested as candidate reference genes. Of these, 45 genes were experimentally validated and, in most of the cases, their expression stabilities were verified using the software tools geNorm and NormFinder. It is noteworthy that only 10 of these reference genes had been validated in two or more of the studies evaluated. An enrichment analysis using Gene Ontology classifications demonstrated that genes belonging to the functional categories of DNA Replication (GO: 0006260) and Transcription (GO: 0006351) rendered a proportionally higher number of validated reference genes. Three genes in the former functional class were also among the top five most stable genes identified through an analysis of gene expression data obtained from the Pathosystems Resource Integration Center. These results may provide a guideline for the initial selection of candidate reference genes for RT-qPCR studies in several different bacterial species.

  9. Blood Gene Expression Profiling of Breast Cancer Survivors Experiencing Fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Landmark-Hoyvik, Hege, E-mail: hblandma@rr-research.n; Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo; Dumeaux, Vanessa

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To extend knowledge on the mechanisms and pathways involved in maintenance of radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) by performing gene expression profiling of whole blood from breast cancer (BC) survivors with and without fibrosis 3-7 years after end of radiotherapy treatment. Methods and Materials: Gene expression profiles from blood were obtained for 254 BC survivors derived from a cohort of survivors, treated with adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer 3-7 years earlier. Analyses of transcriptional differences in blood gene expression between BC survivors with fibrosis (n = 31) and BC survivors without fibrosis (n = 223) were performed using R version 2.8.0more » and tools from the Bioconductor project. Gene sets extracted through a literature search on fibrosis and breast cancer were subsequently used in gene set enrichment analysis. Results: Substantial differences in blood gene expression between BC survivors with and without fibrosis were observed, and 87 differentially expressed genes were identified through linear analysis. Transforming growth factor-{beta}1 signaling was identified as the most significant gene set, showing a down-regulation of most of the core genes, together with up-regulation of a transcriptional activator of the inhibitor of fibrinolysis, Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 in the BC survivors with fibrosis. Conclusion: Transforming growth factor-{beta}1 signaling was found down-regulated during the maintenance phase of fibrosis as opposed to the up-regulation reported during the early, initiating phase of fibrosis. Hence, once the fibrotic tissue has developed, the maintenance phase might rather involve a deregulation of fibrinolysis and altered degradation of extracellular matrix components.« less

  10. Genetics of Sputum Gene Expression in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Weiliang; Cho, Michael H.; Riley, John H.; Anderson, Wayne H.; Singh, Dave; Bakke, Per; Gulsvik, Amund; Litonjua, Augusto A.; Lomas, David A.; Crapo, James D.; Beaty, Terri H.; Celli, Bartolome R.; Rennard, Stephen; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Fox, Steven M.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Hersh, Craig P.

    2011-01-01

    Previous expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies have performed genetic association studies for gene expression, but most of these studies examined lymphoblastoid cell lines from non-diseased individuals. We examined the genetics of gene expression in a relevant disease tissue from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients to identify functional effects of known susceptibility genes and to find novel disease genes. By combining gene expression profiling on induced sputum samples from 131 COPD cases from the ECLIPSE Study with genomewide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data, we found 4315 significant cis-eQTL SNP-probe set associations (3309 unique SNPs). The 3309 SNPs were tested for association with COPD in a genomewide association study (GWAS) dataset, which included 2940 COPD cases and 1380 controls. Adjusting for 3309 tests (p<1.5e-5), the two SNPs which were significantly associated with COPD were located in two separate genes in a known COPD locus on chromosome 15: CHRNA5 and IREB2. Detailed analysis of chromosome 15 demonstrated additional eQTLs for IREB2 mapping to that gene. eQTL SNPs for CHRNA5 mapped to multiple linkage disequilibrium (LD) bins. The eQTLs for IREB2 and CHRNA5 were not in LD. Seventy-four additional eQTL SNPs were associated with COPD at p<0.01. These were genotyped in two COPD populations, finding replicated associations with a SNP in PSORS1C1, in the HLA-C region on chromosome 6. Integrative analysis of GWAS and gene expression data from relevant tissue from diseased subjects has located potential functional variants in two known COPD genes and has identified a novel COPD susceptibility locus. PMID:21949713

  11. Host genetic variation influences gene expression response to rhinovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Çalışkan, Minal; Baker, Samuel W; Gilad, Yoav; Ober, Carole

    2015-04-01

    Rhinovirus (RV) is the most prevalent human respiratory virus and is responsible for at least half of all common colds. RV infections may result in a broad spectrum of effects that range from asymptomatic infections to severe lower respiratory illnesses. The basis for inter-individual variation in the response to RV infection is not well understood. In this study, we explored whether host genetic variation is associated with variation in gene expression response to RV infections between individuals. To do so, we obtained genome-wide genotype and gene expression data in uninfected and RV-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 98 individuals. We mapped local and distant genetic variation that is associated with inter-individual differences in gene expression levels (eQTLs) in both uninfected and RV-infected cells. We focused specifically on response eQTLs (reQTLs), namely, genetic associations with inter-individual variation in gene expression response to RV infection. We identified local reQTLs for 38 genes, including genes with known functions in viral response (UBA7, OAS1, IRF5) and genes that have been associated with immune and RV-related diseases (e.g., ITGA2, MSR1, GSTM3). The putative regulatory regions of genes with reQTLs were enriched for binding sites of virus-activated STAT2, highlighting the role of condition-specific transcription factors in genotype-by-environment interactions. Overall, we suggest that the 38 loci associated with inter-individual variation in gene expression response to RV-infection represent promising candidates for affecting immune and RV-related respiratory diseases.

  12. Gene flow from transgenic common beans expressing the bar gene.

    PubMed

    Faria, Josias C; Carneiro, Geraldo E S; Aragão, Francisco J L

    2010-01-01

    Gene flow is a common phenomenon even in self-pollinated plant species. With the advent of genetically modified plants this subject has become of the utmost importance due to the need for controlling the spread of transgenes. This study was conducted to determine the occurrence and intensity of outcrossing in transgenic common beans. In order to evaluate the outcross rates, four experiments were conducted in Santo Antonio de Goiás (GO, Brazil) and one in Londrina (PR, Brazil), using transgenic cultivars resistant to the herbicide glufosinate ammonium and their conventional counterparts as recipients of the transgene. Experiments with cv. Olathe Pinto and the transgenic line Olathe M1/4 were conducted in a completely randomized design with ten replications for three years in one location, whereas the experiments with cv. Pérola and the transgenic line Pérola M1/4 were conducted at two locations for one year, with the transgenic cultivar surrounded on all sides by the conventional counterpart. The outcross occurred at a negligible rate of 0.00741% in cv. Pérola, while none was observed (0.0%) in cv. Olathe Pinto. The frequency of gene flow was cultivar dependent and most of the observed outcross was within 2.5 m from the edge of the pollen source. Index terms: Phaseolus vulgaris, outcross, glufosinate ammonium.

  13. A 5' UTR-Overlapping LncRNA Activates the Male-Determining Gene doublesex1 in the Crustacean Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yasuhiko; Perez, Christelle Alexa G; Mohamad Ishak, Nur Syafiqah; Nong, Quang D; Sudo, Yuumi; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Wada, Tadashi; Watanabe, Hajime

    2018-06-04

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are pervasively transcribed in the eukaryotic genome [1] and are important for the control of master regulatory genes that are involved in cell differentiation and development [2, 3]. Here, we show that a 5' UTR-overlapping lncRNA regulates the male-specific expression of the DM-domain gene doublesex1 (dsx1) in the crustacean Daphnia magna, which produces males in response to environmental stimuli. This lncRNA, named doublesex1 alpha promoter-associated long RNA (DAPALR), is transcribed upstream the transcription start site (TSS) in a sense orientation and subjected to 5' end capping and 3' end processing at a stem-loop structure before the dsx1 coding exon. Similar to dsx1, its expression is only activated in males by the juvenile hormone (JH) and basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor Vrille (Vri) and is maintained during embryogenesis. Knockdown of DAPALR in males silenced dsx1 and led to feminization, including egg production, whereas ectopic expression of DAPALR in dsx1-silenced females resulted in the de-repression of dsx1. We further demonstrate that the DAPALR transcript overlaps the dsx1 5'-UTR, and this overlapping region is required for dsx1 activation. Our results suggest that DAPALR can transactivate and possibly maintain dsx1 expression. This might be important for converting transient environmental signals into stable male development, controlled by the continuous expression of dsx1. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of global gene expression profiles to identify differentially expressed genes critical for embryo development in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Peng, Lifang; Wu, Ya; Shen, Yanyue; Wu, Xiaoming; Wang, Jianbo

    2014-11-01

    Embryo development represents a crucial developmental period in the life cycle of flowering plants. To gain insights into the genetic programs that control embryo development in Brassica rapa L., RNA sequencing technology was used to perform transcriptome profiling analysis of B. rapa developing embryos. The results generated 42,906,229 sequence reads aligned with 32,941 genes. In total, 27,760, 28,871, 28,384, and 25,653 genes were identified from embryos at globular, heart, early cotyledon, and mature developmental stages, respectively, and analysis between stages revealed a subset of stage-specific genes. We next investigated 9,884 differentially expressed genes with more than fivefold changes in expression and false discovery rate ≤ 0.001 from three adjacent-stage comparisons; 1,514, 3,831, and 6,633 genes were detected between globular and heart stage embryo libraries, heart stage and early cotyledon stage, and early cotyledon and mature stage, respectively. Large numbers of genes related to cellular process, metabolism process, response to stimulus, and biological process were expressed during the early and middle stages of embryo development. Fatty acid biosynthesis, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and photosynthesis-related genes were expressed predominantly in embryos at the middle stage. Genes for lipid metabolism and storage proteins were highly expressed in the middle and late stages of embryo development. We also identified 911 transcription factor genes that show differential expression across embryo developmental stages. These results increase our understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events during embryo development in B. rapa and provide a foundation for future studies on other oilseed crops.

  15. Differential expression pattern of UBX family genes in Caenorhabditis elegans

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, Seiji; Sasagawa, Yohei; Ogura, Teru

    2007-06-29

    UBX (ubiquitin regulatory X)-containing proteins belong to an evolutionary conserved protein family and determine the specificity of p97/VCP/Cdc48p function by binding as its adaptors. Caenorhabditis elegans was found to possess six UBX-containing proteins, named UBXN-1 to -6. However, no general or specific function of them has been revealed. During the course of understanding not only their function but also specified function of p97, we investigated spatial and temporal expression patterns of six ubxn genes in this study. Transcript analyses showed that the expression pattern of each ubxn gene was different throughout worm's development and may show potential developmental dynamics inmore » their function, especially ubxn-5 was expressed specifically in the spermatogenic germline, suggesting a crucial role in spermatogenesis. In addition, as ubxn-4 expression was induced by ER stress, it would function as an ERAD factor in C. elegans. In vivo expression analysis by using GFP translational fusion constructs revealed that six ubxn genes show distinct expression patterns. These results altogether demonstrate that the expression of all six ubxn genes of C. elegans is differently regulated.« less

  16. Transcriptional Coupling of Neighboring Genes and Gene Expression Noise: Evidence that Gene Orientation and Noncoding Transcripts Are Modulators of Noise

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guang-Zhong; Lercher, Martin J.; Hurst, Laurence D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract How is noise in gene expression modulated? Do mechanisms of noise control impact genome organization? In yeast, the expression of one gene can affect that of a very close neighbor. As the effect is highly regionalized, we hypothesize that genes in different orientations will have differing degrees of coupled expression and, in turn, different noise levels. Divergently organized gene pairs, in particular those with bidirectional promoters, have close promoters, maximizing the likelihood that expression of one gene affects the neighbor. With more distant promoters, the same is less likely to hold for gene pairs in nondivergent orientation. Stochastic models suggest that coupled chromatin dynamics will typically result in low abundance-corrected noise (ACN). Transcription of noncoding RNA (ncRNA) from a bidirectional promoter, we thus hypothesize to be a noise-reduction, expression-priming, mechanism. The hypothesis correctly predicts that protein-coding genes with a bidirectional promoter, including those with a ncRNA partner, have lower ACN than other genes and divergent gene pairs uniquely have correlated ACN. Moreover, as predicted, ACN increases with the distance between promoters. The model also correctly predicts ncRNA transcripts to be often divergently transcribed from genes that a priori would be under selection for low noise (essential genes, protein complex genes) and that the latter genes should commonly reside in divergent orientation. Likewise, that genes with bidirectional promoters are rare subtelomerically, cluster together, and are enriched in essential gene clusters is expected and observed. We conclude that gene orientation and transcription of ncRNAs are candidate modulators of noise. PMID:21402863

  17. Transcriptome database resource and gene expression atlas for the rose

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background For centuries roses have been selected based on a number of traits. Little information exists on the genetic and molecular basis that contributes to these traits, mainly because information on expressed genes for this economically important ornamental plant is scarce. Results Here, we used a combination of Illumina and 454 sequencing technologies to generate information on Rosa sp. transcripts using RNA from various tissues and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. A total of 80714 transcript clusters were identified and 76611 peptides have been predicted among which 20997 have been clustered into 13900 protein families. BLASTp hits in closely related Rosaceae species revealed that about half of the predicted peptides in the strawberry and peach genomes have orthologs in Rosa dataset. Digital expression was obtained using RNA samples from organs at different development stages and under different stress conditions. qPCR validated the digital expression data for a selection of 23 genes with high or low expression levels. Comparative gene expression analyses between the different tissues and organs allowed the identification of clusters that are highly enriched in given tissues or under particular conditions, demonstrating the usefulness of the digital gene expression analysis. A web interface ROSAseq was created that allows data interrogation by BLAST, subsequent analysis of DNA clusters and access to thorough transcript annotation including best BLAST matches on Fragaria vesca, Prunus persica and Arabidopsis. The rose peptides dataset was used to create the ROSAcyc resource pathway database that allows access to the putative genes and enzymatic pathways. Conclusions The study provides useful information on Rosa expressed genes, with thorough annotation and an overview of expression patterns for transcripts with good accuracy. PMID:23164410

