Science.gov

Sample records for a533-b steel plates

  1. Annealing effect on microstructural recovery in 316L and A533B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, N.; Goto, S.; Inoue, S.; Suzuki, E.

    2017-11-01

    An austenitic model alloy (316L) and a low alloy steel (A533B) were exposed to constant or fluctuating temperature after electron irradiation to a cumulative damage level of 1 displacement per atom. 316L model alloy was exposed to LWR operating temperature during electron irradiation, and were exposed to a higher temperature at a high heating and cooling rates. The annealing experiment after irradiation to 316L resulted in the change in irradiation-induced microstructure; both the size and the number density of Frank loop and black dots were decreased, while the volume fraction of void was increased. In the case of A533B, the aging experiment after electron irradiation resulted in the shrinkage or the disappearance of black dots and the growth of dislocation loops. It is suggested that during annealing and/or aging at a high temperature the excess vacancies could be provided and flew into each defect feature, resulting in that interstitial type feature could be diminished, while vacancy type increased in volume fraction if exists.

  2. Analysis of the irradiation data for A302B and A533B correlation monitor materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.A.

    1996-04-01

    The results of Charpy V-notch impact tests for A302B and A533B-1 Correlation Monitor Materials (CMM) listed in the surveillance power reactor data base (PR-EDB) and material test reactor data base (TR-EDB) are analyzed. The shift of the transition temperature at 30 ft-lb (T{sub 30}) is considered as the primary measure of radiation embrittlement in this report. The hyperbolic tangent fitting model and uncertainty of the fitting parameters for Charpy impact tests are presented in this report. For the surveillance CMM data, the transition temperature shifts at 30 ft-lb ({Delta}T{sub 30}) generally follow the predictions provided by Revision 2 of Regulatorymore » Guide 1.99 (R.G. 1.99). Difference in capsule temperatures is a likely explanation for large deviations from R.G. 1.99 predictions. Deviations from the R.G. 1.99 predictions are correlated to similar deviations for the accompanying materials in the same capsules, but large random fluctuations prevent precise quantitative determination. Significant scatter is noted in the surveillance data, some of which may be attributed to variations from one specimen set to another, or inherent in Charpy V-notch testing. The major contributions to the uncertainty of the R.G. 1.99 prediction model, and the overall data scatter are from mechanical test results, chemical analysis, irradiation environments, fluence evaluation, and inhomogeneous material properties. Thus in order to improve the prediction model, control of the above-mentioned error sources needs to be improved. In general the embrittlement behavior of both the A302B and A533B-1 plate materials is similar. There is evidence for a fluence-rate effect in the CMM data irradiated in test reactors; thus its implication on power reactor surveillance programs deserves special attention.« less

  3. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of the... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170...

  4. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of the... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170...

  5. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of the... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170...

  6. Triage evaluation of gusset plates in steel truss bridges.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-12-01

    Following research into the collapse of the I-35W steel truss bridge in Minneapolis, Minnesota, FHWA released recommendations for load rating the gusset plates of steel truss bridges. The recommendations include evaluation of several limit states, on...

  7. Northwest view of steel plate "cans" in bay 7 of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northwest view of steel plate "cans" in bay 7 of the main pipe mill building. Historian for scale. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  8. Aluminum/steel wire composite plates exhibit high tensile strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Composite plate of fine steel wires imbedded in an aluminum alloy matrix results in a lightweight material with high tensile strength. Plates have been prepared having the strength of titanium with only 85 percent of its density.

  9. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Hull Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the...

  10. VIEW OF STEEL PLATE DOOR IN NUCLEAR PHYSICS LABORATORY, BETWEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF STEEL PLATE DOOR IN NUCLEAR PHYSICS LABORATORY, BETWEEN LABORATORY AND SP-SE REACTOR ROOM,LEVEL -15’, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Physics Assembly Laboratory, Area A/M, Savannah River Site, Aiken, Aiken County, SC

  11. Progress in thermomechanical control of steel plates and their commercialization

    PubMed Central

    Nishioka, Kiyoshi; Ichikawa, Kazutoshi

    2012-01-01

    The water-cooled thermomechanical control process (TMCP) is a technology for improving the strength and toughness of water-cooled steel plates, while allowing control of the microstructure, phase transformation and rolling. This review describes metallurgical aspects of the microalloying of steel, such as niobium addition, and discusses advantages of TMCP, for example, in terms of weldability, which is reduced upon alloying. Other covered topics include the development of equipment, distortions in steel plates, peripheral technologies such as steel making and casting, and theoretical modeling, as well as the history of property control in steel plate production and some early TMCP technologies. We provide some of the latest examples of applications of TMCP steel in various industries such as shipbuilding, offshore structures, building construction, bridges, pipelines, penstocks and cryogenic tanks. This review also introduces high heat-affected-zone toughness technologies, wherein the microstructure of steel is improved by the addition of fine particles of magnesium-containing sulfides and magnesium- or calcium-containing oxides. We demonstrate that thanks to ongoing developments TMCP has the potential to meet the ever-increasing demands of steel plates. PMID:27877477

  12. Progress in thermomechanical control of steel plates and their commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishioka, Kiyoshi; Ichikawa, Kazutoshi

    2012-04-01

    The water-cooled thermomechanical control process (TMCP) is a technology for improving the strength and toughness of water-cooled steel plates, while allowing control of the microstructure, phase transformation and rolling. This review describes metallurgical aspects of the microalloying of steel, such as niobium addition, and discusses advantages of TMCP, for example, in terms of weldability, which is reduced upon alloying. Other covered topics include the development of equipment, distortions in steel plates, peripheral technologies such as steel making and casting, and theoretical modeling, as well as the history of property control in steel plate production and some early TMCP technologies. We provide some of the latest examples of applications of TMCP steel in various industries such as shipbuilding, offshore structures, building construction, bridges, pipelines, penstocks and cryogenic tanks. This review also introduces high heat-affected-zone toughness technologies, wherein the microstructure of steel is improved by the addition of fine particles of magnesium-containing sulfides and magnesium- or calcium-containing oxides. We demonstrate that thanks to ongoing developments TMCP has the potential to meet the ever-increasing demands of steel plates.

  13. Electroless nickel plating on stainless steels and aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Procedures for applying an adherent electroless nickel plating on 303 SE, 304, and 17-7 PH stainless steels, and 7075 aluminum alloy was developed. When heat treated, the electroless nickel plating provides a hard surface coating on a high strength, corrosion resistant substrate.

  14. Vision-based surface defect inspection for thick steel plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Jong Pil; Kim, Dongseob; Kim, KyuHwan; Lee, Sang Jun; Park, Chang Hyun; Kim, Sang Woo

    2017-05-01

    There are several types of steel products, such as wire rods, cold-rolled coils, hot-rolled coils, thick plates, and electrical sheets. Surface stains on cold-rolled coils are considered defects. However, surface stains on thick plates are not considered defects. A conventional optical structure is composed of a camera and lighting module. A defect inspection system that uses a dual lighting structure to distinguish uneven defects and color changes by surface noise is proposed. In addition, an image processing algorithm that can be used to detect defects is presented in this paper. The algorithm consists of a Gabor filter that detects the switching pattern and employs the binarization method to extract the shape of the defect. The optics module and detection algorithm optimized using a simulator were installed at a real plant, and the experimental results conducted on thick steel plate images obtained from the steel production line show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. 78 FR 7451 - Clad Steel Plate From Japan; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... Japan; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the... from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in... USITC Publication 4370 (January 2013), entitled Clad Steel Plate from Japan: Investigation No. 731-TA...

  16. 6. WORKMEN REPLACING STEEL PLATES IN FLUME NO. 10, ABOVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. WORKMEN REPLACING STEEL PLATES IN FLUME NO. 10, ABOVE SAR-1. FLUME FOR SAR-3 WAS REBUILT AT THE SAME TIME. SCE negative no. 11776, May 1, 1926. Photograph by G. Haven Bishop. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Flumes & Tunnels below Sandbox, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  17. Wear behavior of austenite containing plate steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensley, Christina E.

    As a follow up to Wolfram's Master of Science thesis, samples from the prior work were further investigated. Samples from four steel alloys were selected for investigation, namely AR400F, 9260, Hadfield, and 301 Stainless steels. AR400F is martensitic while the Hadfield and 301 stainless steels are austenitic. The 9260 exhibited a variety of hardness levels and retained austenite contents, achieved by heat treatments, including quench and tempering (Q&T) and quench and partitioning (Q&P). Samples worn by three wear tests, namely Dry Sand/Rubber Wheel (DSRW), impeller tumbler impact abrasion, and Bond abrasion, were examined by optical profilometry. The wear behaviors observed in topography maps were compared to the same in scanning electron microscopy micrographs and both were used to characterize the wear surfaces. Optical profilometry showed that the scratching abrasion present on the wear surface transitioned to gouging abrasion as impact conditions increased (i.e. from DSRW to impeller to Bond abrasion). Optical profilometry roughness measurements were also compared to sample hardness as well as normalized volume loss (NVL) results for each of the three wear tests. The steels displayed a relationship between roughness measurements and observed wear rates for all three categories of wear testing. Nanoindentation was used to investigate local hardness changes adjacent to the wear surface. DSRW samples generally did not exhibit significant work hardening. The austenitic materials exhibited significant hardening under the high impact conditions of the Bond abrasion wear test. Hardening in the Q&P materials was less pronounced. The Q&T microstructures also demonstrated some hardening. Scratch testing was performed on samples at three different loads, as a more systematic approach to determining the scratching abrasion behavior. Wear rates and scratch hardness were calculated from scratch testing results. Certain similarities between wear behavior in scratch testing

  18. 75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... (Second Review)] Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan AGENCY: United... Africa and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa... revocation of the countervailing duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium and South Africa and the...

  19. 75 FR 81309 - Stainless Steel Plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... (Second Review)] Stainless Steel Plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan AGENCY: United... countervailing duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium and South Africa and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The...

  20. 48 CFR 252.225-7030 - Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. 252.225-7030 Section 252.225-7030 Federal Acquisition... Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. As prescribed in 225.7011-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate (DEC 2006) (a) Carbon, alloy, and armor...

  1. 48 CFR 252.225-7030 - Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. 252.225-7030 Section 252.225-7030 Federal Acquisition... Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. As prescribed in 225.7011-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate (DEC 2006) (a) Carbon, alloy, and armor...

  2. 48 CFR 252.225-7030 - Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. 252.225-7030 Section 252.225-7030 Federal Acquisition... Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. As prescribed in 225.7011-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate (DEC 2006) (a) Carbon, alloy, and armor...

  3. 48 CFR 252.225-7030 - Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. 252.225-7030 Section 252.225-7030 Federal Acquisition... Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. As prescribed in 225.7011-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate (DEC 2006) (a) Carbon, alloy, and armor...

  4. 48 CFR 252.225-7030 - Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. 252.225-7030 Section 252.225-7030 Federal Acquisition... Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. As prescribed in 225.7011-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate (DEC 2006) (a) Carbon, alloy, and armor...

  5. Surface modified stainless steels for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates

    DOEpatents

    Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Wang, Heli [Littleton, CO; Turner, John A [Littleton, CO

    2007-07-24

    A nitridation treated stainless steel article (such as a bipolar plate for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell) having lower interfacial contact electrical resistance and better corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel article is disclosed. The treated stainless steel article has a surface layer including nitrogen-modified chromium-base oxide and precipitates of chromium nitride formed during nitridation wherein oxygen is present in the surface layer at a greater concentration than nitrogen. The surface layer may further include precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide. The surface layer in the treated article is chemically heterogeneous surface rather than a uniform or semi-uniform surface layer exclusively rich in chromium, titanium or aluminum. The precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide are formed by the nitriding treatment wherein titanium and/or aluminum in the stainless steel are segregated to the surface layer in forms that exhibit a low contact resistance and good corrosion resistance.

  6. 46 CFR 54.25-3 - Steel plates (modifies UCS-6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steel plates (modifies UCS-6). 54.25-3 Section 54.25-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-3 Steel plates (modifies UCS-6). The steels...

  7. 46 CFR 54.25-3 - Steel plates (modifies UCS-6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steel plates (modifies UCS-6). 54.25-3 Section 54.25-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-3 Steel plates (modifies UCS-6). The steels...

  8. 46 CFR 54.25-3 - Steel plates (modifies UCS-6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steel plates (modifies UCS-6). 54.25-3 Section 54.25-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-3 Steel plates (modifies UCS-6). The steels...

  9. 46 CFR 54.25-3 - Steel plates (modifies UCS-6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steel plates (modifies UCS-6). 54.25-3 Section 54.25-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-3 Steel plates (modifies UCS-6). The steels...

  10. 46 CFR 54.25-3 - Steel plates (modifies UCS-6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steel plates (modifies UCS-6). 54.25-3 Section 54.25-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Construction With Carbon, Alloy, and Heat Treated Steels § 54.25-3 Steel plates (modifies UCS-6). The steels...

  11. Immobilization of mesoporous silica particles on stainless steel plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqua, Luigi; Morra, Marco

    2017-03-01

    A preliminary study aimed to the nano-engineering of stainless steel surface is presented. Aminopropyl-functionalized mesoporous silica is covalently and electrostatically anchored on the surface of stainless steel plates. The anchoring is carried out through the use of a nanometric spacer, and two different spacers are proposed (both below 2 nm in size). The first sample is obtained by anchoring to the stainless steel amino functionalized, a glutaryl dichloride spacer. This specie forms an amide linkage with the amino group while the unreacted acyl groups undergo hydrolysis giving a free carboxylic group. The so-obtained functionalized stainless steel plate is used as substrate for anchoring derivatized mesoporous silica particles. The second sample is prepared using 2-bromo-methyl propionic acid as spacer (BMPA). Successively, the carboxylic group of propionic acid is condensed to the aminopropyl derivatization on the external surface of the mesoporous silica particle through covalent bond. In both cases, a continuous deposition (coating thickness is around 10 μm) is obtained, in fact, XPS data do not reveal the metal elements constituting the plate. The nano-engineering of metal surfaces can represent an intriguing opportunity for producing long-term drug release or biomimetic surface.

  12. Effect of Plate Curvature on Blast Response of Structural Steel Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veeredhi, Lakshmi Shireen Banu; Ramana Rao, N. V.; Veeredhi, Vasudeva Rao

    2018-04-01

    In the present work an attempt is made, through simulation studies, to determine the effect of plate curvature on the blast response of a door structure made of ASTM A515 grade 50 steel plates. A door structure with dimensions of 5.142 m × 2.56 m × 10 mm having six different radii of curvatures is analyzed which is subjected to blast load. The radii of curvature investigated are infinity (flat plate), 16.63, 10.81, 8.26, 6.61 and 5.56 m. In the present study, a stand-off distance of 11 m is considered for all the cases. Results showed that the door structure with smallest radius of curvature experienced least plastic deformation and yielding when compared to a door with larger radius of curvature with same projected area. From the present Investigation, it is observed that, as the radius of curvature of the plate increases, the deformation mode gradually shifts from indentation mode to flexural mode. The plates with infinity and 16.63 m radius of curvature have undergone flexural mode of deformation and plates with 6.61 and 5.56 m radius of curvature undergo indentation mode of deformation. Whereas, mixed mode of deformation that consists of both flexural and indentation mode of deformations are seen in the plates with radius of curvature 10.81 and 8.26 m. As the radius of curvature of the plate decreases the ability of the plate to mitigate the effect the blast loads increased. It is observed that the plate with smaller radius of curvature deflects most of the blast energy and results in least indentation mode of deformation. The most significant observation made in the present investigation is that the strain energy absorbed by the steel plate gets reduced to 1/3 rd when the radius of curvature is approximately equal to the stand-off distance which could be the critical radius of curvature.

  13. 77 FR 2032 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ...-Quality Steel Plate Products From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... steel plate products (steel plate) from the Republic of Korea (Korea). This review covers one producer... Federal Register an antidumping duty order on steel plate from Korea. See Notice of Amendment of Final...

  14. 78 FR 31577 - Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ..., Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan Determination On the basis of the record \\1... imports from Japan of diffusion-annealed, nickel-plated flat-rolled steel products, provided for primarily... flat-rolled steel products from Japan. Accordingly, effective March 27, 2013, the Commission instituted...

  15. 76 FR 28809 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium; Termination of Five-Year Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 701-TA-376 (Second Review)] Stainless Steel... countervailing duty order on stainless steel plate from Belgium (75 FR 30777 and 75 FR 30434). On May 5, 2011... countervailing duty order concerning stainless steel plate from Belgium, finding that revocation of the...

  16. Electroless Plated Nanodiamond Coating for Stainless Steel Passivation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.; Korinko, P.; Spencer, W.

    Tritium gas sample bottles and manifold components require passivation surface treatments to minimize the interaction of the hydrogen isotopes with surface contamination on the stainless steel containment materials. This document summarizes the effort to evaluate electroless plated nanodiamond coatings as a passivation layer for stainless steel. In this work, we developed an electroless nanodiamond (ND)-copper (Cu) coating process to deposit ND on stainless steel parts with the diamond loadings of 0%, 25% and 50% v/v in a Cu matrix. The coated Conflat Flanged Vessel Assemblies (CFVAs) were evaluated on surface morphology, composition, ND distribution, residual hydrogen release, and surface reactivitymore » with deuterium. For as-received Cu and ND-Cu coated CFVAs, hydrogen off-gassing is rapid, and the off-gas rates of H 2 was one to two orders of magnitude higher than that for both untreated and electropolished stainless steel CFVAs, and hydrogen and deuterium reacted to form HD as well. These results indicated that residual H 2 was entrapped in the Cu and ND-Cu coated CFVAs during the coating process, and moisture was adsorbed on the surface, and ND and/or Cu might facilitate catalytic isotope exchange reaction for HD formation. However, hydrocarbons (i.e., CH 3) did not form, and did not appear to be an issue for the Cu and ND-Cu coated CFVAs. After vacuum heating, residual H 2 and adsorbed H 2O in the Cu and ND-Cu coated CFVAs were dramatically reduced. The H 2 off-gassing rate after the vacuum treatment of Cu and 50% ND-Cu coated CFVAs was on the level of 10 -14 l mbar/s cm 2, while H 2O off-gas rate was on the level of 10 -15 l mbar/s cm 2, consistent with the untreated or electropolished stainless steel CFVA, but the HD formation remained. The Restek EP bottle was used as a reference for this work. The Restek Electro-Polished (EP) bottle and their SilTek coated bottles tested under a different research project exhibited very little hydrogen off-gassing and

  17. Color Anodizing of Titanium Coated Rolled Carbon Steel Plate

    SciTech Connect

    Sarajan, Zohair; Mobarakeh, Hooman Nikbakht; Namiranian, Sohrab

    As an important kind of structural materials, the titanium cladded steel plates have the advantages of both metals and have been applied in aviation, spaceflight, chemical and nuclear industries. In this study, the specimens which were prepared under soldering mechanism during rolling were anodized by electrochemical process under a given conditions. The color anodizing takes place by physical phenomenon of color interference. Part of incident light on the titanium oxide is reflected and the other part reflects inside coated titanium layer. Major part of the light which reflects from titanium-oxide interface, reflects again inside of the oxide layer.

  18. Impact extractive fracture of jointed steel plates of a bolted joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daimaruya, M.; Fujiki, H.; Ambarita, H.

    2012-08-01

    This study is concerned with the development of a fracture criterion for the impact fracture of jointed steel plates of a bolted joint used in a car body. For the accurate prediction of crash characteristics of car bodies by computer-aided engineering (CAE), it is also necessary to examine the behavior and fracture of jointed steel plates subjected to impact loads. Although the actual impact fracture of jointed steel plates of a bolted joint used in cars is complicated, for simplifying the problem it might be classified into the shear fracture and the extractive fracture of jointed steel plates. Attention is given to the extractive fracture of jointed steel plates in this study. The extractive behavior and fracture of three kinds of steel plates used for cars are examined in experiments and numerical simulations. The impact extraction test of steel plates jointed by a bolt is performed using the one-bar method, together with the static test. In order to understand the mechanism of extractive fracture process of jointed steel plates, numerical simulations by a FEM code LS-DYNA are also carried out. The obtained results suggest that a stress-based fracture criterion may be developed for the impact extractive fracture of jointed steel plates of a bolted joint used in a car body.

  19. 78 FR 23905 - Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan: Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ...-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation AGENCY: Import... products from Japan (``certain nickel-plated, flat-rolled steel''), filed in proper form by Thomas Steel... Antidumping Duty Petition on Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel- Plated Steel Flat-Rolled Products from Japan, dated...

  20. 76 FR 50495 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... Review] Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan Determinations On the.... 1675(c)), that revocation of the countervailing duty order on stainless steel plate from South Africa... Africa, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an...

  1. 48 CFR 225.7011 - Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate. 225.7011 Section 225.7011 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate. ...

  2. 48 CFR 225.7011 - Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate. 225.7011 Section 225.7011 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate. ...

  3. 48 CFR 225.7011 - Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate. 225.7011 Section 225.7011 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate. ...

  4. 48 CFR 225.7011 - Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate. 225.7011 Section 225.7011 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate. ...

  5. 48 CFR 225.7011 - Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate. 225.7011 Section 225.7011 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate. ...

  6. Damage sensing and mechanical characteristics of CFRP strengthened steel plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieda, Genki; Nakano, Daiki; Fuji, Yuya; Nakamura, Hitoshi; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Kentaro; Matsui, Takahiro; Ochi, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Yukihiro

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, a large number of structures that were built during the period of high economic growth in Japan is beginning to show signs of aging. For example, the structural performance of steel structures has degraded due to corrosion. One measure that has been proposed and studied to address this issue is the adhesive bonding method, which can be used to repair and reinforce these structures. However, this method produces brittle fracture in the adhesive layer and is difficult to maintain after bonding. To solve the problem faced by this method, a clarification of the mechanical properties inside the adhesive is necessary. Then this background, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor has been used in this study. This sensor can be embedded within the building material that needs repairing and reinforcing because an FBG sensor is extremely small. Eventually based on this, a three-point bending test of a carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) strengthened steel plate that was embedded with an FBG sensor was conducted. This paper demonstrates that an FBG sensor is effectively applicable for sensing when damage occurs.

  7. Analytical Modeling of Plasma Arc Cutting of Steel Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimbala, John; Fisher, Lance; Settles, Gary; Lillis, Milan

    2000-11-01

    A transferred-arc plasma torch cuts steel plate, and in the process ejects a molten stream of iron and ferrous oxides ("ejecta"). Under non-optimum conditions - especially during low speed cuts and/or small-radius corner cuts - "dross" is formed. Dross is re-solidified molten metal that sticks to the underside of the cut and renders it rough. The present research is an attempt to analytically model this process, with the goal of predicting dross formation. With the aid of experimental data, a control volume formulation is used in a steady frame of reference to predict the mass flow of molten material inside the cut. Although simple, the model is three-dimensional, can predict the shear stress driving the molten material in the direction of the plasma jet, and can predict the velocity of molten material exiting the bottom of the plate. In order to predict formation of dross, a momentum balance is performed on the flowing melt, considering the resisting viscous and surface tension forces. Preliminary results are promising, and provide a potential means of predicting dross formation without resorting to detailed computational analyses.

  8. Shear fracture of jointed steel plates of bolted joints under impact load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daimaruya, M.; Fujiki, H.; Ambarita, H.; Kobayashi, H.; Shin, H.-S.

    2013-07-01

    The present study is concerned with the development of a fracture criterion for the impact fracture of jointed steel plates of bolted joints used in a car body, which contributes to crash simulations by CAE. We focus our attention on the shear fracture of the jointed steel plates of lap-bolted joints in the suspension of a car under impact load. Members of lap-bolted joints are modelled as a pair of steel plates connected by a bolt. One of the plates is a specimen subjected to plastic deformation and fracture and the other is a jig subjected to elastic deformation only. Three kinds of steel plate specimens are examined, i.e., a common steel plate with a tensile strength of 270 MPa and high tensile strength steel plates of 440 and 590 MPa used for cars. The impact shear test was performed using the split Hopkinson bar technique for tension impact, together with the static test using a universal testing machine INSTRON 5586. The behaviour of the shear stress and deformation up to rupture taking place in the joint was discussed. The obtained results suggest that a stress-based fracture criterion may be developed for the impact fracture of jointed steel plates of a lap-bolted joint.

  9. 78 FR 75371 - Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan; Scheduling of the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ...-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan; Scheduling of the Final Phase of an Antidumping... imports from Japan of diffusion-annealed, nickel- plated flat-rolled steel products, provided for... diffusion-annealed, nickel- plated flat-rolled steel products from Japan are being sold in the United States...

  10. 78 FR 50378 - Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan: Postponement of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ...-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan: Postponement of Preliminary Determination of Antidumping... investigation of diffusion-annealed, nickel-plated flat-rolled steel products from Japan. See Diffusion- Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation...

  11. 76 FR 8772 - Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan and Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Review)] Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan and Korea AGENCY: United...-year reviews concerning the countervailing duty orders on cut-to-length carbon steel plate from India, Indonesia, Italy, and Korea and the antidumping duty orders on cut-to-length carbon steel plate from India...

  12. 76 FR 12702 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate From India, Indonesia, Italy, and the Republic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ...-837] Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate From India, Indonesia, Italy, and the Republic...-to-length carbon-quality steel plate from India, Indonesia, Italy, and the Republic of Korea (``Korea...-length carbon-quality steel plate from India, Indonesia, Italy, and Korea pursuant to section 751(c) of...

  13. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Plasma Arc Brazed AISI 304L Stainless Steel and Galvanized Steel Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yajuan; Li, Ruifeng; Yu, Zhishui; Wang, Yu

    2016-04-01

    Plasma arc brazing is used to join the AISI 304L stainless steel and galvanized steel plate butt joints with the CuSi3Mn1 filler wire. The effect of parameters on weld surface appearance, interfacial microstructure, and composition distribution in the joint was studied. The microhardness and mechanical tests were conducted to determine the mechanical properties of the welded specimens. The results indicated that good appearance, bead shape, and sufficient metallurgical bonding could be obtained when the brazing process was performed with a wire feeding speed of 0.8 m/min, plasma gas flow rate of 3.0 l/min, welding current of 100 A, and welding speed of 27 cm/min. During plasma arc brazing process, the top corner of the stainless steel and galvanized steel plate were heated and melted, and the melted quantity of stainless steel was much more than that of the galvanized steel due to the thermal conductivity coefficient difference between the dissimilar materials. The microhardness test results shows that the microhardness value gradually increased from the side of the galvanized steel to the stainless steel in the joint, and it is good for improving the mechanical properties of joint. The tensile strength was a little higher than that of the brazing filler, and the fracture position of weld joint was at the base metal of galvanized steel plate.

  14. Magnetostrictive clad steel plates for high-performance vibration energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhenjun; Nakajima, Kenya; Onodera, Ryuichi; Tayama, Tsuyoki; Chiba, Daiki; Narita, Fumio

    2018-02-01

    Energy harvesting technology is becoming increasingly important with the appearance of the Internet of things. In this study, a magnetostrictive clad steel plate for harvesting vibration energy was proposed. It comprises a cold-rolled FeCo alloy and cold-rolled steel joined together by thermal diffusion bonding. The performances of the magnetostrictive FeCo clad steel plate and conventional FeCo plate cantilevers were compared under bending vibration; the results indicated that the clad steel plate construct exhibits high voltage and power output compared to a single-plate construct. Finite element analysis of the cantilevers under bending provided insights into the magnetic features of a clad steel plate, which is crucial for its high performance. For comparison, the experimental results of a commercial piezoelectric bimorph cantilever were also reported. In addition, the cold-rolled FeCo and Ni alloys were joined by thermal diffusion bonding, which exhibited outstanding energy harvesting performance. The larger the plate volume, the more the energy generated. The results of this study indicated not only a promising application for the magnetostrictive FeCo clad steel plate as an efficient energy harvester, related to small vibrations, but also the notable feasibility for the formation of integrated units to support high-power trains, automobiles, and electric vehicles.

  15. Steel test panel helps control additives in pyrophosphate copper plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollar, W. T.

    1967-01-01

    Test panel helps control maximum tolerance level for plating solution contaminants. It provides low, medium, and high-current density areas such as exist in production plating, and plating is examined for uniformity of texture and ductility.

  16. Digital image rectification tool for metrification of gusset plate connections in steel truss bridges.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-03-01

    A method was developed to obtain dimensional data from photographs for analyzing steel truss gusset plate : connections. The method relies on a software application to correct photographic distortion and to scale the : photographs for analysis. The a...

  17. A Study of the Efficiency of High-strength, Steel, Cellular-core Sandwich Plates in Compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Aldie E , Jr; Semonian, Joseph W

    1956-01-01

    Structural efficiency curves are presented for high-strength, stainless-steel, cellular-core sandwich plates of various proportions subjected to compressive end loads for temperatures of 80 F and 600 F. Optimum proportions of sandwich plates for any value of the compressive loading intensity can be determined from the curves. The efficiency of steel sandwich plates of optimum proportions is compared with the efficiency of solid plates of high-strength steel and aluminum and titanium alloys at the two temperatures.

  18. Practical method of diffusion-welding steel plate in air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holko, K. H.; Moore, T. J.

    1971-01-01

    Method is ideal for critical service requirements where parent metal properties are equaled in notch toughness, stress rupture and other characteristics. Welding technique variations may be used on a variety of materials, such as carbon steels, alloy steels, stainless steels, ceramics, and reactive and refractory materials.

  19. Field strain monitoring to evaluate unexpected cracking in a non-redundant steel plate girder bridge.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-07-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate fatigue cracking in tie plates in a multi-span, non-redundant, steel plategirder : bridge. The plates are needed to provide continuity for the transverse floor beams. Repairs have been : on-going, and the goal w...

  20. Plan View Pattern Control for Steel Plates through Constrained Locally Weighted Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigemori, Hiroyasu; Nambu, Koji; Nagao, Ryo; Araki, Tadashi; Mizushima, Narihito; Kano, Manabu; Hasebe, Shinji

    A technique for performing parameter identification in a locally weighted regression model using foresight information on the physical properties of the object of interest as constraints was proposed. This method was applied to plan view pattern control of steel plates, and a reduction of shape nonconformity (crop) at the plate head end was confirmed by computer simulation based on real operation data.

  1. 77 FR 263 - Certain Cut-To-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate From Italy and Japan: Revocation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ...] Certain Cut-To-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate From Italy and Japan: Revocation of Antidumping and...'') that revocation of the antidumping duty (``AD'') orders on certain cut-to-length carbon-quality steel... rates likely to prevail were the orders revoked. See Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon- Quality Steel Plate...

  2. Failure analysis of stainless steel femur fixation plate.

    PubMed

    Hussain, P B; Mohammad, M

    2004-05-01

    Failure analysis was performed to investigate the failure of the femur fixation plate which was previously fixed on the femur of a girl. Radiography, metallography, fractography and mechanical testing were conducted in this study. The results show that the failure was due to the formation of notches on the femur plate. These notches act as stress raisers from where the cracks start to propagate. Finally fracture occurred on the femur plate and subsequently, the plate failed.

  3. 76 FR 45511 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... Review, 57 FR 20460, 20462 (May 13, 1992) and Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate from Romania... 22847 (May 3, 2005) (Plate from Romania), unchanged in Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate from Romania 70 FR 35624 (June 21...

  4. 78 FR 76279 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-849] Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon... review of the antidumping duty order on certain cut-to- length carbon steel plate (``CTL plate'') from... entity. \\1\\ See Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

  5. 77 FR 47593 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-849] Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon... cut-to- length carbon steel plate (``CTL plate'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for... the File, Re: Antidumping Duty Administrative Review of Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate from...

  6. 77 FR 73616 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-849] Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon... results of the administrative review (``AR'') of certain cut-to-length carbon steel plate (``CTL plate... of 128.59 percent. \\1\\ See Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From the People's Republic of...

  7. 75 FR 22555 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate from the Republic of Korea: Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-836] Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate from the Republic of Korea: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review... certain cut-to-length carbon-quality steel plate (CTL plate) from the Republic of Korea. The period of...

  8. 76 FR 80963 - Cut-To-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate From India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, and Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Review)] Cut-To-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate From India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, and Korea... cut-to-length carbon-quality steel plate from India, Indonesia, and Korea would be likely to lead to... Plate from India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, and Korea: Investigation Nos. 701-TA-388-391 and 731-TA-817...

  9. High-speed measurements of steel-plate deformations during laser surface processing.

    PubMed

    Jezersek, Matija; Gruden, Valter; Mozina, Janez

    2004-10-04

    In this paper we present a novel approach to monitoring the deformations of a steel plate's surface during various types of laser processing, e.g., engraving, marking, cutting, bending, and welding. The measuring system is based on a laser triangulation principle, where the laser projector generates multiple lines simultaneously. This enables us to measure the shape of the surface with a high sampling rate (80 Hz with our camera) and high accuracy (+/-7 microm). The measurements of steel-plate deformations for plates of different thickness and with different illumination patterns are presented graphically and in an animation.

  10. Ultra-Low Carbon Bainitic Steels for Heavy Plate Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    these steels. The CCT diagrams 7 of steels typical of the HY grades indicate that the nose of the proeutectoid ferrite/pearlite reactions is located...austenite, carbides, and martensite. An example of the type of CCT diagram for one of the steels used in this investigation is presented in Figure 12...introduce a "bay" of unstable austenite which acts to separate the ferrite "nose" from the bainite/martensite regions on TTT or CCT diagrams , see Figure

  11. Measurement of large steel plates based on linear scan structured light scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhitao; Li, Yaru; Lei, Geng; Xi, Jiangtao

    2018-01-01

    A measuring method based on linear structured light scanning is proposed to achieve the accurate measurement of the complex internal shape of large steel plates. Firstly, by using a calibration plate with round marks, an improved line scanning calibration method is designed. The internal and external parameters of camera are determined through the calibration method. Secondly, the images of steel plates are acquired by line scan camera. Then the Canny edge detection method is used to extract approximate contours of the steel plate images, the Gauss fitting algorithm is used to extract the sub-pixel edges of the steel plate contours. Thirdly, for the problem of inaccurate restoration of contour size, by measuring the distance between adjacent points in the grid of known dimensions, the horizontal and vertical error curves of the images are obtained. Finally, these horizontal and vertical error curves can be used to correct the contours of steel plates, and then combined with the calibration parameters of internal and external, the size of these contours can be calculated. The experiments results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve the error of 1 mm/m in 1.2m×2.6m field of view, which has satisfied the demands of industrial measurement.

  12. Development of High Heat Input Welding High Strength Steel Plate for Oil Storage Tank in Xinyu Steel Company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hemin; Dong, Fujun; Liu, Xiaolin; Xiong, Xiong

    This essay introduces the developed high-heat input welding quenched and tempered pressure vessel steel 12MnNiVR for oil storage tank by Xinyu Steel, which passed the review by the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Standards Technical Committee in 2009. The review comments that compared to the domestic and foreign similar steel standard, the key technical index of enterprise standard were in advanced level. After the heat input of 100kJ/cm electro-gas welding, welded points were still with excellent low temperature toughness at -20°C. The steel plate may be constructed for oil storage tank, which has been permitted by thickness range from 10 to 40mm, and design temperature among -20°C-100°C. It studied microstructure genetic effects mechanical properties of the steel. Many production practices indicated that the mechanical properties of products and the steel by stress relief heat treatment of steel were excellent, with pretreatment of hot metal, converter refining, external refining, protective casting, TMCP and heat treatment process measurements. The stability of performance and matured technology of Xinyu Steel support the products could completely service the demand of steel constructed for 10-15 million cubic meters large oil storage tank.

  13. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... strake must be at least Grade E steel or a grade of steel that has equivalent chemical properties, mechanical properties, and heat treatment, and that is specially approved by the Commandant (CG-522). (2) The... chemical properties, mechanical properties, and heat treatment, and that is specially approved by the...

  14. Biomechanics of bone-fracture fixation by stiffness-graded plates in comparison with stainless-steel plates

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, VK; Ramakrishna, K; Ghista, Dhanjoo N

    2005-01-01

    Background In the internal fixation of fractured bone by means of bone-plates fastened to the bone on its tensile surface, an on-going concern has been the excessive stress-shielding of the bone by the excessively-stiff stainless-steel plate. The compressive stress-shielding at the fracture-interface immediately after fracture-fixation delays callus formation and bone healing. Likewise, the tensile stress-shielding of the layer of the bone underneath the plate can cause osteoporosis and decrease in tensile strength of this layer. Method In order to address this problem, we propose to use stiffness-graded plates. Accordingly, we have computed (by finite-element analysis) the stress distribution in the fractured bone fixed by composite plates, whose stiffness is graded both longitudinally and transversely. Results It can be seen that the stiffness-graded composite-plates cause less stress-shielding (as an example: at 50% of the healing stage, stress at the fracture interface is compressive in nature i.e. 0.002 GPa for stainless steel plate whereas stiffness graded plates provides tensile stress of 0.002 GPa. This means that stiffness graded plate is allowing the 50% healed bone to participate in loadings). Stiffness-graded plates are more flexible, and hence permit more bending of the fractured bone. This results in higher compressive stresses induced at the fractured faces accelerate bone-healing. On the other hand, away from the fracture interface the reduced stiffness and elastic modulus of the plate causes the neutral axis of the composite structure to be lowered into the bone resulting in the higher tensile stress in the bone-layer underneath the plate, wherein is conducive to the bone preserving its tensile strength. Conclusion Stiffness graded plates (with in-built variable stiffness) are deemed to offer less stress-shielding to the bone, providing higher compressive stress at the fractured interface (to induce accelerated healing) as well as higher tensile

  15. Design parameters of stainless steel plates for maximizing high frequency ultrasound wave transmission.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Mark; Leong, Thomas; Swiergon, Piotr; Juliano, Pablo; Knoerzer, Kai

    2015-09-01

    This work validated, in a higher frequency range, the theoretical predictions made by Boyle around 1930, which state that the optimal transmission of sound pressure through a metal plate occurs when the plate thickness equals a multiple of half the wavelength of the sound wave. Several reactor design parameters influencing the transmission of high frequency ultrasonic waves through a stainless steel plate were examined. The transmission properties of steel plates of various thicknesses (1-7 mm) were studied for frequencies ranging from 400 kHz to 2 MHz and at different distances between plates and transducers. It was shown that transmission of sound pressure through a steel plate showed high dependence of the thickness of the plate to the frequency of the sound wave (thickness ratio). Maximum sound pressure transmission of ∼ 60% of the incident pressure was observed when the ratio of the plate thickness to the applied frequency was a multiple of a half wavelength (2 MHz, 6mm stainless steel plate). In contrast, minimal sound pressure transmission (∼ 10-20%) was measured for thickness ratios that were not a multiple of a half wavelength. Furthermore, the attenuation of the sound pressure in the transmission region was also investigated. As expected, it was confirmed that higher frequencies have more pronounced sound pressure attenuation than lower frequencies. The spatial distribution of the sound pressure transmitted through the plate characterized by sonochemiluminescence measurements using luminol emission, supports the validity of the pressure measurements in this study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of Gusset Plate Safety in Steel Truss Bridges

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-10-01

    Failure of the I-35 truss bridge in Minneapolis has been attributed to failure of a gusset plate, necessitating : evaluation of gusset plate safety on bridges across the county. FHWA Publication IF-09-014 provides state : DOTs with important guidance...

  17. Industrial Test of High Strength Steel Plates Free Boron Q890D Used for Engineering Machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ruifeng; Liu, Zetian; Gao, Jun

    The chemistry composition, process parameters and the test results of Q890D free boron high strength steel plate used for engineering machinery was studied. The 16 40 mm thickness steel plates with good mechanical properties that was yield strength of 930 970 MPa, tensile strength of 978 1017 MPa, elongation of 13.5 15%, the average impact energy value of more than 100 J were developed by improving steel purity, adopting the reasonable controlled rolling and cooling process, using reasonable off-line quenching and tempering process. The test plates have good crack resistance in 60 °C preheat temperature condition because of that there are no any cracks in the surfaces, cross-section and roots of welding joints.

  18. Development of Low-Carbon, Copper-Strengthened HSLA Steel Plate for Naval Ship Construction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    steel plate microstructures, 2% nital etch . ...................................................... 13 2. Charpy V-notch impact energy transition for...met a minimum yield strength requirement of 80 ksi yield strength through 3/4 inch gage, had high Charpy V-notch impact energy at low tempera- tures...tempered HSLA line-pipe steels, which typically could not meet the minimum Charpy V-notch impact toughness requirement of 35 ft-lb at -1 200 F. In 1984

  19. New-type steel plate with ultra high crack-arrestability

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, T.; Nomiyama, Y.; Hagiwara, Y.

    1995-12-31

    A new-type steel plate has been developed by controlling the microstructure of the surface layers. The surface layer consists of ultra fine grain ferrite microstructure, which provides excellent fracture toughness even at cryogenic temperature. When an unstable brittle crack propagates in the developed steel plate, shear-lips can be easily formed due to the surface layers with ultra fine grain microstructure. Since unstable running crack behavior is strongly affected by side-ligaments (shear-lips), which are associated with extensive plastic deformation, enhanced formation of the shear-lips can improve crack arrestability. This paper describes the developed steel plates of HT500MPa tensile strength class formore » shipbuilding use. Fracture mechanics investigations using large-scale fracture testings (including ultrawide duplex ESSO tests) clarified that the developed steel plates have ultra high crack-arrestability. It was also confirmed that the plates possess sufficient properties, including weldability and workability, for ship building use.« less

  20. 77 FR 38825 - Clad Steel Plate From Japan; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Japan; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Clad Steel Plate From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... order on clad steel plate from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material...

  1. 78 FR 61333 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From the Russian Federation; 2012; Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-821-808] Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon... Agreement Suspending the Antidumping Investigation of Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate from the... cut-to-length carbon steel plate from the Russian Federation. This merchandise is currently classified...

  2. 78 FR 46570 - Suspension Agreement on Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From Ukraine; Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From Ukraine; Administrative Review AGENCY: Import Administration... (Ilyich), are in compliance with the agreement suspending the antidumping investigation of certain cut-to...: Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From Ukraine, 73 FR 57602 (October 3, 2008) (Agreement), Appendix...

  3. 78 FR 29113 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From the Republic of Korea: Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-836] Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain cut-to-length carbon-quality steel plate products... duty order on certain cut-to-length carbon-quality steel plate products from the Republic of Korea...

  4. 78 FR 67334 - Suspension Agreement on Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From Ukraine; Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From Ukraine; Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...) published the preliminary results of an administrative review of the suspension agreement on certain cut-to... Agreement on Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From Ukraine; Administrative Review, 78 FR 46570...

  5. 75 FR 29976 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From Italy: Extension of the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-826] Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon... preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain cut-to-length carbon-quality steel plate products from Italy. See Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products...

  6. 78 FR 73827 - Suspension Agreement on Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From the Russian Federation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From the Russian Federation; Final Results of Antidumping Duty...) published the preliminary results of an administrative review of the suspension agreement on certain cut-to...). See Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From the Russian Federation; 2012; Preliminary Results of...

  7. 75 FR 8301 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration A-570-849 Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon... Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and... Preliminary Results in the antidumping duty administrative review of certain cut- to-length carbon steel plate...

  8. 76 FR 22725 - Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, and Korea; Scheduling of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... Review)] Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, and Korea; Scheduling of...-Length Carbon Steel Plate From India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, and Korea AGENCY: United States... from India, Indonesia, Italy, and Korea and/or therevocation of the antidumping duty orders on cut-to...

  9. Rolling contact fatigue life of chromium ion plated 440C bearing steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, B. N.; Davis, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    Rolling contact fatigue (RCF) test specimens of heat treated 440C bearing steel were chromium ion plated in thicknesses from 0.1 to 8.0 micron and tested in RCF tester using 700 ksi maximum Hertzian stress. Heavy coatings, greater than about 5 micron in thickness, peeled off or spalled readily, whereas thin coatings, less than 3 micron thick, were tenacious and did not come off. Furthermore, significant improvement in RCF life was obtained with thin chromium ion plated test specimens. The average increase in B10 life was 75% compared with unplated 440C. These preliminary results indicate that ion plating is a promising way to improve bearing life.

  10. Air-coupled ultrasonic through-transmission thickness measurements of steel plates.

    PubMed

    Waag, Grunde; Hoff, Lars; Norli, Petter

    2015-02-01

    Non-destructive ultrasonic testing of steel structures provide valuable information in e.g. inspection of pipes, ships and offshore structures. In many practical applications, contact measurements are cumbersome or not possible, and air-coupled ultrasound can provide a solution. This paper presents air-coupled ultrasonic through-transmission measurements on a steel plate with thicknesses 10.15 mm; 10.0 mm; 9.8 mm. Ultrasound pulses were transmitted from a piezoelectric transducer at normal incidence, through the steel plate, and were received at the opposite side. The S1, A2 and A3 modes of the plate are excited, with resonance frequencies that depend on the material properties and the thickness of the plate. The results show that the resonances could be clearly identified after transmission through the steel plate, and that the frequencies of the resonances could be used to distinguish between the three plate thicknesses. The S1-mode resonance was observed to be shifted 10% down compared to a simple plane wave half-wave resonance model, while the A2 and S2 modes were found approximately at the corresponding plane-wave resonance frequencies. A model based on the angular spectrum method was used to predict the response of the through-transmission setup. This model included the finite aperture of the transmitter and receiver, and compressional and shear waves in the solid. The model predicts the frequencies of the observed modes of the plate to within 1%, including the down-shift of the S1-mode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes Found on Run-In and Scuffed Surfaces of Steel Chrome Plate, and Cast Iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Good, J. N.; Godfrey, Douglas

    1947-01-01

    A study was made of run-in and scuffed steel, chrome-plate, and cast-iron surfaces. X-ray and electron diffraction techniques, micro-hardness determinations, and microscopy were used. Surface changes varied and were found to include three classes: chemical reaction, hardening, and crystallite-size alteration. The principal chemical reactions were oxidation and carburization.

  12. 76 FR 54207 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Italy: Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-822] Stainless Steel Plate in... Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: On June 2, 2010, the Department of Commerce (the.... Department of Commerce, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20230; telephone: (202) 482...

  13. 76 FR 53882 - Continuation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders: Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... Coils From Belgium, the Republic of Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan AGENCY: Import Administration... steel plate in coils (SSPC) from Belgium, the Republic of Korea (Korea), South Africa, and Taiwan would...) order on SSPC from South Africa would likely lead to continuation or recurrence of a countervailable...

  14. 75 FR 81217 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Preliminary Results of Full Sunset Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-423-809] Stainless Steel Plate in..., International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: On June 2, 2010, the Department of Commerce... section 751(c) of the Act and 19 CFR 351.218(e)(2). As a result of our analysis, the Department...

  15. Modeling of laser welding of steel and titanium plates with a composite insert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, V. I.; Cherepanov, A. N.; Shapeev, V. P.

    2017-10-01

    A 3D model of laser welding proposed before by the authors was extended to the case of welding of metallic plates made of dissimilar materials with a composite multilayer intermediate insert. The model simulates heat transfer in the welded plates and takes into account phase transitions. It was proposed to select the composition of several metals and dimensions of the insert to avoid the formation of brittle intermetallic phases in the weld joint negatively affecting its strength properties. The model accounts for key physical phenomena occurring during the complex process of laser welding. It is capable to calculate temperature regimes at each point of the plates. The model can be used to select the welding parameters reducing the risk of formation of intermetallic plates. It can forecast the dimensions and crystalline structure of the solidified melt. Based on the proposed model a numerical algorithm was constructed. Simulations were carried out for the welding of titanium and steel plates with a composite insert comprising four different metals: copper and niobium (intermediate plates) with steel and titanium (outer plates). The insert is produced by explosion welding. Temperature fields and the processes of melting, evaporation, and solidification were studied.

