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Sample records for a508 gr 4n

  1. GR uniqueness and deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, Kirill

    2015-10-01

    In the metric formulation gravitons are described with the parity symmetric S + 2 ⊗ S - 2 representation of Lorentz group. General Relativity is then the unique theory of interacting gravitons with second order field equations. We show that if a chiral S + 3 ⊗ S - representation is used instead, the uniqueness is lost, and there is an infinite-parametric family of theories of interacting gravitons with second order field equations. We use the language of graviton scattering amplitudes, and show how the uniqueness of GR is avoided using simple dimensional analysis. The resulting distinct from GR gravity theories are all parity asymmetric, but share the GR MHV amplitudes. They have new all same helicity graviton scattering amplitudes at every graviton order. The amplitudes with at least one graviton of opposite helicity continue to be determinable by the BCFW recursion.

  2. Creep rupture testing of alloy 617 and A508/533 base metals and weldments.

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Li, M.; Soppet, W.K.

    2012-01-17

    The NGNP, which is an advanced HTGR concept with emphasis on both electricity and hydrogen production, involves helium as the coolant and a closed-cycle gas turbine for power generation with a core outlet/gas turbine inlet temperature of 750-1000 C. Alloy 617 is a prime candidate for VHTR structural components such as reactor internals, piping, and heat exchangers in view of its resistance to oxidation and elevated temperature strength. However, lack of adequate data on the performance of the alloy in welded condition prompted to initiate a creep test program at Argonne National Laboratory. In addition, Testing has been initiated tomore » evaluate the creep rupture properties of the pressure vessel steel A508/533 in air and in helium environments. The program, which began in December 2009, was certified for quality assurance NQA-1 requirements during January and February 2010. Specimens were designed and fabricated during March and the tests were initiated in April 2010. During the past year, several creep tests were conducted in air on Alloy 617 base metal and weldment specimens at temperatures of 750, 850, and 950 C. Idaho National Laboratory, using gas tungsten arc welding method with Alloy 617 weld wire, fabricated the weldment specimens. Eight tests were conducted on Alloy 617 base metal specimens and nine were on Alloy 617 weldments. The creep rupture times for the base alloy and weldment tests were up to {approx}3900 and {approx}4500 h, respectively. The results showed that the creep rupture lives of weld specimens are much longer than those for the base alloy, when tested under identical test conditions. The test results also showed that the creep strain at fracture is in the range of 7-18% for weldment samples and were much lower than those for the base alloy, under similar test conditions. In general, the weldment specimens showed more of a flat or constant creep rate region than the base metal specimens. The base alloy and the weldment exhibited

  3. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) {beta} has intrinsic, GR{alpha}-independent transcriptional activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kino, Tomoshige, E-mail: kinot@mail.nih.gov; Manoli, Irini; First Department of Pediatrics, Athens University Medical School

    2009-04-17

    The human glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene produces C-terminal GR{beta} and GR{alpha} isoforms through alternative use of specific exons 9{beta} and {alpha}, respectively. We explored the transcriptional activity of GR{beta} on endogenous genes by developing HeLa cells stably expressing EGFP-GR{beta} or EGFP. Microarray analyses revealed that GR{beta} had intrinsic gene-specific transcriptional activity, regulating mRNA expression of a large number of genes negatively or positively. Majority of GR{beta}-responsive genes was distinct from those modulated by GR{alpha}, while GR{beta} and GR{alpha} mutually modulated each other's transcriptional activity in a subpopulation of genes. We did not observe in HCT116 cells nuclear translocation of GR{beta}more » and activation of this receptor by RU 486, a synthetic steroid previously reported to bind GR{beta} and to induce nuclear translocation. Our results indicate that GR{beta} has intrinsic, GR{alpha}-independent, gene-specific transcriptional activity, in addition to its previously reported dominant negative effect on GR{alpha}-induced transactivation of GRE-driven promoters.« less

  4. Microstructural evolution and mechanical characterization for the A508-3 steel before and after phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chuanyang; He, Yanming; Gao, Zengliang; Yang, Jianguo; Jin, Weiya; Xie, Zhigang

    2017-11-01

    Nuclear power, as a reliable clean and economical energy source, has gained great attention from all over the world. The A508-3 steel will be introduced as the structural materials for Chinese nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). This work investigated the temperature-dependence microstructural evolution during high-temperature heat treatments, and built the relationship between the microstructure and mechanical properties for the steel before and after phase transition. The results show that the original steel consists of the bainite, allotriomorphic ferrite, retained austenite and few Mo-rich M2C carbides. The phase-transition temperature of the steel is determined to be 750 °C. The tensile tests performed at 20-1000 °C indicate that both of the yield strength and ultimate tensile strength decrease monotonously with increasing the temperature. Before phase transition, precipitation of cementite from the retained austenite and coarsening of cementite at the austenite-ferrite interphases should be responsible for their sharp decrease. After phase transition, the growth of austenite grain reduces the strength moderately. As for the elongation, however, it increases dramatically when the testing temperature is over 750 °C, due to the dissolution of cementite and formation of austenite. The obtained results will provide some fundamental data to understand and implement the In-Vessel Retention strategy.

  5. The Y Deletion gr/gr and Susceptibility to Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Nathanson, Katherine L.; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Hawes, Rachel; Vaughn, David J.; Letrero, Richard; Tucker, Kathy; Friedlander, Michael; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Hogg, David; Jewett, Michael A. S.; Lohynska, Radka; Daugaard, Gedske; Richard, Stéphane; Chompret, Agnès; Bonaïti-Pellié, Catherine; Heidenreich, Axel; Olah, Edith; Geczi, Lajos; Bodrogi, Istvan; Ormiston, Wilma J.; Daly, Peter A.; Oosterhuis, J. Wolter; Gillis, Ad J. M.; Looijenga, Leendert H. J.; Guilford, Parry; Fosså, Sophie D.; Heimdal, Ketil; Tjulandin, Sergei A.; Liubchenko, Ludmila; Stoll, Hans; Weber, Walter; Rudd, Matthew; Huddart, Robert; Crockford, Gillian P.; Forman, David; Oliver, D. Timothy; Einhorn, Lawrence; Weber, Barbara L.; Kramer, Joan; McMaster, Mary; Greene, Mark H.; Pike, Malcolm; Cortessis, Victoria; Chen, Chu; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Bishop, D. Timothy; Easton, Douglas F.; Stratton, Michael R.; Rapley, Elizabeth A.

    2005-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) is the most common cancer in young men. Despite a considerable familial component to TGCT risk, no genetic change that confers increased risk has been substantiated to date. The human Y chromosome carries a number of genes specifically involved in male germ cell development, and deletion of the AZFc region at Yq11 is the most common known genetic cause of infertility. Recently, a 1.6-Mb deletion of the Y chromosome that removes part of the AZFc region—known as the “gr/gr” deletion—has been associated with infertility. In epidemiological studies, male infertility has shown an association with TGCT that is out of proportion with what can be explained by tumor effects. Thus, we hypothesized that the gr/gr deletion may be associated with TGCT. Using logistic modeling, we analyzed this deletion in a large series of TGCT cases with and without a family history of TGCT. The gr/gr deletion was present in 3.0% (13/431) of TGCT cases with a family history, 2% (28/1,376) of TGCT cases without a family history, and 1.3% (33/2,599) of unaffected males. Presence of the gr/gr deletion was associated with a twofold increased risk of TGCT (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3–3.6; P = .005) and a threefold increased risk of TGCT among patients with a positive family history (aOR 3.2; 95% CI 1.5–6.7; P = .0027). The gr/gr deletion was more strongly associated with seminoma (aOR 3.0; 95% CI 1.6–5.4; P = .0004) than with nonseminoma TGCT (aOR 1.5; 95% CI 0.72–3.0; P = .29). These data indicate that the Y microdeletion gr/gr is a rare, low-penetrance allele that confers susceptibility to TGCT. PMID:16380914

  6. Characterization of microstructure of A508III/309L/308L weld and oxide films formed in deaerated high-temperature water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Qi; Li, Hongjuan; Lu, Zhanpeng; Chen, Junjie; Xiao, Qian; Ma, Jiarong; Ru, Xiangkun

    2018-01-01

    The microstructure of A508III/309L/308L weld clad and the properties of the oxide films formed in simulated pressurized water reactor primary water at 290 °C were characterized. The A508III heat-affected zone (HAZ) consisted primarily of a decarburization zone with ferrite near the fusion line and a following pearlite structure with fine grains. A high hardness region in the HAZ could be the result of C-enrichment. M23C6 and M7C3 precipitates were observed in element transition zone. 308L stainless steel (SS) containing ∼ 12% ferrites exhibited both ferritic-austenitic solidification mode (FA mode, δ→γ) and austenitic-ferritic solidification mode (AF mode, γ→δ), whereas 309L SS containing ∼ 9% ferrites exhibited only FA mode. The A508III surface oxide film was mainly Fe3O4 in deaerated high-temperature water. The coarse grain zone covered with few oxide particles was different from other types of film on the other region of HAZ and the bulk zone. More pitting appears on 309L SS after immersion in deaerated high-temperature water due to the dissolution of inclusions. SS surface oxide films consisted primarily of spinels. The oxide film on SS was divided into two layers. Ni was concentrated mainly at the oxide/substrate interface. The oxide film formed on 309L was thicker than that on the 308L. The ferrite in the stainless steel could improve the oxidation resistance.

  7. Beam shaping with 4n-order multipole magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folsom, B.; Laface, E.

    2017-07-01

    A uniformly irradiating beam is beneficial in spallation for preventing irregular wear on the target. For octupoles (n = 4) and higher-order (n = 4N) magnets, passing charged-particle bunches undergo symmetric shaping effects along the x and y axes. Using a Lie-mapping formalism, we illustrate how well Gaussian distributions can be flattened symmetrically in 2D with single, dual-pulse, and RF magnets of 4N order. Incidental shaping effects are also discussed.

  8. Zinc hydrazides and alkoxyhydrazides: organometallic compounds with novel Zn4N8, Zn4N6O and Zn4N4O2 cage structures.

    PubMed

    Jana, Surajit; Fröhlich, Roland; Mitzel, Norbert W

    2005-12-23

    Tetrameric [{RZn(NHNMe2)}4] (R = Me, Et), the first organometallic zinc hydrazides to be described, have been prepared by alkane elimination from dialkylzinc solutions and N,N-dimethylhydrazine. They were characterised by 1H and 13C NMR and IR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, elemental analysis and X-ray crystallography. The compounds form asymmetric aggregates containing the novel Zn4N8 core; tetrahedra of Zn atoms bear the alkyl groups at Zn, with the triangular faces bridged by NHNMe2 substituents. The NH groups are connected to two Zn atoms, and the NMe2 groups to one. Hydrolysis of the compounds with water gives [(RZn)4(OH)(NHNMe2)3] as products, which also were characterised as described above. Higher yields of these hydroxo clusters were achieved in one-pot syntheses by reaction of dialkylzinc solutions with mixtures of N,N-dimethylhydrazine and water. They contain Zn4N6O cages, in which one hydroxide in the tetrameric hydrazides described above replaces one NHNMe2 group. Similar products can be prepared with alkoxy instead of hydroxy groups, in analogous one-pot syntheses with alcohols. Alcoholysis of [EtZn(NHNMe2)]4 with methanol or ethanol gave zinc trishydrazide monoalkoxides, [(EtZn)4(OR)(NHNMe2)3] (R = Me, Et), which have constitutions analogous to the monohydroxides. The organozinc bishydrazide bisalkoxides [(MeZn)4(NHNMe2)2(OEt)2] and [(EtZn)4(NHNMe2)2(OEt)2] were obtained in one-pot reactions from dialkylzinc solutions with mixtures of the hydrazine and alcohol, and their crystal structures, confirmed by spectroscopic methods in solution, show an unsymmetrical aggregation with the novel Zn4N4O2 cage structure.

  9. Higher spin gauge theory on fuzzy \\boldsymbol {S^4_N}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperling, Marcus; Steinacker, Harold C.

    2018-02-01

    We examine in detail the higher spin fields which arise on the basic fuzzy sphere S^4N in the semi-classical limit. The space of functions can be identified with functions on classical S 4 taking values in a higher spin algebra associated to \

  10. [Mechanism of NH(4+)-N removal in drinking water biofilter].

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Fan, Hui; Yu, Guo-Zhong; Yu, Xin; Zhao, Cheng-Mei; Li, Qing-Fei; Zhang, Shu-Ting; Wei, Bo

    2012-07-01

    In order to explore the mechanism of NH(4+)-N removal in drinking water biofilter, water quality parameters, such as NH(4+)-N, NO(2-)-N, NO(3-)-N, total phosphorus, permanganate index, nitrogen gas, temperature and dissolved oxygen etc, were determined in the inflow and outflow of biofilter. Samples of granular activated carbon (GAC) at different height (0, 10, 20, 40, 60 cm) of the biofiter media were collected and analyzed for the bacterial community with molecular biology techniques. The bacterial diversity in the activated carbon biofilm sample was studied based on the phylogenetic analysis of sequences. The results showed that there were three stages according to the NH(4+)-N concentration in the influent. The "nitrogen loss" phenomenon (total inorganic nitrogen in the effluent was less than that in the influent) occurred at the first, second and third stages and the amount of nitrogen loss were 0.94, 0.32 and 0.15 mg x L(-1), respectively. The amount of nitrogen loss had a good positive correlation with the NH(4+)-N concentration in the influent, but not a linear relationship with the concentration of the permanganate index in the influent. The average concentrations of N2 increased gradually with the height of media in the biofilter, with values of 14.04 and 14.67 mg x L(-1) in the influent and the effluent, respectively. Based on the sequencing results, the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the activated carbon biofilm were classified into three common genera: Nitrosococcus, Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira. When the NH(4+)-N concentration in the influent was relatively high, the "nitrogen loss" phenomenon in biofilter was caused by the AOB.

  11. Potential for 4-n-nonylphenol biodegradation in stream sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Barber, L.B.; Kolpin, D.W.; McMahon, P.B.; Chapelle, F.H.

    2008-01-01

    The potential for in situ biodegradation of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) was investigated in three hydrologically distinct streams impacted by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the United States. Microcosms were prepared with sediments from each site and amended with [U-ring-14C]4-n-nonylphenol (4-n-NP) as a model test substrate. Microcosms prepared with sediment collected upstream of the WWTP outfalls and incubated under oxic conditions showed rapid and complete mineralization of [U-ring-14C]4- n-NP to 14CO2 in all three systems. In contrast, no mineralization of [U-ring-14C]4-n-NP was observed in these sediments under anoxic (methanogenic) conditions. The initial linear rate of [U-ring-14C]4-n-NP mineralization in sediments from upstream and downstream of the respective WWTP outfalls was inversely correlated with the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of the streambed sediments. These results suggest that the net supply of dissolved oxygen to streambed sediments is a key determinant of the rate and extent of 4-NP biodegradation in stream systems. In the stream systems considered by the present study, dissolved oxygen concentrations in the overlying water column (8–10 mg/L) and in the bed sediment pore water (1–3 mg/L at a depth of 10 cm below the sediment–water interface) were consistent with active in situ 4-NP biodegradation. These results suggest WWTP procedures that maximize the delivery of dissolved oxygen while minimizing the release of BOD to stream receptors favor efficient biodegradation of 4-NP contaminants in wastewater-impacted stream environments.

  12. Two Gr genes underlie sugar reception in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Dahanukar, Anupama; Lei, Ya-Ting; Kwon, Jae Young; Carlson, John R.

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY We have analyzed the molecular basis of sugar reception in Drosophila. We define the response spectrum, concentration dependence, and temporal dynamics of sugar-sensing neurons. Using in situ hybridization and reporter gene expression we identify members of the Gr5a-related taste receptor subfamily that are co-expressed in sugar neurons. Neurons expressing different Gr5a-related genes send overlapping but distinct projections to the brain and thoracic ganglia. Genetic analysis of receptor genes shows that Gr5a is required for response to one subset of sugars and Gr64a for response to a complementary subset. A Gr5a;Gr64a double mutant shows no physiological or behavioral responses to any tested sugar. The simplest interpretation of our results is that Gr5a and Gr64a are each capable of functioning independently of each other within individual sugar neurons and that they are the primary receptors used in the labellum to detect sugars. PMID:17988633

  13. The power of weak-field GR gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooperstock, F. I.

    2016-10-01

    While general relativity (GR) is our premier theory of gravity, galactic dynamics from the outset has been studied with Newtonian gravity (NG), guided by the long-held belief in the idea of the “Newtonian-limit” of GR. This maintains that when the gravitational field is weak and the velocities are nonrelativistic, NG is the appropriate theory, apart from small corrections at best (such as in GPS tracking). However, there are simple examples of phenomena where there is no NG counterpart. We present a particularly simple new example of the stark difference that NG and weak-field GR exhibit for a modified van Stockum source, which speaks to the flat galactic rotation curve problem. We note that the linear GR compatibility equation in the literature is incomplete. Its completion is vital for our case, leading to a stark contrast between GR and NG for totally flat van Stockum rotation curves.

  14. 4N electron aromatic cycles in polycyclic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Mauksch, Michael; Tsogoeva, Svetlana B

    2017-05-31

    Polycyclic fully conjugated hydrocarbons in which aromatics are fused to aromatics - or aromatics to antiaromatics - are important as potential organic semiconductors. Herein we explore the only remaining fusion pattern of antiaromatics to antiaromatics. It is shown computationally that the central antiaromatic unit (cyclobutadiene or pentalene) in such a three-unit polycyclic hydrocarbon, generated by fusion of three antiaromatic molecules, turns aromatic according to magnetic shielding (NICS) criteria. The resulting neutral 4N electron molecules possess a 4N π electron perimeter with pronounced CC bond length equalization (as indicated by the HOMA geometric index) and significant aromatic stabilization energies (computed using the isomerization-stabilization method) and could be promising synthetic targets with small HOMO-LUMO gaps.

  15. A HΛ4+n+n model of HΛ6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, B. F.; Afnan, I. R.

    2013-09-01

    A three-body calculation for the HeΛ6 and HΛ6 hypernuclei, in which the respective cores are He4 and HΛ4, has been initiated. The interactions in the HeΛ6 system are reasonably well known. For example, the Λn interaction is approximately determined by bubble-chamber Λ-p scattering data, the He4-Λ interaction can be fitted to the HeΛ5 binding energy, and the He4-n interaction can be fitted to α-n scattering data. For He4-n the s-wave can be modeled alternatively as a repulsive potential (Eskandarian and Afnan, 1992 [1]) or as an attractive potential with a forbidden bound state (Lehman, 1982 [2]). We examine the effect of these alternatives on He6 and Li6, because the interaction comes into play in modeling HeΛ6 as well as in our HΛ4+n+n model of HΛ6, where the valence neutrons are Pauli blocked from the s-shell of the core.

  16. Degradation of 4-n-nonylphenol under nitrate reducing conditions

    PubMed Central

    Viñas, Marc; Grotenhuis, Tim; Rijnaarts, Huub H. M.; Langenhoff, Alette A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Nonylphenol (NP) is an endocrine disruptor present as a pollutant in river sediment. Biodegradation of NP can reduce its toxicological risk. As sediments are mainly anaerobic, degradation of linear (4-n-NP) and branched nonylphenol (tNP) was studied under methanogenic, sulphate reducing and denitrifying conditions in NP polluted river sediment. Anaerobic bioconversion was observed only for linear NP under denitrifying conditions. The microbial population involved herein was further studied by enrichment and molecular characterization. The largest change in diversity was observed between the enrichments of the third and fourth generation, and further enrichment did not affect the diversity. This implies that different microorganisms are involved in the degradation of 4-n-NP in the sediment. The major degrading bacteria were most closely related to denitrifying hexadecane degraders and linear alkyl benzene sulphonate (LAS) degraders. The molecular structures of alkanes and LAS are similar to the linear chain of 4-n-NP, this might indicate that the biodegradation of linear NP under denitrifying conditions starts at the nonyl chain. Initiation of anaerobic NP degradation was further tested using phenol as a structure analogue. Phenol was chosen instead of an aliphatic analogue, because phenol is the common structure present in all NP isomers while the structure of the aliphatic chain differs per isomer. Phenol was degraded in all cases, but did not affect the linear NP degradation under denitrifying conditions and did not initiate the degradation of tNP and linear NP under the other tested conditions. PMID:20640878

  17. The effects of temperature and aeration on the corrosion of A508III low alloy steel in boric acid solutions at 25-95 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Qian; Lu, Zhanpeng; Chen, Junjie; Yao, Meiyi; Chen, Zhen; Ejaz, Ahsan

    2016-11-01

    The effects of temperature, solution composition and dissolved oxygen on the corrosion rate and electrochemical behavior of an A508III low alloy steel in boric acid solution with lithium hydroxide at 25-95 °C are investigated. In aerated solutions, increasing the boric acid concentration increases the corrosion rate and the anodic current density. The corrosion rate in deaerated solutions increases with increasing temperature. A corrosion rate peak value is found at approximately 75 °C in aerated solutions. Increasing temperature increases the oxygen diffusion coefficient, decreases the dissolved oxygen concentration, accelerates the hydrogen evolution reaction, and accelerates both the active dissolution and the film forming reactions. Increasing dissolved oxygen concentration does not significantly affect the corrosion rate at 50 and 60 °C, increases the corrosion rate at 70 and 80 °C, and decreases the corrosion rate at 87.5 and 95 °C in a high concentration boric acid solution with lithium hydroxide.

  18. Modeling Gravitational Waves to Test GR Dispersion and Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tso, Rhondale; Chen, Yanbei; Isi, Maximilliano

    2017-01-01

    Given continued observation runs from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory Scientific Collaboration, further gravitational wave (GW) events will provide added constraints on beyond-general relativity (b-GR) theories. One approach, independent of the GW generation mechanism at the source, is to look at modification to the GW dispersion and propagation, which can accumulate over vast distances. Generic modification of GW propagation can also, in certain b-GR theories, impact the polarization content of GWs. To this end, a comprehensive approach to testing the dispersion and polarization content is developed by modeling anisotropic deformations to the waveforms' phase, along with birefringence effects and corollary consequences for b-GR polarizations, i.e., breathing, vector, and longitudinal modes. Such an approach can be mapped to specific theories like Lorentz violation, amplitude birefringence in Chern-Simons, and provide hints at additional theories to be included. An overview of data analysis routines to be implemented will also be discussed.

  19. H I and mass distribution of GR8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaulieu, Sylvie; Carignan, Claude

    1990-01-01

    The dwarf irregular galaxy GR8, which is at the extreme faint end of the luminosity and mass functions, is studied using optical photometry and 21 cm H I line observations. It is shown that rotation is only important to the gravitational support of the system in the inner parts (r less than 250 pc). GR8 is one of the very few non-elliptical systems known (with M81dwA) where the random motions provide essentially all the support in the outer parts (4 greater than or equal to 500 pc). The Gaussian nature of the H I distribution and the isothermal distribution of the H I velocity dispersion implies M is directly proportional to R(exp 3) in the outer regions of GR8 (i.e., the stellar disk and the H I lie in the approximately uniform density core of the dark halo).

  20. Variable stars in the dwarf galaxy GR 8 (DDO 155)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolstoy, Eline; Saha, A.; Hoessel, John G.; Danielson, G. Edward

    1995-01-01

    Observations of the resolved stars in dwarf galaxy GR 8, obtained over the period 1980 February to 1994 March, are presented. Thirty-four separate epochs were searched for variable stars, and a total of six were found, of which one has Cepheid characteristics. After correction for Galactic extinction this single Cepheid yields a distance modulus of m - M = 26.75 +/- 0.35. This corresponds to a distance of 2.24 Mpc, placing GR 8 near the Local Group (LG) zero-velocity surface. The other five variable stars are very red, and possibly have long periods of order 100 days or more.

  1. Attenuated bioluminescent Brucella melitensis mutants GR019 (virB4), GR024 (galE), and GR026 (BMEI1090-BMEI1091) confer protection in mice.

    PubMed

    Rajashekara, Gireesh; Glover, David A; Banai, Menachem; O'Callaghan, David; Splitter, Gary A

    2006-05-01

    In vivo bioluminescence imaging is a persuasive approach to investigate a number of issues in microbial pathogenesis. Previously, we have applied bioluminescence imaging to gain greater insight into Brucella melitensis pathogenesis. Endowing Brucella with bioluminescence allowed direct visualization of bacterial dissemination, pattern of tissue localization, and the contribution of Brucella genes to virulence. In this report, we describe the pathogenicity of three attenuated bioluminescent B. melitensis mutants, GR019 (virB4), GR024 (galE), and GR026 (BMEI1090-BMEI1091), and the dynamics of bioluminescent virulent bacterial infection following vaccination with these mutants. The virB4, galE, and BMEI1090-BMEI1091 mutants were attenuated in interferon regulatory factor 1-deficient (IRF-1(-/-)) mice; however, only the GR019 (virB4) mutant was attenuated in cultured macrophages. Therefore, in vivo imaging provides a comprehensive approach to identify virulence genes that are relevant to in vivo pathogenesis. Our results provide greater insights into the role of galE in virulence and also suggest that BMEI1090 and downstream genes constitute a novel set of genes involved in Brucella virulence. Survival of the vaccine strain in the host for a critical period is important for effective Brucella vaccines. The galE mutant induced no changes in liver and spleen but localized chronically in the tail and protected IRF-1(-/-) and wild-type mice from virulent challenge, implying that this mutant may serve as a potential vaccine candidate in future studies and that the direct visualization of Brucella may provide insight into selection of improved vaccine candidates.

  2. Attenuated Bioluminescent Brucella melitensis Mutants GR019 (virB4), GR024 (galE), and GR026 (BMEI1090-BMEI1091) Confer Protection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekara, Gireesh; Glover, David A.; Banai, Menachem; O'Callaghan, David; Splitter, Gary A.

    2006-01-01

    In vivo bioluminescence imaging is a persuasive approach to investigate a number of issues in microbial pathogenesis. Previously, we have applied bioluminescence imaging to gain greater insight into Brucella melitensis pathogenesis. Endowing Brucella with bioluminescence allowed direct visualization of bacterial dissemination, pattern of tissue localization, and the contribution of Brucella genes to virulence. In this report, we describe the pathogenicity of three attenuated bioluminescent B. melitensis mutants, GR019 (virB4), GR024 (galE), and GR026 (BMEI1090-BMEI1091), and the dynamics of bioluminescent virulent bacterial infection following vaccination with these mutants. The virB4, galE, and BMEI1090-BMEI1091 mutants were attenuated in interferon regulatory factor 1-deficient (IRF-1−/−) mice; however, only the GR019 (virB4) mutant was attenuated in cultured macrophages. Therefore, in vivo imaging provides a comprehensive approach to identify virulence genes that are relevant to in vivo pathogenesis. Our results provide greater insights into the role of galE in virulence and also suggest that BMEI1090 and downstream genes constitute a novel set of genes involved in Brucella virulence. Survival of the vaccine strain in the host for a critical period is important for effective Brucella vaccines. The galE mutant induced no changes in liver and spleen but localized chronically in the tail and protected IRF-1−/− and wild-type mice from virulent challenge, implying that this mutant may serve as a potential vaccine candidate in future studies and that the direct visualization of Brucella may provide insight into selection of improved vaccine candidates. PMID:16622231

  3. CRTC2 Is a Coactivator of GR and Couples GR and CREB in the Regulation of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Micah J.; Suzuki, Shigeru; Segars, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones play essential roles in the regulation of gluconeogenesis in the liver, an adaptive response that is required for the maintenance of circulating glucose levels during fasting. Glucocorticoids do this by cooperating with glucagon, which is secreted from pancreatic islets to activate the cAMP-signaling pathway in hepatocytes. The cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB)-regulated transcription coactivator 2 (CRTC2) is a coactivator known to be specific to CREB and plays a central role in the glucagon-mediated activation of gluconeogenesis in the early phase of fasting. We show here that CRTC2 also functions as a coactivator for the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). CRTC2 strongly enhances GR-induced transcriptional activity of glucocorticoid-responsive genes. CRTC2 physically interacts with the ligand-binding domain of the GR through a region spanning amino acids 561–693. Further, CRTC2 is required for the glucocorticoid-associated cooperative mRNA expression of the glucose-6-phosphatase, a rate-limiting enzyme for hepatic gluconeogenesis, by facilitating the attraction of GR and itself to its promoter region already occupied by CREB. CRTC2 is required for the maintenance of blood glucose levels during fasting in mice by enhancing the GR transcriptional activity on both the G6p and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck) genes. Finally, CRTC2 modulates the transcriptional activity of the progesterone receptor, indicating that it may influence the transcriptional activity of other steroid/nuclear receptors. Taken together, these results reveal that CRTC2 plays an essential role in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis through coordinated regulation of the glucocorticoid/GR- and glucagon/CREB-signaling pathways on the key genes G6P and PEPCK. PMID:26652733

  4. Iceland: Grímsvötn Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Grímsvötn Volcano Injects Ash into the Stratosphere     ... p.m. local time (1730 UTC) on Saturday, May 21, 2011. The volcano, located approximately 140 miles (220 kilometers) east of the capital ...

  5. Preparation of Polyclonal Antibody and Expression Analysis of GR in Tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yuanhong; Zhu, Benzhong; Luo, Yunbo; Chen, Xiangning; Zhang, Hongxing

    The fruit ripening of Green-ripe (Gr) mutant tomato was inhibited dramatically. To determine the expression patterns of Gr in tomato, we first produced the polyclonal antibody of Gr protein. RT-PCR was used to amplify the Gr gene from green ripe tomato fruit. And the PCR product was subcloned into prokaryotic protein expression vectors pET-30a to generate recombinant plasmid. The Gr protein was induced by IPTG in BL21 (DE3) and purified by Ni-NTA agarose column. The anti-Gr serum was produced by immunizing rabbits, and the titer of the anti-Gr serum was above 5000 by ELISA analysis. Purified by the DEAE-52 ion-column, the high purification level of anti-Gr polyclonal antibody was obtained. Furthermore, RT-CPR was used in the RNA level to demonstrate that the expression of Gr gene was specialized in some cultures of tomato. For example, the expressions of Gr were higher in seed, flower and green ripe fruit than others, and the expression level were reduced by exogenous ethylene treatment in the flower and green ripe fruit. Moreover, Polyclonal antibody of Gr was used to investigate the expression pattern of Gr in protein level by the Western blotting. Our results show that the expression level of Gr in protein level was complied with the expressions in RNA. So, we suggested that the regulation of Gr was transcriptional.

  6. An alternative approach to Mie-Grüneisen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, William W.

    2017-01-01

    The Mie-Grüneisen model, because of its simplicity and analyticity, is probably the most-used thermal equation of state in high-pressure physics. However, the usual method of implementing this model places unnecessary constraints on temperature calculations and fails to take advantage of information that can be obtained from the compression behavior of a material. As multiphase models that require explicit accounting for temperature become more common, these issues suggest that a return to the internal energy as the starting point for an EOS model is useful. Such a model, based on the Einstein thermal energy, is analytic and consistent with the Mie-Grüneisen model and can be coupled directly to the behavior of the 0 K isotherm when an appropriate model for Poisson's ratio is used. Additional terms can be incorporated to account for anharmonic and other effects.

  7. Iceland's Grímsvötn volcano erupts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-05-01

    About 13 months after Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull volcano began erupting on 14 April 2010, which led to extensive air traffic closures over Europe, Grímsvötn volcano in southeastern took its turn. Iceland's most active volcano, which last erupted in 2004 and lies largely beneath the Vatnajökull ice cap, began its eruption activity on 21 May, with the ash plume initially reaching about 20 kilometers in altitude, according to the Icelandic Meteorological Office. Volcanic ash from Grímsvötn has cancelled hundreds of airplane flights and prompted U.S. president Barack Obama to cut short his visit to Ireland. As Eos went to press, activity at the volcano was beginning to subside.

  8. The Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinter, James L., III

    1994-01-01

    During the period 1 September 1993 - 31 August 1994, further development of the Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS) was conducted at the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies (COLA) of the Institute of Global Environment and Society, Inc. (IGES) under subcontract 5555-31 from the University Space Research Association (USRA) administered by The Center of Excellence in Space Data and Information Sciences (CESDIS). This final report documents progress made under this subcontract and provides directions on how to access the software and documentation developed therein. A short description of GrADS is provided followed by summary of progress completed and a summary of the distribution of the software to date and the establishment of research collaborations.

  9. GR712RC- Dual-Core Processor- Product Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturesson, Fredrik; Habinc, Sandi; Gaisler, Jiri

    2012-08-01

    The GR712RC System-on-Chip (SoC) is a dual core LEON3FT system suitable for advanced high reliability space avionics. Fault tolerance features from Aeroflex Gaisler’s GRLIB IP library and an implementation using Ramon Chips RadSafe cell library enables superior radiation hardness.The GR712RC device has been designed to provide high processing power by including two LEON3FT 32- bit SPARC V8 processors, each with its own high- performance IEEE754 compliant floating-point-unit and SPARC reference memory management unit.This high processing power is combined with a large number of serial interfaces, ranging from high-speed links for data transfers to low-speed control buses for commanding and status acquisition.

  10. Spin-dependent electronic transport characteristics in Fe4N/BiFeO3/Fe4N perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Li; Wang, Xiaocha; Mi, Wenbo

    2018-01-01

    Perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) have attracted increasing attention owing to the low energy consumption and wide application prospects. Herewith, against Julliere's formula, an inverse tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) appears in tetragonal Fe4N/BiFeO3/Fe4N perpendicular MTJs, which is attributed to the binding between the interface resonant tunneling state and central (bordered) hot spots. Especially, antiferromagnetic BiFeO3 shows an extra spin-polarized resonant state in the barrier, which provides a magnetic-barrier factor to affect the tunneling transport in MTJs. Meanwhile, due to the spin-polarized transport in Fe4N/BiFeO3/Fe4N MTJs, the sign of TMR can be tuned by the applied bias. The tunable TMR and resonant magnetic barrier effect pave the way for clarifying the tunneling transport in other junctions and spintronic devices.

  11. A fluorescent alternative to the synthetic strigolactone GR24.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Amanda; Heugebaert, Thomas; Matthys, Cedrick; Van Deun, Rik; Boyer, Francois-Didier; Goormachtig, Sofie; Stevens, Christian; Geelen, Danny

    2013-01-01

    Strigolactones have recently been implicated in both above- and below-ground developmental pathways in higher plants. To facilitate the molecular and chemical properties of strigolactones in vitro and in vivo, we have developed a fluorescent strigolactone molecule, CISA-1, synthesized via a novel method which was robust, high-yielding, and used simple starting materials. We demonstrate that CISA-1 has a broad range of known strigolactone activities and further report on an adventitious rooting assay in Arabidopsis which is a highly sensitive and rapid method for testing biological activity of strigolactone analogs. In this rooting assay and the widely used Orobanche germination assay, CISA-1 showed stronger biological activity than the commonly tested GR24. CISA-1 and GR24 were equally effective at inhibiting branching in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems. In both the branching and adventitious rooting assay, we also demonstrated that CISA-1 activity is dependent on the max strigolactone signaling pathway. In water methanol solutions, CISA-1 was about threefold more stable than GR24, which may contribute to the increased activity observed in the various biological tests.

  12. Damping constant measurement and inverse giant magnetoresistance in spintronic devices with Fe4N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuan; Li, Hongshi; Jamali, Mahdi; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2017-12-01

    Fe4N is one of the attractive materials for spintronic devices due to its large spin asymmetric conductance and negative spin polarization at the Fermi level. We have successfully deposited Fe4N thin film with (001) out-of-plane orientation using a DC facing-target-sputtering system. A Fe(001)/Ag(001) composite buffer layer is selected to improve the (001) orientation of the Fe4N thin film. The N2 partial pressure during sputtering is optimized to promote the formation of Fe4N phase. Moreover, we have measured the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) of the (001) oriented Fe4N thin film using coplanar waveguides and microwave excitation. The resonant fields are tested under different microwave excitation frequencies, and the experimental results match well with the Kittel formula. The Gilbert damping constant of Fe4N is determined to be α = 0.021±0.02. We have also fabricated and characterized the current-perpendicular-to-plane (CPP) giant magnetoresistance (GMR) device with Fe4N/Ag/Fe sandwich. Inverse giant magnetoresistance is observed in the CPP GMR device, which suggests that the spin polarization of Fe4N and Fe4N/Ag interface is negative.

  13. Study on Control of NH4 +-N in Surface Water by Photocatalytic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Xiaoran; He, Honghua; Yang, Yue; Yan, Chao; Zhou, Ying

    2018-01-01

    NH4 +-N has become the main pollution factor affecting the surface water quality in China. Based on the theory of photolysis, the feasibility of photolysis removing NH4 +-N in surface water is studied. The effects of pH, CaO2 content and photolysis time on removal rate of NH4 +-N are studied. The actual study is based on Laboratory studies results. Experimental results show: When the pH<7, photolysis can increase the NH4 +-N content. And when pH>8, the photolysis can greatly reduce the NH4 +-N content in water. CaO2 can greatly remove NH4 +-N. The removal rate of NH4 +-N increased with the increase of photocatalytic time. When irradiated with UV light for 108 hours or the sun is irradiated for about 40 days, NH4 +-N content can be reduced from 4mg/L to 0.5mg/L under the optimum experimental conditions. Adjusting the pH of surface water is the most important condition for controlling NH4 +-N content.

  14. Gr64f is Required in Combination with other Gustatory Receptors for Sugar Detection in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yuchen; Moon, Seok Jun; Wang, Xiaoyue; Ren, Qiuting; Montell, Craig

    2008-01-01

    Summary The mechanisms by which the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, detect sweet compounds are poorly understood; however, a subset of the family of 68 gustatory receptors (Grs) has emerged as the key receptors. These seven transmembrane receptors include Gr5a and at least one member of the six genes in the Gr64 cluster (Gr64a), which are expressed in sugar-responsive neurons. Disruption of Gr5a prevents the detection of trehalose [1–3], while mutation of Gr64a impairs the responses to sucrose, maltose and glucose [4, 5]. Recent studies suggest that these sugar receptors may require a co-receptor for function in vivo [4–6]; however, the identity of the putative co-receptor is not known. In the current work, we demonstrate that Gr64f is required in combination with Gr5a for the behavioral response to trehalose and for production of action potentials due to application of trehalose. Gr64f was also required in concert with Gr64a to rescue the defects in the sensitivities to sucrose, maltose and glucose, resulting from deletion of the entire Gr64 cluster. These data suggest that Drosophila sugar receptors function as multimers and that Gr64f is required broadly as a co-receptor for the detection of sugars. PMID:19026541

  15. ΛGR Centennial: Cosmic Web in Dark Energy Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernin, A. D.

    The basic building blocks of the Cosmic Web are groups and clusters of galaxies, super-clusters (pancakes) and filaments embedded in the universal dark energy background. The background produces antigravity, and the antigravity effect is strong in groups, clusters and superclusters. Antigravity is very weak in filaments where matter (dark matter and baryons) produces gravity dominating in the filament internal dynamics. Gravity-antigravity interplay on the large scales is a grandiose phenomenon predicted by ΛGR theory and seen in modern observations of the Cosmic Web.

  16. Economic Analysis of the Greenland Inland Traverse (GrIT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    even economically relative to airlift resupply. Sled im- provements adopted for GrIT10 showed that the target mobility perfor - mance was within reach...Pisten Bully $165,000 15 12,800 Crew quarters $250,000 10 $27,800 Dual-bladder sled and tow plates (6000 gal.) $30,000 5 $6,400 Spreader (parts and...122,500 Magnum and spares 1 $0 Tucker 1 $27,800 Pisten Bully 1 12,800 Crew quarters 1 $27,800 Dual-bladder sled and tow plates (6000 gal

  17. Crystal growth of triphenylphosphine oxide 4-nitrophenol (TP4N) for nonlinear optical (NLO) applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandian, Muthu Senthil; Karuppasamy, P.; Kamalesh, T.; Ramasamy, P.; Verma, Sunil

    2018-04-01

    The optically good quality organic single crystals of triphenylphosphine oxide 4-nitrophenol (TP4N) were successfully grown by slow evaporation solution technique (SEST) using methanol as solvent. The lattice parameters of the grown crystal were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The optical transmittance, cut-off wavelength and band gap of the TP4N crystal were obtained by UV-Vis NIR spectrum analysis. The photoluminescence studies were carried out to find out the luminesce properties of TP4N single crystal. The photoconductivity studies reveal that the TP4N crystal has negative photoconductive nature. The third order nonlinear susceptibility (χ(3)) of TP4N crystal was evaluated using the Z-scan technique at 640 nm.

  18. How secure are Grünbaum's Foundations?

    PubMed

    Wax, M L

    1995-06-01

    As exemplified in Freud's cases, behaviour becomes meaningful as it is situated within a history (narrative). Operating from a Unity of Science orientation, Grünbaum emphasises causal rather than meaningful connections, and selectively follows early Freud: when (and only when) the repressed historical cause is uncovered, the symptom disappears. Since that consequential connection has proven to be not causally invariable Grünbaum discredits psychoanalysis as unscientific. Counterposed to his causal approach is that of philosopher MacIntyre, who contends that identity and moral responsibility must be situated within personal history. Also counterposed is sociologist Max Weber who struggled with parallel issues in the German 'Geisteswissenschaften' of Freud's time. The oedipal complex is akin to Weber's ideal types, as are the various models implicit in analytic discourse. Psychoanalysis must be understood as a normative science. In so far as contemporary psychology and psychiatry emphasise causal relationships, their procedures (experimental, epidemiological) can never hope to encompass psychoanalysis. Like other grand theoretical systems, psychoanalysis has applications in wide arenas--personal, developmental, familial, cultural, religious, historical, ethnological; its development during the last century has come from the interaction of findings from those arenas with those from the consulting room.

  19. 4-n-butylresorcinol enhances proteolytic degradation of tyrosinase in B16F10 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, S-J; Son, Y H; Lee, K B; Lee, J-H; Kim, H-J; Jeong, E M; Park, S C; Kim, I-G

    2017-06-01

    4-n-butylresorcinol is a competitive inhibitor of tyrosinase and has been used as an antimelanogenic agent. However, its inhibition mechanism in intact cells is not fully understood. To elucidate the cellular mechanism, we compared in vitro and in vivo inhibitory effects of 4-n-butylresorcinol on tyrosinase activity. B16F10 melanoma cells were cultured in media containing α-MSH in the presence or absence of 4-n-butylresorcinol. Tyrosinase mRNA levels, protein levels and activity in B16F10 cells were compared by real-time PCR, immunostaining combined with western blot and colorimetric analysis, respectively. Melanin concentration was measured by colorimetry both in the cells and in the media. Tyrosinase glycosylation and proteolytic degradation were analysed by immunoblotting after cells were treated with Endo H/PNGase F and E64/proteasome inhibitors, respectively. 4-n-butylresorcinol inhibited tyrosinase activity and melanin synthesis more effectively in intact cells than in cell lysates. Western blotting and real-time RT-PCR showed that 4-n-butylresorcinol reduced protein levels, but not mRNA levels, of tyrosinase in B16F10 cells. 4-n-butylresorcinol showed no effect on the processing of tyrosinase glycosylation or on trafficking to melanosomes. However, treatment of B16F10 cells with E64 or proteasome inhibitor abrogated the 4-n-butylresorcinol-induced decrease of tyrosinase. Moreover, 4-n-butylresorcinol activated p38 MAPK, resulting in increased ubiquitination of tyrosinase. 4-n-butylresorcinol inhibits melanogenesis by enhancing proteolytic degradation of tyrosinase as well as competitive binding to tyrosinase. These findings will help to develop new, effective and safe chemicals for the treatment of hyperpigmentation disorders. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  20. Photometric study of the eclipsing binary GR Bootis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. L.; Zhang, Y. P.; Fu, J. N.; Xue, H. F.

    2016-07-01

    We present CCD photometry and low-resolution spectra of the eclipsing binary GR Boo. A new ephemeris is determined based on all the available times of the minimum light. The period analysis reveals that the orbital period is decreasing with a rate of dP / dt = - 2.05 ×10-10 d yr-1 . A photometric analysis for the obtained light curves is performed with the Wilson-Devinney Differential Correction program for the first time. The photometric solutions confirm the W UMa-type nature of the binary system. The mass ratio turns out to be q = 0.985 ± 0.001 . The evolutionary status and physical nature of the binary system are briefly discussed.

  1. Some Applications of Gröbner Bases in Robotics and Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abłamowicz, Rafał

    Gröbner bases in polynomial rings have numerous applications in geometry, applied mathematics, and engineering. We show a few applications of Gröbner bases in robotics, formulated in the language of Clifford algebras, and in engineering to the theory of curves, including Fermat and Bézier cubics, and interpolation functions used in finite element theory.

  2. On the Computation of Comprehensive Boolean Gröbner Bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Shutaro

    We show that a comprehensive Boolean Gröbner basis of an ideal I in a Boolean polynomial ring B (bar A,bar X) with main variables bar X and parameters bar A can be obtained by simply computing a usual Boolean Gröbner basis of I regarding both bar X and bar A as variables with a certain block term order such that bar X ≫ bar A. The result together with a fact that a finite Boolean ring is isomorphic to a direct product of the Galois field mathbb{GF}_2 enables us to compute a comprehensive Boolean Gröbner basis by only computing corresponding Gröbner bases in a polynomial ring over mathbb{GF}_2. Our implementation in a computer algebra system Risa/Asir shows that our method is extremely efficient comparing with existing computation algorithms of comprehensive Boolean Gröbner bases.

  3. Spin dynamics and magnetoelectric coupling mechanism of C o4N b2O9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Guochu; Cao, Yiming; Ren, Wei; Cao, Shixun; Studer, Andrew J.; Gauthier, Nicolas; Kenzelmann, Michel; Davidson, Gene; Rule, Kirrily C.; Gardner, Jason S.; Imperia, Paolo; Ulrich, Clemens; McIntyre, Garry J.

    2018-02-01

    Neutron powder diffraction experiments reveal that C o4N b2O9 forms a noncollinear in-plane magnetic structure with C o2 + moments lying in the a b plane. The spin-wave excitations of this magnet were measured by using inelastic neutron scattering and soundly simulated by a dynamic model involving nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor exchange interactions, in-plane anisotropy, and the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. The in-plane magnetic structure of C o4N b2O9 is attributed to the large in-plane anisotropy, while the noncollinearity of the spin configuration is attributed to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. The high magnetoelectric coupling effect of C o4N b2O9 in fields can be explained by its special in-plane magnetic structure.

  4. The selective carotid arterial vasoconstrictor action of GR43175 in anaesthetized dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Feniuk, W.; Humphrey, P. P.; Perren, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    1. GR43175 is a highly selective agonist at 5-HT1-like receptors in the dog saphenous vein. This study describes the haemodynamic effects of GR43175 in barbitone-anaesthetized dogs. 2. GR43175 (1-1000 micrograms kg-1, i.v.) produced dose-dependent decreases in carotid arterial blood flow with little or no change in arterial blood pressure. The decrease in blood flow was associated with an increase in carotid arterial vascular resistance. In preliminary studies, the dose of GR43175 producing 50% of the maximum carotid vasoconstrictor response was 39 +/- 8 micrograms kg-1, i.v. 3. In comparative regional haemodynamic studies, GR43175 (1-1000 micrograms kg-1, i.v.) had little effect on total peripheral resistance or resistance in the mesenteric, vertebral and coronary arterial vascular beds. Low doses of GR43175 decreased, whilst high doses (100 micrograms kg-1, i.v. and above) increased femoral arterial vascular resistance. GR43175 (1-1000 micrograms kg-1, i.v.) had no effect on respiratory inflation pressure. In doses of 100 micrograms kg-1 i.v. and above, GR43175 caused small decreases in heart rate. 4. The carotid arterial vasoconstrictor action of GR43175 was resistant to antagonism by the 5-HT2 receptor, 5-HT3 receptor and alpha-adrenoceptor blocking drugs, ketanserin, MDL72222 and phentolamine respectively, but could be antagonized by the non-selective 5-HT1-like receptor blocking drug methiothepin. Methiothepin had no effect on the carotid vasoconstrictor action of the thromboxane A2 mimetic, U46619. 5. The results demonstrate that GR43175 produces a selective vasoconstriction in the carotid arterial circulation of anaesthetized dogs via activation of 5-HT1-like receptors, which appear similar to those mediating contraction of the dog isolated saphenous vein. PMID:2538184

  5. Pd n Ag (4-n) and Pd n Pt (4-n) clusters on MgO (100): a density functional surface genetic algorithm investigation

    DOE PAGES

    Heard, Christopher J.; Heiles, Sven; Vajda, Stefan; ...

    2014-08-07

    We employed the novel surface mode of the Birmingham Cluster Genetic Algorithm (S-BCGA) for the global optimisation of noble metal tetramers upon an MgO(100) substrate at the GGA-DFT level of theory. The effect of element identity and alloying in surface-bound neutral subnanometre clusters is determined by energetic comparison between all compositions of Pd nAg (4-n) and Pd nPt (4-n). And while the binding strengths to the surface increase in the order Pt > Pd > Ag, the excess energy profiles suggest a preference for mixed clusters for both cases. The binding of CO is also modelled, showing that the adsorptionmore » site can be predicted solely by electrophilicity. Comparison to CO binding on a single metal atom shows a reversal of the 5s-d activation process for clusters, weakening the cluster surface interaction on CO adsorption. Charge localisation determines homotop, CO binding and surface site preferences. Furthermore, the electronic behaviour, which is intermediate between molecular and metallic particles allows for tunable features in the subnanometre size range.« less

  6. Molecular dynamics simulation of Bu4N+ in dimethylformamide: Solvation-induced volume changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, M. G.; Safonova, L. P.

    2011-06-01

    The structure of the Bu4N+-dimethylformamide system in the condensed and gas phases was studied by molecular dynamics simulation and quantum-chemical calculations. The calculation results were used to reveal the role played by steric effects in the volumetric characteristics of ion solvation.

  7. C4N2 ice in Titan’s atmosphere: reality or myth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, Robert E.; Achterberg, Richard K.; Flasar, F. M.

    2014-11-01

    Voyager 1 IRIS detected a spectral emission feature at 478 cm-1 in Titan’s atmosphere at high northern latitudes. Now one Titan year later we rediscovered it in Cassini CIRS limb spectra at 70°N. Thus far the feature has always been associated with the lower polar stratosphere during early northern spring. No known trace organic vapor in Titan’s atmosphere has a spectral feature at 478 cm-1, and the only known or suspected condensate that does is C4N2 ice. However, the C4N2 ν8 and ν9 vapor features at 472 cm-1 and 108 cm-1, respectively, have never been observed in Titan’s atmosphere, leading to a C4N2 vapor upper limit at least 2 orders of magnitude lower than equilibrium with the ice phase would suggest. In this study we analyze the spectral shapes and strengths of the 478 cm-1 feature in the IRIS and CIRS data sets in an effort to determine particle sizes, mole fractions, and vertical distributions of the putative condensate cloud responsible for the feature, and then discuss the pros and cons of its identify with C4N2 ice.

  8. Comparison of performance of genetics 4N6 FLOQSwabs™ with or without surfactant to rayon swabs.

    PubMed

    Frippiat, Christophe; Noel, Fabrice

    2016-08-01

    The collection of traces is the first step in the process of forensic genetics analysis. Currently, several different techniques are used (eg. gauze). Nevertheless, swabbing appears to be the most common of these. In a second step, the sampling devices should allow the use of preliminary tests in combination with an immunological confirmatory test (e.g. Hexagon Obti or Hemdirect). Our previous study shows that sampling with Genetics 4N6FLOQswabs™ coated with surfactant reduces by a factor of at least 100 the detection threshold of blood using two immunological tests. The aim of this work was to compare the ability to recover blood trace and the compatibility with immunological confirmatory test of various Genetics 4N6FLOQswabs™ nylon flocked swabs with or without surfactant. The results obtain in this study show that Genetics 4N6FLOQswabs™ not coated with surfactant and Human DNA free FLOQswabs™ were suitable for the used in combination with immunological blood detection tests. Nevertheless, the Genetics 4N6FLOQswabs™ not surfactant coated give a better blood trace recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. GrB TWEAK: A Potential Novel Biologic for NSCLC Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-07-01

    Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 11 . SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release...During year 1, we were able to demonstrate that two different Fn14-targeted proteins that use granzyme B (GrB) as the cell killing agent (TWEAK-GrB...GrB-Fc-IT4) exhibit pro-apoptotic activity when added to numerous Fn14-positive NSCLC cell lines. During year 2, we conducted additional work to

  10. Optimization of the production of thermostable endo-beta-1,4 mannanases from a newly isolated Aspergillus niger gr and Aspergillus flavus gr.

    PubMed

    Kote, Naganagouda V; Patil, Aravind Goud G; Mulimani, V H

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this work was to establish optimal conditions for the maximum production of endo-beta-1,4 mannanases using cheaper sources. Eight thermotolerant fungal strains were isolated from garden soil and compost samples collected in and around the Gulbarga University campus, India. Two strains were selected based on their ability to produce considerable endo-beta-1,4 mannanases activity while growing in liquid medium at 37 degrees C with locust bean gum (LBG) as the only carbon source. They were identified as Aspergillus niger gr and Aspergillus flavus gr. The experiment to evaluate the effect of different carbon sources, nitrogen sources, temperatures and initial pH of the medium on maximal enzyme production was studied. Enzyme productivity was influenced by the type of polysaccharide used as the carbon source. Copra meal defatted with n-hexane showed to be a better substrate than LBG and guar gum for endo-beta-1,4 mannanases production by A. niger gr (40.011 U/ml), but for A. flavus gr (33.532 U/ml), the difference was not significant. Endo-beta-1,4 mannanases produced from A. niger gr and A. flavus gr have high optimum temperature (65 and 60 degrees C) and good thermostability in the absence of any stabilizers (maintaining 50% of residual activity for 8 and 6 h, respectively, at 60 degrees C) and are stable over in a wide pH range. These new strains offer an attractive alternative source of enzymes for the food and feed processing industries.

  11. GR-regulating Serine/Threonine Kinases: New Physiologic and Pathologic Implications.

    PubMed

    Kino, Tomoshige

    2018-04-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones, end products of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, virtually influence all human functions both in a basal homeostatic condition and under stress. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a nuclear hormone receptor superfamily protein, mediates these actions of glucocorticoids by acting as a ligand-dependent transcription factor. Because glucocorticoid actions are diverse and strong, many biological pathways adjust them in local tissues by targeting the GR signaling pathway as part of the regulatory loop coordinating complex human functions. Phosphorylation of GR protein by serine/threonine kinases is one of the major regulatory mechanisms for this communication. In this review, recent progress in research investigating GR phosphorylation by these kinases is discussed, along with the possible physiologic and pathophysiologic implications. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. An Off-Shell Superspace Reformulation of D = 4, N = 4 Super-Yang-Mills Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cederwall, Martin

    2018-01-01

    D=4, N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory has an off-shell superspace formulation in terms of pure spinor superfields, which is directly inherited from the D=10 theory. That superspace, in particular the choice of pure spinor variables, is less suitable for dealing with fields that are inherently 4-dimensional, such as the superfields based on the scalars, which are gauge-covariant, and traces of powers of scalars, which are gauge-invariant. We give a reformulation of D=4, N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory in N=4 superspace, using inherently 4-dimensional pure spinors. All local degrees of freedom reside in a superfield based on the physical scalars. The formalism should be suited for calculations of correlators of traces of scalar superfields.

  13. Adsorption of NH4+-N on Chinese loess: Non-equilibrium and equilibrium investigations.

    PubMed

    Xie, Haijian; Wang, Shaoyi; Qiu, Zhanhong; Jiang, Jianqun

    2017-11-01

    NH 4 + -N is a crucial pollutant in landfill leachate and can be in high concentrations for a long period of time due to anaerobic condition of landfills. The adsorption properties of NH 4 + -N on the Chinese loess were investigated using Batch test. The influences of ammonium concentration, temperature, reaction time, slurry concentration, and pH on the adsorption process are evaluated. Adsorption kinetics and isotherm behaviors were studied by applying different models to the test data to determine the adsorption parameters. The equilibrating duration was shown to be less than 60 min. The data on adsorption kinetics can be well fitted by the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. According to the Langmuir isotherm model, the adsorption capacity of Chinese loess about NH 4 + -N was predicted to be 72.30 mg g -1 . The uptake of NH 4 + -N by Chinese loess was considered to be the type of physical adsorption on the basis of D-R isotherm analysis. The optimal pH and slurry concentration are 4 and 2 g/50 ml, respectively. According to the calculated values of free energy, enthalpy and entropy change, the adsorption process is determined to be exothermic. The disorder of the system appeared lowest at temperature of 308.15 K. The predicted Gibb's free energies also indicate the adsorption process is endothermic and spontaneous. The FTIR spectrum and EDX analysis showed the adsorption process of NH 4 + involves cation exchange and dissolution of calcite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Octopamine neuromodulation regulates Gr32a-linked aggression and courtship pathways in Drosophila males.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Jonathan C; Fernández, María Paz; Yu, Qin; Leary, Greg P; Leung, Adelaine K W; Kavanaugh, Michael P; Kravitz, Edward A; Certel, Sarah J

    2014-05-01

    Chemosensory pheromonal information regulates aggression and reproduction in many species, but how pheromonal signals are transduced to reliably produce behavior is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that the pheromonal signals detected by Gr32a-expressing chemosensory neurons to enhance male aggression are filtered through octopamine (OA, invertebrate equivalent of norepinephrine) neurons. Using behavioral assays, we find males lacking both octopamine and Gr32a gustatory receptors exhibit parallel delays in the onset of aggression and reductions in aggression. Physiological and anatomical experiments identify Gr32a to octopamine neuron synaptic and functional connections in the suboesophageal ganglion. Refining the Gr32a-expressing population indicates that mouth Gr32a neurons promote male aggression and form synaptic contacts with OA neurons. By restricting the monoamine neuron target population, we show that three previously identified OA-Fru(M) neurons involved in behavioral choice are among the Gr32a-OA connections. Our findings demonstrate that octopaminergic neuromodulatory neurons function as early as a second-order step in this chemosensory-driven male social behavior pathway.

  15. Usinage des composites a matrice d'alliage d'aluminium GrA-Ni(Reg)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Songmene, Victor

    2001-07-01

    Aluminium Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) reinforced with ceramic particles have been increasingly developed during the last decade. Ceramic particles used as reinforcement that improve the wear resistance of composites also cause high abrasive wear on cutting tools. This thesis investigates the machinability of graphitic MMC consisting of an aluminium alloy matrix reinforced with both soft nickel-coated graphite particles and hard (SiC or Al2O 3) particles. These composites were developed seven years ago, but the lack of optimised machining data to machine GrA-NIRTM composites cost effectively have been slowing down their use in engineering applications. Turning, milling and drilling tests were performed to evaluate the machinability of different GrA-NIRTM and to establish cutting conditions. It was found that: (1) The machinability of GrA-NiRTM composites depends on the nature and the percentage of the reinforcing particles. GrA-NiRTM containing alumina and graphite are easier to machine than those reinforced with silicon carbide and graphite. (2) Polycrystalline (PCD) and diamond-coated carbide (DCC) are the tool material of choice for machining GrA-NiRTM. DCC tools are most cost effective while PCD tools produce better part finishes. (3) The cutting force required to machine the GrA-NIRTM composites is similar to that used for aluminium alloys such as Al 380.

  16. Glucocorticoid Signaling in Health and Disease: Insights From Tissue-Specific GR Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Whirledge, Shannon; DeFranco, Donald B

    2018-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are adrenally produced hormones critically involved in development, general physiology, and control of inflammation. Since their discovery, glucocorticoids have been widely used to treat a variety of inflammatory conditions. However, high doses or prolonged use leads to a number of side effects throughout the body, which preclude their clinical utility. The primary actions of glucocorticoids are mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a transcription factor that regulates many complex signaling pathways. Although GR is nearly ubiquitous throughout the body, glucocorticoids exhibit cell- and tissue-specific effects. For example, glucocorticoids stimulate glucose production in the liver, reduce glucose uptake in the skeletal muscle, and decrease insulin secretion from the pancreatic β-cells. Mouse models represent an important approach to understanding the dynamic functions of GR signaling in normal physiology, disease, and resistance. In the absence of a viable GR null model, gene-targeting techniques utilizing promoter-driven recombination have provided an opportunity to characterize the tissue-specific actions of GR. The aim of the present review is to describe the organ systems in which GR has been conditionally deleted and summarize the functions ascribed to glucocorticoid action in those tissues. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  17. Electric-field tunable perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in tetragonal Fe4N/BiFeO3 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Li; Wang, Xiaocha; Mi, Wenbo

    2017-07-01

    Electric field control on perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) is indispensable for spintronic devices. Herewith, in tetragonal Fe4N/BiFeO3 heterostructures with the FeAFeB/Fe-O2 interface, PMA in each Fe4N layer, not merely interfacial layers, is modulated by the electric field, which is attributed to the broken spin screening of the electric field in highly spin-polarized Fe4N. Moreover, the periodical dx y+dy z+dz2 and dx y+dx2-y2 orbital-PMA oscillation enhances the interactions between adjacent FeAFeB and (FeB)2N atomic layers, which benefits the electric field modulation on PMA in the whole Fe4N atomic layers. The electric-field control on PMA in Fe4N/BiFeO3 heterostructures is favored by the electric-field-lifted potential in Fe4N.

  18. High spin polarization in epitaxial Fe4N thin films using Cr and Ag as buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongshi; Li, Xuan; Kim, Dongrin; Zhao, Gejian; Zhang, Delin; Diao, Zhitao; Chen, Tingyong; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2018-04-01

    Fe4N thin films with (001) texture were prepared by reactive sputtering on MgO substrates, utilizing either a Cr or Ag buffer layer to facilitate the epitaxial growth. X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry measurements show that the Fe4N thin film grown on the Ag buffer layer is superior to that grown on the Cr buffer layer. The point contact Andreev reflection measurement was then conducted, and the spin polarizations were determined to be 61.1% and 81.3% for Fe4N thin films with Cr and Ag buffer layers, respectively. The 81.3% spin polarization is significantly higher than the ratio reported previously for Fe4N and is comparable with that of state-of-the-art Heusler alloys. This result is in agreement with the theoretical prediction on the discrepancy between the two differently defined spin polarizations for Fe4N. Moreover, our study indicates that an optimized growth process for Fe4N thin films is crucial for achieving a high spin polarization and that true half-metallicity could potentially be realized with Fe4N. The high spin polarization of Fe4N combined with its low fabrication temperature and simple composition makes Fe4N a competitive candidate to be a half-metallic ferromagnet in spintronic devices.

  19. Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy Preserved by Orbital Oscillation in Strained Tetragonal Fe4N/BiFeO3 Bilayers.

    PubMed

    Yin, Li; Wang, Xiaocha; Mi, Wenbo

    2017-05-10

    Orbital performances are important for inducing and manipulating the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in spintronic devices. Herewith, the orbital-mediated PMA in highly spin-polarized Fe 4 N are investigated in strained tetragonal Fe 4 N/BiFeO 3 (001) heterostructures with the Fe A Fe B /Fe-O 2 termination using the first-principles calculations. Different from the d 2 = d xz + d yz + d z 2 favored PMA in previously reported Fe film, for all the Fe 4 N atomic layers at the biaxial strain of S, all d orbitals (i.e., d 1 = d xy + d x 2 -y 2 and d 2 ) make contributions to the PMA at S = 0% and in-plane magnetic anisotropy (IMA) at S = -2 and 2%. Specifically, the d 1 -d 2 orbital oscillation preserves (or favors) the PMA in 0% strained Fe 4 N, where the stronger MAE contribution alternates between d 1 and d 2 in adjacent Fe 4 N layers. However, at S = -2 and 2%, the whole Fe 4 N shows IMA with stable d 1 and d 2 contributions. Moreover, the PMA in the unstrained Fe 4 N can be transformed into the IMA by a strain of -2% with a high spin polarization, where Fe 4 N/BiFeO 3 interfacial effects are crucial. The PMA preserved by the controllably orbital oscillation in highly spin-polarized Fe 4 N paves a way for developing novel spintronic devices.

  20. Laser pyrolysis fabrication of ferromagnetic gamma'-Fe4N and FeC nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimes, C. A.; Qian, D.; Dickey, E. C.; Allen, J. L.; Eklund, P. C.

    2000-01-01

    Using the laser pyrolysis method, single phase gamma'-Fe4N nanoparticles were prepared by a two step method involving preparation of nanoscale iron oxide and a subsequent gas-solid nitridation reaction. Single phase Fe3C and Fe7C3 could be prepared by laser pyrolysis from Fe(CO)5 and 3C2H4 directly. Characterization techniques such as XRD, TEM and vibrating sample magnetometer were used to measure phase structure, particle size and magnetic properties of these nanoscale nitride and carbide particles. c2000 American Journal of Physics.

  1. GR and ER co-activation alters the expression of differentiation genes and associates with improved ER+ breast cancer outcome

    PubMed Central

    West, Diana C.; Pan, Deng; Tonsing-Carter, Eva Y.; Hernandez, Kyle M.; Pierce, Charles F.; Styke, Sarah C.; Bowie, Kathleen R.; Garcia, Tzintzuni I.; Kocherginsky, Masha; Conzen, Suzanne D.

    2016-01-01

    In estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer (BC), high tumor glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression has been associated with a relatively poor outcome. In contrast, using a meta-analysis of several genomic datasets, here we find that tumor GR mRNA expression is associated with improved ER+ relapse-free survival (RFS) (independently of progesterone receptor (PR) expression). To understand the mechanism by which GR expression is associated with a better ER+ BC outcome, the global effect of GR-mediated transcriptional activation in ER+ BC cells was studied. Analysis of GR chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) in ER+/GR+ MCF-7 cells revealed that upon co-activation of GR and ER, GR chromatin association became enriched at proximal promoter regions. Furthermore, following ER activation, increased GR chromatin association was observed at ER, FOXO, and AP1 response elements. In addition, ER associated with GR response elements, suggesting that ER and GR interact in a complex. Co-activation of GR and ER resulted in increased expression (relative to ER activation alone) of transcripts that encode proteins promoting cellular differentiation (e.g. KDM4B, VDR) and inhibiting the Wnt-signaling pathway (IGFBP4). Finally, expression of these individual pro-differentiation genes was associated with significantly improved RFS in ER+ BC patients. Together, these data suggest that the co-expression and subsequent activity of tumor cell GR and ER contribute to the less aggressive natural history of early-stage BC by coordinating the altered expression of genes favoring differentiation. Implications The interaction between estrogen and glucocorticoid receptor activity highlights the importance of context-dependent nuclear receptor function in cancer. PMID:27141101

  2. The nature of the GRE influences the screening for GR-activity enhancing modulators

    PubMed Central

    Timmermans, Steven; Van Looveren, Kelly; De Cauwer, Lode; De Bosscher, Karolien; Libert, Claude

    2017-01-01

    Glucocorticoid resistance (GCR), i.e. unresponsiveness to the beneficial anti-inflammatory activities of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), poses a serious problem in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. One possible solution to try and overcome GCR, is to identify molecules that prevent or revert GCR by hyper-stimulating the biological activity of the GR. To this purpose, we screened for compounds that potentiate the dexamethasone (Dex)-induced transcriptional activity of GR. To monitor GR transcriptional activity, the screen was performed using the lung epithelial cell line A549 in which a glucocorticoid responsive element (GRE) coupled to a luciferase reporter gene construct was stably integrated. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) such as Vorinostat and Belinostat are two broad-spectrum HDACi that strongly increased the Dex-induced luciferase expression in our screening system. In sharp contrast herewith, results from a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of Dex-induced transcripts using RNAseq, revealed that Belinostat impairs the ability of GR to transactivate target genes. The stimulatory effect of Belinostat in the luciferase screen further depends on the nature of the reporter construct. In conclusion, a profound discrepancy was observed between HDACi effects on two different synthetic promoter-luciferase reporter systems. The favorable effect of HDACi on gene expression should be evaluated with care, when considering them as potential therapeutic agents. GEO accession number GSE96649. PMID:28686666

  3. The nature of the GRE influences the screening for GR-activity enhancing modulators.

    PubMed

    Dendoncker, Karen; Timmermans, Steven; Van Looveren, Kelly; De Cauwer, Lode; De Bosscher, Karolien; Libert, Claude

    2017-01-01

    Glucocorticoid resistance (GCR), i.e. unresponsiveness to the beneficial anti-inflammatory activities of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), poses a serious problem in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. One possible solution to try and overcome GCR, is to identify molecules that prevent or revert GCR by hyper-stimulating the biological activity of the GR. To this purpose, we screened for compounds that potentiate the dexamethasone (Dex)-induced transcriptional activity of GR. To monitor GR transcriptional activity, the screen was performed using the lung epithelial cell line A549 in which a glucocorticoid responsive element (GRE) coupled to a luciferase reporter gene construct was stably integrated. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) such as Vorinostat and Belinostat are two broad-spectrum HDACi that strongly increased the Dex-induced luciferase expression in our screening system. In sharp contrast herewith, results from a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of Dex-induced transcripts using RNAseq, revealed that Belinostat impairs the ability of GR to transactivate target genes. The stimulatory effect of Belinostat in the luciferase screen further depends on the nature of the reporter construct. In conclusion, a profound discrepancy was observed between HDACi effects on two different synthetic promoter-luciferase reporter systems. The favorable effect of HDACi on gene expression should be evaluated with care, when considering them as potential therapeutic agents. GEO accession number GSE96649.

  4. Volume-based thermoelasticity: Thermal expansion coefficients and the Grüneisen ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasser, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    In an extension of our current studies of volume-based thermodynamics and thermoelasticity (VBT), we here consider the parameters at ambient temperature of the dimensionless Grűneisen ratio (or Grűneisen parameter), γth, which is a standard descriptor of the thermophysical properties of solids:γth=αKTVm/Cv=αVm/βCvIt has earlier been established that the isothermal volume compressibility, β (which is the reciprocal of the bulk modulus, KT), and the ambient-temperature heat capacity, Cp, are strongly linearly correlated with the molar volume, Vm, among groups of materials with similar structures. Here, we examine possible correlations between the volumetric thermal expansion coefficient, α (the remaining Grűneisen parameter), and molar volume. Using the high-temperature limiting value, a°, as a surrogate for α, we find that α is essentially uncorrelated with volume among a range of materials.As a consequence of the lack of correlation through volume of α with the other Grűneisen parameters, we conclude that the dimensionless Grűneisen ratio at ambient temperatures itself is thereby poorly constant across materials and cannot be reliably used for predictive purposes. It is noted that, for thermodynamic reasons, the values of γth generally range from about 0.5 to 3, clustering around 2.

  5. Constructing the quantum Hall system on the Grassmannians Gr2(CN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballı, F.; Behtash, A.; Kürkçüoğlu, S.; Ünal, G.

    2015-04-01

    In this talk, we give the formulation of Quantum Hall Effects (QHEs) on the complex Grassmann manifolds Gr2(CN). We set up the Landau problem in Gr2(CN), solve it using group theoretical techniques and provide the energy spectrum and the eigenstates in terms of the SU(N) Wigner D-functions for charged particles on Gr2(CN) under the influence of abelian and non-abelian background magnetic monopoles or a combination of these thereof. For the simplest case of Gr2(C4) we provide explicit constructions of the single and many- particle wavefunctions by introducing the Plucker coordinates and show by calculating the two-point correlation function that the lowest Landau level (LLL) at filling factor v = 1 forms an incompressible fluid. Finally, we heuristically identify a relation between the U(1) Hall effect on Gr2(C4) and the Hall effect on the odd sphere S5, which is yet to be investigated in detail, by appealing to the already known analogous relations between the Hall effects on CP3 and CP7 and those on the spheres S4 and S8, respectively. The talk is given by S. Kürkçüoğlu at the Group 30 meeting at Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium in July 2014 and based on the article by F.Ballı, A.Behtash, S. Kürkçüoğlu, G.Ünal [1].

  6. Nuclear Spin Isomers: Engineering a Et4 N[DyPc2 ] Spin Qudit.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Pineda, Eufemio; Damjanović, Marko; Fuhr, Olaf; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Ruben, Mario

    2017-08-07

    Two dysprosium isotopic isomers were synthesized: Et 4 N[ 163 DyPc 2 ] (1) with I=5/2 and Et 4 N[ 164 DyPc 2 ] (2) with I=0 (where Pc=phthalocyaninato). Both isotopologues are single-molecule magnets (SMMs); however, their relaxation times as well as their magnetic hystereses differ considerably. Quantum tunneling of the magnetization (QTM) at the energy level crossings is found for both systems via ac-susceptibility and μ-SQUID measurements. μ-SQUID studies of 1 (I=5/2) reveal several nuclear-spin-driven QTM events; hence determination of the hyperfine coupling and the nuclear quadrupole splitting is possible. Compound 2 (I=0) shows only strongly reduced QTM at zero magnetic field. 1 (I=5/2) could be used as a multilevel nuclear spin qubit, namely qudit (d=6), for quantum information processing (QIP) schemes and provides an example of novel coordination-chemistry-discriminating nuclear spin isotopes. Our results show that the nuclear spin of the lanthanide must be included in the design principles of molecular qubits and SMMs. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Multi-band photometric study of the short-period eclipsing binary GR Boo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Daimei; Zhang, Liyun; Han, Xianming L.; Lu, Hongpeng

    2017-05-01

    We present BVRI light curves with complete phase coverage for the short-period (p = 0.377day) eclipsing binary star GR Boo. We carried out the observations using the SARA 90 cm telescope located at Kitt Peak National Observatory. We obtained six new light curve minimum times. By fitting all of the available O-C minimum times, we obtained an updated ephemeris that shows the orbital period of GR Boo is decreasing at a rate of P˙ = - 2.36 ×10-7 days/year. This decrease in its period can be explained by either mass transfer from the more massive component to the less massive one, or angular momentum exchange due to magnetic activities. We also obtained a set of revised orbital parameters using the Wilson & Devinney program. And finally, we concluded that GR Boo is a contact binary with a dark spot.

  8. Reanalysis of the orbital period variations of two DLMR overcontact binaries: FG Hya and GR Vir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu-Dong; Yu, Yun-Xia; Xiang, Fu-Yuan; Hu, Ke

    2017-12-01

    We investigate orbital period changes of two deep, low mass ratio (DLMR) overcontact W UMa-type binaries, FG Hya and GR Vir. It is found that the orbital period of FG Hya shows a cyclic change with a period of {P}{mod}=54.44 {yr}. The cyclic oscillation may be due to a third body in an eccentric orbit, while the orbital period of GR Vir shows a periodic variation with a period of {P}{mod}=28.56 {yr} and an amplitude of A = 0.0352 d. The periodic variation of GR Vir can be interpreted as a result of either the light-time effect of an unseen third body or the magnetic activity cycle.

  9. Grüneisen parameter studies on heavy fermion quantum criticality.

    PubMed

    Gegenwart, Philipp

    2016-11-01

    The Grüneisen parameter, experimentally determined from the ratio of thermal expansion to specific heat, quantifies the pressure dependence of characteristic energy scales of matter. It is highly enhanced for Kondo lattice systems, whose properties are strongly dependent on the pressure sensitive antiferromagnetic exchange interaction between f- and conduction electrons. In this review, we focus on the divergence of the Grüneisen parameter and its magnetic analogue, the adiabatic magnetocaloric effect, for heavy-fermion metals near quantum critical points. We compare experimental results with current theoretical models, including the effect of strong geometrical frustration. We also discuss the possibility of using materials with the divergent magnetic Grüneisen parameter for adiabatic demagnetization cooling to very low temperatures.

  10. Converging shock flows for a Mie-Grüneisen equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, Scott D.; Schmidt, Emma M.; Boyd, Zachary M.; Lilieholm, Jennifer F.; Baty, Roy S.

    2018-04-01

    Previous work has shown that the one-dimensional (1D) inviscid compressible flow (Euler) equations admit a wide variety of scale-invariant solutions (including the famous Noh, Sedov, and Guderley shock solutions) when the included equation of state (EOS) closure model assumes a certain scale-invariant form. However, this scale-invariant EOS class does not include even simple models used for shock compression of crystalline solids, including many broadly applicable representations of Mie-Grüneisen EOS. Intuitively, this incompatibility naturally arises from the presence of multiple dimensional scales in the Mie-Grüneisen EOS, which are otherwise absent from scale-invariant models that feature only dimensionless parameters (such as the adiabatic index in the ideal gas EOS). The current work extends previous efforts intended to rectify this inconsistency, by using a scale-invariant EOS model to approximate a Mie-Grüneisen EOS form. To this end, the adiabatic bulk modulus for the Mie-Grüneisen EOS is constructed, and its key features are used to motivate the selection of a scale-invariant approximation form. The remaining surrogate model parameters are selected through enforcement of the Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions for an infinitely strong shock in a Mie-Grüneisen material. Finally, the approximate EOS is used in conjunction with the 1D inviscid Euler equations to calculate a semi-analytical Guderley-like imploding shock solution in a metal sphere and to determine if and when the solution may be valid for the underlying Mie-Grüneisen EOS.

  11. Biomass Burning and the 2012 Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, H. D.; Soja, A. J.; Polashenski, C.; Fairlie, T. D.; Winker, D. M.; Trepte, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    This study is the part of the Sunlight Absorption on the Greenland ice sheet Experiment (SAGE) project investigating the impact of light absorbing impurities (e.g., aerosols) on the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). Satellite observations, [e.g. Oceansat-2 (OS2) and the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradionmeter (MODIS)] discovered an unusually large melt event in July 2012. NASA sensors showed that nearly 98.6% of the GrIS experienced melting at or near surface [Nghiem et al., 2012]. In this study, we question the extent to which biomass burning derived aerosols enhanced melting across the GrIS. Random points [59 total, 13 coincident with snow pit sites and 46 gridded] are selected across the entire extent of the GrIS from April 1st to August 31st 2012, and then the NASA Langley Trajectory Model (LaTM) is used to simulate the transport of potentially smoke-filled air parcels backwards for 5 days form these points, evaluation the back trajectory for coincidence with active fire detections. The trajectory model is initialized for 24-hour sustained injection from each site, and air parcels are released from the surface to 2 km at 200m intervals. With the trajectory model outputs, we are able to identify trajectories that have coincidences with fires. We focus on events in April through July when the GrIS albedo was dramatically decreased. We also utilize Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) data to verify smoke-aerosol signatures in boreal regions based on the NASA LaTM results. The results of this study will help us better understand the transport of biomass burning plumes and black carbon deposition that could lead to enhanced GrIS melting.

  12. Investigation of static and cyclic bearing failure mechanisms for GR/EP laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, R. W.; Tuttle, M. M.

    1992-01-01

    Static, cyclic load (fatigue), and residual strength testing of graphite-epoxy (GR/EP) and aluminum pin bearing joints was completed to study bearing failure mechanisms. Parameters investigated included static strength, failure mode, fatigue life, hole growth, joint stiffness, and residual strength. Comparative evaluation of these results show that the MIL-HDBK-5 convention for the definition of bearing strength can be used for GR/EP materials while maintaining the same, or improved, level of structural integrity shown for metal joints.

  13. Photophysics of 4-( N, N-dimethylamino)cinnamaldehyde/α-cyclodextrin inclusion complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panja, Subhasis; Chakravorti, Sankar

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the probing of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) cavities with the help of dual emission properties of 4- N, N dimethylamino cinnamaldehyde (DMACA) in aqueous solution. An interesting feature could be observed that due to 1:1 complexation DMACA is encapsulated within α-CD in two distinctly different types of orientation as revealed from the relative positions and the intensity of locally excited state localized within donor and acceptor subunits (LE) and twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) bands. In one situation the dimethylamino group is directed towards the larger rim of the cavity and in other the orientation is just the opposite. The different types of complexes were found to be excited selectively in different wavelength regions.