  18. Sequential Logic Model Deciphers Dynamic Transcriptional Control of Gene Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Zhen Xuan; Wong, Sum Thai; Arjunan, Satya Nanda Vel; Piras, Vincent; Tomita, Masaru; Selvarajoo, Kumar; Giuliani, Alessandro; Tsuchiya, Masa

    2007-01-01

    Background Cellular signaling involves a sequence of events from ligand binding to membrane receptors through transcription factors activation and the induction of mRNA expression. The transcriptional-regulatory system plays a pivotal role in the control of gene expression. A novel computational approach to the study of gene regulation circuits is presented here. Methodology Based on the concept of finite state machine, which provides a discrete view of gene regulation, a novel sequential logic model (SLM) is developed to decipher control mechanisms of dynamic transcriptional regulation of gene expressions. The SLM technique is also used to systematically analyze the dynamic function of transcriptional inputs, the dependency and cooperativity, such as synergy effect, among the binding sites with respect to when, how much and how fast the gene of interest is expressed. Principal Findings SLM is verified by a set of well studied expression data on endo16 of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (sea urchin) during the embryonic midgut development. A dynamic regulatory mechanism for endo16 expression controlled by three binding sites, UI, R and Otx is identified and demonstrated to be consistent with experimental findings. Furthermore, we show that during transition from specification to differentiation in wild type endo16 expression profile, SLM reveals three binary activities are not sufficient to explain the transcriptional regulation of endo16 expression and additional activities of binding sites are required. Further analyses suggest detailed mechanism of R switch activity where indirect dependency occurs in between UI activity and R switch during specification to differentiation stage. Conclusions/Significance The sequential logic formalism allows for a simplification of regulation network dynamics going from a continuous to a discrete representation of gene activation in time. In effect our SLM is non-parametric and model-independent, yet providing rich biological

  19. Control of gene expression by CRISPR-Cas systems

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) loci and their associated cas (CRISPR-associated) genes provide adaptive immunity against viruses (phages) and other mobile genetic elements in bacteria and archaea. While most of the early work has largely been dominated by examples of CRISPR-Cas systems directing the cleavage of phage or plasmid DNA, recent studies have revealed a more complex landscape where CRISPR-Cas loci might be involved in gene regulation. In this review, we summarize the role of these loci in the regulation of gene expression as well as the recent development of synthetic gene regulation using engineered CRISPR-Cas systems. PMID:24273648

  20. A 5′ Noncoding Exon Containing Engineered Intron Enhances Transgene Expression from Recombinant AAV Vectors in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jiamiao; Williams, James A.; Luke, Jeremy; Zhang, Feijie; Chu, Kirk; Kay, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    We previously developed a mini-intronic plasmid (MIP) expression system in which the essential bacterial elements for plasmid replication and selection are placed within an engineered intron contained within a universal 5′ UTR noncoding exon. Like minicircle DNA plasmids (devoid of bacterial backbone sequences), MIP plasmids overcome transcriptional silencing of the transgene. However, in addition MIP plasmids increase transgene expression by 2 and often >10 times higher than minicircle vectors in vivo and in vitro. Based on these findings, we examined the effects of the MIP intronic sequences in a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector system. Recombinant AAV vectors containing an intron with a bacterial replication origin and bacterial selectable marker increased transgene expression by 40 to 100 times in vivo when compared with conventional AAV vectors. Therefore, inclusion of this noncoding exon/intron sequence upstream of the coding region can substantially enhance AAV-mediated gene expression in vivo. PMID:27903072

  1. Optimal Reference Gene Selection for Expression Studies in Human Reticulocytes.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Anu; Jamwal, Manu; Viswanathan, Ganesh K; Sharma, Prashant; Sachdeva, ManUpdesh S; Bansal, Deepak; Malhotra, Pankaj; Das, Reena

    2018-05-01

    Reference genes are indispensable for normalizing mRNA levels across samples in real-time quantitative PCR. Their expression levels vary under different experimental conditions and because of several inherent characteristics. Appropriate reference gene selection is thus critical for gene-expression studies. This study aimed at selecting optimal reference genes for gene-expression analysis of reticulocytes and at validating them in hereditary spherocytosis (HS) and β-thalassemia intermedia (βTI) patients. Seven reference genes (PGK1, MPP1, HPRT1, ACTB, GAPDH, RN18S1, and SDHA) were selected because of published reports. Real-time quantitative PCR was performed on reticulocytes in 20 healthy volunteers, 15 HS patients, and 10 βTI patients. Threshold cycle values were compared with fold-change method and RefFinder software. The stable reference genes recommended by RefFinder were validated with SLC4A1 and flow cytometric eosin-5'-maleimide binding assay values in HS patients and HBG2 and high performance liquid chromatography-derived percentage of hemoglobin F in βTI. Comprehensive ranking predicted MPP1 and GAPDH as optimal reference genes for reticulocytes that were not affected in HS and βTI. This was further confirmed on validation with eosin-5'-maleimide results and percentage of hemoglobin F in HS and βTI patients, respectively. Hence, MPP1 and GAPDH are good reference genes for reticulocyte expression studies compared with ACTB and RN18S1, the two most commonly used reference genes. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Time-Course Gene Set Analysis for Longitudinal Gene Expression Data

    PubMed Central

    Hejblum, Boris P.; Skinner, Jason; Thiébaut, Rodolphe

    2015-01-01

    Gene set analysis methods, which consider predefined groups of genes in the analysis of genomic data, have been successfully applied for analyzing gene expression data in cross-sectional studies. The time-course gene set analysis (TcGSA) introduced here is an extension of gene set analysis to longitudinal data. The proposed method relies on random effects modeling with maximum likelihood estimates. It allows to use all available repeated measurements while dealing with unbalanced data due to missing at random (MAR) measurements. TcGSA is a hypothesis driven method that identifies a priori defined gene sets with significant expression variations over time, taking into account the potential heterogeneity of expression within gene sets. When biological conditions are compared, the method indicates if the time patterns of gene sets significantly differ according to these conditions. The interest of the method is illustrated by its application to two real life datasets: an HIV therapeutic vaccine trial (DALIA-1 trial), and data from a recent study on influenza and pneumococcal vaccines. In the DALIA-1 trial TcGSA revealed a significant change in gene expression over time within 69 gene sets during vaccination, while a standard univariate individual gene analysis corrected for multiple testing as well as a standard a Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) for time series both failed to detect any significant pattern change over time. When applied to the second illustrative data set, TcGSA allowed the identification of 4 gene sets finally found to be linked with the influenza vaccine too although they were found to be associated to the pneumococcal vaccine only in previous analyses. In our simulation study TcGSA exhibits good statistical properties, and an increased power compared to other approaches for analyzing time-course expression patterns of gene sets. The method is made available for the community through an R package. PMID:26111374

  3. Parental vitamin deficiency affects the embryonic gene expression of immune-, lipid transport- and apolipoprotein genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skjærven, Kaja H.; Jakt, Lars Martin; Dahl, John Arne; Espe, Marit; Aanes, Håvard; Hamre, Kristin; Fernandes, Jorge M. O.

    2016-10-01

    World Health Organization is concerned for parental vitamin deficiency and its effect on offspring health. This study examines the effect of a marginally dietary-induced parental one carbon (1-C) micronutrient deficiency on embryonic gene expression using zebrafish. Metabolic profiling revealed a reduced 1-C cycle efficiency in F0 generation. Parental deficiency reduced the fecundity and a total of 364 genes were differentially expressed in the F1 embryos. The upregulated genes (53%) in the deficient group were enriched in biological processes such as immune response and blood coagulation. Several genes encoding enzymes essential for the 1-C cycle and for lipid transport (especially apolipoproteins) were aberrantly expressed. We show that a parental diet deficient in micronutrients disturbs the expression in descendant embryos of genes associated with overall health, and result in inherited aberrations in the 1-C cycle and lipid metabolism. This emphasises the importance of parental micronutrient status for the health of the offspring.

  4. Development of Plant Gene Vectors for Tissue-Specific Expression Using GFP as a Reporter Gene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Jacquelyn; Egnin, Marceline; Xue, Qi-Han; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    Reporter genes are widely employed in plant molecular biology research to analyze gene expression and to identify promoters. Gus (UidA) is currently the most popular reporter gene but its detection requires a destructive assay. The use of jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene from Aequorea Victoria holds promise for noninvasive detection of in vivo gene expression. To study how various plant promoters are expressed in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), we are transcriptionally fusing the intron-modified (mGFP) or synthetic (modified for codon-usage) GFP coding regions to these promoters: double cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV 35S) with AMV translational enhancer, ubiquitin7-intron-ubiquitin coding region (ubi7-intron-UQ) and sporaminA. A few of these vectors have been constructed and introduced into E. coli DH5a and Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105. Transient expression studies are underway using protoplast-electroporation and particle bombardment of leaf tissues.

  5. Compositions and Methods for Inhibiting Gene Expressions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Loren D. (Inventor); Hsiao, Chiaolong (Inventor); Fang, Po-Yu (Inventor); Williams, Justin (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A combined packing and assembly method that efficiently packs ribonucleic acid (RNA) into virus like particles (VLPs) has been developed. The VLPs can spontaneously assemble and load RNA in vivo, efficiently packaging specifically designed RNAs at high densities and with high purity. In some embodiments the RNA is capable of interference activity, or is a precursor of a RNA capable of causing interference activity. Compositions and methods for the efficient expression, production and purification of VLP-RNAs are provided. VLP-RNAs can be used for the storage of RNA for long periods, and provide the ability to deliver RNA in stable form that is readily taken up by cells.

  6. Genomic organization and expression of the human MSH3 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Atsushi; Ikejima, Miyoko; Suzuki, Noriko

    1996-02-01

    We have studied the expression and genomic organization of the human MSH3 gene, which encodes a human homologue of the bacterial DNA mismatch repair protein MutS. This gene is located upstream of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene. Northern analysis has demonstrated that the hMSH3 gene is expressed in a variety of human tissues at low levels, like the DHFR gene. Characterization of cosmid clones has shown that the hMSH3 gene consists of 24 exons spanning at least 160 kb. All exon-intron junction sequences match the classical GT/AG rule, except that intron 6 has AT and AA at the ends. Twomore » major transcripts of 5.0 and 3.8 kb have been shown to be derived from the differential use of two polyadenylation sites. Elucidation of the complete genomic organization and the nucleotide sequences of the introns of the hMSH3 gene should be useful for studying the function of this gene and the possible involvement of specific mutations of the hMSH3 gene in some diseases. 34 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.« less

  7. Biased Gene Fractionation and Dominant Gene Expression among the Subgenomes of Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Feng; Wu, Jian; Fang, Lu; Sun, Silong; Liu, Bo; Lin, Ke; Bonnema, Guusje; Wang, Xiaowu

    2012-01-01

    Polyploidization, both ancient and recent, is frequent among plants. A “two-step theory" was proposed to explain the meso-triplication of the Brassica “A" genome: Brassica rapa. By accurately partitioning of this genome, we observed that genes in the less fractioned subgenome (LF) were dominantly expressed over the genes in more fractioned subgenomes (MFs: MF1 and MF2), while the genes in MF1 were slightly dominantly expressed over the genes in MF2. The results indicated that the dominantly expressed genes tended to be resistant against gene fractionation. By re-sequencing two B. rapa accessions: a vegetable turnip (VT117) and a Rapid Cycling line (L144), we found that genes in LF had less non-synonymous or frameshift mutations than genes in MFs; however mutation rates were not significantly different between MF1 and MF2. The differences in gene expression patterns and on-going gene death among the three subgenomes suggest that “two-step" genome triplication and differential subgenome methylation played important roles in the genome evolution of B. rapa. PMID:22567157

  8. Biased gene fractionation and dominant gene expression among the subgenomes of Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feng; Wu, Jian; Fang, Lu; Sun, Silong; Liu, Bo; Lin, Ke; Bonnema, Guusje; Wang, Xiaowu

    2012-01-01

    Polyploidization, both ancient and recent, is frequent among plants. A "two-step theory" was proposed to explain the meso-triplication of the Brassica "A" genome: Brassica rapa. By accurately partitioning of this genome, we observed that genes in the less fractioned subgenome (LF) were dominantly expressed over the genes in more fractioned subgenomes (MFs: MF1 and MF2), while the genes in MF1 were slightly dominantly expressed over the genes in MF2. The results indicated that the dominantly expressed genes tended to be resistant against gene fractionation. By re-sequencing two B. rapa accessions: a vegetable turnip (VT117) and a Rapid Cycling line (L144), we found that genes in LF had less non-synonymous or frameshift mutations than genes in MFs; however mutation rates were not significantly different between MF1 and MF2. The differences in gene expression patterns and on-going gene death among the three subgenomes suggest that "two-step" genome triplication and differential subgenome methylation played important roles in the genome evolution of B. rapa.

  9. Differential co-expression analysis of a microarray gene expression profiles of pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shijie; Pan, Xufeng; Fang, Wentao

    2014-08-01

    Lung cancer severely reduces the quality of life worldwide and causes high socioeconomic burdens. However, key genes leading to the generation of pulmonary adenocarcinoma remain elusive despite intensive research efforts. The present study aimed to identify the potential associations between transcription factors (TFs) and differentially co‑expressed genes (DCGs) in the regulation of transcription in pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Gene expression profiles of pulmonary adenocarcinoma were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus, and gene expression was analyzed using a computational method. A total of 37,094 differentially co‑expressed links (DCLs) and 251 DCGs were identified, which were significantly enriched in 10 pathways. The construction of the regulatory network and the analysis of the regulatory impact factors revealed eight crucial TFs in the regulatory network. These TFs regulated the expression of DCGs by promoting or inhibiting their expression. In addition, certain TFs and target genes associated with DCGs did not appear in the DCLs, which indicated that those TFs could be synergistic with other factors. This is likely to provide novel insights for research into pulmonary adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, the present study may enhance the understanding of disease mechanisms and lead to an improved diagnosis of lung cancer. However, further studies are required to confirm these observations.

