Science.gov

Sample records for a549 cells exposed

  1. Phosphorylation of p53 at serine 15 in A549 pulmonary epithelial cells exposed to vanadate: Involvement of ATM pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Katsura; Inageda, Kiyoshi; Nishitai, Gen

    2007-04-01

    When A549 cells were exposed to sodium metavanadate (NaVO{sub 3}), the pentavalent species of vanadium (vanadate), phosphorylation of p53 protein at Ser15 was found in a time (8-48 h)- and dose (10-200 {mu}M)-dependent manner. After the incubation with 50 or 100 {mu}M NaVO{sub 3} for 48 h, accumulation of p53 protein was accompanied with Ser15 phosphorylation. Among serines in p53 protein immunoprecipitated from A549 cells treated with 100 {mu}M NaVO{sub 3} for 48 h, only Ser15 was markedly phosphorylated. Treatment with other vanadate compounds, sodium orthovanadate (Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4}) and ammonium metavanadate (NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3}), also induced Ser15 phosphorylation andmore » accumulation of p53 protein. While phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) was found in cells treated with NaVO{sub 3}, treatment with U0126 did not suppress Ser15 phosphorylation. On the other hand, treatment with wortmannin or caffeine, the inhibitors to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase related kinases (PIKKs), suppressed both NaVO{sub 3}-induced Ser15 phosphorylation and accumulation of p53 protein. The silencing of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) expression using short-interference RNA resulted in the marked suppression of Ser15 phosphorylation in A549 cells exposed to NaVO{sub 3}. However, treatment with antioxidants such as catalase and N-acetylcysteine did not suppress NaVO{sub 3}-induced Ser15 phosphorylation. Transcriptional activation of p53 and DNA fragmentation in A549 cells treated with NaVO{sub 3} were suppressed only slightly by S15A mutation, suggesting that Ser15 phosphorylation is not essential for these responses. The present results showed that vanadate induces the phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15 depending on ATM, one of the members of PIKK family, in this human pulmonary epithelial cell line.« less

  2. Adaptive changes in global gene expression profile of lung carcinoma A549 cells acutely exposed to distinct types of AhR ligands.

    PubMed

    Procházková, Jiřina; Strapáčová, Simona; Svržková, Lucie; Andrysík, Zdeněk; Hýžďalová, Martina; Hrubá, Eva; Pěnčíková, Kateřina; Líbalová, Helena; Topinka, Jan; Kléma, Jiří; Espinosa, Joaquín M; Vondráček, Jan; Machala, Miroslav

    2018-08-01

    Exposure to persistent ligands of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been found to cause lung cancer in experimental animals, and lung adenocarcinomas are often associated with enhanced AhR expression and aberrant AhR activation. In order to better understand the action of toxic AhR ligands in lung epithelial cells, we performed global gene expression profiling and analyze TCDD-induced changes in A549 transcriptome, both sensitive and non-sensitive to CH223191 co-treatment. Comparison of our data with results from previously reported microarray and ChIP-seq experiments enabled us to identify candidate genes, which expression status reflects exposure of lung cancer cells to TCDD, and to predict processes, pathways (e.g. ER stress, Wnt/β-cat, IFNɣ, EGFR/Erbb1), putative TFs (e.g. STAT, AP1, E2F1, TCF4), which may be implicated in adaptive response of lung cells to TCDD-induced AhR activation. Importantly, TCDD-like expression fingerprint of selected genes was observed also in A549 cells exposed acutely to both toxic (benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[k]fluoranthene) and endogenous AhR ligands (2-(1H-Indol-3-ylcarbonyl)-4-thiazolecarboxylic acid methyl ester and 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole). Overall, our results suggest novel cellular candidates, which could help to improve monitoring of AhR-dependent transcriptional activity during acute exposure of lung cells to distinct types of environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Study on thaspine in inducing apoptosis of A549 cell].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-min; He, Lang-chong

    2007-04-01

    To investigate the effect of thaspine on the cellular proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle in A549 cell line. A549 cell was cultured with different concentrations of thaspine. Cellular proliferation was detected with MTT, apoptosis and cell cycle were checked with Flow Cytometer, and change of microstructure was observed by transmission electron microscope. Thaspine could inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis of A549 cell in a time-dose dependent manner. Cell cycle was significantly stopped at the S phase by thaspine with FCM technology. Under electronic microscope, the morphology of A549 cell showed nuclear karyopycnosis, chromatin agglutination and typical apoptotic body when the cell was treated with thaspine. Thaspine has the effects of anti-tumor and inducing apoptosis.

  4. Artesunate induces AIF-dependent apoptosis in A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chen-juan; Chen, Tong-Sheng

    2012-03-01

    Artesunate (ART), a semi-synthetic derivative of the sesquiterpene artemisinin extracted from the Chinese herb Artemisia annua, exerts a broad spectrum of clinical activity against human cancers. It has been shown that ART induces cancer cells death through apoptosis pathway. This study investigated whether ART treatment induced reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent cell death in the apoptosis fashion in human lung adenocarconoma A549 cell line and the proapoptotic protein apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) is involved in ART-induced apoptosis. Cells treated with ART exhibited typical apoptotic morphology as chromatin condensation, margination and shrunken nucleus. ART treatment also induced a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and AIF release from mitochondria. Silencing AIF can remarkable attenuated ART-induced apoptosis. Collectively, ART induces apoptosis by caspase-independent intrinsic pathway in A549 cells.

  5. Ac-SDKP suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition in A549 cells via HSP27 signaling.

    PubMed

    Deng, Haijing; Yang, Fang; Xu, Hong; Sun, Yue; Xue, Xinxin; Du, Shipu; Wang, Xiaojun; Li, Shifeng; Liu, Yan; Wang, Ruimin

    2014-08-01

    The synthetic tetrapeptide N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) has been shown to be a modulator of molecular aspects of the fibrosis pathway. This study reveals that Ac-SDKP exerts an anti-fibrotic effect on human type II alveolar epithelial cells (A549), which are a source of myofibroblasts once exposed to TGF-β1, by decreasing the expression of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27). We used A549 cells in vitro to detect morphological evidence of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by phase-contrast microscopy. Immunocytochemical and western blot analysis determined the distributions of cytokeratin 8 (CK8), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and SNAI1. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed a colocalization of HSP27 and SNAI1 on TGF-β1-induced A549 cells. These results also demonstrated that A549 cells became spindle-like when exposed to TGF-β1. Coincident with these morphological changes, expression levels of CK8 and E-cad decreased, while those of vimentin and α-SMA increased. This process was accompanied by increases in levels of HSP27, SNAI1, and type I and type III collagen. In vitro transfection experiments demonstrated that the inhibition of HSP27 in cultured A549 cells could decrease the expression of SNAI1 and α-SMA while increasing the expression of E-cad. A noticeable reduction in collagen types I and III was also evident. Our results found that Ac-SDKP inhibited the transition of cultured A549 cells to myofibroblasts and attenuated collagen synthesis through modulating the expression of HSP27. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Activation of interferon regulatory factor-3 via toll-like receptor 3 and immunomodulatory functions detected in A549 lung epithelial cells exposed to misplaced U1-snRNA.

    PubMed

    Sadik, Christian D; Bachmann, Malte; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Mühl, Heiko

    2009-08-01

    U1-snRNA is an integral part of the U1 ribonucleoprotein pivotal for pre-mRNA splicing. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling has recently been associated with immunoregulatory capacities of U1-snRNA. Using lung A549 epithelial/carcinoma cells, we report for the first time on interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 activation initiated by endosomally delivered U1-snRNA. This was associated with expression of the IRF3-inducible genes interferon-beta (IFN-beta), CXCL10/IP-10 and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Mutational analysis of the U1-snRNA-activated IFN-beta promoter confirmed the crucial role of the PRDIII element, previously proven pivotal for promoter activation by IRF3. Notably, expression of these parameters was suppressed by bafilomycin A(1), an inhibitor of endosomal acidification, implicating endosomal TLR activation. Since resiquimod, an agonist of TLR7/8, failed to stimulate A549 cells, data suggest TLR3 to be of prime relevance for cellular activation. To assess the overall regulatory potential of U1-snRNA-activated epithelial cells on cytokine production, co-cultivation with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was performed. Interestingly, A549 cells activated by U1-snRNA reinforced phytohemagglutinin-induced interleukin-10 release by PBMC but suppressed that of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, indicating an anti-inflammatory potential of U1-snRNA. Since U1-snRNA is enriched in apoptotic bodies and epithelial cells are capable of performing efferocytosis, the present data in particular connect to immunobiological aspects of apoptosis at host/environment interfaces.

  7. Enhancement of recombinant myricetin on the radiosensitivity of lung cancer A549 and H1299 cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective Myricetin, a common dietary flavonoid is widely distributed in fruits and vegetables, and is used as a health food supplement based on its immune function, anti-oxidation, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of myricetin on combination with radiotherapy enhance radiosensitivity of lung cancer A549 and H1299 cells. Methods A549 cells and H1299 cells were exposed to X-ray with or without myricetin treatment. Colony formation assays, CCK-8 assay, flow cytometry and Caspase-3 level detection were used to evaluate the radiosensitization activity of myricetin on cell proliferation and apoptosis in vitro. Nude mouse tumor xenograft model was built to assessed radiosensitization effect of myricetin in vivo. Results Compared with the exposed group without myricetin treatment, the groups treated with myricetin showed significantly suppressed cell surviving fraction and proliferation, increased the cell apoptosis and increased Caspase-3 protein expression after X-ray exposure in vitro. And in vivo assay, growth speed of tumor xenografts was significantly decreased in irradiated mice treated with myricetin. Conclusions The study demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo evidence that combination of myricetin with radiotherapy can enhance tumor radiosensitivity of pulmonary carcinoma A549 and H1299 cells, and myricetin could be a potential radiosensitizer for lung cancer therapy. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/5791518001210633 PMID:24650056

  8. Oxidative stress mediated apoptosis induced by nickel ferrite nanoparticles in cultured A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Ahmad, Javed; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; AlSalhi, Mohamad S; Alrokayan, Salman A

    2011-05-10

    Due to the interesting magnetic and electrical properties with good chemical and thermal stabilities, nickel ferrite nanoparticles are being utilized in many applications including magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery and hyperthermia. Recent studies have shown that nickel ferrite nanoparticles produce cytotoxicity in mammalian cells. However, there is very limited information concerning the toxicity of nickel ferrite nanoparticles at the cellular and molecular level. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and apoptosis induction by well-characterized nickel ferrite nanoparticles (size 26 nm) in human lung epithelial (A549) cells. Nickel ferrite nanoparticles induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity in A549 cells demonstrated by MTT, NRU and LDH assays. Nickel ferrite nanoparticles were also found to induce oxidative stress evidenced by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depletion of antioxidant glutathione (GSH). Further, co-treatment with the antioxidant L-ascorbic acid mitigated the ROS generation and GSH depletion due to nickel ferrite nanoparticles suggesting the potential mechanism of oxidative stress. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that following the exposure of A549 cells to nickel ferrite nanoparticles, the level of mRNA expressions of cell cycle checkpoint protein p53 and apoptotic proteins (bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9) were significantly up-regulated, whereas the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin and bcl-2) were down-regulated. Moreover, activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9 enzymes were also significantly higher in nickel ferrite nanoparticles exposed cells. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report showing that nickel ferrite nanoparticles induced apoptosis in A549 cells through ROS generation and oxidative stress via p53, survivin, bax/bcl-2 and caspase pathways. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The influence of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on the inflammatory cytokine response and protein expression in A549 cells exposed to PM2.5 collected in the Baton Rouge-Port Allen industrial corridor of Southeastern Louisiana in 2005.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Brian; Owens, John Wesley

    2014-03-01

    Hurricanes Katrina and Rita hit the coast of Louisiana in 2005 and killed more than 2000 people. The two storms resulted in a significant spike in particulate matter (PM2.5) levels across the state of Louisiana. This report focuses on PM2.5 samples collected in 2005 from two monitoring sites in the neighboring cities of Baton Rouge and Port Allen, Louisiana. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) revealed the presence of PM2.5-adsorbed representative and Fenton-active transition metals. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed the presence of 23 PAH compounds. Endotoxins were also detected. Metals and endotoxins were extracted with water. PAH were extracted with dichloromethane. In order to assess cytotoxicity, aqueous PM2.5 extracts were introduced to A549 Human Epithelial Lung Carcinoma Cells. Results indicated decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, with an LC50 of 235 µg/ml and 250 µg/ml, respectively, for the two sites featured here. Endotoxins alone were not cytotoxic. The concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and released LDH activity increased following exposure of A549 cells to aqueous PM2.5 extracts. Fluorescence microscopy revealed apoptotic and necrotic cell death mechanisms. ELISA revealed increased secretion of primary pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α. Global PCR gene expression revealed up-regulation of proteins associated with the cytokine storm; e.g. interleukins, chemokines, and TNF-α. Global antibody microarray was consistent with an inflammatory response, with up-regulation of cytokines involved in the down-field activation of the caspase cascade and kinase pathways. The up-regulation of metal-redox sensitive transcription factors, NF-κβ and AP-1, is consistent with a cell death mechanism initiated by Fenton-active transition metal redox catalysis.

  10. A549 Cells: Lung Carcinoma Cell Line for Adenovirus | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists at the National Cancer Institute have developed a cell line designated A549 that was derived from explanted cultures of human lung cancer tissue. The A549 cell line has been tested under the guidance of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) so, under current Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), these cells may be suitable for use in manufacturing constructs for use in clinical trials. The National Cancer Institute seeks parties to non-exclusively license this research material.

  11. Xylitol induces cell death in lung cancer A549 cells by autophagy.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunjoo; Park, Mi Hee; Na, Hee Sam; Chung, Jin

    2015-05-01

    Xylitol is a widely used anti-caries agent that has anti-inflammatory effects. We have evaluated the potential of xylitol in cancer treatment. It's effects on cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were measured by MTT assay and LDH assay. Cell morphology and autophagy were examined by immunostaining and immunoblotting. Xylitol inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in these cancer cells: A549, Caki, NCI-H23, HCT-15, HL-60, K562, and SK MEL-2. The IC50 of xylitol in human gingival fibroblast cells was higher than in cancer cells, indicating that it is more specific for cancer cells. Moreover, xylitol induced autophagy in A549 cells that was inhibited by 3-methyladenine, an autophagy inhibitor. These results indicate that xylitol has potential in therapy against lung cancer by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing autophagy of A549 cells.

  12. [Construction of BAD Lentivirus Vector and Its Effect on Proliferation in A549 Cell Lines].

    PubMed

    Huang, Na; He, Yan-qi; Zhu, Jing; Li, Wei-min

    2015-05-01

    To construct the recombinant lentivirus expressing vector BAD (Bcl-2-associated death protein) gene and to study its effect on A549 cell proliferation. The BAD gene was amplified from plasmid pAV-MCMV-BAD-GFP by PCR. The purified BAD gene fragment was inserted into a lentivirus vector (pLVX-IRES-ZsGreen 1), and the insertion was identified by PCR, restriction endonuclease analysis and DNA sequencing. A549 cells were then transfected with the packaged recombinant lentivirus, and resistant cell clones were selected with flow cytometry. The expression of BAD in A549 cell lines stably transduction with a lentivirus was examined using Western blot. The effect of BAD overexpression on proliferation of A549 cells was evaluated by using CCK-8 kit. Restriction enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing showed that the full-length BAD gene (507 bp) had been successfully subcloned into the lentiviral vector to result in the recombinant vector pLVX-IRES-ZsGreen 1. Monoclonal cell lines BAD-A549 was produced after transfection with the recombinant lentivirus and selected with flow cytometry. Stable expression of BAD protein was verified by Western blot. In vitro, the OD value in BAD group was significantly lower than that of control groups from 120-144 h (P<0. 05). A549 cell lines stably transduced with a lentivirus expressing the BAD gene had been successfully generated. In vitro, BAD overexpression significantly inhibited A549 cells proliferation.

  13. [Combined effects of interferon γ and γ ray irradiation on A549 cells in vitro].

    PubMed

    Xia, Hui; Zhang, Yi-ming; Yu, Chang-hai; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Bao-shi; Fang, Fang

    2012-02-07

    To define the role of interferon-γ on radiotherapy of lung cancer and explore a new way to clinical treatment. A549 cells were exposed to γ ray with or without IFN-γ co-treatment. MTT assay was performed to evaluate cell viability. Western blot was used to observe the expression of P53 protein. The results showed that co-treatment of IFN-γ decreased the cell viability significantly compared with the γ ray irradiation group (71.4% ± 2.1% vs 44.1% ± 3.1%, n = 7, P < 0.01). In addition, the expression of P53 protein also increased significantly after co-treatment (P < 0.01); Furthermore, the cell cycle was changed obviously in co-treatment group compared with γ ray irradiation group, S phase increased (12.9% vs 20.9%, n = 5, P < 0.05) and also blocked the G2/M phase (28.8% vs 38.9%, n = 5, P < 0.05). The results suggested that γ ray irradiation combined with IFN-γ can increase the efficiency of radiotherapy on A549 cells and there is much broad prospect in the clinical treatment of lung cancer.

  14. Involvement of lysosomal dysfunction in silver nanoparticle-induced cellular damage in A549 human lung alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Miyayama, Takamitsu; Matsuoka, Masato

    2016-01-01

    While silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in consumer and medical products, the mechanism by which AgNPs cause pulmonary cytotoxicity is not clear. AgNP agglomerates are found in endo-lysosomal structures within the cytoplasm of treated cells. In this study, the functional role of lysosomes in AgNP-induced cellular damage was examined in A549 human lung alveolar epithelial cells. We evaluated the intracellular distribution of AgNPs, lysosomal pH, cellular viability, Ag dissolution, and metallothionein (MT) mRNA levels in AgNP-exposed A549 cells that were treated with bafilomycin A1, the lysosomal acidification inhibitor. Exposure of A549 cells to citrate-coated AgNPs (20 nm diameter) for 24 h induced cellular damage and cell death at 100 and 200 μg Ag/ml, respectively. Confocal laser microscopic examination of LysoTracker-stained cells showed that AgNPs colocalized with lysosomes and their agglomeration increased in a dose-dependent manner (50-200 μg Ag/ml). In addition, the fluorescence signals of LysoTracker were reduced following exposure to AgNPs, suggesting the elevation of lysosomal pH. Treatment of A549 cells with 200 nM bafilomycin A1 and AgNPs (50 μg Ag/ml) further reduced the fluorescence signals of LysoTracker. AgNP-induced cell death was also increased by bafilomycin A1 treatment. Finally, treatment with bafilomycin A1 suppressed the dissolution of Ag and decreased the mRNA expression levels of MT-I and MT-II following exposure to AgNPs. The perturbation of lysosomal pH by AgNP exposure may play a role in AgNP agglomeration and subsequent cellular damage in A549 cells.

  15. Aptamer based electrochemical sensor for detection of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rachna; Varun Agrawal, Ved; Sharma, Pradeep; Varshney, R.; Sinha, R. K.; Malhotra, B. D.

    2012-04-01

    We report results of the studies relating to development of an aptamer-based electrochemical biosensor for detection of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The aminated 85-mer DNA aptamer probe specific for the A549 cells has been covalently immobilized onto silane self assembled monolayer (SAM) onto ITO surface using glutaraldehyde as the crosslinker. The results of cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry studies reveal that the aptamer functionalized bioelectrode can specifically detect lung cancer cells in the concentration range of 103 to 107 cells/ml with detection limit of 103 cells/ml within 60 s. The specificity studies of the bioelectrode have been carried out with control KB cells. No significant change in response is observed for control KB cells as compared to that of the A549 target cells.

  16. Anticancer activity of polysaccharide from Glehnia littoralis on human lung cancer cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Gao, Weiping; Song, Zhuoyue; Xiong, Qingping; Xu, Yingtao; Han, Yun; Yuan, Jun; Zhang, Rong; Cheng, Yunbo; Fang, Jiansong; Li, Weirong; Wang, Qi

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anticancer activity of polysaccharide (PGL) from Glehnia littoralis on human lung cancer cell line A549. Based on MTT assay, the results suggested that PGL could significantly reduce A549 cells proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, PGL displayed an inhibitory activity for the A549 cells migration in Transwell migration assay. The results from both flow cytometry analysis and Hochst 3342 staining of apoptotic cells indicated that PGL could promote apoptosis, and induce cycle arrest of A549 cells. Moreover, immunofluorescence assay elucidated PGL could also down-regulate expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Overall, these results showed that PGL exerts a strong anticancer action through inhibiting the A549 cells migration, proliferation and inducing cell apoptosis. It could be a new source of natural anticancer agent against lung cancer with potential value in supplements and medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. G4-Tetra DNA Duplex Induce Lung Cancer Cell Apoptosis in A549 Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaobo; Zhao, YiZhuo; Lu, Hu; Fu, Cuiping; Li, Xiao; Jiang, Liyan; Li, Shanqun

    2016-10-01

    The specific DNA is typically impermeable to the plasma membrane due to its natural characters, but DNA tetra structures (DTNs) can be readily uptake by cells in the absence of transfection agents, providing a new strategy to deliver DNA drugs. In this research, the delivery efficiency of tetrahedral DNA nanostructures was measured on adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial (A549) cells via delivering AS1411 (G4). The DNA tetra-AS1411 complex was rapidly and abundantly uptake by A549 cells, and the induced apoptosis was enhanced. Furthermore, biodistribution in mouse proved the rapid clearance from non-targeted organs in vivo. This study improved the understanding of potential function in DNA-based drug delivery and proved that DTNs-AS1411 could be potentially useful for the treatment of lung cancer.

  18. [Apoptosis inducing effect of Hechanpian on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shao-Quan; Zhou, Dai-Han; Lin, Li-Zhu

    2010-06-01

    To study the apoptosis inducing effects of Hechanpian (HCP) on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. HCP containing rat serum was prepared and applied on A549 cells. The cell growth inhibition rate was tested by MTT assay; the effect of HCP on cell apoptosis was observed with Propidium iodide (PI) staining and flow cytometry analysis; the mRNA expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was detected through RT-PCR. The growth of A549 cells was obviously inhibited after being treated by HCP containing serum, and the cells presented an apoptotic change. The cell apoptosis rate after treated by serum containing 10% and 20% HCP was 20.5% and 33.2%, respectively, significantly higher than that in the control (6.1% in cells didn't treated with HCP, P < 0.05). Compared with control, EGFR mRNA expression in HCP treated cells was significantly lower (P < 0.05). HCP has apoptosis inducing effect on A549 cell, and its molecular mechanism is probably correlated with the inhibition of EGFR gene transcription.

  19. In vitro effects of nicotine on the non-small-cell lung cancer line A549.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tao; Zhou, Xue-Liang; Liu, Sheng; Rao, Chang-Xiu; Shi, Wen; Liu, Ji-Chun

    2016-04-01

    To investigate in vitro effects of nicotine on the non-small-cell lung cancer line A549. The case-control study was conducted at the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University from 1st January to 30th June, 2014 and comprised A549 cells which were treated with a series of concentrations of nicotine (0.01 µM, 0.1 µM, 1 µM and 10 µM) for 24 hours. Control cells were incubated under the same conditions without the addition of nicotine. Cell growth was detected by monotetrazolium salt [3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] assay. Cell apoptosis was detected by Haematoxylin and Eosin staining, immunofluorescence analysis of Filamentous actin and electron microscope observation. Nicotine had no significant effect on A549 cell growth at the dose of 0.01µM (p>0.05), but had significant growth inhibitory effects at the doses of 0.1µM, 1µM and 10µM (p< 0.05 each). A significant decrease in cell numbers was observed on staining (p< 0.05). Significant changes in the size and shape of cells and concomitant changes in cytoskeletons and organelles were observed by immunofluorescence and electron microscope observation (p< 0.05). The growth inhibitory effects of nicotine on A549 cells were found to be dose-dependent.

  20. PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) INHIBITS NEUROTROPHIN RELEASE FROM A549 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several investigations have linked PM exposure to the exacerbation of allergic lung diseases. Many PM effects are mediated by cells within the lung including the airway epithelium, eosinophils, and lymphocytes. These cells also produce neurotophins such as NGF and/or express neur...

  1. Effects of TGF-β signaling blockade on human A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng-Cheng; Wu, Lei-Ming; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Ni; Chen, Wen-Shu; Fu, Xiang-Ning

    2011-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is overexpressed in a wide variety of cancer types including lung adenocarcinoma (LAC), and the TGF-β signaling pathway plays an important role in tumor development. To determine whether blockade of the TGF-β signaling pathway can inhibit the malignant biological behavior of LAC, RNA interference (RNAi) technology was used to silence the expression of TGF-β receptor, type II (TGFβRII) in the LAC cell line, A549, and its effects on cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis were examined. Three specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) designed for targeting human TGFβRII were transfected into A549 cells. The expression of TGFβRII was detected by Western blot analysis. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT and clonogenic assays. Cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. The invasion and metastasis of A549 cells were investigated using the wound healing and Matrigel invasion assays. The expression of PI3K, phosphorylated Smad2, Smad4, Akt, Erk1/2, P38 and MMPs was detected by Western blot analysis. The TGFβRII siRNA significantly reduced the expression of TGFβRII in A549 cells. The knockdown of TGFβRII in A549 cells resulted in the suppression of cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis and induced cell apoptosis. In addition to the Smad-dependent pathway, independent pathways including the Erk MAPK, PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK pathways, as well as the expression of MMPs and VEGF, were inhibited. In conclusion, TGF-β signaling is required for LAC progression. Therefore, the blockade of this signaling pathway by the down-regulation of TGFβRII using SiRNA may provide a potential gene therapy for LAC.

  2. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of defence secretion of Ulomoides dermestoides on A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Rosana; Villaverde, M Luciana; Girotti, Juan R; Güerci, Alba; Juárez, M Patricia; de Bravo, Margarita G

    2011-06-14

    Ulomoides dermestoides (Fairmaire, 1893) is a cosmopolitan tenebrionid beetle reared by Argentine people who consume them alive as an alternative medicine in the treatment of different illnesses such as asthma, Parkinson's, diabetes, arthritis, HIV and specially cancer. To evaluate the cytotoxicity and DNA damage of the major volatile components released by Ulomoides dermestoides on human lung carcinoma epithelial cell line A549. The defence compounds of Ulomoides dermestoides were extracted with dichloromethane and analyzed and quantified by capillary gas chromatography. The toxicity effects of the beetle's extract against A549 cell line were evaluated. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT test and Trypan blue assay and genotoxicity was evaluated by the comet assay. The synthetic compounds, individually or combined, were also tested in A549 cells and normal mononuclear human cells. The defence compounds of Ulomoides dermestoides extracted with dichloromethane (methyl-1,4-benzoquinones, ethyl-1,4-benzoquinones and 1-pentadecene as major components) showed cytotoxic activity on A549 cells demonstrated by MTT test and Trypan blue assay, with IC(50) values of 0.26equivalent/ml and 0.34equivalent/ml, respectively (1equivalent=amount of components extracted per beetle). The inhibition of A549 cell proliferation with the synthetic blend (1,4-benzoquinone and 1-pentadecene) or 1,4-benzoquinone alone was similar to that obtained with the insect extract. 1-Pentadecene showed no inhibitory effect. Low doses of insect extract or synthetic blend (0.15equivalent/ml) inhibited mononuclear cell proliferation by 72.2±2.7% and induced significant DNA damage both in tumor and mononuclear cells. Results of this study demonstrated that defence compounds of Ulomoides dermestoides reduced cell viability and induced DNA damage. We also concluded that the insect benzoquinones are primarily responsible for inducing cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in culture cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier

  3. Anti-inflammatory effects of embelin in A549 cells and human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Seung; Cho, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, Ki-Suk; Kim, Kang-Hoon; Park, Jiyoung; Kim, Yumi; Jung, Ji Hoon; Kim, Kwanil; Jung, Hee-Jae; Jang, Hyeung-Jin

    2018-02-01

    Allergic asthma is the most common type in asthma, which is defined as a chronic inflammatory disease of the lung. In this study, we investigated whether embelin (Emb), the major component of Ardisia japonica BL. (AJB), exhibits anti-inflammatory effects on allergic asthma via inhibition of NF-κB activity using A549 cells and asthmatic airway epithelial tissues. Inflammation was induced in A549 cells, a human airway epithelial cell line, by IL-1β (10 ng/ml) treatment for 4 h. The effects of Emb on NF-κB activity and COX-2 protein expression in inflamed airway epithelial cells and human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues were analyzed via western blot. The secretion levels of NF-κB-mediated cytokines/chemokines, including IL-4, 6, 9, 13, TNF-α and eotaxin, were measured by a multiplex assay. Emb significantly blocked NF-κB activity in IL-1β-treated A549 cells and human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues. COX-2 expression was also reduced in both IL-1β-treated A549 cells and asthmatic tissues Emb application. Emb significantly reduced the secretion of IL-4, IL-6 and eotaxin in human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues by inhibiting activity of NF-κB. The results of this study suggest that Emb may be used as an anti-inflammatory agent via inhibition of NF-κB and related cytokines.

  4. Curcumin induced autophagy anticancer effects on human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Furong; Gao, Song; Yang, Yuxuan; Zhao, Xiaodan; Fan, Yameng; Ma, Wenxia; Yang, Danrong; Yang, Aimin; Yu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the anticancer effects of curcumin-induced autophagy and its effects on the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line, inverted phase contrast microscopy was used to observe alterations to the cytomorphology of cells. An MTT assay was used to measure cell viability. Autophagy was detected using acridine orange (AO) staining and 3-methyladenine (3-MA) was used as an autophagy-specific inhibitor. Dose- and time-dependent A549 cell viability inhibition was observed following curcumin treatment. A dose-dependent increase in the red fluorescent structures in A549 cells was identified following curcumin treatment for 48 h through AO staining. In addition, the activation of autophagy was determined through changes in the number of autophagic vesicles (AVs; fluorescent particles) infected with monodansylcadaverine (MDC). The fluorescence intensity and density of AVs in the curcumin-treated groups were higher at 48 h compared with the control group. Finally, the MTT assay demonstrated that the survival rates of the curcumin-treated cells were increased when pretreated with 3-MA for 3 h, indicating that the inhibitory effect of curcumin on A549 cells is reduced following the inhibition of autophagy. Furthermore, AO and MDC staining confirmed that 3-MA does inhibit the induction of autophagy. Thus, it was hypothesized that the induction of autophagy is partially involved in the reduction of cell viability observed following curcumin treatment. The anticancer effects of curcumin on A549 cells can be reduced using autophagy inhibitors. This suggests a possible cancer therapeutic application of curcumin through the activation of autophagy. These findings have improved the understanding of the mechanism underlying the anticancer property of curcumin. PMID:28928819

  5. Green tea extract induces protective autophagy in A549 non-small lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Izdebska, Magdalena; Klimaszewska-Wiśniewska, Anna; Hałas, Marta; Gagat, Maciej; Grzanka, Alina

    2015-12-31

    For many decades, polyphenols, including green tea extract catechins, have been reported to exert multiple anti-tumor activities. However, to date the mechanisms of their action have not been completely elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of green tea extract on non-small lung cancer A549 cells. A549 cells following treatment with GTE were analyzed using the inverted light and fluorescence microscope. In order to evaluate cell sensitivity and cell death, the MTT assay and Tali image-based cytometer were used, respectively. Ultrastructural alterations were assessed using a transmission electron microscope. The obtained data suggested that GTE, even at the highest dose employed (150 μM), was not toxic to A549 cells. Likewise, the treatment with GTE resulted in only a very small dose-dependent increase in the population of apoptotic cells. However, enhanced accumulation of vacuole-like structures in response to GTE was seen at the light and electron microscopic level. Furthermore, an increase in the acidic vesicular organelles and LC3-II puncta formation was observed under the fluorescence microscope, following GTE treatment. The analysis of the functional status of autophagy revealed that GTE-induced autophagy may provide self-protection against its own cytotoxicity, since we observed that the blockage of autophagy by bafilomycin A1 decreased the viability of A549 cells and potentiated necrotic cell death induction in response to GTE treatment. Collectively, our results revealed that A549 cells are insensitive to both low and high concentrations of the green tea extract, probably due to the induction of cytoprotective autophagy. These data suggest that a potential utility of GTE in lung cancer therapy may lie in its synergistic combinations with drugs or small molecules that target autophagy, rather than in monotherapy.

  6. Curcumin induced autophagy anticancer effects on human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Liu, Furong; Gao, Song; Yang, Yuxuan; Zhao, Xiaodan; Fan, Yameng; Ma, Wenxia; Yang, Danrong; Yang, Aimin; Yu, Yan

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the anticancer effects of curcumin-induced autophagy and its effects on the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line, inverted phase contrast microscopy was used to observe alterations to the cytomorphology of cells. An MTT assay was used to measure cell viability. Autophagy was detected using acridine orange (AO) staining and 3-methyladenine (3-MA) was used as an autophagy-specific inhibitor. Dose- and time-dependent A549 cell viability inhibition was observed following curcumin treatment. A dose-dependent increase in the red fluorescent structures in A549 cells was identified following curcumin treatment for 48 h through AO staining. In addition, the activation of autophagy was determined through changes in the number of autophagic vesicles (AVs; fluorescent particles) infected with monodansylcadaverine (MDC). The fluorescence intensity and density of AVs in the curcumin-treated groups were higher at 48 h compared with the control group. Finally, the MTT assay demonstrated that the survival rates of the curcumin-treated cells were increased when pretreated with 3-MA for 3 h, indicating that the inhibitory effect of curcumin on A549 cells is reduced following the inhibition of autophagy. Furthermore, AO and MDC staining confirmed that 3-MA does inhibit the induction of autophagy. Thus, it was hypothesized that the induction of autophagy is partially involved in the reduction of cell viability observed following curcumin treatment. The anticancer effects of curcumin on A549 cells can be reduced using autophagy inhibitors. This suggests a possible cancer therapeutic application of curcumin through the activation of autophagy. These findings have improved the understanding of the mechanism underlying the anticancer property of curcumin.

  7. Ghrelin ameliorates the human alveolar epithelial A549 cell apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chunrong; Zheng, Haichong; He, Wanmei

    Ghrelin is a gastric acyl-peptide that plays an inhibitory role in cell apoptosis. Herein we investigate the protective effects of ghrelin in LPS-induced apoptosis of human alveolar epithelial A549 cells, along with the possible molecular mechanisms. LPS exposure impaired cell viability and increased apoptosis of A549 cells significantly in concentration- and time-dependent manners embodied in increased Bax and cleaved caspase-3 production, coupled with decreased Bcl-2 levels. Simultaneously, LPS remarkably decreased the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinas (ERK) in A549 cells. However, ghrelin'pretreatment ameliorated LPS-caused alterations in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 expression, whereas activatedmore » the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling. These results demonstrate that ghrelin lightens LPS-induced apoptosis of human alveolar epithelial cells partly through activating the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathway and thereby might benefit alleviating septic ALI. -- Graphical abstract: Ghrelin ameliorates the human alveolar epithelial A549 cells apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide partly through activating the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathway. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •It has been observed that LPS insult significantly increased apoptosis in A549 cells. •Both Akt and ERK signaling are critical adapter molecules to mediate the ghrelin-mediated proliferative effect. •Ghrelin may have a therapeutic effect in the prevention of LPS-induced apoptosis.« less

  8. Perfluorocarbon reduces cell damage from blast injury by inhibiting signal paths of NF-κB, MAPK and Bcl-2/Bax signaling pathway in A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huaidong; Li, Chunsun; Yang, Zhen; Li, Yanqin; She, Danyang; Cao, Lu; Wang, Wenjie; Liu, Changlin; Chen, Liangan

    2017-01-01

    Background and objective Blast lung injury is a common type of blast injury and has very high mortality. Therefore, research to identify medical therapies for blast injury is important. Perfluorocarbon (PFC) is used to improve gas exchange in diseased lungs and has anti-inflammatory functions in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to determine whether PFC reduces damage to A549 cells caused by blast injury and to elucidate its possible mechanisms of action. Study design and methods A549 alveolar epithelial cells exposed to blast waves were treated with and without PFC. Morphological changes and apoptosis of A549 cells were recorded. PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to measure the mRNA or protein levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity levels were detected. Western blot was used to quantify the expression of NF-κB, Bax, Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3 and MAPK cell signaling proteins. Results A549 cells exposed to blast wave shrank, with less cell-cell contact. The morphological change of A549 cells exposed to blast waves were alleviated by PFC. PFC significantly inhibited the apoptosis of A549 cells exposed to blast waves. IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α cytokine and mRNA expression levels were significantly inhibited by PFC. PFC significantly increased MDA levels and decreased SOD activity levels. Further studies indicated that NF-κB, Bax, caspase-3, phospho-p38, phosphor-ERK and phosphor-JNK proteins were also suppressed by PFC. The quantity of Bcl-2 protein was increased by PFC. Conclusion Our research showed that PFC reduced A549 cell damage caused by blast injury. The potential mechanism may be associated with the following signaling pathways: 1) the signaling pathways of NF-κB and MAPK, which inhibit inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS); and 2) the signaling pathways of Bcl-2/Bax and caspase-3, which inhibit apoptosis. PMID:28323898

  9. Exposure to diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) promotes the loss of alveolar epithelial phenotype of A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Rafael-Vázquez, L; García-Trejo, Semiramis; Aztatzi-Aguilar, O G; Bazán-Perkins, B; Quintanilla-Vega, B

    2018-05-17

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a widely used plasticizer that is metabolized to mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). Inhalation is an important exposure route for both phthalates, and their effects on lungs include inflammation, alteration of postnatal maturation (alveolarization), enlarged airspaces and cell differentiation changes, suggesting that alveolar epithelial cells-2 (AEC) are targets of phthalates. This study evaluated the cell progression, epithelial and mesenchymal markers, including surfactant secretion in A549 cells (AEC) that were exposed to DEHP (1-100 μM) or MEHP (1-50 μM) for 24-72 h. The results showed an increased cell proliferation at all concentrations of each phthalate at 24 and 48 h. Cell migration showed a concentration-dependent increase at 24 and 48 h of exposure to either phthalate and enlarged structures were seen. Decreased levels of both surfactants (SP-B/SP-C) were observed after the exposure to either phthalate at 48 h, and of SP-C positive cells exposed to MEHP, suggesting a loss of the epithelial phenotype. While a decrease in the epithelial marker E-cadherin and an increase in the mesenchymal marker fibronectin were observed following exposure to either phthalate. Our results showed that DEHP and MEHP altered the structure and migration of A549 cells and promoted the loss of the epithelial phenotype. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Middle Infrared Radiation Induces G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest in A549 Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Tsai, Shang-Ru; Juan, Hsueh-Fen; Lee, Si-Chen

    2013-01-01

    There were studies investigating the effects of broadband infrared radiation (IR) on cancer cell, while the influences of middle-infrared radiation (MIR) are still unknown. In this study, a MIR emitter with emission wavelength band in the 3–5 µm region was developed to irradiate A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. It was found that MIR exposure inhibited cell proliferation and induced morphological changes by altering the cellular distribution of cytoskeletal components. Using quantitative PCR, we found that MIR promoted the expression levels of ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated), ATR (ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related and Rad3-related), TP53 (tumor protein p53), p21 (CDKN1A, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A) and GADD45 (growth arrest and DNA-damage inducible), but decreased the expression levels of cyclin B coding genes, CCNB1 and CCNB2, as well as CDK1 (Cyclin-dependent kinase 1). The reduction of protein expression levels of CDC25C, cyclin B1 and the phosphorylation of CDK1 at Thr-161 altogether suggest G2/M arrest occurred in A549 cells by MIR. DNA repair foci formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) marker γ-H2AX and sensor 53BP1 was induced by MIR treatment, it implies the MIR induced G2/M cell cycle arrest resulted from DSB. This study illustrates a potential role for the use of MIR in lung cancer therapy by initiating DSB and blocking cell cycle progression. PMID:23335992

  11. [HDAC1 expression and effect of TSA on proliferation and apoptosis of A549 cells].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hong; Zhang, Zhen-Xiang; Xu, Yong-Jian; Shao, Jing-Fang

    2003-09-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) shows a high expression in many cancer cells and the inhibitor of HDAC1, trichostatin A (TSA), can inhibit the growth of cancer cells. Hypoxia is a common feature of malignant tumors. This paper was designed to investigate the expression of HDAC1 of A549 cell strains in hypoxia condition and the effect of TSA on their proliferation and apoptosis. The authors designed 1 normoxia group (control group) and 5 hypoxia groups (test groups): hypoxia 6h group (A), TSA + hypoxia 6h (B), hypoxia 12h group (C), hypoxia 24h group (D), TSA + hypoxia 24h (E), hypoxia 48h group (F). The expression of HDAC1 in A549 cells was examined using Western blot analysis. Proliferation, the apoptotic rates of A549 cells and the effect of TSA on them were determined using MTT method, immunohistochemistry, TUNEL method, and flow cytometry. The expression of mRNA of HDAC1 and the effect of TSA on it were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The A values expressed by HDAC1 in A549 cell strains were 138+/-11 in the control group, 78+/-4, 86+/-5, 124+/-3, and 120+/-9 in test groups A, C, D, and F, respectively. The A values of HDAC1mRNA versus the A values of beta-Atin mRNA were 0.68+/-0.03 in the control group, 0.46+/-0.03, 0.45+/-0.02, 0.70+/-0.03, and 0.33+/-0.02 in test groups A, C, D, and F, respectively. The A values of the expression of PCNA in A549 cell strains were 0.13+/-0.03 in the control group, 0.10+/-0.02, 0.11+/-0.02, 0.16+/-0.02, and 0.11+/-0.03 in test groups A, B, D, and E, respectively. The A values of MTT in A549 cell strains were 0.50+/-0.06 in the control group, 0.41+/-0.04, 0.45+/-0.03, 0.59+/-0.02, and 0.45+/-0.03 in test groups A, B, D, and E, respectively. The A values of positive cells of apoptosis in A549 cell strains were 0.16+/-0.04 in the control group, 0.18+/-0.02, 0.18+/-0.05, 0.20+/-0.05, and 0.23+/-0.05 in test groups A, B, D, and E, respectively. The apoptotic rates in A549 cells were 1.11% in the

  12. Synergistic Antitumor Effect of Oligogalacturonides and Cisplatin on Human Lung Cancer A549 Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cian-Song; Huang, Ai-Chun; Huang, Ping-Hsiu; Lo, Diana; Wang, Yuh-Tai; Wu, Ming-Chang

    2018-06-14

    Cisplatin (DPP), a clinically potent antineoplastic agent, is limited by its severe adverse effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oligogalacturonides (OGA) and DDP on human lung cancer A549 cells. The combined use of OGA and DDP had a synergistic effect on the growth inhibition of A549 cells, changed the cell cycle distribution, and enhanced apoptotic response, especially in sequential combination treatment group of DDP 12 h + OGA 12 h. Western blot analyses showed that the combination treatment of OGA and DDP upregulated Bax, p53, and Caspase-3 and downregulated Bcl-2 proteins. More importantly, DDP-induced toxicity was attenuated by OGA and DDP combination treatment in normal HEK293 cells. Our data suggests that the combined use of OGA from natural sources and DDP could be an important new adjuvant therapy for lung cancer as well as offer important insights for reducing kidney toxicity of DDP and delaying the development of DDP resistance.

  13. Effect of taxol from Pestalotiopsis mangiferae on A549 cells-In vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Kathiravan, Govindarajan; Sureban, Sripathi M.

    2009-01-01

    Pestalotiopsis mangiferae Coelomycete fungi were used to examine the production of taxol. The taxol isolated from this fungus is biologically active against cancer cell lines were investigated for its antiproliferative activity in human Non Small Cell Lung Cancer A549 cells. The results showed that the methylene chloride extraction of Pestalotiopsis mangiferae inhibited the proliferation of A 549 cells as measured by MTT and Trypan blue assay. Flow cytometric analysis showed that methylene chloride extraction of Pestalotiopsis mangiferae blocked cell cycle progression in G0/G1 phase. In addition fungal taxol induced A549 cell apoptosis as determined by propidium iodide staining. Further the percentage of LDH release was increased at increasing concentrations which is a measure of cell death. The levels of sialic acid levels and DNA, RNA and protein levels were decreased after treatment with methylene chloride extraction of Pestalotiopsis mangiferae. We suggests that methylene chloride extraction of Pestalotiopsis mangiferae might be considered for future therapeutic application with further studies against lung cancer. PMID:25206246

  14. Effect of taxol from Pestalotiopsis mangiferae on A549 cells-In vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kathiravan, Govindarajan; Sureban, Sripathi M

    2009-12-01

    Pestalotiopsis mangiferae Coelomycete fungi were used to examine the production of taxol. The taxol isolated from this fungus is biologically active against cancer cell lines were investigated for its antiproliferative activity in human Non Small Cell Lung Cancer A549 cells. The results showed that the methylene chloride extraction of Pestalotiopsis mangiferae inhibited the proliferation of A 549 cells as measured by MTT and Trypan blue assay. Flow cytometric analysis showed that methylene chloride extraction of Pestalotiopsis mangiferae blocked cell cycle progression in G0/G1 phase. In addition fungal taxol induced A549 cell apoptosis as determined by propidium iodide staining. Further the percentage of LDH release was increased at increasing concentrations which is a measure of cell death. The levels of sialic acid levels and DNA, RNA and protein levels were decreased after treatment with methylene chloride extraction of Pestalotiopsis mangiferae. We suggests that methylene chloride extraction of Pestalotiopsis mangiferae might be considered for future therapeutic application with further studies against lung cancer.

  15. Ferrous glycinate regulates cell energy metabolism by restrictinghypoxia-induced factor-1α expression in human A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yung-Ting; Jheng, Jhong-Huei; Lo, Mei-Chen; Chen, Wei-Lu; Wang, Shyang-Guang; Lee, Horng-Mo

    2018-06-04

    Iron or oxygen regulates the stability of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). We investigated whether ferrous glycinate would affect HIF-1α accumulation, aerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial energy metabolism in human A549 lung cancer cells. Incubation of A549 cells with ferrous glycinate decreased the protein levels of HIF-1α, which was abrogated by proteosome inhibitor, or prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor. The addition of ferrous glycinate decreased protein levels of glucose transporter-1, hexokinase-2, and lactate dehydrogenase A, and decreased pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-1 (PDK-1) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) phosphorylation in A549 cells. Ferrous glycinate also increased the expression of the mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), and the mitochondrial protein, cytochrome c oxidase (COX-IV). Silencing of HIF-1α expression mimicked the effects of ferrous glycinate on PDK-1, PDH, TFAM and COX-IV in A549 cells. Ferrous glycinate increased mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production in A549 cells. These results suggest that ferrous glycinate may reverse Warburg effect through down regulating HIF-1α in A549 cells.

  16. Copper doping enhanced the oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, J; Siddiqui, M A; Akhtar, M J; Alhadlaq, H A; Alshamsan, A; Khan, S T; Wahab, R; Al-Khedhairy, A A; Al-Salim, A; Musarrat, J; Saquib, Q; Fareed, M; Ahamed, M

    2018-05-01

    Physicochemical properties of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs) can be tuned by doping with metals or nonmetals. Copper (Cu) doping improved the photocatalytic behavior of TiO 2 NPs that can be applied in various fields such as environmental remediation and nanomedicine. However, interaction of Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs with human cells is scarce. This study was designed to explore the role of Cu doping in cytotoxic response of TiO 2 NPs in human lung epithelial (A549) cells. Characterization data demonstrated the presence of both TiO 2 and Cu in Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs with high-quality lattice fringes without any distortion. The size of Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs (24 nm) was lower than pure TiO 2 NPs (30 nm). Biological results showed that both pure and Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. Low mitochondrial membrane potential and higher caspase-3 enzyme (apoptotic markers) activity were also observed in A549 cells exposed to pure and Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs. We further observed that cytotoxicity caused by Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs was higher than pure TiO 2 NPs. Moreover, antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine effectively prevented the reactive oxygen species generation, glutathione depletion, and cell viability reduction caused by Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs. This is the first report showing that Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in A549 cells. This study warranted further research to explore the role of Cu doping in toxicity mechanisms of TiO 2 NPs.

  17. Jolkinolide A and Jolkinolide B Inhibit Proliferation of A549 Cells and Activity of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lei; Zhang, Shan-Qiang; Liu, Lei; Sun, Yu; Wu, Yu-Xuan; Xie, Li-Ping; Liu, Ji-Cheng

    2017-01-14

    BACKGROUND Jolkinolide A (JA) and Jolkinolide B (JB) are diterpenoids extracted from the roots of Euphorbia fischeriana Steud and have been shown to have anti-tumor activity. However, their effects on the ability of tumor cells to invade blood vessels and metastasize remain largely unknown. Investigations into the effects of JA and JB on the angiogenesis of tumor tissues may facilitate the identification of new natural drugs with anti-tumor growth and metastasis activities. MATERIAL AND METHODS We used different concentrations of JA and JB (20 μg/ml, 40 μg/ml, 60 μg/ml, 80 μg/ml, and 100 μg/ml) to stimulate A549 cells and then studied the effects on the growth and metastasis of lung cancers. In addition, we used conditional media from A549 cells (A549-CM) stimulated by either JA or JB in different concentrations to culture human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). RESULTS We found that both JA and JB significantly inhibited the Akt-STAT3-mTOR signaling pathway and reduced the expression of VEGF in A549 cells, but JB exhibited more significant inhibitory effects than JA. The JB-stimulated A549 cell conditional media had a greater inhibitory effect on the proliferation and migration of HUVECs than did the conditional media of JA-stimulated A549 cells. This effect gradually increased with increasing concentrations of either type of Jolkinolide. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that JA and JB inhibited VEGF expression in A549 cells through the inhibition of the Akt-STAT3-mTOR signaling pathway, and directly inhibited the proliferation and migration of HUVECs. These findings are of great significance for the development of new plant-derived chemotherapy agents for the treatment of cancer.

  18. Jolkinolide A and Jolkinolide B Inhibit Proliferation of A549 Cells and Activity of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Lei; Zhang, Shan-Qiang; Liu, Lei; Sun, Yu; Wu, Yu-Xuan; Xie, Li-Ping; Liu, Ji-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Background Jolkinolide A (JA) and Jolkinolide B (JB) are diterpenoids extracted from the roots of Euphorbia fischeriana Steud and have been shown to have anti-tumor activity. However, their effects on the ability of tumor cells to invade blood vessels and metastasize remain largely unknown. Investigations into the effects of JA and JB on the angiogenesis of tumor tissues may facilitate the identification of new natural drugs with anti-tumor growth and metastasis activities. Material/Methods We used different concentrations of JA and JB (20 μg/ml, 40 μg/ml, 60 μg/ml, 80 μg/ml, and 100 μg/ml) to stimulate A549 cells and then studied the effects on the growth and metastasis of lung cancers. In addition, we used conditional media from A549 cells (A549-CM) stimulated by either JA or JB in different concentrations to culture human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Results We found that both JA and JB significantly inhibited the Akt-STAT3-mTOR signaling pathway and reduced the expression of VEGF in A549 cells, but JB exhibited more significant inhibitory effects than JA. The JB-stimulated A549 cell conditional media had a greater inhibitory effect on the proliferation and migration of HUVECs than did the conditional media of JA-stimulated A549 cells. This effect gradually increased with increasing concentrations of either type of Jolkinolide. Conclusions Our results suggest that JA and JB inhibited VEGF expression in A549 cells through the inhibition of the Akt-STAT3-mTOR signaling pathway, and directly inhibited the proliferation and migration of HUVECs. These findings are of great significance for the development of new plant-derived chemotherapy agents for the treatment of cancer. PMID:28087861

  19. Effects of tanshinone nanoemulsion and extract on inhibition of lung cancer cells A549

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W. D.; Liang, Y. J.; Chen, B. H.