  14. Entanglement Degradation in the Presence of (4 + n)-DIMENSIONAL Schwarzschild Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Daekil

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we compute the various bipartite quantum correlations in the presence of the (4 + n)-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole. In particular, we focus on the n-dependence of various bosonic bipartite entanglements. For the case between Alice and Rob, where the former is free falling observer and the latter is at the near-horizon region, the quantum correlation is degraded compared to the case in the absence of the black hole. The degradation rate increases with decreasing n. We also compute the physically inaccessible correlations. It is found that there is no creation of quantum correlation between Alice and AntiRob. For the case between Rob and AntiRob the quantum entanglement is created although they are separated in the causally disconnected regions. It is found that contrary to the physically accessible correlation the entanglement between Rob and AntiRob decreases with increasing n.

  15. Nitrogen Incorporation in CH4-N2 Photochemical Aerosol Produced by Far Ultraviolet Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Jose L.; Yung, Yuk L.; Toon, Owen B.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Nitrile incorporation into Titan aerosol accompanying hydrocarbon chemistry is thought to be driven by extreme UV wavelengths (λ<120 nm) or magnetospheric electrons in the outer reaches of the atmosphere. Far UV radiation (120–200 nm), which is transmitted down to the stratosphere of Titan, is expected to affect hydrocarbon chemistry only and not initiate the formation of nitrogenated species. We examined the chemical properties of photochemical aerosol produced at far UV wavelengths, using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), which allows for elemental analysis of particle-phase products. Our results show that aerosol formed from CH4/N2 photochemistry contains a surprising amount of nitrogen, up to 16% by mass, a result of photolysis in the far UV. The proportion of nitrogenated organics to hydrocarbon species is shown to be correlated with that of N2 in the irradiated gas. The aerosol mass greatly decreases when N2 is removed, which indicates that N2 plays a major role in aerosol production. Because direct dissociation of N2 is highly improbable given the immeasurably low cross section at the wavelengths studied, the chemical activation of N2 must occur via another pathway. Any chemical activation of N2 at wavelengths >120 nm is presently unaccounted for in atmospheric photochemical models. We suggest that reaction with CH radicals produced from CH4 photolysis may provide a mechanism for incorporating N into the molecular structure of the aerosol. Further work is needed to understand the chemistry involved, as these processes may have significant implications for how we view prebiotic chemistry on early Earth and similar planets. Key Words: Titan—Photochemical aerosol—CH4-N2 photolysis—Far UV—Nitrogen activation. Astrobiology 12, 315–326. PMID:22519972

  16. Oral 4-(N)-stearoyl gemcitabine nanoparticles inhibit tumor growth in mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Valdes, Solange A.; Chen, Zhe; Lansakara-P, Dharmika S.; Du, Maolin; Shi, Yanchun; Cui, Zhengrong

    2017-01-01

    In spite of recent advances in targeted tumor therapy, systemic chemotherapy with cytotoxic agents remains a vital cancer treatment modality. Gemcitabine is a nucleoside analog commonly used in the treatment of various solid tumors, but an oral gemcitabine dosage form remain unavailable. Previously, we developed the 4-(N)-stearoyl gemcitabine solid lipid nanoparticles (GemC18-SLNs) by incorporating 4-(N)-stearoyl gemcitabine (GemC18), an amide prodrug of gemcitabine, into solid lipid nanoparticles. GemC18-SLNs, when administered intravenously, showed strong antitumor activity against various human and mouse tumors in mouse models. In the present study, we defined the plasma pharmacokinetics of gemcitabine when GemC18-SLNs were given orally to healthy mice and evaluated the antitumor activity of GemC18-SLNs when given orally in mouse models of lung cancer. In mice orally gavaged with GemC18-SLNs, plasma gemcitabine concentration followed an absorption phase and then clearance phase, with a Tmax of ~2 h. The absolute oral bioavailability of gemcitabine in the GemC18-SLNs was ~70% (based on AUC0-24 h values). In mice with pre-established tumors (i.e. mouse TC-1 or LLC lung cancer cells), oral GemC18-SLNs significantly inhibited the tumor growth and increased mouse survival time, as compared to the molar equivalent dose of gemcitabine hydrochloride or GemC18 in vegetable oil or in Tween 20. Immunohistostaining revealed that oral GemC18-SLNs also have significant antiproliferative, antiangiogenic, and proapoptotic activity in LLC tumors. Formulating a lipophilic amide prodrug of gemcitabine into solid lipid nanoparticles may represent a viable approach toward developing a safe and efficacious gemcitabine oral dosage form. PMID:29163795

  17. NRIP enhances HPV gene expression via interaction with either GR or E2

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Szu-Wei; Lu, Pei-Yu; Guo, Jih-Huong

    2012-02-05

    We previously identified a gene, nuclear receptor-interaction protein (NRIP), which functions as a transcription cofactor in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and human papillomavirus E2 (HPV E2)-driven gene expression. Here, we comprehensively evaluated the role of NRIP in HPV-16 gene expression. NRIP acts as a transcription cofactor to enhance GR-regulated HPV-16 gene expression in the presence of hormone. NRIP also can form complex with E2 that caused NRIP-induced HPV gene expression via E2-binding sites in a hormone-independent manner. Furthermore, NRIP can associate with GR and E2 to form tri-protein complex to activate HPV gene expression via GRE, not the E2-binding site, inmore » a hormone-dependent manner. These results indicate that NRIP and GR are viral E2-binding proteins and that NRIP regulates HPV gene expression via GRE and/or E2 binding site in the HPV promoter in a hormone-dependent or independent manner, respectively.« less

  18. Higher curvature gravities, unlike GR, cannot be bootstrapped from their (usual) linearizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deser, S.

    2017-12-01

    We show that higher curvature order gravities, in particular the propagating quadratic curvature models, cannot be derived by self-coupling from their linear, flat space, forms, except through an unphysical version of linearization; only GR can. Separately, we comment on an early version of the self-coupling bootstrap.

  19. The C.A.M.S. 54 G.R. transatlantic seaplane (French)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ide, John Jay

    1928-01-01

    Tested at the end of March, 1928, the C.A.M.S. 54 G.R. was built for the purpose of crossing the Atlantic from Europe by way of the azores. It has a biplane construction with wings mounted above the hull. It is powered by two new series 500 HP. geared Hispano Suiza V type engines.

  20. Key algorithms used in GR02: A computer simulation model for predicting tree and stand growth

    Treesearch

    Garrett A. Hughes; Paul E. Sendak; Paul E. Sendak

    1985-01-01

    GR02 is an individual tree, distance-independent simulation model for predicting tree and stand growth over time. It performs five major functions during each run: (1) updates diameter at breast height, (2) updates total height, (3) estimates mortality, (4) determines regeneration, and (5) updates crown class.

  1. Computing Gröbner and Involutive Bases for Linear Systems of Difference Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanovich, Denis

    2018-02-01

    The computation of involutive bases and Gröbner bases for linear systems of difference equations is solved and its importance for physical and mathematical problems is discussed. The algorithm and issues concerning its implementation in C are presented and calculation times are compared with the competing programs. The paper ends with consideration on the parallel version of this implementation and its scalability.

  2. Exogenous GR24 Alleviates Cadmium Toxicity by Reducing Cadmium Uptake in Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Tai, Zhenglan; Yin, Xinqiang; Fang, Zhigang; Shi, Gaoling; Lou, Laiqing; Cai, Qingsheng

    2017-07-29

    Strigolactones (SLs) are classified into plant hormones, playing a key role as a mediator of plant growth in response to several abiotic stresses, including drought and salinity. However, the role of SLs in cadmium (Cd)-induced stress to plants is still unknown. The physiological responses of switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum ) stressed in 10 μmol L -1 Cd to exogenous synthetic SLs analog, GR24 were studied in hydroponics. The Cd stress significantly caused the adverse effects on plant growth and root morphology, inhibited photosynthesis, but boosted lipid peroxidation of Switchgrass seedlings. After treatment of 1 μmol L -1 GR24, the above adverse effects caused by Cd stress were significantly alleviated, mainly reflects in improvement of shoot biomass, relative water content, root development, chlorophyll contents, activities of typical antioxidant enzymes, nutrient uptake. The reason for exogenous GR24 alleviating cadmium toxicity might be owing to that exogenous GR24 promoted the content of endogenous SLs, increased some essential element Fe (iron), Zn (zinc), Mn (manganese) and Cu (copper) uptake and reduced cadmium uptake, accumulation and partition in shoot of switchgrass seedlings.

  3. Grímsvötn Volcano Injects Ash into the Stratosphere

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-24

    NASA Terra spacecraft captured this image of Grímsvötn, the most active of Iceland volcanoes, which began erupting around 5:30 p.m. local time 1730 UTC on Saturday, May 21, 2011, east of the capital city of Reykjavik.

  4. Conservation of Animal Genetic Resources (AnGR): the Next Decade

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    After 20 years, progress has been made in conserving AnGR; but how it will be in ten years? Viewing gene banks and in situ conservation in the context of food security, climate change, and product demand suggest a more efficient use of these practices to support sustainable production. Gene banks sh...

  5. GR-891: a novel 5-fluorouracil acyclonucleoside prodrug for differentiation therapy in rhabdomyosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Marchal, J A; Prados, J; Melguizo, C; Gómez, J A; Campos, J; Gallo, M A; Espinosa, A; Arena, N; Aránega, A

    1999-01-01

    Differentiation therapy provides an alternative treatment of cancer that overcomes the undesirable effects of classical chemotherapy, i.e. cytotoxicity and resistance to drugs. This new approach to cancer therapy focuses on the development of specific agents designed to selectively engage the process of terminal differentiation, leading to the elimination of tumorigenic cells and recovery of normal cell homeostasis. A series of new anti-cancer pyrimidine acyclonucleoside-like compounds were designed and synthesized by structural modifications of 5-fluorouracil, a drug which causes considerable cell toxicity and morbidity, and we evaluated their applicability for differentiation therapy in human rhabdomyosarcoma cells. We tested the pyrimidine derivative GR-891, (RS)-1-{[3-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-1-isopropoxy]propyl}-5-fluorouracil, an active drug which shows low toxicity in vivo and releases acrolein which is an aldehyde with anti-tumour activity. Both GR-891 and 5-fluorouracil caused time- and dose-dependent growth inhibition in vitro; however, GR-891 showed no cytotoxicity at low doses (22.5 μmol l−1 and 45 μmol l−1) and induced terminal myogenic differentiation in RD cells (a rhabdomyosarcoma cell line) treated for 6 days. Changes in morphological features and in protein organization indicated re-entry in the pathway of muscular maturation. Moreover, GR-891 increased adhesion capability mediated by the expression of fibronectin, and did not induce overexpression of P-glycoprotein, the mdr1 gene product, implicated in multidrug resistance. New acyclonucleoside-like compounds such as GR-891 have important potential advantages over 5-fluorouracil because of their lower toxicity and their ability to induce myogenic differentiation in rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Our results suggest that this drug may be useful for differentiation therapy in this type of tumour. 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10070873

  6. Concerted regulation of ISWI by an autoinhibitory domain and the H4 N-terminal tail

    PubMed Central

    Ludwigsen, Johanna; Pfennig, Sabrina; Singh, Ashish K; Schindler, Christina; Harrer, Nadine; Forné, Ignasi; Zacharias, Martin; Mueller-Planitz, Felix

    2017-01-01

    ISWI-family nucleosome remodeling enzymes need the histone H4 N-terminal tail to mobilize nucleosomes. Here we mapped the H4-tail binding pocket of ISWI. Surprisingly the binding site was adjacent to but not overlapping with the docking site of an auto-regulatory motif, AutoN, in the N-terminal region (NTR) of ISWI, indicating that AutoN does not act as a simple pseudosubstrate as suggested previously. Rather, AutoN cooperated with a hitherto uncharacterized motif, termed AcidicN, to confer H4-tail sensitivity and discriminate between DNA and nucleosomes. A third motif in the NTR, ppHSA, was functionally required in vivo and provided structural stability by clamping the NTR to Lobe 2 of the ATPase domain. This configuration is reminiscent of Chd1 even though Chd1 contains an unrelated NTR. Our results shed light on the intricate structural and functional regulation of ISWI by the NTR and uncover surprising parallels with Chd1. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21477.001 PMID:28109157

  7. Structural and biological evaluation of some metal complexes of vanillin-4N-(2-pyridyl) thiosemicarbazone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, T. A.; Abu El-Reash, G. M.; Al-Jahdali, M.; El-Rakhawy, El-Bastawesy R.

    2013-12-01

    The synthesis and characterization of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II) and U(VI)O2 complexes of vanillin-4N-(2-pyridyl) thiosemicarbazone (H2PVT) are reported. Theoretical calculations have been performed to obtain IR spectra of ligand and its complexes using AM1, Zindo/1, MM+ and PM3, methods. The Schiff base and its metal complexes have been screened for antibacterial Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. H2VPT shows no apparent digestion effect on the egg albumin while Mn(II), Hg(II) and Cu(II) complexes exhibited a considerable digestion effect following the order Cu(II) > Mn(II) > Hg(II). Moreover, Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes revealed strong digestion effect. Fe(II), Mn(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II) acted as metal co- SOD enzyme factors, which are located in different compartments of the cell.

  8. Purification and characterization of 4-N-trimethylamino-1-butanol dehydrogenase from Fusarium merismoides var. acetilereum.

    PubMed

    Fujimitsu, Hiroshi; Taniyama, Yuko; Tajima, Sae; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A; Arima, Jiro; Mori, Nobuhiro

    2016-09-01

    From investigation of 60 filamentous fungi, we identified Fusarium merismoides var. acetilereum, which uses 4-N-trimethylamino-1-butanol (TMA-butanol) as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. The fungus produced NAD(+)-dependent TMA-butanol dehydrogenase (DH) when it was cultivated in medium containing TMA-butanol. The enzyme showed molecular mass of 40 kDa by SDS-PAGE and 160 kDa by gel filtration, suggesting that it is a homotetramer. TMA-butanol DH is stable at pH 7.5-9.0. It exhibits moderate stability with respect to temperature (up to 30 °C). Additionally, it has optimum activity at 45 °C and at pH 9.5. The enzyme has broad specificity to various alkyl alcohols and amino alkyl alcohols, and the carbon chains of which are longer than butanol. Moreover, the activity is strongly inhibited by oxidizing agents, carbonyl and thiol modulators, and chelating agents. This report is the first study examining TMA-butanol DH from eukaryotic microbes.

  9. [125I]-GR231118: a high affinity radioligand to investigate neuropeptide Y Y1 and Y4 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Yvan; Quirion, Rémi

    2000-01-01

    GR231118 (also known as 1229U91 and GW1229), a purported Y1 antagonist and Y4 agonist was radiolabelled using the chloramine T method. [125I]-GR231118 binding reached equilibrium within 10 min at room temperature and remained stable for at least 4 h. Saturation binding experiments showed that [125I]-GR231118 binds with very high affinity (Kd of 0.09–0.24 nM) in transfected HEK293 cells with the rat Y1 and Y4 receptor cDNA and in rat brain membrane homogenates. No specific binding sites could be detected in HEK293 cells transfected with the rat Y2 or Y5 receptor cDNA demonstrating the absence of significant affinity of GR231118 for these two receptor classes. Competition binding experiments revealed that specific [125I]-GR231118 binding in rat brain homogenates is most similar to that observed in HEK293 cells transfected with the rat Y1, but not rat Y4, receptor cDNA. Autoradiographic studies demonstrated that [125I]-GR231118 binding sites were fully inhibited by the Y1 antagonist BIBO3304 in most areas of the rat brain. Interestingly, high percentage of [125I]-GR231118/BIBO3304-insensitive binding sites were detected in few areas. These [125I]-GR231118/BIBO3304-insensitive binding sites likely represent labelling to the Y4 receptor subtype. In summary, [125I]-GR231118 is a new radiolabelled probe to investigate the Y1 and Y4 receptors; its major advantage being its high affinity. Using highly selective Y1 antagonists such as BIBO3304 or BIBP3226 it is possible to block the binding of [125I]-GR231118 to the Y1 receptor allowing for the characterization and visualization of the purported Y4 subtype. PMID:10694200

  10. Balloon Angioplasty - The Legacy of Andreas Grüntzig, M.D. (1939-1985).

    PubMed

    Barton, Matthias; Grüntzig, Johannes; Husmann, Marc; Rösch, Josef

    2014-01-01

    In 1974, at the Medical Policlinic of the University of Zürich, German-born physician-scientist Andreas Grüntzig (1939-1985) for the first time applied a balloon-tipped catheter to re-open a severely stenosed femoral artery, a procedure, which he initially called "percutaneous transluminal dilatation". Balloon angioplasty as a therapy of atherosclerotic vascular disease, for which Grüntzig and Charles T. Dotter (1920-1985) received a nomination for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1978, became one of the most successful examples of translational medicine in the twentieth century. Known today as percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in peripheral arteries or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in coronary arteries, balloon angioplasty has become the method of choice to treat patients with acute myocardial infarction or occluded leg arteries. On the occasion of the 40(th) anniversary of balloon angioplasty, we summarize Grüntzig's life and career in Germany, Switzerland, and the United States and also review the developments in vascular medicine from the 1890s to the 1980s, including Dotter's first accidental angioplasty in 1963. The work of pioneers of catheterization, including Pedro L. Fariñas in Cuba, André F. Cournand in France, Werner Forssmann, Werner Porstmann and Eberhard Zeitler in Germany, António Egas Moniz and Reynaldo dos Santos in Portugal, Sven-Ivar Seldinger in Sweden, and Barney Brooks, Thomas J. Fogarty, Melvin P. Judkins, Richard K. Myler, Dickinson W. Richards, and F. Mason Sones in the United States, is discussed. We also present quotes by Grüntzig and excerpts from his unfinished autobiography, statements of Grüntzig's former colleagues and contemporary witnesses, and have included hitherto unpublished historic photographs and links to archive recordings and historic materials. This year, on June 25, 2014, Andreas Grüntzig would have celebrated his 75(th

  11. The last developments of the airGR R-package, an open source software for rainfall-runoff modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirel, Guillaume; Delaigue, Olivier; Coron, Laurent; Perrin, Charles; Andréassian, Vazken

    2017-04-01

    Lumped hydrological models are useful and convenient tools for research, engineering and educational purposes. They propose catchment-scale representations of the precipitation-discharge relationship. Thanks to their limited data requirements, they can be easily implemented and run. With such models, it is possible to simulate a number of hydrological key processes over the catchment with limited structural and parametric complexity, typically evapotranspiration, runoff, underground losses, etc. The Hydrology Group at Irstea (Antony) has been developing a suite of rainfall-runoff models over the past 30 years with the main objectives of designing models as efficient as possible in terms of streamflow simulation, applicable to a wide range of catchments and having low data requirements. This resulted in a suite of models running at different time steps (from hourly to annual) applicable for various issues including water balance estimation, forecasting, simulation of impacts and scenario testing. Recently, Irstea has developed an easy-to-use R-package (R Core Team, 2016), called airGR (Coron et al., 2016, 2017), to make these models widely available. It includes: - the water balance annual GR1A model, - the monthly GR2M model, - three versions of the daily model, namely GR4J, GR5J and GR6J, - the hourly GR4H model, - a degree-day snow model CemaNeige. The airGR package has been designed to facilitate the use by non-expert users and allow the addition of evaluation criteria, models or calibration algorithm selected by the end-user. Each model core is coded in FORTRAN to ensure low computational time. The other package functions (i.e. mainly the calibration algorithm and the efficiency criteria) are coded in R. The package is also used for educational purposes. It allows for convenient implementation of model inter-comparisons and large sample hydrology experiments. The airGR package undergoes continuous developments for improving the efficiency, computational time

  12. Systematic analysis of inelastic α scattering off self-conjugate A =4 n nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, S.; Kawabata, T.; Minomo, K.; Kadoya, T.; Yokota, N.; Akimune, H.; Baba, T.; Fujimura, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Funaki, Y.; Furuno, T.; Hashimoto, T.; Hatanaka, K.; Inaba, K.; Ishii, Y.; Itoh, M.; Iwamoto, C.; Kawase, K.; Maeda, Y.; Matsubara, H.; Matsuda, Y.; Matsuno, H.; Morimoto, T.; Morita, H.; Murata, M.; Nanamura, T.; Ou, I.; Sakaguchi, S.; Sasamoto, Y.; Sawada, R.; Shimizu, Y.; Suda, K.; Tamii, A.; Tameshige, Y.; Tsumura, M.; Uchida, M.; Uesaka, T.; Yoshida, H. P.; Yoshida, S.

    2018-01-01

    We systematically measured the differential cross sections of inelastic α scattering off self-conjugate A =4 n nuclei at two incident energies Eα=130 MeV and 386 MeV at Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University. The measured cross sections were analyzed by the distorted-wave Born-approximation (DWBA) calculation using the single-folding potentials, which are obtained by folding macroscopic transition densities with the phenomenological α N interaction. The DWBA calculation with the density-dependent α N interaction systematically overestimates the cross sections for the Δ L =0 transitions. However, the DWBA calculation using the density-independent α N interaction reasonably well describes all the transitions with Δ L =0 -4. We examined uncertainties in the present DWBA calculation stemming from the macroscopic transition densities, distorting potentials, phenomenological α N interaction, and coupled channel effects in 12C. It was found that the DWBA calculation is not sensitive to details of the transition densities nor the distorting potentials, and the phenomenological density-independent α N interaction gives reasonable results. The coupled-channel effects are negligibly small for the 21+ and 31- states in 12C, but not for the 02+ state. However, the DWBA calculation using the density-independent interaction at Eα=386 MeV is still reasonable even for the 02+ state. We concluded that the macroscopic DWBA calculations using the density-independent interaction are reliably applicable to the analysis of inelastic α scattering at Eα˜100 MeV /u .

  13. Nitrogen Incorporation in CH4-N2 Photochemical Aerosol Produced by Far UV Irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trainer, Melissa G.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Yung, Yuk L.; Toon, Owen B.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrile incorporation into Titan aerosol accompanying hydrocarbon chemistry is thought to be driven by extreme UV wavelengths (lambda < 120 nm) or magnetospheric electrons in the outer reaches of the atmosphere. Far UV radiation (120 - 200 nm), which is transmitted down to the stratosphere of Titan, is expected to affect hydrocarbon chemistry only and not initiate the formation of nitrogenated species. We have examined the chemical properties of photochemical aerosol produced at far UV wavelengths using a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), which allows for elemental analysis of particle-phase products. Our results show that aerosol formed from CH4/N2 photochemistry contains a surprising amount of nitrogen, up to 16% by mass, a result of photolysis in the far UV. The proportion of nitrogenated organics to hydrocarbon species is shown to be correlated with that of N2 in the irradiated gas. The aerosol mass greatly decreases when N2 is removed, indicating that N2 plays a major role in aerosol production. Because direct dissociation of N2 is highly improbable given the immeasurably low cross-section at the wavelengths studied, the chemical activation of N2 must occur via another pathway. Any chemical activation of N2 at wavelengths > 120 nm is presently unaccounted for in atmospheric photochemical models. We suggest that reaction with CH radicals produced from CH4 photolysis may provide a mechanism for incorporating N into the molecular structure of the aerosol. Further work is needed to understand the chemistry involved, as these processes may have significant implications for prebiotic chemistry on the early Earth and similar planets.

  14. 4-n-butylresorcinol, a depigmenting agent used in cosmetics, reacts with tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Jimenez, Antonio; Teruel-Puche, Jose Antonio; Ortiz-Ruiz, Carmen Vanessa; Berna, Jose; Tudela, Jose; Garcia-Canovas, Francisco

    2016-08-01

    4-n-Butylresorcinol (BR) is considered the most potent inhibitor of tyrosinase, which is why it is used in cosmetics as a depigmenting agent. However, this work demonstrates that BR is a substrate of this enzyme. The Em (met-tyrosinase) form is not active on BR, but Eox (oxy-tyrosinase) can act on this molecule, hydroxylating it to o-diphenol. In turn, this is oxidized to an o-quinone, which isomerizes to a red p-quinone. Thus, for tyrosinase to act on this compound, a mechanism to generate Eox in the medium is required, which can be achieved by means of hydrogen peroxide or ascorbic acid. A kinetic analysis of the proposed mechanism allows its kinetic characterization: catalytic constant kcatBR (8.49 ± 0.20 s(-1) ) and Michaelis-constant KMBR (60.26 ± 8.76 μM). These findings are compared with those for other monophenolic substrates of tyrosinase. Studies of BR docking to the Em form of the enzyme show that the hydroxyl group in C-1 position is oriented toward the copper atom A (CuA), as in it is L-tyrosine. As regards Eox , BR is oriented with the carbon in C-6 position ready to be hydroxylated. The reaction of BR originates o-quinones, which isomerize to p-quinones, which in turn, could react with thiol compounds, a finding that could have important implications for pharmacology and the cosmetic industry. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(8):663-672, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  15. Positron annihilation studies of 4-n-butyl-4'-isothiocyanato-1,1'-biphenyl.

    PubMed

    Dryzek, E; Juszyńska, E; Zaleski, R; Jasińska, B; Gorgol, M; Massalska-Arodź, M

    2013-08-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) measurements were performed between 93 and 293 K in order to study the supercooled smectic-E (Sm-E) phase of 4-n-butyl-4'-isothiocyanato-1,1'-biphenyl (4TCB), the ordered molecular crystal of 4TCB, and the phase transition between the Sm-E phase and the ordered molecular crystal of 4TCB. The phase transition was well reflected in the abrupt increase of the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime and intensity. The value of the o-Ps lifetime in the Sm-E liquid crystalline phase of 4TCB, i.e., 2.21 ns at room temperature, was explained by the formation of bubbles induced by Ps atoms, which are created due to a liquidlike state of the butyl chains of 4TCB molecules in the Sm-E phase. The temperature dependence of the o-Ps intensity for the supercooled Sm-E phase can be explained by thermal generation of sites where bubbles are formed; an activation energy equal to 0.30±0.02 eV was estimated. This value was compared with the activation energies of molecular motions. The o-Ps lifetime in the ordered molecular crystal was interpreted as originating from the annihilation of o-Ps confined in molecular vacancy-type imperfections in the crystal lattice. The value of the o-Ps pickoff annihilation between 1.8 and 1.9 ns is in accordance with the size of the molecular vacancy for the 4TCB crystal lattice. Its intensity is lower than 5%. The isothermal crystallization of the 4TCB Sm-E phase was observed by PALS. The low-dimensional crystal growth was concluded from the Avrami equation fitted to the time dependence of the o-Ps intensity, which resulted in an Avrami exponent equal to 1.73.

  16. [Non-nitrification pathway for NH4+ -N removal in pilot-scale drinking water biological processes].

    PubMed

    Yu, Xin; Ye, Lin; Li, Xu-dong; Zhang, Xiao-jian; Shi, Xu; Liu, Bo; Li, Rui-hua

    2008-04-01

    The non-nitrification pathway for NH4+ -N removal in pilot-scale drinking water biological treatment processes and its possible mechanism were investigated through calculating N and DO stoichiometric balance. With more than 2 mg/L NH4+ -N in the influent, for the fluidized bed bioreactor (FBBR), the total of NH4+ -N, NO2(-) -N, NO3(-) -N in the influent was 0.91 mg/L higher than that in the effluent, and for the biofilter, its DO consumption was 2.90 mg/L less than the stoichiometric amount. The results suggested that nitrogen loss occurred in both reactors and a part of NH4+ -N was removed through non-nitrification pathway. Because the utilization of phosphorus and organic matters was independent of nitrogen loss, the assimilation and denitrification could be excluded from the possible mechanisms. Because the very low C/N in the influent and the accumulation of NO2(-) -N in the reactors were similar with the wastewater biological processes, the "autotrophic removal of nitrogen" was regarded as the most probable non-nitrification pathway. In this mechanism, the couple of short-cut nitrification and ANAMMOX (or OLAND) leading to the transformation of NH4+ -N and NO2(-) -N into gaseous N2 was responsible for the nitrogen loss in drinking water biological processes.

  17. The Stat3/GR interaction code: predictive value of direct/indirect DNA recruitment for transcription outcome.

    PubMed

    Langlais, David; Couture, Catherine; Balsalobre, Aurélio; Drouin, Jacques

    2012-07-13

    Transcription factor recruitment to genomic sites of action is primarily due to direct protein:DNA interactions. The subsequent recruitment of coregulatory complexes leads to either transcriptional activation or repression. In contrast to this canonical scheme, some transcription factors, such as the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), behave as transcriptional repressors when recruited to target genes through protein tethering. We have investigated the genome-wide prevalence of tethering between GR and Stat3 and found nonreciprocal interactions, namely that GR tethering to DNA-bound Stat3 results in transcriptional repression, whereas Stat3 tethering to GR results in synergism. Further, other schemes of GR and Stat3 corecruitment to regulatory modules result in transcriptional synergism, including neighboring and composite binding sites. The results indicate extensive transcriptional interactions between Stat3 and GR; further, they provide a genome-wide assessment of transcriptional regulation by tethering and a molecular basis for integration of signals mediated by GR and Stats in health and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Generalized Clifford Algebras as Algebras in Suitable Symmetric Linear Gr-Categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Tao; Huang, Hua-Lin; Yang, Yuping

    2016-01-01

    By viewing Clifford algebras as algebras in some suitable symmetric Gr-categories, Albuquerque and Majid were able to give a new derivation of some well known results about Clifford algebras and to generalize them. Along the same line, Bulacu observed that Clifford algebras are weak Hopf algebras in the aforementioned categories and obtained other interesting properties. The aim of this paper is to study generalized Clifford algebras in a similar manner and extend the results of Albuquerque, Majid and Bulacu to the generalized setting. In particular, by taking full advantage of the gauge transformations in symmetric linear Gr-categories, we derive the decomposition theorem and provide categorical weak Hopf structures for generalized Clifford algebras in a conceptual and simpler manner.

  19. Nonlinear Elastic Effects on the Energy Flux Deviation of Ultrasonic Waves in GR/EP Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.

    1992-01-01

    In isotropic materials, the direction of the energy flux (energy per unit time per unit area) of an ultrasonic plane wave is always along the same direction as the normal to the wave front. In anisotropic materials, however, this is true only along symmetry directions. Along other directions, the energy flux of the wave deviates from the intended direction of propagation. This phenomenon is known as energy flux deviation and is illustrated. The direction of the energy flux is dependent on the elastic coefficients of the material. This effect has been demonstrated in many anisotropic crystalline materials. In transparent quartz crystals, Schlieren photographs have been obtained which allow visualization of the ultrasonic waves and the energy flux deviation. The energy flux deviation in graphite/epoxy (gr/ep) composite materials can be quite large because of their high anisotropy. The flux deviation angle has been calculated for unidirectional gr/ep composites as a function of both fiber orientation and fiber volume content. Experimental measurements have also been made in unidirectional composites. It has been further demonstrated that changes in composite materials which alter the elastic properties such as moisture absorption by the matrix or fiber degradation, can be detected nondestructively by measurements of the energy flux shift. In this research, the effects of nonlinear elasticity on energy flux deviation in unidirectional gr/ep composites were studied. Because of elastic nonlinearity, the angle of the energy flux deviation was shown to be a function of applied stress. This shift in flux deviation was modeled using acoustoelastic theory and the previously measured second and third order elastic stiffness coefficients for T300/5208 gr/ep. Two conditions of applied uniaxial stress were considered. In the first case, the direction of applied uniaxial stress was along the fiber axis (x3) while in the second case it was perpendicular to the fiber axis along the

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: BVRI light curves of GR Boo (Wang+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Han, X. L.; Lu, H.

    2017-11-01

    We observed the eclipsing binary GR Boo on May 12, 22 and 24 in 2015 using the SARA 90-cm telescope located at Kitt Peak National Observatory, Arizona, USA. This telescope was equipped with an ARC CCD camera with a resolution of 2048x2048pixels but used at 2x2 binning, resulting in 1024x1024pixels. We used the Bessel BVRI filters. (1 data file).

  1. Characterization of the theta replication plasmid pGR7 from Acetobacter aceti CCM 3610.

    PubMed

    Grones, Peter; Grones, Jozef

    2012-07-01

    A cryptic plasmid of Acetobacter aceti CCM 3610, designated pGR7, was sequenced and characterized. It is a 2446-bp circular molecule with a G + C content of 30%, which is unusual when compared to the already known plasmids isolated from Acetobacter genera. Sequence analysis of pGR7 revealed three putative open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 displays low similarity with other Acetobacter plasmid replication proteins. The other two ORFs show similarities only to hypothetical proteins and do not encode any important protein. The replication module comprises a DnaA box-like sequence, indirect repeats, a potential prokaryotic promoter and the rep gene. The rep module organization is similar to that found in other theta-replicating plasmids from acetic acid bacteria that stably maintain in both Acetobacter and Escherichia coli, with two repeated sequences containing modules. Nevertheless, the pGR7 plasmid could replicate and be stably maintained only in Acetobacter strains and not in E. coli, another uncommon feature of this plasmid. The Rep protein was cloned into the pET30a + expression vector and purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The helicase activity was determined and the ability of the protein to bind to the plasmid regulation region was confirmed by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The plasmid was stable in the Acetobacter cells after cultivation under nonselective conditions. By real-time polymerase chain reaction, the relative copy number of pGR7 was estimated to be seven copies per host chromosome equivalent. Copyright © 2012 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. No detection of L-band radio emission from SN 2007gr by GMRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Alak K.

    2007-08-01

    Sayan Chakraborti (Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, (TIFR)), Poonam Chandra (Univ Virginia and National Radio Astronomical Observatory, Charlottesville), Nirupam Roy (National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (NCRA-TIFR), Pune, and Alak Ray (TIFR) report on the Target of Opportunity observation of SN 2007gr on 2007 Aug 24 by the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) in the L-band between UT 0200 to 0400.

  3. Optical Observations of the Type Ic Supernova 2007gr in NGC 1058

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Juncheng; Wang, Xiaofeng; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong; Chornock, Ryan; Li, Junzheng; Steele, Thea

    2014-08-01

    We present extensive optical observations of the normal Type Ic supernova (SN) 2007gr, spanning from about one week before maximum light to more than one year thereafter. The optical light and color curves of SN 2007gr are very similar to those of the broad-lined Type Ic SN 2002ap, but the spectra show remarkable differences. The optical spectra of SN 2007gr are characterized by unusually narrow lines, prominent carbon lines, and slow evolution of the line velocity after maximum light. The earliest spectrum (taken at t = -8 days) shows a possible signature of helium (He I λ5876 at a velocity of ~19,000 km s-1). Moreover, the larger intensity ratio of the [O I] λ6300 and λ6364 lines inferred from the early nebular spectra implies a lower opacity of the ejecta shortly after the explosion. These results indicate that SN 2007gr perhaps underwent a less energetic explosion of a smaller-mass Wolf-Rayet star (~8-9 M ⊙) in a binary system, as favored by an analysis of the progenitor environment through pre-explosion and post-explosion Hubble Space Telescope images. In the nebular spectra, asymmetric double-peaked profiles can be seen in the [O I] λ6300 and Mg I] λ4571 lines. We suggest that the two peaks are contributed by the blueshifted and rest-frame components. The similarity in velocity structure and the different evolution of the strength of the two components favor an aspherical explosion with the ejecta distributed in a torus or disk-like geometry, but inside the ejecta the O and Mg have different distributions.

  4. The role of rare-earth dopants in tailoring the magnetism and magnetic anisotropy in Fe4N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zirun; Mi, Wenbo; Bai, Haili

    2018-05-01

    The magnetism and magnetic anisotropy of the rare-earth (RE) atom-substituted Fe4N are investigated by first-principles calculations. It is found that the substitution of one RE atom results in an antiferromagnetic coupling with the Fe atoms. The 4f-3d exchange interaction has an important influence on the density of states of Fe near the Fermi level. PrFe3N and NdFe3N with a tetragonal structure exhibit giant magnetic anisotropy energy larger than 5 meV/atom. The magnetic anisotropy depends on the distribution of partial states of d or f orbital near the Fermi level. As Eu substitutes Fe in Fe4N, the magnetic moment of Eu3FeN even exceeds 23 μB. Our theoretical predictions point out the possibilities of tuning the magnetism and magnetic anisotropy of Fe4N upon RE doping.

  5. Volvulus du grêle sur paquet d’ascaris: à propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Diouf, Cheikh; Kane, Ahmed; Ndoye, Ndeye Aby; Ndour, Oumar; Faye-Fall, Aimé Lakh; Fall, Mbaye; Alumeti, Désiré Munyali; Ngom, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Nous rapportons un cas exceptionnel de volvulus nécrosé de l'intestin grêle dû à des ascaris adultes chez un enfant de 7 ans. A l'admission, l'enfant présentait le tableau d'occlusion intestinale qui évoluait depuis deux jours avec altération de l'état général. La radiographie de l'abdomen sans préparation retrouvait des niveaux hydroaériques de type grêlique et un aspect tigré évoquant le diagnostic d'une occlusion intestinale haute sur masse abdominale. Après la réanimation, le traitement chirurgical consistait en une laparotomie qui avait retrouvé un volvulus nécrosé de l'iléon terminale contenant des ascaris adultes. Une résection du grêle sur environ un mètre emportant le segment nécrosé suivie d'une iléostomie était réalisée. L'évolution a été favorable, l'anastomose iléo-colique fut réalisée quatre semaines plus tard. Au recul de deux ans l'enfant est indemne de tout symptôme. PMID:27795803

  6. A mildly relativistic radio jet from the otherwise normal type Ic supernova 2007gr.

    PubMed

    Paragi, Z; Taylor, G B; Kouveliotou, C; Granot, J; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Bietenholz, M; van der Horst, A J; Pidopryhora, Y; van Langevelde, H J; Garrett, M A; Szomoru, A; Argo, M K; Bourke, S; Paczyński, B

    2010-01-28

    The class of type Ic supernovae have drawn increasing attention since 1998 owing to their sparse association (only four so far) with long duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Although both phenomena originate from the core collapse of a massive star, supernovae emit mostly at optical wavelengths, whereas GRBs emit mostly in soft gamma-rays or hard X-rays. Though the GRB central engine generates ultra-relativistic jets, which beam the early emission into a narrow cone, no relativistic outflows have hitherto been found in type Ib/c supernovae explosions, despite theoretical expectations and searches. Here we report radio (interferometric) observations that reveal a mildly relativistic expansion in a nearby type Ic supernova, SN 2007gr. Using two observational epochs 60 days apart, we detect expansion of the source and establish a conservative lower limit for the average apparent expansion velocity of 0.6c. Independently, a second mildly relativistic supernova has been reported. Contrary to the radio data, optical observations of SN 2007gr indicate a typical type Ic supernova with ejecta velocities approximately 6,000 km s(-1), much lower than in GRB-associated supernovae. We conclude that in SN 2007gr a small fraction of the ejecta produced a low-energy mildly relativistic bipolar radio jet, while the bulk of the ejecta were slower and, as shown by optical spectropolarimetry, mildly aspherical.

  7. The Oxygen and Nitrogen Abundance of Leo A and GR 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Zee, L.; Skillman, E. D.; Haynes, M. P.

    1999-05-01

    Gas phase abundances are one of the best measures of the intrinsic metallicity of low mass galaxies. We recently obtained low resolution long slit optical spectra of several HII regions in Leo A and GR 8 with the Palomar 5m telescope. Previous studies of the resolved stellar population of Leo A indicated that the stars have metallicities approximately 2% of solar (Tolstoy et al. 1998). Preliminary analysis of the HII region spectra, and that of a planetary nebula, indicates that the gas phase oxygen abundance of Leo A is approximately 3% of solar. This confirms the result of Skillman et al. (1989), who also derived an oxygen abundance for Leo A from a planetary nebula. Similarly, for GR 8 we find a mean oxygen abundance of 5% of solar. For all the HII regions, the derived log(N/O) is -1.5 +/- 0.1, as has been found for other low metallicity systems. These new observations of multiple HII regions in Leo A and GR 8 confirm that metals in low mass galaxies are well mixed.

  8. Unified analytic model of the Grüneisen parameter, melting temperature, and shear modulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burakovsky, L.; Preston, D. L.

    2004-12-01

    A unified analytic model of the Grüneisen parameter, melting temperature, and shear modulus is presented. It is based on three essential components. First is a relation between the melting temperature and the shear modulus at melt obtained from the dislocation-mediated melting model, second is a relation between the Grüneisen gamma and the density derivative of the zero-temperature shear modulus, and third is a linear approximation for the temperature dependence of the shear modulus at a given density. We model the density dependence of the Grüneisen parameter as γ (ρ )=1/2+γ 1/ρ 1/3}+γ2 /ρ {q, where γ 1, γ 2, and q>1 are constants. This form accurately represents the experimentally determined low-pressure behavior of gamma, and its high-compression limit follows from a generalization of the Slater, Dugdale-MacDonald, and Vashchenko-Zubarev forms. We calculate melting curves for a number of substances of geophysical and general interest and compare them to available experimental melt data.

  9. Amine templating effect absent in uranyl sulfates synthesized with 1,4-n-butyldiamine

    SciTech Connect

    Jouffret, Laurent J., E-mail: ljouffret@nd.edu; Wylie, Ernest M.; Burns, Peter C.

    2013-01-15

    Two new uranyl sulfates, (C{sub 4}H{sub 14}N{sub 2})[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O)]{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O (NDUS2) and (C{sub 4}H{sub 14}N{sub 2})[(UO{sub 2})(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O (NDUS3), were synthesized and their crystal structures determined. NDUS2 was obtained in highly acidic media heat-treated at 373 K and subsequently maintained at 278 K until crystals formed after two months. NDUS3 results from the degradation of NDUS2 over the course of a few days. NDUS2 and NDUS3 crystallize in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/n, a=10.9075(4) A, b=10.4513(4) A, c=17.7881(7) A, {beta}=97.908(2) Degree-Sign , V=2008.52(13) A{sup 3}, Z=4, at 140 K and a=8.8570(4) A,more » b=7.3299(3) A, c=20.4260(9) A, {beta}=95.140(2) Degree-Sign , V=1320.74(10) A{sup 3}, Z=4, at 140 K, respectively. The compounds contain interlayer 1,4-n-butyldiammonium cations that charge-balance the anionic structural units. - Graphical abstract: Amine templating effect absent in uranyl sulfates synthesized with 1,4-diaminobutane, as shown by the synthesis of two new uranyl sulfates, (C{sub 4}H{sub 14}N{sub 2})[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O)]{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O (NDUS2) and (C{sub 4}H{sub 14}N{sub 2})[(UO{sub 2})(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O (NDUS3). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two layered uranyl sulfates were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amine molecules are located in the interlayers of the compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No templating effect of the amine was observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amine molecules are only charge balancing cations in the structures.« less

  10. Electromagnetic Study of the Grímsvötn Volcanic Geothermal System in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilhjalmsson, A. M.; Arnason, K.; Gudmundsson, M. T.

    2010-12-01

    Deep resistivity surveys have greatly improved the understanding of the inner and deep nature of volcanic high-temperature geothermal systems. In this study the Long Offset Transient Electro-Magnetic (LOTEM) method will be used to map the spatial extend and depth span of resistivity anomalies within the Grímsvötn geothermal system, located in the glacier Vatnajökull, SE Iceland. Electromagnetic methods have until now not been used in Grímsvötn, but the first part of a LOTEM survey was carried out during the summer of 2010 to be continued in the summer of 2011. Resistivity methods have the advantage of being highly sensitive to temperature in comparison with other geophysical methods. The application of such methods offers important new information on the nature of the geothermal system and its relation to volcanic intrusions and magma bodies. Grímsvötn is the most active volcano in Iceland in terms of eruption frequency, with over 60 known eruptions in the last 800 years. The study area is mostly covered with 300 - 600 m thick ice. Using the ice as calorimeter the thermal output of the area has been estimated 2000 - 4000 MW, showing that it is one of the most powerful geothermal areas in the world. This unusual situation, where the resistivity structure can be studied and thermal output calculated, gives a unique opportunity to estimate the total thermal output of other high-temperature systems, by resistivity structure comparison. Another objective of the study is to map the location and extent of magma bodies in the uppermost 3 - 5 km of the crust under the volcano and to assess the thermal release from a pristine geothermal system for comparison with other geothermal systems under full exploitation The data will be interpreted by advanced 3D inversion codes. The resulting 3D resistivity model will be interpreted jointly with other existing geophysical data from Grímsvötn, such as gravity and seismic, to make a conceptual model of the Grímsvötn volcano

  11. Structure, phase transitions, and isotope effects in [(CH3)4N]2PuCl6

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Richard E.

    2015-11-02

    The single crystal X-ray diffraction structure of [(CH3)4N]2PuCl6 is presented for the first time, resolving long standing confusion and speculation regarding the structure of this compound in the literature. A temperature dependent study of this compound shows that the structure of [(CH3)4N]2PuCl6 undergoes no fewer than two phase transitions between 100 and 360 K. The phase of [(CH3)4N]2PuCl6 at room temperature is Fd-3c a = 26.012(3) Å. At 360 K, the structure is in space group Fm-3m with a = 13.088(1) Å. The plutonium octahedra and tetramethylammonium cations undergo a rotative displacement and the degree of rotation varies with temperature,more » giving rise to the phase transition from Fm-3m to Fd-3c as the crystal is cooled. Synthesis and structural studies of the deuterated salt [(CD3)4N]2PuCl6 suggest that there is an isotopic effect associated with this phase transition as revealed by a changing transition temperature in the deuterated versus protonated compound indicating that the donor-acceptor interactions between the tetramethylammonium cations and the hexachloroplutonate anions are driving the phase transformation.« less

  12. tetra neutron system studied by exothermic double-charge exchange reaction 4He(8He, 8Be)4n

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisamori, Keiichi; Sharaq06 Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    A possible existence of the tetra-neutron system as a resonance state is still an open and fascinating question, while theoretical papers using ab-initio calculation suggests that the bound tetra-neutron does not exist. We have performed a missing-mass spectroscopy of the 4n system via the exothermic double-charge exchange reaction 4He(8He,8Be)4n. The experiment was carried out at the RIBF at RIKEN using the SHARAQ spectrometer and the liquid He target system. Since the secondary beam, 8He at 190A MeV, has a large internal energy, it is possible to produce the 4n system in small momentum transfers of less than 20 MeV/c. In the present analysis, a new analytical framework to treat multi-particles under high beam rate condition (2 MHz) was developed for good statistics. At the SHARAQ spectrometer, 8Be can be identified by measuring the invariant mass of the coincident two-alpha particle with a good signal-to-noise ratio. About several tens of candidate events are obtained above the 4n threshold. We will show the preliminary result of missing-msss spectrum and discuss the shape of spectrum.

  13. The non-ligand binding beta-isoform of the human glucocorticoid receptor (hGR beta): tissue levels, mechanism of action, and potential physiologic role.

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, M.; Elliot, S.; Kino, T.; Bamberger, C.; Karl, M.; Webster, E.; Chrousos, G. P.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alternative splicing of the transcripts of the human glucocorticoid receptor gene results in two mutually exclusive products, the classic, ligand-binding glucocorticoid receptor (hGR alpha), and a dominant negative non-ligand-binding isoform, hGR beta. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the existence of and quantified both hGR alpha and hGR beta isoforms in a panel of human tissues, as well as in intact and fractionated HeLa cells, using specific quantitative Western blots and/or immunocytochemistry. We studied the potential interactions of hGR beta with heat shock protein (hsp) 90 and/or hGR alpha using cross-immunoadsorption/precipitation procedures followed by Western blots. RESULTS: For the first time, we demonstrated the natural existence of the hGR beta protein, which was widely expressed in human tissues. The ratio of immunoreactive hGR alpha to hGR beta varied from 0.2 to 1.0 among different tissues, and was approximately 0.2 in HeLa cells. In the latter, both isoforms were distributed in the cytoplasm and nucleus in the absence of the hormonal ligand, and translocated into the nucleus after addition of dexamethasone. The cytosolic and nuclear hGR alpha-to-hGR beta ratio remained the same before and after dexamethasone exposure, suggesting that upon activation the two isoforms translocated into the nucleus in equal proportions. hGR alpha- and hGR beta-specific antibodies cross-adsorbed and precipitated cytosolic and nuclear glucocorticoid hGR alpha and hGR beta, respectively, as well as hsp90, suggesting that hGR alpha and hGR beta are in complex with hsp90 and/or each other. CONCLUSIONS: The hGR beta protein is widely expressed throughout the human body and present mostly in the cytoplasm of human cells, in complex with hsp90 and other proteins. In the presence of glucocorticoid, hGR beta probably heterodimerizes with ligand-bound hGR alpha and translocates into the nucleus to act as a dominant negative inhibitor of the classic receptor. Images

  14. Psychometric evaluation and feasibility of the Greek Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (GR-PSQI) in patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kotronoulas, Grigorios C; Papadopoulou, Constantina N; Papapetrou, Anastasia; Patiraki, Elisabeth

    2011-11-01

    Quality of sleep in patients with cancer is regarded as of utmost importance. The aim of the present study was to assess psychometric properties and feasibility of the Greek version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (GR-PSQI). Following a "forward-backward" procedure, the scale was translated into Greek. The GR-PSQI was administered as a self-report instrument to 209 consecutive patients with cancer during active-phase chemotherapy treatment. For stability analysis purposes, a subgroup of 60 patients completed the GR-PSQI on two occasions, 14-21 days apart. All participants also completed the Insomnia Severity Index, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale-Greek version, a Sleep Quality-Visual Analogue Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Greek version. Validity and reliability analyses were performed for GR-PSQI data. The Chronbach's alpha for the global GR-PSQI score was 0.76. Test-retest reliability analysis for the global GR-PSQI score yielded a high intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.82 (p < 0.001). Exploratory factor analysis generated a two-factor structure for the GR-PSQI, [quality of nocturnal sleep] and [daily disturbances and management of sleep problems]. This construct was further supported by its high correlations with similar content instruments, as well as by the instrument's ability to discriminate well between contrasting groups of patients with different levels of anxiety, depression and performance status. The present findings support the GR-PSQI as a reliable, stable over time and valid sleep quality instrument when administered to patients with cancer during chemotherapy treatment; however, it is suggested that the use of a two-factor scoring method (instead of the traditional unidimensional) could improve its sensitivity in this patient group.

  15. GR 290 (ROMANO’S STAR). II. LIGHT HISTORY AND EVOLUTIONARY STATE

    SciTech Connect

    Polcaro, V. F.; Nesci, R.; Chieffi, A.

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the past light history of the luminous variable star GR 290 (M33/V532, Romano’s Star) in the M33 galaxy, and collected new spectrophotometric observations in order to analyze links between this object, the LBV category, and the Wolf–Rayet stars of the nitrogen sequence. We have built the historical light curve of GR 290 back to 1901, from old observations of the star found in several archival plates of M33. These old recordings together with published and new data on the star allowed us to infer that for at least half a century the star was in a lowmore » luminosity state, with B ≃ 18–19, most likely without brighter luminosity phases. After 1960, five large variability cycles of visual luminosity were recorded. The amplitude of the oscillations was seen increasing toward the 1992–1994 maximum, then decreasing during the last maxima. The recent light curve indicates that the photometric variations have been quite similar in all the bands and that the B – V color index has been constant within ±0.1{sup m} despite the 1.5{sup m} change of the visual luminosity. The spectrum of GR 290 at the large maximum of 1992–94 was equivalent to late-B-type, while, during 2002–2014, it varied between WN10h-11h near the visual maxima to WN8h-9h at the luminosity minima. We have detected, during this same period, a clear anti-correlation between the visual luminosity, the strength of the He ii 4686 Å emission line, the strength of the 4600–4700 Å lines’ blend, and the spectral type. From a model analysis of the spectra collected during the whole 2002–2014 period, we find that the Rosseland radius R {sub 2/3}, changed between the minimum and maximum luminosity phases by a factor of three while T {sub eff} varied between about 33,000 and 23,000 K. We confirm that the bolometric luminosity of the star has not been constant, but has increased by a factor of ∼1.5 between minimum and maximum luminosity, in phase with the apparent

  16. GR 290 (Romano’s Star). II. Light History and Evolutionary State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polcaro, V. F.; Maryeva, O.; Nesci, R.; Calabresi, M.; Chieffi, A.; Galleti, S.; Gualandi, R.; Haver, R.; Mills, O. F.; Osborn, W. H.; Pasquali, A.; Rossi, C.; Vasilyeva, T.; Viotti, R. F.

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the past light history of the luminous variable star GR 290 (M33/V532, Romano’s Star) in the M33 galaxy, and collected new spectrophotometric observations in order to analyze links between this object, the LBV category, and the Wolf-Rayet stars of the nitrogen sequence. We have built the historical light curve of GR 290 back to 1901, from old observations of the star found in several archival plates of M33. These old recordings together with published and new data on the star allowed us to infer that for at least half a century the star was in a low luminosity state, with B ≃ 18-19, most likely without brighter luminosity phases. After 1960, five large variability cycles of visual luminosity were recorded. The amplitude of the oscillations was seen increasing toward the 1992-1994 maximum, then decreasing during the last maxima. The recent light curve indicates that the photometric variations have been quite similar in all the bands and that the B - V color index has been constant within ±0.1m despite the 1.5m change of the visual luminosity. The spectrum of GR 290 at the large maximum of 1992-94 was equivalent to late-B-type, while, during 2002-2014, it varied between WN10h-11h near the visual maxima to WN8h-9h at the luminosity minima. We have detected, during this same period, a clear anti-correlation between the visual luminosity, the strength of the He II 4686 Å emission line, the strength of the 4600-4700 Å lines’ blend, and the spectral type. From a model analysis of the spectra collected during the whole 2002-2014 period, we find that the Rosseland radius R2/3, changed between the minimum and maximum luminosity phases by a factor of three while Teff varied between about 33,000 and 23,000 K. We confirm that the bolometric luminosity of the star has not been constant, but has increased by a factor of ˜1.5 between minimum and maximum luminosity, in phase with the apparent luminosity variations. Presently, GR 290 falls in the H

  17. gr-MRI: A software package for magnetic resonance imaging using software defined radios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasselwander, Christopher J.; Cao, Zhipeng; Grissom, William A.

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this work is to develop software that enables the rapid implementation of custom MRI spectrometers using commercially-available software defined radios (SDRs). The developed gr-MRI software package comprises a set of Python scripts, flowgraphs, and signal generation and recording blocks for GNU Radio, an open-source SDR software package that is widely used in communications research. gr-MRI implements basic event sequencing functionality, and tools for system calibrations, multi-radio synchronization, and MR signal processing and image reconstruction. It includes four pulse sequences: a single-pulse sequence to record free induction signals, a gradient-recalled echo imaging sequence, a spin echo imaging sequence, and an inversion recovery spin echo imaging sequence. The sequences were used to perform phantom imaging scans with a 0.5 Tesla tabletop MRI scanner and two commercially-available SDRs. One SDR was used for RF excitation and reception, and the other for gradient pulse generation. The total SDR hardware cost was approximately 2000. The frequency of radio desynchronization events and the frequency with which the software recovered from those events was also measured, and the SDR's ability to generate frequency-swept RF waveforms was validated and compared to the scanner's commercial spectrometer. The spin echo images geometrically matched those acquired using the commercial spectrometer, with no unexpected distortions. Desynchronization events were more likely to occur at the very beginning of an imaging scan, but were nearly eliminated if the user invoked the sequence for a short period before beginning data recording. The SDR produced a 500 kHz bandwidth frequency-swept pulse with high fidelity, while the commercial spectrometer produced a waveform with large frequency spike errors. In conclusion, the developed gr-MRI software can be used to develop high-fidelity, low-cost custom MRI spectrometers using commercially-available SDRs.

  18. Role for Gr-1+ Cells in the Control of High-Dose Mycobacterium bovis Recombinant BCG

    PubMed Central

    Letvin, Norman L.

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is an attractive target for development as a live vaccine vector delivering transgenic antigens from HIV and other pathogens. Most studies aimed at defining the clearance of BCG have been performed at doses between 102 and 104 CFU. Interestingly, however, recombinant BCG (rBCG) administered at doses of >106 CFU effectively generates antigen-specific T-cell responses and primes for heterologous boost responses. Thus, defining clearance at high doses might aid in the optimization of rBCG as a vector. In this study, we used bioluminescence imaging to examine the kinetics of rBCG transgene expression and clearance in mice immunized with 5 × 107 CFU rBCG expressing luciferase. Similar to studies using low-dose rBCG, our results demonstrate that the adaptive immune response is necessary for long-term control of rBCG beginning 9 days after immunizing mice. However, in contrast to these reports, we observed that the majority of mycobacterial antigen was eliminated prior to day 9. By examining knockout and antibody-mediated depletion mouse models, we demonstrate that the rapid clearance of rBCG occurs in the first 24 h and is mediated by Gr-1+ cells. As Gr-1+ granulocytes have been described as having no impact on BCG clearance at low doses, our results reveal an unappreciated role for Gr-1+ neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes in the clearance of high-dose rBCG. This work demonstrates the potential of applying bioluminescence imaging to rBCG in order to gain an understanding of the immune response and increase the efficacy of rBCG as a vaccine vector. PMID:24920602

  19. gr-MRI: A software package for magnetic resonance imaging using software defined radios.

    PubMed

    Hasselwander, Christopher J; Cao, Zhipeng; Grissom, William A

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this work is to develop software that enables the rapid implementation of custom MRI spectrometers using commercially-available software defined radios (SDRs). The developed gr-MRI software package comprises a set of Python scripts, flowgraphs, and signal generation and recording blocks for GNU Radio, an open-source SDR software package that is widely used in communications research. gr-MRI implements basic event sequencing functionality, and tools for system calibrations, multi-radio synchronization, and MR signal processing and image reconstruction. It includes four pulse sequences: a single-pulse sequence to record free induction signals, a gradient-recalled echo imaging sequence, a spin echo imaging sequence, and an inversion recovery spin echo imaging sequence. The sequences were used to perform phantom imaging scans with a 0.5Tesla tabletop MRI scanner and two commercially-available SDRs. One SDR was used for RF excitation and reception, and the other for gradient pulse generation. The total SDR hardware cost was approximately $2000. The frequency of radio desynchronization events and the frequency with which the software recovered from those events was also measured, and the SDR's ability to generate frequency-swept RF waveforms was validated and compared to the scanner's commercial spectrometer. The spin echo images geometrically matched those acquired using the commercial spectrometer, with no unexpected distortions. Desynchronization events were more likely to occur at the very beginning of an imaging scan, but were nearly eliminated if the user invoked the sequence for a short period before beginning data recording. The SDR produced a 500kHz bandwidth frequency-swept pulse with high fidelity, while the commercial spectrometer produced a waveform with large frequency spike errors. In conclusion, the developed gr-MRI software can be used to develop high-fidelity, low-cost custom MRI spectrometers using commercially-available SDRs. Copyright

  20. Grüneisen parameter of hcp-Fe to 171 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Caitlin A.; Jackson, Jennifer M.; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Chen, Bin

    2011-12-01

    We measured the phonon density of states (DOS) of hexagonal close-packed iron ($\\varepsilon$-Fe) with high statistical quality using nuclear resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and in situ X-ray diffraction experiments between pressures of 30 GPa and 171 GPa and at 300 K, with a neon pressure medium up to 69 GPa. The shape of the phonon DOS remained similar at all compression points, while the maximum (cutoff) energy increased regularly with decreasing volume. As a result, we present a generalized scaling law to describe the volume dependence of $\\varepsilon$-Fe's total phonon DOS which, in turn, is directly related to the ambient temperature vibrational Grüneisen parameter (γvib). Fitting our individual γvib data points with γvib = γvib,0(V/V0)q, a common parameterization, we found an ambient pressure γvib,0 = 2.0 ± 0.1 for the range q = 0.8 to 1.2. We also determined the Debye sound velocity (vD) from the low-energy region of the phonon DOS and our in situ measured volumes, and used the volume dependence of vD to determine the commonly discussed Debye Grüneisen parameter (γD). Comparing our γvib(V) and γD(V), we found γvib to be ∼10% larger than γD at any given volume. Finally, applying our γvib(V) to a Mie-Grüneisen type relationship and an approximate form of the empirical Lindemann melting criterion, we predict the vibrational thermal pressure and estimate the high-pressure melting behavior of $\\varepsilon$-Fe at Earth's core pressures.

  1. A high mass progenitor for the Type Ic Supernova 2007gr inferred from its environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maund, Justyn R.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2016-03-01

    We present an analysis of late-time Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) and Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) observations of the site of the Type Ic supernova (SN) 2007gr in NGC 1058. The SN is barely recovered in the late-time WFPC2 observations, while a possible detection in the later WFC3 data is debatable. These observations were used to conduct a multiwavelength study of the surrounding stellar population. We fit spatial profiles to a nearby bright source that was previously proposed to be a host cluster. We find that, rather than being an extended cluster, it is consistent with a single point-like object. Fitting stellar models to the observed spectral energy distribution of this source, we conclude it is A1-A3 Yellow Supergiant, possibly corresponding to a star with MZAMS = 40 M⊙. SN 2007gr is situated in a massive star association, with diameter of ≈300 pc. We present a Bayesian scheme to determine the properties of the surrounding massive star population, in conjunction with the Padova isochrones. We find that the stellar population, as observed in either the WFC3 and WFPC2 observations, can be well fit by two age distributions with mean ages: ˜6.3 Myr and ˜50 Myr. The stellar population is clearly dominated by the younger age solution (by factors of 3.5 and 5.7 from the WFPC2 and WFC3 observations, respectively), which corresponds to the lifetime of a star with MZAMS ˜ 30 M⊙. This is strong evidence in favour of the hypothesis that SN 2007gr arose from a massive progenitor star, possibly capable of becoming a Wolf-Rayet star.

  2. May the use of different background strains 'strain' the stress-related phenotype of GR+/- mice?

    PubMed

    Vogt, Miriam A; Pfeiffer, Natascha; Le Guisquet, Anne Marie; Brandwein, Christiane; Brizard, Bruno; Gass, Peter; Belzung, Catherine; Chourbaji, Sabine

    2017-09-29

    Genetically altered mice are available on different background strains. While respective backcrosses are often performed for pragmatic reasons, e.g. references, comparability, or existing protocols, the interaction between the mutations per se and the background strain often remains a neglected factor. The heterozygous mutation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (GR) represents a well-examined model for depressive-like behavior in mice. To address the question in how far a robust depressive-like phenotype on a distinct background strain may allow a generalized conclusion, we analyzed respective phenotypes in two commonly used inbred strains: i.) C57BL/6N and ii.) BALB/c. Beside the use of different genetic models, we also extended our approach by applying two alternative paradigms to induce a depressive-like phenotype. Our study therefore comprised the model of 'unpredictable chronic mild stress' (UCMS) for four weeks and 'learned helplessness' (LH), which were used to study the role of GR, a key player in the development of depression. In the course of the experiment two cohorts of male GR +/- mice on either C57BL/6N or BALB/c background strain underwent a behavioral test battery to assess basal and depressive-like features. While both stress paradigms were functional in inducing depressive-like changes, the results were strictly strain-dependent. The genetic consequences became even more obvious under non-stress conditions with significant effects detected in BALB/c mice, which indicates a different basal stress predisposition due to differences in the genetic background. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of static tensile load on the thermal expansion of Gr/PI composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, G. L.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of static tensile load on the thermal expansion of Gr/PI composite material was measured for seven different laminate configurations. A computer program was developed which implements laminate theory in a piecewise linear fashion to predict the coupled nonlinear thermomechanical behavior. Static tensile load significantly affected the thermal expansion characteristics of the laminates tested. This effect is attributed to a fiber instability micromechanical behavior of the constituent materials. Analytical results correlated reasonably well with free thermal expansion tests (no load applied to the specimen). However, correlation was poor for tests with an applied load.

  4. Validation of the German revised version of the program in palliative care education and practice questionnaire (PCEP-GR).

    PubMed

    Fetz, Katharina; Wenzel-Meyburg, Ursula; Schulz-Quach, Christian

    2017-12-28

    The evaluation of the effectiveness of undergraduate palliative care education (UPCE) programs is an essential foundation to providing high-quality UPCE programs. Therefore, the implementation of valid evaluation tools is indispensable. Until today, there has been no general consensus regarding concrete outcome parameters and their accurate measurement. The Program in Palliative Care Education and Practice Questionnaire (German Revised Version; PCEP-GR) is a promising assessment tool for UPCE. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of PCEP-GR and to demonstrate its feasibility for the evaluation of UPCE programs. The practical feasibility of the PCEP-GR and its acceptance in medical students were investigated in a pilot study with 24 undergraduate medical students at Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf, Germany. Subsequently, the PCEP-GR was surveyed in a representative sample (N = 680) of medical students in order to investigate its psychometric properties. Factorial validity was investigated by means of principal component analysis (PCA). Reliability was examined by means of split-half-reliability analysis and analysis of internal consistency. After taking into consideration the PCA and distribution analysis results, an evaluation instruction for the PCEP-GR was developed. The PCEP-GR proved to be feasible and well-accepted in medical students. PCA revealed a four-factorial solution indicating four PCEP-GR subscales: preparation to provide palliative care, attitudes towards palliative care, self-estimation of competence in communication with dying patients and their relatives and self-estimation of knowledge and skills in palliative care. The PCEP-GR showed good split-half-reliability and acceptable to good internal consistency of subscales. Attitudes towards palliative care slightly missed the criterion of acceptable internal consistency. The evaluation instruction suggests a global PCEP-GR index and four subscales. The

  5. Solid-State Photochemistry as a Formation Mechanism for Titan's Stratospheric C4N2 Ice Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, C. M.; Samuelson, R. E.; Yung, Y. L.; McLain, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    We propose that C4N2 ice clouds observed in Titan's springtime polar stratosphere arise due to solid-state photochemistry occurring within extant ice cloud particles of HCN-HC3N mixtures. This formation process resembles the halogen-induced ice particle surface chemistry that leads to condensed nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) particles and ozone depletion in Earth's polar stratosphere. As our analysis of the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer 478 per centimeter ice emission feature demonstrates, this solid-state photochemistry mechanism eliminates the need for the relatively high C4N2 saturation vapor pressures required (even though they are not observed) when the ice is produced through the usual procedure of direct condensation from the vapor.

  6. Metallic Co4N Porous Nanowire Arrays Activated by Surface Oxidation as Electrocatalysts for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pengzuo; Xu, Kun; Fang, Zhiwei; Tong, Yun; Wu, Junchi; Lu, Xiuli; Peng, Xu; Ding, Hui; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2015-12-01

    Designing highly efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) plays a key role in the development of various renewable energy storage and conversion devices. In this work, we developed metallic Co4N porous nanowire arrays directly grown on flexible substrates as highly active OER electrocatalysts for the first time. Benefiting from the collaborative advantages of metallic character, 1D porous nanowire arrays, and unique 3D electrode configuration, surface oxidation activated Co4N porous nanowire arrays/carbon cloth achieved an extremely small overpotential of 257 mV at a current density of 10 mA cm(-2), and a low Tafel slope of 44 mV dec(-1) in an alkaline medium, which is the best OER performance among reported Co-based electrocatalysts to date. Moreover, in-depth mechanistic investigations demonstrate the active phases are the metallic Co4N core inside with a thin cobalt oxides/hydroxides shell during the OER process. Our finding introduces a new concept to explore the design of high-efficiency OER electrocatalysts. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Gr-Pt hybrid NP modified GCPE as label and indicator free electrochemical genosensor platform.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Sinan Cemgil; Anik, Ülkü

    2014-11-01

    Glassy carbon paste electrode (GCPE) was modified with graphene platinum hybrid nanoparticle (Gr-Pt hybrid NP) and used as a transducer for label and indicator free electrochemical genosensor. 22 mer oligonucleotides representing Escherichia coli bacteria were used as a model case. As far as it is known, this study is the first study where Gr-Pt hybrid NP was incorporated into GCPE and used for genosensor transducer. The extent of hybridization was determined by using differential pulse voltammetric signals of guanin oxidation. After the optimization of experimental parameters, analytical characteristics were investigated. The linear range was found between 1.5×10(-7) and 2.25×10(-6) M with the equation of y=1.6566x-2.6161 and R(2) of 0.9959. RSD and LOD were calculated as 4.2% (n=6) and 1.12×10(-9) M respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Friction Stir Welding of GR-Cop 84 for Combustion Chamber Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Carolyn K.; Carter, Robert; Ellis, David L.; Goudy, Richard

    2004-01-01

    GRCop-84 is a copper-chromium-niobium alloy developed by the Glenn Research Center for liquid rocket engine combustion chamber liners. GRCop-84 exhibits superior properties over conventional copper-base alloys in a liquid hydrogen-oxygen operating environment. The Next Generation Launch Technology program has funded a program to demonstrate scale-up production capabilities of GR-Cop 84 to levels suitable for main combustion chamber production for the prototype rocket engine. This paper describes a novel method of manufacturing the main combustion chamber liner. The process consists of several steps: extrude the GR-Cop 84 powder into billets, roll the billets into plates, bump form the plates into cylinder halves and friction stir weld the halves into a cylinder. The cylinder is then metal spun formed to near net liner dimensions followed by finish machining to the final configuration. This paper describes the friction stir weld process development including tooling and non-destructive inspection techniques, culminating in the successful production of a liner preform completed through spin forming.

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Seismicity Before Large Taiwanese Earthquakes Using the G-R Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.-C.; Chang, C.-H.; Chen, C.-C.

    2016-01-01

    Seismicity has been identified as an example of a natural, nonlinear system for which the distribution of frequency and event size follow a power law called the "Gutenberg-Richter (G-R) law." The parameters of the G-R law, namely b- and a-values, have been widely used in many studies about seismic hazards, earthquake forecasting models, and other related topics. However, the plausibility of the power law model and applicability of parameters were mainly verified by statistical error σ of the b-value, the effectiveness of which is still doubtful. In this research, we used a newly defined p value developed by Clauset et al. ( Power- Law Distributions in Empirical Data, SIAM Rev. 51, 661-703, 2009) instead of the statistical error σ of the b-value and verified its effectiveness as a plausibility index of the power-law model. Furthermore, we also verified the effectiveness of K-S statistics as a goodness-of-fit test in estimating the crucial parameter M_{c} of the power-law model.

  10. Nonlinear elastic effects on the energy flux deviation of ultrasonic waves in gr/ep composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H.; Kriz, R. D.; Fitting, Dale W.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of nonlinear elasticity on energy flux deviation in undirectional gr/ep composites are examined. The shift in the flux deviation is modeled using acoustoelasticity theory and the second- and third-order elastic stiffness coefficients for T300/5208 gr/ep. Two conditions of applied uniaxial stress are considered. In the first case, the direction of applied uniaxial stress was along the fiber axis (x3), while in the second case it was perpendicular to the fiber axis along the laminate stacking direction (x1). For both conditions, the change in the energy flux deviation angle from the condition of zero applied stress is computed over the range of propagation directions of 0 to 60 deg from the fiber axis at two-degree intervals. A positive flux deviation angle implies the energy deviates away from the fiber direction toward the x1 axis, while a negative deviation means that the energy deviates toward the fibers. Over this range of fiber orientation angles, the energy of the quasi-longitudinal and pure mode transverse waves deviates toward the fibers, while that of the quasi-transverse mode deviates away from the fibers.

  11. GrTEdb: the first web-based database of transposable elements in cotton (Gossypium raimondii).

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhenzhen; Liu, Jing; Ni, Wanchao; Peng, Zhen; Guo, Yue; Ye, Wuwei; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Xianggui; Xu, Peng; Guo, Qi; Shen, Xinlian; Du, Jianchang

    2017-01-01

    Although several diploid and tetroploid Gossypium species genomes have been sequenced, the well annotated web-based transposable elements (TEs) database is lacking. To better understand the roles of TEs in structural, functional and evolutionary dynamics of the cotton genome, a comprehensive, specific, and user-friendly web-based database, Gossypium raimondii transposable elements database (GrTEdb), was constructed. A total of 14 332 TEs were structurally annotated and clearly categorized in G. raimondii genome, and these elements have been classified into seven distinct superfamilies based on the order of protein-coding domains, structures and/or sequence similarity, including 2929 Copia-like elements, 10 368 Gypsy-like elements, 299 L1 , 12 Mutators , 435 PIF-Harbingers , 275 CACTAs and 14 Helitrons . Meanwhile, the web-based sequence browsing, searching, downloading and blast tool were implemented to help users easily and effectively to annotate the TEs or TE fragments in genomic sequences from G. raimondii and other closely related Gossypium species. GrTEdb provides resources and information related with TEs in G. raimondii , and will facilitate gene and genome analyses within or across Gossypium species, evaluating the impact of TEs on their host genomes, and investigating the potential interaction between TEs and protein-coding genes in Gossypium species. http://www.grtedb.org/. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. airGR: a suite of lumped hydrological models in an R-package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coron, Laurent; Perrin, Charles; Delaigue, Olivier; Andréassian, Vazken; Thirel, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    Lumped hydrological models are useful and convenient tools for research, engineering and educational purposes. They propose catchment-scale representations of the precipitation-discharge relationship. Thanks to their limited data requirements, they can be easily implemented and run. With such models, it is possible to simulate a number of hydrological key processes over the catchment with limited structural and parametric complexity, typically evapotranspiration, runoff, underground losses, etc. The Hydrology Group at Irstea (Antony) has been developing a suite of rainfall-runoff models over the past 30 years with the main objectives of designing models as efficient as possible in terms of streamflow simulation, applicable to a wide range of catchments and having low data requirements. This resulted in a suite of models running at different time steps (from hourly to annual) applicable for various issues including water balance estimation, forecasting, simulation of impacts and scenario testing. Recently, Irstea has developed an easy-to-use R-package (R Core Team, 2015), called airGR, to make these models widely available. It includes: - the water balance annual GR1A (Mouehli et al., 2006), - the monthly GR2M (Mouehli, 2003) models, - three versions of the daily model, namely GR4J (Perrin et al., 2003), GR5J (Le Moine, 2008) and GR6J (Pushpalatha et al., 2011), - the hourly GR4H model (Mathevet, 2005), - a degree-day snow module CemaNeige (Valéry et al., 2014). The airGR package has been designed to facilitate the use by non-expert users and allow the addition of evaluation criteria, models or calibration algorithms selected by the end-user. Each model core is coded in FORTRAN to ensure low computational time. The other package functions (i.e. mainly the calibration algorithm and the efficiency criteria) are coded in R. The package is already used for educational purposes. The presentation will detail the main functionalities of the package and present a case

  13. Cold shear modulus and Grüneisen parameter at all densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burakovsky, Leonid; Preston, Dean L.; Wang, Yi

    2004-10-01

    We derive the relation -1/2 d ln G/d ln V-1/6= γ for the volume dependence of the cold ( T=0) shear modulus, G, where γ is the cold Grüneisen parameter given by the formula γ=-1/2 d ln(B-2/3tP)/d ln V-1/6,B and P being the cold bulk modulus and pressure, respectively. For constant t, this formula reduces to the known Slater, Dugdale-MacDonald, and Vashchenko-Zubarev relations for t=0, 1, and 2, respectively. However, as we demonstrate, in the case of a real solid under pressure, t is a variable such that t→5/2 as P→∞. This formula is the basis for the analytic model of the cold Grüneisen parameter, γ(V)=1/2+γV+γV,q>1, developed previously by two of the authors, and the corresponding analytic model of the cold shear modulus. The model of the shear modulus is compared to electronic-structure calculations and experimental data on rare-gas solids, iron, and cobalt, and good agreement is found in all cases.

  14. Genome-Wide Identification of Basic Helix–Loop–Helix and NF-1 Motifs Underlying GR Binding Sites in Male Rat Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Ben P.; Grøntved, Lars; Baek, Songjoon; Guertin, Michael J.; Kershaw, Yvonne M.; Birnie, Matthew T.; Pellatt, Annie; Rivers, Caroline A.; Schiltz, R. Louis; Hager, Gordon L.; Lightman, Stafford L.; Conway-Campbell, Becky L.

    2017-01-01

    Glucocorticoids regulate hippocampal function in part by modulating gene expression through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). GR binding is highly cell type specific, directed to accessible chromatin regions established during tissue differentiation. Distinct classes of GR binding sites are dependent on the activity of additional signal-activated transcription factors that prime chromatin toward context-specific organization. We hypothesized a stress context dependency for GR binding in hippocampus as a consequence of rapidly induced stress mediators priming chromatin accessibility. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing to interrogate GR binding, we found no effect of restraint stress context on GR binding, although analysis of sequences underlying GR binding sites revealed mechanistic detail for hippocampal GR function. We note enrichment of GR binding sites proximal to genes linked to structural and organizational roles, an absence of major tethering partners for GRs, and little or no evidence for binding at negative glucocorticoid response elements. A basic helix–loop–helix motif closely resembling a NeuroD1 or Olig2 binding site was found underlying a subset of GR binding sites and is proposed as a candidate lineage-determining transcription factor directing hippocampal chromatin access for GRs. Of our GR binding sites, 54% additionally contained half-sites for nuclear factor (NF)-1 that we propose as a collaborative or general transcription factor involved in hippocampal GR function. Our findings imply a dose-dependent and context-independent action of GRs in the hippocampus. Alterations in the expression or activity of NF-1/basic helix–loop–helix factors may play an as yet undetermined role in glucocorticoid-related disease susceptibility and outcome by altering GR access to hippocampal binding sites. PMID:28200020

  15. A state-space representation of the GR4J rainfall-runoff model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Léonard; Thirel, Guillaume; Perrin, Charles

    2017-04-01

    In hydrology, the majority of conceptual models are available only in discrete form. This means that the formulations of the models are based on discrete equations instead of continuous ordinary differential equations (ODE) (see Clark and Kavetski, 2010). The time-step is often "hardcoded" in the model formulation. This can represent a problem in particular for creating a time step-variable model. Furthermore, the fluxes in the models are treated sequentially. For example, in the simple GR4J model, the precipitations (if any) are first added to the production store. Then, the updated level is used to compute the percolation from the store. The resulting level obtained at the end of the time step is different to the level which would be obtained if the two operations (i.e. addition of precipitation and percolation) were done simultaneously. Mathematically, this corresponds to an approximation of ODE solution which is called "operator splitting". This allows to solve an equation even if finding an exact solution is impossible but the error produced by this approximation is difficult to determine. For this reason, it is not easy to separate the numerical error of the resolution from the conceptual error. It could represent an important issue to better understand model behaviour and to identify possible improvements. The aim of this presentation is to detail a state-space representation of the simple GR4J model. The state-space representation aims to represent GR4J by an ODE system which provides the internal variables of the model at all times. We will present here the choices made to adapt GR4J to the state-space formulation and to numerically solve this system. Modifications of the model's equations were also made to adapt the model to lower time step in case it would be used for a time step-variable application. The results obtained with this state-space representation of GR4J were very similar to those of the original model in terms of performances and hydrographs

  16. Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR)-Associated SMRT Binding to C/EBPβ TAD and Nrf2 Neh4/5: Role of SMRT Recruited to GR in GSTA2 Gene Repression

    PubMed Central

    Ki, Sung Hwan; Cho, Il Je; Choi, Dal Woong; Kim, Sang Geon

    2005-01-01

    The expression of the glutathione S-transferase gene (GST), whose induction accounts for cancer chemoprevention, is regulated by activation of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). The present study investigated the repressing effects of activating glucocorticoid receptor (GR) on C/EBPβ- and Nrf2-mediated GSTA2 gene induction and the mechanism. Dexamethasone that activates GR inhibited constitutive and oltipraz- or tert-butylhydroquinone (t-BHQ)-inducible GSTA2 expression in H4IIE cells. Also, dexamethasone repressed GSTA2 promoter-luciferase gene activity. Dexamethasone-GR activation did not inhibit nuclear translocation of C/EBPβ or Nrf2 nor their DNA binding activities induced by oltipraz or t-BHQ. Deletion of the glucocorticoid response element (GRE) in the GSTA2 promoter abolished dexamethasone inhibition of the gene induction. Immunoprecipitation-immunoblotting, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and GST pull-down assays revealed that silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT), a corepressor recruited to steroid-GR complex for histone deacetylation, bound to TAD domain of C/EBPβ and Neh4/5 domain of Nrf2. The GSTA2 promoter-luciferase activities were decreased by SMRT but not by truncated SMRTs. The small interference RNA (siRNA) against SMRT abolished SMRT repression of the gene induction by C/EBPβ or Nrf2. The plasmid transfection and siRNA experiments directly evidenced the functional role of SMRT in GSTA2 repression. In conclusion, dexamethasone antagonizes C/EBPβ- and Nrf2-mediated GSTA2 gene induction via ligand-GR binding to the GRE, and steroid-mediated GSTA2 repression involves inactivation of C/EBPβ and Nrf2 by SMRT recruited to steroid-GR complex. PMID:15870285

  17. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-associated SMRT binding to C/EBPbeta TAD and Nrf2 Neh4/5: role of SMRT recruited to GR in GSTA2 gene repression.