  10. Gene expression profiles reveal key genes for early diagnosis and treatment of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Hou, Ziming; Wang, Changjiang; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Hongbing

    2018-04-23

    Adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) is an aggressive brain tumor that occurs predominantly in the pediatric population. Conventional diagnosis method and standard therapy cannot treat ACPs effectively. In this paper, we aimed to identify key genes for ACP early diagnosis and treatment. Datasets GSE94349 and GSE68015 were obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus database. Consensus clustering was applied to discover the gene clusters in the expression data of GSE94349 and functional enrichment analysis was performed on gene set in each cluster. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was built by the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes, and hubs were selected. Support vector machine (SVM) model was built based on the signature genes identified from enrichment analysis and PPI network. Dataset GSE94349 was used for training and testing, and GSE68015 was used for validation. Besides, RT-qPCR analysis was performed to analyze the expression of signature genes in ACP samples compared with normal controls. Seven gene clusters were discovered in the differentially expressed genes identified from GSE94349 dataset. Enrichment analysis of each cluster identified 25 pathways that highly associated with ACP. PPI network was built and 46 hubs were determined. Twenty-five pathway-related genes that overlapped with the hubs in PPI network were used as signatures to establish the SVM diagnosis model for ACP. The prediction accuracy of SVM model for training, testing, and validation data were 94, 85, and 74%, respectively. The expression of CDH1, CCL2, ITGA2, COL8A1, COL6A2, and COL6A3 were significantly upregulated in ACP tumor samples, while CAMK2A, RIMS1, NEFL, SYT1, and STX1A were significantly downregulated, which were consistent with the differentially expressed gene analysis. SVM model is a promising classification tool for screening and early diagnosis of ACP. The ACP-related pathways and signature genes will advance our knowledge of ACP pathogenesis

  11. Network-Induced Classification Kernels for Gene Expression Profile Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dror, Gideon; Shamir, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Computational classification of gene expression profiles into distinct disease phenotypes has been highly successful to date. Still, robustness, accuracy, and biological interpretation of the results have been limited, and it was suggested that use of protein interaction information jointly with the expression profiles can improve the results. Here, we study three aspects of this problem. First, we show that interactions are indeed relevant by showing that co-expressed genes tend to be closer in the network of interactions. Second, we show that the improved performance of one extant method utilizing expression and interactions is not really due to the biological information in the network, while in another method this is not the case. Finally, we develop a new kernel method—called NICK—that integrates network and expression data for SVM classification, and demonstrate that overall it achieves better results than extant methods while running two orders of magnitude faster. PMID:22697242

  12. Recombinant Brucella abortus gene expressing immunogenic protein

    SciTech Connect

    Mayfield, J.E.; Tabatabai, L.B.

    This patent describes a synthetic recombinant DNA molecule containing a DNA sequence. It comprises a gene of Brucella abortus encoding an immunogenic protein having a molecular weight of approximately 31,000 daltons as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions, the protein having an isoelectric point around 4.9, and containing a twenty-five amino acid sequence from its amino terminal end consisting of Gln-Ala-Pro-Thr-Phe-Phe-Arg-Ile-Gly-Thr-Gly-Gly-Thr-Ala-Gly-Thr-Tyr-Tyr-Pro-Ile-Gly-Gly-Leu-Ile-Ala, wherein Gln, Ala, Pro, Thr, Phe, Arg, Ile, Gly, Tyr, and Leu, respectively, represent glutamine, alanine, proline, threonine, phenylalanine, arginine, isolecuine, glycine, tyrosine, and leucine.

  13. A hybrid approach of gene sets and single genes for the prediction of survival risks with gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Seok, Junhee; Davis, Ronald W; Xiao, Wenzhong

    2015-01-01

    Accumulated biological knowledge is often encoded as gene sets, collections of genes associated with similar biological functions or pathways. The use of gene sets in the analyses of high-throughput gene expression data has been intensively studied and applied in clinical research. However, the main interest remains in finding modules of biological knowledge, or corresponding gene sets, significantly associated with disease conditions. Risk prediction from censored survival times using gene sets hasn't been well studied. In this work, we propose a hybrid method that uses both single gene and gene set information together to predict patient survival risks from gene expression profiles. In the proposed method, gene sets provide context-level information that is poorly reflected by single genes. Complementarily, single genes help to supplement incomplete information of gene sets due to our imperfect biomedical knowledge. Through the tests over multiple data sets of cancer and trauma injury, the proposed method showed robust and improved performance compared with the conventional approaches with only single genes or gene sets solely. Additionally, we examined the prediction result in the trauma injury data, and showed that the modules of biological knowledge used in the prediction by the proposed method were highly interpretable in biology. A wide range of survival prediction problems in clinical genomics is expected to benefit from the use of biological knowledge.

  14. A Hybrid Approach of Gene Sets and Single Genes for the Prediction of Survival Risks with Gene Expression Data

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Junhee; Davis, Ronald W.; Xiao, Wenzhong

    2015-01-01

    Accumulated biological knowledge is often encoded as gene sets, collections of genes associated with similar biological functions or pathways. The use of gene sets in the analyses of high-throughput gene expression data has been intensively studied and applied in clinical research. However, the main interest remains in finding modules of biological knowledge, or corresponding gene sets, significantly associated with disease conditions. Risk prediction from censored survival times using gene sets hasn’t been well studied. In this work, we propose a hybrid method that uses both single gene and gene set information together to predict patient survival risks from gene expression profiles. In the proposed method, gene sets provide context-level information that is poorly reflected by single genes. Complementarily, single genes help to supplement incomplete information of gene sets due to our imperfect biomedical knowledge. Through the tests over multiple data sets of cancer and trauma injury, the proposed method showed robust and improved performance compared with the conventional approaches with only single genes or gene sets solely. Additionally, we examined the prediction result in the trauma injury data, and showed that the modules of biological knowledge used in the prediction by the proposed method were highly interpretable in biology. A wide range of survival prediction problems in clinical genomics is expected to benefit from the use of biological knowledge. PMID:25933378

  15. Influence of Gene Expression on Hardness in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Nirmal, Ravi C.; Wrigley, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Puroindoline (Pina and Pinb) genes control grain texture or hardness in wheat. Wild-type/soft alleles lead to softer grain while a mutation in one or both of these genes results in a hard grain. Variation in hardness in genotypes with identical Pin alleles (wild-type or mutant) is known but the molecular basis of this is not known. We now report the identification of wheat genotypes with hard grain texture and wild-type/soft Pin alleles indicating that hardness in wheat may be controlled by factors other than mutations in the coding region of the Pin genes. RNA-Seq analysis was used to determine the variation in the transcriptome of developing grains of thirty three diverse wheat genotypes including hard (mutant Pin) and soft (wild type) and those that were hard without having Pin mutations. This defined the role of pin gene expression and identified other candidate genes associated with hardness. Pina was not expressed in hard wheat with a mutation in the Pina gene. The ratio of Pina to Pinb expression was generally lower in the hard non mutant genotypes. Hardness may be associated with differences in Pin expression and other factors and is not simply associated with mutations in the PIN protein coding sequences. PMID:27741295

  16. Regulators of gene expression as biomarkers for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Willard, Stacey S; Koochekpour, Shahriar

    2012-01-01

    Recent technological advancements in gene expression analysis have led to the discovery of a promising new group of prostate cancer (PCa) biomarkers that have the potential to influence diagnosis and the prediction of disease severity. The accumulation of deleterious changes in gene expression is a fundamental mechanism of prostate carcinogenesis. Aberrant gene expression can arise from changes in epigenetic regulation or mutation in the genome affecting either key regulatory elements or gene sequences themselves. At the epigenetic level, a myriad of abnormal histone modifications and changes in DNA methylation are found in PCa patients. In addition, many mutations in the genome have been associated with higher PCa risk. Finally, over- or underexpression of key genes involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, cell adhesion and regulation of transcription has been observed. An interesting group of biomarkers are emerging from these studies which may prove more predictive than the standard prostate specific antigen (PSA) serum test. In this review, we discuss recent results in the field of gene expression analysis in PCa including the most promising biomarkers in the areas of epigenetics, genomics and the transcriptome, some of which are currently under investigation as clinical tests for early detection and better prognostic prediction of PCa. PMID:23226612

  17. Influence of Gene Expression on Hardness in Wheat.

    PubMed

    Nirmal, Ravi C; Furtado, Agnelo; Wrigley, Colin; Henry, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Puroindoline (Pina and Pinb) genes control grain texture or hardness in wheat. Wild-type/soft alleles lead to softer grain while a mutation in one or both of these genes results in a hard grain. Variation in hardness in genotypes with identical Pin alleles (wild-type or mutant) is known but the molecular basis of this is not known. We now report the identification of wheat genotypes with hard grain texture and wild-type/soft Pin alleles indicating that hardness in wheat may be controlled by factors other than mutations in the coding region of the Pin genes. RNA-Seq analysis was used to determine the variation in the transcriptome of developing grains of thirty three diverse wheat genotypes including hard (mutant Pin) and soft (wild type) and those that were hard without having Pin mutations. This defined the role of pin gene expression and identified other candidate genes associated with hardness. Pina was not expressed in hard wheat with a mutation in the Pina gene. The ratio of Pina to Pinb expression was generally lower in the hard non mutant genotypes. Hardness may be associated with differences in Pin expression and other factors and is not simply associated with mutations in the PIN protein coding sequences.

  18. Abscisic Acid (ABA) Regulation of Arabidopsis SR Protein Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Tiago M. D.; Carvalho, Raquel F.; Richardson, Dale N.; Duque, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are major modulators of alternative splicing, a key generator of proteomic diversity and flexible means of regulating gene expression likely to be crucial in plant environmental responses. Indeed, mounting evidence implicates splicing factors in signal transduction of the abscisic acid (ABA) phytohormone, which plays pivotal roles in the response to various abiotic stresses. Using real-time RT-qPCR, we analyzed total steady-state transcript levels of the 18 SR and two SR-like genes from Arabidopsis thaliana in seedlings treated with ABA and in genetic backgrounds with altered expression of the ABA-biosynthesis ABA2 and the ABA-signaling ABI1 and ABI4 genes. We also searched for ABA-responsive cis elements in the upstream regions of the 20 genes. We found that members of the plant-specific SC35-Like (SCL) Arabidopsis SR protein subfamily are distinctively responsive to exogenous ABA, while the expression of seven SR and SR-related genes is affected by alterations in key components of the ABA pathway. Finally, despite pervasiveness of established ABA-responsive promoter elements in Arabidopsis SR and SR-like genes, their expression is likely governed by additional, yet unidentified cis-acting elements. Overall, this study pinpoints SR34, SR34b, SCL30a, SCL28, SCL33, RS40, SR45 and SR45a as promising candidates for involvement in ABA-mediated stress responses. PMID:25268622

  19. Analyzing gene expression profiles in dilated cardiomyopathy via bioinformatics methods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liming; Zhu, L; Luan, R; Wang, L; Fu, J; Wang, X; Sui, L

    2016-10-10

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by ventricular dilatation, and it is a common cause of heart failure and cardiac transplantation. This study aimed to explore potential DCM-related genes and their underlying regulatory mechanism using methods of bioinformatics. The gene expression profiles of GSE3586 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database, including 15 normal samples and 13 DCM samples. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between normal and DCM samples using Limma package in R language. Pathway enrichment analysis of DEGs was then performed. Meanwhile, the potential transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) of these DEGs were predicted based on their binding sequences. In addition, DEGs were mapped to the cMap database to find the potential small molecule drugs. A total of 4777 genes were identified as DEGs by comparing gene expression profiles between DCM and control samples. DEGs were significantly enriched in 26 pathways, such as lymphocyte TarBase pathway and androgen receptor signaling pathway. Furthermore, potential TFs (SP1, LEF1, and NFAT) were identified, as well as potential miRNAs (miR-9, miR-200 family, and miR-30 family). Additionally, small molecules like isoflupredone and trihexyphenidyl were found to be potential therapeutic drugs for DCM. The identified DEGs (PRSS12 and FOXG1), potential TFs, as well as potential miRNAs, might be involved in DCM.

  20. Analyzing gene expression profiles in dilated cardiomyopathy via bioinformatics methods

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liming; Zhu, L.; Luan, R.; Wang, L.; Fu, J.; Wang, X.; Sui, L.

    2016-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by ventricular dilatation, and it is a common cause of heart failure and cardiac transplantation. This study aimed to explore potential DCM-related genes and their underlying regulatory mechanism using methods of bioinformatics. The gene expression profiles of GSE3586 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database, including 15 normal samples and 13 DCM samples. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between normal and DCM samples using Limma package in R language. Pathway enrichment analysis of DEGs was then performed. Meanwhile, the potential transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) of these DEGs were predicted based on their binding sequences. In addition, DEGs were mapped to the cMap database to find the potential small molecule drugs. A total of 4777 genes were identified as DEGs by comparing gene expression profiles between DCM and control samples. DEGs were significantly enriched in 26 pathways, such as lymphocyte TarBase pathway and androgen receptor signaling pathway. Furthermore, potential TFs (SP1, LEF1, and NFAT) were identified, as well as potential miRNAs (miR-9, miR-200 family, and miR-30 family). Additionally, small molecules like isoflupredone and trihexyphenidyl were found to be potential therapeutic drugs for DCM. The identified DEGs (PRSS12 and FOXG1), potential TFs, as well as potential miRNAs, might be involved in DCM. PMID:27737314

  1. Xylella fastidiosa gene expression analysis by DNA microarrays.

    PubMed

    Travensolo, Regiane F; Carareto-Alves, Lucia M; Costa, Maria V C G; Lopes, Tiago J S; Carrilho, Emanuel; Lemos, Eliana G M

    2009-04-01

    Xylella fastidiosa genome sequencing has generated valuable data by identifying genes acting either on metabolic pathways or in associated pathogenicity and virulence. Based on available information on these genes, new strategies for studying their expression patterns, such as microarray technology, were employed. A total of 2,600 primer pairs were synthesized and then used to generate fragments using the PCR technique. The arrays were hybridized against cDNAs labeled during reverse transcription reactions and which were obtained from bacteria grown under two different conditions (liquid XDM(2) and liquid BCYE). All data were statistically analyzed to verify which genes were differentially expressed. In addition to exploring conditions for X. fastidiosa genome-wide transcriptome analysis, the present work observed the differential expression of several classes of genes (energy, protein, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism, transport, degradation of substances, toxins and hypothetical proteins, among others). The understanding of expressed genes in these two different media will be useful in comprehending the metabolic characteristics of X. fastidiosa, and in evaluating how important certain genes are for the functioning and survival of these bacteria in plants.