  16. 75 FR 21241 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... steel plate from PRC producers containing small amounts of boron resulting in the classification of the... Iron and Steel Co., Ltd. and/ or imported by Toyota Tsusho America with small amounts of boron added... to add insignificant amounts of boron to their steel products for the purpose of securing a higher...

  17. Development and Technology of Large Thickness TMCP Steel Plate with 390MPA Grade Used for Engineering Machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoshu; Zhang, Zhijun; Zhang, Peng

    Recently, with the rapid upgrading of the equipment in the steel Corp, the rolling technology of TMCP has been rapidly developed and widely applied. A large amount of steel plate has been produced by using the TMCP technology. The TMCP processes have been used more and more widely and replaced the heat treatment technology of normalizing, quenching and tempering heat process. In this paper, low financial input is considered in steel plate production and the composition of the steel has been designed with low C component, a limited alloy element of the Nb, and certain amounts of Mn element. During the continuous casting process, the size of the continuous casting slab section is 300 mm × 2400 mm. The rolling technology of TMCP is controlled at a lower rolling and red temperature to control the transformation of the microstructure. Four different rolling treatments are chosen to test its effects on the 390MPa grade low carbon steel of bainitic microstructure and properties. This test manages to produce a proper steel plate fulfilling the standard mechanical properties. Specifically, low carbon bainite is observed in the microstructure of the steel plate and the maximum thickness of steel plate under this TMCP technology is up to 80mm. The mechanical property of the steel plate is excellent and the KV2 at -40 °C performs more than 200 J. Moreover, the production costs are greatly reduced when the steel plate is produced by this TMCP technology when replacing the current production process of quenching and tempering. The low cost steel plate could well meet the requirements of producing engineering machinery in the steel market.

  18. Autocorrelation Function for Monitoring the Gap between The Steel Plates During Laser Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrna, Libor; Hornik, Petr

    Proper alignment of the plates prior to laser welding represents an important factor that determines the quality of the resulting weld. A gap between the plates in a butt or overlap joint affects the oscillations of the keyhole and the surrounding weld pool. We present an experimental study of the butt and overlap welds with the artificial gap of the different thickness of the plates. The welds were made on a 2 kW fiber laser machine for the steel plates and the various welding parameters settings. The eigenfrequency of the keyhole oscillations and its changes were determined from the light emissions of the plasma plume using an autocorrelation function. As a result, we describe the relations between the autocorrelation characteristics, the thickness of the gap between plates and the weld geometry.

  19. Development of Ti microalloyed high strength steel plate by controlling thermo-mechanical control process schedule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jinian; Huo, Xiangdong; Li, Liejun; Peng, Zhengwu; Chen, Songjun

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the TMCP parameters including non-recrystallization temperature (Tnr) and optimal isothermal temperature were determined by thermal simulation experiments, and a new Ti microalloyed high strength steel plate was developed by controlling thermo-mechanical control process (TMCP) schedule. The effects of TMCP process on microstructural features, precipitation behavior and mechanical properties of Ti microalloyed high strength steel plate were investigated. The results revealed that the double-stage rolling process consist of rolling in the γ recrystallization region and the γ non-recrystallization region was benefical to promoting the mechanical properties of Ti microalloyed steel by achieving grain refinement. It was also found that large amounts of fine TiC (<10 nm) particles were precipitated during the isothermal treatment at 600 °C, which generated a 215 MPa precipitation strengthening effect.

  20. The Development and Microstructure Analysis of High Strength Steel Plate NVE36 for Large Heat Input Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhang; Liangfa, Xie; Ming, Wei; Jianli, Li

    In the shipbuilding industry, the welding efficiency of the ship plate not only has a great effect on the construction cost of the ship, but also affects the construction speed and determines the delivery cycle. The steel plate used for large heat input welding was developed sufficiently. In this paper, the composition of the steel with a small amount of Nb, Ti and large amount of Mn had been designed in micro-alloyed route. The content of C and the carbon equivalent were also designed to a low level. The technology of oxide metallurgy was used during the smelting process of the steel. The rolling technology of TMCP was controlled at a low rolling temperature and ultra-fast cooling technology was used, for the purpose of controlling the transformation of the microstructure. The microstructure of the steel plate was controlled to be the mixed microstructure of low carbon bainite and ferrite. Large amount of oxide particles dispersed in the microstructure of steel, which had a positive effects on the mechanical property and welding performance of the steel. The mechanical property of the steel plate was excellent and the value of longitudinal Akv at -60 °C is more than 200 J. The toughness of WM and HAZ were excellent after the steel plate was welded with a large heat input of 100-250 kJ/cm. The steel plate processed by mentioned above can meet the requirement of large heat input welding.

  1. Development and Application of TMCP Steel Plate in Coal Mining Machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yongqing, Zhang; Liandeng, Yao; aimin, Guo; Sixin, Zhao; Guofa, Wang

    Coal, as the most major energy in China, accounted for about 70% of China's primary energy production and consumption. While the percentage of coal as the primary energy mix would drop in the future due to serious smog pollution partly resulted from coal-burning, the market demand of coal will maintain because the progressive process of urbanization. In order to improve productivity and simultaneously decrease safety accidents, fully-mechanized underground mining technology based on complete equipment of powered support, armored face conveyor, shearer, belt conveyor and road-header have obtained quick development in recent years, of which powered support made of high strength steel plate accounts for 65 percent of total equipment investment, so, the integrated mechanical properties, in particular strength level and weldability, have a significant effects on working service life and productivity. Take hydraulic powered supports as example, this paper places priority to introduce the latest development of high strength steel plates of Q550, Q690 and Q890 for powered supports, as well as metallurgical design conception and production cost-benefits analysis between QT plate and TMCP plate. Through production and application practice, TMCP or DQ plate demonstrate great economic advantages compared with traditional QT plate.

  2. Effects of sour crude oil on fatigue properties of steel plates for shipbuilding

    SciTech Connect

    Ouchi, H.; Kobayashi, J.; Ishikawa, T.

    1994-12-31

    The concentration of diffusible hydrogen introduced into steel was measured, and fatigue crack growth tests and fatigue life tests were carried out in sour crude oil containing a high concentration of hydrogen sulfide and under electrolytic hydrogen-charging conditions in neutral solution, using a high strength steel produced by the thermo-mechanical control process (TMCP) and a mild steel which are steels for hull plates. Comparison of the results demonstrated that a very small amount of hydrogen such as that introduced into steel from sour crude oil under atmospheric pressure accelerated the fatigue crack growth in the high {Delta}K regime and shortenedmore » the fatigue life in the high stress range region, but did not shorten the fatigue life in the low stress region. The electrolytic hydrogen-charging condition appeared to be appropriate as a fatigue-crack-growth test environment to simulate sour crude oil. The deterioration of fatigue characteristics of the TMCP high strength steel was similar with that of the mild steel.« less

  3. Quantitative evaluation of thickness reduction in corroded steel plates using surface SH waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Keigo; Ha, Nguyen Phuong; Otobe, Yuichi; Tamura, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Eiichi

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluates the effect of reduction in plate thickness for a steel plate existing in concrete on guided ultrasonic SH (g-SH) waves. It has been found that the time of flight (TOF) increases if the plate thickness is reduced. The parameter investigated in this study is a delay time obtained from a TOF comparison between a healthy and a damaged plate. The wave propagation is simulated by dynamic Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The resulting data are then used to propose a theoretical equation for predicting TOF. The prediction of delay time obtained from the proposed equation is found to be in general agreement, with an error of 10% (or less), when compared with the experiment results, if the thickness reduction is over 3.65mm.

  4. 77 FR 264 - Certain Cut-To-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate From India, Indonesia, and the Republic of Korea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ...-806, A-580-836, C-580-837] Certain Cut-To-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate From India, Indonesia, and... steel plate (``CTL Plate'') from India, Indonesia, and the Republic of Korea (``Korea'') would likely...'') orders on CTL Plate from India, Indonesia, and Korea would likely lead to the continuation or recurrence...

  5. Difference in metallic wear distribution released from commercially pure titanium compared with stainless steel plates.

    PubMed

    Krischak, G D; Gebhard, F; Mohr, W; Krivan, V; Ignatius, A; Beck, A; Wachter, N J; Reuter, P; Arand, M; Kinzl, L; Claes, L E

    2004-03-01

    Stainless steel and commercially pure titanium are widely used materials in orthopedic implants. However, it is still being controversially discussed whether there are significant differences in tissue reaction and metallic release, which should result in a recommendation for preferred use in clinical practice. A comparative study was performed using 14 stainless steel and 8 commercially pure titanium plates retrieved after a 12-month implantation period. To avoid contamination of the tissue with the elements under investigation, surgical instruments made of zirconium dioxide were used. The tissue samples were analyzed histologically and by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) for accumulation of the metals Fe, Cr, Mo, Ni, and Ti in the local tissues. Implant corrosion was determined by the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). With grades 2 or higher in 9 implants, steel plates revealed a higher extent of corrosion in the SEM compared with titanium, where only one implant showed corrosion grade 2. Metal uptake of all measured ions (Fe, Cr, Mo, Ni) was significantly increased after stainless steel implantation, whereas titanium revealed only high concentrations for Ti. For the two implant materials, a different distribution of the accumulated metals was found by histological examination. Whereas specimens after steel implantation revealed a diffuse siderosis of connective tissue cells, those after titanium exhibited occasionally a focal siderosis due to implantation-associated bleeding. Neither titanium- nor stainless steel-loaded tissues revealed any signs of foreign-body reaction. We conclude from the increased release of toxic, allergic, and potentially carcinogenic ions adjacent to stainless steel that commercially pure Ti should be treated as the preferred material for osteosyntheses if a removal of the implant is not intended. However, neither material provoked a foreign-body reaction in the local tissues, thus cpTi cannot be

  6. An Experimental Study on the Shear Hysteresis and Energy Dissipation of the Steel Frame with a Trapezoidal-Corrugated Steel Plate.

    PubMed

    Shon, Sudeok; Yoo, Mina; Lee, Seungjae

    2017-03-06

    The steel frame reinforced with steel shear wall is a lateral load resisting system and has higher strength and shear performance than the concrete shear wall system. Especially, using corrugated steel plates in these shear wall systems improves out-of-plane stiffness and flexibility in the deformation along the corrugation. In this paper, a cyclic loading test of this steel frame reinforced with trapezoidal-corrugated steel plate was performed to evaluate the structural performance. The hysteresis behavior and the energy dissipation capacity of the steel frame were also compared according to the corrugated direction of the plate. For the test, one simple frame model without the wall and two frame models reinforced with the plate are considered and designed. The test results showed that the model reinforced with the corrugated steel plate had a greater accumulated energy dissipation capacity than the experimental result of the non-reinforced model. Furthermore, the energy dissipation curves of two reinforced frame models, which have different corrugated directions, produced similar results.

  7. An Experimental Study on the Shear Hysteresis and Energy Dissipation of the Steel Frame with a Trapezoidal-Corrugated Steel Plate

    PubMed Central

    Shon, Sudeok; Yoo, Mina; Lee, Seungjae

    2017-01-01

    The steel frame reinforced with steel shear wall is a lateral load resisting system and has higher strength and shear performance than the concrete shear wall system. Especially, using corrugated steel plates in these shear wall systems improves out-of-plane stiffness and flexibility in the deformation along the corrugation. In this paper, a cyclic loading test of this steel frame reinforced with trapezoidal-corrugated steel plate was performed to evaluate the structural performance. The hysteresis behavior and the energy dissipation capacity of the steel frame were also compared according to the corrugated direction of the plate. For the test, one simple frame model without the wall and two frame models reinforced with the plate are considered and designed. The test results showed that the model reinforced with the corrugated steel plate had a greater accumulated energy dissipation capacity than the experimental result of the non-reinforced model. Furthermore, the energy dissipation curves of two reinforced frame models, which have different corrugated directions, produced similar results. PMID:28772624

  8. Development of a surface topography instrument for automotive textured steel plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Shenghuai; Chen, Yurong; Xie, Tiebang

    2010-08-01

    The surface topography of automotive steel plate is decisive to its stamping, painting and image clarity performances. For measuring this kind of surface topography, an instrument has been developed based on the principle of vertical scanning white light microscopy interference principle. The microscopy interference system of this instrument is designed based on the structure of Linnik interference microscopy. The 1D worktable of Z direction is designed and introduced in details. The work principle of this instrument is analyzed. In measuring process, the interference microscopy is derived as a whole and the measured surface is scanned in vertical direction. The measurement accuracy and validity is verified by templates. Surface topography of textured steel plate is also measured by this instrument.

  9. Nonlinear Lamb waves for fatigue damage identification in FRP-reinforced steel plates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yikuan; Guan, Ruiqi; Lu, Ye

    2017-09-01

    A nonlinear Lamb-wave-based method for fatigue crack detection in steel plates with and without carbon fibre reinforcement polymer (CFRP) reinforcement is presented in this study. Both numerical simulation and experimental evaluation were performed for Lamb wave propagation and its interaction with a fatigue crack on these two steel plate types. With the generation of the second harmonic, the damage-induced wave nonlinearities were identified by surface-bonded piezoelectric sensors. Numerical simulation revealed that the damage-induced wave component at the second harmonic was slightly affected by the existence of CFRP laminate, although the total wave energy was decreased because of wave leakage into the CFRP laminate. Due to unavoidable nonlinearity from the experimental environments, it was impractical to directly extract the time-of-flight of the second harmonic for locating the crack. To this end, the correlation coefficient of benchmark and signal with damage at double frequency in the time domain was calculated, based on which an imaging method was introduced to locate the fatigue crack in steel plates with and without CFRP laminates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 76 FR 75870 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Notice of Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-423-808] Stainless Steel Plate in... AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce DATES..., International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue NW...

  11. Brazing open cell reticulated copper foam to stainless steel tubing with vacuum furnace brazed gold/indium alloy plating

    DOEpatents

    Howard, Stanley R [Windsor, SC; Korinko, Paul S [Aiken, SC

    2008-05-27

    A method of fabricating a heat exchanger includes brush electroplating plated layers for a brazing alloy onto a stainless steel tube in thin layers, over a nickel strike having a 1.3 .mu.m thickness. The resultant Au-18 In composition may be applied as a first layer of indium, 1.47 .mu.m thick, and a second layer of gold, 2.54 .mu.m thick. The order of plating helps control brazing erosion. Excessive amounts of brazing material are avoided by controlling the electroplating process. The reticulated copper foam rings are interference fit to the stainless steel tube, and in contact with the plated layers. The copper foam rings, the plated layers for brazing alloy, and the stainless steel tube are heated and cooled in a vacuum furnace at controlled rates, forming a bond of the copper foam rings to the stainless steel tube that improves heat transfer between the tube and the copper foam.

  12. The microstructural dependence of wear resistance in austenite containing plate steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfram, Preston Charles

    The purpose of this project was to examine the microstructural dependence of wear resistance of various plate steels, with interests in exploring the influence of retained austenite (RA). Materials resistant to abrasive wear are desirable in the industrial areas of agriculture, earth moving, excavation, mining, mineral processing, and transportation. Abrasive wear contributes to significant financial cost associated with wear to the industry. The motivation for the current study was to determine whether it would be beneficial from a wear resistance perspective to produce plate steels with increased amounts of retained austenite. This thesis investigates this motivation through a material matrix containing AR400F, Abrasive (0.21 wt pct C, 1.26 wt pct Mn, 0.21 wt pct Si, 0.15 wt pct Ni, 0.18 wt pct Mo), Armor (0.46 wt pct C, 0.54 wt pct Mn, 0.36 wt pct Si, 1.74 wt pct Ni, 0.31 wt pct Mo), 9260, 301SS, Hadfield, and SAE 4325 steels. The Abrasive, Armor and 9260 steels were heat treated using different methods such as quench and temper, isothermal bainitic hold, and quench and partitioning (Q&P). These heat treatments yielded various microstructures and the test matrix allowed for investigation of steels with similar hardness and varying levels of RA. The wear test methods used consisted of dry sand rubber wheel (DSRW), impeller-tumbler impact-abrasion (impeller), and Bond abrasion wear testing. DSRW and impeller wear resistance was found to increase with hardness and retained austenite levels at certain hardness levels. Some Q&P samples exhibited similar or less wear than the Hadfield steels in DSRW and impeller tests. Scanning electron microscopy investigation of wear surfaces revealed different wear mechanisms for the different wear test methods ranging from micro-plowing, to micro-cutting and to fragmentation.

  13. Vibration analysis of resistance spot welding joint for dissimilar plate structure (mild steel 1010 and stainless steel 304)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sani, M. S. M.; Nazri, N. A.; Alawi, D. A. J.

    2017-09-01

    Resistance spot welding (RSW) is a proficient joining method commonly used for sheet metal joining and become one of the oldest spot welding processes use in industry especially in the automotive. RSW involves the application of heat and pressure without neglecting time taken when joining two or more metal sheets at a localized area which is claimed as the most efficient welding process in metal fabrication. The purpose of this project is to perform model updating of RSW plate structure between mild steel 1010 and stainless steel 304. In order to do the updating, normal mode finite element analysis (FEA) and experimental modal analysis (EMA) have been carried out. Result shows that the discrepancies of natural frequency between FEA and EMA are below than 10 %. Sensitivity model updating is evaluated in order to make sure which parameters are influences in this structural dynamic modification. Young’s modulus and density both materials are indicate significant parameters to do model updating. As a conclusion, after perform model updating, total average error of dissimilar RSW plate is improved significantly.

  14. 78 FR 44525 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-849] Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon... conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain cut-to- length carbon steel... Order The product covered by the order is certain cut-to-length carbon steel plate from the PRC.\\2\\ This...

  15. 78 FR 69371 - Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... Memorandum 1. Background 2. Scope of the Investigation 3. Respondent Selection 4. Discussion of Methodology a...: Scope of the Investigation The diffusion-annealed, nickel-plated flat-rolled steel products included in this investigation are flat-rolled, cold-reduced steel products, regardless of chemistry; whether or...

  16. Protective coatings on stainless steel bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gago, A. S.; Ansar, S. A.; Saruhan, B.; Schulz, U.; Lettenmeier, P.; Cañas, N. A.; Gazdzicki, P.; Morawietz, T.; Hiesgen, R.; Arnold, J.; Friedrich, K. A.

    2016-03-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis is a promising technology for large H2 production from surplus electricity from renewable sources. However, the electrolyser stack is costly due to the manufacture of bipolar plates (BPP). Stainless steel can be used as an alternative, but it must be coated. Herein, dense titanium coatings are produced on stainless steel substrates by vacuum plasma spraying (VPS). Further surface modification of the Ti coating with Pt (8 wt% Pt/Ti) deposited by physical vapour deposition (PVD) magnetron sputtering reduces the interfacial contact resistance (ICR). The Ti and Pt/Ti coatings are characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS). Subsequently, the coatings are evaluated in simulated and real PEM electrolyser environments, and they managed to fully protect the stainless steel substrate. In contrast, the absence of the thermally sprayed Ti layer between Pt and stainless steel leads to pitting corrosion. The Pt/Ti coating is tested in a PEM electrolyser cell for almost 200 h, exhibiting an average degradation rate of 26.5 μV h-1. The results reported here demonstrate the possibility of using stainless steel as a base material for the stack of a PEM electrolyser.

  17. 78 FR 4385 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-836] Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon... the antidumping duty order on certain cut-to- length carbon-quality steel plate products (CTL plate... Decision Memorandum for the Administrative Review of the Antidumping Duty Order on Certain Cut-to- Length...

  18. 76 FR 12322 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate From India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, and the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ...-847, A-580-836] Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate From India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan...) from India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, and the Republic of Korea, pursuant to section 751(c) of the... initiation of the second sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on CTL Plate from India, Indonesia...

  19. New UK nickel-plated steel coins constitute an increased allergy and eczema risk.

    PubMed

    Julander, Anneli; Midander, Klara; Herting, Gunilla; Thyssen, Jacob P; White, Ian R; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Lidén, Carola

    2013-06-01

    Nickel-plated steel coins have recently been introduced in the United Kingdom. To compare the performance and allergy risk of the new nickel-plated coins (five and ten pence) with those of the cupro-nickel coins being replaced. Coin handling studies with assessment of skin exposure and metal release in artificial sweat were performed. Six volunteers participated. The amount of nickel deposited onto skin during the handling of nickel-plated coins for 1 hr was 7.5 µg/cm(2) , four times higher than that from cupro-nickel coins. The nickel content in the oxidized surface of nickel-plated coins was higher, explaining the higher skin dose. Initial nickel release rates were 10-27 times higher than 1-week rates, emphasizing that brief and repeated contact results in significant nickel exposure. Nickel-plated coins deposit higher levels of nickel onto skin than cupro-nickel coins, and hence pose an increased allergy risk. One-week release in artificial sweat is not suitable for determining the risk of handling items with high nickel release that come into short, repeated contact with the skin. The nickel skin dose is recommended for risk assessment. UK citizens are now, because of this change in coinage, unnecessarily exposed to higher levels of nickel on the skin. This is of public health concern. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. FE Analysis of Buckling Behavior Caused by Welding in Thin Plates of High Tensile Strength Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiangchao; Rashed, Sherif; Murakawa, Hidekazu

    2014-12-01

    The target of this study was to investigate buckling behavior during the entire welding process which consists of the heating and the cooling processes. For thin plate structures made of high tensile strength steel, not only residual buckling during or after cooling down but also transient buckling during heating may occur. The thermal elastic plastic FE analysis to investigate welding-induced buckling during the entire welding process is presented. Because of the high yield stress of high tensile strength steel, larger longitudinal compressive thermal stress is produced near the welding line compared with that in the case of carbon steel. Therefore, the plate may buckle due to thermal expansion, before the material nears yielding. During cooling down, the longitudinal compressive thermal stress close to the welding line disappears, and longitudinal tensile residual stress is produced due to contraction. Meanwhile, longitudinal compressive residual stress occurs far from the welding line to balance the tensile stress close to the welding line. This distribution of longitudinal residual stress would change the deformed dish shape of transient buckling into a saddle buckling type when the stress exceeds the critical buckling condition.

  1. Long-term functional outcome of mandibular reconstruction with stainless steel AO reconstruction plates.

    PubMed

    van Minnen, B; Nauta, J M; Vermey, A; Bos, R R M; Roodenburg, J L N

    2002-04-01

    Mandibular continuity defects are usually reconstructed with bone grafts. However, factors associated with the tumour and the patient can still be reasons to choose reconstruction plates. The aim of this study was to find out the results of mandibular reconstructions with stainless steel AO reconstruction plates after a long follow-up period. The records of 36 patients were reviewed for personal data and the history of disease, treatment and complications. Patients with failed reconstructions were compared with those in whom the procedure had been successful. Patients and surgeons gave their opinion on the functional and cosmetic results. The mean follow-up was 39 months (range 4-99); 4 patients were withdrawn because they developed early recurrent disease and in 17 patients the reconstruction failed. We found no significant differences between the successful and the failed group. Fourteen patients could be evaluated for functional outcome, 10 of whom were totally or satisfactorily rehabilitated. Therefore, stainless steel reconstruction plates can be used in patients when other options are inappropriate.

  2. Enhancing the corrosion resistance of the 2205 duplex stainless steel bipolar plates in PEMFCs environment by surface enriched molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinlong, Lv; Zhuqing, Wang; Tongxiang, Liang; Ken, Suzuki; Hideo, Miura

    Surface molybdenum enrichment on 2205 duplex stainless steel was obtained by the ball milling technique. The electrochemical results showed molybdenum enrichment on the surface of 2205 duplex stainless steel improved its corrosion resistance in a typical proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment. This was mainly attributed to higher molybdenum content in the passive film formed on 2205 duplex stainless steel after ball milling. The decreased donor and acceptor concentrations improved significantly the corrosion resistance of surface molybdenum-enriched 2205 duplex stainless steel bipolar plates in the simulated cathodic proton exchange membrane fuel cells environment. In addition, the interfacial contact resistance of the 2205 duplex stainless steel bipolar plates slightly decreased due to surface molybdenum enrichment.

  3. Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Burnishing Force on Service Properties of AISI 1010 Steel Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharbi, F.; Sghaier, S.; Morel, F.; Benameur, T.

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the results obtained with a new ball burnishing tool developed for the mechanical treatment of large flat surfaces. Several parameters can affect the mechanical behavior and fatigue of workpiece. Our study focused on the effect of the burnishing force on the surface quality and on the service properties (mechanical behavior, fatigue) of AISI 1010 steel hot-rolled plates. Experimental results assert that burnishing force not exceeding 300 N causes an increase in the ductility. In addition, results indicated that the effect of the burnishing force on the residual surface stress was greater in the direction of advance than in the cross-feed direction. Furthermore, the flat burnishing surfaces did not improve the fatigue strength of AISI 1010 steel flat specimens.

  4. Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Hot Roll Bonded Titanium Alloy/Low Carbon Steel Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chao; Qi, Zi-chen; Yu, Hui; Xu, Cheng; Xiao, Hong

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a titanium alloy and low carbon steel were bonded via hot rolling in a vacuum, and the effect of roll bonding temperature and reduction ratio on the microstructural and mechanical properties of the plate was studied. When the bonding temperature was between 850 and 1050 °C, the shear strength of the interface increased with an increasing reduction ratio from 18 to 70%. At a bonding temperature of 950 °C and at a rolling reduction ratio of 70%, the best bonding strength was obtained, and a shear fracture occurred on the low carbon steel matrix. At 1050 °C, brittle compounds, i.e., TiC, FeTi, and Fe2Ti, formed at the interface, which decreased the bonding strength. The large reduction ratio can break up compounds at the interface and extrude fresh metal for bonding, thereby increasing the bonding strength.

  5. CHROMIUM PLATING FOR PROTECTION AGAINST STRESS CORROSION CRACKING OF HARDENED AISI 410 STEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Suss, H.

    1958-04-22

    Because of its high corrosion resistance properties, chromium electroplate should offer protection to AISI 419 steel against stress corrosion cracking. Tests have been made (KAPL and Bettis) on chromium plates on test specimens as deposited by two different sources in conformance with Bettis and USMC specifications. These deposits either offered protection to hardened (RC36- 42) AISI 410 against stress corrosion cracking, or caused accelerated stress corrosion cracking under conditions which did not crack unplated material. At present there is no significant data which could give definite clues for these extreme differences in the corrosive protective values. The results of testsmore » so far strongly question tbe value of chromium plate as a means to protect AISI 410 against stress corrosion cracking. (A.C.)« less

  6. Effect of Plate Hardening Behavior on the Deformation of Stainless Steel Metal Bellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Zengliang; Luo, Shuyi; Zhao, He; Zhang, Chunxiang; Luo, Junting

    2017-11-01

    Tensile tests of original plate samples from three types of stainless steel metal bellows were performed at room temperature. The constitutive equations for the three hardening curves were obtained and fitted. The analysis results of the microstructure and fracture morphology of the tensile specimens show that the grain size of the plate with a high logarithmic-exponential hardening rate is uneven and the dimple of the shear fracture is elongated into an ellipse. By contrast, the grain size of the plate with a relatively low linear hardening rate is even and the dimple of the fracture is uniformly equiaxial. Finite element simulations of the hydraulic bulging and repeated limit bending deformation of the metal bellows of the three types of materials were also conducted. The repeated limit bending deformation process was tested experimentally. Although the effect of the hardening exponent on the residual stress of the metal bellows after hydraulic bulging is minimal, this exponent considerably influences the repeated limit bending deformation of the metal bellows after subsequent use. The trough hardening phenomenon is serious in the repeated limit bending process. Moreover, when the hardening exponent of the original plate is high, the resistance to bending fracture at the trough area is poor.

  7. Vibration-response due to thickness loss on steel plate excited by resonance frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudus, S. A.; Suzuki, Y.; Matsumura, M.; Sugiura, K.

    2018-04-01

    The degradation of steel structure due to corrosion is a common problem found especially in the marine structure due to exposure to the harsh marine environment. In order to ensure safety and reliability of marine structure, the damage assessment is an indispensable prerequisite for plan of remedial action on damaged structure. The main goal of this paper is to discuss simple vibration measurement on plated structure to give image on overview condition of the monitored structure. The changes of vibration response when damage was introduced in the plate structure were investigated. The damage on plate was simulated in finite element method as loss of thickness section. The size of damage and depth of loss of thickness were varied for different damage cases. The plate was excited with lower order of resonance frequency in accordance estimate the average remaining thickness based on displacement response obtain in the dynamic analysis. Significant reduction of natural frequency and increasing amplitude of vibration can be observed in the presence of severe damage. The vibration analysis summarized in this study can serve as benchmark and reference for researcher and design engineer.

  8. Hybrid/Tandem Laser-Arc Welding of Thick Low Carbon Martensitic Stainless Steel Plates =

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirakhorli, Fatemeh

    High efficiency and long-term life of hydraulic turbines and their assemblies are of utmost importance for the hydropower industry. Usually, hydroelectric turbine components are made of thick-walled low carbon martensitic stainless steels. The assembly of large hydroelectric turbine components has been a great challenge. The use of conventional welding processes involves typical large groove design and multi-pass welding to fill the groove which exposes the weld to a high heat input creating relatively large fusion zone and heat affected zone. The newly-developed hybrid/tandem laser-arc welding technique is believed to offer a highly competitive solution to improve the overall hydro-turbine performance by combining the high energy density and fast welding speed of the laser welding technology with the good gap bridging and feeding ability of the gas metal arc welding process to increase the productivity and reduce the consumable material. The main objective of this research work is to understand different challenges appearing during hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) of thick gauge assemblies of low carbon 13%Cr- 4%Ni martensitic stainless steel and find a practical solution by adapting and optimizing this relatively new welding process in order to reduce the number of welding passes necessary to fill the groove gap. The joint integrity was evaluated in terms of microstructure, defects and mechanical properties in both as-welded and post-welded conditions. A special focus was given to the hybrid and tandem laser-arc welding technique for the root pass. Based on the thickness of the low carbon martensitic stainless steel plates, this work is mainly focused on the following two tasks: • Single pass hybrid laser-arc welding of 10-mm thick low carbon martensitic stainless steel. • Multi-pass hybrid/tandem laser-arc welding of 25-mm thick martensitic stainless steel.

  9. Analysis of in vivo corrosion of 316L stainless steel posterior thoracolumbar plate systems: a retrieval study.

    PubMed

    Majid, Kamran; Crowder, Terence; Baker, Erin; Baker, Kevin; Koueiter, Denise; Shields, Edward; Herkowitz, Harry N

    2011-12-01

    One hundred eighteen patients retrieved 316L stainless steel thoracolumbar plates, of 3 different designs, used for fusion in 60 patients were examined for evidence of corrosion. A medical record review and statistical analysis were also carried out. This study aims to identify types of corrosion and examine preferential metal ion release and the possibility of statistical correlation to clinical effects. Earlier studies have found that stainless steel spine devices showed evidence of mild-to-severe corrosion; fretting and crevice corrosion were the most commonly reported types. Studies have also shown the toxicity of metal ions released from stainless steel corrosion and how the ions may adversely affect bone formation and/or induce granulomatous foreign body responses. The retrieved plates were visually inspected and graded based on the degree of corrosion. The plates were then analyzed with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. A retrospective medical record review was performed and statistical analysis was carried out to determine any correlations between experimental findings and patient data. More than 70% of the plates exhibited some degree of corrosion. Both fretting and crevice corrosion mechanisms were observed, primarily at the screw plate interface. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis indicated reductions in nickel content in corroded areas, suggestive of nickel ion release to the surrounding biological environment. The incidence and severity of corrosion was significantly correlated with the design of the implant. Stainless steel thoracolumbar plates show a high incidence of corrosion, with statistical dependence on device design.

  10. Absorption of metals in mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus) after ingesting nickel-plated carbon-steel hooks.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Shane P; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Butcher, Paul A; Cairns, Stuart C

    2014-08-01

    Previous research has alluded to the potential of metals being absorbed by fish after ingesting fishing hooks, which may have adverse effects on fish health and the organisms that consume them. Subsequently, this study aimed to quantify the potential of mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus) to absorb metals during the decay of ingested nickel-plated carbon-steel hooks. Twenty-five treatment fish were allowed to ingest nickel-plated carbon-steel hooks during angling and then monitored with 25 controls (untreated fish) for up to 42 days for hook ejection and mortality. Blood, liver and muscle samples were collected from treatment, control and 14 wild-caught individuals to determine the concentrations of chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese and nickel. The results showed that increased oxidation influenced hook ejection, and that hook-ingested fish had significantly elevated concentrations of nickel in their liver and blood, but not muscle. This research has shown that there is an avenue for metal absorption from ingested hooks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization and Cytotoxic Assessment of Ballistic Aerosol Particulates for Tungsten Alloy Penetrators into Steel Target Plates

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Brenda I.; Murr, Lawrence E.; Suro, Raquel M.; Gaytan, Sara M.; Ramirez, Diana A.; Garza, Kristine M.; Schuster, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    The nature and constituents of ballistic aerosol created by kinetic energy penetrator rods of tungsten heavy alloys (W-Fe-Ni and W-Fe-Co) perforating steel target plates was characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. These aerosol regimes, which can occur in closed, armored military vehicle penetration, are of concern for potential health effects, especially as a consequence of being inhaled. In a controlled volume containing 10 equispaced steel target plates, particulates were systematically collected onto special filters. Filter collections were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) which included energy-dispersive (X-ray) spectrometry (EDS). Dark-field TEM identified a significant nanoparticle concentration while EDS in the SEM identified the propensity of mass fraction particulates to consist of Fe and FeO, representing target erosion and formation of an accumulating debris field. Direct exposure of human epithelial cells (A549), a model for lung tissue, to particulates (especially nanoparticulates) collected on individual filters demonstrated induction of rapid and global cell death to the extent that production of inflammatory cytokines was entirely inhibited. These observations along with comparisons of a wide range of other nanoparticulate species exhibiting cell death in A549 culture may suggest severe human toxicity potential for inhaled ballistic aerosol, but the complexity of the aerosol (particulate) mix has not yet allowed any particular chemical composition to be identified. PMID:20948926

  12. Characterization and cytotoxic assessment of ballistic aerosol particulates for tungsten alloy penetrators into steel target plates.

    PubMed

    Machado, Brenda I; Murr, Lawrence E; Suro, Raquel M; Gaytan, Sara M; Ramirez, Diana A; Garza, Kristine M; Schuster, Brian E

    2010-09-01

    The nature and constituents of ballistic aerosol created by kinetic energy penetrator rods of tungsten heavy alloys (W-Fe-Ni and W-Fe-Co) perforating steel target plates was characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. These aerosol regimes, which can occur in closed, armored military vehicle penetration, are of concern for potential health effects, especially as a consequence of being inhaled. In a controlled volume containing 10 equispaced steel target plates, particulates were systematically collected onto special filters. Filter collections were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) which included energy-dispersive (X-ray) spectrometry (EDS). Dark-field TEM identified a significant nanoparticle concentration while EDS in the SEM identified the propensity of mass fraction particulates to consist of Fe and FeO, representing target erosion and formation of an accumulating debris field. Direct exposure of human epithelial cells (A549), a model for lung tissue, to particulates (especially nanoparticulates) collected on individual filters demonstrated induction of rapid and global cell death to the extent that production of inflammatory cytokines was entirely inhibited. These observations along with comparisons of a wide range of other nanoparticulate species exhibiting cell death in A549 culture may suggest severe human toxicity potential for inhaled ballistic aerosol, but the complexity of the aerosol (particulate) mix has not yet allowed any particular chemical composition to be identified.

  13. Welding of Thin Steel Plates by Hybrid Welding Process Combined TIG Arc with YAG Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taewon; Suga, Yasuo; Koike, Takashi

    TIG arc welding and laser welding are used widely in the world. However, these welding processes have some advantages and problems respectively. In order to improve problems and make use of advantages of the arc welding and the laser welding processes, hybrid welding process combined the TIG arc with the YAG laser was studied. Especially, the suitable welding conditions for thin steel plate welding were investigated to obtain sound weld with beautiful surface and back beads but without weld defects. As a result, it was confirmed that the shot position of the laser beam is very important to obtain sound welds in hybrid welding. Therefore, a new intelligent system to monitor the welding area using vision sensor is constructed. Furthermore, control system to shot the laser beam to a selected position in molten pool, which is formed by TIG arc, is constructed. As a result of welding experiments using these systems, it is confirmed that the hybrid welding process and the control system are effective on the stable welding of thin stainless steel plates.

  14. Brittle crack arrestability of thick steel plate welds in large structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Gyu Baek; Park, Joon Sik

    2011-10-01

    Recently, there has been such a critical issue in shipbuilding industry that much larger and stronger ships are required to develop oil and gas in the Arctic region. Attention has been paid to obtaining high strength, good toughness at low temperature, and good weldability. An experimental study was performed to evaluate the brittle crack arrest toughness value (Kca) and brittle crack arrest method of welded joints using EH40 grade steel with a thickness of 80 mm. The test specimens were made by both flux cored arc welding (FCAW) and combined welding (EGW+FCAW) processes. Temperature gradient ESSO test was performed to measure the Kca of the base metal. Also, a constant temperature (-10 °C) ESSO test was performed to establish a brittle crack arrest method using high toughness welding consumable with real structural specimens. The research aims in this study were to investigate the effect of joint design and welding consumable for the crack arrestability of thick steel plates using EH40 grade shipbuilding steel of straight block joint weld line with two kinds of welding processes.

  15. Mechanical properties of high-Si plate steel produced by the quenching and partitioning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seung Chan; Ahn, Jae Cheon; Nam, Sang Yong; Kim, Seog Ju; Yang, Hee Choon; Speer, John G.; Matlock, David K.

    2007-12-01

    The microstructures and mechanical properties of a high-Si (1.5 wt.%) steel produced by a novel process of quenching and partitioning (Q & P) were compared with those obtained using traditional heat treatments (i.e. austempering, intercritical annealing for dual phase, quench and tempering). Plate steel was included for exploration of the Q & P process in applications requiring strength and toughness (such as an API line pipe), where retained austenite may contribute to the overall toughness via the TRIP phenomenon at a crack top. The Q & P process is based on the partial transformation of austenite to martensite, followed by partitioning of carbon from martensite into austenite, which leads to an untypical microstructure. Retained austenite amounts up to 6 vol.% with a carbon content of up to 0.88 wt.% were achieved in 0.1% carbon steel using Q & P. Superior impact toughness at higher yield strength levels was found after Q & P compared to other traditional heat treatments with equivalent partitioning, austempering or tempering conditions.

  16. Ex vivo biomechanical evaluation of pigeon (Columba livia) cadaver intact humeri and ostectomized humeri stabilized with caudally applied titanium locking plate or stainless steel nonlocking plate constructs.

    PubMed

    Darrow, Brett G; Biskup, Jeffrey J; Weigel, Joseph P; Jones, Michael P; Xie, Xie; Liaw, Peter K; Tharpe, Josh L; Sharma, Aashish; Penumadu, Dayakar

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate mechanical properties of pigeon (Columba livia) cadaver intact humeri versus ostectomized humeri stabilized with a locking or nonlocking plate. SAMPLE 30 humeri from pigeon cadavers. PROCEDURES Specimens were allocated into 3 groups and tested in bending and torsion. Results for intact pigeon humeri were compared with results for ostectomized humeri repaired with a titanium 1.6-mm screw locking plate or a stainless steel 1.5-mm dynamic compression plate; the ostectomized humeri mimicked a fracture in a thin cortical bone. Locking plates were secured with locking screws (2 bicortical and 4 monocortical), and nonlocking plates were secured with bicortical nonlocking screws. Constructs were cyclically tested nondestructively in 4-point bending and then tested to failure in bending. A second set of constructs were cyclically tested non-destructively and then to failure in torsion. Stiffness, strength, and strain energy of each construct were compared. RESULTS Intact specimens were stiffer and stronger than the repair groups for all testing methods, except for nonlocking constructs, which were significantly stiffer than intact specimens under cyclic bending. Intact bones had significantly higher strain energies than locking plates in both bending and torsion. Locking and nonlocking plates were of equal strength and strain energy, but not stiffness, in bending and were of equal strength, stiffness, and strain energy in torsion. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results for this study suggested that increased torsional strength may be needed before bone plate repair can be considered as the sole fixation method for avian species.

  17. Complexing agent and heavy metal removals from metal plating effluent by electrocoagulation with stainless steel electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kabdaşli, Işik; Arslan, Tülin; Olmez-Hanci, Tuğba; Arslan-Alaton, Idil; Tünay, Olcay

    2009-06-15

    In the present study, the treatability of a metal plating wastewater containing complexed metals originating from the nickel and zinc plating process by electrocoagulation using stainless steel electrodes was experimentally investigated. The study focused on the effect of important operation parameters on electrocoagulation process performance in terms of organic complex former, nickel and zinc removals as well as sludge production and specific energy consumption. The results indicated that increasing the applied current density from 2.25 to 9.0 mA/cm(2) appreciably enhanced TOC removal efficiency from 20% to 66%, but a further increase in the applied current density to 56.25 mA/cm(2) did not accelerate TOC removal rates. Electrolyte concentration did not affect the process performance significantly and the highest TOC reduction (66%) accompanied with complete heavy metal removals were achieved at the original chloride content ( approximately 1500 mg Cl/L) of the wastewater sample. Nickel removal performance was adversely affected by the decrease of initial pH from its original value of 6. Optimum working conditions for electrocoagulation of metal plating effluent were established as follows: an applied current density of 9 mA/cm(2), the effluent's original electrolyte concentration and pH of the composite sample. TOC removal rates obtained for all electrocoagulation runs fitted pseudo-first-order kinetics very well (R(2)>92-99).

  18. Stainless steel versus titanium volar multi-axial locking plates for fixation of distal radius fractures: a randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Distal radius fractures are among the most common fractures seen in the hospital emergency department. Of these, over 40% are considered unstable and require some form of fixation. In recent years with the advent of low profile plating, open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) using volar plates has become the surgical treatment of choice in many hospitals. However, it is currently unknown which plating system has the lowest complication rate and/or superior clinical and radiological outcomes following surgery. Few studies have compared different types of plates, which may have various features, different plate and screw designs or may be manufactured from different materials (for example, stainless steel or titanium). This study will specifically investigate and compare the clinical and radiological outcomes and complication rates of two commonly used volar plating systems for fixation of distal radius fractures: one made from stainless steel (Trimed™ Volar Plate, Trimed™, California, USA) and the other made from titanium (Medartis® Aptus Volar Plate, Medartis®, Basel, Switzerland). The primary aim of this study is to determine if there is a difference on the Patient Reported Wrist Evaluation six months following ORIF using a volar plate for adult patients with a distal radius fracture. Methods/Design This study will implement a randomized prospective clinical trial study design evaluating the outcomes of two different types of volar plates: one plate manufactured from stainless steel (Trimed™ Volar Plate) and one plate manufactured from titanium (Medartis® Aptus Volar Plate). The surgery will be performed at a major trauma hospital in Brisbane, Australia. Outcome measures including function, adverse events, range of movement, strength, disability, radiological findings and health-related quality of life will be collected at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months following surgery. A parallel economic analysis will also be performed. This

  19. 76 FR 64896 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate From the Republic of Korea: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-836] Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate From the Republic of Korea: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of... on certain cut-to-length carbon-quality steel plate from the Republic of Korea. The period of review...

  20. Surface temperature distribution of GTA weld pools on thin-plate 304 stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharia, T.; David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.

    1995-11-01

    A transient multidimensional computational model was utilized to study gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding of thin-plate 304 stainless steel (SS). The model eliminates several of the earlier restrictive assumptions including temperature-independent thermal-physical properties. Consequently, all important thermal-physical properties were considered as temperature dependent throughout the range of temperatures experienced by the weld metal. The computational model was used to predict surface temperature distribution of the GTA weld pools in 1.5-mm-thick AISI 304 SS. The welding parameters were chosen so as to correspond with an earlier experimental study that produced high-resolution surface temperature maps. One of the motivations of the presentmore » study was to verify the predictive capability of the computational model. Comparison of the numerical predictions and experimental observations indicate excellent agreement, thereby verifying the model.« less

  1. Experimental Study on Fatigue Behaviour of Shot-Peened Open-Hole Steel Plates

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-Yu; Wang, Qing-Yuan; Cao, Mengqin

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on the fatigue behaviour of shot-peened open-hole plates with Q345 steel. The beneficial effects induced by shot peening on the fatigue life improvement are highlighted. The characteristic fatigue crack initiation and propagation modes of open-hole details under fatigue loading are revealed. The surface hardening effect brought by the shot peening is analyzed from the aspects of in-depth micro-hardness and compressive residual stress. The fatigue life results are evaluated and related design suggestions are made as a comparison with codified detail categories. In particular, a fracture mechanics theory-based method is proposed and demonstrated its validity in predicting the fatigue life of studied shot-peened open-hole details. PMID:28841160

  2. Stress corrosion evaluation of HP 9Ni-4Co-0.30C steel plate welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, Pablo D.

    1993-01-01

    A stress corrosion cracking (SCC) investigation was conducted on HP 9Ni-4Co-0.30C steel plate welds (welded by using straight polarity plasma arc and HP 9Ni-4Co-0.20C weld wire) since this material is being considered for use in the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) program. Prior to the welding, the material was double tempered at 538 C (1,000 F). After welding, only part of the material was stress relieved at 510 C (950 F) for 3 h. Round tensile specimens obtained from nonstress-relieved material were tested in 100-percent relative humidity at 38 C (100 F), in 3.5-percent NaCl alternate immersion, and in 5-percent salt spray at 35 C (95 F). Specimens obtained from stress-relieved material were tested in alternate immersion. The stress levels were 50, 75, and 90 percent of the corresponding 0.2-percent yield strength (YS). All the nonstress-relieved specimens exposed to salt spray and alternate immersion failed. Stress-relieved specimens (exposed to alternate immersion) failed at 75 and 90 percent of YS. No failures occurred at 50 percent of YS in the stress-relieved specimens which indicates a beneficial effect of the stress relief on the SCC resistance of these welds. The stress relief also had a positive effect on the mechanical properties of the welds (the most important being an increase of 21 percent on the YS). Under the conditions of these tests, the straight polarity plasma are welded HP 9Ni4Co-0.30C steel plate was found highly susceptible to SCC in the nonstress-relieved condition. This susceptibility to SCC was reduced by stress relieving.

  3. 75 FR 29519 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate from the People's Republic of China: Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-849] Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon... Commerce (``Department'') published in the Federal Register the antidumping duty order on certain cut-to... Agreement on Certain Cut- to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From the People's Republic of China; Termination of...

  4. 75 FR 4779 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From Italy: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-826] Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain cut-to-length carbon- quality steel plate products... Department published in the Federal Register an antidumping duty order on certain cut-to-length carbon...

  5. 75 FR 47777 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From Italy: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-826] Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain cut-to-length carbon-quality steel plate products... the preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain cut-to...

  6. 76 FR 24462 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-849] Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon... (``Department'') published in the Federal Register the antidumping duty order on certain cut-to-length carbon... Certain Cut- to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From the People's Republic of China; Termination of Suspension...

  7. 76 FR 56797 - Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate From India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, and Korea; Revised...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-388-391 and 731-TA-817-821 ;Second Review] Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate From India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, and Korea; Revised schedule for the subject reviews. AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice...

  8. 78 FR 19734 - Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Steel Flat-Rolled Products From Japan; Institution of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ..., by reason of imports from Japan of diffusion-annealed, nickel-plated steel flat-rolled products... 45 days, or in this case by May 13, 2013. The Commission's views are due at Commerce within five.... Lisa R. Barton, Acting Secretary to the Commission. [FR Doc. 2013-07584 Filed 4-1-13; 8:45 am] BILLING...