    PubMed

    Ki, Sung Hwan; Cho, Il Je; Choi, Dal Woong; Kim, Sang Geon

    2005-05-01

    The expression of the glutathione S-transferase gene (GST), whose induction accounts for cancer chemoprevention, is regulated by activation of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta) and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). The present study investigated the repressing effects of activating glucocorticoid receptor (GR) on C/EBPbeta- and Nrf2-mediated GSTA2 gene induction and the mechanism. Dexamethasone that activates GR inhibited constitutive and oltipraz- or tert-butylhydroquinone (t-BHQ)-inducible GSTA2 expression in H4IIE cells. Also, dexamethasone repressed GSTA2 promoter-luciferase gene activity. Dexamethasone-GR activation did not inhibit nuclear translocation of C/EBPbeta or Nrf2 nor their DNA binding activities induced by oltipraz or t-BHQ. Deletion of the glucocorticoid response element (GRE) in the GSTA2 promoter abolished dexamethasone inhibition of the gene induction. Immunoprecipitation-immunoblotting, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and GST pull-down assays revealed that silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT), a corepressor recruited to steroid-GR complex for histone deacetylation, bound to TAD domain of C/EBPbeta and Neh4/5 domain of Nrf2. The GSTA2 promoter-luciferase activities were decreased by SMRT but not by truncated SMRTs. The small interference RNA (siRNA) against SMRT abolished SMRT repression of the gene induction by C/EBPbeta or Nrf2. The plasmid transfection and siRNA experiments directly evidenced the functional role of SMRT in GSTA2 repression. In conclusion, dexamethasone antagonizes C/EBPbeta- and Nrf2-mediated GSTA2 gene induction via ligand-GR binding to the GRE, and steroid-mediated GSTA2 repression involves inactivation of C/EBPbeta and Nrf2 by SMRT recruited to steroid-GR complex.

  18. Long-term orbital period behaviour of low mass ratio contact binaries GR Vir and FP Boo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćetinkaya, Halil; Soydugan, Faruk

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we investigated orbital period variations of two low mass ratio contact binaries GR Vir and FP Boo based on published minima times. From the O-C analysis, it was found that FP Boo indicates orbital period decrease while the period of GR Vir is increasing. Mass transfer process was used to explain increase and decrease in the orbital periods. In the O-C diagrams of both systems periodic variations also exist. Cyclic changes can be explained as being the result of a light-travel time effect via a third component around the eclipsing binaries. In order to interpret of cyclic orbital period changes for GR Vir, which has late-type components, possible magnetic activity cycles of the components have been also considered.

  19. catena-Poly[[aqua-{4-[N'-(2,4-dioxo-3-pentyl-idene)-hydrazino]-benzoato}-copper(II)]-μ-acetato].

    PubMed

    Hao, Lujiang; Mu, Chunhua; Wang, Ridong

    2008-06-19

    In the title compound, [Cu(CH(3)CO(2))(C(12)H(11)N(2)O(4))(H(2)O)](n), the Cu(II) cation is tetra-coordinated by three carboxyl-ate O atoms from one 4-[N'-(2,4-dioxo-3-pentyl-idene)-hydrazino]-benzoate ligand and two acetate bridges, and by one water mol-ecule. The acetate bridges link adjacent Cu(II) cations, forming a chain. The crystal structure involves O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds.

  20. Ultra-Smooth Nanostructured Diamond Films Deposited from He/H2/CH4/N2 Microwave Plasmas

    PubMed Central

    Konovalov, Valery V.; Melo, Andrew; Catledge, Shane A.; Chowdhury, Shafiul

    2008-01-01

    Addition of He to a high CH4 content (10.7 vol%) H2/CH4/N2 feedgas mixture for microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition produced hard (56–72 GPa), ultra-smooth nanostructured diamond films on Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrates. Upon increase in He content up to 71 vol%, root mean squared (RMS) surface roughness of the film decreased to 9–10 nm and average diamond grain size to 5–6 nm. Our studies show that increased nanocrystallinity with He addition in plasma is related to plasma dilution, enhanced fragmentation of carbon containing species, and enhanced formation of CN radical. PMID:16573106

  1. Electronic structure and pair potential energy analysis of 4-n-methoxy-4′-cyanobiphenyl: A nematic liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Dipendra, E-mail: d-11sharma@rediffmail.com; Tiwari, S. N., E-mail: sntiwari123@rediffmail.com; Dwivedi, M. K., E-mail: dwivedi-ji@gmail.com

    2016-05-06

    Electronic structure properties of 4-n-methoxy-4′-cyanobiphenyl, a pure nematic liquid crystal have been examined using an ab‒initio, HF/6‒31G(d,p) technique with GAMESS program. Conformational and charge distribution analysis have been carried out. MEP, HOMO and LUMO surfaces have been scanned. Ionization potential, electron affinity, electronegativity, global hardness and softness of the liquid crystal molecule have been calculated. Further, stacking, side by side and end to end interactions between a molecular pair have been evaluated. Results have been used to elucidate the physico-chemical and liquid crystalline properties of the system.

  2. Crystal growth and characterization of organic single crystal 1-(4- N, N-Dimethylaminopyridinium) acetic acid bromide monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udaya Lakshmi, K.; Rajesh, N. P.; Ramamurthi, K.; Varghese, Babu

    2009-04-01

    Single crystals of 1-(4- N, N-dimethylaminopyridinium) acetic acid bromide monohydrate were grown by evaporating the solvents from an aqueous solution. The single crystal X-ray structure solution confirmed the monoclinic system of the compound with P2 1/n space group. The functional groups were identified using FTIR and Laser Raman. Proton NMR spectral analyses were carried out to identify the position of protons. Optical properties like second harmonic generation, UV-Vis in transmittance mode and fluorescence were studied. Thermogravimetrical analysis was carried out to determine the thermal properties of the grown crystal.

  3. Two magnetic Grüneisen parameters in the ferromagnetic superconductor UGe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, F.; Meingast, C.; Taufour, V.; Flouquet, J.; v. Löhneysen, H.; Fisher, R. A.; Phillips, N. E.; Huxley, A.; Lashley, J. C.

    2009-11-01

    We report ambient-pressure magnetization, heat capacity, and thermal-expansion measurements of the ferromagnetic superconductor UGe2 in high magnetic fields. An analysis of the magnetic heat capacity derived from both magnetization and specific-heat data shows that UGe2 is well described in the framework of the molecular-field theory. Our heat-capacity and thermal-expansion results reveal a clear crossover regime, a feature that illustrates the proximity to the quantum critical end point of a first-order boundary between two different ferromagnetic phases. Furthermore, we show that the ferromagnetic contribution to these thermodynamic quantities can be split into two terms with distinct Grüneisen parameters.

  4. Goneis.gr: Training Greek Parents on ICT and Safer Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manouselis, Nikos; Riviou, Katerina; Palavitsinis, Nikos; Giannikopoulou, Vasiliki; Tsanakas, Panayotis

    Children's use of the Internet has significantly risen in the last decade. Nevertheless, children spend a lot of time online which makes them susceptible to various threats (such as inappropriate material, offensive language, etc). Parents are the last frontier to this menace but they also need to be educated and trained in order to protect their children. Goneis.gr is an initiative launched by the Greek government that aims to educate parents on safer Internet and the use of parental control software. Parents are also entitled to distance learning courses covering basic computer skills. This paper presents the results of two separate surveys that took place in the last few months (December 2008-January 2009). The first survey targeted the parents that have completed the programme and the second one the educational providers that participate in the programme and offer the training to the beneficiaries.

  5. Chemically induced transition phenomena in polyurethanes as seen from generalized mode Grüneisen parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, U.; Philipp, M.; Bactavatchalou, R.; Sanctuary, R.; Baller, J.; Zielinski, B.; Possart, W.; Alnot, P.; Krüger, J. K.

    2008-05-01

    Many phenomenological properties of reactive polymers like polyurethanes increase or decrease continuously in the course of the curing process before saturating at the end of the chemical reaction. This holds true for instance for the mass density, the refractive index, the chemical turnover and the hypersonic properties. The reason for this monotone behaviour is that the chemical reaction behaves like a continuous succession of irreversible phase transitions. These transitions are superposed by the sol-gel transition and possibly by the chemically induced glass transition, with the drawback that the latter two highlighted transitions are often hidden by the underlying curing process. In this work we propose generalized mode Grüneisen parameters as an alternative probe for elucidating the polymerization process itself and the closely related transition phenomena. As a model system we use polyurethane composed of a diisocyanate and varying ratios of difunctional and trifunctional alcohols.

  6. Chemically induced transition phenomena in polyurethanes as seen from generalized mode Grüneisen parameters.

    PubMed

    Müller, U; Philipp, M; Bactavatchalou, R; Sanctuary, R; Baller, J; Zielinski, B; Possart, W; Alnot, P; Krüger, J K

    2008-05-21

    Many phenomenological properties of reactive polymers like polyurethanes increase or decrease continuously in the course of the curing process before saturating at the end of the chemical reaction. This holds true for instance for the mass density, the refractive index, the chemical turnover and the hypersonic properties. The reason for this monotone behaviour is that the chemical reaction behaves like a continuous succession of irreversible phase transitions. These transitions are superposed by the sol-gel transition and possibly by the chemically induced glass transition, with the drawback that the latter two highlighted transitions are often hidden by the underlying curing process. In this work we propose generalized mode Grüneisen parameters as an alternative probe for elucidating the polymerization process itself and the closely related transition phenomena. As a model system we use polyurethane composed of a diisocyanate and varying ratios of difunctional and trifunctional alcohols.

  7. Reduced expression of 15-hydroxy prostaglandin dehydrogenase in chorion during labor is associated with decreased PRB and increased PRA and GR expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; He, Ping; Sun, Qianqian; Liu, Jie; Gao, Lu; You, Xingji; Gu, Hang; Ni, Xin

    2013-05-01

    The chorion laeve controls the levels of active prostaglandins within the uterus by NAD-dependent 15-hydroxy prostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH). The expression of PGDH in chorion is modulated by glucocorticoids and progesterone. In this study, we investigated glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and progesterone receptor A and B (PRA and PRB) in the regulation of PGDH expression in chorion, and we determined whether reduced PGDH expression in chorion during labor is associated with the changes in GR and PR expression by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Dexamethasone (DEX) inhibited PGDH expression whereas progesterone stimulated PGDH expression in chorionic trophoblasts. DEX suppressed PGDH expression in GR overexpression and PR knockdown cells. The inhibitory effect of DEX did not occur in GR knockdown cells. Progesterone inhibited PGDH in GR overexpression and PR knockdown cells and it stimulated PGDH in PRB overexpression cells whereas it suppressed PGDH in PRA overexpression cells. Knockdown of c-Jun resulted in a loss of progesterone- and DEX-induced effects. PGDH was down-regulated in chorion tissues during labor. PRB was decreased whereas PRA and GR were increased in chorion during labor. Glucocorticoids inhibit PGDH expression via GR in chorionic trophoblasts. Progesterone enhances PGDH expression through PRB, whereas it inhibits PGDH expression via GR and PRA. Decreased PGDH expression is associated with increased GR and PRA, although decreased PRB, in chorion during labor. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Expression of a sugar clade gustatory receptor, BmGr6, in the oral sensory organs, midgut, and central nervous system of larvae of the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Mang, Dingze; Shu, Min; Endo, Haruka; Yoshizawa, Yasutaka; Nagata, Shinji; Kikuta, Shingo; Sato, Ryoichi

    2016-03-01

    Insects taste nonvolatile chemicals through gustatory receptors (Grs) and make choices for feeding, mating, and oviposition. To date, genome projects have identified 69 Gr genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori; however, the expression sites of these Grs remain to be explored. In this study, we used reverse transcription (RT)-PCR to investigate expression of the B. mori Gr-6 (BmGr6) gene, a member of the putative sugar clade gene family in various tissues. BmGr6 is expressed in the midgut, central nervous system (CNS), and oral sensory organs. Moreover, immunohistochemistry using an anti-BmGr6 antiserum demonstrated that BmGr6 is expressed in cells by oral sensory organs, midgut and nervous system. Furthermore, double-immunohistochemistry indicated that BmGr6 is expressed in midgut enteroendocrine cells, also in CNS neurosecretory cells. In particular, a portion of BmGr6-expressing cells, in both midgut and CNS, secretes FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs). These results suggest that BmGr6 functions not only as a taste receptor, but also as a chemical sensor such as for the regulation of gut movement, physiological conditions, and feeding behavior of larvae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. airGR: an R-package suitable for large sample hydrology presenting a suite of lumped hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirel, G.; Delaigue, O.; Coron, L.; Perrin, C.; Andreassian, V.

    2016-12-01

    Lumped hydrological models are useful and convenient tools for research, engineering and educational purposes. They propose catchment-scale representations of the precipitation-discharge relationship. Thanks to their limited data requirements, they can be easily implemented and run. With such models, it is possible to simulate a number of hydrological key processes over the catchment with limited structural and parametric complexity, typically evapotranspiration, runoff, underground losses, etc. The Hydrology Group at Irstea (Antony) has been developing a suite of rainfall-runoff models over the past 30 years with the main objectives of designing models as efficient as possible in terms of streamflow simulation, applicable to a wide range of catchments and having low data requirements. This resulted in a suite of models running at different time steps (from hourly to annual) applicable for various issues including water balance estimation, forecasting, simulation of impacts and scenario testing. Recently, Irstea has developed an easy-to-use R-package (R Core Team, 2015; Coron et al., 2016), called airGR, to make these models widely available. It includes: - the water balance annual GR1A (Mouehli et al., 2006), - the monthly GR2M (Mouehli, 2003) models, - three versions of the daily model, namely GR4J (Perrin et al., 2003), GR5J (Le Moine, 2008) and GR6J (Pushpalatha et al., 2011), - the hourly GR4H model (Mathevet, 2005), - a degree-day snow module CemaNeige (Valéry et al., 2014). The airGR package has been designed to facilitate the use by non-expert users and allow the addition of evaluation criteria, models or calibration algorithm selected by the end-user. Each model core is coded in FORTRAN to ensure low computational time. The other package functions (i.e. mainly the calibration algorithm and the efficiency criteria) are coded in R. The package is already used for educational purposes. It allows for convenient implementation of model inter-comparisons and

  10. Interplay of nuclear receptors (ER, PR, and GR) and their steroid hormones in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Shubha M; Kumar, M Naveen; Kavya, K; Kumar, K M Kiran; Nagesh, Rashmi; Patil, Rajeshwari H; Babu, R L; Ramesh, Govindarajan T; Sharma, S Chidananda

    2016-11-01

    Steroid hormones and their nuclear receptors play a major role in the development and progression of breast cancer. MCF-7 cells are triple-positive breast cancer cells expressing estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). However, interaction and their role in expression pattern of activator protein (AP-1) transcription factors (TFs) are not completely understood. Hence, in our study, MCF-7 cells were used as an in vitro model system to study the interplay between the receptors and hormones. MCF-7 cells were treated with estradiol-17β (E2), progesterone (P4), and dexamethasone (Dex), alone or in combination, to study the proliferation of cells and expression of AP-1 genes. MTT assay results show that E2 or P4 induced the cell proliferation by more than 35 %, and Dex decreased the proliferation by 26 %. E2 and P4 are found to increase ERα by more than twofold and c-Jun, c-Fos, and Fra-1 AP-1 TFs by more than 1.7-fold, while Dex shows opposite effect of E2- or P4-induced effect as well as effect on the expression of nuclear receptors and AP-1 factors. E2 antagonist Fulvestrant (ICI 182,780) found to reduce proliferation and E2-induced expression of AP1-TFs, while P4 or Dex antagonist Mifepristone (RU486) is found to block GR-mediated expression of NRs and AP-1 mRNAs. Results suggest that E2 and P4 act synergistically, and Dex acts as an antagonist of E2 and P4.

  11. Chronic corticosterone administration facilitates aversive memory retrieval and increases GR/NOS immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Santos, Thays B; Céspedes, Isabel C; Viana, Milena B

    2014-07-01

    Glucocorticoids are stress hormones that mediate the organism's reaction to stress. It has been previously proposed that the facilitation of emotional aversive conditioning induced by these hormones may involve nitric oxide-pathways. The purpose of the present study was to address this question. For that, male Wistar rats were surgically implanted with slow-release corticosterone (CORT) pellets (21 days) and tested in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task. Additional groups of animals were also submitted to the same treatment conditions and on the 21st day of treatment assayed for GR (glucocorticoid receptors)-nNOS (neuronal nitric oxide synthase) immunoreactivity (GRi-nNOSi) or measurements of plasma CORT. Results showed that CORT treatment induced facilitation of step-down inhibitory avoidance. This same treatment also significantly increased CORT plasma levels and GRi in the medial, basolateral and basomedial amygdala, in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), in the ventral and dorsal dentate gyrus, in the ventral CA1 region and in the dorsal CA1 and CA3 regions. Furthermore, nNOSi and GRi-nNOSi were significantly increased by CORT treatment in the medial amygdala and basolateral amygdaloid complex, in the PVN, subiculum, in the dorsal CA3 region and in the ventral CA1 and CA3 regions. These results indicate that the facilitation of aversive conditioning induced by CORT involves GR-nNOS pathways activation, what may be of relevance for a better understanding of stress-related psychiatric conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Validation of the Greek Version of the Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale (GR-DMSES).

    PubMed

    Fappa, Evaggelia; Efthymiou, Vasiliki; Landis, George; Rentoumis, Anastasios; Doupis, John

    2016-01-01

    Self-efficacy has been found to have a direct relation with self-care in diabetes. Several tools have been developed and used for evaluating self-efficacy of diabetic patients, the most widely used being the Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale (DMSES). The aim of the present study was to translate, culturally adapt, and validate the Greek DMSES (GR-DMSES) in order for it to be used in the ATTICA pilot study of the SmartCare EU-funded project. Using standard procedures, the original version of DMSES was translated and culturally adapted into Greek. Content validity was assessed by an expert panel with the calculation of a content validity index of the overall scale. Α convenient sample was recruited to complete the questionnaire. Psychometric testing of the produced instrument included internal consistency test (Cronbach's alpha), construct validity (factor analysis), and stability (intraclass correlation coefficient). One hundred and sixteen patients, aged 36-86 years, with type 2 diabetes (T2D) participated in the study. There were no items excluded from the original scale after the content validity procedure. The coefficient Cronbach's alpha for the internal consistency was 0.93 and the intraclass correlation coefficient for the stability with a 5-week time interval was 0.87 (P < 0.001). Factor analysis yielded four factors related to diet, medical therapy, medication and feet check, and physical activity. The findings supported that the GR-DMSES was reliable and valid in measuring self-efficacy related to diabetes self-management, thus providing a quick and easy-to-use tool for health professionals dealing with Greek adults with T2D.

  13. Decrease of NH4+-N by bacterioplankton accelerated the removal of cyanobacterial blooms in aerated aquatic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xi; Xie, Ping; Ma, Zhimei; Wang, Qing; Fan, Huihui; Shen, Hong

    2013-11-01

    We used aerated systems to assess the influence of the bacterioplankton community on cyanobacterial blooms in algae/post-bloom of Lake Taihu, China. Bacterioplankton community diversity was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprinting. Chemical analysis and nitrogen dynamic changes illustrated that NH4+-N was nitrified to NO2--N and NO3--N by bacterioplankton. Finally, NH4+-N was exhausted and NO3--N was denitrified to NO2--N, while the accumulation of NO2--N indicated that bacterioplankton with completely aerobic denitrification ability were lacking in the water samples collected from Lake Taihu. We suggested that adding completely aerobic denitrification bacteria (to denitrify NO2--N to N2) would improve the water quality. PCR-DGGE and sequencing results showed that more than1/3 of the bacterial species were associated with the removal of nitrogen, and Acidovorax temperans was the dominant one. PCR-DGGE, variation of nitrogen, removal efficiencies of chlorophyll-a and canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the bacterioplanktonsignificantly influenced the physiological and biochemical changes of cyanobacteria. Additionally, the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means revealed there was no obvious harm to the microecosystem from aeration. The present study demonstrated that bacterioplankton can play crucial roles in aerated ecosystems, which could control the impact of cyanobacterial blooms in eutrophicated fresh water systems.

  14. Tiny crystalline grain nanocrystal NiCo2O4/N-doped graphene composite for efficient oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Li-li; Zang, Guo-long; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Le-an; Li, Tian; Zhou, Qi-xing

    2017-03-01

    Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) plays an important role in green energy conversion, although catalysts are necessary for overcoming its sluggish kinetic. Herein, a nanocrystal NiCo2O4/N-doped graphene composite material showing high ORR electrocatalytic activity is prepared. The resulting NiCo2O4/N-doped graphene composite (NiCo2O4-NG/C) combines the advantages of both component materials and shows enhanced ORR electrocatalytic activity (i.e., more positive peak potential and half-wave potential compared with NiCo2O4) while having higher diffusion-limited current density values (-5.7 mA cm-2, 1600 rpm), better tolerance to methanol, and improved stability than 20 wt% Pt/C. NiCo2O4 anchored on N-doped graphene are demonstrated to be nanocrystal with tiny crystalline grain (diameter < 5 nm) and result in large surface area, thereby allowing more active sites to be exposed. Moreover, the potential exposure of high-index planes may be also responsible for the observed high activity of these materials.

  15. Altered nicotine reward-associated behavior following α4 nAChR subunit deletion in ventral midbrain

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yijin; Weera, Marcus M.; Berry, Jennifer N.; Arvin, Matthew C.; Zhao, Guiqing; McIntosh, J. Michael; Chester, Julia A.

    2017-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α4 subunits (α4β2* nAChRs) are critical for nicotinic cholinergic transmission and the addictive action of nicotine. To identify specific activities of these receptors in the adult mouse brain, we coupled targeted deletion of α4 nAChR subunits with behavioral and and electrophysiological measures of nicotine sensitivity. A viral-mediated Cre/lox approach allowed us to delete α4 from ventral midbrain (vMB) neurons. We used two behavioral assays commonly used to assess the motivational effects of drugs of abuse: home-cage oral self-administration, and place conditioning. Mice lacking α4 subunits in vMB consumed significantly more nicotine at the highest offered nicotine concentration (200 μg/mL) compared to control mice. Deletion of α4 subunits in vMB blocked nicotine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) without affecting locomotor activity. Acetylcholine-evoked currents as well as nicotine-mediated increases in synaptic potentiation were reduced in mice lacking α4 in vMB. Immunostaining verified that α4 subunits were deleted from both dopamine and non-dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). These results reveal that attenuation of α4* nAChR function in reward-related brain circuitry of adult animals may increase nicotine intake by enhancing the rewarding effects and/or reducing the aversive effects of nicotine. PMID:28759616

  16. Altered nicotine reward-associated behavior following α4 nAChR subunit deletion in ventral midbrain.

    PubMed

    Peng, Can; Engle, Staci E; Yan, Yijin; Weera, Marcus M; Berry, Jennifer N; Arvin, Matthew C; Zhao, Guiqing; McIntosh, J Michael; Chester, Julia A; Drenan, Ryan M

    2017-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α4 subunits (α4β2* nAChRs) are critical for nicotinic cholinergic transmission and the addictive action of nicotine. To identify specific activities of these receptors in the adult mouse brain, we coupled targeted deletion of α4 nAChR subunits with behavioral and and electrophysiological measures of nicotine sensitivity. A viral-mediated Cre/lox approach allowed us to delete α4 from ventral midbrain (vMB) neurons. We used two behavioral assays commonly used to assess the motivational effects of drugs of abuse: home-cage oral self-administration, and place conditioning. Mice lacking α4 subunits in vMB consumed significantly more nicotine at the highest offered nicotine concentration (200 μg/mL) compared to control mice. Deletion of α4 subunits in vMB blocked nicotine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) without affecting locomotor activity. Acetylcholine-evoked currents as well as nicotine-mediated increases in synaptic potentiation were reduced in mice lacking α4 in vMB. Immunostaining verified that α4 subunits were deleted from both dopamine and non-dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). These results reveal that attenuation of α4* nAChR function in reward-related brain circuitry of adult animals may increase nicotine intake by enhancing the rewarding effects and/or reducing the aversive effects of nicotine.

  17. The mitigating effect of calcification-dependent of utilization of inorganic carbon of Chara vulgaris Linn on NH4-N toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heyun; Ni, Leyi; Xie, Ping

    2013-09-01

    Increased ammonium (NH4-N) concentrations in water bodies have been reported to adversely affect the dominant species of submersed vegetation in meso-eutrophic waters worldwide. However calcareous plants were lowly sensitive to NH4-N toxicity. In order to make clear the function of calcification in the tolerance of calcareous plants to NH4-N stress, we studied the effects of increased HCO3(-) and additional NH4-N on calcification and utilization of dissolve inorganic carbon (DIC) in Chara vulgaris Linn in a 7-d sub-acute experiment (light:dark 12:12h) carried out in an open experimental system in lab. Results revealed that calcification was dependent of utilization of dissolve inorganic carbon. Additional HCO3(-) significantly decreased the increase of pH while additional NH4-N did not. And additional HCO3(-) significantly improved calcification while NH4-N did in versus in relation to the variation of DIC concentration. However, addition of both HCO3(-) and NH4-N increased utilization of DIC. This resulted in calcification to utilization of DIC ratio decreased under additional NH4-N condition while increased under additional HCO3(-) conditions in response to the variation of solution pH. In the present study, external HCO3(-) decreased the increase of solution pH by increasing calcification, which correspondingly mitigated the toxic effect of high NH4-N. And we argue that the mitigating effect of increased HCO3(-) on NH4-N toxicity is dependent of plant calcification, and it is a positive feedback mechanism, potentially leading to the dominance of calcareous plants in meso-eutrophic water bodies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bone marrow-derived Gr1+ cells can generate a metastasis-resistant microenvironment via induced secretion of thrombospondin-1

    PubMed Central

    Catena, Raúl; Bhattacharya, Nandita; Rayes, Tina El; Wang, Suming; Choi, Hyejin; Gao, Dingcheng; Ryu, Seongho; Joshi, Natasha; Bielenberg, Diane; Lee, Sharrell B.; Haukaas, Svein A.; Gravdal, Karsten; Halvorsen, Ole J.; Akslen, Lars A.; Watnick, Randolph S.; Mittal, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic tumors have been shown to establish permissive microenvironments for metastases via recruitment of bone marrow (BM)- derived cells. Here, we show that metastasis-incompetent tumors are also capable of generating such microenvironments. However, in these situations the otherwise pro-metastatic Gr1+ myeloid cells create a metastasis-refractory microenvironment via the induction of thrombospondin-1 (Tsp-1) by tumor-secreted prosaposin. (BM)-specific genetic deletion of Tsp-1 abolished the inhibition of metastasis, which was restored by BM transplant from Tsp-1+ donors. We also developed a 5-amino acid peptide from prosaposin as a pharmacological inducer of Tsp-1 in Gr1+ BM cells, which dramatically suppresses metastasis. These results provide mechanistic insights into why certain tumors are deficient in metastatic potential and implicate recruited Gr1+ myeloid cells as the main source of Tsp-1. The results underscore the plasticity of Gr1+ cells, which, depending on the context, promote or inhibit metastasis, and suggest that the peptide could be a potential therapeutic agent against metastatic cancer. PMID:23633432

  19. Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins Modulate the Distribution and Extravasation of Ly6C/Gr1low Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Saja, Maha F.; Baudino, Lucie; Jackson, William D.; Cook, H. Terence; Malik, Talat H.; Fossati-Jimack, Liliane; Ruseva, Marieta; Pickering, Matthew C.; Woollard, Kevin J.; Botto, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Summary Monocytes are heterogeneous effector cells involved in the maintenance and restoration of tissue integrity. However, their response to hyperlipidemia remains poorly understood. Here, we report that in the presence of elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, induced by administration of poloxamer 407, the blood numbers of non-classical Ly6C/Gr1low monocytes drop, while the number of bone marrow progenitors remains similar. We observed an increased crawling and retention of the Gr1low monocytes at the endothelial interface and a marked accumulation of CD68+ macrophages in several organs. Hypertriglyceridemia was accompanied by an increased expression of tissue, and plasma CCL4 and blood Gr1low monocyte depletion involved a pertussis-toxin-sensitive receptor axis. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that a triglyceride-rich environment can alter blood monocyte distribution, promoting the extravasation of Gr1low cells. The behavior of these cells in response to dyslipidemia highlights the significant impact that high levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins may have on innate immune cells. PMID:26344769

  20. Plinian vs. phreatomagmatic eruptions at Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddadi, Baptiste; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Larsen, Guðrún

    2016-04-01

    Grímsvötn is a subglacial central volcano located under the Vatnajökull ice cap, above the assumed centre of the Iceland mantle plume. Historical explosive eruptions are mostly of phreatomagmatic character whereas pure magmatic behaviour may characterize the largest eruptions. What causes this different eruption behaviour is uncertain. Here, we report petrological estimates of crystallization depth and volatile degassing as recorded by sulfur concentrations in melt inclusions (MI) hosted by ferromagnesian minerals and the groundmass glass. Tephra from four eruptions, AD 1823, 1873, 2004 and 2011, were selected. The 2011 and 1873 are the largest known historical eruptions, whereas the 2004 eruption is probably amongst the smallest. The repose time preceding those eruptions is surprisingly similar, or 6 to 7 years, and the major-element compositions are uniform. Plagioclase, clinopyroxene (cpx) and olivine are the three coexisting phases at the liquidus in the quartz-tholeiites of Grímsvötn. The cpx-melt geothermobarometer (Putirka 2008) applied to the 2011 tephra reveals that cpx crystallized over a large range of P from 60 to 640 MPa (depth range: 1.7-18km) and T between 1060 and 1175°C before the Plinian eruption, therefore mobilizing the entire crustal magma system. In contrast, the phreatomagmatic tephra do not record the shallowest crystallization but interestingly all four tephra have identical median entrapment pressure of approximately 400 MPa. Therefore, the depth from which the magma bodies are derived, does not explain the difference in explosivity between those eruptions nor the variable magma volume (V) produced. Sulfur concentrations in MI are only slightly higher in the Plinian products, the difference (10%) being insufficient to explain the different eruption regimes. The ΔS, the difference between the maximum S concentrations in MI and the mean of the groundmass glass for a given eruption, is higher in the Plinian tephra. Based on literature

  1. Biomass Burning Emissions and Transport of Black Carbon (BC) to the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) in 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, H. D.; Soja, A. J.; Polashenski, C.; Thomas, J. L.; Dibb, J. E.; Fairlie, T. D.; Winker, D. M.; Flanner, M.; Bergin, M.; Casey, K.; Courville, Z.; Trepte, C. R.; Lai, A.; Schauer, J. J.; Shafer, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    This study is the part of the SAGE project investigating the impact of light absorbing impurities (e.g., aerosols) on the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). Previously ice-core snow samples collected on the GrIS indicated that black carbon (BC) concentrations were significantly enhanced, which could contribute to a decrease in albedo. Along with high levels of BC, the samples also showed significant amounts of ammonia, indicating the BC was sourced from biomass burning - likely from active forest fires in Eurasia and North America in July and August of 2013. In this study, we simulate the transport of potential smoke-filled air parcels using the NASA Langley Trajectory Model (LaTM), running in a backwards mode from selected ice-core sample sites on the GrIS from June 1st to August 31st 2013. The trajectory model is initialized for 24-hour sustained injection from each site, and air parcels are released from the surface to 2 km at 200m intervals. With the trajectory model outputs, we are able to identify trajectories that have coincidences with fires. As a case study, we focus on an event in early August 2013 when episodic enhancements in black carbon deposition are found in snow pit observations. We also utilize Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) data to verify smoke-aerosol signatures in boreal regions based on the NASA LaTM results from late July to early August. We ran backward and forward trajectories from the CALIOP aerosol signatures to verify coincidence with fire events and transport to the GrIS. We found large fires burning west side of the Hudson Bay in late July. CALIOP data captured thick smoke plumes on July 28th over that region and backward/forward trajectories and MODIS Terra/Aqua images support the transport of smoke from these fires to the GrIS.

  2. Down The Drain: Understanding How Meltwater Cascades Through The GrIS Hydrological System To Impact Its Ice Velocity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia, J. Z.; Gulley, J.; Covington, M. D.; Trunz, C.; Breithaupt, C.; Dixon, T. H.; Barnes, A.

    2017-12-01

    Despite over a decade of research, dynamic links between the hydrological system and ice motions of the Greenland Ice Sheet remain poorly understood. To a large degree, this lack of understanding has persisted because most studies have investigated the supraglacial, englacial, and subglacial drainage systems as separate entities. Despite the segmentation of research foci, each component of the GrIS hydrological system is connected, and changes in each component can impact ice motion. The changes can increase efficiency of the supraglacial drainage system and increase the rate of the delivery of meltwater from the surface of the GrIS moulins; if the rate of meltwater delivery to moulins exceeds the hydraulic capacity of the connected subglacial drainage system, the meltwater backs up in moulin shaft and increases subglacial water pressure and ice sliding speeds. Full understanding of how the GrIS hydrological system impacts ice velocity thus requires simultaneous investigation of each component of the system itself. Here, we present the results of the first simultaneous investigation of supraglacial, englacial, and subglacial drainage processes and their links to ice motion in the Taakitsoq region of the GrIS. We use meteorological, hydrological, and kinematic GPS data collected at a camp located approximately 30km from the ice margin to investigate the seasonal evolution of logs between peak meltwater production, peak meltwater delivery to a moulin via supraglacial streams, peak moulin water level, and peak ice velocity over the 2017 melt season. This analysis, which simultaneously collected measurements from the entire hydrological system, enables us to achieve a holistic understanding of the underlying processes controlling the ice velocity of the GrIS.

  3. Recruitment of bone marrow CD11b+Gr-1+ cells by polymeric nanoparticles for antigen cross-presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ya-Wun; Luo, Wen-Hui

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the function of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) on the activation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses via the CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid subpopulations in murine bone marrow (BM). PLGA NPs containing ovalbumin (OVA) were fabricated by the double-emulsion method. The CD11b+Gr-1lowLy-6Chigh and CD11b+Gr-1highLy-6Clow subsets from mice bone marrow were sorted and treated with the PLGA/OVA NPs, followed by co-culture with the carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-labelled OT-I CD8+ cells. Co-culture of OT-I CD8+ T cells with PLGA/OVA NPs-primed CD11b+Gr-1+ subsets upregulated the expression of IL-2, TNF-α, INF-γ, granzyme B, and perforin, resulting in proliferation of CD8+ T cells and differentiation into effector cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). In vivo proliferation of CFSE-labelled OT-I CD8+ cells in response to OVA was also obtained in the animals immunized with PLGA/OVA NPs. The results presented in this study demonstrate the ability of polymeric NPs to recruit two CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid subsets for effective presentation of exogenous antigen to OT-I CD8+ T cells in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, leading to an induction of antigen-specific cell proliferation and differentiation into effector cells.

  4. Synthesis of hypergrafted poly[4-(N,N-diphenylamino)methylstyrene] through tandem anionic-radical polymerization of radical-inimer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Minglu; Lu, Jianmin; Han, Bingyong; Zhang, Xianhong; Yang, Wantai

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, we present a tandem anionic-radical approach for synthesizing hypergrafted polymers. We prepared 4-(N,N-diphenylamino)methylstyrene (DPAMS) as a new radical-based inimer. Linear PDPAMS was prepared through anionic polymerization. Hypergrafted PDPAMS was synthesized through the self-condensing vinyl polymerization of DPAMS with linear PDPAMS. The linear backbone of PDPAMS, which incorporated latent radical initiating sites, served as a ‘hyperlinker’ to link hyperbranched side chains. The molecular weights of hypergrafted polymers increased as the length of the linear backbone chain increased. The hypergrafted structure of the resulting polymer was confirmed using a conventional gel permeation chromatograph apparatus equipped with a multiangle light scattering detector, nuclear magnetic resonance, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis. This strategy can be applied to synthesize other complex architectures based on hyperbranched polymers by changing the structure of a polymer backbone through anionic polymerization. PMID:29491819

  5. VvPIP2;4N aquaporin involvement in controlling leaf hydraulic capacitance and resistance in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Marco; Cochard, Hervé; Gambino, Giorgio; Ponomarenko, Alexandre; Perrone, Irene; Lovisolo, Claudio

    2016-11-01

    Hydraulic capacitance (C) in a plant tissue buffers the xylem tension, storing and releasing water and has been highlighted in recent years as an important factor that affects water relations such as drought tolerance and embolism formation. Aquaporins (AQPs) are well known to control leaf hydraulic resistance (Rh) but their role in the control of C is unknown. Here, we assess Rh and C on detached grapevines wild-type (WT) (cv. Brachetto) leaves and over-expressing the aquaporin gene VvPIP2;4N (OE). For this purpose, we developed a new method inspired from the pressure-volume curve technique and the rehydration-kinetic-method, which allowed us to monitor the dynamics of dehydration and rehydration in the same leaf. The recovery after dehydration was measured in dark, light non-transpirative conditions, light-transpirative conditions and light-transpirative condition adding abscisic acid. Pressurizing to dehydrate leaves in the OE line, the recorded Rh and C were respectively lower and higher than those in the WT. The same results were obtained in the dark recovery by rehydration treatment. In the presence of light, either when leaves transpired or not (by depressing vapor pressure deficit), the described effects disappeared. The change in Rh and C did not affect the kinetics of desiccation of detached leaves in dark in air, in OE plants compared to WT ones. Our study highlighted that both Rh and C were influenced by the constitutive over-expression of VvPIP2;4N. The effect of AQPs on C is reported here for the first time and may involve a modulation of cell reflection coefficient. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  6. Transcriptome analysis of Phelipanche aegyptiaca seed germination mechanisms stimulated by fluridone, TIS108, and GR24

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Ya Zhou; Yao, Zhao Qun; Cao, Xiao Lei; Peng, Jin Feng; Xu, Ying; Chen, Mei Xiu

    2017-01-01

    P. aegyptiaca is one of the most destructive root parasitic plants worldwide, causing serious damage to many crop species. Under natural conditions P. aegyptiaca seeds must be conditioned and then stimulated by host root exudates before germinating. However, preliminary experiments indicated that TIS108 (a triazole-type inhibitor of strigolactone) and fluridone (FL, an inhibitor of carotenoid-biosynthesis) both stimulated the germination of P. aegyptiaca seeds without a water preconditioning step (i.e. unconditioned seeds). The objective of this study was to use deep RNA sequencing to learn more about the mechanisms by which TIS108 and FL stimulate the germination of unconditioned P. aegyptiaca seeds. Deep RNA sequencing was performed to compare the mechanisms of germination in the following treatments: (i) unconditioned P. aegyptiaca seeds with no other treatment, (ii) unconditioned seeds treated with 100 mg/L TIS108, (iii) unconditioned seeds treated with 100 mg/L FL + 100 mg/L GA3, (iv) conditioned seeds treated with sterile water, and (v) conditioned seeds treated with 0.03 mg/L GR24. The de novo assembled transcriptome was used to analyze transcriptional dynamics during seed germination. The key gene categories involved in germination were also identified. The results showed that only 119 differentially expressed genes were identified in the conditioned treatment vs TIS108 treatment. This indicated that the vast majority of conditions for germination were met during the conditioning stage. Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) played important roles during P. aegyptiaca germination. The common pathway of TIS108, FL+GA3, and GR24 in stimulating P. aegyptiaca germination was the simultaneous reduction in ABA concentrations and increase GA concentrations. These results could potentially aid the identification of more compounds that are capable of stimulating P. aegyptiaca germination. Some potential target sites of TIS108 were also identified in our

  7. Transcriptome analysis of Phelipanche aegyptiaca seed germination mechanisms stimulated by fluridone, TIS108, and GR24.

    PubMed

    Bao, Ya Zhou; Yao, Zhao Qun; Cao, Xiao Lei; Peng, Jin Feng; Xu, Ying; Chen, Mei Xiu; Zhao, Si Feng

    2017-01-01

    P. aegyptiaca is one of the most destructive root parasitic plants worldwide, causing serious damage to many crop species. Under natural conditions P. aegyptiaca seeds must be conditioned and then stimulated by host root exudates before germinating. However, preliminary experiments indicated that TIS108 (a triazole-type inhibitor of strigolactone) and fluridone (FL, an inhibitor of carotenoid-biosynthesis) both stimulated the germination of P. aegyptiaca seeds without a water preconditioning step (i.e. unconditioned seeds). The objective of this study was to use deep RNA sequencing to learn more about the mechanisms by which TIS108 and FL stimulate the germination of unconditioned P. aegyptiaca seeds. Deep RNA sequencing was performed to compare the mechanisms of germination in the following treatments: (i) unconditioned P. aegyptiaca seeds with no other treatment, (ii) unconditioned seeds treated with 100 mg/L TIS108, (iii) unconditioned seeds treated with 100 mg/L FL + 100 mg/L GA3, (iv) conditioned seeds treated with sterile water, and (v) conditioned seeds treated with 0.03 mg/L GR24. The de novo assembled transcriptome was used to analyze transcriptional dynamics during seed germination. The key gene categories involved in germination were also identified. The results showed that only 119 differentially expressed genes were identified in the conditioned treatment vs TIS108 treatment. This indicated that the vast majority of conditions for germination were met during the conditioning stage. Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) played important roles during P. aegyptiaca germination. The common pathway of TIS108, FL+GA3, and GR24 in stimulating P. aegyptiaca germination was the simultaneous reduction in ABA concentrations and increase GA concentrations. These results could potentially aid the identification of more compounds that are capable of stimulating P. aegyptiaca germination. Some potential target sites of TIS108 were also identified in our

  8. Leak before break evaluation for main steam piping system made of SA106 Gr.C

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Kyoung Mo; Jee, Kye Kwang; Pyo, Chang Ryul

    1997-04-01

    The basis of the leak before break (LBB) concept is to demonstrate that piping will leak significantly before a double ended guillotine break (DEGB) occurs. This is demonstrated by quantifying and evaluating the leak process and prescribing safe shutdown of the plant on the basis of the monitored leak rate. The application of LBB for power plant design has reduced plant cost while improving plant integrity. Several evaluations employing LBB analysis on system piping based on DEGB design have been completed. However, the application of LBB on main steam (MS) piping, which is LBB applicable piping, has not been performedmore » due to several uncertainties associated with occurrence of steam hammer and dynamic strain aging (DSA). The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the applicability of the LBB design concept to main steam lines manufactured with SA106 Gr.C carbon steel. Based on the material properties, including fracture toughness and tensile properties obtained from the comprehensive material tests for base and weld metals, a parametric study was performed as described in this paper. The PICEP code was used to determine leak size crack (LSC) and the FLET code was used to perform the stability assessment of MS piping. The effects of material properties obtained from tests were evaluated to determine the LBB applicability for the MS piping. It can be shown from this parametric study that the MS piping has a high possibility of design using LBB analysis.« less

  9. Die grünende IT - Wie die Computerindustrie das Energiesparen neu erfand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Greiner, Wilhelm

    Die IT-Branche hat ihr grünes Gewissen entdeckt. In der jetzigen Verbreitung und Intensität ist dieses Phänomen noch recht neu - lange Zeit schien die Informationstechnik in puncto Umweltverträglichkeit und Energieverbrauch eine "weiße Weste" zu haben. Schließlich läuft ein PC mit Strom und nicht mit - sagen wir mal - einem Dieselmotor: Beim Booten eines Computers schießt nicht erst eine dunkelgraue Rauchwolke aus dem Auspuff, die Lärmerzeugung beschränkt sich auf das Surren des Lüfters, zum Tanken fahren muss man mit ihm auch nicht, und die Produktion der Komponenten erfolgt… ja, wo eigentlich? Irgendwo in der "dritten Welt", in Fernost oder in Mexiko. So sind die umweltschädlichen Aspekte der Produktion von Leiterplatten und sonstigen Bauteilen aus den Augen, aus dem Sinn und bestenfalls sporadisch Gegenstand eines kritischen Greenpeace-Berichts1, der im Überangebot der Medienlandschaft untergeht.

  10. Gr and hp-1 tomato mutants unveil unprecedented interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Chialva, Matteo; Zouari, Inès; Salvioli, Alessandra; Novero, Mara; Vrebalov, Julia; Giovannoni, James J; Bonfante, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Systemic responses to an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus reveal opposite phenological patterns in two tomato ripening mutants depending whether ethylene or light reception is involved. The availability of tomato ripening mutants has revealed many aspects of the genetics behind fleshy fruit ripening, plant hormones and light signal reception. Since previous analyses revealed that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis influences tomato berry ripening, we wanted to test the hypothesis that an interplay might occur between root symbiosis and fruit ripening. With this aim, we screened seven tomato mutants affected in the ripening process for their responsiveness to the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Funneliformis mosseae. Following their phenological responses we selected two mutants for a deeper analysis: Green ripe (Gr), deficient in fruit ethylene perception and high-pigment-1 (hp-1), displaying enhanced light signal perception throughout the plant. We investigated the putative interactions between ripening processes, mycorrhizal establishment and systemic effects using biochemical and gene expression tools. Our experiments showed that both mutants, notwithstanding a normal mycorrhizal phenotype at root level, exhibit altered arbuscule functionality. Furthermore, in contrast to wild type, mycorrhization did not lead to a higher phosphate concentration in berries of both mutants. These results suggest that the mutations considered interfere with arbuscular mycorrhiza inducing systemic changes in plant phenology and fruits metabolism. We hypothesize a cross talk mechanism between AM and ripening processes that involves genes related to ethylene and light signaling.

  11. Genome size stability despite high chromosome number variation in Carex gr. laevigata.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Marcial; Maguilla, Enrique; Loureiro, João; Castro, Mariana; Castro, Sílvia; Luceño, Modesto

    2015-02-01

    In organisms with holocentric chromosomes like Carex species, chromosome number evolution has been hypothesized to be a result of fission, fusion, and/or translocation events. Negative, positive, or the absence of correlations have been found between chromosome number and genome size in Carex. Using the inferred diploid chromosome number and 80 genome size measurements from 26 individuals and 20 populations of Carex gr. laevigata, we tested the null hypothesis of chromosome number evolution by duplication and deletion of whole chromosomes. Our results show a significant positive correlation between genome size and chromosome number, but the slope of such correlation supports the hypothesis of proliferation and removal of repetitive DNA fragments to explain genome size variation rather than duplication and deletion of whole chromosomes. Our results refine the theory of the holokinetic drive: this mechanism is proposed to facilitate repetitive DNA removal (or any segmental deletion) when smaller homologous chromosomes are preferentially inherited, or repetitive DNA proliferation (or any segmental duplication) when larger homologs are preferred. This study sheds light on how karyotype evolution plays an important role in the diversification of the species of the genus Carex. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  12. Gr1+ Cells Control Growth of YopM-Negative Yersinia pestis during Systemic Plague▿

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhan; Kerschen, Edward J.; Cohen, Donald A.; Kaplan, Alan M.; van Rooijen, Nico; Straley, Susan C.

    2009-01-01

    YopM, a protein toxin of Yersinia pestis, is necessary for virulence in a mouse model of systemic plague. We previously reported YopM-dependent natural killer (NK) cell depletion from blood and spleen samples of infected mice. However, in this study we found that infection with Y. pestis KIM5 (YopM+) caused depletion of NK cells in the spleen, but not in the liver, and antibody-mediated ablation of NK cells had no effect on bacterial growth. There was no YopM-associated effect on the percentage of dendritic cells (DCs) or polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in the early stage of infection; however, there was a YopM-associated effect on PMN integrity and on the influx of monocytes into the spleen. Ablation of Gr1+ cells caused loss of the growth defect of YopM− Y. pestis in both the liver and spleen. In contrast, ablation of macrophages/DCs inhibited growth of both parent and mutant bacteria, accompanied by significantly fewer lesion sites in the liver. These results point toward PMNs and inflammatory monocytes as major cell types that control growth of YopM− Y. pestis. Infection with fully virulent Y. pestis CO92 and a YopM− derivative by intradermal and intranasal routes showed that the absence of YopM significantly increased the 50% lethal dose only in the intradermal model, suggesting a role for YopM in bubonic plague, in which acute inflammation occurs soon after infection. PMID:19581396

  13. Balloon Angioplasty – The Legacy of Andreas Grüntzig, M.D. (1939–1985)

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Matthias; Grüntzig, Johannes; Husmann, Marc; Rösch, Josef

    2014-01-01

    In 1974, at the Medical Policlinic of the University of Zürich, German-born physician-scientist Andreas Grüntzig (1939–1985) for the first time applied a balloon-tipped catheter to re-open a severely stenosed femoral artery, a procedure, which he initially called “percutaneous transluminal dilatation”. Balloon angioplasty as a therapy of atherosclerotic vascular disease, for which Grüntzig and Charles T. Dotter (1920–1985) received a nomination for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1978, became one of the most successful examples of translational medicine in the twentieth century. Known today as percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in peripheral arteries or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in coronary arteries, balloon angioplasty has become the method of choice to treat patients with acute myocardial infarction or occluded leg arteries. On the occasion of the 40th anniversary of balloon angioplasty, we summarize Grüntzig’s life and career in Germany, Switzerland, and the United States and also review the developments in vascular medicine from the 1890s to the 1980s, including Dotter’s first accidental angioplasty in 1963. The work of pioneers of catheterization, including Pedro L. Fariñas in Cuba, André F. Cournand in France, Werner Forssmann, Werner Porstmann and Eberhard Zeitler in Germany, António Egas Moniz and Reynaldo dos Santos in Portugal, Sven-Ivar Seldinger in Sweden, and Barney Brooks, Thomas J. Fogarty, Melvin P. Judkins, Richard K. Myler, Dickinson W. Richards, and F. Mason Sones in the United States, is discussed. We also present quotes by Grüntzig and excerpts from his unfinished autobiography, statements of Grüntzig’s former colleagues and contemporary witnesses, and have included hitherto unpublished historic photographs and links to archive recordings and historic materials. This year, on June 25, 2014, Andreas Grüntzig would have celebrated

  14. [Effect of NH4(+) -N/NO3(-)-N ratio in applied supplementary fertilizer on nitrogen metabolism and main chemical composition of Pinellia ternata].

    PubMed

    Hu, Long-Jiao; Wang, Kang-Cai; Li, Can-Wen

    2013-07-01

    To study the effect of nitrogen forms on nitrogen metabolism and main chemical composition of Pinellia ternate. Through the soilless cultivation experiment and based at the same nitrogen level and different NH4(+) -N/NO3(-) -N ratios, nitrate reductase (NR) activity, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, the content of nitrate nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen in different parts of P. ternate were determined. The contents of total alkaloid, free total organic acids and guanosine in the tuber were determined. The yield of bulbil and tuber was calculated. The test results showed that, with the NH4(+) -N/NO3(-) -N ratio increasing, the activity of nitrate reductase decreased, the content of nitrate nitrogen in the leaves, petioles and tuber increasing initially, then decreased, and the content of nitrate nitrogen in the root decreased. Meanwhile, with the NH4(+) -N/NO3(-) -N ratio increasing, the activity of glutamine synthetase in the leaves, petioles and root increased, the activity of glutamine synthetase in the tuber increasing initially, then decreased. The contents of ammonium nitrogen in the leaves, tuber and root increased initially, then decreased, and the contents of ammonium nitrogen in the petioles increased with the NH4(+)(-N/NO3(-)-N ratio increasing. The yield of bulbil and tuber were the highest at the NH4(+)-N/NO3(-) -N ratio of 75: 25. The content of total alkaloid and guanosine in the tuber were the highest at the NH4(+)-N/NO3(-) -N ratio of 0: 100, and the contents were 0.245% and 0.0197% respectively. With the NH4(+)-N/NO3(-) -N ratio of 50: 50, the content of free total organic acids was the highest, it reached 0.7%, however, the content of free total organic acids was the lowest at the NH4(+) -N/NO3(-) -N ratio of 0: 100. Nitrogen fertilization significant influences the nitrogen metabolism, the yield and main chemical composition of P. ternate.

  15. In vivo amelioration of endogenous antitumor autoantibodies via low-dose P4N through the LTA4H/activin A/BAFF pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Ling; Tsai, Nu-Man; Hsieh, Cheng-Hao; Ho, Shu-Yi; Chang, Jung; Wu, Hsin-Yi; Hsu, Ming-Hua; Chang, Chia-Ching; Liao, Kuang-Wen; Jackson, Tiffany L B; Mold, David E; Huang, Ru Chih C

    2016-11-29

    Cancer progression is associated with the development of antitumor autoantibodies in patients' sera. Although passive treatment with antitumor antibodies has exhibited remarkable therapeutic efficacy, inhibitory effects on tumor progression by endogenous antitumor autoantibodies (EAAs) have been limited. In this study, we show that P 4 N, a derivative of the plant lignan nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), enhanced the production of EAAs and inhibited tumor growth at low noncytotoxic concentrations via its immunoregulatory activity. Intratumoral injection of P 4 N improved the quantity and quality of EAAs, and passive transfer of P 4 N-induced EAAs dramatically suppressed lung metastasis formation and prolonged the survival of mice inoculated with metastatic CT26 tumor cells. P 4 N-induced EAAs specifically recognized two surface antigens, 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and F1F0 ATP synthase, on the plasma membrane of cancer cells. Additionally, P 4 N treatment led to B-cell proliferation, differentiation to plasma cells, and high titers of autoantibody production. By serial induction of autocrine and paracrine signals in monocytes, P 4 N increased B-cell proliferation and antibody production via the leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H)/activin A/B-cell activating factor (BAFF) pathway. This mechanism provides a useful platform for studying and seeking a novel immunomodulator that can be applied in targeting therapy by improving the quantity and quality of the EAAs.

  16. Measurements of Sound Speed and Grüneisen Parameter in Polystyrene Shocked to 8.5 Mbar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehly, T. R.; Rygg, J. R.; Zaghoo, M.; Hu, S. X.; Collins, G. W.; Fratanduono, D. E.; Celliers, P. M.; McCoy, C. A.

    2017-10-01

    The high-pressure behavior of polymers is important to fundamental high-energy-density studies and inertial confinement fusion experiments. The sound speed affects shock timing and determines the amplitude of modulations in unstable shocks. The Grüneisen parameter provides a means to model off-Hugoniot behavior, especially release physics. We use laser-driven shocks and a nonsteady wave analysis to infer sound speed in shocked material from the arrival times of drive-pressure perturbations at the shock front. Data are presented for CH shocked to 8.5 Mbar and compared to models. The Grüneisen parameter is observed to drop significantly near the insulator-conductor transition-a behavior not predicted by tabular models but is observed in quantum molecular dynamic simulations. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  17. Loss of Nat4 and its associated histone H4 N-terminal acetylation mediates calorie restriction-induced longevity.

    PubMed

    Molina-Serrano, Diego; Schiza, Vassia; Demosthenous, Christis; Stavrou, Emmanouil; Oppelt, Jan; Kyriakou, Dimitris; Liu, Wei; Zisser, Gertrude; Bergler, Helmut; Dang, Weiwei; Kirmizis, Antonis

    2016-12-01

    Changes in histone modifications are an attractive model through which environmental signals, such as diet, could be integrated in the cell for regulating its lifespan. However, evidence linking dietary interventions with specific alterations in histone modifications that subsequently affect lifespan remains elusive. We show here that deletion of histone N-alpha-terminal acetyltransferase Nat4 and loss of its associated H4 N-terminal acetylation (N-acH4) extend yeast replicative lifespan. Notably, nat4Δ-induced longevity is epistatic to the effects of calorie restriction (CR). Consistent with this, (i) Nat4 expression is downregulated and the levels of N-acH4 within chromatin are reduced upon CR, (ii) constitutive expression of Nat4 and maintenance of N-acH4 levels reduces the extension of lifespan mediated by CR, and (iii) transcriptome analysis indicates that nat4Δ largely mimics the effects of CR, especially in the induction of stress-response genes. We further show that nicotinamidase Pnc1, which is typically upregulated under CR, is required for nat4Δ-mediated longevity. Collectively, these findings establish histone N-acH4 as a regulator of cellular lifespan that links CR to increased stress resistance and longevity. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  18. Synthesis, spectroscopy, X-ray structure and redox behaviors of 4-( N- R-salicylideneimine)-2,6-diphenylphenols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasumov, Veli T.; Türkmen, Hasan; Uçar, İbrahim; Bulut, Ahmet; Yaylı, Nurettin

    2008-06-01

    A series of sterically hindered 4-( N- R-salicylaldimine)-2,6-diphenylphenols ( X), where R = H ( 1), 3-CH 3 ( 2), 5-CH 3 ( 3), 3-OCH 3 ( 4), 4-OCH 3 ( 5), 5-OCH 3 ( 6), 3- tBu ( 7), 5- tBu ( 8), 3,5- tBu 2( 9) and 5,6-benzo( 10), were synthesized and their structure as well as redox behavior studied by analytical, spectroscopic [ 1H, ( 13C) NMR, IR, UV-vis and mass spectrometry] and cyclic voltammetric (CV) techniques. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of 7 evidenced its existence as non-planar enol-imine tautomer structure, in which the phenol ring of the molecule is twisted around C-N single bond by 21.5(2)°. The packing structure of 7 is stabilized by C-H⋯π(Ph) and O⋯O and C⋯O intermolecular short contact interactions. The CV of X display rate is dependent on irreversible and quasi-reversible redox waves in the anodic and cathodic regions due to oxidation and reduction of phenolic and iminic groups, respectively. As evidenced by ESR and UV-vis study, chemical oxidation of X by PbO 2 and (NH 4) 2Ce(NO 3) 6 in MeCN and CHCl 3 generates stable phenoxyl radicals [( g ˜ 2.005 and λ ˜ 450 nm (1600-8200 M -1 cm -1)].

  19. CH 4/N 2/H 2 spark hydrophilic tholins: A systematic approach to the characterization of tholins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; Menor-Salván, César; Mateo-Martí, Eva; Osuna-Esteban, Susana; Martín-Gago, José Ángel; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, Sabino

    2008-11-01

    Tholins are complex organic materials produced by irradiation of several carbon and nitrogen rich atmospheres. They could have played a key role in the origin of life on Earth because their ability to release important bioorganics, which are nowadays present in proteins, nucleic-acid bases and other important biostructures. Usually, the yield of these compounds is higher after acid hydrolysis, however little is known about the structure and chemical composition of the tholins. In this work, we propose the use of different spectroscopic and separation techniques, which are not usually applied in this field, in order to obtain complete information about the tholin structure and behavior. Two different simulation experiments of prebiotic synthesis were carried out in CH 4/N 2/H 2 atmosphere out from spark discharge activation of aqueous aerosols and liquid water, respectively. In both cases, a hydrophilic tholin and a hydrophobic tholin were obtained. Herein, we report the application of this methodology to our hydrophilic tholins and we review, briefly, some astrobiological aspects related to these complex substances.

  20. Optimization of 4-(N-Cycloamino)phenylquinazolines as a Novel Class of Tubulin-Polymerization Inhibitors Targeting the Colchicine Site

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The 6-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline moiety in prior leads 2-chloro- and 2-methyl-4-(6-methoxy-3,4-dihydroquinolin-1(2H)-yl)quinazoline (1a and 1b) was modified to produce 4-(N-cycloamino)quinazolines (4a–c and 5a–m). The new compounds were evaluated in cytotoxicity and tubulin inhibition assays, resulting in the discovery of new tubulin-polymerization inhibitors. 7-Methoxy-4-(2-methylquinazolin-4-yl)-3,4-dihydroquinoxalin- 2(1H)-one (5f), the most potent compound, exhibited high in vitro cytotoxic activity (GI50 1.9–3.2 nM), significant potency against tubulin assembly (IC50 0.77 μM), and substantial inhibition of colchicine binding (99% at 5 μM). In mechanism studies, 5f caused cell arrest in G2/M phase, disrupted microtubule formation, and competed mostly at the colchicine site on tubulin. Compound 5f and N-methylated analogue 5g were evaluated in nude mouse MCF7 xenograft models to validate their antitumor activity. Compound 5g displayed significant in vivo activity (tumor inhibitory rate 51%) at a dose of 4 mg/kg without obvious toxicity, whereas 5f unexpectedly resulted in toxicity and death at the same dose. PMID:24502232

  1. Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (selective vitamin B12 malabsorption with proteinuria)

    PubMed Central

    Gräsbeck, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (IGS) or selective vitamin B12 (cobalamin) malabsorption with proteinuria is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by vitamin B12 deficiency commonly resulting in megaloblastic anemia, which is responsive to parenteral vitamin B12 therapy and appears in childhood. Other manifestations include failure to thrive and grow, infections and neurological damage. Mild proteinuria (with no signs of kidney disease) is present in about half of the patients. Anatomical anomalies in the urinary tract were observed in some Norwegian patients. Vitamin B12 absorption tests show low absorption, not corrected by administration of intrinsic factor. The symptoms appear from 4 months (not immediately after birth as in transcobalamin deficiency) up to several years after birth. The syndrome was first described in Finland and Norway where the prevalence is about 1:200,000. The cause is a defect in the receptor of the vitamin B12-intrinsic factor complex of the ileal enterocyte. In most cases, the molecular basis of the selective malabsorption and proteinuria involves a mutation in one of two genes, cubilin (CUBN) on chromosome 10 or amnionless (AMN) on chromosome 14. Both proteins are components of the intestinal receptor for the vitamin B12-intrinsic factor complex and the receptor mediating the tubular reabsorption of protein from the primary urine. Management includes life-long vitamin B12 injections, and with this regimen, the patients stay healthy for decades. However, the proteinuria persists. In diagnosing this disease, it is important to be aware that cobalamin deficiency affects enterocyte function; therefore, all tests suggesting general and cobalamin malabsorption should be repeated after abolishment of the deficiency. PMID:16722557

  2. Can the super model (SUMO) method improve hydrological simulations? Exploratory tests with the GR hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Léonard; Thirel, Guillaume; Perrin, Charles

    2017-04-01

    Errors made by hydrological models may come from a problem in parameter estimation, uncertainty on observed measurements, numerical problems and from the model conceptualization that simplifies the reality. Here we focus on this last issue of hydrological modeling. One of the solutions to reduce structural uncertainty is to use a multimodel method, taking advantage of the great number and the variability of existing hydrological models. In particular, because different models are not similarly good in all situations, using multimodel approaches can improve the robustness of modeled outputs. Traditionally, in hydrology, multimodel methods are based on the output of the model (the simulated flow series). The aim of this poster is to introduce a different approach based on the internal variables of the models. The method is inspired by the SUper MOdel (SUMO, van den Berge et al., 2011) developed for climatology. The idea of the SUMO method is to correct the internal variables of a model taking into account the values of the internal variables of (an)other model(s). This correction is made bilaterally between the different models. The ensemble of the different models constitutes a super model in which all the models exchange information on their internal variables with each other at each time step. Due to this continuity in the exchanges, this multimodel algorithm is more dynamic than traditional multimodel methods. The method will be first tested using two GR4J models (in a state-space representation) with different parameterizations. The results will be presented and compared to traditional multimodel methods that will serve as benchmarks. In the future, other rainfall-runoff models will be used in the super model. References van den Berge, L. A., Selten, F. M., Wiegerinck, W., and Duane, G. S. (2011). A multi-model ensemble method that combines imperfect models through learning. Earth System Dynamics, 2(1) :161-177.

  3. Establishing mass balance observation at Austre Grønfjordbreen, Nordenskjöld land, Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elagina, Nelly; Kutuzov, Stanislav; Chernov, Robert; Lavrentiev, Ivan; Vasilyeva, Tatiana; Mavlyudov, Bulat; Kudikov, Arseny

    2017-04-01

    The Arctic archipelago Svalbard consists of a vast glacierized area which contributes significantly to the sea level rise outside of Greenland and Antarctica due to recent warming. The glaciers of Svalbard have already experienced an unprecedented increase in average summer temperatures, melt periods, and rainfall in late autumn and early summer. Glaciers of the Nordenskjöld land were the subject of glaciological studies conducted through the Soviet scientific program at the Institute of Geography RAS, Moscow starting in the 1960s. However, with the collapse of the Soviet Union glaciological monitoring was stopped in the late 1980s. It was resumed in 2003 with direct observations of winter accumulation and summer melt at a number of glaciers in Nordenskjöld land. However, until now snow pit and stake data were inconsistent and were reported randomly. Recent efforts by the Institute of Geography RAS have been aimed at establishing mass balance observation at Austre Grønfjordbreen (7 km2) located 16 km south of Barentsburg. Starting from 2014 observations have included a new ablation stake network of 15 stakes measured biannually, two automatic weather stations located at the glacier tongue and at the accumulation area, and annual high resolution GPR surveys of snow thickness together with snow pit measurements repeated every spring. Special attention has been paid to the evaluation of refreezing ice and superimposed ice distribution. Active layer (10 m) borehole temperatures are measured annually at stake locations. The obtained mass balance gradients are compared with the geodetic mass balance changes in 1990-2005 and recent Arctic DEM data. Additionally glacier bedrock, polythermal structure and surface topography maps have been completed using GPR data and DGPS measurements. All available satellite imagery has been used to reconstruct the snowline elevation changes from 1986 to 2016. Remarkably almost a total absence of accumulation area has been registered in

  4. [History of the Halle Ars Medica Judaica. I. Dedication of the Gröbzig Synagogue Museum].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W; Völker, A

    1988-10-15

    The inauguration of the reorganized Museum Synagogue Gröbzig gives rise to remind of the fascist race terror, the first phase of which is periodized for the years between 1933 and 1938. Documentations from the era further dating back make recognize already formerly preformed ways which initiated those events having reached their first culmination point with the excesses of 1938. Also in the Medical Faculty of Halle University these events left deep traces.

  5. Induction of PGF2α Synthesis by Cortisol Through GR Dependent Induction of CBR1 in Human Amnion Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chunming; Wang, Wangsheng; Liu, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Abundant evidence indicates a pivotal role of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) in human parturition. Both the fetal and maternal sides of the fetal membranes synthesize PGF2α. In addition to the synthesis of PGF2α from PGH2 by PGF synthase (PGFS), PGF2α can also be converted from PGE2 by carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1). Here, we showed that there was concurrent increased production of cortisol and PGF2α in association with the elevation of CBR1 in human amnion obtained at term with labor versus term without labor. In cultured primary human amnion fibroblasts, cortisol (0.01–1μM) increased PGF2α production in a concentration-dependent manner, in parallel with elevation of CBR1 levels. Either siRNA-mediated knockdown of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression or GR antagonist RU486 attenuated the induction of CBR1 by cortisol. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) showed an increased enrichment of both GR and RNA polymerase II to CBR1 promoter. Knockdown of CBR1 expression with siRNA or inhibition of CBR1 activity with rutin decreased both basal and cortisol-stimulated PGF2α production in human amnion fibroblasts. In conclusion, CBR1 may play a critical role in PGF2α synthesis in human amnion fibroblasts, and cortisol promotes the conversion of PGE2 into PGF2α via GR-mediated induction of CBR1 in human amnion fibroblasts. This stimulatory effect of cortisol on CBR1 expression may partly explain the concurrent increases of cortisol and PGF2α in human amnion tissue with labor, and these findings may account for the increased production of PGF2α in the fetal membranes prior to the onset of labor. PMID:24654784

  6. Induction of PGF2α synthesis by cortisol through GR dependent induction of CBR1 in human amnion fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chunming; Wang, Wangsheng; Liu, Chao; Myatt, Leslie; Sun, Kang

    2014-08-01

    Abundant evidence indicates a pivotal role of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) in human parturition. Both the fetal and maternal sides of the fetal membranes synthesize PGF2α. In addition to the synthesis of PGF2α from PGH2 by PGF synthase (PGFS), PGF2α can also be converted from PGE2 by carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1). Here, we showed that there was concurrent increased production of cortisol and PGF2α in association with the elevation of CBR1 in human amnion obtained at term with labor versus term without labor. In cultured primary human amnion fibroblasts, cortisol (0.01-1μM) increased PGF2α production in a concentration-dependent manner, in parallel with elevation of CBR1 levels. Either siRNA-mediated knockdown of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression or GR antagonist RU486 attenuated the induction of CBR1 by cortisol. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) showed an increased enrichment of both GR and RNA polymerase II to CBR1 promoter. Knockdown of CBR1 expression with siRNA or inhibition of CBR1 activity with rutin decreased both basal and cortisol-stimulated PGF2α production in human amnion fibroblasts. In conclusion, CBR1 may play a critical role in PGF2α synthesis in human amnion fibroblasts, and cortisol promotes the conversion of PGE2 into PGF2α via GR-mediated induction of CBR1 in human amnion fibroblasts. This stimulatory effect of cortisol on CBR1 expression may partly explain the concurrent increases of cortisol and PGF2α in human amnion tissue with labor, and these findings may account for the increased production of PGF2α in the fetal membranes prior to the onset of labor.

  7. Cerebral blood flow changes after treatment of social phobia with the neurokinin-1 antagonist GR205171, citalopram, or placebo.

    PubMed

    Furmark, Tomas; Appel, Lieuwe; Michelgård, Asa; Wahlstedt, Kurt; Ahs, Fredrik; Zancan, Stefano; Jacobsson, Eva; Flyckt, Karin; Grohp, Magnus; Bergström, Mats; Pich, Emilio Merlo; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Bani, Massimo; Långström, Bengt; Fredrikson, Mats

    2005-07-15

    Evidence is accumulating that pharmacological blockade of the substance P preferring neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor reduces anxiety. This study compared the effects of an NK1 receptor antagonist, citalopram, and placebo on brain activity and anxiety symptoms in social phobia. Thirty-six patients diagnosed with social phobia were treated for 6 weeks with the NK1 antagonist GR205171 (5 mg), citalopram (40 mg), or matching placebo under randomized double-blind conditions. GR205171 was administered for 4 weeks preceded by 2 weeks of placebo. Before and after treatment, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during a stressful public speaking task was assessed using oxygen-15 positron emission tomography. Response rate was determined by the Clinical Global Impression Improvement Scale. Patients improved to a larger extent with the NK1 antagonist (41.7% responders) and citalopram (50% responders), compared with placebo (8.3% responders). Within- and between-group comparisons showed that symptom improvement was paralleled by a significantly reduced rCBF response to public speaking in the rhinal cortex, amygdala, and parahippocampal-hippocampal regions. The rCBF pattern was corroborated in follow-up analyses of responders and subjects showing large state anxiety reduction. Short-term administration of GR205171 and citalopram alleviated social anxiety. Neurokinin-1 antagonists may act like serotonin reuptake inhibitors by attenuating neural activity in a medial temporal lobe network.

  8. Anisotropic thermal expansion of SnSe from first-principles calculations based on Grüneisen's theory.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Hui

    2017-06-14

    Based on Grüneisen's theory, the elastic properties and thermal expansion of bulk SnSe with the Pnma phase are investigated by using first-principles calculations. Our numerical results indicate that the linear thermal expansion coefficient along the a direction is smaller than the one along the b direction, while the one along the c direction shows a significant negative value, even at high temperature. The numerical results are in good accordance with experimental results. In addition, generalized and macroscopic Grüneisen parameters are also presented. It is also found that SnSe possesses negative Possion's ratio. The contributions of different phonon modes to NTE along the c direction are investigated, and it is found that the two modes which make the most important contributions to NTE are transverse vibrations perpendicular to the c direction. Finally, we analyze the relation of elastic constants to negative thermal expansion, and demonstrate that negative thermal expansion can also occur even with all positive macroscopic Grüneisen parameters.

  9. Increased Plasma Levels of Chemoresistance-Inducing Fatty Acid 16:4(n-3) After Consumption of Fish and Fish Oil.

    PubMed

    Daenen, Laura G M; Cirkel, Geert A; Houthuijzen, Julia M; Gerrits, Johan; Oosterom, Ilse; Roodhart, Jeanine M L; van Tinteren, Harm; Ishihara, Kenji; Huitema, Alwin D R; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M; Voest, Emile E

    2015-06-01

    Our research group previously identified specific endogenous platinum-induced fatty acids (PIFAs) that, in picomolar quantities, activate splenic macrophages leading to resistance to chemotherapy in mouse models. Fish oil was shown to contain the PIFA 16:4(n-3) (hexadeca-4,7,10,13-tetraenoic acid) and when administered to mice neutralized chemotherapy activity. Because patients with cancer frequently use fish oil supplements, we set out to determine exposure to 16:4(n-3) after intake of fish or fish oil. (1) In November 2011, 400 patients with cancer undergoing treatment at the University Medical Center Utrecht were surveyed to determine their use of fish oil supplements; 118 patients responded to the questionnaire (30%); (2) pharmacokinetic analysis of the 16:4(n-3) content of 6 fish oils and 4 fishes was carried out; (3) from April through November 2012, a healthy volunteer study was performed to determine 16:4(n-3) plasma levels after intake of 3 different brands of fish oil or 4 different fish species. Thirty healthy volunteers were randomly selected for the fish oil study; 20 were randomly selected for the fish study. These studies were supported by preclinical tumor experiments in mice to determine chemoresistance conducted between September 2011 and December 2012. (1) Rate of use of fish oil supplements among patients undergoing cancer treatment at our institution; (2) levels of 16:4(n-3) present in 3 brands of fish oil and 4 species of fish; and (3) plasma levels of 16:4(n-3) present in healthy volunteers after consuming fish oil or fish. Eleven percent of respondents reported using omega-3 supplements. All fish oils tested contained relevant amounts of 16:4(n-3), from 0.2 to 5.7 µM. Mouse experiments showed that addition of 1 µL of fish oil to cisplatin was sufficient to induce chemoresistance, treatment having no impact on the growth rate of tumors compared with vehicle-treated controls (estimated tumor volume difference, 44.1 mm3; P > .99). When

  10. Expansion of myeloid immune suppressor Gr+CD11b+ cells in tumor-bearing host directly promotes tumor angiogenesis | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    We demonstrate a novel tumor-promoting role of myeloid immune suppressor Gr+CD11b+ cells, which are evident in cancer patients and tumor-bearing animals. These cells constitute approximately 5% of total cells in tumors. Tumors coinjected with Gr+CD11b+ cells exhibited increased vascular density, vascular maturation, and decreased necrosis. These immune cells produce high levels of MMP9. Deletion of MMP9 in these cells completely abolishes their tumor-promoting ability. Gr+CD11b+ cells were also found to directly incorporate into tumor endothelium.

  11. Inhibitory effect of high NH4(+)-N concentration on anaerobic biotreatment of fresh leachate from a municipal solid waste incineration plant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhao; Dang, Yan; Li, Caihua; Sun, Dezhi

    2015-09-01

    Fresh leachate from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants generally contains extremely high NH4(+)-N concentration which could inhibit the bioactivity of microorganisms. The inhibitory effect of high NH4(+)-N concentration on anaerobic biotreatment of fresh leachate from a MSW incineration plant in China has been investigated in this study. The inhibition processes was studied by both static tests and a laboratory-scale expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor. The specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of the microorganisms in anaerobic granular sludge was inhibited with the NH4(+)-N concentration increasing to 1000mg/L in static tests. As well the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and the methane yield decreased in the EGSB reactor, while the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) accumulated and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of the anaerobic granular sludge increased with NH4(+)-N concentration rising to 1000mg/L, without any rebounding during 30days of operation. Decreasing NH4(+)-N concentration to 500mg/L in influent, the COD removal efficiency recovered to about 85% after 26days. 1000mg/L of NH4(+)-N in leachate was suggested to be the inhibition threshold in EGSB reactor. High-throughput sequencing results showed little changes in microbial communities of the sludge for a high NH4(+)-N concentration, indicating that the survival of most microorganisms was not affected under such a condition. It inhibited the bioactivity of the microorganisms, resulting in decrease of the COD removal efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. OPTICAL SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC MONITORING OF THE EXTREME LUMINOUS BLUE VARIABLE STAR GR 290 (ROMANO's STAR) IN M 33

    SciTech Connect

    Polcaro, V. F.; Viotti, R. F.; Rossi, C.

    2011-01-15

    We study the long-term, S Dor-type variability and the present hot phase of the luminous blue variable (LBV) star GR 290 (Romano's Star) in M 33 in order to investigate possible links between the LBV and the late, nitrogen sequence Wolf-Rayet Stars (WNL) stages of very massive stars. We use intermediate-resolution spectra, obtained with the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) in 2008 December, when GR 290 was at minimum (V = {approx}18.6), as well as new low-resolution spectra and BVRI photometry obtained with the Loiano and Cima Ekar telescopes during 2007-2010. We identify more than 80 emission lines in the 3100-10000more » A range covered by the WHT spectra, belonging to different species: the hydrogen Balmer and Paschen series, neutral and ionized helium, C III, N II-III, S IV, Si III-IV, and many forbidden lines of [N II], [O III], [S III], [A III], [Ne III], and [Fe III]. Many lines, especially the He I triplets, show a P Cygni profile with an a-e radial velocity difference of -300 to -500 km s{sup -1}. The shape of the 4630-4713 A emission blend and of other emission lines resembles that of WN9 stars; the blend deconvolution shows that the He II 4686 A has a strong broad component with FWHM {approx_equal} 1700 km s{sup -1}. During 2003-2010 the star underwent large spectral variations, best seen in the 4630-4686 A emission feature. Using the late-WN spectral types of Crowther and Smith, GR 290 apparently varied between the WN11 and WN8-9 spectral types; the hotter the star was the fainter its visual magnitude was. This spectrum-visual luminosity anticorrelation of GR 290 is reminiscent of the behavior of the best-studied LBVs, such as S Dor and AG Car. During the 2008 minimum, we found a significant decrease in bolometric luminosity, which could be attributed to absorption by newly formed circumstellar matter. We suggest that the broad 4686 A line and the optical continuum formed in a central Wolf-Rayet region, while the narrow emission line spectrum

  13. Novel iron(III) complexes of sterically hindered 4N ligands: regioselectivity in biomimetic extradiol cleavage of catechols.