  2. Gene expression analysis of bud and leaf color in tea.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kang; Zhang, Yazhen; Wu, Liyun; Li, Hailin; Ruan, Li; Bai, Peixian; Zhang, Chengcai; Zhang, Fen; Xu, Liyi; Wang, Liyuan; Cheng, Hao

    2016-10-01

    Purple shoot tea attributing to the high anthocyanin accumulation is of great interest for its wide health benefits. To better understand potential mechanisms involved in purple buds and leaves formation in tea plants, we performed transcriptome analysis of six green or purple shoot tea individuals from a F1 population using the Illumina sequencing method. Totally 292 million RNA-Seq reads were obtained and assembled into 112,233 unigenes, with an average length of 759 bp and an N50 of 1081 bp. Moreover, totally 2193 unigenes showed significant differences in expression levels between green and purple tea samples, with 1143 up- and 1050 down-regulated in the purple teas. Further real time PCR analysis confirmed RNA-Seq results. Our study identified 28 differentially expressed transcriptional factors and A CsMYB gene was found to be highly similar to AtPAP1 in Arabidopsis. Further analysis of differentially expressed genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and transportation showed that the late biosynthetic genes and genes involved in anthocyanin transportation were largely affected but the early biosynthetic genes were less or none affected. Overall, the identification of a large number of differentially expressed genes offers a global view of the potential mechanisms associated with purple buds and leaves formation, which will facilitate molecular breeding in tea plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. A biomarker-based screen of a gene expression compendium ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Computational approaches were developed to identify factors that regulate Nrf2 in a large gene expression compendium of microarray profiles including >2000 comparisons which queried the effects of chemicals, genes, diets, and infectious agents on gene expression in the mouse liver. A gene expression biomarker of 48 genes which accurately predicted Nrf2 activation was used to identify factors which resulted in a gene expression profile with significant correlation to the biomarker. A number of novel insights were made. Chemicals that activated the xenosensor constitutive activated receptor (CAR) consistently activated Nrf2 across hundreds of profiles, possibly downstream of Cyp-induced increases in oxidative stress. Nrf2 activation was also found to be negatively regulated by the growth hormone (GH)- and androgen-regulated transcription factor STAT5b, a transcription factor suppressed by CAR. Nrf2 was activated when STAT5b was suppressed in female mice vs. male mice, after exposure to estrogens, or in genetic mutants in which GH signaling was disrupted. A subset of the mutants that show STAT5b suppression and Nrf2 activation result in increased resistance to environmental stressors and increased longevity. This study describes a novel approach for understanding the network of factors that regulate the Nrf2 pathway and highlights novel interactions between Nrf2, CAR and STAT5b transcription factors. (This abstract does not represent EPA policy.) Computational appr

  4. Sleep Deprivation Influences Circadian Gene Expression in the Lateral Habenula.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Beilin; Gao, Yanxia; Li, Yang; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is governed by homeostasis and the circadian clock. Clock genes play an important role in the generation and maintenance of circadian rhythms but are also involved in regulating sleep homeostasis. The lateral habenular nucleus (LHb) has been implicated in sleep-wake regulation, since LHb gene expression demonstrates circadian oscillation characteristics. This study focuses on the participation of LHb clock genes in regulating sleep homeostasis, as the nature of their involvement is unclear. In this study, we observed changes in sleep pattern following sleep deprivation in LHb-lesioned rats using EEG recording techniques. And then the changes of clock gene expression (Per1, Per2, and Bmal1) in the LHb after 6 hours of sleep deprivation were detected by using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). We found that sleep deprivation increased the length of Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (NREMS) and decreased wakefulness. LHb-lesioning decreased the amplitude of reduced wake time and increased NREMS following sleep deprivation in rats. qPCR results demonstrated that Per2 expression was elevated after sleep deprivation, while the other two genes were unaffected. Following sleep recovery, Per2 expression was comparable to the control group. This study provides the basis for further research on the role of LHb Per2 gene in the regulation of sleep homeostasis.

  5. Daily oscillation of gene expression associated with nacreous layer formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Yoko; Usui, Tomomi; Kajikawa, Aya; Hishiyama, Hajime; Matsuzawa, Norifumi; Nishida, Takuma; Machii, Akira; Samata, Tetsuro

    2008-06-01

    Three major organic matrix components, nacrein, MSI60 and N16 have been reported from the nacreous layer of Japanese pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata. Though several in vitro experiments have been carried out to elucidate the functions of these molecules details have not yet been clarified. In this report, we tempt to clarify the gene expression levels encoding the above three proteins between samples of 1) summer and winter seasons and 2) ocean and aquarium environments by using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It was confirmed that the biomineralization process of P. fucata is mainly influenced by the circatidal rhythm of the ocean environment. The gene expressions coding for N16 and MSI60 increased at the time of high tide, while that of nacrein increased at the time of low tide. The similar tendency observed in N16 and MSI60 showed the possibility that both components are secreted simultaneously, supporting a hypothesis that N16 forms cross-linkage with MSI60 to form the membrane. The expressions of MSI60, N16 and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) genes were remarkable in winter season, while no variation was found in the expression level of the nacrein gene in summer and winter season. The study is the first attempt regarding the seasonal and circadian rhythms observed on gene expressions incorporated into molluscan shell formation. The results will give a new insight into the relationship between molluscan physiology and the mechanism of shell formation.

  6. Microarray gene expression profiling using core biopsies of renal neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Craig G; Ditlev, Jonathon A; Tan, Min-Han; Sugimura, Jun; Qian, Chao-Nan; Cooper, Jeff; Lane, Brian; Jewett, Michael A; Kahnoski, Richard J; Kort, Eric J; Teh, Bin T

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of using microarray gene expression profiling technology to analyze core biopsies of renal tumors for classification of tumor histology. Core biopsies were obtained ex-vivo from 7 renal tumors-comprised of four histological subtypes-following radical nephrectomy using 18-gauge biopsy needles. RNA was isolated from these samples and, in the case of biopsy samples, amplified by in vitro transcription. Microarray analysis was then used to quantify the mRNA expression patterns in these samples relative to non-diseased renal tissue mRNA. Genes with significant variation across all non-biopsy tumor samples were identified, and the relationship between tumor and biopsy samples in terms of expression levels of these genes was then quantified in terms of Euclidean distance, and visualized by complete linkage clustering. Final pathologic assessment of kidney tumors demonstrated clear cell renal cell carcinoma (4), oncocytoma (1), angiomyolipoma (1) and adrenalcortical carcinoma (1). Five of the seven biopsy samples were most similar in terms of gene expression to the resected tumors from which they were derived in terms of Euclidean distance. All seven biopsies were assigned to the correct histological class by hierarchical clustering. We demonstrate the feasibility of gene expression profiling of core biopsies of renal tumors to classify tumor histology.

  7. Microarray gene expression profiling using core biopsies of renal neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Craig G.; Ditlev, Jonathon A.; Tan, Min-Han; Sugimura, Jun; Qian, Chao-Nan; Cooper, Jeff; Lane, Brian; Jewett, Michael A.; Kahnoski, Richard J.; Kort, Eric J.; Teh, Bin T.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of using microarray gene expression profiling technology to analyze core biopsies of renal tumors for classification of tumor histology. Core biopsies were obtained ex-vivo from 7 renal tumors—comprised of four histological subtypes—following radical nephrectomy using 18-gauge biopsy needles. RNA was isolated from these samples and, in the case of biopsy samples, amplified by in vitro transcription. Microarray analysis was then used to quantify the mRNA expression patterns in these samples relative to non-diseased renal tissue mRNA. Genes with significant variation across all non-biopsy tumor samples were identified, and the relationship between tumor and biopsy samples in terms of expression levels of these genes was then quantified in terms of Euclidean distance, and visualized by complete linkage clustering. Final pathologic assessment of kidney tumors demonstrated clear cell renal cell carcinoma (4), oncocytoma (1), angiomyolipoma (1) and adrenalcortical carcinoma (1). Five of the seven biopsy samples were most similar in terms of gene expression to the resected tumors from which they were derived in terms of Euclidean distance. All seven biopsies were assigned to the correct histological class by hierarchical clustering. We demonstrate the feasibility of gene expression profiling of core biopsies of renal tumors to classify tumor histology. PMID:19966938

  8. Assessment of Normal Variability in Peripheral Blood Gene Expression

    DOE PAGES

    Campbell, Catherine; Vernon, Suzanne D.; Karem, Kevin L.; ...

    2002-01-01

    Peripheral blood is representative of many systemic processes and is an ideal sample for expression profiling of diseases that have no known or accessible lesion. Peripheral blood is a complex mixture of cell types and some differences in peripheral blood gene expression may reflect the timing of sample collection rather than an underlying disease process. For this reason, it is important to assess study design factors that may cause variability in gene expression not related to what is being analyzed. Variation in the gene expression of circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from three healthy volunteers sampled three times onemore » day each week for one month was examined for 1,176 genes printed on filter arrays. Less than 1% of the genes showed any variation in expression that was related to the time of collection, and none of the changes were noted in more than one individual. These results suggest that observed variation was due to experimental variability.« less

  9. Gene expression elucidates functional impact of polygenic risk for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fromer, Menachem; Roussos, Panos; Sieberts, Solveig K; Johnson, Jessica S; Kavanagh, David H; Perumal, Thanneer M; Ruderfer, Douglas M; Oh, Edwin C; Topol, Aaron; Shah, Hardik R; Klei, Lambertus L; Kramer, Robin; Pinto, Dalila; Gümüş, Zeynep H; Cicek, A Ercument; Dang, Kristen K; Browne, Andrew; Lu, Cong; Xie, Lu; Readhead, Ben; Stahl, Eli A; Xiao, Jianqiu; Parvizi, Mahsa; Hamamsy, Tymor; Fullard, John F; Wang, Ying-Chih; Mahajan, Milind C; Derry, Jonathan M J; Dudley, Joel T; Hemby, Scott E; Logsdon, Benjamin A; Talbot, Konrad; Raj, Towfique; Bennett, David A; De Jager, Philip L; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Bin; Sullivan, Patrick F; Chess, Andrew; Purcell, Shaun M; Shinobu, Leslie A; Mangravite, Lara M; Toyoshiba, Hiroyoshi; Gur, Raquel E; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Lewis, David A; Haroutunian, Vahram; Peters, Mette A; Lipska, Barbara K; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Schadt, Eric E; Hirai, Keisuke; Roeder, Kathryn; Brennand, Kristen J; Katsanis, Nicholas; Domenici, Enrico; Devlin, Bernie; Sklar, Pamela

    2016-11-01

    Over 100 genetic loci harbor schizophrenia-associated variants, yet how these variants confer liability is uncertain. The CommonMind Consortium sequenced RNA from dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of people with schizophrenia (N = 258) and control subjects (N = 279), creating a resource of gene expression and its genetic regulation. Using this resource, ∼20% of schizophrenia loci have variants that could contribute to altered gene expression and liability. In five loci, only a single gene was involved: FURIN, TSNARE1, CNTN4, CLCN3 or SNAP91. Altering expression of FURIN, TSNARE1 or CNTN4 changed neurodevelopment in zebrafish; knockdown of FURIN in human neural progenitor cells yielded abnormal migration. Of 693 genes showing significant case-versus-control differential expression, their fold changes were ≤ 1.33, and an independent cohort yielded similar results. Gene co-expression implicates a network relevant for schizophrenia. Our findings show that schizophrenia is polygenic and highlight the utility of this resource for mechanistic interpretations of genetic liability for brain diseases.