    2016-12-01

    Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza), a Chinese medicinal herb, consists of several functional components including tanshinones responsible for prevention of several chronic diseases. This study intends to prepare tanshinone extract and nanoemulsion from danshen and determine their inhibition effect on lung cancer cells A549. A highly stable tanshinone nanoemulsion composed of Capryol 90, Tween 80, ethanol and deionized water with the mean particle size of 14.2 nm was successfully prepared. Tanshinone nanoemulsion was found to be more effective in inhibiting A549 proliferation than tanshinone extract. Both nanoemulsion and extract could penetrate into cytoplasm through endocytosis, with the former being more susceptible than the latter. A dose-dependent response in up-regulation of p-JNK, p53 and p21 and down-regulation of CDK2, cyclin D1 and cyclin E1 expressions was observed with the cell cycle arrested at G0/G1 phase. The cellular microcompartment change of A549 was also investigated. The study demonstrated that tanshinone nanoemulsion may be used as a botanic drug for treatment of lung cancer.

  20. Cellular uptake and toxic effects of fine and ultrafine metal-sulfate particles in human A549 lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Könczöl, Mathias; Goldenberg, Ella; Ebeling, Sandra; Schäfer, Bianca; Garcia-Käufer, Manuel; Gminski, Richard; Grobéty, Bernard; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Merfort, Irmgard; Gieré, Reto; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2012-12-17

    Ambient airborne particulate matter is known to cause various adverse health effects in humans. In a recent study on the environmental impacts of coal and tire combustion in a thermal power station, fine crystals of PbSO(4) (anglesite), ZnSO(4)·H(2)O (gunningite), and CaSO(4) (anhydrite) were identified in the stack emissions. Here, we have studied the toxic potential of these sulfate phases as particulates and their uptake in human alveolar epithelial cells (A549). Both PbSO(4) and CaSO(4) yielded no loss of cell viability, as determined by the WST-1 and NR assays. In contrast, a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity was observed for Zn sulfate. For all analyzed sulfates, an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), assessed by the DCFH-DA assay and EPR, was observed, although to a varying extent. Again, Zn sulfate was the most active compound. Genotoxicity assays revealed concentration-dependent DNA damage and induction of micronuclei for Zn sulfate and, to a lower extent, for CaSO(4), whereas only slight effects could be found for PbSO(4). Moreover, changes of the cell cycle were observed for Zn sulfate and PbSO(4). It could be shown further that Zn sulfate increased the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) DNA binding activity and activated JNK. During our TEM investigations, no effect on the appearance of the A549 cells exposed to CaSO(4) compared to the nonexposed cells was observed, and in our experiments, only one CaSO(4) particle was detected in the cytoplasm. In the case of exposure to Zn sulfate, no particles were found in the cytoplasm of A549 cells, but we observed a concentration-dependent increase in the number and size of dark vesicles (presumably zincosomes). After exposure to PbSO(4), the A549 cells contained isolated particles as well as agglomerates both in vesicles and in the cytoplasm. Since these metal-sulfate particles are emitted into the atmosphere via the flue gas of coal-fired power stations, they may be

  1. Effects of Nrf2 knockdown on the properties of irradiated cell conditioned medium from A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Hironori; Murakami, Kanna; Nawamaki, Mikoto; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2018-05-01

    The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays an important role in cellular defense against oxidative stress. Recent studies have demonstrated that Nrf2 is a useful target for cancer treatment, including radiation therapy. Ionizing radiation affects, not only the irradiated cells, but also the non-irradiated neighboring cells, and this effect is known as radiation-induced bystander effect. Upon exposure to radiation, the irradiated cells transmit signals to the non-irradiated cells via gap junctions or soluble factors. These signals in turn cause biological effects, such as a decrease in the clonogenic potential and cell death, in the non-irradiated neighboring cells. Nrf2 inhibition enhances cellular radiosensitivity. However, whether this modification of radiosensitivity by Nrf2 inhibition affects the radiation-induced bystander effects is unknown. In this study, we prepared an Nrf2 knockdown human lung cancer cell A549 and investigated whether the effects of irradiated cell conditioned medium (ICCM) on cell growth and cell death induction of non-irradiated cells vary depending on the Nrf2 knockdown. We found that Nrf2 knockdown resulted in a decrease in the cell growth and an increase in the radiosensitivity of A549 cells. When non-irradiated A549 cells were transfected with control siRNA and treated with ICCM, no significant difference was observed in the cell growth and proportion of Annexin V + dead cells between ICCM from non-irradiated cells and that from 2 or 8 Gy-irradiated cells. Similarly, no significant difference was observed in the cell growth and cell death induction upon treatment with ICCM in the Nrf2 knockdown A549 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that Nrf2 knockdown decreases cell growth and enhances the radiosensitivity of A549 cells; however, it does not alter the effect of ICCM on cell growth.

  2. Low-dose carbon-based nanoparticle-induced effects in A549 lung cells determined by biospectroscopy are associated with increases in genomic methylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junyi; Tian, Meiping; Cui, Li; Dwyer, John; Fullwood, Nigel J.; Shen, Heqing; Martin, Francis L.

    2016-02-01

    Nanotechnology has introduced many manufactured carbon-based nanoparticles (CNPs) into our environment, generating a debate into their risks and benefits. Numerous nanotoxicology investigations have been carried, and nanoparticle-induced toxic effects have been reported. However, there remain gaps in our knowledge, primarily regarding mechanism. Herein, we assessed the global alterations induced by CNPs in A549 lung cells using biospectroscopy techniques, including attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). A549 cells were treated with fullerene (C60), long or short multi-walled carbon nanotubes, or single-walled carbon nanotubes at concentrations of 0.1 mg/L, 0.01 mg/L and 0.001 mg/L. Exposed cells were then analysed by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and SERS. Spectra were pre-processed via computational analysis, and information on biochemical alterations in exposed cells were identified. Additionally, global DNA methylation levels in cells exposed to CNPs at 0.1 mg/L were determined using HPLC-MS and genetic regulators (for DNA methylation) were checked by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. It was found that CNPs exert marked effects in A549 cells and also contribute to increases in global DNA methylation. For the first time, this study highlights that real-world levels of nanoparticles can alter the methylome of exposed cells; this could have enormous implications for their regulatory assessment.

  3. Hinokitiol Inhibits Migration of A549 Lung Cancer Cells via Suppression of MMPs and Induction of Antioxidant Enzymes and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Liu, Chao-Hong; Wu, Guan-Yi; Lee, Tzu-Yin; Manubolu, Manjunath; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Yang, Chih-Hao; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2018-01-01

    Hinokitiol, a natural monoterpenoid from the heartwood of Calocedrus formosana, has been reported to have anticancer effects against various cancer cell lines. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms and the inhibiting roles of hinokitiol on adenocarcinoma A549 cells remain to be fully elucidated. Thus, the current study was designed to evaluate the effect of hinokitiol on the migration of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells in vitro. The data demonstrates that hinokitiol does not effectively inhibit the viability of A549 cells at up to a 10 µM concentration. When treated with non-toxic doses (1–5 µM) of hinokitiol, the cell migration is markedly suppressed at 5 µM. Hinokitiol significantly reduced p53 expression, followed by attenuation of Bax in A549 cells. A dose-dependent inhibition of activated caspase-9 and -3 was observed in the presence of hinokitiol. An observed increase in protein expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -2/-9 in A549 cells was significantly inhibited by hinokitiol. Remarkably, when A549 cells were subjected to hinokitiol (1–5 µM), there was an increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) from the reduction in cells. In addition, the incubation of A549 cells with hinokitiol significantly activated the cytochrome c expression, which may be triggered by activation of caspase-9 followed by caspase-3. These observations indicate that hinokitiol inhibited the migration of lung cancer A549 cells through several mechanisms, including the activation of caspases-9 and -3, induction of p53/Bax and antioxidant CAT and SOD, and reduction of MMP-2 and -9 activities. It also induces cytochrome c expression. These findings demonstrate a new therapeutic potential for hinokitiol in lung cancer chemoprevention. PMID:29565268

  4. Hinokitiol Inhibits Migration of A549 Lung Cancer Cells via Suppression of MMPs and Induction of Antioxidant Enzymes and Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Liu, Chao-Hong; Wu, Guan-Yi; Lee, Tzu-Yin; Manubolu, Manjunath; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Yang, Chih-Hao; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2018-03-22

    Hinokitiol, a natural monoterpenoid from the heartwood of Calocedrus formosana , has been reported to have anticancer effects against various cancer cell lines. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms and the inhibiting roles of hinokitiol on adenocarcinoma A549 cells remain to be fully elucidated. Thus, the current study was designed to evaluate the effect of hinokitiol on the migration of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells in vitro. The data demonstrates that hinokitiol does not effectively inhibit the viability of A549 cells at up to a 10 µM concentration. When treated with non-toxic doses (1-5 µM) of hinokitiol, the cell migration is markedly suppressed at 5 µM. Hinokitiol significantly reduced p53 expression, followed by attenuation of Bax in A549 cells. A dose-dependent inhibition of activated caspase-9 and -3 was observed in the presence of hinokitiol. An observed increase in protein expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -2/-9 in A549 cells was significantly inhibited by hinokitiol. Remarkably, when A549 cells were subjected to hinokitiol (1-5 µM), there was an increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) from the reduction in cells. In addition, the incubation of A549 cells with hinokitiol significantly activated the cytochrome c expression, which may be triggered by activation of caspase-9 followed by caspase-3. These observations indicate that hinokitiol inhibited the migration of lung cancer A549 cells through several mechanisms, including the activation of caspases-9 and -3, induction of p53/Bax and antioxidant CAT and SOD, and reduction of MMP-2 and -9 activities. It also induces cytochrome c expression. These findings demonstrate a new therapeutic potential for hinokitiol in lung cancer chemoprevention.

  5. [Astaxanthin inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of A549 lung cancer cells via blocking JAK1/STAT3 pathway].

    PubMed

    Wu, Chuntao; Zhang, Jinji; Liu, Tienan; Jiao, Guimei; Li, Changzai; Hu, Baoshan

    2016-06-01

    Objective To investigate the anti-tumor effects of astaxanthin on A549 lung cancer cells and the related mechanisms. Methods A549 cells were cultured with various concentrations of astaxanthin (20, 40, 60, 80, 100 μmol/L), and DMSO at the same concentrations served as vehicle controls. The viability of A549 cells was detected by CCK-8 assay; cell cycle and apoptosis were observed by flow cytometry; and the expressions of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax), signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3), and Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) were evaluated by Western blotting. Results CCK-8 assay showed that astaxanthin decreased the proliferation of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry showed that astaxanthin increased the number of cells in the G0/G1 phase and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Western blotting showed that astaxanthin up-regulated the expression of Bax and down-regulated the expressions of Bcl-2, STAT3 and JAK1. Conclusion Astaxanthin functions as a potent inhibitor of A549 lung cancer cell growth by targeting JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway.

  6. Cytotoxicity and gene expression profiling of polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride in human alveolar A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ha-Na; Zerin, Tamanna; Podder, Biswajit; Song, Ho-Yeon; Kim, Yong-Sik

    2014-06-01

    In Korea, lung disease of children and pregnant women associated with humidifier disinfectant use has become a major concern. A common sterilizer is polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG), a member of the guanidine family of antiseptics. This study was done to elucidate the putative cytotoxic effect of PHMG and the PHMG-mediated altered gene expression in human alveolar epithelial A549 cells in vitro. Cell viability analyses revealed the potent cytotoxicity of PHMG, with cell death evident at as low as 5 μg/mL. Death was dose- and time-dependent, and was associated with formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, and apoptosis significantly, at even 2 μg/mL concentration. The gene expression profile in A549 cells following 24 h exposure to 5 μg/mL of PHMG was investigated using DNA microarray analysis. Changes in gene expression relevant to the progression of cell death included induction of genes related to apoptosis, autophagy, fibrosis, and cell cycle. However, the expressions of genes encoding antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes were down-regulated or not affected. The altered expression of selected genes was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses. The collective data suggest that PHMG confers cellular toxicity through the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and alteration of gene expression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High-Throughput Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Dengue Virus Type 2 Infected A549 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Han-Chen; Hannemann, Holger; Heesom, Kate J.; Matthews, David A.; Davidson, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    Disease caused by dengue virus is a global health concern with up to 390 million individuals infected annually worldwide. There are no vaccines or antiviral compounds available to either prevent or treat dengue disease which may be fatal. To increase our understanding of the interaction of dengue virus with the host cell, we analyzed changes in the proteome of human A549 cells in response to dengue virus type 2 infection using stable isotope labelling in cell culture (SILAC) in combination with high-throughput mass spectrometry (MS). Mock and infected A549 cells were fractionated into nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts before analysis to identify proteins that redistribute between cellular compartments during infection and reduce the complexity of the analysis. We identified and quantified 3098 and 2115 proteins in the cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions respectively. Proteins that showed a significant alteration in amount during infection were examined using gene enrichment, pathway and network analysis tools. The analyses revealed that dengue virus infection modulated the amounts of proteins involved in the interferon and unfolded protein responses, lipid metabolism and the cell cycle. The SILAC-MS results were validated for a select number of proteins over a time course of infection by Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. Our study demonstrates for the first time the power of SILAC-MS for identifying and quantifying novel changes in cellular protein amounts in response to dengue virus infection. PMID:24671231

  8. Evaluation of whole cigarette smoke induced oxidative stress in A549 and BEAS-2B cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shimin; Li, Xiang; Xie, Fuwei; Liu, Kejian; Liu, Huimin; Xie, Jianping

    2017-09-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex and oxidative aerosol. Previous researches on the hazards of cigarette smoke mainly focused on the adverse bioeffects induced by its condensates or gas vapor phase, which ignored the dynamic processes of smoking and the cigarette smoke aging. To overcome these disadvantages, we performed air-liquid interface exposure of whole smoke, which used native and unmodified smoke and ensured the exposure similar to physiological inhalation. Our results indicated that whole cigarette smoke induced lung epithelial cells (A549) and bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) damages in cytotoxicity assays (methyl thiazoly tetrazolium and neutral red uptake assays). In addition, A549 and BEAS-2B cells showed oxidative damages in whole smoke exposure, with concentration change of several biomarkers (reduced and oxidized glutathione, malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxyhydroxy-2-nonenal, extracellular superoxide dismutase, and 8-hydroxyl deoxyguanosine). These results indicate that whole smoke-induced oxidative stress occurs in two different kinds of cells at air-liquid interface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Preprocessing with Photoshop Software on Microscopic Images of A549 Cells in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhou-Xin; Yu, Hai-Bin; Shen, Jun-Ling; Li, Ya; Li, Jian-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    To establish a preprocessing method for cell morphometry in microscopic images of A549 cells in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Adobe Photoshop CS2 (Adobe Systems, Inc.) was used for preprocessing the images. First, all images were processed for size uniformity and high distinguishability between the cell and background area. Then, a blank image with the same size and grids was established and cross points of the grids were added into a distinct color. The blank image was merged into a processed image. In the merged images, the cells with 1 or more cross points were chosen, and then the cell areas were enclosed and were replaced in a distinct color. Except for chosen cellular areas, all areas were changed into a unique hue. Three observers quantified roundness of cells in images with the image preprocess (IPP) or without the method (Controls), respectively. Furthermore, 1 observer measured the roundness 3 times with the 2 methods, respectively. The results between IPPs and Controls were compared for repeatability and reproducibility. As compared with the Control method, among 3 observers, use of the IPP method resulted in a higher number and a higher percentage of same-chosen cells in an image. The relative average deviation values of roundness, either for 3 observers or 1 observer, were significantly higher in Controls than in IPPs (p < 0.01 or 0.001). The values of intraclass correlation coefficient, both in Single Type or Average, were higher in IPPs than in Controls both for 3 observers and 1 observer. Processed with Adobe Photoshop, a chosen cell from an image was more objective, regular, and accurate, creating an increase of reproducibility and repeatability on morphometry of A549 cells in epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

  10. Group B Streptococcus serotypes III and V induce apoptosis and necrosis of human epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, Andréia Ferreira Eduardo; Pereira, Camila Serva; Santos, Gabriela Da Silva; Carvalho, Técia Maria Ulisses; Hirata, Raphael; De Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luiza; Rosa, Ana Cláudia De Paula; Nagao, Prescilla Emy

    2011-05-01

    Although group B Streptococcus (GBS) has been classically described as an exclusively extracellular pathogen, growing evidence suggests that it may be internalized by epithelial cells. However, the fates of intracellular GBS and of infected respiratory epithelial cells remain unclear. Little is known about the bacterial components involved in these processes. The present study investigated the bacterial internalization by A549 cells and the apoptosis/necrosis of the infected human epithelial cells. The morphological changes in A549 cells observed from 2 h post-infection with GBS included vacuolization and the formation of apoptotic bodies. Flow cytometry revealed that 81.2% of apoptotic A549 cells were infected with GBS serotype III 90356-liquor. Moreover, a double-staining assay using propidium iodide (PI)/Annexin V (AV) gave information about the numbers of viable (PI-/AV-) (18.27%) vs. early apoptotic (PI-/AV+) (73.83%) and late apoptotic cells (PI+/AV+) (7.37%) during infection of A549 cells with GBS III 90356-liquor. In addition, 37% necrotic cells were observed in A549 cells infected with GBS serotype V 90186-blood. In conclusion, GBS serotypes III and V induce apoptosis of epithelial cells in the early stages of GBS infection, resulting in tissue destruction, bacterial spreading and, in consequence, invasive disease or systemic infection.

  11. Silica nanoparticles and biological dispersants: genotoxic effects on A549 lung epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, David M.; Varet, Julia; Johnston, Helinor; Chrystie, Alison; Stone, Vicki

    2015-10-01

    Silica nanoparticle exposure could be intentional (e.g. medical application or food) or accidental (e.g. occupational inhalation). On entering the body, particles become coated with specific proteins depending on the route of entry. The ability of silica particles of different size and charge (non-functionalized 50 and 200 nm and aminated 50 and 200 nm) to cause genotoxic effects in A549 lung epithelial cells was investigated. Using the modified comet assay and the micronucleus assay, we examined the effect of suspending the particles in different dispersion media [RPMI or Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS), supplemented with bovine serum albumin (BSA), lung lining fluid (LLF) or serum] to determine if this influenced the particle's activity. Particle characterisation suggested that the particles were reasonably well dispersed in the different media, with the exception of aminated 50 nm particles which showed evidence of agglomeration. Plain 50, 200 nm and aminated 50 nm particles caused significant genotoxic effects in the presence of formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase when dispersed in HBSS or LLF. These effects were reduced when the particles were dispersed in BSA and serum. There was no significant micronucleus formation produced by any of the particles when suspended in any of the dispersants. The data suggest that silica particles can produce a significant genotoxic effect according to the comet assay in A549 cells, possibly driven by an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism which may be modified depending on the choice of dispersant employed.

  12. Molecular mechanisms underlying mangiferin-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in A549 human lung carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    SHI, WEI; DENG, JIAGANG; TONG, RONGSHENG; YANG, YONG; HE, XIA; LV, JIANZHEN; WANG, HAILIAN; DENG, SHAOPING; QI, PING; ZHANG, DINGDING; WANG, YI

    2016-01-01

    Mangiferin, which is a C-glucosylxanthone (1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone-C2-β-D-glucoside) purified from plant sources, has recently gained attention due to its various biological activities. The present study aimed to determine the apoptotic effects of mangiferin on A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. In vitro studies demonstrated that mangiferin exerted growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects against A549 cells. In addition, mangiferin exhibited anti-tumor properties in A549 xenograft mice in vivo. Mangiferin triggered G2/M phase cell cycle arrest via down-regulating the cyclin-dependent kinase 1-cyclin B1 signaling pathway, and induced apoptotic cell death by inhibiting the protein kinase C-nuclear factor-κB pathway. In addition, mangiferin was able to enhance the antiproliferative effects of cisplatin on A549 cells, thus indicating the potential for a combined therapy. Notably, mangiferin exerted anticancer effects in vivo, where it was able to markedly decrease the volume and weight of subcutaneous tumor mass, and expand the lifespan of xenograft mice. The present study clarified the molecular mechanisms underlying mangiferin-induced antitumor activities, and suggested that mangiferin may be considered a potential antineoplastic drug for the future treatment of cancer. PMID:26935347

  13. Molecular mechanisms underlying mangiferin-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in A549 human lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Deng, Jiagang; Tong, Rongsheng; Yang, Yong; He, Xia; Lv, Jianzhen; Wang, Hailian; Deng, Shaoping; Qi, Ping; Zhang, Dingding; Wang, Yi

    2016-04-01

    Mangiferin, which is a C‑glucosylxanthone (1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone-C2-β-D-glucoside) purified from plant sources, has recently gained attention due to its various biological activities. The present study aimed to determine the apoptotic effects of mangiferin on A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. In vitro studies demonstrated that mangiferin exerted growth‑inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects against A549 cells. In addition, mangiferin exhibited anti-tumor properties in A549 xenograft mice in vivo. Mangiferin triggered G2/M phase cell cycle arrest via downregulating the cyclin-dependent kinase 1-cyclin B1 signaling pathway, and induced apoptotic cell death by inhibiting the protein kinase C-nuclear factor-κB pathway. In addition, mangiferin was able to enhance the antiproliferative effects of cisplatin on A549 cells, thus indicating the potential for a combined therapy. Notably, mangiferin exerted anticancer effects in vivo, where it was able to markedly decrease the volume and weight of subcutaneous tumor mass, and expand the lifespan of xenograft mice. The present study clarified the molecular mechanisms underlying mangiferin-induced antitumor activities, and suggested that mangiferin may be considered a potential antineoplastic drug for the future treatment of cancer.

  14. A549 lung epithelial cells grown as three-dimensional aggregates: alternative tissue culture model for Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Carterson, A J; Höner zu Bentrup, K; Ott, C M; Clarke, M S; Pierson, D L; Vanderburg, C R; Buchanan, K L; Nickerson, C A; Schurr, M J

    2005-02-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) lung aggregate model was developed from A549 human lung epithelial cells by using a rotating-wall vessel bioreactor to study the interactions between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and lung epithelial cells. The suitability of the 3-D aggregates as an infection model was examined by immunohistochemistry, adherence and invasion assays, scanning electron microscopy, and cytokine and mucoglycoprotein production. Immunohistochemical characterization of the 3-D A549 aggregates showed increased expression of epithelial cell-specific markers and decreased expression of cancer-specific markers compared to their monolayer counterparts. Immunohistochemistry of junctional markers on A549 3-D cells revealed that these cells formed tight junctions and polarity, in contrast to the cells grown as monolayers. Additionally, the 3-D aggregates stained positively for the production of mucoglycoprotein while the monolayers showed no indication of staining. Moreover, mucin-specific antibodies to MUC1 and MUC5A bound with greater affinity to 3-D aggregates than to the monolayers. P. aeruginosa attached to and penetrated A549 monolayers significantly more than the same cells grown as 3-D aggregates. Scanning electron microscopy of A549 cells grown as monolayers and 3-D aggregates infected with P. aeruginosa showed that monolayers detached from the surface of the culture plate postinfection, in contrast to the 3-D aggregates, which remained attached to the microcarrier beads. In response to infection, proinflammatory cytokine levels were elevated for the 3-D A549 aggregates compared to monolayer controls. These findings suggest that A549 lung cells grown as 3-D aggregates may represent a more physiologically relevant model to examine the interactions between P. aeruginosa and the lung epithelium during infection.

  15. Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein suppresses the growth of A549 cells via inhibiting nuclear transcription factor κB.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xu-Feng; Zhou, Dong; Liu, Quan-Xing; Zheng, Hong; Ding, Yan; Xu, Wen-Yue; Min, Jia-Xin; Dai, Ji-Gang

    2018-05-01

    Blocking the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is a promising strategy for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. The circumsporozoite protein (CSP), a key component of the sporozoite stage of the malaria parasite, was previously reported to block NF-κB activation in hepatocytes. Therefore, in the present study, the effect of CSP on the growth of the human lung cancer cell line, A549, was investigated. It was demonstrated that transfection with a recombinant plasmid expressing CSP was able to inhibit the proliferation of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner and induce the apoptosis of A549 cells. A NF-κB gene reporter assay indicated that CSP and its nuclear localization signal (NLS) motif were able to equally suppress the activation of NF-κB following stimulation with human recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in A549 cells. Furthermore, western blot analysis indicated that NLS did not affect the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB, but was able to markedly inhibit the nuclear translocation of NF-κB in TNF-α stimulated A549 cells. Therefore, the data suggest that CSP may be investigated as a potential novel NF-κB inhibitor for the treatment of lung cancer.

  16. 4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide effects human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells by regulating the expression of POLD4

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, QIN-MIAO; ZENG, YI-MING; ZHANG, HUA-PING; LV, LIANG-CHAO; YANG, DONG-YONG; LIN, HUI-HUANG

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the expression of POLD4 in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells under 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) stimulation to investigate the role of POLD4 in smoking-induced lung cancer. The lung cancer A549 cell line was treated with 4NQO, with or without MG132 (an inhibitor of proteasome activity), and subsequently the POLD4 level was determined by western blot analysis. Secondly, the cell sensitivity to 4NQO and Taxol was determined when the POLD4 expression level was downregulated by siRNA. The POLD4 protein levels in the A549 cells decreased following treatment with 4NQO; however, MG132 could reverse this phenotype. Downregulation of the POLD4 expression by siRNA enhanced A549 cell sensitivity to 4NQO, but not to Taxol. In conclusion, 4NQO affects human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells by regulating the expression of POLD4. PMID:26998273

  17. TXNIP mediates the differential responses of A549 cells to sodium butyrate and sodium 4-phenylbutyrate treatment.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xuefang; Wu, Nana; Dai, Juji; Li, Qiuxia; Xiao, XiaoQiang

    2017-02-01

    Sodium butyrate (NaBu) and sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4PBA) have promising futures in cancer treatment; however, their underlying molecular mechanisms are not clearly understood. Here, we show A549 cell death induced by NaBu and 4PBA are not the same. NaBu treatment induces a significantly higher level of A549 cell death than 4PBA. A gene expression microarray identified more than 5000 transcripts that were altered (>1.5-fold) in NaBu-treated A549 cells, but fewer than 2000 transcripts that were altered in 4PBA. Moreover, more than 100 cell cycle-associated genes were greatly repressed by NaBu, but slightly repressed by 4PBA; few genes were significantly upregulated only in 4PBA-treated cells. Gene expression was further validated by other experiments. Additionally, A549 cells that were treated with these showed changes in glucose consumption, caspase 3/7 activation and histone modifications, as well as enhanced mitochondrial superoxide production. TXNIP was strongly induced by NaBu (30- to 40-fold mRNA) but was only slightly induced by 4PBA (two to fivefold) in A549 cells. TXNIP knockdown by shRNA in A549 cells significantly attenuated caspase 3/7 activation and restored cell viability, while TXNIP overexpression significantly increased caspase 3/7 activation and cell death only in NaBu-treated cells. Moreover, TXNIP also regulated NaBu- but not 4PBA-induced H4K5 acetylation and H3K4 trimethylation, possibly by increasing WDR5 expression. Finally, we demonstrated that 4PBA induced a mitochondrial superoxide-associated cell death, while NaBu did so mainly through a TXNIP-mediated pathway. The above data might benefit the future clinic application. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. [Overexpression of Keap1 inhibits the cell proliferation and metastasis and overcomes the drug resistance in human lung cancer A549 cells].

    PubMed

    Weng, X; Yan, Y Y; Tong, Y H; Fan, Y; Zeng, J M; Wang, L L; Lin, N M

    2016-06-23

    To investigate the effect of Keap1-Nrf2 pathway on cell proliferation, metastasis and drug resistance of human lung cancer A549 cell line. A549-Keap1 cell line, constantly expressing wild type Keap1, was established by lentiviral transfection. Real-time RT-PCR and western blot were used to determine the expression of Nrf2 and its target gene in A549 cells. Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay, flow cytometry, colony formation assay, transwell assay, and cell wound-healing assay were performed to explore the effect of wild type Keap1 expression on the proliferation, invasion, migration and drug resistance of A549 cells. Over-expressed Keap1 decreased the expression of Nrf2 protein and the mRNA level of its downstream target genes and inhibited the ability of cell proliferation and clone formation of A549 cells. Keap1 overexpression induced G0/G1 phase arrest. The percentage of A549-Keap1 cells in G0/G1 phase was significantly higher than that of A549-GFP cells (80.2±5.9)% vs. (67.1±0.9%)(P<0.05). Compared with the invasive A549-Keap1 cells (156.33±17.37), the number of invasive A549-GFP cells was significantly higher (306.67±22.19) in a high power field. Keap1 overexpression significantly enhanced the sensitivity of A549 cells to carboplatin and gemcitabine (P<0.01). The IC50s of carboplatin in A549-Keap1 and A549-GFP cells were (52.1±3.3) μmol/L and (107.8±12.9) μmol/L, respectively. The IC50s of gemcitabine in A549-Keap1 and A549-GFP cells were (6.8±1.2) μmol/L and (9.9±0.5) μmol/L, respectively. Keap1 overexpression significantly inhibits the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream target genes, suppresses tumor cell proliferation and metastasis, and enhances the sensitivity of A549 cells to anticancer drugs.

  19. Ultrafine particles (UFPs) from domestic wood stoves: genotoxicity in human lung carcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Marabini, Laura; Ozgen, Senem; Turacchi, Silvia; Aminti, Stefania; Arnaboldi, Francesca; Lonati, Giovanni; Fermo, Paola; Corbella, Lorenza; Valli, Gianluigi; Bernardoni, Vera; Dell'Acqua, Manuela; Vecchi, Roberta; Becagli, Silvia; Caruso, Donatella; Corrado, Galli L; Marinovich, Marina

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, results on the potential toxicity of ultrafine particles (UFPs d<100nm) emitted by the combustion of logwood and pellet (hardwood and softwood) are reported. The data were collected during the TOBICUP (TOxicity of BIomass COmbustion generated Ultrafine Particles) project, carried out by a team composed of interdisciplinary research groups. The genotoxic evaluation was performed on A549 cells (human lung carcinomacells) using UFPs whose chemical composition was assessed by a suite of analytical techniques. Comet assay and γ-H2AX evaluation show a significant DNA damage after 24h treatment. The interpretation of the results is based on the correlation among toxicological results, chemical-physical properties of UFPs, and the type and efficiency conditions in residential pellet or logwood stoves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Novel synthetic chalcones induce apoptosis in the A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells harboring a KRAS mutation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiqiang; Hedblom, Andreas; Koerner, Steffi K; Li, Mailin; Jernigan, Finith E; Wegiel, Barbara; Sun, Lijun

    2016-12-01

    A series of novel chalcones were synthesized by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation reaction of tetralones and 5-/6-indolecarboxaldehydes. Treatment of human lung cancer cell line harboring KRAS mutation (A549) with the chalcones induced dose-dependent apoptosis. Cell cycle analyses and Western blotting suggested the critical role of the chalcones in interrupting G2/M transition of cell cycle. SAR study demonstrated that substituent on the indole N atom significantly affects the anticancer activity of the chalcones, with methyl and ethyl providing the more active compounds (EC 50 : 110-200nM), Compound 1g was found to be >4-fold more active in the A549 cells (EC 50 : 110nM) than in prostate (PC3) or pancreatic cancer (CLR2119, PAN02) cells. Furthermore, compound 1l selectively induced apoptosis of lung cancer cells A549 (EC 50 : 0.55μM) but did not show measurable toxicity in the normal lung bronchial epithelial cells (hBEC) at doses as high as 10μM, indicating specificity towards cancer cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antimetastatic Effects of Phyllanthus on Human Lung (A549) and Breast (MCF-7) Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sau Har; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Wang, Seok Mui; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2011-01-01

    Background Current chemotherapeutic drugs kill cancer cells mainly by inducing apoptosis. However, they become ineffective once cancer cell has the ability to metastasize, hence the poor prognosis and high mortality rate. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimetastatic potential of Phyllanthus (P. niruri, P. urinaria, P. watsonii, and P. amarus) on lung and breast carcinoma cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Cytotoxicity of Phyllanthus plant extracts were first screened using the MTS reduction assay. They were shown to inhibit MCF-7 (breast carcinoma) and A549 (lung carcinoma) cells growth with IC50 values ranging from 50–180 µg/ml and 65–470 µg/ml for methanolic and aqueous extracts respectively. In comparison, they have lower toxicity on normal cells with the cell viability percentage remaining above 50% when treated up to 1000 µg/ml for both extracts. After determining the non-toxic effective dose, several antimetastasis assays were carried out and Phyllanthus extracts were shown to effectively reduce invasion, migration, and adhesion of both MCF-7 and A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner, at concentrations ranging from 20–200 µg/ml for methanolic extracts and 50–500 µg/ml for aqueous extracts. This was followed by an evaluation of the possible modes of cell death that occurred along with the antimetastatic activity. Phyllanthus was shown to be capable of inducing apoptosis in conjunction with its antimetastastic action, with more than three fold increase of caspases-3 and -7, the presence of DNA-fragmentation and TUNEL-positive cells. The ability of Phyllanthus to exert antimetastatic activities is mostly associated to the presence of polyphenol compounds in its extracts. Conclusions/Significance The presence of polyphenol compounds in the Phyllanthus plant is critically important in the inhibition of the invasion, migration, and adhesion of cancer cells, along with the involvement of apoptosis induction. Hence

  2. Nanoparticles of Selaginella doederleinii leaf extract inhibit human lung cancer cells A549

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syaefudin; Juniarti, A.; Rosiyana, L.; Setyani, A.; Khodijah, S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate cytotoxicity effect of nanoparticles of Selaginella doederleinii (S. doederleinii) leaves extract. S. doederleinii was extracted by maceration method using 70%(v/v) ethanol as solvent. Phytochemical content was analyzed qualitatively by using Harborne and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) methods. Nanoparticle extract was prepared by ionic gelation using chitosan as encapsulant agent. Anticancer activity was performed by using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results showed that S. doederleinii contains of flavonoids. Nanoparticle of S. doederleinii leaves extract greatly inhibited A549 cells growth (cancer cells), with IC50 of 3% or 1020 μg/ml. These nanoparticles extract also inhibited the growth of Chang cells (normal cells), with IC50 of 4% or 1442 μg/ml. The effective concentration of nanoparticles extract which inhibits cancer cells without harming the normal cells is 0.5% or 167 μg/ml. Further studies are needed to obtain the concentration of nanoparticles extract which can selectively suppress cancer cells.

  3. mTOR inhibition of cardamonin on antiproliferation of A549 cells is involved in a FKBP12 independent fashion.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ying; Fang, Qi; Shi, Daohua; Niu, Peiguang; Chen, Yaoyao; Deng, Jie

    2014-03-18

    Cardamonin has previously demonstrated that it had an antiproliferative effect on vascular smooth muscle cells by inhibiting the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). The antiproliferative effect and the possible mechanism of combining with mTOR of cardamonin were investigated on A549 cells. Cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis were measured by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) and flow cytometry, respectively. mTOR and 12 kDa FK506 binding protein (FKBP12) were transfected into A549 cells by Lipofectamine. Western blots were used to examine the mTOR expressions and its activities, and the expressions of 70 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K), FKBP12 and Interleukin-2 (IL-2), respectively. Treated with cardamonin, the proliferation of A549 cells was inhibited. Meanwhile, cell cycle was blocked and DNA synthesis was decreased whereas cell apoptosis was promoted, and the activation of mTOR and p70S6K was decreased by cardamonin. Transfected with mTOR or FKBP12, proliferation of A549 cells was increased. Rapamycin had a similar degree of effect on antiproliferation of both transfected cells. However, the antiproliferative effect of cardamonin on mTOR transfected cells was stronger than that on FKBP12 transfected cells. Both rapamycin and cardamonin decreased the phosphorylation of mTOR and p70S6K in two kinds of transfected cells. Cardamonin had no effect on the expression of FKBP12 and IL-2, whereas the expressions were decreased by rapamycin. Cardamonin inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of A549 cells via mTOR. It might directly interact with mTOR independently of binding with FKBP12. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Antimony trichloride induces a loss of cell viability via reactive oxygen species-dependent autophagy in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinyuan; Xing, Fengjun; Cong, Yewen; Zhuang, Yin; Han, Muxi; Wu, Zhiqiang; Yu, Shali; Wei, Haiyan; Wang, Xiaoke; Chen, Gang

    2017-12-01

    Antimony (Sb) is one of the most prevalent heavy metals and frequently leads to biological toxicity. Although autophagy is believed to be involved in metal-associated cytotoxicity, there is no evidence of its involvement following exposure. Moreover, the underlying mechanism of autophagy remains unclear. In this study, treatment with antimony trichloride caused autophagy in a dose- and time-dependent manner in A549 cells but did not affect the level of Atg5 or Atg7 mRNA expression. Furthermore, Sb enhanced autophagic flux while upregulating p62 gene and protein levels. The classic mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is not involved in Sb-induced autophagy. However, Sb-induced autophagy and the upregulation of p62 were inhibited by treatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Subsequent analyses demonstrated that the inhibition of autophagy protected A549 cells from a loss of cell viability, while the activation of autophagy by rapamycin had the opposite effect. These data suggest that reactive oxygen species-dependent autophagy mediates Sb-stimulated cell viability loss in A549 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Apoptosis of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells induced by prodigiosin analogue obtained from an entomopathogenic bacterium Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Jin, Zhi-Xiong; Wan, Yong-Ji

    2010-12-01

    An entomopathogenic bacterial strain SCQ1 was isolated from silkworm (Bombyx mori) and identified as Serratia marcescens via 16S rRNA gene analysis. This strain produces a red pigment that causes acute septicemia of silkworm. The red pigment of strain SCQ1 was identified as prodigiosin analogue (PGA) with various reported biological activities. In this study, we found that low concentration of PGA showed significant anticancer activity in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, but has little effect in human bone marrow stem cells, in vitro. By exposure to different concentrations of PGA for 24 h, morphological changes and the MTT assay showed that A549 cell line was very sensitive to PGA, with IC(50) value about 2.2 mg/L. Early stage of apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry while A549 cells were treated with PGA for 4 and 12 h, respectively. The proportion of dead cells was increased with treatment time or the concentrations of PGA, but it was inversely proportional to that of apoptotic cells. These results indicate that PGA obtained from strain SCQ1 induces apoptosis in A549 cells, but the molecular mechanisms of cell death are complicated, and the S. marcescens strain SCQ1 may serve as a source of the anticancer compound, PGA.

  6. Effect of Withaferin A on A549 cellular proliferation and apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yong; Sheng, Zhao-Ying; Chen, Yun; Bai, Chong

    2014-01-01

    To explore the effect of Withaferin A on A549 cellular proliferation and apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). NSCNC cell line A549 was selected to explore the effect of Withaferin A on A549 cellular proliferation, apoptosis and the PI3K/Akt signal pathway capable of regulating tumor biological behavior by assessment of cellular proliferation, cellular apoptotic rates and cellular cycling as well as by immuno-blotting. Withaferin A could inhibit A549 cellular proliferation and the control rate was dosage-dependent (P<0.05), which also increased time-dependently with the same dosage of Withaferin A (P<0.05). The apoptotic indexes in A549 cells treated with 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 μmol·L-1 Withaferin A for 48 h were significantly different (P<0.05). In addition, the apoptotic rates of each group in both early and advanced stages were higher than those in 0 μmol·L-1 (P<0.05), which were evidently higher after 48 h than those after 24 h (P<0.05). A549 cells treated by Withaferin A for 48 h were markedly lower in Bcl-2 level and obviously higher in Bax and cleaved caspase-3 levels than those treated by 0 μmol·L-1 Withaferin A (P<0.05), and there were significant differences among 5, 10 and 20 μmol·L-1 Withaferin A (P<0.05). The ratios of A549 cells treated by Withaferin A for 48 h in G0/G1 stage were higher than those in 0 μmol·L-1 , while those in S and G2/M stages were obviously lower than those in G2/M stage, and there were significant differences in 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 μmol·L-1 Withaferin A (P<0.05). Additionally, p-Akt/Akt values were in reverse association with dosage, and the differences were significant (P<0.05). Withaferin A can inhibit the proliferation and apoptosis of A549 cells by suppressing activation of the PI3K/Akt pathways.

  7. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell) was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 μg/mL), demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 μg/mL), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 μg/mL). A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 μg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells.

  8. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell) was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 μg/mL), demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 μg/mL), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 μg/mL). A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 μg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells. PMID:26345201

  9. The influence of incubation time on adenovirus quantitation in A549 cells by most probable number.

    PubMed

    Cashdollar, Jennifer L; Huff, Emma; Ryu, Hodon; Grimm, Ann C

    2016-11-01

    Cell culture based assays used to detect waterborne viruses typically call for incubating the sample for at least two weeks in order to ensure that all the culturable virus present is detected. Historically, this estimate was based, at least in part, on the length of time used for detecting poliovirus. In this study, we have examined A549 cells infected with human adenovirus type 2, and have found that a three week incubation of virus infected cells results in a higher number of detected viruses by quantal assay than what is seen after two weeks of incubation, with an average 955% increase in Most Probable Number (MPN) from 2 weeks to 3 weeks. This increase suggests that the extended incubation time is essential for accurately estimating viral titer, particularly for slow-growing viruses, UV treated samples, or samples with low titers of virus. In addition, we found that for some UV-treated samples, there was no detectable MPN at 2 weeks, but after 3 weeks, MPN values were obtained. For UV-treated samples, the average increase in MPN from 2 weeks to 3 weeks was 1401%, while untreated samples averaged a change in MPN of 674%, leading us to believe that the UV-damaged viral DNA may be able to be repaired such that viral replication then occurs. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Induction of ER Stress-Mediated Apoptosis by α-Lipoic Acid in A549 Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong In; Lee, Chang Min; Park, Eok-Sung; Kim, Ki Nyun; Kim, Hyung Chul; Lee, Hae Young

    2012-01-01

    Background α-Lipoic acid (α-LA) has been studied as an anticancer agent as well as a therapeutic agent for diabetes and obesity. We performed this study to evaluate the anticancer effects and mechanisms of α-LA in a lung cancer cell line, A549. Materials and Methods α-LA-induced apoptosis of A549 cells was detected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis and a DNA fragmentation assay. Expression of apoptosis-related genes was analyzed by western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses. Results α-LA induced apoptosis and DNA fragmentation in A549 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. α-LA increased caspase activity and the degradation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. It induced expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related genes, such as glucose-regulated protein 78, C/EBP-homologous protein, and the short form of X-box binding protein-1, and decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was induced by α-LA, and the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine decreased the α-LA-induced increase in expression of apoptosis and ER stress-related proteins. Conclusion α-LA induced ER stress-mediated apoptosis in A549 cells via ROS. α-LA may therefore be clinically useful for treating lung cancer. PMID:22363901

  11. β-elemene reverses the drug resistance of lung cancer A549/DDP cells via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.

    PubMed

    Yao, Cheng-Cai; Tu, Yuan-Rong; Jiang, Jie; Ye, Sheng-Fang; Du, Hao-Xin; Zhang, Yi

    2014-05-01

    β-elemene (β-ELE) is a new anticancer drug extracted from Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe and has been widely used to treat malignant tumors. Recent studies have demonstrated that β-ELE reverses the drug resistance of tumor cells. To explore the possible mechanisms of action of β-ELE, we investigated its effects on cisplatin-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma A549/DDP cells. The effects of β-ELE on the growth of A549/DDP cells in vitro were determined by MTT assay. Apoptosis was assessed by fluorescence microscopy with Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry with Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential was assessed using JC-1 fluorescence probe and laser confocal scanning microscopy, and intracellular reactive oxygen species levels were measured by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate staining and flow cytometry. Cytosolic glutathione content was determined using GSH kits. The expression of cytochrome c, caspase-3, procaspase-3 and the Bcl-2 family proteins was assessed by western blotting. The results demonstrated that β-ELE inhibited the proliferation of A549/DDP cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, β-ELE enhanced the sensitivity of A549/DDP cells to cisplatin and reversed the drug resistance of A549/DDP cells. Consistent with a role in activating apoptosis, β-ELE decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased intracellular reactive oxygen species concentration and decreased the cytoplasmic glutathione levels in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The combination of β-ELE and cisplatin enhanced the protein expression of cytochrome c, caspase-3 and Bad, and reduced protein levels of Bcl-2 and procaspase-3 in the A549/DDP lung cancer cells. These results define a pathway of procaspase‑3-β-ELE function that involves decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, leading to apoptosis triggered by the release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm and the modulation of apoptosis-related genes. The reversal of drug

  12. Induction of apoptosis in non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cells by PGD₂ metabolite, 15d-PGJ₂.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Jie; Mak, Oi-Tong

    2011-11-01

    PGD2 (prostaglandin D2) is a mediator in various pathophysiological processes, including inflammation and tumorigenesis. PGD2 can be converted into active metabolites and is known to activate two distinct receptors, DP (PGD2 receptor) and CRTH2/DP2 (chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells). In the past, PGD2 was thought to be involved principally in the process of inflammation. However, in recent years, several studies have shown that PGD2 has anti-proliferative ability against tumorigenesis and can induce cellular apoptosis via activation of the caspase-dependent pathway in human colorectal cancer cells, leukaemia cells and eosinophils. In the lung, where PGD2 is highly released when sensitized mast cells are challenged with allergen, the mechanism of PGD2-induced apoptosis is unclear. In the present study, A549 cells, a type of NSCLC (non-small cell lung carcinoma), were treated with PGD2 under various conditions, including while blocking DP and CRTH2/DP2 with the selective antagonists BWA868C and ramatroban respectively. We report here that PGD2 induces A549 cell death through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, although the process does not appear to involve either DP or CRTH2/DP2. Similar results were also found with H2199 cells, another type of NSCLC. We found that PGD2 metabolites induce apoptosis effectively and that 15d-PGJ2 (15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2) is a likely candidate for the principal apoptotic inducer in PGD2-induced apoptosis in NSCLC A549 cells.

  13. MG132 as a proteasome inhibitor induces cell growth inhibition and cell death in A549 lung cancer cells via influencing reactive oxygen species and GSH level.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong Hwan; Park, Woo Hyun

    2010-07-01

    Carbobenzoxy-Leu-Leu-leucinal (MG132) as a proteasome inhibitor has been shown to induce apoptotic cell death through formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we evaluated the effects of MG132 on the growth of A549 lung cancer cells in relation to cell growth, ROS and glutathione (GSH) levels. Treatment with MG132 inhibited the growth of A549 cells with an IC(50) of approximately 20 microM at 24 hours. DNA flow cytometric analysis indicated that 0.5 approximately 30 microM MG132 induced a G1 phase arrest of the cell cycle in A549 cells. Treatment with 10 or 30 microM MG132 also induced apoptosis, as evidenced by sub-G1 cells and annexin V staining cells. This was accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP; Delta psi m). The intracellular ROS levels including O(2) (*-) were strongly increased in 10 or 30 microM MG132-treated A549 cells but were down-regulated in 0.1, 0.5 or 1 microM MG132-treated cells. Furthermore, 10 or 30 microM MG132 increased mitochondrial O(2) (*- ) level but 0.1, 0.5 or 1 microM MG132 decreased that. In addition, 10 or 30 microM MG132 induced GSH depletion in A549 cells. In conclusion, MG132 inhibited the growth of human A549 cells via inducing the cell cycle arrest as well as triggering apoptosis, which was in part correlated with the changes of ROS and GSH levels. Our present data provide important information on the anti-growth mechanisms of MG132 in A549 lung cancer cells in relation to ROS and GSH.

  14. Apigenin inhibits cell proliferation, migration, and invasion by targeting Akt in the A549 human lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhongping; Tang, Miaomiao; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Zhuyi; Lu, Rongzhu; Lu, Jian

    2017-04-01

    Apigenin (APG), a widely distributed flavonoid in vegetables and fruits, with low toxicity, and a nonmutagenic characteristic, has been reported to have many targets. Evidence indicates that APG can inhibit the proliferation, migration, invasion, and metastasis of some tumor cells, but the mechanism, specifically in lung cancer, is unclear. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway regulates a diverse set of cellular functions relevant to the growth and progression of lung cancer, including proliferation, survival, migration, and invasion. Our results showed that APG exerted anti-proliferation, anti-migration, and anti-invasion effects in A549 human lung cancer cells by targeting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiszol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenytetrazolium bromide assay and colony formation assay showed that APG suppressed cell proliferation in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Cell motility and invasiveness were assayed using a wound healing and Transwell assay, suggesting that APG inhibited the migration and invasion of A549 cells. Western blot analyses were carried out to examine the Akt signaling pathways. The results confirmed that APG decreased Akt expression and its activation. Then, cells were transfected with Akt-active and Akt-DN plasmids separately. The migration and invasion of A549 cells were significantly changed, constitutively activating Akt or knocking down Akt, indicating that APG can suppress the migration and invasion of lung cancer cells by modulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Furthermore, the results indicated that APG not only suppressed phosphorylation of Akt, thereby preventing its activation, but also inhibited its downstream gene expression of matrix metalloproteinases-9, glycogen synthase kinase-3β, and HEF1. Together, APG is a new inhibitor of Akt in lung cancer and a potential natural compound for cancer chemoprevention.