    PubMed

    Mayilmurugan, Ramasamy; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen; Palaniandavar, Mallayan

    2008-08-04

    The iron(III) complexes of the 4N ligands 1,4-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,4-diazepane (L1), 1,4-bis(6-methyl-2-pyridylmethyl)-1,4-diazepane (L2), and 1,4-bis(2-quinolylmethyl)-1,4-diazepane (L3) have been generated in situ in CH 3CN solution, characterized as [Fe(L1)Cl 2] (+) 1, [Fe(L2)Cl 2] (+) 2, and [Fe(L3)Cl 2] (+) 3 by using ESI-MS, absorption and EPR spectral and electrochemical methods and studied as functional models for the extradiol cleaving catechol dioxygenase enzymes. The tetrachlorocatecholate (TCC (2-)) adducts [Fe(L1)(TCC)](ClO 4) 1a, [Fe(L2)(TCC)](ClO 4) 2a, and [Fe(L3)(TCC)](ClO 4) 3a have been isolated and characterized by elemental analysis, absorption spectral and electrochemical methods. The molecular structure of [Fe(L1)(TCC)](ClO 4) 1a has been successfully determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The complex 1a possesses a distorted octahedral coordination geometry around iron(III). The two tertiary amine (Fe-N amine, 2.245, 2.145 A) and two pyridyl nitrogen (Fe-N py, 2.104, 2.249 A) atoms of the tetradentate 4N ligand are coordinated to iron(III) in a cis-beta configuration, and the two catecholate oxygen atoms of TCC (2-) occupy the remaining cis positions. The Fe-O cat bond lengths (1.940, 1.967 A) are slightly asymmetric and differ by 0.027 A only. On adding catecholate anion to all the [Fe(L)Cl 2] (+) complexes the linear tetradentate ligand rearranges itself to provide cis-coordination positions for bidentate coordination of the catechol. Upon adding 3,5-di- tert-butylcatechol (H 2DBC) pretreated with 1 equiv of Et 3N to 1- 3, only one catecholate-to-iron(III) LMCT band (648-800 nm) is observed revealing the formation of [Fe(L)(HDBC)] (2+) involving bidentate coordination of the monoanion HDBC (-). On the other hand, when H 2DBC pretreated with 2 equiv of Et 3N or 1 or 2 equiv of piperidine is added to 1- 3, two intense catecholate-to-iron(III) LMCT bands appear suggesting the formation of [Fe(L)(DBC)] (+) with bidentate

  14. Spontaneous magnetization-induced phonons stability in γ‧-Fe4N crystalline alloys and high-pressure new phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Tai-min; Yu, Guo-liang; Su, Yong; Zhu, Lin; Li, Lin

    2018-04-01

    The stability of lattice dynamics and the magnetism of the ordered γ‧-Fe4N crystalline alloy at high pressures were studied by first-principle calculations based on density-functional theory. The dynamical stable new phase P2/m-Fe4N at high pressures was found by conducting the softening phenomenon at the point M (0.5 0.5 0) of the acoustic phonon at 10 GPa in the γ‧-Fe4N via soft-mode phase transition theory. Compared to the phonon spectrum of γ‧-Fe4N without considering electronic spin polarization, the ground-state lattice dynamical stability of the ferromagnetic phase γ‧-Fe4N is induced by the spontaneous magnetization at pressures below 1 GPa. However, P2/m-Fe4N is more thermodynamically stable than γ‧-phase at pressures below 1 GPa, and the magnetic moments of the two phases are almost the same. The ground-state structure of P2/m phase is more stable than that of γ‧-phase in the pressure range from 2.9 to 19 GPa. The magnetic moments of the two phases are almost the same in the pressure range from 20 to 214 GPa, but the ground-state structure of γ‧-phase is more stable than that of P2/m phase in the pressure range from 143.8 to 214 GPa. On the contrary, the ground-state structure of P2/m phase is more stable when the pressure is above 214 GPa. In the pressure range from 214 to 300 GPa, the magnetic moment of P2/m phase is lower than that of γ‧-phase, and the magnetic moments of the two phase tend to be consistent when the pressure exceeds 300 GPa.

  15. Structural characterisation of human galectin-4 N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain in complex with glycerol, lactose, 3′-sulfo-lactose, and 2′-fucosyllactose

    PubMed Central

    Bum-Erdene, Khuchtumur; Leffler, Hakon; Nilsson, Ulf J.; Blanchard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Galectin-4 is a tandem-repeat galectin with two distinct carbohydrate recognition domains (CRD). Galectin-4 is expressed mainly in the alimentary tract and is proposed to function as a lipid raft and adherens junction stabilizer by its glycan cross-linking capacity. Galectin-4 plays divergent roles in cancer and inflammatory conditions, either promoting or inhibiting each disease progression, depending on the specific pathological condition. The study of galectin-4’s ligand-binding profile may help decipher its roles under specific conditions. Here we present the X-ray structures of human galectin-4 N-terminal CRD (galectin-4N) bound to different saccharide ligands. Galectin-4’s overall fold and its core interactions to lactose are similar to other galectin CRDs. Galectin-4N recognises the sulfate cap of 3′-sulfated glycans by a weak interaction through Arg45 and two water-mediated hydrogen bonds via Trp84 and Asn49. When galectin-4N interacts with the H-antigen mimic, 2′-fucosyllactose, an interaction is formed between the ring oxygen of fucose and Arg45. The extended binding site of galectin-4N may not be well suited to the A/B-antigen determinants, α-GalNAc/α-Gal, specifically due to clashes with residue Phe47. Overall, galectin-4N favours sulfated glycans whilst galectin-4C prefers blood group determinants. However, the two CRDs of galectin-4 can, to a less extent, recognise each other’s ligands. PMID:26828567

  16. Variations of atmospheric CH4, N2O and SF6 over Japan and the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishijima, K.; Goto, D.; Ishidoya, S.; Yashiro, H.; Umezawa, T.; Sugawara, S.; Patra, P. K.; Muromachi, A.; Elkins, J. W.; Dutton, G. S.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Morimoto, S.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.

    2013-12-01

    East Asia is one of the most important regions for anthropogenic sources of both short-lived air pollutants and long-lived greenhouse gases (GHGs). According to recent estimates from an emission database, China has become the largest emitter of long-lived GHGs. Since Japan and the East China Sea are located at the east end of Eurasia, atmospheric species emitted from the continent are transported over them throughout the year. Particularly in winter to spring, outflow of the emitted species is enhanced over the East China Sea due to the East Asian Monsoon. To monitor temporal and spatial variability of atmospheric GHGs in the East Asian region, we conducted systematic GHG observations during 2003-2012 from flask samples collected onboard four different commercial ferry boats, which connected between Wakkanai and Rishiri islands (WAK ; 45.4°N, 141.5°E), between Sakaiminato and Oki islands (OKI ; 35.8°N, 133.2°E), between Kagoshima and Okinawa islands (RYU ; 30.0°N, 130.0°E), and between Ishigaki and Hateruma islands (HTR ; 24.0°N, 124.0°E). Air samples were collected almost weekly, and they were sent to Tohoku University and analyzed for GHGs and related gases. In this study, we present analyses of observed CH4, N2O and SF6 concentrations in comparison with simulations by the Atmospheric general circulation model-based Chemistry Transport model (ACTM). The observed three species predictably show higher concentrations than those observed at Cape Kumukahi (KUM), which is a NOAA air sampling site located in the Central Pacific, reflecting strong outflow of the species from East Asia. Annual mean latitudinal gradients found from the four locations as well as decrease toward KUM are generally reproduced by the ACTM. This is mostly because of reasonable spatial distributions in GHG emissions given in the ACTM. The three species also show discernible seasonal cycles. ACTM simulates seasonal cycles of CH4 and SF6 relatively well, but not for N2O, suggesting

  17. GR3027 antagonizes GABAA receptor-potentiating neurosteroids and restores spatial learning and motor coordination in rats with chronic hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Maja; Agusti, Ana; Llansola, Marta; Montoliu, Carmina; Strömberg, Jessica; Malinina, Evgenya; Ragagnin, Gianna; Doverskog, Magnus; Bäckström, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is one of the primary complications of liver cirrhosis. Current treatments for HE, mainly directed to reduction of ammonia levels, are not effective enough because they cannot completely eliminate hyperammonemia and inflammation, which induce the neurological alterations. Studies in animal models show that overactivation of GABAA receptors is involved in cognitive and motor impairment in HE and that reducing this activation restores these functions. We have developed a new compound, GR3027, that selectively antagonizes the enhanced activation of GABAA receptors by neurosteroids such as allopregnanolone and 3α,21-dihydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one (THDOC). This work aimed to assess whether GR3027 improves motor incoordination, spatial learning, and circadian rhythms of activity in rats with HE. GR3027 was administered subcutaneously to two main models of HE: rats with chronic hyperammonemia due to ammonia feeding and rats with portacaval shunts (PCS). Motor coordination was assessed in beam walking and spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze and the radial maze. Circadian rhythms of ambulatory and vertical activity were also assessed. In both hyperammonemic and PCS rats, GR3027 restores motor coordination, spatial memory in the Morris water maze, and spatial learning in the radial maze. GR3027 also partially restores circadian rhythms of ambulatory and vertical activity in PCS rats. GR3027 is a novel approach to treatment of HE that would normalize neurological functions altered because of enhanced GABAergic tone, affording more complete normalization of cognitive and motor function than current treatments for HE. PMID:26138462

  18. Polymeric anionic networks using dibromine as a crosslinker; the preparation and crystal structure of [(C4H9)4N]2[Pt2Br10].(Br2)7 and [(C4H9)4N]2[PtBr4Cl2].(Br2)6.

    PubMed

    Berkei, Michael; Bickley, Jamie F; Heaton, Brian T; Steiner, Alexander

    2002-09-21

    The reaction of M[PtX3(CO)] (M+ = [(C4H9)4N]+, X = Br, Cl) with an excess of Br2 gives the new platinum(IV) salts, [(C4H9)4N]2[Pt2Br10].(Br2)7, 1, and [(C4H9)4N]2[PtBr4Cl2].(Br2)6, 2, which, in the solid state, contain strong Br Br interactions resulting in the formation of polymeric networks; they could provide useful solid storage reservoirs for elemental bromine.

  19. Bloch-Grüneisen nonlinearity of electron transport in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures

    DOE PAGES

    Raichev, O. E.; Hatke, A. T.; Zudov, M. A.; ...

    2017-08-22

    We report on nonlinear transport measurements in a two-dimensional electron gas hosted in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures. Upon application of direct current, the low-temperature differential resistivity acquires a positive correction, which exhibits a pronounced maximum followed by a plateau. With increasing temperature, the nonlinearity diminishes and disappears. These observations can be understood in terms of a crossover from the Bloch-Gr¨uneisen regime to the quasielastic scattering regime as the electrons are heated by direct current. Calculations considering interaction of electrons with acoustic phonons provide reasonable description of our experimental findings.

  20. Microwave Plasma-Activated Chemical Vapor Deposition of Nitrogen-Doped Diamond. II: CH4/N2/H2 Plasmas

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We report a combined experimental and modeling study of microwave-activated dilute CH4/N2/H2 plasmas, as used for chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of diamond, under very similar conditions to previous studies of CH4/H2, CH4/H2/Ar, and N2/H2 gas mixtures. Using cavity ring-down spectroscopy, absolute column densities of CH(X, v = 0), CN(X, v = 0), and NH(X, v = 0) radicals in the hot plasma have been determined as functions of height, z, source gas mixing ratio, total gas pressure, p, and input power, P. Optical emission spectroscopy has been used to investigate, with respect to the same variables, the relative number densities of electronically excited species, namely, H atoms, CH, C2, CN, and NH radicals and triplet N2 molecules. The measurements have been reproduced and rationalized from first-principles by 2-D (r, z) coupled kinetic and transport modeling, and comparison between experiment and simulation has afforded a detailed understanding of C/N/H plasma-chemical reactivity and variations with process conditions and with location within the reactor. The experimentally validated simulations have been extended to much lower N2 input fractions and higher microwave powers than were probed experimentally, providing predictions for the gas-phase chemistry adjacent to the diamond surface and its variation across a wide range of conditions employed in practical diamond-growing CVD processes. The strongly bound N2 molecule is very resistant to dissociation at the input MW powers and pressures prevailing in typical diamond CVD reactors, but its chemical reactivity is boosted through energy pooling in its lowest-lying (metastable) triplet state and subsequent reactions with H atoms. For a CH4 input mole fraction of 4%, with N2 present at 1–6000 ppm, at pressure p = 150 Torr, and with applied microwave power P = 1.5 kW, the near-substrate gas-phase N atom concentration, [N]ns, scales linearly with the N2 input mole fraction and exceeds the concentrations [NH]ns, [NH2]ns

  1. Cloning and expression of porcine β1,4 N-acetylgalactosaminyl transferase encoding a new xenoreactive antigen.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Guerard W; Du, Zeji; Stalboerger, Paul; Kogelberg, Heide; McGregor, Christopher G A

    2014-01-01

    Xenograft rejection of pigs organs with an engineered mutation in the GGTA-1 gene (GTKO) remains a predominantly antibody mediated process which is directed to a variety of non-Gal protein and carbohydrate antigens. We previously used an expression library screening strategy to identify six porcine endothelial cell cDNAs which encode pig antigens that bind to IgG induced after pig-to-primate cardiac xenotransplantation. One of these gene products was a glycosyltransferase with homology to the bovine β1,4 N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (B4GALNT2). We now characterize the porcine B4GALNT2 gene sequence, genomic organization, expression, and functional significance. The porcine B4GALNT2 cDNA was recovered from the original library isolate, subcloned, sequenced, and used to identify a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) containing the entire B4GALNT2 locus from the Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute BACPAC Resource Centre (#AC173453). PCR primers were designed to map the intron/exon genomic organization in the BAC clone. A stable human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell line expressing porcine B4GALNT2 (HEK-B4T) was produced. Expression of porcine B4GALNT2 in HEK-B4T cells was characterized by immune staining and siRNA transfection. The effects of B4GALNT2 expression in HEK-B4T cells was measured by flow cytometry and complement mediated lysis. Antibody binding to HEK and HEK-B4T cells was used to detect an induced antibody response to the B4GALNT2 produced glycan and the results were compared to GTKO PAEC specific non-Gal antibody induction. Expression of porcine B4GALNT2 in pig cells and tissues was measured by qualitative and quantitative real time reverse transcriptase PCR and by Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) tissue staining. The porcine B4GALNT2 gene shares a conserved genomic organization and encodes an open reading frame with 76 and 70% amino acid identity to the human and murine B4GALNT2 genes, respectively. The B4GALNT2 gene is expressed in

  2. Missing-Mass Spectroscopy of the 4-Neutron System by Exothermic Double-Charge Exchange Reaction 4He(8He,8Be)4n

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisamori, Keiichi; Shimoura, Susumu; Miya, Hiroyuki; Assie, Marlene; Baba, Hidetada; Baba, Tatsuo; Beaumel, Didier; Dozono, Masanori; Fujii, Toshihiko; Fukuda, Naoki; Go, Shintaro; Hammache, Fariouz; Ideguchi, Eiji; Inabe, Naohiro; Itoh, Masatoshi; Kameda, Daisuke; Kawase, Shoichiro; Kawabata, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Motoki; Kondo, Yosuke; Kubo, Toshiyuki; Kubota, Yuki; Kurata-Nishimura, Mizuki; Lee, CheongSoo; Maeda, Yukie; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Michimasa, Shin'ichiro; Miki, Kenjiro; Nishi, Takahiro; Noji, Shumpei; Ota, Shinsuke; Sakaguchi, Satoshi; Sakai, Hideyuki; Sasamoto, Yoshiko; Sasano, Masaki; Sato, Hiromi; Shimizu, Yohei; Stolz, Andreas; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Takaki, Motonobu; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Tamii, Atsushi; Tang, Leung; Tokieda, Hiroshi; Tsumura, Miho; Uesaka, Tomohiro; Yako, Kentaro; Yanagisawa, Yoshiyuki; Yokoyama, Rin

    A possible existence of the tetra-neutron system as a resonance state is still an open and fascinating question, while theoretical papers using ab-initio calculation suggests that the bound tetra-neutron does not exist. We have performed a missing-mass spectroscopy of the 4n system via the exothermic double-charge exchange reaction 4He(8He,8Be)4n. The experiment was carried out at the RIBF at RIKEN using the SHARAQ spectrometer. Since the secondary beam, 8He at 190 A MeV, has a large internal energy, it is possible to produce the 4n system with small momentum transfers of less than 20 MeV/c. In the present analysis, a new analytical framework to treat multi-particles under high beam rate condition (2 MHz) was developed for good statistics. At the SHARAQ spectrometer, 8Be can be identified by measuring the invariant mass of the coincident two alpha particles with a good signal-to-noise ratio. About several tens of candidate events are obtained above the 4n threshold.

  3. Electronic, magnetic properties and phase diagrams of system with Fe4N compound: An ab initio calculations and Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masrour, R.; Jabar, A.; Hlil, E. K.

    2018-05-01

    Self-consistent ab initio calculations, based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) approach and using Full potential Linear Augmented Plane Wave (FLAPW) method, are performed to investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of the Fe4N compound. Polarized spin and spin-orbit coupling are included in calculations within the framework of the ferromagnetic state between Fe(I) and Fe(II) in Fe4N compound. We have used the obtained data from abinitio calculations as an input in Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the magnetic properties of this compounds such as the ground state phase diagrams, total and partial magnetization of Fe(I) and Fe(II) as well as the transition temperatures are computed. The variation of magnetization with the crystal field are also studied. The magnetic hysteresis cycle of the same Fe4N compound are determined for different values of temperatures and crystal field values. The two-step hysteresis loop are evidenced, which is typical for Fe4N structure. The ferromagnetic and superparamagnetic phase is observed as well.

  4. Development of ferret as a human lung cancer model by injecting4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Development of new animal lung cancer models that are relevant to human lung carcinogenesis is important for lung cancer research. Previously we have shown the induction of lung tumor in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) exposed to both tobacco smoke and a tobacco carcinogen (4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino...

  5. Detection and characterization of an H4N6 avian-lineage influenza A virus in pigs in the Midwestern United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    H4Nx viruses were reported in swine in Canada and China, but had not been recognized in swine in the USA. In late 2015, an avian-origin H4N6 influenza A virus was isolated from pigs in the United States during a routine diagnostic investigation of clinical respiratory disease in the herd. Serologica...

  6. The Efficacy and Safety of 4-n-butylresorcinol 0.1% Cream for the Treatment of Melasma: A Randomized Controlled Split-face Trial.

    PubMed

    Huh, Sun Young; Shin, Jung-Won; Na, Jung-Im; Huh, Chang-Hun; Youn, Sang-Woong; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2010-02-01

    Melasma is a common acquired symmetrical hypermelanosis that occurs on sun-exposed areas, and it is frequently observed among women. Various treatment modalities have been tried, but none are completely satisfactory. 4-n-butylresorcinol, which is a resorcinol derivative that has an inhibitory effect on both tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-1, was introduced in 1995 and it has received increasing attention as a new hypopigmenting agent. However, the hypopigmenting effect of 4-n-butylresorcinol in human subjects has only been shown in a few studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypopigmenting efficacy and safety of 4-n-butylresorcinol 0.1% cream for the treatment of melasma. Twenty patients with melasma were enrolled to this randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, split-face comparative study. The patients were instructed to apply 4-n-butylresorcinol 0.1% cream or vehicle to each side of the face twice daily for 8 weeks. Mexameter measurements were performed along with photography at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks. Adverse events were observed and recorded throughout the study. All the patients completed the study. Mexameter measurements demonstrated that the melanin index of the treated side showed a significant decrease when compared with that of the vehicle-treated side after 4 weeks (p=0.006) and after 8 weeks (p<0.0005). All the adverse reactions were mild and transient. 4-n-butylresorcinol 0.1% cream showed rapid efficacy and it was well tolerated when used for the treatment of melasma.

  7. Plasticity and ab initio characterizations on Fe 4N produced on the surface of nanocrystallized 18Ni-maraging steel plasma nitrided at lower temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, M. F.; Wu, Y. Q.; Liu, R. L.

    2009-08-01

    18Ni-maraging steel has been entirely nanocrystallized by a series of processes including solution treatment, hot-rolling deformation, cold-drawn deformation and direct electric heating. The plasma nitriding of nanocrystallized 18Ni-maraging steel was carried out at 410 °C for 3 h and 6 h in a mixture gas of 20% N 2 + 80% H 2 with a pressure of 400 Pa. The surface phase constructions and nitrogen concentration profile in surface layer were analyzed using an X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and the glow discharge spectrometry (GDS), respectively. The results show that an about 2 μm thick compound layer (mono-phase γ'-Fe 4N) can be produced on the top of the surface layer of nanocrystallized 18Ni-maraging steel plasma nitrided at 410 °C for 6 h. The measured hardness value of the nitrided surface is 11.6 GPa. More importantly, the γ'-Fe 4N phase has better plasticity, i.e., its plastic deformation energy calculated from the load-displacement curve obtained by nano-indentation tester is close to that of nanocrystallized 18Ni-maraging steel. Additionally, the mechanical properties of γ'-Fe 4N phase were also characterized by first-principles calculations. The calculated results indicate that the hardness value and the ratio of bulk to shear modulus ( B/ G) of the γ'-Fe 4N phase are 10.15 GPa and 3.12 (>1.75), respectively. This demonstrates that the γ'-Fe 4N phase has higher hardness and better ductility.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of rhenium(III) organohydrazide compounds. Crystal and molecular structures of [ReCl(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}(NHNC{sub 5}H{sub 4}N)(HNNC{sub 5}H{sub 4}N)]Cl{sub 2}, [Re{l_brace}2-(Ph{sub 2}P)C{sub 6}H{sub 4}S{r_brace}{l_brace}2-(Ph{sub 2}PO)C{sub 6}H{sub 4}S{r_brace}(NNC{sub 5}H{sub 4}N)(HNNC{sub 5}H{sub 4}N)], and [Re{l_brace}2-(Ph{sub 2}P)C{sub 6}H{sub 4}S{r_brace}{sub 2}(NNC{sub 5}H{sub 4}N)

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Lourido, P.; Romero, J.; Garcia-Vazquez, J.A.

    1999-04-05

    The reduction of ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} with 2-hydrazinopyridine dihydrochloride and PPh{sub 3} gives [ReCl(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}(NHNC{sub 5}H{sub 4}N)-(HNNC{sub 5}H{sub 4}N)]Cl{sub 2} (2). A similar reaction using 2-hydrazino-2-imidazoline and PPh{sub 3} in methanol hydrochloric acid allows the preparation of [ReCl{sub 3}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}(NNC{sub 3}H{sub 4}N{sub 2})] (3). The reaction of the Re(III) complex [ReCl{sub 3}(NNC{sub 5}H{sub 4}NH)(HNNC{sub 5}H{sub 4}N)] (1), with 2-(Ph{sub 2}P)C{sub 6}H{sub 4}SH in methanol yields [Re{l_brace}2-(Ph{sub 2}P)C{sub 6}H{sub 4}S{r_brace}-{l_brace}2-(Ph{sub 2}PO)C{sub 6}H{sub 4}S{r_brace}(NNC{sub 5}H{sub 4}N)(HNNC{sub 5}H{sub 4}N)] (4) and [Re{l_brace}2-(Ph{sub 2}P)C{sub 6}H{sub 4}S{r_brace}{sub 2}(NNC{sub 5}H{sub 4}N)] (5). The same precursor with 2-(Ph{sub 2}PO)-6-(Me{sub 3}Si)C{sub 6}H{sub 3}SH gives [ReCl{l_brace}2-(Ph{sub 2}PO)-6-(Me{submore » 3}Si)C{sub 6}H{sub 3}S{r_brace}(NNC{sub 5}H{sub 4}N)(HNNC{sub 5}H{sub 4}N)] (6) and with PhP(C{sub 6}H{sub 4}SH-2){sub 2} yields [Re{l_brace}PhP(C{sub 6}H{sub 4}S-2){sub 2}{r_brace}(NNC{sub 5}H{sub 4}N)(HNNC{sub 5}H{sub 4}N)] (7).« less

  9. First Ornithomimid (Theropoda, Ornithomimosauria) from the Upper Cretaceous Djadokhta Formation of Tögrögiin Shiree, Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Chinzorig, Tsogtbaatar; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu; Tsogtbaatar, Khishigjav; Currie, Philip J; Watabe, Mahito; Barsbold, Rinchen

    2017-07-19

    The Upper Cretaceous Djadokhta Formation has been intensively surveyed for its fossil vertebrate fauna for nearly a century. Amongst other theropods, dromaeosaurids and parvicursorines are common in the formation, but ornithomimosaurs are extremely rare. A new ornithomimosaur material was discovered from the Djadokhta Formation, represented by eolian deposits, of the Tögrögiin Shiree locality, Mongolia. This is only the third ornithomimosaur specimen reported from this formation, and includes the astragalus, the calcaneum, the third distal tarsal, and a complete pes. The new material is clearly belonged to Ornithomimidae by its arctometatarsalian foot condition and has the following unique characters; unevenly developed pair of concavities of the third distal tarsal, curved contacts between the proximal ends of second and fourth metatarsals, the elongate fourth digit, and a laterally inclined medial condyle on phalanx IV-1. These diagnostic characters of the Djadokhtan ornithomimosaur indicate that this is a new taxon. Our phylogenetic analysis supports three clades within derived ornithomimosaurs, and the new taxon is placed a member of the derived ornithomimosaurs. The present specimen is the first ornithomimid record from eolian Tögrögiin Shiree locality, and is indicative of their capability to adapt to arid environments.

  10. An exon 53 frameshift mutation in CUBN abrogates cubam function and causes Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Fyfe, John C.; Hemker, Shelby L.; Venta, Patrick J.; Fitzgerald, Caitlin A.; Outerbridge, Catherine A.; Myers, Sherry L.; Giger, Urs

    2013-01-01

    Cobalamin malabsorption accompanied by selective proteinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder known as Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome in humans and was previously described in dogs due to amnionless (AMN) mutations. The resultant vitamin B12 deficiency causes dyshematopoiesis, lethargy, failure to thrive, and life-threatening metabolic disruption in the juvenile period. We studied 3 kindreds of border collies with cobalamin malabsorption and mapped the disease locus in affected dogs to a 2.9 Mb region of homozygosity on canine chromosome 2. The region included CUBN, the locus encoding cubilin, a peripheral membrane protein that in concert with AMN forms the functional intrinsic factor-cobalamin receptor expressed in ileum and a multi-ligand receptor in renal proximal tubules. Cobalamin malabsorption and proteinuria comprising CUBN ligands were demonstrated by radiolabeled cobalamin uptake studies and SDS-PAGE, respectively. CUBN mRNA and protein expression were reduced ~10 fold and ~20 fold, respectively, in both ileum and kidney of affected dogs. DNA sequencing demonstrated a single base deletion in exon 53 predicting a translational frameshift and early termination codon likely triggering nonsense mediated mRNA decay. The mutant allele segregated with disease in the border collie kindred. The border collie disorder indicates that a CUBN mutation far C-terminal from the intrinsic factor-cobalamin binding site can abrogate receptor expression and cause Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome. PMID:23746554

  11. PhLeGrA: Graph Analytics in Pharmacology over the Web of Life Sciences Linked Open Data

    PubMed Central

    Kamdar, Maulik R.; Musen, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    Integrated approaches for pharmacology are required for the mechanism-based predictions of adverse drug reactions that manifest due to concomitant intake of multiple drugs. These approaches require the integration and analysis of biomedical data and knowledge from multiple, heterogeneous sources with varying schemas, entity notations, and formats. To tackle these integrative challenges, the Semantic Web community has published and linked several datasets in the Life Sciences Linked Open Data (LSLOD) cloud using established W3C standards. We present the PhLeGrA platform for Linked Graph Analytics in Pharmacology in this paper. Through query federation, we integrate four sources from the LSLOD cloud and extract a drug–reaction network, composed of distinct entities. We represent this graph as a hidden conditional random field (HCRF), a discriminative latent variable model that is used for structured output predictions. We calculate the underlying probability distributions in the drug–reaction HCRF using the datasets from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s Adverse Event Reporting System. We predict the occurrence of 146 adverse reactions due to multiple drug intake with an AUROC statistic greater than 0.75. The PhLeGrA platform can be extended to incorporate other sources published using Semantic Web technologies, as well as to discover other types of pharmacological associations. PMID:29479581

  12. PhLeGrA: Graph Analytics in Pharmacology over the Web of Life Sciences Linked Open Data.

    PubMed

    Kamdar, Maulik R; Musen, Mark A

    2017-04-01

    Integrated approaches for pharmacology are required for the mechanism-based predictions of adverse drug reactions that manifest due to concomitant intake of multiple drugs. These approaches require the integration and analysis of biomedical data and knowledge from multiple, heterogeneous sources with varying schemas, entity notations, and formats. To tackle these integrative challenges, the Semantic Web community has published and linked several datasets in the Life Sciences Linked Open Data (LSLOD) cloud using established W3C standards. We present the PhLeGrA platform for Linked Graph Analytics in Pharmacology in this paper. Through query federation, we integrate four sources from the LSLOD cloud and extract a drug-reaction network, composed of distinct entities. We represent this graph as a hidden conditional random field (HCRF), a discriminative latent variable model that is used for structured output predictions. We calculate the underlying probability distributions in the drug-reaction HCRF using the datasets from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Adverse Event Reporting System. We predict the occurrence of 146 adverse reactions due to multiple drug intake with an AUROC statistic greater than 0.75. The PhLeGrA platform can be extended to incorporate other sources published using Semantic Web technologies, as well as to discover other types of pharmacological associations.

  13. An exon 53 frameshift mutation in CUBN abrogates cubam function and causes Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome in dogs.

    PubMed

    Fyfe, John C; Hemker, Shelby L; Venta, Patrick J; Fitzgerald, Caitlin A; Outerbridge, Catherine A; Myers, Sherry L; Giger, Urs

    2013-08-01

    Cobalamin malabsorption accompanied by selective proteinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder known as Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome in humans and was previously described in dogs due to amnionless (AMN) mutations. The resultant vitamin B12 deficiency causes dyshematopoiesis, lethargy, failure to thrive, and life-threatening metabolic disruption in the juvenile period. We studied 3 kindreds of border collies with cobalamin malabsorption and mapped the disease locus in affected dogs to a 2.9Mb region of homozygosity on canine chromosome 2. The region included CUBN, the locus encoding cubilin, a peripheral membrane protein that in concert with AMN forms the functional intrinsic factor-cobalamin receptor expressed in ileum and a multi-ligand receptor in renal proximal tubules. Cobalamin malabsorption and proteinuria comprising CUBN ligands were demonstrated by radiolabeled cobalamin uptake studies and SDS-PAGE, respectively. CUBN mRNA and protein expression were reduced ~10 fold and ~20 fold, respectively, in both ileum and kidney of affected dogs. DNA sequencing demonstrated a single base deletion in exon 53 predicting a translational frameshift and early termination codon likely triggering nonsense mediated mRNA decay. The mutant allele segregated with the disease in the border collie kindred. The border collie disorder indicates that a CUBN mutation far C-terminal from the intrinsic factor-cobalamin binding site can abrogate receptor expression and cause Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Infection-Induced CD11b+ Gr1+ Cells Ameliorate Allergic Airway Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Venkateswaran; Baru, Abdul Mannan; Hesse, Christina; Friedrich, Christin; Glage, Silke; Gohmert, Melanie; Jänke, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Allergies are mainly characterized as an unrestrained Th2-biased immune response. Epidemiological data associate protection from allergic diseases with the exposure to certain infectious agents during early stages of life. Modulation of the immune response by pathogens has been considered to be a major factor influencing this protection. Recent evidence indicates that immunoregulatory mechanisms induced upon infection ameliorate allergic disorders. A longitudinal study has demonstrated reduced frequency and incidence of asthma in children who reported a prior infection with Salmonella. Experimental studies involving Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium-infected murine models have confirmed protection from induced allergic airway inflammation; however, the underlying cause leading to this amelioration remains incompletely defined. In this study, we aimed to delineate the regulatory function of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in the amelioration of allergic airway inflammation in mice. We observed a significant increase in CD11b+ Gr1+ myeloid cell populations in mice after infection with S. Typhimurium. Using in vitro and in vivo studies, we confirmed that these myeloid cells reduce airway inflammation by influencing Th2 cells. Further characterization showed that the CD11b+ Gr1+ myeloid cells exhibited their inhibitory effect by altering GATA-3 expression and interleukin-4 (IL-4) production by Th2 cells. These results indicate that the expansion of myeloid cells upon S. Typhimurium infection could potentially play a significant role in curtailing allergic airway inflammation. These findings signify the contribution of myeloid cells in preventing Th2-mediated diseases and suggest their possible application as therapeutics. PMID:24343652

  15. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection-induced CD11b+ Gr1+ cells ameliorate allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Venkateswaran; Baru, Abdul Mannan; Hesse, Christina; Friedrich, Christin; Glage, Silke; Gohmert, Melanie; Jänke, Christine; Sparwasser, Tim

    2014-03-01

    Allergies are mainly characterized as an unrestrained Th2-biased immune response. Epidemiological data associate protection from allergic diseases with the exposure to certain infectious agents during early stages of life. Modulation of the immune response by pathogens has been considered to be a major factor influencing this protection. Recent evidence indicates that immunoregulatory mechanisms induced upon infection ameliorate allergic disorders. A longitudinal study has demonstrated reduced frequency and incidence of asthma in children who reported a prior infection with Salmonella. Experimental studies involving Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium-infected murine models have confirmed protection from induced allergic airway inflammation; however, the underlying cause leading to this amelioration remains incompletely defined. In this study, we aimed to delineate the regulatory function of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in the amelioration of allergic airway inflammation in mice. We observed a significant increase in CD11b+ Gr1+ myeloid cell populations in mice after infection with S. Typhimurium. Using in vitro and in vivo studies, we confirmed that these myeloid cells reduce airway inflammation by influencing Th2 cells. Further characterization showed that the CD11b+ Gr1+ myeloid cells exhibited their inhibitory effect by altering GATA-3 expression and interleukin-4 (IL-4) production by Th2 cells. These results indicate that the expansion of myeloid cells upon S. Typhimurium infection could potentially play a significant role in curtailing allergic airway inflammation. These findings signify the contribution of myeloid cells in preventing Th2-mediated diseases and suggest their possible application as therapeutics.

  16. Optical Spectrophotometric Monitoring of the Extreme Luminous Blue Variable Star GR 290 (Romano's Star) in M 33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polcaro, V. F.; Rossi, C.; Viotti, R. F.; Galleti, S.; Gualandi, R.; Norci, L.

    2011-01-01

    We study the long-term, S Dor-type variability and the present hot phase of the luminous blue variable (LBV) star GR 290 (Romano's Star) in M 33 in order to investigate possible links between the LBV and the late, nitrogen sequence Wolf-Rayet Stars (WNL) stages of very massive stars. We use intermediate-resolution spectra, obtained with the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) in 2008 December, when GR 290 was at minimum (V = ~18.6), as well as new low-resolution spectra and BVRI photometry obtained with the Loiano and Cima Ekar telescopes during 2007-2010. We identify more than 80 emission lines in the 3100-10000 Å range covered by the WHT spectra, belonging to different species: the hydrogen Balmer and Paschen series, neutral and ionized helium, C III, N II-III, S IV, Si III-IV, and many forbidden lines of [N II], [O III], [S III], [A III], [Ne III], and [Fe III]. Many lines, especially the He I triplets, show a P Cygni profile with an a-e radial velocity difference of -300 to -500 km s-1. The shape of the 4630-4713 Å emission blend and of other emission lines resembles that of WN9 stars; the blend deconvolution shows that the He II 4686 Å has a strong broad component with FWHM ~= 1700 km s-1. During 2003-2010 the star underwent large spectral variations, best seen in the 4630-4686 Å emission feature. Using the late-WN spectral types of Crowther & Smith, GR 290 apparently varied between the WN11 and WN8-9 spectral types; the hotter the star was the fainter its visual magnitude was. This spectrum-visual luminosity anticorrelation of GR 290 is reminiscent of the behavior of the best-studied LBVs, such as S Dor and AG Car. During the 2008 minimum, we found a significant decrease in bolometric luminosity, which could be attributed to absorption by newly formed circumstellar matter. We suggest that the broad 4686 Å line and the optical continuum formed in a central Wolf-Rayet region, while the narrow emission line spectrum originated in an extended, slowly expanding

  17. Persistence of Lactobacillus fermentum RC-14 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 but Not L. rhamnosus GG in the Human Vagina as Demonstrated by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Gillian E.; Heinemann, Christine; Bruce, Andrew W.; Beuerman, Dee; Reid, Gregor

    2002-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and L. fermentum RC-14 are well-characterized probiotic strains with efficacy in the prevention and treatment of urogenital infections in women. The aim of the present study was to apply a molecular biology-based methodology for the detection of these strains and L. rhamnosus GG (a commercially available intestinal probiotic) in the human vagina in order to assess probiotic persistence at this site. Ten healthy women inserted vaginally a capsule containing either a combination of strains GR-1 and RC-14 or the GG strain for 3 consecutive nights. Vaginal swabs taken before and at various time points after probiotic insertion were analyzed, and the Lactobacillus flora was assessed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. This method generated discrete DNA fingerprints for GR-1, RC-14, and GG and enabled successful detection of these strains in the vagina. Strain GR-1 and/or strain RC-14 was found to persist in the vaginal tract for up to 19 days after vaginal instillation, while L. rhamnosus GG was detectable for up to 5 days postadministration. In conclusion, the fates of probiotic L. rhamnosus and L. fermentum strains were successfully monitored in the human vagina by RAPD analysis. This technique provides molecular biology-based evidence that RC-14 and GR-1, strains selected as urogenital probiotics, persist in the human vagina and may be more suited to vaginal colonization than L. rhamnosus GG. This highlights the importance of proper selection of strains for urogenital probiotic applications. PMID:11777835

  18. The HPV16 E7 Oncoprotein Disrupts Dendritic Cell Function and Induces the Systemic Expansion of CD11b+Gr1+ Cells in a Transgenic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Damian-Morales, Gabriela; Serafín-Higuera, Nicolás; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adán; Cortés-Malagón, Enoc M.; Bonilla-Delgado, José; Rodríguez-Uribe, Genaro; Ocadiz-Delgado, Rodolfo; Lambert, Paul F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein on dendritic cells (DCs) and CD11b+Gr1+ cells using the K14E7 transgenic mouse model. Materials and Methods. The morphology of DCs was analyzed in male mouse skin on epidermal sheets using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Flow cytometry was used to determine the percentages of DCs and CD11b+Gr1+ cells in different tissues and to evaluate the migration of DCs. Results. In the K14E7 mouse model, the morphology of Langerhans cells and the migratory activity of dendritic cells were abnormal. An increase in CD11b+Gr1+ cells was observed in the blood and skin of K14E7 mice, and molecules related to CD11b+Gr1+ chemoattraction (MCP1 and S100A9) were upregulated. Conclusions. These data suggest that the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein impairs the function and morphology of DCs and induces the systemic accumulation of CD11b+Gr1+ cells. PMID:27478837

  19. The Drosophila Gr28bD product is a non-specific cation channel that can be used as a novel thermogenetic tool.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Aditi; Salari, Autoosa; Berigan, Benton R; Miguel, Kayla C; Amirshenava, Marzie; Robinson, Abbey; Zars, Benjamin C; Lin, Jenna L; Milescu, Lorin S; Milescu, Mirela; Zars, Troy

    2018-01-17

    Extrinsic control of single neurons and neuronal populations is a powerful approach for understanding how neural circuits function. Adding new thermogenetic tools to existing optogenetic and other forms of intervention will increase the complexity of questions that can be addressed. A good candidate for developing new thermogenetic tools is the Drosophila gustatory receptor family, which has been implicated in high-temperature avoidance behavior. We examined the five members of the Gr28b gene cluster for temperature-dependent properties via three approaches: biophysical characterization in Xenopus oocytes, functional calcium imaging in Drosophila motor neurons, and behavioral assays in adult Drosophila. Our results show that Gr28bD expression in Xenopus oocytes produces a non-specific cationic current that is activated by elevated temperatures. This current is non-inactivating and non-voltage dependent. When expressed in Drosophila motor neurons, Gr28bD can be used to change the firing pattern of individual cells in a temperature-dependent fashion. Finally, we show that pan-neuronal or motor neuron expression of Gr28bD can be used to alter fruit fly behavior with elevated temperatures. Together, these results validate the potential of the Gr28bD gene as a founding member of a new class of thermogenetic tools.

  20. Spectrophotometric studies of 4-[N'-(4-imino-2-oxo-thiazolidin-5-ylidene)-hydrazino]-benzenesulfonic acid as a reagent for the determination of palladium.

    PubMed

    Lozynska, Lesya; Tymoshuk, Oleksandr; Chaban, Taras

    2015-01-01

    The spectrophotometric behavior of a new, first-time synthesized reagent - 4-[N'-(4-imino-2-oxo-thiazolidin-5-ylidene)hydrazino]-benzenesulfonic acid (ITHBA), has been investigated. A simple, rapid, accurate, selective and sensitive method for the spectrophotometric determination of Pd(II) ions using this reagent was developed. The optimal conditions for the formation of the complexes were found. The molar absorptivity at λ = 438 nm is 7.5 × 10(3) L mol(-1) cm(-1), and Beer's law is observed for the concentrations ranging from 0.2-2.2 µg mL-1Pd(II). The effects of extraneous ions were investigated. The method proved to be successful in determination of palladium in the intermetallides and resistor. The accuracy of spectrophotometric palladium assay in real objects with 4-[N'-(4-imino-2-oxo-thiazolidin-5-ylidene)-hydrazino]-benzenesulfonic acid has been confirmed by voltammetric or atomic absorption spectroscopy method.

  1. 4-N, 4-S & 4-O Chloroquine Analogues: Influence of Side Chain Length and Quinolyl Nitrogen pKa on Activity vs. Chloroquine Resistant Malaria+, #

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Jayakumar K.; Alumasa, John; Yearick, Kimberly; Ekoue-Kovi, Kekeli A.; Casabianca, Leah B.; de Dios, Angel C.; Wolf, Christian; Roepe, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    Using predictions from heme – quinoline antimalarial complex structures, previous modifications of chloroquine (CQ), and hypotheses for chloroquine resistance (CQR), we synthesize and assay CQ analogues that test structure – function principles. We vary side chain length for both monoethyl and diethyl 4N CQ derivatives. We alter the pKa of the quinolyl N by introducing alkylthio or alkoxy substituents into the 4 position, and vary side chain length for these analogues. We introduce an additional titratable amino group to the side chain of 4O analogues with promising CQR strain selectivity and increase activity while retaining selectivity. We solve atomic resolution structures for complexes formed between representative 4N, 4S and 4O derivatives vs. μ-oxo dimeric heme, measure binding constants for monomeric vs. dimeric heme, and quantify hemozoin (Hz) formation inhibition in vitro. The data provide additional insight for the design of CQ analogues with improved activity vs. CQR malaria. PMID:18512900

  2. Energy transfer and thermal stability of Ce3+, Tb3+ co-doped Ca3Si2O4N2 phosphors for white light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baochen; Liu, Yan-gai; Huang, Zhaohui; Fang, Minghao

    2017-12-01

    A series of Ca3Si2O4N2:Ce3+, Tb3+ phosphors were synthesized and their phase composition and luminescence properties were investigated. Results showed that an efficient energy transfer occurred between the Ce3+ and Tb3+ ions. The thermal stability of the Ce3+ emission was dramatically enhanced upon Tb3+ doping. The mechanism was attributed to a shift of the configuration coordinate and an increased energy barrier for thermal quenching, which resulted from the enhanced rigid structure of the host. Finally, a white light emitting diode lamp was fabricated, which exhibited excellent properties. These results indicate that Ca3Si2O4N2:Ce3+, Tb3+ can serve as promising blue-green emitting phosphors for w-LEDs.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of a cadmium bipyridinium compound (CdCl{sub 4})(N,N'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridinium)

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Hui, E-mail: luohui8100483@163.com; Zhu, Li-Cheng; Wang, Qi

    2015-12-15

    A cadmium bipyridinium compound (CdCl{sub 4})(N,N'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridinium), in which the (N,N'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridinium){sup 2+} moieties were generated in situ, has been prepared via solvothermal reactions and structurally characterized with single crystal X-ray diffraction method. Fluorescence measurement revealed a broad and strong emission band in the blue region.

  4. Reconstruction of the multielement apparatus of Neogondolella ex gr. regalis Mosher, 1970 (Conodonta) from the Anisian (Middle Triassic) in British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golding, Martyn Lee

    2018-01-01

    The multi-element apparatus of the Middle Triassic conodont Neogondolella ex gr. regalis has been reconstructed based on material collected from the upper Anisian in British Columbia, Canada. The apparatus of this species group is distinguished by the presence of a segminiplanate P1 element with a high, fused carina, and an alate S0 element with anterior processes that bifurcate at the cusp. This S0 element morphology is unlike those of other species from the upper Anisian of North America, but similar to those from the Lower Triassic. The new reconstruction demonstrates that Neogondolella ex gr. regalis does not belong to the genus Neogondolella, nor to any other Triassic gondolellid genus. It is therefore proposed that Neogondolella ex gr. regalis should be referred to a new genus.

  5. [Effects of nitrogen application rate and its basal-/top-dressing ratio on spatio-temporal variations of soil NO3- -N and NH4+ -N contents].

    PubMed

    Ma, Xinghua; Yu, Zhenwen; Liang, Xiaofang; Yan, Hong; Shi, Guiping

    2006-04-01

    Under high-yielding cultivation condition, this paper studied the spatiotemporal variations of soil NO3 -N and NH4+ -N contents as affected by different nitrogen application rate and its basal-/top-dressing ratio, and calculated the apparent budget of soil nitrogen at different growth stages of wheat. The results indicated that compared with split application, applying all fertilizer nitrogen at jointing stage decreased the soil NO3- -N content and apparent surplus of soil nitrogen before jointing stage, and decreased the nitrogen leaching to deeper soil layers. Applying fertilizer nitrogen at flagging stage had no significant difference with split application in soil NO3- -N content, but increased soil NH4+ -N content. Applying fertilizer nitrogen at maturing stage increased the soil NO3- -N content in 0-60 cm and 0-20 cm layers. In comparing with applying 240 kg x hm(-2) of fertilizer nitrogen at jointing stage, applying 168 kg x hm(-2) of fertilizer nitrogen at the same stage decreased the soil NO3- -N and NH4+ -N contents at flagging stage, soil nitrogen deficit from flagging to maturing stage, and soil NO3- -N content at maturing stage. The grain yield and its protein content had no significant difference among different treatments, but applying all 168 kg x hm(-2) fertilizer nitrogen at jointing stage induced the highest grain protein content.

  6. Electronic structure, molecular interaction, and stability of the CH4-nH2O complex, for n = 1-21.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Pérez, Graciela; Cruz-Torres, Armando; Romero-Martínez, Ascención

    2008-09-18

    Molecular calculations were carried out with four different methodologies to study the CH 4- nH 2O complex, for n = 1-21. The HF and MP2 methods used considered the O atom with pseudopotential to freeze the 1s shell. The other methodologies applied the Bhandhlyp and B3lyp exchange and correlation functionals. The optimized CH 4- nH 2O structures are reported, specifying the number and type of H 2O subunits (triangle, square, pentagon, etc.) that comprised the nH 2O counterpart cluster or cage, that interacted with the CH 4 molecule, and, in the latter case, that provided its confinement. Results are focused to understand the stability of the CH 4- nH 2O complex. The quality of the electron correlation effect, as well as the size of the nH 2O cage to confine the guest molecule, and the number and type of H 2O subunits comprising the nH 2O cluster or cage are the most important factors to provide the stability of the complex and also dictate the particular n value at which the CH 4 molecule confinement occurs. This number was 14 for the HF, Bhandhlyp, and B3Lyp methods and 16 for the MP2 method. The reported hydrate structures for n < 20 could be predictive for future experiments.

  7. Synthesis of p-Co3O4/n-TiO2 Nanoparticles for Overall Water Splitting under Visible Light Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Hai, Zhenyin; Jian, Aoqun; Xu, Hongyan; Xue, Chenyang; Sang, Shengbo

    2016-01-01

    p-Co3O4/n-TiO2 nanoparticles (~400 nm) for photocatalysis were prepared via carbon assisted method and sol-gel method in this work. The paper also studied the application of visible light illuminated p-Co3O4/n-TiO2 nanocomposites cocatalyst to the overall pure water splitting into H2 and O2. In addition, the H2 evolution rate of the p-Co3O4/n-TiO2 nanocomposites is 25% higher than that of the pure Co3O4 nanoparticles. Besides, according to the results of the characterizations, the scheme of visible light photocatalytic water splitting is proposed, the Co3O4 of the nanocomposites is excited by visible light, and the photo-generated electrons and holes existing on the conduction band of Co3O4 and valence band of TiO2 have endowed the photocatalytic evolution of H2 and O2 with higher efficiency. The optimal evolution rate of H2 and O2 is 8.16 μmol/h·g and 4.0 μmol/h·g, respectively. PMID:28335266

  8. Thermodynamic stability, spectroscopic identification, and gas storage capacity of CO2-CH4-N2 mixture gas hydrates: implications for landfill gas hydrates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeong-Hoon; Ahn, Sook-Hyun; Nam, Byong-Uk; Kim, Byeong-Soo; Lee, Gang-Woo; Moon, Donghyun; Shin, Hyung Joon; Han, Kyu Won; Yoon, Ji-Ho

    2012-04-03

    Landfill gas (LFG), which is primarily composed of CH(4), CO(2), and N(2), is produced from the anaerobic digestion of organic materials. To investigate the feasibility of the storage and transportation of LFG via the formation of hydrate, we observed the phase equilibrium behavior of CO(2)-CH(4)-N(2) mixture hydrates. When the specific molar ratio of CO(2)/CH(4) was 40/55, the equilibrium dissociation pressures were gradually shifted to higher pressures and lower temperatures as the mole fraction of N(2) increased. X-ray diffraction revealed that the CO(2)-CH(4)-N(2) mixture hydrate prepared from the CO(2)/CH(4)/N(2) (40/55/5) gas mixture formed a structure I clathrate hydrate. A combination of Raman and solid-state (13)C NMR measurements provided detailed information regarding the cage occupancy of gas molecules trapped in the hydrate frameworks. The gas storage capacity of LFG hydrates was estimated from the experimental results for the hydrate formations under two-phase equilibrium conditions. We also confirmed that trace amounts of nonmethane organic compounds do not affect the cage occupancy of gas molecules or the thermodynamic stability of LFG hydrates.

  9. Vaccination inhibits TLR2 transcription via suppression of GR nuclear translocation and binding to TLR2 promoter in porcine lung infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhiyuan; Liu, Maojun; Zou, Huafeng; Li, Xian; Shao, Guoqing; Zhao, Ruqian

    2013-12-27

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) act respectively as effectors of innate immune and stress responses. The crosstalk between them is critical for the maintenance of homeostasis during the immune response. Vaccination is known to boost adaptive immunity, yet it remains elusive whether vaccination may affect GR/TLR interactions following infection. Duroc×Meishan crossbred piglets were allocated to three groups. The control group (CC) received neither vaccination nor infection; the non-vaccinated infection group (NI) was artificially infected intratracheally with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae); while the vaccinated, infected group (VI) was vaccinated intramuscularly with inactivated M. hyopneumoniae one month before infection. The clinical signs and macroscopic lung lesions were significantly reduced by vaccination. However, vaccination did not affect the concentration of M. hyopneumoniae DNA in the lung. Serum cortisol was significantly decreased in both NI and VI pigs (P<0.01), but only VI pigs demonstrated significantly diminished nuclear GR content. TLRs 1-10 were all expressed in lung, among which TLR2 was the most abundant and was significantly up-regulated (P<0.05) in NI pigs, but not in VI pigs. Accordingly, GR binding to the GR response element on TLR2 promoter was significantly increased (P<0.05) in NI pigs, but not in VI pigs. These results suggest that the inhibition of GR nuclear translocation and binding to the TLR2 promoter, which results in diminished TLR2 expression, is associated with the protective effect of vaccination on M. hyopneumoniae-induced lung lesions in the pig. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Probiotic Interference of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 with the Opportunistic Fungal Pathogen Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Köhler, Gerwald A.; Assefa, Senait; Reid, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most important Candida species causing vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). VVC has significant medical and economical impact on women's health and wellbeing. While current antifungal treatment is reasonably effective, supportive and preventive measures such as application of probiotics are required to reduce the incidence of VVC. We investigated the potential of the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 towards control of C. albicans. In vitro experiments demonstrated that lactic acid at low pH plays a major role in suppressing fungal growth. Viability staining following cocultures with lactobacilli revealed that C. albicans cells lost metabolic activity and eventually were killed. Transcriptome analyses showed increased expression of stress-related genes and lower expression of genes involved in fluconazole resistance, which might explain the increased eradication of Candida in a previous clinical study on conjoint probiotic therapy. Our results provide insights on the impact of probiotics on C. albicans survival. PMID:22811591

  11. Rapid release of metal salts and nutrients from the 2011 Grímsvötn, Iceland volcanic ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, J.; Stipp, S. L. S.; Dalby, K. N.; Gislason, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    On May 21st, 2011, one of Iceland’s most active volcano, Grímsvötn, started its strongest eruption in a century. Grímsvötn produced hundreds of megatonnes of fine basaltic ash, which spread over Iceland, the North Atlantic and Europe. Such fine grained ash can impact human activity and health both with fertilization and with toxicity potential for aquatic environments. The purpose of this study was: (1) to investigate the basic physical and chemical properties of the ash from the 2011 Grímsvötn eruption, (2) to identify surface salts deposited on the ash during the eruption, (3) to identify which elements are released during ash-water interactions and their release rates, (4) to characterize the secondary phases formed during water exposure, and (5) to assess impact of the ash on humans and the environment. During the eruption, we collected a unique set of pristine ash samples over a range of 50-115 km from the source and examined them with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), surface area analysis (BET), laser absorption, electron microprobe (EMPA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The ash could be classified as glassy tholeiitic basalt with <10 mass% crystalline plagioclase (Al1.6Ca0.6Na0.4Si2.4O8) and pyroxene. The particles were small (<125 μm) and elongated with sharp edges. About 50% of the particle mass was fine ash (<63 μm), which could travel long distances, and ∼8% was very fine ash (<10 μm), which is harmful if inhaled. The specific surface area of the pristine ash ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 m2/g. Material taken up on particle surfaces contributed the equivalent of <0.5 nm thick layer, consisting of salts such as CaSO4, Na2SO4, NaCl, CaF2, CaCl2, MgSO4 and MgCl2. We exposed the pristine ash to ultrapure deionised (MilliQ) water in a single pass, plug, flow through reactor and the effluent was analyzed for 73 elements using inductively coupled plasma sector field mass

  12. Linkage-isomerization and charge-transfer in the formation of iron mixed valence complexes, (n-C3H7)4N[FeIIFeIII(dto)3] (dto = C2O2S2) and (n-C4H9)4N[FeIIFeIII(mto)3] (mto = C2O3S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagesawa, K.; Kida, N.; Ono, Y.; Enomoto, M.; Kojima, N.

    2010-03-01

    In iron mixed-valence complex, (n-C3H7)4N[FeIIFeIII(dto)3] (dto = C2O2S2), the linkage isomerisation and charge-transfer between FeII FeIII occur in the precipitation process. We succeeded the suppression of linkage-isomerization and charge-transfer in the formation process of (n-C3H7)4N[FeIIFeIII(dto)3] by the synthesis on low temperature condition and the selection of solvent. Moreover, we have found that the charge transfer occurs in the formation of (n-C4H9)4N[FeIIFeIII(mto)3] (mto = C2O3S) without linkage-isomerization.

  13. Glucocorticoid-induced tethered transrepression requires SUMOylation of GR and formation of a SUMO-SMRT/NCoR1-HDAC3 repressing complex

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Guoqiang; Ganti, Krishna Priya; Chambon, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Upon binding of a glucocorticoid (GC), the GC receptor (GR) can exert one of three transcriptional regulatory functions. We recently reported that SUMOylation of the GR at position K293 in humans (K310 in mice) within the N-terminal domain is indispensable for GC-induced evolutionary conserved inverted repeated negative GC response element (IR nGRE)-mediated direct transrepression. We now demonstrate that the integrity of this GR SUMOylation site is mandatory for the formation of a GR-small ubiquitin-related modifiers (SUMOs)-SMRT/NCoR1-HDAC3 repressing complex, which is indispensable for NF-κB/AP1-mediated GC-induced tethered indirect transrepression in vitro. Using GR K310R mutant mice or mice containing the N-terminal truncated GR isoform GRα-D3 lacking the K310 SUMOylation site, revealed a more severe skin inflammation than in WT mice. Importantly, cotreatment with dexamethasone (Dex) could not efficiently suppress a 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)–induced skin inflammation in these mutant mice, whereas it was clearly decreased in WT mice. In addition, in mice selectively ablated in skin keratinocytes for either nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCoR1)/silencing mediator for retinoid or thyroid-hormone receptors (SMRT) corepressors or histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), Dex-induced tethered transrepression and the formation of a repressing complex on DNA-bound NF-κB/AP1 were impaired. We previously suggested that GR ligands that would lack both (+)GRE-mediated transactivation and IR nGRE-mediated direct transrepression activities of GCs may preferentially exert the therapeutically beneficial GC antiinflammatory properties. Interestingly, we now identified a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory selective GR agonist (SEGRA) that selectively lacks both Dex-induced (+)GRE-mediated transactivation and IR nGRE-mediated direct transrepression functions, while still exerting a tethered indirect transrepression activity and could therefore be clinically lesser

  14. [Myeloid-derived Gr-1⁺ CD11b⁺ suppressor cells are involved in immunoregulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis].

    PubMed

    Wu, Fang; Dang, Dan; Guo, Jun; Li, Hongzeng; Yang, Kun; Zhao, Daidi; Guo, Peng; Li, Zhuyi

    2014-08-01

    To explore the change in the number and role of Gr-1⁺ CD11b⁺ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Totally 30 healthy female C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups: EAE-induced group (n=15) and control group (n=15). EAE was induced by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide 35-55 (MOG35-55), and pathological changes in spinal cords were revealed by HE staining and Luxol fast blue (LFB) staining. The number of Gr-1⁺ CD11b⁺ MDSCs in spleens and spinal cords of the two groups was respectively compared by flow cytometry and immunofluorescent staining. The effect of Gr-1⁺ CD11b⁺ MDSCs from EAE mice on the proliferation of CD4⁺ T cells and CD8⁺ T cells was evaluated by in vitro co-culture system. Twelve of 15 immunized mice (80%) developed EAE. HE staining showed an extensive infiltration of inflammatory cells in the spinal cords of the EAE mice. LFB staining revealed multiple demyelinated lesions in the above inflammatory infiltration. The immunofluorescent histochemistry suggested that many Gr-1⁺ CD11b⁺ MDSCs were present in spinal cords of the EAE mice, but no positive cells were observed in the control group. The mass of spleen in the EAE mice was significantly higher than that of the control mice [(146.5 ± 12.4) mg vs (67.2 ± 8.7) mg, P<0.01], and the proportion of splenic Gr-1⁺ CD11b⁺ MDSCs in EAE mice significantly increased (P<0.01 vs controls). Consistent with the results of immunofluorescent staining, a significantly increased proportion of Gr-1⁺ CD11b⁺ MDSCs in spinal cords of EAE mice was observed with flow cytometry. In vitro co-culture analysis revealed that Gr-1⁺ CD11b⁺ MDSCs from spinal cords of the EAE mice markedly suppressed the proliferation of CD4⁺ T cells and CD8⁺ T cells. EAE induces an expansion and aggregation of Gr-1⁺ CD11b⁺ MDSCs in spleens and spinal cords. These cells suppress T cell proliferation in vitro and are

  15. Stepwise addition of CuNCS onto [Et(4)N][Tp*WS(3)]: design, syntheses, structures and third-order nonlinear optical properties.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhen-Hong; Li, Hong-Xi; Ren, Zhi-Gang; Lang, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Yong; Sun, Zhen-Rong

    2009-05-14

    Stepwise reactions of [Et(4)N][Tp*WS(3)] () (Tp* = hydridotris(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)borate) with 1-4 equiv. of CuNCS (and Et(4)NBr in the case of three equiv. of CuNCS) afforded the [1 + 1] to [1 + 4] addition products [Et(4)N][Tp*WS(mu-S)(2)(CuNCS)].0.5CH(2)Cl(2) (.0.5CH(2)Cl(2)), [Et(4)N][Tp*W(mu(3)-S)(mu-S)(2)(CuNCS)(2)].ClCH(2)CH(2)Cl (.ClCH(2)CH(2)Cl), [Et(4)N](2)[Tp*W(mu(3)-S)(3)(CuNCS)(3)(mu(3)-Br)].1.5aniline (.1.5aniline), and {[Et(4)N][Tp*W(mu(3)-S)(3)(Cu-mu-SCN)(3)(Cu-mu(3)-NCS)]}(n) (). Compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra, UV-vis spectra, (1)H NMR, and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The cluster anion of contains a [WS(2)Cu] core formed by addition of one CuNCS group onto the [Tp*WS(3)] species. The cluster anion of has a butterfly-shaped [WS(3)Cu(2)] core constructed by addition of two CuNCS groups onto the [Tp*WS(3)] species. The cluster dianion of consists of a cubane-like [Tp*WS(3)Cu(3)(mu(3)-Br)] core assembled by addition of three CuNCS groups onto the [Tp*WS(3)] species followed by filling a mu(3)-Br into the void of the incomplete cubane-like [Tp*WS(3)(CuNCS)(3)] fragment. has a 2D cluster-supported layer network in which each [Tp*WS(3)Cu(3)] core acting as a pyramidal 3-connecting node interconnects with the [Cu(NCS)(4)] units through thiocyanate bridges. In addition, the third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) performances of in DMF were also investigated by Z-scan techniques.

  16. Synthesis, crystal structure, and luminescence properties of a new nitride polymorph, β-Sr0.98Eu0.02AlSi4N7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Fumitaka; Yamane, Hisanori; Nagasako, Makoto

    2018-02-01

    Prismatic vermilion single crystals 200 μm-2 mm in size, together with a white powder, were obtained by heating a mixture of binary nitrides containing Mg3N2 at 2030 °C under 0.85 MPa of N2. Yellow, thick-platelet single crystals with sizes of 150-500 μm were also found to grow at or near the surface of the product. Single crystal X-ray diffraction demonstrated that the vermilion crystals were orthorhombic Sr0.98Eu0.02AlSi4N7, which has been prepared in previous studies and is termed the α phase of this compound. The yellow crystals were revealed to be a new polymorph of Sr0.98Eu0.02AlSi4N7 (β phase) that crystalized in a monoclinic cell (a = 8.1062(1) Å, b = 9.0953(1) Å, c = 8.9802(2) Å, β = 111.6550(5)°, space group P21) with twins that could be examined by transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy. β-Sr0.98Eu0.02AlSi4N7 was found to have a three-dimensional network structure formed by the stacking of two types of layers. One is a dreier layer of (Al/Si)N4 tetrahedra that consists of N vertex-sharing double chains of (Al/Si)N4 tetrahedra extending in the c-axis direction with Sr and Eu atoms aligned between the chains, while the other is a layer of (Al/Si)N4 tetrahedra connected by sharing N edges and vertexes. The crystal structure of β-Sr0.98Eu0.02AlSi4N7 is similar to those of certain oxynitrides, such as Sr3Al3+xSi13-xN21-xO2+x:Eu2+ (x ≈ 0) and Sr4.9Eu0.1Al5+xSi21-xN35-xO2+x (x ≈ 0). The peak wavelength and full width at half maximum in the emission spectrum obtained from single crystals of β-Sr0.98Eu0.02AlSi4N7 under excitation at 400 nm were 541 and 66 nm, respectively.

  17. The genetics of domestication of yardlong bean, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis

    PubMed Central

    Kongjaimun, Alisa; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Somta, Prakit; Vaughan, Duncan A.; Srinives, Peerasak

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The genetics of domestication of yardlong bean [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis] is of particular interest because the genome of this legume has experienced divergent domestication. Initially, cowpea was domesticated from wild cowpea in Africa; in Asia a vegetable form of cowpea, yardlong bean, subsequently evolved from cowpea. Information on the genetics of domestication-related traits would be useful for yardlong bean and cowpea breeding programmes, as well as comparative genome study among members of the genus Vigna. The objectives of this study were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for domestication-related traits in yardlong bean and compare them with previously reported QTLs in closely related Vigna. Methods Two linkage maps were developed from BC1F1 and F2 populations from the cross between yardlong bean (V. unguiculata ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis) accession JP81610 and wild cowpea (V. unguiculata ssp. unguiculata var. spontanea) accession TVnu457. Using these linkage maps, QTLs for 24 domestication-related traits were analysed and mapped. QTLs were detected for traits related to seed, pod, stem and leaf. Key Results Most traits were controlled by between one and 11 QTLs. QTLs for domestication-related traits show co-location on several narrow genomic regions on almost all linkage groups (LGs), but especially on LGs 3, 7, 8 and 11. Major QTLs for sizes of seed, pod, stem and leaf were principally located on LG7. Pleiotropy or close linkage of genes for the traits is suggested in these chromosome regions. Conclusions This is the first report of QTLs for domestication-related traits in yardlong bean. The results provide a foundation for marker-assisted selection of domestication-related QTLs in yardlong bean and enhance understanding of domestication in the genus Vigna. PMID:22419763

  18. The genetics of domestication of yardlong bean, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis.

    PubMed

    Kongjaimun, Alisa; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Somta, Prakit; Vaughan, Duncan A; Srinives, Peerasak

    2012-05-01

    The genetics of domestication of yardlong bean [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis] is of particular interest because the genome of this legume has experienced divergent domestication. Initially, cowpea was domesticated from wild cowpea in Africa; in Asia a vegetable form of cowpea, yardlong bean, subsequently evolved from cowpea. Information on the genetics of domestication-related traits would be useful for yardlong bean and cowpea breeding programmes, as well as comparative genome study among members of the genus Vigna. The objectives of this study were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for domestication-related traits in yardlong bean and compare them with previously reported QTLs in closely related Vigna. Two linkage maps were developed from BC(1)F(1) and F(2) populations from the cross between yardlong bean (V. unguiculata ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis) accession JP81610 and wild cowpea (V. unguiculata ssp. unguiculata var. spontanea) accession TVnu457. Using these linkage maps, QTLs for 24 domestication-related traits were analysed and mapped. QTLs were detected for traits related to seed, pod, stem and leaf. Most traits were controlled by between one and 11 QTLs. QTLs for domestication-related traits show co-location on several narrow genomic regions on almost all linkage groups (LGs), but especially on LGs 3, 7, 8 and 11. Major QTLs for sizes of seed, pod, stem and leaf were principally located on LG7. Pleiotropy or close linkage of genes for the traits is suggested in these chromosome regions. This is the first report of QTLs for domestication-related traits in yardlong bean. The results provide a foundation for marker-assisted selection of domestication-related QTLs in yardlong bean and enhance understanding of domestication in the genus Vigna.

  19. Activation of intestinal GR-FXR and PPARα-UGT signaling exacerbates ibuprofen-induced enteropathy in mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhiqiang; Lu, Yuanfu; Wang, Xue; Wang, Fangyu; Zhang, Youcai

    2018-03-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)-induced small intestinal injury (enteropathy) occurs in about two-thirds of regular NSAID users. To date, there is no proven-effective treatment for NSAID enteropathy, and its underlying mechanism remains obscure. The present study showed that glucocorticoids are an important determinant of NSAID enteropathy. High dose dexamethasone (DEX, 75 mg/kg) markedly exacerbated the acute toxicity of ibuprofen (IBU, 200 mg/kg) in the small intestine of mice, which was not due to the pregnane-X-receptor pathway. Instead, glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mediated the effect of DEX (5 mg/kg) on both the acute (200 mg/kg) and 7-day repeated-dose (50 mg/kg) toxicity of IBU in the small intestine. Combined treatment of DEX (5 mg/kg) and IBU (50 mg/kg) synergistically repressed the intestinal farnesoid X receptor (FXR)-cystathionine-γ-lyase signaling, which was accompanied with an elevation in the biliary excretion of bile acids, especially the FXR antagonist tauro-β-muricholic acid. DEX (5 mg/kg) also activated intestinal peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα)-UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) pathway, which increased the formation and enterohepatic circulation of IBU-acyl glucuronide. Furthermore, DEX (5 mg/kg) and IBU (50 mg/kg) altered the intestinal microbial composition, characterized with a marked decrease in Actinobacteria. To conclude, the present study for the first time suggests that glucocorticoids play vital roles in control of IBU enteropathy via intestinal GR-FXR and PPARα-UGT signaling.

  20. CD8 T cells are involved in skeletal muscle regeneration through facilitating MCP-1 secretion and Gr1(high) macrophage infiltration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Xiao, Zhicheng; Qu, Chao; Cui, Wei; Wang, Xiaonan; Du, Jie

    2014-11-15

    Inflammatory microenvironments play a key role in skeletal muscle regeneration. The infiltration of CD8 T cells into injured muscle has been reported. However, the role of CD8 T cells during skeletal muscle regeneration remains unclear. In this study, we used cardiotoxin-induced mouse skeletal muscle injury/regeneration model to investigate the role of CD8 T cells. Muscle regeneration was impaired and matrix deposit was increased in CD8α-deficient mice compared with wild-type (WT) mice whose CD8 T cells were infiltrated into damaged muscle after cardiotoxin injection. Adoptive transfer of CD8 T cells to CD8α-deficient mice improved muscle regeneration and inhibited matrix remodeling. Compared with WT mice, CD8α deficiency limited the recruitment of Gr1(high) macrophages (MPs) into muscle, resulting in the reduction of satellite cell number. The expression of MCP-1 (MCP-1/CCL2), which regulates the migration of Gr1(high) MPs, was reduced in CD8α-deficient mice compared with WT mice. Coculture CD8 T cells with MPs promoted MCP-1 secretion. The i.m. injection of MCP-1 markedly promoted the recruitment of Gr1(high) MPs and improved muscle regeneration in CD8α-deficient mice. We conclude that CD8 T cells are involved in skeletal muscle regeneration by regulating the secretion of MCP-1 to recruit Gr1(high) MPs, which facilitate myoblast proliferation. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  1. CD40 dependent exacerbation of immune mediated hepatitis by hepatic CD11b+ Gr-1+ myeloid derived suppressor cells in tumor bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Kapanadze, Tamar; Medina-Echeverz, José; Gamrekelashvili, Jaba; Weiss, Jonathan M.; Wiltrout, Robert H.; Kapoor, Veena; Hawk, Nga; Terabe, Masaki; Berzofsky, Jay A.; Manns, Michael P.; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco M.; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F.

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppressive CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) accumulate in the livers of tumor-bearing mice. We studied hepatic MDSC in two murine models of immune mediated hepatitis. Unexpectedly, treatment of tumor bearing mice with Concanavalin A or α-Galactosylceramide resulted in increased ALT and AST serum levels in comparison to tumor free mice. Adoptive transfer of hepatic MDSC into naïve mice exacerbated Concanavalin A induced liver damage. Hepatic CD11b+Gr-1+ cells revealed a polarized pro-inflammatory gene signature after Concanavalin A treatment. An interferon gamma- dependent up-regulation of CD40 on hepatic CD11b+Gr-1+ cells along with an up-regulation of CD80, CD86, and CD1d after Concanavalin A treatment was observed. Concanavalin A treatment resulted in a loss of suppressor function by tumor-induced CD11b+Gr-1+ MDSC as well as enhanced reactive oxygen species-mediated hepatotoxicity. CD40 knockdown in hepatic MDSC led to increased arginase activity upon Concanavalin A treatment and lower ALT/AST serum levels. Finally, blockade of arginase activity in Cd40−/− tumor-induced myeloid cells resulted in exacerbation of hepatitis and increased reactive oxygen species production in vivo. Our findings indicate that in a setting of acute hepatitis, tumor-induced hepatic MDSC act as pro-inflammatory immune effector cells capable of killing hepatocytes in a CD40-dependent manner. PMID:25616156

  2. Test Characteristics of Acridine Orange, Gram, and May-Grünwald-Giemsa Stains for Enumeration of Intracellular Organisms in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid

    PubMed Central

    De Brauwer, Els; Jacobs, Jan; Nieman, Fred; Bruggeman, Cathrien; Drent, Marjolein

    1999-01-01

    For enumeration of intracellular organisms (ICO) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples, the May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG) stain displayed higher interobserver agreement than the acridine orange and Gram stains. The MGG stain offered a reliable enumeration of ICO when 200 cells were counted by one observer. PMID:9889233

  3. Effects of artificial sweeteners on the AhR- and GR-dependent CYP1A1 expression in primary human hepatocytes and human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kamenickova, Alzbeta; Pecova, Michaela; Bachleda, Petr; Dvorak, Zdenek

    2013-12-01

    Food constituents may cause a phenomenon of food-drug interactions. In the current study, we examined the effects of artificial sweeteners (aspartame, acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin) on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent expression of CYP1A1 in human hepatocytes, hepatic HepG2 and intestinal LS174T cancer cell lines. Sweeteners were tested in concentrations up to those occurring in non-alcoholic beverages. Basal and ligand-inducible AhR- and GR-dependent reporter gene activation in stably transfected HepG2 and HeLa cells, respectively, were not affected by either of the sweeteners tested after 24h of incubation. The expression of CYP1A1 mRNA and protein in primary cultures of human hepatocytes and in LS174T and HepG2 cells was not induced by any of the tested sweeteners. Overall, aspartame, acesulfame, saccharin and cyclamate had no effects on CYP1A1 expression and transcriptional activities of AhR and GR. These data imply the safety of artificial sweeteners in terms of interference with AhR, GR and CYP1A1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Non-Imidazole Histamine H₃ Ligands. Part VII. Synthesis, In Vitro and In Vivo Characterization of 5-Substituted-2-thiazol-4-n-propylpiperazines.

    PubMed

    Guryn, Roman; Staszewski, Marek; Stasiak, Anna; McNaught Flores, Daniel; Fogel, Wiesława Agnieszka; Leurs, Rob; Walczyński, Krzysztof

    2018-02-03

    H₃ receptors present on histaminergic and non-histaminergic neurons, act as autoreceptors or heteroreceptors controlling neurotransmitter release and synthesis. Previous, studies have found that the compound N -methyl- N -3-phenylalkyl-2-[2-(4-n-propylpiperazin-1-yl)-1,3-thiazol-5-yl]ethan-1-amine ( ADS-531, 2c ) exhibits high in vitro potency toward H₃ guinea pig jejunal receptors, with pA₂ = 8.27. To optimize the structure of the lead compound ADS-531 , a series of 5-substituted-2-thiazol-4- n -propylpiperazines 3 were synthesized and subjected to in vitro pharmacological characterization; the alkyl chain between position 2 of the thiazole ring and the terminal secondary N -methylamino function was elongated from three to four methylene groups and the N -methylamino functionality was substituted by benzyl-, 2-phenylethyl-, and 3-phenyl-propyl- moieties. SAR studies on novel non-imidazole, 5-substituted-2-thiazol-4- n -propyl-piperazines 3 showed that the most active compound 3a (pA₂ = 8.38), additionally possessed a weak competitive H₁-antagonistic activity. Therefore, compound ADS-531 , which did not exhibit any H₁-antagonistic activity, was chosen for further evaluation for its affinity to the recombinant rat and human histamine H₃ receptors (rH₃R and hH₃R, respectively). ADS-531 exhibited nanomolar affinity for both rH₃R and hH₃R receptors. It was also shown that, ADS-531 given subchronically to rats (s.c. 3 mg/kg, 5 days) penetrated the brain, where it affected dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin concentration; however, it did not affect histamine concentration nor feeding behavior.

  5. Biodesulfurization of Thiophenic Compounds by a 2-Hydroxybiphenyl-Resistant Gordonia sp. HS126-4N Carrying dszABC Genes.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Nasrin; Akhtar, Kalsoom; Ghauri, Muhammad A

    2017-12-20

    Microorganisms can metabolize or transform a range of known chemical compounds present in fossil fuels by naturally having highly specific metabolic activities. In this context, the microbial desulfurization of fuels is an attractive and alternative process to the conventional hydrodesulfurization (HDS) process, since the thiophenic sulfur containing compounds such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) and benzothiophene (BT) cannot be removed by HDS. A DBT desulfurizing mesophilic bacterium, identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence as Gordonia sp. HS126-4N (source: periphery soil of a coal heap) has been evaluated for its biodesulfurization traits and potential to desulfurize the thiophenic compounds. The HPLC and LC/MS analyses of the metabolites produced from DBT desulfurization and PCR-based nucleotide sequence confirmation of the key desulfurizing genes (dszA/dszB/dszC) proved that HS126-4N could convert DBT to 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP) via the 4S pathway. The isolate could convert 0.2 mM of DBT to 2-HBP within 48 h and was reasonably tolerant against the inhibitory effect of 2-HBP (retained 70% of growth at 0.5 mM 2-HBP). The isolated biocatalyst desulfurized/degraded 100% of 0.2 mM of 4-methyl DBT, 2,8-dimethyl DBT, BT and 3-methyl BT within 108 h. The capabilities to survive and desulfurize a broad range of thiophenic sulfur containing substrates as well as less inhibition by the 2-HBP suggest that HS126-4N could be a potential candidate for improved biodesulfurization/organic sulfur removal from fossil fuels.

  6. A UV resonant Raman spectroscopic study of the interaction of metallic derivatives of tetrakis(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphine with polynucleotides.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, G V; Laigle, A; Chinsky, L

    1997-08-01

    Resonance Raman spectra excited at 257 nm are reported for the complexes of the Nickel, Cobalt and Zinc derivatives of Tetrakis(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphine with poly(dA.dT)2, poly(dA).poly(dT), poly(dG.dC)2 and poly(dG).poly(dC). These spectra are interpreted as evidence of multiple outside binding modes with poly(dA).poly(dT), and of evidence for an outside binding mode with Poly(dG.dC). Some results obtained for the zinc derivative with poly(dA).poly(dT) suggest a binding mode peculiar to this derivative.

  7. Absorption intensities and complex refractive indices of crystalline HCN, HC3N, and C4N2 in the infrared region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masterson, C. M.; Khanna, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    IR absorption intensities are presented for thin crystalline films of HCN, HC3N, and C4N2, together with n and k complex refractive indices determined on the basis of an iterative program for the Kramers-Konig integral via a least-squares, point-by-point fitting of the experimental transmission data. It is established that the transmission spectra generated by means of these n and k values can reproduce the experimental transmission observation values to within + or - 2 percent.