  10. Gene Expression Elucidates Functional Impact of Polygenic Risk for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Fromer, Menachem; Roussos, Panos; Sieberts, Solveig K; Johnson, Jessica S; Kavanagh, David H; Perumal, Thanneer M; Ruderfer, Douglas M; Oh, Edwin C; Topol, Aaron; Shah, Hardik R; Klei, Lambertus L; Kramer, Robin; Pinto, Dalila; Gümüş, Zeynep H; Cicek, A. Ercument; Dang, Kristen K; Browne, Andrew; Lu, Cong; Xie, Lu; Readhead, Ben; Stahl, Eli A; Parvizi, Mahsa; Hamamsy, Tymor; Fullard, John F; Wang, Ying-Chih; Mahajan, Milind C; Derry, Jonathan M J; Dudley, Joel; Hemby, Scott E; Logsdon, Benjamin A; Talbot, Konrad; Raj, Towfique; Bennett, David A; De Jager, Philip L; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Bin; Sullivan, Patrick F; Chess, Andrew; Purcell, Shaun M; Shinobu, Leslie A; Mangravite, Lara M; Toyoshiba, Hiroyoshi; Gur, Raquel E; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Lewis, David A; Haroutunian, Vahram; Peters, Mette A; Lipska, Barbara K; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Schadt, Eric E; Hirai, Keisuke; Roeder, Kathryn; Brennand, Kristen J; Katsanis, Nicholas; Domenici, Enrico; Devlin, Bernie; Sklar, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Over 100 genetic loci harbor schizophrenia associated variants, yet how these variants confer liability is uncertain. The CommonMind Consortium sequenced RNA from dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of schizophrenia cases (N = 258) and control subjects (N = 279), creating a resource of gene expression and its genetic regulation. Using this resource, ~20% of schizophrenia loci have variants that could contribute to altered gene expression and liability. In five loci, only a single gene was involved: FURIN, TSNARE1, CNTN4, CLCN3, or SNAP91. Altering expression of FURIN, TSNARE1, or CNTN4 changes neurodevelopment in zebrafish; knockdown of FURIN in human neural progenitor cells yields abnormal migration. Of 693 genes showing significant case/control differential expression, their fold changes are ≤ 1.33, and an independent cohort yields similar results. Gene co-expression implicates a network relevant for schizophrenia. Our findings show schizophrenia is polygenic and highlight the utility of this resource for mechanistic interpretations of genetic liability for brain diseases. PMID:27668389

  11. Gene expression in lung adenocarcinomas of smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Powell, Charles A; Spira, Avrum; Derti, Adnan; DeLisi, Charles; Liu, Gang; Borczuk, Alain; Busch, Steve; Sahasrabudhe, Sudhir; Chen, Yangde; Sugarbaker, David; Bueno, Raphael; Richards, William G; Brody, Jerome S

    2003-08-01

    Adenocarcinoma (AC) has become the most frequent type of lung cancer in men and women, and is the major form of lung cancer in nonsmokers. Our goal in this paper was to determine if AC in smokers and nonsmokers represents the same genetic disease. We compared gene expression profiles in resected samples of nonmalignant lung tissue and tumor tissue in six never-smokers with AC and in six smokers with AC, who were matched for clinical staging and histologic criteria of cell differentiation. Results were analyzed using a variety of bioinformatic tools. Four times as many genes changed expression in the transition from noninvolved lung to tumor in nonsmokers as in smokers, suggesting that AC in nonsmokers evolves locally, whereas AC in smokers evolves in a field of genetically altered tissue. There were some similarities in gene expression in smokers and nonsmokers, but many differences, suggesting different pathways of cell transformation and tumor formation. Gene expression in the noninvolved lungs of smokers differed from that of nonsmokers, and multidimensional scaling showed that noninvolved lungs of smokers groups with tumors rather than noninvolved lungs of nonsmokers. In addition, expression of a number of genes correlated with smoking intensity. Our findings, although limited by small sample size, suggest that additional studies comparing noninvolved to tumor tissue may identify pathogenetic mechanisms and therapeutic targets that differ in AC of smokers and nonsmokers.

  12. Garlic Influences Gene Expression In Vivo and In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Charron, Craig S; Dawson, Harry D; Novotny, Janet A

    2016-02-01

    There is a large body of preclinical research aimed at understanding the roles of garlic and garlic-derived preparations in the promotion of human health. Most of this research has targeted the possible functions of garlic in maintaining cardiovascular health and in preventing and treating cancer. A wide range of outcome variables has been used to investigate the bioactivity of garlic, ranging from direct measures of health status such as cholesterol concentrations, blood pressure, and changes in tumor size and number, to molecular and biochemical measures such as mRNA gene expression, protein concentration, enzyme activity, and histone acetylation status. Determination of how garlic influences mRNA gene expression has proven to be a valuable approach to elucidating the mechanisms of garlic bioactivity. Preclinical studies investigating the health benefits of garlic far outnumber human studies and have made frequent use of mRNA gene expression measurement. There is an immediate need to understand mRNA gene expression in humans as well. Although safety and ethical constraints limit the types of available human tissue, peripheral whole blood is readily accessible, and measuring mRNA gene expression in whole blood may provide a unique window to understanding how garlic intake affects human health. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. An incoherent feedforward loop facilitates adaptive tuning of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jungeui; Brandt, Nathan; Abdul-Rahman, Farah; Yang, Ally; Hughes, Tim; Gresham, David

    2018-04-05

    We studied adaptive evolution of gene expression using long-term experimental evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in ammonium-limited chemostats. We found repeated selection for non-synonymous variation in the DNA binding domain of the transcriptional activator, GAT1, which functions with the repressor, DAL80 in an incoherent type-1 feedforward loop (I1-FFL) to control expression of the high affinity ammonium transporter gene, MEP2. Missense mutations in the DNA binding domain of GAT1 reduce its binding to the GATAA consensus sequence. However, we show experimentally, and using mathematical modeling, that decreases in GAT1 binding result in increased expression of MEP2 as a consequence of properties of I1-FFLs. Our results show that I1-FFLs, one of the most commonly occurring network motifs in transcriptional networks, can facilitate adaptive tuning of gene expression through modulation of transcription factor binding affinities. Our findings highlight the importance of gene regulatory architectures in the evolution of gene expression. © 2018, Hong et al.

  14. Gene expression analysis of colorectal cancer by bioinformatics strategy.

    PubMed

    Cui, Meng; Yuan, Junhua; Li, Jun; Sun, Bing; Li, Tao; Li, Yuantao; Wu, Guoliang

    2014-10-01

    We used bioinformatics technology to analyze gene expression profiles involved in colorectal cancer tissue samples and healthy controls. In this paper, we downloaded the gene expression profile GSE4107 from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, in which a total of 22 chips were available, including normal colonic mucosa tissue from normal healthy donors (n=10), colorectal cancer tissue samples from colorectal patients (n=33). To further understand the biological functions of the screened DGEs, the KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were conducted. Then we built a transcriptome network to study differentially co-expressed links. A total of 3151 DEGs of CRC were selected. Besides, total 164 DCGs (Differentially Coexpressed Gene, DCG) and 29279 DCLs (Differentially Co-expressed Link, DCL) were obtained. Furthermore, the significantly enriched KEGG pathways were Endocytosis, Calcium signaling pathway, Vascular smooth muscle contraction, Linoleic acid metabolism, Arginine and proline metabolism, Inositol phosphate metabolism and MAPK signaling pathway. Our results show that the generation of CRC involves multiple genes, TFs and pathways. Several signal and immune pathways are linked to CRC and give us more clues in the process of CRC. Hence, our work would pave ways for novel diagnosis of CRC, and provided theoretical guidance into cancer therapy.

  15. Alteration in follistatin gene expression detected in prenatally androgenized rats.

    PubMed

    Salehi Jahromi, Marziyeh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Hill, Jennifer W; Noroozzadeh, Mahsa; Zarkesh, Maryam; Ghasemi, Asghar; Zadeh-Vakili, Azita

    2017-06-01

    Impaired ovarian follicle development, the hallmark of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), is believed to be due to the changes in expression of related genes such as follistatin (FST). Expression of FST gene and methylation level of its promoter in theca cells from adult female rats, prenatally exposed to androgen excess, during different phases of the estrus cycle was determined and compared with controls. Eight pregnant Wistar rats (experimental group) were treated by subcutaneous injection of 5 mg free testosterone on day 20 of pregnancy, while controls (n = 8) received 500 ml solvent. Based on observed vaginal smear, adult female offspring of mothers were divided into three groups. Levels of serum steroidogenic sexual hormones and gonadotropins, expression and promoter methylation of the FST gene were measured using ELISA, cyber-green real-time PCR and bisulfite sequence PCR (BSP), respectively. Compared to controls, the relative expression of FST gene in the treated group decreased overall by 0.85 fold; despite significant changes in different phases, but no significant differences in methylation of FST promoter. Our results reveal that manifestation of PCOS-like phenotype following prenatal exposure to excess androgen is associated with irregularity in expression of the FST gene during the estrus cycle.

  16. Coral thermal tolerance: tuning gene expression to resist thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Bellantuono, Anthony J; Granados-Cifuentes, Camila; Miller, David J; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Rodriguez-Lanetty, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    The acclimatization capacity of corals is a critical consideration in the persistence of coral reefs under stresses imposed by global climate change. The stress history of corals plays a role in subsequent response to heat stress, but the transcriptomic changes associated with these plastic changes have not been previously explored. In order to identify host transcriptomic changes associated with acquired thermal tolerance in the scleractinian coral Acropora millepora, corals preconditioned to a sub-lethal temperature of 3°C below bleaching threshold temperature were compared to both non-preconditioned corals and untreated controls using a cDNA microarray platform. After eight days of hyperthermal challenge, conditions under which non-preconditioned corals bleached and preconditioned corals (thermal-tolerant) maintained Symbiodinium density, a clear differentiation in the transcriptional profiles was revealed among the condition examined. Among these changes, nine differentially expressed genes separated preconditioned corals from non-preconditioned corals, with 42 genes differentially expressed between control and preconditioned treatments, and 70 genes between non-preconditioned corals and controls. Differentially expressed genes included components of an apoptotic signaling cascade, which suggest the inhibition of apoptosis in preconditioned corals. Additionally, lectins and genes involved in response to oxidative stress were also detected. One dominant pattern was the apparent tuning of gene expression observed between preconditioned and non-preconditioned treatments; that is, differences in expression magnitude were more apparent than differences in the identity of genes differentially expressed. Our work revealed a transcriptomic signature underlying the tolerance associated with coral thermal history, and suggests that understanding the molecular mechanisms behind physiological acclimatization would be critical for the modeling of reefs in impending climate

  17. Coral Thermal Tolerance: Tuning Gene Expression to Resist Thermal Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bellantuono, Anthony J.; Granados-Cifuentes, Camila; Miller, David J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Rodriguez-Lanetty, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    The acclimatization capacity of corals is a critical consideration in the persistence of coral reefs under stresses imposed by global climate change. The stress history of corals plays a role in subsequent response to heat stress, but the transcriptomic changes associated with these plastic changes have not been previously explored. In order to identify host transcriptomic changes associated with acquired thermal tolerance in the scleractinian coral Acropora millepora, corals preconditioned to a sub-lethal temperature of 3°C below bleaching threshold temperature were compared to both non-preconditioned corals and untreated controls using a cDNA microarray platform. After eight days of hyperthermal challenge, conditions under which non-preconditioned corals bleached and preconditioned corals (thermal-tolerant) maintained Symbiodinium density, a clear differentiation in the transcriptional profiles was revealed among the condition examined. Among these changes, nine differentially expressed genes separated preconditioned corals from non-preconditioned corals, with 42 genes differentially expressed between control and preconditioned treatments, and 70 genes between non-preconditioned corals and controls. Differentially expressed genes included components of an apoptotic signaling cascade, which suggest the inhibition of apoptosis in preconditioned corals. Additionally, lectins and genes involved in response to oxidative stress were also detected. One dominant pattern was the apparent tuning of gene expression observed between preconditioned and non-preconditioned treatments; that is, differences in expression magnitude were more apparent than differences in the identity of genes differentially expressed. Our work revealed a transcriptomic signature underlying the tolerance associated with coral thermal history, and suggests that understanding the molecular mechanisms behind physiological acclimatization would be critical for the modeling of reefs in impending climate

  18. Oxygen and tissue culture affect placental gene expression.

    PubMed

    Brew, O; Sullivan, M H F

    2017-07-01

    Placental explant culture is an important model for studying placental development and functions. We investigated the differences in placental gene expression in response to tissue culture, atmospheric and physiologic oxygen concentrations. Placental explants were collected from normal term (38-39 weeks of gestation) placentae with no previous uterine contractile activity. Placental transcriptomic expressions were evaluated with GeneChip ® Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 arrays (Affymetrix). We uncovered sub-sets of genes that regulate response to stress, induction of apoptosis programmed cell death, mis-regulation of cell growth, proliferation, cell morphogenesis, tissue viability, and protection from apoptosis in cultured placental explants. We also identified a sub-set of genes with highly unstable pattern of expression after exposure to tissue culture. Tissue culture irrespective of oxygen concentration induced dichotomous increase in significant gene expression and increased enrichment of significant pathways and transcription factor targets (TFTs) including HIF1A. The effect was exacerbated by culture at atmospheric oxygen concentration, where further up-regulation of TFTs including PPARA, CEBPD, HOXA9 and down-regulated TFTs such as JUND/FOS suggest intrinsic heightened key biological and metabolic mechanisms such as glucose use, lipid biosynthesis, protein metabolism; apoptosis, inflammatory responses; and diminished trophoblast proliferation, differentiation, invasion, regeneration, and viability. These findings demonstrate that gene expression patterns differ between pre-culture and cultured explants, and the gene expression of explants cultured at atmospheric oxygen concentration favours stressed, pro-inflammatory and increased apoptotic transcriptomic response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Selection of reference genes for quantitative gene expression normalization in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    PubMed

    Huis, Rudy; Hawkins, Simon; Neutelings, Godfrey

    2010-04-19

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is currently the most accurate method for detecting differential gene expression. Such an approach depends on the identification of uniformly expressed 'housekeeping genes' (HKGs). Extensive transcriptomic data mining and experimental validation in different model plants have shown that the reliability of these endogenous controls can be influenced by the plant species, growth conditions and organs/tissues examined. It is therefore important to identify the best reference genes to use in each biological system before using qRT-PCR to investigate differential gene expression. In this paper we evaluate different candidate HKGs for developmental transcriptomic studies in the economically-important flax fiber- and oil-crop (Linum usitatissimum L). Specific primers were designed in order to quantify the expression levels of 20 different potential housekeeping genes in flax roots, internal- and external-stem tissues, leaves and flowers at different developmental stages. After calculations of PCR efficiencies, 13 HKGs were retained and their expression stabilities evaluated by the computer algorithms geNorm and NormFinder. According to geNorm, 2 Transcriptional Elongation Factors (TEFs) and 1 Ubiquitin gene are necessary for normalizing gene expression when all studied samples are considered. However, only 2 TEFs are required for normalizing expression in stem tissues. In contrast, NormFinder identified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH) as the most stably expressed gene when all samples were grouped together, as well as when samples were classed into different sub-groups.qRT-PCR was then used to investigate the relative expression levels of two splice variants of the flax LuMYB1 gene (homologue of AtMYB59). LuMYB1-1 and LuMYB1-2 were highly expressed in the internal stem tissues as compared to outer stem tissues and other samples. This result was confirmed with both geNorm-designated- and Norm

  20. Identification and expression analyses of a novel serotonin receptor gene, 5-HT2β, in the field cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Aonuma, H

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT) modulates various aspects of behaviors such as aggressive behavior and circadian behavior in the cricket. In our previous report, in order to elucidate the molecular basis of the cricket 5-HT system, we identified three genes involved in 5-HT biosynthesis, as well as four 5-HT receptor genes (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2α, and 5-HT7) expressed in the brain of the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer [7]. In the present study, we identified Gryllus 5-HT2β gene, an additional 5-HT receptor gene expressed in the cricket brain, and examined its tissue-specific distribution and embryonic stage-dependent expression. Gryllus 5-HT2β gene was ubiquitously expressed in the all examined adult tissues, and was expressed during early embryonic development, as well as during later stages. This study suggests functional differences between two 5-HT2 receptors in the cricket.