  15. Differential modulation of glucocorticoid action by FK506 in A549 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Croxtall, Jamie D; Paul-Clark, Mark; Van Hal, Peter Th W

    2003-01-01

    Glucocorticoids inhibit the release of eicosanoid pro-inflammatory mediators. The immunosuppressant FK506 is known to enhance many aspects of glucocorticoid action. In the present study we show that FK506 (1 microM or 10 microM) inhibits the release of arachidonic acid and prostaglandin E2 from A549 cells and also inhibits their proliferation. Simultaneous treatment of FK506 together with the glucocorticoids dexamethasone, methyl-prednisolone, fluticasone or mometasone (10 nM) enhances the growth inhibitory effect of these steroids. Furthermore, the simultaneous use of FK506 and these glucocorticoids similarly results in enhanced inhibition of arachidonic acid release. When pretreated for 2 h, FK506 enhances glucocorticoid inhibition of COX2 (cyclo-oxygenase 2) expression. However, when administered simultaneously, FK506 blocks glucocorticoid inhibition of COX2 expression. Nuclear uptake of glucocorticoid receptors mediated by glucocorticoids is also blocked by the simultaneous administration of FK506. These results suggest that the effect of simultaneous treatment of FK506 with glucocorticoids differs significantly from that where pre-treatment of the immunosuppressant is used. Recently, immunophilin interchange has been identified as a first step in glucocorticoid receptor activation following ligand activation. We show here that the FKB51 (FK506-binding protein 51)-FKB52 switch is differentially regulated by glucocorticoid and FK506 treatment strategy. PMID:12948397

  16. Induction of cell death by pyropheophorbide-α methyl ester-mediated photodynamic therapy in lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Tu, Ping-Hua; Huang, Wen-Jun; Wu, Zhan-Ling; Peng, Qing-Zhen; Xie, Zhi-Bin; Bao, Ji; Zhong, Ming-Hua

    2017-03-01

    Pyropheophorbide-α methyl ester (MPPa) was a promising photosensitizer with stable chemical structure, strong absorption, higher tissue selectivity and longer activation wavelengths. The present study investigated the effect of MPPa-mediated photodynamic treatment on lung cancer A549 cells as well as the underlying mechanisms. Cell Counting Kit-8 was employed for cell viability assessment. Reactive oxygen species levels were determined by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Cell morphology was evaluated by Hoechst staining and transmission electron microscopy. Mitochondrial membrane potential, cellular apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were evaluated flow-cytometrically. The protein levels of apoptotic effectors were examined by Western blot. We found that the photocytotoxicity of MPPa showed both drug- and light- dose dependent characteristics in A549 cells. Additionally, MPPa-PDT caused cell apoptosis by reducing mitochondrial membrane potential, increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, inducing caspase-9/caspase-3 signaling activation as well as cell cycle arrest at G 0 /G 1 phase. These results suggested that MPPa-PDT mainly kills cells by apoptotic mechanisms, with overt curative effects, indicating that MPPa should be considered a potent photosensitizer for lung carcinoma treatment. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Global secretome characterization of A549 human alveolar epithelial carcinoma cells during Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is one of the major etiological agents for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in all age groups. The early host response to M. pneumoniae infection relies on the concerted release of proteins with various biological activities. However, no comprehensive analysis of the secretory proteins has been conducted to date regarding the host response upon M. pneumoniae infection. Results We employed the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based label-free quantitative proteomic technology to identify and characterize the members of the human alveolar epithelial carcinoma A549 cell secretome during M. pneumoniae infection. A total of 256 proteins were identified, with 113 being differentially expressed (>1.5-fold change), among which 9 were only expressed in control cells, 10 only in M. pneumoniae-treated cells, while 55 were up-regulated and 39 down-regulated by M. pneumoniae. The changed expression of some of the identified proteins was validated by RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis. Cellular localization analysis of the secretome data revealed 59.38% of the proteins were considered as “putative secretory proteins”. Functional analysis revealed that the proteins affected upon M. pneumoniae infection were mainly related to metabolic process, stress response, and immune response. We further examined the level of one up-regulated protein, IL-33, in clinical samples. The result showed that IL-33 levels were significantly higher in the plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of M. pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) patients. Conclusions The present study provided systematic information about the changes in the expression of secretory proteins during M. pneumoniae infection, which is useful for the discovery of specific biomarkers and targets for pharmacological intervention. PMID:24507763

  18. Genotoxic and oxidative effects induced on A549 cells by extract of PM10 collected in an electric steel plant.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Delia; Ursini, Cinzia L; Maiello, Raffaele; Apostoli, Pietro; Catalani, Simona; Ciervo, Aureliano; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    The present study was aimed at assessing the carcinogenic risk of occupational exposure to PM10 in electric steel plants. PM10 was collected on cellulose filter respectively outside (site 1) and inside (site 2) the furnace area, was measured, extracted and its metal content was analysed by ICP-MS. Cells were exposed for 30 min, 2 and 4 hours to extract of filter from each site diluted at 0.004, 0.008 and 0.02%. The direct/oxidative DNA damage caused by PM10 was evaluated on A549 cells by Fpg-modified comet assay, analysing Tail moment (TM) and comet percentage. Air samples contained 1.08 mg/m3 of PM10 in site 1 and 5.54 mg/m3in site 2 and different amounts of metals with higher levels of Zn, Al, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ba in site 2 and of Fe, Mn, Sb in site 1. In cells exposed for 2h to PM10 from both sites, an oxidative DNA damage was found concentrations of 0.008% and 0.02%. For site 2, a direct DNA damage at 0.02% was also found. After 4h a direct/oxidative DNA damage was detected at 0.02% for site 2 and an oxidative DNA damage for site 1. The results indicate a moderate DNA damage induction by used diluitions of PM10 extracts with higher extent for more polluted site 2. These findings show the suitability of this experimental model to evaluate early DNA damage induced by complex mixtures containing metals on target organ, suggesting its use to study biological effects of occupational exposure to such substances.

  19. MLKL-PITPα signaling-mediated necroptosis contributes to cisplatin-triggered cell death in lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Jing, Lin; Song, Fei; Liu, Zhenyu; Li, Jianghua; Wu, Bo; Fu, Zhiguang; Jiang, Jianli; Chen, Zhinan

    2018-02-01

    Necroptosis has been reported to be involved in cisplatin-induced cell death, but the mechanisms underlying the occurrence of necroptosis are not fully elucidated. In this study, we show that apart from apoptosis, cisplatin induces necroptosis in A549 cells. The alleviation of cell death by two necroptosis inhibitors-necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) and necrosulfonamide (NSA), and the phosphorylation of mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) at serine 358, suggest the involvement of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1)-RIPK3-MLKL signaling in cisplatin-treated A549 cells. Additionally, the initiation of cisplatin-induced necroptosis relies on autocrine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Furthermore, we present the first evidence that phosphatidylinositol transfer protein alpha (PITPα) is involved in MLKL-mediated necroptosis by interacting with the N terminal MLKL on its sixth helix and the preceding loop, which facilitates MLKL oligomerization and plasma membrane translocation in necroptosis. Silencing of PITPα expression interferes with MLKL function and reduces cell death. Our data elucidate that cisplatin-treated lung cancer cells undergo a new type of programmed cell death called necroptosis and shed new light on how MLKL translocates to the plasma membrane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. MiR-509-3-5p causes aberrant mitosis and anti-proliferative effect by suppression of PLK1 in human lung cancer A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xian-Hui; Lu, Yao; Liang, Jing-Jing

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potent post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression and play roles in DNA damage response (DDR). PLK1 is identified as a modulator of DNA damage checkpoint. Although down-regulation of PLK1 by certain microRNAs has been reported, little is known about the interplay between PLK1 and miR-509-3-5p in DDR. Here we have demonstrated that miR-509-3-5p repressed PLK1 expression by targeting PLK1 3′-UTR, thereby causing mitotic aberration and growth arrest of human lung cancer A549 cells. Repression of PLK1 by miR-509-3-5p was further evidenced by over-expression of miR-509-3-5p in A549, HepG2 and HCT116p53{sup −/−} cancer cells, in which PLK1 protein wasmore » suppressed. Consistently, miR-509-3-5p was stimulated, while PLK1 protein was down-regulated in A549 cells exposed to CIS and ADR, suggesting that suppression of PLK1 by miR-509-3-5p is a component of CIS/ADR-induced DDR pathway. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence labeling showed that over-expression of miR-509-3-5p in A549 induced G2/M arrest and aberrant mitosis characterized by abnormal bipolar mitotic spindles, condensed chromosomes, lagging DNA and chromosome bridges. In addition, over-expression of miR-509-3-5p markedly blocked A549 cell proliferation and sensitized the cells to CIS and ADR treatment. Taken together, miR-509-3-5p is a feasible suppressor for cancer by targeting PLK1. Our data may provide aid in potential design of combined chemotherapy and in our better understanding of the roles of microRNAs in response to DNA damage. - Highlights: • MiR-509-3-5p represses PLK1 expression by targeting PLK1 3ГЉВ№-UTR. • Expression of miR-509-3-5p is induced and PLK1 repressed upon DNA damage. • Overexpression of miR-509-3-5p induces G2/M arrest and aberrant mitosis. • MiR-509-3-5p inhibits cell proliferation and sensitizes cells to DNA damage agents.« less

  1. Curcumin inhibits interferon-{alpha} induced NF-{kappa}B and COX-2 in human A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jeeyun; Im, Young-Hyuck; Jung, Hae Hyun

    2005-08-26

    The A549 cells, non-small cell lung cancer cell line from human, were resistant to interferon (IFN)-{alpha} treatment. The IFN-{alpha}-treated A549 cells showed increase in protein expression levels of NF-{kappa}B and COX-2. IFN-{alpha} induced NF-{kappa}B binding activity within 30 min and this increased binding activity was markedly suppressed with inclusion of curcumin. Curcumin also inhibited IFN-{alpha}-induced COX-2 expression in A549 cells. Within 10 min, IFN-{alpha} rapidly induced the binding activity of a {gamma}-{sup 32}P-labeled consensus GAS oligonucleotide probe, which was profoundly reversed by curcumin. Taken together, IFN-{alpha}-induced activations of NF-{kappa}B and COX-2 were inhibited by the addition of curcumin in A549more » cells.« less

  2. Apatinib resensitizes cisplatin-resistant non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cell through reversing multidrug resistance and suppressing ERK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z-L; Jin, B-J; Cheng, C-G; Zhang, F-X; Wang, S-W; Wang, Y; Wu, B

    2017-12-01

    To observe the reversal effect of apatinib on the resistance to cisplatin (DDP) of A549/cisplatin (A549/DDP) cells and its relevant mechanism. A549/DDP cells were treated with the control method, apatinib alone, DDP alone and DDP combined with apatinib. The cell proliferation was detected by the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and the cell clone formation assay. The cell apoptosis was detected by Hoechst 33258 staining and annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) double labeling. The changes in apoptotic proteins, multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway proteins in each group after treatment were detected by Western blotting. MTT assay results showed that compared with A549 cells, A549/DDP cells had obvious resistance to DDP. MTT assay and cell clone formation assay revealed that the tumor inhibition rate of the sub-lethal dose of apatinib (10 μM) combined with DDP was higher than that of DDP alone. The apoptosis detection results indicated that the proportion of apoptotic cells in the apatinib (10 μM) combined with DDP group was significantly increased. Western blotting results revealed that compared with that in parental A549 cells, the expression level of MDR1 in A549/DDP cells was significantly increased, and the ERK signaling pathway was activated. In the apatinib combined with DDP group, the levels of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)-associated X (BAX) proteins were significantly upregulated, while the level of Bcl-2 proteins was downregulated. Apatinib could inhibit the expression of MDR1 and the activity of the ERK signaling pathway in a dose-dependent manner. Apatinib can restore the sensitivity of A549/DDP cells to DDP by down-regulating the expression level of MDR1 and inhibiting the activity of the ERK signaling pathway.

  3. Phytol shows anti-angiogenic activity and induces apoptosis in A549 cells by depolarizing the mitochondrial membrane potential.

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, Ravi; Malar, Dicson Sheeja; Devi, Kasi Pandima

    2018-06-13

    In the present study, the antiproliferative activity of phytol and its mechanism of action against human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 were studied in detail. Results showed that phytol exhibited potent antiproliferative activity against A549 cells in a dose and time-dependent manner with an IC 50 value of 70.81 ± 0.32 μM and 60.7 ± 0.47 μM at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Phytol showed no adverse toxic effect in normal human lung cells (L-132), but mild toxic effect was observed when treated with maximum dose (67 and 84 μM). No membrane-damaging effect was evidenced by PI staining and SEM analysis. The results of mitochondrial membrane potential analysis, cell cycle analysis, FT-IR and Western blotting analysis clearly demonstrated the molecular mechanism of phytol as induction of apoptosis in A549 cells, as evidenced by formation of shrinked cell morphology with membrane blebbing, depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential, increased cell population in the sub-G0 phase, band variation in the DNA and lipid region, downregulation of Bcl-2, upregulation of Bax and the activation of caspase-9 and -3. In addition, phytol inhibited the CAM vascular growth as evidenced by CAM assay, which positively suggests that phytol has anti-angiogenic potential. Taken together, these findings clearly demonstrate the mode of action by which phytol induces cell death in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Seleno-short-chain chitosan induces apoptosis in human non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells through ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yana; Zhang, Shaojing; Wang, Pengfei; Fu, Shengnan; Wu, Di; Liu, Anjun

    2017-12-01

    Seleno-short-chain chitosan (SSCC) is a synthesized chitosan derivative. In this study, antitumor activity and underlying mechanism of SSCC on human non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells were investigated in vitro. The MTT assay showed that SSCC could inhibit cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and 200 μg/ml SSCC exhibited significantly toxic effects on A549 cells. The cell cycle assay showed that SSCC triggered S phase cell cycle arrest in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was related to a downregulation of S phase associated cyclin A. The DAPI staining and Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining identified that the SSCC could induce A549 cells apoptosis. Further studies found that SSCC led to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by DCFH-DA and Rhodamin 123 staining, respectively. Meanwhile, free radical scavengers N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) pretreatment confirmed that SSCC-induced A549 cells apoptosis was associated with ROS generation. Furthermore, real-time PCR and western blot assay showed that SSCC up-regulated Bax and down-regulated Bcl-2, subsequently incited the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytoplasm, activated the increase of cleaved-caspase 3 and finally induced A549 cells apoptosis in vitro. In general, the present study demonstrated that SSCC induced A549 cells apoptosis via ROS-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.

  5. Mesenchymal stem cells promote cell invasion and migration and autophagy-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dan; Hu, Shiyuan; Tang, Chunlan; Liu, Guoxiang

    2018-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are recruited into the tumour microenvironment and promote tumour growth and metastasis. Tumour microenvironment-induced autophagy is considered to suppress primary tumour formation by impairing migration and invasion. Whether these recruited MSCs regulate tumour autophagy and whether autophagy affects tumour growth are controversial. Our data showed that MSCs promote autophagy activation, reactive oxygen species production, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as well as increased migration and invasion in A549 cells. Decreased expression of E-cadherin and increased expression of vimentin and Snail were observed in A549 cells cocultured with MSCs. Conversely, MSC coculture-mediated autophagy positively promoted tumour EMT. Autophagy inhibition suppressed MSC coculture-mediated EMT and reduced A549 cell migration and invasion slightly. Furthermore, the migratory and invasive abilities of A549 cells were additional increased when autophagy was further enhanced by rapamycin treatment. Taken together, this work suggests that microenvironments containing MSCs can promote autophagy activation for enhancing EMT; MSCs also increase the migratory and invasive abilities of A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. Mesenchymal stem cell-containing microenvironments and MSC-induced autophagy signalling may be potential targets for blocking lung cancer cell migration and invasion. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Asiatic Acid (AA) Sensitizes Multidrug-Resistant Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549/DDP Cells to Cisplatin (DDP) via Downregulation of P-Glycoprotein (MDR1) and Its Targets.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qilai; Liao, Meixiang; Hu, Haibo; Li, Hongliang; Wu, Longhuo

    2018-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp, i.e., MDR1) is associated with the phenotype of multidrug resistance (MDR) and causes chemotherapy failure in the management of cancers. Searching for effective MDR modulators and combining them with anticancer drugs is a promising strategy against MDR. Asiatic acid (AA), a natural triterpene isolated from the plant Centella asiatica, may have an antitumor activity. The present study assessed the reversing effect of AA on MDR and possible molecular mechanisms of AA action in MDR1-overexpressing cisplatin (DDP)-resistant lung cancer cells, A549/DDP. Human lung adenocarcinoma A549/DDP cells were either exposed to different concentrations of AA or treated with DDP, and their viability was measured by the MTT assay. A Rhodamine 123 efflux assay, immunofluorescent staining, ATPase assay, reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and western blot analysis were conducted to elucidate the mechanisms of action of AA on MDR. Our results showed that AA significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of DDP toward A549/DDP cells but not its parental A549 cells. Furthermore, AA strongly inhibited P-gp expression by blocking MDR1 gene transcription and increased the intracellular accumulation of the P-gp substrate Rhodamine 123 in A549/DDP cells. Nuclear factor (NF)-kB (p65) activity, IkB degradation, and NF-kB/p65 nuclear translocation were markedly inhibited by pretreatment with AA. Additionally, AA inhibited the MAPK-ERK pathway, as indicated by decreased phosphorylation of ERK1 and -2, AKT, p38, and JNK, thus resulting in reduced activity of the Y-box binding protein 1 (YB1) via blockage of its nuclear translocation. AA reversed P-gp-mediated MDR by inhibition of P-gp expression. This effect was likely related to downregulation of YB1, and this effect was mediated by the NF-kB and MAPK-ERK pathways. AA may be useful as an MDR reversal agent for combination therapy in clinical trials. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. A novel polysaccharide from Sargassum integerrimum induces apoptosis in A549 cells and prevents angiogensis in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ge; Kuang, Shan; Wu, Shimei; Jin, Weihua; Sun, Chaomin

    2016-05-24

    Many polysaccharides isolated from plants have exhibited promising antitumor activities. The aim of this study is to investigate the antitumor activity of the novel polysaccharide named SPS from Sargassum integerrimum, elucidate the underlying anticancer mechanism in a human lung cancer cell line A549, and evaluate its anti-angiogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo. The results show that SPS significantly reduces A549 cells viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner via MTT method. Flow cytometry analysis indicates that SPS could induce cell apoptosis, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest of A549 cells. Up-regulation of the expressions of P53 and Bax, down-regulation of the expression of Bcl-2, and activation of cleaved caspase-3, caspase-9 and PARP are also detected by western blotting after the treatment of SPS. In addition, SPS inhibits the proliferation, migration and cord formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro, and prevents the vascular development of zebrafish embryos in vivo. Altogether, our data prove the anticancer and anti-angiogenesis properties of SPS, and provide further insights into the potential pharmacological application of SPS as antitumor and anti-angiogenic agent against lung cancer.

  8. Oleiferoside W from the roots of Camellia oleifera C. Abel, inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang-Ping; Kang, Nai-Xin; Zhang, Mi-Ya; Gao, Hong-Wei; Li, Xiao-Ran; Liu, Yan-Li; Xu, Qiong-Ming; Yang, Shi-Lin

    2017-07-06

    Camellia oleifera C. Abel has been widely cultivated in China, and a group of bioactive constituents such as triterpeniod saponin have been isolated from C. oleifera C. Abel. In the current study, a new triterpeniod saponin was isolated from the EtOH extract of the roots of C. oleifera C. Abel, named as oleiferoside W, and the cytotoxic properties of oleiferoside W were evaluated in non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. At the same time the inducing apoptosis, the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ), the up-regulation of related pro-apoptotic proteins, such as cleaved-PARP, cleaved-caspase-3, and the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-2/Bax were measured on oleiferoside W. Furthermore, the function, inducing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis, of oleiferoside W could be reversed by N-acetylcysteine (NAC). In conclusion, our findings showed that oleiferoside W induced apoptosis involving mitochondrial pathway and increasing intracellular ROS production in the A549 cells, suggesting that oleiferoside W may have the possibility to be a useful anticancer agent for therapy in lung cancer.

  9. Ameliorative Effects of Dimetylthiourea and N-Acetylcysteine on Nanoparticles Induced Cyto-Genotoxicity in Human Lung Cancer Cells-A549

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Ritesh Kumar; Rahman, Qamar; Kashyap, Mahendra Pratap; Lohani, Mohtashim; Pant, Aditya Bhushan

    2011-01-01

    We study the ameliorative potential of dimetylthiourea (DMTU), an OH• radical trapper and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a glutathione precursor/H2O2 scavenger against titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) induced cyto-genotoxicity in cultured human lung cancer cells-A549. Cytogenotoxicity was induced by exposing the cells to selected concentrations (10 and 50 µg/ml) of either of TiO2-NPs or MWCNTs for 24 h. Anti-cytogenotoxicity effects of DMTU and NAC were studied in two groups, i.e., treatment of 30 minutes prior to toxic insult (short term exposure), while the other group received DMTU and NAC treatment during nanoparticles exposure, i.e., 24 h (long term exposure). Investigations were carried out for cell viability, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), micronuclei (MN), and expression of markers of oxidative stress (HSP27, CYP2E1), genotoxicity (P53) and CYP2E1 dependent n- nitrosodimethylamine-demethylase (NDMA-d) activity. In general, the treatment of both DMTU and NAC was found to be effective significantly against TiO2-NPs and MWCNTs induced cytogenotoxicity in A549 cells. Long-term treatment of DMTU and NAC during toxic insults has shown better prevention than short-term pretreatment. Although, cells responded significantly to both DMTU and NAC, but responses were chemical specific. In part, TiO2-NPs induced toxic responses were mediated through OH• radicals generation and reduction in the antioxidant defense system. While in the case of MWCNTs, adverse effects were primarily due to altering/hampering the enzymatic antioxidant system. Data indicate the applicability of human lung cancer cells-A549 as a pre-screening tool to identify the target specific prophylactic and therapeutic potential of drugs candidate molecules against nanoparticles induced cellular damages. PMID:21980536

  10. Crocidolite asbestos causes an induction of p53 and apoptosis in cultured A-549 lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pääkkö, P; Rämet, M; Vähäkangas, K; Korpela, N; Soini, Y; Turunen, S; Jaworska, M; Gillissen, A

    1998-01-01

    A number of genotoxic chemicals and agents, such as benzo(a)pyrene and ultraviolet light, are able to induce nuclear accumulation of p53 protein. Usually, this response is transient and a consequence of stabilization of the wild-type p53 protein. After withdrawal of the exposure, the amount of p53 protein returns to a normal level within hours or a few days. We have studied the p53 response to the exposure of crocidolite asbestos in A-549 lung carcinoma cells using three different methods, i.e., p53 immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and metabolic labelling followed by p53 immunoprecipitation. With these techniques we demonstrate a dose-dependent p53 nuclear response to crocidolite exposure. The half-life of p53 protein in A-549 lung carcinoma cells cultured in serum-free media increased from 30 up to 80 min, and the protein reacted with a wild-type specific antibody suggesting that it was in a wild-type conformation. In situ 3'-end labelling of A-549 cells demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in apoptotic activity. Our data support the idea that increased apoptotic activity, induced by crocidolite, is mediated by p53.

  11. Toxicity of wood smoke particles in human A549 lung epithelial cells: the role of PAHs, soot and zinc.

    PubMed

    Dilger, Marco; Orasche, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Ralf; Paur, Hanns-Rudolf; Diabaté, Silvia; Weiss, Carsten

    2016-12-01

    Indoor air pollution is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Specifically, the health impact of emissions from domestic burning of biomass and coal is most relevant and is estimated to contribute to over 4 million premature deaths per year worldwide. Wood is the main fuel source for biomass combustion and the shift towards renewable energy sources will further increase emissions from wood combustion even in developed countries. However, little is known about the constituents of wood smoke and biological mechanisms that are responsible for adverse health effects. We exposed A549 lung epithelial cells to collected wood smoke particles and found an increase in cellular reactive oxygen species as well as a response to bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In contrast, cell vitality and regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 were not affected. Using a candidate approach, we could recapitulate WSP toxicity by the combined actions of its constituents soot, metals and PAHs. The soot fraction and metals were found to be the most important factors for ROS formation, whereas the PAH response can be mimicked by the model PAH benzo[a]pyrene. Strikingly, PAHs adsorbed to WSPs were even more potent in activating target gene expression than B[a]P individually applied in suspension. As PAHs initiate multiple adverse outcome pathways and are prominent carcinogens, their role as key pollutants in wood smoke and its health effects warrants further investigation. The presented results suggest that each of the investigated constituents soot, metals and PAHs are major contributors to WSP toxicity. Mitigation strategies to prevent adverse health effects of wood combustion should therefore not only aim at reducing the emitted soot and PAHs but also the metal content, through the use of more efficient combustion appliances, and particle precipitation techniques, respectively.

  12. MiR-21 suppresses the anticancer activities of curcumin by targeting PTEN gene in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Bai, W; Zhang, W

    2014-08-01

    Curcumin, a natural phytochemical, exhibits potent anticancer activities. Here, we sought to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the cytotoxic effects of curcumin against human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. MTT assay and annexin-V/PI staining were used to analyze the effects of curcumin on the proliferation and apoptosis of A549 cells. The expression of microRNA-21 in curcumin-treated A549 cells was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. The protein level of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a putative target of microRNA-21, was determined by Western blot analysis. Transfection of A549 cells with microRNA-21 mimic or PTEN small interfering RNA was performed to modulate the expression of microRNA-21 and PTEN under the treatment of curcumin. Curcumin at 20-40 μM inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Curcumin treatment produced a dose-dependent and significant (P < 0.05) suppression of microRNA-21 expression, compared to untreated A549 cells. Moreover, the protein level of PTEN, a putative target of microRNA-21, was significantly elevated in curcumin-treated A549 cells, as determined by Western blot analysis. Transfection of A549 cells with microRNA-21 mimic or PTEN small interfering RNA significantly (P < 0.05) reversed the growth suppression and apoptosis induction by curcumin, compared to corresponding controls. Our data suggest a novel molecular mechanism in which inhibition of microRNA-21 and upregulation of PTEN mediate the anticancer activities of curcumin in NSCLC cells. Suppression of microRNA-21 may thus have therapeutic benefits against this malignancy.

  13. Houttuynia cordata Thunb extract modulates G0/G1 arrest and Fas/CD95-mediated death receptor apoptotic cell death in human lung cancer A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Houttuynia cordata Thunb (HCT) is commonly used in Taiwan and other Asian countries as an anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antiviral herbal medicine. In this study, we investigated the anti-human lung cancer activity and growth inhibition mechanisms of HCT in human lung cancer A549 cells. Results In order to investigate effects of HCT on A549 cells, MTT assay was used to evaluate cell viability. Flow cytometry was employed for cell cycle analysis, DAPI staining, and the Comet assay was used for DNA fragmentation and DNA condensation. Western blot analysis was used to analyze cell cycle and apoptotic related protein levels. HCT induced morphological changes including cell shrinkage and rounding. HCT increased the G0/G1 and Sub-G1 cell (apoptosis) populations and HCT increased DNA fragmentation and DNA condensation as revealed by DAPI staining and the Comet assay. HCT induced activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3. Fas/CD95 protein levels were increased in HCT-treated A549 cells. The G0/G1 phase and apoptotic related protein levels of cyclin D1, cyclin A, CDK 4 and CDK 2 were decreased, and p27, caspase-8 and caspase-3 were increased in A549 cells after HCT treatment. Conclusions The results demonstrated that HCT-induced G0/G1 phase arrest and Fas/CD95-dependent apoptotic cell death in A549 cells PMID:23506616

  14. Curcumin promotes apoptosis in A549/DDP multidrug-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells through an miRNA signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian, E-mail: zhangjian197011@yahoo.com; Zhang, Tao; Ti, Xinyu

    2010-08-13

    Research highlights: {yields} Curcumin had anti-cancer effects on A549/DDP multidrug-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells {yields} Curcumin promotes apoptosis in A549/DDP cells through a miRNA signaling pathway {yields} Curcumin induces A549/DDP cell apoptosis by downregulating miR-186* {yields} miR-186* may serve as a potential gene therapy target for refractory lung cancer that is sensitive to curcumin -- Abstract: Curcumin extracted from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa L. has been shown to have inhibitory effects on cancers through its anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities. Emerging evidence demonstrates that curcumin can overcome drug resistance to classical chemotherapies. Thus, the mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor activities ofmore » curcumin require further study. In our study, we first demonstrated that curcumin had anti-cancer effects on A549/DDP multidrug-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Further studies showed that curcumin altered miRNA expression; in particular, significantly downregulated the expression of miR-186* in A549/DDP. In addition, transfection of cells with a miR-186* inhibitor promoted A549/DDP apoptosis, and overexpression of miR-186* significantly inhibited curcumin-induced apoptosis in A549/DDP cells. These observations suggest that miR-186* may serve as a potential gene therapy target for refractory lung cancer that is sensitive to curcumin.« less

  15. Shikonin Induces Apoptosis, Necrosis, and Premature Senescence of Human A549 Lung Cancer Cells through Upregulation of p53 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Yueh-Chiao; Liu, Tsun-Jui; Lai, Hui-Chin

    2015-01-01

    Shikonin, a natural naphthoquinone pigment isolated from Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has been reported to suppress growth of various cancer cells. This study was aimed to investigate whether this chemical could also inhibit cell growth of lung cancer cells and, if so, works via what molecular mechanism. To fulfill this, A549 lung cancer cells were treated with shikonin and then subjected to microscopic, biochemical, flow cytometric, and molecular analyses. Compared with the controls, shikonin significantly induced cell apoptosis and reduced proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Specially, lower concentrations of shikonin (1–2.5 μg/mL) cause viability reduction; apoptosis and cellular senescence induction is associated with upregulated expressions of cell cycle- and apoptotic signaling-regulatory proteins, while higher concentrations (5–10 μg/mL) precipitate both apoptosis and necrosis. Treatment of cells with pifithrin-α, a specific inhibitor of p53, suppressed shikonin-induced apoptosis and premature senescence, suggesting the role of p53 in mediating the actions of shikonin on regulation of lung cancer cell proliferation. These results indicate the potential and dose-related cytotoxic actions of shikonin on A549 lung cancer cells via p53-mediated cell fate pathways and raise shikonin a promising adjuvant chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of lung cancer in clinical practice. PMID:25737737

  16. Formoxanthone C, isolated from Cratoxylum formosum ssp. pruniflorum, reverses anticancer drug resistance by inducing both apoptosis and autophagy in human A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kaewpiboon, Chutima; Boonnak, Nawong; Kaowinn, Sirichat; Chung, Young-Hwa

    2018-02-15

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) cancer toward cancer chemotherapy is one of the obstacles in cancer therapy. Therefore, it is of interested to use formoxanthone C (1,3,5,6-tetraoxygenated xanthone; XanX), a natural compound, which showed cytotoxicity against MDR human A549 lung cancer (A549RT-eto). The treatment with XanX induced not only apoptosis- in A549RT-eto cells, but also autophagy-cell death. Inhibition of apoptosis did not block XanX-induced autophagy in A549RT-eto cells. Furthermore, suppression of autophagy by beclin-1 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) did not interrupt XanX-induced apoptosis, indicating that XanX can separately induce apoptosis and autophagy. Of interest, XanX treatment reduced levels of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) protein overexpressed in A549RT-etocells. The co-treatment with XanX and HDAC4 siRNA accelerated both autophagy and apoptosis more than that by XanX treatment alone, suggesting survival of HDAC4 in A549RT-eto cells. XanX reverses etoposide resistance in A549RT-eto cells by induction of both autophagy and apoptosis, and confers cytotoxicity through down-regulation of HDAC4. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa exopolysaccharide Psl facilitates surface adherence and NF-kappaB activation in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Matthew S; Pang, Bing; Mishra, Meenu; Swords, W Edward; Wozniak, Daniel J

    2010-06-29

    In order for the opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa to cause an airway infection, the pathogen interacts with epithelial cells and the overlying mucous layer. We examined the contribution of the biofilm polysaccharide Psl to epithelial cell adherence and the impact of Psl on proinflammatory signaling by flagellin. Psl has been implicated in the initial attachment of P. aeruginosa to biotic and abiotic surfaces, but its direct role in pathogenesis has not been evaluated (L. Ma, K. D. Jackson, R. M. Landry, M. R. Parsek, and D. J. Wozniak, J. Bacteriol. 188:8213-8221, 2006). Using an NF-kappaB luciferase reporter system in the human epithelial cell line A549, we show that both Psl and flagellin are necessary for full activation of NF-kappaB and production of the interleukin 8 (IL-8) chemokine. We demonstrate that Psl does not directly stimulate NF-kappaB activity, but indirectly as a result of increasing contact between bacterial cells and epithelial cells, it facilitates flagellin-mediated proinflammatory signaling. We confirm differential adherence of Psl and/or flagellin mutants by scanning electron microscopy and identify Psl-dependent membrane structures that may participate in adherence. Although we hypothesized that Psl would protect P. aeruginosa from recognition by the epithelial cell line A549, we instead observed a positive role for Psl in flagellin-mediated NF-kappaB activation, likely as a result of increasing contact between bacterial cells and epithelial cells.

  18. Methyl methanesulfonate induces necroptosis in human lung adenoma A549 cells through the PIG-3-reactive oxygen species pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Shan, Shigang; Chi, Linfeng; Zhang, Guanglin; Gao, Xiangjing; Li, Hongjuan; Zhu, Xinqiang; Yang, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) is an alkylating agent that can induce cell death through apoptosis and necroptosis. The molecular mechanisms underlying MMS-induced apoptosis have been studied extensively; however, little is known about the mechanism for MMS-induced necroptosis. Therefore, we first established MMS-induced necroptosis model using human lung carcinoma A549 cells. It was found that, within a 24-h period, although MMS at concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 μM can induce DNA damage, only at higher concentrations (400 and 800 μM) MMS treatment lead to necroptosis in A549 cells, as it could be inhibited by the specific necroptotic inhibitor necrostatin-1, but not the specific apoptotic inhibitor carbobenzoxy-valyl-alanyl-aspartyl-[O-methyl]-fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD-fmk). MMS-induced necroptosis was further confirmed by the induction of the necroptosis biomarkers including the depletion of cellular NADH and ATP and leakage of LDH. This necroptotic cell death was also concurrent with the increased expression of p53, p53-induced gene 3 (PIG-3), high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1), and receptor interaction protein kinase (RIP) but not the apoptosis-associated caspase-3 and caspase-9 proteins. Elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was also involved in this process as the specific ROS inhibitor (4-amino-2,4-pyrrolidine-dicarboxylic acid (APDC)) can inhibit the necroptotic cell death. Interestingly, knockdown of PIG-3 expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment can inhibit the generation of ROS. Taken together, these results suggest that MMS can induce necroptosis in A549 cells, probably through the PIG-3-ROS pathway.

  19. Predictive role of computer simulation in assessing signaling pathways of crizotinib-treated A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Pu; Mou, Fei-Fei; Wang, Li-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Crizotinib has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with advanced NSCLC. However, understanding of mechanisms of action is still limited. In our studies, we confirmed crizotinib-induced apoptosis in A549 lung cancer cells. In order to assess mechanisms, small molecular docking technology was used as a preliminary simulation of signaling pathways. Interesting, our results of experiments were consistent with the results of computer simulation. This indicates that small molecular docking technology should find wide use for its reliability and convenience.

  20. Protein alkylation, transcriptional responses and cytochrome c release during acrolein toxicity in A549 cells: influence of nucleophilic culture media constituents.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Colin A; Burcham, Philip C

    2008-06-01

    Acrolein is a toxic combustion product that elicits apoptotic and/or necrotic cell death depending on the conditions under which exposure occurs. As a strong electrophile, side-reactions with nucleophilic media constituents seem likely to accompany study of its toxicity in vitro, but these reactions are poorly characterized. We have thus examined the effect of media composition on the toxicity of acrolein in A549 cells. Cells were exposed to acrolein in either Dulbecco's buffered saline (DBS) or F12 supplemented with various concentrations of fetal bovine serum. Cell viability was assessed using the MTT assay, while heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and cytoplasmic cytochrome c were measured as respective markers of transcriptional response and apoptosis. Protein damage was evaluated using the protein carbonyl assay. Compared to F12 media (with or without serum), maximal cell death as evaluated using the MTT assay, as well as adduction of intracellular proteins, occurred when cells were exposed to acrolein in DBS. In contrast, cytochrome c release was maximal in cells exposed to acrolein in serum-containing F12, conditions which inhibited protein modification and overt cell death. These findings highlight the need for careful attention to experimental conditions when conducting in vitro toxicological studies of reactive substances.

  1. Increased levels of the long noncoding RNA, HOXA-AS3, promote proliferation of A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyue; Liu, Ying; Yan, Lixin; Zhang, Min; Yu, Xiufeng; Du, Wei; Wang, Siqi; Li, Qiaozhi; Chen, He; Zhang, Yafeng; Sun, Hanliang; Tang, Zhidong; Zhu, Daling

    2018-06-13

    Many long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified as powerful regulators of lung adenocarcinoma (LAD). However, the role of HOXA-AS3, a novel lncRNA, in LAD is largely unknown. In this study, we showed that HOXA-AS3 was significantly upregulated in LAD tissues and A549 cells. After knockdown of HOXA-AS3, cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were inhibited. Xenografts derived from A549 cells transfected with shRNA/HOXA-AS3 had significantly lower tumor weights and smaller tumor volumes. We also demonstrated that HOXA-AS3 increased HOXA6 mRNA stability by forming an RNA duplex. In addition, HOXA6 promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. Using a RNA pull-down assay, we found that HOXA-AS3 bonded with NF110, which regulated the cell localization of HOXA-AS3. Moreover, histone acetylation was involved in upregulation of HOXA-AS3. These results demonstrate that HOXA-AS3 was activated in LAD and supported cancer cell progression. Therefore, inhibition of HOXA-AS3 could be an effective targeted therapy for patients with LAD.

  2. Extract from Nandina domestica inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Takuro; Akaishi, Tatsuhiro; Okumura, Hidenobu; Abe, Kazuho

    2012-01-01

    Extract from fruits of Nandina domestica THUNBERG (NDE) has been used to improve cough and breathing difficulty in Japan for many years. To explore whether NDE may alleviate respiratory inflammation, we investigated its effect on expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and production of prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) in human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells in culture. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 6 µg/mL) resulted in an increase of COX-2 expression and PGE₂ production in A549 cells. Both the LPS-induced COX-2 expression and PGE₂ production were significantly inhibited by NDE (1-10 µg/mL) in a concentration-dependent manner. NDE did not affect COX-1 expression nor COX activity. These results suggest that NDE downregulates LPS-induced COX-2 expression and inhibits PGE₂ production in pulmonary epithelial cells. Furthermore, higenamine and nantenine, two major constituents responsible for tracheal relaxing effect of NDE, did not mimic the inhibitory effect of NDE on LPS-induced COX-2 expression in A549 cells. To identify active constituent(s) of NDE responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect, NDE was introduced in a polyaromatic absorbent resin column and stepwise eluted to yield water fraction, 20% methanol fraction, 40% methanol fraction, 99.8% methanol fraction, and 99.5% acetone fraction. However, none of these five fractions alone inhibited LPS-induced COX-2 expression. On the other hand, exclusion of water fraction from NDE abolished the inhibitory effect of NDE on LPS-induced COX-2 expression. These results suggest that constituent(s) present in water fraction is required but not sufficient for the anti-inflammatory activity of NDE, which may result from interactions among multiple constituents.

  3. Chlorogenic acid regulates apoptosis and stem cell marker-related gene expression in A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Kazuo; Izawa, Yuri; Onodera, Daiki; Tagami, Motoki

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies indicated that chlorogenic acid, a compound present in many fruits and vegetables, has anti-cancer activities. We report that chlorogenic acid regulates the expression of apoptosis-related genes and self-renewal-related stem cell markers in cancer cells. The lung cancer cell line A549 was cultured with or without chlorogenic acid. The presence of chlorogenic acid decreased cell proliferation as measured by MTT activity. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed that treatment of cells with chlorogenic acid reduced the expression of BCL2 but increased that of both BAX and CASP3. Chlorogenic acid enhanced annexin V expression as measured using fluorescently labeled annexin V. Chlorogenic acid also induced p38 MAPK and JNK gene expression. Meanwhile, several agents, including SB203580 (p38 MAP kinase inhibitor), N-acetylcysteine (antioxidant inhibitor), dipyridamole (phosphodiesterase inhibitor), and apocynin (NADPH-oxidase inhibitor) blocked chlorogenic acid-induced BAX gene expression. Chlorogenic acid reduced gene expression levels of stem cell-associated markers NANOG, POU5F1, and SOX2. Together these results indicate that chlorogenic acid affects the expression of apoptosis-related genes that are part of oxidative stress and p38 MAP-dependent pathways, as well as genes encoding stem cell markers. In conclusion, chlorogenic acid may contribute to the polyphenolic anti-cancer effect associated with consumption of vegetables and fruits.

  4. Ionizing Radiation Potentiates Dihydroartemisinin-Induced Apoptosis of A549 Cells via a Caspase-8-Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tongsheng; Chen, Min; Chen, Jingqin

    2013-01-01

    This report is designed to explore the molecular mechanism by which dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and ionizing radiation (IR) induce apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. DHA treatment induced a concentration- and time-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated cell death with typical apoptotic characteristics such as breakdown of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), caspases activation, DNA fragmentation and phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization. Inhibition of caspase-8 or -9 significantly blocked DHA-induced decrease of cell viability and activation of caspase-3, suggesting the dominant roles of caspase-8 and -9 in DHA-induced apoptosis. Silencing of proapoptotic protein Bax but not Bak significantly inhibited DHA-induced apoptosis in which Bax but not Bak was activated. In contrast to DHA treatment, low-dose (2 or 4 Gy) IR induced a long-playing generation of ROS. Interestingly, IR treatment for 24 h induced G2/M cell cycle arrest that disappeared at 36 h after treatment. More importantly, IR synergistically potentiated DHA-induced generation of ROS, activation of caspase-8 and -3, irreparable G2/M arrest and apoptosis, but did not enhance DHA-induced loss of Δψm and activation of caspase-9. Taken together, our results strongly demonstrate the remarkable synergistic efficacy of combination treatment with DHA and low-dose IR for A549 cells in which IR potentiates DHA-induced apoptosis largely by enhancing the caspase-8-mediated extrinsic pathway. PMID:23536891

  5. Tanshinone IIA combined with adriamycin inhibited malignant biological behaviors of NSCLC A549 cell line in a synergistic way.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jun; Liu, Jia-Hui; Liu, Heng; Liao, Xiao-Zhong; Chen, Yuling; Lin, Mei-Gui; Gu, Yue-Yu; Liu, Tao-Li; Wang, Dong-Mei; Ge, Hui; Mo, Sui-Lin

    2016-11-18

    The study was designed to develop a platform to verify whether the extract of herbs combined with chemotherapy drugs play a synergistic role in anti-tumor effects, and to provide experimental evidence and theoretical reference for finding new effective sensitizers. Inhibition of tanshinone IIA and adriamycin on the proliferation of A549, PC9 and HLF cells were assessed by CCK8 assays. The combination index (CI) was calculated with the Chou-Talalay method, based on the median-effect principle. Migration and invasion ability of A549 cells were determined by wound healing assay and transwell assay. Flow cytometry was used to detect the cell apoptosis and the distribution of cell cycles. TUNEL staining was used to detect the apoptotic cells. Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expression of Cleaved Caspase-3. Western blotting was used to detect the proteins expression of relative apoptotic signal pathways. CDOCKER module in DS 2.5 was used to detect the binding modes of the drugs and the proteins. Both tanshinone IIA and adriamycin could inhibit the growth of A549, PC9, and HLF cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, while the proliferative inhibition effect of tanshinone IIA on cells was much weaker than that of adriamycin. Different from the cancer cells, HLF cells displayed a stronger sensitivity to adriamycin, and a weaker sensitivity to tanshinone IIA. When tanshinone IIA combined with adriamycin at a ratio of 20:1, they exhibited a synergistic anti-proliferation effect on A549 and PC9 cells, but not in HLF cells. Tanshinone IIA combined with adriamycin could synergistically inhibit migration, induce apoptosis and arrest cell cycle at the S and G2 phases in A549 cells. Both groups of the single drug treatment and the drug combination up-regulated the expressions of Cleaved Caspase-3 and Bax, but down-regulated the expressions of VEGF, VEGFR2, p-PI3K, p-Akt, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3 protein. Compared with the single drug treatment groups, the drug

  6. Salvianolic acid A reverses cisplatin resistance in lung cancer A549 cells by targeting c-met and attenuating Akt/mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xia-Li; Yan, Li; Zhu, Ling; Jiao, De-Min; Chen, Jun; Chen, Qing-Yong

    2017-09-01

    Drug resistance is one of the leading causes of chemotherapy failure in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of c-met in human lung cancer cisplatin resistance cell line (A549/DDP) and the reversal mechanism of salvianolic acid A (SAA), a phenolic active compound extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza. In this study, we found that A549/DDP cells exert up-regulation of c-met by activating the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. We also show that SAA could increase the chemotherapeutic efficacy of cisplatin, suggesting a synergistic effect of SAA and cisplatin. Moreover, we revealed that SAA enhanced sensitivity to cisplatin in A549/DDP cells mainly through suppression of the c-met/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Knockdown of c-met revealed similar effects as that of SAA in A549/DDP cells. In addition, SAA effectively prevented multidrug resistance associated protein1 (MDR1) up-regulation in A549/DDP cells. Taken together, our results indicated that SAA suppressed c-met expression and enhanced the sensitivity of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells to cisplatin through AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Oxidative Stress Facilitates IFN-γ-Induced Mimic Extracellular Trap Cell Death in A549 Lung Epithelial Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chiou-Feng; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chien, Shun-Yi; Tseng, Po-Chun; Wang, Yu-Chih; Tsai, Tsung-Ting

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that IFN-γ induces an autophagy-regulated mimic extracellular trap cell death (ETosis) in A549 human lung cancer cells. Regarding reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in ETosis, this study investigated the role of oxidative stress. After IFN-γ stimulation, a necrosis-like cell death mimic ETosis occurred accompanied by the inhibition of cell growth, aberrant nuclear staining, and nucleosome release. ROS were generated in a time-dependent manner with an increase in NADPH oxidase component protein expression. STAT1-mediated IFN regulatory factor-1 activation was essential for upregulating ROS production. By genetically silencing p47phox, IFN-γ-induced ROS and mimic ETosis were significantly attenuated. This mechanistic study indicated that ROS may mediate DNA damage followed by histone H3 citrullination. Furthermore, ROS promoted IFN-γ-induced mimic ETosis in cooperation with autophagy. These findings further demonstrate that ROS regulates IFN-γ-induced mimic ETosis in lung epithelial malignancy.

  8. Oxidative Stress Facilitates IFN-γ-Induced Mimic Extracellular Trap Cell Death in A549 Lung Epithelial Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chiou-Feng; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chien, Shun-Yi; Tseng, Po-Chun; Wang, Yu-Chih; Tsai, Tsung-Ting

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that IFN-γ induces an autophagy-regulated mimic extracellular trap cell death (ETosis) in A549 human lung cancer cells. Regarding reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in ETosis, this study investigated the role of oxidative stress. After IFN-γ stimulation, a necrosis-like cell death mimic ETosis occurred accompanied by the inhibition of cell growth, aberrant nuclear staining, and nucleosome release. ROS were generated in a time-dependent manner with an increase in NADPH oxidase component protein expression. STAT1-mediated IFN regulatory factor-1 activation was essential for upregulating ROS production. By genetically silencing p47phox, IFN-γ-induced ROS and mimic ETosis were significantly attenuated. This mechanistic study indicated that ROS may mediate DNA damage followed by histone H3 citrullination. Furthermore, ROS promoted IFN-γ-induced mimic ETosis in cooperation with autophagy. These findings further demonstrate that ROS regulates IFN-γ-induced mimic ETosis in lung epithelial malignancy. PMID:27575372

  9. Development of drug-loaded chitosan hollow nanoparticles for delivery of paclitaxel to human lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jie; Liu, Ying; Wu, Chao; Qiu, Yang; Xu, Xiaoyan; Lv, Huiling; Bai, Andi; Liu, Xuan

    2017-08-01

    In this study, biodegradable chitosan hollow nanospheres (CHN) were fabricated using polystyrene nanospheres (PS) as templates. CHN were applied to increase the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs. The lung cancer drug paclitaxel (PTX), which is used as a model drug, was loaded into CHN by the adsorption equilibrium method. The drug-loaded sample (PTX-CHN) offered sustained PTX release and good bioavailability. The state characterization of PTX by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the PTX absorbed into CHN existed in an amorphous state. An in vitro toxicity experiment indicated that CHN were nontoxic as carriers of poorly water-soluble drugs. The PTX-CHN produced a marked inhibition of lung cancer A549 cells proliferation and encouraged apoptosis. A cell uptake experiment indicated that PTX-CHN was successfully taken up by lung cancer A549 cells. Furthermore, a degradation experiment revealed that CHN were readily biodegradable. These findings state clearly that CHN can be regarded as promising biomaterials for lung cancer treatment.

  10. Beta sitosterol and Daucosterol (phytosterols identified in Grewia tiliaefolia) perturbs cell cycle and induces apoptotic cell death in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Rajavel, Tamilselvam; Mohankumar, Ramar; Archunan, Govindaraju; Ruckmani, Kandasamy; Devi, Kasi Pandima

    2017-06-13

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths both in developed and developing countries. Since majority of the existing therapeutic methods harms both normal and malignant cells, a viable alternative is to switch into safe and beneficial traditional medicinal plants. Hence the present study was framed to identify selective anti-lung cancer agents from the medicinal plant Grewia tiliaefolia (GT). Cell viability experiments showed that benzene extract of GT (BGT) leaf effectively inhibited the growth of A549 cells, while being non-toxic to normal human lung L132 and PBMC cells. Ames and comet assays demonstrated that BGT is of non-mutagenic and non-genotoxic nature in untransformed cells. The hematological and histopathological profiles of the in vivo acute and sub-acute toxicity studies demonstrated that BGT is safe and tolerable. Importantly, western blot analysis and Annexin V-FITC staining confirmed that BGT promotes mitochondrial dependent apoptotic cell death in A549 cells by arresting cell cycle at G2/M phase. Bio-assay guided fractionation revealed the presence of phytosteols (β-sitosterol and daucosterol) which significantly inhibited the growth of A549 cells both alone and in combination. This study warrants that these phytosterols in alone or in combination can be considered as safe and potential drug candidates for lung cancer treatment.

  11. Chrysophanol-induced cell death (necrosis) in human lung cancer A549 cells is mediated through increasing reactive oxygen species and decreasing the level of mitochondrial membrane potential.

    PubMed

    Ni, Chien-Hang; Yu, Chun-Shu; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Yang, Jai-Sing; Huang, Hui-Ying; Chen, Po-Yuan; Wu, Shin-Hwar; Ip, Siu-Wan; Chiang, Su-Yin; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2014-05-01

    Chrysophanol (1,8-dihydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone) is one of the anthraquinone compounds, and it has been shown to induce cell death in different types of cancer cells. The effects of chrysophanol on human lung cancer cell death have not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to examine chrysophanol-induced cytotoxic effects and also to investigate such influences that involved apoptosis or necrosis in A549 human lung cancer cells in vitro. Our results indicated that chrysophanol decreased the viable A549 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Chrysophanol also promoted the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+) and decreased the levels of mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨm ) and adenosine triphosphate in A549 cells. Furthermore, chrysophanol triggered DNA damage by using Comet assay and DAPI staining. Importantly, chrysophanol only stimulated the cytocheome c release, but it did not activate other apoptosis-associated protein levels including caspase-3, caspase-8, Apaf-1, and AIF. In conclusion, human lung cancer A549 cells treated with chrysophanol exhibited a cellular pattern associated with necrotic cell death and not apoptosis in vitro. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 29: 740-749, 2014. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  12. Phloretin induces apoptosis of non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cells via JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Min, Jie; Huang, Kenan; Tang, Hua; Ding, Xinyu; Qi, Chen; Qin, Xiong; Xu, Zhifei

    2015-12-01

    Phloretin (Ph) existing in apples, pears and various vegetables is known to have antitumor activities in several cancer cell lines. However, little is known about its effect on human lung cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to see whether Ph could induce apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, and explore the possible underlying mechanism of action. We found that Ph markedly induced cell apoptosis of NSCLC cell line A549, and inhibited the migration of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The expression level of BAX, cleaved caspase-3 and -9, and degraded form of PARP was increased and Bcl-2 was decreased after Ph treatment. In addition, the phosphorylation of P38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 was increased in a dose‑dependent manner in parallel with Ph treatment. Inhibition of P38 MAPK and JNK1/2 by specific inhibitors significantly abolished the Ph-induced activation of the caspase-3 and -9. In vivo tumor-suppression assay further indicated that Ph (20 mg/kg) displayed a more significant inhibitory effect on A549 xenografts in tumor growth. All these findings indicate that Ph is able to inhibit NSCLC A549 cell growth by inducing apoptosis through P38 MAPK and JNK1/2 pathways, and therefore may prove to be an adjuvant to the treatment of NSCLC.