  8. Elevated utero/placental GR/NR3C1 is not required for the induction of parturition in the dog.

    PubMed

    Gram, Aykut; Trachsel, Alexandra; Boos, Alois; Kowalewski, Mariusz P

    2016-10-01

    The endocrine mechanisms that lead to initiation of parturition in dogs are still not fully understood. The prepartum luteolysis is associated with increased prostaglandin (PG) F2α secretion; however, there is no pregnancy- or parturition-related increase in estrogens. Moreover, unlike in other mammalian species, in the dog, increased peripartum levels of cortisol measured sporadically in maternal peripheral blood are not mandatory for normal parturition. Nevertheless, auto/paracrine effects of cortisol at the placental feto-maternal level cannot be excluded. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the expression and localization of glucocorticoid receptor (GR/NR3C1) in canine utero/placental (Ut/Pl) units and uterine interplacental sites at selected time points during pregnancy (pre-implantation, post-implantation and mid-gestation), and at normal and antigestagen-induced parturition. The Ut/Pl expression of GR/NR3C1 did not change significantly from pre-implantation until mid-gestation; however, it was strongly induced during the prepartum luteolysis. Within the interplacental samples, expression of GR/NR3C1-mRNA was greater post-implantation than pre-implantation and did not change afterward, i.e. toward mid-gestation. Compartmentalization studies within the Ut/Pl units, involving placenta, endometrium and myometrium separately, performed at the prepartum luteolysis revealed the highest GR/NR3C1-mRNA levels in placenta compared with endometrium and myometrium. Interestingly, in antigestagen-treated mid-pregnancy dogs, Ut/Pl and interplacental GR/NR3C1-mRNA expression remained unaffected. At the cellular level, placental GR/NR3C1 was clearly detectable in placenta fetalis, i.e. in trophoblast cells. In conclusion, increased expression of GR/NR3C1 during normal parturition, but not following antigestagen-treatment, suggest that it is not required for initiating the signaling cascade of PG synthesis leading to the induction of parturition in the dog.

  9. Polymorphisms of the GR and HSD11B1 genes influence body mass index and weight gain during hormone replacement treatment in patients with Addison's disease.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Ágnes; Kövesdi, Annamária; Szücs, Nikolette; Tóth, Miklós; Igaz, Péter; Rácz, Károly; Patócs, Attila

    2016-08-01

    Glucocorticoid substitution is essential in patients with chronic primary adrenocortical insufficiency (Addison's disease) and both over-treatment and inadequate dosage have deleterious effects. Individual sensitivity to glucocorticoids is partly genetically determined. To test the hypothesis whether the well-characterized SNPs of the GR and HSD11B1 genes may modulate the individual sensitivity to exogenous glucocorticoids and may influence clinical and/or laboratory parameters and the glucocorticoid substitution dosage in patients with Addison's disease. 68 patients with primary adrenocortical insufficiency were involved. Clinical and laboratory data, as well as the dosage of the hormone replacement therapy were collected. Peripheral blood DNA was isolated, and the GR and HSD11B1 SNPs were examined using allele-specific PCR or Taqman assay on Real Time PCR. The allele frequency of the GR N363S polymorphism was higher in patients compared to the control group and the disease appeared significantly earlier in patients harbouring the GR A3669G compared to noncarriers. These patients had higher ACTH level measured at the time of diagnosis. Homozygous BclI carriers had higher body mass index (BMI) and lower total hydrocortisone equivalent supplementation dose needed than heterozygous or noncarriers. The BMI and weight gain during hormone replacement therapy were also higher in carriers of the HSD11B1 rs4844880 treated with glucocorticoids other than dexamethasone. The BclI polymorphism of the GR gene and the rs4844880 of the HSD11B1 gene may contribute to weight gain and may affect the individual need of glucocorticoid substitution dose in these patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Synthesis of ultrasmooth nanostructured diamond films by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition using a He/H2/CH4/N2 gas mixture

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, S.; Hillman, Damon A.; Catledge, Shane A.; Konovalov, Valery V.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasmooth nanostructured diamond (USND) films were synthesized on Ti–6Al–4V medical grade substrates by adding helium in H2/CH4/N2 plasma and changing the N2/CH4 gas flow from 0 to 0.6. We were able to deposit diamond films as smooth as 6 nm (root-mean-square), as measured by an atomic force microscopy (AFM) scan area of 2 μm2. Grain size was 4–5 nm at 71% He in (H2 + He) and N2/CH4 gas flow ratio of 0.4 without deteriorating the hardness (~50–60 GPa). The characterization of the films was performed with AFM, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and nanoindentation techniques. XRD and Raman results showed the nanocrystalline nature of the diamond films. The plasma species during deposition were monitored by optical emission spectroscopy. With increasing N2/CH4 feedgas ratio (CH4 was fixed) in He/H2/CH4/N2 plasma, a substantial increase of CN radical (normalized by Balmer Hα line) was observed along with a drop in surface roughness up to a critical N2/CH4 ratio of 0.4. The CN radical concentration in the plasma was thus correlated to the formation of ultrasmooth nanostructured diamond films. PMID:18946515

  11. Influence of bulking agents on CH4, N2O, and NH3 emissions during rapid composting of pig manure from the Chinese Ganqinfen system*

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiang-ping; Lu, Peng; Jiang, Tao; Schuchardt, Frank; Li, Guo-xue

    2014-01-01

    Mismanagement of the composting process can result in emissions of CH4, N2O, and NH3, which have caused severe environmental problems. This study was aimed at determining whether CH4, N2O, and NH3 emissions from composting are affected by bulking agents during rapid composting of pig manure from the Chinese Ganqinfen system. Three bulking agents, corn stalks, spent mushroom compost, and sawdust, were used in composting with pig manure in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for more than a month. Gas emissions were measured continuously, and detailed gas emission patterns were obtained. Concentrations of NH3 and N2O from the composting pig manure mixed with corn stalks or sawdust were higher than those from the spent mushroom compost treatment, especially the sawdust treatment, which had the highest total nitrogen loss among the three runs. Most of the nitrogen was lost in the form of NH3, which accounts for 11.16% to 35.69% of the initial nitrogen. One-way analysis of variance for NH3 emission showed no significant differences between the corn stalk and sawdust treatments, but a significant difference was noted between the spent mushroom compost and sawdust treatments. The introduction of sawdust reduced CH4 emission more than the corn stalks and spent mushroom compost. However, there were no significant differences among the three runs for total carbon loss. All treatments were matured after 30 d. PMID:24711356

  12. Metal-Organic Framework Derived Porous Hollow Co3O4/N-C Polyhedron Composite with Excellent Energy Storage Capability.

    PubMed

    Kang, Wenpei; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Lili; Zhang, Liangliang; Dai, Fangna; Wang, Rongming; Sun, Daofeng

    2017-03-29

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) derived transition metal oxides exhibit enhanced performance in energy conversion and storage. In this work, porous hollow Co 3 O 4 with N-doped carbon coating (Co 3 O 4 /N-C) polyhedrons have been prepared using cobalt-based MOFs as a sacrificial template. Assembled from tiny nanoparticles and N-doped carbon coating, Co 3 O 4 /N-C composite shortens the diffusion length of Li + /Na + ions and possesses an enhanced conductivity. And the porous and hollow structure is also beneficial for tolerating volume changes in the galvanostatic discharge/charge cycles as lithium/sodium battery anode materials. As a result, it can exhibit impressive cycling and rating performance. At 1000 mA g -1 , the specific capacities maintaine stable values of ∼620 mAh g -1 within 2000 cycles as anodes in lithium ion battery, while the specific capacity keeps at 229 mAh g -1 within 150 cycles as sodium ion battery anode. Our work shows comparable cycling performance in lithium ion battery but even better high-rate cycling stability as sodium ion battery anode. Herein, we provide a facile method to construct high electrochemical performance oxide/N-C composite electrode using new MOFs as sacrificial template.

  13. High-performance solar-blind Al0.6Ga0.4N/Al0.5Ga0.5N MSM type photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Akira; Ushida, Saki; Nagase, Kazuhiro; Iwaya, Motoaki; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Kamiyama, Satoshi; Akasaki, Isamu

    2017-11-01

    An Al0.6Ga0.4N/Al0.5Ga0.5N metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) deep-ultraviolet (DUV) photodetector was developed. It possesses both high photosensitivity and high rejection ratios in comparison to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The photodetector was designed to have a two-dimensional electron gas layer at the Al0.6Ga0.4N/Al0.5Ga0.5N hetero-interface, which plays an important role in increasing the photosensitivity. Additionally, for reducing the dark current, a V/Al/Mo/Au electrode was employed as a Schottky electrode with an appropriate barrier height. Upon irradiation with 10 μW/cm2, an extremely low dark current (10-11 A) and high photocurrent (5 × 10-5 A) were achieved at a bias voltage of 5 V. The photodetector was true solar-blind with a cut-off wavelength of 280 nm. A high photosensitivity of 106 A/W and a rejection ratio of 106 were realized under the irradiation of 10 nW/cm2 DUV photons. The present results revealed that the AlGaN/AlGaN MSM DUV photodetector is one of the most suitable candidates for an all solid-state photodetector with a performance superior to PMTs.

  14. Removal of ZnO nanoparticles in simulated wastewater treatment processes and its effects on COD and NH(4)(+)-N reduction.

    PubMed

    Hou, Linlin; Xia, Jing; Li, Kaiyang; Chen, Jian; Wu, Xiaolei; Li, Xiqing

    2013-01-01

    For many engineered nanoparticles, the primary pathway of release into the environment is via sewage and industrial wastewater discharges. In this work, the removal of uncoated ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) during simulated wastewater treatment processes and its impact on treatment performance were examined. Simulated primary clarification removed the majority (about 70%) of the dosed ZnO NPs. During simulated sequencing batch reactor (SBR) processes, ZnO NPs were completely removed in each cycle throughout the 11-day experimental duration (two cycles per day). Continuous input of ZnO NPs into the wastewater (at concentrations up to 5 mg L(-1)) did not reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal. NH(4)(+)-N removal was reduced at a dosing concentration of 5 mg L(-1) ZnO NPs per cycle. Inhibition of respiration of nitrifying microorganisms by ZnO NPs corroborated the reduction of NH(4)(+)-N removal. These results indicate that if the wastewater is treated, the release of ZnO NPs into receiving water bodies would be minimal and ZnO NPs would mainly accumulate in biosolids. Uncoated ZnO NPs in wastewater at very high concentrations may have some adverse effects on activated sludge process.

  15. Cytocompatibility of amorphous hydrogenated carbon nitride films deposited by CH4/N2 dielectric barrier discharge plasmas with respect to cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Abhijit; Schröder, Karsten; Hippler, Rainer

    2008-10-01

    Special amorphous hydrogenated carbon nitride (a-H-CNx) films have been prepared on glass substrates for the investigation of adhesion and proliferation of different mammalian cell lines. CH4/N2 dielectric barrier discharge plasmas were applied to deposit a-H-CNx coatings at half of the atmospheric pressure. Film quality was modified by varying the CH4:N2 ratio and deposition duration. Chemical composition was determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. The N/C ratio was in the range of 0.20-0.55. A very small surface roughness was verified by atomic force microscopy. Human embryonic kidney (HEK) and rat adrenal pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells were cultivated on the a-H-CNx films to investigate the cytocompatibility of these surfaces. The microscopic images show that both kinds of cells lines were unable to survive. The cells did not adhere to the surfaces, and most of the cells died after certain time spans. Increased amounts of nitrogen in the film induce an accelerated cell death. It is concluded, that the deposited CNx film behaves cytotoxic to HEK and PC12 cell lines.

  16. Magnetism by interfacial hybridization and p-type doping of MoS(2) in Fe(4)N/MoS(2) superlattices: a first-principles study.

    PubMed

    Feng, Nan; Mi, Wenbo; Cheng, Yingchun; Guo, Zaibing; Schwingenschlögl, Udo; Bai, Haili

    2014-03-26

    Magnetic and electronic properties of Fe4N(111)/MoS2(√3 × √3) superlattices are investigated by first-principles calculations, considering two models: (I) Fe(I)Fe(II)-S and (II) N-S interfaces, each with six stacking configurations. In model I, strong interfacial hybridization between Fe(I)/Fe(II) and S results in magnetism of monolayer MoS2, with a magnetic moment of 0.33 μB for Mo located on top of Fe(I). For model II, no magnetism is induced due to weak N-S interfacial bonding, and the semiconducting nature of monolayer MoS2 is preserved. Charge transfer between MoS2 and N results in p-type MoS2 with Schottky barrier heights of 0.5-0.6 eV. Our results demonstrate that the interfacial geometry and hybridization can be used to tune the magnetism and doping in Fe4N(111)/MoS2(√3 × √3) superlattices.

  17. Discovery of 1-[4-(N-benzylamino)phenyl]-3-phenylurea derivatives as non-peptidic selective SUMO-sentrin specific protease (SENP)1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Uno, Masaharu; Koma, Yosuke; Ban, Hyun Seung; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2012-08-15

    We developed 1-[4-(N-benzylamino)phenyl]-3-phenylurea derivative 4 (GN6958) as a non-peptidic selective SUMO-sentrin specific protease (SENP)1 protease inhibitor based on the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α inhibitor 1 (GN6767). The direct interaction of compound 1 with SENP1 protein in cells was observed by the pull-down experiments using the biotin-tagged compound 2 coated on the streptavidin affinity column. Among the various 1-[4-(N-benzylamino)phenyl]-3-phenylurea derivatives tested, compounds 3 and 4 suppressed HIF-1α accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner without affecting the expression level of tubulin protein in HeLa cells. Both compounds inhibited SENP1 protease activity in a concentration-dependent manner, and compound 4 exhibited more potent inhibition than compound 3. Compound 4 exhibited selective inhibition against SENP1 protease activity without inhibiting other protease enzyme activities in vitro. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Metabolism of the tobacco specific nitrosamines, N'-nitrosonornicotine and 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone.

    PubMed

    Hecht, S S; Chen, C B; Young, R; Lin, D; Hoffmann, D

    1980-01-01

    The metabolism, in the F-344 rat, of the tobacco-specific carcinogens, N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) was studied. NNN was hydroxylated at each position of the pyrrolidine ring; 2'-hydroxylation gave 4-hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in vitro and the corresponding acid in vivo, 3'-hydroxylation gave 3'-hydroxyNNN, 4'-hydroxylation gave 4'-hydroxy-NNN and 5'-hydroxylation gave 4-hydroxy-4-(3-pyridyl)butanal (in vitro) and 4-hydroxy-4-(3-pyridyl) butanoic acid (in vivo). The principle ring hydroxylation in the untreated F-344 rat was 5'-hydroxylation. Pyridine N-oxidation was also observed, giving NNN-1-N-oxide as a major metabolite. The principle urinary metabolites of NNN were formed by 5'-hydroxylation and pyridine-N-oxidation. For NNK, a major process was reduction of the carbonyl to give 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol. alpha-Hydroxylation of both the N-methyl and N-methylene groups was also observed, as was formation of NNK-N-oxide in vitro and in vivo.

  19. 4-N, N-bis(4-methoxylphenyl) aniline substituted anthraquinone: X-ray crystal structures, theoretical calculations and third-order nonlinear optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Liang; Zhang, Dingfeng; Zhou, Yecheng; Zheng, Yusen; Cao, Liu; Jiang, Xiao-Fang; Lu, Fushen

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, mono- and di-4-N,N-bis(4-methoxylphenyl)aniline-substituted anthraquinone have been designed and synthesized through Suzuki reaction. For mono-4-N,N-bis(4-methoxylphenyl)aniline-substituted anthraquinone, polymorphous crystal structures have been obtained in different crystallization conditions. Electrochemical characterization combined with theoretical calculation suggests that the addition of a second triphenylamine unit causes a larger band gap with higher lying LUMO (Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital) and HOMO (Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital). The linear optical property shows that the introduction of a second triphenylamine unit bring about a significant hyperchromic effect with the extinction coefficients increasing from 11199 M-1 cm-1 to 22136 M-1 cm-1. The third-order nonlinear optical properties indicate that the introduction of a second triphenylamine unit lead to a much larger nonlinear absorption coefficient and two-photon absorption cross section, with the relevant value increasing from 2.04 × 10-12 cm W-1 to 3.91 × 10-12 cm W-1, and from 148 GM to 286 GM, respectively.

  20. H4N2 Hydrazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, J.

    This document is part of Part 3 of Subvolume D `Asymmetric Top Molecules' of Volume 29 `Molecular Constants Mostly from Microwave, Molecular Beam, and Sub-Doppler Laser Spectroscopy' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group II `Molecules and Radicals'.

  1. Characteristic of retained austenite decomposition during tempering and its effect on impact toughness in SA508 Gr.3 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Guanghua; Han, Lizhan; Li, Chuanwei; Luo, Xiaomeng; Gu, Jianfeng

    2017-01-01

    Retained austenite(RA) usually presents in the quenched Nuclear Pressure-Vessel SA508 Gr.3 steel. In the present work, the characteristic of RA decomposition and its effect on the impact toughness were investigated by microstructure observation, dilatometric experiments and Charpy impact tests. The results show that the RA transformed into martensite and bainite during tempering at 230 °C and 400 °C respectively, while mixture of long rod carbides and ferrite formed at 650 °C. The long rod carbides formed from RA decomposition decrease the critical cleavage stress for initiation of micro-cracks, and deteriorate the impact toughness of the steel. Pre-tempering at a low temperature such as 230 °C or 400 °C leading to the decomposition of RA into martensite or baintie can eliminate the deterioration of the toughness caused by direct decomposition into long rod carbides. The absorbed energy indicate that pre-tempering at 400 °C can drive dramatically improvement in the toughness of the steel.

  2. Improved treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis with fluconazole plus probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14.

    PubMed

    Martinez, R C R; Franceschini, S A; Patta, M C; Quintana, S M; Candido, R C; Ferreira, J C; De Martinis, E C P; Reid, G

    2009-03-01

    To determine the ability of probiotic lactobacilli to improve the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) using a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trial. Fifty-five women diagnosed with VVC by vaginal discharge positive for Candida spp. (according to culture method) associated with at least one of the symptoms (itching and burning vaginal feeling, dyspareunia and dysuria), were treated with single dose of fluconazole (150 mg) supplemented every morning for the following 4 weeks with two placebo or two probiotic capsules (containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14). At 4 weeks, the probiotic treated group showed significantly less vaginal discharge associated with any of the above mentioned symptoms (10.3%vs 34.6%; P = 0.03) and lower presence of yeast detected by culture (10.3%vs 38.5%; P = 0.014). This study has shown that probiotic lactobacilli can increase the effectiveness of an anti-fungal pharmaceutical agent in curing disease. This novel finding of probiotic lactobacilli augmenting the cure rate of yeast vaginitis, not only offers an alternative approach to a highly prevalent condition that adversely affects the quality of life of women around the world, but also raises the question of how this combination works.

  3. Epidemiological characteristics of Malassezia folliculitis and use of the May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain to diagnose the infection.

    PubMed

    Durdu, Murat; Güran, Mümtaz; Ilkit, Macit

    2013-08-01

    Various bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral pathogens can cause folliculitis, which is often mistakenly treated with antibiotics for months or even years. A laboratory diagnosis is required before therapy can be planned. Here, we describe the prevalence and risk factors, as well as the clinical, cytological, and mycological characteristics, of patients with Malassezia folliculitis (MF) in Adana, Turkey. We also report the treatment responses of the MF patients and describe the Malassezia spp. using culture-based molecular methods. Cytological examinations were performed in 264 folliculitis patients, 49 of whom (18.5%) were diagnosed with MF. The positivity of the May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG) smear was higher (100%) than that of the potassium hydroxide test (81.6%). Using Wood's light, yellow-green fluorescence was observed in 66.7% of the MF patients. Identification using the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region revealed that Malassezia globosa was the most common species, followed by Malassezia sympodialis, Malassezia restricta, and Malassezia furfur. The MF patients were treated with itraconazole capsules (200 mg/d) for 2 weeks. Complete recovery was observed in 79.6% of the patients. These novel findings help improve our current understanding of the epidemiological characteristics of MF and establish MGG as a practical tool for the diagnosis of MF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficacy of ferterra 0.4% GR (chlorantraniliprole) against stem borers and leaffolder insect-pests of basmati rice.

    PubMed

    Sarao, P S; Kaur, H

    2014-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted during three kharif seasons from 2009 to 2011 at Sudhar village, Ludhiana and Rice Research Area of Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. Four doses of Ferterra 0.4% GR (chlorantraniliprole) a new chemistry @ 20, 30, 40 and 50 g a.i. ha(-1) and standard check Cartap hydrochloride 4 G @ 1000 g a.i. ha(-1) was tested against stem borers and leaffolder infesting basmati rice. Over the years, dead heart in all the Ferterra doses and standard check (1.01-1.80%) were at par70 DAT, whereas, at 80 DAT doses @ 40, 50 and standard check were at par (1.04-1.13%) but significantly better than lower doses and untreated control. Similarly, over the years, Ferterra doses @ 40 and 50 g a.i. ha(-1) was significantly better than control in reducing white ear incidence, whereas, at 30 g a.i. ha(-1) and standard check intermediately reduced the white ears incidence. Leaffolder infestation at all the Ferterra doses were at par with standard check 70 DAT (2.69-3.87%), whereas, 80 DAT, Ferterra doses @ 30, 40, 50 and standard check were at par (2.95-3.49%) but significantly better than lower dose and untreated control. Over the years the cost : benefit ratio was maximum (1 : 23.67) in the Ferterra @40 g a.i. ha(-1) dose followed by 50 g a.i. ha(-1) dose.

  5. Grüneisen Parameter and Thermal Expansion by the Self-Consistent Renormalization Theory of Spin Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Shinji; Miyake, Kazumasa

    2018-03-01

    The thermal expansion coefficient α and the Grüneisen parameter Γ near the magnetic quantum critical point (QCP) are derived on the basis of the self-consistent renormalization (SCR) theory of spin fluctuations. From the SCR entropy, the specific heat CV, α, and Γ are shown to be expressed in a simple form as CV = Ca - Cb, α = αa + αb, and Γ = Γa + Γb, respectively, where Ci, αi, and Γi (i = a, b) are related with each other. As the temperature T decreases, Ca, αb, and Γb become dominant in CV, α, and Γ, respectively. The inverse susceptibility of spin fluctuation coupled to the volume V in Γb is found to give rise to the divergence of Γ at the QCP for each class of ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism (AFM) in spatial dimensions d = 3 and 2. This V-dependent inverse susceptibility in αb and Γb contributes to the T dependences of α and Γ, and even affects their criticality in the case of the AFM QCP in d = 2. Γa is expressed as Γ a(T = 0) = - V/T0( {partial T0}/{partial V} )T = 0 with T0 being the characteristic temperature of spin fluctuation, which has an enhanced value in heavy electron systems.

  6. The effect of lamb carcase weight and GR depth on the production of value-added cuts - A short communication.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Stephanie M; Hoban, Jordan M; van de Ven, Remy; Gardner, Graham; Pethick, David W; Hopkins, David L

    2017-09-01

    Times for the progressive breakdown of 95 lamb carcases were recorded to determine the impact of carcase weight and GR tissue depth on the time and therefore cost to produce value added retail cuts. Further analysis also assessed the potential to use these carcase traits as predictors of fabrication times. Regression modeling demonstrated there was a limited ability to predict the difference in time to fabricate mid value-added (R 2 =0.18) and extreme value-added (R 2 =0.12) cuts compared to traditional cuts, suggesting that other factors need to be considered. However, this study highlighted the significant increases in time required to fabricate more value-added cuts and to breakdown heavier carcases. Furthermore, this study demonstrated the changes to the saleable meat yield as the degree of fabrication increased, such that the average product prices increased ($20.64/kg for mid value added and $28.72/kg for extreme value added) compared to traditional retail cuts ($15/kg) to offset the increased labour of fabricating value-added cuts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. According to the strict solution of GR there is no the un-modeled anomalous acceleration of Pioneer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    According to the definition of force f = d (m v) /d t = m (d v / d t) + v (d m / d t ) and the change in masses ( the exchange of momentum-energy tensors bwtween two bodies Tµυ via the field tµν ) deduced by Bondi from Einstein equation ( H.Bondi, Proc. R. Soc. London A 427, 249, 1990 ), we get a new gravitational equation: f GR = f P + f C , f P = -G (m M /r 2 ) (r /r), f C = -G (m M / r 2 ) (v /c) (1). The deductive process is: First if mass is invariable, which implies that the mass may produce the gravitational field but the gravitational field should not lead to the change in mass, i.e., the mass should be an invariable parameter and the fourth dimension momentum i E/c should be entirely independent of three-dimension momentum P. In other words, the energy and the momentum should not compose the four-dimension momentum-energy vector and tensor. Thus, the gravitational equation is no longer a nonlinear but a linear one and Einstein equation should be reduced to Newtonian law: f GR = f P = -G (m M /r 2 ) (r /r). Second according to the mass-energy relation we get: dm /dt = dE /c2 dt, where E = EK + m0 c2 , then from the conservation of four dimension momentum-energy vector P 2 -(E/c) 2 = 0, we obtain: dE/dt = c dP/dt, dm/dt = dP/c dt = f P /c, f C = v (dm/dt) = v (f P /c) = -G (m M /r 2 ) (v /c). Then, we educe Eq.(1) from the special relativity when the mass is variable. In Eq.(1) the gravitational mass is just the inertial mass and the equivalent principle come absolutely into existence. Einstein equation can also be deduced from Eq.(1) and is equivalent to Eq.(1). Now the nonlinear gravitation problems can be solved with the one by one substitute method of masses solved by alone f P and alone f C in Eq.(1), e.g., from one loop Σf P • d s = 0, the energy loss of celestial body running one loop by f C is a typical dipole radiation and a gravitational wave of dipole radiation is predicted.When mass-point B nearing mass-point A, the masses MA and MB will

  8. GR SUMOylation and formation of an SUMO-SMRT/NCoR1-HDAC3 repressing complex is mandatory for GC-induced IR nGRE-mediated transrepression

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Guoqiang; Paulen, Laetitia; Chambon, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Unique among the nuclear receptor superfamily, the glucocorticoid (GC) receptor (GR) can exert three distinct transcriptional regulatory functions on binding of a single natural (cortisol in human and corticosterone in mice) and synthetic [e.g., dexamethasone (Dex)] hormone. The molecular mechanisms underlying GC-induced positive GC response element [(+)GRE]-mediated activation of transcription are partially understood. In contrast, these mechanisms remain elusive for GC-induced evolutionary conserved inverted repeated negative GC response element (IR nGRE)-mediated direct transrepression and for tethered indirect transrepression that is mediated by DNA-bound NF-κB/activator protein 1 (AP1)/STAT3 activators and instrumental in GC-induced anti-inflammatory activity. We demonstrate here that SUMOylation of lysine K293 (mouse K310) located within an evolutionary conserved sequence in the human GR N-terminal domain allows the formation of a GR-small ubiquitin-related modifiers (SUMOs)-NCoR1/SMRT-HDAC3 repressing complex mandatory for GC-induced IR nGRE-mediated direct repression in vitro, but does not affect transactivation. Importantly, these results were validated in vivo: in K310R mutant mice and in mice ablated selectively for nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCoR1)/silencing mediator for retinoid or thyroid-hormone receptors (SMRT) corepressors in skin keratinocytes, Dex-induced direct repression and the formation of repressing complexes on IR nGREs were impaired, whereas transactivation was unaffected. In mice selectively ablated for histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in skin keratinocytes, GC-induced direct repression, but not bindings of GR and of corepressors NCoR1/SMRT, was abolished, indicating that HDAC3 is instrumental in IR nGRE-mediated repression. Moreover, we demonstrate that the binding of HDAC3 to IR nGREs in vivo is mediated through interaction with SMRT/NCoR1. We also show that the GR ligand binding domain (LBD) is not required for SMRT

  9. Integrated Proteomics Identified Novel Activation of Dynein IC2-GR-COX-1 Signaling in Neurofibromatosis Type I (NF1) Disease Model Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Hirayama, Mio; Kobayashi, Daiki; Mizuguchi, Souhei; Morikawa, Takashi; Nagayama, Megumi; Midorikawa, Uichi; Wilson, Masayo M.; Nambu, Akiko N.; Yoshizawa, Akiyasu C.; Kawano, Shin; Araki, Norie

    2013-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) tumor suppressor gene product, neurofibromin, functions in part as a Ras-GAP, and though its loss is implicated in the neuronal abnormality of NF1 patients, its precise cellular function remains unclear. To study the molecular mechanism of NF1 pathogenesis, we prepared NF1 gene knockdown (KD) PC12 cells, as a NF1 disease model, and analyzed their molecular (gene and protein) expression profiles with a unique integrated proteomics approach, comprising iTRAQ, 2D-DIGE, and DNA microarrays, using an integrated protein and gene expression analysis chart (iPEACH). In NF1-KD PC12 cells showing abnormal neuronal differentiation after NGF treatment, of 3198 molecules quantitatively identified and listed in iPEACH, 97 molecules continuously up- or down-regulated over time were extracted. Pathway and network analysis further revealed overrepresentation of calcium signaling and transcriptional regulation by glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the up-regulated protein set, whereas nerve system development was overrepresented in the down-regulated protein set. The novel up-regulated network we discovered, “dynein IC2-GR-COX-1 signaling,” was then examined in NF1-KD cells. Validation studies confirmed that NF1 knockdown induces altered splicing and phosphorylation patterns of dynein IC2 isomers, up-regulation and accumulation of nuclear GR, and increased COX-1 expression in NGF-treated cells. Moreover, the neurite retraction phenotype observed in NF1-KD cells was significantly recovered by knockdown of the dynein IC2-C isoform and COX-1. In addition, dynein IC2 siRNA significantly inhibited nuclear translocation and accumulation of GR and up-regulation of COX-1 expression. These results suggest that dynein IC2 up-regulates GR nuclear translocation and accumulation, and subsequently causes increased COX-1 expression, in this NF1 disease model. Our integrated proteomics strategy, which combines multiple approaches, demonstrates that NF1-related neural

  10. Continuous state-space representation of a bucket-type rainfall-runoff model: a case study with the GR4 model using state-space GR4 (version 1.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Léonard; Thirel, Guillaume; Perrin, Charles

    2018-04-01

    In many conceptual rainfall-runoff models, the water balance differential equations are not explicitly formulated. These differential equations are solved sequentially by splitting the equations into terms that can be solved analytically with a technique called operator splitting. As a result, only the solutions of the split equations are used to present the different models. This article provides a methodology to make the governing water balance equations of a bucket-type rainfall-runoff model explicit and to solve them continuously. This is done by setting up a comprehensive state-space representation of the model. By representing it in this way, the operator splitting, which makes the structural analysis of the model more complex, could be removed. In this state-space representation, the lag functions (unit hydrographs), which are frequent in rainfall-runoff models and make the resolution of the representation difficult, are first replaced by a so-called Nash cascade and then solved with a robust numerical integration technique. To illustrate this methodology, the GR4J model is taken as an example. The substitution of the unit hydrographs with a Nash cascade, even if it modifies the model behaviour when solved using operator splitting, does not modify it when the state-space representation is solved using an implicit integration technique. Indeed, the flow time series simulated by the new representation of the model are very similar to those simulated by the classic model. The use of a robust numerical technique that approximates a continuous-time model also improves the lag parameter consistency across time steps and provides a more time-consistent model with time-independent parameters.

  11. Spectral studies of SiCl4 + N2O + Ar and SiH4 + Ar mixtures in a shock tube in 160-550 nm range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C.; Fujiwara, T.

    1978-01-01

    Gases containing SiO, SiO2, SiH, and Si2 were produced in the reflected-shock region of a shock tube by heating SiCl4 + N2O + Ar and SiH4 + Ar mixtures with shock waves. Spectral absorption characteristics were measured in the 160-550 nm wavelength range and in the 2800-3600 K temperature range and compared to calculated values. The sums of the squares of electronic transition moments at equilibrium separation were derived. It was found that absorption by SiO2 and other known bands of SiO, SiH, and Si2 were too weak to be measured. The cross section of absorption by a continuum, believed due to SiH, varied from 2.5 x 10 to the -17th sq cm at 280 nm to 1.6 x 10 to the -18th sq cm at 440 nm.

  12. Luminescently tagged 2,2'-bipyridine complex of FeII: synthesis and photophysical studies of 4-[N-(2-anthryl)carbamoyl]-4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridine.

    PubMed

    Zigler, David F; Elvington, Mark C; Heinecke, Julie; Brewer, Karen J

    2006-08-21

    The anthracene lumiphore was linked to the chelating ligand 2,2'-bipyridine, forming 4-[N-(2-anthryl)carbamoyl]-4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridine (bpyAnth). Coupling through an amide linkage provides some electronic isolation of the anthracene lumiphore. Electrochemistry suggested little change of the anthracene oxidation whether free (1.35 V) linked to 2,2'-bipyridine as bpyAnth (1.30 V) or appended to Fe(II) (1.29 V). The bpyAnth ligand retained the structured luminescence characteristic of anthracene at 375, 400, 419, and 441 nm. This anthracene emission persists even when bpyAnth is complexed to an Fe(II) center. The complex [Fe(bpyAnth)3]2+ is emissive, in marked contrast to typical polyazine iron(II) complexes. This bpyAnth ligand serves as a luminescently tagged analogue of 2,2'-bipyridine, useful for coordination to a variety of metals.

  13. Intramolecular charge delocalization and nonlinear optical properties of push-pull chromophore 1-(4-N,N-dimethylaminopyridinium) acetic acid bromide monohydrate from vibrational spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesintha John, C.; Amalanathan, M.; Sajan, D.; Udaya Lakshmi, K.; Hubert Joe, I.

    2011-01-01

    FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra of the nonlinear optical crystal 1-(4-N,N-dimethylaminopyridinium) acetic acid bromide monohydrate have been recorded and analyzed. The equilibrium geometry, vibrational wavenumbers and the first order hyperpolarizability of the crystal have been calculated with the help of density functional theory computations. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of Scaled Quantum Mechanic force field theory. Optimized geometry gives the charge transfer interaction of the pyridine ring and the amino group in the electron-donor side of the nonlinear optic chromophore. Electron-phonon coupling and O-H⋯O interactions in making the molecule nonlinear optical active have been analyzed based on the vibrational spectral features. The Natural Bond Orbital analysis confirms the occurrence of strong intermolecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonding.

  14. Reassessment of structure of smectic phases: Nano-segregation in smectic E phase in 4-n-alkyl-4'-isothiocyanato-1,1'-biphenyls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Kazuya; Miyazawa, Takahito; Fujiwara, Akio; Hishida, Mafumi; Saitoh, Hideki; Massalska-Arodź, Maria; Yamamura, Yasuhisa

    2013-09-01

    Based on new diffraction data from aligned samples of smectic E (SmE) phase of 4-n-alkyl-4'-isothiocyanato-1,1'-biphenyls, systematics against the alkyl chain length n is analyzed. In order to perform the analysis, the molecular form factor approximated by a box-shaped distribution is calculated while taking the rounding of the distribution at corners into account. The analysis clearly shows the nano-segregated layered structure, which does not fit to the traditional structural view of SmE phase but does fit to the model the present authors proposed recently. Some implications of this conclusion are discussed in relation to the importance of the molten state of alkyl chains in most of real mesogens revealed previously through thermodynamic analyses.

  15. Regulation of Nucleosome Stacking and Chromatin Compaction by the Histone H4 N-Terminal Tail-H2A Acidic Patch Interaction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qinming; Yang, Renliang; Korolev, Nikolay; Liu, Chuan Fa; Nordenskiöld, Lars

    2017-06-30

    Chromatin folding and dynamics are critically dependent on nucleosome-nucleosome interactions with important contributions from internucleosome binding of the histone H4 N-terminal tail K16-R23 domain to the surface of the H2A/H2B dimer. The H4 Lys16 plays a pivotal role in this regard. Using in vitro reconstituted 12-mer nucleosome arrays, we have investigated the mechanism of the H4 N-terminal tail in maintaining nucleosome-nucleosome stacking and mediating intra- and inter-array chromatin compaction, with emphasis on the role of K16 and the positive charge region, R17-R23. Analytical ultracentrifugation sedimentation velocity experiments and precipitation assays were employed to analyze effects on chromatin folding and self-association, respectively. Effects on chromatin folding caused by various mutations and modifications at position K16 in the H4 histone were studied. Additionally, using charge-quenching mutations, we characterized the importance of the interaction of the residues within the H4 positive charge region R17-R23 with the H2A acidic patch of the adjacent nucleosome. Furthermore, crosslinking experiments were conducted to establish the proximity of the basic tail region to the acidic patch. Our data indicate that the positive charge and length of the side chain of H4 K16 are important for its access to the adjacent nucleosome in the process of nucleosome-nucleosome stacking and array folding. The location and orientation of the H4 R17-R23 domain on the H2A/H2B dimer surface of the neighboring nucleosome core particle (NCP) in the compacted chromatin fiber were established. The dominance of electrostatic interactions in maintaining intra-array interaction was demonstrated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Maternal fat intake in rats alters 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 status and the epigenetic regulation of Fads2 in offspring liver.

    PubMed

    Hoile, Samuel P; Irvine, Nicola A; Kelsall, Christopher J; Sibbons, Charlene; Feunteun, Aurélie; Collister, Alex; Torrens, Christopher; Calder, Philip C; Hanson, Mark A; Lillycrop, Karen A; Burdge, Graham C

    2013-07-01

    Poor prenatal nutrition, acting through epigenetic processes, induces persistent changes in offspring phenotype. We investigated the effect of maternal fat intake on polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status and on the epigenetic regulation of Fads2, encoding Δ6 desaturase (rate limiting in PUFA synthesis), in the adult offspring. Rats (n=6 per dietary group) were fed either 3.5% (w/w), 7% (w/w) or 21% (w/w) butter or fish oil (FO) from 14 days preconception until weaning. Offspring (n=6 males and females per dietary group) were fed 4% (w/w) soybean oil until postnatal day 77. 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 levels were lower in liver phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine and plasma PC (all P<.0001) in offspring of dams fed 21% than 3.5% or 7% fat regardless of type. Hepatic Fads2 expression related inversely to maternal dietary fat. Fads2 messenger RNA expression correlated negatively with methylation of CpGs at -623, -394, -84 and -76 bases relative to the transcription start site (all P<.005). Methylation of these CpGs was higher in offspring of dams fed 21% than 3.5% or 7% fat; FO higher than butter. Feeding adult female rats 7% fat reduced 20:4n-6 status in liver PC and Fads2 expression and increased methylation of CpGs -623, -394, -84 and -76 that reversed in animals switched from 7% to 4% fat diets. These findings suggest that fat exposure during development induces persistent changes, while adults exhibit a transient response, in hepatic PUFA status in offspring through epigenetic regulation of Fads2. Thus, epigenetic regulation of Fads2 may contribute to short- and long-term regulation of PUFA synthesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Grapevine Root-Specific Aquaporin VvPIP2;4N Controls Root Hydraulic Conductance and Leaf Gas Exchange under Well-Watered Conditions But Not under Water Stress1[W

    PubMed Central

    Perrone, Irene; Gambino, Giorgio; Chitarra, Walter; Vitali, Marco; Pagliarani, Chiara; Riccomagno, Nadia; Balestrini, Raffaella; Kaldenhoff, Ralf; Uehlein, Norbert; Gribaudo, Ivana; Schubert, Andrea; Lovisolo, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    We functionally characterized the grape (Vitis vinifera) VvPIP2;4N (for Plasma membrane Intrinsic Protein) aquaporin gene. Expression of VvPIP2;4N in Xenopus laevis oocytes increased their swelling rate 54-fold. Northern blot and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that VvPIP2;4N is the most expressed PIP2 gene in root. In situ hybridization confirmed root localization in the cortical parenchyma and close to the endodermis. We then constitutively overexpressed VvPIP2;4N in grape ‘Brachetto’, and in the resulting transgenic plants we analyzed (1) the expression of endogenous and transgenic VvPIP2;4N and of four other aquaporins, (2) whole-plant, root, and leaf ecophysiological parameters, and (3) leaf abscisic acid content. Expression of transgenic VvPIP2;4N inhibited neither the expression of the endogenous gene nor that of other PIP aquaporins in both root and leaf. Under well-watered conditions, transgenic plants showed higher stomatal conductance, gas exchange, and shoot growth. The expression level of VvPIP2;4N (endogenous + transgene) was inversely correlated to root hydraulic resistance. The leaf component of total plant hydraulic resistance was low and unaffected by overexpression of VvPIP2;4N. Upon water stress, the overexpression of VvPIP2;4N induced a surge in leaf abscisic acid content and a decrease in stomatal conductance and leaf gas exchange. Our results show that aquaporin-mediated modifications of root hydraulics play a substantial role in the regulation of water flow in well-watered grapevine plants, while they have a minor role upon drought, probably because other signals, such as abscisic acid, take over the control of water flow. PMID:22923680

  18. Stability and Localization of a Hydrothermal Field on a Rift Valley Wall: GR-14 on the Northern Gorda Ridge, 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClain, J. S.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Clague, D. A.; von Damm, K. L.; Voight, J. R.; Olson, E. J.

    2002-12-01

    In late July of 2002, we undertook a research expedition on the RV Western Flyer of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. The cruise included two ROV dives to the GR-14 (Sea Cliff) Hydrothermal Site, located on the rifted, volcanically active, northern Gorda Ridge. The vent field is located 3 km to the east and 300 meters above the ridge axis. It is localized on one of the major rift-bounding faults. The fault forms one side of a "linear ridge", with the vents are located below the crest of the ridge. These dives were intended to repeat and augment sampling and observations made during 2000, in order to document any changes in the hydrothermal field, and to constrain models for its location and localization. The combined 2000 and 2002 dives reveal that the Sea Cliff Field has undergone little change over the last two years, although it appears to be substantially more active than when it was first discovered in 1988. GR-14 has a "bulls-eye" geometry. At the center are the higher temperature vents active chimneys. Vent fluid temperatures fall in a narrow range of around 305 degrees Celsius, and the fluids have lower salinity than seawater, indicating a separated vapor phase at depth. The chimneys themselves are primarily anhydrite with an interior lining of pale green Mg-rich smectite and minor amounts of sulfide minerals. They are delicate, and are surrounded by a crust comprising debris from collapsed chimneys sitting on a silicified crust including clasts of chimney fragments. However, we found that many of the vents are stable over two years, with new chimneys growing in the same locations. Fauna on the chimneys or crust are rare. Surrounding the main vent field is a region primarily comprising basalt talus, with abundant diffuse venting and vent fauna. These include abundant tubeworm bushes of long thin Ridgia. In 2002 we discovered a zone of zinc and copper-rich massive sulfide at the deeper (western) boundary of the active field. These sulfides were

  19. Time dependence of volcano inflation: mass influx or viscoelastic relaxation? Insights from Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segall, P.

    2017-12-01

    Distinguishing magma chamber pressurization from relaxation of a viscoelastic aureole surrounding the chamber based on geodetic measurements has remained challenging. Elastic models with mass inflow proportional to the pressure difference between the chamber and a deep reservoir predict exponentially decaying flux. For a spherical chamber surrounded by a Maxwell viscoelastic shell with pressure dependent recharge, the surface deformation is the sum of two exponentials (Segall, 2016). GPS displacements following eruptions of Grímsvötn, Iceland in 2004 and 2011 exhibit rapid post-eruptive inflation (time scale of 0.1 yr), followed by inflation with a much longer time constant. Markov Chain Monte Carlo inversion with the viscoelastic model shows the GPS time series can be fit with viscosity of 2e16 Pa-s, and a relatively incompressible magma, B = beta_c/ (beta_m + beta_c) > 0.6, where beta_m and beta_c are chamber and magma compressibility. The latter appears to conflict with the ratio of erupted volume to geodetically inferred source volume change, rv 10, obtained for the best fitting spherical (Mogi ) source (Hreinsdóttir, 2014). Since rv = 1/B, this implies a relatively compressible melt, B 0.1. Reexamination of the co-eruptive GPS and tilt data with the more general ellipsoidal model of Cervelli (2013), reveals that the best fitting sources are oblate (b/a 3), deeper, and with larger volume changes, rv 3, relative to spherical models. Oblate magma chambers are consistent with seismic tomography. FEM calculations including free surface effects lead to even larger co-eruptive volume changes, smaller rv and hence larger B. I conclude that the data are consistent with rapid post-eruptive inflation driven by viscoelastic relaxation with a relatively incompressible magma, although other interpretations will be discussed.

  20. Kinetic and thermodynamic characterization of a halotolerant β-galactosidase produced by halotolerant Aspergillus tubingensis GR1.

    PubMed

    Raol, Gopalkumar G; Raol, B V; Prajapati, Vimal S; Patel, Kamlesh C

    2015-07-01

    β-Galactosidase from halotolerant Aspergillus tubingensis GR1 was purified by two-step purification process comprising ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The recovery of β-galactosidase after SEC was found to be 1.40% with 58.55-fold increase in specific activity. The molecular weight of β-galactosidase protein was found to be 93 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Activation energy for O-nitrophenol β-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) hydrolysis was 32.88 kJ mol(-1), while temperature quotient (Q(10)) was found to be 1.375. The enzyme was found to be stable over wide pH range and thermally stable at 60-65°C up to 60 min of incubation while exhibited maximum activity at 65°C with pH 3.0. V(max), K(m), and K(cat) for ONPG were found to be 2000 U ml(-1), 8.33 mM (ONPG), and 101454 s(-1), respectively. Activation energy for irreversible inactivation Ea(d) of β-galactosidase was 100.017 kJ mol(-1). Thermodynamic parameters of irreversible inactivation of β-galactosidase and ONPG hydrolysis were also determined. However, β-galactosidase enzyme activity was activated significantly in the presence of 15% NaCl and hence shows activity up to 30% NaCl concentration. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Intrathecal dihydroergotamine inhibits capsaicin-induced vasodilatation in the canine external carotid circulation via GR127935- and rauwolscine-sensitive receptors.

    PubMed

    Marichal-Cancino, Bruno A; González-Hernández, Abimael; Manrique-Maldonado, Guadalupe; Ruiz-Salinas, Inna I; Altamirano-Espinoza, Alain H; MaassenVanDenBrink, Antoinette; Villalón, Carlos M

    2012-10-05

    It has been suggested that during a migraine attack trigeminal nerves release calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), producing central nociception and vasodilatation of cranial arteries, including the extracranial branches of the external carotid artery. Since trigeminal inhibition may prevent this vasodilatation, the present study has investigated the effects of intrathecal dihydroergotamine on the external carotid vasodilatation to capsaicin, α-CGRP and acetylcholine. Anaesthetized vagosympathectomized dogs were prepared to measure blood pressure, heart rate and external carotid conductance. A catheter was inserted into the right common carotid artery for the continuous infusion of phenylephrine (to restore the carotid vascular tone), whereas the corresponding thyroid artery was cannulated for one-min intracarotid infusions of capsaicin, α-CGRP and acetylcholine (which dose-dependently increased the external carotid conductance). Another cannula was inserted intrathecally (C(1)-C(3)) for the administration of dihydroergotamine, the α(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist rauwolscine or the serotonin 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor antagonist GR127935 (N-[4-methoxy-3-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl) phenyl]-2'-methyl-4'-(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)[1,1-biphenyl]-4-carboxamide hydrochloride monohydrate). Intrathecal dihydroergotamine (10, 31 and 100μg) inhibited the vasodilatation to capsaicin, but not that to α-CGRP or acetylcholine. This inhibition was: (i) unaffected by 10μg GR127935 or 100μg rauwolscine, but abolished by 31μg GR127935 or 310μg rauwolscine at 10μg dihydroergotamine; and (ii) abolished by the combination 10μg GR127935+100μg rauwolscine at 100μg dihydroergotamine. Thus, intrathecal (C(1)-C(3)) dihydroergotamine seems to inhibit the external carotid vasodilatation to capsaicin by spinal activation of serotonin 5-HT(1B/1D) (probably 5-HT(1B)) receptors and α(2) (probably α(2A/2C))-adrenoceptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ghrelin accelerates wound healing through GHS-R1a-mediated MAPK-NF-κB/GR signaling pathways in combined radiation and burn injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cong; Huang, Jiawei; Li, Hong; Yang, Zhangyou; Zeng, Yiping; Liu, Jing; Hao, Yuhui; Li, Rong

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of ghrelin on wound healing was assessed using a rat model of combined radiation and burn injury (CRBI). Rat ghrelin, anti-rat tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α polyclonal antibody (PcAb), or selective antagonists of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) 1a (SB203580, SP600125, and [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6, respectively), were administered for seven consecutive days. Levels of various signaling molecules were assessed in isolated rat peritoneal macrophages. The results showed that serum ghrelin levels and levels of macrophage glucocorticoid receptor (GR) decreased, while phosphorylation of p38MAPK, JNK, and p65 nuclear factor (NF) κB increased. Ghrelin inhibited the serum induction of proinflammatory mediators, especially TNF-α, and promoted wound healing in a dose-dependent manner. Ghrelin treatment decreased phosphorylation of p38MAPK, JNK, and p65NF-κB, and increased GR levels in the presence of GHS-R1a. SB203580 or co-administration of SB203580 and SP600125 decreased TNF-α level, which may have contributed to the inactivation of p65NF-κB and increase in GR expression, as confirmed by western blotting. In conclusion, ghrelin enhances wound recovery in CRBI rats, possibly by decreasing the induction of TNF-α or other proinflammatory mediators that are involved in the regulation of GHS-R1a-mediated MAPK-NF-κB/GR signaling pathways. PMID:27271793

  3. Exact period-four solutions of a family of n-dimensional quadratic maps via harmonic balance and Gröbner bases.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, María Belén; Calandrini, Guillermo L

    2015-11-01

    Analytical solutions of the period-four orbits exhibited by a classical family of n-dimensional quadratic maps are presented. Exact expressions are obtained by applying harmonic balance and Gröbner bases to a single-input single-output representation of the system. A detailed study of a generalized scalar quadratic map and a well-known delayed logistic model is included for illustration. In the former example, conditions for the existence of bistability phenomenon are also introduced.

  4. [Efficacy of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GR-1 and of Lactobacillus Reuteri RC-14 in the treatment and prevention of vaginoses and bacterial vaginitis relapses].

    PubMed

    Cianci, A; Giordano, R; Delia, A; Grasso, E; Amodeo, A; De Leo, V; Caccamo, F

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the use of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and of Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 administrated orally in the treatment and prevention of vaginoses and bacterial vaginitis relapses. The study enrolled 50 women in good health, aged between 18 and 48 years, with assessed diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis and vaginitis. The women were randomized in two groups: group A comprised 25 patients with bacterial vaginitis and group B comprised 25 patients with vaginosis. Each patient was administered an antibiotic therapy and subsequently a therapy with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 (Dicoflor Elle, Dicofarm, Roma, Italy) with two tablets daily for 15 days. After one week from the end of the therapy all patients have been controlled by vaginal swab and microscopic analysis of vaginal secretion. At the end of the study 46 patients had a complete Lactobacilli recolonization, two patients had no colonization and two dropped out. The results showed that 92% of the enrolled patients benefited from the treatment. The results of the present study shows that Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14, taken orally, were helpful in vaginosis and bacterial vaginitis treatment and in relapse prevention, as they can re-establish the vaginal ecosystem remarkably.

  5. Hydrogen Sulfide Attenuates the Recruitment of CD11b+Gr-1+ Myeloid Cells and Regulates Bax/Bcl-2 Signaling in Myocardial Ischemia Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youen; Li, Hua; Zhao, Gang; Sun, Aijun; Zong, Nobel C.; Li, Zhaofeng; Zhu, Hongming; Zou, Yunzeng; Yang, Xiangdong; Ge, Junbo

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide, an endogenous signaling molecule, plays an important role in the physiology and pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system. Using a mouse model of myocardial infarction, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of the H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). The results demonstrated that the administration of NaHS improved survival, preserved left ventricular function, limited infarct size, and improved H2S levels in cardiac tissue to attenuate the recruitment of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells and to regulate the Bax/Bcl-2 pathway. Furthermore, the cardioprotective effects of NaHS were enhanced by inhibiting the migration of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells from the spleen into the blood and by attenuating post-infarction inflammation. These observations suggest that the novel mechanism underlying the cardioprotective function of H2S is secondary to a combination of attenuation the recruitment of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells and regulation of the Bax/Bcl-2 apoptotic signaling. PMID:24758901

  6. Biomimetic Trehalose Biosensor Using Gustatory Receptor (Gr5a) Expressed in Drosophila Cells and Ion-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Hui-Chong; Bae, Tae-Eon; Jang, Hyun-June; Kwon, Jae-Young; Cho, Won-Ju; Lim, Jeong-Ok

    2013-04-01

    The development of potential applications of biosensors using the sensory systems of vertebrates and invertebrates has progressed rapidly, especially in clinical diagnosis. The biosensor developed here involves the use of Drosophila cells expressing the gustatory receptor Gr5a and an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) sensor device. Gustatory receptor Gr5a is expressed abundantly in gustatory neurons and acts as a primary marker for tastants, especially sugar, in Drosophila. As a result, it could potentially serve as a good candidate for potential biomarkers of diseases in which the current knowledge of the cause and treatment is limited. The developed ISFET was based on the outstanding electrical characteristics of the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) with a subthreshold swing of 85 mV/dec, low leakage current of <10-12 and high on/off current ratio of 7.3×106. The SiO2 sensing membrane with a pH sensitivity of 34.9 mV/pH and drift rate 1.17 mV/h was sufficient for biosensing applications. In addition, the sensor device also showed significant compatibility with the Drosophila cells expressing Gr5a and their response to sugar, particularly trehalose. Moreover, the interactions between the transfected Drosophila cells and trehalose were consistent and reliable. This suggests that the developed ISFET sensor device could have potential use in the future as a screening device in diagnosis.

  7. Nickel(II) complexes of tripodal 4N ligands as catalysts for alkane oxidation using m-CPBA as oxidant: ligand stereoelectronic effects on catalysis.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, Mani; Mayilmurugan, Ramasamy; Suresh, Eringathodi; Palaniandavar, Mallayan

    2011-10-07

    Several mononuclear Ni(II) complexes of the type [Ni(L)(CH(3)CN)(2)](BPh(4))(2) 1-7, where L is a tetradentate tripodal 4N ligand such as N,N-dimethyl-N',N'-bis(pyrid-2-ylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine (L1), N,N-diethyl-N',N'-bis(pyrid-2-ylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine (L2), N,N-dimethyl-N'-(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-ylmethyl)-N'-(pyrid-2-ylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine (L3), N,N-dimethyl-N',N'-bis(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-ylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine (L4), N,N-dimethyl-N',N'-bis(quinolin-2-ylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine (L5), tris(benzimidazol-2-ylmethyl)amine (L6) and tris(pyrid-2-ylmethyl)amine (L7), have been isolated and characterized using CHN analysis, UV-Visible spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The single-crystal X-ray structures of the complexes [Ni(L1)(CH(3)CN)(H(2)O)](ClO(4))(2) 1a, [Ni(L2)(CH(3)CN)(2)](BPh(4))(2) 2, [Ni(L3)(CH(3)CN)(2)](BPh(4))(2) 3 and [Ni(L4)(CH(3)CN)(2)](BPh(4))(2) 4 have been determined. All these complexes possess a distorted octahedral coordination geometry in which Ni(II) is coordinated to four nitrogen atoms of the tetradentate ligands and two CH(3)CN (2, 3, 4) or one H(2)O and one CH(3)CN (1a) are located in cis positions. The Ni-N(py) bond distances (2.054(2)-2.078(3) Å) in 1a, 2 and 3 are shorter than the Ni-N(amine) bonds (2.127(2)-2.196(3) Å) because of sp(2) and sp(3) hybridizations of the pyridyl and tertiary amine nitrogens respectively. In 3 the Ni-N(im) bond (2.040(5) Å) is shorter than the Ni-N(py) bond (2.074(4) Å) due to the stronger coordination of imidazole compared with the pyridine donor. In dichloromethane/acetonitrile solvent mixture, all the Ni(ii) complexes possess an octahedral coordination geometry, as revealed by the characteristic ligand field bands in the visible region. They efficiently catalyze the hydroxylation of alkanes when m-CPBA is used as oxidant with turnover number (TON) in the range of 340-620 and good alcohol selectivity for cyclohexane (A/K, 5-9). By replacing one of the pyridyl donors in TPA by a weakly

  8. Analysis of trans-2,6-difluoro-4'-(N,N-dimethylamino)stilbene (DFS) in biological samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: metabolite identification and pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Samuel Chao Ming; Sviripa, Vitaliy M; Huang, Meng; Kril, Liliia; Watt, David S; Liu, Chunming; Lin, Hai-Shu

    2015-09-01

    The metabolism of a promising antineoplastic agent, trans-2,6-difluoro-4'-(N,N-dimethylamino)stilbene (DFS), was studied in mouse, rat, and human liver microsomes using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with the multiple reaction monitoring-information-dependent acquisition-enhanced product ion scan (MRM-IDA-EPI) method. Ten putative metabolites were identified and the structures of four metabolites were confirmed using authentic standards. Since trans-2,6-difluoro-4'-(N-methylamino)stilbene (DMDFS, M1) was present in all species as metabolite and displayed in vitro growth inhibition superior to DFS, its pharmacokinetic profiles were examined in Sprague-Dawley rats using DFS as a comparator. A reliable LC-MS/MS multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method was subsequently developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of both DFS and DMDFS in rat plasma for this purpose. Upon intravenous administration (4 mg/kg), DFS had a moderate clearance (Cl = 62.7 ± 23.2 mL/min/kg), terminal elimination half-life (t 1/2 λZ  = 299 ± 73 min), and mean transit time (MTT = 123 ± 14 min) with demethylation metabolism accounting for about 10 % of its total clearance. DMDFS possessed an intravenous pharmacokinetic profile similar to DFS. During oral dosing (10 mg/kg) where both DFS and DMDFS were absorbed rapidly, the oral bioavailability of DFS was approximately 2-fold greater than that of DMDFS (DFS: F = 42.1 ± 12.8 %; DMDFS: F = 18.7 ± 3.9 %). Interestingly, the DMDFS exposure after oral dosing of DFS (10 mg/kg) was comparable to that after oral administration of DMDFS (10 mg/kg) alone. As DFS displayed potent anticancer activities and excellent pharmacokinetic profiles, it appears to be a favorable candidate for further pharmaceutical development.

  9. Iron(III) complexes of tripodal tetradentate 4N ligands as functional models for catechol dioxygenases: the electronic vs. steric effect on extradiol cleavage.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, Mani; Vadivelu, Prabha; Palaniandavar, Mallayan

    2014-10-21

    A few mononuclear iron(iii) complexes of the type [Fe(L)Cl2]Cl , where L is a tetradentate tripodal 4N ligand such as N,N-dimethyl-N',N'-bis(pyrid-2-ylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine (), N,N-diethyl-N',N'-bis(pyrid-2-ylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine (), N,N-dimethyl-N',N'-bis-(6-methylpyrid-2-ylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine (), N,N-dimethyl-N'-(pyrid-2-ylmethyl)-N'-(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-ylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine (), N,N-dimethyl-N',N'-bis(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-ylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine () and N,N-dimethyl-N',N'-bis(quinolin-2-ylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine (), have been isolated and characterized by CHN analysis, UV-Visible spectroscopy and electrochemical methods. The complex cation [Fe(H)Cl3](+) possesses a distorted octahedral geometry in which iron is coordinated by the monoprotonated 4N ligand in a tridentate fashion and the remaining three sites of the octahedron are occupied by chloride ions. The DFT optimized octahedral geometries of , and contain iron(iii) with a high-spin (S = 5/2) ground state. The catecholate adducts [Fe(L)(DBC)](+), where H2DBC is 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol, of all the complexes have been generated in situ in acetonitrile solution and their spectral and redox properties and dioxygenase activities have been studied. The DFT optimized geometries of the catecholate adducts [Fe()(DBC)](+), [Fe()(DBC)](+) and [Fe()(DBC)](+) have also been generated to illustrate the ability of the complexes to cleave H2DBC in the presence of molecular oxygen to afford varying amounts of intra- (I) and extradiol (E) cleavage products. The extradiol to intradiol product selectivity (E/I, 0.1-2.0) depends upon the asymmetry in bidentate coordination of catecholate, as determined by the stereoelectronic properties of the ligand donor functionalities. While the higher E/I value obtained for [Fe()(DBC)](+) is on account of the steric hindrance of the quinolyl moiety to coordination the lower value observed for [Fe()(DBC)](+) and [Fe()(DBC)](+) is on account of the electron

  10. Magnetically Separable MoS2/Fe3O4/nZVI Nanocomposites for the Treatment of Wastewater Containing Cr(VI) and 4-Chlorophenol

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingkang; Wang, Ting

    2017-01-01

    With a large specific surface area, high reactivity, and excellent adsorption properties, nano zerovalent iron (nZVI) can degrade a wide variety of contaminants in wastewater. However, aggregation, oxidation, and separation issues greatly impede its wide application. In this study, MoS2/Fe3O4/nZVI nanocomposites were successfully synthesized by a facile step-by-step approach to overcome these problems. MoS2 nanosheets (MNs) acted as an efficient support for nZVI and enriched the organic pollutants nearby, leading to an enhanced removal efficiency. Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) could not only suppress the agglomeration and restacking of MNs, but also facilitate easy separation and recovery of the nanocomposites. The synergistic effect between MNs and Fe3O4 NPs effectively enhanced the reactivity and efficiency of nZVI. In the system, Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III) by nZVI in the nanocomposites, and Fe2+ produced in the process was combined with H2O2 to further remove 4-Chlorophenol (4-CP) through a Fenton reaction. Furthermore, the nanocomposites could be easily separated from wastewater by a magnet and be reused for at least five consecutive runs, revealing good reusability. The results demonstrate that the novel nanocomposites are highly efficient and promising for the simultaneous removal of Cr(VI) and 4-CP in wastewater. PMID:28973986

  11. External Electric Field Effects on Excited-State Intramolecular Proton Transfer in 4'-N,N-Dimethylamino-3-hydroxyflavone in Poly(methyl methacrylate) Films.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Kazuki; Hino, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Norifumi; Awasthi, Kamlesh; Nakabayashi, Takakazu; Ohta, Nobuhiro; Sekiya, Hiroshi

    2015-09-17

    The external electric field effects on the steady-state electronic spectra and excited-state dynamics were investigated for 4'-N,N-(dimethylamino)-3-hydroxyflavone (DMHF) in a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film. In the steady-state spectrum, dual emission was observed from the excited states of the normal (N*) and tautomer (T*) forms. Application of an external electric field of 1.0 MV·cm(-1) enhanced the N* emission and reduced the T* emission, indicating that the external electric field suppressed the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT). The fluorescence decay profiles were measured for the N* and T* forms. The change in the emission intensity ratio N*/T* induced by the external electric field is dominated by ESIPT from the Franck-Condon excited state of the N* form and vibrational cooling in potential wells of the N* and T* forms occurring within tens of picoseconds. Three manifolds of fluorescent states were identified for both the N* and T* forms. The excited-state dynamics of DMHF in PMMA films has been found to be very different from that in solution due to intermolecular interactions in a rigid environment.

  12. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, electrochemical behaviour and antibacterial activity of Ru(III) complexes of 2-[(4-N,N'-dimethylaminophenylimino)-methyl]-4-halophenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puthilibai, G.; Vasudhevan, S.; Kutti Rani, S.; Rajagopal, G.

    2009-05-01

    The reaction of the chelating Schiff base ligands 2-[(4-N,N'-dimethylaminophenylimino)-methyl]-4-X-phenol with [Ru(Cl) 3(EPh 3) 3]; (E = P or As); (X = Cl, Br or I) in the benzene afforded new stable ruthenium complexes of the general formula [Ru(Cl) 2(EPh 3) 2(L)] (L = anion of bidentate Schiff bases). The newly synthesized complexes were characterized using molar conductivity, spectral (UV-vis, FT-IR and EPR) and electrochemical studies. The molar conductance measurements proved that all these complexes are non-electrolytes. All complexes show strong d-d transition in the visible region. The coordination of imine nitrogen and phenolic oxygen of ligands to ruthenium metal was confirmed with the change in the IR stretching frequency values. The EPR spectral data showed that the complexes are paramagnetic with one unpaired electrons. The redox behaviour of the complexes have been investigated by the cyclic voltammetric technique. All the complexes display an irreversible reduction (Ru III/Ru II) in the range of -0.826 to -0.971 V. In view of the biological activity, the ligands and the complexes were observed that all the complexes showed moderate activity. Also the antibacterial activity of the ligand increased on chelation with metal ion.

  13. Barrier height modification and mechanism of carrier transport in Ni/in situ grown Si3N4/n-GaN Schottky contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, S. Y.; Zakheim, D. A.; Lundin, W. V.; Sakharov, A. V.; Zavarin, E. E.; Brunkov, P. N.; Lundina, E. Y.; Tsatsulnikov, A. F.

    2018-02-01

    In situ growth of an ultra-thin (up to 2.5 nm) Si3N4 film on the top of n-GaN is shown to reduce remarkably the height of the barrier formed by deposition of Ni-based Schottky contact. The reduction is interpreted in terms of polarization dipole induced at the Si3N4/n-GaN interface and Fermi level pinning at the Ni/Si3N4 interface. Detailed study of temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics enables identification of the electron transport mechanism in such Schottky diodes under forward bias: thermal/field electron emission over the barrier formed in n-GaN followed by tunneling through the Si3N4 film. At reverse bias and room temperature, the charge transfer is likely controlled by Poole-Frenkel ionization of deep traps in n-GaN. Tunneling exponents at forward and reverse biases and the height of the Ni/Si3N4 Schottky barrier are evaluated experimentally and compared with theoretical predictions.

  14. Seasonal changes of CO2, CH4, N2O, and SF6 in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere over the Eurasian continent observed by commercial airliner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawa, Yousuke; Machida, Toshinobu; Matsueda, Hidekazu; Niwa, Yosuke; Tsuboi, Kazuhiro; Murayama, Shohei; Morimoto, Shinji; Aoki, Shuji

    2015-03-01

    The seasonal variations of greenhouse gases at about 11 km altitude were analyzed from monthly air samples collected aboard a commercial airliner flying between Europe and Japan from April 2012 to March 2014. Compared to lower latitudes, the upper troposphere between 50 and 70°N showed higher CH4 and SF6 and an earlier seasonal phase of CO2. However, N2O values were similar to those in the subtropics. CH4, N2O, and SF6 in the lower stratosphere with potential temperature of up to 50 K above the tropopause showed seasonal variations with maxima in November/December and minima in April/May. At potential temperatures of 37.5-50 K above the tropopause, SF6 age was estimated to be about 22 months in May and 9 months in November. This strong seasonal variation is explained by the subsidence of high-stratospheric air in spring and the effective flushing of the lowermost stratospheric air with tropospheric air in autumn.

  15. Structural and electrical phase transitions in the [(C2H5)4N]2ZnI3.86Cl0.14 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhouma, Najla Mahbouli; Rayes, Ali; Mezzadri, Francesco; Delmonte, Davide; Cabassi, Riccardo; Calestani, Gianluca; Loukil, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    The organic-inorganic hybrid non-centrosymmetric material [(C2H5)4N]2ZnI3.86Cl0.14 has been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dielectric and transport measurements. In analogy with the corresponding tetraiodo-zincate analogue, the material crystallizes at room temperature in the tetragonal system, space group P 4 ̅ 21m (No. 113), with lattice parameters a = 13.743(6) and c = 14.785(10) Å. DSC and XRD characterizations pointed out the occurrence of two phases transitions, one of second order at about 290 K and the other of the first order at T = 451 K. The former is related to an electrical transition from insulating to thermally activated transport mechanism displaying clear hints of ionic conduction, the latter leads to a phase showing the typical features of plastic crystals in its powder XRD pattern. The pattern was indexed by an orthorhombic cell, a = 15.724(1), b = 17.907(1) and c = 10.585(1) Å, and a reliable model was found and refined in the Pna21 space group. The model consists of ordered tetrahedral ZnCl42- units intercalated by fully disordered tetraethylammonium cations.

  16. A rapid extractive spectrophotometric determination of copper(II) in environmental samples, alloys, complexes and pharmaceutical samples using 4-[N,N(dimethyl)amino]benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, J; Naik, P Parameshwara; Shetty, A Nityananda

    2011-05-01

    4-[N,N-(Dimethyl)amino]benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (DMABT) is proposed as an analytical reagent for the extractive spectrophotometric determination of copper(II). DMABT forms yellow colored complex with copper(II) in the pH range 4.4-5.4. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range up to 4.7 μg mL(-1). The optimum concentration range for minimum photometric error as determined by Ringbom plot method is 1.2-3.8 μg mL(-1). The yellowish Cu(II)-DMABT complex shows a maximum absorbance at 420 nm, with molar absorptivity of 1.72 × 10(4)dm(3) mol(-1) cm(-1) and Sandell's sensitivity of the complex obtained from Beer's data is 0.0036 μg cm(-2). The composition of the Cu(II)-DMABT complex is found to be 1:2 (M/L). The interference of various cations and anions in the method were studied. Thus the method can be employed for the determination of trace amount of copper(II) in water, alloys and other natural samples of significant importance.

  17. D6h-Au42Isomer: A Golden Aromatic Toroid Involving Superatomic π-Orbitals that Follow the Hückel (4n+2)π rule.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Castro, Alvaro

    2016-10-18

    Recently, it has been shown that the superatom concept is intimately connected to relevant tools of great chemical significance, such as the Lewis structure model and the VSEPR theory, which has been employed to understand hybridized and dimeric-like molecules. This suggests a potential rational construction of superatomic clusters mimicking more complex structures. Here, we extend another well-employed concept to the superatomic clusters, to construct a novel Au 42 isomer with resemblance to cyclic aromatic molecules. It is shown that the Hückel (4n+2)π rule is ready to be applied, predicting aromatic behavior latterly supported by the favorable evaluation of the induced shielding cone formation. The D 6 h isomer of Au 42 described here exhibits inherent characteristics mimicking aromatic hydrocarbon rings, displaying π-superatomic orbitals and related properties. This new cluster is the first member of the superatomic clusters family to exhibit an aromatic π-electron system. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Temperature-dependent electrical characteristics and carrier transport mechanism of p-Cu2ZnSnS4/n-GaN heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niteesh Reddy, Varra; Reddy, M. Siva Pratap; Gunasekhar, K. R.; Lee, Jung-Hee

    2018-04-01

    This work explores the temperature-dependent electrical characteristics and carrier transport mechanism of Au/p-Cu2ZnSnS4/n-type GaN heterojunction (HJ) diodes with a CZTS interlayer. The electrical characteristics were examined by current-voltage-temperature, turn-on voltage-temperature and series resistance-temperature in the high-temperature range of 300-420 K. It is observed that an exponential decrease in the series resistance ( R S) and increase in the ideality factor ( n) and barrier height ( ϕ b) with increase in temperature. The thermal coefficient ( K j) is determined to be - 1.3 mV K-1 at ≥ 300 K. The effective ϕ b is determined to be 1.21 eV. This obtained barrier height is consistent with the theoretical one. The characteristic temperature ( T 0) resulting from the Cheung's functions [d V/d(ln I) vs. I and H( I) vs. I], is seen that there is good agreement between the T 0 values from both Cheung's functions. The relevant carrier transport mechanisms of Au/p-CZTS/n-type GaN HJ are explained based on the thermally decreased energy band gap of n-type GaN layers, thermally activated deep donors and increased further activated shallow donors.

  19. Measurements of CH4, N2O, CO, H2O and O3 in the middle atmosphere by the ATMOS experiment on Spacelab 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunson, M. R.; Farmer, C. B.; Norton, R. H.; Zander, R.; Rinsland, C. P.; Shaw, J. H.; Gao, Bo-Cai

    1989-01-01

    The volume mixing ratios of five minor gases (CH4, N2O, CO, H2O, and O3) were retrieved through the middle atmosphere from the analysis of 0.01/cm resolution infrared solar occultation spectra recorded near 28 N and 48 S latitudes with the ATMOS (Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy) instrument, flown on board Spacelab 3. The results, which constitute the first simultaneous observations of continuous profiles through the middle atmosphere for these gases, are in general agreement with reported measurements from ground, balloon and satellite-based instruments for the same seasons. In detail, the vertical profiles of these gases show the effects of the upper and middle atmospheric transport patterns dominant during the season of these observations. The profiles inferred at different longitudes around 28 N suggest a near-uniform zonal distribution of these gases. Although based on fewer observations, the sunrise occultation measurements point to a larger variability in the vertical distribution of these gases at 48 S.

  20. Use of vibrational spectroscopy to study 2-[4-(N-dodecanoylamino)phenyl]-5-(4-nitrophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole: a combined theoretical and experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Bee, Saba; Agarwal, Parag; Gupta, Archana; Tandon, Poonam

    2013-10-01

    Quantum chemical calculations of geometric structure and vibrational wavenumbers of 2-[4-(N-dodecanoylamino)phenyl]-5-(4-nitrophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (AF51) were carried out by using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) method. The fundamental vibrational modes were characterized depending on their potential energy distribution (PED). In order to predict the reactive sites for electrophilic and nucleophilic attacks of the title molecule, electrostatic potential surface has been plotted. The UV absorption spectrum was examined in chloroform solvent and compared with the calculated one in gas phase as well as in solvent environment using TD-DFT/ PCM approach. The (1)H NMR spectra was recorded. Comparison between the experimental and the theoretical results is satisfactory. The thermodynamic properties of the title compound at different temperatures have been calculated. A relationship between molecular structural features, non-linear responses and hyperpolarizability of AF51 has been established using vibrational spectra with emphasis on the role of intramolecular charge transfer mechanism in such organic NLO materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis and phase transition studies on non-symmetric liquid crystal dimers: N-(4-(n-(4-(benzothiazol-2-yl)phenoxy)alkyloxy)-benzylidene)-4-chloroanilines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeap, Guan-Yeow; Al-Taifi, Elham A.; Ong, Chin-Hin; Kamil Mahmood, Wan Ahmad; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Ito, Masato M.

    2012-06-01

    A new series of non-symmetric liquid crystal dimers N-(4-(n-(4-(benzothiazol-2-yl)phenoxy)alkyloxy)benzylidene)-4-chloroaniline containing benzothiazole and benzylideneimine units connected by a flexible alkyl spacer, -(CH2) n -, with n ranging from 4 to 12 in even parity have been prepared. All five members of this homologous series exhibit an enantiotropic nematic phase. The compounds with greater n of 8-12 exhibit both nematic and smectic phases upon cooling. A notable feature among this series is that for the member with n = 10, the smectic-nematic transition is also present. The nematic-isotropic transition temperatures and associated entropy changes with respect to all compounds in this series exhibit a dramatic dependence on the length of the flexible spacer. A comparison of the transitional properties of this series with those of α-(4-benzylidenechloroaniline-4‧-oxy)-ω-[4-(thiophene-2-carboxyl)benzylideneaniline-4‧-oxy]alkanes reveals that replacing benzothiazole moiety at one side of the flexible alkyl spacer reduces the nematic-isotropic transition temperature.

  2. Effect of NH4-N/P and Ca/P molar ratios on the reactive crystallization of calcium phosphates for phosphorus recovery from wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasenko, Liubov; Qu, Haiyan

    2017-02-01

    In this work, the effects of operational parameters, initial phosphorus concentration and molar ratios of Ca/P and NH4-N/P (further in the text N/P), on the nature and purity of precipitated phosphorus products have been investigated in an artificial system that mimics the supernatant in wastewater treatment plants. Metastable zone width was determined for two target phosphorus products: DCPD (dicalcium phosphate dihydrate) and HAp (hydroxyapatite) in the range of pH 4.5 - 7. HAp crystallizes at final pH higher than 6.3 while DCPD crystallizes at the final pH in between 4.7 and 5.7. At the final pH 5.7 - 6.3 and at pH lower than 4.7 the mixtures of DCPD and HAp were obtained. It was observed that N/P ratio affects not only the metastable zone width but also the kinetics of crystal growth for both DCPD and HAp: the higher the N/P ratio, the lower is the growth rate for both P-products. Investigation of the effect of Ca/P and N/P ratios on the nucleation and crystal growth of DCPD in batch crystallization experiment was performed. It showed that at high supersaturation level, crystals with larger median size can be obtained at higher N/P ratio despite the negative effects of N/P ratio on the growth rate of the crystals.

  3. Definitive radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy for T3-4N0 squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus and nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Jang, Na Young; Wu, Hong-Gyun; Park, Charn Il; Heo, Dae-Seog; Kim, Dong-Wan; Lee, Se-Hoon; Rhee, Chae-Seo

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of definitive radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy for T3-4 squamous cell carcinoma of maxillary sinus and nasal cavity. Forty-two patients with T3-4N0 squamous cell carcinoma of maxillary sinus (n = 30) and nasal cavity (n = 12) received definitive radiotherapy. Chemotherapy was used in 34 patients and elective neck irradiation was not used. The 5-year overall survival/local control rates were 34%/29% for maxillary sinus cancer and 50%/52% for nasal cavity cancer. For maxillary sinus cancers, a performance status of Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group >or=2 (P = 0.012), biologically equivalent dose <68 Gy (P = 0.011) and no use of chemotherapy (P = 0.037) were significant worse predictors for overall survival on log-rank analysis. Biologically equivalent dose <68 Gy was independently associated with poor local control (hazard ratio, 3.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.38-7.97; P = 0.007) and overall survival (hazard ratio, 2.94; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-7.01; P = 0.015). Regional recurrence occurred in only 1 of 30 patients with maxillary sinus cancer and 4 of 12 patients with nasal cavity. Two radiation necrosis in brain, one osteoradionecrosis, and one retinopathy and optic neuropathy occurred. The treatment outcome was poor and local control was a major problem. High radiation dose, effective chemotherapy and elective neck irradiation for advanced nasal cavity cancers may improve disease control.

  4. Dilatation thermique, anisotropie structurale, et polymorphisme des sulfates de plomb PbSO 4, nPbO ( n = 0, 1, 2, 4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boher, P.; Garnier, P.; Mentzen, B. F.

    1985-07-01

    The thermal expansion of basic lead sulfates has been measured by X-ray diffraction in the 77-1000 K temperature range. The results are interpreted by taking into account the different structural characteristics of the four compounds which have been studied (PbSO 4, nPbO with n = 0, 1, 2, and 4). Lead sulfate PbSO 4 is built up from tetrahedral SO 4 groups which are connected by lead atoms, yielding thus a quasi-isotropic thermal expansion. The introduction of additional PbO groups corresponds to the substitution of lead chains by -Pb 2O- chains (monobasic sulfate), or by -Pb 3O 2- double chains (dibasic sulfate). Layer-type structures are thus created, and the thermal expansion becomes very anisotropic. The transition observed at 723 K for the dibasic lead sulfate is explained by taking into account the density and the different thermal behavior of the compounds before and after transition. Some information concerning the tetrabasic lead sulfate structure is deduced.

  5. Contribution from Ising domains overlapping out-of-plane to perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Mn4N thin films on MgO(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Andrew; Corbett, Joseph; Khan, Alam; Richard, Andrea L.; Ingram, David C.; Smith, Arthur R.; Zhao, Lianshui; Gallagher, James C.; Yang, Fengyuan

    2017-10-01

    Single phase ε -Mn4N thin and ultrathin films are grown on MgO(001) using molecular beam epitaxy. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction and out-of-plane X-ray diffraction measurements are taken for each sample in order to determine the in- and out-of-plane strain for each sample. Vibrating sample magnetometry and superconducting quantum interference device measurements, which are performed on the thin and ultrathin films respectively, are used to plot the magnetization of each sample versus both in- and out-of-plane H → -fields and to determine the magnitude of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in these films. Three significant components of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy are observed in these films and are attributed to sample strain (1 component) and shape (2 components). Among these components, the most significant component (0.8 - 4.9 Merg/cm3) is identified as a second term of shape anisotropy, which possesses a negative linear relationship with sample thickness over the range from 9 nm to 310 nm. Atomic (magnetic) force microscopy measurements show the presence of a surface localized magnetic polarization (22-82 %), which increases with decreasing thickness, when the net magnetizations of the films are zero. The second term of shape anisotropy as well as the surface localized polarization, which each depend on sample thickness, are each regarded as a consequence of Ising domains overlapping out-of-plane in these films.