  1. Automatic Control of Gene Expression in Mammalian Cells.

    PubMed

    Fracassi, Chiara; Postiglione, Lorena; Fiore, Gianfranco; di Bernardo, Diego

    2016-04-15

    Automatic control of gene expression in living cells is paramount importance to characterize both endogenous gene regulatory networks and synthetic circuits. In addition, such a technology can be used to maintain the expression of synthetic circuit components in an optimal range in order to ensure reliable performance. Here we present a microfluidics-based method to automatically control gene expression from the tetracycline-inducible promoter in mammalian cells in real time. Our approach is based on the negative-feedback control engineering paradigm. We validated our method in a monoclonal population of cells constitutively expressing a fluorescent reporter protein (d2EYFP) downstream of a minimal CMV promoter with seven tet-responsive operator motifs (CMV-TET). These cells also constitutively express the tetracycline transactivator protein (tTA). In cells grown in standard growth medium, tTA is able to bind the CMV-TET promoter, causing d2EYFP to be maximally expressed. Upon addition of tetracycline to the culture medium, tTA detaches from the CMV-TET promoter, thus preventing d2EYFP expression. We tested two different model-independent control algorithms (relay and proportional-integral (PI)) to force a monoclonal population of cells to express an intermediate level of d2EYFP equal to 50% of its maximum expression level for up to 3500 min. The control input is either tetracycline-rich or standard growth medium. We demonstrated that both the relay and PI controllers can regulate gene expression at the desired level, despite oscillations (dampened in the case of the PI controller) around the chosen set point.

  2. Identification of differentially expressed genes in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) under saline-alkaline stress by digital gene expression.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying; Huang, Wengong; Chen, Hongyu; Wu, Guangwen; Yuan, Hongmei; Song, Xixia; Kang, Qinghua; Zhao, Dongsheng; Jiang, Weidong; Liu, Yan; Wu, Jianzhong; Cheng, Lili; Yao, Yubo; Guan, Fengzhi

    2014-10-01

    The salinization and alkalization of soil are widespread environmental problems, and alkaline salt stress is more destructive than neutral salt stress. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of plant tolerance to saline-alkaline stress has become a major challenge. However, little attention has been paid to the mechanism of plant alkaline salt tolerance. In this study, gene expression profiling of flax was analyzed under alkaline-salt stress (AS2), neutral salt stress (NSS) and alkaline stress (AS) by digital gene expression. Three-week-old flax seedlings were placed in 25 mM Na2CO3 (pH11.6) (AS2), 50mM NaCl (NSS) and NaOH (pH11.6) (AS) for 18 h. There were 7736, 1566 and 454 differentially expressed genes in AS2, NSS and AS compared to CK, respectively. The GO category gene enrichment analysis revealed that photosynthesis was particularly affected in AS2, carbohydrate metabolism was particularly affected in NSS, and the response to biotic stimulus was particularly affected in AS. We also analyzed the expression pattern of five categories of genes including transcription factors, signaling transduction proteins, phytohormones, reactive oxygen species proteins and transporters under these three stresses. Some key regulatory gene families involved in abiotic stress, such as WRKY, MAPKKK, ABA, PrxR and ion channels, were differentially expressed. Compared with NSS and AS, AS2 triggered more differentially expressed genes and special pathways, indicating that the mechanism of AS2 was more complex than NSS and AS. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first transcriptome analysis of flax in response to saline-alkaline stress. These data indicate that common and diverse features of saline-alkaline stress provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of plant saline-alkaline tolerance and offer a number of candidate genes as potential markers of tolerance to saline-alkaline stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Expression of Shigella flexneri ipaB Gene in Tobacco.

    PubMed

    Ohadi, Mandana; Rasouli, Rahimeh; Darzi-Eslam, Elham; Jafari, Anis; Ehsani, Parastoo

    2013-04-01

    Shigellosis is a leading cause of diarrhea in many developing countries and although the disease can be controlled and managed with antibiotics, the constant emergence of resistant species requiring ever newer antibacterial drugs make development of an effective vaccine necessary. The bacteria are highly contagious and since immunity to Shigella is serotype-specific a multi-serotype vaccine is required for adequate protection. Proteins encoded by Shigella invasion plasmid, which are part of the Type Three Secretion System (TTSS) of this bacteria, are good candidate as vaccine targets since they are both immunogenic and conserved between different Shigella species. The advent of molecular farming, which is a low cost system, has opened up new venues for production of recombinant proteins. In view of the difficulties encountered in expressing IpaB in Escherichia coli (E. coli), the feasibility of the expression of this protein in tobacco has been investigated. The ipaB gene was cloned in place of the Hygromycin gene in pCambia1304 containing GFP as a reporter gene. The vector was then transferred into competent Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens) strain LBA4404 which was used for agro-infiltration of Nicotiana tobaccum (N. tobaccum) leaves. Transformation was confirmed by expression of GFP. The gene was also cloned in pBAD/geneIII A and transformed E. coli host containing the construct was induced using different amounts of L-arabinose as inducer. Expression of IpaB gene by both hosts was determined by Western blotting using anti-IpaB monoclonal antibody. The data obtained showed that IpaB was expressed in plant leaves but expression in E. coli was not detectable. This study showed that N. tobaccum is capable of expressing this protein without its specific chaperon and in levels detectable by Western blotting.

  4. Modeling gene expression measurement error: a quasi-likelihood approach

    PubMed Central

    Strimmer, Korbinian

    2003-01-01

    Background Using suitable error models for gene expression measurements is essential in the statistical analysis of microarray data. However, the true probabilistic model underlying gene expression intensity readings is generally not known. Instead, in currently used approaches some simple parametric model is assumed (usually a transformed normal distribution) or the empirical distribution is estimated. However, both these strategies may not be optimal for gene expression data, as the non-parametric approach ignores known structural information whereas the fully parametric models run the risk of misspecification. A further related problem is the choice of a suitable scale for the model (e.g. observed vs. log-scale). Results Here a simple semi-parametric model for gene expression measurement error is presented. In this approach inference is based an approximate likelihood function (the extended quasi-likelihood). Only partial knowledge about the unknown true distribution is required to construct this function. In case of gene expression this information is available in the form of the postulated (e.g. quadratic) variance structure of the data. As the quasi-likelihood behaves (almost) like a proper likelihood, it allows for the estimation of calibration and variance parameters, and it is also straightforward to obtain corresponding approximate confidence intervals. Unlike most other frameworks, it also allows analysis on any preferred scale, i.e. both on the original linear scale as well as on a transformed scale. It can also be employed in regression approaches to model systematic (e.g. array or dye) effects. Conclusions The quasi-likelihood framework provides a simple and versatile approach to analyze gene expression data that does not make any strong distributional assumptions about the underlying error model. For several simulated as well as real data sets it provides a better fit to the data than competing models. In an example it also improved the power of

  5. Microgravity and immunity: Changes in lymphocyte gene expression.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risin, D.; Ward, N. E.; Risin, S. A.; Pellis, N. R.

    Earlier studies had shown that modeled and true microgravity MG cause multiple direct effects on human lymphocytes MG inhibits lymphocyte locomotion suppresses polyclonal and antigen-specific activation affects signal transduction mechanisms as well as activation-induced apoptosis In this study we assessed changes in gene expression associated with lymphocyte exposure to microgravity in an attempt to identify microgravity-sensitive genes MGSG in general and specifically those genes that might be responsible for the functional and structural changes observed earlier Two sets of experiments targeting different goals were conducted In the first set T-lymphocytes from normal donors were activated with anti-CD3 and IL2 and then cultured in 1g static and modeled MG MMG conditions Rotating Wall Vessel bioreactor for 24 hours This setting allowed searching for MGSG by comparison of gene expression patterns in zero and 1 g gravity In the second set - activated T-cells after culturing for 24 hours in 1g and MMG were exposed three hours before harvesting to a secondary activation stimulus PHA thus triggering the apoptotic pathway Total RNA was extracted using the RNeasy isolation kit Qiagen Valencia CA Affymetrix Gene Chips U133A allowing testing for 18 400 human genes were used for microarray analysis The experiments were performed in triplicates with T-cells obtained from different blood donors to minimize the possible input of biological variation in gene expression and discriminate changes that are associated with the

  6. Effect of Mild Acid on Gene Expression in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Weinrick, Brian; Dunman, Paul M.; McAleese, Fionnuala; Murphy, Ellen; Projan, Steven J.; Fang, Yuan; Novick, Richard P.

    2004-01-01

    During staphylococcal growth in glucose-supplemented medium, the pH of a culture starting near neutrality typically decreases by about 2 units due to the fermentation of glucose. Many species can comfortably tolerate the resulting mildly acidic conditions (pH, ∼5.5) by mounting a cellular response, which serves to defend the intracellular pH and, in principle, to modify gene expression for optimal performance in a mildly acidic infection site. In this report, we show that changes in staphylococcal gene expression formerly thought to represent a glucose effect are largely the result of declining pH. We examine the cellular response to mild acid by microarray analysis and define the affected gene set as the mild acid stimulon. Many of the genes encoding extracellular virulence factors are affected, as are genes involved in regulation of virulence factor gene expression, transport of sugars and peptides, intermediary metabolism, and pH homeostasis. Key results are verified by gene fusion and Northern blot hybridization analyses. The results point to, but do not define, possible regulatory pathways by which the organism senses and responds to a pH stimulus. PMID:15576791

  7. Function and expression pattern of nonsyndromic deafness genes

    PubMed Central

    Hilgert, Nele; Smith, Richard J.H.; Van Camp, Guy

    2010-01-01

    Hearing loss is the most common sensory disorder, present in 1 of every 500 newborns. To date, 46 genes have been identified that cause nonsyndromic hearing loss, making it an extremely heterogeneous trait. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the inner ear function and expression pattern of these genes. In general, they are involved in hair bundle morphogenesis, form constituents of the extracellular matrix, play a role in cochlear ion homeostasis or serve as transcription factors. During the past few years, our knowledge of genes involved in hair bundle morphogenesis has increased substantially. We give an up-to-date overview of both the nonsyndromic and Usher syndrome genes involved in this process, highlighting proteins that interact to form macromolecular complexes. For every gene, we also summarize its expression pattern and impact on hearing at the functional level. Gene-specific cochlear expression is summarized in a unique table by structure/cell type and is illustrated on a cochlear cross-section, which is available online via the Hereditary Hearing Loss Homepage. This review should provide auditory scientists the most relevant information for all identified nonsyndromic deafness genes. PMID:19601806

  8. Genomics Analysis of Genes Expressed in Maize Endosperm Identifies Novel Seed Proteins and Clarifies Patterns of Zein Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Young-Min; Hu, David Wang-Nan; Larkins, Brian A.; Jung, Rudolf

    2001-01-01

    We analyzed cDNA libraries from developing endosperm of the B73 maize inbred line to evaluate the expression of storage protein genes. This study showed that zeins are by far the most highly expressed genes in the endosperm, but we found an inverse relationship between the number of zein genes and the relative amount of specific mRNAs. Although α-zeins are encoded by large multigene families, only a few of these genes are transcribed at high or detectable levels. In contrast, relatively small gene families encode the γ- and δ-zeins, and members of these gene families, especially the γ-zeins, are highly expressed. Knowledge of expressed storage protein genes allowed the development of DNA and antibody probes that distinguish between closely related gene family members. Using in situ hybridization, we found differences in the temporal and spatial expression of the α-, γ-, and δ-zein gene families, which provides evidence that γ-zeins are synthesized throughout the endosperm before α- and δ-zeins. This observation is consistent with earlier studies that suggested that γ-zeins play an important role in prolamin protein body assembly. Analysis of endosperm cDNAs also revealed several previously unidentified proteins, including a 50-kD γ-zein, an 18-kD α-globulin, and a legumin-related protein. Immunolocalization of the 50-kD γ-zein showed this protein to be located at the surface of prolamin-containing protein bodies, similar to other γ-zeins. The 18-kD α-globulin, however, is deposited in novel, vacuole-like organelles that were not described previously in maize endosperm. PMID:11595803

  9. Asymmetric latent semantic indexing for gene expression experiments visualization.

    PubMed

    González, Javier; Muñoz, Alberto; Martos, Gabriel

    2016-08-01

    We propose a new method to visualize gene expression experiments inspired by the latent semantic indexing technique originally proposed in the textual analysis context. By using the correspondence word-gene document-experiment, we define an asymmetric similarity measure of association for genes that accounts for potential hierarchies in the data, the key to obtain meaningful gene mappings. We use the polar decomposition to obtain the sources of asymmetry of the similarity matrix, which are later combined with previous knowledge. Genetic classes of genes are identified by means of a mixture model applied in the genes latent space. We describe the steps of the procedure and we show its utility in the Human Cancer dataset.