  13. Phloretin induces apoptosis of non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cells via JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways

    PubMed Central

    MIN, JIE; LI, XU; HUANG, KENAN; TANG, HUA; DING, XINYU; QI, CHEN; QIN, XIONG; XU, ZHIFEI

    2015-01-01

    Phloretin (Ph) existing in apples, pears and various vegetables is known to have antitumor activities in several cancer cell lines. However, little is known about its effect on human lung cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to see whether Ph could induce apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, and explore the possible underlying mechanism of action. We found that Ph markedly induced cell apoptosis of NSCLC cell line A549, and inhibited the migration of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The expression level of BAX, cleaved caspase-3 and -9, and degraded form of PARP was increased and Bcl-2 was decreased after Ph treatment. In addition, the phosphorylation of P38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 was increased in a dose-dependent manner in parallel with Ph treatment. Inhibition of P38 MAPK and JNK1/2 by specific inhibitors significantly abolished the Ph-induced activation of the caspase-3 and -9. In vivo tumor-suppression assay further indicated that Ph (20 mg/kg) displayed a more significant inhibitory effect on A549 xenografts in tumor growth. All these findings indicate that Ph is able to inhibit NSCLC A549 cell growth by inducing apoptosis through P38 MAPK and JNK1/2 pathways, and therefore may prove to be an adjuvant to the treatment of NSCLC. PMID:26503828

  14. Glutamine drives glutathione synthesis and contributes to radiation sensitivity of A549 and H460 lung cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Sappington, Daniel R.; Siegel, Eric R.; Hiatt, Gloria; Desai, Abhishek; Penney, Rosalind B.; Jamshidi-Parsian, Azemat; Griffin, Robert J.; Boysen, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Background Increased glutamine uptake is known to drive cancer cell proliferation, making tumor cells glutamine-dependent. Glutamine provides additional carbon and nitrogen sources for cell growth. The first step in glutamine utilization is its conversion to glutamate by glutaminase (GLS). Glutamate is a precursor for glutathione synthesis, and we investigated the hypothesis that glutamine drives glutathione synthesis and thereby contributes to cellular defense systems. Methods The importance of glutamine for glutathione synthesis was studied in H460 and A549 lung cancer cell lines using glutamine-free medium and Bis-2-(5-phenyl-acetamido-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)ethyl sulfide (BPTES) a GLS inhibitor. Metabolic activities were determined by targeted mass spectrometry. Results A significant correlation between glutamine consumption and glutathione excretion was demonstrated in H460 and A549 tumor cells. Culturing in the presence of [13C5]glutamine demonstrated that by 12 hrs >50% of excreted glutathione is derived from glutamine. Culturing in glutamine-free medium or treatment with BPTES, a glutaminase (GLS)-specific inhibitor, reduced cell proliferation and viability, and abolished glutathione excretion. Treatment with glutathione-ester prevented BPTES induced cytotoxicity. Inhibition of GLS markedly radiosensitized the lung tumor cell lines, suggesting an important role of glutamine-derived glutathione in determining radiation sensitivity. Conclusions We demonstrate here for the first time that a significant amount of extracellular glutathione is directly derived from glutamine. This finding adds yet another important function to the already known glutamine dependence of tumor cells and probably tumors as well. General significance Glutamine is essential for synthesis and excretion of glutathione to promote cell growth and viability. PMID:26825773

  15. Release behavior and toxicity profiles towards A549 cell lines of ciprofloxacin from its layered zinc hydroxide intercalation compound.

    PubMed

    Abdul Latip, Ahmad Faiz; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Stanslas, Johnson; Wong, Charng Choon; Adnan, Rohana

    2013-01-01

    Layered hydroxides salts (LHS), a layered inorganic compound is gaining attention in a wide range of applications, particularly due to its unique anion exchange properties. In this work, layered zinc hydroxide nitrate (LZH), a family member of LHS was intercalated with anionic ciprofloxacin (CFX), a broad spectrum antibiotic via ion exchange in a mixture solution of water:ethanol. Powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed the drug anions were successfully intercalated in the interlayer space of LZH. Specific surface area of the obtained compound was increased compared to that of the host due to the different pore textures between the two materials. CFX anions were slowly released over 80 hours in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution due to strong interactions that occurred between the intercalated anions and the host lattices. The intercalation compound demonstrated enhanced antiproliferative effects towards A549 cancer cells compared to the toxicity of CFX alone. Strong host-guest interactions between the LZH lattice and the CFX anion give rise to a new intercalation compound that demonstrates sustained release mode and enhanced toxicity effects towards A549 cell lines. These findings should serve as foundations towards further developments of the brucite-like host material in drug delivery systems.

  16. Release behavior and toxicity profiles towards A549 cell lines of ciprofloxacin from its layered zinc hydroxide intercalation compound

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Layered hydroxides salts (LHS), a layered inorganic compound is gaining attention in a wide range of applications, particularly due to its unique anion exchange properties. In this work, layered zinc hydroxide nitrate (LZH), a family member of LHS was intercalated with anionic ciprofloxacin (CFX), a broad spectrum antibiotic via ion exchange in a mixture solution of water:ethanol. Results Powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed the drug anions were successfully intercalated in the interlayer space of LZH. Specific surface area of the obtained compound was increased compared to that of the host due to the different pore textures between the two materials. CFX anions were slowly released over 80 hours in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution due to strong interactions that occurred between the intercalated anions and the host lattices. The intercalation compound demonstrated enhanced antiproliferative effects towards A549 cancer cells compared to the toxicity of CFX alone. Conclusions Strong host-guest interactions between the LZH lattice and the CFX anion give rise to a new intercalation compound that demonstrates sustained release mode and enhanced toxicity effects towards A549 cell lines. These findings should serve as foundations towards further developments of the brucite-like host material in drug delivery systems. PMID:23849189

  17. Garcinol from Garcinia indica Downregulates Cancer Stem-like Cell Biomarker ALDH1A1 in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cells through DDIT3 Activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinhan; Wang, Liwen; Ho, Chi-Tang; Zhang, Kunsheng; Liu, Qiang; Zhao, Hui

    2017-05-10

    Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the predominant type of lung cancer. Patients with NSCLC show high mortality rates because of failure to clean up cancer stem cells (CSCs). The anticancer activity of phytochemical garcinol has been identified in various cancer cell models. However, the effect of garcinol on NSCLC cell lines is still lacking. Of the NSCLC cell lines we tested, A549 cells were the most sensitive to garcinol. Interestingly, Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 Family Member A1 (ALDH1A1) was preferentially expressed in A549 cells and downregulated by the addition of garcinol. We also found that garcinol enriched DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3) and then altered DDIT3-CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins beta (C/EBPβ) interaction resulting in a decreased binding of C/EBPβ to the endogenous ALDH1A1 promoter. Furthermore, garcinol's inhibition of ALDH1A1 was identified in a xenograft mice model. Garcinol repressed ALDH1A1 transcription in A549 cells through alterations in the interaction between DDIT3 and C/EBPβ. Garcinol could be a potential dietary phytochemical candidate for NSCLCs patients whose tumors harbored high ALDH1A1 expression.

  18. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Exopolysaccharide Psl Facilitates Surface Adherence and NF-κB Activation in A549 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Matthew S.; Pang, Bing; Mishra, Meenu; Swords, W. Edward; Wozniak, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    In order for the opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa to cause an airway infection, the pathogen interacts with epithelial cells and the overlying mucous layer. We examined the contribution of the biofilm polysaccharide Psl to epithelial cell adherence and the impact of Psl on proinflammatory signaling by flagellin. Psl has been implicated in the initial attachment of P. aeruginosa to biotic and abiotic surfaces, but its direct role in pathogenesis has not been evaluated (L. Ma, K. D. Jackson, R. M. Landry, M. R. Parsek, and D. J. Wozniak, J. Bacteriol. 188:8213–8221, 2006). Using an NF-κB luciferase reporter system in the human epithelial cell line A549, we show that both Psl and flagellin are necessary for full activation of NF-κB and production of the interleukin 8 (IL-8) chemokine. We demonstrate that Psl does not directly stimulate NF-κB activity, but indirectly as a result of increasing contact between bacterial cells and epithelial cells, it facilitates flagellin-mediated proinflammatory signaling. We confirm differential adherence of Psl and/or flagellin mutants by scanning electron microscopy and identify Psl-dependent membrane structures that may participate in adherence. Although we hypothesized that Psl would protect P. aeruginosa from recognition by the epithelial cell line A549, we instead observed a positive role for Psl in flagellin-mediated NF-κB activation, likely as a result of increasing contact between bacterial cells and epithelial cells. PMID:20802825

  19. Osthole induces G2/M arrest and apoptosis in lung cancer A549 cells by modulating PI3K/Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To explore the effects of Osthole on the proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of human lung cancer A549 cells. Methods Human lung cancer A549 cells were treated with Osthole at different concentrations. Cell proliferation was measured using the MTT assay. Cell cycle was evaluated using DNA flow cytometry analysis. Induction of apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. The expressions of Cyclin B1, p-Cdc2, Bcl-2, Bax, t-Akt and p-Akt were evaluated by Western blotting. Results Osthole inhibited the growth of human lung cancer A549 cells by inducing G2/M arrest and apoptosis. Western blotting demonstrated that Osthole down-regulated the expressions of Cyclin B1, p-Cdc2 and Bcl-2 and up-regulated the expressions of Bax in A549 cells. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway was also observed after treating A549 cells with Osthole. Conclusions Our findings suggest that Osthole may have a therapeutic application in the treatment of human lung cancer. PMID:21447176

  20. Activities of ten essential oils towards Propionibacterium acnes and PC-3, A-549 and MCF-7 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zu, Yuangang; Yu, Huimin; Liang, Lu; Fu, Yujie; Efferth, Thomas; Liu, Xia; Wu, Nan

    2010-04-30

    Ten essential oils, namely, mint (Mentha spicata L., Lamiaceae), ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae), lemon (Citrus limon Burm.f., Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., Rutaceae), jasmine (Jasminum grandiflora L., Oleaceae), lavender (Mill., Lamiaceae), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L., Compositae), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae), rose (Rosa damascena Mill., Rosaceae) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum N. Lauraceae) were tested for their antibacterial activities towards Propionibacterium acnes and in vitro toxicology against three human cancer cell lines. Thyme, cinnamon and rose essential oils exhibited the best antibacterial activities towards P. acnes, with inhibition diameters of 40 +/- 1.2 mm, 33.5 +/- 1.5 mm and 16.5 +/- 0.7 mm, and minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.016% (v/v), 0.016% (v/v) and 0.031% (v/v), respectively. Time-kill dynamic procedures showed that thyme, cinnamon, rose, and lavender essential oils exhibited the strongest bactericidal activities at a concentration of 0.25% (v/v), and P. acnes was completely killed after 5 min. The thyme essential oil exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity towards three human cancer cells. Its inhibition concentration 50% (IC(50)) values on PC-3, A549 and MCF-7 tumor cell lines were 0.010% (v/v), 0.011% (v/v) and 0.030% (v/v), respectively. The cytotoxicity of 10 essential oils on human prostate carcinoma cell (PC-3) was significantly stronger than on human lung carcinoma (A549) and human breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines.

  1. TRIM25 is associated with cisplatin resistance in non-small-cell lung carcinoma A549 cell line via downregulation of 14-3-3σ.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xia; Qiu, Feng; Zou, Zhen

    2017-11-04

    Lung cancer, in particular, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin, CDDP) as first-line chemotherapy for NSCLC, but resistance occurs frequently. We previously reported that Tripartite motif protein 25 (TRIM25) was highly expressed in cisplatin-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells (A549/CDDP) in comparison with its parental A549 cells. Herein, we take a further step to demonstrate the association of TRIM25 and cisplatin resistance and also the underlying mechanisms. Knockdown of TRIM25 by RNA interference in A549/CDDP cells decreased half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) values and promoted apoptosis in response to cisplatin, whereas overexpression of TRIM25 had opposite effects. More importantly, we found that concomitant knockdown of 14-3-3σ and TRIM25 absolutely reversed the decreased MDM2, increased p53, increased cleaved-Capsese3 and decreased IC 50 value induced by knockdown of TRIM25 individually, suggesting that TRIM25 mediated cisplatin resistance primarily through downregulation of 14-3-3σ. Our results indicate that TRIM25 is associated with cisplatin resistance and 14-3-3σ-MDM2-p53 signaling pathway is involved in this process, suggesting targeting TRIM25 may be a potential strategy for the reversal of cisplatin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Venom present in sea anemone (Heteractis magnifica) induces apoptosis in non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells through activation of mitochondria-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Ramezanpour, Mahnaz; da Silva, Karen Burke; Sanderson, Barbara J S

    2014-03-01

    Lung cancer is a major cause of cancer deaths throughout the world and the complexity of apoptosis resistance in lung cancer is apparent. Venom from Heteractis magnifica caused dose-dependent decreases in survival of the human non-small-cell lung cancer cell line, as determined by the MTT and Crystal Violet assays. The H. magnifica venom induced cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis of A549 cells, as confirmed by annexin V/propidium iodide staining. The venom-induced apoptosis in A549 cells was characterized by cleavage of caspase-3 and a reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Interestingly, crude extracts from H. magnifica had less effect on the survival of non-cancer cell lines. In the non-cancer cells, the mechanism via which cell death occurred was through necrosis not apoptosis. These findings are important for future work using H. magnifica venom for pharmaceutical development to treat human lung cancer.

  3. 4-Methoxychalcone Enhances Cisplatin-Induced Oxidative Stress and Cytotoxicity by Inhibiting the Nrf2/ARE-Mediated Defense Mechanism in A549 Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Juhee; Lee, Sung Ho; Cho, Sera; Lee, Ik-Soo; Kang, Bok Yun; Choi, Hyun Jin

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcriptional regulator for the protection of cells against oxidative and xenobiotic stresses. Recent studies have demonstrated that high constitutive expression of Nrf2 is observed in many types of cancer cells showing resistance to anti-cancer drugs, suggesting that the suppression of overexpressed Nrf2 could be an attractive therapeutic strategy to overcome cancer drug resistance. In the present study, we aimed to find small molecule compounds that enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells to cisplatin induced cytotoxicity by suppressing Nrf2-mediated defense mechanism. A549 lung cancer cells were shown to be more resistant to the anti-cancer drug cisplatin than HEK293 cells, with higher Nrf2 signaling activity; constitutively high amounts of Nrf2-downstream target proteins were observed in A549 cells. Among the three chalcone derivatives 4-methoxy-chalcone (4-MC), hesperidin methylchalcone, and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, 4-MC was found to suppress transcriptional activity of Nrf2 in A549 cells but to activate it in HEK293 cells. 4-MC was also shown to down-regulate expression of Nrf2 and the downstream phase II detoxifying enzyme NQO1 in A549 cells. The PI3K/Akt pathway was found to be involved in the 4-MC-induced inhibition of Nrf2/ARE activity in A549 cells. This inhibition of Nrf2 signaling results in the accelerated generation of reactive oxygen species and exacerbation of cytotoxicity in cisplatin-treated A549 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the small molecule compound 4-MC could be used to enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells to the therapeutic effect of cisplatin through the regulation of Nrf2/ARE signaling. PMID:24046186

  4. 4-methoxychalcone enhances cisplatin-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity by inhibiting the Nrf2/ARE-mediated defense mechanism in A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Juhee; Lee, Sung Ho; Cho, Sera; Lee, Ik-Soo; Kang, Bok Yun; Choi, Hyun Jin

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcriptional regulator for the protection of cells against oxidative and xenobiotic stresses. Recent studies have demonstrated that high constitutive expression of Nrf2 is observed in many types of cancer cells showing resistance to anti-cancer drugs, suggesting that the suppression of overexpressed Nrf2 could be an attractive therapeutic strategy to overcome cancer drug resistance. In the present study, we aimed to find small molecule compounds that enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells to cisplatin induced cytotoxicity by suppressing Nrf2-mediated defense mechanism. A549 lung cancer cells were shown to be more resistant to the anti-cancer drug cisplatin than HEK293 cells, with higher Nrf2 signaling activity; constitutively high amounts of Nrf2-downstream target proteins were observed in A549 cells. Among the three chalcone derivatives 4-methoxy-chalcone (4-MC), hesperidin methylchalcone, and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, 4-MC was found to suppress transcriptional activity of Nrf2 in A549 cells but to activate it in HEK293 cells. 4-MC was also shown to down-regulate expression of Nrf2 and the downstream phase II detoxifying enzyme NQO1 in A549 cells. The PI3K/Akt pathway was found to be involved in the 4-MC-induced inhibition of Nrf2/ARE activity in A549 cells. This inhibition of Nrf2 signaling results in the accelerated generation of reactive oxygen species and exacerbation of cytotoxicity in cisplatin-treated A549 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the small molecule compound 4-MC could be used to enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells to the therapeutic effect of cisplatin through the regulation of Nrf2/ARE signaling.

  5. Umbelliprenin is cytotoxic against QU-DB large cell lung cancer cell line but anti-proliferative against A549 adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Umbelliprenin is a natural compound, belonging to the class of sesquiterpene coumarins. Recently, umbelliprenin has attracted the researchers' attention for its antitumor activities against skin tumors. Its effect on lung cancer is largely unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of this natural compound, which is expected to have low adverse effects, on lung cancer. Methods The QU-DB large cell and A549 adenocarcinoma lung cancer cell lines were treated with umbelliprenin. IC50 values were estimated using methyl thiazolely diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, in which a decrease in MTT reduction can occur as a result of cell death or cell proliferation inhibition. To quantify the rate of cell death at IC50 values, flow cytometry using Annexin V-FITC (for apoptotic cells), and propidium iodide (for necrotic cells) dyes were employed. Results Data from three independent MTT experiments in triplicate revealed that IC50 values for QU-DB and A549 were 47 ± 5.3 μM and 52 ± 1.97 μM, respectively. Annexin V/PI staining demonstrated that umbelliprenin treatment at IC50 induced 50% cell death in QU-DB cells, but produced no significant death in A549 cells until increasing the umbelliprenin concentration to IC80. The pattern of cell death was predominantly apoptosis in both cell lines. When peripheral blood mononuclear cells were treated with 50 μM and less concentrations of umbelliprenin, no suppressive effect was observed. Conclusions We found cytotoxic/anti-proliferative effects of umbelliprenin against two different types of lung cancer cell lines. PMID:23351548

  6. Evaluation of Synergetic Anticancer Activity of Berberine and Curcumin on Different Models of A549, Hep-G2, MCF-7, Jurkat, and K562 Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Balakrishna, Acharya; Kumar, M Hemanth

    2015-01-01

    Ayurvedic system of medicine is using Berberis aristata and Curcuma longa herbs to treat different diseases including cancer. The study was performed to evaluate the synergetic anticancer activity of Berberine and Curcumin by estimating the inhibition of the cell proliferation by cytotoxicity assay using MTT method on specified human cell lines (A549, Hep-G2, MCF-7, Jurkat, and K562). All the cells were harvested from the culture and seeded in the 96-well assay plates at seeding density of 2.0 × 10(4) cells/well and were incubated for 24 hours. Test items Berberine with Curcumin (1 : 1), Curcumin 95% pure, and Berberine 95% pure were exposed at the concentrations of 1.25, 0.001, and 0.5 mg/mL, respectively, and incubated for a period of 48 hours followed by dispensing MTT solution (5 mg/mL). The cells were incubated at 37 ± 1°C for 4 hours followed by addition of DMSO for dissolving the formazan crystals and absorbance was read at 570 nm. Separate wells were prepared for positive control, controls (only medium with cells), and blank (only medium). The results had proven the synergetic anticancer activity of Berberine with Curcumin inducing cell death greater percentage of >77% when compared to pure curcumin with <54% and pure Berberine with <45% on average on all cell line models.

  7. Depletion of hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 induces apoptotic sensitization of radioresistant A549 cells via reactive oxygen species-dependent p53 activation

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Hong Shik; Hong, Eun-Hee; Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791

    2013-09-27

    Highlights: •HRP-3 is a radiation- and anticancer drug-responsive protein in A549 cells. •Depletion of HRP-3 induces apoptosis of radio- and chemoresistant A549 cells. •Depletion of HRP-3 promotes ROS generation via inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. •Depletion of HRP-3 enhances ROS-dependent p53 activation and PUMA expression. -- Abstract: Biomarkers based on functional signaling have the potential to provide greater insight into the pathogenesis of cancer and may offer additional targets for anticancer therapeutics. Here, we identified hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 (HRP-3) as a radioresistance-related gene and characterized the molecular mechanism by which its encoded protein regulates the radio- and chemoresistant phenotypemore » of lung cancer-derived A549 cells. Knockdown of HRP-3 promoted apoptosis of A549 cells and potentiated the apoptosis-inducing action of radio- and chemotherapy. This increase in apoptosis was associated with a substantial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was attributable to inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway and resulted in enhanced ROS-dependent p53 activation and p53-dependent expression of PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis). Therefore, the HRP-3/Nrf2/HO-1/ROS/p53/PUMA cascade is an essential feature of the A549 cell phenotype and a potential radiotherapy target, extending the range of targets in multimodal therapies against lung cancer.« less

  8. PM2.5 induces Nrf2-mediated defense mechanisms against oxidative stress by activating PIK3/AKT signaling pathway in human lung alveolar epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaobei; Rui, Wei; Zhang, Fang; Ding, Wenjun

    2013-06-01

    It has been well documented in in vitro studies that ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM(2.5)) is capable of inducing oxidative stress, which plays a key role in PM(2.5)-mediated cytotoxicity. Although nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has been shown to regulate the intracellular defense mechanisms against oxidative stress, a potential of the Nrf2-mediated cellular defense against oxidative stress induced by PM(2.5) remains to be determined. This study was aimed to explore the potential signaling pathway of Nrf2-mediated defense mechanisms against PM(2.5)-induced oxidative stress in human type II alveolar epithelial A549 cells. We exposed A549 cells to PM(2.5) particles collected from Beijing at a concentration of 16 μg/cm(2). We observed that PM(2.5) triggered an increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a time-dependent manner during a period of 2 h exposure. We also found that Nrf2 overexpression suppressed and Nrf2 knockdown increased PM(2.5)-induced ROS generation. Using Western blot and confocal microscopy, we found that PM(2.5) exposure triggered significant translocation of Nrf2 into nucleus, resulting in AKT phosphorylation and significant transcription of ARE-driven phases II enzyme genes, such as NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO-1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) in A549 cells. Evaluation of signaling pathways showed that a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002), but not an ERK 1/2 inhibitor (PD98059) or a p38 MAPK (SB203580), significantly down-regulated PM(2.5)-induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and HO-1 mRNA expression, indicating PI3K/AKT is involved in the signaling pathway leads to the PM(2.5)-induced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and subsequent Nrf2-mediated HO-1 transcription. Taken together, our results suggest that PM(2.5)-induced ROS may function as signaling molecules to activate Nrf

  9. Ultra-sensitive assay for paclitaxel in intracellular compartments of A549 cells using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Ma, Wenxiao; Sun, Yantong; Yang, Yan; Zhang, Weiping; Fawcett, J Paul; Du, Hongwei; Gu, Jingkai

    2013-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of paclitaxel in intracellular compartments using docetaxel as internal standard (IS) has been developed and validated. A549 cancer cells (10(6)) were incubated with paclitaxel (2ng/mL) for up to 4h and then subjected to sequential extraction of cytosolic, membrane/organelle, nuclear and cytoskeleton soluble protein. Fractions were ultrasonicated to release protein bound paclitaxel after which drug was extracted using liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether:dichloromethane (2:1, v/v). Chromatographic separation was then carried out on an Ascentis Express C18 column (50mm×4.6mm, 2.7μm) with a mobile phase of acetonitrile:0.1% formic acid in water (50:50, v/v). Detection involved electrospray positive ionization followed by multiple reactions monitoring of the precursor-to-product ion transitions of paclitaxel at m/z 854.4→286.3 and docetaxel at m/z 808.6→226.1. Assay validation based on samples of total cell extract in the same buffer as protein fractions showed the assay was linear over the range 2-600pg/mL with intra- and inter-day precision (as relative standard deviation) and accuracy (as relative error) of <7% and <±12%, respectively. Recovery was approximately 70% and matrix effects were minimal. The distribution of paclitaxel in subcellular components of A549 cancer cells was mainly into the cytoskeletal compartment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. IFN-gamma Impairs Release of IL-8 by IL-1beta-stimulated A549 Lung Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Boost, Kim A; Sadik, Christian D; Bachmann, Malte; Zwissler, Bernhard; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Mühl, Heiko

    2008-01-01

    Background Production of interferon (IFN)-γ is key to efficient anti-tumor immunity. The present study was set out to investigate effects of IFNγ on the release of the potent pro-angiogenic mediator IL-8 by human A549 lung carcinoma cells. Methods A549 cells were cultured and stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1β alone or in combination with IFNγ. IL-8 production by these cells was analyzed with enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). mRNA-expression was analyzed by real-time PCR and RNase protection assay (RPA), respectively. Expression of inhibitor-κ Bα, cellular IL-8, and cyclooxygenase-2 was analyzed by Western blot analysis. Results Here we demonstrate that IFNγ efficiently reduced IL-8 secretion under the influence of IL-1β. Surprisingly, real-time PCR analysis and RPA revealed that the inhibitory effect of IFNγ on IL-8 was not associated with significant changes in mRNA levels. These observations concurred with lack of a modulatory activity of IFNγ on IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation as assessed by cellular IκB levels. Moreover, analysis of intracellular IL-8 suggests that IFNγ modulated IL-8 secretion by action on the posttranslational level. In contrast to IL-8, IL-1β-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression and release of IL-6 were not affected by IFNγ indicating that modulation of IL-1β action by this cytokine displays specificity. Conclusion Data presented herein agree with an angiostatic role of IFNγ as seen in rodent models of solid tumors and suggest that increasing T helper type 1 (Th1)-like functions in lung cancer patients e.g. by local delivery of IFNγ may mediate therapeutic benefit via mechanisms that potentially include modulation of pro-angiogenic IL-8. PMID:18801189

  11. Enhanced expression of PKM2 associates with the biological properties of cancer stem cells from A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chang-Ying; Yan, Chen; Luo, Lan; Goto, Shinji; Urata, Yoshishige; Xu, Jian-Jun; Wen, Xiao-Ming; Kuang, Yu-Kang; Tou, Fang-Fang; Li, Tao-Sheng

    2017-04-01

    Cancer cells express the M2 isoform of glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase (PKM2) for favoring the survival under a hypoxic condition. Considering the relative low oxygen microenvironment in stem cell niche, we hypothesized that an enhanced PKM2 expression associates with the biological properties of cancer stem cells. We used A549 human lung cancer cell line and surgical resected lung cancer tissue samples from patients for experiments. We confirmed the co-localization of PKM2 and CD44, a popular marker for cancer stem cells in lung cancer tissue samples from patients. The expression of PKM2 was clearly observed in approximately 80% of the A549 human lung cancer cells. Remarkably, enhanced expression of PKM2 was specially observed in these cells that also positively expressed CD44. Downregulation of PKM2 in CD44+ cancer stem cells by siRNA significantly impaired the potency for spheroid formation, decreased the cell survival under fetal bovine serum deprivation and hypoxic conditions, but increased their sensitivity to anti-cancer drug of cisplatin and γ-ray. The enhanced expression of PKM2 seems to associate with the biological properties of cancer stem cells from A549 human lung cancer cells. Selective targeting of PKM2 may provide a new strategy for cancer therapy, especially for patients with therapeutic resistance.

  12. Mechanisms underlying regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis by hnRNP B1 in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Juan; Tang, Feng-ming; Pu, Dan; Xu, Dan; Wang, Tao; Li, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein B1 (hnRNP B1), a nuclear RNA binding protein, has been reported to occur in early-stage lung cancer and in premalignant lesions. DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is known to be involved in the repair of double-strand DNA breaks. Reduced capacity to repair DNA has been associated with the risk of lung cancer. We investigated a link between hnRNP B1 and DNA-PK and their effects on proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. We found that hnRNP B1 and DNA-PK interact with each other in a complex fashion. Reducing hnRNP B1 expression in A549 cells with the use of RNAi led to upregulation of p53 activity through upregulation of DNA-PK activity but without inducing p53 expression. Further, suppression of hnRNP B1 in A549 cells slowed cell proliferation, promoted apoptosis, and induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 stage. The presence of NU7026 reduced the arrest of cells at the G1 stage and reduced the apoptosis rate while promoting cell growth. Taken together, our results demonstrate that by regulating DNA-PK activity, hnRNP B1 can affect p53-mediated cell cycle progression and apoptosis, resulting in greater cell survival and subsequent proliferation.

  13. Long Term Culture of the A549 Cancer Cell Line Promotes Multilamellar Body Formation and Differentiation towards an Alveolar Type II Pneumocyte Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, James Ross; Abdullatif, Muhammad Bilal; Burnett, Edward C.; Kempsell, Karen E.; Conforti, Franco; Tolley, Howard; Collins, Jane E.; Davies, Donna E.

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary research requires models that represent the physiology of alveolar epithelium but concerns with reproducibility, consistency and the technical and ethical challenges of using primary or stem cells has resulted in widespread use of continuous cancer or other immortalized cell lines. The A549 ‘alveolar’ cell line has been available for over four decades but there is an inconsistent view as to its suitability as an appropriate model for primary alveolar type II (ATII) cells. Since most work with A549 cells involves short term culture of proliferating cells, we postulated that culture conditions that reduced proliferation of the cancer cells would promote a more differentiated ATII cell phenotype. We examined A549 cell growth in different media over long term culture and then used microarray analysis to investigate temporal regulation of pathways involved in cell cycle and ATII differentiation; we also made comparisons with gene expression in freshly isolated human ATII cells. Analyses indicated that long term culture in Ham’s F12 resulted in substantial modulation of cell cycle genes to result in a quiescent population of cells with significant up-regulation of autophagic, differentiation and lipidogenic pathways. There were also increased numbers of up- and down-regulated genes shared with primary cells suggesting adoption of ATII characteristics and multilamellar body (MLB) development. Subsequent Oil Red-O staining and Transmission Electron Microscopy confirmed MLB expression in the differentiated A549 cells. This work defines a set of conditions for promoting ATII differentiation characteristics in A549 cells that may be advantageous for studies with this cell line. PMID:27792742

  14. Effects of quercetin on CDK4 mRNA and protein expression in A549 cells infected by H1N1

    PubMed Central

    WAN, QIAOFENG; WANG, HAO; LIN, YUAN; GU, LIGANG; HAN, MEI; YANG, ZHIWEI; ZHANG, YANLI; MA, RUI; WANG, LI; WANG, ZHISHENG

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of quercetin on the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK4) mRNA and protein in A549 lung epithelial tumor cells infected by H1N1. First, the Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide (MTT) method was used to determine H1N1 virulence, quercetin cytotoxicity and inhibition of the cytopathic effect of H1N1 on A549 cells by quercetin. Subsequently, 100 TCID50 H1N1 was used to infect A549 cells for 2 h prior to culture in maintenance media containing 10 mg/l quercetin. After 4, 12, 24 and 48 h of culture, the cells were collected and total RNA and protein were extracted. Fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were then performed to assess the expression of CDK4 mRNA and protein. The experiment demonstrated that the TCID50 of H1N1 in A549 cells was 10−4.75, the maximum non-toxic concentration of quercetin in A549 cells was 30–60 mg/l and the minimum effective concentration of quercetin for the inhibition of the H1N1 cytopathic effect on A549 cells was 10 mg/l. The results indicated that quercetin may significantly inhibit CDK4 mRNA and protein overexpression caused by H1N1 within 4–48 h. In conclusion, quercetin may protect against H1N1 infection by effectively reducing the mRNA and protein expression of CDK4 caused by H1N1 infection. PMID:24649026

  15. Blocking the NOTCH pathway can inhibit the growth of CD133-positive A549 cells and sensitize to chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Juntao; Mao, Zhangfan; Huang, Jie

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • Notch signaling pathway members are expressed lower levels in CD133+ cells. • CD133+ cells are not as sensitive as CD133− cells to chemotherapy. • GSI could inhibit the growth of both CD133+ and CD133− cells. • Blockade of Notch signaling pathway enhanced the effect of chemotherapy with CDDP. • DAPT/CDDP co-therapy caused G2/M arrest and elimination in CD133+ cells. - Abstract: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to play an important role in tumor growth and recurrence. These cells exhibit self-renewal and proliferation properties. CSCs also exhibit significant drug resistance compared with normal tumor cells. Finding new treatmentsmore » that target CSCs could significantly enhance the effect of chemotherapy and improve patient survival. Notch signaling is known to regulate the development of the lungs by controlling the cell-fate determination of normal stem cells. In this study, we isolated CSCs from the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. CD133 was used as a stem cell marker for fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). We compared the expression of Notch signaling in both CD133+ and CD133− cells and blocked Notch signaling using the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT (GSI-IX). The effect of combining GSI and cisplatin (CDDP) was also examined in these two types of cells. We observed that both CD133+ and CD133− cells proliferated at similar rates, but the cells exhibited distinctive differences in cell cycle progression. Few CD133+ cells were observed in the G{sub 2}/M phase, and there were half as many cells in S phase compared with the CD133− cells. Furthermore, CD133+ cells exhibited significant resistance to chemotherapy when treated with CDDP. The expression of Notch signaling pathway members, such as Notch1, Notch2 and Hes1, was lower in CD133+ cells. GSI slightly inhibited the proliferation of both cell types and exhibited little effect on the cell cycle. The inhibitory effects of DPP on these two types of cells

  16. Effects of exogenous IL-37 on the biological characteristics of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and the chemotaxis of regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Hua; Zhou, Bi-Yun; Wu, Guo-Cai; Liao, De-Quan; Li, Jing; Liang, Si-Si; Wu, Xian-Jin; Xu, Jun-Fa; Chen, Yong-Hua; Di, Xiao-Qing; Lin, Qiong-Yan

    2018-02-14

    This study aims to investigate the effects of exogenous interleukin (IL)-37 on the biological characteristics of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and the chemotaxis of regulatory T (Treg) cells. After isolating the CD4+ CD25+ Treg cells from the peripheral blood, flow cytometry was used to detect the purity of the Treg cells. A549 cells were divided into blank (no transfection), empty plasmid (transfection with pIRES2-EGFP empty plasmid) or IL-37 group (transfection with pIRES2-EGFP-IL-37 plasmid). RT-PCR was used to detect mRNA expression of IL-37 and ELISA to determine IL-37 and MMP-9 expressions. Western blotting was applied to detect the protein expressions of PCNA, Ki-67, Cyclin D1, CDK4, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9. MTT assay, flow cytometry, scratch test and transwell assay were performed to detect cell proliferation, cycle, apoptosis, migration and invasion. Effect of exogenous IL-37 on the chemotaxis of Treg cells was measured through transwell assay. Xenograft models in nude mice were eastablished to detect the impact of IL-37 on A549 cells. The IL-37 group had a higher IL-37 expression, cell apoptosis in the early stage and percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase than the blank and empty plasmid groups. The IL-37 group had a lower MMP-9 expression, optical density (OD), percentage of cells in the S and G2/M phases, migration, invasion and chemotaxis of CD4+CD25+ Foxp3+ Treg cells. The xenograft volume and weight of nude mice in the IL-37 group were lower than those in the blank and empty plasmid groups. Compared with the blank and empty plasmid groups, the IL-37 group had significantly reduced expression of PCNA, Ki-67, Cyclin D1 and CDK4 but elevated expression of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9. Therefore, exogenous IL-37 inhibits the proliferation, migration and invasion of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells as well as the chemotaxis of Treg cells while promoting the apoptosis of A549 cells.

  17. An imaging flow cytometry method to assess ricin trafficking in A549 human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jenner, Dominic; Chong, Damien; Walker, Nicola; Green, A Christopher

    2018-02-01

    The endocytosis and trafficking of ricin in mammalian cells is an important area of research for those producing ricin anti-toxins and other ricin therapeutics. Ricin trafficking is usually observed by fluorescence microscopy techniques. This gives good resolution and leads to a detailed understanding of the internal movement of ricin within cells. However, microscopy techniques are often hampered by complex analysis and quantification techniques, and the inability to look at ricin trafficking in large populations of cells. In these studies we have directly labelled ricin and assessed if its trafficking can be observed using Imaging Flow Cytometry (IFC) both to the cytoplasmic region of cells and specifically to the Golgi apparatus. Using IDEAS® data analysis software the specific fluorescence location of the ricin within the cells was analysed. Then, using cytoplasmic masking techniques to quantify the number of cells with endocytosed cytoplasmic ricin or cells with Golgi-associated ricin, kinetic endocytosis curves were generated. Here we present, to the authors' knowledge, the first example of using imaging flow cytometry for evaluating the subcellular transport of protein cargo, using the trafficking of ricin toxin in lung cells as a model. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dehydrobruceine B enhances the cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity through regulation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhuqing; Yang, Guotao; Shen, Tao; Wang, Xiaoning; Li, Haizhen; Ren, Dongmei

    2017-05-01

    Dehydrobruceine B (DHB) is a quassinoid isolated from Brucea javanica. We have shown previously that DHB induced apoptosis on two kinds of lung cancer cell lines, A549 and NCI-H292. In the present study, we investigated the interactions of DHB and cisplatin (CDDP) on apoptotic-related cancer cell death. Synergistic effects on cell proliferation and apoptosis were observed when A549 cells were treated with DHB plus CDDP. DHB combined CDDP exposure increased depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytoplasm. The combination treatment also enhanced protein expression of Bax, reduced the protein levels of Bcl-xL and Bcl-2, and increased the cleavage of caspase-3, caspase-9 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). These results indicated that DHB sensitized A549 cells to cisplatin by regulating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. High constitutive expression of Nrf2 was found in A549 cells, which enhance the resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents including cisplatin. DHB reduced the protein levels of Nrf2 and its target genes, which may contribute to the increase of intracellular ROS level, consequently, induced mitochondria apoptosis. These results generated a rationale for further investigation of DHB combined with CDDP as a potential therapeutic strategy in lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Picfeltarraenin IA inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine production by the nuclear factor-κB pathway in human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rong; Wang, Qing; Ouyang, Yang; Wang, Qian; Xiong, Xudong

    2016-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of picfeltarraenin IA (IA) on respiratory inflammation by analyzing its effect on interleukin (IL)-8 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. The expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) in human pulmonary adenocarcinoma epithelial A549 cells in culture was also examined. Human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells and the human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cell line were used in the current study. Cell viability was measured using a methylthiazol tetrazolium assay. The production of IL-8 and PGE2 was investigated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of COX2 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-p65 was examined using western blot analysis. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 µg/ml) resulted in the increased production of IL-8 and PGE2, and the increased expression of COX2 in the A549 cells. Furthermore, IA (0.1-10 µmol/l) significantly inhibited PGE2 production and COX2 expression in cells with LPS-induced IL-8, in a concentration-dependent manner. The results suggested that IA downregulates LPS-induced COX2 expression, and inhibits IL-8 and PGE2 production in pulmonary epithelial cells. Additionally, IA was observed to suppress the expression of COX2 in THP-1 cells, and also to regulate the expression of COX2 via the NF-κB pathway in the A549 cells, but not in the THP-1 cells. These results indicate that IA regulates LPS-induced cytokine release in A549 cells via the NF-κB pathway.

  20. A novel small molecule, Rosline, inhibits growth and induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in human lung cancer cells A549 through a reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ting; Feng, Yang; Jin, Wenling; Pan, Hui; Li, Haizhou; Zhao, Yang

    2016-06-01

    Chemical screening using synthetic small molecule libraries has provided a huge amount of novel active molecules. It generates lead compound for drug development and brings focus on molecules for mechanistic investigations on many otherwise intangible biological processes. In this study, using non-small cell lung cancer cell A549 to screen against a structurally novel and diverse synthetic small molecule library of 2,400 compounds, we identified a molecule named rosline that has strong anti-proliferation activity on A549 cells with a 50% cell growth inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of 2.87 ± 0.39 µM. We showed that rosline treatment increased the number of Annexin V-positive staining cell, as well as G2/M arrest in their cell cycle progression. Further, we have demonstrated that rosline induces a decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δφm ) and an increase of caspases 3/7 and 9 activities in A549 cells, although having no effect on the activity of caspase 8. Moreover, we found that rosline could induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibit the phosphorylation of signaling molecule Akt in A549 cells. Alternatively, an antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) significantly attenuated rosline's effects on the mitochondrial membrane potential, caspases 3/7 and 9 activities, cell viabilities and the phosphorylation of Akt. Our results demonstrated that ROS played an important role in the apoptosis of A549 cells induced by rosline. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  1. [The effect and mechanism of vinorelbine on cisplatin resistance of human lung cancer cell line A549/DDP].

    PubMed

    Qi, Chunsheng; Gao, Sen; Li, Huiqiang; Gao, Weizhen

    2014-02-01

    Drug resistance is a major obstacle on lung cancer treatment and Vinorelbine is an effective drug to inhibition of tumor proliferation and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of Vinorelbine on reversing the cisplatin resistance of human lung cancer A549/DDP cell line. With 1 μmol/L and 5 μmol/L Vinorelbine treatment, MTS assay was employed to determine the effect of the cisplatin sensitivity of tumor cells, flow cytometry to determine the apoptosis rate and change of Rh-123 content; Western blot to determine the expression of MDR1, Bcl-2, surviving, PTEN, caspase-3/8 and phosphorylation level of Akt (p-Akt); Real-time PCR was to determine the mRNA expression of MDR1, Bcl-2, survivin and PTEN. Finally the transcriptional activities of NF-κB, Twist and Snail were determined by reporter gene system. With 1 μmol/L and 5 μmol/L Vinorelbine treatment, the sensitivity of cancer cells to cisplatin was increased by 1.91- and 2.54- folds respectively, flow cytometry showed that the content of Rh-123 was elevated 1.93- and 2.95- folds and apoptosis rate was increased 2.25- and 3.82- folds, Western blot showed that the expression of multidrug resistance related proteins MDR, Bcl-2 and survivin were downregulated, caspase-3/8 and PTEN was upregulated, phosphorylation of Akt was downregulated as well, real-time assay showed that the mRNA expression of MDR1 was downregulated 43.5% and 25.8%, Bcl-2 was downregulated 57.3% and 34.1%, survivin was downregulated 37.6% and 12.4%, PTEN was upregulated 183.4% and 154.2%, the transcriptional activities of NF-κB was downregulated 53.2% and 34.5%, Twist was downregulated 61.4% and 33.5%, and Snail was downregulated 57.8% and 18.7%. Vinorelbine treatment led to increase of cisplatin sensitivity of A549/DDP cells and the mechanisms included the regulation of PTEN/AKT/NF-κB signal pathway to decreased drug resistance gene expression and increased pro-apoptosis gene expression.

  2. EGCG reverses human neutrophil elastase-induced migration in A549 cells by directly binding to HNE and by regulating α1-AT

    PubMed Central

    Xiaokaiti, Yilixiati; Wu, Haoming; Chen, Ya; Yang, Haopeng; Duan, Jianhui; Li, Xin; Pan, Yan; Tie, Lu; Zhang, Liangren; Li, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    Lung carcinogenesis is a complex process that occurs in unregulated inflammatory environment. EGCG has been extensively investigated as a multi-targeting anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory compound. In this study, we demonstrated a novel mechanism by which EGCG reverses the neutrophil elastase-induced migration of A549 cells. We found that neutrophil elastase directly triggered human adenocarcinoma A549 cell migration and that EGCG suppressed the elevation of tumor cell migration induced by neutrophil elastase. We observed that EGCG directly binds to neutrophil elastase and inhibits its enzymatic activity based on the CDOCKER algorithm, MD stimulation by GROMACS, SPR assay and elastase enzymatic activity assay. As the natural inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, α1-antitrypsin is synthesized in tumor cells. We further demonstrated that the expression of α1-antitrypsin was up-regulated after EGCG treatment in neutrophil elastase-treated A549 cells. We preliminarily discovered that the EGCG-mediated induction of α1-antitrypsin expression might be correlated with the regulatory effect of EGCG on the PI3K/Akt pathway. Overall, our results suggest that EGCG ameliorates the neutrophil elastase-induced migration of A549 cells. The mechanism underlying this effect may include two processes: EGCG directly binds to neutrophil elastase and inhibits its enzymatic activity; EGCG enhances the expression of α1-antitrypsin by regulating the PI3K/AKT pathway. PMID:26177797

  3. EGCG reverses human neutrophil elastase-induced migration in A549 cells by directly binding to HNE and by regulating α1-AT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaokaiti, Yilixiati; Wu, Haoming; Chen, Ya; Yang, Haopeng; Duan, Jianhui; Li, Xin; Pan, Yan; Tie, Lu; Zhang, Liangren; Li, Xuejun

    2015-07-01

    Lung carcinogenesis is a complex process that occurs in unregulated inflammatory environment. EGCG has been extensively investigated as a multi-targeting anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory compound. In this study, we demonstrated a novel mechanism by which EGCG reverses the neutrophil elastase-induced migration of A549 cells. We found that neutrophil elastase directly triggered human adenocarcinoma A549 cell migration and that EGCG suppressed the elevation of tumor cell migration induced by neutrophil elastase. We observed that EGCG directly binds to neutrophil elastase and inhibits its enzymatic activity based on the CDOCKER algorithm, MD stimulation by GROMACS, SPR assay and elastase enzymatic activity assay. As the natural inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, α1-antitrypsin is synthesized in tumor cells. We further demonstrated that the expression of α1-antitrypsin was up-regulated after EGCG treatment in neutrophil elastase-treated A549 cells. We preliminarily discovered that the EGCG-mediated induction of α1-antitrypsin expression might be correlated with the regulatory effect of EGCG on the PI3K/Akt pathway. Overall, our results suggest that EGCG ameliorates the neutrophil elastase-induced migration of A549 cells. The mechanism underlying this effect may include two processes: EGCG directly binds to neutrophil elastase and inhibits its enzymatic activity; EGCG enhances the expression of α1-antitrypsin by regulating the PI3K/AKT pathway.

  4. EGCG reverses human neutrophil elastase-induced migration in A549 cells by directly binding to HNE and by regulating α1-AT.

    PubMed

    Xiaokaiti, Yilixiati; Wu, Haoming; Chen, Ya; Yang, Haopeng; Duan, Jianhui; Li, Xin; Pan, Yan; Tie, Lu; Zhang, Liangren; Li, Xuejun

    2015-07-16

    Lung carcinogenesis is a complex process that occurs in unregulated inflammatory environment. EGCG has been extensively investigated as a multi-targeting anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory compound. In this study, we demonstrated a novel mechanism by which EGCG reverses the neutrophil elastase-induced migration of A549 cells. We found that neutrophil elastase directly triggered human adenocarcinoma A549 cell migration and that EGCG suppressed the elevation of tumor cell migration induced by neutrophil elastase. We observed that EGCG directly binds to neutrophil elastase and inhibits its enzymatic activity based on the CDOCKER algorithm, MD stimulation by GROMACS, SPR assay and elastase enzymatic activity assay. As the natural inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, α1-antitrypsin is synthesized in tumor cells. We further demonstrated that the expression of α1-antitrypsin was up-regulated after EGCG treatment in neutrophil elastase-treated A549 cells. We preliminarily discovered that the EGCG-mediated induction of α1-antitrypsin expression might be correlated with the regulatory effect of EGCG on the PI3K/Akt pathway. Overall, our results suggest that EGCG ameliorates the neutrophil elastase-induced migration of A549 cells. The mechanism underlying this effect may include two processes: EGCG directly binds to neutrophil elastase and inhibits its enzymatic activity; EGCG enhances the expression of α1-antitrypsin by regulating the PI3K/AKT pathway.

  5. Bio-fabrication of catalytic platinum nanoparticles and their in vitro efficacy against lungs cancer cells line (A549).

    PubMed

    Ullah, Sadeeq; Ahmad, Aftab; Wang, Aoke; Raza, Muslim; Jan, Amin Ullah; Tahir, Kamran; Rahman, Aziz Ur; Qipeng, Yuan

    2017-08-01

    Platinum based drugs are considered as effective agents against various types of carcinoma; however, the severe toxicity associated with the chemically prepared platinum complexes limit their practical applications. Similarly, water pollution caused by various organic moieties is another serious health problem worldwide. Hence, an intense need exists to develop new, effective and biocompatible materials with catalytic and biomedical applications. In the present contribution, we prepared platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) by a green route using phytochemicals as a source of reducing and stabilizing agents. Well dispersed and crystalline PtNPs of spherical shapes were prepared and characterized. The bio-fabricated PtNPs were used as catalyst and anticancer agents. Catalytic performance of the PtNPs showed that 84% of the methylene blue can be reduced in 32min under visible light irradiation (K=0.078min -1 ). Similarly the catalytic conversion of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol was achieved in <20min (K=0.124min -1 ). The in vitro anticancer study revealed that biogenic PtNPs are the efficient nano-agents possessing strong anticancer activity against the lungs cancer cells line (A549). Interestingly, the as prepared PtNPs were well tolerated by normal human cells, and therefore, could be effective and biocompatible agents in the treatment of different cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Genotoxicity and apoptotic activity of biologically synthesized magnesium oxide nanoparticles against human lung cancer A-549 cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeed, Shahnaz; Danish, Mohammed; Muhadi, Nur Farisyah Bahriah Binti

    2018-06-01

    The study focussed on the synthesis of magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles from an aqueous extract of Penicillium species isolated from soil. A suitable amount of magnesium nitrate (MgNO3) was mixed with the aqueous extract of Penicillium. Then the colour of the solution changed due to the formation of MgO nanoparticles. These nascent formed MgO nanoparticles were further confirmed by using UV spectrophotometry which showed the maximum absorption at 215 nm indicating the formation of MgO nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to find the possible functional groups and proteins involving the stabilization of MgO nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study revealed the size, the shape as well as the dispersity of the prepared MgO nanoparticles and showed that they were well dispersed around 12–24 nm (scale 200 nm). The anticancer activity against A-549 cell line of these green synthesized MgO nanoparticles was evaluated. The result showed good anticancer effect after 24 h of incubation. Nevertheless these MgO nanoparticles showed less effect on normal Vero cells. Further apoptotic study clearly displayed the effect of MgO nanoparticles on cancer cells. The effect was observed through chromatin condensation by forming apoptotic bodies using propidium iodide, acridine orange and ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining technique. The DNA was isolated to confirm the DNA damage; the observation clearly showed DNA damage when compared with DNA ladder.