  6. Low Temperature Heat Capacities and Standard Molar Enthalpy of Formation of 2-Pyrazinecarboxylic Acid (C5H4N2O2)(s).

    PubMed

    Kong, Yu-Xia; Di, You-Ying; Yang, Wei-Wei; Gao, Sheng-Li; Tan, Zhi-Cheng

    2010-06-01

    Low-temperature heat capacities of 2-pyrazinecarboxylic acid (C5H4N2O2)(s) were measured by a precision automated adiabatic calorimeter over the temperature range from 78 to 400 K. A polynomial equation of heat capacities as a function of temperature was fitted by least squares method. Based on the fitted polynomial, the smoothed heat capacities and thermodynamic functions of the compound relative to the standard reference temperature 298.15 K were calculated and tabulated at 10 K intervals. The constant-volume energy of combustion of the compound at T = 298.15 K was measured by a precision rotating-bomb combustion calorimeter to be ΔcU = -(17839.40 ± 7.40) J g-1. The standard molar enthalpy of combustion of the compound was determined to be ΔcH0m = -(2211.39 ± 0.92) KJ mol-1, according to the definition of combustion enthalpy. Finally, the standard molar enthalpy of formation of the compound was calculated to be ΔfH0m = -(327.82 ± 1.13) kJ mol-1 in accordance with Hess law.

  7. Relationship between molecular stacking and optical properties of 9,10-bis((4-N,N-dialkylamino)styryl) anthracene crystals: the cooperation of excitonic and dipolar coupling.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Gao, Na; Xu, Hai; Liu, Wei; Shang, Hui; Yang, Wenjun; Zhang, Ming

    2014-08-04

    Five 9,10-bis((4-N,N-dialkylamino)styryl) anthracene derivatives (DSA-C1-DSA-C7) with different length alkyl chains were synthesized. They showed the same color in dilute solutions but different colors in crystals. The absorption, photoluminescence, and fluorescence decay indicate that there exist both excitonic and dipolar coupling in crystals of DSA-C1-DSA-C7. X-ray crystallographic analysis revealed that all the crystals belong to the triclinic space group P1 with one molecule per unit cell and that the molecules in every crystal have the identical orientation. This offers ideal samples to investigate the impact of the molecular stacking on the optical properties of the crystals. For the first time, the cooperation of excitonic and dipolar coupling has been comprehensively studied, and the contribution to the spectral shift from the excitonic and dipolar couplings quantitatively obtained. The experiments of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) together with measurements of the quantum efficiency further confirmed this interpretation. The results suggest that the excitonic and dipolar couplings between the adjacent molecules are both important and jointly induce the spectral shifts of the crystals. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. BiVO4 /N-rGO nano composites as highly efficient visible active photocatalyst for the degradation of dyes and antibiotics in eco system.

    PubMed

    Appavu, Brindha; Thiripuranthagan, Sivakumar; Ranganathan, Sudhakar; Erusappan, Elangovan; Kannan, Kathiravan

    2018-04-30

    Herein, we report the synthesis of novel nitrogen doped reduced graphene oxide/ BiVO 4 photo catalyst by single step hydrothermal method. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts were characterized using XRD, N 2 adsorption-desorption, Raman, XPS, SEM TEM, DRS-UV and EIS techniques. The synthesized catalysts were tested for their catalytic activity in the photo degradation of some harmful textile dyes (methylene blue & congo red) and antibiotics (metronidazole and chloramphenicol) under visible light irradiation. Reduced charge recombination and enhanced photocatalytic activity were observed due to the concerted effect between BiVO 4 and nitrogen-rGO. The degradation efficiency of BiVO 4 /N-rGO in the degradation of CR and MB was remarkably high i.e 95% and 98% under visible light irradiation. Similarly 95% of MTZ and 93% of CAP were degraded under visible light irradiation. HPLC studies implied that both the dyes and antibiotics were degraded to the maximum extent. The plausible photocatalytic mechanism on the basis of experimental results was suggested. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Structural and Biochemical Analysis of the Hordeum vulgare L. HvGR-RBP1 Protein, a Glycine-Rich RNA-Binding Protein Involved in the Regulation of Barley Plant Development and Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The timing of whole-plant senescence influences important agricultural traits such as yield and grain protein content. Post-transcriptional regulation by plant RNA-binding proteins is essential for proper control of gene expression, development, and stress responses. Here, we report the three-dimensional solution NMR structure and nucleic acid-binding properties of the barley glycine-rich RNA-binding protein HvGR-RBP1, whose transcript has been identified as being >45-fold up-regulated in early—as compared to late—senescing near-isogenic barley germplasm. NMR analysis reveals that HvGR-RBP1 is a multidomain protein comprising a well-folded N-terminal RNA Recognition Motif (RRM) and a structurally disordered C-terminal glycine-rich domain. Chemical shift differences observed in 2D 1H–15N correlation (HSQC) NMR spectra of full-length HvGR-RBP1 and N-HvGR-RBP1 (RRM domain only) suggest that the two domains can interact both in-trans and intramolecularly, similar to what is observed in the tobacco NtGR-RBP1 protein. Further, we show that the RRM domain of HvGR-RBP1 binds single-stranded DNA nucleotide fragments containing the consensus nucleotide sequence 5′-TTCTGX-3′ with low micromolar affinity in vitro. We also demonstrate that the C-terminal glycine-rich (HvGR) domain of Hv-GR-RBP1 can interact nonspecifically with ssRNA in vitro. Structural similarities with other plant glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins suggest that HvGR-RBP1 may be multifunctional. Based on gene expression analysis following cold stress in barley and E. coli growth studies following cold shock treatment, we conclude that HvGR-RBP1 functions in a manner similar to cold-shock proteins and harbors RNA chaperone activity. HvGR-RBP1 is therefore not only involved in the regulation of barley development including senescence, but also functions in plant responses to environmental stress. PMID:25495582

  10. Structural and biochemical analysis of the Hordeum vulgare L. HvGR-RBP1 protein, a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein involved in the regulation of barley plant development and stress response.

    PubMed

    Tripet, Brian P; Mason, Katelyn E; Eilers, Brian J; Burns, Jennifer; Powell, Paul; Fischer, Andreas M; Copié, Valérie

    2014-12-23

    The timing of whole-plant senescence influences important agricultural traits such as yield and grain protein content. Post-transcriptional regulation by plant RNA-binding proteins is essential for proper control of gene expression, development, and stress responses. Here, we report the three-dimensional solution NMR structure and nucleic acid-binding properties of the barley glycine-rich RNA-binding protein HvGR-RBP1, whose transcript has been identified as being >45-fold up-regulated in early-as compared to late-senescing near-isogenic barley germplasm. NMR analysis reveals that HvGR-RBP1 is a multidomain protein comprising a well-folded N-terminal RNA Recognition Motif (RRM) and a structurally disordered C-terminal glycine-rich domain. Chemical shift differences observed in 2D (1)H-(15)N correlation (HSQC) NMR spectra of full-length HvGR-RBP1 and N-HvGR-RBP1 (RRM domain only) suggest that the two domains can interact both in-trans and intramolecularly, similar to what is observed in the tobacco NtGR-RBP1 protein. Further, we show that the RRM domain of HvGR-RBP1 binds single-stranded DNA nucleotide fragments containing the consensus nucleotide sequence 5'-TTCTGX-3' with low micromolar affinity in vitro. We also demonstrate that the C-terminal glycine-rich (HvGR) domain of Hv-GR-RBP1 can interact nonspecifically with ssRNA in vitro. Structural similarities with other plant glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins suggest that HvGR-RBP1 may be multifunctional. Based on gene expression analysis following cold stress in barley and E. coli growth studies following cold shock treatment, we conclude that HvGR-RBP1 functions in a manner similar to cold-shock proteins and harbors RNA chaperone activity. HvGR-RBP1 is therefore not only involved in the regulation of barley development including senescence, but also functions in plant responses to environmental stress.

  11. Structural, morphological and magnetic properties of Sr0.3La0.48Ca0.25n[Fe(2-0.4/n)O3]Co0.4 (n = 5.5, 5.6,5.7,5.8, 5.9, 6.0) hexaferrites prepared by facile ceramic route methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Khalid Mehmood Ur; Liu, Xiansong; Yang, Yujie; Feng, Shuangjiu; Tang, Jin; Ali, Zulfiqar; Wazir, Z.; Khan, Muhammad Wasim; Shezad, Mudssir; Iqbal, Muhammad Shahid; Zhang, Cong; Liu, Chaocheng

    2018-03-01

    In present work, M-type strontium hexaferrite with chemical composition of Sr0.3La0.48Ca0.25n[Fe(2-0.4/n)O3]Co0.4 (n = 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 6.0) magnetic powder were synthesized by using facile ceramic route methodology. The structural, morphological and magnetic properties of the products were investigated by using X-rays diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) techniques, respectively. There is a single magnetoplumbite phase in the magnetic powders containing (5.5 ≤ n ≤5.8) and (n ≥ 5.9) magnetic some impurities begin to seem in the structure. The magnets have shaped hexagonal structures. Magnetic properties of the samples were metric by permanent magnetic measuring equipment Vibrating Sample Magnetometer, respectively. We report our investigation of n-aggregation iron content on crystalline size characterization and magnetic properties of the specimen. It is originate that the desirable quantity of n-aggregation iron content substitution may curiously increase saturation magnetization (Ms) and intrinsic coercivity (Hc). With the iron addition for the same sintering temperature at 1260 °C, (Ms) and (Hc) first increase and then decrease gradually.

  12. Versatile hyaluronic acid modified AQ4N-Cu(II)-gossypol infinite coordination polymer nanoparticles: Multiple tumor targeting, highly efficient synergistic chemotherapy, and real-time self-monitoring.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shihong; Wu, Youshen; Li, Ke; Wang, Ya; Wu, Jimin; Zeng, Yun; Wu, Daocheng

    2018-02-01

    A novel strategy for the preparation of infinite coordination polymer nanoparticles (ICPs) based nanomedicines was developed, with which hyaluronic acid modified AQ4N-Cu(II)-gossypol nanoparticles (HA@AQ4N-Cu(II)-gossypol NPs) were obtained. This is a highly efficient nanomedicine, in which gossypol serves as a chemotherapeutic agent and a self-carrier material; Cu(II) serves as the connecting point and anti-tumor enhancer; AQ4N not only serves as a chemotherapeutic agent and self-carrier material, but also as the self-monitor based on its inherent fluorescence. HA@AQ4N-Cu(II)-gossypol NPs possessed a spherical shape with a dynamic size of 88.7 ± 7.4 nm, and the total drug-loading content and drug encapsulation efficiency are 77.41% and 100%, respectively. This nanomedicine has a multiple tumor-targeting ability caused by HA-receptor mediation and pH-responsive drug release. A significantly low combination index (0.097) of AQ4N and gossypol is ascertained. In vivo experiments indicate that it accumulates and significantly releases drugs at the tumor region. With the use of only one-fiftieth of AQ4N and half of gossypol of the generally administered dose, they can achieve significantly high anti-tumor efficiency with negligible side effects. Importantly, the switching-type changed fluorescence of AQ4N can be used for in vivo real-time self-monitoring of the drug release and distribution, which allows us to adjust the administration dose and time for different tumor types and stages for individual therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Screening for Neuraminidase Inhibitor Resistance Markers among Avian Influenza Viruses of the N4, N5, N6, and N8 Neuraminidase Subtypes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Suk; Jeong, Ju Hwan; Kwon, Jin Jung; Ahn, Su Jeong; Lloren, Khristine Kaith S; Kwon, Hyeok-Il; Chae, Hee Bok; Hwang, Jungwon; Kim, Myung Hee; Kim, Chul-Joong; Webby, Richard J; Govorkova, Elena A; Choi, Young Ki; Baek, Yun Hee; Song, Min-Suk

    2018-01-01

    Several subtypes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are emerging as novel human pathogens, and the frequency of related infections has increased in recent years. Although neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (NAIs) are the only class of antiviral drugs available for therapeutic intervention for AIV-infected patients, studies on NAI resistance among AIVs have been limited, and markers of resistance are poorly understood. Previously, we identified unique NAI resistance substitutions in AIVs of the N3, N7, and N9 NA subtypes. Here, we report profiles of NA substitutions that confer NAI resistance in AIVs of the N4, N5, N6, and N8 NA subtypes using gene-fragmented random mutagenesis. We generated libraries of mutant influenza viruses using reverse genetics (RG) and selected resistant variants in the presence of the NAIs oseltamivir carboxylate and zanamivir in MDCK cells. In addition, two substitutions, H274Y and R292K (N2 numbering), were introduced into each NA gene for comparison. We identified 37 amino acid substitutions within the NA gene, 16 of which (4 in N4, 4 in N5, 4 in N6, and 4 in N8) conferred resistance to NAIs (oseltamivir carboxylate, zanamivir, or peramivir) as determined using a fluorescence-based NA inhibition assay. Substitutions conferring NAI resistance were mainly categorized as either novel NA subtype specific (G/N147V/I, A246V, and I427L) or previously reported in other subtypes (E119A/D/V, Q136K, E276D, R292K, and R371K). Our results demonstrate that each NA subtype possesses unique NAI resistance markers, and knowledge of these substitutions in AIVs is important in facilitating antiviral susceptibility monitoring of NAI resistance in AIVs. IMPORTANCE The frequency of human infections with avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has increased in recent years. Despite the availability of vaccines, neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs), as the only available class of drugs for AIVs in humans, have been constantly used for treatment, leading to the inevitable emergence

  14. Sentinel lymph node surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with T2 to T4, N0 and N1 breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Andreis, D; Bonardi, S; Allevi, G; Aguggini, S; Gussago, F; Milani, M; Strina, C; Spada, D; Ferrero, G; Ungari, M; Rocca, A; Nanni, O; Roviello, G; Berruti, A; Harris, A L; Fox, S B; Roviello, F; Polom, K; Bottini, A; Generali, D

    2016-10-01

    Histological status of axillary lymph nodes is an important prognostic factor in patients receiving surgery for breast cancer (BC). Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy (B) has rapidly replaced axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), and is now the standard of care for axillary staging in patients with clinically node-negative (N0) operable BC. The aim of this study is to compare pretreatment lymphoscintigraphy with a post primary systemic treatment (PST) scan in order to reduce the false-negative rates for SLNB. In this single-institution study we considered 170 consecutive T2-4 N0-1 M0 BC patients treated with anthracycline-based PST. At the time of incisional biopsy, we performed sentinel lymphatic mapping. After PST, all patients repeated lymphoscintigraphy with the same methodology. During definitive surgery we performed further sentinel lymphatic mapping, SLNB and ALND. The SLN was removed in 158/170 patients giving an identification rate of 92.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 88.0-96.3%) and a false-negative rate of 14.0% (95% CI = 6.3-25.8%). SLNB revealed a sensitivity of 86.0% (95% CI = 74.2-93.7%), an accuracy of 94.9% (95% CI = 90.3-97.8%) and a negative predictive value of 92.7% (95% CI = 86.1-96.8%). Identification rate, sensitivity and accuracy are in accordance with other studies on SLNB after PST, even after clinically negative node conversion following PST. This study confirms that diagnostic biopsy and neoadjuvant chemotherapy maintain breast lymphatic drainage unaltered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantification of heterosubtypic immunity between avian influenza subtypes H3N8 and H4N6 in multiple avian host species.

    PubMed

    Pepin, K M; VanDalen, K K; Mooers, N L; Ellis, J W; Sullivan, H J; Root, J J; Webb, C T; Franklin, A B; Shriner, S A

    2012-12-01

    Low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) can lead to epizootics that cause economic losses in poultry or the emergence of human-infectious strains. LPAIVs experience a complex immunity landscape as they are endemic in numerous host species, and many antigenically distinct strains co-circulate. Prevention and control of emergence of detrimental strains requires an understanding of infection/transmission characteristics of the various subtypes in different hosts, including interactions between subtypes. In order to develop analytical frameworks for examining control efficacy, quantification of heterosubtypic immunity interactions is fundamental. However, these data are scarce, especially for wild avian subtypes in natural hosts. Consequently, in this study, three host species (mallards, quail and pheasants) were infected with two LPAIV subtypes isolated from wild birds: H3N8 and H4N6. The recovered hosts were also reinfected with the alternate subtype to measure the effects of heterosubtypic immunity. Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected and viral RNA load was quantified by real-time RT-PCR. For secondary infections in recovered hosts, peak viral load was up to four orders of magnitude lower and shedding length was up to 4 days shorter. However, both the magnitude and presence of heterosubtypic immunity varied across specific host species/subtype combinations. Using a mathematical model of virus replication, the variation in virus replication dynamics due to host individuals was quantified. It was found that accounting for individual heterogeneity is important for drawing accurate conclusions about treatment effects. These results are relevant for developing epidemiological models to inform control practices and for analysing virus replication data.

  16. The effect of feeding modified soyabean oil enriched with C18 : 4 n-3 to broilers on the deposition of n-3 fatty acids in chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Rymer, C; Hartnell, G F; Givens, D I

    2011-03-01

    Supplementing broiler diets with conventional vegetable oils has little effect on the long-chain n-3 PUFA (LC n-3 PUFA) content of the meat. The present study investigated the effect on fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of chicken meat when broilers were fed oil extracted from soyabeans (SDASOY) that had been genetically engineered to produce C18 : 4n-3 (stearidonic acid (SDA), 240 mg/g oil). Three diets were fed to 120 birds (eight replicate pens of five birds) from 15 d to slaughter (41-50 d). Diets were identical apart from the oil added to them (45 and 50 g/kg as fed in the grower and finisher phases, respectively), which was either SDASOY, near-isogenic soya (CON) or fish oil (FISH). The LC n-3 PUFA content of the meat increased in the order CON, SDASOY and FISH. In breast meat with skin, the SDA concentration was 522, 13 and 37 (sem 14·4) mg/100 g meat for SDASOY, CON and FISH, respectively. Equivalent values for C20 : 5n-3 (EPA) were 53, 13 and 140 (sem 8·4); for C22 : 5n-3 (docosapentaenoic acid (DPA)) 65, 15 and 101 (sem 3·5); for C22 : 6n-3 (DHA) 19, 9 and 181 (sem 4·4). Leg meat (with skin) values for SDA were 861, 23 and 68 (sem 30·1); for EPA 87, 9 and 258 (sem 7·5); for DPA 95, 20 and 165 (sem 5·0); for DHA 29, 10 and 278 (sem 8·4). Aroma, taste and aftertaste of freshly cooked breast meat were not affected. Fishy aromas, tastes and aftertastes were associated with LC n-3 PUFA content of the meat, being most noticeable in the FISH leg meat (both freshly cooked and reheated) and in the reheated SDASOY leg meat.

  17. Dynamics of N-NH4 +, N-NO3 -, and total soil nitrogen in paddy field with azolla and biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewi, W. S.; Wahyuningsih, G. I.; Syamsiyah, J.; Mujiyo

    2018-03-01

    Nitrogen (N) is one of macronutrients which is dynamic in the soil and becomes constraint factor for rice crops. The addition of nitrogen fertilizers and its absorption in paddy field causes the dynamics of nitrogen, thus declines of N absorption efficiency. The aim of this research is to know influence Azolla, biochar and different varieties application on N-NH4 +, N-NO3 -, and total soil N in paddy field. This research was conducted in a screen house located in Jumantono Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Sebelas Maret (UNS) with altitude 170 m asl from April to June 2016. Treatment factors that were examined consisted of azolla (0 and 10 tons/ha), biochar (0 and 2 tons/ha), and rice varieties (Cisadane, Memberamo, Ciherang, IR64). The results of this research showed that there was no interaction between azolla, biochar and varieties. Nevertheless, azolla treatment with dose of 10 tons/ha increased soil NH4 + content (41 days after planting, DAP) by 13.4% but tend to decrease at 70 and 90 DAP. Biochar treatment with dose of 2 ton/ha increases NO3 - soil content (70 DAP) by 1.7% but decreases total N soil by 5.8% (41 DAP) and 4.7% (90 DAP). Different rice varieties generated different soil NH4 + content (41 DAP) and rice root volume. Cisadane variety can increase soil NH4 + content (41 DAP) by 52.08% and root volume by 51.80% (90 DAP) compared with Ciherang variety. Organic rice field management with azolla and biochar affects the availability of N in the soil and increase N absorption efficiency through its role in increasing rice root volume.

  18. Postmortem identification and quantitation of 2,5-dimethoxy-4-n-propylthiophenethylamine using GC-MSD and GC-NPD.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Byron; Kemp, Philip; Harty, Linda; Choi, Chai; Christensen, Dix

    2003-10-01

    2,5-Dimethoxy-4-n-propylthiophenethylamine (2C-T-7) has structural and pharmacodynamic similarities to methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). This compound was initially identified from a routine screening procedure in postmortem urine from a 20-year-old male that died in a local emergency room after reportedly insufflating 35 mg. This report describes the development of a quantitative method for 2C-T-7. A number of method parameters were studied including internal standard selection, liquid-liquid extraction scheme, and drug stability in preserved refrigerated blood. The adopted method for blood and urine involves the addition of trimethoxyamphetamine (TMA) as internal standard, alkalinization with ammonium hydroxide, and liquid-liquid extraction with n-chlorobutane. To facilitate recovery from liver, a 1:4 aqueous homogenate was pretreated with dilute perchloric acid, centrifuged, and the supernatant was extracted as previously described. In each case, 0.1% hydrochloric acid in methanol was added during the final concentration step to prevent loss of drug caused by evaporation. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection (GC-NPD) and electron ionization GC-mass spectrometry (MS) utilizing selected ion monitoring. For the GC-MS analysis, the characteristic ions monitored for 2C-T-7 were m/z 226, 255, and 183 and for TMA, m/z 182. The limits of detection and quantitation in blood were 6.0 and 15.6 ng/mL, respectively, by both GC-NPD and GC-MS. The results from the postmortem case were as follows: heart blood, 57 ng/mL; femoral blood, 100 ng/mL; urine, 1120 ng/mL; and liver, 854 ng/g.

  19. Formation of a nanobubble and its effect on the structural ordering of water in a CH4-N2-CO2-H2O mixture.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Surinder Pal; Sujith, K S; Ramachandran, C N

    2018-04-04

    The replacement of methane (CH4) from its hydrate by a mixture of nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) involves the dissociation of methane hydrate leading to the formation of a CH4-N2-CO2-H2O mixture that can significantly influence the subsequent steps of the replacement process. In the present work, we study the evolution of dissolved gas molecules in this mixture by applying classical molecular dynamics simulations. Our study shows that a higher CO2 : N2 ratio in the mixture enhances the formation of nanobubbles composed of N2, CH4 and CO2 molecules. To understand how the CO2 : N2 ratio affects nanobubble nucleation, the distribution of molecules in the bubble formed is examined. It is observed that unlike N2 and CH4, the density of CO2 in the bubble reaches a maximum at the surface of the bubble. The accumulation of CO2 molecules at the surface makes the bubble more stable by decreasing the excess pressure inside the bubble as well as surface tension at its interface with water. It is found that a frequent exchange of gas molecules takes place between the bubble and the surrounding liquid and an increase in concentration of CO2 in the mixture leads to a decrease in the number of such exchanges. The effect of nanobubbles on the structural ordering of water molecules is examined by determining the number of water rings formed per unit volume in the mixture. The role of nanobubbles in water structuring is correlated to the dynamic nature of the bubble arising from the exchange of gas molecules between the bubble and the liquid.

  20. Potent antigen-specific immune response induced by infusion of spleen cells coupled with succinimidyl-4-(N-maleimidomethyl cyclohexane)-1-carboxylate (SMCC) conjugated antigens.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yixian; Werbel, Tyler; Wan, Suigui; Wu, Haitao; Li, Yaohua; Clare-Salzler, Michael; Xia, Chang-Qing

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, we report our recently developed new approach to inducing antigen-specific immune response. We use two nucleophilic substitution "click" chemistry processes to successfully couple protein antigens or peptides to mouse spleen cells or T cells by a heterobifunctional crosslinker, succinimidyl-4-(N-maleimidomethyl cyclohexane)-1-carboxylate (SMCC) or sulfo-SMCC. SMCC and its water-soluble analog sulfo-SMCC contain N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester and maleimide groups, which allow stable covalent conjugation of amine- and sulfhydryl-containing molecules in trans. Protein coupling to cells relies on the free sulfhydryls (thiols) on cell surfaces and the free amines on protein antigens. Although the amount of protein coupled to cells is limited due to the limited number of cell surface thiols, the injection of spleen cells coupled with antigenic proteins, such as keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or ovalbumin (OVA), induces a potent antigen-specific immune response in vivo, which is even stronger than that induced by the injection of a large dose of protein plus adjuvants. In addition, short peptides coupled to purified splenic T cells also potently elicit peptide-specific T cell proliferation in vivo after injection. Further studies show that antigen-coupled spleen cell treatment leads to augmented IFN-γ-producing T cells. Our study provides a unique antigen delivery method that efficiently distributes antigen to the entire immune system, subsequently eliciting a potent antigen-specific immune response with enhanced IFN-γ production. The findings in the present study suggest that this antigen-cell coupling strategy could be employed in immunotherapy for cancers, infectious diseases as well as immune-mediated disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficient π electrons delocalization in prospective push pull non-linear optical chromophore 4-[N,N-dimethylamino]-4‧-nitro stilbene (DANS): A vibrational spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayakumar, T.; Hubert Joe, I.; Reghunadhan Nair, C. P.; Jayakumar, V. S.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation on the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) of an efficient π-conjugated potential push-pull NLO chromophore, 4-[ N, N-dimethylamino]-4'-nitro stilbene (DANS), from a strong electron-donor group (dimethylamino- N(CH 3) 2) to a strong electron-acceptor group (nitro-NO 2) through the π-conjugated bridge ( trans-stilbene) has been carried out from their vibrational spectra. The NIR FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra supported by the density functional theory (DFT) quantum chemical computations have been employed to analyze the effects of intramolecular charge transfer on the geometries and the vibrational modes contributing to the linear electro-optic effect of the organic NLO material. It has been observed that the changes in the endocyclic and exocyclic angles result from the charge-transfer interaction of the phenyl ring and the amino group in the electron-donor side of the NLO chromophore. The strongest vibrational modes contributing to the electro-optic effect have been identified and examined from the concurrent IR and Raman activation of ν(C dbnd C/C-C) mode, ring C dbnd C stretching modes, in-plane deformation modes, nitro modes and the umbrella mode of methyl groups. Furthermore, the splitting of the vinyl stretching modes and the electronic effects such as hyperconjugation and backdonation on the methyl hydrogen atoms causing the decrease of stretching frequencies and infrared intensities have also been analyzed in detail. The effect of frontier orbitals transition of electron density transfer and the influence of planarity between the phenyl rings of the stilbene moiety on the first hyperpolarizability have also been discussed.

  2. Distinct CCR2(+) Gr1(+) cells control growth of the Yersinia pestis ΔyopM mutant in liver and spleen during systemic plague.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhan; Uittenbogaard, Annette M; Cohen, Donald A; Kaplan, Alan M; Ambati, Jayakrishna; Straley, Susan C

    2011-02-01

    We are using a systemic plague model to identify the cells and pathways that are undermined by the virulence protein YopM of the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis. In this study, we pursued previous findings that Gr1(+) cells are required to selectively limit growth of ΔyopM Y. pestis and that CD11b(+) cells other than polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are selectively lost in spleens infected with parent Y. pestis. When PMNs were ablated from mice, ΔyopM Y. pestis grew as well as the parent strain in liver but not in spleen, showing that these cells are critical for controlling growth of the mutant in liver but not spleen. In mice lacking expression of the chemokine receptor CCR2, wild-type growth was restored to ΔyopM Y. pestis in both organs. In spleen, the Gr1(+) cells differentially recruited by parent and ΔyopM Y. pestis infections were CCR2(+) Gr1(+) CD11b(+) CD11c(Lo-Int) MAC3(+) iNOS(+) (inducible nitric oxide synthase-positive) inflammatory dendritic cells (iDCs), and their recruitment to spleen from blood was blocked when YopM was present in the infecting strain. Consistent with influx of iDCs being affected by YopM in spleen, the growth defect of the ΔyopM mutant was relieved by the parent Y. pestis strain in a coinfection assay in which the parent strain could affect the fate of the mutant in trans. In a mouse model of bubonic plague, CCR2 also was shown to be required for ΔyopM Y. pestis to show wild-type growth in skin. The data imply that YopM's pathogenic effect indirectly undermines signaling through CCR2. We propose a model for how YopM exerts its different effects in liver and spleen.

  3. Tumor development in murine ulcerative colitis depends on MyD88 signaling of colonic F4/80+CD11bhighGr1low macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Schiechl, Gabriela; Bauer, Bernhard; Fuss, Ivan; Lang, Sven A.; Moser, Christian; Ruemmele, Petra; Rose-John, Stefan; Neurath, Markus F.; Geissler, Edward K.; Schlitt, Hans-Jürgen; Strober, Warren; Fichtner-Feigl, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Patients with prolonged ulcerative colitis (UC) frequently develop colorectal adenocarcinoma for reasons that are not fully clear. To analyze inflammation-associated colonic tumorigenesis, we developed a chronic form of oxazolone-induced colitis in mice that, similar to UC, was distinguished by the presence of IL-13–producing NKT cells. In this model, the induction of tumors using azoxymethane was accompanied by the coappearance of F4/80+CD11bhighGr1low M2 macrophages, cells that undergo polarization by IL-13 and are absent in tumors that lack high level IL-13 production. Importantly, this subset of macrophages was a source of tumor-promoting factors, including IL-6. Similar to dextran sodium sulfate–induced colitis, F4/80+CD11bhighGr1intermediate macrophages were present in the mouse model of chronic oxazolone-induced colitis and may influence tumor development through production of TGF-β1, a cytokine that inhibits tumor immunosurveillance. Finally, while robust chronic oxazolone-induced colitis developed in myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88–deficient (Myd88–/–) mice, these mice did not support tumor development. The inhibition of tumor development in Myd88–/– mice correlated with cessation of IL-6 and TGF-β1 production by M2 and F4/80+CD11bhighGr1intermediate macrophages, respectively, and was reversed by exogenous IL-6. These data show that an UC-like inflammation may facilitate tumor development by providing a milieu favoring development of MyD88-dependent tumor-supporting macrophages. PMID:21519141

  4. Deformation of Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland, 1992-2014: Constraints on magma flow in relation to eruptions in 1998, 2004 and 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Hreinsdottir, Sigrun; Sturkell, Erik; Ofeigsson, Benedikt; Einarsson, Pall; Roberts, Matthew; Grapenthin, Ronni; Villemin, Thierry; Arnadottir, Thora; Geirsson, Halldor

    2014-05-01

    A time series of ground deformation at Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland from 1992 to 2014 reveals deformation due to plate movements, glacial-isostatic uplift in response to the melting of the Vatnajökull ice cap, annual changes due to snow loading and magma movements. GPS measurements have been made at one nunatak, conducted intermittently since 1992 and continuously since 2004. During this period eruptions have occurred at Grímsvötn in 1998, 2004 and 2011. The component of displacement related to magma movements is obtained after the time series are corrected for signals due to other processes. Uplift and displacement away from the caldera occurs between eruptions at a rate of few cm/yr, interrupted by sudden co-eruptive subsidence and displacement towards the caldera (up to half a meter). This inflation/deflation pattern suggests deformation driven by pressure change in an upper crustal magma chamber, similar to other highly active calderas in Iceland such as Askja and Krafla. A simple model of pressure change variation in a magma chamber at shallow depth, with variable inflow between eruptions and outflow during eruptions can explain the observed deformation pattern. The erupted volume of magma in the 2011 eruption is about 10 times larger than the inferred co-eruptive volume change, attributed to compressibility of magma in the chamber. The magma compressibility is inferred to have remained constant during the 2011 eruption, as about constant scale factor is found during that eruption between eruption rate and displacement rate. This scale factor is, however, about five times lower for the 2004 eruption. This difference implies higher compressibility of magma in the shallow Grímsvötn magma chamber during the 2011 eruption compared to 2004, assuming the active part of the Grimsvötn magma plumbing system remained the same in both eruptions.

  5. [Technical recommendations and best practice guidelines for May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining: literature review and insights from the quality assurance].

    PubMed

    Piaton, Eric; Fabre, Monique; Goubin-Versini, Isabelle; Bretz-Grenier, Marie-Françoise; Courtade-Saïdi, Monique; Vincent, Serge; Belleannée, Geneviève; Thivolet, Françoise; Boutonnat, Jean; Debaque, Hervé; Fleury-Feith, Jocelyne; Vielh, Philippe; Cochand-Priollet, Béatrix; Egelé, Caroline; Bellocq, Jean-Pierre; Michiels, Jean-François

    2015-08-01

    May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG) stain is a Romanowsky-type, polychromatic stain as those of Giemsa, Leishman and Wright. Apart being the reference method of haematology, it has become a routine stain of diagnostic cytopathology for the study of air-dried preparations (lymph node imprints, centrifuged body fluids and fine needle aspirations). In the context of their actions of promoting the principles of quality assurance in cytopathology, the French Association for Quality Assurance in Anatomic and Cytologic Pathology (AFAQAP) and the French Society of Clinical Cytology (SFCC) conducted a proficiency test on MGG stain in 2013. Results from the test, together with the review of literature data allow pre-analytical and analytical steps of MGG stain to be updated. Recommendations include rapid air-drying of cell preparations/imprints, fixation using either methanol or May-Grünwald alone for 3-10minutes, two-step staining: 50% May-Grünwald in buffer pH 6.8 v/v for 3-5minutes, followed by 10% buffered Giemsa solution for 10-30minutes, and running water for 1-3minutes. Quality evaluation must be performed on red blood cells (RBCs) and leukocytes, not on tumour cells. Under correct pH conditions, RBCs must appear pink-orange (acidophilic) or buff-coloured, neither green nor blue. Leukocyte cytoplasm must be almost transparent, with clearly delineated granules. However, staining may vary somewhat and testing is recommended for automated methods (slide stainers) which remain the standard for reproducibility. Though MGG stain remains the reference stain, Diff-Quik(®) stain can be used for the rapid evaluation of cell samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 exhibit strong antifungal effects against vulvovaginal candidiasis-causing Candida glabrata isolates.

    PubMed

    Chew, S Y; Cheah, Y K; Seow, H F; Sandai, D; Than, L T L

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates the antagonistic effects of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 against vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC)-causing Candida glabrata. Growth inhibitory activities of Lact. rhamnosus GR-1 and Lact. reuteri RC-14 strains against C. glabrata were demonstrated using a spot overlay assay and a plate-based microtitre assay. In addition, these probiotic lactobacilli strains also exhibited potent candidacidal activity against C. glabrata, as demonstrated by a LIVE/DEAD yeast viability assay performed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The metabolic activities of all C. glabrata strains were completely shut down in response to the challenges by the probiotic lactobacilli strains. In addition, both probiotic lactobacilli strains exhibited strong autoaggregation and coaggregation phenotypes in the presence of C. glabrata, which indicate that these lactobacilli strains may exert their probiotic effects through the formation of aggregates and, thus the consequent prevention of colonization by C. glabrata. Probiotic Lact. rhamnosus GR-1 and Lact. reuteri RC-14 strains exhibited potent antagonistic activities against all of the tested C. glabrata strains. These lactobacilli exhibited antifungal effects, including those attributed to their aggregation abilities, and their presence caused the cessation of growth and eventual cell death of C. glabrata. This is the first study to report on the antagonistic effects of these probiotic lactobacilli strains against the non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species C. glabrata. © 2015 The Authors published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 exhibit strong antifungal effects against vulvovaginal candidiasis-causing Candida glabrata isolates

    PubMed Central

    Chew, SY; Cheah, YK; Seow, HF; Sandai, D; Than, LTL

    2015-01-01

    Aims This study investigates the antagonistic effects of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 against vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC)-causing Candida glabrata. Methods and Results Growth inhibitory activities of Lact. rhamnosus GR-1 and Lact. reuteri RC-14 strains against C. glabrata were demonstrated using a spot overlay assay and a plate-based microtitre assay. In addition, these probiotic lactobacilli strains also exhibited potent candidacidal activity against C. glabrata, as demonstrated by a LIVE/DEAD yeast viability assay performed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The metabolic activities of all C. glabrata strains were completely shut down in response to the challenges by the probiotic lactobacilli strains. In addition, both probiotic lactobacilli strains exhibited strong autoaggregation and coaggregation phenotypes in the presence of C. glabrata, which indicate that these lactobacilli strains may exert their probiotic effects through the formation of aggregates and, thus the consequent prevention of colonization by C. glabrata. Conclusions Probiotic Lact. rhamnosus GR-1 and Lact. reuteri RC-14 strains exhibited potent antagonistic activities against all of the tested C. glabrata strains. These lactobacilli exhibited antifungal effects, including those attributed to their aggregation abilities, and their presence caused the cessation of growth and eventual cell death of C. glabrata. Significance and Impact of the Study This is the first study to report on the antagonistic effects of these probiotic lactobacilli strains against the non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species C. glabrata. PMID:25688886

  8. Detection and Location of Transverse Matrix Cracks in Cross-Ply Gr/Ep Composites Using Acoustic Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, W. H.; Jackson, K. E.; Kellas, S.; Smith, B. T.; McKeon, J.; Friedman, A.

    1995-01-01

    Transverse matrix cracking in cross-ply gr/ep laminates was studied with advanced acoustic emission (AE) techniques. The primary goal of this research was to measure the load required to initiate the first transverse matrix crack in cross-ply laminates of different thicknesses. Other methods had been previously used for these measurements including penetrant enhanced radiography, optical microscopy, and audible acoustic microphone measurements. The former methods required that the mechanical test be paused for measurements at load intervals. This slowed the test procedure and did not provide the required resolution in load. With acoustic microphones, acoustic signals from cracks could not be clearly differentiated from other noise sources such as grip damage, specimen slippage, or test machine noise. A second goal for this work was to use the high resolution source location accuracy of the advanced acoustic emission techniques to determine whether the crack initiation site was at the specimen edge or in the interior of the specimen.In this research, advanced AE techniques using broad band sensors, high capture rate digital waveform acquisition, and plate wave propagation based analysis were applied to cross-ply composite coupons with different numbers of 0 and 90 degree plies. Noise signals, believed to be caused by grip damage or specimen slipping, were eliminated based on their plate wave characteristics. Such signals were always located outside the sensor gage length in the gripped region of the specimen. Cracks were confirmed post-test by microscopic analysis of a polished specimen edge, backscatter ultrasonic scans, and in limited cases, by penetrant enhanced radiography. For specimens with three or more 90 degree plies together, there was an exact 1-1 correlation between AE crack signals and observed cracks. The ultrasonic scans and some destructive sectioning analysis showed that the cracks extended across the full width of the specimen. Furthermore, the

  9. Quantitative-Voronovskaya and Grüss-Voronovskaya type theorems for Szász-Durrmeyer type operators blended with multiple Appell polynomials.

    PubMed

    Neer, Trapti; Agrawal, Purshottam Narain

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we establish a link between the Szász-Durrmeyer type operators and multiple Appell polynomials. We study a quantitative-Voronovskaya type theorem in terms of weighted modulus of smoothness using sixth order central moment and Grüss-Voronovskaya type theorem. We also establish a local approximation theorem by means of the Steklov means in terms of the first and the second order modulus of continuity and Voronovskaya type asymtotic theorem. Further, we discuss the degree of approximation by means of the weighted spaces. Lastly, we find the rate of approximation of functions having a derivative of bounded variation.

  10. HIF-α/MIF and NF-κB/IL-6 axes contribute to the recruitment of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells in hypoxic microenvironment of HNSCC.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guiquan; Tang, Yaling; Geng, Ning; Zheng, Min; Jiang, Jian; Li, Ling; Li, Kaide; Lei, Zhengge; Chen, Wei; Fan, Yunlong; Ma, Xiangrui; Li, Longjiang; Wang, Xiaoyi; Liang, Xinhua

    2014-02-01

    CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells have gained much attention due to their roles in tumor immunity suppression as well as promotion of angiogenesis, invasion, and metastases. However, the mechanisms by which CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells recruit to the tumor site have not been well clarified. In the present study, we showed that hypoxia could stimulate the migration of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells through increased production of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)- and HIF-2α-dependent MIF regulated chemotaxis, differentiation, and pro-angiogenic function of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells through binding to CD74/CXCR2, and CD74/CXCR4 complexes, and then activating p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathways. Knockdown (KD) of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in HNSCC cells decreased MIF level but failed to inhibit the CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cell migration, because HIF-1α/2α KD enhanced nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity that increased IL-6 secretion. Simultaneously blocking NF-κB and HIF-1α/HIF-2α had better inhibitory effect on CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cell recruitment in the hypoxic zone than individually silencing HIF-1α/2α or NF-κB. In conclusion, the interaction between HIF-α/MIF and NF-κB/IL-6 axes plays an important role in the hypoxia-induced accumulation of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells and tumor growth in HNSCC. Copyright © 2014 Neoplasia Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis, Characterization, and In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluations of 4-(N)-Docosahexaenoyl 2', 2'-Difluorodeoxycytidine with Potent and Broad-Spectrum Antitumor Activity.

    PubMed

    Naguib, Youssef W; Lansakara-P, Dharmika; Lashinger, Laura M; Rodriguez, B Leticia; Valdes, Solange; Niu, Mengmeng; Aldayel, Abdulaziz M; Peng, Lan; Hursting, Stephen D; Cui, Zhengrong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a new compound, 4-(N)-docosahexaenoyl 2', 2'-difluorodeoxycytidine (DHA-dFdC), was synthesized and characterized. Its antitumor activity was evaluated in cell culture and in mouse models of pancreatic cancer. DHA-dFdC is a poorly soluble, pale yellow waxy solid, with a molecular mass of 573.3Da and a melting point of about 96°C. The activation energy for the degradation of DHA-dFdC in an aqueous Tween 80-based solution is 12.86kcal/mol, whereas its stability is significantly higher in the presence of vitamin E. NCI-60 DTP Human Tumor Cell Line Screening revealed that DHA-dFdC has potent and broad-spectrum antitumor activity, especially in leukemia, renal, and central nervous system cancer cell lines. In human and murine pancreatic cancer cell lines, the IC50 value of DHA-dFdC was up to 10(5)-fold lower than that of dFdC. The elimination of DHA-dFdC in mouse plasma appeared to follow a biexponential model, with a terminal phase t1/2 of about 58minutes. DHA-dFdC significantly extended the survival of genetically engineered mice that spontaneously develop pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. In nude mice with subcutaneously implanted human Panc-1 pancreatic tumors, the antitumor activity of DHA-dFdC was significantly stronger than the molar equivalent of dFdC alone, DHA alone, or the physical mixture of them (1:1, molar ratio). DHA-dFdC also significantly inhibited the growth of Panc-1 tumors orthotopically implanted in the pancreas of nude mice, whereas the molar equivalent dose of dFdC alone did not show any significant activity. DHA-dFdC is a promising compound for the potential treatment of cancers in organs such as the pancreas. Copyright © 2015 Institut National de la Santé Et de la Recherche Médicale. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation of Seasonal Cycles of CO, CH4, N2O, and O3 in the High Arctic at Eureka, Canada and Barrow, Alaska using Infrared Emission Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, S.; Mariani, Z.; Conway, S. A.; Lutsch, E.; Rowe, P. M.; Kasai, Y.; Strong, K.

    2015-12-01

    The High Arctic experiences prolonged periods of total darkness in the winter and continuous daylight in the summer, influencing the atmosphere and its composition in ways that are still not fully understood. Making atmospheric measurements in this remote region is challenging, particularly during polar night when solar-viewing instruments are not operational. By using infrared emission spectroscopy, which is independent of sunlight, we are able to document year-round the total column abundances of carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and ozone (O3). Measurements made at two Arctic sites are presented in this study: the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL, Eureka, Nunavut, Canada, 80.05°N, 86.42°W) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) facility on the North Slope of Alaska (NSA, Barrow, Alaska, 71.19°N, 156.36°W). At both sites, Extended-range Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometers (E-AERIs), are used to measure the absolute downwelling infrared emission from the atmosphere between 400 and 3000 cm-1. The E-AERI has a moderate resolution of 1 cm-1 and provides information about trace gases columns with high sensitivity to the lower troposphere. At PEARL, the instrument was installed in October 2008. In addition, a similar instrument, the University of Idaho's Polar AERI (P-AERI) was installed at PEARL from March 2006 to June 2009. At NSA, the E-AERI has been operating since February 1998. Total columns of CO, CH4, N2O and O3 have been retrieved from 2006 to 2015 at PEARL and from 1998 to 2014 at NSA using the SFIT4 algorithm. These two datasets will be compared along with measurements made by high-resolution solar-viewing infrared spectrometers located at PEARL and at Poker Flat, Alaska (65.12°N, 147.47°W) to validate our results. These measurements will be used to present the annual, seasonal and diurnal variabilities of trace gases in the high Arctic at two different

  13. Tinnunculite, C5H4N4O3 · 2H2O: Occurrences on the Kola Peninsula and Redefinition and Validation as a Mineral Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekov, I. V.; Chukanov, N. V.; Yapaskurt, V. O.; Belakovskiy, D. I.; Lykova, I. S.; Zubkova, N. V.; Shcherbakova, E. P.; Britvin, S. N.; Chervonnyi, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Based on a study of samples found in the Khibiny (Mt. Rasvumchorr: the holotype) and Lovozero (Mts Alluaiv and Vavnbed) alkaline complexes on the Kola Peninsula, Russia, tinnunculite was approved by the IMA Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature, and Classification as a valid mineral species (IMA no. 2015-02la) and, taking into account a revisory examination of the original material from burnt dumps of coal mines in the southern Urals, it was redefined as crystalline uric acid dihydrate (UAD), C5H4N4O3 · 2H2O. Tinnunculite is poultry manure mineralized in biogeochemical systems, which could be defined as "guano microdeposits." The mineral occurs as prismatic or tabular crystals up to 0.01 × 0.1 × 0.2 mm in size and clusters of them, as well as crystalline or microglobular crusts. Tinnunculite is transparent or translucent, colorless, white, yellowish, reddish or pale lilac. Crystals show vitreous luster. The mineral is soft and brittle, with a distinct (010) cleavage. D calc = 1.68 g/cm3 (holotype). Tinnunculite is optically biaxial (-), α = 1.503(3), β = 1.712(3), γ = 1.74(1), 2 V obs = 40(10)°. The IR spectrum is given. The chemical composition of the holotype sample (electron microprobe data, content of H is calculated by UAD stoichiometry) is as follows, wt %: 37.5 O, 28.4 C, 27.0 N, 3.8 Hcalc, total 96.7. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of (C + N+ O) = 14 apfu is: C4.99H8N4.07O4.94. Tinnunculite is monoclinic, space group (by analogy with synthetic UAD) P21/ c. The unit cell parameters of the holotype sample (single crystal XRD data) are a = 7.37(4), b = 6.326(16), c = 17.59(4) Å, β = 90(1)°, V = 820(5) Å3, Z = 4. The strongest reflections in the XRD pattern ( d, Å- I[ hkl]) are 8.82-84[002], 5.97-15[011], 5.63-24[102̅, 102], 4.22-22[112], 3.24-27[114̅,114], 3.18-100[210], 3.12-44[211̅, 211], 2.576-14[024].

  14. Drivers of small scale variability in soil-atmosphere fluxes of CH4, N2O and CO2 in a forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Martin; Nicolai, Clara; Wheeler, Denis; Lang, Friedeike; Paulus, Sinikka

    2016-04-01

    Soil-atmosphere fluxes of CH4, N2O and CO2 can vary on different spatial scales, on large scales between ecosystems but also within apparently homogenous sites. While CO2 and CH4 consumption is rather evenly distibuted in well aerated soils, the production of N2O and CH4 seems to occur at hot spots that can be associated with anoxic or suboxic conditions. Small-scale variability in soil properties is well-known from field soil assesment, affecting also soil aeration and thus theoretically, greenhouse gas fluxes. In many cases different plant species are associated with different soil conditions and vegetation mapping should therefor combined with soil mapping. Our research objective was explaining the small scale variability of greenhouse gas fluxes in an apparently homogeneous 50 years old Scots Pine stand in a former riparian flood plain.We combined greenhouse gas measurements and soil physical lab measurments with field soil assessment and vegetation mapping. Measurements were conducted with at 60 points at a plot of 30 X 30 m at the Hartheim monitoring site (SW Germany). For greenhouse gas measurements a non-steady state chamber system and laser analyser, and a photoacoustic analyser were used. Our study shows that the well aerated site was a substantial sink for atmospheric CH4 (-2.4 nmol/m² s) and also a for N2O (-0.4 nmol/m² s), but less pronounced, whereas CO2 production was a magnitude larger (2.6 μmol/m² s). The spatial variability of the CH4 consumption of the soils could be explained by the variability of the soil gas diffusivity (measured in situ + using soil cores). Deviations of this clear trend were only observed at points where decomposing woody debris was directly under the litter layer. Soil texture ranged from gravel, coarse sand, fine sand to pure silt, with coarser texture having higher soil gas diffusivity. Changes in texture were rather abrupt at some positions or gradual at other positions, and were well reflected in the vegetation

  15. Sensitive voltammetric sensor based on isopropanol-Nafion-PSS-GR nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode for determination of clenbuterol in pork.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Yang, Ran; Chen, Jing; Li, Jianjun; Qu, Lingbo; de B Harrington, Peter

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) functionalized graphene (GR) was synthesised via a simple one-step chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxides in the presence of PSS. Characterisation of as-made nanocomposite using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) clearly demonstrate the successful attachment of PSS to graphene sheets. A novel clenbuterol (CLB) electrochemical sensor was fabricated based on isopropanol-Nafion-PSS-GR composite film modified glassy carbon electrode. In the Britton-Robinson buffer (pH 1.2), the sensor exhibited superior electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of CLB. Applying linear sweep voltammetry, a good linear relationship of the oxidation peak current with respect to concentrations of CLB cross the range of 7.5 × 10(-8)-2.5 × 10(-5)mol L(-1) and a detection limit of 2.2 × 10(-8) mol L(-1) were achieved. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of CLB in pork. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. SHRIMP zircon U Pb constraints on the age of the Carajás formation, Grão ParáGroup, Amazon Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trendall, A. F.; Basei, M. A. S.; de Laeter, J. R.; Nelson, D. R.

    1998-05-01

    The ≈400 m-thick Carajás Formation, of northern Brazil, is one of the most extensive Precambrian banded iron-formations (BIFs) of the Gondwanaland continents. The formation lies within the Grão ParáGroup, a gently folded and weakly metamorphosed volcanosedimentary sequence which unconformably overlies older gneissose and granitoid rocks of the Xingu Complex. Zircons extracted from five samples selected to provide age constraints for the Carajás Formation have yielded good U-Pb data following ion-microprobe analysis. Our results, combined with those available from earlier U-Pb zircon work, constrain deposition of the Carajás Formation between ≈2750 and ≈2740 Ma. A 2681±5 Ma age from an overlying sandstone with abundant zircons, apparently derived from syndepositional volcanism, suggests that deposition in the Grão Pará"Basin" may have lasted less than 100 Ma. Our data hint at late metamorphic and/or metasomatic events, as young as 569±11 Ma, whose significance remains unresolved. Our results are in accord with previously published U-Pb zircon data constraining the maximum age of the Carajás Formation, but also provide close constraint on its minimum age that is not reliant on regional stratigraphic correlation.

  17. The directed migration of gonadal distal tip cells in Caenorhabditis elegans requires NGAT-1, a ß1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase enzyme.

    PubMed

    Veyhl, Joseph; Dunn, Robert J; Johnston, Wendy L; Bennett, Alexa; Zhang, Lijia W; Dennis, James W; Schachter, Harry; Culotti, Joseph G

    2017-01-01

    Glycoproteins such as growth factor receptors and extracellular matrix have well-known functions in development and cancer progression, however, the glycans at sites of modification are often heterogeneous molecular populations which makes their functional characterization challenging. Here we provide evidence for a specific, discrete, well-defined glycan modification and regulation of a stage-specific cell migration in Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that a chain-terminating, putative null mutation in the gene encoding a predicted β1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase, named ngat-1, causes a maternally rescued temperature sensitive (ts) defect in the second phase of the three phase migration pattern of the posterior, but not the anterior, hermaphrodite Distal Tip Cell (DTC). An amino-terminal partial deletion of ngat-1 causes a similar but lower penetrance ts phenotype. The existence of multiple ts alleles with distinctly different molecular DNA lesions, neither of which is likely to encode a ts protein, indicates that NGAT-1 normally prevents innate temperature sensitivity for phase 2 DTC pathfinding. Temperature shift analyses indicate that the ts period for the ngat-1 mutant defect ends by the beginning of post-embryonic development-nearly 3 full larval stages prior to the defective phase 2 migration affected by ngat-1 mutations. NGAT-1 homologs generate glycan-terminal GalNAc-β1-4GlcNAc, referred to as LacdiNAc modifications, on glycoproteins and glycolipids. We also found that the absence of the GnT1/Mgat1 activity [UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:α-3-D-mannoside β-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 1 (encoded by C. elegans gly-12, gly-13, and gly-14 and homologous to vertebrate GnT1/Mgat1)], causes a similar spectrum of DTC phenotypes as ngat-1 mutations-primarily affecting posterior DTC phase 2 migration and preventing manifestation of the same innate ts period as ngat-1. GnT1/Mgat1 is a medial Golgi enzyme known to modify mannose residues and initiate N

  18. Cellular and humoral mediated immunity and distribution of viral antigen in chickens after infection with a low pathogenic avian influenza virus (H4N6) isolated from wild ducks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four-week-old commercial chickens were intranasally inoculated with an H4N6 low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) isolated from a duck in Ukraine. Cecum, spleen, lung, and trachea samples were collected from birds from 1 to 21 days post inoculation (dpi) and examined by immunohistochemica...

  19. A novel yellow-emitting SrAlSi{sub 4}N{sub 7}:Ce{sup 3+} phosphor for solid state lighting: Synthesis, electronic structure and photoluminescence properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ruan, Jian; Laboratory of Glasses and Nanostructured Functional Materials, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430070; Xie, Rong-Jun, E-mail: Xie.Rong-Jun@nims.go.jp

    2013-12-15

    Ce{sup 3+}-doped and Ce{sup 3+}/Li{sup +}-codoped SrAlSi{sub 4}N{sub 7} phosphors were synthesized by gas pressure sintering of powder mixtures of Sr{sub 3}N{sub 2}, AlN, α-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, CeN and Li{sub 3}N. The phase purity, electronic crystal structure, photoluminescence properties of SrAlSi{sub 4}N{sub 7}:Ce{sup 3+}(Ce{sup 3+}/Li{sup +}) were investigated in this work. The band structure calculated by the DMol{sup 3} code shows that SrAlSi{sub 4}N{sub 7} has a direct band gap of 3.87 eV. The single crystal analysis of Ce{sup 3+}-doped SrAlSi{sub 4}N{sub 7} indicates a disordered Si/Al distribution and nitrogen vacnacy defects. SrAlSi{sub 4}N{sub 7} was identified as a majormore » phase of the fired powders, and Sr{sub 5}Al{sub 5}Si{sub 21}N{sub 35}O{sub 2} and AlN as minor phases. Both Ce{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 3+}/Li{sup +} doped SrAlSi{sub 4}N{sub 7} phosphors can be efficiently excited by near-UV or blue light and show a broadband yellow emission peaking around 565 nm. A highest external quantum efficiency of 38.3% under the 450 nm excitation was observed for the Ce{sup 3+}/Li{sup +}-doped SrAlSi{sub 4}N{sub 7} (5 mol%). A white light LED lamp with color temperature of 6300 K and color rendering index of Ra=78 was achieved by combining Sr{sub 0.97}Al{sub 1.03}Si{sub 3.997}N/94/maccounttest14=t0005{sub 1}8193 {sub 7}:Ce{sup 3+}{sub 0.03} with a commercial blue InGaN chip. It indicates that SrAlSi{sub 4}N{sub 7}:Ce{sup 3+} is a promising yellow emitting down-conversion phosphor for white LEDs. - Graphical abstract: One-phosphor converted white light-emitting diode (LED) was fabricated by combining a blue LED chip and a yellow-emitting SrAlSi4N7:Ce{sup 3+} phosphor (see inset), which has the color rendering index of 78 and color temperature of 6300 K. - Highlights: • We reported a new yellow nitride phosphor suitable for solid state lighting. • We solved the crystal structure and evidenced a disordered Si/Al distribution. • We fabricated a high color

  20. The Acute and Post-Discontinuation Effects of a Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) Antagonist Probe on Sleep and the HPA Axis in Chronic Insomnia: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Theresa; Duggal, Vandana; Schatzberg, Alan F.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objective: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) hyperactivity has been reported in patients with chronic insomnia without depression. A glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist may re-regulate HPA axis activity even after discontinuation and may have clinical benefit. Methods: Ten subjects with chronic insomnia participated in a placebo controlled double-blinded prospective 30-day pilot study of the acute and post-discontinuation effects of a 5-day course of 600 mg of the glucocorticoid antagonist, mifepristone. Sleep outcome measures were polysomnogram and Insomnia Severity Index. Hormonal outcome measures were mean overnight cortisol and ACTH (23:00–07:00). We predicted sleep would improve and that overnight cortisol and ACTH would decrease at 2 weeks post-treatment discontinuation. Results: At 2 weeks post-discontinuation, Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) decreased by 4.0 points (effect size = 0.97). Polysomnogram findings were limited. Mean cortisol (0.84 μg/dL, effect size = 0.91) and ACTH (5.50 pg/mL, effect size = 0.96) were still mildly increased (23:00 to 07:00). Post hoc analysis revealed that, the ratio of cortisol/ACTH decreased (−0.21, effect size = 1.15) as did mean cortisol from 18:00 to 23:00 (−0.47 μg/dL, effect size = 0.56). Conclusions: This is the first study of a GR antagonist in chronic insomnia. Sleep improvement manifests in terms of decreased ISI post-treatment discontinuation. The decrease in cortisol in the early evening (18:00 to 23:00) in combination with the decrease in cortisol/ACTH ratio may be an indicator of the longer term biological mode of action of the drug. Citation: Buckley T; Duggal V; Schatzberg AF. The acute and post-discontinuation effects of a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist probe on sleep and the HPA axis in chronic insomnia: a pilot study. J Clin Sleep Med 2008;4(3):235–241. PMID:18595436

  1. High pressure jump apparatus for measuring Grűneisen parameter of NaCl and studying metastable amorphous phase of poly (ethylene terephthalate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, S. M.; Chen, L. Y.; Liu, X. R.; Wu, X. H.; Su, L.

    2005-05-01

    A rapid-compression apparatus with a large pressure jump is described. The pressure jump was performed principally by using a large volume bladder-type power accumulator that contains compressed nitrogen and the connected electromagnetic valves. Maximum force induced by the press is 1.1 MN. Within 20 ms the pressure of the sample could be increased from 0.1 to 2.0 GPa in piston-cylinder modules of 26 mm diameter and to 5.8 GPa in Bridgman-type anvils of 26 mm top diameter. The apparatus has been used successfull in determining the Grűneisen parameter of NaCl at high pressures. Furthermore a metastable amorphous phase of poly (ethylene terephthalate) was solidified from its melt in a rapid compressing process; this phase could not be obtained by slow compressing to high pressure or by naturally cooling at ambient pressure.

  2. Performance analysis of the GR712RC dual-core LEON3FT SPARC V8 processor in an asymmetric multi-processing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusi, Giovanni; Liu, Scige J.; Galli, Emanuele; Di Giorgio, Anna M.; Farina, Maria; Vertolli, Nello; Di Lellis, Andrea M.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we present the results of a series of performance tests carried out on a prototype board mounting the Cobham Gaisler GR712RC Dual Core LEON3FT processor. The aim was the characterization of the performances of the dual core processor when used for executing a highly demanding lossless compression task, acting on data segments continuously copied from the static memory to the processor RAM. The selection of the compression activity to evaluate the performances was driven by the possibility of a comparison with previously executed tests on the Cobham/Aeroflex Gaisler UT699 LEON3FT SPARC™ V8. The results of the test activity have shown a factor 1.6 of improvement with respect to the previous tests, which can easily be improved by adopting a faster onboard board clock, and provided indications on the best size of the data chunks to be used in the compression activity.

  3. Systemic Scedosporium prolificans infection in an 11-month-old Border collie with cobalamin deficiency secondary to selective cobalamin malabsorption (canine Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome).

    PubMed

    Erles, K; Mugford, A; Barfield, D; Leeb, T; Kook, P H

    2018-04-01

    An 11-month-old Border collie presented collapsed and continued to deteriorate rapidly despite supportive treatment. The dog had a history of failure to thrive and recurring respiratory infection. Laboratory abnormalities included neutrophilic leucocytosis, Heinz body anaemia, hyperammonaemia, hyperbilirubinaemia, proteinuria and hypocobalaminaemia. Post-mortem examination revealed multi-focal necrosis within the heart, kidneys, pancreas, liver, meninges and cerebral cortex. Fungal hyphae in lesions were identified as Scedosporium prolificans following culture. Subsequent genotyping confirmed that the dog carried the CUBN:c.8392delC mutation in a homozygous state, verifying hereditary cobalamin deficiency (a.k.a. Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome). Cobalamin deficiency may have been a predisposing factor for the development of systemic fungal infection in this dog. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  4. CMOS integration of high-k/metal gate transistors in diffusion and gate replacement (D&GR) scheme for dynamic random access memory peripheral circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dentoni Litta, Eugenio; Ritzenthaler, Romain; Schram, Tom; Spessot, Alessio; O’Sullivan, Barry; Machkaoutsan, Vladimir; Fazan, Pierre; Ji, Yunhyuck; Mannaert, Geert; Lorant, Christophe; Sebaai, Farid; Thiam, Arame; Ercken, Monique; Demuynck, Steven; Horiguchi, Naoto

    2018-04-01

    Integration of high-k/metal gate stacks in peripheral transistors is a major candidate to ensure continued scaling of dynamic random access memory (DRAM) technology. In this paper, the CMOS integration of diffusion and gate replacement (D&GR) high-k/metal gate stacks is investigated, evaluating four different approaches for the critical patterning step of removing the N-type field effect transistor (NFET) effective work function (eWF) shifter stack from the P-type field effect transistor (PFET) area. The effect of plasma exposure during the patterning step is investigated in detail and found to have a strong impact on threshold voltage tunability. A CMOS integration scheme based on an experimental wet-compatible photoresist is developed and the fulfillment of the main device metrics [equivalent oxide thickness (EOT), eWF, gate leakage current density, on/off currents, short channel control] is demonstrated.

  5. Invagination intestinale aiguë consécutive à un lipome grèlique: à propos d'un cas et revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Bentama, Kamal; Chemlal, Iliass; Benabbou, Mohamed; El Abssi, Mohamed; El Ouananni, Meouhamed; Cherrab, Mouhamed; Faricha, Alami; Errougani, Abdelkader; Amraoui, Mohamed; Chekoff, Rachid

    2012-01-01

    L'invagination intestinale aiguë est une pathologie du nourrisson et du petit enfant. Sa survenue chez l'adulte est très inhabituelle. Elle est d’étiologie diverse. Dans l'immense majorité des cas, elle est secondaire à une tumeur qui peut être bénigne ou maligne. L'invagination intestinale sur lipome est exceptionnelle. Nous rapportons un cas d'invagination intestinale grêlo-grêlique sur lipome. PMID:23133698

  6. High pressure behavior of complex phosphate K2Ce[PO4]2: Grüneisen parameter and anharmonicity properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Karuna Kara; Bevara, Samatha; Ravindran, T. R.; Patwe, S. J.; Gupta, Mayanak K.; Mittal, Ranjan; Krishnan, R. Venkata; Achary, S. N.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2018-02-01

    Herein we reported structural stability, vibrational and thermal properties of K2Ce[PO4]2, a relatively underexplored complex phosphate of tetravalent Ce4+ from in situ high-pressure Raman spectroscopic investigations up to 28 GPa using a diamond anvil cell. The studies identified the soft phonons that lead to a reversible phase transformation above 8 GPa, and a phase coexistence of ambient (PI) and high pressure (PII) phases in a wider pressure region 6-11 GPa. From a visual representation of the computed eigen vector displacements, the Ag soft mode at 82 cm-1 is assigned as a lattice mode of K+ cation. Pressure-induced positional disorder is apparent from the substantial broadening of internal modes and the disappearance of low frequency lattice and external modes in phase PII above 18 GPa. Isothermal mode Grüneisen parameters γi of the various phonon modes are calculated and compared for several modes. Using these values, thermal properties such as average Grüneisen parameter, and thermal expansion coefficient are estimated as 0.47, and 2.5 × 10-6 K-1, respectively. The specific heat value was estimated from all optical modes obtained from DFT calculations as 314 J-mol-1 K-1. Our earlier reported temperature dependence of phonon frequencies is used to decouple the "true anharmonic" (explicit contribution at constant volume) and "quasi harmonic" (implicit contribution brought out by volume change) contributions from the total anharmonicity. In addition to the 81 cm-1 Ag lattice mode, several other lattice and external modes of PO43- ions are found to be strongly anharmonic.

  7. Numerical studies of ice flow over subglacial geothermal heat sources at Grímsvötn, Iceland, using Full Stokes equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosch, Alexander H.; Gudmundsson, Magnús T.

    2007-06-01

    The importance of studying geothermal heat sources under glaciers lies in: (1) the potential for jökulhlaups from such sites; (2) the potential for enhanced sliding of ice masses caused by meltwater lubrication of the ice-bedrock interface; and (3) the potential to gain a deeper understanding of the interaction between the geothermal system and the overlying ice. We study the temporal evolution of an elongated depression on the eastern side of the geothermally active Grímsvötn caldera through numerical 2-dimensional forward modeling, solving the full Stokes equation. The 100-150 m deep depression formed gradually between 1998 and 2004. The model results show that heat flux estimates based on depression volume are strongly dependent on the value of the rate factor A in Glen's flow law. If flow of ice into the depression is not taken into account, heat flux underestimates of 15-75% occur, corresponding to rate factors of 10-68 × 10-16 s-1 kPa-3. The estimated heat flux at the study site was 260-390 W m-2, with the best estimate being 280 W m-2, obtained from the best estimate of A = 23 × 10-16s-1 kPa-3. The total power of the modeled site was 250-300 MW, about one tenth of the total heat output of Grímsvötn. This heat flux is of comparable magnitude to that of other powerful subglacial geothermal areas. Finally, as the maximum modeled strain rates (1 × 10-7 s-1) are within the range of the applicability of Glen's flow law, this suggests that the full Stokes approach should be valid for the study of many subglacial geothermal areas.

  8. Differential regulation of branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase expression by glucocorticoids and acidification in LLC-PK1-GR101 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaonan; Price, S Russ

    2004-03-01

    Acidosis and glucocorticoids (GC) are two catabolic signals associated with chronic renal disease. Previously, we reported that these signals stimulate branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) oxidation in renal tubule cells by increasing both the amount and activation state of branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKD). Activation of the BCKD complex could result from decreased expression of BCKD kinase, which inhibits BCKD by phosphorylating its E1 alpha subunit. To investigate this possibility, we examined how dexamethasone and acidification (pH 7.0) influence BCKD kinase expression in LLC-PK(1)-GR101 cells. Dexamethasone, a synthetic GC, decreased BCKD kinase protein by 65% (P < 0.05 vs. control), whereas a low pH (i.e., pH 7.0) decreased the amount of kinase by 71% (P < 0.05 vs. control). Either GC or acidification reduced BCKD kinase mRNA by 46% (P < 0.05 vs. control), but the two signals together did not reduce kinase mRNA more than either signal alone. To examine the mechanism(s) leading to lower kinase mRNA, kinase transcription was evaluated by transiently transfecting LLC-PK(1)-GR101 cells with BCKD kinase promoter-luciferase mini-genes containing approximately 3.5 kb of proximal rat kinase promoter. GC, but not acidification, decreased luciferase activity 42% (P < 0.05 vs. control). Nuclear run-on assays confirmed that GC decrease kinase mRNA by attenuating its transcription. Thus two catabolic signals associated with renal failure, GC and acidification, reduce BCKD kinase expression by different mechanisms. These responses lead to an increase in the activation state of BCKD and a resulting acceleration of BCAA degradation.

  9. Impact of Chronic Stress on the Spatial Learning and GR-PKAc-NF-κB Signaling in the Hippocampus and Cortex in Rats Following Cholinergic Depletion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Young; Cho, Woo-Hyun; Lee, Yo-Seob; Han, Jung-Soo

    2018-05-01

    Studies have shown that the removal of the cholinergic innervation to the hippocampus induces dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and decreases the number of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). Subsequent studies have revealed that the loss of cholinergic input to the hippocampus reduces the expression of GRs and activates nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling through interactions with the cytoplasmic catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKAc). We examined the effects of chronic stress on cognitive status and GR-PKAc-NF-κB signaling in rats with a loss of cholinergic input to the hippocampus and cortex. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received 192 IgG-saporin injections to selectively eliminate cholinergic neurons in their basal forebrain. Two weeks later, rats were subjected to 1 h of restraint stress per day for 14 days. Rats subjected to both chronic stress and cholinergic depletion showed more severe memory impairments compared to those that received either treatment alone. The reduction in nuclear GR levels induced by cholinergic depletion was unaffected by chronic stress. The activation of NF-κB signaling in the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex induced by cholinergic depletion was augmented by chronic stress, resulting in the increased expression of pro-inflammatory markers, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2. The activation of NF-κB induced by cholinergic depletion appears to be aggravated by chronic stress, and this might explain the increased susceptibility of patients with Alzheimer's disease to stress since activation of NF-κB is associated with stress.

  10. Irradiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel steel outside the astm specification A508 CL2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachur, D.; Krawczynski, S. J.; Derz, H.; Pott, G.

    1990-04-01

    Radiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel steels is of considerable significance for safety engineering. Steel manufacturers must therefore comply with specifications defined by national design codes. The extent to which a steel deviating from the specification is influenced by irradiation is being examined under the German Research Programme on the Integrity of Reactor Components. Charpy-V specimens were taken from a forged steel block longitudinally and vertically to the direction of main deformation and irradiated in the FRJ-1 research reactor at a temperature of 288 °C corresponding to the operating temperature of power reactors. The neutron fluences obtained ranged between 0.8 × 10 19 and 8 × 10 19n/ cm2. Instrumented pendulum impact tests have been evaluated and the load signals measured were analysed, fitting and calculating transition temperature curves and trend curves.

  11. Synthesis and properties of V6O16CU(C4H4N2)2 x (H2O)(0.22(1)): charge density matching of a metal-segregated layer structure.

    PubMed

    Maggard, Paul A; Boyle, Paul D

    2003-07-14

    A metal-segregated layered compound, containing square nets of Cu(pyz)(2)(2+) and buckled V(6)O(16)(2)(-) layers, has been synthesized using hydrothermal techniques to have the composition V(6)O(16)Cu(C(4)H(4)N(2))(2) x (H(2)O)(0.22(1)) (C(4)H(4)N(2) = pyrazine, pyz). The Cu(II) square nets are nearly regular and undergo an antiferromagnetic transition at 8 K. In contrast to the plethora of recently synthesized metal-oxide clusters, chains, and networks in the VO(x)/M/L (M = late transition element; L = organonitrogen ligand) system, this compound is a relatively rare example that contains two different metals distributed into distinct layers. An application of charge density matching to form layered structures is postulated.

  12. [Effects of application time and basal/topdressing ratio of nitrogen fertilizer on the spatiotemporal variation of soil NO3- -N and NH4+ -N contents and the grain yield and its quality of wheat].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ji; Guo, Xi-sheng; Yang, Xiao-hu; Huang, Xiao-rong

    2008-11-01

    Field trials were conducted to study the effects of different application time and basal/topdressing ratio of nitrogen fertilizer on the spatiotemporal variation of soil NO3- -N and NH4+ -N contents and the grain yield and its quality of wheat. The results showed that soil NO3- -N and NH4+ -N contents decreased with increasing soil depth. Both the application time and the basal/topdressing ratio of nitrogen fertilizer had significant effects on the NO3- -N and NH4+ -N contents in 0-20 cm soil layer. Compared with basal application, later fertilization and higher topdressing ratio could promote the nitrogen uptake by wheat plant and increase the plant nitrogen recovery significantly, decrease the soil nitrogen recovery during wheat growth, and improve the grain quality significantly, while had less effects on the grain yield. Topdressing too much nitrogen fertilizer at booting stage could result in a significant decrease of grain yield. Under the condition of this experiment, the optimal nitrogen fertilization mode for good wheat grain yield and its quality and good ecological benefits was 5:3:2 of basal application: topdressing at jointing stage: topdressing at booting stage.

  13. Influence of xc functional on thermal-elastic properties of Ceria: A DFT-based Debye-Grüneisen model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ji-Hwan; Tak, Youngjoo; Lee, Taehun; Soon, Aloysius

    Ceria (CeO2-x) is widely studied as a choice electrolyte material for intermediate-temperature (~ 800 K) solid oxide fuel cells. At this temperature, maintaining its chemical stability and thermal-mechanical integrity of this oxide are of utmost importance. To understand their thermal-elastic properties, we firstly test the influence of various approximations to the density-functional theory (DFT) xc functionals on specific thermal-elastic properties of both CeO2 and Ce2O3. Namely, we consider the local-density approximation (LDA), the generalized gradient approximation (GGA-PBE) with and without additional Hubbard U as applied to the 4 f electron of Ce, as well as the recently popularized hybrid functional due to Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzehof (HSE06). Next, we then couple this to a volume-dependent Debye-Grüneisen model to determine the thermodynamic quantities of ceria at arbitrary temperatures. We find an explicit description of the strong correlation (e.g. via the DFT + U and hybrid functional approach) is necessary to have a good agreement with experimental values, in contrast to the mean-field treatment in standard xc approximations (such as LDA or GGA-PBE). We acknowledge support from Samsung Research Funding Center of Samsung Electronics (SRFC-MA1501-03).

  14. Molecular and Functional Characterization of GR2-R1 Event Based Backcross Derived Lines of Golden Rice in the Genetic Background of a Mega Rice Variety Swarna.

    PubMed

    Bollinedi, Haritha; S, Gopala Krishnan; Prabhu, Kumble Vinod; Singh, Nagendra Kumar; Mishra, Sushma; Khurana, Jitendra P; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Homozygous Golden Rice lines developed in the background of Swarna through marker assisted backcross breeding (MABB) using transgenic GR2-R1 event as a donor for the provitamin A trait have high levels of provitamin A (up to 20 ppm) but are dwarf with pale green leaves and drastically reduced panicle size, grain number and yield as compared to the recurrent parent, Swarna. In this study, we carried out detailed morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization of these lines in a quest to identify the probable reasons for their abnormal phenotype. Nucleotide blast analysis with the primer sequences used to amplify the transgene revealed that the integration of transgene disrupted the native OsAux1 gene, which codes for an auxin transmembrane transporter protein. Real time expression analysis of the transgenes (ZmPsy and CrtI) driven by endosperm-specific promoter revealed the leaky expression of the transgene in the vegetative tissues. We propose that the disruption of OsAux1 disturbed the fine balance of plant growth regulators viz., auxins, gibberellic acid and abscisic acid, leading to the abnormalities in the growth and development of the lines homozygous for the transgene. The study demonstrates the conserved roles of OsAux1 gene in rice and Arabidopsis.

  15. Micro-sized TiO2 as photoactive catalyst coated on industrial porcelain grès tiles to photodegrade drugs in water.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Claudia L; Sacchi, Benedetta; Capelli, Sofia; Pirola, Carlo; Cerrato, Giuseppina; Morandi, Sara; Capucci, Valentino

    2017-04-27

    Pharmaceutical compounds and their metabolites raise worrying questions because of their continuous release and lack of efficient removal by conventional wastewater treatments; therefore, they are being detected in groundwater, surface water and drinking water in increasing concentrations. Paracetamol and aspirin are two of the most commonly used drugs employed as fever reducer, analgesic and anti-inflammatory. They and their metabolites are very often found in river water, so their degradation is necessary in order to render water suitable for human consumption. The present work is focused on the comparison of the photocatalytic performance of industrial active grés porcelain tiles covered with a commercial micro-sized TiO 2 by industrial process using either conventional spray deposition or innovative digital printing methods. The photodegradation of two commonly used drugs, namely aspirin and paracetamol, was investigated both individually and as a mixture, in both deionized and tap water. The results reveal the full conversion of the drugs and the significant role of the photocatalytic tiles in the mineralization processes leading to harmless inorganic species. In particular, the digitally printed tiles exhibited better photodegradation performance for both drugs compared to the spray deposited tiles. No deactivation was observed on both photocatalytic tiles.

  16. On the Debye temperature and Grüneisen parameters for hexagonal close-packed crystals consisting of p-H2 and o-D2 molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magomedov, M. N.

    2013-09-01

    The expressions for the Debye temperature Θ as well as for the first (γ = -[∂ln(Θ)/∂ln( V)] T ) and second ( q = [∂ln(γ)/∂ln( V)] T ) Grüneisen parameters are derived based on the Mie-Lennard-Jones pair atomic interaction potential. The conditions imposed on the Θ( V/ V 0), γ( V/ V 0), and q( V/ V 0) dependences for V/ V 0 → 0 and for V/ V 0 → ∞ are analyzed. Here, V/ V 0 is the ratio of the molar volumes for pressure P at temperature T and for P = 0 at T = 0 K. Calculations are performed for crystals of parahydrogen and orthodeuterium at T = 0 K for V/ V 0 ranging from 1.30 to 0.01. Good agreement is reached between the calculated dependences and experimental data. The behavior of dependences Θ( V/ V 0), γ( V/ V 0), and q( V/ V 0) upon a variation of the isotopic composition of the crystal is analyzed.

  17. Effect of Cutting Parameters on Thrust Force and Surface Roughness in Drilling of Al-2219/B4C/Gr Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravindranath, V. M.; Basavarajappa, G. S. Shiva Shankar S.; Suresh, R.

    2016-09-01

    In aluminium matrix composites, reinforcement of hard ceramic particle present inside the matrix which causes tool wear, high cutting forces and poor surface finish during machining. This paper focuses on effect of cutting parameters on thrust force, surface roughness and burr height during drilling of MMCs. In the present work, discuss the influence of spindle speed and feed rate on drilling the pure base alloy (Al-2219), mono composite (Al- 2219+8% B4C) and hybrid composite (Al-2219+8%B4C+3%Gr). The composites were fabricated using liquid metallurgy route. The drilling experiments were conducted by CNC machine with TiN coated HSS tool, M42 (Cobalt grade) and carbide tools at various spindle speeds and feed rates. The thrust force, surface roughness and burr height of the drilled hole were investigated in mono composite and hybrid composite containing graphite particles, the experimental results show that the feed rate has more influence on thrust force and surface roughness. Lesser thrust force and discontinuous chips were produced during machining of hybrid composites when compared with mono and base alloy during drilling process. It is due to solid lubricant property of graphite which reduces the lesser thrust force, burr height and lower surface roughness. When machining with Carbide tool at low feed and high speeds good surface finish was obtained compared to other two types of cutting tool materials.