  10. The impact of rare variation on gene expression across tissues.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Kim, Yungil; Tsang, Emily K; Davis, Joe R; Damani, Farhan N; Chiang, Colby; Hess, Gaelen T; Zappala, Zachary; Strober, Benjamin J; Scott, Alexandra J; Li, Amy; Ganna, Andrea; Bassik, Michael C; Merker, Jason D; Hall, Ira M; Battle, Alexis; Montgomery, Stephen B

    2017-10-11

    Rare genetic variants are abundant in humans and are expected to contribute to individual disease risk. While genetic association studies have successfully identified common genetic variants associated with susceptibility, these studies are not practical for identifying rare variants. Efforts to distinguish pathogenic variants from benign rare variants have leveraged the genetic code to identify deleterious protein-coding alleles, but no analogous code exists for non-coding variants. Therefore, ascertaining which rare variants have phenotypic effects remains a major challenge. Rare non-coding variants have been associated with extreme gene expression in studies using single tissues, but their effects across tissues are unknown. Here we identify gene expression outliers, or individuals showing extreme expression levels for a particular gene, across 44 human tissues by using combined analyses of whole genomes and multi-tissue RNA-sequencing data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project v6p release. We find that 58% of underexpression and 28% of overexpression outliers have nearby conserved rare variants compared to 8% of non-outliers. Additionally, we developed RIVER (RNA-informed variant effect on regulation), a Bayesian statistical model that incorporates expression data to predict a regulatory effect for rare variants with higher accuracy than models using genomic annotations alone. Overall, we demonstrate that rare variants contribute to large gene expression changes across tissues and provide an integrative method for interpretation of rare variants in individual genomes.

  11. Antimicrobial peptide gene expression in periodontitis patients: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jourdain, Marie-Laure; Pierrard, Loïc; Kanagaratnam, Lukshe; Velard, Frédéric; Sergheraert, Johan; Lefèvre, Benoît; Gangloff, Sophie C; Braux, Julien

    2018-05-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are one of the most active components of innate immunity and have characteristics that could place them at the heart of the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. This study investigated differences in the expression of AMP coding genes obtained using a simple harvesting technique, gingival smear, between two groups of patients: chronic periodontitis subjects versus healthy ones. Twenty-three patients were enrolled in two groups: 12 were diagnosed with moderate or severe generalized chronic periodontitis, and 11 were diagnosed as clinically healthy. Gingival smears were retrieved and studied using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) after mRNA purification. Fifteen gene expressions were obtained using real-time RT-qPCR. Three AMP genes, histatin 3 (HTN3), α-defensin 4 (DEFA4) and lysozyme C (LYZ), presented different expression levels in periodontitis patients compared with healthy subjects. The relative expression level of DEFA4 appeared to be a protective factor against periodontitis. Gingival smears studied by RT-qPCR may be used to assess the expression of AMPs coding genes. A lack of expression of DEFA4 could be a potential indicator of periodontitis status. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Blue Light Modulates Murine Microglial Gene Expression in the Absence of Optogenetic Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kevin P; Kiernan, Elizabeth A; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Williams, Justin C; Watters, Jyoti J

    2016-02-17

    Neural optogenetic applications over the past decade have steadily increased; however the effects of commonly used blue light paradigms on surrounding, non-optogenetic protein-expressing CNS cells are rarely considered, despite their simultaneous exposure. Here we report that blue light (450 nm) repetitively delivered in both long-duration boluses and rapid optogenetic bursts gene-specifically altered basal expression of inflammatory and neurotrophic genes in immortalized and primary murine wild type microglial cultures. In addition, blue light reduced pro-inflammatory gene expression in microglia activated with lipopolysaccharide. These results demonstrate previously unreported, off-target effects of blue light in cells not expressing optogenetic constructs. The unexpected gene modulatory effects of blue light on wild type CNS resident immune cells have novel and important implications for the neuro-optogenetic field. Further studies are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and potential therapeutic utility of blue light modulation of the wild type CNS.

  13. Blue Light Modulates Murine Microglial Gene Expression in the Absence of Optogenetic Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kevin P.; Kiernan, Elizabeth A.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Williams, Justin C.; Watters, Jyoti J.

    2016-01-01

    Neural optogenetic applications over the past decade have steadily increased; however the effects of commonly used blue light paradigms on surrounding, non-optogenetic protein-expressing CNS cells are rarely considered, despite their simultaneous exposure. Here we report that blue light (450 nm) repetitively delivered in both long-duration boluses and rapid optogenetic bursts gene-specifically altered basal expression of inflammatory and neurotrophic genes in immortalized and primary murine wild type microglial cultures. In addition, blue light reduced pro-inflammatory gene expression in microglia activated with lipopolysaccharide. These results demonstrate previously unreported, off-target effects of blue light in cells not expressing optogenetic constructs. The unexpected gene modulatory effects of blue light on wild type CNS resident immune cells have novel and important implications for the neuro-optogenetic field. Further studies are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and potential therapeutic utility of blue light modulation of the wild type CNS. PMID:26883795

  14. Exploring the key genes and pathways in enchondromas using a gene expression microarray.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhongju; Zhou, Hengxing; Pan, Bin; Lu, Lu; Kang, Yi; Liu, Lu; Wei, Zhijian; Feng, Shiqing

    2017-07-04

    Enchondromas are the most common primary benign osseous neoplasms that occur in the medullary bone; they can undergo malignant transformation into chondrosarcoma. However, enchondromas are always undetected in patients, and the molecular mechanism is unclear. To identify key genes and pathways associated with the occurrence and development of enchondromas, we downloaded the gene expression dataset GSE22855 and obtained the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by analyzing high-throughput gene expression in enchondromas. In total, 635 genes were identified as DEGs. Of these, 225 genes (35.43%) were up-regulated, and the remaining 410 genes (64.57%) were down-regulated. We identified the predominant gene ontology (GO) categories and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways that were significantly over-represented in the enchondromas samples compared with the control samples. Subsequently the top 10 core genes were identified from the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. The enrichment analyses of the genes mainly involved in two significant modules showed that the DEGs were principally related to ribosomes, protein digestion and absorption, ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, amoebiasis and the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway.Together, these data elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the occurrence and development of enchondromas and provide promising candidates for therapeutic intervention and prognostic evaluation. However, further experimental studies are needed to confirm these results.

  15. Turning publicly available gene expression data into discoveries using gene set context analysis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhicheng; Vokes, Steven A; Dang, Chi V; Ji, Hongkai

    2016-01-08

    Gene Set Context Analysis (GSCA) is an open source software package to help researchers use massive amounts of publicly available gene expression data (PED) to make discoveries. Users can interactively visualize and explore gene and gene set activities in 25,000+ consistently normalized human and mouse gene expression samples representing diverse biological contexts (e.g. different cells, tissues and disease types, etc.). By providing one or multiple genes or gene sets as input and specifying a gene set activity pattern of interest, users can query the expression compendium to systematically identify biological contexts associated with the specified gene set activity pattern. In this way, researchers with new gene sets from their own experiments may discover previously unknown contexts of gene set functions and hence increase the value of their experiments. GSCA has a graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI makes the analysis convenient and customizable. Analysis results can be conveniently exported as publication quality figures and tables. GSCA is available at https://github.com/zji90/GSCA. This software significantly lowers the bar for biomedical investigators to use PED in their daily research for generating and screening hypotheses, which was previously difficult because of the complexity, heterogeneity and size of the data. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Combined protein construct and synthetic gene engineering for heterologous protein expression and crystallization using Gene Composer

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Amy; Lovell, Scott; Lorimer, Don

    2009-12-01

    With the goal of improving yield and success rates of heterologous protein production for structural studies we have developed the database and algorithm software package Gene Composer. This freely available electronic tool facilitates the information-rich design of protein constructs and their engineered synthetic gene sequences, as detailed in the accompanying manuscript. In this report, we compare heterologous protein expression levels from native sequences to that of codon engineered synthetic gene constructs designed by Gene Composer. A test set of proteins including a human kinase (P38{alpha}), viral polymerase (HCV NS5B), and bacterial structural protein (FtsZ) were expressed in both E. colimore » and a cell-free wheat germ translation system. We also compare the protein expression levels in E. coli for a set of 11 different proteins with greatly varied G:C content and codon bias. The results consistently demonstrate that protein yields from codon engineered Gene Composer designs are as good as or better than those achieved from the synonymous native genes. Moreover, structure guided N- and C-terminal deletion constructs designed with the aid of Gene Composer can lead to greater success in gene to structure work as exemplified by the X-ray crystallographic structure determination of FtsZ from Bacillus subtilis. These results validate the Gene Composer algorithms, and suggest that using a combination of synthetic gene and protein construct engineering tools can improve the economics of gene to structure research.« less

  17. Natural gene expression variation studies in yeast.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Dawn A; Cubillos, Francisco A

    2017-01-01

    The rise of sequence information across different yeast species and strains is driving an increasing number of studies in the emerging field of genomics to associate polymorphic variants, mRNA abundance and phenotypic differences between individuals. Here, we gathered evidence from recent studies covering several layers that define the genotype-phenotype gap, such as mRNA abundance, allele-specific expression and translation efficiency to demonstrate how genetic variants co-evolve and define an individual's genome. Moreover, we exposed several antecedents where inter- and intra-specific studies led to opposite conclusions, probably owing to genetic divergence. Future studies in this area will benefit from the access to a massive array of well-annotated genomes and new sequencing technologies, which will allow the fine breakdown of the complex layers that delineate the genotype-phenotype map. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Regulation of neuropeptide Y gene expression in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Lindefors, N; Brené, S; Herrera-Marschitz, M; Persson, H

    1990-01-01

    NPY mRNA expression was studied in rat brain using in situ hybridization and RNA blot analysis. Transsynaptic regulation of NPY gene expression was specifically studied in caudate-putamen and frontoparietal (somatosensory) cortex of rats with unilateral lesion of midbrain dopamine neurons and in sham-injected animals. NPY mRNA expression in these two brain regions and the regulation of midbrain dopamine neurons were compared with that of SOM, PPT, CCK and GAD mRNA expression. Neurons expressing NPY and SOM mRNA showed a similar distribution and the expression of both NPY and SOM appears to be regulated by dopamine in a similar fashion. Following a unilateral dopamine deafferentation, the numerical density of both NPY and SOM mRNA expressing neurons almost doubled in the lesioned rat caudate-putamen with no change in the average grain density over positive neurons. Hence, in the intact caudate-putamen dopamine appears to normally suppress expression of these two neuropeptide genes. An activation of both NPY and SOM mRNA expression in many non- or low-expressing neurons is seen when the level of dopamine is decreased. In the frontoparietal cortex, on the other hand, dopamine appears to stimulate NPY and SOM gene expression. RNA blot analysis shows clear-cut changes of NPY mRNA levels in both caudate-putamen and frontoparietal cortex consistent with the changes observed using in situ hybridization. No evidence was found for a change in CCK mRNA expression by the dopamine deafferentation, while PPT mRNA expression decreased in the deafferented caudate-putamen. Consequently, dopamine exerts dissimilar effects on the expression of different neuropeptide genes, that in turn do not respond in the same way in different brain regions. Indirect evidence is also presented indicating that dopamine regulates NPY mRNA expression in a subpopulation of neurons that possibly also express GAD mRNA, both in caudate-putamen and in frontoparietal cortex.

  19. Pervasive Effects of Aging on Gene Expression in Wild Wolves.

    PubMed

    Charruau, Pauline; Johnston, Rachel A; Stahler, Daniel R; Lea, Amanda; Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Smith, Douglas W; vonHoldt, Bridgett M; Cole, Steven W; Tung, Jenny; Wayne, Robert K

    2016-08-01

    Gene expression levels change as an individual ages and responds to environmental conditions. With the exception of humans, such patterns have principally been studied under controlled conditions, overlooking the array of developmental and environmental influences that organisms encounter under conditions in which natural selection operates. We used high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of whole blood to assess the relative impacts of social status, age, disease, and sex on gene expression levels in a natural population of gray wolves (Canis lupus). Our findings suggest that age is broadly associated with gene expression levels, whereas other examined factors have minimal effects on gene expression patterns. Further, our results reveal evolutionarily conserved signatures of senescence, such as immunosenescence and metabolic aging, between wolves and humans despite major differences in life history and environment. The effects of aging on gene expression levels in wolves exhibit conservation with humans, but the more rapid expression differences observed in aging wolves is evolutionarily appropriate given the species' high level of extrinsic mortality due to intraspecific aggression. Some expression changes that occur with age can facilitate physical age-related changes that may enhance fitness in older wolves. However, the expression of these ancestral patterns of aging in descendant modern dogs living in highly modified domestic environments may be maladaptive and cause disease. This work provides evolutionary insight into aging patterns observed in domestic dogs and demonstrates the applicability of studying natural populations to investigate the mechanisms of aging. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Differential gene expression in Ndph-knockout mice in retinal development.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Nikolaus F; Luhmann, Ulrich F O; Feil, Silke; Berger, Wolfgang

    2009-02-01

    Mutations in the NDP gene impair angiogenesis in the eyes of patients diagnosed with a type of blindness belonging to the group of exudative vitreoretinopathies. This study was conducted to investigate the differential gene expression caused by the absence of Norrin (the NDP protein) in the developing mouse retina and to elucidate early pathogenic events. A comparative gene expression analysis was performed on postnatal day (p)7 retinas from a knockout mouse model for Norrie disease using gene microarrays. Subsequently, results were verified by quantitative real-time PCR analyses. Immunohistochemistry was performed for the vascular permeability marker plasmalemma vesicle associated protein (Plvap). Our study identified expression differences in Ndph(y/-) versus wild-type mice retinas at p7. Gene transcription of the neutral amino acid transporter Slc38a5, apolipoprotein D (ApoD), and angiotensin II receptor-like 1 (Agtrl1) was decreased in the knockout mouse, whereas transcript levels of adrenomedullin (Adm) and of the plasmalemma vesicle associated protein (Plvap) were increased in comparison to the wild-type. In addition, ectopic expression of Plvap was found in the developing retinal vasculature of Norrin-knockout mice on the protein level. These data provide molecular evidence for a role of Norrin in the development of the retinal vasculature. Expression of two genes, Plvap and Slc38a5, is considerably altered in retinal development of Norrin-knockout mice and may reflect or contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. In particular, ectopic expression of Plvap is consistent with hallmark disease symptoms in mice and humans.