  7. The influence of incubation time on adenovirus quantitation in A549 cells by most probable number

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cell culture based assays used to detect waterborne viruses typically call for incubating the sample for at least two weeks in order to ensure that all the culturable virus present is detected. Historically, this estimate was based, at least in part, on the length of time used fo...

  8. Effective deactivation of A549 tumor cells in vitro and in vivo by RGD-decorated chitosan-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube loading docetaxel.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Zhang, Xiao-Xue; Huang, Hao-Yan; Chen, Li-Qing; Cui, Jing-Hao; Liu, Yanli; Jin, Hehua; Lee, Beom-Jin; Cao, Qing-Ri

    2018-05-30

    This study aims to construct and evaluate RGD-decorated chitosan (CS)-functionalized pH-responsive single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) carriers using docetaxel (DTX) as a model anticancer drug. DTX was loaded onto SWCNT via π-π stacking interaction (SWCNT-DTX), followed by the non-covalent conjugation of RGD-decorated CS to SWCNT-DTX to prepare RGD-CS-SWCNT-DTX. The RGD-CS-SWCNT-DTX showed significantly higher drug release than the pure drug, giving higher release rate at pH 5.0 (68%) than pH 7.4 (49%). The RGD-CS-SWCNT-DTX could significantly inhibit the growth of A549 tumor cells in vitro, and the uptake amount of A549 cells was obviously higher than that of MCF-7 cells. Meanwhile, the cellular uptake of RGD-CS-SWCNT-DTX was higher than that of CS-SWCNT-DTX in A549 cells, mainly through clathrin and caveolae-mediated endocytosis. The RGD-CS-SWCNT-DTX significantly inhibited tumor growth of A549 cell-bearing nude mice through active tumor-targeting ability. Furthermore, no pathological changes were found in tissues and organs. The result demonstrated that RGD-CS-SWCNT-DTX displayed high drug loading, pH-responsive drug release, remarkable antitumor effect in vitro and in vivo, and also good safety to animal body. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Up-Regulation of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and Chemokine Production in Avian Influenza H9N2 Virus-Infected Human Lung Epithelial Cell Line (A549).

    PubMed

    Farzin, Hamidreza; Toroghi, Reza; Haghparast, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Influenza H9N2 virus mostly infects avian species but poses a potential health risk to humans. Little is known about the mammalian host immune responses to H9N2 virus. To obtain insight into the innate immune responses of human lung epithelial cells to the avian H9N2 virus, the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine in the human airway epithelial cells infected with avian H9N2 virus were examined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). H9N2 virus was able to cultivate in the human lung epithelial cell line (A549) and stimulate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6) and chemokine (IL-8). Expressions of cytokine genes were up-regulated to a significantly higher level for IL-1β (p < 0.01), IL-6 (p < 0.01 after 12 hours and p < 0.05 after 24 hours) and IL-8 (p < 0.01 after 12 hours and p < 0.001 after 24 hours) in virus-cultured A549 cells as compared with non-virus-cultured cells. The amount of IL-6 and IL-1β proteins secreted into the culture medium was also increased after virus culture infection of A549 cell line compared to non-virus-cultured A549 cells and were significant in both IL-1β (p < 0.05 in 18 hours and p < 0.001 in 24-48 hours harvested supernatant) and IL-6 (p < 0.001). Silencing the p65 component of NF-κB in A549 cells suppressed the stimulatory effects of influenza virus on secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine. The findings in this study will broaden our understanding of host innate immune mechanisms and the pathogenesis of H9N2 influenza viruses in human respiratory epithelium.

  10. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of host responses in human lung epithelial (A549) cells during influenza virus infection.

    PubMed

    Dapat, Clyde; Saito, Reiko; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Horigome, Tsuneyoshi

    2014-01-22

    The emergence of antiviral drug-resistant influenza viruses highlights the need for alternative therapeutic strategies. Elucidation of host factors required during virus infection provides information not only on the signaling pathways involved but also on the identification of novel drug targets. RNA interference screening method had been utilized by several studies to determine these host factors; however, proteomics data on influenza host factors are currently limited. In this study, quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of human lung cell line (A549) infected with 2009 pandemic influenza virus A (H1N1) virus was performed. Phosphopeptides were enriched from tryptic digests of total protein of infected and mock-infected cells using a titania column on an automated purification system followed by iTRAQ labeling. Identification and quantitative analysis of iTRAQ-labeled phosphopeptides were performed using LC-MS/MS. We identified 366 phosphorylation sites on 283 proteins. Of these, we detected 43 upregulated and 35 downregulated proteins during influenza virus infection. Gene ontology enrichment analysis showed that majority of the identified proteins are phosphoproteins involved in RNA processing, immune system process and response to infection. Host-virus interaction network analysis had identified 23 densely connected subnetworks. Of which, 13 subnetworks contained proteins with altered phosphorylation levels during by influenza virus infection. Our results will help to identify potential drug targets that can be pursued for influenza antiviral drug development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. SB203580 enhances the RV-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis in A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hai-yang; Zhuang, Cai-ping; Wang, Xiao-ping; Chen, Tong-sheng

    2012-03-01

    Resveratrol (RV), a naturally occurring phytoalexin, is known to possess a wide spectrum of chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects in various stages of human tumors. p38, a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) superfamily, is always activated by some extracellular stimulus to regulate many cellular signal transduction pathways, such as apoptosis, proliferation, and inflammation and so on. In this report, we assessed the effect of SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK signaling pathway, on the RV-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. CCK-8 assay showed that pretreatment with SB203580 significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of RV, which was further verified by analyzing the phosphatidylserine externalization using flow cytometry. In order to further confirm whether SB203580 accelerated apoptosis via the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, we analyzed the dysfunction of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) of cells stained with rhodamine 123 by using flow cytometry after treatment with RV in the absence and presence of SB203580. Our data for the first time reported that p38 inhibitor SB203580 enhanced the RV-induced apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway.

  12. Synergistic Antiproliferative Effects of a New Cucurbitacin B Derivative and Chemotherapy Drugs on Lung Cancer Cell Line A549.

    PubMed

    Marostica, Lucas Lourenço; Silva, Izabella Thaís; Kratz, Jadel Müller; Persich, Lara; Geller, Fabiana Cristina; Lang, Karen Luise; Caro, Miguel Soriano Balparda; Durán, Fernando Javier; Schenkel, Eloir Paulo; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira

    2015-10-19

    Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents an important cause of mortality worldwide due to its aggressiveness and growing resistance to currently available therapy. Cucurbitacins have emerged as novel potential anticancer agents showing strong antiproliferative effects and can be promising candidates for combined treatments with clinically used anticancer agents. This study investigates the synergistic antiproliferative effects of a new semisynthetic derivative of cucurbitacin B (DACE) with three chemotherapy drugs: cisplatin (CIS), irinotecan (IRI), and paclitaxel (PAC) on A549 cells. The most effective combinations were selected for studies of the mechanism of action. Using an in silico tool, DACE seems to act by a different mechanism of action when compared with that of different classes of drugs already used in clinical settings. DACE also showed potent synergic effects with drugs, and the most potent combinations induced G2/M cell cycle arrest by modulating survivin and p53 expression, disruption of F-actin cytoskeleton, and cell death by apoptosis. These treatments completely inhibited the clonogenic potential and did not reduce the proliferation of nontumoral lung cells (MRC-5). DACE also showed relevant antimigratory and anti-invasive effects, and combined treatments modulated cell migration signaling pathways evolved with metastasis progression. The effects of DACE associated with drugs was potentiated by the oxidant agent l-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO), and attenuated by N-acetilcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant agent. The antiproliferative effects induced by combined treatments were attenuated by a pan-caspase inhibitor, indicating that the effects of these treatments are dependent on caspase activity. Our data highlight the therapeutic potential of DACE used in combination with known chemotherapy drugs and offer important insights for the development of more effective and selective therapies against lung cancer.

  13. Anacardic acid, a histone acetyltransferase inhibitor, modulates LPS-induced IL-8 expression in a human alveolar epithelial cell line A549

    PubMed Central

    Takizawa, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    Objective and design: The histone acetylation processes, which are believed to play a critical role in the regulation of many inflammatory genes, are reversible and regulated by histone acetyltransferases (HATs), which promote acetylation, and histone deacetylases (HDACs), which promote deacetylation. We studied the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on histone acetylation and its role in the regulation of interleukin (IL)-8 expression.  Material: A human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 was used in vitro. Methods: Histone H4 acetylation at the IL-8 promoter region was assessed by a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. The expression and production of IL-8 were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and specific immunoassay. Effects of a HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), and a HAT inhibitor, anacardic acid, were assessed.  Results: Escherichia coli-derived LPS showed a dose- and time-dependent stimulatory effect on IL-8 protein production and mRNA expression in A549 cells in vitro. LPS showed a significant stimulatory effect on histone H4 acetylation at the IL-8 promoter region by ChIP assay. Pretreatment with TSA showed a dose-dependent stimulatory effect on IL-8 release from A549 cells as compared to LPS alone. Conversely, pretreatment with anacardic acid inhibited IL-8 production and expression in A549 cells.  Conclusion: These data suggest that LPS-mediated proinflammatory responses in the lungs might be modulated via changing chromatin remodeling by HAT inhibition. PMID:24627774

  14. Taspine derivative 12k suppressed A549 cell migration through the Wnt/β-catenin and EphrinB2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Dai, Bingling; Ma, Yujiao; Yang, Tianfeng; Wang, Wenjie; Zhang, Yanmin

    2017-03-01

    12k, a taspine derivative, has been demonstrated to have the potent anti-tumor activity in lung cancer and colorectal cancer. The study aims to further explore the underlying mechanisms of 12k on A549 cell migration in vitro. Our data demonstrated that 12k negatively regulated Wnt signaling pathway by suppressing the phosphorylation of LRP5/6, and inhibiting the expression and nuclear translocation of β-catenin. 12k was shown to downregulate MMP3 and MMP7 expression which regulated by β-catenin interacts with TCF/LEF in the nucleus, and effectively impaired the related migration protein expression of MMP2 and MMP9 in A549 cells. In addition, 12k repressed the EphrinB2 and its PDZ protein, impairing the VEGFR2 and VEGFR3 expression in A549 cells, as well as inhibited the downstream of VEGFR2 included PI3K/AKT/mTOR and ERK/MAPK signaling pathways. Taken together, our findings revealed that 12k suppressed migration of A549 cells through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and EphrinB2 related signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Paclitaxel and the dietary flavonoid fisetin: a synergistic combination that induces mitotic catastrophe and autophagic cell death in A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Klimaszewska-Wisniewska, Anna; Halas-Wisniewska, Marta; Tadrowski, Tadeusz; Gagat, Maciej; Grzanka, Dariusz; Grzanka, Alina

    2016-01-01

    The use of the dietary polyphenols as chemosensitizing agents to enhance the efficacy of conventional cytostatic drugs has recently gained the attention of scientists and clinicians as a plausible approach for overcoming the limitations of chemotherapy (e.g. drug resistance and cytotoxicity). The aim of this study was to investigate whether a naturally occurring diet-based flavonoid, fisetin, at physiologically attainable concentrations, could act synergistically with clinically achievable doses of paclitaxel to produce growth inhibitory and/or pro-death effects on A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells, and if it does, what mechanisms might be involved. The drug-drug interactions were analyzed based on the combination index method of Chou and Talalay and the data from MTT assays. To provide some insights into the mechanism underlying the synergistic action of fisetin and paclitaxel, selected morphological, biochemical and molecular parameters were examined, including the morphology of cell nuclei and mitotic spindles, the pattern of LC3-II immunostaining, the formation of autophagic vacuoles at the electron and fluorescence microscopic level, the disruption of cell membrane asymmetry/integrity, cell cycle progression and the expression level of LC3-II, Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3 mRNA. Here, we reported the first experimental evidence for the existence of synergism between fisetin and paclitaxel in the in vitro model of non-small cell lung cancer. This synergism was, at least partially, ascribed to the induction of mitotic catastrophe. The switch from the cytoprotective autophagy to the autophagic cell death was also implicated in the mechanism of the synergistic action of fisetin and paclitaxel in the A549 cells. In addition, we revealed that the synergism between fisetin and paclitaxel was cell line-specific as well as that fisetin synergizes with arsenic trioxide, but not with mitoxantrone and methotrexate in the A549 cells. Our results provide rationale for

  16. Nur77 attenuates endothelin-1 expression via downregulation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK in A549 cells and in an ARDS rat model.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yujie; Zeng, Yi; Huang, Xia; Qin, Yueqiu; Luo, Weigui; Xiang, Shulin; Sooranna, Suren R; Pinhu, Liao

    2016-12-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by inflammatory injury to the alveolar and capillary barriers that results in impaired gas exchange and severe acute respiratory failure. Nuclear orphan receptor Nur77 has emerged as a regulator of gene expression in inflammation, and its role in the pathogenesis of ARDS is not clear. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential role of Nur77 and its underlying mechanism in the regulation of endothelin-1 (ET-1) expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced A549 cells and an ARDS rat model. We demonstrate that LPS induced Nur77 expression and nuclear export in A549 cells. Overexpression of Nur77 markedly decreased basal and LPS-induced ET-1 expression in A549 cells, whereas knockdown of Nur77 increased the ET-1 expression. LPS-induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK were blocked by Nur77 overexpression and augmented by Nur77 knockdown in A549 cells. In vivo, LPS induced Nur77 expression in lung in ARDS rats. Pharmacological activation of Nur77 by cytosporone B (CsnB) inhibited ET-1 expression in ARDS rats, decreased LPS-induced phosphorylation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK, and relieved lung, liver, and kidney injury. Pharmacological deactivation of Nur77 by 1,1-bis-(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-hydroxyphenyl)methane (DIM-C-pPhOH, C-DIM8) had no effect on ET-1 expression and lung injury. These results indicated that Nur77 decreases ET-1 expression by suppressing NF-κB and p38 MAPK in LPS-stimulated A549 cells in vitro, and, in an LPS-induced ARDS rat model, CsnB reduced ET-1 expression and lung injury in ARDS rats. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Effects of karanjin on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human A549, HepG2 and HL-60 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jian-Ru; Chen, Qian-Qian; Lam, Christopher Wai-Kei; Zhang, Wei

    2015-07-26

    We have investigated the potential anticancer effects of karanjin, a principal furanoflavonol constituent of the Chinese medicine Fordia cauliflora, using cytotoxic assay, cell cycle arrest, and induction of apoptosis in three human cancer cell lines (A549, HepG2 and HL-60 cells). MTT cytotoxic assay showed that karanjin could inhibit the proliferation and viability of all three cancer cells. The induction of cell cycle arrest was observed via a PI (propidium iodide)/RNase Staining Buffer detection kit and analyzed by flow cytometry: karanjin could dose-dependently induce cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in the three cell lines. Cell apoptosis was assessed by Annexin V-FITC/PI staining: all three cancer cells treated with karanjin exhibited significantly increased apoptotic rates, especially in the percentage of late apoptosis cells. Karanjin can induce cancer cell death through cell cycle arrest and enhance apoptosis. This compound may be effective clinically for cancer pharmacotherapy.

  18. Inhibition of Raf-MEK-ERK and hypoxia pathways by Phyllanthus prevents metastasis in human lung (A549) cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sau Har; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Manikam, Rishya; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2013-10-20

    Lung cancer constitutes one of the malignancies with the greatest incidence and mortality rates with 1.6 million new cases and 1.4 million deaths each year. Prognosis remains poor due to deleterious development of multidrug resistance resulting in less than 15% lung cancer patients reaching five years survival. We have previously shown that Phyllanthus induced apoptosis in conjunction with its antimetastastic action. In the current study, we aimed to determine the signaling pathways utilized by Phyllanthus to exert its antimetastatic activities. Cancer 10-pathway reporter array was performed to screen the pathways affected by Phyllanthus in lung carcinoma cell line (A549) to exert its antimetastatic effects. Results from this array were then confirmed with western blotting, cell cycle analysis, zymography technique, and cell based ELISA assay for human total iNOS. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was subsequently carried out to study the differential protein expressions in A549 after treatment with Phyllanthus. Phyllanthus was observed to cause antimetastatic activities by inhibiting ERK1/2 pathway via suppression of Raf protein. Inhibition of this pathway resulted in the suppression of MMP2, MMP7, and MMP9 expression to stop A549 metastasis. Phyllanthus also inhibits hypoxia pathway via inhibition of HIF-1α that led to reduced VEGF and iNOS expressions. Proteomic analysis revealed a number of proteins downregulated by Phyllanthus that were involved in metastatic processes, including invasion and mobility proteins (cytoskeletal proteins), transcriptional proteins (proliferating cell nuclear antigen; zinc finger protein), antiapoptotic protein (Bcl2) and various glycolytic enzymes. Among the four Phyllanthus species tested, P. urinaria showed the greatest antimetastatic activity. Phyllanthus inhibits A549 metastasis by suppressing ERK1/2 and hypoxia pathways that led to suppression of various critical proteins for A549 invasion and migration.

  19. Inhibition of Raf-MEK-ERK and Hypoxia pathways by Phyllanthus prevents metastasis in human lung (A549) cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lung cancer constitutes one of the malignancies with the greatest incidence and mortality rates with 1.6 million new cases and 1.4 million deaths each year. Prognosis remains poor due to deleterious development of multidrug resistance resulting in less than 15% lung cancer patients reaching five years survival. We have previously shown that Phyllanthus induced apoptosis in conjunction with its antimetastastic action. In the current study, we aimed to determine the signaling pathways utilized by Phyllanthus to exert its antimetastatic activities. Methods Cancer 10-pathway reporter array was performed to screen the pathways affected by Phyllanthus in lung carcinoma cell line (A549) to exert its antimetastatic effects. Results from this array were then confirmed with western blotting, cell cycle analysis, zymography technique, and cell based ELISA assay for human total iNOS. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was subsequently carried out to study the differential protein expressions in A549 after treatment with Phyllanthus. Results Phyllanthus was observed to cause antimetastatic activities by inhibiting ERK1/2 pathway via suppression of Raf protein. Inhibition of this pathway resulted in the suppression of MMP2, MMP7, and MMP9 expression to stop A549 metastasis. Phyllanthus also inhibits hypoxia pathway via inhibition of HIF-1α that led to reduced VEGF and iNOS expressions. Proteomic analysis revealed a number of proteins downregulated by Phyllanthus that were involved in metastatic processes, including invasion and mobility proteins (cytoskeletal proteins), transcriptional proteins (proliferating cell nuclear antigen; zinc finger protein), antiapoptotic protein (Bcl2) and various glycolytic enzymes. Among the four Phyllanthus species tested, P. urinaria showed the greatest antimetastatic activity. Conclusions Phyllanthus inhibits A549 metastasis by suppressing ERK1/2 and hypoxia pathways that led to suppression of various critical proteins for A549

  20. SU-F-T-677: Synergistic Effect(s) of Clotrimazole On Radiation Cell Survival of A549 Lung Cancer Cells in Glucose Vs. Galactose Media

    SciTech Connect

    Boss, G; Tambasco, M; Garakani, M

    Purpose: In order to determine the synergistic effect of clotrimazole on radiosensitivity of A549 lung cancer cells, and the effect of oxidative pathways on modulating radiosensitivity, we studied how these cells survived under varying amounts of radiation and clotrimazole as well ass when glucose was switched for galactose media. Methods: The glucose media was used to determine the presence of any synergistic effect of clotrimazole on radiation using values of radiation and clotrimazole concentrations, varying from 0 – 8 Gy and 0 – 20 µM, respectively. As a galactose diet is known to activate oxidative pathways, which do not relymore » on hexokinase II (HK2), all trials were repeated using galactose media to determine the extent that HK2 unbinding from the mitochondrial membrane plays a role in modulating the observed radiosensitivity. An apoptosis vs. necrosis assay was implemented to find out the modality by which cell death occurred. An intracellular lactate assay was performed to exhibit the extent of anaerobic glycolysis. Results: After running the primary experiments, it was found that in glucose media, the cancer cells showed higher cell kill when clotrimazole was added to the media, followed by the cells being irradiated. Conclusion: Given the preliminary results it is validated that under higher concentrations of clotrimazole, in glucose media, A549 lung cancer cells exhibit a lower amount of survival. While all results have not yet been gathered. We anticipate that in galactose media the A549 cells will exhibit this effect to a much smaller degree, if at all.« less

  1. A flavonoid isolated from Streptomyces sp. (ERINLG-4) induces apoptosis in human lung cancer A549 cells through p53 and cytochrome c release caspase dependant pathway.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, C; Sangeetha, B; Duraipandiyan, V; Raj, M Karunai; Ignacimuthu, S; Al-Dhabi, N A; Balakrishna, K; Parthasarathy, K; Arulmozhi, N M; Arasu, M Valan

    2014-12-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anticancer activity of a flavonoid type of compound isolated from soil derived filamentous bacterium Streptomyces sp. (ERINLG-4) and to explore the molecular mechanisms of action. Cytotoxic properties of ethyl acetate extract was carried out against A549 lung cancer cell line using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cytotoxic properties of isolated compound were investigated in A549 lung cancer cell line, COLO320DM cancer cell line and Vero cells. The compound showed potent cytotoxic properties against A549 lung cancer cell line and moderate cytotoxic properties against COLO320DM cancer cell line. Isolated compound showed no toxicity up to 2000 μg/mL in Vero cells. So we have chosen the A549 lung cancer cell line for further anticancer studies. Intracellular visualization was done by using a laser scanning confocal microscope. Apoptosis was measured using DNA fragmentation technique. Treatment of the A549 cancer cells with isolated compound significantly reduced cell proliferation, increased formation of fragmented DNA and apoptotic body. Activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 indicated that compound may be inducing intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways. Bcl-2, p53, pro-caspases, caspase-3, caspase-9 and cytochrome c release were detected by western blotting analysis after compound treatment (123 and 164 μM). The activities of pro-caspases-3, caspase-9 cleaved to caspase-3 and caspase-9 gradually increased after the addition of isolated compound. But Bcl-2 protein was down regulated after treatment with isolated compound. Molecular docking studies showed that the compound bound stably to the active sites of caspase-3 and caspase-9. These results strongly suggest that the isolated compound induces apoptosis in A549 cancer cells via caspase activation through cytochrome c release from mitochondria. The present results might provide helpful suggestions for the design of

  2. Different glucocorticoids vary in their genomic and non-genomic mechanism of action in A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Croxtall, Jamie D; van Hal, Peter Th W; Choudhury, Qam; Gilroy, Derek W; Flower, Rod J

    2002-01-01

    We have examined the effects of 12 glucocorticoids as inhibitors of A549 cell growth. Other than cortisone and prednisone, all the glucocorticoids inhibited cell growth and this was strongly correlated (r=0.91) with inhibition of prostaglandin (PG)E2 formation. The molecular mechanism by which the active steroids prevented PGE2 synthesis was examined and three groups were identified. Group A drugs did not inhibit arachidonic acid release but inhibited the induction of COX2. Group B drugs were not able to inhibit the induction of COX2 but inhibited arachidonic acid release through suppression of cPLA2 activation. Group C drugs were apparently able to bring about both effects. The inhibitory actions of all steroids was dependent upon glucocorticoid receptor occupation since RU486 reversed their effects. However, group A acted through the NF-κB pathway to inhibit COX2 as the response was blocked by the inhibitor geldanamycin which prevents dissociation of GR and the effect was blocked by APDC, the NF-κB inhibitor. On the other hand, the group B drugs were not inhibited by NF-κB inhibitors or geldanamycin but their effect was abolished by the src inhibitor PP2. Group C drugs depended on both pathways. In terms of PGE2 generation, there is clear evidence of two entirely separate mechanisms of glucocorticoid action, one of which correlates with NF-κB mediated genomic actions whilst the other, depends upon rapid effects on a cell signalling system which does not require dissociation of GR. The implications for these findings are discussed. PMID:11815387

  3. A polysaccharide fraction of adlay seed (Coixlachryma-jobi L.) induces apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiangyi; Liu, Wei; Wu, Junhua

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A polysaccharide from adlay seed, its molecular mass, optical rotation and sugars was determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrated that a polysaccharide from adlay can induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polysaccharide inhibited the metabolism and proliferation of NSCLC A549 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polysaccharide may trigger apoptosis via the mitochondria-dependent pathway. -- Abstract: Different seed extracts from Coix lachryma-jobi (adlay seed) have been used for the treatment of various cancers in China, and clinical data support the use of these extracts for cancer therapy; however, their underlying molecular mechanisms have not been well defined. A polysaccharide fraction, designated asmore » CP-1, was extracted from the C.lachryma-jobi L. var. using the ethanol subsiding method. CP-1 induced apoptosis in A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner, as determined by MTT assay. Apoptotic bodies were observed in the cells by scanning electronic microscopy. Apoptosis and DNA accumulation during S-phase of the cell cycle were determined by annexin V-FITC and PI staining, respectively, and measured by flow cytometry. CP-1 also extended the comet tail length on single cell gel electrophoresis, and disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential. Further analysis by western blotting showed that the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 proteins was increased. Taken together, our results demonstrate that CP-1 is capable of inhibiting A549 cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis via a mechanism primarily involving the activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. The assay data suggest that in addition to its nutritional properties, CP-1 is a very promising candidate polysaccharide for the development of anti-cancer medicines.« less

  4. β-Sitosterol targets Trx/Trx1 reductase to induce apoptosis in A549 cells via ROS mediated mitochondrial dysregulation and p53 activation.

    PubMed

    Rajavel, Tamilselvam; Packiyaraj, Pandian; Suryanarayanan, Venkatesan; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar; Ruckmani, Kandasamy; Pandima Devi, Kasi

    2018-02-01

    β-Sitosterol (BS), a major bioactive constituent present in plants and vegetables has shown potent anticancer effect against many human cancer cells, but the underlying mechanism remain elusive on NSCLC cancers. We found that BS significantly inhibited the growth of A549 cells without harming normal human lung and PBMC cells. Further, BS treatment triggered apoptosis via ROS mediated mitochondrial dysregulation as evidenced by caspase-3 & 9 activation, Annexin-V/PI positive cells, PARP inactivation, loss of MMP, Bcl-2-Bax ratio alteration and cytochrome c release. Moreover, generation of ROS species and subsequent DNA stand break were found upon BS treatment which was reversed by addition of ROS scavenger (NAC). Indeed BS treatment increased p53 expression and its phosphorylation at Ser15, while silencing the p53 expression by pifithrin-α, BS induced apoptosis was reduced in A549 cells. Furthermore, BS induced apoptosis was also observed in NCI-H460 cells (p53 wild) but not in the NCI-H23 cells (p53 mutant). Down-regulation of Trx/Trx1 reductase contributed to the BS induced ROS accumulation and mitochondrial mediated apoptotic cell death in A549 and NCI-H460 cells. Taken together, our findings provide evidence for the novel anti-cancer mechanism of BS which could be developed as a promising chemotherapeutic drug against NSCLC cancers.

  5. Induction and repair of DNA cross-links induced by sulfur mustard in the A-549 cell line followed by a comet assay.

    PubMed

    Jost, Petr; Svobodova, Hana; Stetina, Rudolf

    2015-07-25

    Sulfur mustard is a highly toxic chemical warfare agent with devastating impact on intoxicated tissues. DNA cross-links are probably the most toxic DNA lesions induced in the cell by sulfur mustard. The comet assay is a very sensitive method for measuring DNA damage. In the present study using the A-549 lung cell line, the comet assay protocol was optimized for indirect detection of DNA cross-links induced by sulfur mustard. The method is based on the additional treatment of the assayed cells containing cross-links with the chemical mutagen, styrene oxide. Alkali-labile adducts of styrene oxide cause DNA breaks leading to the formation of comets. A significant dose-dependent reduction of DNA migration of the comet's tail was found after exposing cells to sulfur mustard, indicative of the amount of sulfur mustard induced cross-links. The remarkable decrease of % tail DNA could be observed as early as 5min following exposure to sulfur mustard and the maximal effect was found after 30min, when DNA migration was reduced to the minimum. Sulfur mustard preincubated in culture medium without cells lost its ability to induce cross-links and had a half-life of about 15min. Pre-incubation longer than 30min does not lead to a significant increase in cross-links when applied to cells. However, the amount of cross-links is decreased during further incubation due to repair. The current modification of the comet assay provides a useful tool for detecting DNA cross-links induced by sulfur mustard and could be used for detection of other DNA cross-linking agents such as chemotherapeutic drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Triptolide inhibits COX-2 expression by regulating mRNA stability in TNF-{alpha}-treated A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Lixin; Zhang, Shuang; Jiang, Zhenzhou

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Triptolide inhibited COX-2 expression and the half-life of COX-2 mRNA is decreased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The HuR protein shuttling from nucleus to cytoplasm is inhibited by triptolide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Triptolide inhibited 3 Prime -UTR fluorescence reporter gene activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer COX-2 mRNA binding to HuR is decreased by triptolide in pull-down experiments. -- Abstract: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) over-expression is frequently associated with human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and involved in tumor proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and resistance to apoptosis. In the present study, the effects of triptolide on COX-2 expression in A549 cells were investigated and triptolide was found to inhibit TNF-{alpha}-induced COX-2 expression.more » In our further studies, it was found that triptolide decreased the half-life of COX-2 mRNA dramatically and that it inhibited 3 Prime -untranslated region (3 Prime -UTR) fluorescence reporter gene activity. Meanwhile, triptolide inhibited the HuR shuttling from nucleus to cytoplasm. After triptolide treatment, decreased COX-2 mRNA in pull-down experiments with anti-HuR antibodies was observed, indicating that the decreased cytoplasmic HuR is responsible for the decreased COX-2 mRNA. Taken together, our results provided evidence for the first time that triptolide inhibited COX-2 expression by COX-2 mRNA stability modulation and post-transcriptional regulation. These results provide a novel mechanism of action for triptolide which may be important in the treatment of lung cancer.« less

  7. MicroRNA regulatory networks reflective of polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate-induced fibrosis in A549 human alveolar adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Da Young; Jeong, Mi Ho; Bang, In Jae; Kim, Ha Ryong; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2018-05-01

    Polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG-phosphate), an active component of humidifier disinfectant, is suspected to be a major cause of pulmonary fibrosis. Fibrosis, induced by recurrent epithelial damage, is significantly affected by epigenetic regulation, including microRNAs (miRNAs). The aim of this study was to investigate the fibrogenic mechanisms of PHMG-phosphate through the profiling of miRNAs and their target genes. A549 cells were treated with 0.75 μg/mL PHMG-phosphate for 24 and 48 h and miRNA microarray expression analysis was conducted. The putative mRNA targets of the miRNAs were identified and subjected to Gene Ontology analysis. After exposure to PHMG-phosphate for 24 and 48 h, 46 and 33 miRNAs, respectively, showed a significant change in expression over 1.5-fold compared with the control. The integrated analysis of miRNA and mRNA microarray results revealed the putative targets that were prominently enriched were associated with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cell cycle changes, and apoptosis. The dose-dependent induction of EMT by PHMG-phosphate exposure was confirmed by western blot. We identified 13 putative EMT-related targets that may play a role in PHMG-phosphate-induced fibrosis according to the Comparative Toxicogenomic Database. Our findings contribute to the comprehension of the fibrogenic mechanism of PHMG-phosphate and will aid further study on PHMG-phosphate-induced toxicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cytotoxic, Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects of Perillyl Alcohol and Its Biotransformation Metabolite on A549 and HepG2 Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Oturanel, Ceren E; Kıran, İsmail; Özşen, Özge; Çiftçi, Gülşen A; Atlı, Özlem

    2017-01-01

    A monoterpene, perillyl alcohol, has attracted attention in medicinal chemistry since it exhibited chemo-preventive and therapeutic properties against a variety of cancers. In the present work, it was aimed to obtain derivatives of perillyl alcohol through microbial biotransformation and investigate their anticancer activities against A549 and HepG2 cancer cell lines. Biotransformation studies were carried out in a α-medium for 7 days at 25oC. XTT assay was performed to investigate the anticancer activities of perillyl alcohol and its biotransformation metabolite, dehydroperillic acid, against A549 and HepG2 cell lines and their selectivity using healthy cell line, NIH/3T3. Cell proliferation ELISA, BRDU (colorimetric) assay was used for measurement of proliferation in replicative cells in which DNA synthesis occurs. Flow cytometric analyses were also carried out for measuring apoptotic cell percentages, caspase 3 activation and mitochondrial membrane potential. Biotransformation of perillyl alcohol with Fusarium culmorum yielded dehydroperillic acid in a yield of 20.4 %. In in vitro anticancer studies, perillyl alcohol was found to exert cytotoxicity against HepG2 cell line with an IC50 value of 409.2 μg/mL. However, this effect was not found to be selective because of its higher IC50 (250 μg/mL) value against NIH/3T3 cell line. On the other hand, dehydroperillic acid was found to be effective and also selective against A549 cell line with an IC50 value of 125 μg/mL and a selectivity index (SI) value of 400. Apoptosis inducing effects of dehydroperillic acid was better in A549 cell line. Dehydroperillic acid may be a good candidate for therapy of lung adenocarcinoma and may show this anticancer activity by inducing apoptosis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Mineral fiber-mediated activation of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase c in human bronchoalveolar carcinoma-derived alveolar epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Loreto, Carla; Carnazza, Maria Luisa; Cardile, Venera; Libra, Massimo; Lombardo, Laura; Malaponte, Grazia; Martinez, Giuseppina; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Papa, Veronica; Cocco, Lucio

    2009-02-01

    Given the role of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) isozymes in the control of cell growth and differentiation we were prompted to analyze the expression of some of these PLC in human bronchoalveolar carcinoma-derived alveolar epithelial A549 cells. The effects of several fluoro-edenite fibers were compared with those of tremolite, a member of the calcic amphibole group of asbestos that originates from Calabria (Italy), and crocidolite, that, due to its high toxicity, is one of the most studied asbestos amphiboles. Our data show an increased expression of both PLC beta1 and PLC gamma1 in A549 cells treated with asbestos-like fibers, hinting at a role of PLC signalling in those cancerous cells.

  10. Sulfamic and succinic acid derivatives of 25-OH-PPD and their activities to MCF-7, A-549, HCT-116, and BGC-823 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wu-Xi; Cao, Jia-Qing; Wang, Xu-De; Guo, Jun-Hui; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2017-02-15

    In the search for new anti-tumor agents with higher potency than our previously identified compound 1 (25-OH-PPD, 25-hydroxyprotopanaxadiol), 12 novel sulfamic and succinic acid derivatives that could improve water solubility and contribute to good drug potency and pharmacokinetic profiles were designed and synthesized. Their in vitro anti-tumor activities in MCF-7, A-549, HCT-116, and BGC-823 cell lines and one normal cell line were tested by standard MTT assay. Results showed that compared with compound 1, compounds 2, 3, and 7 exhibited higher cytotoxic activity on A-549 and BGC-823 cell lines, together with lower toxicity in the normal cell. In particular, compound 2 exhibited the best anti-tumor activity in the in vitro assays, which may provide valuable data for the research and development of new anti-tumor agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a transmission alpha particle dosimetry technique using A549 cells and a Ra-223 source for targeted alpha therapy.

    PubMed

    Al Darwish, R; Staudacher, A H; Li, Y; Brown, M P; Bezak, E

    2016-11-01

    In targeted radionuclide therapy, regional tumors are targeted with radionuclides delivering therapeutic radiation doses. Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) is of particular interest due to its ability to deliver alpha particles of high linear energy transfer within the confines of the tumor. However, there is a lack of data related to alpha particle distribution in TAT. These data are required to more accurately estimate the absorbed dose on a cellular level. As a result, there is a need for a dosimeter that can estimate, or better yet determine the absorbed dose deposited by alpha particles in cells. In this study, as an initial step, the authors present a transmission dosimetry design for alpha particles using A549 lung carcinoma cells, an external alpha particle emitting source (radium 223; Ra-223) and a Timepix pixelated semiconductor detector. The dose delivery to the A549 lung carcinoma cell line from a Ra-223 source, considered to be an attractive radionuclide for alpha therapy, was investigated in the current work. A549 cells were either unirradiated (control) or irradiated for 12, 1, 2, or 3 h with alpha particles emitted from a Ra-223 source positioned below a monolayer of A549 cells. The Timepix detector was used to determine the number of transmitted alpha particles passing through the A549 cells and DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in the form of γ-H2AX foci were examined by fluorescence microscopy. The number of transmitted alpha particles was correlated with the observed DNA DSBs and the delivered radiation dose was estimated. Additionally, the dose deposited was calculated using Monte Carlo code SRIM. Approximately 20% of alpha particles were transmitted and detected by Timepix. The frequency and number of γ-H2AX foci increased significantly following alpha particle irradiation as compared to unirradiated controls. The equivalent dose delivered to A549 cells was estimated to be approximately 0.66, 1.32, 2.53, and 3.96 Gy after 12, 1, 2, and 3 h

  12. Cytotoxic Effects of 24-Methylenecyloartanyl Ferulate on A549 Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer Cells through MYBBP1A Up-Regulation and AKT and Aurora B Kinase Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Doello, Sofia; Liang, Zhibin; Cho, Il Kyu; Kim, Jung Bong; Li, Qing X

    2018-04-11

    Lung cancer is the second most prevalent cancer. Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer. The low efficacy in current chemotherapies impels us to find new alternatives to prevent or treat NSCLC. Rice bran oil is cytotoxic to A549 cells, a NSCLC cell line. Here, we identified 24-methylenecyloartanyl ferulate (24-mCAF) as the main component responsible for the cytotoxicity in A549 cells. An iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics analysis revealed that 24-mCAF inhibits cell proliferation and activates cell death and apoptosis. 24-mCAF induces up-regulation of Myb binding protein 1A (MYBBP1A), a tumor suppressor that halts cancer progression. 24-mCAF inhibits the activity of AKT and Aurora B kinase, two Ser/Thr kinases involved in MYBBP1A regulation and that represent important targets in NSCLC. This study provides the first insight of the effect of 24-mCAF, the main component of rice bran oil, on A459 cells at the cellular and molecular levels.

  13. Inhibition of TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activation and IL-8 release in A549 cells with the proteasome inhibitor MG-132.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, M A; Wernke-Dollries, K; Stark, J M

    1998-08-01

    The working hypothesis of the studies described herein was that inhibition of proteasome-mediated IkappaB degradation would inhibit TNF-alpha-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation, interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene transcription, and IL-8 protein release in A549 cells. Mutational analysis of the 5' flanking region of the IL-8 gene confirmed that an intact NF-kappaB site is necessary for TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 gene transcription. The addition of TNF-alpha to A549 cells resulted in rapid loss of IkappaB from the cytoplasm of cells, associated with a corresponding increase in NF-kappaB-binding activity in nuclear extracts from the cells. However, pretreatment of the cells with the proteasome inhibitor N-cbz-Leu-Leu-leucinal (MG-132, 10 microM) reversed the effects of TNF-alpha on IL-8 release from A549 cells (as determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) and on IL-8 gene transcription (as determined with reporter-gene assays). MG-132 reversed the effects of TNF-alpha on IkappaB degradation as determined by Western blot analysis. IkappaB phosphorylation and ubiquination were not altered by MG-132, which implies that the effects of MG-132 were secondary to proteasome inhibition. MG-132 also reversed the increase in NF-kappaB binding in nuclear extracts from TNF-alpha-treated cells. These studies show that inhibition of proteasome-mediated IkappaB degradation results in inhibition of TNF-alpha induced IL-8 production in A549 cells by limiting NF-kappaB-mediated gene transcription.

  14. Pirfenidone inhibits TGF-β1-induced over-expression of collagen type I and heat shock protein 47 in A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pirfenidone is a novel anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory agent that inhibits the progression of fibrosis in animal models and in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We previously showed that pirfenidone inhibits the over-expression of collagen type I and of heat shock protein (HSP) 47, a collagen-specific molecular chaperone, in human lung fibroblasts stimulated with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in vitro. The increased numbers of HSP47-positive type II pneumocytes as well as fibroblasts were also diminished by pirfenidone in an animal model of pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin. The present study evaluates the effects of pirfenidone on collagen type I and HSP47 expression in the human alveolar epithelial cell line, A549 cells in vitro. Methods The expression of collagen type I, HSP47 and E-cadherin mRNAs in A549 cells stimulated with TGF-β1 was evaluated by Northern blotting or real-time PCR. The expression of collagen type I, HSP47 and fibronectin proteins was assessed by immunocytochemical staining. Results TGF-β1 stimulated collagen type I and HSP47 mRNA and protein expression in A549 cells, and pirfenidone significantly inhibited this process. Pirfenidone also inhibited over-expression of the fibroblast phenotypic marker fibronectin in A549 cells induced by TGF-β1. Conclusion We concluded that the anti-fibrotic effects of pirfenidone might be mediated not only through the direct inhibition of collagen type I expression but also through the inhibition of HSP47 expression in alveolar epithelial cells, which results in reduced collagen synthesis in lung fibrosis. Furthermore, pirfenidone might partially inhibit the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. PMID:22694981

  15. Suppression of A549 cell proliferation and metastasis by calycosin via inhibition of the PKC‑α/ERK1/2 pathway: An in vitro investigation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xu-Dong; Gu, Jun-Fei; Yuan, Jia-Rui; Feng, Liang; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2015-12-01

    The migration and invasion of lung cancer cells into the extracellular matrix contributes to the high mortality rates of lung cancer. The protein kinase C (PKC) and downstream signaling pathways are important in the invasion and migration of lung cancer cells. Calycosin (Cal), an effector chemical from Astragalus has been reported to affect the recurrence and metastasis of cancer cells via the regulation of the protein expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The inhibition of Cal on the migration and invasion of A549 cells was investigated in the present study. Cell viability and apoptosis assays were performed using MTT and flow cytometric analyses. A wound healing assay and Transwell invasion assay were performed to evaluate the effect of Cal on A549 cell migration and invasion. Invasion‑associated proteins, including MMP‑2, MMP‑9, E‑cadherin (E‑cad), integrin β1, PKC‑α and extracellular signal‑regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) were detected using western blotting. In addition, PKC‑α inhibitor, AEB071, and ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, were used to determine the association between the suppression of PKC‑α /ERK1/2 and invasion, MMP‑2, MMP‑9, E‑cad and integrin β1. Cal was observed to suppress cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. There were significant differences between the phorbol‑12‑myristate‑13‑acetate (TPA)‑induced A549 cells treated with Cal and the untreated cells in the rates of migration and invasion. The levels of MMP‑2, MMP‑9, E‑cad and integrin β1 in the TPA‑induced A549 cells changed markedly, compared with the untreated cells. In addition, the suppression of Cal was affected by the PKC inhibitor, AEB071, an ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059. The results of the present study indicated that Cal inhibited the proliferation, adhesion, migration and invasion of the TPA‑induced A549 cells. The Cal‑induced repression of PKC‑α/ERK1/2, increased the expression of E‑Cad and inhibited the expression

  16. Isolation and Characterization of Cancer Stem Cells of the Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (A549) Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Halim, Noor Hanis Abu; Zakaria, Norashikin; Satar, Nazilah Abdul; Yahaya, Badrul Hisham

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a major health problem worldwide. The failure of current treatments to completely eradicate cancer cells often leads to cancer recurrence and dissemination. Studies have suggested that tumor growth and spread are driven by a minority of cancer cells that exhibit characteristics similar to those of normal stem cells, thus these cells are called cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs are believed to play an important role in initiating and promoting cancer. CSCs are resistant to currently available cancer therapies, and understanding the mechanisms that control the growth of CSCs might have great implications for cancer therapy. Cancer cells are consist of heterogeneous population of cells, thus methods of identification, isolation, and characterisation of CSCs are fundamental to obtain a pure CSC populations. Therefore, this chapter describes in detail a method for isolating and characterizing a pure population of CSCs from heterogeneous population of cancer cells and CSCs based on specific cell surface markers.

  17. Neferine augments therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin through ROS- mediated non-canonical autophagy in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549 cells).

    PubMed

    Kalai Selvi, Sivalingam; Vinoth, Amirthalingam; Varadharajan, Thiyagarajan; Weng, Ching Feng; Vijaya Padma, Viswanadha

    2017-05-01

    Combination of dietary components with chemotherapy drugs is an emerging new strategy for cancer therapy to increase antitumor responses. Neferine, major bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the seed embryo of Nelumbo nucifera (Lotus). In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of the combinatorial regimen of neferine and cisplatin compared to cisplatin high dose in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. Co-treatment with neferine enhanced cisplatin-induced autophagy in A549 cells was accompanied by Acidic vesicular accumulation (AVO), enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH), down regulation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, conversion of LC3B-I to LC3B-II. This enhanced autophagy developed via a non-canonical mechanism that did not require Beclin-1, PI3KCIII. In conclusion, these results suggest that neferine enhances cisplatin -induced autophagic cancer cell death through downregulation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pro-survival pathway and ROS- mediated Beclin-1 and PI3K CIII independent autophagy in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549 cells). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. HMGA2 upregulation mediates Cd-induced migration and invasion in A549 cells and in lung tissues of mice.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huiyuan; Li, Zhiguo; Ge, Hong; Mei, Dan; Zhao, Lian; Jiang, Liping; Geng, Chengyan; Li, Qiujuan; Yao, Xiaofeng; Cao, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal widely found in a number of environmental matrices, and it induces serious adverse effects in various organs and tissues. In this study, the role of high mobility group A2 (HMGA2) in promoting migration and invasion in Cd-treated A549 cells and lung tissues of mice was investigated. Our findings showed that exposure to Cd (2 μM) for 48 h or subcutaneous injection of Cd daily for 6 weeks significantly enhanced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (p-FAK), and HMGA2 in A549 cells or lung tissues of mice. In A549 cells, HMGA2 knockdown significantly decreased expression of MMP-9, MMP-2 and p-FAK and inhibited the migration and invasion compared to that of only Cd-treated cultures. Overexpression of HMGA2 in HEK-293T cells increased expression of MMP-9, MMP-2 and p-FAK and enhanced the migration and invasion compared with the empty vector transfection group. In conclusion, upregulation of HMGA2 plays an important role in Cd-enhanced migration and invasion. Suppressing HMGA2 expression might have potential values in prevention of Cd-resulted toxicities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Copper(II) complexes with naringenin and hesperetin: cytotoxic activity against A 549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells and investigation on the mode of action.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, Lenka V; Gouvea, Ligiane R; Sousa, Anna C; Albuquerque, Ronniel M; Teixeira, Sarah Fernandes; de Azevedo, Ricardo Alexandre; Louro, Sonia R W; Ferreira, Adilson Kleber; Beraldo, Heloisa

    2016-02-01

    Copper(II) complexes [Cu(H2O)2 (L1)(phen)](ClO4) (1) and [Cu(H2O)(L2)(phen)](ClO4) (2) (HL1 = naringenin; HL2 = hesperetin) were obtained, in which an anionic flavonoid ligand is attached to the metal center along with 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) as co-ligand. Complexes (1) and (2) were assayed for their cytotoxic activity against A549 lung carcinoma and against normal lung fibroblasts (LL-24) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). We found IC50 = 16.42 µM (1) and IC50 = 5.82 µM (2) against A549 tumor cells. Complexes (1) and (2) exhibited slight specificity, being more cytotoxic against malignant than against non-malignant cells. 1 and 2 induced apoptosis on A549 cells in a mitochondria-independent pathway, and showed antioxidant activity. The antioxidant effect of the complexes could possibly improve their apoptotic action, most likely by a PI3K-independent reduction of autophagy. Complexes (1) and (2) interact in vitro with calf thymus DNA by an intercalative binding mode. EPR data indicated that 1 and 2 interact with human serum albumin (HSA) forming mixed ligand species.

  20. Effects of Human Parvovirus B19 and Bocavirus VP1 Unique Region on Tight Junction of Human Airway Epithelial A549 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chun-Ching; Shi, Ya-Fang; Yang, Jiann-Jou; Hsiao, Yuan-Chao; Tzang, Bor-Show; Hsu, Tsai-Ching

    2014-01-01

    As is widely recognized, human parvovirus B19 (B19) and human bocavirus (HBoV) are important human pathogens. Obviously, both VP1 unique region (VP1u) of B19 and HBoV exhibit the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-like enzymatic activity and are recognized to participate in the pathogenesis of lower respiratory tract illnesses. However, exactly how, both VP1u from B19 and HBoV affect tight junction has seldom been addressed. Therefore, this study investigates how B19-VP1u and HBoV-VP1u may affect the tight junction of the airway epithelial A549 cells by examining phospholipase A2 activity and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) as well as performing immunoblotting analyses. Experimental results indicate that TEER is more significantly decreased in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-α (10 ng), two dosages of B19-VP1u and BoV-VP1u (400 ng and 4000 ng) or bee venom PLA2 (10 ng) than that of the control. Accordingly, more significantly increased claudin-1 and decreased occludin are detected in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-α or both dosages of HBoV-VP1u than that of the control. Additionally, more significantly decreased Na+/K+ ATPase is observed in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-α, high dosage of B19-VP1u or both dosages of BoV-VP1u than that of the control. Above findings suggest that HBoV-VP1u rather than B19 VP1u likely plays more important roles in the disruption of tight junction in the airway tract. Meanwhile, this discrepancy appears not to be associated with the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-like enzymatic activity. PMID:25268969

  1. Inflammatory effects induced by selected limonene oxidation products: 4-OPA, IPOH, 4-AMCH in human bronchial (16HBE14o-) and alveolar (A549) epithelial cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lipsa, Dorelia; Leva, Paolo; Barrero-Moreno, Josefa; Coelhan, Mehmet

    2016-11-16

    Limonene, a monoterpene abundantly present in most of the consumer products (due to its pleasant citrus smell), easily undergoes ozonolysis leading to several limonene oxidation products (LOPs) such as 4-acetyl-1-methylcyclohexene (4-AMCH), 4-oxopentanal (4-OPA) and 3-isopropenyl-6-oxoheptanal (IPOH). Toxicological studies have indicated that human exposure to limonene and ozone can cause adverse airway effects. However, little attention has been paid to the potential health impact of specific LOPs, in particular of IPOH, 4-OPA and 4-AMCH. This study evaluates the cytotoxic effects of the selected LOPs on human bronchial epithelial (16HBE14o-) and alveolar epithelial (A549) cell lines by generating concentration-response curves using the neutral red uptake assay and analyzing the inflammatory response with a series of cytokines/chemokines. The cellular viability was mostly reduced by 4-OPA [IC 50 =1.6mM (A549) and 1.45mM (16HBE14o-)] when compared to IPOH [IC 50 =3.5mM (A549) and 3.4mM (16HBE14o-)] and 4-AMCH [IC 50 could not be calculated]. As a result from the inflammatory response, IPOH [50μM] induced an increase of both IL-6 and IL-8 secretion in A549 (1.5-fold change) and in 16HBE14o- (2.8- and 7-fold change respectively). 4-OPA [50μM] treatment of A549 increased IL-6 (1.4-times) and IL-8 (1.3-times) levels, while in 16HBE14o- had an opposite effect. A549 treated with 4-AMCH [50μM] elevate both IL-6 and IL-8 levels by 1.2-times, while in 16HBE14o- had an opposite effect. Based on our results, lung cellular injury characterized by inflammatory cytokine release was observed for both cell lines treated with the selected chemicals at concentrations that did not affect their cellular viability. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Depleted aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) reverses cisplatin resistance of human lung adenocarcinoma cell A549/DDP.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yunyan; Wu, Shuangshuang; Xu, Wei; Liang, Yan; Li, Yue; Zhao, Weihong; Wu, Jianqing

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin is the standard first-line chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, resistance to chemotherapy has been a major obstacle in the management of NSCLC. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) overexpression has been observed in a variety of cancers, including lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ALDH1A1 expression on cisplatin resistance and explore the mechanism responsible. Reverse transcriptase-PCR was applied to measure the messenger RNA expression of ALDH1A1, while Western blot assay was employed to evaluate the protein expression of ALDH1A1, B-cell lymphoma 2, Bcl-2-like protein 4, phospho-protein kinase B (p-AKT) and AKT. A short hairpin RNA was used to knockdown ALDH1A1 expression. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to determine the effect of ALDH1A1 decrease on cell viability. The cell apoptotic rate was tested using flow cytometry assay. ALDH1A1 is overexpressed in cisplatin resistant cell line A549/DDP, compared with A549. ALDH1A1 depletion significantly decreased A549/DDP proliferation, increased apoptosis, and reduced cisplatin resistance. In addition, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) / AKT pathway is activated in A549/DDP, and ALDH1A1 knockdown reduced the phosphorylation level of AKT. Moreover, the combination of ALDH1A1-short hairpin RNA and PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitor LY294002 markedly inhibited cell viability, enhanced apoptotic cell death, and increased cisplatin sensitivity. These results suggest that ALDH1A1 depletion could reverse cisplatin resistance in human lung cancer cell line A549/DDP, and may act as a potential target for the treatment of lung cancers resistant to cisplatin. © 2016 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Paraquat induces extrinsic pathway of apoptosis in A549 cells by induction of DR5 and repression of anti-apoptotic proteins, DDX3 and GSK3 expression.