  9. 75 FR 62103 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From South Africa: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-791-806] Stainless Steel Plate in..., International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: On June 2, 2010, the Department of Commerce... CVD order pursuant to section 751(c)(3)(B) of the Act and 19 CFR 351.218(e)(1)(ii)(B). As a result of...

  10. Experimental Fatigue Study of Composite Patch Repaired Steel Plates with Cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatzas, Vasileios A.; Kotsidis, Elias A.; Tsouvalis, Nicholas G.

    2015-10-01

    Cracks are among the most commonly encountered defects in metallic structures operating at sea. Composite patch repairing is a repair method which is gaining popularity as it counters most of the problems faced by conventional renewal repairs. Extensive studies can be found in the literature addressing the efficiency of this novel repair method using techniques which meet higher performance and monitoring standards than these commonly found in naval applications. In this work the efficiency of practices widely used in the ship repair industry for the implementation of composite patch repairing is addressed. To this end, steel plates repaired with composite patches were tested under fatigue loading. The composite patches consisted of carbon fibers in epoxy matrix and were directly laminated to the steel surface using the vacuum infusion method. Two different surface preparation methods, namely grit-blasting and mechanical treatment with the use of a needle gun were studied. In addition, in order to account for the harsh environmental conditions during the operating life of the structure and to study its effect on the repair, two different aging scenarios were considered. Non-destructive evaluation of the patches was performed so as to assess the quality of the repair, and the evolution of debonding during testing.

  11. Elastic behavior and onset of cracking in cement composite plates reinforced by perforated thin steel sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronchik, V.

    1996-03-01

    Thin cement mortar plates reinforced by perforated thin steel sheets have been tested in four-point flexure loading. Six kinds of sheet reinforcement and to additional ones (for control) were used. Perforated sheets of the Daugavpils Factory of Machinery Chains differed by their thickness (0.6-1.8 mm), shape (round, rectangular, oval, "dumbbell"), and mark of steel (St. 08, 50, 70). Dimensions of plantes were 100×20×2 cm. Cements-sand mortar with a 1∶2 ratio of cement PZ35 and river sand of 3 mm grains was used as a matrix. Control specimens of similar dimensions and matrix were reinforced by wire cages and meshes (ferrocement). The testing was performed using an UMM-5 testing machine. Maximum deflection (at the midspan), tension, and shear strains were recorded. The expeimental data are presented in tables and graphs. The testing results showed that the elasticity modulus of material was in good agreement with the "admixture rule;" an onset of cracking for all types (excluding one) practically did not differ from reference samples; the mode of fracture in typical cases included an adhesion failure and significant shear strains. In one case the limit of the tension strength of the reinforcement was achieved.

  12. Analysis and seismic tests of composite shear walls with CFST columns and steel plate deep beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Hongying; Cao, Wanlin; Wu, Haipeng; Zhang, Jianwei; Xu, Fangfang

    2013-12-01

    A composite shear wall concept based on concrete filled steel tube (CFST) columns and steel plate (SP) deep beams is proposed and examined in this study. The new wall is composed of three different energy dissipation elements: CFST columns; SP deep beams; and reinforced concrete (RC) strips. The RC strips are intended to allow the core structural elements — the CFST columns and SP deep beams — to work as a single structure to consume energy. Six specimens of different configurations were tested under cyclic loading. The resulting data are analyzed herein. In addition, numerical simulations of the stress and damage processes for each specimen were carried out, and simulations were completed for a range of location and span-height ratio variations for the SP beams. The simulations show good agreement with the test results. The core structure exhibits a ductile yielding mechanism characteristic of strong column-weak beam structures, hysteretic curves are plump and the composite shear wall exhibits several seismic defense lines. The deformation of the shear wall specimens with encased CFST column and SP deep beam design appears to be closer to that of entire shear walls. Establishing optimal design parameters for the configuration of SP deep beams is pivotal to the best seismic behavior of the wall. The new composite shear wall is therefore suitable for use in the seismic design of building structures.

  13. Process stability during fiber laser-arc hybrid welding of thick steel plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunaziv, Ivan; Frostevarg, Jan; Akselsen, Odd M.; Kaplan, Alexander F. H.

    2018-03-01

    Thick steel plates are frequently used in shipbuilding, pipelines and other related heavy industries, and are usually joined by arc welding. Deep penetration laser-arc hybrid welding could increase productivity but has not been thoroughly investigated, and is therefore usually limited to applications with medium thickness (5-15 mm) sections. A major concern is process stability, especially when using modern welding consumables such as metal-cored wire and advanced welding equipment. High speed imaging allows direct observation of the process so that process behavior and phenomena can be studied. In this paper, 45 mm thick high strength steel was welded (butt joint double-sided) using the fiber laser-MAG hybrid process utilizing a metal-cored wire without pre-heating. Process stability was monitored under a wide range of welding parameters. It was found that the technique can be used successfully to weld thick sections with appropriate quality when the parameters are optimized. When comparing conventional pulsed and the more advanced cold metal transfer pulse (CMT+P) arc modes, it was found that both can provide high quality welds. CMT+P arc mode can provide more stable droplet transfer over a limited range of travel speeds. At higher travel speeds, an unstable metal transfer mechanism was observed. Comparing leading arc and trailing arc arrangements, the leading arc configuration can provide higher quality welds and more stable processing at longer inter-distances between the heat sources.

  14. Investigation of a fatigue failure in a stainless steel femoral plate.

    PubMed

    Marcomini, J B; Baptista, C A R P; Pascon, J P; Teixeira, R L; Reis, F P

    2014-10-01

    Surgical implants are exposed to severe working conditions and therefore a wide range of failure mechanisms may occur, including fatigue, corrosion, wear, fretting and combinations of them. The mechanical failures of metallic implants may also be influenced by several other factors, including the design, material, manufacturing, installation, postoperative complications and misuse. An 83-year-old patient suffered an oblique femoral shaft fracture due to a fall at home. A stainless steel locking compression plate (LCP) employed in the fracture reduction failed after four months and was sent back to the producer. A second LCP of the same type was implanted and also failed after six months. A failure analysis of the second femoral LCP is performed in this paper. The results demonstrate that poor material quality was decisive to the failure. The chemical analysis revealed a high P content in the steel, which is not in accordance to the standards. A combination of factors lead to LCP fracture and these include: brittle crack initiation due to phosphorus, segregation at grain boundaries, crack propagation due to cyclic loading and final fast fracture favored by the loss of ductility due to cold work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of confining pressure due to external jacket of steel plate or shape memory alloy wire on bond behavior between concrete and steel reinforcing bars.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Dongkyun; Park, Kyoungsoo

    2014-12-01

    For external jackets of reinforced concrete columns, shape memory alloy (SMA) wires are easy to install, and they provide active and passive confining pressure; steel plates, on the other hand, only provide passive confining pressure, and their installation on concrete is not convenient because of the requirement of a special device. To investigate how SMA wires distinctly impact bond behavior compared with steel plates, this study conducted push-out bond tests of steel reinforcing bars embedded in concrete confined by SMA wires or steel plates. For this purpose, concrete cylinders were prepared with dimensions of 100 mm x 200 mm, and D-22 reinforcing bars were embedded at the center of the concrete cylinders. External jackets of 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm thickness steel plates were used to wrap the concrete cylinders. Additionally, NiTiNb SMA wire with a diameter of 1.0 mm was wound around the concrete cylinders. Slip of the reinforcing bars due to pushing force was measured by using a displacement transducer, while the circumferential deformation of specimens was obtained by using an extensometer. The circumferential deformation was used to calculate the circumferential strains of the specimens. This study assessed the radial confining pressure due to the external jackets on the reinforcing bars at bond strength from bond stress-slip curves and bond stress-circumferential strain curves. Then, the effects of the radial confining pressure on the bond behavior of concrete are investigated, and an equation is suggested to estimate bond strength using the radial confining pressure. Finally, this study focused on how active confining pressure due to recovery stress of the SMA wires influences bond behavior.

  16. Underwater laser weld bowing distortion behavior and mechanism of thin 304 stainless steel plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, ZunYue; Luo, Zhen; Ao, Sansan; Cai, YangChuan

    2018-10-01

    Underwater laser weld bowing distortion behavior and mechanism of thin 304 stainless steel plates are studied in the paper. The influence of underwater laser welding parameters (such as laser power, welding speed, defocusing distance and gas flow rate) on weld bowing distortion was investigated through central composite rotatable design and an orthogonal test. A quadratic response model was established to evaluate the underwater laser weld bowing distortion by central composite rotatable design and the order of the impacts of the welding parameters on weld bowing distortion was studied by an orthogonal test. The weld bowing distortion after welding was determined by the digital image correlation technique. The weld bowing distortion of in-air laser welding and underwater laser welding were compared and it revealed that the shape of the in-air and underwater laser welded specimens are the same, but the weld bowing distortion amount of in-air welding is larger than that of underwater welding. Weld bowing distortion mechanism was studied by the digital image correlation technique, and it was demonstrated that weld bowing distortion is associated with the welding plate temperature gradient during laser welding. The wider weld width also resulted in larger weld bowing distortion.

  17. The effect of different rutile electrodes on mechanical properties of underwater wet welded AH-36 steel plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winarto, Winarto; Purnama, Dewin; Churniawan, Iwan

    2018-04-01

    Underwater welding is an important role in the rescue of ships and underwater structures, in case of emergency. In this study, the marine steel plates used are AH-36 steel as parent material. This type of steel is included in the High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA). Electrodes used for welding AH-36 steel plates are commonly the E6013 and E 7024 which are the type of based rutile electrodes. Those electrodes are widely available on the market and they would be compared with the original electrode for underwater which is the type of E7014 with the trade name of Broco UW-CS-1. Welding method used is Shielding Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) with the variation of 5 m and 10 m underwater depth and also varied with the electric current of 120A, 140A and 250A. It was found that hardness value of increased in the area of weld metal and HAZ. HAZ also tends to have the highest hardness compared to both of weld metal and base metal. Non destructive test by radiographed test (RT) on welds showed that there are found welding defects in the form of incomplete penetration on all variations of welding parameters, but there is no porosity defect detected. The results of the hardness tests of underwater wet welded steel plates show that the hardness value of both rutile electrodes (E6013 and E 7024) is apparently similar hardness value compared with the existing commercial electrode (E7014 of Broco UW-CS- 1). The tensile test results of underwater wet welded steel plates show that the use of rutile electrode of E6013 gives a better tensile properties than other rutile electrodes.

  18. Quasi-Rayleigh waves in butt-welded thick steel plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamas, Tuncay; Giurgiutiu, Victor; Lin, Bin

    2015-03-01

    This paper discusses theoretical and experimental analyses of weld guided surface acoustic waves (SAW) through the guided wave propagation (GWP) analyses. The GWP analyses have been carried out by utilizing piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) for in situ structural inspection of a thick steel plate with butt weld as the weld bead is ground flush. Ultrasonic techniques are commonly used for validation of welded structures in many in-situ monitoring applications, e.g. in off-shore structures, in nuclear and pressure vessel industries and in a range of naval applications. PWAS is recently employed in such ultrasonic applications as a resonator as well as a transducer. Quasi-Rayleigh waves a.k.a. SAW can be generated in relatively thick isotropic elastic plate having the same phase velocity as Rayleigh waves whereas Rayleigh waves are a high frequency approximation of the first symmetric (S0) and anti-symmetric (A0) Lamb wave modes. As the frequency becomes very high the S0 and the A0 wave speeds coalesce, and both have the same value. This value is exactly the Rayleigh wave speed and becomes constant along the frequency i.e. Rayleigh waves are non-dispersive guided surface acoustic waves. The study is followed with weld-GWP tests through the pitch-catch method along the butt weld line. The tuning curves of quasi-Rayleigh wave are determined to show the tuning and trapping effect of the weld bead that has higher thickness than the adjacent plates on producing a dominant quasi-Rayleigh wave mode. The significant usage of the weld tuned and guided quasi-Rayleigh wave mode is essentially discussed for the applications in the in-situ inspection of relatively thick structures with butt weld such as naval offshore structures. The paper ends with summary, conclusions and suggestions for future work.

  19. Quasi-Rayleigh waves in butt-welded thick steel plate

    SciTech Connect

    Kamas, Tuncay, E-mail: kamas@email.sc.edu, E-mail: victorg@sc.edu, E-mail: linbin@cec.sc.edu; Giurgiutiu, Victor, E-mail: kamas@email.sc.edu, E-mail: victorg@sc.edu, E-mail: linbin@cec.sc.edu; Lin, Bin, E-mail: kamas@email.sc.edu, E-mail: victorg@sc.edu, E-mail: linbin@cec.sc.edu

    2015-03-31

    This paper discusses theoretical and experimental analyses of weld guided surface acoustic waves (SAW) through the guided wave propagation (GWP) analyses. The GWP analyses have been carried out by utilizing piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) for in situ structural inspection of a thick steel plate with butt weld as the weld bead is ground flush. Ultrasonic techniques are commonly used for validation of welded structures in many in-situ monitoring applications, e.g. in off-shore structures, in nuclear and pressure vessel industries and in a range of naval applications. PWAS is recently employed in such ultrasonic applications as a resonator as wellmore » as a transducer. Quasi-Rayleigh waves a.k.a. SAW can be generated in relatively thick isotropic elastic plate having the same phase velocity as Rayleigh waves whereas Rayleigh waves are a high frequency approximation of the first symmetric (S0) and anti-symmetric (A0) Lamb wave modes. As the frequency becomes very high the S0 and the A0 wave speeds coalesce, and both have the same value. This value is exactly the Rayleigh wave speed and becomes constant along the frequency i.e. Rayleigh waves are non-dispersive guided surface acoustic waves. The study is followed with weld-GWP tests through the pitch-catch method along the butt weld line. The tuning curves of quasi-Rayleigh wave are determined to show the tuning and trapping effect of the weld bead that has higher thickness than the adjacent plates on producing a dominant quasi-Rayleigh wave mode. The significant usage of the weld tuned and guided quasi-Rayleigh wave mode is essentially discussed for the applications in the in-situ inspection of relatively thick structures with butt weld such as naval offshore structures. The paper ends with summary, conclusions and suggestions for future work.« less

  20. Corrosion Characterization in Nickel Plated 110 ksi Low Alloy Steel and Incoloy 925: An Experimental Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Kiran; Vincent, S.; Barbadikar, Dipika; Kumar, Shresh; Anwar, Rebin; Fernandes, Nevil

    2018-04-01

    Incoloy 925 is an age hardenable Nickel-Iron-Chromium alloy with the addition of Molybdenum, Copper, Titanium and Aluminium used in many applications in oil and gas industry. Nickel alloys are preferred mostly in corrosive environments where there is high concentration of H2S, CO2, chlorides and free Sulphur as sufficient nickel content provides protection against chloride-ion stress-corrosion cracking. But unfortunately, Nickel alloys are very expensive. Plating an alloy steel part with nickel would cost much lesser than a part make of nickel alloy for large quantities. A brief study will be carried out to compare the performance of nickel plated alloy steel with that of an Incoloy 925 part by conducting corrosion tests. Tests will be carried out using different coating thicknesses of Nickel on low alloy steel in 0.1 M NaCl solution and results will be verified. From the test results we can confirm that Nickel plated low alloy steel is found to exhibit fairly good corrosion in comparison with Incoloy 925 and thus can be an excellent candidate to replace Incoloy materials.

  1. Laser cutting of steel plates up to 100 mm in thickness with a 6-kW fiber laser for application to dismantling of nuclear facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jae Sung; Oh, Seong Yong; Park, Hyunmin; Chung, Chin-Man; Seon, Sangwoo; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Lim; Lee, Jonghwan

    2018-01-01

    A cutting study with a high-power ytterbium-doped fiber laser was conducted for the dismantling of nuclear facilities. Stainless steel and carbon steel plates of various thicknesses were cut at a laser power of 6-kW. Despite the use of a low output of 6-kW, the cutting was successful for both stainless steel and carbon steel plates of up to 100 mm in thickness. In addition, the maximum cutting speeds against the thicknesses were obtained to evaluate the cutting performance. As representative results, the maximum cutting speeds for a 60-mm thickness were 72 mm/min for the stainless steel plates and 35 mm/min for the carbon steel plates, and those for a 100-mm thickness were 7 mm/min for stainless steel and 5 mm/min for carbon steel plates. These results show an efficient cutting capability of about 16.7 mm by kW, whereas other groups have shown cutting capabilities of ∼10 mm by kW. Moreover, the maximum cutting speeds were faster for the same thicknesses than those from other groups. In addition, the kerf widths of 60-mm and 100-mm thick steels were also obtained as another important parameter determining the amount of secondary waste. The front kerf widths were ∼1.0 mm and the rear kerf widths were larger than the front kerf widths but as small as a few millimeters.

  2. Full title: Biomechanical comparison between stainless steel, titanium and carbon-fiber reinforced polyetheretherketone volar locking plates for distal radius fractures.

    PubMed

    Mugnai, Raffaele; Tarallo, Luigi; Capra, Francesco; Catani, Fabio

    2018-05-25

    As the popularity of volar locked plate fixation for distal radius fractures has increased, so have the number and variety of implants, including variations in plate design, the size and angle of the screws, the locking screw mechanism, and the material of the plates. carbon-fiber reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) plate features similar biomechanical properties to metallic plates, representing, therefore, an optimal alternative for the treatment of distal radius fractures. three different materials-composed plates were evaluated: stainless steel volar lateral column (Zimmer); titanium DVR (Hand Innovations); CFR-PEEK DiPHOS-RM (Lima Corporate). Six plates for each type were implanted in sawbones and an extra-articular rectangular osteotomy was created. Three plates for each material were tested for load to failure and bending stiffness in axial compression. Moreover, 3 constructs for each plate were evaluated after dynamically loading for 6000 cycles of fatigue. the mean bending stiffness pre-fatigue was significantly higher for the stainless steel plate. The titanium plate yielded the higher load to failure both pre and post fatigue. After cyclic loading, the bending stiffness increased by a mean of 24% for the stainless steel plate; 33% for the titanium; and 17% for the CFR-PEEK plate. The mean load to failure post-fatigue increased by a mean of 10% for the stainless steel and 14% for CFR-PEEK plates, whereas it decreased (-16%) for the titanium plate. Statistical analysis between groups reported significant values (p <.001) for all comparisons except for Hand Innovations vs. Zimmer bending stiffness post fatigue (p = .197). the significant higher load to failure of the titanium plate, makes it indicated for patients with higher functional requirements or at higher risk of trauma in the post-operative period. The CFR-PEEK plate showed material-specific disadvantages, represented by little tolerance to plastic deformation, and lower load to failure. N

  3. Study of the penetration of a plate made of titanium alloy VT6 with a steel ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzyurkin, A. E.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this work is the development and verification of mathematical relationships, adapted to the package of finite element analysis LS-DYNA and describing the deformation and destruction of a titanium plate in a high-speed collision. Using data from experiments on the interaction of a steel ball with a titanium plate made of VT6 alloy, verification of the available constants necessary for describing the behavior of the material using the Johnson-Cook relationships was performed, as well as verification of the parameters of the fracture model used in the numerical modeling of the collision process. An analysis of experimental data on the interaction of a spherical impactor with a plate showed that the data accepted for VT6 alloy in the first approximation for deformation hardening in the Johnson-Cook model give too high results on the residual velocities of the impactor when piercing the plate.

  4. MLEP-Fail calibration for 1/8 inch thick cast plate of 17-4 steel.

    SciTech Connect

    Corona, Edmundo

    The purpose of the work presented in this memo was to calibrate the Sierra material model Multilinear Elastic-Plastic Hardening Model with Failure (MLEP-Fail) for 1/8 inch thick cast plate of 17-4 steel. The calibration approach is essentially the same as that recently used in a previous memo using data from smooth and notched tensile specimens. The notched specimens were manufactured with three notch radii R = 1=8, 1/32 and 1/64 inches. The dimensions of the smooth and notched specimens are given in the prints in Appendix A. Two cast plates, Plate 3 and Plate 4, with nominally identical properties weremore » considered.« less

  5. Effect of ion-plated films of germanium and silicon on friction, wear, and oxidation of 52100 bearing steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.; Spalvins, T.

    1977-01-01

    Friction and wear experiments were conducted with ion plated films of germanium and silicon on the surface of 52100 bearing steel both dry and in the presence of mineral oil. Both silicon and germanium were found to reduce wear, with germanium being more effective than silicon. An optimum film thickness of germanium for minimum wear without surface crack formation was found to be approximately 400 nanometers (4000 A). The presence of silicon and germanium on the 52100 bearing steel surface improved resistance to oxidation.

  6. Strengthening and Toughening of a Heavy Plate Steel for Shipbuilding with Yield Strength of Approximately 690 MPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dongsheng; Cheng, Binggui; Chen, Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    HSLA-100 steel with high content of alloying elements (nominally in wt pct, 3.5 Ni, 1.6 Cu, and 0.6Mo) is now used to produce heavy plates for constructing a hull and drilling platform. We proposed here a substantially leaner steel composition (containing 1.7 Ni, 1.1 Cu, and 0.5Mo) to produce a heavy plate to 80 mm thickness with mechanical properties comparable with those of the HSLA-100 grade. A continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram of the steel was constructed. Key parameters of thermal treatment and revealing mechanisms of strengthening and toughening were derived based on industrial production trials. The microstructures of the 80-mm-thick plate were lath-like bainite (LB) at near surface of the quarter thickness ( t/4), and granular bainite (GB)+LB at center thickness ( t/2) after solutionizing and water quenching (Q). The effect of tempering (T) on the microstructures and properties of the plate was investigated. Excellent combination of room temperature strength and low-temperature Charpy V-notch (CVN) toughness approximately equivalent to that of the HSLA 100 grade (YS > 690 MPa, CVN energy >100 J even at 193 K [-80 °C]) was achieved in the plate treated by the QT process with tempering temperature of 898 K (625 °C). The combination of strength and toughness at t/4 is superior to that at t/2 of the plate under both as-quenched and QT conditions. This result is attributed to that the fraction of high-angle grain boundaries (HAGBs) at t/4 is higher than that at t/2.

  7. Identification and measurement of dirt composition of manufactured steel plates using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Orzi, Daniel J O; Bilmes, Gabriel M

    2004-12-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used for the characterization of the main components of the surface residual dirt produced in cold-rolled steel plates as a consequence of the manufacturing stages. At laser fluences between 0.05 J/cm(2) < F < 0.30 J/cm(2), dirt ablation takes place without any contribution from the substrate. Results show that the main components of the dirt are fine particles of Fe mostly homogeneously distributed in a thin layer of grease and soaps. In the primary stages of the manufacturing process carbon residuals can also be found. By measuring light emission from the lambda = 495.9 nm line of Fe(I) after laser ablation, we developed a real-time on-line method for the determination of the concentration of iron particles present in the surface dirt. The obtained results open new possibilities in the design of real-time instruments for industrial applications as a quality control of products and processes.

  8. Influence of Deposition Conditions on Fatigue Properties of Martensitic Stainless Steel with Tin Film Coated by Arc Ion Plating Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukui, Satoshi; Yonekura, Daisuke; Murakami, Ri-Ichi

    The surface properties like roughness etc. strongly influence the fatigue strength of high-tensile steel. To investigate the effect of surface condition and TiN coating on the fatigue strength of high-strength steel, four-point bending fatigue tests were carried out for martensitic stainless steel with TiN film coated using arc ion plating (AIP) method. This study, using samples that had been polished under several size of grind particle, examines the influence of pre-coating treatment on fatigue properties. A 2-µm-thick TiN film was deposited onto the substrate under three kinds of polishing condition. The difference of the hardness originated in the residual stress or thin deformation layer where the difference of the size of grinding particle of the surface polishing. And it leads the transformation of the interface of the substrate and the TiN film and improves fatigue limit.

  9. An Analysis of Interfacial Stresses in Steel Beams Bonded With a Thin Composite Plate Under Thermomechanical Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benyoucef, S.; Tounsi, A.; Yeghnem, R.; Bachir Bouiadjra, M.; Adda Bedia, E. A.

    2014-01-01

    The strengthening of steel structures in situ with externally bonded fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) composite sheets is increasingly being used for the repair and rehabilitation of existing structures. The previous researchers have developed several analytical methods to predict the interface performance of bonded repairs. An important feature of a reinforced steel beam is the significant stress concentration in the adhesive at the ends of the FRP plate. In this paper, a closed-form solution for the interfacial shear and normal stresses in simply supported steel beams strengthened with a bonded FRP plate and subjected to thermomechanical loadings is presented. The shear strains of the adherends are included in the present theoretical analysis by assuming a parabolic distribution of shear stress across their thickness. Contrary to some existing studies, the assumption that both adherends have the same curvature is not used in the present study. The results of this numerical study are beneficial for understanding the mechanical behavior of material interfaces and for the design of hybrid FRP-reinforced steel structures.

  10. Mean grain size detection of DP590 steel plate using a corrected method with electromagnetic acoustic resonance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Wang, Xiaokai; Hua, Lin; Li, Juanjuan; Xiang, Qing

    2017-04-01

    Electromagnetic acoustic resonance (EMAR) is a considerable method to determine the mean grain size of the metal material with a high precision. The basic ultrasonic attenuation theory used for the mean grain size detection of EMAR is come from the single phase theory. In this paper, the EMAR testing was carried out based on the ultrasonic attenuation theory. The detection results show that the double peaks phenomenon occurs in the EMAR testing of DP590 steel plate. The dual phase structure of DP590 steel is the inducement of the double peaks phenomenon in the EMAR testing. In reaction to the phenomenon, a corrected method with EMAR was put forward to detect the mean grain size of dual phase steel. Compared with the traditional attenuation evaluation method and the uncorrected method with EMAR, the corrected method with EMAR shows great effectiveness and superiority for the mean grain size detection of DP590 steel plate. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties in Hot-Rolled Extra High-Yield-Strength Steel Plates for Offshore Structure and Shipbuilding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dongsheng; Li, Qingliang; Emi, Toshihiko

    2011-05-01

    Key parameters for a thermomechanically controlled processing and accelerated cooling process (TMCP-AcC) were determined for integrated mass production to produce extra high-yield-strength microalloyed low carbon SiMnCrNiCu steel plates for offshore structure and bulk shipbuilding. Confocal scanning microscopy was used to make in-situ observations on the austenite grain growth during reheating. A Gleeble 3800 thermomechanical simulator was employed to investigate the flow stress behavior, static recrystallization (SRX) of austenite, and decomposition behavior of the TMCP conditioned austenite during continuous cooling. The Kocks-Mecking model was employed to describe the constitutive behavior, while the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) approach was used to predict the SRX kinetics. The effects of hot rolling schedule and AcC on microstructure and properties were investigated by test-scale rolling trials. The bridging between the laboratory observations and the process parameter determination to optimize the mass production was made by integrated industrial production trials on a set of a 5-m heavy plate mill equipped with an accelerated cooling system. Successful production of 60- and 50-mm-thick plates with yield strength in excess of 460 MPa and excellent toughness at low temperature (213 K (-60 °C)) in the parent metal and the simulated coarse-grained heat affected zone (CGHAZ) provides a useful integrated database for developing advanced high-strength steel plates via TMCP-AcC.

  12. Fracture Behavior of Ultra-Low-Carbon Steel Plate and Heat-Affected-Zone.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    ferrite . This effect on the transformation kinetics of steel is shown in Fig. 2. This alloying addition, however, has experienced...V-notch ITT of -76’F (-600C). The design philo.ophy used for this alloy required that the steel be low carbon with a nearly 100% acicular ferrite ...line pipe fitting steel by International Nickel Company and was called IN 787. It is a low carbon-manganese steel strengthened with a fine precipitate

  13. Simulation Study on the Deflection Response of the 921A Steel thin plate under Explosive Impact Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-Xiang; Chen, Fang; Han, Yan

    2018-03-01

    The Ship cabin would be subject to high-intensity shock wave load when it is attacked by anti-ship weapons, causing its side board damaged. The time course of the deflection of the thin plate made of 921A steel in different initial conditions under the impact load is researched by theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. According to the theory of elastic-plastic deformation of the thin plate, the dynamic response equation of the thin plate under the explosion impact load is established with the method of energy, and the theoretical calculation value is compared with the result from the simulation method. It proved that the theoretical calculation method has better reliability and accuracy in different boundary size.

  14. High power laser welding of thick steel plates in a horizontal butt joint configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atabaki, M. Mazar; Yazdian, N.; Ma, J.; Kovacevic, R.

    2016-09-01

    In this investigation, two laser-based welding techniques, autogenous laser welding (ALW) and laser welding assisted with a cold wire (LWACW), were applied to join thick plates of a structural steel (A36) in a horizontal narrow gap butt joint configuration. The main practical parameters including welding method and laser power were varied to get the sound weld with a requirement to achieve a full penetration with the reinforcement at the back side of weld in just one pass. The weld-bead shape, cross-section and mechanical properties were evaluated by profilometer, micro-hardness test and optical microscope. In order to investigate the stability of laser-induced plasma plume, the emitted optical spectra was detected and analyzed by the spectroscopy analysis. It was found that at the laser power of 7 kW a fully penetrated weld with a convex back side of weld could be obtained by the LWACW. The microstructural examinations showed that for the ALW the acicular ferrite and for the LWACW the pearlite were formed in the heat affected zone (HAZ). The prediction of microstructure based on continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram and cooling curves obtained by thermocouple measurement were in good agreement with each other. According to the plasma ionization values obtained from the spectroscopy analysis the plume for both processes was recognized as dominated weakly ionized plasma including the main vaporized elemental composition. At the optimum welding condition (LWACW at the laser power of 7 kW) the fluctuation of the electron temperature was reduced. The spectroscopy analysis demonstrated that at the higher laser power more of the elemental compositions such as Mn and Fe were evaporated.

  15. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of High Copper HSLA-100 Steel in 2-inch Plate Form

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    2. HSLA-100 Steel Continuous Cooling Transformation Diagram [Ref. 13:p. 262] One of the most desirable characteristics of the low -carbon, copper ...none V mild v.strong v. strong V. strong moderate The use of copper as an alloying element in low carbon HSLA steel has resulted in the following...HY-130 steel . In research presently being done, it has been determined that the high copper alloy has a highly dislocated martensitic /bainitic

  16. Steel shear strength of anchors with stand-off base plates : [technical summary].

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-09-01

    Sign and signal structures are often connected : to concrete foundations through an annular base : plate set on anchor bolts. The plate is leveled : with nuts beneath it and secured with nuts : above it a double-nut connection. In many : in...

  17. Application of linearized inverse scattering methods for the inspection in steel plates embedded in concrete structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunoda, Takaya; Suzuki, Keigo; Saitoh, Takahiro

    2018-04-01

    This study develops a method to visualize the state of steel-concrete interface with ultrasonic testing. Scattered waves are obtained by the UT pitch-catch mode from the surface of the concrete. Discrete wavelet transform is applied in order to extract echoes scattered from the steel-concrete interface. Then Linearized Inverse Scattering Methods are used for imaging the interface. The results show that LISM with Born and Kirchhoff approximation provide clear images for the target.

  18. Super-low-frequency wireless power transfer with lightweight coils for passing through a stainless steel plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Hiroki; Kyoden, Tomoaki; Furukawa, Hiroto

    2018-03-01

    To achieve wireless power transfer (WPT) through a stainless-steel plate, a super-low frequency (SLF) was used as a resonance frequency. In our previous study of SLF-WPT, heavy coils were prepared. In this study, we designed lightweight coils using a WPT simulator that we developed previously. As a result, the weight was reduced to 1.69 kg from 11.9 kg, the previous coil weight. At a resonance frequency of 400 Hz, the transmission efficiency and output power of advanced SLF-WPT reached 91% and 426 W, respectively, over a transmission distance of 30 mm. Furthermore, 80% efficiency and 317 W output were achieved when transmitting power through a 1 mm-thick stainless-steel plate. This performance is much better than that in previous reports. We show using both calculations and experimental results that a power-to-weight ratio of 252 W/kg is possible even when using a 400 Hz power supply frequency.

  19. Super-low-frequency wireless power transfer with lightweight coils for passing through a stainless steel plate.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hiroki; Kyoden, Tomoaki; Furukawa, Hiroto

    2018-03-01

    To achieve wireless power transfer (WPT) through a stainless-steel plate, a super-low frequency (SLF) was used as a resonance frequency. In our previous study of SLF-WPT, heavy coils were prepared. In this study, we designed lightweight coils using a WPT simulator that we developed previously. As a result, the weight was reduced to 1.69 kg from 11.9 kg, the previous coil weight. At a resonance frequency of 400 Hz, the transmission efficiency and output power of advanced SLF-WPT reached 91% and 426 W, respectively, over a transmission distance of 30 mm. Furthermore, 80% efficiency and 317 W output were achieved when transmitting power through a 1 mm-thick stainless-steel plate. This performance is much better than that in previous reports. We show using both calculations and experimental results that a power-to-weight ratio of 252 W/kg is possible even when using a 400 Hz power supply frequency.

  20. Experimental Study on Welded Headed Studs Used In Steel Plate-Concrete Composite Structures Compared with Contactless Method of Measuring Displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisała, Dawid; Tekieli, Marcin

    2017-10-01

    Steel plate-concrete composite structures are a new innovative design concept in which a thin steel plate is attached to the reinforced concrete beam by means of welded headed studs. The comparison between experimental studies and theoretical analysis of this type of structures shows that their behaviour is dependent on the load-slip relationship of the shear connectors used to ensure sufficient bond between the concrete and steel parts of the structure. The aim of this paper is to describe an experimental study on headed studs used in steel plate-concrete composite structures. Push-out tests were carried out to investigate the behaviour of shear connectors. The test specimens were prepared according to standard push-out tests, however, instead of I-beam, a steel plate 16 mm thick was used to better reflect the conditions in the real structure. The test specimens were produced in two batches using concrete with significantly different compressive strength. The experimental study was carried out on twelve specimens. Besides the traditional measurements based on LVDT sensors, optical measurements based on the digital image correlation method (DIC) and pattern tracking methods were used. DIC is a full-field contactless optical method for measuring displacements in experimental testing, based on the correlation of the digital images taken during test execution. With respect to conventional methods, optical measurements offer a wider scope of results and can give more information about the material or construction behaviour during the test. The ultimate load capacity and load-slip curves obtained from the experiments were compared with the values calculated based on Eurocodes, American and Chinese design specifications. It was observed that the use of the relationships developed for the traditional steel-concrete composite structures is justified in the case of ultimate load capacity of shear connectors in steel plate-concrete composite structures.

  1. Steel shear strength of anchors with stand-off base plates.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-09-01

    Sign and signal structures are often connected to concrete foundations through a stand-off annular base plate with a double-nut anchor bolt connection, which leaves exposed anchor bolt lengths below leveling nuts used in these connections. Cantilever...

  2. Image processing, analysis, and management tools for gusset plate connections in steel truss bridges.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-10-01

    This report details the research undertaken and software tools that were developed that enable digital : images of gusset plates to be converted into orthophotos, establish physical dimensions, collect : geometric information from them, and conduct s...

  3. Flexural strength using Steel Plate, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) on reinforced concrete beam in building technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarigan, Johannes; Patra, Fadel Muhammad; Sitorus, Torang

    2018-03-01

    Reinforced concrete structures are very commonly used in buildings because they are cheaper than the steel structures. But in reality, many concrete structures are damaged, so there are several ways to overcome this problem, by providing reinforcement with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) and reinforcement with steel plates. Each type of reinforcements has its advantages and disadvantages. In this study, researchers discuss the comparison between flexural strength of reinforced concrete beam using steel plates and Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP). In this case, the researchers use Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) as external reinforcements. The dimension of the beams is 15 x 25 cm with the length of 320 cm. Based on the analytical results, the strength of the beam with CFRP is 1.991 times its initial, GFRP is 1.877 times while with the steel plate is 1.646 times. Based on test results, the strength of the beam with CFRP is 1.444 times its initial, GFRP is 1.333 times while the steel plate is 1.167 times. Based on these test results, the authors conclude that beam with CFRP is the best choice for external reinforcement in building technology than the others.

  4. A Surface Pattern on MALDI Steel Plate for One-Step In-Situ Self-Desalting and Enrichment of Peptides/Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sheng; Xiao, Chunsheng; Li, Ying; Ling, Ling; Chen, Xuesi; Guo, Xinhua

    2017-03-01

    We report a novel strategy to achieve simultaneous one-step in-situ self-desalting and enrichment (OISE) of peptides/proteins on a facilely fabricated patterned MALDI steel plate with a circular paraffin-steel-polystyrene structure. The OISE plate could efficiently segregate salts from both analytes and matrices while retaining both analyte and matrix concentrate, and facilitating them to form homogeneous co-crystals on the centrally located polystyrene pattern. With the OISE plate, high quality and reproducible spectra could be obtained for low abundance peptides even in the presence of high salt concentrations (200 mM NH4HCO3, 1 M NaCl, or 400 mM urea). Using this strategy, a significant sensitivity enhancement was gained over traditional MALDI plate. The practical utility of this method was further demonstrated by the successful profiling of BSA digests and human serum.

  5. The bipolar plate of AISI 1045 steel with chromized coatings prepared by low-temperature pack cementation for proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Ching-Yuan; Wen, Tse-Min; Hou, Kung-Hsu; Ger, Ming-Der

    The low-temperature pack chromization, a reforming pack cementation process, is employed to modify AISI 1045 steel for the application of bipolar plates in PEMFC. The process is conducted to yield a coating, containing major Cr-carbides and minor Cr-nitrides, on the substrate in view of enhancing the steel's corrosion resistance and lowering interfacial contact resistance between the bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer. Electrical discharge machining and rolling approach are used as the pretreatment to produce an activated surface on the steel before pack chromization process to reduce operating temperatures and increase deposition rates. The rolled-chromized steel shows the lowest corrosion current density, 3 × 10 -8 A cm -2, and the smallest interfacial contact resistance, 5.9 mΩ cm 2, at 140 N cm -2 among all tested steels. This study clearly states the performance of 1045 carbon steel modified by activated and low-temperature pack chromization processes, which possess the potential to be bipolar plates in the application of PEMFC.

  6. Bacteriocidal activity of sanitizers against Enterococcus faecium attached to stainless steel as determined by plate count and impedance methods.

    PubMed

    Andrade, N J; Bridgeman, T A; Zottola, E A

    1998-07-01

    Enterococcus faecium attached to stainless steel chips (100 mm2) was treated with the following sanitizers: sodium hypochlorite, peracetic acid (PA), peracetic acid plus an organic acid (PAS), quaternary ammonium, organic acid, and anionic acid. The effectiveness of sanitizer solutions on planktonic cells (not attached) was evaluated by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) suspension test. The number of attached cells was determined by impedance measurement and plate count method after vortexing. The decimal reduction (DR) in numbers of the E. faecium population was determined for the three methods and was analyzed by analysis of variance (P < 0.05) using Statview software. The adhered cells were more resistant (P < 0.05) than nonadherent cells. The DR averages for all of the sanitizers for 30 s of exposure were 6.4, 2.2, and 2.5 for the AOAC suspension test, plate count method after vortexing, and impedance measurement, respectively. Plate count and impedance methods showed a difference (P < 0.05) after 30 s of sanitizer exposure but not after 2 min. The impedance measurement was the best method to measure adherent cells. Impedance measurement required the development of a quadratic regression. The equation developed from 82 samples is as follows: log CFU/chip = 0.2385T2-0.96T + 9.35, r2 = 0.92, P < 0.05, T = impedance detection time in hours. This method showed that the sanitizers PAS and PA were more effective against E. faecium than the other sanitizers. At 30 s, the impedance method recovered about 25 times more cells than the plate count method after vortexing. These data suggest that impedance measurement is the method of choice when evaluating the number of bacterial cells adhered to a surface.

  7. Lumped Parameter experiments for Single Mode Fiber Laser Cutting of Thin Stainless Steel Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Shengying; Jia, Ye; Han, Bing; Wang, Jun; Liu, Zongkai; Ni, Xiaowu; Shen, Zhonghua; Lu, Jian

    2017-06-01

    The present work reports the parameters on laser cutting stainless steel including workpiece thickness, cutting speed, defocus length and assisting gas pressure. The cutting kerf width, dross attachment and cut edge squareness deviation are examined to provide information on cutting quality. The results show that with the increasing thickness, the cutting speed decrease rate is about 27%. The optimal ranges of cutting speed, defocus length and gas pressure are obtained with maximum quality. The first section in your paper

  8. 75 FR 10207 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-836] Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon... cut-to-length carbon-quality steel plate from the Republic of Korea and the intent to rescind the... results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain cut-to-length carbon-quality...

  9. 75 FR 2107 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate from the Republic of Korea: Extension of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-836] Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon... preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain cut-to-length carbon.... See Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results...

  10. Microstructure Evolution During Stainless Steel-Copper Vacuum Brazing with a Ag/Cu/Pd Filler Alloy: Effect of Nickel Plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, R. K.; Laik, A.; Mishra, P.

    2017-03-01

    Vacuum brazing of stainless steel and copper plates was done using a silver-based filler alloy. In one set of experiments, around 30-µm-thick nickel coatings were electrochemically applied on stainless steel plates before carrying out the brazing runs and its effect in making changes in the braze-zone microstructure was studied. For brazing temperature of 830 °C, scanning electron microscopy examination of the braze-zone revealed that relatively sound joints were obtained when brazing was done with nickel-coated stainless steel than with uncoated one. However, when brazing of nickel-coated stainless steel and copper plates was done at 860 °C, a wide crack appeared in the braze-zone adjacent to copper side. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis and electron microprobe analysis confirmed that at higher temperature, the diffusion of Cu atoms from copper plate towards the braze-zone was faster than that of Ni atoms from nickel coating. Helium leak rate of the order 10-11 Pa m3/s was obtained for the crack-free joint, whereas this value was higher than 10-4 Pa m3/s for the joint having crack. The shear strength of the joint was found to decrease considerably due to the presence of crack.

  11. Coating stainless steel plates with Ag/TiO2 for chlorpyrifos decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel Fattah, Wafa I.; Gobara, Mohammed M.; El-Hotaby, Walid; Mostafa, Sherif F. M.; Ali, Ghareib W.

    2016-05-01

    Spray coatings of either nanosilver (Ag), titanium (TiO2) or nanosilver titanium (Ag/TiO2) on stainless steel substrates prepared by sol-gel process were successfully achieved. The efficiency of the Ag/TiO2 coat onto 316 stainless steel surface towards cloropyrifos degradation as a chemical warfare agent (CWA) was proved. The crystalline structure and morphological characterization, as well as surface roughness measurements, were assessed. X-ray diffraction results proved the crystalline TiO2 anatase phase. The uniform distribution of Ag along with TiO2 nanoparticles was evidenced through transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy mapping. The hydrophilic nature of individual Ag, TiO2 and Ag/TiO2 coats was proved by contact angle measurements. The loading of Ag nanoparticles influenced positively the Ag/TiO2 coats surface roughness. The photocatalytic cloropyrifos degradation achieved about 50% within one-hour post UV treatment proving, therefore, the promising Ag/TiO2 continued decontamination efficiency. In conclusion, tuning the physical and morphological properties of TiO2 coated on stainless steel surface could be significantly enhanced by Ag nanoparticles incorporation. The developed Ag/TiO2 coat could be conveniently applied as CWA decontaminant.

  12. Effect of analysis parameters on non-linear implicit finite element analysis of marine corroded steel plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Muhammad Rabiul; Sakib-Ul-Alam, Md.; Nazat, Kazi Kaarima; Hassan, M. Munir

    2017-12-01

    FEA results greatly depend on analysis parameters. MSC NASTRAN nonlinear implicit analysis code has been used in large deformation finite element analysis of pitted marine SM490A steel rectangular plate. The effect of two types actual pit shape on parameters of integrity of structure has been analyzed. For 3-D modeling, a proposed method for simulation of pitted surface by probabilistic corrosion model has been used. The result has been verified with the empirical formula proposed by finite element analysis of steel surface generated with different pitted data where analyses have been carried out by the code of LS-DYNA 971. In the both solver, an elasto-plastic material has been used where an arbitrary stress versus strain curve can be defined. In the later one, the material model is based on the J2 flow theory with isotropic hardening where a radial return algorithm is used. The comparison shows good agreement between the two results which ensures successful simulation with comparatively less energy and time.

  13. Conductive and corrosion behaviors of silver-doped carbon-coated stainless steel as PEMFC bipolar plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Hong-feng; Fu, Jie; Tian, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Ni-Cr enrichment on stainless steel SS316L resulting from chemical activation enabled the deposition of carbon by spraying a stable suspension of carbon nanoparticles; trace Ag was deposited in situ to prepare a thin continuous Ag-doped carbon film on a porous carbon-coated SS316L substrate. The corrosion resistance of this film in 0.5 mol·L-1 H2SO4 solution containing 5 ppm F- at 80°C was investigated using polarization tests. The results showed that the surface treatment of the SS316L strongly affected the adhesion of the carbon coating to the stainless steel. Compared to the bare SS316L, the Ag-doped carbon-coated SS316L bipolar plate was remarkably more stable in both the anode and cathode environments of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and the interface contact resistance between the specimen and Toray 060 carbon paper was reduced from 333.0 mΩ·cm2 to 21.6 mΩ·cm2 at a compaction pressure of 1.2 MPa.

  14. Elastomer-induced crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel heat exchanger plates in sour amine service

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M.G.; Baron, J.J.; Moffat, T.A.

    1996-08-01

    Types S31600 and S31254 stainless steel heat exchanger plates have suffered crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking under gaskets in rich amine service in a sour gas plant. The gasket material, ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM), has been used successfully for many years at other sour gas plants. Laboratory testing has duplicated the corrosion observed and shown that the mechanism is synergistic sulfide-halide attack. The use of a bromine plus chlorine-activated curing system for the EPDM rubber gaskets provided the necessary halides. Laboratory testing identified some nickel-based superalloys which were resistant to this corrosion and also demonstrated that essentially halogen-free, peroxide-cured EPDMmore » gaskets do not cause attack of S31600 or S31254. The heat exchanger packs were replaced with S31600 plates and peroxide-cured EPDM gaskets having a specified total halogen concentration of 200 ppm maximum. Field operating experience has been excellent.« less

  15. Numerical Simulation and Artificial Neural Network Modeling for Predicting Welding-Induced Distortion in Butt-Welded 304L Stainless Steel Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanareddy, V. V.; Chandrasekhar, N.; Vasudevan, M.; Muthukumaran, S.; Vasantharaja, P.

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, artificial neural network modeling has been employed for predicting welding-induced angular distortions in autogenous butt-welded 304L stainless steel plates. The input data for the neural network have been obtained from a series of three-dimensional finite element simulations of TIG welding for a wide range of plate dimensions. Thermo-elasto-plastic analysis was carried out for 304L stainless steel plates during autogenous TIG welding employing double ellipsoidal heat source. The simulated thermal cycles were validated by measuring thermal cycles using thermocouples at predetermined positions, and the simulated distortion values were validated by measuring distortion using vertical height gauge for three cases. There was a good agreement between the model predictions and the measured values. Then, a multilayer feed-forward back propagation neural network has been developed using the numerically simulated data. Artificial neural network model developed in the present study predicted the angular distortion accurately.

  16. Numerical modeling of the destruction of steel plates with a gradient substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlov, M. Yu.; Glazyrin, V. P.; Orlov, Yu. N.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the results of numerical simulation of the shock loading process of steel barriers with a gradient substrate. In an elastic plastic axisymmetric statement, a shock is simulated along the normal in the range of initial velocities up to 300 m / s. A range of initial velocities was revealed, in which the presence of a substrate "saved" the obstacle from spallation. New tasks were announced to deepen scientific knowledge about the behavior of unidirectional gradient barriers at impact. The results of calculations are obtained in the form of graphs, calculated configurations of the "impact - barrier" and tables.