  18. Molecular and Functional Characterization of GR2-R1 Event Based Backcross Derived Lines of Golden Rice in the Genetic Background of a Mega Rice Variety Swarna

    PubMed Central

    Bollinedi, Haritha; S., Gopala Krishnan; Prabhu, Kumble Vinod; Singh, Nagendra Kumar; Mishra, Sushma; Khurana, Jitendra P.; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Homozygous Golden Rice lines developed in the background of Swarna through marker assisted backcross breeding (MABB) using transgenic GR2-R1 event as a donor for the provitamin A trait have high levels of provitamin A (up to 20 ppm) but are dwarf with pale green leaves and drastically reduced panicle size, grain number and yield as compared to the recurrent parent, Swarna. In this study, we carried out detailed morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization of these lines in a quest to identify the probable reasons for their abnormal phenotype. Nucleotide blast analysis with the primer sequences used to amplify the transgene revealed that the integration of transgene disrupted the native OsAux1 gene, which codes for an auxin transmembrane transporter protein. Real time expression analysis of the transgenes (ZmPsy and CrtI) driven by endosperm-specific promoter revealed the leaky expression of the transgene in the vegetative tissues. We propose that the disruption of OsAux1 disturbed the fine balance of plant growth regulators viz., auxins, gibberellic acid and abscisic acid, leading to the abnormalities in the growth and development of the lines homozygous for the transgene. The study demonstrates the conserved roles of OsAux1 gene in rice and Arabidopsis. PMID:28068433

  19. The roles of the shikimate pathway genes, aroA and aroB, in virulence, growth and UV tolerance of Burkholderia glumae strain 411gr-6.

    PubMed

    Karki, Hari Sharan; Ham, Jong Hyun

    2014-12-01

    Burkholderia glumae is the major causal agent of bacterial panicle blight of rice, which is a growing disease problem for rice growers worldwide. In our previous study, some B. glumae strains showed pigmentation phenotypes producing at least two (yellow-green and purple) pigment compounds in casein-peptone-glucose agar medium. The B. glumae strains LSUPB114 and LSUPB116 are pigment-deficient mutant derivatives of the virulent and pigment-proficient strain 411gr-6, having mini-Tn5gus insertions in aroA encoding 3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase and aroB encoding 3-dehydroquinate synthase, respectively. Both enzymes are known to be involved in the shikimate pathway, which leads to the synthesis of aromatic amino acids. Here, we demonstrate that aroA and aroB are required for normal virulence in rice and onion, growth in M9 minimal medium and tolerance to UV light, but are dispensable for the production of the phytotoxin toxoflavin. These results suggest that the shikimate pathway is involved in bacterial pathogenesis by B. glumae without a significant role in the production of toxoflavin, a major virulence factor of this pathogen. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  20. The first cytogenetic characterization of the poisonous black widow spider Latrodectus gr. curacaviensis from Brazil, with chromosomal review of the family Theridiidae (Arachnida, Araneae).

    PubMed

    Araujo, Douglas; Maia, Ulysses Madureira; Brescovit, Antonio Domingos

    2010-02-01

    In this paper we present, for the first time, cytogenetical data on Latrodectus gr. curacaviensis (Theridiidae) from Brazil, as well as the first data on meiosis and sex chromosome system of this genus. Testes were submitted to colchicine, hypotonic, and fixation treatment, and chromosomal preparations were stained with Giemsa solution. The analysis showed 2n=26 telo/acrocentric chromosomes in spermatogonial metaphases. Metaphase I exhibited 12 autosomal bivalents and two sex chromosome univalents (12II + X(1)X(2)). All bivalents revealed one terminal chiasma. Metaphases II confirmed the sex chromosome system, showing 12 autosomes or 12 autosomes plus two X chromosomes, respectively. Male karyotype prevailing in theridiids is formed by 2n=22 chromosomes, including sex chromosome system X(1)X(2) in all species. The Latrodectus species of the geometricus clade analyzed until now showed smaller diploid number (2nfemale symbol=16 and 2nfemale symbol=18) than the species of the mactans clade (2nfemale symbol=24 and 2nfemale symbol=26). Thus, according to the chromosome number, the examined Latrodectus species seems to be related to the mactans clade.

  1. Purification and characterization of endo-beta-1,4 mannanase from Aspergillus niger gr for application in food processing industry.

    PubMed

    Naganagouda, K; Salimath, P V; Mulimani, V H

    2009-10-01

    A thermostable extracellular beta-mannanase from the culture supernatant of a fungus Aspergillus niger gr was purified to homogeneity. SDS-PAGE of the purified enzyme showed a single protein band of molecular mass 66 kDa. The beta- mannanase exhibited optimum catalytic activity at pH 5.5 and 55 degrees C. It was thermostable at 55 degrees C, and retained 50% activity after 6 h at 55 degrees C. The enzyme was stable at a pH range of 3.0 to 7.0. The metal ions Hg(2+), Cu(2+), and Ag(2+) inhibited complete enzyme activity. The inhibitors tested, EDTA, PMSF, and 1,10-phenanthroline, did not inhibit the enzyme activity. N-Bromosuccinimide completely inhibited enzyme activity. The relative substrate specificity of enzyme towards the various mannans is in the order of locust bean gum>guar gum>copra mannan, with K(m) of 0.11, 0.28, and 0.33 mg/ml, respectively. Since the enzyme is active over a wide range of pH and temperature, it could find potential use in the food-processing industry.

  2. Simulation of the effect of diabatic heating in a case of explosive cyclogenesis in the Eastern Mediterranean with the aid of the model COSMO-GR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouroutzoglou, John; Avgoustoglou, Evripides; Flocas, Helena A.; Hatzaki, Maria; Karvelis, Haralambos; Keay, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    The effect of low-level diabatic heating is considered as an important factor in the development and evolution of explosive cyclones in the Mediterranean that, however, presents significant differences among different sub-areas and cases. The objective of this study is to assess the ability of the parameterization scheme of the regional non-hydrostatic atmospheric model (COSMO-GR) to simulate the spatial and temporal variations of low-level diabatic heating in a case of explosive cyclogenesis that occurred in the Cyprus area. Model runs are performed for a series of different values of the model parameter "sea roughness" that has proved to significantly affect the simulation of the sea surface fluxes. Then, the derived sea pressure values for each run are compared with observations from surface meteorological stations and ECMWF analyses. It was found that smaller values of the sea roughness parameter compared to the default parameterization, lead to significant enhancement of the magnitude of the surface deepening rates during the explosive deepening period and, thus, to lower minimum pressures that are closer to the observed values. Moreover, the tests demonstrated that the inclusion of latent heat release in the middle troposphere is required to determine a more suitable parameterization of the model physics in order to avoid the underestimation of the thermodynamic mechanisms and, thus, the non-effective evolution of the surface cyclone.

  3. Boosting the Visible-Light Photoactivity of BiOCl/BiVO4/N-GQD Ternary Heterojunctions Based on Internal Z-Scheme Charge Transfer of N-GQDs: Simultaneous Band Gap Narrowing and Carrier Lifetime Prolonging.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingyue; Liu, Qian; Chen, Wei; Yin, Yuanyuan; Ge, Lan; Li, Henan; Wang, Kun

    2017-11-08

    The efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs in photoactive materials is highly desired, allowing their transfer to specific sites for undergoing redox reaction in various applications. The construction of ternary heterojunctions is a practical strategy to enhance the migration of photogenerated electron that realizes the synergistic effect of multicomponents rather than the simple overlay of single component. Here, we demonstrate an available way to fabricate new BiOCl/BiVO 4 /nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dot (N-GQD) ternary heterojunctions that exhibit higher efficiency in charge separation than any binary heterojunction or pure material under visible-light irradiation. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy demonstrated that the proposed BiOCl/BiVO 4 /N-GQD ternary heterojunctions possess the narrower band gap energy. More importantly, the ternary heterojunctions reveal the prolonged lifetime of photogenerated charges and enhanced the separation efficiency of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, which may be ascribed to sensitization based on an internal Z-scheme charge transfer at the interface of N-GQDs with oxygen functional groups. Furthermore, we examine the photoactive performance of proposed ternary heterojunctions in aqueous solution by using the photodegradation of bisphenol A as a model system and BiOCl/BiVO 4 /N-GQD ternary heterojunctions also display a dramatically enhanced photodegradation rate. The proposed charge separation and transfer process of BiOCl/BiVO 4 /N-GQD ternary heterojunctions for the enhanced photoactivity were deduced by electrochemical measurements, photoluminescence, and electron spin resonance. The results demonstrate that a Z-scheme charge process was formed between BiOCl/BiVO 4 binary heterojunctions and N-GQDs, leading to an efficient charge carrier separation and strong photocatalytic ability. Notably, this work may assist in a better understanding of the role of N-GQDs in kinds of heterojunctions

  4. The α3β4 nAChR partial agonist AT-1001 attenuates stress-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking in a rat model of relapse and induces minimal withdrawal in dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Menglu; Malagon, Ariana M; Yasuda, Dennis; Belluzzi, James D; Leslie, Frances M; Zaveri, Nurulain T

    2017-08-30

    The strong reinforcing effects of nicotine and the negative symptoms such as anxiety experienced during a quit attempt often lead to relapse and low success rates for smoking cessation. Treatments that not only block the reinforcing effects of nicotine but also attenuate the motivation to relapse are needed to improve cessation rates. Recent genetic and preclinical studies have highlighted the involvement of the α3, β4, and α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits and the α3β4 nAChR subtype in nicotine dependence and withdrawal. However, the involvement of these nAChR in relapse is not fully understood. We previously reported that the α3β4 nAChR partial agonist AT-1001 selectively decreases nicotine self-administration in rats without affecting food responding. In the present experiments, we examined the efficacy of AT-1001 in attenuating reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior in a model of stress-induced relapse. Rats extinguished from nicotine self-administration were treated with the pharmacological stressor yohimbine prior to AT-1001 treatment and reinstatement testing. We also examined whether AT-1001 produced any withdrawal-related effects when administered to nicotine-dependent rats. We found that AT-1001 dose-dependently reduced yohimbine stress-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking. When administered to nicotine-dependent rats at the dose that significantly blocked nicotine reinstatement, AT-1001 elicited minimal somatic withdrawal signs in comparison to the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine, which is known to produce robust withdrawal. Our data suggest that α3β4 nAChR-targeted compounds may be a promising approach for nicotine addiction treatment because they can not only block nicotine's reinforcing effects, but also decrease motivation to relapse without producing significant withdrawal effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sunscreens and T4N5 liposomes differ in their ability to protect against ultraviolet-induced sunburn cell formation, alterations of dendritic epidermal cells, and local suppression of contact hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Wolf, P; Cox, P; Yarosh, D B; Kripke, M L

    1995-02-01

    Exposure of skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation can lead to diverse biologic effects, including inflammation, sunburn cell formation, alterations of cutaneous immune cells, and impaired induction of contact hypersensitivity responses. The molecular mechanisms of these UV-induced effects are not completely understood. We investigated the ability of sunscreens and liposomes containing the DNA excision repair enzyme T4 endonuclease V to prevent these effects of UV radiation. The use of T4N5 liposomes, which increase the repair of cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers, provides an approach for assessing the role of DNA damage in the effects of UV radiation on the skin. Exposing C3H mice to 500 mJ/cm2 UVB radiation from FS40 sunlamps resulted in skin edema, sunburn cell formation, and morphologic alterations and decreased numbers of Langerhans cells and Thy-1+ dendritic epidermal T cells. In addition, the induction of contact hypersensitivity after application of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene on UV-irradiated skin was diminished by 80%. Applying sunscreens containing octyl-N-dimethyl-p-aminobenzoate, 2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate, or benzophenone-3 before this dose of UV irradiation gave nearly complete protection against all of these effects of UV irradiation. In contrast, topical application of T4N5 liposomes after UV irradiation had no effect on UV-induced skin edema and only partially protected against sunburn cell formation and local suppression of contact hypersensitivity, although its ability to protect against alterations in dendritic immune cells was comparable to that of the sunscreens. These results suggest that DNA damage is involved in only some of the local effects of UV radiation on the skin. In addition, T4N5 liposomes may be a useful adjunct to sunscreens because they can reduce some of the deleterious effects of UV radiation on skin even after a sunburn has been initiated.

  6. Magnetic circular dichroism of non-aromatic cyclic π-electron systems. 2. [1] The perimeter model for high-symmetry 'unaromatic' and 'ambiaromatic' molecules derived from 4 N-electron [ n]annulenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischhauer, Jörg; Höweler, Udo; Michl, Josef

    1999-03-01

    The effects on ππ* electronic absorption and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) produced by structural perturbations that convert biradical (antiaromatic) parent 4 N-electron [ n]annulene perimeters into molecules with a closed-shell ground state and 3-fold or higher axis of rotational symmetry are analyzed in terms of an algebraic solution for singlet states of the LCAO version of the perimeter model with overlap through second order. Simple rules are derived for predicting the MCD signs of low-energy transitions in this class of molecules from the knowledge of relative magnitudes of MO energy differences, which can be frequently deduced by inspection of molecular formulas.

  7. Solid-State Chemistry as a Formation Mechanism for C 4N 2 Ice and Possibly the Haystack (220 cm -1 ice emission feature) in Titan's Stratosphere as Observed by Cassini CIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, Robert E.; McLain, Jason L.; Nna Mvondo, Delphine; Romani, Paul; Flasar, F. Michael

    2016-10-01

    A profusion of organic ices containing hydrocarbons, nitriles, and combinations of their mixtures comprise Titan's complex stratospheric cloud systems, and are typically formed via vapor condensation. These ice particles are then distributed throughout the mid-to-lower stratosphere, with an increased abundance near the winter poles (see Anderson et al., 2016). The cold temperatures and the associated strong circumpolar winds that isolate polar air act in much the same way as on Earth, giving rise to compositional anomalies and stratospheric clouds that provide heterogeneous chemistry sites.Titan's C4N2 ice emission feature at 478 cm-1 and "the Haystack," a strong unidentified stratospheric ice emission feature centered at 220 cm-1, share a common characteristic. Even though both are distinctive ice emission features evident in Cassini Composite InfraRed (CIRS) far-IR spectra, no associated vapor emission features can be found in Titan's atmosphere. Without a vapor phase, solid-state chemistry provides an alternate mechanism beside vapor condensation for producing these observed stratospheric ices.Anderson et al., (2016) postulated that C4N2 ice formed in Titan's stratosphere via the solid-state photochemical reaction HCN + HC3N → C4N2 + H2 can occur within extant HCN-HC3N composite ice particles. Such a reaction, and potentially similar reactions that may produce the Haystack ice, are specific examples of solid-state chemistry in solar system atmospheres. This is in addition to the reaction HCl + ClONO2 → HNO3 + Cl2, which is known to produce HNO3 coatings on terrestrial water ice particles, a byproduct of the catalytic chlorine chemistry that produces ozone holes in Earth's polar stratosphere (see for example, Molina et al., 1987 Soloman, 1999).A combination of radiative transfer modeling of CIRS far-IR spectra, coupled with optical constants derived from thin film transmittance spectra of organic ice mixtures obtained in our Spectroscopy for Planetary ICes

  8. EDITORIAL: 19th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation (GR19), México, 4-9 July 2010 19th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation (GR19), México City, México, 4-9 July 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marolf, Don; Sudarsky, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    The GR19 meeting was held in México City from 6-9 July 2010. The decision to have the meeting in México was taken during the GR18 meeting in Sydney, Australia in 2007, and represented a great milestone for the scientific community working in the fields related to gravitation in México. This fact was evidenced by the commitment of the most important institutions in México where the field is developed, by the support the meeting received at various governmental levels, and also by a promotional campaign dedicated to educate the public about our subject, which was undertaken by important segments of the gravitational physics community in Mexico. This campaign was named 'El Mes de Einstein' or 'The Einsteinian Month', and consisted of a series of presentations, talks and movies about topics related to General Relativity which culminated with the public talk of the GR19 meeting (now a traditional aspect of the GR events). This talk was given by George Smoot, Nobel laureate in physics 2006, on the amazing developments around the detailed studies of the Cosmic Microwave Background, and was held at the Nezahualc'oyotl Hall in the main campus of the National Autonomous University of México, which was filled to capacity by enthusiastic crowds of lay people fascinated with the subject. The meeting itself was a very successful one with participants from dozens of countries spanning the five continents, with a rich, varied and informative plenary program. Highlights, featured in this issue, were perhaps the talk by Veronika Hubeny on the fluid/gravity correspondence, a subject that has grown dramatically during the last few years, the lecture by Tarun Souradeep on the enormous potential for discovery offered by the ever increasing accuracy of cosmological observations, the presentation by Jeffrey McClintock, about accreting black holes and the exciting possibility of measuring their spins, the informative review about Loop Quantum Gravity from one of the pioneers of the

  9. Synthesis of novel and stable g-C3N4/N-doped SrTiO3 hybrid nanocomposites with improved photocurrent and photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Tonda, Surendar; Baruah, Arabinda; Kumar, Bharat; Shanker, Vishnu

    2014-11-14

    Hybrid nanocomposites based on N-doped SrTiO3 nanoparticles wrapped in g-C3N4 nanosheets were successfully prepared by a facile and reproducible polymeric citrate and thermal exfoliation method. The results clearly indicated that the N-doped SrTiO3 nanoparticles are successfully wrapped in layers of the g-C3N4 nanosheets. The g-C3N4/N-doped SrTiO3 nanocomposites showed absorption edges at longer wavelengths compared with the pure g-C3N4 as well as N-doped SrTiO3. The hybrid nanocomposites exhibit an improved photocurrent response and photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation. Interestingly, the hybrid nanocomposite possesses high photostability and reusability. Based on experimental results, the possible mechanism for prolonged lifetime of the photoinduced charge carrier was also discussed. The high performance of the g-C3N4/N-doped SrTiO3 photocatalysts is due to the synergic effect at the interface of g-C3N4 and N-doped SrTiO3 hetero/nanojunction including the high separation efficiency of the charge carrier, band energy matching and the suppressed recombination rate. Therefore, the hybrid photocatalyst could be of potential interest for water splitting and environmental remediation under natural sunlight.

  10. Chemistry of [Et4N][MoIV(SPh)(PPh3)(mnt)2] as an analogue of dissimilatory nitrate reductase with its inactivation on substitution of thiolate by chloride.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Amit; Pal, Kuntal; Sarkar, Sabyasachi

    2006-04-05

    Structural-functional analogue of the reduced site of dissimilatory nitrate reductase is synthesized as [Et4N][MoIV(SPh)(PPh3)(mnt)2].CH2Cl2 (1). PPh3 in 1 is readily dissociated in solution to generate the active site of the reduced site of dissimilatory nitrate reductase. This readily reacts with nitrate. The nitrate reducing system is characterized by substrate saturation kinetics. Oxotransfer to and from substrate has been coupled to produce a catalytic system, NO3- + PPh3 --> NO2- + OPPh3, where NO3- is the substrate for dissimilatory nitrate reductase. The corresponding chloro complex, [Et4N][MoIV(Cl)(PPh3)(mnt)2].CH2Cl2 (2), responds to similar PPh3 dissociation but is unable to react with nitrate, showing the indispensable role of thiolate coordination for such oxotransfer reaction. This investigation provides the initial demonstration of the ligand specificity in a model system similar to single point mutation involving site directed mutagenesis in this class of molybdoenzymes.

  11. Facile synthesis of Fe4N/Fe2O3/Fe/porous N-doped carbon nanosheet as high-performance anode for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dan; Li, Guangshe; Yu, Meijie; Fan, Jianming; Li, Baoyun; Li, Liping

    2018-04-01

    Iron nitrides are considered as highly promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries because of their nontoxicity, high abundance, low cost, and higher electrical conductivity. Unfortunately, their limited synthesis routes are available and practical application is still hindered by their fast capacity decay. Herein, a facile and green route is developed to synthesize Fe4N/Fe2O3/Fe/porous N-doped carbon nanosheet composite. The size of Fe4N/Fe2O3/Fe particles is small (10-40 nm) and they are confined in porous N-doped carbon nanosheet. These features are conducive to accommodate volume change well, shorten the diffusion distance and further elevate electrical conductivity. When tested as anode material for lithium-ion batteries, a high discharge capacity of 554 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at 100 mA g-1 and 389 mA h g-1 after 300 cycles at 1000 mA g-1 are retained. Even at 2000 mA g-1, a high capacity of 330 mA h g-1 can be achieved, demonstrating superior cycling stability and rate performance. New prospects will be brought by this work for the synthesis and the potential application of iron nitrides materials as an anode for LIBs.

  12. Transport anisotropy and electron correlations in the layered molecular compounds Z [Pd(dmit)2] 2 (Z =Me4N ,Et2Me2As ,EtMe3P ) with different interlayer coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Kato, Reizo

    2018-03-01

    In-plane resistivity ρ∥ and out-of-plane resistivity ρ⊥ were investigated across the pressure-induced Mott transition in molecular Mott insulators Z [Pd(dmit)2] 2 (Z =Et2Me2As , Me4N , and EtMe3P ) having a triangular lattice. All three compounds exhibit superconducting transition with Tc=5.5 -7.0 K in the metallic phase near the Mott insulating phase. For the β'-Et2Me2As salt, the anisotropy ρ⊥/ρ∥ exceeds 103 at low temperatures, indicating a highly two-dimensional electronic state with incoherent interlayer hopping. The β -Me4N salt has a smaller ρ⊥/ρ∥ exhibiting a weak interlayer coupling. The resistivity is dominated by electron-electron scattering in the metallic state for these two compounds, as expected in a correlated Fermi liquid. On the other hand, the EtMe3P salt with a valence bond order state becomes a nearly three-dimensional metal across the Mott transition, in which the electron correlation is strongly suppressed. Instead, the electron-phonon scattering plays a significant role in the resistivity. The different interlayer coherence is quantitatively explained by the calculated interlayer transfer integrals between Pd (dmit) 2 molecules. These results suggest that the dimensionality governs the nature of electron correlations in the Fermi liquid state.

  13. Seismic tremor signals from Bárðarbunga, Grímsvötn and other glacier covered volcanoes in Iceland's Vatnajökull ice cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogfjörd, Kristin S.; Eibl, Eva; Bean, Chris; Roberts, Matthew; Ófeigsson, Benedikt; Jóhannesson, Tómas

    2016-04-01

    Many of Iceland's most active volcanoes, like Grímsvötn and Bárðarbunga are located under glaciers giving rise to a range of volcanic hazards having both local and cross-border effects on humans, infrastructures and aviation. Volcanic eruptions under ice can lead to explosive hydromagmatic volcanism and generate small to catastrophic subglacial floods that may take hours to days to emerge from the glacier edge. Unrest in subglacial hydrothermal systems and the draining of subglacial meltwater can also lead to flood hazards. These processes and magma-ice interactions in general, generate seismic tremor signals that are commonly observed on seismic systems during volcanic unrest and/or eruptions. The tremor signals exhibit certain characteristics in frequency content, amplitude and behavior with time, but their characteristics overlap. Ability to discriminate between the different processes in real-time or near-real time can support early eruption and flood warnings and help mitigate their detrimental effects. One of the goals set forth in the FUTUREVOLC volcano supersite project was in fact to understand and discriminate between the different types of seismic tremor recorded at subglacial volcanoes. In that pursuit, the seismic network was expanded into the Vatnajökull glacier with four permanent stations on rock and in the ice, in addition to three seismic arrays installed at the ice margin, to enable location and possible tracking of the tremor sources. To track subglacial floods with better resolution three GPS receivers were also installed on the ice, one in an ice cauldron above the Skaftárkatlar geothermal melting area and two down glacier, above the track of the expected subglacial flood. During FUTUREVOLC this infrastructure has recorded all the types of process expected: Magmatic dyke intrusion and propagation from Bárðarbunga, subaerial fissure eruption of that magma at Holuhraun, two subglacial floods, one small and one large, draining from the

  14. Kinematics of long lived faults in intraplate settings: case study of the Río Grío Fault (Iberian Range).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcén, Marcos; Román-Berdiel, Teresa; Casas, Antonio; Calvín-Ballester, Pablo; Oliva-Urcia, Belen; García-Lasanta, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    This study is based on the comparison of structural analysis and AMS data of Río Grío Fault, associated with the Datos Fault System, in the Iberian Chain (Northeastern Iberian Plate, Spain). The Río Grío Fault, with NW-SE strike, has a tectonic evolution of probably Mesozoic extension and Tertiary transpressive dextral movement, and it is characterized by the presence of a well-developed cataclastic zone 200m width. The structure of the core is characterized by elongated along strike and narrow lenses separated by subvertical fault planes with well-developed fault breccias and gouges. The lenses usually conserve intact stratification, and it may be recognized several lithologies, including Ordovician quartzites, slates and clay, and red-colored Permo-triassic clay and sandstones. The internal structure of these lenses shows folds, brechified zones, and localized foliation in clay lenses. Cinematic indicators (striations, S/C structures…) show strong reverse dip-slip and dextral strike-slip components, indicating strain partitioning between the different lenses, and it is interpreted as the result of the reactivation of previous normal faults, like a strike-slip shear, during the NNE-SSW to NE-SW Cenozoic compression of the NE Iberian Plate. Samples of AMS study were collected from two areas (SG and RG) of the fault zone, separated by 4.5km along strike. Samples provide a magnetic susceptibility highly dependent on lithology, between ±5*10-5 [SI] in the white fault gouge and ±20*10-5 [SI] in red-colored clay. The low susceptibility in several sites results in high imprecise AMS measurements. AMS results for the first area (SG), obtained in red and black colored clays, show the same magnetic fabric in all sites. K-min axis of the magnetic ellipsoid corresponds to the pole of the fault planes measured in the outcrop, and the magnetic lineation is nearly horizontal, probably related to strike-slip movements. In the second area (RG), the AMS shows a grater

  15. Atmospheric processes affecting the separation of volcanic ash and SO2 in volcanic eruptions: inferences from the May 2011 Grímsvötn eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prata, Fred; Woodhouse, Mark; Huppert, Herbert E.; Prata, Andrew; Thordarson, Thor; Carn, Simon

    2017-09-01

    The separation of volcanic ash and sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas is sometimes observed during volcanic eruptions. The exact conditions under which separation occurs are not fully understood but the phenomenon is of importance because of the effects volcanic emissions have on aviation, on the environment, and on the earth's radiation balance. The eruption of Grímsvötn, a subglacial volcano under the Vatnajökull glacier in Iceland during 21-28 May 2011 produced one of the most spectacular examples of ash and SO2 separation, which led to errors in the forecasting of ash in the atmosphere over northern Europe. Satellite data from several sources coupled with meteorological wind data and photographic evidence suggest that the eruption column was unable to sustain itself, resulting in a large deposition of ash, which left a low-level ash-rich atmospheric plume moving southwards and then eastwards towards the southern Scandinavian coast and a high-level predominantly SO2 plume travelling northwards and then spreading eastwards and westwards. Here we provide observational and modelling perspectives on the separation of ash and SO2 and present quantitative estimates of the masses of ash and SO2 that erupted, the directions of transport, and the likely impacts. We hypothesise that a partial column collapse or sloughing fed with ash from pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) occurred during the early stage of the eruption, leading to an ash-laden gravity intrusion that was swept southwards, separated from the main column. Our model suggests that water-mediated aggregation caused enhanced ash removal because of the plentiful supply of source water from melted glacial ice and from entrained atmospheric water. The analysis also suggests that ash and SO2 should be treated with separate source terms, leading to improvements in forecasting the movement of both types of emissions.

  16. Cytological diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis, using Papanicolaou and May-Grünwald-Giemsa stained cutaneous tissue smear.

    PubMed

    Christensen, E; Bofin, A; Gudmundsdóttir, I; Skogvoll, E

    2008-10-01

    Cytology may become the diagnostic method of choice with the advent of new non-invasive treatments for non-melanoma skin cancer, as the sampling technique for cytology entails little tissue disfiguration. The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the diagnostic performance of scrape cytology using two different cytological staining techniques, and to evaluate additional touch imprint cytology, with that of histopathology of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and actinic keratosis (AK). We investigated 50 BCC and 28 AK histologically verified lesions, from 41 and 25 patients, respectively. Two separate skin scrape samples and one touch imprint sample were taken from each lesion. The smears were stained with Papanicolaou (Pap) or May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG) stains. All cytological specimens were examined in random order by pathologists without knowledge of the histology. Cytodiagnostic results were compared with the histopathological report. Scrape cytodiagnosis agreed with histopathology in 48 (Pap) and 47 (MGG) of the 50 BCC cases, and in 26 of 28 (Pap) and 21 of 26 (MGG) AK cases, yielding sensitivities of 96%, 94%, 93% and 81%, respectively. No significant difference in sensitivity between the two staining methods was found but a trend towards higher Pap sensitivity for AK was noted (P = 0.10). Touch imprint cytology confirmed histopathology in 38 of the 77 cases of BCC and AK. Cytological diagnosis with either Pap or MGG stain for BCC and AK is reliable, and differentiates well between BCC and AK. Imprint cytology proved to be non-diagnostic in half of the examined cases.

  17. Modulation of glacier ablation by tephra coverage from Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn volcanoes, Iceland: an automated field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Rebecca; Möller, Marco; Kukla, Peter A.; Schneider, Christoph

    2018-01-01

    We report results from a field experiment investigating the influence of volcanic tephra coverage on glacier ablation. These influences are known to be significantly different from those of moraine debris on glaciers due to the contrasting grain size distribution and thermal conductivity. Thus far, the influences of tephra deposits on glacier ablation have rarely been studied. For the experiment, artificial plots of two different tephra types from Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn volcanoes were installed on a snow-covered glacier surface of Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland. Snow-surface lowering and atmospheric conditions were monitored in summer 2015 and compared to a tephra-free reference site. For each of the two volcanic tephra types, three plots of variable thickness ( ˜ 1.5, ˜ 8.5 and ˜ 80 mm) were monitored. After limiting the records to a period of reliable measurements, a 50-day data set of hourly records was obtained, which can be downloaded from the Pangaea data repository (https://www.pangaea.de; doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.876656). The experiment shows a substantial increase in snow-surface lowering rates under the ˜ 1.5 and ˜ 8.5 mm tephra plots when compared to uncovered conditions. Under the thick tephra cover some insulating effects could be observed. These results are in contrast to other studies which depicted insulating effects for much thinner tephra coverage on bare-ice glacier surfaces. Differences between the influences of the two different petrological types of tephra exist but are negligible compared to the effect of tephra coverage overall.

  18. Magma storage beneath Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland, constrained by clinopyroxene-melt thermobarometry and volatiles in melt inclusions and groundmass glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddadi, B.; Sigmarsson, O.; Larsen, G.

    2017-09-01

    Basalt eruptions at Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland, are generally of low intensity; however, occasionally, an order of magnitude larger eruptions occur. In order to discuss the reasons for this difference, the degassing budget of S and Cl and crystallization conditions of the eruptive magma were determined from volatile concentration measured in melt inclusion (MI) and groundmass glass and thermobarometry, respectively. Tephra of two of the largest historical eruptions (2011 and 1873) and two much smaller eruptions (2004 and 1823) were investigated. Sulfur and Cl concentrations are higher in groundmass glass of the smaller eruptions due to incomplete outgassing caused by melt quenching in contact with glacial water. Sulfur concentration and degassing budget correlate with erupted magma volumes. Higher volatile concentrations of MI from the larger eruptions reflect important recharge of gas-rich magma from depth. The recharge causes a high-magnitude eruption followed by increased eruption frequency over the following decades. Pressure and temperature estimates of crystallization are obtained through equilibrium clinopyroxene-glass pairs, where crystals adjacent to, and in textural equilibrium with, both groundmass glass and that of MI were measured. An average crystallization pressure of 4 ± 1 kbar corresponding to approximately 15 ± 5 km depth was obtained together with a considerable temperature range, 1065-1175°C. Similar crystallization depths are obtained for the basalt of the 2014-2015 Bárðarbunga rifting event and to a low resistivity layer revealed by magnetotelluric surveys. Therefore, an important magma storage depth is inferred at lower crustal depth above the center of the Iceland mantle plume.

  19. CD11b+GR1+ Myeloid Cells Secrete NGF and Promote Trigeminal Ganglion Neurite Growth: Implications for Corneal Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Joy; Chaudhary, Shweta; Jassim, Sarmad H.; Ozturk, Okan; Chamon, Wallace; Ganesh, Balaji; Tibrewal, Sapna; Gandhi, Sonal; Byun, Yong-Soo; Hallak, Joelle; Mahmud, Dolores L.; Mahmud, Nadim; Rondelli, Damiano; Jain, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We characterized fluorescent bone marrow cells (YFP+ BMCs) in the thy1-YFP mouse and determine if they promote trigeminal ganglion (TG) cell neurite growth. Methods. Excimer laser annular keratectomy was performed in thy1-YFP mice, and corneas were imaged. BMCs were harvested from femur and tibia, and the expression of surface markers on YFP+ BMCs was analyzed by flow cytometry. The immunosuppressive action of BMCs (YFP+ and YFP−) was evaluated in an allogenic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). Neurotrophic action of BMCs (YFP+ and YFP−) was determined in compartmental and transwell cultures of dissociated TG cells. Results. Following annular keratectomy, YFP+ BMCs infiltrated the cornea. YFP+ BMCs shared surface markers (CD11b+Gr1+Ly6C+Ly6G-F4/80low) with monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), had similar morphology, and suppressed T-cell proliferation in allogenic MLR in a dose-dependent manner. YFP+ BMCs, but not YFP− BMCs, significantly increased growth of TG neurites in vitro. When cultured in a transwell with TG neurites, YFP+ BMCs expressed neurotrophins and secreted nerve growth factor (NGF) in conditioned medium. YFP+ BMCs that infiltrated the cornea maintained their phenotype and actions (neuronal and immune). Conclusions. YFP+ BMCs in thy1-YFP mice have immunophenotypic features of MDSCs. They secrete NGF and promote neuroregeneration. Their immunosuppressive and neurotrophic actions are preserved after corneal infiltration. These findings increase our understanding of the beneficial roles played by leukocyte trafficking in the cornea and may lead to therapeutic strategies that use NGF-secreting myeloid cells to repair diseased or injured neurons. PMID:23942970

  20. A Frameshift Mutation in the Cubilin Gene (CUBN) in Border Collies with Imerslund-Gräsbeck Syndrome (Selective Cobalamin Malabsorption)

    PubMed Central

    Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Drögemüller, Cord; Lutz, Sabina; Glanemann, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (IGS) or selective cobalamin malabsorption has been described in humans and dogs. IGS occurs in Border Collies and is inherited as a monogenic autosomal recessive trait in this breed. Using 7 IGS cases and 7 non-affected controls we mapped the causative mutation by genome-wide association and homozygosity mapping to a 3.53 Mb interval on chromosome 2. We re-sequenced the genome of one affected dog at ∼10× coverage and detected 17 non-synonymous variants in the critical interval. Two of these non-synonymous variants were in the cubilin gene (CUBN), which is known to play an essential role in cobalamin uptake from the ileum. We tested these two CUBN variants for association with IGS in larger cohorts of dogs and found that only one of them was perfectly associated with the phenotype. This variant, a single base pair deletion (c.8392delC), is predicted to cause a frameshift and premature stop codon in the CUBN gene. The resulting mutant open reading frame is 821 codons shorter than the wildtype open reading frame (p.Q2798Rfs*3). Interestingly, we observed an additional nonsense mutation in the MRC1 gene encoding the mannose receptor, C type 1, which was in perfect linkage disequilibrium with the CUBN frameshift mutation. Based on our genetic data and the known role of CUBN for cobalamin uptake we conclude that the identified CUBN frameshift mutation is most likely causative for IGS in Border Collies. PMID:23613799

  1. [The apothecaries of the Saint-Honoré district of Paris in the 17th century. The apothecaries Antoine and Jacques Grégoire and Louis XIII’s first painter, Simon Vouet].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2016-12-01

    This article presents the biographies of the apothecaries who lived in the Rue Saint-Honoré in Paris in the 17th century. Two major facts emerge from this study. The first concerns the formation of a family network involving the apothecaries and the royal artists. The apothecaries Antoine and Jacques Grégoire became allied with Simon Vouet, the first painter of Louis XIII . Links were also made between Antoine Grégoire and Jacques Sarazin, the King’s sculptor, and then with Michel Corneille, painter to the King. The famous painting by Simon Vouet hanging in the assembly hall of the Faculty of Pharmacy in Paris is probably the fruit of his collaboration with Jacques Grégoire, his brother-in-law and an erudite botanist. The other notable fact concerns the relations between Anne de Furnes, widow of Antoine Brulon, the rich apothecary to the King Antoine Brulon, and Molière, both in Paris and in the village of Auteuil. The other notable fact concerns the relations between Anne de Furnes, widow of Antoine Brulon, the rich apothecary to the King Antoine Brulon, and Molière, both in Paris and in the village of Auteuil.

  2. Efeito do Solo do Materias Organicos E do Adubo Formula 4N:14P:8K Para Producao DA Batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) Semente Pre-Basica no Casa de Vegetacao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton

    2010-05-01

    Widely well know that the potato is an important vegetable crop at Brazíl. Plant grown on about 173.000 ha, with total yield of 2.6 million tons year-1. The average yield is about 15 t ha-1. This level is very low because degeneration of crop is rapid under high temperature and high viruses pressure. Therefore seed potato propagation and production is principal on consumption potato production. This is why we found it necessary to develop it. The latossolo vermelho soil-farmyard manure- burnt rice straw-fertilizer 4N:14P:8K greenhouse pot trial was set up at the National Vegetable Crops Research Center, Brasília-DF, Brazíl in 1990. The methods of the experiments were soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw, soil x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer and soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer on randomized block design in total 29 combination of treatments in 5, 5 and 3 repetitions with in a total parcel of 116. According to chemical analysis of the a., soil, b., farmyard manure and c., burnt rice straw the agrochemistry parameters were as follows: a., latossolo vermelho soil: CaCO3 0.3-0.7%, humo 0.9-1.0%, pH (H2O) 5.3, pH (KCl) 4.5, AL- P2O5 3.2-3.5 mg kg-1, AL- K2O 180 mg kg-1, Mg (KCl) 70 mg kg-1, EDTA-Zn 0.5-0.8 mg kg-1, EDTA-Cu 0.5-0.6 mg kg-1, b., farmyard manure: N 1.8 g kg-1, P2O5 2.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.0 g kg-1, c., burnt rice straw: N 0.8 g kg-1, P2O5 7.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.5 g kg-1. The experimental datas were estimated by analysis of variance, ANOVA and MANOVA. The main conclusions were as follows: 1. Mixture of 80% latossolo vermelho, 10% burnt rice straw and 10% farmyard manure were shown best performance on seed potato productivity. The piece of tubers with a 0-20 mm (consumption seeds) was increased by 77%. 2. Total seed potato number was reached maximum at 10.8 g pot-1 4N:14P:8K fertilizer regarding to average of treatments with a 33%. 3. Dry biomassa production plant-1 was decreased by high dose of 4N:14P:8K fertilizer (18.0 g pot-1) with a

  3. Modeling the sensitivity of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) over the last deglaciation using improved climate reconstructions of temperature and precipitation in the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuzzone, J. K.; Larour, E. Y.; Morlighem, M.; Schlegel, N.; Badgeley, J.; Steig, E. J.; Buizert, C.

    2017-12-01

    Paleoclimate spinups of ice sheets can provide an important boundary condition for simulating ice sheets under present and future climate scenarios, while also providing a context on how sensitive ice sheets were to past climate change. Currently, many ice sheet models that simulate the past behavior of ice sheets rely on tuning of model specific parameter space or by adjusting the surface forcings (i.e. temperature and precipitation) to achieve the best fit with paleoclimate evidence of the ice sheet history. To create the necessary surface mass balance fields, a crude approximation based upon isotopic variations in ice core δ18O is often used to scale a modern day gridded climatology of temperature and precipitation back in time. This method is advantageous for long spinups, where variations in ice core δ18O is only needed to create the necessary surface forcings driving the past ice sheet surface mass balance. However, it cannot provide any information regarding changes in past climate seasonality and it assumes precipitation follows a purely thermodynamic relationship, therefore disregarding changes in past atmospheric circulation. Recent work has been performed to merge ice core temperature reconstructions with climate simulations during the last deglaciation, providing a continental wide Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) gridded temperature and precipitation reconstruction that extends back to the last glacial maximum (LGM). These new datasets resolve changes in past seasonality and incorporate changes in past atmospheric circulation by using information from climate models. This work will use two independent reconstructions of the past GrIS temperature and precipitation climatology that utilize different data assimilation techniques to drive simulations of the last deglaciation of the GrIS in the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM). The simulation performed with ISSM relies on a 3 dimensional, thermomechanical higher order model. The results presented here will outline

  4. Physicochemical and toxicological profiling of ash from the 2010 and 2011 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn volcanoes, Iceland using a rapid respiratory hazard assessment protocol.

    PubMed

    Horwell, C J; Baxter, P J; Hillman, S E; Calkins, J A; Damby, D E; Delmelle, P; Donaldson, K; Dunster, C; Fubini, B; Kelly, F J; Le Blond, J S; Livi, K J T; Murphy, F; Nattrass, C; Sweeney, S; Tetley, T D; Thordarson, T; Tomatis, M

    2013-11-01

    The six week eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010 produced heavy ash fall in a sparsely populated area of southern and south eastern Iceland and disrupted European commercial flights for at least 6 days. We adopted a protocol for the rapid analysis of volcanic ash particles, for the purpose of informing respiratory health risk assessments. Ash collected from deposits underwent a multi-laboratory physicochemical and toxicological investigation of their mineralogical parameters associated with bio-reactivity, and selected in vitro toxicology assays related to pulmonary inflammatory responses. Ash from the eruption of Grímsvötn, Iceland, in 2011 was also studied. The results were benchmarked against ash from Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, which has been extensively studied since the onset of eruptive activity in 1995. For Eyjafjallajökull, the grain size distributions were variable: 2-13 vol% of the bulk samples were <4 µm, with the most explosive phases of the eruption generating abundant respirable particulate matter. In contrast, the Grímsvötn ash was almost uniformly coarse (<3.5 vol%<4 µm material). Surface area ranged from 0.3 to 7.7 m2 g(-1) for Eyjafjallajökull but was very low for Grímsvötn (<0.6 m2 g(-1)). There were few fibre-like particles (which were unrelated to asbestos) and the crystalline silica content was negligible in both eruptions, whereas Soufrière Hills ash was cristobalite-rich with a known potential to cause silicosis. All samples displayed a low ability to deplete lung antioxidant defences, showed little haemolysis and low acute cytotoxicity in human alveolar type-1 like epithelial cells (TT1). However, cell-free tests showed substantial hydroxyl radical generation in the presence of hydrogen peroxide for Grímsvötn samples, as expected for basaltic, Fe-rich ash. Cellular mediators MCP-1, IL-6, and IL-8 showed chronic pro-inflammatory responses in Eyjafjallajökull, Grímsvötn and Soufrière Hills samples

  5. Probiotics [LGG-BB12 or RC14-GR1] versus placebo as prophylaxis for urinary tract infection in persons with spinal cord injury [ProSCIUTTU]: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bonsan Bonne; Toh, Swee-Ling; Ryan, Suzanne; Simpson, Judy M; Clezy, Kate; Bossa, Laetitia; Rice, Scott A; Marial, Obaydullah; Weber, Gerard; Kaur, Jasbeer; Boswell-Ruys, Claire; Goodall, Stephen; Middleton, James; Tudehope, Mark; Kotsiou, George

    2016-04-16

    Urinary tract infections [UTIs] are very common in people with Spinal Cord Injury [SCI]. UTIs are increasingly difficult and expensive to treat as the organisms that cause them become more antibiotic resistant. Among the SCI population, there is a high rate of multi-resistant organism [MRO] colonisation. Non-antibiotic prevention strategies are needed to prevent UTI without increasing resistance. Probiotics have been reported to be beneficial in preventing UTIs in post-menopausal women in several in vivo and in vitro studies. The main aim of this study is to determine whether probiotic therapy with combinations of Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 + Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 [RC14-GR1] and/or Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG + Bifidobacterium BB-12 [LGG-BB12] are effective in preventing UTI in people with SCI compared to placebo. This is a multi-site randomised double-blind double-dummy placebo-controlled factorial design study conducted in New South Wales, Australia. All participants have a neurogenic bladder as a result of spinal injury. Recruitment started in April 2011. Participants are randomised to one of four arms, designed for factorial analysis of LGG-BB12 and/or RC14-GR1 v Placebo. This involves 24 weeks of daily oral treatment with RC14-GR1 + LGG-BB12, RC14-GR1 + placebo, LGG-BB12 + placebo or two placebo capsules. Randomisation is stratified by bladder management type and inpatient status. Participants are assessed at baseline, three months and six months for Short Form Health Survey [SF-36], microbiological swabs of rectum, nose and groin; urine culture and urinary catheters for subjects with indwelling catheters. A bowel questionnaire is administered at baseline and three months to assess effect of probiotics on bowel function. The primary outcome is time from randomisation to occurrence of symptomatic UTI. The secondary outcomes are change of MRO status and bowel function, quality of life and cost-effectiveness of probiotics in persons

  6. Molecular structure, chemical reactivity, nonlinear optical activity and vibrational spectroscopic studies on 6-(4-n-heptyloxybenzyoloxy)-2-hydroxybenzylidene)amino)-2H-chromen-2-one: A combined density functional theory and experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegu, David; Deb, Jyotirmoy; Saha, Sandip Kumar; Paul, Manoj Kumar; Sarkar, Utpal

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we have synthesized new coumarin Schiff base molecule, viz., 6-(4-n-heptyloxybenzyoloxy)-2-hydroxybenzylidene)amino)-2H-chromen-2-one and characterized its structural, electronic and spectroscopic properties experimentally and theoretically. The theoretical analysis of UV-visible absorption spectra reflects a red shift in the absorption maximum in comparison to the experimental results. Most of the vibrational assignments of infrared and Raman spectra predicted using density functional theory approach match well with the experimental findings. Further, the chemical reactivity analysis confirms that solvent highly affects the reactivity of the studied compound. The large hyperpolarizability value of the compound concludes that the system exhibits significant nonlinear optical features and thus, points out their possibility in designing material with high nonlinear activity.

  7. Photoinduced intramolecular charge transfer in trans-2-[4'-(N,N-dimethylamino)styryl]imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine: effect of introducing a C[double bond, length as m-dash]C double bond.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Anasuya; Sahu, Saugata; Tripathi, Shreya; Krishnamoorthy, G

    2014-10-01

    The spectral characteristics of trans-2-[4'-(N,N-dimethylamino)styryl]imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (t-DMASIP-b) have been investigated using absorption and fluorescence techniques, and compared with 2-(4'-N,N-dimethylamino)imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (DMAPIP-b). The study reveals that introduction of a C[double bond, length as m-dash]C double bond strongly perturbs the photophysics of the system. Unlike DMAPIP-b, t-DMASIP-b emits a single emission in aprotic and protic solvents. The emission occurs from the locally excited state in nonpolar solvents and from a planar intramolecular charge transfer (PICT) state in polar solvents. Multiple linear regression analysis suggests that among the different solvent parameters, the dipolar interaction contributes more to the stabilization of the system in both the ground and excited states. Theoretical calculations suggest that, unlike in DMAPIP-b, proton coupled twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) emission does not occur in t-DMASIP-b. The higher quantum yield obtained in the viscous solvent glycerol is attributed to the restriction of the twisting of the olefinic bond. The photoirradiation of t-DMASIP-b shows that isomerization takes place in all solvents, including viscous glycerol. The theoretically simulated potential energy surface shows that isomerization occurs via a phantom state, which is a nonradiative process. The rise in temperature favors the photoisomerization, thus, the fluorescence quantum yield decreases. The prototropic study indicates that, unlike in DMAPIP-b, the protonation takes place at different places to form the monocations.

  8. A phase transition caught in mid-course: independent and concomitant analyses of the monoclinic and triclinic structures of (nBu4N)[Co(orotate)2(bipy)]·3H2O.

    PubMed

    Castro, Miguel; Falvello, Larry R; Forcén-Vázquez, Elena; Guerra, Pablo; Al-Kenany, Nuha A; Martínez, Gema; Tomás, Milagros

    2017-09-01

    The preparation and characterization of the n Bu 4 N + salts of two bis-orotate(2-) complexes of cobalt, namely bis(tetra-n-butylammonium) diaquabis(2,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-1-ide-6-carboxylato-κ 2 N 1 ,O 6 )cobalt(II) 1.8-hydrate, (C 16 H 36 N) 2 [Co(C 5 H 2 N 2 O 4 ) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ]·1.8H 2 O, (1), and tetra-n-butylammonium (2,2'-bipyridine-κ 2 N,N')bis(2,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-1-ide-6-carboxylato-κ 2 N 1 ,O 6 )cobalt(III) trihydrate, (C 16 H 36 N)[Co(C 5 H 2 N 2 O 4 ) 2 (C 10 H 8 N 2 )]·3H 2 O, (2), are reported. The Co III complex, (2), which is monoclinic at room temperature, presents a conservative single-crystal-to-single-crystal phase transition below 200 K, producing a triclinic twin. The transition, which involves a conformational change in one of the n Bu groups of the cation, is reversible and can be cycled. Both end phases have been characterized structurally and the system was also characterized structurally in a two-phase intermediate state, using single-crystal diffraction techniques, with both the monoclinic and triclinic phases present. Thermal analysis allows a rough estimate of the small energy content, viz. 0.25 kJ mol -1 , for both the monoclinic-to-triclinic transformation and the reverse transition, in agreement with the nature of the structural changes involving only the n Bu 4 N + cation.

  9. Ionised gas structure of 100 kpc in an over-dense region of the galaxy group COSMOS-Gr30 at z 0.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epinat, B.; Contini, T.; Finley, H.; Boogaard, L. A.; Guérou, A.; Brinchmann, J.; Carton, D.; Michel-Dansac, L.; Bacon, R.; Cantalupo, S.; Carollo, M.; Hamer, S.; Kollatschny, W.; Krajnović, D.; Marino, R. A.; Richard, J.; Soucail, G.; Weilbacher, P. M.; Wisotzki, L.

    2018-01-01

    We report the discovery of a 104 kpc2 gaseous structure detected in [O II]λλ3727, 3729 in an over-dense region of the COSMOS-Gr30 galaxy group at z 0.725 with deep MUSE Guaranteed Time Observations. We estimate the total amount of diffuse ionised gas to be of the order of ( 5 ± 3) × 1010 M⊙ and explore its physical properties to understand its origin and the source(s) of the ionisation. The MUSE data allow the identification of a dozen group members that are embedded in this structure through emission and absorption lines. We extracted spectra from small apertures defined for both the diffuse ionised gas and the galaxies. We investigated the kinematics and ionisation properties of the various galaxies and extended gas regions through line diagnostics (R23, O32, and [O III]/Hβ) that are available within the MUSE wavelength range. We compared these diagnostics to photo-ionisation models and shock models. The structure is divided into two kinematically distinct sub-structures. The most extended sub-structure of ionised gas is likely rotating around a massive galaxy and displays filamentary patterns that link some galaxies. The second sub-structure links another massive galaxy that hosts an active galactic nucleus (AGN) to a low-mass galaxy, but it also extends orthogonally to the AGN host disc over 35 kpc. This extent is likely ionised by the AGN itself. The location of small diffuse regions in the R23 vs. O32 diagram is compatible with photo-ionisation. However, the location of three of these regions in this diagram (low O32, high R23) can also be explained by shocks, which is supported by their high velocity dispersions. One edge-on galaxy shares the same properties and may be a source of shocks. Regardless of the hypothesis, the extended gas seems to be non-primordial. We favour a scenario where the gas has been extracted from galaxies by tidal forces and AGN triggered by interactions between at least the two sub-structures. Based on observations made with

  10. The mode of emplacement of Neogene flood basalts in Eastern Iceland: The plagioclase ultraphyric basalts in the Grænavatn group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Óskarsson, Birgir V.; Andersen, Christina B.; Riishuus, Morten S.; Sørensen, Erik Vest; Tegner, Christian

    2017-02-01

    Plagioclase ultraphyric basalt lava with high fraction of solids have a mode of emplacement that is poorly understood. In this study we conduct detailed mapping of a PUB group in eastern Iceland, namely the Grænavatn group, and assess the group architecture, flow morphology and internal structure with additional constraints from petrography, petrology and crystal size distribution, to derive information on emplacement dynamics of plagioclase ultraphyric basalts. We also derive information on the plumbing system of the group with reference to the source of the macrocysts. The group is exposed in steep glacially carved fjords and can be traced for more than 70 km along strike. The flows have mixed architecture of simple and compound flows. Individual flow lobes have thicknesses in the range of 1-24 m and many reach widths and lengths exceeding 1000 m. The flows vary from rubbly to slabby pahoehoe, but are predominantly of pahoehoe type. The aspect ratio of the group and the nature of the flows indicate fissure-fed eruptions. The plagioclase macrocrysts (5-30 mm) are An-rich, exhibit bimodal size distribution and the modal proportions within the group varies from 15-40%. Clinopyroxene macrocrysts are also present ranging from 1-6%. The lowermost flow is thickest and carries the greatest crystal cargo load. The morphology of the lava flows suggests low viscous behavior, at odds with the high crystal content. The very calcic plagioclase macrocrysts (An80-85) are in disequilibrium with the groundmass and plagioclase microlaths therein (An50-70), meaning that the crystal-laden magmas quickly ascended from deeper crustal levels to the surface. The flows with highest crystal content may have maintained high temperatures by heat exchange with the primitive macrocrysts in the flows and developed non-Newtonian behavior such as shear thinning. Such conditions would have enabled the flows to advance rapidly during episodes with high effusion rates forming the simple flows, and

  11. Synthesis, crystal structure and photoluminescence of (Ba{sub 0.99}Eu{sub 0.01})Al{sub 3}Si{sub 4}N{sub 9}

    SciTech Connect

    Yamane, Hisanori, E-mail: yamane@tagen.tohoku.ac.jp; Yoshimura, Fumitaka

    2015-08-15

    Crystalline grains of (Ba{sub 0.99}Eu{sub 0.01})Al{sub 3}Si{sub 4}N{sub 9} were obtained from samples synthesized by heating mixtures of binary nitride powders at 2000 °C and 0.85 MPa of N{sub 2} gas. The fundamental reflections of electron diffraction (ED) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measured for some grains could be indexed with orthorhombic cell parameters: a=10.028(2) Å, b=53.353(9) Å, and c=5.9215(11) Å. Streaks and diffuse lines along the b axis were observed in the ED and XRD photographs, indicating stacking faults. A statistical average structure was analyzed using the intensity data of the fundamental reflections with the space group Fdd2. Local structuremore » models were presented based on the average structure. Similar streaks and diffuse lines with fundamental reflections indexed with monoclinic cell parameters: a=5.8376(4) Å, b=26.6895(12) Å, c=5.8393(3) Å, and β=118.8428(15)° were also observed in the XRD oscillation photographs of another grain. The mixture of the grains having the orthorhombic and monoclinic fundamental structures emitted blue–green light with a peak wavelength of 500 nm and a full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 65 nm under 400 nm excitation. The emission intensity measured at 300 °C was 67.5% of the intensity measured at 25 °C. A broad excitation band ranged from about 260 nm to 475 nm with maximum intensity at around 290 nm, and 60% of the intensity was obtained by excitation at 400 nm. - Graphical abstract: Crystalline grains of (Ba{sub 0.99}Eu{sub 0.01})Al{sub 3}Si{sub 4}N{sub 9}, having orthorhombic and monoclinic fundamental structures and stacking faults, were obtained from samples synthesized at 2000 °C and 0.85 MPa of N{sub 2}. The grains emitted blue–green light with a peak wavelength of 500 nm and a full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 65 nm under 400 nm excitation. The emission intensity measured at 300 °C was 67.5% of the intensity measured at 25 °C. - Highlights: • (Ba{sub 0.99}Eu{sub 0.01})Al

  12. A phase transition caught in mid-course: independent and concomitant analyses of the monoclinic and triclinic structures of (nBu4N)[Co(orotate)2(bipy)]·3H2O

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Miguel; Falvello, Larry R.; Forcén-Vázquez, Elena; Al-Kenany, Nuha A.; Martínez, Gema

    2017-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of the nBu4N+ salts of two bis-orotate(2−) complexes of cobalt, namely bis­(tetra-n-butyl­ammonium) di­aqua­bis­(2,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetra­hydro­pyrimidin-1-ide-6-carboxyl­ato-κ2 N 1,O 6)cobalt(II) 1.8-hydrate, (C16H36N)2[Co(C5H2N2O4)2(H2O)2]·1.8H2O, (1), and tetra-n-butyl­ammonium (2,2′-bi­pyridine-κ2 N,N′)bis­(2,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetra­hydro­pyrimidin-1-ide-6-carbox­yl­ato-κ2 N 1,O 6)cobalt(III) trihydrate, (C16H36N)[Co(C5H2N2O4)2(C10H8N2)]·3H2O, (2), are reported. The CoIII complex, (2), which is monoclinic at room tem­perature, presents a conservative single-crystal-to-single-crystal phase transition below 200 K, producing a triclinic twin. The transition, which involves a conformational change in one of the nBu groups of the cation, is reversible and can be cycled. Both end phases have been characterized structurally and the system was also characterized structurally in a two-phase inter­mediate state, using single-crystal diffraction techniques, with both the monoclinic and triclinic phases present. Thermal analysis allows a rough estimate of the small energy content, viz. 0.25 kJ mol−1, for both the monoclinic-to-triclinic transformation and the reverse transition, in agreement with the nature of the structural changes involving only the nBu4N+ cation. PMID:28872072

  13. Synthesis, crystal structure, thermal analysis and dielectric properties of [(C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}N]{sub 3}Bi{sub 2}Cl{sub 9} compound

    SciTech Connect

    Trigui, W., E-mail: walatrigui@yahoo.fr; Oueslati, A.; Chaabane, I.

    2015-07-15

    A new organic–inorganic tri-tetrabutylammonium nonachlorobibismuthate(III) compound was prepared. It was found to crystallize in the monoclinic system (P2{sub 1}/n space group) with the following lattice parameters: a=11.32(2) Å, b=22.30(3) Å, c=28.53(2) Å and β=96.52(0)°. The [Bi{sub 2}Cl{sub 9}]{sup 3−} anions are surrounded by six [(C{sub 4}H{sub 9})N]{sup +} cations, forming an octahedral configuration. These octahedra are sharing corners in order to provide the tri-dimensional network cohesion. The differential scanning calorimetry reveals four order-disorder reversible phase transitions located at 214, 238, 434 and 477 K. The Raman and infrared spectra confirm the presence of both cationic [(C{sub 4}H{sub 9})N]{sup +} andmore » anionic [Bi{sub 2}Cl{sub 9}]{sup 3−} parts. The dielectric parameters, real and imaginary dielectric permittivity (ε′ and ε″), and dielectric loss tangent (tg δ), were measured in the frequency range of 209 kHz–5 MHz at different temperatures. The variations of dielectric dispersion (ε') and dielectric absorption (ε″) with frequency show a distribution of relaxation times, which is probably related to the change in the dynamical state of the [(C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}N]{sup +} cations and the [Bi{sub 2}Cl{sub 9}]{sup 3−} anions. - Graphical abstract: Projection of the atomic arrangement of the [(C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}N]{sub 3}Bi{sub 2}Cl{sub 9} compound along the b axis. - Highlights: • The structure of the (TBA){sub 3}Bi{sub 2}Cl{sub 9} compound was solved and reported. • The cristal belongs to the monoclinic system with P2{sub 1}/n space group. • DSC discloses four order–disorder reversible phases transitions. • The temperature-dependent permittivity ε' and ε″ has been investigated.« less

  14. Distribution of dissolved green-house gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) in Lakes Edward and George: Results from the first field cruise of the HIPE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, Alberto V.; Morana, Cédric D. T.; Lambert, Thibault; Okello, William; Bouillon, Steven

    2017-04-01

    Inland waters (streams, rivers, lakes, reservoirs) are quantitatively important components of the global budgets of atmospheric emissions of long-lived greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO2, CH4, N2O). Available data indicate that a very large fraction of CO2 and CH4 emissions from rivers and reservoirs occurs at tropical latitudes. Data on GHGs at tropical latitudes from lakes however are much more scarse, and the relative importance of emissions, in particular in Africa, remains to be determined. Large tropical lakes are net autotrophic (hence potentially sinks for atmospheric CO2) due generally low dissolved organic carbon concentrations, seasonally near constant light and temperature conditions, and generally deep water columns favourable for export of organic matter to depth. This sharply contrasts with their much better documented temperate and boreal counterparts, usually considered as CO2 sources to the atmosphere sustained by net heterotrophy. Here, we report a data-set of dissolved CO2, CH4, N2O obtained in October 2016 in Lakes Edward and George and adjacent streams and crater lakes in the frame of Belgian Science Policy (BELSPO) HIPE (Human impacts on ecosystem health and resources of Lake Edward, http://www.co2.ulg.ac.be/hipe/) project. Lake George and part of Lake Edward were sinks for atmospheric CO2 and N2O due to high primary production and denitrification in sediments, respectively, and modest sources of CH4 to the atmosphere. Sampled rivers and streams were oversaturated in CO2 and CH4 and close to atmospheric equilibrium with regards to N2O. Spatial variations within rivers and streams were related to elevation and vegetation characteristics on the catchments (savannah versus forest). Levels of CO2, CH4, and N2O were within the range of those we reported in other African rivers. Crater lakes acted as sinks for atmospheric CO2 and N2O but were extremely over-saturated in CH4, due to intense primary production sustained by cyanobacteria. These CH4 levels

  15. Voltammetric and Spectroscopic Studies of α- and β-[PW12O40]3- Polyoxometalates in Neutral and Acidic Media: Structural Characterization as Their [(n-Bu4N)3][PW12O40] Salts.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Tadaharu; Kodani, Keisuke; Ota, Hiromi; Shiro, Motoo; Guo, Si-Xuan; Boas, John F; Bond, Alan M

    2017-04-03

    The structure of the Keggin-type β-[PW 12 O 40 ] 3- (PW 12 ) polyoxometalate, with n-Bu 4 N + as the countercation, has been determined for the first time by single-crystal X-ray analysis and compared to data obtained from a new determination of the structure of the α-PW 12 isomer, having the same countercation. Analysis of cyclic voltammograms obtained in CH 3 CN (0.1 M [n-Bu 4 N][PF 6 ]) reveals that the reversible potential for the β-PW 12 isomer always remains ca. 100 mV more positive than that of the α-PW 12 isomer on addition of the acid CF 3 SO 3 H. Simulations of the cyclic voltammetry as a function of acid concentration over the range 0-5 mM mimic experimental data exceptionally well. These simulation-experiment comparisons provide access to reversible potentials and acidity constants associated with α and β fully oxidized and one- and two-electron reduced systems and also explain how the two well-resolved one-electron W(VI)/W(V) processes converge into a single two-electron process if sufficient acid is present. 183 W NMR spectra of the oxidized forms of the PW 12 isomers are acid dependent and in the case of β-PW 12 imply that the bridging oxygens between the W I and W II units are preferentially protonated in acidic media. EPR data on frozen solutions of one-electron reduced β-[PW V W VI 11 O 40 ] 4- indicate that either the W I or the W III unit in β-PW 12 is reduced in the β-[PW VI 12 O 40 ] 3- /β-[PW V W VI 11 O 40 ] 4- process. In the absence of acid, reversible potentials obtained from the α- and β-isomers of PW 12 and [SiW 12 O 40 ] 4- exhibit a linear relationship with solvent properties such as Lewis acidity, acceptor number, and polarity index.

  16. Anxiolytic-like Effects of the Neurokinin 1 Receptor Antagonist GR-205171 in the Elevated Plus-Maze and Contextual Fear-Potentiated Startle Model of Anxiety in Gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Heldt, Scott A.; Davis, Michael; Ratti, Emiliangelo; Corsi, Mauro; Trist, David; Ressler, Kerry J.

    2010-01-01

    Gerbils show a NK1 receptor pharmacological profile which is similar to that seen in humans and thus have become a commonly used species to test efficacy of NK1 receptor antagonists. The aim of the present study was to determine whether systemic administration of the NK1 receptor antagonist GR-205171 produced anxiolytic-like effects in the elevated plus maze and in a novel contextual conditioned fear test using fear-potentiated startle (FPS). On the elevated plus maze, treatment with GR-205171 at 0, 0.3, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg doses 30 min before testing produced anxiolytic-like effects in an increasing dose-response fashion as measured by the percentage of open arm time and percentage of open arm entries. For contextual fear conditioning, gerbils were given 10 unsignaled footshocks (0.6 mA) at a 2 min variable interstimulus interval in a distinctive training context. Twenty-four hours after training gerbils received treatment of GR-205171 at 0, 0.3, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg doses, 30 min before testing in which startle was elicited in the same context in which they were trained. Contextual FPS was defined as an increase in startle over pre-training baseline values. All drug doses levels (0.3, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg) significantly attenuated contextual FPS when compared to the vehicle control group. A control group which received testing in a different context, showed little FPS. These findings support other evidence for anxiolytic activity of NK1 receptor antagonists and provide a novel conditioned fear test that may be an appropriate procedure to test other NK1 antagonists for preclinical anxiolytic activity in gerbils. PMID:19675456

  17. Synthesis,and structural characterization of [(CH3(C5H4N))Ga(SCH2(CO)O)]-[(4-MepyH)]+, a novel Ga(III) five coordinate complex.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banger, Kulbinder K.; Duraj, Stan A.; Fanwic, Phillp E.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Martuch, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis and structural characterization of a novel ionic Ga(III) five coordinate complex [{CH3(C5H4N)}Ga(SCH2(CO)O)2]-[(4-MepyH)]+, (4-Mepy = CH3(C5H5N)) from the reaction between Ga2Cl4 with sodium mercapto-acetic acid in 4-methylpyridine is described. Under basic reaction conditions the mercapto ligand is found to behave as a 2e- bidentate ligand. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies show the complex to have a distorted square pyramidal geometry with the [(-SCH2(CO)CO-)] ligands in a trans conformation. The compound crystallizes in the P2(sub 1)/c (No. 14) space group with a = 7.7413(6) A, b = 16.744(2) A, c = 14.459(2) A, V = 1987.1(6) A(sup 3), R(F) = 0.032 and R(sub w) = 0.038.

  18. 3-Acetyl-8-methoxy-2[H]-chromen-2-one derived Schiff bases as potent antiproliferative agents: Insight into the influence of 4(N)-substituents on the in vitro biological activity.

    PubMed

    Kalaiarasi, G; Rex Jeya Rajkumar, S; Aswini, G; Dharani, S; Fronczek, Frank R; Prabhakaran, R

    2018-04-14

    A series of 3-acetyl-8-methoxycoumarin appended thiosemicarbazones (1-4) was prepared from the reaction of 3-acetyl-8-methoxycoumarin with 4(N)-substituted thiosemicarbazides in a view of ascertaining their biological properties with the change of N-terminal substitution in the thiosemicarbazide moiety. Comprehensive characterization was brought about by various spectral and analytical methods. The molecular structures of all the compounds were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Binding studies with Calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) and proteins such as Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and Human Serum Albumin (HSA) indicated an intercalative mode of binding with DNA and static quenching mechanism with proteins. The compounds cleaved plasmid DNA (pBR322) and acted well as free radical scavengers. A good spectrum of antimicrobial activity was observed against four bacterial and five fungal pathogens. The compounds exhibited profound antiproliferative activity on MCF-7 (human breast cancer) and A549 (human lung carcinoma) cell lines. Assay on human normal keratinocyte cell line HaCaT showed that the compounds were non-toxic to normal cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Complete genomic sequences for hepatitis C virus subtypes 4b, 4c, 4d, 4g, 4k, 4l, 4m, 4n, 4o, 4p, 4q, 4r and 4t.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunhua; Lu, Ling; Wu, Xianghong; Wang, Chuanxi; Bennett, Phil; Lu, Teng; Murphy, Donald

    2009-08-01

    In this study, we characterized the full-length genomic sequences of 13 distinct hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4 isolates/subtypes: QC264/4b, QC381/4c, QC382/4d, QC193/4g, QC383/4k, QC274/4l, QC249/4m, QC97/4n, QC93/4o, QC139/4p, QC262/4q, QC384/4r and QC155/4t. These were amplified, using RT-PCR, from the sera of patients now residing in Canada, 11 of which were African immigrants. The resulting genomes varied between 9421 and 9475 nt in length and each contains a single ORF of 9018-9069 nt. The sequences showed nucleotide similarities of 77.3-84.3 % in comparison with subtypes 4a (GenBank accession no. Y11604) and 4f (EF589160) and 70.6-72.8 % in comparison with genotype 1 (M62321/1a, M58335/1b, D14853/1c, and 1?/AJ851228) reference sequences. These similarities were often higher than those currently defined by HCV classification criteria for subtype (75.0-80.0 %) and genotype (67.0-70.0 %) division, respectively. Further analyses of the complete and partial E1 and partial NS5B sequences confirmed these 13 'provisionally assigned subtypes'.

  20. 2D polymeric cadmium(II) complexes containing 1,3-imidazolidine-2-thione (Imt) ligand, [Cd(Imt)(H2O)2(SO4)]n and [Cd(Imt)2(N3)2]n

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Rashid; Ahmad, Saeed; Fettouhi, Mohammed; Roisnel, Thierry; Gilani, Mazhar Amjad; Mehmood, Kashif; Murtaza, Ghulam; Isab, Anvarhusein A.

    2018-03-01

    The present study aims at preparing and carrying out the structural investigation of two polymeric cadmium(II) complexes of imidazolidine-2-thione (Imt) based on sulfate or azide ions, [Cd(Imt)(H2O)2(SO4)]n (1) and [Cd(Imt)2(N3)2]n (2). The structures of the complexes were determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. Both compounds, 1 and 2 crystallize in the form of 2D coordination polymers and the cadmium(II) ion is six-coordinate having a distorted octahedral geometry in each compound. In 1, the metal ion is bonded to one sulfur atom of Imt and five oxygen atoms with two from water and three of bridging sulfate ions. In 2, the cadmium coordination sphere is completed by two Imt molecules binding through the sulfur atoms and four nitrogen atoms of bridging azide ions. The crystal structures are stabilized by intra and intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions. The complexes were also characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopy and the spectroscopic data is consistent with the binding of the ligands.

  1. Synthesis, molecular structure, and catalytic potential of the tetrairon complex [Fe4(N3O2-L)4(mu-O)2]4+ (L = 1-carboxymethyl-4,7-dimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane).

    PubMed

    Romakh, Vladimir B; Therrien, Bruno; Süss-Fink, Georg; Shul'pin, Georgiy B

    2007-04-16

    The reaction of iron sulfate with 1-carboxymethyl-4,7-dimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (L) and hydrogen peroxide in aqueous ethanol gives a brown dinuclear complex considered to be [Fe2(N3O-L)2(mu-O)(mu-OOCCH3)] + (1), which converts upon standing in acetonitrile solution into the green tetranuclear complex [Fe4(N3O2-L)4(mu-O)2]4+ (2). A single-crystal X-ray structure analysis of [2][PF6]4.5MeCN reveals 2 to contain four iron(III) centers, each of which is coordinated to three nitrogen atoms of a triazacyclononane ligand and is bridged by one oxo and two carboxylato bridges, a structural feature known from the active center of methane monooxygenase. Accordingly, complex 2 was found to catalyze the oxidative functionalization of methane with hydrogen peroxide in aqueous solution to give methanol, methyl hydroperoxide, and formic acid; the total turnover numbers attain 24 catalytic cycles within 4 h. To gain more insight into the catalytic process, the catalytic potential of 2 was also studied for the oxidation of higher alkanes, cycloalkanes, and isopropanol in acetonitrile, as well as in aqueous solution. The bond selectivities of the oxidation of linear and branched alkanes suggest a ferroxy radical pathway.

  2. Synthesis and structural characterization of a flexible metal organic framework {[Ni(dpbz)][Ni(CN 4]} n, dpbz = 1,4-bis(4-pyridyl)benzene) with an unusual Ni-N bond

    SciTech Connect

    Wong-Ng, Winnie; Culp, Jeffrey T.; Chen, Yu-S.

    2016-02-10

    The chartreuse monoclinic Ni-dpbz (Ni(L)[Ni(CN) 4], (L = 1,4-Bis(4-pyridyl)benzene, or dpbz) crystal assumes a pillared structure with layers defined by 2-D Ni[Ni(CN) 4] n nets and dpbz ligands as pillars, linking between coordinated Ni sites. In addition to the hysteretic adsorption/desorption feature of Ni-dpbz, in half of the parallelepiped-shape space enclosed by the pillars and nets, an additional dpbz ligand was found to link between the open ends of two four-fold Ni sites. This arrangement results in an unusual 5-fold pseudo square-pyramid environment for Ni and a significantly long Ni–N distance of 2.369(4) Å. The presence of disordered dimethyl sulfoxidemore » (DMSO) solvent molecules give rise to the formula of Ni(dpbz)[Ni(CN) 4]·½dpbz·0.44DMSO. Sorption isotherms showed flexible behavior during the adsorption and desorption of CO 2.« less

  3. Insect γ-aminobutyric acid receptors and isoxazoline insecticides: toxicological profiles relative to the binding sites of [³H]fluralaner, [³H]-4'-ethynyl-4-n-propylbicycloorthobenzoate, and [³H]avermectin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunqing; Casida, John E

    2014-02-05

    Isoxazoline insecticides, such as fluralaner (formerly A1443), are noncompetitive γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor (GABA-R) antagonists with selective toxicity for insects versus mammals. The isoxazoline target in house fly ( Musca domestica ) brain has subnanomolar affinity for [³H]fluralaner and a unique pattern of sensitivity to isoxazolines and avermectin B(1a) (AVE) but not to fipronil and α-endosulfan. Inhibitor specificity profiles for 15 isoxazolines examined with Musca GABA-R and [³H]fluralaner, [³H]-4'-ethynyl-4-n-propylbicycloorthobenzoate ([³H]EBOB), and [³H]AVE binding follow the same structure-activity trends although without high correlation. The 3 most potent of the 15 isoxazolines tested in Musca [³H]fluralaner, [³H]EBOB, and [³H]AVE binding assays and in honeybee (Apis mellifera) brain [³H]fluralaner assays are generally those most toxic to Musca and four agricultural pests. Fluralaner does not inhibit [³H]EBOB binding to the human GABA-R recombinant β₃ homopentamer, which is highly sensitive to all of the commercial GABAergic insecticides. The unique isoxazoline binding site may resurrect the GABA-R as a major insecticide target.

  4. Zintl anions from the extraction of zintl phases with non-amine solvents: isolation of (Me/sub 4/N)/sub 4/Sn/sub 9/, (K(HMPA)/sub 2/)/sub 4/Sn/sub 9/, and K/sub 4/SnTe/sub 4/ and structural characterization of (Bu/sub 4/N)/sub 2/M/sub x/ (M = Te, x = 5; M = Se, x = 6; M = S, x = 6)

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, R.G.; Krause, L.J.; Haushalter, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    Polyatomic main-group anions like Sn/sub 9//sup 4 -/, Te/sub 5//sup 2 -/, Se/sub 6//sup 2 -/, S/sub 6//sup 2 -/, and SnTe/sub 4//sup 4 -/ have been isolated without the use of cryptate ligands. The polychalcogenides (Bu/sub 4/N)/sub 2/M/sub x/ (where M = Te, x = 5; M = Se, x = 6; M = S, x = 6; Bu = n-C/sub 4/H/sub 9/) are obtained by the aqueous extraction of binary alkali-metal/main-group alloys in the presence of Bu/sub 4/NBr. These polychalcogenides are isomorphous and have been structurally characterized by x-ray crystallography. The nonastannide(4-) anion has been isolated both asmore » the tetrakis(tetramethylammonium) compound, ((CH/sub 3/)N)3$Sn/sub 9/, and as the HMPA (hexamethylphosphoric triamide) solvate, (K(HMPA)/sup 2/)/sub 4/Sn/sub 9/. Both compounds are somewhat thermally unstable at 25/sup 0/C. The compound K/sub 4/SnTe/sub 4/ has been isolated by the aqueous extraction of ternary K/Sn/Te alloys. 44 references, 2 figures, 1 table.« less

  5. Evaluation of the agonist PET radioligand [¹¹C]GR103545 to image kappa opioid receptor in humans: kinetic model selection, test-retest reproducibility and receptor occupancy by the antagonist PF-04455242.

    PubMed

    Naganawa, Mika; Jacobsen, Leslie K; Zheng, Ming-Qiang; Lin, Shu-Fei; Banerjee, Anindita; Byon, Wonkyung; Weinzimmer, David; Tomasi, Giampaolo; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Grimwood, Sarah; Badura, Lori L; Carson, Richard E; McCarthy, Timothy J; Huang, Yiyun

    2014-10-01

    Kappa opioid receptors (KOR) are implicated in several brain disorders. In this report, a first-in-human positron emission tomography (PET) study was conducted with the potent and selective KOR agonist tracer, [(11)C]GR103545, to determine an appropriate kinetic model for analysis of PET imaging data and assess the test-retest reproducibility of model-derived binding parameters. The non-displaceable distribution volume (V(ND)) was estimated from a blocking study with naltrexone. In addition, KOR occupancy of PF-04455242, a selective KOR antagonist that is active in preclinical models of depression, was also investigated. For determination of a kinetic model and evaluation of test-retest reproducibility, 11 subjects were scanned twice with [(11)C]GR103545. Seven subjects were scanned before and 75 min after oral administration of naltrexone (150 mg). For the KOR occupancy study, six subjects were scanned at baseline and 1.5 h and 8 h after an oral dose of PF-04455242 (15 mg, n=1 and 30 mg, n=5). Metabolite-corrected arterial input functions were measured and all scans were 150 min in duration. Regional time-activity curves (TACs) were analyzed with 1- and 2-tissue compartment models (1TC and 2TC) and the multilinear analysis (MA1) method to derive regional volume of distribution (V(T)). Relative test-retest variability (TRV), absolute test-retest variability (aTRV) and intra-class coefficient (ICC) were calculated to assess test-retest reproducibility of regional VT. Occupancy plots were computed for blocking studies to estimate occupancy and V(ND). The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of PF-04455242 was determined from occupancies and drug concentrations in plasma. [(11)C]GR103545 in vivo K(D) was also estimated. Regional TACs were well described by the 2TC model and MA1. However, 2TC VT was sometimes estimated with high standard error. Thus MA1 was the model of choice. Test-retest variability was ~15%, depending on the outcome measure. The blocking

  6. Evaluation of the Agonist PET Radioligand [11C]GR103545 to Image Kappa Opioid Receptor in Humans: Kinetic Model Selection, Test-Retest Reproducibility and Receptor Occupancy by the Antagonist PF-04455242

    PubMed Central

    Naganawa, Mika; Jacobsen, Leslie K.; Zheng, Ming-Qiang; Lin, Shu-Fei; Banerjee, Anindita; Byon, Wonkyung; Weinzimmer, David; Tomasi, Giampaolo; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Grimwood, Sarah; Badura, Lori L.; Carson, Richard E.; McCarthy, Timothy J.; Huang, Yiyun

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Kappa opioid receptors (KOR) are implicated in several brain disorders. In this report, a first-in-human Positron Emission Tomography (PET) study was conducted with the potent and selective KOR agonist tracer, [11C]GR103545, to determine an appropriate kinetic model for analysis of PET imaging data and assess the test-retest reproducibility of model-derived binding parameters. The non-displaceable distribution volume (VND) was estimated from a blocking study with naltrexone. In addition, KOR occupancy of PF-04455242, a selective KOR antagonist that is active in preclinical models of depression, was also investigated. Methods For determination of a kinetic model and evaluation of test-retest reproducibility, 11 subjects were scanned twice with [11C]GR103545. Seven subjects were scanned before and 75 min after oral administration of naltrexone (150 mg). For the KOR occupancy study, six subjects were scanned at baseline and 1.5 h and 8 h after an oral dose of PF-04455242 (15 mg, n = 1 and 30 mg, n = 5). Metabolite-corrected arterial input functions were measured and all scans were 150 min in duration. Regional time-activity curves (TACs) were analyzed with 1- and 2-tissue compartment models (1TC and 2TC) and the multilinear analysis (MA1) method to derive regional volume of distribution (VT). Relative test-retest variability (TRV), absolute test-retest variability (aTRV) and intra-class coefficient (ICC) were calculated to assess test-retest reproducibility of regional VT. Occupancy plots were computed for blocking studies to estimate occupancy and VND. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of PF-04455242 was determined from occupancies and drug concentrations in plasma. [11C]GR103545 in vivo KD was also estimated. Results Regional TACs were well described by the 2TC model and MA1. However, 2TC VT was sometimes estimated with high standard error. Thus MA1 was the model of choice. Test-retest variability was ~15%, depending on the outcome

  7. Effect of organic chain length on structure, electronic composition, lattice potential energy, and optical properties of 2D hybrid perovskites [(NH3)(CH2) n (NH3)]CuCl4, n = 2-9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Aal, Seham K.; Kocher-Oberlehner, Gudrun; Ionov, Andrei; Mozhchil, R. N.