    PubMed

    Hathaichoti, Sasiphen; Visitnonthachai, Daranee; Ngamsiri, Pronrumpa; Niyomchan, Apichaya; Tsogtbayar, Oyu; Wisessaowapak, Churaibhon; Watcharasit, Piyajit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2017-08-01

    Paraquat (PQ) is a bipyridyl derivative herbicide known to cause lung toxicity partly through induction of apoptosis. Here we demonstrated that PQ caused apoptosis in A549 cells. PQ increased cleavage of caspase-8 and Bid, indicating caspase-8 activation and truncated Bid, the two key mediators of extrinsic apoptosis. Additionally, PQ treatment caused an increase in DR5 (death receptor-5) and caspase-8 interaction, indicating formation of DISC (death-inducing signaling complex). These results indicate that PQ induces apoptosis through extrinsic pathway in A549 cells. Moreover, PQ drastically increased DR5 expression and membrane localization. Furthermore, PQ caused prominent concentration dependent reductions of DDX3 (the DEAD box protein-3) and GSK3 (glycogen synthase kinase-3) which can associate with DR5 and prevent DISC formation. Additionally, PQ decreased DR5-DDX3 interaction, suggesting a reduction of DDX3/GSK3 anti-apoptotic complex. Inhibition of GSK3, which is known to promote extrinsic apoptosis by its pharmacological inhibitor, BIO accentuated PQ-induced apoptosis. Moreover, GSK3 inhibition caused a further decrease in PQ-reduced DR5-DDX3 interaction. Taken together, these results suggest that PQ may induce extrinsic pathway of apoptosis in A549 cells through upregulation of DR5 and repression of anti-apoptotic proteins, DDX3/GSK3 leading to reduction of anti-apoptotic complex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tumor-targeting magnetic lipoplex delivery of short hairpin RNA suppresses IGF-1R overexpression of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chunmao; Ding, Chao; Kong, Minjian

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We compared lipofection with magnetofection about difference of transfection efficiency on delivery a therapeutic gene in vitro and in vivo. {yields} We investigated the difference of shRNA induced by magnetofection and lipofection into A549 cell and subcutaneous tumor to knockdown IGF-1R overexpressed in A549 cell and A549 tumor. {yields} We investigated in vivo shRNA silenced IGF-1R overexpression 24, 48, and 72 h after shRNA intravenous injection into tumor-bearing mice by way of magnetofection and lipofection. {yields} Our results showed that magnetofection could achieve therapeutic gene targeted delivery into special site, which contributed to targeted gene therapy of lungmore » cancers. -- Abstract: Liposomal magnetofection potentiates gene transfection by applying a magnetic field to concentrate magnetic lipoplexes onto target cells. Magnetic lipoplexes are self-assembling ternary complexes of cationic lipids with plasmid DNA associated with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). Type1insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R), an important oncogene, is frequently overexpressed in lung cancer and mediates cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. In this study, we evaluated the transfection efficiency (percentage of transfected cells) and therapeutic potential (potency of IGF-1R knockdown) of liposomal magnetofection of plasmids expressing GFP and shRNAs targeting IGF-1R (pGFPshIGF-1Rs) in A549 cells and in tumor-bearing mice as compared to lipofection using Lipofectamine 2000. Liposomal magnetofection provided a threefold improvement in transgene expression over lipofection and transfected up to 64.1% of A549 cells in vitro. In vitro, IGF-1R specific-shRNA transfected by lipofection inhibited IGF-1R protein by 56.1 {+-} 6% and by liposomal magnetofection by 85.1 {+-} 3%. In vivo delivery efficiency of the pGFPshIGF-1R plasmid into the tumor was significantly higher in the liposomal magnetofection group than in the

  5. Revealing the effect of 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol and curcumin on mPGES-1, GSK-3β and β-catenin pathway in A549 cell line.

    PubMed

    Eren, Demirpolat; Betul, Yerer Mukerrem

    2016-10-25

    In our study, anticancer effects of 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol from ginger and curcumin from turmeric were investigated and the results were compared with each other. We aimed to reveal their effects on microsomal prostaglandine E2 synthase 1 (mPGES-1) which is related with cancer progression and inflammation as well as β-catenin and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) that are the main components of Wnt/GSK3 pathway. As it is known activation of GSK-3β and high levels of mPGES-1 pathway leads to cell proliferation and aggravates cancer progression. Therefore both of them are potential targets for cancer therapy. 6-shogaol and 6-gingerol' s effect on this pathway is not known very well up to now while curcumin that is known as an mPGES-1 inhibitor has anticancer properties via this pathway and many other pathways. Besides being in Zingiberaceae family, ginger's 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol have a molecular similarity with turmeric's curcumin. In our study we investigated their effects using a popular non small lung cancer cell line named A549 which expresses mPGES-1 and has active GSK3β pathway. IL-1β was used for inducing mPGES-1 and enabling the cancer characteristics such as cell proliferation. So compounds that inactivates or decreases the level of these components might be potential anticancer agents. A549 cells were incubated with interleukin 1β (IL-1β) for 24 h in order to maintain mPGES-1 enzyme induction. Experiments were performed both on IL-1β and non-IL-1β group. Real time cell analysis was performed to determine the cytotoxicity. Samples for western blotting and RT-PCR were collected after 24 h incubation with compounds to determine the amount of mPGES-1, GSK-3β, p-GSK-3β, β-catenin protein and mRNA. PGE2 which is the end product of mPGES-1 was measured by using ELISA kit. As a result of cell profile assay, cells exposed to IL-1β proliferate faster than non-IL-1β ones. This shows that induced mPGES-1 might play a role through GSK3β pathway

  6. ROS-dependent Atg4 upregulation mediated autophagy plays an important role in Cd-induced proliferation and invasion in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wei; Sui, Linlin; Yan, Xiaona; Xie, Huaying; Jiang, Liping; Geng, Chengyan; Li, Qiujuan; Yao, Xiaofeng; Kong, Ying; Cao, Jun

    2018-01-05

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal that is widely used in industry and agriculture. In this study the role of autophagy in Cd-induced proliferation, migration and invasion was investigated in A549 cells. Exposure to Cd (2 μM) significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, induced autophagy and enhanced cell growth, migration and invasion in A549 cells. Western blot analysis showed that the expression of autophagy-related proteins, LC3-II, Beclin-1 and Atg4 and invasion-related protein MMP-9 were upregulated in Cd-treated cells. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) markedly prevented Cd-induced proliferation of A549 cells and the increasing protein level of LC3-II and Atg4. Blocking Atg4 expression by siRNA strongly reduced Beclin-1 and LC3-II protein expression and the number of autophagosome positive cells induced by Cd. Furthermore, Atg4 siRNA increased the number of cells at G0/G1 phase, reduced the number of S and G2/M phase cells, and inhibited Cd-induced cell growth significantly compared with that of Cd-treated Control siRNA cells. 3-MA pretreatment increased the percentage of G0/G1 phase cells, decreased S phase and G2/M phase percentage, and inhibited Cd-induced cell growth remarkably compared with that of only Cd-treated cells. Knocking down Atg4 reduced the number of cells that migrated and invaded through the Matrigel matrix significantly and led to a significant decrease of MMP-9 expression. In addition, in lung tissues of Cd-treated BALB/c mice, the increased expression of LC3-II, Beclin-1 and Atg4 were observed. Taken together, our results demonstrated that ROS-dependent Atg4-mediated autophagy plays an important role in Cd-induced cell growth, migration and invasion in A549 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of agglomeration state of silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on cellular response of HepG2, A549 and THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Lankoff, Anna; Sandberg, Wiggo J; Wegierek-Ciuk, Aneta; Lisowska, Halina; Refsnes, Magne; Sartowska, Bożena; Schwarze, Per E; Meczynska-Wielgosz, Sylwia; Wojewodzka, Maria; Kruszewski, Marcin

    2012-02-05

    Nanoparticles (NPs) occurring in the environment rapidly agglomerate and form particles of larger diameters. The extent to which this abates the effects of NPs has not been clarified. The motivation of this study was to examine how the agglomeration/aggregation state of silver (20nm and 200nm) and titanium dioxide (21nm) nanoparticles may affect the kinetics of cellular binding/uptake and ability to induce cytotoxic responses in THP1, HepG2 and A549 cells. Cellular binding/uptake, metabolic activation and cell death were assessed by the SSC flow cytometry measurements, the MTT-test and the propidium iodide assay. The three types of particles were efficiently taken up by the cells, decreasing metabolic activation and increasing cell death in all the cell lines. The magnitude of the studied endpoints depended on the agglomeration/aggregation state of particles, their size, time-point and cell type. Among the three cell lines tested, A549 cells were the most sensitive to these particles in relation to cellular binding/uptake. HepG2 cells showed a tendency to be more sensitive in relation to metabolic activation. THP-1 cells were the most resistant to all three types of particles in relation to all endpoints tested. Our findings suggest that particle features such as size and agglomeration status as well as the type of cells may contribute to nanoparticles biological impact. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of Anti-Metastatic Potential of the Combination of Fisetin with Paclitaxel on A549 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Klimaszewska-Wiśniewska, Anna; Hałas-Wiśniewska, Marta; Grzanka, Alina; Grzanka, Dariusz

    2018-02-27

    The identification and development of new agents with a therapeutic potential as well as novel drug combinations are gaining the attention of scientists and clinicians as a plausible approach to improve therapeutic regimens for chemoresistant tumors. We have recently reported that the flavonoid fisetin (FIS), at physiologically attainable concentrations, acts synergistically with clinically achievable doses of paclitaxel (PTX) to produce growth inhibitory and pro-death effects on A549 human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. To further investigate a potential therapeutic efficacy of the combination of fisetin with paclitaxel, we decided to assess its impact on metastatic capability of A549 cells as well as its toxicity toward normal human lung fibroblast. Cell viability, cell migration, and invasion were measured by thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, wound healing assay, and Transwell chamber assay, respectively. The expression of metastasis-related genes was assessed with quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Actin and vimentin filaments were examined under the fluorescence microscope. The combination of FIS and PTX significantly reduced cancer cell migration and invasion, at least partially, through a marked rearrangement of actin and vimentin cytoskeleton and the modulation of metastasis-related genes. Most of these effects of the combination treatment were significantly greater than those of individual agents. Paclitaxel alone was even more toxic to normal cells than the combination of this drug with the flavonoid, suggesting that FIS may provide some protection against PTX-mediated cytotoxicity. The combination of FIS and PTX is expected to have a synergistic anticancer efficacy and a significant potential for the treatment of NSCLC, however, further in vitro and in vivo studies are required to confirm this preliminary evidence.

  9. In vitro studies data on anticancer activity of Caesalpinia sappan L. heartwood and leaf extracts on MCF7 and A549 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Naik Bukke, Arunkumar; Nazneen Hadi, Fathima; Babu, K Suresh; Shankar, P Chandramati

    2018-08-01

    This article contains data on in vitro cytotoxicity activity of chloroform, methanolic and water extracts of leaf and heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan L. a medicinal plant against Breast cancer (MCF-7) and Lung cancer (A-549) cells. This data shows that Brazilin A, a natural bioactive compound in heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan L. induced cell death in breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. The therapeutic property was further proved by docking the Brazilin A molecule against BCL-2 protein (an apoptotic inhibitor) using auto dock tools.

  10. Revelation of Different Nanoparticle-Uptake Behavior in Two Standard Cell Lines NIH/3T3 and A549 by Flow Cytometry and Time-Lapse Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Jochums, André; Friehs, Elsa; Sambale, Franziska; Lavrentieva, Antonina; Bahnemann, Detlef; Scheper, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The uptake of nanomaterials into different cell types is a central pharmacological issue for the determination of nanotoxicity as well as for the development of drug delivery strategies. Most responses of the cells depend on their intracellular interactions with nanoparticles (NPs). Uptake behavior can be precisely investigated in vitro, with sensitive high throughput methods such as flow cytometry. In this study, we investigated two different standard cell lines, human lung carcinoma (A549) and mouse fibroblast (NIH/3T3) cells, regarding their uptake behavior of titanium dioxide NPs. Cells were incubated with different concentrations of TiO2 NPs and samples were taken at certain time points to compare the uptake kinetics of both cell lines. Samples were analyzed with the help of flow cytometry by studying changes in the side and forward scattering signal. To additionally enable a detection via fluorescence, NPs were labeled with the fluorescent dye fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and propidium iodide (PI). We found that NIH/3T3 cells take up the studied NPs more efficiently than A549 cells. These findings were supported by time-lapse microscopic imaging of the cells incubated with TiO2 NPs. Our results confirm that the uptake behavior of individual cell types has to be considered before interpreting any results of nanomaterial studies. PMID:29051447

  11. Inhibition of mitogen activated protein kinases increases the sensitivity of A549 lung cancer cells to the cytotoxicity induced by a kava chalcone analog

    PubMed Central

    Warmka, Janel K.; Solberg, Eric L.; Zeliadt, Nicholette A.; Srinivasan, Balasubramanian; Charlson, Aaron T.; Xing, Chengguo; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V.

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in investigating the biological activity of chalcones, a major class of compounds found in the beverage kava, in order to develop potent and selective chemopreventive candidates. Consumption of kava in the South Pacific Islands is inversely correlated with cancer incidence, even among smokers. Accordingly, chalcones have anti-cancer activities in animal and cell culture models. To investigate signaling pathways that affect chalcone action we studied a potent analog, (E)-3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (chalcone-24). Chalcone-24 was selected from a series of chalcone analogs that were synthesized based on the structures derived from flavokawain compounds found in kava, and screened in A549 lung cancer cells for induction of cytotoxicity and inhibition of NF-κB, a transcription factor associated with cell survival. Incubation of A549 cells with chalcone-24 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability, inhibition of NF-κB, activation of caspases, and activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK); ERK1/2 and JNK are mitogen activated protein kinases that play central roles in regulating cell fate. Pharmacological inhibitors of ERK1/2 or JNK increased the sensitivity of A549 cells to chalcone-24-induced cytotoxicity, without affecting NF-κB or caspase activity. These results will help refine the synthesis of chalcone analogs to maximize the combination of actions required to prevent and treat cancer. PMID:22771807

  12. Inhibition of mitogen activated protein kinases increases the sensitivity of A549 lung cancer cells to the cytotoxicity induced by a kava chalcone analog.

    PubMed

    Warmka, Janel K; Solberg, Eric L; Zeliadt, Nicholette A; Srinivasan, Balasubramanian; Charlson, Aaron T; Xing, Chengguo; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V

    2012-08-03

    We are interested in investigating the biological activity of chalcones, a major class of compounds found in the beverage kava, in order to develop potent and selective chemopreventive candidates. Consumption of kava in the South Pacific Islands is inversely correlated with cancer incidence, even among smokers. Accordingly, chalcones have anti-cancer activities in animal and cell culture models. To investigate signaling pathways that affect chalcone action we studied a potent analog, (E)-3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (chalcone-24). Chalcone-24 was selected from a series of chalcone analogs that were synthesized based on the structures derived from flavokawain compounds found in kava, and screened in A549 lung cancer cells for induction of cytotoxicity and inhibition of NF-κB, a transcription factor associated with cell survival. Incubation of A549 cells with chalcone-24 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability, inhibition of NF-κB, activation of caspases, and activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK); ERK1/2 and JNK are mitogen activated protein kinases that play central roles in regulating cell fate. Pharmacological inhibitors of ERK1/2 or JNK increased the sensitivity of A549 cells to chalcone-24-induced cytotoxicity, without affecting NF-κB or caspase activity. These results will help refine the synthesis of chalcone analogs to maximize the combination of actions required to prevent and treat cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles-mediated in vitro cytotoxicity does not induce Hsp70 and Grp78 expression in human bronchial epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Aueviriyavit, Sasitorn; Phummiratch, Duangkamol; Kulthong, Kornphimol; Maniratanachote, Rawiwan

    2012-10-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO(2)NPs) are increasingly being used in various industrial applications including the production of paper, plastics, cosmetics and paints. With the increasing number of nano-related products, the concern of governments and the general public about the health and environmental risks, especially with regard to occupational and other environmental exposure, are gradually increasing. However, there is insufficient knowledge about the actual affects upon human health and the environment, as well as a lack of suitable biomarkers for assessing TiO(2)NP-induced cytotoxicity. Since the respiratory tract is likely to be the main exposure route of industrial workers to TiO(2)NPs, we investigated the cytotoxicity of the anatase and rutile crystalline forms of TiO(2)NPs in A549 cells, a human alveolar type II-like epithelial cell line. In addition, we evaluated the transcript and protein expression levels of two heat shock protein (HSP) members, Grp78 and Hsp70, to ascertain their suitability as biomarkers of TiO(2)NP-induced toxicity in the respiratory system. Ultrastructural observations confirmed the presence of TiO(2)NPs inside cells. In vitro exposure of A549 cells to the anatase or rutile forms of TiO(2)NPs led to cell death and induced intracellular ROS generation in a dose-dependent manner, as determined by the MTS and dichlorofluorescein (DCF) assays, respectively. In contrast, the transcript and protein expression levels of Hsp70 and Grp78 did not change within the same TiO(2)NPs dose range (25-500 μg/ml). Thus, whilst TiO(2)NPs can cause cytotoxicity in A549 cells, and thus potentially in respiratory cells, Hsp70 and Grp78 are not suitable biomarkers for evaluating the acute toxicological effects of TiO(2)NPs in the respiratory system.

  14. Selective Cytotoxicity and Combined Effects of Camptothecin or Paclitaxel with Sodium-R-Alpha Lipoate on A549 Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Sherif; Gao, Dayuan; Sinko, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer and remains the deadliest form of cancer in the US and worldwide. New therapies are highly sought after to improve outcome. The effect of sodium-R-alpha lipoate on camptothecin- and paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity was evaluated on A549 NSCLC and BEAS-2B ‘normal’ lung epithelial cells. Combination indices (CI) and dose reduction indices (DRI) were investigated by studying the cytotoxicity of sodium-R-alpha lipoate (0–16 mM), camptothecin (0–25 nM) and paclitaxel (0–0.06 nM) alone and in combination. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium-bromide (MTT) was used to assess cytotoxicity. The combinational cytotoxic effects of sodium-R-alpha lipoate with camptothecin or paclitaxel were analyzed using a simulation of dose effects (CompuSyn®3.01). The effects of sodium-R-alpha lipoate on camptothecin- and paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity varied based on concentrations and treatment times. It was found that sodium-R-alpha lipoate wasn’t cytotoxic towards BEAS-2B cells at any of the concentrations tested. For A549 cells, CIs [(additive (CI=1); synergistic (CI<1); antagonistic (CI>1)] were lower and DRIs were higher for the camptothecin/sodium-R-alpha-lipoate combination (CI=~0.17–1.5; DRI=~2.2–22.6) than the paclitaxel/sodium-R-alpha-lipoate combination (CI=~0.8–9.9; DRI=~0.10–5.8) suggesting that the camptothecin regimen was synergistic and that the addition of sodium-R-alpha lipoate was important for reducing the camptothecin dose and potential for adverse effects. PMID:24063429

  15. Cancer Associated Fibroblast-Derived Hepatocyte Growth Factor Inhibits the Paclitaxel-Induced Apoptosis of Lung Cancer A549 Cells by Up-Regulating the PI3K/Akt and GRP78 Signaling on a Microfluidic Platform

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhiyun; He, Tianrui; Li, Encheng; Guo, Zhe; Liu, Fen; Jiang, Chunmeng; Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Tumor stroma and growth factors provide a survival environment to tumor cells and can modulate their chemoresistance by dysregulating several signal pathways. In this study, we fabricated a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to investigate the impact of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) from cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) on the Met/PI3K/AKT activation, glucose regulatory protein (GRP78) expression and the paclitaxel-induced A549 cell apoptosis. With a concentration gradient generator, the assembled chip was able to reconstruct a tumor microenvironment in vitro. We found high levels of HGF in the supernatants of CAF and the CAF matrix from the supernatants of activated HFL1 fibroblasts or HGF enhanced the levels of Met, PI3K and AKT phosphorylation and GRP78 expression in A549 cells cultured in a 3D cell chamber, which was abrogated by anti-HGF. Inhibition of Met attenuated the CAF matrix-enhanced PI3K/AKT phosphorylation and GRP78 expression while inhibition of PI3K reduced GRP78 expression, but not Met phosphorylation in A549 cells. Inhibition of GRP78 failed to modulate the CAF matrix-enhanced Met/PI3K/AKT phosphorylation in A549 cells. Furthermore, inhibition of PI3K or GRP78 enhanced spontaneous and paclitaxel-induced A549 cell apoptosis. Moreover, treatment with the CAF matrix inhibited spontaneous and medium or high dose of paclitaxel-induced A549 cell apoptosis. Inhibition of PI3K or GRP78 attenuated the CAF matrix-mediated inhibition on paclitaxel-induced A549 cell apoptosis. Our data indicated that HGF in the CAF matrix activated the Met/PI3K/AKT and up-regulated GRP78 expression, promoting chemoresistance to paclitaxel-mediated apoptosis in A549 cells. Our findings suggest that the microfluidic system may represent an ideal platform for signaling research and drug screening. PMID:26115510

  16. MicroRNA-9 functions as a tumor suppressor and enhances radio-sensitivity in radio-resistant A549 cells by targeting neuropilin 1.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Kai; Shao, Li Hong; Zhang, Hai Qin; Jin, Linlin; Wei, Wei; Dong, Zhuo; Zhu, Yue Quan; Wu, Ning; Jin, Shun Zi; Xue, Li Xiang

    2018-03-01

    Radiotherapy is commonly used to treat lung cancer but may not kill all cancer cells, which may be attributed to the radiotherapy resistance that often occurs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). At present, the molecular mechanism of radio-resistance remains unclear. Neuropilin 1 (NRP1), a co-receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), was demonstrated to be associated with radio-resistance of NSCLC cells via the VEGF-phosphoinositide 3-kinase-nuclear factor-κB pathway in our previous study. It was hypothesized that certain microRNAs (miRs) may serve crucial functions in radio-sensitivity by regulating NRP1. Bioinformatics predicted that NRP1 was a potential target of miR-9, and this was validated by luciferase reporter assays. Functionally, miR-9-transfected A549 cells exhibited a decreased proliferation rate, increased apoptosis rate and attenuated migratory and invasive abilities. Additionally, a high expression of miR-9 also significantly enhanced the radio-sensitivity of A549 cells in vitro and in vivo . These data improve understanding of the mechanisms of cell radio-resistance, and suggest that miR-9 may be a molecular target for the prediction of radio-sensitivity in NSCLC.

  17. Ghrelin promotes human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cell proliferation through PI3K/Akt/mTOR/P70S6K and ERK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jianhua; Yao, Jianfeng; Huang, Rongfu; Wang, Yueqin; Jia, Min; Huang, Yan

    2018-04-06

    Ghrelin is a gastric acyl-peptide that plays an important role in cell proliferation. In the present study, we explored the role of ghrelin in A549cell proliferation and the possible molecular mechanisms. We found that ghrelin promotes A549cell proliferation, knockdown of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) attenuated A549cell proliferation caused by ghrelin. Ghrelin induced the rapid phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, ERK, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and P70S6K. PI3K inhibitor (LY 294002), ERK inhibitor (PD98059) and mTOR inhibitor (Rapamycin) inhibited ghrelin-induced A549cell proliferation. Moreover, GHSR siRNA inhibited phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, ERK, mTOR and P70S6K induced by ghrelin. Akt and mTOR/P70S6K phosphorylation was inhibited by LY 294002 but not by PD98059. These results indicate that ghrelin promotes A549cell proliferation via GHSR-dependent PI3K/Akt/mTOR/P70S6K and ERK signaling pathways. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhanced sensitivity of A549 cells to the cytotoxic action of anticancer drugs via suppression of Nrf2 by procyanidins from Cinnamomi Cortex extract

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnuma, Tomokazu; Matsumoto, Takashi; Itoi, Ayano

    Highlights: {yields} We found a novel inhibitor of Nrf2 known as a chemoresistance factor. {yields} Overexpressed Nrf2 in lung cancer cells was suppressed by Cinnamomi Cortex extract. {yields} Cytotoxic action of anticancer drugs in cells treated with the extract was enhanced. {yields} Procyanidin tetramers and pentamers were active components in suppressing Nrf2. -- Abstract: Nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an important cytoprotective transcription factor because Nrf2-regulated enzymes play a key role in antioxidant and detoxification processes. Recent studies have reported that lung cancer cells overexpressing Nrf2 exhibit increased resistance to chemotherapy. Suppression of overexpressed Nrf2 is needed for amore » new therapeutic approach against lung cancers. In the present study, we found that Cinnamomi Cortex extract (CCE) has an ability to suppress Nrf2-regulated enzyme activity and Nrf2 expression in human lung cancer A549 cells with high Nrf2 activity. Moreover, we demonstrated that CCE significantly enhances sensitivity of A549 cells to the cytotoxic action of doxorubicin and etoposide as well as increasing the intracellular accumulation of both drugs. These results suggest that CCE might be an effective concomitant agent to reduce anticancer drug resistance derived from Nrf2 overexpression. Bioactivity-guided fractionation revealed that procyanidin tetramers and pentamers contained in CCE were active components in suppressing Nrf2.« less

  19. Intracellular dynamics and fate of polystyrene nanoparticles in A549 Lung epithelial cells monitored by image (cross-) correlation spectroscopy and single particle tracking.

    PubMed

    Deville, Sarah; Penjweini, Rozhin; Smisdom, Nick; Notelaers, Kristof; Nelissen, Inge; Hooyberghs, Jef; Ameloot, Marcel

    2015-10-01

    Novel insights in nanoparticle (NP) uptake routes of cells, their intracellular trafficking and subcellular targeting can be obtained through the investigation of their temporal and spatial behavior. In this work, we present the application of image (cross-) correlation spectroscopy (IC(C)S) and single particle tracking (SPT) to monitor the intracellular dynamics of polystyrene (PS) NPs in the human lung carcinoma A549 cell line. The ensemble kinetic behavior of NPs inside the cell was characterized by temporal and spatiotemporal image correlation spectroscopy (TICS and STICS). Moreover, a more direct interpretation of the diffusion and flow detected in the NP motion was obtained by SPT by monitoring individual NPs. Both techniques demonstrate that the PS NP transport in A549 cells is mainly dependent on microtubule-assisted transport. By applying spatiotemporal image cross-correlation spectroscopy (STICCS), the correlated motions of NPs with the early endosomes, late endosomes and lysosomes are identified. PS NPs were equally distributed among the endolysosomal compartment during the time interval of the experiments. The cotransport of the NPs with the lysosomes is significantly larger compared to the other cell organelles. In the present study we show that the complementarity of ICS-based techniques and SPT enables a consistent elaborate model of the complex behavior of NPs inside biological systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The production of reactive oxygen species and the mitochondrial membrane potential are modulated during onion oil-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin-jiang; Stahl, Thorsten; Hu, Ying; Kassie, Fekadu; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2006-03-01

    Protective effects of Allium vegetables against cancers have been shown extensively in experimental animals and epidemiologic studies. We investigated cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis by onion oil extracted from Allium cepa, a widely consumed Allium vegetable, in human lung cancer A549 cells. GC/MS analysis suggested that propyl sulfides but not allyl sulfides are major sulfur-containing constituents of onion oil. Onion oil at 12.5 mg/L significantly induced apoptosis (13% increase of apoptotic cells) as indicated by sub-G1 DNA content. It also caused cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase; 25 mg/L onion oil increased the percentage of G2/M cells almost 6-fold compared with the dimethyl sulfoxide control. The action of onion oil may occur via a reactive oxygen species-dependent pathway because cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were blocked by the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and exogenous glutathione. Marked collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential suggested that dysfunction of the mitochondria may be involved in the oxidative burst and apoptosis induced by onion oil. Expression of phospho-cdc2 and phospho-cyclin B1 were downregulated by onion oil, perhaps accounting for the G2/M arrest. Overall, these results suggest that onion oil may exert chemopreventive action by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in tumor cells.

  1. Analysis of A549 cell proteome alteration in response to recombinant influenza A virus nucleoprotein and its interaction with cellular proteins, a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, D; Tiwari, K; Rajala, M S

    Influenza A virus undergoes frequent changes of antigenicity and contributes to seasonal epidemics or unpredictable pandemics. Nucleoprotein, encoded by gene segment 5, is an internal protein of the virus and is conserved among strains of different host origins. In the current study, we analyzed the differentially expressed proteins in A549 cells transiently transfected with the recombinant nucleoprotein of influenza A virus by 2D gel electrophoresis. The resolved protein spots on gel were identified by MALDI-TOF/Mass spectrometry analysis. The majority of the host proteins detected to be differentially abundant in recombinant nucleoprotein-expressing cells as compared to vector-transfected cells are the proteins of metabolic pathways, glycolytic enzymes, molecular chaperones and cytoskeletal proteins. We further demonstrated the interaction of virus nucleoprotein with some of the identified host cellular proteins. In vitro binding assay carried out using the purified recombinant nucleoprotein (pET29a+NP-His) and A549 cell lysate confirmed the interaction between nucleoprotein and host proteins, such as alpha enolase 1, pyruvate kinase and β-actin. The preliminary data of our study provides the information on virus nucleoprotein interaction with proteins involved in glycolysis. However, studies are ongoing to understand the significance of these interactions in modulating the host factors during virus replication.

  2. In vitro cytotoxicity effect and antibacterial performance of human lung epithelial cells A549 activity of Zinc oxide doped TiO2 nanocrystals: Investigation of bio-medical application by chemical method.

    PubMed

    Kaviyarasu, K; Geetha, N; Kanimozhi, K; Maria Magdalane, C; Sivaranjani, S; Ayeshamariam, A; Kennedy, J; Maaza, M

    2017-05-01

    We report the synthesis of high quality ZnO doped TiO 2 nanocrystals by chemical method at room temperature (RT), it can cause serious oxidative stress and DNA damage to human lung epithelial cells (A549) lines. Our aim in this study, to reduce the cytotoxicity effect of ZnO doped TiO 2 nanocrystals are widely in biological fields. Several studies have been performed to understand the influence of ZnO doped titanium dioxide (TiO 2 -NPs) on cell function; however the effects of nanoparticle against to exposure on the cell membrane have been duly addressed fascinatingly so far. However, In this interaction, which may alter cell metabolism and integrity, it is one of the importance to understand the modifications of the cell membrane, mechanisms of pulmonary A549 cell lines nanoparticles were uptake and the molecular pathway during the initial cell responses are still unclear and much more investigative efforts are need to properly characterize the ZnO doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles were reported successfully. In particular of the epithelial cells, upon particles are exposed human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549) to various concentrations of composition, structure and morphology of the nanocrystals were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). XRD assessed the crystal structure of the nanocrystals which identified peaks associated with (002), (100) and (101) planes of hexagonal wurtzite-type ZnO with lattice constants of a=b=3.249Å and c=5.219Å. The IR results showed high purity of products and indicated that the nanocrystals are made up of TiO and ZnO bonds. The Photoluminescence (PL) spectra are dominated by a strong narrow band edge emission tunable in the blue region of the visible spectra indicating a narrow size distribution of ZnO/TiO 2 nanocrystals which exhibits antibacterial activity over a broad range of bacterial species and in particular against Stre. Mut where it out competes four other

  3. SiRNA/DOX lodeded chitosan based nanoparticles: Development, Characterization and in vitro evaluation on A549 lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Seifi-Najmi, M; Hajivalili, M; Safaralizadeh, R; Sadreddini, S; Esmaeili, S; Razavi, R; Ahmadi, M; Mikaeili, H; Baradaran, B; Shams-Asenjan, K; Yousefi, M

    2016-09-30

    High-mobility group AT-hook2 (HMGA2), involved in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, has a pivotal role in lung cancer metastasis. Lung cancer therapy with HMGA2 suppressing small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been introduced recently while doxorubicin (DOX) has been used as a frequent cancer chemotherapy agent. Both reagents have been faced with obstacles in clinic which make them ineffective. NanoParticles (NPs) provided a platform for efficient co delivery of the anticancer drugs. The aim of this study was production and in vitro characterization of different pharmacological groups (siRNA, DOX or siRNA-DOX) of carboxymethyl dextran thrimethyl chitosan nanoparticles (CMDTMChiNPs) on cytotoxicity, gene expression, apoptosis and migration of metastatic lung cancer cell line (A-549). CMDTMChiNPs were synthesized and encapsulated with siRNA, DOX or siRNA-DOX. Then the effects of HMGA2 siRNA and DOX co delivery was assessed in A549 viability and target genes (HMGA2, Ecadherin, vimentin and MMP9) by MTT and real time PCR, respectively. In addition capability of apoptosis induction and anti-migratory features of formulated NPs were analyzed by flowcytometry and wound healing assays. SiRNA-DOX-CMDTM ChiNPs approximate size were 207±5 with poly dispersity index (PDI) and zeta potential of 0.4 and 16.3±0.3, respectively. NPs loaded with DOX and siRNA were the most efficient drug formulations in A549 cell cytotoxicity, altering of EMT markers, apoptosis induction and migration inhibition. Generally our results showed that co delivery of HMGA2 siRNA and DOX by novel designed CMDTMChiNPs is a new therapeutic approach with great potential efficiency for lung cancer treatment.

  4. Migration-stimulating factor (MSF) is over-expressed in non-small cell lung cancer and promotes cell migration and invasion in A549 cells over-expressing MSF

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Xuefeng, E-mail: dengxfdoctor@hotmail.com; Department of Cardio-thoracic Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Academy of Military Medical Sciences; Ma, Qunfeng

    Migration-stimulating factor (MSF), an oncofetal truncated isoform of fibronectin, is a potent stimulator of cell invasion. However, its distribution and motogenic role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have never been identified. In this study, real-time PCR and immunohistochemical staining (IHC) were performed to detect MSF mRNA and protein levels in tumor tissues and matched adjacent tumor-free tissues. Furthermore, to examine the effect of MSF on invasiveness, MSF was upregulated in A549 cells. The invasiveness and viability of A549 cells were then determined using a transwell migration assay and the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) viability assays, respectively. The expression level ofmore » MSF in NSCLC tissue was markedly higher than in matched adjacent tumor-free tissue. Additionally, the level of MSF protein expression in stage III and IV NSCLC samples was higher than in stage I and II NSCLC samples. More importantly, we also demonstrated that migration and invasion of A549 cells increased substantially after upregulating MSF, although proliferation remained unchanged. Meanwhile, we found no correlation between increasing motility and invasiveness of MSF-overexpressing cells and expression levels and activities of matrix metalloprotease MMP-2 and MMP-9. Our current study shows that MSF plays a role in migration and invasion of A549 cells and suggests that MSF may be a potential biomarker of NSCLC progression. - Highlights: • MSF expression was upregulated in NSCLC and correlated with TNM stages. • MSF may be a new biomarker for NSCLC progression. • MSF promoted migration and invasion in A549 cells, independent of MMP-2/MMP-9 expression.« less

  5. TRAIL overexpression co-regulated by Egr1 and HRE enhances radiosensitivity of hypoxic A549 cells depending on its apoptosis inducing role.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan-Ming; Fang, Fang; Li, Xin; Yu, Lei; Wang, Zhi-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can upregulate the expression levels of TRAIL and enhance tumor cell apoptosis. While Early growth response 1 (Egr1) gene promoter has radiation inducible characteristics, the expression for exogenous gene controlled by Egr1 promoter could be enhanced by ionizing radiation, but its efficiency is limited by tissue hypoxia. Hypoxia response elements (HREs) are important hypoxic response regulatory sequences and sensitivity enhancers. Therefore, we chose TRAIL as the gene radiotherapy to observe whether it is regulated by Egr1 and HER and its effects on A549 cells and its mechanism. The pcDNA3.1-Egr1-TRAIL (pc-E-hsT) and pcDNA3.1-HRE/Egr1-TRAIL (pc-H/E-hsT) plasmids containing Egr1-hsTRAIL and HRE/Egr1-hsTRAIL were transfected into A549 cells, the cells were treated by hypoxia and radiation. The TRAIL mRNA in the cells and protein concentration in the culture supernatants were measured by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Mean lethal dose D0 value was evaluated with colony forming assay. The cell apoptotic rates were analyzed by FCM and TUNEL assay. Expression of DR4, DR5 and cleaved caspase-3 proteins were analyzed by western blotting. It showed that TRAIL mRNA expression and TRAIL concentration all significantly increased under hypoxia and/or radiation. D0 value of pc-H/E‑hsT transfected cells under hypoxia was lowest, indicating more high radiosensitivity. Hypoxia could not cause the pc-E-hsT transfected cell apoptotic rate increase, but there were promoting effects in pc-H/E-hsT transfected cells. DR4 had not obvious change in pc-E-hsT and pc-H/E-hsT transfected cells under normoxic and hypoxic condition, otherwise, DR5 and cleaved caspase-3 increased mostly in pc-H/E-hsT transfected cells under hypoxic condition. TRAIL overexpression was co-regulated by Egr1 and HRE. TRAIL might promote hypoxic A549 cell radiosensitivity and induce apoptosis depending on DR5 to caspase-3 pathways.

  6. KRIBB11 accelerates Mcl-1 degradation through an HSF1-independent, Mule-dependent pathway in A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Jung; Yun, Hye Hyeon; Lee, Jeong-Hwa

    2017-10-21

    The Bcl-2 family protein, Mcl-1 is known to have anti-apoptotic functions, and depletion of Mcl-1 by cellular stresses favors the apoptotic process. Moreover, Mcl-1 levels are frequently increased in various cancer cells, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and is implicated in resistance to conventional chemotherapy and in cancer metastasis. In this study, we demonstrated that KRIBB11 accelerates the proteasomal degradation of Mcl-1 in the NSCLC cell line, A549. While KRIBB11 is an inhibitor of HSF1, we found that KRIBB11 induced Mcl-1 degradation in an HSF1-independent manner. Furthermore, this process was triggered via increase ubiquitination by the E3 ligase, Mule, rather than via de-ubiquitination by USP9X. Additionally, we found that Mcl-1 levels were only transiently reduced by KRIBB11: Mcl-1 levels were gradually restored as KRIBB11 activity diminished. However, we found that this effect was blocked in BIS (Bcl-2 interacting cell death suppressor, also called BAG3)-depleted cells, and that BIS prevents Mcl-1 from undergoing HSP70-driven proteasomal degradation, through an interaction with HSP70. Taken together, our results suggest that targeting Mcl-1 with KRIBB11 treatment, while simultaneously downregulating BIS, could be a therapeutic strategy in NSCLC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Combined treatment of curcumin and small molecule inhibitors suppresses proliferation of A549 and H1299 human non-small-cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Ping; Kuo, Li-Kuo; Chuu, Chih-Pin

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a phenolic compound present in turmeric and is ingested daily in many parts of the world. Curcumin has been reported to cause inhibition on proliferation and induction of apoptosis in many human cancer cell lines, including non-small cell lung cancer cells (NSCLC). However, the clinical application of curcumin is restricted by its low bioavailability. In this report, it was observed that combined treatment of a low dosage of curcumin (5-10 µM) with a low concentration (0.1-2.5 µM) of small molecule inhibitors, including AG1478, AG1024, PD173074, LY294002 and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) increased the growth inhibition in two human NSCLC cell lines: A549 and H1299 cells. The observation suggested that combined treatment of a low dosage of curcumin with inhibitors against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1R), fibroblast growth factors receptor (FGFR), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K) or NF-κB signaling pathway may be a potential adjuvant therapy beneficial to NSCLC patients. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Identification of a Short Cell-Penetrating Peptide from Bovine Lactoferricin for Intracellular Delivery of DNA in Human A549 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Betty R.; Huang, Yue-Wern; Aronstam, Robert S.; Lee, Han-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been shown to deliver cargos, including protein, DNA, RNA, and nanomaterials, in fully active forms into live cells. Most of the CPP sequences in use today are based on non-native proteins that may be immunogenic. Here we demonstrate that the L5a CPP (RRWQW) from bovine lactoferricin (LFcin), stably and noncovalently complexed with plasmid DNA and prepared at an optimal nitrogen/phosphate ratio of 12, is able to efficiently enter into human lung cancer A549 cells. The L5a CPP delivered a plasmid containing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) coding sequence that was subsequently expressed in cells, as revealed by real-time PCR and fluorescent microscopy at the mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Treatment with calcium chloride increased the level of gene expression, without affecting CPP-mediated transfection efficiency. Zeta-potential analysis revealed that positively electrostatic interactions of CPP/DNA complexes correlated with CPP-mediated transport. The L5a and L5a/DNA complexes were not cytotoxic. This biomimetic LFcin L5a represents one of the shortest effective CPPs and could be a promising lead peptide with less immunogenic for DNA delivery in gene therapy. PMID:26942714

  9. Identification of a Short Cell-Penetrating Peptide from Bovine Lactoferricin for Intracellular Delivery of DNA in Human A549 Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Betty R; Huang, Yue-Wern; Aronstam, Robert S; Lee, Han-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been shown to deliver cargos, including protein, DNA, RNA, and nanomaterials, in fully active forms into live cells. Most of the CPP sequences in use today are based on non-native proteins that may be immunogenic. Here we demonstrate that the L5a CPP (RRWQW) from bovine lactoferricin (LFcin), stably and noncovalently complexed with plasmid DNA and prepared at an optimal nitrogen/phosphate ratio of 12, is able to efficiently enter into human lung cancer A549 cells. The L5a CPP delivered a plasmid containing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) coding sequence that was subsequently expressed in cells, as revealed by real-time PCR and fluorescent microscopy at the mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Treatment with calcium chloride increased the level of gene expression, without affecting CPP-mediated transfection efficiency. Zeta-potential analysis revealed that positively electrostatic interactions of CPP/DNA complexes correlated with CPP-mediated transport. The L5a and L5a/DNA complexes were not cytotoxic. This biomimetic LFcin L5a represents one of the shortest effective CPPs and could be a promising lead peptide with less immunogenic for DNA delivery in gene therapy.

  10. A novel herbal formula induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in association with suppressing the PI3K/AKT pathway in human lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Fei; Jiang, Miao; Huang, Zhenzhou; Chen, Meijuan; Chen, Kejun; Zhou, Jing; Yin, Lian; Tang, Yuping; Wang, Mingyan; Ye, Lihong; Zhan, Zhen; Duan, Jinao; Fu, Haian; Zhang, Xu

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, the incidence of lung cancer, as well as the mortality rate from this disease, has increased. Moreover, because of acquired drug resistance and adverse side effects, the effectiveness of current therapeutics used for the treatment of lung cancer has decreased significantly. Chinese medicine has been shown to have significant antitumor effects and is increasingly being used for the treatment of cancer. However, as the mechanisms of action for many Chinese medicines are undefined, the application of Chinese medicine for the treatment of cancer is limited. The formula tested has been used clinically by the China National Traditional Chinese Medicine Master, Professor Zhonging Zhou for treatment of cancer. In this article, we examine the efficacy of Ke formula in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer and elucidate its mechanism of action. A Balb/c nude mouse xenograft model using A549 cells was previously established. The mice were randomly divided into normal, mock, Ke, cisplatin (DDP), and co-formulated (Ke + DDP) groups. After 15 days of drug administration, the animals were sacrificed, body weight and tumor volume were recorded, and the tumor-inhibiting rate was calculated. A cancer pathway finder polymerase chain reaction array was used to monitor the expression of 88 genes in tumor tissue samples. The potential antiproliferation mechanism was also investigated by Western blot analysis. Ke formula minimized chemotherapy-related weight loss in tumor-bearing mice without exhibiting distinct toxicity. Ke formula also inhibited tumor growth, which was associated with the downregulation of genes in the PI3K/AKT, MAPK, and WNT/β-catenin pathways. The results from Western blot analyses further indicated that Ke blocked the cell cycle progression at the G1/S phase and induced apoptosis mainly via the PI3K/AKT pathway. Ke formula inhibits tumor growth in an A549 xenograft mouse model with no obvious side effects. Moreover, Ke exhibits synergistic

  11. Genotoxicity of fine and coarse fraction ambient particulate matter in immortalised normal (TT1) and cancer‐derived (A549) alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Enlo‐Scott, Zachary; Nagy, Eszter; Mudway, Ian S.; Tetley, Teresa D.; Arlt, Volker M.; Phillips, David H.; Gollapudi, B.

    2018-01-01

    Human exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with adverse cardiopulmonary health effects, including lung cancer. Ambient PM represents a heterogeneous mixture of chemical classes including transition metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives such as nitro‐PAHs, many of which are classified as putative carcinogens. As the primary site of human exposure to PM is the lungs, we investigated the response of two alveolar epithelial cell lines, the tumour‐derived A549 and newly described TT1 cells, to fine and coarse PM collected from background and roadside locations. We show that coarse PM elicits a genotoxic response in the TT1 cells, with the strongest signal associated with the background sample. This response could be recapitulated using the organic extract derived from this sample. No responses were observed in PM‐challenged A549 cells. Fine PM failed to elicit a genotoxic response in either cell line despite the higher PAH concentrations within this fraction. Consistent with the lack of a simplistic association between PM PAH content and the observed genotoxic response, TT1 cells treated with benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) demonstrated no increase in the selected markers. In contrast, a pattern of response was observed in TT1 cells challenged with 3‐nitrobenzanthrone (3‐NBA) similar to that with coarse PM. Together, these data illustrated the suitability of the TT1 cell line for assessing PM‐induced genotoxicity and challenge the contention that fine roadside PM poses the higher cancer risk. Furthermore, the response to 3‐NBA and not BaP suggests a major contribution of nitro‐PAHs to the overall toxicity of PM. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 59:290–301, 2018. © 2018 The Authors Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Environmental Mutagen Society PMID:29368350

  12. Multidimensional effects of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter felis, and human lung (L132) and lung carcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Han, Jae Woong; Zhang, Xi-Feng; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are prominent group of nanomaterials and are recognized for their diverse applications in various health sectors. This study aimed to synthesize the AgNPs using the leaf extract of Artemisia princeps as a bio-reductant. Furthermore, we evaluated the multidimensional effect of the biologically synthesized AgNPs in Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter felis, and human lung (L132) and lung carcinoma (A549) cells. UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy confirmed the synthesis of AgNPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the AgNPs are specifically indexed to a crystal structure. The results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicate that biomolecules are involved in the synthesis and stabilization of AgNPs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies showed the average size distribution of the particle between 10 and 40 nm, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed that the AgNPs were significantly well separated and spherical with an average size of 20 nm. AgNPs caused dose-dependent decrease in cell viability and biofilm formation and increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA fragmentation in H. pylori and H. felis. Furthermore, AgNPs induced mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in A549 cells; conversely, AgNPs had no significant effects on L132 cells. The results from this study suggest that AgNPs could cause cell-specific apoptosis in mammalian cells. Our findings demonstrate that this environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of AgNPs and that the prepared AgNPs have multidimensional effects such as anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activity against H. pylori and H. felis and also cytotoxic effects against human cancer cells. This report describes comprehensively the effects of AgNPs on bacteria and mammalian cells. We believe that biologically synthesized AgNPs will open a new avenue towards various biotechnological and biomedical applications in the near future.

  13. Multidimensional effects of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter felis, and human lung (L132) and lung carcinoma A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Han, Jae Woong; Zhang, Xi-Feng; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are prominent group of nanomaterials and are recognized for their diverse applications in various health sectors. This study aimed to synthesize the AgNPs using the leaf extract of Artemisia princeps as a bio-reductant. Furthermore, we evaluated the multidimensional effect of the biologically synthesized AgNPs in Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter felis, and human lung (L132) and lung carcinoma (A549) cells. UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy confirmed the synthesis of AgNPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the AgNPs are specifically indexed to a crystal structure. The results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicate that biomolecules are involved in the synthesis and stabilization of AgNPs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies showed the average size distribution of the particle between 10 and 40 nm, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed that the AgNPs were significantly well separated and spherical with an average size of 20 nm. AgNPs caused dose-dependent decrease in cell viability and biofilm formation and increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA fragmentation in H. pylori and H. felis. Furthermore, AgNPs induced mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in A549 cells; conversely, AgNPs had no significant effects on L132 cells. The results from this study suggest that AgNPs could cause cell-specific apoptosis in mammalian cells. Our findings demonstrate that this environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of AgNPs and that the prepared AgNPs have multidimensional effects such as anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activity against H. pylori and H. felis and also cytotoxic effects against human cancer cells. This report describes comprehensively the effects of AgNPs on bacteria and mammalian cells. We believe that biologically synthesized AgNPs will open a new avenue towards various biotechnological and biomedical applications in the near future.