  17. The Influence of TIG Welding Thermal Cycles on HSLA-100 Steel Plate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    8217 1.0’ 1,i 1.0’ 10’ TZ•ME. Secznas Figure 15. CCT diagram for a HSLA-100 steel with composition similar to that of the present work from Wilson...cooling rate through the transformation and ends up with a HAZ hardness of 345 HV which indicates a predominantly martensitic structure, on the CCT ... diagram . This is confirmed by the TEM micrograph of the HAZ taken close to fusion boundary, figure 14. On the other hand, the high heat input weld 1, with

  18. A Study of the Influence of Thermomechanical Controlled Processing on the Microstructure of Bainite in High Strength Plate Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xiaojun; DeArdo, Anthony J.

    2014-10-01

    Steels with compositions that are hot rolled and cooled to exhibit high strength and good toughness often require a bainitic microstructure. This is especially true for plate steels for linepipe applications where strengths in excess of 690 MPa (100 ksi) are needed in thicknesses between approximately 6 and 30 mm. To ensure adequate strength and toughness, the steels should have adequate hardenability (C. E. >0.50 and Pcm >0.20), and are thermomechanically controlled processed, i.e., controlled rolled, followed by interrupted direct quenching to below the Bs temperature of the pancaked austenite. Bainite formed in this way can be defined as a polyphase mixture comprised a matrix phase of bainitic ferrite plus a higher carbon second phase or micro-constituent which can be martensite, retained austenite, or cementite, depending on circumstances. This second feature is predominately martensite in IDQ steels. Unlike pearlite, where the ferrite and cementite form cooperatively at the same moving interface, the bainitic ferrite and MA form in sequence with falling temperature below the Bs temperature or with increasing isothermal holding time. Several studies have found that the mechanical properties may vary strongly for different types of bainite, i.e., different forms of bainitic ferrite and/or MA. Thermomechanical controlled processing (TMCP) has been shown to be an important way to control the microstructure and mechanical properties in low carbon, high strength steel. This is especially true in the case of bainite formation, where the complexity of the austenite-bainite transformation makes its control through disciplined processing especially important. In this study, a low carbon, high manganese steel containing niobium was investigated to better understand the effects of austenite conditioning and cooling rates on the bainitic phase transformation, i.e., the formation of bainitic ferrite plus MA. Specimens were compared after transformation from recrystallized

  19. Experimental, numerical, and analytical studies on the seismic response of steel-plate concrete (SC) composite shear walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epackachi, Siamak

    The seismic performance of rectangular steel-plate concrete (SC) composite shear walls is assessed for application to buildings and mission-critical infrastructure. The SC walls considered in this study were composed of two steel faceplates and infill concrete. The steel faceplates were connected together and to the infill concrete using tie rods and headed studs, respectively. The research focused on the in-plane behavior of flexure- and flexure-shear-critical SC walls. An experimental program was executed in the NEES laboratory at the University at Buffalo and was followed by numerical and analytical studies. In the experimental program, four large-size specimens were tested under displacement-controlled cyclic loading. The design variables considered in the testing program included wall thickness, reinforcement ratio, and slenderness ratio. The aspect ratio (height-to-length) of the four walls was 1.0. Each SC wall was installed on top of a re-usable foundation block. A bolted baseplate to RC foundation connection was used for all four walls. The walls were identified to be flexure- and flexure-shear critical. The progression of damage in the four walls was identical, namely, cracking and crushing of the infill concrete at the toes of the walls, outward buckling and yielding of the steel faceplates near the base of the wall, and tearing of the faceplates at their junctions with the baseplate. A robust finite element model was developed in LS-DYNA for nonlinear cyclic analysis of the flexure- and flexure-shear-critical SC walls. The DYNA model was validated using the results of the cyclic tests of the four SC walls. The validated and benchmarked models were then used to conduct a parametric study, which investigated the effects of wall aspect ratio, reinforcement ratio, wall thickness, and uniaxial concrete compressive strength on the in-plane response of SC walls. Simplified analytical models, suitable for preliminary analysis and design of SC walls, were

  20. Discussion about effecting of stiffener in four bolts in a row end plate connection for long span and heavy load steel structures in Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huong, Khang T.; Nguyen, Cung H.

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, steel structure industry in Vietnam is in strong development. The construction of steel structure becomes larger span and heavier load. The issue spawned a number of issues arise from optimizing connections. Typical of steel connections in prefabricated steel structure that is an end plate (face plate) bolted connection. When the connection carried a heavy load, then the number of bolts is required much more. Increasing the number of rows bolts will less effective because can still not enough strength requirements, the bolts in row near rotational center will level arm reduction, then it cannot carry heavy loads. The current solution is doing multiple bolts in a row. Current standards such as EN [1], AISC [2] are no specific guidelines for calculating the connection four bolts in a row that primarily assumes the way works like a T-stub of the two bolts a row. Some articles studied T-stub four bolts in a row [3], [4], [5], [6] by component method but it has some components which weren’t considered. In this paper, in order to provide a contribution to improve the T-stub four bolts in a row, the stiffener component in T-stub will be added and compared with T-stub without stiffener by the finite element model to demonstrate effectiveness in reducing stress and displacement of T-stub. It gives ideas for the economic design of four bolts in a row end plate connection in Vietnam for future.

  1. Experimental Characterization of Electron Beam Welded SAE 5137H Thick Steel Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattire, Prakash; Bhawar, Valmik; Thakare, Sandeep; Patil, Sachin; Mane, Santosh; Singh, Rajkumar, Dr.

    2017-09-01

    Electron beam welding is known for its narrow weld zone with high depth to width ratio, less heat affected zone, less distortion and contamination. Electron beam welding is fusion welding process, where high velocity electrons impinge on material joint to be welded and kinetic energy of this electron is transformed into heat upon impact to fuse the material. In the present work electron beam welding of 60 mm thick SAE 5137H steel is studied. Mechanical and metallurgical properties of electron beam welded joint of SAE 5137H were evaluated. Mechanical properties are analysed by tensile, impact and hardness test. Metallurgical properties are investigated through optical and scanning electron microscope. The hardness traverse across weld zone shows HV 370-380, about 18% increase in the tensile strength and very low toughness of weld joint compared to parent metal. Microstructural observation shows equiaxed dendrite in the fusion zone and partial grain refinement was found in the HAZ.

  2. Texture in steel plates revealed by laser ultrasonic surface acoustic waves velocity dispersion analysis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Anmin; Wang, Xiaochen; Glorieux, Christ; Yang, Quan; Dong, Feng; He, Fei; Wang, Yanlong; Sermeus, Jan; Van der Donck, Tom; Shu, Xuedao

    2017-07-01

    A photoacoustic, laser ultrasonics based approach in an Impulsive Stimulated Scattering (ISS) implementation was used to investigate the texture in polycrystalline metal plates. The angular dependence of the 'polycrystalline' surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocity measured along regions containing many grains was experimentally determined and compared with simulated results that were based on the angular dependence of the 'single grain' SAW velocity within single grains and the grain orientation distribution. The polycrystalline SAW velocities turn out to vary with texture. The SAW velocities and their angular variations for {110} texture were found to be larger than that the ones for {111} texture or the strong γ fiber texture. The SAW velocities for {001} texture were larger than for {111} texture, but with almost the same angular dependence. The results infer the feasibility to apply angular SAW angular dispersion measurements by laser ultrasonics for on-line texture monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation on the Interface Morphologies of Explosive Welding of Inconel 625 to Steel A516 Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, S. A. A. Akbari; Zareie, H. R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to produce composite plates by explosive cladding process. This is a process in which the controlled energy of explosives is used to create a metallic bond between two similar or dissimilar materials. The welding conditions were tailored through parallel geometry route with different operational parameters. In this investigation, a two-pronged study was adopted to establish the conditions required for producing successful solid state welding: (a) Analytical calculations to determine the weldability domain or welding window; (b) Metallurgical investigations of explosive welding experiments carried out under different explosive ratios to produce both wavy and straight interfaces. The analytical calculations confirm the experimental results. Optical microscopy studies show that a transition from a smooth to wavy interface occurs with an increase in explosive ratio. SEM studies show that the interface was outlined by characteristic sharp transition between two materials.

  4. On the Gas Dynamics of Inert-Gas-Assisted Laser Cutting of Steel Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, A. D.; Settles, G. S.; Scroggs, S. D.

    1996-11-01

    Laser beam cutting of sheet metal requires an assist gas to blow away the molten material. Since the assist-gas dynamics influences the quality and speed of the cut, the orientation of the gas nozzle with respect to the kerf is also expected to be important. A 1 kW cw CO2 laser with nitrogen assist gas was used to cut mild steel sheet of 1 to 4 mm thickness, using a sonic coaxial nozzle as a baseline. Off-axis nozzles were oriented from 20 deg to 60 deg from normal with exit Mach numbers from 1 to 2.4. Results showed maximum cutting speed at a 40 deg nozzle orientation. Shadowgrams of a geometrically-similar model kerf then revealed a separated shock wave-boundary layer interaction within the kerf for the (untilted) coaxial nozzle case. This was alleviated, resulting in a uniform supersonic flow throughout the kerf and consequent higher cutting speeds, by tilting the nozzle between 20 deg and 45 deg from the normal. This result did not depend upon the exit Mach number of the nozzle. (Research supported by NSF Grant DMI-9400119.)

  5. The study of fix composite panel and steel plates on testing stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel, A.; Płaczek, M.; Wachna, M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the practical possibilities of strength verification analysis of composite materials used in the manufacture of selected components of railway wagons are presented. Real laboratory stand for measurements in a scale controlled by PLC controller were made. The study of different types of connections of composite materials with sheet metal is presented. In one of the chapter of this paper principles construction of testing stand with pneumatic cylinder were presented. Mainly checking of displacements and stresses generated on the sheet as a result of pneumatic actuators load for composite boards was carried out. The use of the controller with operating panel allows to easy programming testing cycle. The user can define the force generated by the actuator by change of air pressure in cylinder. Additionally the location of acting cylinders and their jump can be changed by operator. The examination of the volume displacements was done by displacement sensor, and the tensile strain gauge. All parameters are written in CatmanEasy - data acquisition software. This article presents the study of stresses and displacements in the composite plates joined with sheet metal, in summary of this article, the authors compare the obtained results with the computer simulation results in the article: "Simulation of stresses in an innovative combination of composite with sheet".

  6. Probing Formability Improvement of Ultra-thin Ferritic Stainless Steel Bipolar Plate of PEMFC in Non-conventional Forming Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bong, Hyuk Jong; Barlat, Frédéric; Lee, Myoung-Gyu

    2016-08-01

    Formability increase in non-conventional forming profiles programmed in the servo-press was investigated using finite element analysis. As an application, forming experiment on a 0.15-mm-thick ferritic stainless steel sheet for a bipolar plate, a primary component of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell, was conducted. Four different forming profiles were considered to investigate the effects of forming profiles on formability and shape accuracy. The four motions included conventional V motion, holding motion, W motion, and oscillating motion. Among the four motions, the holding motion, in which the slide was held for a certain period at the bottom dead point, led to the best formability. Finite element simulations were conducted to validate the experimental results and to probe the formability improvement in the non-conventional forming profiles. A creep model to address stress relaxation effect along with tool elastic recovery was implemented using a user-material subroutine, CREEP in ABAQUS finite element software. The stress relaxation and variable contact conditions during the holding and oscillating profiles were found to be the main mechanism of formability improvement.

  7. Continuous cooling transformations and microstructures in a low-carbon, high-strength low-alloy plate steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, S. W.; Vin, D. J., Col; Krauss, G.

    1990-06-01

    A continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagram was determined for a high-strength low-alloy plate steel containing (in weight percent) 0.06 C, 1.45 Mn, 1.25 Cu, 0.97 Ni, 0.72 Cr, and 0.42 Mo. Dilatometric measurements were supplemented by microhardness testing, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The CCT diagram showed significant suppression of polygonal ferrite formation and a prominent transformation region, normally attributed to bainite formation, at temperatures intermediate to those of polygonal ferrite and martensite formation. In the intermediate region, ferrite formation in groups of similarly oriented crystals about 1 μm in size and containing a high density of dislocations dominated the transformation of austenite during continuous cooling. The ferrite grains assumed two morphologies, elongated or acicular and equiaxed or granular, leading to the terms “acicular ferrite” and “granular ferrite,” respectively, to describe these structures. Austenite regions, some transformed to martensite, were enriched in carbon and retained at interfaces between ferrite grains. Coarse interfacial ledges and the nonacicular morphology of the granular ferrite grains provided evidence for a phase transformation mechanism involving reconstructive diffusion of substitutional atoms. At slow cooling rates, polygonal ferrite and Widmanstätten ferrite formed. These latter structures contained low dislocation densities and e-copper precipitates formed by an interphase transformation mechanism.

  8. Experimental behaviour of beam-column connection using cold-formed steel sections with rectangular gusset-plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminuddin, K. M.; Saggaff, Anis; Tahir, Mahmood Md

    2017-11-01

    Beam-to-column connections setting up as isolated joint of cold-formed steel sections were tested up to failure. This experiment was conducted to observe the behaviour of connection in term of strength, stiffness and ductility. The type of connection used was rectangular gusset plate which stiffen the beam-to-column connection. The behaviour of the proposed connection was expressed with Moment-Rotation curves plotted from the experiment test results. The capacity of connections on this research were done in two ways: theoretical calculation by adopting Eurocode 3 BS EN 1993-1-8:2005 and experimental test results. The theoretical calculation of the moment capacit y of the proposed connection has found (Mj) to be 10.78 kNm with joint stiffness (Sj) amount to 458.53 kNm/rad. The experimental test results has recorded that the Moment capacity (Mj) of 15.68 kNm with joint stiffness (Sj) of 1948.06 kNm/rad. The moment ratio of theoretical to experimental amount to 0.69. The joint stiffness ratio of theoretical to experimental amount to 0.24.

  9. Initial Testing for the Recommendation of Improved Gas Metal Arc Welding Procedures for HY-80 Steel Plate Butt Joints at Norfolk Naval Shipyard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Hull cut welding proficiency is an essential skill maintained by personnel...at naval shipyards. This thesis explores arc weld theory to develop ideal submarine hull butt joint designs and recommends preliminary testing to...shipboard hull welding applications, theoretically. Butt joint samples were created using HY-80 steel plate so that the following comparisons could

  10. Heavy-section steel technology program. Semiannual progress report for period ending February 28, 1973

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1974-02-01

    The materials investigations under the HSST program are divided into studies of unirradiated materials and studies of irradiation effects. The studies of unirradiated materials, which include inspection, characterization, metallurgy, variability determinations, transition temperature investigations, fracture mechanics studies, and fatigue-crack propagation tests, are discussed. The investigations of irradiated materials include studies of radiation effects on A-533-B steel. Results of studies on thick pressure vessels and pipes of ASTM A508 steel are also reported along with results of studies on Mode III crack extension in reactor piping. (JRD)

  11. Experimental Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Welded Corten Steel A588 Grade Plate Using ER70S - 6 Filler Material for Construction Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deepak, J. R.; Bupesh Raja, V. K.; Janardhan Guptha, Mittapalli; Durga Prasad, Palaparthi Hari; Sriram, V.

    2017-05-01

    ASTM A588 Grade A steel plate is a high strength, low alloy structural steel with 0.19 % of carbon content. When exposed to the atmosphere, A588 Grade A is suitable for construction in the bare (paint - free) condition. The main problems are lack of fusion, lack of penetration and corrosion on heat affected zone. In this research work Corten ASTM A588 Grade steel of 3mm thickness is electroplated with copper and then both raw and copper electroplated are welded by GMAW welding process with ER70S-6 as a filler material. The welded ASTM A588 is cut according to ASTM size for further testing of mechanical properties. Considering its welding strength after the process of electroplating, this research clearly states the metal can be utilized for better results in any given field. Here both the tensile and hardness are higher in copper electroplated welded when compare to raw welded.

  12. FABRICATION DEVELOPMENT OF UO$sub 2$-STAINLESS STEEL COMPOSITE FUEL PLATES FOR CORE B OF THE ENRICO FERMI FAST BREEDER REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Cherubini, J.H.; Beaver, R.J.; Leitten, C.F. Jr.

    1961-04-18

    The development of an inexpensive composite fuel plate with a high burnup potential for application in a 500 deg C sodium environment as Core B of the Enrico Fermi Fast Breeder Reactor is described. The dispersion fuel product consists of 35 wt.% spheroidal UO/sub 2/ dispersed in type 347B stainless steel powder and clad with wrought type 347 stainless steel. Nominal over-all dimensions of Type II design fuel plates are 18.97 in. long x 2.406 in. wide x 0.112 in. thick with 0.005-in. cladding. Reliable processing methods for achieving a uniform distribution of spheroidal UO/sub 2/ in the matrix powdermore » and cladding the sintered powder compact by roll bonding are described. Examination of experimental plates reveals that the degree of UO/sub 2/ fragmentation and stringering encountered during processing is primarily a function of the degree of cold work employed in the finishing operation snd the starting quality of the UO/sub 2/ powder. Cladding studies indicate that a sound metallurgical bond can be achieved with an 87.5% reduction in thickness at 1200 deg C and that close processing control is required to meet the stringent tolerances specified. The developed process meets all criteria except possibly the surface finish requirement; occasionally, pitting occurs due to scale embedded during hot working. Detailed procedures covering composite plate manufacture are presented. (auth)« less

  13. Charpy V-notch properties and microstructures of narrow gap ferritic welds of a quenched and tempered steel plate

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, G.L.F.; Herfurth, G.

    1998-11-01

    Multipass welds of quenched and tempered 50-mm-thick steel plate have been deposited by a single wire narrow gap process using both gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and submerged arc welding (SAW). Of the five welds, two reported much lower Charpy V-notch (CVN) values when tested at {minus} 20 C. The CVN toughness did not correlate with either the welding process or whether the power source was pulsed or nonpulsed. The only difference in the ferritic microstructure between the two welds of low Charpy values and the three of high values was the percentage of acicular ferrite. There was no effectmore » of the percentage of as-deposited reheated zones intersected by the Charpy notch or the microhardness of the intercellular-dendritic regions. In all welds, austenite was the microconstituent between the ferrite laths. The percentage of acicular ferrite correlated with the presence of MnO, TiO{sub 2}, {gamma} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, or MnO. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as the predominant crystalline compound in the oxide inclusions. In turn, the crystalline compound depended on the aluminum-to-titanium ratio in both the weld deposits and the oxide inclusions. In addition to the presence of less acicular ferrite, the two welds that showed lower Charpy values also reported more oxide inclusions greater than 1 {micro}m in diameter. The combination of more oxide inclusions greater than 1 {micro}m and less acicular ferrite is considered to be the explanation for the lower Charpy values.« less

  14. Manufacturing and Performance Assessment of Stamped, Laser Welded, and Nitrided FeCrV Stainless Steel Bipolar Plates for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Michael P; Abdelhamid, Mahmoud; Dadheech, G

    A manufacturing and single-cell fuel cell performance study of stamped, laser welded, and gas nitrided ferritic stainless steel foils in an advanced automotive bipolar plate assembly design was performed. Two developmental foil compositions were studied: Fee20Cre4V and Fee23Cre4V wt.%. Foils 0.1 mm thick were stamped and then laser welded together to create single bipolar plate assemblies with cooling channels. The plates were then surface treated by pre-oxidation and nitridation in N2e4H2 based gas mixtures using either a conventional furnace or a short-cycle quartz lamp infrared heating system. Single-cell fuel cell testing was performed at 80 C for 500 h atmore » 0.3 A/cm2 using 100% humidification and a 100%/40% humidification cycle that stresses the membrane and enhances release of the fluoride ion and promotes a more corrosive environment for the bipolar plates. Periodic high frequency resistance potential-current scans during the 500 h fuel cell test and posttest analysis of the membrane indicated no resistance increase of the plates and only trace levels of metal ion contamination.« less

  15. Advanced automobile steels subjected to plate rolling at 773 K or 1373 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torganchuk, Vladimir; Belyakov, Andrey; Kaibyshev, Rustam

    2017-12-01

    The high manganese steels exhibiting the effects of twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) and transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) demonstrate an excellent combination of enhanced formability, strength and ductility. Such unique mechanical properties make high-manganese steel the most attractive material for various applications, including the segment of advanced automobile steels. The strain hardening in such steels can be achieved through martensitic transformation, when the stacking fault energy (SFE) is about 10 mJ m-2, and/or twinning, when SFE is about 20 to 50 mJ m-2. The actual mechanical properties of high-Mn steels could vary, depending on the conditions of thermo-mechanical processing. In the present study, the effect of rolling temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 18% Mn steels was clarified. The steels hot rolled at 1373 K were characterized by uniform almost equiaxed grains with near random crystallographic orientations that resulted in relatively low yield strengths of 300-360 MPa, followed by pronounced strain hardening that led to the total elongation above 60%. In contrast, the steels warm rolled at 773 K were characterized by flattened grains with a strong rolling texture and high yield strengths of 850-950 MPa combined with a total elongation of about 30%.

  16. Room temperature crack growth rates and -20 deg F fracture toughness of welded 1 1/4 inch A-285 steel plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, J. L., Jr.; Rzasnicki, W.

    1977-01-01

    Data are presented which were developed in support of a structural assessment of NASA-LEWIS' 10-foot by 10-foot supersonic wind tunnel, critical portions of which are fabricated from rolled and welded 1 1/4 inch thick A-285 steel plate. Test material was flame cut from the tunnel wall and included longitudinal and circumferential weld joints. Parent metal, welds, and weld heat affected zone were tested. Tensile strength and fracture toughness were determined at -20 F, the estimated lowest tunnel operating temperature. Crack growth rates were measured at room temperature, where growth rates in service are expected to be highest.

  17. An investigation of the typical corrosion parameters used to test polymer electrolyte fuel cell bipolar plate coatings, with titanium nitride coated stainless steel as a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsi, A.; Kongstein, O. E.; Hamilton, P. J.; Oedegaard, A.; Svenum, I. H.; Cooke, K.

    2015-07-01

    Stainless steel bipolar plates (BPP) for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have good manufacturability, durability and low costs, but inadequate corrosion resistance and elevated interfacial contact resistance (ICR) in the fuel cell environment. Thin film coatings of titanium nitride (TiN) of 1 μm in thickness, were deposited by means of physical vapour deposition (PVD) process on to stainless steel (SS) 316L substrates and were evaluated, in a series of tests, for their level of corrosion protection and ICR. In the ex-situ corrosion tests, variables such as applied potential, experimental duration and pH of the sulphate electrolyte at 80 °C were altered. The ICR values were found to increase after exposure to greater applied potentials and electrolytes of a higher pH. In terms of experimental duration, the ICR increased most rapidly at the beginning of each experiment. It was also found that the oxidation of TiN was accelerated after exposure to electrolytes of a higher pH. When coated BPPs were incorporated into an accelerated fuel cell test, the degradation of the fuel cell cathode resembled the plates that were tested at the highest anodic potential (1.4 VSHE).

  18. Improvement of cutting performance for thick stainless steel plates by step-like cutting speed increase in high-power fiber laser cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seon, Sangwoo; Shin, Jae Sung; Oh, Seong Yong; Park, Hyunmin; Chung, Chin-Man; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Lim; Lee, Jonghwan

    2018-07-01

    A study was conducted to improve the cutting performance of a 60-mm thick stainless steel plate using a 6-kW fiber laser. Two techniques for improving the initial cutting performance were evaluated by preheating the work piece with a waiting time and step-like cutting speed increase. Both techniques showed improved cutting results compared to constant speed cutting. Among them, the method with a step-like cutting speed increase showed the better result in terms of cutting performance. As a result, a 60-mm thick stainless steel plate was cut at a maximum cutting speed of 72 mm/min with a preheating cutting speed of 24 mm/min. In order to confirm the effect of preheating, an additional experiment was performed to measure the temperature variation during the cutting process. Through this experiment, preheating temperature conditions were found to allow the specimen to be cut. It is expected that the results of this work will contribute to improving the cutting performance of thick metal structures in various industrial fields, as well as the dismantling of nuclear facilities using lasers in the future.

  19. Establishment of Wear Resistant HVOF Coatings for 50CrMo4 Chromium Molybdenum Alloy Steel as an Alternative for Hard Chrome Plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karuppasamy, S.; Sivan, V.; Natarajan, S.; Kumaresh Babu, S. P.; Duraiselvam, M.; Dhanuskodi, R.

    2018-05-01

    High cost imported components of seamless steel tube manufacturing plants wear frequently and need replacement to ensure the quality of the product. Hard chrome plating, which is time consuming and hazardous, is conventionally used to restore the original dimension of the worn-out surface of the machine components. High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coatings with NiCrBSi super alloy powder and Cr3C2 NiCr75/25 alloy powder applied on a 50CrMo4 (DIN-1.7228) chromium molybdenum alloy steel, the material of the wear prone machine component, were evaluated for use as an alternative for hard chrome plating in this present work. The coating characteristics are evaluated using abrasive wear test, sliding wear test and microscopic analysis, hardness test, etc. The study results revealed that the HVOF based NiCrBSi and Cr3C2NiCr75/25 coatings have hardness in the range of 800-900 HV0.3, sliding wear rate in the range of 50-60 µm and surface finish around 5 microns. Cr3C2 NiCr75/25 coating is observed to be a better option out of the two coatings evaluated for the selected application.

  20. The Assessment and Validation of Mini-Compact Tension Test Specimen Geometry and Progress in Establishing Technique for Fracture Toughness Master Curves for Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolov, Mikhail A.; Nanstad, Randy K.

    Small specimens are playing the key role in evaluating properties of irradiated materials. The use of small specimens provides several advantages. Typically, only a small volume of material can be irradiated in a reactor at desirable conditions in terms of temperature, neutron flux, and neutron dose. A small volume of irradiated material may also allow for easier handling of specimens. Smaller specimens reduce the amount of radioactive material, minimizing personnel exposures and waste disposal. However, use of small specimens imposes a variety of challenges as well. These challenges are associated with proper accounting for size effects and transferability of smallmore » specimen data to the real structures of interest. Any fracture toughness specimen that can be made out of the broken halves of standard Charpy specimens may have exceptional utility for evaluation of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) since it would allow one to determine and monitor directly actual fracture toughness instead of requiring indirect predictions using correlations established with impact data. The Charpy V-notch specimen is the most commonly used specimen geometry in surveillance programs. Assessment and validation of mini-CT specimen geometry has been performed on previously well characterized HSST Plate 13B, an A533B class 1 steel. It was shown that the fracture toughness transition temperature measured by these Mini-CT specimens is within the range of To values that were derived from various large fracture toughness specimens. Moreover, the scatter of the fracture toughness values measured by Mini-CT specimens perfectly follows the Weibull distribution function providing additional proof for validation of this geometry for the Master Curve evaluation of rector pressure vessel steels. Moreover, the International collaborative program has been developed to extend the assessment and validation efforts to irradiated weld metal. The program is underway and involves ORNL, CRIEPI, and

  1. Study on elevated-temperature flow behavior of Ni-Cr-Mo-B ultra-heavy-plate steel via experiment and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhi-yu; Kang, Yu; Li, Yan-shuai; Meng, Chao; Pan, Tao

    2018-04-01

    Elevated-temperature flow behavior of a novel Ni-Cr-Mo-B ultra-heavy-plate steel was investigated by conducting hot compressive deformation tests on a Gleeble-3800 thermo-mechanical simulator at a temperature range of 1123 K–1423 K with a strain rate range from 0.01 s‑1 to10 s‑1 and a height reduction of 70%. Based on the experimental results, classic strain-compensated Arrhenius-type, a new revised strain-compensated Arrhenius-type and classic modified Johnson-Cook constitutive models were developed for predicting the high-temperature deformation behavior of the steel. The predictability of these models were comparatively evaluated in terms of statistical parameters including correlation coefficient (R), average absolute relative error (AARE), average root mean square error (RMSE), normalized mean bias error (NMBE) and relative error. The statistical results indicate that the new revised strain-compensated Arrhenius-type model could give prediction of elevated-temperature flow stress for the steel accurately under the entire process conditions. However, the predicted values by the classic modified Johnson-Cook model could not agree well with the experimental values, and the classic strain-compensated Arrhenius-type model could track the deformation behavior more accurately compared with the modified Johnson-Cook model, but less accurately with the new revised strain-compensated Arrhenius-type model. In addition, reasons of differences in predictability of these models were discussed in detail.

  2. Surface characteristic of chemically converted graphene coated low carbon steel by electro spray coating method for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell bipolar plate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsoo; Kim, Yang Do; Nam, Dae Geun

    2013-05-01

    Graphene was coated on low carbon steel (SS400) by electro spray coating method to improve its properties of corrosion resistance and contact resistance. Exfoliated graphite was made of the graphite by chemical treatment (Chemically Converted Graphene, CCG). CCG is distributed using dispersing agent, and low carbon steel was coated with diffuse graphene solution by electro spray coating method. The structure of the CCG was analyzed using XRD and the coating layer of surface was analyzed using SEM. Analysis showed that multi-layered graphite structure was destroyed and it was transformed in to fine layers graphene structure. And the result of SEM analysis on the surface and the cross section, graphene layer was uniformly formed with 3-5 microm thickness on the surface of substrate. Corrosion resistance test was applied in the corrosive solution which is similar to the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack inside. And interfacial contact resistance (ICR) test was measured to simulate the internal operating conditions of PEMFC stack. As a result of measuring corrosion resistance and contact resistance, it could be confirmed that low carbon steel coated with CCG was revealed to be more effective in terms of its applicability as PEMFC bipolar plate.

  3. A comparative study of biofilm formation by Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli using epifluorescence microscopy on stainless steel and a microtitre plate method.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Lucia; Dykes, Gary A; Fegan, Narelle

    2007-04-01

    Attachment of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) to surfaces and the formation of biofilms may enhance persistence in a food processing environment and present a risk of contaminating products. Seven strains of STEC and three non-STEC strains were selected to compare two biofilm quantification methods; epifluorescence microscopy on stainless steel (SS) and a microtitre plate assay. The influence of prior growth in planktonic (nutrient broth) and sessile (nutrient agar) culture on biofilm production, as well as expression of surface structures and the possession of antigen 43 (encoded by agn43) on biofilm formation were also investigated. Biofilms were produced in diluted nutrient broth at 25 degrees C for 24 and 48 h. Curli expression was determined using congo red indicator agar, while the presence of agn43 was determined using polymerase chain reaction. No correlation was found between counts for epifluorescence microscopy on SS and the absorbance values obtained with the microtitre plate method for planktonic and sessile grown cultures. Different abilities of individual STEC strains to attach to SS and microtitre plates were found with some strains attaching better to each surface following growth in either planktonic or sessile culture. All O157 STEC strains had low biofilm counts on SS for planktonic and sessile grown cultures; however, one STEC O157:H- strain (EC516) had significantly greater (p<0.05) biofilm production on microtitre plates compared to the other O157 STEC strains. EC516 and other STEC (O174:H21 and O91:H21) strains expressing curli fimbriae were found to produce significantly greater (p<0.05) biofilms on microtitre plates compared to the non-curli expressing strains. No relationship was found between the production of type-I fimbriae, motility, agn43 and bacterial physicochemical properties (previously determined) and biofilm formation on SS or microtitre plates. Variations between the two biofilm determination methods may suggest that

  4. 75 FR 67346 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils from South Korea: Correction to Final Results of the Expedited...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Coils from South Korea: Correction to Final Results of the Expedited Sunset Review of the Antidumping... respondent Pohang Iron & Steel Co., Ltd. (POSCO), as well as the ``all others'' rate for South Korea. Specifically, the weighted-average margin for POSCO and the ``all others'' rate for South Korea, listed as 16...

  5. 77 FR 73013 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 2010-2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... Independent Organization, and the United Steel, Paper and Forestry, Rubber, Manufacturing, Energy, Allied... the closure of the Federal Government from October 29, through October 30, 2012. Thus, all deadlines... Government Closure during Hurricane Sandy,'' dated October 31, 2012. On October 22, 2012, the Department...

  6. 77 FR 21527 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From the Republic of Korea: Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... in coils) and without patterns in relief), of iron or non-alloy quality steel; and (2) flat-rolled... rectangular or non-rectangular cross section where such non-rectangular cross-section is achieved subsequent... characteristics that are painted, varnished, or coated with plastic or other non-metallic substances are included...

  7. Temperature of Heating and Cooling of Massive, Thin, and Wedge-Shaped Plates from Hard-to-Machine Steels During Their Grinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dement‧ev, V. B.; Ivanova, T. N.; Dolginov, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Grinding of flat parts occurs by solid abrasive particles due to the physicomechanical process of deformation and to the action of a process liquid at high temperatures in a zone small in volume and difficult for observation. The rate of heating and cooling depends on the change in the intensity of the heat flux and in the velocity and time of action of the heat source. A study has been made of the regularities of the influence of each of these parameters on the depth and character of structural transformations during the grinding of flat parts from hard-to-machine steels. A procedure to calculate temperature in grinding massive, thin, and wedge-shaped parts has been developed with account taken of the geometric and thermophysical parameters of the tool and the treated part, and also of cutting regimes. The procedure can be used as a constituent part in developing a system for automatic design of the technological process of grinding of flat surfaces. A relationship between the temperature in the grinding zone and the regimes of treatment has been established which makes it possible to control the quality of the surface layer of massive, thin, and wedge-shaped plates from hard-to-machine steels. The rational boundaries of shift of cutting regimes have been determined.

  8. Reporting the Fatigue Life of 316L Stainless Steel Locking Compression Plate Implants: The Role of the Femoral and Tibial Biomechanics During the Gait.

    PubMed

    Rice, Devyn; Shaat, Mohamed

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the fatigue characteristics of femoral and tibial locking compression plate (LCP) implants are determined accounting for the knee biomechanics during the gait. A biomechanical model for the kinematics and kinetics of the knee joint during the complete gait cycle is proposed. The rotations of the femur, tibia, and patella about the knee joint during the gait are determined. Moreover, the patellar-tendon force (PT), quadriceps-tendon force (QT), the tibiofemoral joint force (TFJ), and the patellofemoral joint force (PFJ) through the standard gait cycle are obtained as functions of the body weight (BW). On the basis of the derived biomechanics of the knee joint, the fatigue factors of safety along with the fatigue life of 316L stainless steel femoral and tibial LCP implants are reported as functions of the BW and bone fracture location, for the first time. The reported results reveal that 316L stainless steel LCP implants for femoral surgeries are preferred for conditions in which the bone fracture is close to the knee joint and the BW is less than 80 kg. For tibial surgeries, 316L stainless steel LCP implants can be used for conditions in which the bone fracture is close to the knee joint and the BW is less than 100 kg. This study presents a critical guide for the determination of the fatigue characteristics of LCP implants. The obtained results reveal that the fatigue analyses should be performed on the basis of the body biomechanics to guarantee accurate designs of LCP implants for femoral and tibial orthopedic surgeries.

  9. A New Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer Design for Generating and Receiving S0 Lamb Waves in Ferromagnetic Steel Plate

    PubMed Central

    He, Jianpeng; Dixon, Steve; Hill, Samuel; Xu, Ke

    2017-01-01

    Electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) are non-contact, ultrasonic transducers that are usually kept within 5 mm from the sample surface to obtain a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). One important issue associated with operation on a ferromagnetic plate is that the strong attraction force from the magnet can affect measurements and make scanning difficult. This paper investigates a method to generate fundamental, symmetric Lamb waves on a ferromagnetic plate. A coil-only, low-weight, generation EMAT is designed and investigated, operating at lift-offs of over 5 mm. Another design of an EMAT is investigated using a rectangular magnet with a much higher lift-off than the coil, of up to 19 mm. This results in a much lower force between the EMAT and sample, making scanning the EMAT much easier. PMID:28471377

  10. Influence of Heat Treatments on the Microstructural Evolution and Resultant Mechanical Properties in a Low Carbon Medium Mn Heavy Steel Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Lv, Meng-yang; Liu, Zhen-yu; Wang, Guo-dong

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the microstructural evolution and resultant mechanical properties in a low carbon medium Mn heavy steel plate were investigated in detail. The results show that the introduction of medium manganese alloy design in the heavy steel plate has been shown to achieve the outstanding combination of strength, ductility, low-temperature impact toughness, and strain hardening capacity. It has been found that the austenite phase mainly displays at martensitic lath boundaries and shows lath shape for the heat treating at 873 K (600 °C) for 1 to 10 hours or 893 K (620 °C) for 2 hours, and not all the austenite phase obeys the K-S or N-W orientation relationship with respect to abutting martensitic lath. Although the microstructure in the steel after heat treating at 873 K (600 °C) for 1 to 10 hours is similar to each other, the resultant mechanical properties are very different because the volume fraction and stability of retained austenite vary with the heat treatments. The best low-temperature impact toughness is achieved after heat treating at 873 K (600 °C) for 2 hours due to the formation of a considerable volume fraction of retained austenite with relatively high stability, but the strain hardening capacity and ductility are disappointing because of insufficient TRIP effect. Based on enhancing TRIP effect, the two methods have been suggested. One is to increase the isothermal holding temperature to 893 K (620 °C), and the other one is to prolong the isothermal holding time to 10 hours at 873 K (600 °C). The two methods can significantly increase strain hardening capacity and ductility nearly without harming low-temperature impact toughness. In addition, the stability of retained austenite has been discussed by the quantitative analysis and it has been demonstrated that the stability of retained austenite is related to the chemical composition, size, and morphology. Moreover, the isothermal holding temperature has a great effect on the stability of

  11. Large-deflection-theory Analysis of the Effect of Web Initial Curvature on the Ultimate Strength of Steel Plate Girder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kala, Jiří; Kala, Zdeněk

    2011-09-01

    The objective of the paper is to analyze the influence of initial imperfections on the behaviour of thin-walled girders welded of slender plate elements. In parallel with experiments, one of the ultimate load tests was computer modelled. In so doing, the girder was modelled, using the geometrically and materially non-linear variant of the shell finite element method, by the ANSYS program. The shape changing during loading process is often accompanying with sudden "snap-through" i. e. rapid curvature change.

  12. Armor Plate Ballistic Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1944-08-02

    sistanoe to penotration characteristics. However, it is one of the most important factors involved, and when the type of steel , its soundness and its...this test and not to use it in comparing radically differdnt types of plates, such as steel and Dural. Such a comparison can be made only by examining...in many oases, For this reason it became necessary to develop an additional test for the oharaoteristio in rolled armor ( steel "soundness) and cast

  13. A Study on the compensation margin on butt welding joint of Large Steel plates during Shipbuilding construction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Jeong, H.; Ji, M.; Jeong, K.; Yun, C.; Lee, J.; Chung, H.

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines the characteristics of butt welding joint shrinkage for shipbuilding and marine structures main plate. The shrinkage strain of butt welding joint which is caused by the process of heat input and cooling, results in the difference between dimensions of the actual parent metal and the dimensions of design. This, in turn, leads to poor quality in the production of ship blocks and reworking through period of correction brings about impediment on improvement of productivity. Through experiments on butt welding joint's shrinkage strain on large structures main plate, the deformation of welding residual stress in the form of I, Y, V was obtained. In addition, the results of experiments indicate that there is limited range of shrinkage in the range of 1 ∼ 2 mm in 11t ∼ 21.5t thickness and the effect of heat transfer of weld appears to be limited within 1000 mm based on one side of seam line so there was limited impact of weight of parent metal on the shrinkage. Finally, it has been learned that Shrinkage margin needs to be applied differently based on groove phenomenon in the design phase in order to minimize shrinkage.

  14. Potentiodynamic studies of Ni-P-TiO2 nano-composited coating on the mild steel deposited by electroless plating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uttam, Vibha; Duchaniya, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    Now a days, corrosion studies are important for reducing the wastage of metals. The importance of corrosion studies is two folds i.e. first is economic, including the reduction of material losses resulting from the wasting away or sudden failure of materials and second is conservation Electroless process is an autocatalytic reduction method in which metallic ions are reduced in the solution. Nanocomposite coatings of Ni-P-TiO2 on mild steel are deposited by varying volume of TiO2 nano-powder by electroless method from Ni-P plating bath containing Nickel Sulphate as a source of nickel ions, sodium hypophosphite as the reducing agent, lactic acid as a complexing agents and TiO2 nano powder. Electroless Ni-P-TiO2 coating have been widely used in the chemical process industries, mechanical industries, electronic industries and chloroalkali industries due to their excellent corrosion with mechanical properties. In the present work, deposition of Ni-P alloy coating and Ni-P-TiO2 nanocomposited coatings were done on the mild steel and corrosion properties were studied with Potentio-dynamic polarization measurements method in 3.5 wt% sodium chloride solution. It showed in the experiments that Ni-P-TiO2 nanocomposited coating has better corrosion resistance as comparedthan Ni-P alloy coating. Morphological studies were done by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). These studies confirmed the deposition of Ni-P alloy coating and Ni-P-TiO2 nanocomposited coating.

  15. Potentiodynamic studies of Ni-P-TiO{sub 2} nano-composited coating on the mild steel deposited by electroless plating method

    SciTech Connect

    Uttam, Vibha, E-mail: vibhauttam74@gmail.com; Duchaniya, R. K., E-mail: rkduchaniya.meta@mnit.ac.in

    2016-05-06

    Now a days, corrosion studies are important for reducing the wastage of metals. The importance of corrosion studies is two folds i.e. first is economic, including the reduction of material losses resulting from the wasting away or sudden failure of materials and second is conservation Electroless process is an autocatalytic reduction method in which metallic ions are reduced in the solution. Nanocomposite coatings of Ni-P-TiO{sub 2} on mild steel are deposited by varying volume of TiO{sub 2} nano-powder by electroless method from Ni-P plating bath containing Nickel Sulphate as a source of nickel ions, sodium hypophosphite as the reducing agent,more » lactic acid as a complexing agents and TiO{sub 2} nano powder. Electroless Ni-P-TiO{sub 2} coating have been widely used in the chemical process industries, mechanical industries, electronic industries and chloroalkali industries due to their excellent corrosion with mechanical properties. In the present work, deposition of Ni-P alloy coating and Ni-P-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposited coatings were done on the mild steel and corrosion properties were studied with Potentio-dynamic polarization measurements method in 3.5 wt% sodium chloride solution. It showed in the experiments that Ni-P-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposited coating has better corrosion resistance as comparedthan Ni-P alloy coating. Morphological studies were done by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy–dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). These studies confirmed the deposition of Ni-P alloy coating and Ni-P-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposited coating.« less

  16. An Approach to Maximize Weld Penetration During TIG Welding of P91 Steel Plates by Utilizing Image Processing and Taguchi Orthogonal Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Akhilesh Kumar; Debnath, Tapas; Dey, Vidyut; Rai, Ram Naresh

    2017-10-01

    P-91 is modified 9Cr-1Mo steel. Fabricated structures and components of P-91 has a lot of application in power and chemical industry owing to its excellent properties like high temperature stress corrosion resistance, less susceptibility to thermal fatigue at high operating temperatures. The weld quality and surface finish of fabricated structure of P91 is very good when welded by Tungsten Inert Gas welding (TIG). However, the process has its limitation regarding weld penetration. The success of a welding process lies in fabricating with such a combination of parameters that gives maximum weld penetration and minimum weld width. To carry out an investigation on the effect of the autogenous TIG welding parameters on weld penetration and weld width, bead-on-plate welds were carried on P91 plates of thickness 6 mm in accordance to a Taguchi L9 design. Welding current, welding speed and gas flow rate were the three control variables in the investigation. After autogenous (TIG) welding, the dimension of the weld width, weld penetration and weld area were successfully measured by an image analysis technique developed for the study. The maximum error for the measured dimensions of the weld width, penetration and area with the developed image analysis technique was only 2 % compared to the measurements of Leica-Q-Win-V3 software installed in optical microscope. The measurements with the developed software, unlike the measurements under a microscope, required least human intervention. An Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) confirms the significance of the selected parameters. Thereafter, Taguchi's method was successfully used to trade-off between maximum penetration and minimum weld width while keeping the weld area at a minimum.

  17. Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Welded High Strength Steel Plate Using SMAW and SAW Method for LPG Storage Tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winarto, Winarto; Riastuti, Rini; Kumeidi, Nur

    2018-03-01

    Indonesian government policy to convert energy consumption for domestic household from kerosene to liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) may lead to the increasing demand for LPG storage tank. LPG storage tank with a large capacity generally used the HSLA steel material of ASTM A516 Grade 70 joined by SMAW or combination between SMAW and SAW method. The heat input can affect the microstructure and mechanical properties of the weld area. The input heat is proportional to the welding current and the arc voltage, but inversely proportional to its welding speed. The result shows that the combination of SMAW-SAW process yield the lower hardness in the HAZ and the fusion zone compared to the singe SMAW process. PWHT mainly applied to reduce residual stress of welded joint. The result shows that PWHT can reduce the hardness in the HAZ and the fusion zone in comparing with the singe SMAW process. The microstructure of weld joint shows a coarser structure in the combined welding process (SMAW-SAW) comparing with the single welding process (SMAW).

  18. Influence of specimen thickness on the fatigue behavior of notched steel plates subjected to laser shock peening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granados-Alejo, V.; Rubio-González, C.; Vázquez-Jiménez, C. A.; Banderas, J. A.; Gómez-Rosas, G.

    2018-05-01

    The influence of specimen thickness on the fatigue crack initiation of 2205 duplex stainless steel notched specimens subjected to laser shock peening (LSP) was investigated. The purpose was to examine the effectiveness of LSP on flat components with different thicknesses. For the LSP treatment a Nd:YAG pulsed laser operating at 10 Hz with 1064 nm of wavelength was used; pulse density was 2500 pulses/cm2. The LSP setup was the waterjet arrangement without sample coating. Residual stress distribution as a function of depth was determined by the hole drilling method. Notched specimens 2, 3 and 4 mm thick were LSP treated on both faces and then fatigue loading was applied with R = 0.1. Experimental fatigue lives were compared with life predictions from finite element simulation. A good comparison of the predicted and experimental fatigue lives was observed. LSP finite element simulation helps in explaining the influence of thickness on fatigue lives in terms of equivalent plastic strain distribution variations associated with the change in thickness. It is demonstrated that specimen size effect is an important issue in applying LSP on real components. Reducing the specimen thickness, the fatigue life improvement induced by LSP is significantly increased. Fatigue life extension up to 300% is observed on thin specimens with LSP.

  19. Material identification of real impact sounds: effects of size variation in steel, glass, wood, and plexiglass plates.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Bruno L; McAdams, Stephen

    2006-02-01

    Identification of the material of struck objects of variable size was investigated. Previous studies on this issue assumed recognition to be based on acoustical measures of damping. This assumption was tested, comparing the power of a damping measure in explaining identification data with that of several other acoustical descriptors. Listeners' performance was perfect with respect to gross material categories (steel-glass and wood-plexiglass) comprising materials of vastly different mechanical properties. Impaired performance was observed for materials within the same gross category, identification being based on the size of the objects alone. The damping descriptor accounted for the identification of the gross categories. However other descriptors such as signal duration explained the results equally well. Materials within the same gross category were identified mainly on the basis of signal frequency. Overall poor support for the relevance of damping to material perception was found. An analysis of the acoustical support for perfect material identification was carried out. Sufficient acoustical information for perfect performance was found. Thus, procedural biases for the origin of the effects of size could be discarded, pointing toward their cognitive, rather than methodological nature. Identification performance was explained in terms of the regularities of the everyday acoustical environment.