    2017-08-01

    Diammonium series of Cu hybrid perovskites of the formula [(NH3)(CH2) n (NH3)]CuCl4, n = 6-9 are prepared from an ethanolic solution in stoichiometric ratio 1:1 (organic/inorganic). Formation of the desired material was confirmed and characterizes by microchemical analysis, FTIR, XRD and XPS spectra. The structure consists of corner-shared octahedron [CuCl4]2- anion alternative by organic [(NH3)(CH2) n (NH3)]2+ cations. The organic and inorganic layers form infinite 2D sheet that are connected via NH···Cl hydrogen bond. The calculated lattice potential energy U pot (kJ/mol) and lattice enthalpy Δ H L (kJ/mol) are inversely proportional to the molecular volume V m (nm3) and organic chain length. Optical properties show strong absorption peak at UV-visible range. The band gap energy calculated using Kubelka-Munk equation shows the decrease of the energy gap as organic chain length increases. The introduction of bromide ion to [(NH3)(CH2) n (NH3)]CuCl2Br2 denoted 2C7CuCB hybrid has shifted the energy gap to lower values from 2.6 to 2.18 eV for 2C7CuCl (yellow) and 2C7CuCB (brown), respectively, at the same organic chain length. All elements of [(NH3)(CH2)9(NH3)]CuCl4 and [(NH3)(CH2)7(NH3)]CuCl2Br2 were found in XPS spectra, as well as valence band spectra.

  8. Theoretical study of the gas-phase structure, thermochemistry, and decomposition mechanisms of NH{sub 4}NO{sub 2} and NH{sub 4}N(NO{sub 2}){sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Mebel, A.M.; Lin, M.C.; Morokuma, K.

    1995-05-04

    The structures, energetics, and decomposition mechanisms of gaseous ammonium nitrite (NH{sub 4}NO{sub 2}) and ammonium dinitramide [ADN, NH{sub 4}N(NO{sub 2}){sub 2}] have been studied theoretically by different ab initio molecular orbital approaches. In the gas phase, both species have the structures of molecular complexes, [NH{sub 3}]-[HX]. The ionic geometries, [NH{sub 4}{sup +}][X{sup -}], are not local minima on the potential energy surface and would not be stable after vaporization. For NH{sub 4}NO{sub 2}, [NH{sub 3}]-[trans-HONO] is the most stable isomer, and [NH{sub 3}]-[cis-HONO] and [NH{sub 3}]-[HNO{sub 2}] structures lie higher by 1.4 and 8.4 kcal/mol at the G1 level ofmore » theory. For the gaseous ADN, [NH{sub 3}]-HN(NO{sub 2}){sub 2} is the most stable structure, while the [NH{sub 3}]-[ON(O)NNO{sub 2}] isomer is 2.3 kcal/mol less favorable. The calculated dissociation energies of the [NH{sub 3}]-[HX] complex to NH{sub 3} and HX are 8-9 and 12-14 kcal/mol for NH{sub 4}NO{sub 2} and ADN, respectively. The energies for elimination of the NO{sub 2} group from HN(NO{sub 2}){sub 2} and HON(O)NNO{sub 2} are found to be 38-40 kcal/mol, while the barrier for HON(O)NNO{sub 2} dissociation is about 42 kcal/mol. 27 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.« less

  9. Administration of sulfosuccinimidyl-4-[N-maleimidomethyl] cyclohexane-1-carboxylate conjugated GP100{sub 25–33} peptide-coupled spleen cells effectively mounts antigen-specific immune response against mouse melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Xiaoli; Xia, Chang-Qing, E-mail: cqx65@yahoo.com; Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL32610

    2015-12-04

    It remains a top research priority to develop immunotherapeutic approaches to induce potent antigen-specific immune responses against tumors. However, in spite of some promising results, most strategies are ineffective because they generate low numbers of tumor-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Here we designed a strategy to enhance antigen-specific immune response via administering sulfosuccinimidyl-4-[N-maleimidomethyl] cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (sulfo-SMCC)-conjugated melanoma tumor antigen GP100{sub 25–33} peptide-coupled syngeneic spleen cells in a mouse model of melanoma. We found that infusion of GP100{sub 25–33} peptide-coupled spleen cells significantly attenuated the growth of melanoma in prophylactic and therapeutic immunizations. Consistent with these findings, the adoptive transfer of spleenmore » cells from immunized mice to naïve syngeneic mice was able to transfer anti-tumor effect, suggesting that GP100{sub 25–33} peptide-specific immune response was induced. Further studies showed that, CD8+ T cell proliferation and the frequency of interferon (IFN)-γ-producing CD8+ T cells upon ex vivo stimulation by GP100{sub 25–33} were significantly increased compared to control groups. Tumor antigen, GP100{sub 25–23} specific immune response was also confirmed by ELISpot and GP100-tetramer assays. This approach is simple, easy-handled, and efficiently delivering antigens to lymphoid tissues. Our study offers an opportunity for clinically translating this approach into tumor immunotherapy. - Highlights: • Infusion of GP100{sub 25–33}-coupled spleen cells leads to potent anti-melanoma immunity. • GP100{sub 25–33}-coupled spleen cell treatment induces antigen-specific IFN-γ-producing CD8 T cells. • This approach takes advantage of homing nature of immune cells.« less

  10. Mechanistic investigation of the dipolar [2+2] cycloaddition-cycloreversion reaction between 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)phenylacetylene and arylated 1,1-dicyanovinyl derivatives to form intramolecular charge-transfer chromophores.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Lin; Jarowski, Peter D; Schweizer, W Bernd; Diederich, François

    2010-01-04

    The kinetics and mechanism of the formal [2+2] cycloaddition-cycloreversion reaction between 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)phenylacetylene (1) and para-substituted benzylidenemalononitriles 2 b-2 l to form 2-donor-substituted 1,1-dicyanobuta-1,3-dienes 3 b-3 l via the postulated dicyanocyclobutene intermediates 4 b-4 l have been studied experimentally by the method of initial rates and computationally at the unrestricted B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. The transformations were found to follow bimolecular, second-order kinetics, with DeltaH(exp)(not equal)=13-18 kcal mol-1, DeltaS(exp)(not equal) approximately -30 cal K-1 mol-1, and DeltaG(exp)(not equal)=22-27 kcal mol-1. These experimental activation parameters for the rate-determining cycloaddition step are close to the computational values. The rate constants show a good linear free energy relationship (rho=2.0) with the electronic character of the para-substituents on the benzylidene moiety in dimethylformamide (DMF), which is indicative of a dipolar mechanism. Analysis of the computed structures and their corresponding solvation energies in acetonitrile suggests that the rate-determining attack of the nucleophilic, terminal alkyne carbon onto the dicyanovinyl electrophile generates a transient zwitterion intermediate with the negative charge developing as a stabilized malononitrile carbanion. The computational analysis predicted that the cycloreversion of the postulated dicyanocyclobutene intermediate would become rate-determining for 1,1-dicyanoethene (2 m) as the electrophile. The dicyanocyclobutene 4 m could indeed be isolated as the key intermediate from the reaction between alkyne 1 and 2 m and characterized by X-ray analysis. Facile first-order cycloreversion occurred upon further heating, yielding as the sole product the 1,1-dicyanobuta-1,3-diene 3 m.

  11. Survey and Interpretation Geophysical of Magnetic Isochrones 4n.2 a 2A.3 (7.9 3.6 Ma) in the Central Part of the Rivera Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, D. A.; Mortera-Gutierrez, C. A.; Bandy, W. L.; Valle, S.

    2013-05-01

    This study shows the results of six campaigns marine geophysics BABRIP06 in 2006, MAMRIV07 in 2007, MAMRIV08 in 2008, GUAYRIV10 in 2010, BATIBAJA11 in 2011 and MAMRIV12 in 2012, in the abyssal plain in the East Pacific Rise (EPR), on board the UNAM vessel, B/O El Puma. The oceanographic campaigns single beam bathymetric data collected and marine magnetic data. The results allow analyze and study the magnetic texture in the central north of the Rivera plate associated with geological structures and behavior of the seafloor to the isochronous 5A. The systematic survey of the magnetic data provided high resolution on the guidelines of the magnetic anomalies associated with cortical spreading between 7.9 and 3.6 Ma, generated by the northern segment of the East Pacific Rise (EPR), between the Rivera and Tamayo Oceanic Transformants. Multibeam bathymetry data and the acoustic reflectivity of the six campaigns are correlated with the geometry of the magnetic anomalies and seismic reflection profiles to understand the processes that formed the highlight recreational ocean in this area. The main results in this study is the identification of continuous magnetic isochrones 4n.2 to 2A.3, magnetic anomalies associated with seamounts, the geometry of the isochrones associated with a propagator and magnetic anomaly identification of isochronous 3n.3 had not been demonstrated by other oceanographic surveys. Possibly oceanic spreading rate was slower during these epochs and the identification of a cross anomaly was due to a fracture zone that generated the propagator.

  12. A Portable FTIR Analyser for Field Measurements of Trace Gases and their Isotopologues: CO2, CH4, N2O, CO, del13C in CO2 and delD in water vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, D. W.; Bryant, G. R.; Deutscher, N. M.; Wilson, S. R.; Kettlewell, G.; Riggenbach, M.

    2007-12-01

    We describe a portable Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) analyser capable of simultaneous high precision analysis of CO2, CH4, N2O and CO in air, as well as δ13C in CO2 and δD in water vapour. The instrument is based on a commercial 1 cm-1 resolution FTIR spectrometer fitted with a mid-IR globar source, 26 m multipass White cell and thermoelectrically-cooled MCT detector operating between 2000 and 7500 cm-1. Air is passed through the cell and analysed in real time without any pre-treatment except for (optional) drying. An inlet selection manifold allows automated sequential analysis of samples from one or more inlet lines, with typical measurement times of 1-10 minutes per sample. The spectrometer, inlet sampling sequence, real-time quantitative spectrum analysis, data logging and display are all under the control of a single program running on a laptop PC, and can be left unattended for continuous measurements over periods of weeks to months. Selected spectral regions of typically 100-200 cm-1 width are analysed by a least squares fitting technique to retrieve concentrations of trace gases, 13CO2 and HDO. Typical precision is better than 0.1% without the need for calibration gases. Accuracy is similar if measurements are referenced to calibration standard gases. δ13C precision is typically around 0.1‰, and for δD it is 1‰. Applications of the analyser include clean and polluted air monitoring, tower-based flux measurements such as flux gradient or integrated horizontal flux measurements, automated soil chambers, and field-based measurements of isotopic fractionation in soil-plant-atmosphere systems. The simultaneous multi-component advantages can be exploited in tracer-type emission measurements, for example of CH4 from livestock using a co-released tracer gas and downwind measurement. We have also developed an open path variant especially suited to tracer release studies and measurements of NH3 emissions from agricultural sources. An illustrative

  13. Phénomènes de ségrégation dans les ferrites de titane nanométriques : apports complémentaires de différentes techniques expérimentales (DRX, XPS, EXAFS ...)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guigue-Millot, N.; Bernard, F.; Niepce, J. C.; Traverse, A.; Perriat, P.

    2002-07-01

    Thanks to the complementarily of average and local techniques two segregation phenomenon have been evidenced in nanostructured ferrites: a segregation related to kinetic effects and an other related to thermodynamical effects. The combination of local (MET, XPS) and averring techniques (DRX...) demonstrate that some heterogeneities exist in nanometric powders with Fe^{2+} cations when they are studied ex situ. These heterogeneities are related to kinetic effects linked to the difference of mobility between Fe^{2+} and Ti^{4+} cations during the partial oxidation of Fe^{2+}. Rietveld refinements of X ray and neutron diffraction patterns have shown that both titanium cations and vacancies (created during the oxidation reaction) are exclusively located in octahedral coordination. Furthermore, for titanium ferrites totally oxidized during a long time (they only contained Fe^{3+} cations), the Rietveld refinements lead to a titanium content lower than that obtained by classical chemical analyses (ICP, EDX, EELS...). A complementarily EXAFS study has evidenced that the titanium lack is in fact located in TiO2 clusters in the nanometric spinel particles, whose size are lower than 4 Å. Grâce à la complémentarité de diverses techniques deux phénomènes de ségrégation ont été mis err évidence dans les ferrites de titane nanostructurés : une ségrégation cinétique (dite dynamique) et une ségrégation thermodynamique. Par des techniques d'analyse locales (MET, XPS) et statistiques (DRX...), des hétérogénéités au sein des grains de poudre contenant des cations Fe^{2+} ont été mises en évidence lors de leur étude à l'air. Leur origine est cinétique et découle d'une oxydation incomplète des cations Fe^{2+}. Des affinement de Rietveld de diagrammes de diffraction des rayons X et diffraction de neutrons ont permis de montrer quant à eux que le titane ainsi que toutes les lacunes créées lors (le l'oxydation des cations Fe^{2+}, se localisent uniquement

  14. On the fractional Eulerian numbers and equivalence of maps with long term power-law memory (integral Volterra equations of the second kind) to Grünvald-Letnikov fractional difference (differential) equations.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Mark

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we consider a simple general form of a deterministic system with power-law memory whose state can be described by one variable and evolution by a generating function. A new value of the system's variable is a total (a convolution) of the generating functions of all previous values of the variable with weights, which are powers of the time passed. In discrete cases, these systems can be described by difference equations in which a fractional difference on the left hand side is equal to a total (also a convolution) of the generating functions of all previous values of the system's variable with the fractional Eulerian number weights on the right hand side. In the continuous limit, the considered systems can be described by the Grünvald-Letnikov fractional differential equations, which are equivalent to the Volterra integral equations of the second kind. New properties of the fractional Eulerian numbers and possible applications of the results are discussed.

  15. Acute sleep deprivation enhances avoidance learning and spatial memory and induces delayed alterations in neurochemical expression of GR, TH, DRD1, pCREB and Ki67 in rats.

    PubMed

    Azogu, Idu; de la Tremblaye, Patricia Barra; Dunbar, Megan; Lebreton, Marianne; LeMarec, Nathalie; Plamondon, Hélène

    2015-02-15

    The current study investigated the effects of acute versus repeated periods of sleep deprivation on avoidance learning and spatial memory and on the expression of discrete biochemical brain signals involved in stress regulation, motivation and brain plasticity. Male Long-Evans rats were sleep deprived using the platform-over-water method for a single 4 h period (ASD) or for daily 4h RSD period on five consecutive days (CSD). The Y maze passive avoidance task (YM-PAT) and the Morris water maze (MWM) were used to determine learning and memory 1h following the last SD period. Region-specific changes in glucocorticoid receptors (GR), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine 1 receptors (DRD1), phospho-CREB (pCREB) and Ki-67 expression were assessed in the hippocampal formation, hypothalamus and mesolimbic regions 72 h following RSD. Behaviorally, our findings revealed increased latency to re-enter the aversive arm in the YM-PAT and reduced distance traveled and latency to reach the platform in the MWM in ASD rats compared to all other groups, indicative of improved avoidance learning and spatial memory, respectively. Acute SD enhanced TH expression in the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens and A11 neurons of the hypothalamus and DRD1 expression in the lateral hypothalamus. Cell proliferation in the subventricular zone and pCREB expression in the dentate gyrus and CA3 regions was also enhanced following acute SD. In contrast, repeated SD significantly elevated GR-ir at the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and CA1 and CA3 layers of the hippocampus compared to all other groups. Our study supports that a brief 4h sleep deprivation period is sufficient to induce delayed neurochemical changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Aircraft measurements of the concentrations of CO2, CH4, N2O, and CO and the carbon and oxygen isotopic ratios of CO2 in the troposphere over Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazawa, Takakiyo; Sugawara, Satoshi; Inoue, Gen; Machida, Toshinobu; Makshyutov, Shamil; Mukai, Hitoshi

    1997-02-01

    About 370 air samples were collected using aircraft in the troposphere over Russia in the summers of 1992, 1993, and 1994. These were then analyzed for the CO2, CH4, N2O and CO concentrations, as well as for δ13C and δ18O of CO2. Measured vertical profiles of tropospheric CO2 showed that the concentration increased with height over all locations. In the lower troposphere over the wetland and taiga regions, extremely low CO2 concentrations of 335-345 parts per million by volume (ppmv) were often observed. Measured values of δ13C and the CO2 concentration were negatively correlated with each other, the rate of change in δ13C with respect to the CO2 concentration being about -0.05‰/ppmv. This implies that the variations in the CO2 concentration observed over Russia in the summer are primarily caused by terrestrial biospheric activities. In the middle and upper troposphere, the CO2 concentration and δ13C showed systematic differences between each other in 1992, 1993, and 1994, probably due to their secular changes. The δ18O and CO2 observed in the lowest part of the troposphere over east and west Siberia were also negatively correlated with each other, with the rate of change in δ18O with respect to CO2 estimated to be about -0.1 l‰/ppmv. This relation may be caused by isotopic equilibrium of oxygen in CO2 with soil water through respiration of living plants and decomposition of organic matter and with chloroplast water in leaves through photosynthesis of living plants. In contrast to CO2, the CH4 concentration decreased with height. Extremely high CH4 concentrations were observed over the west Siberian lowland, owing to a large amount of CH4 emitted from wetlands. The N2O concentrations were fairly constant through the troposphere over all locations covered by this study, with an average value of about 311 parts per billion by volume (ppbv). The CO concentrations also showed vertical profiles, with a small gradient over natural wetlands, taiga, and tundra

  17. First actinide complexes of the nitrogen-containing ligands dinitramide (N(NO2)2(-)), 4,5-Dicyano-1,2,3-triazolate (C4N5(-)), and dicyanamide (N(CN)2(-)).

    PubMed

    Crawford, Margaret-Jane; Ellern, Arkady; Karaghiosoff, Konstantin; Martin, Franz; Mayer, Peter

    2010-03-15

    The syntheses and characterization of uranyl complexes of nitrogen-containing ligands are reported. For the first time, an actinide complex containing dinitramide ligands coordinated to the actinide center in UO(2)(N(NO(2))(2))(2)(OP(NMe(2))(3))(2) (1) has been isolated and structurally characterized. Using an excess of OP(NMe(2))(3), the dinitramide ligands were replaced by OP(NMe(2))(3) ligands resulting in the formation of the salt [UO(2)(OP(NMe(2))(3))(4)][N(NO(2))(2)](2) (2). Both complexes 1 and 2 were characterized using IR, Raman, as well as (1)H, (13)C, (14)N and (31)P{(1)H} NMR spectroscopy, in addition to C/H/N analysis. The structures of 1 and 2 were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. 1: monoclinic, P2(1)/n, a = 12.5389(3), b = 7.9496(2), c = 15.8172(4) A, beta = 110.842(3) degrees , V = 1473.48(6) A(3), Z = 2. 2: orthorhombic, Pbca, a = 14.5640(6), b = 15.3697(6), c = 45.7789(18) A, V = 10247.3(7) A(3), Z = 8. The related complex [UO(2)(N(CN)(2))(2)(OP(NMe(2))(3))(2)] (3) containing the dicyanamide ligand (N(CN)(2)(-)) coordinated to the U(VI) center was synthesized and characterized using IR, Raman, (1)H, (13)C and (31)P{(1)H} NMR spectroscopy. The structure of 3 was determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction and revealed a dinuclear complex containing both terminal and bridging N(CN)(2)(-) ligands. 3: monoclinic, P2(1)/c, a = 15.5873(9), b = 14.2132(6), c = 13.2006(5) A, beta = 100.029(3) degrees, V = 2879.8(2) A(3), Z = 2. Finally, in this investigation of the coordination of relatively nitrogen-rich ligands to uranium centers, the synthesis, characterization, and isolation of the first U(VI) complex showing coordination of the triazolate ligand via a ring nitrogen atom is reported in UO(2)((NC)(2)C(2)N(3))(2)(OPPh(3))(3) (4). Complex 4 was characterized using IR, Raman, (1)H, (13)C and (31)P{(1)H} NMR spectroscopy. The solid state structure of 4 was determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction. 4: monoclinic, P2(1)/n, a

  18. Physical properties of superbulky lanthanide metallocenes: synthesis and extraordinary luminescence of [Eu(II)(Cp(BIG))2] (Cp(BIG) = (4-nBu-C6H4)5-cyclopentadienyl).

    PubMed

    Harder, Sjoerd; Naglav, Dominik; Ruspic, Christian; Wickleder, Claudia; Adlung, Matthias; Hermes, Wilfried; Eul, Matthias; Pöttgen, Rainer; Rego, Daniel B; Poineau, Frederic; Czerwinski, Kenneth R; Herber, Rolfe H; Nowik, Israel

    2013-09-09

    The superbulky deca-aryleuropocene [Eu(Cp(BIG))2], Cp(BIG) = (4-nBu-C6H4)5-cyclopentadienyl, was prepared by reaction of [Eu(dmat)2(thf)2], DMAT = 2-Me2N-α-Me3Si-benzyl, with two equivalents of Cp(BIG)H. Recrystallizyation from cold hexane gave the product with a surprisingly bright and efficient orange emission (45% quantum yield). The crystal structure is isomorphic to those of [M(Cp(BIG))2] (M = Sm, Yb, Ca, Ba) and shows the typical distortions that arise from Cp(BIG)⋅⋅⋅Cp(BIG) attraction as well as excessively large displacement parameter for the heavy Eu atom (U(eq) = 0.075). In order to gain information on the true oxidation state of the central metal in superbulky metallocenes [M(Cp(BIG))2] (M = Sm, Eu, Yb), several physical analyses have been applied. Temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility data of [Yb(Cp(BIG))2] show diamagnetism, indicating stable divalent ytterbium. Temperature-dependent (151)Eu Mössbauer effect spectroscopic examination of [Eu(Cp(BIG))2] was examined over the temperature range 93-215 K and the hyperfine and dynamical properties of the Eu(II) species are discussed in detail. The mean square amplitude of vibration of the Eu atom as a function of temperature was determined and compared to the value extracted from the single-crystal X-ray data at 203 K. The large difference in these two values was ascribed to the presence of static disorder and/or the presence of low-frequency torsional and librational modes in [Eu(Cp(BIG))2]. X-ray absorbance near edge spectroscopy (XANES) showed that all three [Ln(Cp(BIG))2] (Ln = Sm, Eu, Yb) compounds are divalent. The XANES white-line spectra are at 8.3, 7.3, and 7.8 eV, for Sm, Eu, and Yb, respectively, lower than the Ln2O3 standards. No XANES temperature dependence was found from room temperature to 100 K. XANES also showed that the [Ln(Cp(BIG))2] complexes had less trivalent impurity than a [EuI2(thf)x] standard. The complex [Eu(Cp(BIG))2] shows already at room temperature

  19. Continuous in-situ Measurements of Gases (H2, H2S, CH4, N2, O2, Ar, He, and CO2) at the Fumarole "Soffionissimo" (Solfatara volcano, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersberg, T.; Somma, R.; Rocco, A.; de Rosa, M.; Zimmer, M.; Quattrocchi, F.; de Natale, G.; de Natale, P.

    2007-05-01

    From November 29th to December 1st 2006, a gas monitoring experiment was carried out at the Solfatara volcano (Pozzuoli, Italy). The primary objectives were to prove that monitoring is possible with the experimental set-up described below, and to compare the new data obtained with those from earlier continuos gas monitoring carried out in November 2001. Temperature measurements and gas extraction were done at the fumarole "Soffionissimo" very close to the "Bocca Grande". The temperature measurements were performed with a temperature probe (K-type thermocouple), which was let about 30 cm into the fumarole. For better comparison of temperature and gas data, the gas tube was directly connected with the temperature probe. After having adjusted a continuous gas flow with a diaphragm pump and a needle valve, the gas was piped through a 10 m Teflon© tube for more than 40 hours. The gas phase primary consists of water gas, which was condensed in a trap, installed in a refrigerator. The amount of water in the trap was determined regulary every 3-4 hours. At the beginning of the monitoring experiment, the Teflon© tube was heated in order to avoid condensation of the water in the tube before getting trapped. Although the tube was not heated for the whole time of the experiment, it turns out that the amount of water, condensed in the water trap per hour, and does not significantly change when the tube was not heated. Hence, the amount of water, condensing in the tube before getting trapped, seems negligible. The remaining, almost water-free gas phase was finally dried over Fe wool in a filter, and then continuously analysed with a quadrupole mass spectrometer (Balzers Omnistar ©) for the following components: H2, H2S, CH4, N2, O2, Ar, He, and CO2. To make sure that the final drying process does not influence the gas composition in particular for H2 and H2S, a comparison measurement was done without the filter, which only revealed somewhat higher water content. During the

  20. Non-Invasive Screening for Alzheimer’s Disease by Sensing Salivary Sugar Using Drosophila Cells Expressing Gustatory Receptor (Gr5a) Immobilized on an Extended Gate Ion-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistor (EG-ISFET) Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Hui-Chong; Lee, In-Kyu; Ko, Pan-Woo; Lee, Ho-Won; Huh, Jeung-Soo; Cho, Won-Ju; Lim, Jeong-Ok

    2015-01-01

    Body fluids are often used as specimens for medical diagnosis. With the advent of advanced analytical techniques in biotechnology, the diagnostic potential of saliva has been the focus of many studies. We recently reported the presence of excess salivary sugars, in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In the present study, we developed a highly sensitive, cell-based biosensor to detect trehalose levels in patient saliva. The developed biosensor relies on the overexpression of sugar sensitive gustatory receptors (Gr5a) in Drosophila cells to detect the salivary trehalose. The cell-based biosensor was built on the foundation of an improved extended gate ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (EG-ISFET). Using an EG-ISFET, instead of a traditional ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET), resulted in an increase in the sensitivity and reliability of detection. The biosensor was designed with the gate terminals segregated from the conventional ISFET device. This design allows the construction of an independent reference and sensing region for simultaneous and accurate measurements of samples from controls and patients respectively. To investigate the efficacy of the cell-based biosensor for AD screening, we collected 20 saliva samples from each of the following groups: participants diagnosed with AD, participants diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease (PD), and a control group composed of healthy individuals. We then studied the response generated from the interaction of the salivary trehalose of the saliva samples and the Gr5a in the immobilized cells on an EG-ISFET sensor. The cell-based biosensor significantly distinguished salivary sugar, trehalose of the AD group from the PD and control groups. Based on these findings, we propose that salivary trehalose, might be a potential biomarker for AD and could be detected using our cell-based EG-ISFET biosensor. The cell-based EG-ISFET biosensor provides a sensitive and direct approach for salivary sugar detection

  1. Guidelines for May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining in haematology and non-gynaecological cytopathology: recommendations of the French Society of Clinical Cytology (SFCC) and of the French Association for Quality Assurance in Anatomic and Cytologic Pathology (AFAQAP).

    PubMed

    Piaton, E; Fabre, M; Goubin-Versini, I; Bretz-Grenier, M-F; Courtade-Saïdi, M; Vincent, S; Belleannée, G; Thivolet, F; Boutonnat, J; Debaque, H; Fleury-Feith, J; Vielh, P; Egelé, C; Bellocq, J-P; Michiels, J-F; Cochand-Priollet, B

    2016-10-01

    Since the guidelines of the International Committee for Standardisation in Haematology (ICSH) in 1984 and those of the European Committee for External Quality Assessment Programmes in Laboratory Medicine (EQALM) in 2004, no leading organisation has published technical recommendations for the preparation of air-dried cytological specimens using May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG) staining. Literature data were retrieved using reference books, baseline-published studies, articles extracted from PubMed/Medline and Google Scholar, and online-available industry datasheets. The present review addresses all pre-analytical issues concerning the use of Romanowsky's stains (including MGG) in haematology and non-gynaecological cytopathology. It aims at serving as actualised, best practice recommendations for the proper handling of air-dried cytological specimens. It, therefore, appears complementary to the staining criteria of the non-gynaecological diagnostic cytology handbook edited by the United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Service (UK-NEQAS) in February 2015. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Thermomechanical response of Gr/Pi composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, B. W.; Nagarkar, A. P.; Hashin, Z.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of temperature changes upon the stresses and strains in composite laminates having carbon fibers in a polyimide matrix were evaluated. Composites having laminae in which there were nonlinear stress-strain relations for stresses transverse to the fibers and for axial shear stresses were treated. Material properties were considered to be temperature dependent. Separately, the effects of laminae viscoelastic response were also treated. The results suggest that, for this material, nonlinearities due either to stress or time dependent effects do not appear to be of major practical importance for conventional high temperature composite structures.

  3. Analyzing Relationships between Geochemical Composition, Spectral Reflectance, Broad-band Albedo and Thickness of Supra-glacial Tephra Deposits from the Eruptions of Eyafjallajökull and Grímsvötn Volcanoes in 2010 and 2011.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, R.; Möller, M.; Kukla, P. A.; Schneider, C.; Römer, W.; Lehmkuhl, F.; Gudmundsson, M. T.

    2016-12-01

    On Iceland, explosive subglacial eruptions are common. The two latest eruptions were at Eyjafjallajökull 2010 and at Grímsvötn 2011. Both eruptions produced considerable amounts of tephra fallout that were deposited over large parts of major Icelandic ice caps. These extensive supraglacial tephra deposits are known to considerably alter the energy and mass balance of the ice caps at a strong spatial and temporal variability. We present a statistical evaluation of relationships and links between geochemistry, thermal conductivity, spectral reflectance characteristics, albedo and deposition thickness of the tephra covers and their variability in space and time. Samples of the tephra deposits were gathered in the field and analyzed in the laboratory regarding their chemical and mineralogical composition using X-ray fluorescence and diffraction analyses. Spatial patterns of spectral reflectance over the tephra-covered areas of the three major ice caps Eyjafjallajökull, Myrdalsjökull and Vatnajökull were obtained from multispectral ASTER and MODIS satellite datasets. Spatial patterns of broad-band albedo across the tephra-covered areas and differences to the albedo of unaffected surfaces were obtained from remotely-sensed data and geostatistical modeling. Changes in tephra-cover thickness with time were assessed using a modeling approach that includes thermal conductivity of the tephra cover and surface temperature. The former is derived from laboratory analysis while the latter is based on MODIS observations. We found that there are characteristic patterns of spectral reflectance that could be linked to deposition thickness and geochemical composition of the respective tephra. The temporal variability of the albedo patterns across the ice caps is strongly linked to the evolution of the deposition thicknesses over time.

  4. Progress of Multi Functional Properties of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid System, A[FeIIFeIIIX3] (A = (n-CnH2n+1)4N, Spiropyran; X = C2O2S2, C2OS3, C2O3S)

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Norimichi; Enomoto, Masaya; Kida, Noriyuki; Kagesawa, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    In the case of mixed-valence systems whose spin states are situated in the spin crossover region, new types of conjugated phenomena coupled with spin and charge are expected. From this viewpoint, we have investigated the multifunctional properties coupled with spin, charge and photon for the organic-inorganic hybrid system, A[FeIIFeIIIX3](A = (n-CnH2n+1)4N, spiropyran; X = dto(C2O2S2), tto(C2OS3), mto(C2O3S)). A[FeIIFeIII(dto)3] and A[FeIIFeIII(tto)3] undergo the ferromagnetic phase transitions, while A[FeIIFeIII(mto)3] undergoes a ferrimagnetic transition. In (n-CnH2n+1)4N [FeIIFeIII(dto)3](n = 3,4), a new type of phase transition called charge transfer phase transition (CTPT) takes place around 120 K, where the thermally induced charge transfer between FeII and FeIII occurs reversibly. At the CTPT, the iron valence state dynamically fluctuated with a frequency of about 0.1 MHz, which was confirmed by means of muon spin relaxation. The charge transfer phase transition and the ferromagnetic transition for (n-CnH2n+1)4N[FeIIFeIII(dto)3] remarkably depend on the size of intercalated cation. In the case of (SP)[FeIIFeIII(dto)3](SP = spiropyran), the photoinduced isomerization of SP under UV irradiation induces the charge transfer phase transition in the [FeIIFeIII(dto)3] layer and the remarkable change of the ferromagnetic transition temperature. In the case of (n-CnH2n+1)4N[FeIIFeIII(mto)3](mto = C2O3S), a rapid spin equilibrium between the high-spin state (S = 5/2) and the low-spin state (S = 1/2) at the FeIIIO3S3 site takes place in a wide temperature range, which induces the valence fluctuation of the FeS3O3 and FeO6 sites through the ferromagnetic coupling between the low spin state (S = 1/2) of the FeIIIS3O3 site and the high spin state (S = 2) of the FeIIO6 site.

  5. Occupational Survey: Medical Service, AFSC 4N0X1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-02-01

    neurodiagnostic equipment for examinations Inspect electrode site impedances Identify waveform abnormalities and apply additional electrodes All of these...Annotate electroencephalograms (EEGs) with artifact information K0500 Detect and eliminate artifacts K0529 Set up neurodiagnostic equipment for... neurodiagnostic procedures K0514 Perform bedside EEGs K0513 Perform BAEP hearing threshold tests K0488’ Adjust neurological equipment during recordings

  6. Strong Neutron Pairing in core+4 n Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revel, A.; Marqués, F. M.; Sorlin, O.; Aumann, T.; Caesar, C.; Holl, M.; Panin, V.; Vandebrouck, M.; Wamers, F.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Atar, L.; Avdeichikov, V.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Bemmerer, D.; Benlliure, J.; Bertulani, C. A.; Boillos, J. M.; Boretzky, K.; Borge, M. J. G.; Caamaño, M.; Casarejos, E.; Catford, W. N.; Cederkäll, J.; Chartier, M.; Chulkov, L.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Cravo, E.; Crespo, R.; Datta Pramanik, U.; Díaz Fernández, P.; Dillmann, I.; Elekes, Z.; Enders, J.; Ershova, O.; Estradé, A.; Farinon, F.; Fraile, L. M.; Freer, M.; Galaviz, D.; Geissel, H.; Gernhäuser, R.; Golubev, P.; Göbel, K.; Hagdahl, J.; Heftrich, T.; Heil, M.; Heine, M.; Heinz, A.; Henriques, A.; Ignatov, A.; Johansson, H. T.; Jonson, B.; Kahlbow, J.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kanungo, R.; Kelic-Heil, A.; Knyazev, A.; Kröll, T.; Kurz, N.; Labiche, M.; Langer, C.; Le Bleis, T.; Lemmon, R.; Lindberg, S.; Machado, J.; Marganiec, J.; Movsesyan, A.; Nacher, E.; Najafi, M.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Paschalis, S.; Perea, A.; Petri, M.; Pietri, S.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Ribeiro, G.; Rigollet, C.; Röder, M.; Rossi, D.; Savran, D.; Scheit, H.; Simon, H.; Syndikus, I.; Taylor, J. T.; Tengblad, O.; Thies, R.; Togano, Y.; Velho, P.; Volkov, V.; Wagner, A.; Weick, H.; Wheldon, C.; Wilson, G.; Winfield, J. S.; Woods, P.; Yakorev, D.; Zhukov, M.; Zilges, A.; Zuber, K.; R3B Collaboration

    2018-04-01

    The emission of neutron pairs from the neutron-rich N =12 isotones 18C and 20O has been studied by high-energy nucleon knockout from 19N and 21O secondary beams, populating unbound states of the two isotones up to 15 MeV above their two-neutron emission thresholds. The analysis of triple fragment-n -n correlations shows that the decay 19N (-1 p ) 18C* → 16C +n +n is clearly dominated by direct pair emission. The two-neutron correlation strength, the largest ever observed, suggests the predominance of a 14C core surrounded by four valence neutrons arranged in strongly correlated pairs. On the other hand, a significant competition of a sequential branch is found in the decay 21O (-1 n )20O*→18O +n +n , attributed to its formation through the knockout of a deeply bound neutron that breaks the 16O core and reduces the number of pairs.

  7. TH-AB-BRB-03: 4n Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, K.

    2016-06-15

    Current state-of-the art digital C-arm medical linear accelerators are capable of delivering radiation treatments with high level of automation, which affords coordinated motions of gantry, couch, and multileaf collimator (MLC) with dose rate modulations. The new machine capacity has shown the potential to bring substantially improved radiation dosimetry and/or delivery efficiency to many challenging diseases. Combining an integrated beam orientation optimization algorithm with automated machine navigation, markedly improved dose conformity has been achieved using 4ρ therapy. Trajectory modulated radiation therapy (TMAT) can be used to deliver highly conformal dose to partial breast or to carve complex dose distribution for therapymore » involving extended volumes such as total marrow and total lymph node treatment. Dynamic electron arc radiotherapy (DEAR) not only overcomes the deficiencies of conventional electron therapy in dose conformity and homogeneity but also achieves so without patient-specific shields. The combination of MLC and couch tracking provides improved motion management of thoracic and abdominal tumors. A substantial body of work has been done in these technological advances for clinical translation. The proposed symposium will provide a timely review of these exciting opportunities. Learning Objectives: Recognize the potential of using digitally controlled linacs for clinically significant improvements in delivered dose distributions for various treatment sites. Identify existing approaches to treatment planning, optimization and delivery for treatment techniques utilizing the advanced functions of digital linacs and venues for further development and improvement. Understand methods for testing and validating delivery system performance. Identify tools available on current delivery systems for implementation and control for such treatments. Obtain the update in clinical applications, trials and regulatory approval. K. Sheng, NIH U19AI067769, NIH R43CA183390, NIH R01CA188300, Varian Medical Systems V. Yu, Varian Medical Systems, AAPM Summer Undergraduate Fellowship, NSF graduate fellowship S. Nill, Elekta AB. Cancer Research UK under Programme C33589/A19727, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at The Royal Marsden and The Institute of Cancer Research.« less

  8. Prognostic value of programmed death-1, programmed death-ligand 1, programmed death-ligand 2 expression, and CD8(+) T cell density in primary tumors and metastatic lymph nodes from patients with stage T1-4N+M0 gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Li, Su; Xu, Dazhi; Chen, Shangxiang; Cai, Yuchen; Jiang, Wenqi; Zhang, Xinke; Sun, Jin; Wang, Kefeng; Chang, Boyang; Wang, Fenghua; Hong, Minghuang

    2017-07-29

    Anti-programmed death-1/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) immunotherapy has been proved to be effective on gastric cancer in ongoing clinical trials. However, the value of PD-L1 in predicting responses of patients with gastric cancer to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy is controversial. Some studies suggested that intra- and inter-tumoral heterogeneity of PD-L1 expression might explain the controversy. This study aimed to analyze the expression of PD-L1, PD-L2, and PD-1 as well as CD8(+) T-cell density in primary tumors and lymph nodes from patients with stage T1-4N+M0 gastric adenocarcinoma to explore the heterogeneity of PD-1 signaling pathway molecules. In primary tumors and metastatic as well as non-metastatic lymph nodes from patients with stage T1-4N+M0 gastric adenocarcinoma, we detected PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression with immunohistochemistry. CD8(+) T-cell density in primary tumors and PD-1 expression on CD8(+) T cells were detected with immunofluorescence. Univariate analysis was used to determine the prognostic values of them. Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to identify independent risk factors that affect patients' overall survival and disease-free survival. Among 119 eligible patients who had undergone surgical resection, the positive rate of PD-L1 was higher in metastatic lymph nodes than in primary tumors (45.4% vs. 38.7%, P = 0.005); the positive rate of PD-1 on CD8(+) T cells was significantly higher in primary tumors and metastatic lymph nodes than in tumor-free lymph nodes (both P < 0.001). The intensity of PD-1 expression on CD8(+) T cells in primary tumors and in metastatic lymph nodes were stronger than that in tumor-free lymph nodes from the same patient. Beside, the positive rate of PD-L2 did not show any differences between primary tumors and metastatic lymph nodes. In multivariate analysis, PD-L1 expression, PD-L2 expression, a low density of CD8(+) T cells in primary tumors, and PD-1 expression on CD8(+) T cells in

  9. Facile Synthesis of Carbon-Coated Spinel Li4Ti5O12/Rutile-TiO2 Composites as an Improved Anode Material in Full Lithium-Ion Batteries with LiFePO4@N-Doped Carbon Cathode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Zhang, Geng; Cheng, Jian; You, Ya; Li, Yong-Ke; Ding, Cong; Gu, Jiang-Jiang; Zheng, Xin-Sheng; Zhang, Chao-Feng; Cao, Fei-Fei

    2017-02-22

    The spinel Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /rutile-TiO 2 @carbon (LTO-RTO@C) composites were fabricated via a hydrothermal method combined with calcination treatment employing glucose as carbon source. The carbon coating layer and the in situ formed rutile-TiO 2 can effectively enhance the electric conductivity and provide quick Li + diffusion pathways for Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 . When used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the rate capability and cycling stability of LTO-RTO@C composites were improved in comparison with those of pure Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 or Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /rutile-TiO 2 . Moreover, the potential of approximately 1.8 V rechargeable full lithium-ion batteries has been achieved by utilizing an LTO-RTO@C anode and a LiFePO 4 @N-doped carbon cathode.

  10. Preferential hydroxylation by the chemical nuclease meso-tetrakis-(4-N-methylpyridiniumyl)porphyrinatomanganeseIII pentaacetate/KHSO5 at the 5' carbon of deoxyriboses on both 3' sides of three contiguous A.T base pairs in short double-stranded oligonucleotides.

    PubMed Central

    Pitié, M; Pratviel, G; Bernadou, J; Meunier, B

    1992-01-01

    Selected double-stranded oligodeoxyribonucleotides have been used to probe, at the molecular level, DNA chain breakages induced by the chemical nuclease mesotetrakis(4-N- methylpyridiniumyl)porphyrinatomanganeseIII pentaacetate/KHSO5. The results show that cleavage selectively occurs on the two 3' sides of three contiguous A.T base pairs (an A.T triplet). Hydroxylation at 5' carbon of the deoxyribose targets represents the initial damage on the sugar-phosphodiester backbone and leaves a 3' phosphate and a 5' aldehyde at the ends. The fragments were separated by HPLC and unambiguously identified through chemical and biochemical reactions and/or sequencing after enzymatic conversion to mononucleosides. Also studied was the degradation of a 22-nucleotide DNA molecule containing two A.T triplets. Gel electrophoresis analyses on the corresponding 5'-32P-end-labeled substrate supported the above cleavage specificity and mechanism. Images PMID:1570321

  11. Study on the ferromagnetic state in iron mixed-valence complexes, A[FeIIFeIII(dto)3] (A = (n-CnH2n + 1)4N; dto = C2S2O2) by means of Mössbauer spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Yuki; Okazawa, Atsushi; Enomoto, Masaya; Kojima, Norimichi

    2012-03-01

    We have investigated the ferromagnetic states for (n-CnH2n + 1)4N[FeIIFeIII(dto)3] (n = 3-6; dto = C2O2S2) by means of 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The major component of the spin configuration in the ferromagnetic states for n = 3 and 4 is the low-temperature phase (LTP) with the FeIII (S = 5/2) and FeII (S = 0) states. The high-temperature phase (HTP) of n = 4 remains by more than 20%, which is consistent with two ferromagnetic transitions (TC = 7 & 13 K). Moreover, it was revealed that the Mössbauer spectra in the ferromagnetic states for n = 5 and 6 correspond to the HTP consisting of the FeII (S = 2) and FeIII (S = 1/2) states.

  12. Development, synthesis, and biological evaluation of (-)-trans-(2S,5S)-2-[3-[(2-oxopropyl)sulfonyl]-4-n-propoxy-5-(3- hydroxypropoxy)-phenyl]-5-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)tetrahydrofuran, a potent orally active platelet-activating factor (PAF) antagonist and its water-soluble prodrug phosphate ester.

    PubMed

    Girotra, N N; Biftu, T; Ponpipom, M M; Acton, J J; Alberts, A W; Bach, T N; Ball, R G; Bugianesi, R L; Parsons, W H; Chabala, J C

    1992-09-18

    (-)-trans-(2S,5S)-2-[3-[(2-Oxopropyl)sulfonyl]-4-n-propoxy-5-(3- hydroxypropoxy)phenyl]-5-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)tetrahydrofuran (10) is one of the most potent platelet-activating factor (PAF) antagonists in vitro and in vivo developed to date. This diaryltetrahydrofuran derivative evolved from modifications of MK 0287 which has been evaluated in clinical studies for asthma. Two structural modifications of MK 0287 were made: (1) elaboration of the 3'-[(hydroxyethyl)sulfonyl] group to a beta-keto propylsulfonyl, and (2) replacement of the 5'-methyl ether by a 3-hydroxypropyl ether. Compound 10 potently and specifically inhibits the binding of [3H]-C18-PAF to human platelet membranes (Ki 1.85 nM) and PMN membranes (Ki 2.89 nM). In vivo, 10 inhibits PAF-induced plasma extravasation and elevated N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAGA) levels in male rats with ED50 values of 60 micrograms/kg, po and 4 micrograms/kg, iv respectively, and inhibits PAF-induced bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs with an ED50 value of 15 micrograms/kg after intraduodenal administration. Compound 15, a water-soluble phosphate ester prodrug derivative of 10 is at least equipotent to 10 in the in vivo models. Compound 19S, the primary and major metabolite of 10 and 15, is equipotent in in vitro and in vivo models.

  13. Measurement of the Bi 209 ( n , 4 n ) Bi 206 and Tm 169 ( n , 3 n ) Tm 167 cross sections between 23.5 and 30.5 MeV relevant to reaction-in-flight neutron studies at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gooden, M. E.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Champine, B.

    2017-08-01

    At the National Ignition Facility, experiments are being performed to measure charged-particle stopping powers in the previously unexplored warm dense plasma regime. These measurements are done using reaction-in-flight (RIF) neutrons from an inertial confinement fusion system. RIF neutrons are produced with a continuum of energies up to 30 MeV. By making activation measurements utilizing threshold reactions for neutrons in the energy range of 15 < E n < 30 MeV , the number of RIF neutrons can be determined and from this the stopping power of the deuterium and tritium ions that produced the RIF neutrons can be inferred. Currently,more » the 169 Tm ( n , 3 n ) 167 Tm reaction has been used. However, in an effort to provide a secondary complimentary measurement, efforts are underway to make use of the 209 Bi ( n , 4 n ) 206 Bi reaction, with a threshold of 22.5 MeV. The cross sections were measured at the 10 MV tandem Van De Graaff accelerator at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory with quasimonoenergetic neutrons between 23.5 and 30.5 MeV, where few previous measurements have been made. Cross-section data are compared to calculations and other available measurements.« less

  14. Hydrothermal synthesis and study of an inorganic-organic hybrid vanadate of a nickel(II) coordination complex with pyrazine, Ni{sub 3}(C{sub 4}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}){sub 3}(V{sub 8}O{sub 23})

    SciTech Connect

    Larrea, Edurne S.; Mesa, Jose L., E-mail: joseluis.mesa@ehu.es; Arriortua, Maria I.

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} A novel inorganic-organic hybrid vanadate of nickel(II) coordination complex with pyrazine has been synthesized hydrothermally. {yields} The thermal and spectroscopic behavior has been studied. {yields} The compound shows AFM interactions which has been fitted to a magnetic model of lineal chains. -- Abstract: The three-dimensional hybrid compound Ni{sub 3}(C{sub 4}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}){sub 3}(V{sub 8}O{sub 23}) has been synthesized by mild hydrothermal methods under autogenous pressure at 170 {sup o}C. The structure of the phase is stable until 380 {sup o}C. The removal of the pyrazine molecules from the structure induces its collapse. The IR spectrum shows the vibrationmore » modes of the pyrazine molecule and those of the [VO{sub 4}]{sup 3-} groups. A UV-visible spectrum shows the characteristic bands of the Ni(II) d{sup 8}-high-spin cation in a slightly distorted octahedral coordination. Magnetic measurements indicate the existence of antiferromagnetic interactions that can be fitted with a chain model to give g = 2.31, J/k = -5.3, and zJ'/k = -5.5.« less

  15. Characterization of the thermally induced topochemical solid-state transformation of NH4[N(CN)2] into NCN[double bond]C(NH2)2 by means of X-ray and neutron diffraction as well as Raman and solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lotsch, Bettina V; Senker, Jürgen; Schnick, Wolfgang

    2004-02-09

    The mechanism of the solid-solid transformation of NH(4)[N(CN)(2)] into NCN[double bond]C(NH(2))(2), which represents the isolobal analogue of Wöhler's historic conversion of ammonium cyanate into urea, has been investigated by temperature-dependent single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, neutron powder diffraction, and Raman and solid-state NMR spectroscopy as well as thermoanalytical measurements. The transformation of the ionic dicyanamide into its molecular isomer upon controlled thermal treatment was found to proceed topochemically in the solid state with little molecular motion, giving rise to a single-crystal to single-crystal transformation which manifests itself by a defined metric relation between the unit cells of the two isomers. The exothermic phase transition is thermally activated and was observed to commence at temperatures > or =80 degrees C. The pronounced temperature dependence of the onset of the transformation may be assessed as an indication for the metastability of ammonium dicyanamide at elevated temperatures. Thermal analyses reveal a decrease in the reaction enthalpy (56-13 kJ mol(-1)) at higher heating rates and an average mass loss of 10% gaseous ammonia. Evidence was found for crucial mechanistic steps of the transformation, which is likely to proceed via proton transfer from the ammonium ion to one of the terminal nitrogen atoms of the anion. The protonation is followed by nucleophilic attack of the in situ generated ammonia at the electrophilic nitrile carbon. The proposed mechanistic pathway is based on the results of combined Raman and solid-state NMR spectroscopic as well as neutron powder diffraction measurements.

  16. Sr{sub 4+n}Mn{super III}{sub 4}Mn{super IV}{sub n} O{sub 10+3n} : A new homologous series of oxygen vacancy-ordered perovskite compounds built from Mn{sup III}-O pyramids and Mn{sup IV}-O octahedra.

    SciTech Connect

    Suescun, L.; Dabrowski, B.; Materials Science Division

    2008-01-01

    A new homologous series of oxygen-vacancy-ordered perovskites with the formula Sr{sub 4+n}Mn{sub 4}{sup 3+}Mn{sub n}{sup 4+}O{sub 10+3n} is proposed based on the structural trends found for the recently described Sr{sub 4}Mn{sub 4}O{sub 10}, Sr{sub 5}Mn{sub 5}O{sub 13} and Sr{sub 7}Mn{sub 7}O{sub 19} compounds. These compounds correspond to n = 0 (Sr{sub 4}Mn{sub 4}{sup 3+}O{sub 10}), n = 1 (Sr{sub 5}Mn{sub 4}{sup 3+}Mn{sup 4+}O{sub 13}) and n = 3 (Sr{sub 7}Mn{sub 4}{sup 3+}Mn{sub 3}{sup 4+}O{sub 19}) members of the series. A linear set of four Mn{sup 3+}O{sub 5} pyramids placed on the ab plane and pointing along the +x, -y, +y,more » -x directions defines the n = 0 building block for the series. The nth members can be constructed from blocks containing four pyramids and n Mn{sup 4+}O{sub 6} octahedra with 2/m symmetry. Compounds in the related systems CaMnO{sub x} and LaCuO{sub x}, containing Mn{sup 3+} and Cu{sup 2+} pyramids and Mn{sup 4+} and Cu{sup 3+} octahedra have also been found to be members of the series. The size and charge of the A-site cation and the apical distortion of the pyramidally coordinated B-site cation are shown to be important factors in the stabilization of certain members of the series. A qualitative explanation for the absence of some of the possible members of the series is presented based on these factors.« less

  17. Two actinide-organic frameworks constructed by a tripodal flexible ligand: Occurrence of infinite ((UO{sub 2})O{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}){sub 4n} and hexanuclear (Th{sub 6}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}) motifs

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Lingling; Zhang, Ronglan; Zhao, Jianshe, E-mail: jszhao@nwu.edu.cn

    2016-11-15

    Two new actinide metal-organic frameworks were constructed by using a tripodal flexible ligand tris (2-carboxyethyl) isocyanurate (H{sub 3}tci) under hydrothermal condition. The combination of H{sub 3}tci and uranyl nitrate hexahydrate in aqueous solution leads to the isolation of [(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]{sub 0.5}(tci){sub 2}(UO{sub 2}){sub 4}(OH){sub 4}·18H{sub 2}O (1), which contains two distinct UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} coordination environments. Four uranyl cations, linked through μ{sub 3}-OH respectively, result in the edge-sharing ribbons. Then, the layer structure is constructed by U-O clusters linked through other eight-coordinated uranyl unions, giving rise to a porous structure in the space. Topological analysis reveals thatmore » complex 1 belongs to a (4, 8)-connected net with a schläfli symbol of (3{sup 4.}2{sup 6.}3){sub 2}(3{sup 4.}4{sup 6.}5{sup 6.}6{sup 8.}7{sup 3.}8). Th{sub 3}(tci){sub 2}O{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}·12H{sub 2}O (2) generated by the reaction of H{sub 3}tci and thorium nitrate tetrahydrate, possesses nine-fold coodinated Th(IV) centers with a monocapped square antiprismatic geometry. The hexamers “Th{sub 6}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}” motifs are connected together by the carboxylate groups, showing a three-dimensional structures. Complex 2 takes on an 8-connected architecture and the point symbol is (4{sup 24.}6{sup 4}). - Graphical abstract: Two new 3D actinide metal-organic frameworks were constructed by using a tripodal flexible ligand tris (2-carboxyethyl) isocyanurate (H3tci) and their topological structures were displayed. The infinite ((UO{sub 2})O{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}){sub 4n} and hexanuclear (Th{sub 6}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}) motifs were found in the title actinides networks.« less

  18. Application de la méthode des simulations croisées à l'analyse de tendances dans la relation pluie-débit à partir du modèle GR2M : cas du bassin versant du N'zi-Bandama (Côte d'Ivoire)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouassi, Amani Michel; Bi, Tozan Michel N.'guessan; Kouamé, Koffi Fernand; Kouamé, Kassi Alexis; Okaingni, Jean-Claude; Biemi, Jean

    2012-05-01

    The study area is the N'zi watershed, sub-watershed of the Bandama River (Ivory Coast). The N'zi watershed is located between longitudes 3°49' and 5°22' West and latitudes 6°00' and 9°26' North and covers an area of 35,500 km2. This study aims to identify trends in the rainfall-runoff relationship by using a monthly conceptual model. The methodology has consisted on the one hand in highlighting the existence of interannual climate and hydrological variability by using the method of segmentation of Hubert, and on the other hand, in applying the crossed simulations method by using the GR2M model, over several 7-year sub-periods. The results of the application of the method of segmentation of Hubert have demonstrated the presence of a hydroclimatic variability in the N'zi watershed. The modifications of the climate and physical conditions of the flow resulted in a modification of the hydrological response of the watershed translated by a non-stationarity in the rainfall-runoff relation.

  19. The Tornado GR4 Programme - A New Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    is provided here to allow users access to individually authored sections f proceedings, annals, symposia, ect. However, the component should be...Productio n Support The £1bn programme is split into three contractual elements - development, production embodiment and support. Panavia , the industrial...Alternative?", held in Ankara, Turkey, 26-28 April 1999 and published in RTO MP-44. A4- 2 with the Royal Air Force in 1981. The last Tornado aircraft built was

  20. Renormalization group procedure for potential -g/r2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawid, S. M.; Gonsior, R.; Kwapisz, J.; Serafin, K.; Tobolski, M.; Głazek, S. D.

    2018-02-01

    Schrödinger equation with potential - g /r2 exhibits a limit cycle, described in the literature in a broad range of contexts using various regularizations of the singularity at r = 0. Instead, we use the renormalization group transformation based on Gaussian elimination, from the Hamiltonian eigenvalue problem, of high momentum modes above a finite, floating cutoff scale. The procedure identifies a richer structure than the one we found in the literature. Namely, it directly yields an equation that determines the renormalized Hamiltonians as functions of the floating cutoff: solutions to this equation exhibit, in addition to the limit-cycle, also the asymptotic-freedom, triviality, and fixed-point behaviors, the latter in vicinity of infinitely many separate pairs of fixed points in different partial waves for different values of g.

  1. Grüt: A Gardening Sensor Kit for Children.

    PubMed

    Valpreda, Fabrizio; Zonda, Ilaria

    2016-02-16

    Food waste is one of the main problems in our society. This is mainly caused by people's behaviors and attitudes, which influence the whole food chain, from production to final consumption. In fact, food is generally perceived as a commodity by adults, who transmit this behavior to children, who in turn do not develop any consciousness about food's source. One way to reduce the problem seems to be by changing consumers' attitudes, which develop during the early years of childhood. Research has shown that after attending school garden classes, children's food-related behavior changes. Growing crops is not always easy--it can't be done in the domestic space, and this lead to a loss of the long term positive effects. This paper presents a project that tries to teach children how to grow their own food indoors and outdoors, mixing real and virtual reality, connecting something natural like a plant to the Internet of Things (or IOT, a network of physical objects virtually connected to each other and to the web). The use of sensors related to an app makes this process more fun and useful for educational purposes. The aim of the project is to change children's attitude towards food, increasing their knowledge about production and consumption, in order to reduce waste on a long term basis. The research has been developed in collaboration with Cisco NL and MediaLAB Amsterdam. The user testing has been executed with Dutch children in Amsterdam.

  2. Vacuum Energy and Inflation: 3. Newtonian Cosmology & GR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha

    2013-01-01

    This is paper #3 in a series of four papers on "vacuum energy" and inflation. In paper #1 [see EJ1024183] we discussed an example of what we have been calling vacuum energy. It is an energy with negative pressure whose energy density remains constant in an expanding space. We showed that an energy density with these properties exists…

  3. Genetics Home Reference: Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... absorption: mammalian physiology and acquired and inherited disorders. Biochimie. 2013 May;95(5):1002-7. doi: 10. ... patients with inborn errors of vitamin B12 metabolism. Biochimie. 2013 May;95(5):1019-22. doi: 10. ...

  4. Status of Gr/glass composites technology at UTOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayor, Ramon A.

    1988-01-01

    The TSC (Thermally Stable Composite) refers to a family of graphite reinforced glass matrix composite materials developed by UTOS. This fiber matrix combination exhibits low coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE), exceptional dimensional stability, high specific strength and stiffness, adequate fracture toughness, and space environment compatibility. The dimensional stability of a TSC mirror structure was experimentally characterized at the Steward Observatory. Preliminary results indicate that TSC is significantly more thermally stable than most current structural composite materials. In addition, the use of lower CTE glass matrix materials, such as 96 percent silica glass, have the potential for producing graphite/glass panels with expansion rates and stability comparable to that of fused silica.

  5. Resource Letter GrW-1: Gravitational Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor); Centrella, Joan M.

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenon of gravitational radiation was one of the first predictions of Einstein's general theory of relativity. Progress in understanding this radiation theoretically was slow at first, owing to the difficulty of the nonlinear field equations and the subtleties of their physical effects. The experimental side of this subject also has taken a long time to develop, with efforts at detection severely challenged by the extreme weakness of the waves impinging on the Earth. However, as the 21st century begins, observations of the gravitational waves from astrophysical sources such as black holes, neutron stars, and stellar collapse are expected to open a new window on the universe. Vigorous experimental programs centered on ground-based detectors are being carried out worldwide, and a space-based detector is in the planning stages. On the theoretical side, much effort is being expended to produce robust models of the astrophysical sources and accurate calculations of the waveforms they produce. In this Resource Letter, a set of basic references will be presented first, to provide a general introduction to and overview of the literature in this field. The focus then will shift to highlighting key resources in more specialized areas at the forefront of current research.

  6. Regulation of Heat Stress by HSF1 and GR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    integrity is central to resistance of muscle cells against heat-induced injury. 15. SUBJECT TERMS heat adaptation, heat tolerance, skeletal muscle ...Keywords hyperthermia, heat shock, heat injury, heat adaptation, rodent, skeletal muscle , C2C12, myotube, hsp, inflammation, cytokines, oxidative stress...Tianzheng Yu, Yifan Chen: “Inhibition of mitochondrial fission reduces heat-induced damage in skeletal muscle cells” (see Appendix) 7

  7. Regulation of Heat Stress by HSF1 and GR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    heat shock, heat injury, heat adaptation, rodent, skeletal muscle, C2C12, myotube, hsp, inflammation, cytokines, oxidative stress 3. Accomplishments...compared to TOL mice. UCPs separate oxidative phosphorylation from ATP synthesis with energy dissipated as heat, and regulate mitochondrial... food & water. After arrival, all the mice were given one week to recover. Heat acclimation was initiated by exposing the mice to 33 °C in an

  8. Current and future engine applications of Gr/PI composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavano, P. J.; Schmid, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    The application of organic matrix composites to gas turbine engine components has been the subject of numerous government and company funded programs since the 1960's. The possibility of significant weight reductions, performance improvements and lower component costs have made the organic matrix composites extremely attractive to aircraft engine designers. Very little of this potential was incorporated into production engines over the years even though a significant number of components were designed, fabricated and tested. Some of the reasons behind the slow rate of incorporation include the following: (1) criticality; (2) engine operating temperature; (3) small component size; (4) small production volume; (5) high production cost; and (6) interfacing with metal parts.

  9. Chemical looping of metal nitride catalysts: low-pressure ammonia synthesis for energy storage† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental and computational details, free energy plots for the NH3 evolution and N2 reduction with Co3N/Co, Fe4N/Fe, Mn5N2/Mn4N, Mo2N/Mo, CrN/Cr2N, TaN/Ta2N, NbN/Nb2N, Li3N/LiH, Ba3N2/BaH2, Sr3N2/SrH2, and Ca3N2/CaH2, surface oxidation energetics, ΔGvac[NH*x, yH*] based on gas phase H2 as hydrogen source, NH3 evolution with Fe-doped Mn4N, NH3 evolution with Mn6N2.58, Ca3N2 and Sr2N after correcting for partial nitride hydrolysis, NH3 yield from Ca3N2vs. time and H2 gas flow rate. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc00789e

    PubMed Central

    Avram, A. M.; Peterson, B. A.; Pfromm, P. H.; Peterson, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    The activity of many heterogeneous catalysts is limited by strong correlations between activation energies and adsorption energies of reaction intermediates. Although the reaction is thermodynamically favourable at ambient temperature and pressure, the catalytic synthesis of ammonia (NH3), a fertilizer and chemical fuel, from N2 and H2 requires some of the most extreme conditions of the chemical industry. We demonstrate how ammonia can be produced at ambient pressure from air, water, and concentrated sunlight as renewable source of process heat via nitrogen reduction with a looped metal nitride, followed by separate hydrogenation of the lattice nitrogen into ammonia. Separating ammonia synthesis into two reaction steps introduces an additional degree of freedom when designing catalysts with desirable activation and adsorption energies. We discuss the hydrogenation of alkali and alkaline earth metal nitrides and the reduction of transition metal nitrides to outline a promoting role of lattice hydrogen in ammonia evolution. This is rationalized via electronic structure calculations with the activity of nitrogen vacancies controlling the redox-intercalation of hydrogen and the formation and hydrogenation of adsorbed nitrogen species. The predicted trends are confirmed experimentally with evolution of 56.3, 80.7, and 128 μmol NH3 per mol metal per min at 1 bar and above 550 °C via reduction of Mn6N2.58 to Mn4N and hydrogenation of Ca3N2 and Sr2N to Ca2NH and SrH2, respectively. PMID:29218166

  10. Phase III Randomized Study of 4 Weeks of High-Dose Interferon-α-2b in Stage T2bNO, T3a-bNO, T4a-bNO, and T1-4N1a-2a (microscopic) Melanoma: A Trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-American College of Radiology Imaging Network Cancer Research Group (E1697).

    PubMed

    Agarwala, Sanjiv S; Lee, Sandra J; Yip, Waiki; Rao, Uma N; Tarhini, Ahmad A; Cohen, Gary I; Reintgen, Douglas S; Evans, Terry L; Brell, Joanna M; Albertini, Mark R; Atkins, Michael B; Dakhil, Shaker R; Conry, Robert M; Sosman, Jeffrey A; Flaherty, Lawrence E; Sondak, Vernon K; Carson, William E; Smylie, Michael G; Pappo, Alberto S; Kefford, Richard F; Kirkwood, John M

    2017-03-10

    Purpose To test the efficacy of 4 weeks of intravenous (IV) induction with high-dose interferon (IFN) as part of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group regimen compared with observation (OBS) in patients with surgically resected intermediate-risk melanoma. Patients and Methods In this intergroup international trial, eligible patients had surgically resected cutaneous melanoma in the following categories: (1) T2bN0, (2) T3a-bN0, (3) T4a-bN0, and (4) T1-4N1a-2a (microscopic). Patients were randomly assigned to receive IFN α-2b at 20 MU/m 2 /d IV for 5 days (Monday to Friday) every week for 4 weeks (IFN) or OBS. Stratification factors were pathologic lymph node status, lymph node staging procedure, Breslow depth, ulceration of the primary lesion, and disease stage. The primary end point was relapse-free survival. Secondary end points included overall survival, toxicity, and quality of life. Results A total of 1,150 patients were randomly assigned. At a median follow-up of 7 years, the 5-year relapse-free survival rate was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.66 to 0.74) for OBS and 0.70, (95% CI, 0.66 to 0.74) for IFN ( P = .964). The 5-year overall survival rate was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.79 to 0.86) for OBS and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.80 to 0.86) for IFN ( P = .558). Treatment-related grade 3 and higher toxicity was 4.6% versus 57.9% for OBS and IFN, respectively ( P < .001). Quality of life was worse for the treated group. Conclusion Four weeks of IV induction as part of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group high-dose IFN regimen is not better than OBS alone for patients with intermediate-risk melanoma as defined in this trial.

  11. Crystal structures of four co-crystals of (E)-1,2-di(pyridin-4-yl)ethene with 4-alk­oxy­benzoic acids: 4-meth­oxy­benzoic acid–(E)-1,2-di(pyridin-4-yl)ethene (2/1), 4-eth­oxy­benzoic acid–(E)-1,2-di(pyridin-4-yl)ethene (2/1), 4-n-propoxybenzoic acid–(E)-1,2-di(pyridin-4-yl)ethene (2/1) and 4-n-but­oxy­benzoic acid–(E)-1,2-di(pyridin-4-yl)ethene (2/1)

    PubMed Central

    Tabuchi, Yohei; Gotoh, Kazuma; Ishida, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structures of four hydrogen-bonded co-crystals of 4-alk­oxy­benzoic acid–(E)-1,2-di(pyridin-4-yl)ethene (2/1), namely, 2C8H8O3·C12H10N2, (I), 2C9H10O3·C12H10N2, (II), 2C10H12O3·C12H10N2, (III) and 2C11H14O3·C12H10N2, (IV), have been determined at 93 K. In compounds (I) and (IV), the asymmetric units are each composed of one 4-alk­oxy­benzoic acid mol­ecule and one half-mol­ecule of (E)-1,2-di(pyridin-4-yl)ethene, which lies on an inversion centre. The asymmetric unit of (II) consists of two crystallographically independent 4-eth­oxy­benzoic acid mol­ecules and one 1,2-di(pyridin-4-yl)ethene mol­ecule. Compound (III) crystallizes in a non-centrosymmetric space group (Pc) and the asymmetric unit comprises four 4-n-propoxybenzoic acid mol­ecules and two (E)-1,2-di(pyridin-4-yl)ethane mol­ecules. In each crystal, the acid and base components are linked by O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming a linear hydrogen-bonded 2:1 unit of the acid and the base. In (I), (II) and (III), inter­molecular C—H⋯O inter­actions are observed. The 2:1 units of (I) and (II) are linked via C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming tape structures. In (III), the C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, except for those formed in the units, link the two crystallographically independent 2:1 units. In (IV), no C—H⋯O inter­actions are observed, but π–π and C—H⋯π inter­actions link the units into a column structure. PMID:27840733

  12. Two closely related {4-[(N-substituted amino)(diethoxyphosphoryl)methyl]phenyl}boronic acids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Yundi; Ge, Chunhua; Miao, Jinpeng; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2017-01-01

    Organic phosphonic acids and organic phosphonic acid esters have been of much interest due to their applications in the fields of medicine, agriculture and industrial chemistry. Boronic acids can act as synthetic intermediates and building blocks and are used in sensing, protein manipulation, therapeutics, biological labelling and separation. The additional introduction of an aminophosphonic acid group into a boronic acid may give new opportunities for application. To study the structure of such multifunctional compounds, we prepared two new derivatives which can be easily converted to the corresponding phosphonic acids. In the title compounds, {4-[(butylamino)(diethoxyphosphoryl)methyl]phenyl}boronic acid monohydrate, C 15 H 27 BNO 5 P·H 2 O, (I), and {4-[(diethoxyphosphoryl)(4-nitroanilino)methyl]phenyl}boronic acid, C 17 H 22 BN 2 O 7 P, (II), three different substituents are attached to a central C-H group, namely 4-boronophenyl, diethoxyphosphoryl and amine. Compound (I) crystallizes as a monohydrate and O B -H...N hydrogen bonds link neighbouring molecules into chains along the [001] direction. The solvent water molecule connects two such chains running in opposite directions. Compound (II) crystallizes as an ansolvate and classical hydrogen bonds result in a layer structure in the (001) plane.

  13. Materials Data on KP4N7 (SG:62) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  14. Electron Spin Resonance of Tetrahedral Transition Metal Oxyanions (MO4n-) in Solids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenblatt, M.

    1980-01-01

    Outlines general principles in observing sharp electron spin resonance (ESR) lines in the solid state by incorporating the transition metal ion of interest into an isostructural diamagnetic host material in small concentration. Examples of some recent studies are described. (CS)

  15. Why are [P(C6H5)4]+N3- and [As(C6H5)4]+N3- Ionic Salts and Sb(C6H5)4N3 and Bi(C6H5)4N3 are Covalent Solids? A Theoretical Study Provides an Unexpected Answer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-04

    pseudo trigonal bipyramidal structures. In accord with simple VSEPR arguments,24 the more electronegative azido ligand should occupy one of the... VSEPR Model of Molecular Geometry, Allyn and Bacon: Boston, 1991. 25 Tornieporth-Oetting, I, C.; Klapoetke, T. M. Angew. Chem. Intl. Ed. 1995, 34, 511

  16. Materials Data on AgC4N3 (SG:46) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  17. Materials Data on UH12C4N4O11 (SG:14) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  18. Paralytic properties of 4-N, N-dimethylamino-1,2-dithiolane (nereistoxin).

    PubMed

    Schopp, R T; DeClue, J W

    1980-11-01

    Canine peroneal-tibialis anterior nerve-muscle preparations have been used as a model system to investigate the neuromuscular blocking action of nereistoxin (NT). Intravenous administration of 1 mg/kg of NT results in 50% neuromuscular blockade within 2 to 5 min. In the absence of corrective intervention this quantity of NT will cause respiratory paralysis and death within a few minutes. Following the intravenous administration of NT there occurs an immediate and transient rise in heart and fall in systolic and diastolic blood pressure; however, respiratory paralysis rather than cardiovascular failure is the cause of death when no corrective measures are employed. Neostigmine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, acetylcholine and potassium ions antagonize NT paralysis. Neostigmine, however, appears to be the most effective in producing an antiblocking action of sufficient magnitude and duration of action to be of value as an antidote in NT poisoning. Potentiation of contractions was evident in the partially paralyzed preparation following a brief period of indirect tetanic stimulation.

  19. Measurement of the Line Reversal Temperature of OH in CH4/N2O Flames

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    especially in calculations of absorption or emission rates. The steradiancy2 of an emitting surface is defined as the amount of radiant energy in unit...processes: absorption from the ground state, stimulated emission from the excited state and spontaneous emission from the excited state. The rate of... absorption is given by B12 Iv Nl. stim- ulated emission by B21 Iv ^2 and spontaneous emission by A21 N2, where A21> B12 and B21 are the Einstein

  20. The Coulomb Branch of 3d $${\\mathcal{N}= 4}$$ N = 4 Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Bullimore, Mathew; Dimofte, Tudor; Gaiotto, Davide

    2017-06-03

    We propose a construction for the quantum-corrected Coulomb branch of a general 3d gauge theory with N=4 supersymmetry, in terms of local coordinates associated with an abelianized theory. In a fixed complex structure, the holomorphic functions on the Coulomb branch are given by expectation values of chiral monopole operators. We construct the chiral ring of such operators, using equivariant integration over BPS moduli spaces. We also quantize the chiral ring, which corresponds to placing the 3d theory in a 2d Omega background. Then, by unifying all complex structures in a twistor space, we encode the full hyperkähler metric on themore » Coulomb branch. We verify our proposals in a multitude of examples, including SQCD and linear quiver gauge theories, whose Coulomb branches have alternative descriptions as solutions to Bogomolnyi and/or Nahm equations.« less

  1. The synthesis and structural characterization of the technetium nitrosyl complexes [TcCl(NO)(SC5H4N)(PPh3)2] and [Tc(NO)(SC5H4N)2(PPh3)

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Terrence L.; Mahmood, Ashfaq; Muller, Peter; Davison, Alan; Storm-Blanchard, Shannon; Jones, Alun G.

    2011-01-01

    The reaction of the Tc(I) complex [Tc(NO)Cl2(HOMe)(PPh3)2] with stoichiometric amounts of 2-mercatopyridine and a proton scavenger yields [Tc(NO)Cl(Spy)(PPh3)2] or [Tc(NO)(Spy)2(PPh3)], depending upon quantities of ligands employed. These two complexes have been structurally characterized. The small bite angles of the bidentate mercaptopyridine ligands cause significant deviation from octahedral coordination geometry. PMID:23750048

  2. Structure of the mouse galectin-4 N-terminal carbohydrate-recognition domain reveals the mechanism of oligosaccharide recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Krejciríková, Veronika; Pachl, Petr; Fábry, Milan

    2011-11-18

    Galectin-4, a member of the tandem-repeat subfamily of galectins, participates in cell-membrane interactions and plays an important role in cell adhesion and modulation of immunity and malignity. The oligosaccharide specificity of the mouse galectin-4 carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) has been reported previously. In this work, the structure and binding properties of the N-terminal domain CRD1 were further investigated and the crystal structure of CRD1 in complex with lactose was determined at 2.1 {angstrom} resolution. The lactose-binding affinity was characterized by fluorescence measurements and two lactose-binding sites were identified: a high-affinity site with a K{sub d} value in the micromolar range (K{submore » d1} = 600 {+-} 70 {mu}M) and a low-affinity site with K{sub d2} = 28 {+-} 10 mM.« less

  3. 4-N-pyridin-2-yl-benzamide nanotubes compatible with mouse stem cell and oral delivery in Drosophila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Jhillu S.; Lavanya, Madugula P.; Das, Pragna P.; Bag, Indira; Krishnan, Anita; Jagannadh, Bulusu; Mohapatra, Debendra K.; Pal Bhadra, Manika; Bhadra, Utpal

    2010-04-01

    p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), a structural moiety of many commercial drugs, is self-assembled with linker alkyl side chains to form tubular nanostructures. The tubes exhibited fluorescence either intrinsic or from fluorescent molecules embedded in the wall during self-assembly. Uptake and inter-cellular delivery of the conjugated nanotubes in human cancer cells and in mouse embryonic stem cells were demonstrated by fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry. Biocompatibility, cytotoxicity and clearance were monitored both ex vivo in mouse multipotent embryonic stem cells and in vivo in adult Drosophila. Accumulation of nanotubes had no adverse effects and abnormalities on stem cell morphology and proliferation rate. A distinct distribution of two separate nanotubes in various internal organs of Drosophila interprets that accumulation of nanomaterials might be interdependent on the side chain modifications and physiological settings of cell or tissue types. Unlike carbon nanomaterials, exposure of PABA nanotubes does not produce any hazards including locomotion defects and mortality of adult flies. Despite differential uptake and clearance from multiple live tissues, the use of self-assembled nanotubes can add new dimensions and scope to the development of dual-purpose oral carriers for the fulfilment of many biological promises.

  4. Characteristics of urban-ecosystem atmosphere fluxes of CO2, CH4, N2O, and et over Denver, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, D.E.; Alvarez, C.; Thienelt, T.

    2004-01-01

    The characteristics of urban ecosystems fluxes of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and evapotranspiration (ET) over Denver, Colorado were discussed. These atmospheric fluxes were measured using a methodology that included a combination of eddy covariance sensors at two levels on a tall tower and chamber measurements at 33 locations on the soil surface. There was both strong temporal and spatial heterogeneity of fluxes owing to characteristics of natural and anthropogenic ecosystem components. Although the urban ecosystem was a net carbon dioxide source, tower-based eddy covariance measurements showed it to be a net vegetative sink during the majority of mid-say summer hours.

  5. Materials Data on NiH20(C4N5)2 (SG:14) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  6. Materials Data on CoH18C4N7O8 (SG:11) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  7. 75 FR 47451 - Schedules of Controlled Substances; Placement of 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-(n)-propylthiophenethylamine and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration 21 CFR Part 1308 [Docket No. DEA-247C... Administration (DEA), Department of Justice. ACTION: Final rule: correction. SUMMARY: The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is correcting a final rule that appeared in the Federal Register of March 18, 2004. The...

  8. 75 FR 47503 - Schedules of Controlled Substances; Placement of 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-(n)-propylthiophenethylamine and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration 21 CFR Part 1308 [Docket No. DEA-247C... Administration (DEA), Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking: correction. SUMMARY: The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is correcting a notice of proposed rulemaking that appeared in the Federal...

  9. THE DECOMPOSITION OF SOLID H$sub 4$N$sub 2$ INDUCED BY CHARGED PARTICLE BOMBARDMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Papazian, H.A.

    1961-01-01

    The decomposition of solid hydrazine induced by ion and electron bombardment was studied. The decomposition was found to proceed through several steps. The stepwise evolution of N/sub 2/H2 and NH3>i during warm-up of the bombarded solid was measured. The absorption spectrum of the bombarded solid showed the absence of NH/sub 2/. The results indicate the formation of nitrogen compounds such as triazene which are stabilized at low temperatures and which decompose during warm-up of the solid. (auth)