  14. Proteomic response to 5,6-dimethylxanthenone 4-acetic acid (DMXAA, vadimezan) in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells determined by the stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) approach

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Shu-Ting; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Yang, Tianxin; Yang, Yin-Xue; Wang, Dong; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    5,6-Dimethylxanthenone 4-acetic acid (DMXAA), also known as ASA404 and vadimezan, is a potent tumor blood vessel-disrupting agent and cytokine inducer used alone or in combination with other cytotoxic agents for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and other cancers. However, the latest Phase III clinical trial has shown frustrating outcomes in the treatment of NSCLC, since the therapeutic targets and underlying mechanism for the anticancer effect of DMXAA are not yet fully understood. This study aimed to examine the proteomic response to DMXAA and unveil the global molecular targets and possible mechanisms for the anticancer effect of DMXAA in NSCLC A549 cells using a stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) approach. The proteomic data showed that treatment with DMXAA modulated the expression of 588 protein molecules in A549 cells, with 281 protein molecules being up regulated and 306 protein molecules being downregulated. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) identified 256 signaling pathways and 184 cellular functional proteins that were regulated by DMXAA in A549 cells. These targeted molecules and signaling pathways were mostly involved in cell proliferation and survival, redox homeostasis, sugar, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolism, cell migration, and invasion and programed cell death. Subsequently, the effects of DMXAA on cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, autophagy, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were experimentally verified. Flow cytometric analysis showed that DMXAA significantly induced G1 phase arrest in A549 cells. Western blotting assays demonstrated that DMXAA induced apoptosis via a mitochondria-dependent pathway and promoted autophagy, as indicated by the increased level of cytosolic cytochrome c, activation of caspase 3, and enhanced expression of beclin 1 and microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-II) in A549 cells. Moreover, DMXAA significantly promoted intracellular ROS

  15. Reactive oxygen species mediated DNA damage in human lung alveolar epithelial (A549) cells from exposure to non-cytotoxic MFI-type zeolite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Kunal; Naha, Pratap C; Naydenova, Izabela; Mintova, Svetlana; Byrne, Hugh J

    2012-12-17

    Increasing utilization of engineered nanoparticles in the field of electronics and biomedical applications demands an assessment of risk associated with deliberate or accidental exposure. Metal based nanoparticles are potentially most important of all the nanoparticles in terms of health risks. Microporous alumino-silicates and pure silicates named as zeolites and zeo-type materials with variety of structures, chemical compositions, particle sizes and morphologies have a significant number of industrial uses such as in catalysis, sorption and ion-exchange processes. In particular, the nanosized particles due to their unique properties are used in hybrid organic-inorganic materials for photography, photonics, electronics, labeling, imaging, and sensing. The aim of the current study is to investigate pure silica MFI-type zeolites nanoparticles with sizes of 50nm and 100nm (samples MFI-50 and MFI-100) under suspended conditions and their toxicological effects on human lung alveolar (A549) cells under in vitro conditions. Live cell imaging showed that the nanoparticles precipitated from the colloidal suspension of cell culture media as large agglomerates, coming in contact with the cell surface through sedimentation. A cellular proliferative capacity test showed the zeolite nanoparticles to exhibit no significant cytotoxicity below a concentration of 100μg/ml. However, both the MFI-50 and MFI-100 nanoparticles induced high intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and elevated mitochondrial membrane potential in the A549 cells over the measured time period of 12h and at concentrations up to ≤50μg/ml. DNA fragmentation analysis using the comet assay showed that the MFI-50 and MFI-100 nanoparticles cause genotoxicity in a concentration dependent manner. Furthermore, the rate at which maximum genomic damage was caused by MFI-100 nanoparticles in the A549 cells was found to be high as compared to the MFI-50 nanoparticles. However, the damage caused by the

  16. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid treatment reveals crosstalks among proteome, ubiquitylome and acetylome in non-small cell lung cancer A549 cell line.

    PubMed

    Wu, Quan; Cheng, Zhongyi; Zhu, Jun; Xu, Weiqing; Peng, Xiaojun; Chen, Chuangbin; Li, Wenting; Wang, Fengsong; Cao, Lejie; Yi, Xingling; Wu, Zhiwei; Li, Jing; Fan, Pingsheng

    2015-03-31

    Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is a well-known histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and has been used as practical therapy for breast cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). It is previously demonstrated that SAHA treatment could extensively change the profile of acetylome and proteome in cancer cells. However, little is known about the impact of SAHA on other protein modifications and the crosstalks among different modifications and proteome, hindering the deep understanding of SAHA-mediated cancer therapy. In this work, by using SILAC technique, antibody-based affinity enrichment and high-resolution LC-MS/MS analysis, we investigated quantitative proteome, acetylome and ubiquitylome as well as crosstalks among the three datasets in A549 cells toward SAHA treatment. In total, 2968 proteins, 1099 acetylation sites and 1012 ubiquitination sites were quantified in response to SAHA treatment, respectively. With the aid of intensive bioinformatics, we revealed that the proteome and ubiquitylome were negatively related upon SAHA treatment. Moreover, the impact of SAHA on acetylome resulted in 258 up-regulated and 99 down-regulated acetylation sites at the threshold of 1.5 folds. Finally, we identified 55 common sites with both acetylation and ubiquitination, among which ubiquitination level in 43 sites (78.2%) was positive related to acetylation level.

  17. Effect of three fatty acids from the leaf extract of Tiliacora triandra on P-glycoprotein function in multidrug-resistant A549RT-eto cell line

    PubMed Central

    Kaewpiboon, Chutima; Winayanuwattikun, Pakorn; Yongvanich, Tikamporn; Phuwapraisirisan, Preecha; Assavalapsakul, Wanchai

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cancer cells have the ability to develop resistance to chemotherapy drugs, which then leads to a reduced effectiveness and success of the treatment. Multidrug resistance (MDR) involves the resistance in the same cell/tissue to a diverse range of drugs of different structures. One of the characteristics of MDR is an overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which causes the efflux of the accumulated drug out of the cell. The MDR human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line with a high P-gp expression level (A549RT-eto) was used to investigate the bioactive compounds capable of reversing the etoposide resistance in this cell line. Materials and Methods: The leaves of Tiliacora triandra were sequentially extracted with hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. Only the hexane extract reduced the etoposide resistance of the A549RT-eto cell line, and was further fractionated by column chromatography using the TLC-pattern and the restoration of etoposide sensitivity as the selection criteria. Results: The obtained active fraction (F22) was found by nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analyses to be comprised of a 49.5:19.6:30.9 (w/w/w) mixture of hexadecanoic: octadecanoic acid: (Z)-6-octadecenoic acids. This stoichiometric mixture was recreated using pure fatty acids (MSFA) and gave a similar sensitization to etoposide and enhanced the relative rate of rhodamine-123 accumulation to a similar extent as F22, supporting the action via reducing P-gp activity. In contrast, the fatty acids alone did not show this effect. Conclusion: This is the first report of the biological activity from the leaves of T. triandra as a potential source of a novel chemosensitizer. PMID:25298673

  18. Effect of three fatty acids from the leaf extract of Tiliacora triandra on P-glycoprotein function in multidrug-resistant A549RT-eto cell line.

    PubMed

    Kaewpiboon, Chutima; Winayanuwattikun, Pakorn; Yongvanich, Tikamporn; Phuwapraisirisan, Preecha; Assavalapsakul, Wanchai

    2014-08-01

    Cancer cells have the ability to develop resistance to chemotherapy drugs, which then leads to a reduced effectiveness and success of the treatment. Multidrug resistance (MDR) involves the resistance in the same cell/tissue to a diverse range of drugs of different structures. One of the characteristics of MDR is an overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which causes the efflux of the accumulated drug out of the cell. The MDR human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line with a high P-gp expression level (A549RT-eto) was used to investigate the bioactive compounds capable of reversing the etoposide resistance in this cell line. The leaves of Tiliacora triandra were sequentially extracted with hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. Only the hexane extract reduced the etoposide resistance of the A549RT-eto cell line, and was further fractionated by column chromatography using the TLC-pattern and the restoration of etoposide sensitivity as the selection criteria. The obtained active fraction (F22) was found by nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analyses to be comprised of a 49.5:19.6:30.9 (w/w/w) mixture of hexadecanoic: octadecanoic acid: (Z)-6-octadecenoic acids. This stoichiometric mixture was recreated using pure fatty acids (MSFA) and gave a similar sensitization to etoposide and enhanced the relative rate of rhodamine-123 accumulation to a similar extent as F22, supporting the action via reducing P-gp activity. In contrast, the fatty acids alone did not show this effect. This is the first report of the biological activity from the leaves of T. triandra as a potential source of a novel chemosensitizer.

  19. PKM2 Thr454 phosphorylation increases its nuclear translocation and promotes xenograft tumor growth in A549 human lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Zhenhai, E-mail: tomsyu@163.com; Huang, Liangqian; Qiao, Pengyun

    Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is a key enzyme of glycolysis which is highly expressed in many tumor cells, and plays an important role in the Warburg effect. In previous study, we found PIM2 phosphorylates PKM2 at Thr454 residue (Yu, etl 2013). However, the functions of PKM2 Thr454 modification in cancer cells still remain unclear. Here we find PKM2 translocates into the nucleus after Thr454 phosphorylation. Replacement of wild type PKM2 with a mutant (T454A) enhances mitochondrial respiration, decreases pentose phosphate pathway, and enhances chemosensitivity in A549 cells. In addition, the mutant (T454A) PKM2 reduces xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. Thesemore » findings demonstrate that PKM2 T454 phosphorylation is a potential therapeutic target in lung cancer.« less

  20. PKM2 Thr454 phosphorylation increases its nuclear translocation and promotes xenograft tumor growth in A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenhai; Huang, Liangqian; Qiao, Pengyun; Jiang, Aifang; Wang, Li; Yang, Tingting; Tang, Shengjian; Zhang, Wei; Ren, Chune

    2016-05-13

    Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is a key enzyme of glycolysis which is highly expressed in many tumor cells, and plays an important role in the Warburg effect. In previous study, we found PIM2 phosphorylates PKM2 at Thr454 residue (Yu, etl 2013). However, the functions of PKM2 Thr454 modification in cancer cells still remain unclear. Here we find PKM2 translocates into the nucleus after Thr454 phosphorylation. Replacement of wild type PKM2 with a mutant (T454A) enhances mitochondrial respiration, decreases pentose phosphate pathway, and enhances chemosensitivity in A549 cells. In addition, the mutant (T454A) PKM2 reduces xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. These findings demonstrate that PKM2 T454 phosphorylation is a potential therapeutic target in lung cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A novel synthetic compound exerts effective anti-tumour activity in vivo via the inhibition of tubulin polymerisation in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jun; Pang, Yanqing; Sheng, Jianfeng; Wang, Yali; Chen, Jie; Hu, Jinhui; Huang, Ling; Li, Xingshu

    2015-09-01

    Microtubules are critical elements that are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, and thus, they have become an attractive target for many anticancer drugs. A novel synthesised compound, 12P, was identified as new microtubule inhibitor. This compound inhibits tubulin polymerisation through binding to the colchicine-binding site of tubulin. 12P exhibits excellent anti-proliferative activities against a panel of human cancer cell lines, with IC₅₀ values range from 9 to 55nM. Interestingly, compound 12P also displayed equally potent cytotoxicity against several drug-resistant cell lines, and it showed high selectivity for active human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Further flow cytometric analysis showed that 12P induces G₂/M phase arrest and apoptosis in A549 cells. Cellular studies have revealed that the induction of apoptosis by 12P was associated with a collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), alterations in the expression of some cell cycle-related proteins (e.g. Cyclin B1, Cdc25c, Cdc2) and some apoptosis-related proteins (e.g. Bax, Bad, Bcl-2, Bcl-xl). Importantly, 12P significantly reduced the growth of xenograft tumours of A549 cells in vivo (tumour inhibitory rate of 12P: 84.2%), without any loss of body weight. Taken together, these in vitro and in vivo results suggested that 12P may become a promising lead compound for the development of new anticancer drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cytotoxicity study of Piper nigrum seed mediated synthesized SnO2 nanoparticles towards colorectal (HCT116) and lung cancer (A549) cell lines.

    PubMed

    Tammina, Sai Kumar; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Ranjan, Shivendu; Dasgupta, Nandita

    2017-01-01

    Different sized tetragonal tin oxide nanoparticles (SnO 2 NPs) were synthesized using Piper nigrum seed extract at three different calcination temperatures (300, 500, 900°C) and these nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FT-IR). The optical properties were studied using UV-Vis and photoluminescence (PL) spectrophotometers. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was monitored by using a fluorescence spectrophotometer and fluorescence microscope. The cytotoxicity of the synthesized SnO 2 NPs was checked against the colorectal (HCT116) and lung (A549) cancer cell lines and the study results show that SnO 2 NPs were toxic against cancer cell lines depending on their size and dose. IC 50 values of SnO 2 NPs having average particle sizes of 8.85±3.5, 12.76±3.9 and 29.29±10.9nm are 165, 174 and 208μgL -1 against HCT116, while these values are 135, 157 and 187μgL -1 against A549 carcinoma cell lines, respectively. The generated ROS were responsible for the cytotoxicity of SnO 2 NPs to the studied cancer cells and smaller size NPs generated more ROS and hence showed higher cytotoxicity over larger size NPs. The results of this study suggest that the synthesized stable nanoparticles could be a potent therapeutic agent towards cancerous cell lines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Oxidative stress, DNA damage, and inflammation induced by ambient air and wood smoke particulate matter in human A549 and THP-1 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Møller, Peter; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Sharma, Anoop Kumar; Wallin, Håkan; Bossi, Rossana; Autrup, Herman; Mølhave, Lars; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Briedé, Jacob Jan; de Kok, Theo Martinus; Loft, Steffen

    2011-02-18

    Combustion of biomass and wood for residential heating and/or cooking contributes substantially to both ambient air and indoor levels of particulate matter (PM). Toxicological characterization of ambient air PM, especially related to traffic, is well advanced, whereas the toxicology of wood smoke PM (WSPM) is poorly assessed. We assessed a wide spectrum of toxicity end points in human A549 lung epithelial and THP-1 monocytic cell lines comparing WSPM from high or low oxygen combustion and ambient PM collected in a village with many operating wood stoves and from a rural background area. In both cell types, all extensively characterized PM samples (1.25-100 μg/mL) induced dose-dependent formation of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage in terms of strand breaks and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase sites assessed by the comet assay with WSPM being most potent. The WSPM contained more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), less soluble metals, and expectedly also had a smaller particle size than PM collected from ambient air. All four types of PM combined increased the levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine dose-dependently in A549 cells, whereas there was no change in the levels of etheno-adducts or bulky DNA adducts. Furthermore, mRNA expression of the proinflammatory genes monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α as well as the oxidative stress gene heme oxygenase-1 was upregulated in the THP-1 cells especially by WSPM and ambient PM sampled from the wood stove area. Expression of oxoguanine glycosylase 1, lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1, and interleukin-6 did not change. We conclude that WSPM has small particle size, high level of PAH, low level of water-soluble metals, and produces high levels of free radicals, DNA damage as well as inflammatory and oxidative stress response gene expression in cultured human cells.

  4. Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} induces MMP-9 expression via p42/p44 MAPK, JNK, and nuclear factor-{kappa}B in A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.-C.; Tseng, Hsiao-Wei; Hsieh, Hsi-Lung

    2008-06-15

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), in particular MMP-9, have been shown to be induced by cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and contributes to airway inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying MMP-9 expression induced by TNF-{alpha} in human A549 cells remain unclear. Here, we showed that TNF-{alpha} induced production of MMP-9 protein and mRNA is determined by zymographic, Western blotting, RT-PCR and ELISA assay, which were attenuated by inhibitors of MEK1/2 (U0126), JNK (SP600125), and NF-{kappa}B (helenalin), and transfection with dominant negative mutants of ERK2 ({delta}ERK) and JNK ({delta}JNK), and siRNAs for MEK1, p42 and JNK2. TNF-{alpha}-stimulated phosphorylation of p42/p44 MAPK and JNKmore » were attenuated by pretreatment with the inhibitors U0126 and SP600125 or transfection with dominant negative mutants of {delta}ERK and {delta}JNK. Furthermore, the involvement of NF-{kappa}B in TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 production was consistent with that TNF-{alpha}-stimulated degradation of I{kappa}B-{alpha} and translocation of NF-{kappa}B into the nucleus which were blocked by helenalin, but not by U0126 and SP600125, revealed by immunofluorescence staining. The regulation of MMP-9 gene transcription by MAPKs and NF-{kappa}B was further confirmed by gene luciferase activity assay. MMP-9 promoter activity was enhanced by TNF-{alpha} in A549 cells transfected with wild-type MMP-9-Luc, which was inhibited by helenalin, U0126, or SP600125. In contrast, TNF-{alpha}-stimulated MMP-9 luciferase activity was totally lost in cells transfected with mutant-NF-{kappa}B MMP-9-luc. Moreover, pretreatment with actinomycin D and cycloheximide attenuated TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression. These results suggest that in A549 cells, phosphorylation of p42/p44 MAPK, JNK, and transactivation of NF-{kappa}B are essential for TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 gene expression.« less

  5. Multifunctional polyamidoamine-modified selenium nanoparticles dual-delivering siRNA and cisplatin to A549/DDP cells for reversal multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenjing; Cao, Chengwen; Liu, Yanan; Yu, Qianqian; Zheng, Chuping; Sun, Dongdong; Ren, Xiaofan; Liu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major barrier against effective cancer treatment. Dual-delivering a therapeutic small interfering RNA (siRNA) and chemotherapeutic agents has been developed to reverse drug resistance in tumor cells. In this study, amine-terminated generation 5 polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers (G5.NH2)-modified selenium nanoparticles (G5@Se NP) were synthesized for the systemic dual-delivery of mdr1 siRNA and cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum-(II), DDP), which was demonstrated to enhance siRNA loading, releasing efficiency and gene-silencing efficacy. When the mdr1 siRNA was conjugated with G5@Se NP via electrostatic interaction, a significant down-regulation of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein expression was observed; G5@Se-DDP-siRNA arrested A549/DDP cells at G1 phase and led to enhanced cytotoxicity in A549/DDP cells through induction of apoptosis involving the AKT and ERK signaling pathways. Interestingly, G5@Se-DDP NP were much less reactive than DDP in the reactions with both MT and GSH, indicating that loading of DDP in a nano-delivery system could effectively prevent cell detoxification. Furthermore, animal studies demonstrated that the new delivery system of G5@Se-DDP-siRNA significantly enhanced the anti-tumor effect on tumor-bearing nude mice, with no appreciable abnormality in the major organs. These results suggest that G5@Se NP could be a potential platform to combine chemotherapy and gene therapy technology in the treatment of human disease. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative physicochemical and biological characterization of NIST Interim Reference Material PM2.5 and SRM 1648 in human A549 and mouse RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Mitkus, Robert J; Powell, Jan L; Zeisler, Rolf; Squibb, Katherine S

    2013-12-01

    The epidemiological association between exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and adverse health effects is well-known. Here we report the size distribution, metals content, endotoxin content, and biological activity of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Interim Reference Material (RM) PM2.5. Biological activity was measured in vitro by effects on cell viability and the release of four inflammatory immune mediators, from human A549 alveolar epithelial cells or murine RAW264.7 monocytes. A dose range covering three orders of magnitude (1-1000μg/mL) was tested, and biological activity was compared to an existing Standard Reference Material (SRM) for urban PM (NIST SRM 1648). Robust release of IL-8 and MCP-1 from A549 cells was observed in response to IRM PM2.5 exposures. Significant TNF-α, but not IL-6, secretion from RAW264.7 cells was observed in response to both IRM PM2.5 and SRM 1648 particle types. Cytokine or chemokine release at high doses often occurred in the presence of cytotoxicity, likely as a result of externalization of preformed mediator. Our results are consistent with a local cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory mechanism of response to exposure to inhaled ambient PM2.5 and reinforce the continued relevance of in vitro assays for mechanistic research in PM toxicology. Our study furthers the goal of developing reference samples of environmentally relevant particulate matter of various sizes that can be used for hypothesis testing by multiple investigators. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Exosome cargo reflects TGF-β1-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) status in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyeon; Kim, Tae Yeon; Lee, Myung Shin; Mun, Ji Young; Ihm, Chunhwa; Kim, Soon Ae

    2016-09-16

    It has been suggested that tumor cells secrete exosomes to modify the local microenvironment, which then promotes intercellular communication and metastasis. Although exosomes derived from cancer cells may contribute to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in untransformed cells, few studies have defined exosome cargo upon induction of EMT. In this study, we investigated the changes in exosomal cargo from the epithelial to mesenchymal cell phenotype by inducing EMT with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. The protein content of the exosomes reflects the change in the cell phenotype. In addition, miR-23a was significantly enriched in the exosomes after mesenchymal transition. Following treatment of exosomes from mesenchymal cells via EMT induction with TGF-β1 to the epithelial cell type, phenotypic changes in protein expression level and cell morphology were observed. Autologous treatment of exosomes enhanced the transcriptional activity and abundance of β-catenin. Our results suggest that the exosomal protein and miRNA content reflects the physiological condition of its source and that exosomes induce phenotypic changes via autocrine signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. QSAR and docking based semi-synthesis and in vitro evaluation of 18 β-glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives against human lung cancer cell line A-549.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Dharmendra Kumar; Kalani, Komal; Khan, Feroz; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar

    2013-12-01

    For the prediction of anticancer activity of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA-1) analogs against the human lung cancer cell line (A-549), a QSAR model was developed by forward stepwise multiple linear regression methodology. The regression coefficient (r(2)) and prediction accuracy (rCV(2)) of the QSAR model were taken 0.94 and 0.82, respectively in terms of correlation. The QSAR study indicates that the dipole moments, size of smallest ring, amine counts, hydroxyl and nitro functional groups are correlated well with cytotoxic activity. The docking studies showed high binding affinity of the predicted active compounds against the lung cancer target EGFR. These active glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives were then semi-synthesized, characterized and in-vitro tested for anticancer activity. The experimental results were in agreement with the predicted values and the ethyl oxalyl derivative of GA-1 (GA-3) showed equal cytotoxic activity to that of standard anticancer drug paclitaxel.

  9. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship study on anti-cancer activity of 3,4-dihydroquinazoline derivatives against human lung cancer A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sehyeon; Choi, Min Ji; Kim, Minju; Lee, Sunhoe; Lee, Jinsung; Lee, Seok Joon; Cho, Haelim; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Lee, Jae Yeol

    2015-03-01

    A series of 3,4-dihydroquinazoline derivatives with anti-cancer activities against human lung cancer A549 cells were subjected to three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies using the comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) approaches. The most potent compound, 1 was used to align the molecules. As a result, the best prediction was obtained with CoMSIA combined the steric, electrostatic, hydrophobic, hydrogen bond donor, and hydrogen bond acceptor fields (q2 = 0.720, r2 = 0.897). This model was validated by an external test set of 6 compounds giving satisfactory predictive r2 value of 0.923 as well as the scrambling stability test. This model would guide the design of potent 3,4-dihydroquinazoline derivatives as anti-cancer agent for the treatment of human lung cancer.

  10. Metabolic pathway catalyzed by Vanin-1 pantetheinase plays a suppressive role in influenza virus replication in human alveolar epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Nobuko; Yashiro, Masato; Ogawa, Hirohito; Namba, Hikaru; Nosaka, Nobuyuki; Fujii, Yousuke; Morishima, Tsuneo; Tsukahara, Hirokazu; Yamada, Masao

    2017-08-05

    Our previous analysis of gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood from patients with influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 pneumonia revealed elevated transcription levels of the vanin-1 (vascular non-inflammatory molecule 1, VNN1) gene, which encodes an epithelial ectoenzyme with pantetheinase activity involved in recycling coenzyme A. Here, to elucidate the role of VNN1 in influenza A virus (IAV) H1N1 infection, we investigated the change of VNN1 expression in the context of IAV infection and the effects of its related substances, i.e., its direct substrate pantetheine and its two metabolites pantothenic acid and cysteamine on the replication of IAV in the human alveolar epithelial carcinoma cell line A549. The messenger RNA expression of VNN1 in A549 cells was significantly increased (by 4.9-fold) after IAV infection under an elevated concentration of pantetheine. Moreover, VNN1 mRNA levels were elevated by > 100-fold in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially TNF-α and IL-1β. Pantetheine significantly reduced the IAV replication and IAV Matrix 1 (M1) mRNA levels when it was administered prior to and during infection. In addition, cysteamine treatment during IAV infection significantly reduced the viral replication and IAV M1 mRNA levels, whereas pantothenic acid did not. These findings suggest that the metabolic pathway catalyzed by VNN1 pantetheinase plays a suppressive role in IAV infection in the respiratory tract, especially in severe conditions under hypercytokinemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Therapeutic effects of gold nanoparticles synthesized using Musa paradisiaca peel extract against multiple antibiotic resistant Enterococcus faecalis biofilms and human lung cancer cells (A549).

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, S; Vaseeharan, B; Malaikozhundan, B; Gopi, N; Ekambaram, P; Pachaiappan, R; Velusamy, P; Murugan, K; Benelli, G; Suresh Kumar, R; Suriyanarayanamoorthy, M

    2017-01-01

    Botanical-mediated synthesis of nanomaterials is currently emerging as a cheap and eco-friendly nanotechnology, since it does not involve the use of toxic chemicals. In the present study, we focused on the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using the aqueous peel extract of Musa paradisiaca (MPPE-AuNPs) following a facile and cheap fabrication process. The green synthesized MPPE-AuNPs were bio-physically characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, TEM, Zeta potential analysis and EDX. MPPE-AuNPs were crystalline in nature, spherical to triangular in shape, with particle size ranging within 50 nm. The biofilm inhibition activity of MPPE-AuNPs was higher against multiple antibiotic resistant (MARS) Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis. Light and confocal laser scanning microscopic observations evidenced that the MPPE-AuNPs effectively inhibited the biofilm of E. faecalis when tested at 100 μg mL -1 . Cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that MPPE-AuNPs were effective in inhibiting the viability of human A549 lung cancer cells at higher concentrations of 100 μg mL -1 . The morphological changes in the MPPE-AuNPs treated A549 lung cancer cells were visualized under phase-contrast microscopy. Furthermore, the ecotoxicity of MPPE-AuNPs on the freshwater micro crustacean Ceriodaphnia cornuta were evaluated. Notably, no mortality was recorded in MPPE-AuNPs treated C. cornuta at 250 μg mL -1 . This study concludes that MPPE-AuNPs are non-toxic, eco-friendly and act as a multipurpose potential biomaterial for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human lung epithelial A549 cells caused by airborne volatile organic compounds emitted from pine wood and oriented strand boards.

    PubMed

    Gminski, Richard; Tang, Tao; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2010-06-16

    Due to the massive reduction of air-change rates in modern, energy-saving houses and dwellings, the contribution of volatile organic compound (VOCs) emissions from wood-based materials to indoor air quality has become increasingly important. To evaluate toxicity of VOC mixtures typically emitted from pine wood and oriented strand boards (OSB) and their main constituents (selected terpenes and aldehydes), cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were investigated in human A549 lung cells. To facilitate exposure directly via gas phase, a 250 L emission chamber was combined with a Vitrocell exposure system. VOC exposure concentrations were measured by GC/MSD. Biological effects were determined after an exposure time of 1h by measuring cytotoxicity (erythrosine B staining) and genotoxicity (comet assay). Neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic effects were observed for VOC mixtures emitted from pine wood or OSB at loading factors of approximately 13 m(2)/m(3) (worst case conditions) of the panels (with maximum VOC levels of about 80 mg/m(3)) in comparison to clean air. While alpha-pinene and Delta(3)-carene did not induce toxic effects even at exposure concentrations of up to 1800 mg/m(3) and 600 mg/m(3), respectively, hexanal showed a cytotoxic effect at 2000 mg/m(3). The alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes 2-heptenal and 2-octenal caused genotoxic effects in concentrations exceeding 100mg/m(3) and 40 mg/m(3), respectively. In conclusion, high concentrations of VOCs and VOC mixtures emitted from pine wood and OSB did not lead to adverse effects in A549 human lung cells even at concentrations 10(2) to 10(5)-fold higher than those found in normal indoor air. Attention must be paid to mutagenic and possibly carcinogenic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} integrin receptor in endocytosis of crocidolite and its effect on intracellular glutathione levels in human lung epithelial (A549) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pande, Priyadarshini; Mosleh, Tariq A.; Aust, Ann E.

    Crocidolite, containing 27% iron by weight, is the most carcinogenic form of asbestos. Crocidolite fibers are endocytized by {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} integrin receptors in rabbit pleural mesothelial cells. We show here that crocidolite fibers are endocytized in human lung epithelial (A549) cells and in primary small airway epithelial (SAEC) cells. Presence of the integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} blocking antibody, P1F6, significantly reduced the uptake of crocidolite fibers in A549 cells. Thus, the integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} receptor is involved in endocytosis of crocidolite fibers in A549 cells as well. Previously, it has been observed that asbestos fibers lead to changesmore » in the intracellular redox environment, i.e. a marked decrease in intracellular glutathione concentrations and an increase in the extracellular glutathione in A549 cells. In addition, the decrease in intracellular glutathione was found to be largely independent of iron present on the surface of the fiber. A549 cells were treated with crocidolite in the presence of endocytosis inhibitor cytochalasin D. Our data indicate that, upon preventing endocytosis, we were able to reverse the decrease in total intracellular glutathione. The decrease in total intracellular glutathione could also be prevented in the presence of the monoclonal antibody P1F6. Thus, we observed that endocytosis of crocidolite fibers via integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} receptor is linked to the marked decrease in total intracellular glutathione in A549 cells.« less

  14. The fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (noni) downregulates HIF-1α protein expression through inhibition of PKB, ERK-1/2, JNK-1 and S6 in manganese-stimulated A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jang, Byeong-Churl

    2012-03-01

    High exposure of manganese is suggested to be a risk factor for many lung diseases. Evidence suggests anticancerous and antiangiogenic effects by products derived from Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit. In this study, we investigated the effect of noni fruit juice (NFJ) on the expression of HIF-1α, a tumor angiogenic transcription factor in manganese-chloride (manganese)-stimulated A549 human lung carcinoma cells. Treatment with manganese largely induced expression of HIF-1α protein but did not affect HIF-1α mRNA expression in A549 cells, suggesting the metal-mediated co- and/or post-translational HIF-1α upregulation. Manganese treatment also led to increased phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated protein kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase-1 (JNK-1), protein kinase B (PKB), S6 and eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2α (eIF-2α) in A549 cells. Of note, the exposure of NFJ inhibited the manganese-induced HIF-1α protein upregulation in a concentration-dependent manner. Importantly, as assessed by results of pharmacological inhibition and siRNA transfection studies, the effect of NFJ on HIF-1α protein downregulation seemed to be largely associated with the ability of NFJ to interfere with the metal's signaling to activate PKB, ERK-1/2, JNK-1 and S6 in A549 cells. It was further shown that NFJ could repress the induction of HIF-1α protein by desferoxamine or interleukin-1β (IL-1β), another HIF-1α inducer in A549 cells. Thus, the present study provides the first evidence that NFJ has the ability to strongly downregulate manganese-induced HIF-1α protein expression in A549 human lung cancer cells, which may suggest the NFJ-mediated beneficial effects on lung pathologies in which manganese and HIF-1α overexpression play pathogenic roles.

  15. Dual‑sensitive HRE/Egr1 promoter regulates Smac overexpression and enhances radiation‑induced A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell death under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Li, Chang-Feng; Chen, Li-Bo; Li, Dan-Dan; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Bao-Gang; Jin, Jing-Peng; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Bin

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to construct an expression vector carrying the hypoxia/radiation dual‑sensitive chimeric hypoxia response element (HRE)/early growth response 1 (Egr‑1) promoter in order to overexpress the therapeutic second mitochondria‑derived activator of caspases (Smac). Using this expression vector, the present study aimed to explore the molecular mechanism underlying radiotherapy‑induced A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell death and apoptosis under hypoxia. The plasmids, pcDNA3.1‑Egr1‑Smac (pE‑Smac) and pcDNA3.1‑HRE/Egr-1‑Smac (pH/E‑Smac), were constructed and transfected into A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells using the liposome method. CoCl2 was used to chemically simulate hypoxia, followed by the administration of 2 Gy X‑ray irradiation. An MTT assay was performed to detect cell proliferation and an Annexin V‑fluorescein isothiocyanate apoptosis detection kit was used to detect apoptosis. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses were used for the detection of mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Infection with the pE‑Smac and pH/E‑Smac plasmids in combination with radiation and/or hypoxia was observed to enhance the expression of Smac. Furthermore, Smac overexpression was found to enhance the radiation‑induced inhibition of cell proliferation and promotion of cycle arrest and apoptosis. The cytochrome c/caspase‑9/caspase‑3 pathway was identified to be involved in this regulation of apoptosis. Plasmid infection in combination with X‑ray irradiation was found to markedly induce cell death under hypoxia. In conclusion, the hypoxia/radiation dual‑sensitive chimeric HRE/Egr‑1 promoter was observed to enhance the expression of the therapeutic Smac, as well as enhance the radiation‑induced inhibition of cell proliferation and promotion of cycle arrest and apoptosis under hypoxia. This apoptosis was found to involve the mitochondrial pathway.

  16. The Chromone Alkaloid, Rohitukine, Affords Anti-Cancer Activity via Modulating Apoptosis Pathways in A549 Cell Line and Yeast Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Safia; Kamil, Mohd; Jadiya, Pooja; Sheikh, Saba; Haque, Ejazul; Nazir, Aamir; Lakshmi, Vijai; Mir, Snober S.

    2015-01-01

    The field of cancer research and treatment has made significant progress, yet we are far from having completely safe, efficient and specific therapies that target cancer cells and spare the healthy tissues. Natural compounds may reduce the problems related to cancer treatment. Currently, many plant products are being used to treat cancer. In this study, Rohitukine, a natural occurring chromone alkaloid extracted from Dysoxylum binectariferum, was investigated for cytotoxic properties against budding yeast as well as against lung cancer (A549) cells. We endeavored to specifically study Rohitukine in S. cerevisiae in the context of MAPK pathways as yeast probably represents the experimental model where the organization and regulation of MAPK pathways are best understood. MAPK are evolutionarily conserved protein kinases that transfer extracellular signals to the machinery controlling essential cellular processes like growth, migration, differentiation, cell division and apoptosis. We aimed at carrying out hypothesis driven studies towards targeting the important network of cellular communication, a critical process that gets awry in cancer. Employing mutant strains of genetic model system Saccharomyces cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae encodes five MAPKs involved in control of distinct cellular responses such as growth, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. Our study involves gene knockouts of Slt2 and Hog1 which are functional homologs of human ERK5 and mammalian p38 MAPK, respectively. We performed cytotoxicity assay to evaluate the effect of Rohitukine on cell viability and also determined the effects of drug on generation of reactive oxygen species, induction of apoptosis and expression of Slt2 and Hog1 gene at mRNA level in the presence of drug. The results of this study show a differential effect in the activity of drug between the WT, Slt2 and Hog1 gene deletion strain indicating involvement of MAPK pathway. Further, we investigated Rohitukine induced cytotoxic

  17. Fisetin inhibits the growth and migration in the A549 human lung cancer cell line via the ERK1/2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjian; Huang, Shaoxiang

    2018-03-01

    Lung cancer is the most prevalent malignant tumor type in the developed world and the discovery of novel anti-tumor drugs is a research hotspot. Fisetin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, has been reported to have anti-cancer effects in multiple tumor types. The present study found that fisetin inhibited the growth and migration of non-small cell lung cancer in vitro . MTT, wound-healing, cell-matrix adhesion and Transwell assays were performed and demonstrated that fisetin suppressed proliferation, migration, adhesion and invasion, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that fisetin induced apoptosis in the A549 cell line by decreasing the expression of c-myc, cyclin-D1, cyclooxygenase-2, B cell lymphoma-2, CXC chemokine receptor type 4, cluster of differentiation 44 and metalloproteinase-2/9, increasing the expression of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKN) 1A/B, CDKN2D and E-cadherin and increasing the activity of caspase-3/9 via targeting the extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway. The results provided comprehensive evidence for the anti-tumor effects of fisetin in non-small cell lung cancer in vitro , which may provide a novel approach for clinical treatment.

  18. Fisetin inhibits the growth and migration in the A549 human lung cancer cell line via the ERK1/2 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junjian; Huang, Shaoxiang

    2018-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most prevalent malignant tumor type in the developed world and the discovery of novel anti-tumor drugs is a research hotspot. Fisetin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, has been reported to have anti-cancer effects in multiple tumor types. The present study found that fisetin inhibited the growth and migration of non-small cell lung cancer in vitro. MTT, wound-healing, cell-matrix adhesion and Transwell assays were performed and demonstrated that fisetin suppressed proliferation, migration, adhesion and invasion, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that fisetin induced apoptosis in the A549 cell line by decreasing the expression of c-myc, cyclin-D1, cyclooxygenase-2, B cell lymphoma-2, CXC chemokine receptor type 4, cluster of differentiation 44 and metalloproteinase-2/9, increasing the expression of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKN) 1A/B, CDKN2D and E-cadherin and increasing the activity of caspase-3/9 via targeting the extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway. The results provided comprehensive evidence for the anti-tumor effects of fisetin in non-small cell lung cancer in vitro, which may provide a novel approach for clinical treatment. PMID:29467859

  19. TU-H-CAMPUS-TeP3-01: Gold Nanoparticle-Enhanced Radiation Therapy in In Vitro A549 Lung Carcinoma: Studies in Both Traditional Monolayer and Three Dimensional Cell Culture Models

    SciTech Connect

    Oumano, M; University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA; Ngwa, W

    Purpose: To measure the increase in in vitro radiosensitivity for A549 lung carcinoma cells due to gold nanoparticle (GNP) radiation dose enhancement in both traditional monolayer and three dimensional (3D) cell culture models. Methods: A γH2AX immunofluorescence assay is performed on monolayer A549 cell culture and quantitatively analyzed to measure the increase in double strand breaks (DSBs) resulting from GNP dose enhancement. A clonogenic survival assay (CSA) is then performed on monolayer A549 cell culture to assess true viability after treatment. And lastly, another γH2AX assay is performed on 3D A549 multicellular nodules overlaid on a bed of growth factormore » reduced matrigel to measure dose response in a model that better recapitulates treatment response to actual tumors in vivo. Results: The first γH2AX assay performed on the monolayer cell culture shows a significant increase in DSBs due to GNP dose enhancement. The maximum average observed increase in normalized fluorescent intensity for monolayer cell culture is 171% for the 6Gy-treatment groups incubated in 0.556 mg Au/ml solution. The CSA performed on monolayer cell culture also shows considerable GNP dose enhancement. The maximum decrease in the normalized surviving fraction is 12% for the 4Gy-treatment group incubated in 0.556 mg Au/ml. And lastly, the GNP dose enhancement is confirmed to be mitigated in three dimensional cell culture models as compared to the traditional monolayer model. The maximum average observed dose enhancement for 3D cell culture is 19% for the 6Gy-treatment groups and incubated in 0.556 mg Au/ml. Conclusion: A marked increase in radiosensitivity is observed for A549 lung carcinoma cells when treated with GNPs plus radiation as opposed to radiation alone. Traditional monolayer cell culture also shows a much more pronounced radiation dose enhancement than 3D cell culture.« less

  20. A methoxyflavanone derivative from the Asian medicinal herb (Perilla frutescens) induces p53-mediated G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Hafeez, Amer Ali; Fujimura, Takashi; Kamei, Rikiya; Hirakawa, Noriko; Baba, Kenji; Ono, Kazuhisa; Kawamoto, Seiji

    2017-07-14

    Perilla frutescens is an Asian dietary herb consumed as an essential seasoning in Japanese cuisine as well as used for a Chinese medicine. Here, we report that a newly found methoxyflavanone derivative from P. frutescens (Perilla-derived methoxyflavanone, PDMF; 8-hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxyflavanone) shows carcinostatic activity on human lung adenocarcinoma, A549. We found that treatment with PDMF significantly inhibited cell proliferation and decreased viability through induction of G 2 /M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The PDMF stimulation induces phosphorylation of tumor suppressor p53 on Ser15, and increases its protein amount in conjunction with up-regulation of downstream cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 Cip1/Waf1 and proapoptotic caspases, caspase-9 and caspase-3. We also found that small interfering RNA knockdown of p53 completely abolished the PDMF-induced G 2 /M cell cycle arrest, and substantially abrogated its proapoptotic potency. These results suggest that PDMF represents a useful tumor-preventive phytochemical that triggers p53-driven G 2 /M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

  1. Airborne particulate matter in vitro exposure induces cytoskeleton remodeling through activation of the ROCK-MYPT1-MLC pathway in A549 epithelial lung cells.

    PubMed

    Chirino, Yolanda I; García-Cuellar, Claudia María; García-García, Carlos; Soto-Reyes, Ernesto; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro Román; Herrera, Luis A; López-Saavedra, Alejandro; Miranda, Javier; Quintana-Belmares, Raúl; Pérez, Irma Rosas; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia

    2017-04-15

    Airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10μm (PM 10 ) is considered a risk factor for the development of lung cancer. Little is known about the cellular mechanisms by which PM 10 is associated with cancer, but there is evidence that its exposure can lead to an acquired invasive phenotype, apoptosis evasion, inflammasome activation, and cytoskeleton remodeling in lung epithelial cells. Cytoskeleton remodeling occurs through actin stress fiber formation, which is partially regulated through ROCK kinase activation, we aimed to investigate if this protein was activated in response to PM 10 exposure in A549 lung epithelial cells. Results showed that 10μg/cm 2 of PM 10 had no influence on cell viability but increased actin stress fibers, cytoplasmic ROCK expression, and phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase-targeting 1 (MYPT1) and myosin light chain (MLC) proteins, which are targeted by ROCK. The inhibition of ROCK prevented actin stress fiber formation and the phosphorylation of MYPT1 and MLC, suggesting that PM 10 activated the ROCK-MYPT1-MLC pathway in lung epithelial cells. The activation of ROCK1 has been involved in the acquisition of malignant phenotypes, and its induction by PM 10 exposure could contribute to the understanding of PM 10 as a risk factor for cancer development through the mechanisms associated with invasive phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of nanosilver in stable GADD45α promoter-driven luciferase reporter HepG2 and A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Che, Bizhong; Luo, Qiulin; Zhai, Bingzhong; Fan, Guoqiang; Liu, Zhiyong; Cheng, Kaiming; Xin, Lili

    2017-09-01

    The intense commercial application of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been raising concerns about their potential adverse health effects to human. This study aimed to explore the potency of AgNPs to induce GADD45α gene, an important stress sensor, and its relationships with the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity elicited by AgNPs. Two established HepG2 and A549 cell lines containing the GADD45α promoter-driven luciferase reporter were treated with increasing concentrations of AgNPs for 48 hours. After the treatment, transcriptional activation of GADD45α indicated by luciferase activity, cell viability, cell cycle arrest, and levels of genotoxicity were determined. The uptake and intracellular localization of AgNPs, cellular Ag doses as well as Ag + release were also detected. AgNPs could activate GADD45α gene at the transcriptional level as demonstrated by the dose-dependent increases in luciferase activity in both the reporter cells. The relative luciferase activity was greater than 12× the control level in HepG2-luciferase cells at the highest concentration tested where the cell viability decreased to 17.0% of the control. These results was generally in accordance with the positive responses in cytotoxicity, cell cycle arrest of Sub G1 and G2/M phase, Olive tail moment, micronuclei frequency, and the cellular Ag content. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of AgNPs seems to occur mainly via particles uptake and the subsequent liberation of ions inside the cells. And furthermore, the GADD45α promoter-driven luciferase reporter cells, especially the HepG2-luciferase cells, could provide a new and valuable tool for predicting nanomaterials genotoxicity in humans. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The antitumor effect of tanshinone IIA on anti-proliferation and decreasing VEGF/VEGFR2 expression on the human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cell line.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jun; Liu, Jiahui; Liu, Heng; Liang, Shihui; Lin, Meigui; Gu, Yueyu; Liu, Taoli; Wang, Dongmei; Ge, Hui; Mo, Sui-Lin

    2015-11-01

    The effects of tanshinone IIA on the proliferation of the human non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549 and its possible mechanism on the VEGF/VEGFR signal pathway were investigated. The exploration of the interaction between tanshinone IIA and its target proteins provides a feasible platform for studying the anticancer mechanism of active components of herbs. The CCK-8 assay was used to evaluate the proliferative activity of A549 cells treated with tanshinone IIA (2.5-80 μmol/L) for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Flow cytometry was used for the detection of cell apoptosis and cell cycle perturbation. VEGF and VEGFR2 expression were studied by Western blotting. The binding mode of tanshinone IIA within the crystal structure of the VEGFR2 protein was evaluated with molecular docking analysis by use of the CDOCKER algorithm in Discovery Studio 2.1. The CCK-8 results showed that tanshinone IIA can significantly inhibit A549 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry results showed that the apoptosis rate of tested group was higher than the vehicle control, and tanshinone IIA-treated cells accumulated at the S phase, which was higher than the vehicle control. Furthermore, the expression of VEGF and VEGFR2 was decreased in Western blot. Finally, molecular docking analysis revealed that tanshinone IIA could be stably docked into the kinase domain of VEGFR2 protein with its unique modes to form H-bonds with Cys917 and π-π stacking interactions with Val848. In conclusion, tanshinone IIA may suppress A549 proliferation, induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the S phase. This drug may suppress angiogenesis by targeting the protein kinase domains of VEGF/VEGFR2.

  4. The antitumor effect of tanshinone IIA on anti-proliferation and decreasing VEGF/VEGFR2 expression on the human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jun; Liu, Jiahui; Liu, Heng; Liang, Shihui; Lin, Meigui; Gu, Yueyu; Liu, Taoli; Wang, Dongmei; Ge, Hui; Mo, Sui-lin

    2015-01-01

    The effects of tanshinone IIA on the proliferation of the human non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549 and its possible mechanism on the VEGF/VEGFR signal pathway were investigated. The exploration of the interaction between tanshinone IIA and its target proteins provides a feasible platform for studying the anticancer mechanism of active components of herbs. The CCK-8 assay was used to evaluate the proliferative activity of A549 cells treated with tanshinone IIA (2.5−80 μmol/L) for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Flow cytometry was used for the detection of cell apoptosis and cell cycle perturbation. VEGF and VEGFR2 expression were studied by Western blotting. The binding mode of tanshinone IIA within the crystal structure of the VEGFR2 protein was evaluated with molecular docking analysis by use of the CDOCKER algorithm in Discovery Studio 2.1. The CCK-8 results showed that tanshinone IIA can significantly inhibit A549 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry results showed that the apoptosis rate of tested group was higher than the vehicle control, and tanshinone IIA-treated cells accumulated at the S phase, which was higher than the vehicle control. Furthermore, the expression of VEGF and VEGFR2 was decreased in Western blot. Finally, molecular docking analysis revealed that tanshinone IIA could be stably docked into the kinase domain of VEGFR2 protein with its unique modes to form H-bonds with Cys917 and π–π stacking interactions with Val848. In conclusion, tanshinone IIA may suppress A549 proliferation, induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the S phase. This drug may suppress angiogenesis by targeting the protein kinase domains of VEGF/VEGFR2. PMID:26713270

  5. MicroRNA Profiling of Sendai Virus-Infected A549 Cells Identifies miR-203 as an Interferon-Inducible Regulator of IFIT1/ISG56

    PubMed Central

    Buggele, William A.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian type I interferon (IFN) response is a primary barrier for virus infection and is essential for complete innate and adaptive immunity. Both IFN production and IFN-mediated antiviral signaling are the result of differential cellular gene expression, a process that is tightly controlled at transcriptional and translational levels. To determine the potential for microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation of the antiviral response, small-RNA profiling was used to analyze the miRNA content of human A549 cells at steady state and following infection with the Cantell strain of Sendai virus, a potent inducer of IFN and cellular antiviral responses. While the miRNA content of the cells was largely unaltered by infection, specific changes in miRNA abundance were identified during Sendai virus infection. One miRNA, miR-203, was found to accumulate in infected cells and in response to IFN treatment. Results indicate that miR-203 is an IFN-inducible miRNA that can negatively regulate a number of cellular mRNAs, including an IFN-stimulated gene target, IFIT1/ISG56, by destabilizing its mRNA transcript. PMID:23785202

  6. Nanoparticle abraxane possesses impaired proliferation in A549 cells due to the underexpression of glucosamine 6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase 1 (GNPNAT1/GNA1).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Minzhi; Li, Haiyun; Ma, Yan; Gong, He; Yang, Shu; Fang, Qiaojun; Hu, Zhiyuan

    2017-01-01

    Abraxane (Abr), a US Food and Drug Administration-approved albumin-bound nanoparticle applied for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer, has been reported to be more effective than paclitaxel (PTX). To further understand the molecular mechanisms that produce this superior drug efficacy of Abr, a quantitative proteomic approach has been applied to investigate the global protein expression profiles of lung cancer cell A549 treated with Abr and PTX. Only one protein, namely, glucosamine 6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase 1 (GNA1), showed significant differential expression ( P <0.05) in the cutoff of 2.0 fold, suggesting that Abr can be used safely as a substitute for PTX. GNA1 is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine, which is an important donor substrate for N-linked glycosylation and has several important functions such as embryonic development and growth. Albumin plays a major role in the regulation of this protein. In summary, this study first shows that the superior drug effect of Abr is mainly due to the downregulation of GNA1, which causes proliferative delay and cell adhesion defect. It is also noteworthy that the deficiency of GNA1 might reduce insulin secretion which correlates with type 2 diabetes.