  20. Short communication: A comparison of biofilm development on stainless steel and modified-surface plate heat exchangers during a 17-h milk pasteurization run.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Shivali; Anand, Sanjeev; Metzger, Lloyd; Amamcharla, Jayendra

    2018-04-01

    Flow of milk through the plate heat exchanger (PHE) results in denaturation of proteins, resulting in fouling. This also accelerates bacterial adhesion on the PHE surface, eventually leading to the development of biofilms. During prolonged processing, these biofilms result in shedding of bacteria and cross-contaminate the milk being processed, thereby limiting the duration of production runs. Altering the surface properties of PHE, such as surface energy and hydrophobicity, could be an effective approach to reduce biofouling. This study was conducted to compare the extent of biofouling on native stainless steel (SS) and modified-surface [Ni-P-polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)] PHE during the pasteurization of raw milk for an uninterrupted processing run of 17 h. For microbial studies, raw and pasteurized milk samples were aseptically collected from inlets and outlets of both PHE at various time intervals to examine shedding of bacteria in the milk. At the end of the run, 3M quick swabs (3M, St. Paul, MN) and ATP swabs (Charm Sciences Inc., Lawrence, MA) were used to sample plates from different sections of the pasteurizers (regeneration, heating, and cooling) for biofilm screening and to estimate the efficiency of cleaning in place, respectively. The data were tested for ANOVA, and means were compared. Modified PHE experienced lower mesophilic and thermophilic bacterial attachment and biofilm formation (average log 1.0 and 0.99 cfu/cm 2 , respectively) in the regenerative section of the pasteurizer compared with SS PHE (average log 1.49 and 1.47, respectively). Similarly, higher relative light units were observed for SS PHE compared with the modified PHE, illustrating the presence of more organic matter on the surface of SS PHE at the end of the run. In addition, at h 17, milk collected from the outlet of SS PHE showed plate counts of 5.44 cfu/cm 2 , which were significantly higher than those for pasteurized milk collected from modified PHE (4.12 log cfu/cm 2 ). This

  1. Fast identification of dermatophytes by MALDI-TOF/MS using direct transfer of fungal cells on ground steel target plates.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Keith C; Riat, Arnaud; Normand, Anne-Cecile; Bosshard, Philipp P; de Almeida, Margarete T G; Piarroux, Renaud; Schrenzel, Jacques; Fontao, Lionel

    2018-05-15

    Dermatophytes cause human infections limited to keratinized tissues. We showed that the direct transfer method allows reliable identification of non-dermatophytes mould and yeast by MALDI-TOF/MS. We aimed at assessing whether the direct transfer method can be used for dermatophytes and whether an own mass spectra library would be superior to the Bruker library. We used the Bruker Biotyper to build a dermatophyte mass spectra library and assessed its performance by 1/ testing a panel of mass spectrum produced with strains genotypically identified and, 2/ comparing MALDI-TOF/MS identification to morphology-based methods. Identification of dermatophytes using the Bruker library is poor. Our library provided 97% concordance between ITS sequencing and MALDI-TOF/MS analysis with a panel of 1104 spectra corresponding to 276 strains. Direct transfer method using unpolished target plates allowed proper identification of 85% of dermatophytes clinical isolates most of which were common dermatophytes. A homemade dermatophyte MSP library is a prerequisite for accurate identification of species absent in the Bruker library but it also improves identification of species already listed in the database. The direct deposit method can be used to identify the most commonly found dermatophytes such as T. rubrum and T. interdigitale/mentagrophytes by MALDI-TOF/MS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. The influence of visco-elastic processes on the generation of thermal stresses in quenched low alloy steel plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, F.

    The visco-elastic effect in quenched specimens of 835M30 steel was described quantitatively by the use of the standard linear solid, which allowed the calculation of the thermal stress and strain during quenching in water, oil and in a martempering situation. The introduction of viscous flow into the calculation produced a marked improvement in the degree of agreement between the calculated and experimental residual stresses after an oil quench, although this was accompanied by a small reduction in the corresponding agreement in the case of water quench. The use of isothermal stress relaxation data in a continuous cooling situation was dealt with by the use of several models that cover a range of situations that varied from progressive hardening during the quench to one where recovery was predominant at all times. The use of martempering was of limited value, although an air cool following an intermediate salt bath treatment above the Ms temperature prevented the generation of thermal stresses during the formation of martensite. The use of an oil quench following the salt bath treatment was of no value, and none of the combinations of heat treatment possible during martempering significantly reduced the distortions to a lower level than was obtained by a conventional oil quench from 850°C. The mathematical model was also extended to include the effect of transformation plasticity, viz. the effect of an applied stress on the volume change that accompanied a phase transformation, as a consequence of heterogeneous plastic flow. This led to an excellent level of agreement between calculation and experiment in the case of residual stresses: it also produced adeterioration in the case of residual strains. Although some further work is required, the mathematical model has been developed sufficiently for it to be of practical value.

  3. CALUTRON FACE PLATE

    DOEpatents

    Brobeck, W.M.

    1959-08-25

    The construction of a removable cover plate for a calutron tank is described. The plate is fabricated of a rectangular frame member to which is welded a bowed or dished plate of thin steel, reinforced with transverse stiffening ribs. When the tank is placed between the poles of a magnet, the plate may be pivoted away from the tank and magnet and is adapted to support the ion separation mechanism secured to its inner side as well as the vacuum load within the tank.

  4. Simulations and measurements of artificial cracks and pits in flat stainless steel plates using tone burst eddy-current thermography (TBET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libin, M. N.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Maxfield, B. W.; Krishnamurthy, C. V.

    2013-01-01

    Tone Burst Eddy current Thermography (TBET) is a new hybrid, non-contacting, Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) method which employs a combination of Pulsed Eddy current Thermography (PEC) and Thermographic Non-Destructive Evaluation (TNDE). For understanding the influence of cracking and pitting on heat generation and flow within a metallic body, a fundamental knowledge of the detailed induced current density distribution in the component under test is required. This information enables us to calculate the amount of heat produced by the defects and how that heat diffuses to the surface where it is imaged. This paper describes simulation work done for artificial pits and cracks within pits on the far surface of poorly conducting metals like stainless steel. The first phase of this investigation simulates the transient thermal distribution for artificial 2D pit and crack-like defects using the finite element package COMSOL multi-physics with the AC/DC module and general heat transfer. Considering the reflection measurement geometry where thermal excitation and temperature monitoring are on the same surface, pitting reduces the material volume thereby contributing to a larger temperature rise for the same thermal energy input. A crack within a pit gives a further increase in temperature above the pure pit baseline. The tone burst frequency can be changed to obtain approximately uniform heating (low frequency) or heating of a thin region at the observation surface. Although front surface temperature changes due to 10% deep far-side pits in a 6 mm thick plate can be measured, it is not yet clear whether a 20% deep crack within this pit can be discriminated against the background. Both simulations and measurements will be presented. The objective of this work is to determine whether the TBET method is suitable for the detection and characterization of far side pitting, cracking and cracks within those pits.

  5. Fractography and mechanisms of environmentally enhanced fatigue crack propagation of a reactor pressure vessel steel

    SciTech Connect

    Torronen, K.; Kemppainen, M.

    1981-10-01

    This paper describes the findings and interpretations of the fractographic survey conducted for the International Cyclic Crack Growth Rate (ICCGR) cooperative group round-robin specimens. Specimens of A533B pressure vessel steel were tested at several laboratories in the United States and elsewhere with the same nominal test parameters. A rather wide scatter of the results was found. A fractographic and metallographic survey was carried out in order to clarify the scatter and to evaluate the micromechanism of the crack growth. The fractographic findings are reported in detail and correlated to the crack growth behavior. A hydrogen-assisted crack propagation mechanism based onmore » the fractography is proposed and applied to the observed crack growth behavior.« less

  6. Standarized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A steel flat-plate collector with two transparent covers and a proprietary coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator are given. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperature and flux level.

  7. 49 CFR 230.26 - Tensile strength of shell plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tensile strength of shell plates. 230.26 Section... Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.26 Tensile strength of shell plates. When the tensile strength of steel or wrought-iron shell plates is not known, it shall be taken at 50,000 psi for steel and 45,000...

  8. 49 CFR 230.26 - Tensile strength of shell plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tensile strength of shell plates. 230.26 Section... Appurtenances Strength of Materials § 230.26 Tensile strength of shell plates. When the tensile strength of steel or wrought-iron shell plates is not known, it shall be taken at 50,000 psi for steel and 45,000...

  9. Influence of the pulsed plasma treatment on the corrosion resistance of the low-alloy steel plated by Ni-based alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhumaev, P.; Yakushin, V.; Kalin, B.; Polsky, V.; Yurlova, M.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents investigation results of the influence of high temperature pulsed plasma flows (HTPPF) treatment on the corrosion resistance of low-alloy steel 0.2C-Cr-Mn- Ni-Mo cladded by the rapidly quenched nickel-based alloy. A technique that allows obtaining a defect-free clad layer with a good adhesion to the substrate was developed. It is shown that the preliminary treatment of steel samples by nitrogen plasma flows significantly increases their corrosion resistance in the conditions of intergranular corrosion test in a water solution of sulfuric acid. A change of the corrosion mechanism of the clad layer from intergranular to uniform corrosion was observed as a result of sub-microcrystalline structure formation and homogeneous distribution of alloying elements in the plasma treated surface layer thus leading to the significant increase of the corrosion resistance.

  10. Ballistics Tests of Fibrous Concrete Dome and Plate Specimens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    x 0.22 x 1 in. chopped steel fibers from U.S. Steel. KG denotes 1 in. fiberglass fibers from Owens - Corning . Table 3 Dome Test Results Test Fiber...1 in. drawn steel fibers Innii National Standard. FG denotes fiberglass fibers from Owens - Corning . Table 4b 30-Callber Machine Gun Plate Teat...drawn steel fibers from National Standard. FG denotes fiberglass fibers from Owens - Corning . { ♦ Tabk4c 45-Callbcr Pbtol Plate Teat Reantti lypeof

  11. Investigation on localized corrosion of 304 stainless steel joints brazed using Sn-plated Ag alloy filler in NaCl aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingxing; Li, Shuai; Peng, Jin

    2018-03-01

    Novel AgCuZnSn filler metal with high Sn contents was prepared from BAg50CuZn filler metal by a process of electroplating and thermal diffusion, and the prepared filler metal was applied to induction brazing of 304 stainless steel. The corrosion behavior of the brazed joints was evaluated based on localized corrosion analysis, the morphology of the joints were analyzed by SEM after immersion in a 3.5 vol% NaCl aqueous solution. The results indicated that corrosion groove occurred near the interface between the stainless steel base metal and the brazing seam. A wide range of defects such as holes and cracks appeared on the surface of the base metal, while the brazing seam zone almost no corrosion defects occur. With the increase of corrosion time, the corrosion rates of both the brazing seam and the base metal first exhibited an increasing trend, followed by a decreasing trend, and the corrosion rate of the base metal was slightly greater than that of the brazing seam. The corrosion potential of the brazing seam and 304 stainless steel were -0.7758 V and -0.7863 V, respectively.

  12. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE 140' PLATE MILL. SECTION ON THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE 140' PLATE MILL. SECTION ON THE RIGHT ONCE HOUSED THE 32' UNIVERSAL SLABBING MILL - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 140" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  13. 21 CFR 882.5360 - Cranioplasty plate fastener.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... fastener. (a) Identification. A cranioplasty plate fastener is a screw, wire, or other article made of tantalum, vitallium, or stainless steel used to secure a plate to the patient's skull to repair a skull...

  14. 21 CFR 882.5360 - Cranioplasty plate fastener.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... fastener. (a) Identification. A cranioplasty plate fastener is a screw, wire, or other article made of tantalum, vitallium, or stainless steel used to secure a plate to the patient's skull to repair a skull...

  15. Cold plate

    DOEpatents

    Marroquin, Christopher M.; O'Connell, Kevin M.; Schultz, Mark D.; Tian, Shurong

    2018-02-13

    A cold plate, an electronic assembly including a cold plate, and a method for forming a cold plate are provided. The cold plate includes an interface plate and an opposing plate that form a plenum. The cold plate includes a plurality of active areas arranged for alignment over respective heat generating portions of an electronic assembly, and non-active areas between the active areas. A cooling fluid flows through the plenum. The plenum, at the non-active areas, has a reduced width and/or reduced height relative to the plenum at the active areas. The reduced width and/or height of the plenum, and exterior dimensions of cold plate, at the non-active areas allow the non-active areas to flex to accommodate surface variations of the electronics assembly. The reduced width and/or height non-active areas can be specifically shaped to fit between physical features of the electronics assembly.

  16. Cadmium plating replacements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Mary J.; Groshart, Earl C.

    1995-01-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  17. 19. VIEW OF THE PLATING BATHS AND CONTROL PANELS. GOLD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF THE PLATING BATHS AND CONTROL PANELS. GOLD AND SILVER WERE AMONG THE MATERIALS PLATED ONTO PARTS MADE OF COPPER, STAINLESS STEEL AND STEEL. (11/15/89) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  18. Influence of elastomeric seal plate surface chemistry on interface integrity in biofouling-prone systems: Evaluation of a hydrophobic "easy-release" silicone-epoxy coating for maintaining water seal integrity of a sliding neoprene/steel interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andolina, Vincent L.

    The scientific hypothesis of this work is that modulation of the properties of hard materials to exhibit abrasion-reducing and low-energy surfaces will extend the functional lifetimes of elastomeric seals pressed against them in abrasive underwater systems. The initial motivation of this work was to correct a problem noted in the leaking of seals at major hydropower generating facilities subject to fouling by abrasive zebra mussel shells and extensive corrosion. Similar biofouling-influenced problems can develop at seals in medical devices and appliances from regulators in anesthetic machines and SCUBA diving oxygen supply units to autoclave door seals, injection syringe gaskets, medical pumps, drug delivery components, and feeding devices, as well as in food handling equipment like pasteurizers and transfer lines. Maritime and many other heavy industrial seal interfaces could also benefit from this coating system. Little prior work has been done to elucidate the relationship of seal plate surface properties to the friction and wear of elastomeric seals during sliding contacts of these articulating materials, or to examine the secondary influence of mineralized debris within the contacting interfaces. This investigation utilized the seal materials relevant to the hydropower application---neoprene elastomer against carbon steel---with and without the application of a silicone-epoxy coating (WearlonRTM 2020.98) selected for its wear-resistance, hydrophobicity, and "easy-release" capabilities against biological fouling debris present in actual field use. Analytical techniques applied to these materials before and after wear-producing processes included comprehensive Contact Angle measurements for Critical Surface Tension (CA-CST) determination, Scanning Electron Microscopic inspections, together with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) measurements for determination of surface texture and inorganic composition, Multiple

  19. Ion plating studies for high temperature applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental project was undertaken to ion plate, by electron beam evaporation, Al films onto 4340 steel substrates using (and at the time troubleshooting) the custom built V.T.A. 7375 electron beam ion plating system. A careful recent literature and commercial vendor survey indicates possible means of improving the trouble plagued V.T.A. system.

  20. Interface waves in multilayered plates.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Li, Ming-Hang; Lu, Tong

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the characteristic equation of interface waves in multilayered plates is derived. With a reasonable assumption undertaken for the potential functions of longitudinal and shear waves in the nth layer medium, the characteristic equation of interface waves in the N-layered plate is derived and presented in a determinant form. The particle displacement and stress components are further presented in explicit forms. The dispersion curves and wave structures of interface waves in both a three-layered Al-Steel-Ti and a four-layered Steel-Al-Steel-Ti plate are displayed subsequently. It is observed in dispersion curves that obvious dispersion occurs on the low frequency band, whereas the phase velocities converge to the corresponding true Stoneley wave mode velocities at high frequency, and the number of interface wave modes equals the number of interfaces in multilayered plates (if all individual interfaces satisfy the existence condition of Stoneley waves). The wave structures reveal that the displacement components of interface waves are relatively high at interfaces, and the amplitude distribution varies from frequency to frequency. In the end, a similarly structured three-layered Al-Steel-Ti plate is tested. In this experiment, theoretical group velocity and experimental group velocity are compared. According to the discussion and comparison, the predicted group velocities are in good agreement with the experimental results. Thus, the theory of interface wave in multilayered plates is proved. As a result, the proposed theoretical approach represents a leap forward in the understanding of how to promote the characteristic study and practical applications of interface waves in multilayered structures.

  1. Behaviour of Plate Anchorage in Plate-Reinforced Composite Coupling Beams

    PubMed Central

    Lam, W. Y.; Li, Lingzhi; Su, R. K. L.; Pam, H. J.

    2013-01-01

    As a new alternative design, plate-reinforced composite (PRC) coupling beam achieves enhanced strength and ductility by embedding a vertical steel plate into a conventionally reinforced concrete (RC) coupling beam. Based on a nonlinear finite element model developed in the authors' previous study, a parametric study presented in this paper has been carried out to investigate the influence of several key parameters on the overall performance of PRC coupling beams. The effects of steel plate geometry, span-to-depth ratio of beams, and steel reinforcement ratios at beam spans and in wall regions are quantified. It is found that the anchorage length of the steel plate is primarily controlled by the span-to-depth ratio of the beam. Based on the numerical results, a design curve is proposed for determining the anchorage length of the steel plate. The load-carrying capacity of short PRC coupling beams with high steel ratio is found to be controlled by the steel ratio of wall piers. The maximum shear stress of PRC coupling beams should be limited to 15 MPa. PMID:24288465

  2. 77 FR 27438 - Certain Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Korea: Final Results of Expedited...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ...- rolled steel products either plated or coated with tin, lead, chromium, chromium oxides, both tin and lead (``terne plate''), or both chromium and chromium oxides (``tin-free steel''), whether or not...

  3. Scientific and Technological Principles of Development of New Cold-Resistant Arc-Steels (Steels for Arctic Applications)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sych, O. V.; Khlusova, E. I.; Yashin, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents the results of quantitative analysis of C, Mn, Ni and Cu content on strength and cold-resistance of rolled plates. Relations between the ferritic-bainitic structure morphology and anisotropy and steel performance characteristics have been established. Influence of thermal and deformation rolling patterns on steel structure has been studied. The steel chemical composition has been improved and precision thermomechanical processing conditions for production of cold-resistant Arc-steel plates have been developed.

  4. Peen plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babecki, A. J. (Inventor); Haehner, C. L.

    1973-01-01

    A process for metal plating which comprises spraying a mixture of metallic powder and small peening particles at high velocity against a surface is described. The velocity must be sufficient to impact and bond metallic powder onto the surface. In the case of metal surfaces, the process has as one of its advantages providing mechanical working (hardening) of the surface simultaneously with the metal plating.

  5. [Experimental study on carbon fiber reinforced plastic plate--analysis of stabilizing force required for plate].

    PubMed

    Iizuka, H

    1990-11-01

    Plates currently in use for the management of bone fracture made of metal present with various problems. We manufactured carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) plates from Pyrofil T/530 puriplegs overlaid at cross angles of +/- 10 degrees, +/- 20 degrees, and +/- 30 degrees for trial and carried out an experimental study on rabbit tibiofibular bones using 316L stainless steel plates of comparable shape and size as controls. The results indicate the influence of CFRP plate upon cortical bone was milder than that of stainless steel plate, with an adequate stabilizing force for the repair of fractured rabbit tibiofibular bones. CFRP has the advantages over metals of being virtually free from corrosion and fatigue, reasonably radiolucent and able to meet a wide range of mechanical requirements. This would make CFRP plate quite promising as a new devices of treating fracture of bones.

  6. Research Investigation of Armor Plate Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1942-02-20

    heats at three different hardness levels, The results were plotbed as curves which are given in Figures 84 to 99 inclusive. Jominy hardonability ...inclusive) were selected, along with the 27 heats listed in the Febri ry 6 report, to indicate the hardonability characteristics of the original...are shown as Figures 84 to 99, inclusive. G. Jominy Hardonability Study. End quench hardenability tests wore made on the remaining hoats studied to date

  7. Aircraft Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-19

    component usage. PH 13-8Mo is a precipitation-hardenable martensitic stainless steel combining excellent corrosion resistance with strength. Custom 465 is...a martensitic , age-hardenable stainless steel capable of about 1,724 MPa (250 ksi) UTS when peak-aged (H900 condition). Especially, this steel can...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Five high strength steels (4340, 300M, AerMet 100, Ferrium S53, and Hy-Tuf) and four stainless steels (High Nitrogen, 13

  8. ILC TARGET WHEEL RIM FRAGMENT/GUARD PLATE IMPACT ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Hagler, L

    2008-07-17

    A positron source component is needed for the International Linear Collider Project. The leading design concept for this source is a rotating titanium alloy wheel whose spokes rotate through an intense localized magnetic field. The system is composed of an electric motor, flexible motor/drive-shaft coupling, stainless steel drive-shaft, two Plumber's Block tapered roller bearings, a titanium alloy target wheel, and electromagnet. Surrounding the target wheel and magnet is a steel frame with steel guarding plates intended to contain shrapnel in case of catastrophic wheel failure. Figure 1 is a layout of this system (guard plates not shown for clarity). Thismore » report documents the FEA analyses that were performed at LLNL to help determine, on a preliminary basis, the required guard plate thickness for three potential plate steels.« less

  9. Preparation of corrosion-resistant and conductive trivalent Cr-C coatings on 304 stainless steel for use as bipolar plates in proton exchange membrane fuel cells by electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hsiang-Cheng; Sheu, Hung-Hua; Lu, Chen-En; Hou, Kung-Hsu; Ger, Ming-Der

    2015-10-01

    In this study, Cr-C-coated bipolar plates are produced by electroplating on the SS304 plates with a machined flow channel. The resulting plates were tested using potentiodynamic and potentiostatic measurements in simulated PEMFC environments, which show that the bipolar plate coated with Cr-C exhibited good anticorrosion performance. The corrosive current density of the Cr-C coating formed for a plating time of 10 min for 10 h exhibits a low stable value of 1.51 × 10-10 A/cm2 during the potentiostatic test in a 0.5 M H2SO4 + 2 ppm HF solution at 70 °C with an air purge, indicating that the Cr-C coating plated for 10 min is stable in a cathode environment. The interfacial contact resistance (ICR) of the bipolar plate with the Cr-C coating clearly improved, presenting an ICR of 19.52 mΩ cm2 at a pressure of 138 N/cm2. The results from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ICR before and after the corrosion tests indicate that the bipolar plate with the Cr-C coating is electrochemically stable. In this study, the maximum power density (212.41 mW/cm2) is obtained at a cell temperature of 80 °C and a gas flow rate of 300 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm) when Cr-C coated SS304 bipolar plates were used.

  10. Complicated sternal dehiscence: reconstruction with plates, cables, and cannulated screws.

    PubMed

    Voss, Bernhard; Bauernschmitt, Robert; Brockmann, Gernot; Krane, Markus; Will, Albrecht; Lange, Rüdiger

    2009-04-01

    Sternal dehiscence after median sternotomy can be a challenging problem in case of multiple fractures or infection. For sternal refixation, the principles of rigid plate and screw osteosynthesis gained from orthopedic surgery have been recommended by several authors. We present a new system for sternal reconstruction consisting of reconstruction plates, steel cables, and cannulated screws.

  11. DETECTION OF BACTERIAL BIOFILM ON STAINLESS STEEL BY HYPERSPECTRAL FLUORESCENCE IMAGING

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, hyperspectral fluorescence imaging techniques were investigated for detection of microbial biofilm on stainless steel plates typically used to manufacture food processing equipment. Stainless steel coupons were immersed in bacterium cultures consisting of nonpathogenic E. coli, Pseudo...

  12. Design of Fully Austenitic Medium Manganese Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, G.; Volkova, O.; Mola, J.

    2018-06-01

    Due to their higher ferrite potential compared to high Mn twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steels, medium Mn steels usually exhibit austenitic-ferritic microstructures, which makes them suitable for third-generation advanced high-strength steel applications. Nevertheless, the strain hardening characteristics of medium Mn steels are inferior to those of fully austenitic high Mn steels. The present work introduces alloy design strategies to obtain fully austenitic medium Mn steels capable of the TWIP effect. To achieve a fully austenitic microstructure, the martensite start temperature is reduced by raising the C concentration to above 1 mass-%, which in turn facilitates the formation of cementite. The formation of cementite during cooling from austenitization temperature is counteracted by alloying with Al. Microstructural examination of slowly-cooled Fe‑Mn‑Al‑C and Fe‑Mn‑C steels indicated that Al changes the morphology of intergranular cementite from plate-shaped to equiaxed.

  13. Plate Wave Resonance with Air-Coupled Ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar, H. N.; Dayal, V.; Barnard, D.; Hsu, D. K.

    2010-02-01

    Air-coupled ultrasonic transducers can excite plate waves in metals and composites. The coincidence effect, i.e., the wave vector of plate wave coincides with projection of exciting airborne sound vector, leads to a resonance which strongly amplifies the sound transmission through the plate. The resonance depends on the angle of incidence and the frequency. In the present study, the incidence angle for maximum transmission (θmax) is measured in plates of steel, aluminum, carbon fiber reinforced composites and honeycomb sandwich panels. The variations of (θmax) with plate thickness are compared with theoretical values in steel, aluminum and quasi-isotropic carbon fiber composites. The enhanced transmission of air-coupled ultrasound at oblique incidence can substantially improve the probability of flaw detection in plates and especially in honeycomb structures. Experimental air-coupled ultrasonic scan of subtle flaws in CFRP laminates showed definite improvement of signal-to-noise ratio with oblique incidence at θmax.

  14. Investigation of the plastic fracture of high strength steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, T. B.; Low, J. R., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    This investigation deals in detail with the three recognized stages of plastic fracture in high strength steels, namely, void initiation, void growth, and void coalescence. The particular steels under investigation include plates from both commercial purity and high purity heats of AISI 4340 and 18 Ni, 200 grade maraging steels. A scanning electron microscope equipped with an X-ray energy dispersive analyzer, together with observations made using light microscopy, revealed methods of improving the resistance of high strength steels to plastic fracture.

  15. Corrugated cover plate for flat plate collector

    DOEpatents

    Hollands, K. G. Terry; Sibbitt, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    A flat plate radiant energy collector is providing having a transparent cover. The cover has a V-corrugated shape which reduces the amount of energy reflected by the cover away from the flat plate absorber of the collector.

  16. Stresses in pin-loaded orthotropic plates using photoelasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, M. W.; Liu, D.

    1984-01-01

    The stresses in transparent glass-epoxy plates loaded by a steel pin through a hole were determined by photoelasticity. The stresses around the hole edge, across the net section, along the shear out line, and on the centerline below the hole for quasiisotropic, unidirectional, and angle ply plates are outlined. Stresses in an isotropic comparison specimen are also presented. Stress concentration factors for several locations around the plates are tabulated. The experimental apparatus and the experimental technique are discussed. The isochromatic and isoclinic fringe patterns for the four plates are shown. A description of the necessary photoelastic theory is appended.

  17. Notch sensitivity jeopardizes titanium locking plate fatigue strength.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Wo-Jan; Chao, Ching-Kong; Wang, Chun-Chin; Lin, Jinn

    2016-12-01

    Notch sensitivity may compromise titanium-alloy plate fatigue strength. However, no studies providing head-to-head comparisons of stainless-steel or titanium-alloy locking plates exist. Custom-designed identically structured locking plates were made from stainless steel (F138 and F1314) or titanium alloy. Three screw-hole designs were compared: threaded screw-holes with angle edges (type I); threaded screw-holes with chamfered edges (type II); and non-threaded screw-holes with chamfered edges (type III). The plates' bending stiffness, bending strength, and fatigue life, were investigated. The stress concentration at the screw threads was assessed using finite element analyses (FEA). The titanium plates had higher bending strength than the F1314 and F138 plates (2.95:1.56:1) in static loading tests. For all metals, the type-III plate fatigue life was highest, followed by type-II and type-I. The type-III titanium plates had longer fatigue lives than their F138 counterparts, but the type-I and type-II titanium plates had significantly shorter fatigue lives. All F1314 plate types had longer fatigue lives than the type-III titanium plates. The FEA showed minimal stress difference (0.4%) between types II and III, but the stress for types II and III was lower (11.9% and 12.4%) than that for type I. The screw threads did not cause stress concentration in the locking plates in FEA, but may have jeopardized the fatigue strength, especially in the notch-sensitive titanium plates. Improvement to the locking plate design is necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High-strength braze joints between copper and steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, R. F.

    1967-01-01

    High-strength braze joints between copper and steel are produced by plating the faying surface of the copper with a layer of gold. This reduces porosity in the braze area and strengthens the resultant joint.

  19. 75 FR 8746 - Certain Steel Grating From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... sheet or thin plate steel that has been slit and expanded, and does not involve welding or joining of..., that has been pierced and cold formed, and does not involve welding or joining of multiple pieces of...

  20. Investigation of Prefabricated Steel-Truss Bridge Deck System

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-11-01

    Steel truss bridges are an efficient and aesthetic option for highway crossings. Their relatively light weight compared with plate girder systems make them a desirable alternative for both material savings and constructability. A prototype of a welde...

  1. Sputtering and ion plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on sputtering and ion plating are presented. Subjects discussed are: (1) concepts and applications of ion plating, (2) sputtering for deposition of solid film lubricants, (3) commercial ion plating equipment, (4) industrial potential for ion plating and sputtering, and (5) fundamentals of RF and DC sputtering.

  2. Improved Heat Treatment Of Steel Alloy 4340

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Lawrence B.

    1993-01-01

    New process takes significantly less time than prior heat-treatment processes. Involves placing steel plate directly in furnace and heat-treating. Plate then quenched in slowly moving oil to reduce stresses. Any deflection then pressed out. Possible uses of 4340 steel include new and improved bulletproof vests for military and police personnel and armor for bulletproof automobiles for military, police, diplomatic, and private users. Also used in other military land vehicles as tanks and in both military and civilian aircraft. Lighter armorplate enables land vehicles and aircraft to attain greater speed and maneuverability, consume less fuel, and afford better protection from snipers or terrorists.

  3. Variation of solar-selective properties of black chrome with plating time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E.; Curtis, H. B.

    1975-01-01

    The spectral reflectance properties of a commercially prepared black chrome over dull nickel, both plated on steel, for various plating times of the black chrome were measured. The plating current was 180 amperes per square foot. Values of absorptance integrated over the solar spectrum, and of infrared emittance integrated over black-body radiation at 250 F were obtained. It is shown that plating between one and two minutes produces the optimum combination of highest heat absorbed and lowest heat lost by radiation.

  4. 78 FR 16832 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and the Republic of Korea: Revocation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    .... Excluded from the scope of the orders are flat-rolled steel products either plated or coated with tin, lead, chromium, chromium oxides, both tin and lead (``terne plate''), or both chromium and chromium oxides (``tin...

  5. Metallurgical Aspects of Layered Cracks in Hot-Rolled Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farber, V. M.; Arabey, A. B.; Khotinov, V. A.; Morozova, A. N.; Karabanalov, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    The nature of separations arising in hot-rolled plates from high-toughness steels of the new generation like 05G2B and of cleavages arising in traditional building steels of type 09G2S is studied. Like and unlike features of separations and cleavages are determined. The concept of "critical stress σb^{cr} " describing the strength of the interlayer boundaries responsible for formation of layered cracks is used to analyze various factors responsible for the susceptibility of rolled plates to layered fracture.

  6. Comparison of characteristics of fluorine doped zinc and gallium tin oxide composite thin films deposited on stainless steel 316 bipolar plate by electron cyclotron resonance-metal organic chemical vapor deposition for proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Jihun; Hudaya, Chairul; Lee, Joong Kee

    2011-09-01

    In order to replace the brittle graphite bipolar plates currently used for the PEMFC stack, coated SUS 316 was employed. As a metallic bipolar plate, coated SUS 316 can provide higher mechanical strength, better durability to shocks and vibration, less permeability, improved thermal and bulk electrical conductivity, as well as being thinner and lighter. To enhance the interfacial contact resistance and corrosion resistance of SUS 316, the deposition of GTO:F and ZTO:F composite films was carried out by ECR-MOCVD. The surface morphology of the films consisted of tiny elliptically shaped grains with a thickness of 1 microm. The corrosion current for GTO:F was 0.13 Acm(-2) which was much lower than that of bare SUS 316 (50.16 Acm(-2)). The GTO:F coated film had the smallest corrosion current due to the formation of a tight surface morphology with very few pin-holes. The GTO:F coated film exhibited the highest cell voltage and power density due to its lower ICR values.

  7. Radon daughter plate-out onto Teflon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, E. S.; Frels, T.; Miller, E. H.; Schnee, R. W.; Street, J.

    2018-01-01

    Radiopure materials for detector components in rare event searches may be contaminated after manufacturing with long-lived 210Pb produced by the decay of atmospheric radon. Charged radon daughters deposited on the surface or implanted in the bulk of detector materials have the potential to cause noticeable backgrounds within dark matter regions of interest. Understanding the mechanics governing these background signals is therefore a paramount concern in dark matter experiments in order to distinguish a real signal from internal detector backgrounds. Teflon (i.e. PTFE) is a specific material of interest because it makes up the walls of the inner detector of many liquid noble detectors such as the LUX-ZEPLIN experiment. The rate of radon daughter plate-out onto Teflon can be orders of magnitude larger than the plate-out rate onto other materials. Mitigation of plate-out onto Teflon and steel by proximity to other materials is demonstrated.

  8. Portable Plating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, R.

    1984-01-01

    Plating system mounted on portable cart includes 30-gallon (23.5 liter) electrolyte tank, filler pump, heaters, replenishing anodes, plating rectifiers and tank rectifier to continously remove contaminants.

  9. Williamson Polishing & Plating Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Williamson Polishing & Plating Co. Inc. was a plating shop located in the Martindale-Brightwood neighborhood of Indianapolis. The facility conducted job shop polishing and electroplating services. The vacant site contains a 14,651-square-foot building.

  10. Steel Shear Walls, Behavior, Modeling and Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astaneh-Asl, Abolhassan

    2008-07-01

    In recent years steel shear walls have become one of the more efficient lateral load resisting systems in tall buildings. The basic steel shear wall system consists of a steel plate welded to boundary steel columns and boundary steel beams. In some cases the boundary columns have been concrete-filled steel tubes. Seismic behavior of steel shear wall systems during actual earthquakes and based on laboratory cyclic tests indicates that the systems are quite ductile and can be designed in an economical way to have sufficient stiffness, strength, ductility and energy dissipation capacity to resist seismic effects of strong earthquakes. This paper, after summarizing the past research, presents the results of two tests of an innovative steel shear wall system where the boundary elements are concrete-filled tubes. Then, a review of currently available analytical models of steel shear walls is provided with a discussion of capabilities and limitations of each model. We have observed that the tension only "strip model", forming the basis of the current AISC seismic design provisions for steel shear walls, is not capable of predicting the behavior of steel shear walls with length-to-thickness ratio less than about 600 which is the range most common in buildings. The main reasons for such shortcomings of the AISC seismic design provisions for steel shear walls is that it ignores the compression field in the shear walls, which can be significant in typical shear walls. The AISC method also is not capable of incorporating stresses in the shear wall due to overturning moments. A more rational seismic design procedure for design of shear walls proposed in 2000 by the author is summarized in the paper. The design method, based on procedures used for design of steel plate girders, takes into account both tension and compression stress fields and is applicable to all values of length-to-thickness ratios of steel shear walls. The method is also capable of including the effect of

  11. Accelerated plate tectonics.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D L

    1975-03-21

    The concept of a stressed elastic lithospheric plate riding on a viscous asthenosphere is used to calculate the recurrence interval of great earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries, the separation of decoupling and lithospheric earthquakes, and the migration pattern of large earthquakes along an arc. It is proposed that plate motions accelerate after great decoupling earthquakes and that most of the observed plate motions occur during short periods of time, separated by periods of relative quiescence.

  12. A Novel technique for stiffening steel structures.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-03-01

    The goal of this project was to identify the feasibility of using low-modulus pultruded glass fiber reinforced polymers (GFRP) sections to stiffen thin-walled steel plates and to assess the improvement in strength resulting from employing the propped...

  13. Thermomechanical Processing and Texture Development in Ni-Cr-Mo and Mn-Mo-B Armor Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    steel , has a fairly low hardenability with respect to the forma- tion of ferrite fcom austenite. However, both steels transformed isothermally to...plates of both armor steels . Because of the relatively low hardenabilities of these steels , particularly the Ni-Cr-Mo steel , ferrite formation could not be...Austenite at Selected Temperatures. To obtain some information on the kinetics of phase transformations in highly deformed austenite of the two

  14. Angular shear plate

    DOEpatents

    Ruda, Mitchell C [Tucson, AZ; Greynolds, Alan W [Tucson, AZ; Stuhlinger, Tilman W [Tucson, AZ

    2009-07-14

    One or more disc-shaped angular shear plates each include a region thereon having a thickness that varies with a nonlinear function. For the case of two such shear plates, they are positioned in a facing relationship and rotated relative to each other. Light passing through the variable thickness regions in the angular plates is refracted. By properly timing the relative rotation of the plates and by the use of an appropriate polynomial function for the thickness of the shear plate, light passing therethrough can be focused at variable positions.

  15. An improved plating process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askew, John C.

    1994-01-01

    An alternative to the immersion process for the electrodeposition of chromium from aqueous solutions on the inside diameter (ID) of long tubes is described. The Vessel Plating Process eliminates the need for deep processing tanks, large volumes of solutions, and associated safety and environmental concerns. Vessel Plating allows the process to be monitored and controlled by computer thus increasing reliability, flexibility and quality. Elimination of the trivalent chromium accumulation normally associated with ID plating is intrinsic to the Vessel Plating Process. The construction and operation of a prototype Vessel Plating Facility with emphasis on materials of construction, engineered and operational safety and a unique system for rinse water recovery are described.

  16. Paper microzone plates.

    PubMed

    Carrilho, Emanuel; Phillips, Scott T; Vella, Sarah J; Martinez, Andres W; Whitesides, George M

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes 96- and 384-microzone plates fabricated in paper as alternatives to conventional multiwell plates fabricated in molded polymers. Paper-based plates are functionally related to plastic well plates, but they offer new capabilities. For example, paper-microzone plates are thin (approximately 180 microm), require small volumes of sample (5 microL per zone), and can be manufactured from inexpensive materials ($0.05 per plate). The paper-based plates are fabricated by patterning sheets of paper, using photolithography, into hydrophilic zones surrounded by hydrophobic polymeric barriers. This photolithography used an inexpensive formulation photoresist that allows rapid (approximately 15 min) prototyping of paper-based plates. These plates are compatible with conventional microplate readers for quantitative absorbance and fluorescence measurements. The limit of detection per zone loaded for fluorescence was 125 fmol for fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bovine serum albumin, and this level corresponds to 0.02 the quantity of analyte per well used to achieve comparable signal-to-noise in a 96-well plastic plate (using a solution of 25 nM labeled protein). The limits of detection for absorbance on paper was approximately 50 pmol per zone for both Coomassie Brilliant Blue and Amaranth dyes; these values were 0.4 that required for the plastic plate. Demonstration of quantitative colorimetric correlations using a scanner or camera to image the zones and to measure the intensity of color, makes it possible to conduct assays without a microplate reader.

  17. Multicolor printing plate joining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, W. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An upper plate having ink flow channels and a lower plate having a multicolored pattern are joined. The joining is accomplished without clogging any ink flow paths. A pattern having different colored parts and apertures is formed in a lower plate. Ink flow channels each having respective ink input ports are formed in an upper plate. The ink flow channels are coated with solder mask and the bottom of the upper plate is then coated with solder. The upper and lower plates are pressed together at from 2 to 5 psi and heated to a temperature of from 295 F to 750 F or enough to melt the solder. After the plates have cooled and the pressure is released, the solder mask is removed from the interior passageways by means of a liquid solvent.

  18. PEM fuel cell bipolar plate material requirements for transportation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Borup, R.L.; Stroh, K.R.; Vanderborgh, N.E.

    1996-04-01

    Cost effective bipolar plates are currently under development to help make proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells commercially viable. Bipolar plates separate individual cells of the fuel cell stack, and thus must supply strength, be electrically conductive, provide for thermal control of the fuel stack, be a non-porous materials separating hydrogen and oxygen feed streams, be corrosion resistant, provide gas distribution for the feed streams and meet fuel stack cost targets. Candidate materials include conductive polymers and metal plates with corrosion resistant coatings. Possible metals include aluminium, titanium, iron/stainless steel and nickel.

  19. Design of metallic bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-01-01

    This project focused on the design and production of metallic bipolar plates for use in PEM fuel cells. Different metals were explored : and stainless steel was found out to be best suited to our purpose. Following the selection of metal, it was calc...

  20. 49 CFR 179.400-8 - Thickness of plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400-8 Thickness of plates... joints, except that for seamless heads, E = 1.0. (b) The minimum wall thickness, after forming, of any 3..., except that for seamless heads, E=1.0. (c) The minimum wall thickness, after forming, of a flanged and...

  1. 49 CFR 179.400-8 - Thickness of plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400-8 Thickness of plates... joints, except that for seamless heads, E = 1.0. (b) The minimum wall thickness, after forming, of any 3..., except that for seamless heads, E=1.0. (c) The minimum wall thickness, after forming, of a flanged and...

  2. 49 CFR 179.400-8 - Thickness of plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400-8 Thickness of plates... joints, except that for seamless heads, E = 1.0. (b) The minimum wall thickness, after forming, of any 3..., except that for seamless heads, E=1.0. (c) The minimum wall thickness, after forming, of a flanged and...

  3. 49 CFR 179.400-8 - Thickness of plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400-8 Thickness of plates... joints, except that for seamless heads, E = 1.0. (b) The minimum wall thickness, after forming, of any 3..., except that for seamless heads, E=1.0. (c) The minimum wall thickness, after forming, of a flanged and...

  4. Chromium ion plating studies for enhancement of bearing lifetime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    Six 440-C hardened stainless steel roller bearing test rods were ion plated with various chromium films of thicknesses from .2 microns to 7 microns. The thinner (approximately .2 microns) coating sample had 3 times the fatigue life of the unplated (standard) specimens. Contrastingly, the samples having thicker coatings (several microns) had short fatigue lives (about 3% of the unplated standard).

  5. 9. SEATING OF GIRDER SPAN AT SOUTH ABUTMENT. FABRICATOR'S PLATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. SEATING OF GIRDER SPAN AT SOUTH ABUTMENT. FABRICATOR'S PLATE READS 'VIRGINIA BRIDGE COMPANY 1950,' ACCOMPANIED BY THE LOGO OF UNITED STATES STEEL. - George P. Coleman Memorial Bridge, Spanning York River at U.S. Route 17, Yorktown, York County, VA

  6. METAL PLATING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Walker, D.E.; Noland, R.A.

    1958-08-12

    A process ts described for obtaining a closely bonded coating of steel or iron on uranium. The process consists of providing, between the steel and uramium. a layer of silver. amd then pressure rolling tbe assembly at about 600 deg C until a reduction of from l0 to 50% has been obtained.

  7. Signal processing of bedload transport impact amplitudes on accelerometer instrumented plates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This work was performed to help establish a data processing methodology for relating accelerometer signals caused by impacts of gravel on steel plates to the mass and size of the transported material. Signal processing was performed on impact plate data collected in flume experiments at the Nationa...

  8. The mechanical and morphological properties of bone beneath internal fixation plates of differing rigidity.

    PubMed

    Claes, L

    1989-01-01

    The internal fixation of diaphyseal fractures by bone plates is a well recognized treatment. The normal physiological stress of bone is reduced by plates that cause a negative balance of bone-remodeling processes. Many investigators have shown that the degree of stress protection is dependent on the rigidity of the plates. It was the aim of this study to quantify mechanical and morphological changes at different locations in a plated diaphyseal bone as a function of differing plate rigidity. Two types of plates with the same size but different materials were used. The stainless steel plates had a modulus of elasticity and bending stiffness 3.2 times higher than the carbon fiber reinforced carbon plates. Both types of plates were applied to the intact right and left femora of six foxhounds for 6 months. The stiffer stainless steel plates led to a significantly higher bone loss and correspondingly greater loss of mechanical properties. These effects were greatest directly beneath the plate and less with increasing distance from the plate.

  9. GOLD PLATING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Seegmiller, R.

    1957-08-01

    An improved bath is reported for plating gold on other metals. The composition of the plating bath is as follows: Gold cyanide from about 15 to about 50 grams, potassium cyanide from about 70 to about 125 grams, and sulfonated castor oil from about 0.1 to about 10 cc. The gold plate produced from this bath is smooth, semi-hard, and nonporous.

  10. Plating methods, a survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, J. B.; Emerson, N. H.

    1972-01-01

    Results are presented of a comprehensive search of the literature available, much of which has been generated by the research centers of NASA and its contractors, on plating and coating methods and techniques. Methods covered included: (1) electroplating from aqueous solutions; (2) electroplating from nonaqueous solutions; (3) electroplating from fused-salt baths; (4) electroforming; (5) electroless plating, immersion plating, and mirroring; (6) electroplating from gaseous plasmas; and (7) anodized films and conversion coatings.

  11. PLATES WITH OXIDE INSERTS

    DOEpatents

    West, J.M.; Schumar, J.F.

    1958-06-10

    Planar-type fuel assemblies for nuclear reactors are described, particularly those comprising fuel in the oxide form such as thoria and urania. The fuel assembly consists of a plurality of parallel spaced fuel plate mennbers having their longitudinal side edges attached to two parallel supporting side plates, thereby providing coolant flow channels between the opposite faces of adjacent fuel plates. The fuel plates are comprised of a plurality of longitudinally extending tubular sections connected by web portions, the tubular sections being filled with a plurality of pellets of the fuel material and the pellets being thermally bonded to the inside of the tubular section by lead.

  12. Electronic Equipment Cold Plates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    using fans or blowers to force the air through the cooling device». ^J^lJ^^i 5!°^ it ia ’«"^"o^ve. nonto«ic. nonfla—able, *nd possesses good ...Techniques GENERAL THERMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS AND THEIR REgUIREMENTS FLON DISTRIBUTION IN MANIFOLDS THE COLD PLATE IA ,! 1 3 S 12 15 33 32 32... IA .1 132 132 132 155 169 179 183 r (1) Air-Cooled Cold Plate No. (2) Air-Cooled Cold Plate No. (3) Air-cooled Cold Plate No. (4) Air-Cooled

  13. Microstructural characterization in dissimilar friction stir welding between 304 stainless steel and st37 steel

    SciTech Connect

    Jafarzadegan, M.; State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, School of Materials Science and Eng., Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box: 150001, Harbin; Feng, A.H.

    2012-12-15

    In the present study, 3 mm-thick plates of 304 stainless steel and st37 steel were welded together by friction stir welding at a welding speed of 50 mm/min and tool rotational speed of 400 and 800 rpm. X-ray diffraction test was carried out to study the phases which might be formed in the welds. Metallographic examinations, and tensile and microhardness tests were used to analyze the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joint. Four different zones were found in the weld area except the base metals. In the stir zone of the 304 stainless steel, a refined grain structure withmore » some features of dynamic recrystallization was evidenced. A thermomechanically-affected zone was characterized on the 304 steel side with features of dynamic recovery. In the other side of the stir zone, the hot deformation of the st37 steel in the austenite region produced small austenite grains and these grains transformed to fine ferrite and pearlite and some products of displacive transformations such as Widmanstatten ferrite and martensite by cooling the material after friction stir welding. The heat-affected zone in the st37 steel side showed partially and fully refined microstructures like fusion welding processes. The recrystallization in the 304 steel and the transformations in the st37 steel enhanced the hardness of the weld area and therefore, improved the tensile properties of the joint. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FSW produced sound welds between st37 low carbon steel and 304 stainless steel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SZ of the st37 steel contained some products of allotropic transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The material in the SZ of the 304 steel showed features of dynamic recrystallization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The finer microstructure in the SZ increased the hardness and tensile strength.« less

  14. Development and Application of High Performance Quenched and Tempered Wear Resistant Steels in Material Handling and Construction Machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Fenwei; Sidiras, Evangelos

    The demand for more sustainable development promotes the need for components and steel structures with a longer useful life and better performance. Upgrade of wear steel plate used in key industry segments such as mining, recycling and road building results in the stable growth of global market with high quality grade Q&T wear plates (Hardness HBW≥400, and Yield strength ≥690 Mpa). SSAB has now expanded its wear steel product range by both thicker and thinner Q&T plate to meet the needs of the market, and can offer wear plates from 0.7 mm to 160 mm. The continuous research and development is being done to offer even thicker plates. This article introduces the performance and advantages of high quality grade Q&T wear resistant steel products (plate, strip, tube and round bars) produced in SSAB, and also describes typical applications in some industrial segments such as material handling and construction machinery.