  1. Methylation of microRNA genes regulates gene expression in bisexual flower development in andromonoecious poplar.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuepeng; Tian, Min; Ci, Dong; Zhang, Deqiang

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies showed sex-specific DNA methylation and expression of candidate genes in bisexual flowers of andromonoecious poplar, but the regulatory relationship between methylation and microRNAs (miRNAs) remains unclear. To investigate whether the methylation of miRNA genes regulates gene expression in bisexual flower development, the methylome, microRNA, and transcriptome were examined in female and male flowers of andromonoecious poplar. 27 636 methylated coding genes and 113 methylated miRNA genes were identified. In the coding genes, 64.5% of the methylated reads mapped to the gene body region; by contrast, 60.7% of methylated reads in miRNA genes mainly mapped in the 5' and 3' flanking regions. CHH methylation showed the highest methylation levels and CHG showed the lowest methylation levels. Correlation analysis showed a significant, negative, strand-specific correlation of methylation and miRNA gene expression (r=0.79, P <0.05). The methylated miRNA genes included eight long miRNAs (lmiRNAs) of 24 nucleotides and 11 miRNAs related to flower development. miRNA172b might play an important role in the regulation of bisexual flower development-related gene expression in andromonoecious poplar, via modification of methylation. Gynomonoecious, female, and male poplars were used to validate the methylation patterns of the miRNA172b gene, implying that hyper-methylation in andromonoecious and gynomonoecious poplar might function as an important regulator in bisexual flower development. Our data provide a useful resource for the study of flower development in poplar and improve our understanding of the effect of epigenetic regulation on genes other than protein-coding genes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Methylation of microRNA genes regulates gene expression in bisexual flower development in andromonoecious poplar

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuepeng; Tian, Min; Ci, Dong; Zhang, Deqiang

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies showed sex-specific DNA methylation and expression of candidate genes in bisexual flowers of andromonoecious poplar, but the regulatory relationship between methylation and microRNAs (miRNAs) remains unclear. To investigate whether the methylation of miRNA genes regulates gene expression in bisexual flower development, the methylome, microRNA, and transcriptome were examined in female and male flowers of andromonoecious poplar. 27 636 methylated coding genes and 113 methylated miRNA genes were identified. In the coding genes, 64.5% of the methylated reads mapped to the gene body region; by contrast, 60.7% of methylated reads in miRNA genes mainly mapped in the 5′ and 3′ flanking regions. CHH methylation showed the highest methylation levels and CHG showed the lowest methylation levels. Correlation analysis showed a significant, negative, strand-specific correlation of methylation and miRNA gene expression (r=0.79, P <0.05). The methylated miRNA genes included eight long miRNAs (lmiRNAs) of 24 nucleotides and 11 miRNAs related to flower development. miRNA172b might play an important role in the regulation of bisexual flower development-related gene expression in andromonoecious poplar, via modification of methylation. Gynomonoecious, female, and male poplars were used to validate the methylation patterns of the miRNA172b gene, implying that hyper-methylation in andromonoecious and gynomonoecious poplar might function as an important regulator in bisexual flower development. Our data provide a useful resource for the study of flower development in poplar and improve our understanding of the effect of epigenetic regulation on genes other than protein-coding genes. PMID:25617468

  3. Integrating mean and variance heterogeneities to identify differentially expressed genes.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Weiwei; An, Qiang; Zhao, Jinying; Qin, Huaizhen

    2016-12-06

    In functional genomics studies, tests on mean heterogeneity have been widely employed to identify differentially expressed genes with distinct mean expression levels under different experimental conditions. Variance heterogeneity (aka, the difference between condition-specific variances) of gene expression levels is simply neglected or calibrated for as an impediment. The mean heterogeneity in the expression level of a gene reflects one aspect of its distribution alteration; and variance heterogeneity induced by condition change may reflect another aspect. Change in condition may alter both mean and some higher-order characteristics of the distributions of expression levels of susceptible genes. In this report, we put forth a conception of mean-variance differentially expressed (MVDE) genes, whose expression means and variances are sensitive to the change in experimental condition. We mathematically proved the null independence of existent mean heterogeneity tests and variance heterogeneity tests. Based on the independence, we proposed an integrative mean-variance test (IMVT) to combine gene-wise mean heterogeneity and variance heterogeneity induced by condition change. The IMVT outperformed its competitors under comprehensive simulations of normality and Laplace settings. For moderate samples, the IMVT well controlled type I error rates, and so did existent mean heterogeneity test (i.e., the Welch t test (WT), the moderated Welch t test (MWT)) and the procedure of separate tests on mean and variance heterogeneities (SMVT), but the likelihood ratio test (LRT) severely inflated type I error rates. In presence of variance heterogeneity, the IMVT appeared noticeably more powerful than all the valid mean heterogeneity tests. Application to the gene profiles of peripheral circulating B raised solid evidence of informative variance heterogeneity. After adjusting for background data structure, the IMVT replicated previous discoveries and identified novel experiment

  4. Complex modulation of androgen responsive gene expression by methoxyacetic acid

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Optimal androgen signaling is critical for testicular development and spermatogenesis. Methoxyacetic acid (MAA), the primary active metabolite of the industrial chemical ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, disrupts spermatogenesis and causes testicular atrophy. Transcriptional trans-activation studies have indicated that MAA can enhance androgen receptor activity, however, whether MAA actually impacts the expression of androgen-responsive genes in vivo, and which genes might be affected is not known. Methods A mouse TM3 Leydig cell line that stably expresses androgen receptor (TM3-AR) was prepared and analyzed by transcriptional profiling to identify target gene interactions between MAA and testosterone on a global scale. Results MAA is shown to have widespread effects on androgen-responsive genes, affecting processes ranging from apoptosis to ion transport, cell adhesion, phosphorylation and transcription, with MAA able to enhance, as well as antagonize, androgenic responses. Moreover, testosterone is shown to exert both positive and negative effects on MAA gene responses. Motif analysis indicated that binding sites for FOX, HOX, LEF/TCF, STAT5 and MEF2 family transcription factors are among the most highly enriched in genes regulated by testosterone and MAA. Notably, 65 FOXO targets were repressed by testosterone or showed repression enhanced by MAA with testosterone; these include 16 genes associated with developmental processes, six of which are Hox genes. Conclusions These findings highlight the complex interactions between testosterone and MAA, and provide insight into the effects of MAA exposure on androgen-dependent processes in a Leydig cell model. PMID:21453523

  5. Conditioned taste aversion dependent regulation of amygdala gene expression.

    PubMed

    Panguluri, Siva K; Kuwabara, Nobuyuki; Kang, Yi; Cooper, Nigel; Lundy, Robert F

    2012-02-28

    The present experiments investigated gene expression in the amygdala following contingent taste/LiCl treatment that supports development of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). The use of whole genome chips and stringent data set filtering led to the identification of 168 genes regulated by CTA compared to non-contingent LiCl treatment that does not support CTA learning. Seventy-six of these genes were eligible for network analysis. Such analysis identified "behavior" as the top biological function, which was represented by 15 of the 76 genes. These genes included several neuropeptides, G protein-coupled receptors, ion channels, kinases, and phosphatases. Subsequent qRT-PCR analyses confirmed changes in mRNA expression for 5 of 7 selected genes. We were able to demonstrate directionally consistent changes in protein level for 3 of these genes; insulin 1, oxytocin, and major histocompatibility complex class I-C. Behavioral analyses demonstrated that blockade of central insulin receptors produced a weaker CTA that was less resistant to extinction. Together, these results support the notion that we have identified downstream genes in the amygdala that contribute to CTA learning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Gene duplication, tissue-specific gene expression and sexual conflict in stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae)

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Richard H.; Narechania, Apurva; Johns, Philip M.; Wilkinson, Gerald S.

    2012-01-01

    Gene duplication provides an essential source of novel genetic material to facilitate rapid morphological evolution. Traits involved in reproduction and sexual dimorphism represent some of the fastest evolving traits in nature, and gene duplication is intricately involved in the origin and evolution of these traits. Here, we review genomic research on stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae) that has been used to examine the extent of gene duplication and its role in the genetic architecture of sexual dimorphism. Stalk-eyed flies are remarkable because of the elongation of the head into long stalks, with the eyes and antenna laterally displaced at the ends of these stalks. Many species are strongly sexually dimorphic for eyespan, and these flies have become a model system for studying sexual selection. Using both expressed sequence tag and next-generation sequencing, we have established an extensive database of gene expression in the developing eye-antennal imaginal disc, the adult head and testes. Duplicated genes exhibit narrower expression patterns than non-duplicated genes, and the testes, in particular, provide an abundant source of gene duplication. Within somatic tissue, duplicated genes are more likely to be differentially expressed between the sexes, suggesting gene duplication may provide a mechanism for resolving sexual conflict. PMID:22777023

  7. Gene duplication, tissue-specific gene expression and sexual conflict in stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae).

    PubMed

    Baker, Richard H; Narechania, Apurva; Johns, Philip M; Wilkinson, Gerald S

    2012-08-19

    Gene duplication provides an essential source of novel genetic material to facilitate rapid morphological evolution. Traits involved in reproduction and sexual dimorphism represent some of the fastest evolving traits in nature, and gene duplication is intricately involved in the origin and evolution of these traits. Here, we review genomic research on stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae) that has been used to examine the extent of gene duplication and its role in the genetic architecture of sexual dimorphism. Stalk-eyed flies are remarkable because of the elongation of the head into long stalks, with the eyes and antenna laterally displaced at the ends of these stalks. Many species are strongly sexually dimorphic for eyespan, and these flies have become a model system for studying sexual selection. Using both expressed sequence tag and next-generation sequencing, we have established an extensive database of gene expression in the developing eye-antennal imaginal disc, the adult head and testes. Duplicated genes exhibit narrower expression patterns than non-duplicated genes, and the testes, in particular, provide an abundant source of gene duplication. Within somatic tissue, duplicated genes are more likely to be differentially expressed between the sexes, suggesting gene duplication may provide a mechanism for resolving sexual conflict.

  8. Network Security via Biometric Recognition of Patterns of Gene Expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Harry C.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular biology provides the ability to implement forms of information and network security completely outside the bounds of legacy security protocols and algorithms. This paper addresses an approach which instantiates the power of gene expression for security. Molecular biology provides a rich source of gene expression and regulation mechanisms, which can be adopted to use in the information and electronic communication domains. Conventional security protocols are becoming increasingly vulnerable due to more intensive, highly capable attacks on the underlying mathematics of cryptography. Security protocols are being undermined by social engineering and substandard implementations by IT (Information Technology) organizations. Molecular biology can provide countermeasures to these weak points with the current security approaches. Future advances in instruments for analyzing assays will also enable this protocol to advance from one of cryptographic algorithms to an integrated system of cryptographic algorithms and real-time assays of gene expression products.

  9. Methods and compositions for regulating gene expression in plant cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dai, Shunhong (Inventor); Beachy, Roger N. (Inventor); Luis, Maria Isabel Ordiz (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Novel chimeric plant promoter sequences are provided, together with plant gene expression cassettes comprising such sequences. In certain preferred embodiments, the chimeric plant promoters comprise the BoxII cis element and/or derivatives thereof. In addition, novel transcription factors are provided, together with nucleic acid sequences encoding such transcription factors and plant gene expression cassettes comprising such nucleic acid sequences. In certain preferred embodiments, the novel transcription factors comprise the acidic domain, or fragments thereof, of the RF2a transcription factor. Methods for using the chimeric plant promoter sequences and novel transcription factors in regulating the expression of at least one gene of interest are provided, together with transgenic plants comprising such chimeric plant promoter sequences and novel transcription factors.

  10. Gene expression analysis in RA: towards personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    Burska, A N; Roget, K; Blits, M; Soto Gomez, L; van de Loo, F; Hazelwood, L D; Verweij, C L; Rowe, A; Goulielmos, G N; van Baarsen, L G M; Ponchel, F

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression has recently been at the forefront of advance in personalized medicine, notably in the field of cancer and transplantation, providing a rational for a similar approach in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA is a prototypic inflammatory autoimmune disease with a poorly understood etiopathogenesis. Inflammation is the main feature of RA; however, many biological processes are involved at different stages of the disease. Gene expression signatures offer management tools to meet the current needs for personalization of RA patient's care. This review analyses currently available information with respect to RA diagnostic, prognostic and prediction of response to therapy with a view to highlight the abundance of data, whose comparison is often inconclusive due to the mixed use of material source, experimental methodologies and analysis tools, reinforcing the need for harmonization if gene expression signatures are to become a useful clinical tool in personalized medicine for RA patients. PMID:24589910

  11. Coupling between nucleotide excision repair and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Cambindo Botto, Adrián E; Muñoz, Juan C; Muñoz, Manuel J

    2018-05-17

    Gene expression and DNA repair are fundamental processes for life. During the last decade, accumulating experimental evidence point towards different modes of coupling between these processes. Here we discuss the molecular mechanisms by which RNAPII-dependent transcription affects repair by the Nucleotide Excision Repair system (NER) and how NER activity, through the generation of single stranded DNA intermediates and activation of the DNA damage response kinase ATR, drives gene expression in a genotoxic scenario. Since NER-dependent repair is compromised in Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP) patients, and having in mind that these patients present a high degree of clinical heterogeneity, we speculate that some of the clinical features of XP patients can be explained by misregulation of gene expression.

  12. The centrality of RNA for engineering gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, James; Takahashi, Melissa K; Meyer, Sarai; Loughrey, David; Watters, Kyle E; Lucks, Julius

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology holds promise as both a framework for rationally engineering biological systems and a way to revolutionize how we fundamentally understand them. Essential to realizing this promise is the development of strategies and tools to reliably and predictably control and characterize sophisticated patterns of gene expression. Here we review the role that RNA can play towards this goal and make a case for why this versatile, designable, and increasingly characterizable molecule is one of the most powerful substrates for engineering gene expression at our disposal. We discuss current natural and synthetic RNA regulators of gene expression acting at key points of control – transcription, mRNA degradation, and translation. We also consider RNA structural probing and computational RNA structure predication tools as a way to study RNA structure and ultimately function. Finally, we discuss how next-generation sequencing methods are being applied to the study of RNA and to the characterization of RNA's many properties throughout the cell. PMID:24124015