  15. Earthquakes and plate tectonics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1977-01-01

    An explanation is to be found in plate tectonics, a concept which has revolutionized thinking in the Earth sciences in the last 10 years. The theory of plate tectonics combines many of the ideas about continental drift (originally proposed in 1912 by Alfred Wegener in Germany) and sea-floor spreading (suggested originally by Harry Hess of Princeton University). 

  16. Blue Willow Story Plates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  17. DESI focal plate mechanical integration and cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, A. R.; Besuner, R. W.; Claybaugh, T. M.; Silber, J. H.

    2016-08-01

    The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) is under construction to measure the expansion history of the Universe using the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation technique[1]. The spectra of 40 million galaxies over 14000 sq. deg will be measured during the life of the experiment. A new prime focus corrector for the KPNO Mayall telescope will deliver light to 5000 fiber optic positioners. The fibers in turn feed ten broad-band spectrographs. This paper describes the mechanical integration of the DESI focal plate and the thermal system design. The DESI focal plate is comprised of ten identical petal assemblies. Each petal contains 500 robotic fiber positioners. Each petal is a complete, self-contained unit, independent from the others, with integrated power supply, controllers, fiber routing, and cooling services. The major advantages of this scheme are: (1) supports installation and removal of complete petal assemblies in-situ, without disturbing the others, (2) component production, assembly stations, and test procedures are repeated and parallelizable, (3) a complete, full-scale prototype can be built and tested at an early date, (4) each production petal can be surveyed and tested as a complete unit, prior to integration, from the fiber tip at the focal surface to the fiber slit at the spectrograph. The ten petal assemblies will be installed in a single integration ring, which is mounted to the DESI corrector. The aluminum integration ring attaches to the steel corrector barrel via a flexured steel adapter, isolating the focal plate from differential thermal expansions. The plate scale will be kept stable by conductive cooling of the petal assembly. The guider and wavefront sensors (one per petal) will be convectively cooled by forced flow of air. Heat will be removed from the system at ten liquid-cooled cold plates, one per petal, operating at ambient temperature. The entire focal plate structure is enclosed in an insulating shroud, which serves as a thermal barrier

  18. PLATE WAVE RESONANCE WITH AIR-COUPLED ULTRASONICS

    SciTech Connect

    Bar, H. N.; Dayal, V.; Barnard, D.

    2010-02-22

    Air-coupled ultrasonic transducers can excite plate waves in metals and composites. The coincidence effect, i.e., the wave vector of plate wave coincides with projection of exciting airborne sound vector, leads to a resonance which strongly amplifies the sound transmission through the plate. The resonance depends on the angle of incidence and the frequency. In the present study, the incidence angle for maximum transmission (theta{sub max}) is measured in plates of steel, aluminum, carbon fiber reinforced composites and honeycomb sandwich panels. The variations of (theta{sub max}) with plate thickness are compared with theoretical values in steel, aluminum and quasi-isotropic carbon fibermore » composites. The enhanced transmission of air-coupled ultrasound at oblique incidence can substantially improve the probability of flaw detection in plates and especially in honeycomb structures. Experimental air-coupled ultrasonic scan of subtle flaws in CFRP laminates showed definite improvement of signal-to-noise ratio with oblique incidence at theta{sub max}.« less

  19. Plating To Reinforce Welded Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otousa, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Electrodeposition used to strengthen welded joints gouged, nicked, or suffered other mechanical damage. Plating cell, typically of acrylic plastic such as poly (Methylmetacrylate), is assembled around part to be plated. Areas not to be plated are masked with plater's tape. Weld area is plated in standard nickel-plating process.

  20. Influence of the osteosynthesis plate on ultrasound propagation in the bone

    PubMed Central

    Bezuti, Márcio Takey; Mandarano-Filho, Luiz Garcia; Barbieri, Giuliano; Mazzer, Nilton; Barbieri, Cláudio Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the influence of steel plates for osteosynthesis on the velocity of ultrasound propagation (VU) through the bone. Methods: The transverse coronal and sagittal velocity of ultrasound propagation underwater were measured on the intact bone and then on assemblies of the same bone with two types of osteosynthesis plates (DCP and semi tubular), fixed onto the dorsal side of the bones. The first arriving signal (FAS) was the ultrasound parameter used, taking the coronal and sagittal diameters as the distances to calculate velocity. Intergroup statistical comparisons were made at significance level of 1% (p<0.01). Results: Velocity was higher on the intact bones than on the bone-plate assemblies and higher for the semitubular than for the compression plates, although differences were not statistically significant for most comparisons (p=0.0132 to 0.9884), indicating that the steel plates do not interfere significantly with ultrasound wave propagation through the bone-plate assemblies. Conclusion: The velocity reduction effect was attributed to the greater reflection coefficient of the steel as compared to that of bone and water. Ultrasonometry can, thus, be used in the evaluation of healing of fractures fixed with steel plates. Experimental Study. PMID:25328436

  1. Modern steels at atomic and nanometre scales

    DOE PAGES

    Caballero, F. G.; Garcia-Mateo, C.; Miller, M. K.

    2014-10-10

    Processing bulk nanocrystalline materials for structural applications still poses a difficult challenge, particularly in achieving an industrially viable process. Recent work in ferritic steels has proved that it is possible to move from ultrafine to nanoscale by exploiting the bainite reaction without the use of severe deformation, rapid heat treatment or mechanical processing. This new generation of steels has been designed in which transformation at low temperature leads to a nanoscale structure consisting of extremely fine, 20–40 nm thick plates of bainitic ferrite and films of retained austenite. Finally, a description of the characteristics and significance of this remarkable microstructuremore » is provided here.« less

  2. Chromium-Makes stainless steel stainless

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kropschot, S.J.; Doebrich, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Chromium, a steely-gray, lustrous, hard metal that takes a high polish and has a high melting point, is a silvery white, hard, and bright metal plating on steel and other material. Commonly known as chrome, it is one of the most important and indispensable industrial metals because of its hardness and resistance to corrosion. But it is used for more than the production of stainless steel and nonferrous alloys; it is also used to create pigments and chemicals used to process leather.

  3. Microalloyed HSLA (High Strength Low Alloy) Steels: Proceedings of Microalloying 󈨜 Held in Conjunction with the 1988 World Materials Congress, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 24-30 September 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    steels. The high quality linepipe steels are During the last few years, a large scale conducted. During the last few years, API X52 of efforts has been...with satisfied results. mass production of API X52 steels in production line will be demonstrated. The mass production of line pipe steels in the plate...mill of China Steel Corporation has also been conducted. More than eighty Procedures thousand tons of API X52 has been manufactured during the last 2

  4. Novel Structured Metal Bipolar Plates for Low Cost Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Conghua

    2013-08-15

    Bipolar plates are an important component in fuel cell stacks and accounts for more than 75% of stack weight and volume, and 20% of the stack cost. The technology development of metal bipolar plates can effectively reduce the fuel cells stack weight and volume over 50%. The challenge is to protect metal plate from corrosion at low cost for the broad commercial applications. While most of today’s PEM fuel cell metallic bipolar plate technologies use some precious metal, the focus of this SBIR project is to develop a low cost, novel nano-structured metal bipolar plate technology without using any preciousmore » metal. The technology will meet the performance and cost requirements for automobile applications. Through the Phase I project, TreadStone has identified the corrosion resistant and electrically conductive titanium oxide for the metal bipolar plate surface protection for automotive PEM fuel cell applications. TreadStone has overcome the manufacturing issues to apply the coating on metal substrate surface, and has demonstrated the feasibility of the coated stainless steel plates by ex-situ evaluation tests and the in-situ fuel cell long term durability test. The test results show the feasibility of the proposed nano-structured coating as the low cost metal bipolar plates of PEM fuel cells. The plan for further technology optimization is also outlined for the Phase II project.« less

  5. Report on Northwestern's Air-cooled, Copper Precipitation Hardened, High Strength, Weldable Steel Cast and Hot Rolled at Oregon Steel Mills

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-09-27

    This research has shown that a Grade 70 construction steel of 1/2- to 1-inch plate thicknesses can be produced without a quench and temper or accelerated cooling from hot-rolling if the Cu content in the steel is sufficiently high. Coherent very fine...

  6. Dynamic strain distribution of FRP plate under blast loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saburi, T.; Yoshida, M.; Kubota, S.

    2017-02-01

    The dynamic strain distribution of a fiber re-enforced plastic (FRP) plate under blast loading was investigated using a Digital Image Correlation (DIC) image analysis method. The testing FRP plates were mounted in parallel to each other on a steel frame. 50 g of composition C4 explosive was used as a blast loading source and set in the center of the FRP plates. The dynamic behavior of the FRP plate under blast loading were observed by two high-speed video cameras. The set of two high-speed video image sequences were used to analyze the FRP three-dimensional strain distribution by means of DIC method. A point strain profile extracted from the analyzed strain distribution data was compared with a directly observed strain profile using a strain gauge and it was shown that the strain profile under the blast loading by DIC method is quantitatively accurate.

  7. Effects of Corrosion and Fatigue on the Load-Carrying Capacity of Structural and Reinforcing Steel

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1994-03-01

    Pitting and crevice corrosion have profound effects on the fatigue life of structural and reinforcing steels used in bridge construction. Stress concentration factors were measured on actual corroded plates with strain gage instrumentation. Using cor...

  8. Reduction of astrometric plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stock, J.

    1984-01-01

    A rapid and accurate method for the reduction of comet or asteroid plates is described. Projection equations, scale length correction, rotation of coordinates, linearization, the search for additional reference stars, and the final solution are examined.

  9. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  10. What's On Your Plate?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Table of Contents What's On Your Plate? Smart Food Choices for Healthy Aging www.nia.nih.gov/health/ ... calories in" and "calories out," and making good food choices as you age. Shopping Tips See how planning ...

  11. Growth Plate Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Download Download EPUB Download PDF What are they? Points To Remember About Growth Plate Injuries Injuries to ... Neurological disorders that cause people to lose their balance and fall. Some inherited disorders. Bone infections. Metabolic ...

  12. License plate recognition.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-01-01

    License Plate Recognition (LPR) technology has been used for off-line automobile enforcement purposes. The technology has seen mixed success with correct reading rate around 60 to 70% depending on the specific application and environment. This limita...

  13. BAO Plate Archive Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Gigoyan, K. S.; Gyulzadyan, M. V.; Paronyan, G. M.; Abrahamyan, H. V.; Andreasyan, H. R.; Azatyan, N. M.; Kostandyan, G. R.; Samsonyan, A. L.; Mikayelyan, G. A.; Farmanyan, S. V.; Harutyunyan, V. L.

    2017-12-01

    We present the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) Plate Archive Project that is aimed at digitization, extraction and analysis of archival data and building an electronic database and interactive sky map. BAO Plate Archive consists of 37,500 photographic plates and films, obtained with 2.6m telescope, 1m and 0.5m Schmidt telescopes and other smaller ones during 1947-1991. The famous Markarian Survey (or the First Byurakan Survey, FBS) 2000 plates were digitized in 2002-2005 and the Digitized FBS (DFBS, www.aras.am/Dfbs/dfbs.html) was created. New science projects have been conducted based on this low-dispersion spectroscopic material. Several other smaller digitization projects have been carried out as well, such as part of Second Byurakan Survey (SBS) plates, photographic chain plates in Coma, where the blazar ON 231 is located and 2.6m film spectra of FBS Blue Stellar Objects. However, most of the plates and films are not digitized. In 2015, we have started a project on the whole BAO Plate Archive digitization, creation of electronic database and its scientific usage. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO, www.aras.am/Arvo/arvo.htm) database will accommodate all new data. The project runs in collaboration with the Armenian Institute of Informatics and Automation Problems (IIAP) and will continues during 4 years in 2015-2018. The final result will be an Electronic Database and online Interactive Sky map to be used for further research projects. ArVO will provide all standards and tools for efficient usage of the scientific output and its integration in international databases.

  14. Steel Industry Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    The steel industry is critical to the U.S. economy. Steel is the material of choice for many elements of construction, transportation, manufacturing, and a variety of consumer products. It is the backbone of bridges, skyscrapers, railroads, automobiles, and appliances. Most grades of steel used today - particularly high-strength steels that are lighter and more versatile - were not available a decade ago.

  15. Supertough Stainless Bearing Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Gregory B.

    1995-01-01

    Composition and processing of supertough stainless bearing steel designed with help of computer-aided thermodynamic modeling. Fracture toughness and hardness of steel exceeds those of other bearing steels like 440C stainless bearing steel. Developed for service in fuel and oxidizer turbopumps on Space Shuttle main engine. Because of strength and toughness, also proves useful in other applications like gears and surgical knives.

  16. The effects of laser welding parameters on the microstructure of ferritic and duplex stainless steels welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekkarinen, J.; Kujanpää, V.

    This study is focused to determine empirically, which microstructural changes occur in ferritic and duplex stainless steels when heat input is controlled by welding parameters. Test welds were done autogenously bead-on-plate without shielding gas using 5 kW fiber laser. For comparison, some gas tungsten arc welds were made. Used test material were 1.4016 (AISI 430) and 1.4003 (low-carbon ferritic) type steels in ferritic steels group and 1.4162 (low-alloyed duplex, LDX2101) and 1.4462 (AISI 2205) type steels in duplex steels group. Microstructural changes in welds were identified and examined using optical metallographic methods.

  17. Nondestructive testing of defective ASTM A 514 steel on the I-275 Combs-Hehl twin bridges over the Ohio River in Campbell County, Kentucky.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-03-01

    Three defective ASTM A 514 steel splice plates were discovered on the I-275 Combs-Hehl twin bridges over the Ohio River. A follow-on in-depth field inspection of 1,356 A 514 steel plates on the bridges revealed 14 additional defective gusset and spli...

  18. Optimisation of composite bone plates for ulnar transverse fractures.

    PubMed

    Chakladar, N D; Harper, L T; Parsons, A J

    2016-04-01

    Metallic bone plates are commonly used for arm bone fractures where conservative treatment (casts) cannot provide adequate support and compression at the fracture site. These plates, made of stainless steel or titanium alloys, tend to shield stress transfer at the fracture site and delay the bone healing rate. This study investigates the feasibility of adopting advanced composite materials to overcome stress shielding effects by optimising the geometry and mechanical properties of the plate to match more closely to the bone. An ulnar transverse fracture is characterised and finite element techniques are employed to investigate the feasibility of a composite-plated fractured bone construct over a stainless steel equivalent. Numerical models of intact and fractured bones are analysed and the mechanical behaviour is found to agree with experimental data. The mechanical properties are tailored to produce an optimised composite plate, offering a 25% reduction in length and a 70% reduction in mass. The optimised design may help to reduce stress shielding and increase bone healing rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Lightweight, Rack-Mountable Composite Cold Plate/Shelves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Kathryn M.; Ruemmele, Warren; Nguyen, Hai D.; Andish, Kambiz; McCalley, Sean

    2004-01-01

    Rack-mountable composite-material structural components that would serve as both shelves and cold plates for removing heat from electronic or other equipment mounted on the shelves have been proposed as lightweight alternatives to all-metal cold plate/shelves now in use. A proposed cold plate/shelf would include a highly thermally conductive face sheet containing oriented graphite fibers bonded to an aluminum honeycomb core, plus an extruded stainless-steel substructure containing optimized flow passages for a cooling fluid, and an inlet and outlet that could be connected to standard manifold sections. To maximize heat-transfer efficiency, the extruded stainless-steel substructure would be connected directly to the face sheet. On the basis of a tentative design, the proposed composite cold plate/shelf would weigh about 38 percent less than does an all-aluminum cold plate in use or planned for use in some spacecraft and possibly aircraft. Although weight is a primary consideration, the tentative design offers the additional benefit of reduction of thickness to half that of the all-aluminum version.

  20. Stress measurement in thick plates using nonlinear ultrasonics

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasi, Zeynab, E-mail: zabbas5@uic.edu, E-mail: dozevin@uic.edu; Ozevin, Didem, E-mail: zabbas5@uic.edu, E-mail: dozevin@uic.edu

    2015-03-31

    In this paper the interaction between nonlinear ultrasonic characteristics and stress state of complex loaded thick steel plates using fundamental theory of nonlinear ultrasonics is investigated in order to measure the stress state at a given cross section. The measurement concept is based on phased array placement of ultrasonic transmitter-receiver to scan three angles of a given cross section using Rayleigh waves. The change in the ultrasonic data in thick steel plates is influenced by normal and shear stresses; therefore, three measurements are needed to solve the equations simultaneously. Different thickness plates are studied in order to understand the interactionmore » of Rayleigh wave penetration depth and shear stress. The purpose is that as the thickness becomes smaller, the shear stress becomes negligible at the angled measurement. For thicker cross section, shear stress becomes influential if the depth of penetration of Rayleigh wave is greater than the half of the thickness. The influences of plate thickness and ultrasonic frequency on the identification of stress tensor are numerically studied in 3D structural geometry and Murnaghan material model. The experimental component of this study includes uniaxial loading of the plate while measuring ultrasonic wave at three directions (perpendicular, parallel and angled to the loading direction). Instead of rotating transmitter-receiver pair for each test, a device capable of measuring the three angles is designed.« less

  1. Elastic and plastic buckling of simply supported solid-core sandwich plates in compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seide, Paul; Stowell, Elbridge Z

    1950-01-01

    A solution is presented for the problem of the compressive buckling of simply supported, flat, rectangular, solid-core sandwich plates stressed either in the elastic range or in the plastic range. Charts for the analysis of long sandwich plates are presented for plates having face materials of 24s-t3 aluminum alloy, 76s-t6 alclad aluminum alloy, and stainless steel. A comparison of computed and experimental buckling stresses of square solid-core sandwich plates indicates fair agreement between theory and experiment.

  2. Nickel: makes stainless steel strong

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boland, Maeve A.

    2012-01-01

    Nickel is a silvery-white metal that is used mainly to make stainless steel and other alloys stronger and better able to withstand extreme temperatures and corrosive environments. Nickel was first identified as a unique element in 1751 by Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, a Swedish mineralogist and chemist. He originally called the element kupfernickel because it was found in rock that looked like copper (kupfer) ore and because miners thought that "bad spirits" (nickel) in the rock were making it difficult for them to extract copper from it. Approximately 80 percent of the primary (not recycled) nickel consumed in the United States in 2011 was used in alloys, such as stainless steel and superalloys. Because nickel increases an alloy's resistance to corrosion and its ability to withstand extreme temperatures, equipment and parts made of nickel-bearing alloys are often used in harsh environments, such as those in chemical plants, petroleum refineries, jet engines, power generation facilities, and offshore installations. Medical equipment, cookware, and cutlery are often made of stainless steel because it is easy to clean and sterilize. All U.S. circulating coins except the penny are made of alloys that contain nickel. Nickel alloys are increasingly being used in making rechargeable batteries for portable computers, power tools, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Nickel is also plated onto such items as bathroom fixtures to reduce corrosion and provide an attractive finish.

  3. Scattering of ultrasonic wave by cracks in a plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, S. W.; Datta, S. K.

    1993-01-01

    A hybrid numerical method combining finite elements and the boundary integral representation is used to investigate the transient scattering of ultrasonic waves by a crack in a plate. The incident wave models the guided waves generated by a steel ball impact on the plate. Two surface-breaking cracks and one subsurface crack are studied here. The results show that the location and depth of cracks have measurable effects on the surface responses in time and frequency domains. Also, the scattered fields have distinct differences in the three cases.

  4. Hybrid Experimental-Numerical Stress Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    8217generation mode’ to study stable crack growth 7 fmm and Instability of A533-B steel and 2219-T87 aluminum center-crack and compact specimens. A similar...on Rotor -3-DIM. MHOTO ELASTICIY VON-2-I. HYDRI TEHNQUE -- PPRX. 2-DIM. ANLYSS -10 . 300 0) OL94 * 1.0 O.U 0.94 on Fig. lb Hoop Stress in End Ring Due...Strain at Location (1), A533B Bend Specimen *too I t -71 1 0 t60- 40 ~~OR TIME (MICROSECOND) Fig. 16 Stress Intensity Factors of an Impacted A533B Steel

  5. Anodic Behaviour of High Nitrogen-Bearing Steel in PEMFC Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.; Turner, J. A.

    2008-02-01

    High nitrogen-bearing stainless steels, AISI Type 201 and AL219, were investigated in simulated polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) environments to assess the use of these materials in fuel cell bipolar plate applications. Both steels exhibit better corrosion behavior than 316L steel in the same environments. Type 201 steel shows similar but lower interfacial contact resistance (ICR) than 316L, while AL219 steel shows higher ICR than 316L. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis shows that the air-formed films on Type 201 and AL219 are composed of iron oxides, chromium oxide, and manganese oxide. Iron oxides dominate the composition of the air-formedmore » film, specially the outer layer. Chromium oxide dominates passive films. Surface film thicknesses were estimated. The results suggest that high nitrogen-bearing stainless steels are promising materials for PEMFC bipolar plates.« less

  6. Ultrasonic Spectroscopy of Stainless Steel Sandwich Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgriff, Laura M.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Hebsur, Mohan G.; Baaklini, George Y.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2003-01-01

    Enhanced, lightweight material systems, such as 17-4PH stainless steel sandwich panels are being developed for use as fan blades and fan containment material systems for next generation engines. In order to improve the production for these systems, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, such as ultrasonic spectroscopy, are being utilized to evaluate the brazing quality between the 17-4PH stainless steel face plates and the 17-4PH stainless steel foam core. Based on NDE data, shear tests are performed on sections representing various levels of brazing quality from an initial batch of these sandwich structures. Metallographic characterization of brazing is done to corroborate NDE findings and the observed shear failure mechanisms.

  7. Heat transfer enhancement of flow insulator by combined stainless steel fibrous and wire net porous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khantikomol, P.; Polsongkram, M.; Apisitpinyo, W.; Poowadin, T.

    2018-01-01

    The present research article aims to propose the heat transfer enhancement of the flow insulator using combined fibrous and wire net stainless steel porous material. The stainless fibrous plate with porosity of 0.9292 was combined to the stainless steel wire net having pore per inch (PPI) of 16 and total thickness of 30 mm. Two models of the arranging porous plates were prepared, which were model BA and model AB. Each porous plate segment had the same thickness. The examined porous plate model have porosities of 0.8452. The porous plate was placed normal to the flow direction. The air was used as working fluid heated by 5 kW electric heater, which was controlled by the automatic temperature control. Type-K thermocouples were employed to measure the air temperatures. The temperature at front of the porous plate was varied to be 350, 450, and 550°C. The air flow rate was varied in the range of 4-12 m3/hr. The experimental result showed that the temperature drop across the porous plate and the thermal efficiency increase with the inlet temperature. The air velocity slightly affects the temperature profile inside the test section at the upstream side of the porous plate but greatly affects temperature inside the porous plate. In consideration of the arranging porous plate, placing of the stainless steel wire net at the upstream side and placing the stainless steel fibrous at downstream side (model BA) results in the highest temperature drop and the highest thermal efficiency. At Re 733 and inlet temperature 550°C for model BA at 30 mm thickness, the thermal efficiency was 50%. It was shown that the combined stainless steel fibrous and stainless steel wire net porous material could be a good flow insulator.

  8. Optical measurements of flyer plate acceleration by emulsion explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Shiro; Shimada, Hideki; Matsui, Kikuo; Ogata, Yuji; Seto, Masahiro; Masui, Akira; Wada, Yuji; Liu, Zhi-Yue; Itoh, Shigeru

    2001-04-01

    This paper presents the study on the application of explosive welding technique to the field of the urgent repair of the gas and water pipe networks. The essential parameters related to the explosive welding are scrutinized from the point of view of the minimizing the damage to the steel pipe after welded explosively with a flyer plate. The emulsion explosive is contained in a rectangular hard-paper box whose bottom is the flyer plate with 100 mm length, 25 mm width and 1.5 mm thickness. The flyer motions of the flyer plates accelerated by emulsion explosive are observed by high-speed photography from the side and front view of the flyer plate. The damage to the pipe by the flyer plate is discussed with the results of the observation of flyer motion and explosive welding test under various experimental conditions. Moreover, one way to control the motion of the flyer plate is proposed. We put a PMMA buffer block into the explosive. The flying process of flyer plate is calculated by the finite different scheme based on the ALE method. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated by the experimental and numerical studies.

  9. Steel plate girder diaphragm and cross bracing loads.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-05-01

    The wide spectrum of options available to designers for analyzing and determining cross-frame forces can be a : source of problems because different options may not result in similar solutions. The main objective of this : project was to develop a se...

  10. Cadmium plated steel caps seal anodized aluminum fittings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padden, J.

    1971-01-01

    Cadmium prevents fracturing of hard anodic coating under torquing to system specification requirements, prevents galvanic coupling, and eliminates need for crush washers, which, though commonly used in industry, do not correct leakage problem experienced when anodized aluminum fittings and anodized aluminum cap assemblies are joined.

  11. Limb lengthening over plate

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Ruta; Singh, Nishant; Kulkarni, Govind S; Kulkarni, Milind; Kulkarni, Sunil; Kulkarni, Vidisha

    2012-01-01

    Background: The limb lengthening over plate eliminates the associated risk of infection with limb lengthening over intramedullary nail. We present our experience of limb lengthening in 15 patients with a plate fixed on the proximal segment, followed by corticotomy and application of external fixator. Materials and Methods: 15 patients (7 females, 8 males) were included in this consecutive series. The average age was 18.1 years (range 8–35 years). Fifteen tibiae and one femur were lengthened in 15 patients. Lengthening was achieved at 1 mm/day followed by distal segment fixation with three or four screws on reaching the target length. Results: The preoperative target length was successfully achieved in all patients at a mean of 4.1 cm (range 1.8–6.5 cm). The mean duration of external fixation was 75.3 days (range 33–116 days) with the mean external fixation index at 19.2 days/cm (range 10.0–38.3 days/cm). One patient suffered deep infection up to the plate, three patients had mild procurvatum deformities, and one patient developed mild tendo achilles contracture. Conclusion: Lengthening over a plate allows early removal of external fixator and eliminates the risk of creating deep intramedullary infection as with lengthening over nail. Lengthening over plate is also applicable to children with open physis. PMID:22719123

  12. 46 CFR 42.09-30 - Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels...-30 Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in § 42...) When the vessel is in drydock, the hull plating, etc., shall be examined. (c) The holds, 'tween decks...

  13. Experimental tests and numerical analyses of steel truss bridge gusset connections.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-11-01

    Gusset plates connect individual steel truss bridge members together at a node. In 10% of the 200,000 steel bridges in US in 2008, failure of a : single truss or connection could lead to collapse. Regular inspection and load rating are essential for ...

  14. From flint to stainless steel: observations on surgical instrument composition.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkup, J.

    1993-01-01

    Man's failure to extract deeply embedded thorns and arrowheads, with bare hands and teeth, stimulated 'instrument substitutes' mimicking these appendages. Evidence from primitive communities suggest animal, plant and mineral items were employed, both before and after metal became the standard material of today's armamentarium. Changing surgical instrument composition has mirrored concurrent technology and manufacturing methods both of which are reviewed. Particular significance is accorded flint, bronze, crucible steel, thermal sterilisation, nickel-plate, stainless steel and disposable plastics. The paper is based on an exhibition From Flint to Stainless Steel on display at the College. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8215156

  15. Bipolar battery plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A liquid-impermeable plate (10) having through-plate conductivity with essentially zero resistance comprises an insulator sheet (12) having a series of spaced perforations (14) each of which contains a metal element (16) sealingly received into the perforation (14). A low-cost plate can readily be manufactured by punching a thermoplastic sheet (40) such as polypropylene with a punching tool (52), filling the apertures with led spheres (63) having a diameter smaller than the holes (50) but larger than the thickness of the sheet, sweeping excess spheres (62) off the sheet with a doctor blade (60) and then pressing a heated platen (74) onto the sheet to swage the spheres into a cylindrical shape and melt the surrounding resin to form a liquid-impermeable collar (4) sealing the metal into the sheet.

  16. High adherence copper plating process

    DOEpatents

    Nignardot, Henry

    1993-01-01

    A process for applying copper to a substrate of aluminum or steel by electrodeposition and for preparing an aluminum or steel substrate for electrodeposition of copper. Practice of the invention provides good adhesion of the copper layer to the substrate.

  17. A Simplified Model for the Effect of Weld-Induced Residual Stresses on the Axial Ultimate Strength of Stiffened Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bai-Qiao; Guedes Soares, C.

    2018-03-01

    The present work investigates the compressive axial ultimate strength of fillet-welded steel-plated ship structures subjected to uniaxial compression, in which the residual stresses in the welded plates are calculated by a thermo-elasto-plastic finite element analysis that is used to fit an idealized model of residual stress distribution. The numerical results of ultimate strength based on the simplified model of residual stress show good agreement with those of various methods including the International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) Common Structural Rules (CSR), leading to the conclusion that the simplified model can be effectively used to represent the distribution of residual stresses in steel-plated structures in a wide range of engineering applications. It is concluded that the widths of the tension zones in the welded plates have a quasi-linear behavior with respect to the plate slenderness. The effect of residual stress on the axial strength of the stiffened plate is analyzed and discussed.

  18. Reduced Plating Ignitron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A (Inventor); Pearson, J Boise (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An ignitron apparatus has an airtight tubular housing having a first sealed end and a second sealed end. An anode is connected at the first sealed end, projecting into the housing, and a recess at the second sealed and forms a well which contains a quantity of liquid gallium or gallium alloy making up the cathode. An ignitor projects through the liquid metal and into the housing. The inner surface of the housing includes at least one plating-reduction structure to prevent electrical shorting of the apparatus caused by plating of the liquid metal.

  19. NICKEL PLATING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Hoover, T.B.; Zava, T.E.

    1959-05-12

    A simplified process is presented for plating nickel by the vapor decomposition of nickel carbonyl. In a preferred form of the invention a solid surface is nickel plated by subjecting the surface to contact with a mixture containing by volume approximately 20% nickel carbonyl vapor, 2% hydrogen sulfide and .l% water vapor or 1% oxygen and the remainder carbon dioxide at room temperature until the desired thickness of nickel is obtained. The advantage of this composition over others is that the normally explosive nickel carbonyl is greatly stabilized.

  20. Hydrodynamics of a flexible plate between pitching rigid plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junyoung; Kim, Daegyoum

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of a flexible plate have been studied as a model problem in swimming and flying of animals and fluid-structure interaction of plants and flags. Motivated by fish schooling and an array of sea grasses, we investigate the dynamics of a flexible plate closely placed between two pitching rigid plates. In most studies on passive deformation of the flexible plate, the plate is immersed in a uniform flow or a wavy flow. However, in this study, the flexible plate experiences periodic deformation by the oscillatory flow generated by the prescribed pitching motion of the rigid plates. In our model, the pitching axes of the rigid plates and the clamping position of the flexible plate are aligned on the same line. The flexible plate shows various responses depending on length and pitching frequency of rigid plates, thickness of a flexible plate, and free-stream velocity. To find the effect of each variable on the response of the flexible plate, amplitude of a trailing edge and modal contribution of a flapping motion are compared, and flow structure around the flexible plate is examined.

  1. Processing and evaluation of long fiber thermoplastic composite plates for internal fixation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Paul B.

    The metallic plates used in internal fracture fixation may have up to ten times the elastic modulus of normal bone tissue, causing stress shielding-induced osteopenia in healed bone that can lead to re-fracture after plate removal and prolonged and painful recovery. Thermoplastic polymer matrix composites reinforced with long carbon fiber are promising alternative materials for internal fixation plates because they may be produced with relative ease and be tailored to have specific mechanical properties, alleviating the stress shielding problem. Long carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (LCF PEEK) plates were produced using the extrusion / compression molding process. Static flexural testing determined that LCF PEEK plates with rectangular cross-section had an average flexural modulus of 12 GPa, or 23% of the flexural modulus of a stainless steel plate. The LCF PEEK plates also experienced negligible (14.7%, 14.5%, and 16.7%) reductions in modulus after fatigue testing at applied moments of 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 N•m, respectively, over 106 load cycles. Aging the plates in 0.9% NaCl solution for four and eight weeks caused 0.34% and 0.28% increases in plate mass, respectively. No significant decrease of flexural properties due to aging was detected. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed the PEEK matrix of the plates to be 24.5% crystalline, which is lower than typical PEEK crystallinity values of 30-35%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed three times as many fiber pullout areas in LCF PEEK fracture surfaces as in fracture surfaces of long carbon fiber-reinforced polyphenylenesulfide (LCF PPS), another plate material tested. DSC and SEM data suggest that improvements in processing conditions and fiber/matrix bonding, along with higher carbon fiber fractions, would enhance LCF PEEK plate performance. LCF PEEK remains a promising alternative to stainless steel for internal fixation plates.

  2. Steel selection for UBC steel bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haoyu

    2018-03-01

    This report conducts a material selection of different types of steel for UBC Steel Bridge Team. I am a third-year material engineering student, so the result from this material selection can only be taken into consideration but not fully adopted. As part of my academic journey, it is possible for technical mistakes in this material selection process. The mechanic properties are the most effective category of properties, making it necessary to be justified from the steel bridge design and chosen in accordance with the objective of the team. An introduction for currently-used steel properties and the expected steel properties is provided. The examination focus on how different alloy compositions of steel changes its properties. The properties of the steel are examined in three main aspects: hardness, strength, and toughness. The results suggest that more nickel, manganese, and chromium in the steel provide better steel for the team to use. Further research is needed if a more precise material selection is required.

  3. The Plate Tectonics Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Annamae J.

    2011-01-01

    The Plate Tectonics Project is a multiday, inquiry-based unit that facilitates students as self-motivated learners. Reliable Web sites are offered to assist with lessons, and a summative rubric is used to facilitate the holistic nature of the project. After each topic (parts of the Earth, continental drift, etc.) is covered, the students will…

  4. Prosthetic plate mandibular reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Davidson, M J; Gullane, P J

    1991-12-01

    The head and neck surgeon may choose one of several available methods to reconstruct the mandible following tumor ablation. This article discusses the use of metallic mandibular prostheses, the indications for alloplastic mandibular reconstruction, techniques of plate application (AO and THRP), and associated complications.

  5. BAO plate archive digitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Nikoghosyan, E. H.; Gigoyan, K. S.; Paronyan, G. M.; Abrahamyan, H. V.; Andreasyan, H. R.; Azatyan, N. M.; Kostandyan, G. R.; Khachatryan, K. G.; Vardanyan, A. V.; Gyulzadyan, M. V.; Mikayelyan, G. A.; Farmanyan, S. V.; Knyazyan, A. V.

    Astronomical plate archives created on the basis of numerous observations at many observatories are important part of the astronomical heritage. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) plate archive consists of 37,000 photographic plates and films, obtained at 2.6m telescope, 1m and 0.5m Schmidt telescopes and other smaller ones during 1947-1991. In 2015, we have started a project on the whole BAO Plate Archive digitization, creation of electronic database and its scientific usage. A Science Program Board is created to evaluate the observing material, to investigate new possibilities and to propose new projects based on the combined usage of these observations together with other world databases. The Executing Team consists of 11 astronomers and 2 computer scientists and will use 2 EPSON Perfection V750 Pro scanners for the digitization. The project will run during 3 years in 2015-2017 and the final result will be an electronic database and online interactive sky map to be used for further research projects.

  6. Unitary plate electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor); Clough, Thomas J. (Inventor); Josefowicz, Jack Y. (Inventor); Sibert, John W. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    The unitary electrode (10) comprises a porous sheet (12) of fiberglass the strands (14) of which contain a coating (16) of conductive tin oxide. The lower portion of the sheet contains a layer (18) of resin and the upper layer (20) contains lead dioxide forming a positive active electrode on an electrolyte-impervious layer. The strands (14) form a continuous conduction path through both layers (16, 18). Tin oxide is prevented from reduction by coating the surface of the plate facing the negative electrode with a conductive, impervious layer resistant to reduction such as a thin film (130) of lead or graphite filled resin adhered to the plate with a layer (31) of conductive adhesive. The plate (10) can be formed by casting a molten resin from kettle (60) onto a sheet of glass wool (56) overlying a sheet of lead foil and then applying positive active paste from hopper (64) into the upper layer (68). The plate can also be formed by passing an assembly of a sheet ( 80) of resin, a sheet (86) of sintered glass and a sheet (90) of lead between the nip (92) of heated rollers (93, 95) and then filling lead oxide into the pores (116) of the upper layer (118).

  7. Nuclear reactor alignment plate configuration

    DOEpatents

    Altman, David A; Forsyth, David R; Smith, Richard E; Singleton, Norman R

    2014-01-28

    An alignment plate that is attached to a core barrel of a pressurized water reactor and fits within slots within a top plate of a lower core shroud and upper core plate to maintain lateral alignment of the reactor internals. The alignment plate is connected to the core barrel through two vertically-spaced dowel pins that extend from the outside surface of the core barrel through a reinforcement pad and into corresponding holes in the alignment plate. Additionally, threaded fasteners are inserted around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad and into the alignment plate to further secure the alignment plate to the core barrel. A fillet weld also is deposited around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad. To accomodate thermal growth between the alignment plate and the core barrel, a gap is left above, below and at both sides of one of the dowel pins in the alignment plate holes through with the dowel pins pass.

  8. Study on the Failure and Energy Absorption Mechanism of Multilayer Explosively Welded Plates Impacted by Spherical Fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, N.; Wang, J. X.; Tang, S. Z.; Tao, Q. C.; Wang, M. X.

    2018-01-01

    A stereomicroscope, microscopic metallograph, scanning electron microscope, and the ANSYS/LS-DYNA 3D finite-element code were employed to investigate the failure and energy absorption mechanism of two-layer steel/aluminum and three-layer steel/aluminum/steel and aluminum/steel/aluminum explosively welded composite plates impacted by spherical fragments. The effects of layer number, target order, and the combination state of interfaces on the failure and energy absorption mechanism are analyzed based on experimental and numerical results. Results showed that the effect of the combination state of interfaces on the failure mode was pronounced the most compared with other factors. The failure mechanism of the front and middle plates were shearing and plugging, and that of rear plate was ductile deformation when the tied interface failed by tension (or by shearing and plugging when the interface combination remained connected). A narrow adiabatic shear band was formed in the locally yielding plate damaged by shearing and plugging during the penetration process. The amount of energy needed to completely perforate the three-layer composite target was greater than that for a two-layer composite target with the same areal density and total thickness. The protective performance of the steel/aluminum/steel target was better than that of the aluminum/steel/aluminum target with the same areal density.

  9. Building No. 392, interior overview with welding stalls and steel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building No. 392, interior overview with welding stalls and steel plate floor, view facing west-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Marine Railway No. 1 Accessories House & Apprentice Welding School, Additions, Intersection of Avenue B & Sixth Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. Computer program simplifies selection of structural steel columns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vissing, G. S.

    1966-01-01

    Computer program rapidly selects appropriate size steel columns and base plates for construction of multistory structures. The program produces a printed record containing the size of a section required at a particular elevation, the stress produced by the loads, and the allowable stresses for that section.

  11. Effect of microstructure of superalloy guide plate on its surface wear resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jianbo; Zhang, Xizhen

    2018-03-01

    The microstructure had been observed for guide plate, the guide plate be made of casting for groove controlling of hot rolled seamless tube, be produced for the production of 1600 seamless steel pipe,which cause obvious surface deformation and can not be normally produced. The alloy elements in matrix and precipitate phase of the guide plate were analyzed with the help of EDS. The results show that the wear resistance of the guide plate is directly affected by the fact that the guide plate is unable to form typical carbides, it shows that the formation of typical carbide strengthening plays an important role in improving the surface wear resistance of the guide plate.

  12. Evaluation of finger plate and flat plate connection design.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-01-01

    This project investigates the cause(s) of premature deterioration of MoDOT finger plate and flat plate expansion devices : under high traffic volumes and then uses that information to design new Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) : finger plate...

  13. Biomechanical analysis of acromioclavicular joint dislocation treated with clavicle hook plates in different lengths.

    PubMed

    Shih, Cheng-Min; Huang, Kui-Chou; Pan, Chien-Chou; Lee, Cheng-Hung; Su, Kuo-Chih

    2015-11-01

    Clavicle hook plates are frequently used in clinical orthopaedics to treat acromioclavicular joint dislocation. However, patients often exhibit acromion osteolysis and per-implant fracture after undergoing hook plate fixation. With the intent of avoiding future complications or fixation failure after clavicle hook plate fixation, we used finite element analysis (FEA) to investigate the biomechanics of clavicle hook plates of different materials and sizes when used in treating acromioclavicular joint dislocation. Using finite element analysis, this study constructed a model comprising four parts: clavicle, acromion, clavicle hook plate and screws, and used the model to simulate implanting different types of clavicle hook plates in patients with acromioclavicular joint dislocation. Then, the biomechanics of stainless steel and titanium alloy clavicle hook plates containing either six or eight screw holes were investigated. The results indicated that using a longer clavicle hook plate decreased the stress value in the clavicle, and mitigated the force that clavicle hook plates exert on the acromion. Using a clavicle hook plate material characterized by a smaller Young's modulus caused a slight increase in the stress on the clavicle. However, the external force the material imposed on the acromion was less than the force exerted on the clavicle. The findings of this study can serve as a reference to help orthopaedic surgeons select clavicle hook plates.

  14. Development of High Heat Input Welding Offshore Steel as Normalized Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Wei; Qin, Xiaomei

    The heavy plate used for offshore structure is one of the important strategic products. In recent years, there is an increasing demand for heavy shipbuilding steel plate with excellent weldability in high heat input welding. During the thermal cycle, the microstructure of the heat affected zone (HAZ) of plates was damaged, and this markedly reduced toughness of HAZ. So, how to improve the toughness of HAZ has been a key subject in the fields of steel research. Oxide metallurgy is considered as an effective way to improve toughness of HAZ, because it could be used to retard grain growth by fine particles, which are stable at the high temperature.The high strength steel plate, which satisfies the low temperature specification, has been applied to offshore structure. Excellent properties of the plates and welded joints were obtained by oxide metallurgy technology, latest controlled rolling and accelerated cooling technology using Ultra-Fast Cooling (an on-line accelerated cooling system). The 355MPa-grade high strength steel plates with normalizing condition were obtained, and the steels have excellent weldability with heat input energy of 79 287kJ/cm, and the nil ductility transition (NDT) temperature was -70°C, which can satisfy the construction of offshore structure in cold regions.

  15. Structural analysis of hatch cover plates on FMEF high bay mezzanine

    SciTech Connect

    Dixson, G.E.

    1997-05-29

    In order to move the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) trailer into position for testing on the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) 42 ft level mezzanine one of the trailer`s wheels will have to sit on a circular hatch cover fabricated from one-inch thick steel plate. The attached calculations verify that the hatch cover plate is strong enough to support the weight of the INEL LDUA trailer`s wheel.

  16. Self-interference between forward and backward propagating parts of a single acoustic plate mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germano, M.; Alippi, A.; Angelici, M.; Bettucci, A.

    2002-04-01

    Near and far fields of a particular (S1) Lamb mode, generated on a steel plate by means of a wedge transducer, are investigated. These show an oscillating behavior of the radial profile of the acoustic field amplitude that can be interpreted and modelled as interference phenomenon between forward and backward propagating parts of the Lamb mode, simultaneously generated at the interface between transducer and plate.

  17. Self-interference between forward and backward propagating parts of a single acoustic plate mode.

    PubMed

    Germano, M; Alippi, A; Angelici, M; Bettucci, A

    2002-04-01

    Near and far fields of a particular (S(1)) Lamb mode, generated on a steel plate by means of a wedge transducer, are investigated. These show an oscillating behavior of the radial profile of the acoustic field amplitude that can be interpreted and modelled as interference phenomenon between forward and backward propagating parts of the Lamb mode, simultaneously generated at the interface between transducer and plate.

  18. Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel

    DOEpatents

    Bauer, Roger E.; Straalsund, Jerry L.; Chin, Bryan A.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

  19. High Nitrogen Stainless Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-19

    STAINLESS STEEL by E. U. Lee R. Taylor 19 July 2011 Approved for...NAWCADPAX/TR-2011/162 19 July 2011 HIGH NITROGEN STAINLESS STEEL by E. U. Lee R. Taylor RELEASED BY...REPORT TYPE Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER High Nitrogen Stainless Steel 5b. GRANT

  20. Welding of titanium and stainless steel using the composite insert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepanov, A. N.; Mali, V. I.; Orishich, A. M.; Malikov, A. G.; Drozdov, V. O.; Malyutina, Y. N.

    2016-11-01

    The paper concerns the possibility of obtaining a lasting permanent joint of dissimilar metals: technically pure titanium and stainless steel using laser welding and an intermediate composite insert. The insert was a four-layer composition of plates of steel, copper, niobium, and titanium welded by explosion. The material layers used in the insert prevented the molten steel and titanium from mixing, which excluded the formation of brittle intermetallic compounds, such as FeTi and Fe2Ti. The optimization of explosion welding parameters provided a high quality of the four-layer composition and the absence of defects in the area of the joint of insert plates. The results of strength tests showed that values of the ultimate strength and yield of the permanent joint with the composite insert welded by explosion are comparable to the strength characteristics of titanium.

  1. Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of Gas Metal Arc Welded AISI 409 Grade Ferritic Stainless Steel Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayanan, A. K.; Shanmugam, K.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2009-10-01

    The effect of filler metals such as austenitic stainless steel, ferritic stainless steel, and duplex stainless steel on fatigue crack growth behavior of the gas metal arc welded ferritic stainless steel joints was investigated. Rolled plates of 4 mm thickness were used as the base material for preparing single ‘V’ butt welded joints. Center cracked tensile specimens were prepared to evaluate fatigue crack growth behavior. Servo hydraulic controlled fatigue testing machine with a capacity of 100 kN was used to evaluate the fatigue crack growth behavior of the welded joints. From this investigation, it was found that the joints fabricated by duplex stainless steel filler metal showed superior fatigue crack growth resistance compared to the joints fabricated by austenitic and ferritic stainless steel filler metals. Higher yield strength and relatively higher toughness may be the reasons for superior fatigue performance of the joints fabricated by duplex stainless steel filler metal.

  2. [Steel or titanium for osteosynthesis : A mechanobiological perspective].

    PubMed

    Heyland, M; Duda, G N; Märdian, S; Schütz, M; Windolf, M

    2017-02-01

    An implant used for stabilizing a fracture creates a mechanical construct, which directly determines the biology of bone healing. The stabilization of fractures places high mechanical demands on implants and therefore steel and titanium are currently almost exclusively used as the materials of choice. The possible range of attainable mechanobiological stimulation for mechanotherapy as a function of plate stiffness depending on the selection of the plate material and the physical and mechanical properties of the material options are discussed. An overview of the material properties of steel and titanium is given. For dynamically fixed long bone fractures as examples, various finite element models of plate osteosynthesis (steel/titanium) are created and the plate working length (PWL, screw configuration close to fracture) is varied. The interfragmentary movement (IFM) as a measure of mechanobiological stimulation is evaluated. Stimulation in the form of IFM varies across the fracture and also as a function of the osteosynthesis material and the configuration. The influence of the material appears to be notably smaller than the influence of PWL but both lose their influence largely over a bridged fracture situation (contact). With a flexible titanium plate and large PSS, a greater mechanobiological stimulation is produced. An essential prerequisite for the secondary fracture healing is an appropriate mechanobiological environment, which can be controlled by the osteosynthesis material and the configuration and is also affected by the type of fracture and load.

  3. Microchannel plate streak camera

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Ching L.

    1989-01-01

    An improved streak camera in which a microchannel plate electron multiplier is used in place of or in combination with the photocathode used in prior streak cameras. The improved streak camera is far more sensitive to photons (UV to gamma-rays) than the conventional x-ray streak camera which uses a photocathode. The improved streak camera offers gamma-ray detection with high temporal resolution. It also offers low-energy x-ray detection without attenuation inside the cathode. Using the microchannel plate in the improved camera has resulted in a time resolution of about 150 ps, and has provided a sensitivity sufficient for 1000 KeV x-rays.

  4. Bipolar battery plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A liquid-impermeable plate (10) having throughplate conductivity with essentially zero resistance comprises an insulator sheet (12) having a series of spaced perforations (14) each of which contains a metal element (16) sealingly received into the perforation (14). A low-cost plate can readily be manufactured by punching a thermoplastic sheet (40) such as polypropylene with a punching tool (52), filling the apertures with lead spheres (63) having a diameter smaller than the holes (50) but larger than the thickness of the sheet, sweeping excess spheres (62) off the sheet with a doctor blade (60) and then pressing a heated platen (74) onto the sheet to swage the spheres into a cylindrical shape and melt the surrounding resin to form a liquid-impermeable collar (4) sealing the metal into the sheet.

  5. 77 FR 12556 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ..., respectively. Case History On September 12, 2011, the Department published in the Federal Register the... Comment 6: Stanley's Surrogate Values A. Copper Plated Steel Welding Wire B. Sodium Sulfate C. Glass Balls...

  6. Elastic plate spallation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oline, L.; Medaglia, J.

    1972-01-01

    The dynamic finite element method was used to investigate elastic stress waves in a plate. Strain displacement and stress strain relations are discussed along with the stiffness and mass matrix. The results of studying point load, and distributed load over small, intermediate, and large radii are reported. The derivation of finite element matrices, and the derivation of lumped and consistent matrices for one dimensional problems with Laplace transfer solutions are included. The computer program JMMSPALL is also included.

  7. Grooved Armor Plate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1935-05-16

    that many of the olateo tested do sux^ ass the reouired limita by a considerable margin. Therefore, the efficiency of these grooved plate...Plpte Thicknesn B>lll<tle .Llji^f - ./.. s... a’ ^ea:: of All RtSUltS !’ Teen of Rlgbeot lOf of All Reoultr. s/i«- 1830 an« 7/16" ?180

  8. Martian plate tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleep, N. H.

    1994-03-01

    The northern lowlands of Mars have been produced by plate tectonics. Preexisting old thick highland crust was subducted, while seafloor spreading produced thin lowland crust during late Noachian and Early Hesperian time. In the preferred reconstruction, a breakup margin extended north of Cimmeria Terra between Daedalia Planum and Isidis Planitia where the highland-lowland transition is relatively simple. South dipping subduction occured beneath Arabia Terra and east dipping subduction beneath Tharsis Montes and Tempe Terra. Lineations associated with Gordii Dorsum are attributed to ridge-parallel structures, while Phelegra Montes and Scandia Colles are interpreted as transfer-parallel structures or ridge-fault-fault triple junction tracks. Other than for these few features, there is little topographic roughness in the lowlands. Seafloor spreading, if it occurred, must have been relatively rapid. Quantitative estimates of spreading rate are obtained by considering the physics of seafloor spreading in the lower (approx. 0.4 g) gravity of Mars, the absence of vertical scarps from age differences across fracture zones, and the smooth axial topography. Crustal thickness at a given potential temperature in the mantle source region scales inversely with gravity. Thus, the velocity of the rough-smooth transition for axial topography also scales inversely with gravity. Plate reorganizations where young crust becomes difficult to subduct are another constraint on spreading age. Plate tectonics, if it occurred, dominated the thermal and stress history of the planet. A geochemical implication is that the lower gravity of Mars allows deeper hydrothermal circulation through cracks and hence more hydration of oceanic crust so that more water is easily subducted than on the Earth. Age and structural relationships from photogeology as well as median wavelength gravity anomalies across the now dead breakup and subduction margins are the data most likely to test and modify hypotheses

  9. Plated wire memory subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, L.; Tweed, H.

    1972-01-01

    The work performed entailed the design, development, construction and testing of a 4000 word by 18 bit random access, NDRO plated wire memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft imput/output unit and central processing unit. The primary design parameters, in order of importance, were high reliability, low power, volume and weight. A single memory unit, referred to as a qualification model, was delivered.

  10. The steel scrap age.

    PubMed

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Milford, Rachel L; Müller, Daniel B; Allwood, Julian M

    2013-04-02

    Steel production accounts for 25% of industrial carbon emissions. Long-term forecasts of steel demand and scrap supply are needed to develop strategies for how the steel industry could respond to industrialization and urbanization in the developing world while simultaneously reducing its environmental impact, and in particular, its carbon footprint. We developed a dynamic stock model to estimate future final demand for steel and the available scrap for 10 world regions. Based on evidence from developed countries, we assumed that per capita in-use stocks will saturate eventually. We determined the response of the entire steel cycle to stock saturation, in particular the future split between primary and secondary steel production. During the 21st century, steel demand may peak in the developed world, China, the Middle East, Latin America, and India. As China completes its industrialization, global primary steel production may peak between 2020 and 2030 and decline thereafter. We developed a capacity model to show how extensive trade of finished steel could prolong the lifetime of the Chinese steelmaking assets. Secondary steel production will more than double by 2050, and it may surpass primary production between 2050 and 2060: the late 21st century can become the steel scrap age.

  11. Methods of forming steel

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Burch, Joseph V.

    2001-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention encompasses a method of forming a steel. A metallic glass is formed and at least a portion of the glass is converted to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A molten alloy is formed and cooled the alloy at a rate which forms a metallic glass. The metallic glass is devitrified to convert the glass to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In yet another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A first metallic glass steel substrate is provided, and a molten alloy is formed over the first metallic glass steel substrate to heat and devitrify at least some of the underlying metallic glass of the substrate.

  12. Can we safely deform a plate to fit every bone? Population-based fit assessment and finite element deformation of a distal tibial plate.

    PubMed

    Harith, Hazreen; Schmutz, Beat; Malekani, Javad; Schuetz, Michael A; Yarlagadda, Prasad K

    2016-03-01

    Anatomically precontoured plates are commonly used to treat periarticular fractures. A well-fitting plate can be used as a tool for anatomical reduction of the fractured bone. Recent studies highlighted that some plates fit poorly for many patients due to considerable shape variations between bones of the same anatomical site. While it is impossible to design one shape that fits all, it is also burdensome for the manufacturers and hospitals to produce, store and manage multiple plate shapes without the certainty of utilization by a patient population. In this study, we investigated the number of shapes required for maximum fit within a given dataset, and if they could be obtained by manually deforming the original plate. A distal medial tibial plate was automatically positioned on 45 individual tibiae, and the optimal deformation was determined iteratively using finite element analysis simulation. Within the studied dataset, we found that: (i) 89% fit could be achieved with four shapes, (ii) 100% fit was impossible through mechanical deformation, and (iii) the deformations required to obtain the four plate shapes were safe for the stainless steel plate for further clinical use. The proposed framework is easily transferable to other orthopaedic plates. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fibonacci-like zone plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shubo; Liu, Mengsi; Xia, Tian; Tao, Shaohua

    2018-06-01

    We present a new family of diffractive lenses, Fibonacci-like zone plates, generated with a modified Fibonacci sequence. The focusing properties and the evolution of transverse diffraction pattern for the Fibonacci-like zone plates have been analytically investigated both theoretically and experimentally and compared with the corresponding Fresnel zone plates of the same resolution. The results demonstrate that the Fibonacci-like zone plates possess the self-similar property and the multifocal behavior. Furthermore, the Fibonacci-like zone plate beams are found to possess the self-reconstruction property, and would be promising for 3D optical tweezers, laser machining, and optical imaging.

  14. Symmetries in laminated composite plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, A. K.

    1976-01-01

    The different types of symmetry exhibited by laminated anisotropic fibrous composite plates are identified and contrasted with the symmetries of isotropic and homogeneous orthotropic plates. The effects of variations in the fiber orientation and the stacking sequence of the layers on the symmetries exhibited by composite plates are discussed. Both the linear and geometrically nonlinear responses of the plates are considered. A simple procedure is presented for exploiting the symmetries in the finite element analysis. Examples are given of square, skew and polygonal plates where use of symmetry concepts can significantly reduce the scope and cost of analysis.

  15. The generalized mean zone plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Tian; Cheng, Shubo; Tao, Shaohua

    2018-06-01

    In this paper a generalized mean zone plate is proposed, which generates twin foci located at the positions satisfying the expression of the generalized mean, which includes the m-golden mean, precious mean, and so on. The generalized mean zone plate can be designed to generate twin foci with various position ratios. The diffraction properties of the generalized mean zone plates have been investigated with simulations and experiments. The results show that the ratio of the positions of the twin foci for the generalized mean zone plate can be designed with the selected zone plate parameters.

  16. Hypervelocity impact on shielded plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James P.

    1993-01-01

    A ballistic limit equation for hypervelocity impact on thin plates is derived analytically. This equation applies to cases of impulsive impact on a plate that is protected by a multi-shock shield, and it is valid in the range of velocity above 6 km/s. Experimental tests were conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center on square aluminum plates. Comparing the center deflections of these plates with the theoretical deflections of a rigid-plastic plate subjected to a blast load, one determines the dynamic yield strength of the plate material. The analysis is based on a theory for the expansion of the fragmented projectile and on a simple failure criterion. Curves are presented for the critical projectile radius versus the projectile velocity, and for the critical plate thickness versus the velocity. These curves are in good agreement with curves that have been generated empirically.

  17. Fuel cell end plate structure

    DOEpatents

    Guthrie, Robin J.; Katz, Murray; Schroll, Craig R.

    1991-04-23

    The end plates (16) of a fuel cell stack (12) are formed of a thin membrane. Pressure plates (20) exert compressive load through insulation layers (22, 26) to the membrane. Electrical contact between the end plates (16) and electrodes (50, 58) is maintained without deleterious making and breaking of electrical contacts during thermal transients. The thin end plate (16) under compressive load will not distort with a temperature difference across its thickness. Pressure plate (20) experiences a low thermal transient because it is insulated from the cell. The impact on the end plate of any slight deflection created in the pressure plate by temperature difference is minimized by the resilient pressure pad, in the form of insulation, therebetween.

  18. Guided wave propagation in metallic and resin plates loaded with water on single surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Takahiro; Inoue, Daisuke

    2016-02-01

    Our previous papers reported dispersion curves for leaky Lamb waves in a water-loaded plate and wave structures for several typical modes including quasi-Scholte waves [1,2]. The calculations were carried out with a semi-analytical finite element (SAFE) method developed for leaky Lamb waves. This study presents SAFE calculations for transient guided waves including time-domain waveforms and animations of wave propagation in metallic and resin water-loaded plates. The results show that non-dispersive and non-attenuated waves propagating along the interface between the fluid and the plate are expected for effective non-destructive evaluation of such fluid-loaded plates as storage tanks and transportation pipes. We calculated transient waves in both steel and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plates loaded with water on a single side and input dynamic loading from a point source on the other water-free surface as typical examples of metallic and resin plates. For a steel plate, there exists a non-dispersive and non-attenuated mode, called the quasi-Scholte wave, having an almost identical phase velocity to that of water. The quasi-Scholte wave has superior generation efficiency in the low frequency range due to its broad energy distribution across the plate, whereas it is localized near the plate-water interface at higher frequencies. This means that it has superior detectability of inner defects. For a PVC plate, plural non-attenuated modes exist. One of the non-attenuated modes similar to the A0 mode of the Lamb wave in the form of a group velocity dispersion curve is promising for the non-destructive evaluation of the PVC plate because it provides prominent characteristics of generation efficiency and low dispersion.

  19. Study of Variable Frequency Induction Heating in Steel Making Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukutani, Kazuhiko; Umetsu, Kenji; Itou, Takeo; Isobe, Takanori; Kitahara, Tadayuki; Shimada, Ryuichi

    Induction heating technologies have been the standard technologies employed in steel making processes because they are clean, they have a high energy density, they are highly the controllable, etc. However, there is a problem in using them; in general, frequencies of the electric circuits have to be kept fixed to improve their power factors, and this constraint makes the processes inflexible. In order to overcome this problem, we have developed a new heating technique-variable frequency power supply with magnetic energy recovery switching. This technique helps us in improving the quality of steel products as well as the productivity. We have also performed numerical calculations and experiments to evaluate its effect on temperature distributions on heated steel plates. The obtained results indicate that the application of the technique in steel making processes would be advantageous.

  20. Electrodeposited Zinc-Nickel as an Alternative to Cadmium Plating for Aerospace Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillan, V. C.

    1991-01-01

    Corrosion evaluation studies were conducted on 4130 alloy steel samples coated with electrodeposited zinc-nickel and samples coated with electrodeposited cadmium. The zinc nickel was deposited by the selection electrochemical metallizing process. These coated samples were exposed to a 5-percent salt fog environment at 35 plus or minus 2 C for a period ranging from 96 to 240 hours. An evaluation of the effect of dichromate coatings on the performance of each plating was conducted. The protection afforded by platings with a dichromate seal was compared to platings without the seal. During the later stages of testing, deposit adhesion and the potential for hydrogen entrapment were also evaluated.

  1. [Conventional plate osteosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Klaue, K

    2010-02-01

    Consolidation of bone is an essential clinical problem when treating fractures, fixing osteotomies and fusing joints. In most cases, the means of fixation are plates and screws. The goal is functional postoperative therapy by moving the adjacent joints and thus avoiding the deleterious disadvantages of long-lasting articular immobilization. Pre-operative planning, surgical approach, a good understanding of the precise mechanics of the structure and the biological answer for the various tissues are prerequisites of successful osteosynthesis. The choice of implants and the application of their versatility, as well as their adaptation to individual cases are the key to good results.

  2. Shuttle plate braiding machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huey, Jr., Cecil O. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for moving yarn in a selected pattern to form a braided article. The apparatus includes a segmented grid of stationary support elements and a plurality of shuttles configured to carry yarn. The shuttles are supported for movement on the grid assembly and each shuttle includes a retractable plunger for engaging a reciprocating shuttle plate that moves below the grid assembly. Such engagement at selected times causes the shuttles to move about the grid assembly in a selected pattern to form a braided article of a particular geometry.

  3. Light Armor Plate Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1923-07-28

    to thie time ot shipment will be ini- eluded, 06otioIjAs -- HistoT. On Dec ember 2S# lt~. uVeity -four plates -*ere raaivad fro* Watertown Are nal, Th...only AT .Jwi-ace Vvrl/ac e 914yramof specl .mens elsed for h7eat- treatment 12aiomArmor- P/ate Anyepstyatio,, Vi -oorner o! ogoii uipe’Aven va...tempering temperatures applied. Only oarburized specimens were suboted to the double- quenching treatment (see table IV). The purpose of this Waq to

  4. Plated wire memory subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, K. H.

    1974-01-01

    The design, construction, and test history of a 4096 word by 18 bit random access NDRO Plated Wire Memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft input/output and central processing unit is reported. A technical and functional description is given along with diagrams illustrating layout and systems operation. Test data is shown on the procedures and results of system level and memory stack testing, and hybrid circuit screening. A comparison of the most significant physical and performance characteristics of the memory unit versus the specified requirements is also included.

  5. Castings, Steel, Homogenization of Steel Castings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1942-12-05

    concerninr.. the ef- fe~ct of homogenizing herat-- treAment u-non the ballistic prop- erties -%f cLast steel armo--iercinr nrro jectilt:s. .arden.YD- 1 t...of hLmogenizing- treAments upon the3 corrosi;.A -.f quenched- Lr(- t c,-.rnered. c-.st steel. Harich, Riffin, -ri Bolotsk-2 .. ade two-bec-d weldahtil

  6. Low velocity impact of 6082-T6 aluminum plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocian, Oana Alexandra; Constantinescu, Dan Mihai; Sandu, Marin; Sorohan, Ştefan

    2018-02-01

    The low velocity domain covers vehicle impacts, ship collisions and even accidentally tool drops. Even though more and more research is needed into these fields, most of the papers concerning impact problems focus on impact at medium and high velocities. Understanding the behavior of structures subjected to low velocity impact is of major importance when referring to impact resistance and damage tolerance. The paper presents an experimental and numerical investigation on the low velocity behavior of 6082-T6 aluminum plates. Impact tests were performed using an Instron Ceast 9340 drop-weight testing machine. In the experimental procedure, square plates were mounted on a circular support, fixed with a pneumatic clamping system and impacted with a hemispherical steel projectile. Specimens were impacted at constant weight and different impact velocities. The effect of different impact energies was investigated. The impact event was then simulated using the nonlinear finite element code LS_DYNA in order to determine the effect of strain rate upon the mechanical behavior of the aluminum plates. Moreover, in order to capture the exact behavior of the material, a special attention has been given to the selection of the correct material model and its parameters, which, in large extent, depend on the observed behavior of the aluminum plate during the test and the actual response of the plate under simulation. The numerical predictions are compared with the experimental observations and the applicability of the numerical model for further researches is analyzed.

  7. Application of RNAMlet to surface defect identification of steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Yang; Zhou, Peng; Wang, Lei

    2018-06-01

    As three main production lines of steels, continuous casting slabs, hot rolled steel plates and cold rolled steel strips have different surface appearances and are produced at different speeds of their production lines. Therefore, the algorithms for the surface defect identifications of the three steel products have different requirements for real-time and anti-interference. The existing algorithms cannot be adaptively applied to surface defect identification of the three steel products. A new method of adaptive multi-scale geometric analysis named RNAMlet was proposed. The idea of RNAMlet came from the non-symmetry anti-packing pattern representation model (NAM). The image is decomposed into a set of rectangular blocks asymmetrically according to gray value changes of image pixels. Then two-dimensional Haar wavelet transform is applied to all blocks. If the image background is complex, the number of blocks is large, and more details of the image are utilized. If the image background is simple, the number of blocks is small, and less computation time is needed. RNAMlet was tested with image samples of the three steel products, and compared with three classical methods of multi-scale geometric analysis, including Contourlet, Shearlet and Tetrolet. For the image samples with complicated backgrounds, such as continuous casting slabs and hot rolled steel plates, the defect identification rate obtained by RNAMlet was 1% higher than other three methods. For the image samples with simple backgrounds, such as cold rolled steel strips, the computation time of RNAMlet was one-tenth of the other three MGA methods, while the defect identification rates obtained by RNAMlet were higher than the other three methods.

  8. Two-phase gas-liquid flow characteristics inside a plate heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Nilpueng, Kitti; Wongwises, Somchai

    In the present study, the air-water two-phase flow characteristics including flow pattern and pressure drop inside a plate heat exchanger are experimentally investigated. A plate heat exchanger with single pass under the condition of counter flow is operated for the experiment. Three stainless steel commercial plates with a corrugated sinusoidal shape of unsymmetrical chevron angles of 55 and 10 are utilized for the pressure drop measurement. A transparent plate having the same configuration as the stainless steel plates is cast and used as a cover plate in order to observe the flow pattern inside the plate heat exchanger. The air-watermore » mixture flow which is used as a cold stream is tested in vertical downward and upward flow. The results from the present experiment show that the annular-liquid bridge flow pattern appeared in both upward and downward flows. However, the bubbly flow pattern and the slug flow pattern are only found in upward flow and downward flow, respectively. The variation of the water and air velocity has a significant effect on the two-phase pressure drop. Based on the present data, a two-phase multiplier correlation is proposed for practical application. (author)« less

  9. Phase Transformations During Cooling of Automotive Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padgett, Matthew C.

    This thesis explores the effect of cooling rate on the microstructure and phases in advanced high strength steels (AHSS). In the manufacturing of automobiles, the primary joining mechanism for steel is resistance spot welding (RSW), a process that produces a high heat input and rapid cooling in the welded metal. The effect of RSW on the microstructure of these material systems is critical to understanding their mechanical properties. A dual phase steel, DP-600, and a transformation induced plasticity bainitic-ferritic steel, TBF-1180, were studied to assess the changes to their microstructure that take place in controlled cooling environments and in uncontrolled cooling environments, i.e. resistance spot welding. Continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams were developed using strip specimens of DP-600 and TBF-1180 to determine the phase transformations that occur as a function of cooling rate. The resulting phases were determined using a thermal-mechanical simulator and dilatometry, combined with light optical microscopy and hardness measurements. The resulting phases were compared with RSW specimens where cooling rate was controlled by varying the welding time for two-plate welds. Comparisons were drawn between experimental welds of DP-600 and simulations performed using a commercial welding software. The type and quantity of phases present after RSW were examined using a variety of techniques, including light optical microscopy using several etchants, hardness measurements, and x-ray diffraction (XRD).

  10. High adherence copper plating process

    DOEpatents

    Nignardot, H.

    1993-09-21

    A process is described for applying copper to a substrate of aluminum or steel by electrodeposition and for preparing the surface of an aluminum or steel substrate for the electrodeposition of copper. Practice of the invention provides good adhesion of the copper layer to either substrate.

  11. Ultrahigh Carbon Steel.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    The unique mechanical properties achieved in UHC steels are due to the presence of micron-size ferrite grains and ultrafine spheroidized carbides. SN...unique mechanical properties achieved in UHC [0 steels are due to the presence of micron-size ferrite grains and ultrafine spheroidized carbides. 0... steel is that it has a low resistance to plastic flow upon deformation in the superplastic range at low strain rates (e.g., 2000 psi at 4 1041 e 10 s

  12. Tectonics of the Easter plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engeln, J. F.; Stein, S.

    1984-01-01

    A new model for the Easter plate is presented in which rift propagation has resulted in the formation of a rigid plate between the propagating and dying ridges. The distribution of earthquakes, eleven new focal mechanisms, and existing bathymetric and magnetic data are used to describe the tectonics of this area. Both the Easter-Nazca and Easter-Pacific Euler poles are sufficiently close to the Easter plate to cause rapid changes in rates and directions of motion along the boundaries. The east and west boundaries are propagating and dying ridges; the southwest boundary is a slow-spreading ridge and the northern boundary is a complex zone of convergent and transform motion. The Easter plate may reflect the tectonics of rift propagation on a large scale, where rigid plate tectonics requires boundary reorientation. Simple schematic models to illustrate the general features and processes which occur at plates resulting from large-scale rift propagation are used.

  13. 75 FR 1031 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products from India: Notice of Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... measuring at least 10 times the thickness. Universal mill plate (i.e., flat-rolled products rolled on four... determinations. If the Department chooses as facts available a calculated dumping margin from the investigation... questionnaire. See Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products from the Republic of Korea: Final...

  14. Waffle Production: Influence of Baking Plate Material on Sticking of Waffles.

    PubMed

    Huber, Regina; Kalss, Georg; Schoenlechner, Regine

    2017-01-01

    Background of this study was to understand the factors that contribute to sticking of fresh egg waffles on baking plates. The aim of this study was to investigate the sticking (adhesion) behavior of waffles on 4 different baking plate materials (ductile iron, grey iron, low alloyed steel, and steel with titanium nitrite coating) at different baking parameters (temperature and time) and application of 3 different release agents (different fat compositions). Baking plates from ductile and grey iron showed lower release properties of waffles than the 2 steel baking plates. Baking parameters had to be high enough to allow rapid product crust formation but prevent burning, which again increases sticking behavior. Release agents based on short-chain fatty acids with higher degree of saturation provided better release behavior of waffles than those based on long-chain fatty acids or on emulsifier-acid combinations. Baking plates with increased hardness, good heat storage capacity, and smooth surface seemed to be best suitable. Further research on appropriate coating material might be promising for future. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Multiple plate hydrostatic viscous damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A device for damping radial motion of a rotating shaft is described. The damper comprises a series of spaced plates extending in a radial direction. A hydraulic piston is utilized to place a load in these plates. Each annular plate is provided with a suitable hydrostatic bearing geometry on at least one of its faces. This structure provides a high degree of dampening in a rotor case system of turbomachinery in general. The damper is particularly useful in gas turbine engines.

  16. Ion plating for the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1981-01-01

    The ion plating techniques are classified relative to the instrumental set up, evaporation media and mode of transport. Distinction is drawn between the low vacuum (plasma) and high vacuum (ion beam) techniques. Ion plating technology is discussed at the fundamental and industrial level. At the fundamental level, the capabilities and limitations of the plasma (evaporant flux) and film characteristics are evaluated. On the industrial level, the performance and potential uses of ion plated films are discussed.

  17. Ion plating for the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1981-01-01

    The ion plating techniques are classified relative to the instrumental set up, evaporation media, and mode of transport. A distinction is drawn between the low vacuum (plasma) and high vacuum (ion beam) techniques. Ion plating technology is discussed at the fundamental and industrial level. At the fundamental level, the capabilities and limitations of the plasma (evaporant flux) and film characteristics are evaluated. And on the industrial level, the performance and potential uses of ion plated films are discussed.

  18. Channel plate for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Douthart, R.J.; Crowell, S.L.

    1998-01-13

    This invention is a channel plate that facilitates data compaction in DNA sequencing. The channel plate has a length, a width and a thickness, and further has a plurality of channels that are parallel. Each channel has a depth partially through the thickness of the channel plate. Additionally an interface edge permits electrical communication across an interface through a buffer to a deposition membrane surface. 15 figs.

  19. Optical Near-Field Plates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-08

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0085 OPTICAL NEAR-FILED PLATES Roberto Merlin UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Final Report 04/08/2015 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution...03-2015 Final 09/01/2009-12/31/2014 Optical Near-Field Plates FA9550-09-1-0636 erlin, Roberto, D. The University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109...distribution unlimited Optical near-field plates were designed using antisymmetric plasmon modes to generate abrupt phase changes within a fraction of a

  20. Thermophysical property sensitivity effects in steel solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overfelt, Tony

    1993-01-01

    The simulation of advanced solidification processes via digital computer techniques has gained widespread acceptance during the last decade or so. Models today can predict transient temperature fields, fluid flow fields, important microstructural parameters, and potential defects in castings. However, the lack of accurate thermophysical property data on important industrial alloys threatens to limit the ability of manufacturers to fully capitalize on the technology's benefits. A study of the sensitivity of one such numerical model of a steel plate casting to imposed variations in the data utilized for the thermal conductivity, specific heat, density, and heat of fusion is described. The sensitivity of the data's variability is characterized by its effects on the net solidification time of various points along the centerline of the plate casting. Recommendations for property measurements are given and the implications of data uncertainty for modelers are discussed.

  1. Ni-Flash-Coated Galvannealed Steel Sheet with Improved Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, D.; Dutta, M.; Venugopalan, T.

    2016-11-01

    In the last several years, automobile industries have increasingly focused on galvannealed (GA) steel sheet due to their superior properties such as weldability, paintability and corrosion protection. To improve the properties further, different coatings on GA have been reported. In this context, an electroplating process (flash coating) of bright and adherent Ni plating was developed on GA steel sheet for covering the GA defects and enhancing the performances such as weldability, frictional behavior, corrosion resistance and phosphatability. For better illustration, a comparative study with bare GA steel sheet has also been carried out. The maximum electroplating current density of 700 A/m2 yielded higher cathode current efficiency of 95-98%. The performances showed that Ni-coated (coating time 5-7 s) GA steel sheet has better spot weldability, lower dynamic coefficient of friction (0.07 in lubrication) and three times more corrosion resistance compared to bare GA steel sheet. Plate-like crystal of phosphate coating with size of 10-25 µm was obtained on the Ni-coated GA. The main phase in the phosphate compound was identified as hopeite (63.4 wt.%) along with other phases such as spencerite (28.3 wt.%) and phosphophyllite (8.3 wt.%).

  2. Intermittent plate tectonics?

    PubMed

    Silver, Paul G; Behn, Mark D

    2008-01-04

    Although it is commonly assumed that subduction has operated continuously on Earth without interruption, subduction zones are routinely terminated by ocean closure and supercontinent assembly. Under certain circumstances, this could lead to a dramatic loss of subduction, globally. Closure of a Pacific-type basin, for example, would eliminate most subduction, unless this loss were compensated for by comparable subduction initiation elsewhere. Given the evidence for Pacific-type closure in Earth's past, the absence of a direct mechanism for termination/initiation compensation, and recent data supporting a minimum in subduction flux in the Mesoproterozoic, we hypothesize that dramatic reductions or temporary cessations of subduction have occurred in Earth's history. Such deviations in the continuity of plate tectonics have important consequences for Earth's thermal and continental evolution.

  3. Plating Bacteriophage M13.

    PubMed

    Green, Michael R; Sambrook, Joseph

    2017-10-03

    A plaque of bacteriophage M13 derives from infection of a single bacterium by a single virus particle. The progeny particles infect neighboring bacteria, which, in turn, release another generation of daughter virus particles. If the bacteria are growing in semisolid medium (e.g., containing agar or agarose), then the diffusion of the progeny particles is limited. Cells infected with bacteriophage M13 are not killed, but have a longer generation time than uninfected Escherichia coli In consequence, plaques appear as areas of slower-growing cells on a faster-growing lawn of bacterial cells. This protocol describes plating of bacteriophage M13 stocks. Plaques are readily detectable on top agar after 4-8 h of incubation at 37°C. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  4. True Shear Parallel Plate Viscometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, Edwin; Kaukler, William

    2010-01-01

    This viscometer (which can also be used as a rheometer) is designed for use with liquids over a large temperature range. The device consists of horizontally disposed, similarly sized, parallel plates with a precisely known gap. The lower plate is driven laterally with a motor to apply shear to the liquid in the gap. The upper plate is freely suspended from a double-arm pendulum with a sufficiently long radius to reduce height variations during the swing to negligible levels. A sensitive load cell measures the shear force applied by the liquid to the upper plate. Viscosity is measured by taking the ratio of shear stress to shear rate.

  5. Glass-bead peen plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Peen plating of aluminum, copper, and nickel powders was investigated. Only aluminum was plated successfully within the range of peen plating conditions studied. Optimum plating conditions for aluminum were found to be: (1) bead/powder mixture containing 25 to 35% powder by weight, (2) peening intensity of 0.007A as measured by Almen strip, and (3) glass impact bead diameter of at least 297 microns (0.0117 inches) for depositing-100 mesh aluminum powder. No extensive cleaning or substrate preparation is required beyond removing loose dirt or heavy oil.

  6. Laser-driven flyer plate

    DOEpatents

    Paisley, Dennis L.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus for producing high velocity flyer plates involving placing a layer of dielectric material between a first metal foil and a second metal foil. With laser irradiation through an optical substrate, the first metal foil forms a plasma in the area of the irradiation, between the substrate and the solid portion of the first metal foil. When the pressure between the substrate and the foil reaches the stress limit of the dielectric, the dielectric will break away and launch the flyer plate out of the second metal foil. The mass of the flyer plate is controlled, as no portion of the flyer plate is transformed into a plasma.

  7. Friction and Wear Properties of Selected Solid Lubricating Films. Part 2; Ion-Plated Lead Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Iwaki, Masanori; Gotoh, Kenichi; Obara, Shingo; Imagawa, Kichiro

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate commercially developed dry solid film lubricants for aerospace bearing applications, an investigation was conducted to examine the friction and wear behavior of ion-plated lead films in sliding contact with 6-mm-diameter American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 440C stainless steel balls. Unidirectional sliding friction experiments were conducted with a load of 5.9 N (600 g), a mean Hertzian contact pressure of 0.79 GPa (maximum Hertzian contact pressure of 1.2 GPa), and a sliding velocity of 0.2 m/s. The experiments were conducted at room temperature in three environments: ultrahigh vacuum (vacuum pressure, 7 x 10(exp -7 Pa), humid air (relative humidity, approx. 20 percent), and dry nitrogen (relative humidity, less then 1 percent). The resultant films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and surface profilometry. Marked differences in the friction and wear of the ion-plated lead films investigated herein resulted from the environmental conditions. The main criteria for judging the performance of the ion-plated lead films were coefficient of friction and wear rate, which had to be less than 0.3 and on the order of 1(exp -6) cu mm/N.m or less, respectively. The ion-plated lead films met both criteria only in ultrahigh vacuum but failed in humid air and in dry nitrogen, where the coefficient of friction was higher than the criterion. Both the lead film wear rate and the ball wear rate met that criterion in all three environments. Adhesion and plastic deformation played important roles in the friction and wear of the ion-plated lead films in contact with 440C stainless steel balls in the three environments. All sliding involved adhesive transfer of materials: transfer of lead wear debris to the counterpart 440C stainless steel and transfer of 440C stainless steel wear debris to the counterpart lead.

  8. Plate tectonics, damage and inheritance.

    PubMed

    Bercovici, David; Ricard, Yanick

    2014-04-24

    The initiation of plate tectonics on Earth is a critical event in our planet's history. The time lag between the first proto-subduction (about 4 billion years ago) and global tectonics (approximately 3 billion years ago) suggests that plates and plate boundaries became widespread over a period of 1 billion years. The reason for this time lag is unknown but fundamental to understanding the origin of plate tectonics. Here we suggest that when sufficient lithospheric damage (which promotes shear localization and long-lived weak zones) combines with transient mantle flow and migrating proto-subduction, it leads to the accumulation of weak plate boundaries and eventually to fully formed tectonic plates driven by subduction alone. We simulate this process using a grain evolution and damage mechanism with a composite rheology (which is compatible with field and laboratory observations of polycrystalline rocks), coupled to an idealized model of pressure-driven lithospheric flow in which a low-pressure zone is equivalent to the suction of convective downwellings. In the simplest case, for Earth-like conditions, a few successive rotations of the driving pressure field yield relic damaged weak zones that are inherited by the lithospheric flow to form a nearly perfect plate, with passive spreading and strike-slip margins that persist and localize further, even though flow is driven only by subduction. But for hotter surface conditions, such as those on Venus, accumulation and inheritance of damage is negligible; hence only subduction zones survive and plate tectonics does not spread, which corresponds to observations. After plates have developed, continued changes in driving forces, combined with inherited damage and weak zones, promote increased tectonic complexity, such as oblique subduction, strike-slip boundaries that are subparallel to plate motion, and spalling of minor plates.

  9. Steel Industry Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidtke, N. W.; Averill, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from steel industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers: (1) coke production; (2) iron and steel production; (3) rolling operations; and (4) surface treatment. A list of 133 references is also presented. (NM)

  10. Performance Steel Castings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    Development of Sand Properties 103 Advanced Modeling Dataset.. 105 High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) Steels 107 Steel Casting and Engineering Support...to achieve the performance goals required for new systems. The dramatic reduction in weight and increase in capability will require high performance...for improved weapon system reliability. SFSA developed innovative casting design and manufacturing processes for high performance parts. SFSA is

  11. High Power Laser Beam Welding of Thick-walled Ferromagnetic Steels with Electromagnetic Weld Pool Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsche, André; Avilov, Vjaceslav; Gumenyuk, Andrey; Hilgenberg, Kai; Rethmeier, Michael

    The development of modern high power laser systems allows single pass welding of thick-walled components with minimal distortion. Besides the high demands on the joint preparation, the hydrostatic pressure in the melt pool increases with higher plate thicknesses. Reaching or exceeding the Laplace pressure, drop-out or melt sagging are caused. A contactless electromagnetic weld support system was used for laser beam welding of thick ferromagnetic steel plates compensating these effects. An oscillating magnetic field induces eddy currents in the weld pool which generate Lorentz forces counteracting the gravity forces. Hysteresis effects of ferromagnetic steels are considered as well as the loss of magnetization in zones exceeding the Curie temperature. These phenomena reduce the effective Lorentz forces within the weld pool. The successful compensation of the hydrostatic pressure was demonstrated on up to 20 mm thick plates of duplex and mild steel by a variation of the electromagnetic power level and the oscillation frequency.

  12. Research and Development of Heavy Wall DNV485FDU Pipeline Plate for 3500M Deep Water Pipe Applications at Shougang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Wenhua; Li, Shaopo; Li, Jiading; Li, Qun; Chen, Tieqiang; Zhang, Hai

    In recent years, there has been development of several significant pipeline projects for the transmission of oil and gas from deep water environments. The production of gas transmission pipelines for application demands heavy wall, high strength, good lower temperature toughness and good weldability. To overcome the difficulty of producing consistent mechanical property in heavy wall pipe Shougang Steel Research in cooperation with the Shougang Steel Qinhuangdao China (Shouqin) 4.3m heavy wide plate mill research was conducted.

  13. Reserch on Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Color Steel Building Based on Multi-Source High-Resolution Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S. W.; Ma, J. J.; Wang, J. M.

    2018-04-01

    As representative vulnerable regions of the city, dense distribution areas of temporary color steel building are a major target for control of fire risks, illegal buildings, environmental supervision, urbanization quality and enhancement for city's image. In the domestic and foreign literature, the related research mainly focuses on fire risks and violation monitoring. However, due to temporary color steel building's special characteristics, the corresponding research about temporal and spatial distribution, and influence on urban spatial form etc. has not been reported. Therefore, firstly, the paper research aim plans to extract information of large-scale color steel building from high-resolution images. Secondly, the color steel plate buildings were classified, and the spatial and temporal distribution and aggregation characteristics of small (temporary buildings) and large (factory building, warehouse, etc.) buildings were studied respectively. Thirdly, the coupling relationship between the spatial distribution of color steel plate and the spatial pattern of urban space was analysed. The results show that there is a good coupling relationship between the color steel plate building and the urban spatial form. Different types of color steel plate building represent the pattern of regional differentiation of urban space and the phased pattern of urban development.

  14. Metal vapor arc ion plating

    DOEpatents

    Bertram, L.A.; Fisher, R.W.; Mattox, D.M.; Zanner, F.J.

    1986-09-09

    A method and apparatus for ion plating are described. The apparatus uses more negative than a first electrode voltage in a vacuum arc remelt system to attract low energy ions from the anode electrode to the article to be plated. 2 figs.

  15. 11. GIRDER PARTIAL ELEVATION AND SECTIONS, 80 FOOT THROUGH PLATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. GIRDER PARTIAL ELEVATION AND SECTIONS, 80 FOOT THROUGH PLATE GIRDER SPAN. (Also includes a Marking Diagram and a schedule of parts.) American Bridge Company, Ambridge Plant No. 5, sheet no. 1, dated April 7, 1928, order no. F5073. For U.S. Steel Products Company, Pacific Coast Depot, order no. SF578. For Southern Pacific Company, order no. 8873-P-28746. Scale 1/4 inch to one foot. - Napa River Railroad Bridge, Spanning Napa River, east of Soscol Avenue, Napa, Napa County, CA

  16. Aseptic laboratory techniques: plating methods.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Erin R

    2012-05-11

    Microorganisms are present on all inanimate surfaces creating ubiquitous sources of possible contamination in the laboratory. Experimental success relies on the ability of a scientist to sterilize work surfaces and equipment as well as prevent contact of sterile instruments and solutions with non-sterile surfaces. Here we present the steps for several plating methods routinely used in the laboratory to isolate, propagate, or enumerate microorganisms such as bacteria and phage. All five methods incorporate aseptic technique, or procedures that maintain the sterility of experimental materials. Procedures described include (1) streak-plating bacterial cultures to isolate single colonies, (2) pour-plating and (3) spread-plating to enumerate viable bacterial colonies, (4) soft agar overlays to isolate phage and enumerate plaques, and (5) replica-plating to transfer cells from one plate to another in an identical spatial pattern. These procedures can be performed at the laboratory bench, provided they involve non-pathogenic strains of microorganisms (Biosafety Level 1, BSL-1). If working with BSL-2 organisms, then these manipulations must take place in a biosafety cabinet. Consult the most current edition of the Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) as well as Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for Infectious Substances to determine the biohazard classification as well as the safety precautions and containment facilities required for the microorganism in question. Bacterial strains and phage stocks can be obtained from research investigators, companies, and collections maintained by particular organizations such as the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). It is recommended that non-pathogenic strains be used when learning the various plating methods. By following the procedures described in this protocol, students should be able to: Perform plating procedures without contaminating media. Isolate single bacterial colonies by the streak-plating

  17. Aseptic Laboratory Techniques: Plating Methods

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Erin R.

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms are present on all inanimate surfaces creating ubiquitous sources of possible contamination in the laboratory. Experimental success relies on the ability of a scientist to sterilize work surfaces and equipment as well as prevent contact of sterile instruments and solutions with non-sterile surfaces. Here we present the steps for several plating methods routinely used in the laboratory to isolate, propagate, or enumerate microorganisms such as bacteria and phage. All five methods incorporate aseptic technique, or procedures that maintain the sterility of experimental materials. Procedures described include (1) streak-plating bacterial cultures to isolate single colonies, (2) pour-plating and (3) spread-plating to enumerate viable bacterial colonies, (4) soft agar overlays to isolate phage and enumerate plaques, and (5) replica-plating to transfer cells from one plate to another in an identical spatial pattern. These procedures can be performed at the laboratory bench, provided they involve non-pathogenic strains of microorganisms (Biosafety Level 1, BSL-1). If working with BSL-2 organisms, then these manipulations must take place in a biosafety cabinet. Consult the most current edition of the Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) as well as Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for Infectious Substances to determine the biohazard classification as well as the safety precautions and containment facilities required for the microorganism in question. Bacterial strains and phage stocks can be obtained from research investigators, companies, and collections maintained by particular organizations such as the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). It is recommended that non-pathogenic strains be used when learning the various plating methods. By following the procedures described in this protocol, students should be able to: ● Perform plating procedures without contaminating media. ● Isolate single bacterial colonies by the

  18. Impact damage of composite plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lal, K. M.; Goglia, G. L.

    1983-01-01

    A simple model to study low velocity transverse impact of thin plates made of fiber-reinforced composite material, in particular T300/5208 graphite-epoxy was discussed. This model predicts the coefficient of restitution, which is a measure of the energy absorbed by the target during an impact event. The model is constructed on the assumption that the plate is inextensible in the fiber direction and that the material is incompressible in the z-direction. Such a plate essentially deforms by shear, hence this model neglects bending deformations of the plate. The coefficient of restitution is predicted to increase with large interlaminar shear strength and low transverse shear modulus of the laminate. Predictions are compared with the test results of impacted circular and rectangular clamped plates. Experimentally measured values of the coefficient of restitution are found to agree with the predicted values within a reasonable error.

  19. Present-day plate motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minster, J. B.; Jordan, T. H.

    1977-01-01

    A data set comprising 110 spreading rates, 78 transform fault azimuths and 142 earthquake slip vectors was inverted to yield a new instantaneous plate motion model, designated RM2. The mean averaging interval for the relative motion data was reduced to less than 3 My. A detailed comparison of RM2 with angular velocity vectors which best fit the data along individual plate boundaries indicates that RM2 performs close to optimally in most regions, with several notable exceptions. On the other hand, a previous estimate (RM1) failed to satisfy an extensive set of new data collected in the South Atlantic Ocean. It is shown that RM1 incorrectly predicts the plate kinematics in the South Atlantic because the presently available data are inconsistent with the plate geometry assumed in deriving RM1. It is demonstrated that this inconsistency can be remedied by postulating the existence of internal deformation with the Indian plate, although alternate explanations are possible.

  20. The moving plate capacitor paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, B. R.; Abbott, D.; Parrondo, J. M. R.

    2000-03-01

    For the first time we describe an apparent paradox concerning a moving plate capacitor driven by thermal noise from a resistor. A demon restores the plates of the capacitor to their original position, only when the voltage across the capacitor is small—hence only small forces are present for the demon to work against. The demon has to work harder than this to avoid the situation of perpetual motion, but the question is how? We explore the concept of a moving plate capacitor, driven by noise, a step further by examining the case where the restoring force on the capacitor plates is provided by a simple spring, rather than some unknown demon. We display simulation results with interesting behavior, particularly where the capacitor plates collide with each other.

  1. SAMI Automated Plug Plate Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorente, N. P. F.; Farrell, T.; Goodwin, M.

    2013-10-01

    The Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) is a prototype wide-field system at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) which uses a plug-plate to mount its 13×61-core imaging fibre bundles (hexabundles) in the optical path at the telescope's prime focus. In this paper we describe the process of determining the positions of the plug-plate holes, where plates contain three or more stacked observation configurations. The process, which up until now has involved several separate processes and has required significant manual configuration and checking, is now being automated to increase efficiency and reduce error. This is carried out by means of a thin Java controller layer which drives the configuration cycle. This layer controls the user interface and the C++ algorithm layer where the plate configuration and optimisation is carried out. Additionally, through the Aladin display package, it provides visualisation and facilitates user verification of the resulting plates.

  2. Laser Welding of Coated Press-hardened Steel 22MnB5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siltanen, Jukka; Minkkinen, Ari; Järn, Sanna

    The press-hardening process is widely used for steels that are used in the automotive industry. Using ultra-high-strength steels enables car manufacturers to build lighter, stronger, and safer vehicles at a reduced cost and generating lower CO2 emissions. In the study, laser welding properties of the coated hot stamped steel 22BMn5 were studied. A constant 900 °C temperature was used to heat the steel plates, and two different furnace times were used in the press-hardening, being 300 and 740 seconds. Some of the plates were shot blasted to see the influence of the partly removed oxide layer on the laser welding and quality. The welding set-up, welding, and testing of the weld specimens complied with the automotive testing code SEP 1220.

  3. Development of a selective thin film and of a hermetically sealed flat plate solar collector with gas filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zernial, W.

    1982-12-01

    The industrial productibility of a selective absorbing thin film was investigated on the basis of reactive cathodic sputtering of Ni. On substrates of 1.8 sq m of Al, Cu, steel and stainless steel, solar absorption values up to 97% were achieved at emissivities of 5 to 10%. A prototype flat plate collector for high temperatures with two covers and hermetical sealing was developed. The technical data of the collector were measured, dependent on the selectivity of the absorber, gas fillings of dry air, argon or SF6 and the geometry and were compared with those of an evacuated flat plate collector. A hermetical sealed double flat plate collector for low temperatures was developed which has the advantage of lower no load temperatures and higher energy gain for heating swimming pool water compared with a conventional flat plate collector. The insolation values on collectors were measured and were used for a calculation of the energy gains of different collector types.

  4. Performance optimization of plate heat exchangers with chevron plates

    SciTech Connect

    Muley, A.; Manglik, R.M.

    1999-07-01

    The enhanced heat transfer performance of a chevron plate heat exchanger (PHE) is evaluated employing (1) energy-conservation based performance evaluation criteria (PECs), and (2) the second-law based minimization of entropy generation principle. Single-phase laminar and turbulent flow convection for three different chevron-plate arrangements are considered. The influence of plate surface corrugation characteristics and their stack arrangements on the heat exchanger's thermal-hydraulic performance is delineated. Based on the different figures of merit, the results show that the extent of heat transfer enhancement increases with flow Re and chevron angle {beta} in laminar flow, but it diminishes with increasing Re in turbulentmore » flows. With up to 2.9 times higher Q, 48% lower A, and entropy generation number N{sub s,a} {lt} 1, relative to an equivalent flat-plate pack, chevron plates are found to be especially suitable in the low to medium flow rates range (20 {le} Re {le} 2,000). Also, there appears to be no significant advantage of using a mixed-plate over a symmetric-plate arrangement.« less

  5. Development and Application of High Strength TMCP Plate for Coal Mining Machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yongqing, Zhang; Aimin, Guo; Liandeng, Yao

    Coal, as the most major energy in China, accounted for about 70% of China's primary energy production and consumption. While the percentage of coal as the primary energy mix would drop in the future due to serious smog pollution partly resulted from coal-burning, the market demand of coal will maintain because the progressive process of urbanization. In order to improve productivity and simultaneously decrease safety accidents, fully-mechanized underground mining technology based on complete equipment of powered support, armored face conveyor, shearer, belt conveyor and road-header have obtained quick development in recent years, of which powered support made of high strength steel plate accounts for 65 percent of total equipment investment, so, the integrated mechanical properties, in particular strength level and weldability, have a significant effects on working service life and productivity. Take hydraulic powered supports as example, this paper places priority to introduce the latest development of high strength steel plates of Q550, Q690 and Q890, as well as metallurgical design conception and production cost-benefits analysis between QT plate and TMCP plate. Through production and application practice, TMCP or DQ plate demonstrate great economic advantages compared with traditional QT plate.

  6. EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, BUFFALO PLANT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM ROLL SHOP. 8" BAR MILL DESIGNED AND BUILT BY DONNER STEEL CO. (PREDECESSOR OF REPUBLIC), 1919-1920. FOR DESCRIPTION OF ORIGINAL MILL SEE "IRON AGE", 116\\4 (23 JULY 1925): 201-204. - LTV Steel, 8-inch Bar Mill, Buffalo Plant, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  7. Detection of Interfacial Debonding in a Rubber-Steel-Layered Structure Using Active Sensing Enabled by Embedded Piezoceramic Transducers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qian; Kong, Qingzhao; Jiang, Jian; Liang, Yabin; Song, Gangbing

    2017-09-01

    Rubber-steel-layered structures are used in many engineering applications. Laminated rubber-steel bearing, as a type of seismic isolation device, is one of the most important applications of the rubber-steel-layered structures. Interfacial debonding in rubber-steel-layered structures is a typical failure mode, which can severely reduce their load-bearing capacity. In this paper, the authors developed a simple but effective active sensing approach using embedded piezoceramic transducers to provide an in-situ detection of the interfacial debonding between the rubber layers and steel plates. A sandwiched rubber-steel-layered specimen, consisting of one rubber layer and two steel plates, was fabricated as the test specimen. A novel installation technique, which allows the piezoceramic transducers to be fully embedded into the steel plates without changing the geometry and the surface conditions of the plates, was also developed in this research. The active sensing approach, in which designed stress waves can propagate between a pair of the embedded piezoceramic transducers (one as an actuator and the other one as a sensor), was employed to detect the steel-rubber debonding. When the rubber-steel debonding occurs, the debonded interfaces will attenuate the propagating stress wave, so that the amplitude of the received signal will decrease. The rubber-steel debonding was generated by pulling the two steel plates in opposite directions in a material-testing machine. The changes of the received signal before and after the debonding were characterized in a time domain and further quantified by using a wavelet packet-based energy index. Experiments on the healthy rubber-steel-layered specimen reveal that the piezoceramic-induced stress wave can propagate through the rubber layer. The destructive test on the specimen demonstrates that the piezoceramic-based active sensing approach can effectively detect the rubber-steel debonding failure in real time. The active sensing

  8. Balanced Orifice Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Buskirk, Paul D. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An orifice plate for use in a conduit through which fluid flows is defined by a central circular region having a radius R, and a ring-shaped region surrounding the central circular region. The ring-shaped region has holes formed therethrough with those holes centered at each radius R thereof satisfying a relationship A(sub R)=al(X(sub R)V(sub R)(sup b)) where A(sub R) is a sum of areas of those holes having centers at radius R, X(sub R) is a flow coefficient at radius R, V(sub R) is a velocity of the fluid that is to flow through the conduit at radius R, b is a constant selected to make at least one process variable (associated with the fluid that is to flow through the conduit) approximately equal at each radius R, and a is a constant that is equal to (X(sub R)A(sub R)V(sub R)(sup b)) at each radius R.

  9. Sub-Plate Overlap Code Documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taff, L. G.; Bucciarelli, B.; Zarate, N.

    1997-01-01

    An expansion of the plate overlap method of astrometric data reduction to a single plate has been proposed and successfully tested. Each plate is (artificially) divided into sub-plates which can then be overlapped. This reduces the area of a 'plate' over which a plate model needs to accurately represent the relationship between measured coordinates and standard coordinates. Application is made to non-astrographic plates such as Schmidt plates and to wide-field astrographic plates. Indeed, the method is completely general and can be applied to any type of recording media.

  10. Degradation behaviour of LAE442-based plate-screw-systems in an in vitro bone model.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Leonie; Besdo, Silke; Angrisani, Nina; Wriggers, Peter; Hering, Britta; Seitz, Jan-Marten; Reifenrath, Janin

    2015-04-01

    The use of absorbable implant materials for fixation after bone fracture helps to avoid a second surgery for implant removal and the risks and costs involved. Magnesium (Mg) is well known as a potential metallic material for degradable implants. The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate if degradable LAE442-based magnesium plate-screw-systems are suitable candidates for osteosynthesis implants in load-bearing bones. The corrosion behaviour was tested concerning the influence of different surface treatments, coatings and screw torques. Steel plates and screws of the same size served as control. Plates without special treatment screwed on up to a specified torque of 15cNm or 7cNm, NaOH treated plates (15cNm), magnesium fluoride coated plates (15cNm) and steel plates as control (15cNm) were examined in pH-buffered, temperature-controlled SBF solution for two weeks. The experimental results indicate that the LAE442 plates and screws coated with magnesium fluoride revealed a lower hydrogen evolution in SBF solution as well as a lower weight loss and volume decrease in μ-computed tomography (μCT). The nanoindentation and SEM/EDX measurements at several plate areas showed no significant differences. Summarized, the different screw torques did not affect the corrosion behaviour differently. Also the NaOH treatment seemed to have no essential influence on the degradation kinetics. The plates coated with magnesium fluoride showed a decreased corrosion rate. Hence, it is recommended to consider this coating for the next in vivo study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mantle convection with plates and mobile, faulted plate margins.

    PubMed

    Zhong, S; Gurnis, M

    1995-02-10

    A finite-element formulation of faults has been incorporated into time-dependent models of mantle convection with realistic rheology, continents, and phase changes. Realistic tectonic plates naturally form with self-consistent coupling between plate and mantle dynamics. After the initiation of subduction, trenches rapidly roll back with subducted slabs temporarily laid out along the base of the transition zone. After the slabs have penetrated into the lower mantle, the velocity of trench migration decreases markedly. The inhibition of slab penetration into the lower mantle by the 670-kilometer phase change is greatly reduced in these models as compared to models without tectonic plates.

  12. Methods of localization of Lamb wave sources on thin plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkaya, Semih; Toussaint, Renaud; Kvalheim Eriksen, Fredrik; Daniel, Guillaume; Grude Flekkøy, Eirik; Jørgen Måløy, Knut

    2015-04-01

    Signal localization techniques are ubiquitous in both industry and academic communities. We propose a new localization method on plates which is based on energy amplitude attenuation and inverted source amplitude comparison. This inversion is tested on synthetic data using Lamb wave propagation direct model and on experimental dataset (recorded with 4 Brüel & Kjær Type 4374 miniature piezoelectric shock accelerometers (1-26 kHz frequency range)). We compare the performance of the technique to the classical source localization algorithms, arrival time localization, time reversal localization, localization based on energy amplitude. Furthermore, we measure and compare the accuracy of these techniques as function of sampling rate, dynamic range, geometry, Signal to Noise Ratio, and we show that this very versatile technique works better than classical ones over the sampling rates 100kHz - 1MHz. Experimental phase consists of a glass plate having dimensions of 80cmx40cm with a thickness of 1cm. Generated signals due to a wooden hammer hit or a steel ball hit are captured by sensors placed on the plate on different locations with the mentioned sensors. Numerical simulations are done using dispersive far field approximation of plate waves. Signals are generated using a hertzian loading over the plate. Using imaginary sources outside the plate boundaries the effect of reflections is also included. This proposed method, can be modified to be implemented on 3d environments, monitor industrial activities (e.g boreholes drilling/production activities) or natural brittle systems (e.g earthquakes, volcanoes, avalanches).

  13. Acoustic Emission Signals in Thin Plates Produced by Impact Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H.; Gorman, Michael R.; Humes, Donald H.

    1999-01-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) signals created by impact sources in thin aluminum and graphite/epoxy composite plates were analyzed. Two different impact velocity regimes were studied. Low-velocity (less than 0.21 km/s) impacts were created with an airgun firing spherical steel projectiles (4.5 mm diameter). High-velocity (1.8 to 7 km/s) impacts were generated with a two-stage light-gas gun firing small cylindrical nylon projectiles (1.5 mm diameter). Both the impact velocity and impact angle were varied. The impacts did not penetrate the aluminum plates at either low or high velocities. For high-velocity impacts in composites, there were both impacts that fully penetrated the plate as well as impacts that did not. All impacts generated very large amplitude AE signals (1-5 V at the sensor), which propagated as plate (extensional and/or flexural) modes. In the low-velocity impact studies, the signal was dominated by a large flexural mode with only a small extensional mode component detected. As the impact velocity was increased within the low velocity regime, the overall amplitudes of both the extensional and flexural modes increased. In addition, a relative increase in the amplitude of high-frequency components of the flexural mode was also observed. Signals caused by high-velocity impacts that did not penetrate the plate contained both a large extensional and flexural mode component of comparable amplitudes. The signals also contained components of much higher frequency and were easily differentiated from those caused by low-velocity impacts. An interesting phenomenon was observed in that the large flexural mode component, seen in every other case, was absent from the signal when the impact particle fully penetrated through the composite plates.

  14. The numerical simulation of Lamb wave propagation in laser welding of stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Liu, Fang; Liu, Chang; Li, Jingming; Zhang, Baojun; Zhou, Qingxiang; Han, Xiaohui; Zhao, Yang

    2017-12-01

    In order to explore the Lamb wave propagation in laser welding of stainless steel, the numerical simulation is used to show the feature of Lamb wave. In this paper, according to Lamb dispersion equation, excites the Lamb wave on the edge of thin stainless steel plate, and presents the reflection coefficient for quantizing the Lamb wave energy, the results show that the reflection coefficient is increased with the welding width increasing,

  15. Nuclear transmutation in steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belozerova, A. R.; Shimanskii, G. A.; Belozerov, S. V.

    2009-05-01

    The investigations of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels that are widely used in nuclear power and research reactors and in steels that are planned for the application in thermonuclear fusion plants, which are employed under the conditions of a prolonged action of neutron irradiation with different spectra, made it possible to study the effects of changes in the isotopic and chemical composition on the tendency of changes in the structural stability of these steels. For the computations of nuclear transmutation in steels, we used a program complex we have previously developed on the basis of algorithms for constructing branched block-type diagrams of nuclide transformations and for locally and globally optimizing these diagrams with the purpose of minimizing systematic errors in the calculation of nuclear transmutation. The dependences obtained were applied onto a Schaeffler diagram for steels used for structural elements of reactors. For the irradiation in fission reactors, we observed only a weak influence of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels on their structural stability. On the contrary, in the case of irradiation with fusion neutrons, a strong influence of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels on their structural stability has been noted.

  16. Details: Elevation of Plate Typical Bay, SectionThrough Plate Typical Bay, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Details: Elevation of Plate Typical Bay, Section-Through Plate Typical Bay, Section-Through Plate Center Bay, Elevation of Plate Center Bay - Contoocook Covered Bridge, Spanning Contoocook River, Hopkinton, Merrimack County, NH

  17. Connecticut permanent long-term bridge monitoring network, volume 6 : monitoring of a continuous plate girder bridge with load restrictions - Route 15 over the Housatonic River in Stratford (Bridge #761).

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-08-01

    This report describes the instrumentation and data acquisition system for monitoring of a continuous span steel plate : girder bridge with a composite concrete deck located on a limited access highway. The monitoring system was : developed and instal...

  18. Damascus steel ledeburite class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhanov, D. A.; Arkhangelsky, L. B.; Plotnikova, N. V.

    2017-02-01

    Discovered that some of blades Damascus steel has an unusual nature of origin of the excess cementite, which different from the redundant phases of secondary cementite, cementite of ledeburite and primary cementite in iron-carbon alloys. It is revealed that the morphological features of separate particles of cementite in Damascus steels lies in the abnormal size of excess carbides having the shape of irregular prisms. Considered three hypotheses for the formation of excess cementite in the form of faceted prismatic of excess carbides. The first hypothesis is based on thermal fission of cementite of a few isolated grains. The second hypothesis is based on the process of fragmentation cementite during deformation to the separate the pieces. The third hypothesis is based on the transformation of metastable cementite in the stable of angular eutectic carbide. It is shown that the angular carbides are formed within the original metastable colony ledeburite, so they are called “eutectic carbide”. It is established that high-purity white cast iron is converted into of Damascus steel during isothermal soaking at the annealing. It was revealed that some of blades Damascus steel ledeburite class do not contain in its microstructure of crushed ledeburite. It is shown that the pattern of carbide heterogeneity of Damascus steel consists entirely of angular eutectic carbides. Believe that Damascus steel refers to non-heat-resistant steel of ledeburite class, which have similar structural characteristics with semi-heat-resistant die steel or heat-resistant high speed steel, differing from them only in the nature of excess carbide phase.

  19. Assessment of carbon fibre composite fracture fixation plate using finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Saidpour, Seyed H

    2006-07-01

    In the internal fixation of fractured bone by means of bone-plates fastened to the bone on its tensile surface, an on-going concern has been the excessive stress shielding of the bone by the excessively-stiff stainless-steel plate. The compressive stress shielding at the fracture-interface immediately after fracture-fixation delays callus formation and bone healing. Likewise, the tensile stress shielding in the layer of bone underneath the plate can cause osteoporosis and decrease in tensile strength of this layer. In this study a novel forearm internal fracture fixation plate made from short carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) was used in an attempt to address the problem. Accordingly, it has been possible to analyse the stress distribution in the composite plates using finite-element modelling. A three-dimensional, quarter-symmetric finite element model was generated for the plate system. The stress state in the underlying bone was examined for several loading conditions. Based on the analytical results the composite plate system is likely to reduce stress-shielding effects at the fracture site when subjected to bending and torsional loads. The design of the plate was further optimised by reducing the width around the innermost holes.

  20. ENTRAINMENT AND EFFICIENCY STUDIES IN A SMALL DIAMETER BUBBLECAP PLATE COLUMN

    SciTech Connect

    Chrones, J.

    1952-07-01

    Efficiency and entrainment studies were made in a 4inch diameter bubblecap plate column using a plate spacing of 4 inches. The plates contained one bubblecap each, and were designed so taat they could be easily inserted in a single length of 4 inch OD stainless steel tubing. An entrainment of 10% was obtained for the water-steam system at a column vapor velocity of 1.9 fps or a vapor mass rate of 255 pounds of steam per hour per square foot. This entraimnent value is gener ally accepted as the maximum allowable without impairing the plate efficiency appreciably. This low entrainmentmore » may be partly due to the small column diameter with the walls acting as entrainanent separators. The Murphree vapor plate efficiency, as measured for alcohol-water, was found to depend on the slope of the equilibrium line and the mass velocity factor V / sub v//sup 0.5/. An empirical equation was developed relating these factors. Fow low values of the slope of the equilibrium line (2 or less it was noted, that for practical purposes, the actual point efficiency on the plates was equal to the measured Murphree vapor plate efficiency regardless of the degree of mixing on the plate. (auth)« less

  1. High loading uranium fuel plate

    DOEpatents

    Wiencek, Thomas C.; Domagala, Robert F.; Thresh, Henry R.

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pair of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat having a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process.

  2. Detection of Interfacial Debonding in a Rubber–Steel-Layered Structure Using Active Sensing Enabled by Embedded Piezoceramic Transducers

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Qian; Jiang, Jian; Liang, Yabin; Song, Gangbing

    2017-01-01

    Rubber–steel-layered structures are used in many engineering applications. Laminated rubber–steel bearing, as a type of seismic isolation device, is one of the most important applications of the rubber–steel-layered structures. Interfacial debonding in rubber–steel-layered structures is a typical failure mode, which can severely reduce their load-bearing capacity. In this paper, the authors developed a simple but effective active sensing approach using embedded piezoceramic transducers to provide an in-situ detection of the interfacial debonding between the rubber layers and steel plates. A sandwiched rubber–steel-layered specimen, consisting of one rubber layer and two steel plates, was fabricated as the test specimen. A novel installation technique, which allows the piezoceramic transducers to be fully embedded into the steel plates without changing the geometry and the surface conditions of the plates, was also developed in this research. The active sensing approach, in which designed stress waves can propagate between a pair of the embedded piezoceramic transducers (one as an actuator and the other one as a sensor), was employed to detect the steel–rubber debonding. When the rubber–steel debonding occurs, the debonded interfaces will attenuate the propagating stress wave, so that the amplitude of the received signal will decrease. The rubber–steel debonding was generated by pulling the two steel plates in opposite directions in a material-testing machine. The changes of the received signal before and after the debonding were characterized in a time domain and further quantified by using a wavelet packet-based energy index. Experiments on the healthy rubber–steel-layered specimen reveal that the piezoceramic-induced stress wave can propagate through the rubber layer. The destructive test on the specimen demonstrates that the piezoceramic-based active sensing approach can effectively detect the rubber–steel debonding failure in real time. The

  3. Study on performance of waterborne anticorrosive coatings on steel rebars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswamy, S. N.; Varalakshmi, R.; Selvaraj, R.

    2017-12-01

    Durability of reinforced cement concrete structures is mainly affected by corrosion of steel reinforcements. In order to protect the reinforcing bars from corrosion and to enhance the lifetime of reinforced cement concrete structural members, anticorrosive treatment to steel is of prime importance. Conventional coatings are solvent based. In this study, water based Latex was used to formulate anticorrosive coating. Latex is applied to steel specimen substrates such as plates and rods and their mechanical properties such as flexibility, abrasion, bendability, adhesive strength, impact resistance, etc. were studied. It was inferred that coating containing latex, micro silica, zinc phosphate, ferric oxide, aluminum oxide, titanium oxide and silica fume was found to possess more corrosion resistance under marine exposure conditions.

  4. High Energy Rate Forming Induced Phase Transition in Austenitic Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, T.; Kuzsella, L.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the effects of explosion hardening on the microstructure and the hardness of austenitic stainless steel have been studied. The optimum explosion hardening technology of austenitic stainless steel was researched. In case of the explosive hardening used new idea means indirect hardening setup. Austenitic stainless steels have high plasticity and can be cold formed easily. However, during cold processing the hardening phenomena always occurs. Upon the explosion impact, the deformation mechanism indicates a plastic deformation and this deformation induces a phase transformation (martensite). The explosion hardening enhances the mechanical properties of the material, includes the wear resistance and hardness [1]. In case of indirect hardening as function of the setup parameters specifically the flayer plate position the hardening increased differently. It was find a relationship between the explosion hardening setup and the hardening level.

  5. Weldability evaluation of high tensile plates using GMAW process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, R.; Mukerjee, D.; Rohira, K. L.; Veeraraghavan, R.

    1999-08-01

    High tensile plates, SAILMA-450 high impact (HI) (yield strength, 45 kg/mm2 minimum; ultimate tensile strength, 57 kg/mm2 minimum; elongation, 19% minimum; Charpy impact energy 2.0 kg.m at -20 °C minimum) were successfully developed at the Steel Authority of India Ltd., up to 32 mm plate thickness. Since then the steel has been extensively used for the fabrication of impellers, bridges, excavators, and mining machineries, where welding is an important processing step. The present study deals with the weldability properties of SAILMA-450 HI plates employing the gas metal arc welding process and carbon dioxide gas. Implant and elastic restraint cracking tests were conducted to assess the cold cracking resistance of the weld joint under different welding conditions. The static fatigue limit values were found to be in excess of minimum specified yield strength at higher heat input levels (9.4 and 13.0 kJ/cm), indicating adequate cold cracking resistance. The critical restraint intensities, K cr, were found to vary between 720 and 1280 kg/mm2, indicating that the process can be utilized for fabrication of structures involving moderate to low restraint intensities (200 to 1000 kg/mm2). Lamellar tear tests conducted using full thickness plates at heat input levels ranging from 10 to 27 kJ/cm showed no incidence of lamellar tear upon visual, ultrasonic, and four-section macroexamination. These tests were repeated using machined plates, such that the midthickness of the plates (segregated zone) corresponded to the heat affected zone of the weld. No cracks were observed, indicating good lamellar tear resistance of the weld joint. Optimized welding conditions were formulated based on these tests. The weld joint was subjected to extensive tests to assess the physical properties and soundness of the weld joint. The weld joint exhibited good strength (64.7 kg/mm2) and impact toughness (5.7 and 3.5 kg.m at -20 °C for weld metal and heat affected zone properties. Crack tip

  6. License plate recognition (phase B).

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-06-01

    License Plate Recognition (LPR) technology has been used for off-line automobile enforcement purposes. The technology has seen mixed success with correct reading rate as high as 60 to 80% depending on the specific application and environment. This li...

  7. Carbon-assisted flyer plates

    DOEpatents

    Stahl, D.B.; Paisley, D.L.

    1994-04-12

    A laser driven flyer plate is described utilizing an optical fiber connected to a laser. The end of the optical fiber has a layer of carbon and a metal layer deposited onto it. The carbon layer provides the laser induced plasma which is superior to the plasma produced from most metals. The carbon layer plasma is capable of providing a flatter flyer plate, converting more of the laser energy to driving plasma, promoting a higher flyer plate acceleration, and providing a more uniform pulse behind the plate. In another embodiment, the laser is in optical communication with a substrate onto which a layer of carbon and a layer of metal have been deposited. 2 figures.

  8. Steel Pickling Inspection Checklist

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Checklist to establish whether a facility or operations within a facility are subject to and are in compliance with 40 C.F.R Part 63 Subpart CCC (Steel Pickling—HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants NESHAP).

  9. Structural Amorphous Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z. P.; Liu, C. T.; Thompson, J. R.; Porter, W. D.

    2004-06-01

    Recent advancement in bulk metallic glasses, whose properties are usually superior to their crystalline counterparts, has stimulated great interest in fabricating bulk amorphous steels. While a great deal of effort has been devoted to this field, the fabrication of structural amorphous steels with large cross sections has remained an alchemist’s dream because of the limited glass-forming ability (GFA) of these materials. Here we report the discovery of structural amorphous steels that can be cast into glasses with large cross-section sizes using conventional drop-casting methods. These new steels showed interesting physical, magnetic, and mechanical properties, along with high thermal stability. The underlying mechanisms for the superior GFA of these materials are discussed.

  10. Glass Stronger than Steel

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Yarris, Lynn

    2011-03-28

    A new type of damage-tolerant metallic glass, demonstrating a strength and toughness beyond that of steel or any other known material, has been developed and tested by a collaboration of researchers from Berkeley Lab and Caltech.

  11. Life after Steel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Bobby Curran grew up in a working-class neighborhood in Baltimore, finished high school, and followed his grandfather's steel-toed bootprints straight to Sparrows Point, a 3,000-acre sprawl of industry on the Chesapeake Bay. College was not part of the plan. A gritty but well-paying job at the RG Steel plant was Mr. Curran's ticket to a secure…

  12. Study of austenitic stainless steel welded with low alloy steel filler metal. [tensile and impact strength tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, F. A.; Dyke, R. A., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The tensile and impact strength properties of 316L stainless steel plate welded with low alloy steel filler metal were determined. Tests were conducted at room temperature and -100 F on standard test specimens machined from as-welded panels of various chemical compositions. No significant differences were found as the result of variations in percentage chemical composition on the impact and tensile test results. The weldments containing lower chromium and nickel as the result of dilution of parent metal from the use of the low alloy steel filler metal corroded more severely in a marine environment. The use of a protective finish, i.e., a nitrile-based paint containing aluminum powder, prevented the corrosive attack.

  13. Thermal conductance of gold plated metallic contacts at liquid helium temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittel, Peter; Spivak, Alan L.; Salerno, Louis J.

    1992-01-01

    The thermal conductance of gold plated OFHC copper, 6061-T6 aluminum, free-machining brass, and 304 stainless steel contacts has been measured over the temperature range of 1.6 to 4.2 K, with applied forces from 22 N to 670 N. The contact surfaces were prepared with a 0.8 micron lapped finish prior to gold coating. It was found that for all materials, except stainless steel, the thermal conductance was significantly improved as the result of gold coating the contact surfaces.

  14. The analysis of critical cooling rate for high-rise building steel S460

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shiping; Chen, Xia; Li, Qun; Wang, Haibao; Gu, Linhao

    2017-09-01

    High-rise building steel S460 is an important structure steel.The product process of the steel is Quenching&Tempering. The critical cooling rate of steel is very important in heavy plate quenching process, and it is also the basis of the cooling process[1].The critical cooling rate of HSLA steel S460 is obtained from the Thermal simulation method,and the differences about the microstructure and properties of different cooling rate is also analyzed.In this article, the angle of the grain boundary and the average grain size are analyzed by EBSD under different cooling rate. The relationship between grain boundary angle and grain size with the cooling rate is obtained. According to the experiment,it provides the basis for the formulation of the quenching process of the industrial production.

  15. Assessment of function-graded materials as fracture fixation bone-plates under combined loading conditions using finite element modelling.

    PubMed

    Fouad, H

    2011-05-01

    In previous work by Fouad (Medical Engineering and Physics 2010 [23]), 3D finite element (FE) models for fractured bones with function-graded (FG) bone-plates and traditional bone-plates made of stainless steel (SS) and titanium (Ti) alloy were examined under compressive loading conditions using the ABAQUS Code. In this study, the effects of the presence of the torsional load in addition to the compressive load on the predicted stresses of the fracture fixation bone-plate system are examined at different healing stages. The effects on the stress on the fracture site when using contacted and non-contacted bone-plate systems are also studied. The FE modelling results indicate that the torsional load has significant effects on the resultant stress on the fracture fixation bone-plate system, which should be taken into consideration during the design and the analysis. The results also show that the stress shielding at the fracture site decreases significantly when using FG bone-plates compared to Ti alloy or SS bone-plates. The presence of a gap between the bone and the plate results in a remarkable reduction in bone stress shielding at the fracture site. Therefore, the significant effects of using an FG bone-plate with a gap and the presence of torsional load on the resultant stress on the fracture fixation bone-plate system should be taken into consideration. Copyright © 2010 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. How mantle slabs drive plate tectonics.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Clinton P; Lithgow-Bertelloni, Carolina

    2002-10-04

    The gravitational pull of subducted slabs is thought to drive the motions of Earth's tectonic plates, but the coupling between slabs and plates is not well established. If a slab is mechanically attached to a subducting plate, it can exert a direct pull on the plate. Alternatively, a detached slab may drive a plate by exciting flow in the mantle that exerts a shear traction on the base of the plate. From the geologic history of subduction, we estimated the relative importance of "pull" versus "suction" for the present-day plates. Observed plate motions are best predicted if slabs in the upper mantle are attached to plates and generate slab pull forces that account for about half of the total driving force on plates. Slabs in the lower mantle are supported by viscous mantle forces and drive plates through slab suction.

  17. Geometry of the Cocos Plate Under North American Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Campos, X.

    2015-12-01

    The Cocos plate subducts under the North American plate with a complex geometry, and previous seismicity studies revealed some of this complexity. However, details of the geometry and the depth that the plate penetrates werelargely unknown. Since 2004, temporary experiments and the expansion of the permanent network of the Servicio Sismológico Nacional (SSN, Mexican National Seismological Service) have improved resolution of the plate geometry and have helped to map its descent into the upper mantle. Going from northwest to southeast, the Cocos plate appears to be fragmenting into north and south segments. The north segment subducts with an angle of ~30º and the south with an angle of ~10-15º. The transition is smooth near the trench and progresses to a tear at depth; this coincides with the projection of the Orozco Fracture Zone to depth. Also, this transition marks the limit of the presence to the south of an ultra slow velocity layer (USL) on top of the slab.South of this transition, the Cocos plate subducts horizontally , underplating the North American plate for a distance of ~140 to ~300 km from the trench. Along this horizontal region, silent slow events (SSE) and tectonic tremor (TT) have been observed. At a distance of 300 km from the trench (beneath central Mexico), the plate dives into the mantle with an angle of 76º to a depth of 500 km. This geometry changes abruptly to the south, marking the eastern limit of the USL. This change seems to be also characterized by a tear on the slab. Finally to the south, the Cocos plate subducts with a constant angle of 26º. This presentation summarizes the work of many contributors including A. Arciniega-Ceballos, M. Brudzinski, E. Cabral-Cano, T. Chen, R. Clayton,F. Cordoba-Montiel,P. Davis,S. Dougherty,F. Green, M. Gurnis, D. V. Helmberger, A. Husker,A. Iglesias, Y. Kim, V. Manea, D. Melgar, M. Rodríguez-Domínguez,S. K. Singh, T.-R. A. Song, C. M. Valdés-González, D. Valencia-Cabrera

  18. Articles comprising ferritic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Rakowski, James M.

    An article of manufacture comprises a ferritic stainless steel that includes a near-surface region depleted of silicon relative to a remainder of the ferritic stainless steel. The article has a reduced tendency to form an electrically resistive silica layer including silicon derived from the steel when the article is subjected to high temperature oxidizing conditions. The ferritic stainless steel is selected from the group comprising AISI Type 430 stainless steel, AISI Type 439 stainless steel, AISI Type 441 stainless steel, AISI Type 444 stainless steel, and E-BRITE.RTM. alloy, also known as UNS 44627 stainless steel. In certain embodiments, the articlemore » of manufacture is a fuel cell interconnect for a solid oxide fuel cell.« less

  19. Plate mode velocities in graphite/epoxy plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, W. H.; Gorman, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of the velocities of the extensional and flexural plate modes were made along three directions of propagation in four graphite/epoxy composite plates. The acoustic signals were generated by simulated acoustic emission events (pencil lead breaks or Hsu-Neilson sources) and detected by by broadband ultrasonic transducers. The first arrival of the extensional plate mode, which is nondispersive at low frequencies, was measured at a number of different distances from the source along the propagation direction of interest. The velocity was determined by plotting the distance versus arrival time and computing its slope. Because of the large dispersion of the flexural mode, a Fourier phase velocity technique was used to characterize this mode. The velocity was measured up to a frequency of 160 kHz. Theoretical predictions of the velocities of these modes were also made and compared with experimental observations. Classical plate theory yields good agreement with the measured extensional velocities. For predictions of the dispersion of the flexural mode, Mindlin plates theory, which includes the effects of shear deformation and rotatory inertia was shown to give better agreement with the experimental measurements.

  20. Development of a novel omnidirectional magnetostrictive transducer for plate applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradov, Sergey; Cobb, Adam; Bartlett, Jonathan; Udagawa, Youichi

    2018-04-01

    The application of guided waves for the testing of plate-type structures has been recently investigated by a number of research groups due to the ability of guided waves to detect corrosion in remote and hidden areas. Guided wave sensors for plate applications can be either directed (i.e., the waves propagate in a single direction) or omnidirectional. Each type has certain advantages and disadvantages. Omnidirectional sensors can inspect large areas from a single location, but it is challenging to define where a feature is located. Conversely, directed sensors can be used to precisely locate an indication, but have no sensitivity to flaws away from the wave propagation direction. This work describes a newly developed sensor that combines the strengths of both sensor types to create a novel omnidirectional transducer. The sensor transduction is based on a custom magnetostrictive transducer (MsT). In this new probe design, a directed, plate-application MsT with known characteristics was incorporated into an automated scanner. This scanner rotates the directed MsT for data collection at regular intervals. Coupling of the transducer to the plate is accomplished using a shear wave couplant. The array of data that is received is used for compiling B-scans and imaging, utilizing a synthetic aperture focusing algorithm (SAFT). The performance of the probe was evaluated on a 0.5-inch thick carbon steel plate mockup with a surface area of over 100 square feet. The mockup had a variety of known anomalies representing localized and distributed pitting corrosion, gradual wall thinning, and notches of different depths. Experimental data was also acquired using the new probe on a retired storage tank with known corrosion damage. The performance of the new sensor and its limitations are discussed together with general directions in technology development.

  1. Assessment of the apparent bending stiffness and damping of multilayer plates; modelling and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ege, Kerem; Roozen, N. B.; Leclère, Quentin; Rinaldi, Renaud G.

    2018-07-01

    In the context of aeronautics, automotive and construction applications, the design of light multilayer plates with optimized vibroacoustical damping and isolation performances remains a major industrial challenge and a hot topic of research. This paper focuses on the vibrational behavior of three-layered sandwich composite plates in a broad-band frequency range. Several aspects are studied through measurement techniques and analytical modelling of a steel/polymer/steel plate sandwich system. A contactless measurement of the velocity field of plates using a scanning laser vibrometer is performed, from which the equivalent single layer complex rigidity (apparent bending stiffness and apparent damping) in the mid/high frequency ranges is estimated. The results are combined with low/mid frequency estimations obtained with a high-resolution modal analysis method so that the frequency dependent equivalent Young's modulus and equivalent loss factor of the composite plate are identified for the whole [40 Hz-20 kHz] frequency band. The results are in very good agreement with an equivalent single layer analytical modelling based on wave propagation analysis (model of Guyader). The comparison with this model allows identifying the frequency dependent complex modulus of the polymer core layer through inverse resolution. Dynamical mechanical analysis measurements are also performed on the polymer layer alone and compared with the values obtained through the inverse method. Again, a good agreement between these two estimations over the broad-band frequency range demonstrates the validity of the approach.

  2. Experimental and numerical investigation on laser-assisted bending of pre-loaded metal plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Zdzisław; Nowak, Marcin; Widłaszewski, Jacek; Kurp, Piotr

    2018-01-01

    The laser forming technique has an important disadvantage, which is the limitation of plastic deformation generated by a single laser beam pass. To increase the plastic deformation it is possible to apply external forces in the laser forming process. In this paper, we investigate the influence of external pre-loads on the laser bending of steel plate. The pre-loads investigated generate bending towards the laser beam. The thermal, elastic-plastic analysis is performed using the commercial nonlinear finite element analysis package ABAQUS. The focus of the paper is to identify how this pattern of the pre-load influence the final bend angle of the plate.

  3. Failure analysis of blistered gold plating on spot welded electrical relays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolowski, Witold; O'Donnell, Tim

    1989-01-01

    Gold-plated stainless-steel sideplates, part of a JPL Galileo spacecraft electronic-relay assembly, exhibited blistering after resistance spot welding. Unacceptable relays had heavy nonuniform gold electrodeposited layers with thicknesses 4.5-11.5 microns. SEM and metallographic investigations indicated much higher heat input generated during the resistance spot welding in unacceptable relays. The attributes of acceptable welded relays are contrasted with unacceptable relays; the possible mechanism of laminar formation of polymeric material in the gold plating is discussed; and some recommendations are provided to prevent similar problems.

  4. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Fe-18Mn-18Cr-0.5N Austenitic Nonmagnetic Stainless Steel in Asymmetric Hot Rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y. L.; Li, C. S.; Ma, B.; Han, Y. H.

    2017-05-01

    Asymmetric hot rolling (ASHR) with a mismatch speed ratio of 1.15 in a single pass was applied to Fe-18Mn-18Cr-0.5N steel and was compared with symmetric hot rolling (SHR). The results indicated that a through-thickness microstructure gradient was formed in the plate due to the shear strain (0.36) introduced by ASHR. A fine-grained layer with the average size of 3 μm was achieved at the top surface of ASHR plate, while numerous elongated grains with a few recrystallized grains were presented at the center layer. The texture was distributed randomly at the top surface of ASHR plate, and a weaker intensity of typical hot-rolled texture in austenitic steel was obtained at the center layer of ASHR plate compared to SHR plate. An excellent combination of microhardness, strength and ductility was obtained in the ASHR plate, which was attributed to gradient microstructure induced by ASHR.

  5. Plate tectonics of the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, D P

    1970-04-18

    The seismicity and fault plane solutions in the Mediterranean area show that two small rapidly moving plates exist in the Eastern Mediterranean, and such plates may be a common feature of contracting ocean basins. The results show that the concepts of plate tectonics apply to instantaneous motions across continental plate boundaries.

  6. Plantar-plate disruptions: "the severe turf-toe injury." three cases in contact athletes.

    PubMed

    Drakos, Mark C; Fiore, Russell; Murphy, Conor; DiGiovanni, Christopher W

    2015-05-01

    To present 3 cases of plantar-plate rupture and turf-toe injury in contact athletes at 1 university and to discuss appropriate diagnosis and treatment algorithms for each case. Turf toe is a common injury in athletes participating in outdoor cutting sports. However, it has been used as an umbrella term to describe many different injuries of the great toe. In some cases, the injury can be so severe that the plantar plate and sesamoid apparatus may be ruptured. These patients may be better managed with surgery than with traditional nonoperative interventions. Turf toe, plantar-plate disruption, sesamoid fracture. For stable injuries in which the plantar plate is not completely disrupted, nonoperative treatment with casting or a stiff-soled shoe, gradual weight bearing, and rehabilitation is the best practice. Unstable injuries require surgical intervention and plantar-plate repair. Turf toe and injury to the first metatarsophalangeal joint are relatively common injuries in athletes, but few researchers have detailed the operative and nonoperative treatments of plantar-plate disruption in these patients. We examine 3 cases that occurred over 4 seasons on a collegiate football team. Turf toe represents a wide array of pathologic conditions involving the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Stress and instability testing are key components to assess in determining whether surgical intervention is warranted to restore optimal function. Stiffer-soled shoes or shoes with steel-plate insertions may help to prevent these injuries and are useful tools for protection during the rehabilitation period.

  7. Investigation of CaCO3 fouling in plate heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Zhou, Kan; Manglik, Raj M.; Li, Guan-Qiu; Bergles, Arthur E.

    2016-11-01

    An experimental investigation, coupled with theoretical modeling of CaCO3 fouling in plate-and-frame type heat exchangers (PHEs) have been conducted. Four different plates, made of SS-304, are used in two different surface patterns (chevron and zig-zag) of varying corrugation severity (waviness depth and pitch) and area enhancement. They were further characterized in clean, non-fouled convection by their measured heat transfer coefficients and friction factors in the Reynolds number range of 600-6000. The flow-fouling experiments delineate the effects of temperature and plate-surface geometry on growth rates and stabilization of fouling resistance, along with the anti-fouling behavior of plates coated with a hydrophobic PTFE (Teflon) film. Moreover, the microscopic structure of fouling deposits is mapped in a scanning-electron microscope. Corrugated plates with the largest height-to-pitch ratio and hydraulic diameter are found to have the lowest fouling growth rate and resistance; Teflon-film coating of plate surface is also found to mitigate fouling relative to the performance of bare stainless steel plates. Finally, a semi-empirical fouling model, based on the Prandtl-Taylor analogy, has been devised to describe the experimental data and provide a predictive tool.

  8. Beyond plate tectonics - Looking at plate deformation with space geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas H.; Minster, J. Bernard

    1988-01-01

    The requirements that must be met by space-geodetic systems in order to constrain the horizontal secular motions associated with the geological deformation of the earth's surface are explored. It is suggested that in order to improve existing plate-motion models, the tangential components of relative velocities on interplate baselines must be resolved to an accuracy of less than 3 mm/yr. Results indicate that measuring the velocities between crustal blocks to + or - 5 mm/yr on 100-km to 1000-km scales can produce geologically significant constraints on the integrated deformation rates across continental plate-boundary zones such as the western United States.

  9. View northwest, wharf A, sheet steel bulkhead, steel lift tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest, wharf A, sheet steel bulkhead, steel lift tower - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  10. Plates for vacuum thermal fusion

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, James C.; Balch, Joseph W.

    2002-01-01

    A process for effectively bonding arbitrary size or shape substrates. The process incorporates vacuum pull down techniques to ensure uniform surface contact during the bonding process. The essence of the process for bonding substrates, such as glass, plastic, or alloys, etc., which have a moderate melting point with a gradual softening point curve, involves the application of an active vacuum source to evacuate interstices between the substrates while at the same time providing a positive force to hold the parts to be bonded in contact. This enables increasing the temperature of the bonding process to ensure that the softening point has been reached and small void areas are filled and come in contact with the opposing substrate. The process is most effective where at least one of the two plates or substrates contain channels or grooves that can be used to apply vacuum between the plates or substrates during the thermal bonding cycle. Also, it is beneficial to provide a vacuum groove or channel near the perimeter of the plates or substrates to ensure bonding of the perimeter of the plates or substrates and reduce the unbonded regions inside the interior region of the plates or substrates.

  11. Optimization of the A-TIG welding for stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurica, M.; Kožuh, Z.; Garašić, I.; Bušić, M.

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents the influence of the activation flux and shielding gas on tungsten inert gas (A-TIG) welding of the stainless steel. In introduction part, duplex stainless steel was analysed. The A-TIG process was explained and the possibility of welding stainless steels using the A-TIG process to maximize productivity and the cost-effectiveness of welded structures was presented. In the experimental part duplex, 7 mm thick stainless steel has been welded in butt joint. The influence of activation flux chemical composition upon the weld penetration has been investigated prior the welding. The welding process was performed by a robot with TIG equipment. With selected A-TIG welding technology preparation of plates and consumption of filler material (containing Cr, Ni and Mn) have been avoided. Specimens sectioned from the produced welds have been subjected to tensile strength test, macrostructure analysis and corrosion resistance analysis. The results have confirmed that this type of stainless steel can be welded without edge preparation and addition of filler material containing critical raw materials as Cr, Ni and Mn when the following welding parameters are set: current 200 A, welding speed 9,1 cm/min, heat input 1,2 kJ/mm and specific activation flux is used.

  12. A high performance porous flat-plate solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.; Clarke, V.; Reynolds, R.

    1979-01-01

    A solar collector employing a porous matrix as a solar absorber and heat exchanger is presented and its application in solar air heaters is discussed. The collector is composed of a metallic matrix with a porous surface which acts as a large set of cavity radiators; cold air flows through the matrix plate and exchanges heat with the thermally stratified layers of the matrix. A steady-state thermal analysis of the collector is used to determine collector temperature distributions for the cases of an opaque surface matrix with total absorption of solar energy at the surface, and a diathermanous matrix with successive solar energy absorption at each depth. The theoretical performance of the porous flat plate collector is shown to exceed greatly that of a solid flat plate collector using air as the working medium for any given set of operational conditions. An experimental collector constructed using commercially available, low cost steel wool as the matrix has been found to have thermal efficiencies from 73 to 86%.

  13. Complete band gaps of phononic crystal plates with square rods.

    PubMed

    El-Naggar, Sahar A; Mostafa, Samia I; Rafat, Nadia H

    2012-04-01

    Much of previous work has been devoted in studying complete band gaps for bulk phononic crystal (PC). In this paper, we theoretically investigate the existence and widths of these gaps for PC plates. We focus our attention on steel rods of square cross sectional area embedded in epoxy matrix. The equations for calculating the dispersion relation for square rods in a square or a triangular lattice have been derived. Our analysis is based on super cell plane wave expansion (SC-PWE) method. The influence of inclusions filling factor and plate thickness on the existence and width of the phononic band gaps has been discussed. Our calculations show that there is a certain filling factor (f=0.55) below which arrangement of square rods in a triangular lattice is superior to the arrangement in a square lattice. A comparison between square and circular cross sectional rods reveals that the former has superior normalized gap width than the latter in case of a square lattice. This situation is switched in case of a triangular lattice. Moreover, a maximum normalized gap width of 0.7 can be achieved for PC plate of square rods embedded in a square lattice and having height 90% of the lattice constant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Surface crack problems in plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, P. F.; Erdogan, F.

    1989-01-01

    The mode I crack problem in plates under membrane loading and bending is reconsidered. The purpose is to examine certain analytical features of the problem further and to provide some new results. The formulation and the results given by the classical and the Reissner plate theories for through and part-through cracks are compared. For surface cracks the three-dimensional finite element solution is used as the basis of comparison. The solution is obtained and results are given for the crack/contact problem in a plate with a through crack under pure bending and for the crack interaction problem. Also, a procedure is developed to treat the problem of subcritical crack growth and to trace the evolution of the propagating crack.

  15. Insert metering plates for gas turbine nozzles

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven S.; Itzel, Gary; Chopra, Sanjay; Abuaf, Nesim; Correia, Victor H.

    2004-05-11

    The invention comprises a metering plate which is assembled to an impingement insert for use in the nozzle of a gas turbine. The metering plate can have one or more metering holes and is used to balance the cooling flow within the nozzle. A metering plate with multiple holes reduces static pressure variations which result from the cooling airflow through the metering plate. The metering plate can be assembled to the insert before or after the insert is inserted into the nozzle.

  16. PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION OF TANTALUM ON GUN BARREL STEEL (SYSTEMS ANLAYSIS BRANCH, SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project entails the development of an alternative technology for plating gun barrel steel to replace the process electroplating of chrome (Cr-electroplate) with physical vapor deposition of tantalum (Ta-PVD). Developed by Benet Laboratory at Watervliet Arsenal, this project'...

  17. Characterization of Flame Cut Heavy Steel: Modeling of Temperature History and Residual Stress Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokiaho, T.; Laitinen, A.; Santa-aho, S.; Isakov, M.; Peura, P.; Saarinen, T.; Lehtovaara, A.; Vippola, M.

    2017-12-01

    Heavy steel plates are used in demanding applications that require both high strength and hardness. An important step in the production of such components is cutting the plates with a cost-effective thermal cutting method such as flame cutting. Flame cutting is performed with a controlled flame and oxygen jet, which burns the steel and forms a cutting edge. However, the thermal cutting of heavy steel plates causes several problems. A heat-affected zone (HAZ) is generated at the cut edge due to the steep temperature gradient. Consequently, volume changes, hardness variations, and microstructural changes occur in the HAZ. In addition, residual stresses are formed at the cut edge during the process. In the worst case, unsuitable flame cutting practices generate cracks at the cut edge. The flame cutting of thick steel plate was modeled using the commercial finite element software ABAQUS. The results of modeling were verified by X-ray diffraction-based residual stress measurements and microstructural analysis. The model provides several outcomes, such as obtaining more information related to the formation of residual stresses and the temperature history during the flame cutting process. In addition, an extensive series of flame cut samples was designed with the assistance of the model.

  18. Implementation of straight and curved steel girder erection design tools construction : summary.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-11-05

    Project 0-5574 Curved Plate Girder Design for Safe and Economical Construction, resulted in the : development of two design tools, UT Lift and UT Bridge. UT Lift is a spreadsheet-based program for analyzing : steel girders during lifting while ...

  19. Studies on A-TIG welding of Low Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (LAFM) steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasantharaja, P.; Vasudevan, M.

    2012-02-01

    Low Activation Ferritic-Martensitic steels (LAFM) are chosen as the candidate material for structural components in fusion reactors. The structural components are generally fabricated by welding processes. Activated Tungsten Inert Gas (A-TIG) welding is an emerging process for welding of thicker components. In the present work, attempt was made to develop A-TIG welding technology for LAFM steel plates of 10 mm thick. Activated flux was developed for LAFM steel by carrying out various bead-on-plate TIG welds without flux and with flux. The optimum flux was identified as one which gave maximum depth of penetration at minimum heat input values. With the optimized flux composition, LAFM steel plate of 10 mm thickness was welded in square butt weld joint configuration using double side welding technique. Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy was used for characterizing the microstructures. Microhardness measurements were made across the weld cross section for as welded and post weld heat treated samples. Tensile and impact toughness properties were determined. The mechanical properties values obtained in A-TIG weld joint were comparable to that obtained in weld joints of LAFM steel made by Electron beam welding process.

  20. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Peaslee, Kent D [Rolla, MO; Peter, Jorg J [McMinnville, OR; Robertson, David G. C. [Rolla, MO; Thomas, Brian G [Champaign, IL; Zhang, Lifeng [Trondheim, NO

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.