  7. Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi Decoction, the Water Extract of Chinese Traditional Herbal Medicine, Enhances Cisplatin Cytotoxicity in A549/DDP Cells through Induction of Apoptosis and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most active cytotoxic agents for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. However, the development of cisplatin resistance is common. Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi decoction (BZYQD), a Chinese traditional herbal medicine, is widely used for the enhancement of antitumor effect in other medications. In this study, we evaluated the effect and drug-resistance reversal mechanism of BZYQD combined with cisplatin on cisplatin-resistant A549/DDP cells. Our results showed that BZYQD exhibited direct cytotoxic and chemosensitizing effects. Cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin induced intrinsic apoptotic pathways which were measured by condensed nuclear chromatin, Annexin V/PI apoptosis assay, and apoptosis related proteins expression. In addition, cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin also activated autophagy, as indicated by an increase in LC3 puncta, classical autophagosomes and/or autolysosomes, and an accumulation of LC3-II and ATG7 protein. Finally, cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin resulted in the generation of ROS and scavenging ROS by NAC almost completely suppressing cell death. These results suggest that cotreatment with BZYQD and cisplatin might reverse cisplatin resistance by inducing ROS accumulation, which activates apoptosis and autophagy by oxidative stress. The combination of BZYQD and cisplatin may represent a novel approach in treatment for NSCLC and thus offer a new target for chemotherapy. PMID:28154825

  8. Pleuropterus multiflorus (Hasuo) mediated straightforward eco-friendly synthesis of silver, gold nanoparticles and evaluation of their anti-cancer activity on A549 lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Castro-Aceituno, Verónica; Abbai, Ragavendran; Moon, Seong Soo; Ahn, Sungeun; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Kim, Yu-Jin; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Yang, Deok Chun

    2017-09-01

    Pleuropterus multiflorus (Hasuo) is a widely used medicinal plant in Korea and China for treating amnesia, isnomia, heart throbbing etc. With the constructive idea of promoting the wide-spread usage of P. multiflorus, we propose its indirect usage in the form of biologically active silver (Pm-AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (Pm-AuNPs). The synthesized nanoparticles were predominantly spherical, crystalline with the Z-average hydrodynamic diameter of 274.8nm and 104.8nm respectively. Also, proteins and phenols were identified as the major players involved in their synthesis and stability. Further, Pm-AgNPs at 25μg/mL were significantly cytotoxic to lung cancer cells, whereas, Pm-AuNPs were not cytotoxic to both normal keratinocyte and lung cancer cells even at 100μg/mL. In addition, further evaluation of the anti-cancer activity of these new nanoparticles, such as migration and apoptosis, shown that Pm-AgNPs have a potential therapeutic effect on A549 lung cancer cell treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report dissecting out the ability of the endemic P. multiflorus for the synthesis of bioactive silver and gold nanoparticle which would open up doors for its extensive usage in medicinal field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of functionalized and non-functionalized nanodiamond on the morphology and activities of antioxidant enzymes of lung epithelial cells (A549).

    PubMed

    Solarska-Ściuk, Katarzyna; Gajewska, Agnieszka; Glińska, Sława; Michlewska, Sylwia; Balcerzak, Łucja; Jamrozik, Agnieszka; Skolimowski, Janusz; Burda, Květoslava; Bartosz, Grzegorz

    2014-10-05

    The development of nanotechnology opens up new ways for biomedical applications of unmodified and modified diamond nanoparticles which are one of the most popular nanomaterials used in biology, biotechnology, medicine, cosmetics and engineering. They have been applied as diagnostic and therapeutic agents because they can be targeted to and localized in cells causing apoptosis and necrosis. The problem of biocompatibility of nanodiamonds at higher concentrations is thus of primary importance. The first step in the modification of DNPs is usually the introduction of hydrogen groups, which can bind other functional groups. The basic method to introduce -OH groups onto nanoparticles is the Fenton reaction. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of unmodified nanodiamond particles and nanoparticles modified by introduction of -OH groups and etoposide onto their surface reaction on human non-small lung cancer cells. A549 cells were incubated with 2-100μg/ml nanopowders and at 0.6-24μg/ml etoposide in the DMEM medium. We observed a decrease of cells viability and generation of reactive oxygen/ nitrogen species in the cells after incubation, estimated by oxidation of H2DCF-DA and DAF-FM-DA. Modified detonation nanoparticles affected also the cellular content of glutathione and activities of main antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase). The results of TEM microscopy show changes in cell morphology. These data demonstrate that modified nanoparticles induce oxidative stress in the target cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Terbutaline causes immobilization of single β2-adrenergic receptor-ligand complexes in the plasma membrane of living A549 cells as revealed by single-molecule microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieben, Anne; Kaminski, Tim; Kubitscheck, Ulrich; Häberlein, Hanns

    2011-02-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors are important targets for various drugs. After signal transduction, regulatory processes, such as receptor desensitization and internalization, change the lateral receptor mobility. In order to study the lateral diffusion of β2-adrenergic receptors (β2AR) complexed with fluorescently labeled noradrenaline (Alexa-NA) in plasma membranes of A549 cells, trajectories of single receptor-ligand complexes were monitored using single-particle tracking. We found that a fraction of 18% of all β2ARs are constitutively immobile. About 2/3 of the β2ARs moved with a diffusion constant of D2 = 0.03+/-0.001 μm2/s and about 17% were diffusing five-fold faster (D3 = 0.15+/-0.02 μm2/s). The mobile receptors moved within restricted domains and also showed a discontinuous diffusion behavior. Analysis of the trajectory lengths revealed two different binding durations with τ1 = 77+/-1 ms and τ2 = 388+/-11 ms. Agonistic stimulation of the β2AR-Alexa-NA complexes with 1 μM terbutaline caused immobilization of almost 50% of the receptors within 35 min. Simultaneously, the mean area covered by the mobile receptors decreased significantly. Thus, we demonstrated that agonistic stimulation followed by cell regulatory processes results in a change in β2AR mobility suggesting that different receptor dynamics characterize different receptor states.

  11. Particulate emissions from the combustion of birch, beech, and spruce logs cause different cytotoxic responses in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Kasurinen, Stefanie; Jalava, Pasi I; Happo, Mikko S; Sippula, Olli; Uski, Oskari; Koponen, Hanna; Orasche, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Ralf; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2017-05-01

    According to the World Health Organization particulate emissions from the combustion of solid fuels caused more than 110,000 premature deaths worldwide in 2010. Log wood combustion is the most prevalent form of residential biomass heating in developed countries, but it is unknown how the type of wood logs used in furnaces influences the chemical composition of the particulate emissions and their toxicological potential. We burned logs of birch, beech and spruce, which are used commonly as firewood in Central and Northern Europe in a modern masonry heater, and compared them to the particulate emissions from an automated pellet boiler fired with softwood pellets. We determined the chemical composition (elements, ions, and carbonaceous compounds) of the particulate emissions with a diameter of less than 1 µm and tested their cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, inflammatory potential, and ability to induce oxidative stress in a human lung epithelial cell line. The chemical composition of the samples differed significantly, especially with regard to the carbonaceous and metal contents. Also the toxic effects in our tested endpoints varied considerably between each of the three log wood combustion samples, as well as between the log wood combustion samples and the pellet combustion sample. The difference in the toxicological potential of the samples in the various endpoints indicates the involvement of different pathways of toxicity depending on the chemical composition. All three emission samples from the log wood combustions were considerably more toxic in all endpoints than the emissions from the pellet combustion. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1487-1499, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Nanosecond-Pulsed DBD Plasma-Generated Reactive Oxygen Species Trigger Immunogenic Cell Death in A549 Lung Carcinoma Cells through Intracellular Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Abraham; Truong, Billy; Patel, Sohil; Kaushik, Nagendra; Choi, Eun Ha; Fridman, Gregory; Fridman, Alexander; Miller, Vandana

    2017-01-01

    A novel application for non-thermal plasma is the induction of immunogenic cancer cell death for cancer immunotherapy. Cells undergoing immunogenic death emit danger signals which facilitate anti-tumor immune responses. Although pathways leading to immunogenic cell death are not fully understood; oxidative stress is considered to be part of the underlying mechanism. Here; we studied the interaction between dielectric barrier discharge plasma and cancer cells for oxidative stress-mediated immunogenic cell death. We assessed changes to the intracellular oxidative environment after plasma treatment and correlated it to emission of two danger signals: surface-exposed calreticulin and secreted adenosine triphosphate. Plasma-generated reactive oxygen and charged species were recognized as the major effectors of immunogenic cell death. Chemical attenuators of intracellular reactive oxygen species successfully abrogated oxidative stress following plasma treatment and modulated the emission of surface-exposed calreticulin. Secreted danger signals from cells undergoing immunogenic death enhanced the anti-tumor activity of macrophages. This study demonstrated that plasma triggers immunogenic cell death through oxidative stress pathways and highlights its potential development for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:28467380

  13. Fabrication of nano-silver particles using Cymodocea serrulata and its cytotoxicity effect against human lung cancer A549 cells line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, P.; Sathishkumar, G.; Sankar, R.

    2015-03-01

    The present study reports, green synthesis of bioactive silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under different temperature (60 °C, room temperature and 4° refrigerator) using the aqueous extract of sea grass Cymodocea serrulata as a potential bioreductant. Increased temperature fabricates more AgNPs compare to room temperature and refrigerator condition. At first the reduction of Ag+ ions were confirmed through color change which produces an absorbance spectra at 420 nm in UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Additionally various exclusive instrumentations such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) were authorizes the biosynthesis and physio-chemical characterization of AgNPs. From Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, it was identified that the water soluble fractions of the sea grass mainly responsible for reduction of ionic silver (Ag+) into (Ag0) nano-ranged particles and also they act as stabilizing agent to sustain the durability of NPs for long period of time. Further, synthesized AgNPs shows potential cytotoxicity against human lung cancer A549 cells (LD50-100 μg/ml). The overall results suggest that C. serrulata is a valuable bioresource to generate rapid and eco-friendly bioactive AgNPs towards cancer therapy.

  14. Spectral phasor analysis of LAURDAN fluorescence in live A549 lung cells to study the hydration and time evolution of intracellular lamellar body-like structures.

    PubMed

    Malacrida, Leonel; Astrada, Soledad; Briva, Arturo; Bollati-Fogolín, Mariela; Gratton, Enrico; Bagatolli, Luis A

    2016-11-01

    Using LAURDAN spectral imaging and spectral phasor analysis we concurrently studied the growth and hydration state of subcellular organelles (lamellar body-like, LB-like) from live A549 lung cancer cells at different post-confluence days. Our results reveal a time dependent two-step process governing the size and hydration of these intracellular LB-like structures. Specifically, a first step (days 1 to 7) is characterized by an increase in their size, followed by a second one (days 7 to 14) where the organelles display a decrease in their global hydration properties. Interestingly, our results also show that their hydration properties significantly differ from those observed in well-characterized artificial lamellar model membranes, challenging the notion that a pure lamellar membrane organization is present in these organelles at intracellular conditions. Finally, these LB-like structures show a significant increase in their hydration state upon secretion, suggesting a relevant role of entropy during this process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Anti-invasive effect of Cyclamen pseudibericum extract on A549 non-small cell lung carcinoma cells via inhibition of ZEB1 mediated by miR-200c.

    PubMed

    Karagur, Ege Riza; Ozay, Cennet; Mammadov, Ramazan; Akca, Hakan

    2018-06-01

    Scientists are increasingly focusing attention on natural products of plant origin for use as agents in cancer protection and treatment. Cyclamen L. tuber extracts contain saponin glycosides that have been shown to have anti-cancer and other biological activities. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is thought to enhance malignant tumour progress. The transcriptional repressor zinc-finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) is an important inducer of EMT in different human tumours and has recently been shown to boost invasion by tumour cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of endemic Cyclamen pseudibericum (CP) saponin-rich tuber extract on the capacity of non-small cell lung cancer line A549 cells to proliferate, invade and migrate and also examined the expression levels of several invasion-migration-related microRNAs (miRNAs) to identify those which directly targeted ZEB1. The cytotoxicity effect of the CP extract on the A549 cancer cells was determined by the luminometric method. The half-minimal (50%) inhibitory concentration dose in the A549 cells was determined to be 41.64 ± 2.35 µg/mL. Using the Matrigel invasion chamber system and the wound healing assay we observed that the CP extract suppressed the invasion and migration capacity of A549 cells, respectively. The expression of miRNAs in A549 cells was evaluated by real-time PCR. Our data showed that overexpression of miRNA miR-200c hindered the EMT by increasing the expression of E-cadherin and decreasing the expression of both N-cadherin and vimentin through the direct targeting of ZEB1. These findings suggest that the saponin-rich tuber extract of CP may have considerable anti-cancer properties in lung cancer. Further studies are required to examine in detail the molecular-based mechanism involved in the EMT process of the extract along with isolation and identification of active saponin components.

  16. Heteroleptic monometallic and trimetallic ruthenium(II) complexes incorporating a π-extended dipyrrin ligand: Light-activated reactions with the A549 lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Swavey, Shawn; Morford, Krista; Tsao, Max; Comfort, Kristen; Kilroy, Mary Kate

    2017-10-01

    A heteroleptic monometallic ruthenium(II) and a heteroleptic trimetallic ruthenium(II) complex have been synthesized and characterized. Both complexes have an overall 3+ charge, with the charge density greater for the monometallic complex. The electronic spectra of the monometallic ruthenium(II) complex exhibits intense π-π* transitions associated with the bipyridyl groups along with overlapping metal to ligand charge transfer (MLCT) and ligand centered π-π* transitions ranging from 520nm to approximately 600nm. The trimetallic ruthenium(II) complex, on the other hand, displays more well defined transitions with the expected π-π* transition of the bipyridyl groups at 294nm and Ru(dπ) to bpy(π*) MLCT transitions at 355nm and 502nm. In addition to these absorption bands an intense transition, 578nm, resulting from overlapping dipyrrin (π-π*) and Ru(dπ) to dipyrrin(π*) transitions is observed. Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical experiments were used to help in assigning these transitions. Irradiation of the complexes in the presence of plasmid DNA within the photodynamic therapy window (600nm to 850nm) reveal, using electrophoresis, that both complexes are capable of causing photo-damage to the DNA backbone. The trimetallic ruthenium(II) complex; however, also shows the ability to generate photoinduced DNA damage in the absence of oxygen, suggesting a photo-oxidative process. Studies of the complexes toward lung cancer cells (A549 cell line) in the absence of light indicate little cytotoxicity up to 50μM. Upon irradiation of the cells with a low power 420nm light source the trimetallic complex showed considerably greater photo-cytotoxicity compared to the monometallic analog. A dose-dependent response curve gives an IC50 of 92μM for complex B. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cytotoxicity of the Roots of Trillium govanianum Against Breast (MCF7), Liver (HepG2), Lung (A549) and Urinary Bladder (EJ138) Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Khan, Kashif M; Nahar, Lutfun; Al-Groshi, Afaf; Zavoianu, Alexandra G; Evans, Andrew; Dempster, Nicola M; Wansi, Jean D; Ismail, Fyaz M D; Mannan, Abdul; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2016-10-01

    Trillium govanianum Wall. (Melanthiaceae alt. Trilliaceae), commonly known as 'nag chhatri' or 'teen patra', is a native species of the Himalayas. It is used in various traditional medicines containing both steroids and sex hormones. In folk medicine, the rhizomes of T. govanianum are used to treat boils, dysentery, inflammation, menstrual and sexual disorders, as an antiseptic and in wound healing. With the only exception of the recent report on the isolation of a new steroidal saponin, govanoside A, together with three known steroidal compounds with antifungal property from this plant, there has been no systematic pharmacological and phytochemical work performed on T. govanianum. This paper reports, for the first time, on the cytotoxicity of the methanol extract of the roots of T. govanianum and its solid-phase extraction (SPE) fractions against four human carcinoma cell lines: breast (MCF7), liver (HEPG2), lung (A549) and urinary bladder (EJ138), using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide cytotoxicity assay and liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of the SPE fractions. The methanol extract and all SPE fractions exhibited considerable levels of cytotoxicity against all cell lines, with the IC 50 values ranging between 5 and 16 µg/mL. Like other Trillium species, presence of saponins and sapogenins in the SPE fractions was evident in the liquid chromatography mass spectrometry data. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Aqueous extract of Taxus chinensis (Pilger) Rehd inhibits lung carcinoma A549 cells through the epidermal growth factor receptor/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shu, Qijin; Shen, Minhe; Wang, Binbin; Cui, Qingli; Zhou, Xiaoying; Zhu, Luming

    2014-06-01

    To explore the anticancer mechanism of aqueous extract of Taxus Chinensis (Pilger) Rehd (AETC). The serum pharmacological method was used to avoid interference from administration of the crude medicinal herbs. Eight purebred New Zealand rabbits were used for preparation of serum containing various concentrations of AETC. Forty-eight Balb/c-nu mice were used for in vivo experiments. The effects of serum containing AETC on the proliferation of A549 cells and expression levels of the epidermal growth factor receptor/mitogen-activated protein kinase (EGFR/MAPK) pathway-related proteins in vitro were investigated. Additionally, the effects on the growth of A549 xenografts in nude mice, and expression levels of the EGFR/MAPK pathway-related proteins in the xenografts, were investigated. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay revealed that the serum containing AETC significantly decreased the viability of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot showed that the serum containing various concentrations of AETC strongly reduced the levels of phospho-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinasel/2 (ERK1/2) while it increased the level of p-p38. However, no significant effects on the expression levels of JNK, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK were found. In addition, an anticancer effect from AETC was observed in vivo in the Balb/c-nu mice bearing A549 xenografts. AETC has significant effects on the growth of A549 xenografts and on the activity of the EGFR/MAPK pathway. Therefore, AETC may be beneficial in lung carcinoma treatment.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro studies of doxorubicin-loaded magnetic nanoparticles grafted to smart copolymers on A549 lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Samiei, Mohammad; Joo, Sang Woo; Anzaby, Maryam; Hanifehpour, Younes; Nasrabadi, Hamid Tayefi; Davaran, Soodabeh

    2012-12-18

    The aim of present study was to develop the novel methods for chemical and physical modification of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with polymers via covalent bonding entrapment. These modified SPIONs were used for encapsulation of anticancer drug doxorubicin. At first approach silane-grafted magnetic nanoparticles was prepared and used as a template for polymerization of the N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and methacrylic acid (MAA) via radical polymerization. This temperature/pH-sensitive copolymer was used for preparation of DOX-loaded magnetic nanocomposites. At second approach Vinyltriethoxysilane-grafted magnetic nanoparticles were used as a template to polymerize PNIPAAm-MAA in 1, 4 dioxan and methylene-bis-acrylamide (BIS) was used as a cross-linking agent. Chemical composition and magnetic properties of Dox-loaded magnetic hydrogel nanocomposites were analyzed by FT-IR, XRD, and VSM. The results demonstrate the feasibility of drug encapsulation of the magnetic nanoparticles with NIPAAm-MAA copolymer via covalent bonding. The key factors for the successful prepardtion of magnetic nanocomposites were the structure of copolymer (linear or cross-linked), concentration of copolymer and concentration of drug. The influence of pH and temperature on the release profile of doxorubicin was examined. The in vitro cytotoxicity test (MTT assay) of both magnetic DOx-loaded nanoparticles was examined. The in vitro tests showed that these systems are no toxicity and are biocompatible. IC50 of DOx-loaded Fe3O4 nanoparticles on A549 lung cancer cell line showed that systems could be useful in treatment of lung cancer.

  20. Genistein decreases A549 cell viability via inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/HIF‑1α/VEGF and NF‑κB/COX‑2 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Su, Hongzheng; Li, Qingfeng; Li, Jing; Zhao, Qianfeng

    2017-04-01

    Genistein is an important chemopreventive agent against atherosclerosis and cancer. However, whether genistein is effective in the treatment of lung cancer, and its underlying mechanism, remains to be determined. The present study demonstrated that genistein treatment of A549 lung cancer cells decreased viability in a dose‑ and time‑dependent manner, and induced apoptosis. Additionally, A549 cells exhibited significantly increased reactive oxygen species formation and cytochrome‑c leakage, and activated caspase‑3, B‑cell lymphoma 2‑associated X protein and apoptosis inducing factor expression levels, which are involved in the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Furthermore, the phosphatidylinositol‑4,5‑biphosphate 3‑kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/hypoxia‑inducible factor‑1α (HIF‑1α) and nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB)/cyclooxygenase‑2 (COX‑2) signaling pathways were significantly downregulated by genistein treatment. In conclusion, reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis in A549 lung cancer cells was associated with inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/HIF‑1α/ and NF‑κB/COX‑2 signaling pathways, which implicates genistein as a potential chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of lung cancer.

  1. Plumbagin reduces osteopontin-induced invasion through inhibiting the Rho-associated kinase signaling pathway in A549 cells and suppresses osteopontin-induced lung metastasis in BalB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chi Gu; Im, Eunji; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Lee, Eun-Ok

    2017-05-01

    Lung cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer deaths in both men and women in the United States. It has been recently demonstrated that osteopontin (OPN) effectively inhibits cofilin activity through the focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/AKT/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) pathway to induce the invasion of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Plumbagin was isolated from the roots of the medicinal plant Plumbago zeylanica L. and has been reported to possess anticancer activities. However, the molecular mechanisms by which plumbagin inhibits the invasion of cancer cells is still unclear. In this study, the anti-invasive and anti-metastatic mechanisms of plumbagin were investigated in OPN-treated NSCLC A549 cells. OPN effectively induced the motility and invasion of NSCLC A549 cells and H1299 cells, which was strongly suppressed by plumbagin with no evidence of cytotoxicity. In addition, lamellipodia formation at the leading edge of cells by OPN was dramatically decreased in plumbagin-treated cells. Plumbagin caused an effective inhibition in OPN-induced the expression of ROCK1 as well as the phosphorylation of LIM kinase 1 and 2 (LIMK1/2), and cofilin. OPN-induced the phosphorylation of FAK and AKT was impaired without affecting their total forms by plumbagin treatment. OPN facilitated metastatic lung colonization, which was effectively suppressed in plumbagin-treated mice. Taken together, these results suggest that plumbagin reduces OPN-induced the invasion of NSCLC A549 cells, which resulted from inhibiting the ROCK pathway mediated by the FAK/AKT pathway and suppresses lung metastasis in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A platycoside-rich fraction from the root of Platycodon grandiflorum enhances cell death in A549 human lung carcinoma cells via mainly AMPK/mTOR/AKT signal-mediated autophagy induction.

    PubMed

    Yim, Nam-Hui; Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Liang, Chun; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-12-24

    The root of Platycodon grandiflorum (PG), commonly known as Kilkyong in Korea, Jiegeng in China, and Kikyo in Japan, has been extensively used as a traditional anti-inflammatory medicine in Asia for the treatment of respiratory conditions, such as bronchitis, asthma, and tonsillitis. Platycosides isolated from PG are especially well-known for their anti-cancer effects. We investigated the involvement of autophagic cell death and other potential molecular mechanisms induced by the platycoside-containing butanol fraction of PG (PGB) in human lung carcinoma cells. PGB-induced growth inhibition and cell death were measured using a 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The effects of PGB on autophagy were determined by observing microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) redistribution with confocal microscopy. The PGB-mediated regulation of autophagy-associated proteins was investigated using Western blotting analysis. Furthermore, the anti-cancer mechanism of PGB was confirmed using chemical inhibitors. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-DAD system was used to analyze the platycosides in PGB. In A549 cells, PGB induced significant autophagic cell death. Specifically, PGB upregulated LC3-II in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and it redistributed LC3 via autophagosome formation in the cytoplasm. PGB treatment increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and subsequently suppressed the AKT/mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Furthermore, PGB inhibited cell proliferation by regulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. In this study, six types of platycosides were identified in the PGB using HPLC. PGB efficiently induced cancer cell death via autophagy and the modulation of the AMPK/mTOR/AKT and MAPK signaling pathways in A549 cells. Therefore, PGB may be an efficacious herbal anti-cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic effects of CB2R agonist (JWH-133) in non-small lung cancer cells (A549) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells: an in vitro investigation.

    PubMed

    Vidinský, B; Gál, P; Pilátová, M; Vidová, Z; Solár, P; Varinská, L; Ivanová, L; Mojžíš, J

    2012-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer has one of the highest mortality rates among cancer-suffering patients. It is well known that the unwanted psychotropic effects of cannabinoids (CBs) are mediated via the CB(1) receptor (R), and selective targeting of the CB(2)R would thus avoid side effects in cancer treatment. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of selective CB(2)R agonist, JWH-133, on A549 cells (non-small lung cancer) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Cytotoxicity assay and DNA fragmentation assay were employed to evaluate the influence of JWH-133 (3-(1,1-dimethylbutyl)- 1-deoxy-Δ8-tetrahydrocannabinol) on investigated cancer cells. In addition, migration assay and gelatinase zymography were performed in HUVECs to asses JWH-133 anti-angiogenic activity. Our study showed that JWH-133 exerted cytotoxic effect only at the highest concentration used (10(-4) mol/l), while inhibition of colony formation was also detected at the non-toxic concentrations (10(-5)-10(-8) mol/l). JWH-133 was also found to be able to induce weak DNA fragmentation in A549 cells. Furthermore, JWH-133 at non-toxic concentrations inhibited some steps in the process of angiogenesis. It significantly inhibited endothelial cell migration after 17 h of incubation at concentrations of 10(-4)-10(-6) mol/l. In addition, JWH-133 inhibited MMP-2 secretion as assessed by gelatinase zymography. The present study demonstrates the in vitro anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic potential of CB(2)R agonist, JWH-133, in nonsmall lung cancer cells and HUVECs. Our results generate a rationale for further in vivo efficacy studies with this compound in preclinical cancer models.

  4. Lycium europaeum fruit extract: antiproliferative activity on A549 human lung carcinoma cells and PC12 rat adrenal medulla cancer cells and assessment of its cytotoxicity on cerebellum granule cells.

    PubMed

    Ghali, Wafa; Vaudry, David; Jouenne, Thierry; Marzouki, Mohamed Nejib

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a major worldwide health problem and one of the leading causes of death either in developed or developing countries. Plant extracts and derivatives have always been used for various disease treatments and many anticancer agents issued from plants and vegetables are clinically recognized and used all over the world. Lycium europaeum (Solanaceae) also called "wolfberry" was known since ancient times in the Mediterranean area as a medicinal plant and used in several traditional remedies. The Lycium species capacity of reducing the incidence of cancer and also of halting or reserving the growth of cancer was reported by traditional healers. In this study, the antiproliferative capacity, protective properties, and antioxidant activity of the hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of Lycium europaeum were investigated. Results showed that Lycium extract exhibits the ability to reduce cancer cell viability, inhibits proliferation, and induces apoptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells and PC12 rat adrenal medulla cancer cells, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Cytotoxic effect on normal rat cerebellum granule cells was assessed to be nonsignificant. Results also showed that Lycium fruit extract protected lipids, proteins, and DNA against oxidative stress damages induced by H2O2 via scavenging reactive oxygen species.

  5. 6-Shogaol, an active constituent of dietary ginger, induces autophagy by inhibiting the AKT/mTOR pathway in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jen-Yu; Hsu, Ya-Ling; Li, Chien-Te; Ko, Ying-Chin; Ni, Wen-Chiu; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Kuo, Po-Lin

    2009-10-28

    This study is the first study to investigate the anticancer effect of 6-shogaol in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. 6-Shogaol inhibited cell proliferation by inducing autophagic cell death, but not, predominantly, apoptosis. Pretreatment of cells with 3-methyladenine (3-MA), an autophagy inhibitor, suppressed 6-shogaol mediated antiproliferation activity, suggesting that induction of autophagy by 6-shogaol is conducive to cell death. We also found that 6-shogaol inhibited survival signaling through the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway by blocking the activation of AKT and downstream targets, including the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), forkhead transcription factors (FKHR) and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta). Phosphorylation of both of mTOR's downstream targets, p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6 kinase) and 4E-BP1, was also diminished. Overexpression of AKT by AKT cDNA transfection decreased 6-shogaol mediated autophagic cell death, supporting inhibition of AKT beneficial to autophagy. Moreover, reduction of AKT expression by siRNA potentiated 6-shogaol's effect, also supporting inhibition of AKT beneficial to autophagy. Taken together, these findings suggest that 6-shogaol may be a promising chemopreventive agent against human non-small cell lung cancer.

  6. Sustainability of CD24 expression, cell proliferation and migration, cisplatin-resistance, and caspase-3 expression during mesenchymal-epithelial transition induced by the removal of TGF-β1 in A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Kwan; Park, Jin-A; Zhang, Dan; Cho, Sang-Hyun; Yi, Hee; Cho, Soo-Min; Chang, Byung-Joon; Kim, Jin-Suk; Shim, Jae-Han; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shin, Ho-Chul

    2017-08-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a notable mechanism underlying cancer cell metastasis. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) has been used to induce EMT; however, there is a lack of information regarding the role of TGF-β1 in mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET). In the present study, EMT was induced in A549 lung cancer cells using TGF-β1 (TGF-β1-treated group) and MET was induced sequentially from the TGF-β1-treated group by removing the TGF-β1 (MET/return group). Untreated A549 lung cancer cells were used as a control. Characteristic features, including cancer stem cell markers [cluster of differentiation (CD)24, CD44 and CD133], cell proliferation and migration and diverse intracellular mechanisms, were observed in all groups. Using western blot analysis, the TGF-β1-treated group demonstrated increased vimentin and reduced E-cadherin expression, whereas the MET/return group demonstrated the opposite trend. Among cancer stem cell markers, the population of CD24 low cells was reduced in the TGF-β1-treated group. Furthermore, the G2/M phase cell cycle population, cisplatin-sensitivity, and cell proliferation and migration ability were increased in the TGF-β1-treated group. These features were unaltered in the MET/return group when compared to the TGF-β1-treated group. Immunoblotting revealed an increase in the levels of SMAD3, phosphorylated SMAD3, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and caspase-3, and a decrease in active caspase-3 levels in the TGF-β1-treated group. Increased caspase-3 and reduced active caspase-3 levels were observed in the MET/return group, similar to those in the TGF-β1-treated group; however, levels of other signalling proteins were unchanged compared with the control group. EMT induced by TGF-β1 was not preserved; however, stemness-associated properties (CD24 expression, caspase-3 expression, cell proliferation and cisplatin-resistance) were sustained following removal of TGF-β1.

  7. Identification of cellular microRNA-136 as a dual regulator of RIG-I-mediated innate immunity that antagonizes H5N1 IAV replication in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lianzhong; Zhu, Jiping; Zhou, Hongbo; Zhao, Zongzheng; Zou, Zhong; Liu, Xiaokun; Lin, Xian; Zhang, Xue; Deng, Xuexia; Wang, Ruifang; Chen, Huanchun; Jin, Meilin

    2015-10-09

    H5N1 influenza A virus (IAV) causes severe respiratory diseases and high mortality rates in animals and humans. MicroRNAs are being increasingly studied to evaluate their potential as therapeutic entities to combat viral infection. However, mechanistic studies delineating the roles of microRNAs in regulating host-H5N1 virus interactions remain scarce. Here, we performed microRNA microarray analysis using A549 human lung epithelial cells infected with a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. The microRNA expression profile of infected cells identified a small number of microRNAs being dysregulated upon H5N1 influenza A virus infection. Of the differentially expressed microRNAs, miR-136 was up-regulated 5-fold and exhibited potent antiviral activity in vitro against H5N1 influenza A virus, as well as vesicular stomatitis virus. On the one hand, 3'-untranslated region (UTR) reporter analysis revealed a miR-136 binding site in the 3' UTR of IL-6. However, on the other hand, we subsequently determined that miR-136 meanwhile acts as an immune agonist of retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I), thereby causing IL-6 and IFN-β accumulation in A549 cells. Overall, this study implicates the dual role of miRNA-136 in the regulation of host antiviral innate immunity and suggests an important role for the microRNA-activated pathway in viral infection via pattern recognition receptors.

  8. Hyaluronic acid-fabricated nanogold delivery of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 siRNAs inhibits benzo[a]pyrene-induced oncogenic properties of lung cancer A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chung-Ming; Kao, Wei-Chien; Yeh, Chun-An; Chen, Hui-Jye; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Hsieh, Hsien-Hsu; Sun, Wei-Shen; Chang, Chih-Hsuan; Hung, Huey-Shan

    2015-03-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a component of cooking oil fumes (COF), promotes lung cancer cell proliferation and survival via the induction of inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 (IAP-2) proteins. Thus knockdown of IAP-2 would be a promising way to battle against lung cancer caused by COF. Functionalized gold nanoparticle (AuNP) is an effective delivery system for bio-active materials. Here, biocompatible hyaluronic acid (HA) was fabricated into nanoparticles to increase the target specificity by binding to CD44-over-expressed cancer cells. IAP-2-specific small-interfering RNA (siRNAs) or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) were then incorporated into AuNP-HA. Conjugation of IAP-2 siRNA into AuNPs-HA was verified by the UV-vis spectrometer and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Further studies showed that AuNP-HA/FITC were effectively taken up by A549 cells through CD44-mediated endocytosis. Incubation of BaP-challenged cells with AuNP-HA-IAP-2 siRNAs silenced the expression of IAP-2, decreased cell proliferation and triggered pronounced cell apoptosis by the decrease in Bcl-2 protein and the increase in Bax protein as well as the active form of caspases-3. The BaP-elicited cell migration and enzymatic activity of the secreted matrix metalloproteinase-2 were also substantially suppressed by treatment with AuNP-HA-IAP-2 siRNAs. These results indicated that IAP-2 siRNAs can be efficiently delivered into A549 cells by functionalized AuNP-HA to repress the IAP-2 expression and BaP-induced oncogenic events, suggesting the potential therapeutic application of IAP-2 siRNA or other siRNA-conjugated AuNP-HA composites to COF-induced lung cancer and other gene-caused diseases in the future.

  9. Mitochondria-targeted platinum(II) complexes induce apoptosis-dependent autophagic cell death mediated by ER-stress in A549 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng-Yang; Tang, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Xia; Huang, Ke-Bin; Feng, Hai-Wen; Chen, Zhen-Feng; Liu, You-Nian; Liang, Hong

    2018-06-09

    Agents with multiple modes of tumor cell death can be effective chemotherapeutic drugs. One example of a bimodal chemotherapeutic approach is an agent that can induce both apoptosis and autophagic death. Thus far, no clinical anticancer drug has been shown to simultaneously induce both these pathways. Mono-functional platinum complexes are potent anticancer drug candidates which act through mechanisms distinct from cisplatin. Here, we describe the synthesis and characterize of two mono-functional platinum complexes containing 8-substituted quinoline derivatives as ligands, [PtL 1 Cl]Cl [L 1  = (Z)-1-(pyridin-2-yl)-N-(quinolin-8-ylmethylene) methanamine] (Mon-Pt-1) and [PtL 2 Cl]Cl [L 2  = (Z)-2-(pyridin-2-yl)-N-(quinolin-8-ylmethylene) ethanamine] (Mon-Pt-2). In comparison to cisplatin, Mon-Pt-2 exhibited a greater in vitro cytotoxicity, was more effective in resistant cells and elicited a better anticancer effect. Mechanistic experiments indicate that Mon-Pt-2 mainly accumulates in mitochondria, and stimulates significant TrxR inhibition ROS release and an ER stress response, mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction, ultimately resulting in a simultaneous induction of apoptosis and autophagy. Importantly, compared to cisplatin, Mon-Pt-2 exhibits lower acute toxicity and better anticancer activity in a murine tumor model. To the best of our knowledge, Mon-Pt-2 is the first mono-functional platinum complex inducing pro-death autophagy and apoptosis of cancer cells. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  10. Discovery of a Novel Anti-Cancer Agent Targeting Both Topoisomerase I & II as Well as Telomerase Activities in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo: Cinnamomum verum Component Cuminaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ta-Wei; Tsai, Kuen-Daw; Yang, Shu-Mei; Wong, Ho-Yiu; Liu, Yi-Heng; Cherng, Jonathan; Chou, Kuo-Shen; Wang, Yang-Tz; Cuizon, Janise; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum is used to make the spice cinnamon and has been used for more than 5000 years by both of the two most ancient forms of medicine in the words: Ayurveda and traditional Chinese herbal medicines for various applications such as adenopathy, rheumatism, dermatosis, dyspepsia, stroke, tumors, elephantiasis, trichomonas, yeast, and virus infections. We evaluated the anticancer effect of cuminaldehyde (CuA), a constituent of the bark of the plant, and its underlying molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The results show that cuminaldehyde suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by mitochondrial membrane potential loss, activation of caspase 3 and 9, increase in annexin V+PI+ cells, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis, including blebbing of plasma membrane, nuclear condensation, fragmentation, apoptotic body formation, and comet with elevated tail intensity and moment. In addition, cuminaldehyde also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased volume of acidic compartments (VAC), suppressions of both topoisomerase I & II as well as telomerase activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further study reveals the growth-inhibitory effect of cuminaldehyde was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of cuminaldehyde against A549 cells is accompanied by downregulations of proliferative control involving apoptosis, both topoisomerase I & II as well as telomerase activities, together with an upregulation of lysosomal vacuolation and VAC. Similar effects (including all of the above-mentioned effects) were found in other cell lines, including human lung squamous cell carcinoma NCI-H520 and colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 (results not shown). Our data suggest that cuminaldehyde could be a potential agent for anticancer therapy.

  11. 8-Prenylkaempferol Suppresses Influenza A Virus-Induced RANTES Production in A549 Cells via Blocking PI3K-Mediated Transcriptional Activation of NF-κB and IRF3

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Wen-Fei; Chen, Chen-Chih; Wei, Bai-Luh

    2011-01-01

    8-Prenylkaempferol (8-PK) is a prenylflavonoid isolated from Sophora flavescens, a Chinese herb with antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated its effect on regulated activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) secretion by influenza A virus (H1N1)-infected A549 alveolar epithelial cells. Cell inoculation with H1N1 evoked a significant induction in RANTES accumulation accompanied with time-related increase in nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3), but showed no effect on c-Jun phosphorylation. 8-PK could significantly inhibit not only RANTES production but also NF-κB and IRF-3 nuclear translocation. We had proved that both NF-κB and IRF-3 participated in H1N1-induced RANTES production since NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidinedithio carbamate (PDTC) and IRF-3 siRNA attenuated significantly RANTES accumulation. H1N1 inoculation also increased PI3K activity as well as Akt phosphorylation and such responsiveness were attenuated by 8-PK. In the presence of wortmannin, nuclear translocation of NF-κB and IRF3 as well as RANTES production by H1N1 infection were all reversed, demonstrating that PI3K-Akt pathway is essential for NF-κB- and IRF-3-mediated RANTES production in A549 cells. Furthermore, 8-PK but not wortmannin, prevented effectively H1N1-evoked IκB degradation. In conclusion, 8-PK might be an anti-inflammatory agent for suppressing influenza A virus-induced RANTES production acts by blocking PI3K-mediated transcriptional activation of NF-κB and IRF-3 and in part by interfering with IκB degradation which subsequently decreases NF-κB translocation. PMID:19592477

  12. Assessing the in vitro toxicity of the lunar dust environment using respiratory cells exposed to Al(2)O(3) or SiO(2) fine dust particles.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Jacqueline A; Verhoff, Ashley M; Morgan, Julie E; Fischer, David G

    2009-12-01

    Prior chemical and physical analysis of lunar soil suggests a composition of dust particles that may contribute to the development of acute and chronic respiratory disorders. In this study, fine Al(2)O(3) (0.7 μm) and fine SiO(2) (mean 1.6 μm) were used to assess the cellular uptake and cellular toxicity of lunar dust particle analogs. Respiratory cells, murine alveolar macrophages (RAW 264.7) and human type II epithelial (A549), were cultured as the in vitro model system. The phagocytic activity of both cell types using ultrafine (0.1 μm) and fine (0.5 μm) fluorescent polystyrene beads was determined. Following a 6-h exposure, RAW 264.7 cells had extended pseudopods with beads localized in the cytoplasmic region of cells. After 24 h, the macrophage cells were rounded and clumped and lacked pseudopods, which suggest impairment of phagocytosis. A549 cells did not contain beads, and after 24 h, the majority of the beads appeared to primarily coat the surface of the cells. Next, we investigated the cellular response to fine SiO(2) and Al(2)O(3) (up to 5 mg/ml). RAW 264.7 cells exposed to 1.0 mg/ml of fine SiO(2) for 6 h demonstrated pseudopods, cellular damage, apoptosis, and necrosis. A549 cells showed slight toxicity when exposed to fine SiO(2) for the same time and dose. A549 cells had particles clustered on the surface of the cells. Only a higher dose (5.0 mg/ml) of fine SiO(2) resulted in a significant cytotoxicity to A549 cells. Most importantly, both cell types showed minimal cytotoxicity following exposure to fine Al(2)O(3). Overall, this study suggests differential cellular toxicity associated with exposure to fine mineral dust particles.

  13. Key role of regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted, nonstructural protein1 and myeloperoxidase in cytokine storm induced by influenza virus PR-8 (A/H1N1) infection in A549 bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Phung, Thuy Thi Bich; Sugamata, Ryuichi; Uno, Kazuko; Aratani, Yasuaki; Ozato, Keiko; Kawachi, Shoji; Thanh Nguyen, Liem; Nakayama, Toshinori; Suzuki, Kazuo

    2011-12-01

    Influenza virus infection causes severe respiratory disease such as that due to avian influenza (H5N1). Influenza A viruses proliferate in human epithelial cells, which produce inflammatory cytokines/chemokines as a "cytokine storm" attenuated with the viral nonstructural protein 1 (NS1). Cytokine/chemokine production in A549 epithelial cells infected with influenza A/H1N1 virus (PR-8) or nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) plasmid was examined in vitro. Because tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) are predominantly produced from cells infected with PR-8 virus, the effects of mRNA knockdown of these cytokines were investigated. Small interfering (si)TNF-α down-regulated RANTES expression and secretion of RANTES, interleukin (IL)-8, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). In addition, siRANTES suppressed interferon (IFN)-γ expression and secretion of RANTES, IL-8, and MCP-1, suggesting that TNF-α stimulates production of RANTES, IL-8, MCP-1, and IFN-γ, and RANTES also increased IL-8, MCP-1, and IFN-γ. Furthermore, administration of TNF-α promoted increased secretion of RANTES, IL-8, and MCP-1. Administration of RANTES enhanced IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 production without PR-8 infection. These results strongly suggest that, as an initial step, TNF-α regulates RANTES production, followed by increase of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 and IFNs concentrations. At a later stage, cells transfected with viral NS1 plasmid showed production of a large amount of IL-8 and MCP-1 in the presence of the H(2)O(2)-myeloperoxidse (MPO) system, suggesting that NS1 of PR-8 may induce a "cytokine storm" from epithelial cells in the presence of an H(2)O(2)-MPO system. © 2011 The Societies and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. The impact of anticancer activity upon Beta vulgaris extract mediated biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (ag-NPs) against human breast (MCF-7), lung (A549) and pharynx (Hep-2) cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, K; Ahmad, H; Manikandan, E; Thanigai Arul, K; Kavitha, K; Moodley, M K; Rajagopal, K; Balabhaskar, R; Bhaskar, M

    2017-08-01

    The present study tried for a phyto-synthetic method of producing silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) with size controlled as and eco-friendly route that can lead to their advanced production with decorative tranquil morphology. By inducing temperature fluctuation of the reaction mixture from 25 to 80°C the plasmon resonance band raised slowly which had an ultimate effect on size and shape of Ag-NPs as shown by UV-visible spectroscopy and TEM results. The biosynthesized nanoparticles showed good cytotoxic impact against MCF-7, A549 and Hep2 cells compared to normal cell lines. Compared to control plates, the percentage of cell growth inhibition was found to be high with as concentrations of Ag-NPs becomes more as determined by MTT assay. The AO/EtBr staining observations demonstrated that the mechanism of cell death induced by Ag-NPs was due to apoptosis in cancer cells. These present results propose that the silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) may be utilized as anticancer agents for the treatment of various cancer types. However, there is a need for study of in vivo examination of these nanoparticles to find their role and mechanism inside human body. Further, studies we plan to do biomarker fabrication from the green synthesized plant extract nanoparticles like silver, gold and copper nanoparticles with optimized shape and sizes and their enhancement of these noble nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Kaempferol Suppresses Transforming Growth Factor-β1-Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Migration of A549 Lung Cancer Cells by Inhibiting Akt1-Mediated Phosphorylation of Smad3 at Threonine-179.

    PubMed

    Jo, Eunji; Park, Seong Ji; Choi, Yu Sun; Jeon, Woo-Kwang; Kim, Byung-Chul

    2015-07-01

    Kaempferol, a natural dietary flavonoid, is well known to possess chemopreventive and therapeutic anticancer efficacy; however, its antimetastatic effects have not been mechanistically studied so far in any cancer model. This study was aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect and accompanying mechanisms of kaempferol on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). In human A549 non-small lung cancer cells, kaempferol strongly blocked the enhancement of cell migration by TGF-β1-induced EMT through recovering the loss of E-cadherin and suppressing the induction of mesenchymal markers as well as the upregulation of TGF-β1-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity. Interestingly, kaempferol reversed TGF-β1-mediated Snail induction and E-cadherin repression by weakening Smad3 binding to the Snail promoter without affecting its C-terminus phosphorylation, complex formation with Smad4, and nuclear translocation under TGF-β1 stimulation. Mechanism study revealed that the phosphorylation of Smad3 linker region induced by TGF-β1 was required for the induction of EMT and cell migration, and selective downregulation of the phosphorylation of Smad3 at Thr179 residue (not Ser204, Ser208, and Ser213) in the linker region was responsible for the inhibition by kaempferol of TGF-β1-induced EMT and cell migration. Furthermore, Akt1 was required for TGF-β1-mediated induction of EMT and cell migration and directly phosphorylated Smad3 at Thr179, and kaempferol completely abolished TGF-β1-induced Akt1 phosphorylation. In summary, kaempferol blocks TGF-β1-induced EMT and migration of lung cancer cells by inhibiting Akt1-mediated phosphorylation of Smad3 at Thr179 residue, providing the first evidence of a molecular mechanism for the anticancer effect of kaempferol. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Kaempferol Suppresses Transforming Growth Factor-β1–Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Migration of A549 Lung Cancer Cells by Inhibiting Akt1-Mediated Phosphorylation of Smad3 at Threonine-1791

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Eunji; Park, Seong Ji; Choi, Yu Sun; Jeon, Woo-Kwang; Kim, Byung-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Kaempferol, a natural dietary flavonoid, is well known to possess chemopreventive and therapeutic anticancer efficacy; however, its antimetastatic effects have not been mechanistically studied so far in any cancer model. This study was aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect and accompanying mechanisms of kaempferol on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). In human A549 non–small lung cancer cells, kaempferol strongly blocked the enhancement of cell migration by TGF-β1–induced EMT through recovering the loss of E-cadherin and suppressing the induction of mesenchymal markers as well as the upregulation of TGF-β1–mediated matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity. Interestingly, kaempferol reversed TGF-β1–mediated Snail induction and E-cadherin repression by weakening Smad3 binding to the Snail promoter without affecting its C-terminus phosphorylation, complex formation with Smad4, and nuclear translocation under TGF-β1 stimulation. Mechanism study revealed that the phosphorylation of Smad3 linker region induced by TGF-β1 was required for the induction of EMT and cell migration, and selective downregulation of the phosphorylation of Smad3 at Thr179 residue (not Ser204, Ser208, and Ser213) in the linker region was responsible for the inhibition by kaempferol of TGF-β1–induced EMT and cell migration. Furthermore, Akt1 was required for TGF-β1–mediated induction of EMT and cell migration and directly phosphorylated Smad3 at Thr179, and kaempferol completely abolished TGF-β1–induced Akt1 phosphorylation. In summary, kaempferol blocks TGF-β1–induced EMT and migration of lung cancer cells by inhibiting Akt1-mediated phosphorylation of Smad3 at Thr179 residue, providing the first evidence of a molecular mechanism for the anticancer effect of kaempferol. PMID:26297431

  17. Effects of calcitriol (1, 25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3) on the inflammatory response induced by H9N2 influenza virus infection in human lung A549 epithelial cells and in mice.

    PubMed

    Gui, Boxiang; Chen, Qin; Hu, Chuanxia; Zhu, Caihui; He, Guimei

    2017-01-23

    H9N2 influenza viruses circulate globally and are considered to have pandemic potential. The hyper-inflammatory response elicited by these viruses is thought to contribute to disease severity. Calcitriol plays an important role in modulating the immune response to viral infections. However, its unknown whether calcitriol can attenuate the inflammatory response elicited by H9N2 influenza virus infection. Human lung A549 epithelial cells were treated with calcitriol (100 nM) and then infected with an H9N2 influenza virus, or infected and then treated with calcitriol (30 nM). Culture supernatants were collected every 24 h post infection and the viral growth kinetics and inflammatory response were evaluated. Calcitriol (5 mg/kg) was administered daily by intraperitoneal injection to BABL/c mice for 15 days following H9N2 influenza virus infection. Mice were monitored for clinical signs of disease, lung pathology and inflammatory responses. Calcitriol treatment prior to and post infection with H9N2 influenza significantly decreased expression of the influenza M gene, IL-6, and IFN-β in A549 cells, but did not affect virus replication. In vivo, we found that calcitriol treatment significantly downregulated pulmonary inflammation in mice 2 days post-infection, but increased the inflammatory response 4 to 6 days post-infection. In contrast, the antiviral cytokine IFN-β was significantly higher in calcitriol-treated mice than in the untreated infected mice at 2 days post-infection, but lower than in untreated infected mice on days 4 and 8 post-infection. The elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the decreased levels of antiviral cytokine are consistent with the period of maximum body weight loss and the lung damage in calcitriol-treated mice. These results suggest that calcitriol treatment might have a negative impact on the innate immune response elicited by H9N2 infection in mice, especially at the later stage of influenza virus infection. This study

  18. Comparative Cytotoxicity of Glycyrrhiza glabra Roots from Different Geographical Origins Against Immortal Human Keratinocyte (HaCaT), Lung Adenocarcinoma (A549) and Liver Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells.

    PubMed

    Basar, Norazah; Oridupa, Olayinka Ayotunde; Ritchie, Kenneth J; Nahar, Lutfun; Osman, Nashwa Mostafa M; Stafford, Angela; Kushiev, Habibjon; Kan, Asuman; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2015-06-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae), commonly known as 'liquorice', is a well-known medicinal plant. Roots of this plant have long been used as a sweetening and flavouring agent in food and pharmaceutical products, and also as a traditional remedy for cough, upper and lower respiratory ailments, kidney stones, hepatitis C, skin disorder, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, gastrointestinal ulcers and stomach ache. Previous pharmacological and clinical studies have revealed its antitussive, antiinflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective and cardioprotective properties. While glycyrrhizin, a sweet-tasting triterpene saponin, is the principal bioactive compound, several bioactive flavonoids and isoflavonoids are also present in the roots of this plant. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts of nine samples of the roots of G. glabra, collected from various geographical origins, was assessed against immortal human keratinocyte (HaCaT), lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and liver carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines using the in vitro 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide cell toxicity/viability assay. Considerable variations in levels of cytotoxicity were observed among various samples of G. glabra. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) for anticancer activities (MCF 7 breast and A549 lung cell lines) of the crude extract of Syzygium aromaticum.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, K; Rather, H A; Rajagopal, K; Shanthi, M P; Sheriff, K; Illiyas, M; Rather, R A; Manikandan, E; Uvarajan, S; Bhaskar, M; Maaza, M

    2017-02-01

    In the present report, silver nanoparticles were synthesized using Piper nigrum extract for in vitro cytotoxicity efficacy against MCF-7 and HEP-2 cells. The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were formed within 20min and after preliminarily confirmation by UV-Visible spectroscopy (strong peak observed at ~441nm), they were characterized by using FT-IR and HR-TEM. The TEM images show spherical shape of biosynthesized AgNPs with particle size in the range 5-40nm while as compositional analysis were observed by EDAX. MTT assays were carried out for cytotoxicity of various concentrations of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles and Piper nigrum extract ranging from 10 to 100μg. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles showed a significant anticancer activity against both MCF-7 and Hep-2 cells compared to Piper nigrum extract which was dose dependent. Our study thus revealed an excellent application of greenly synthesized silver nanoparticles using Piper nigrum. The study further suggested the potential therapeutic use of these nanoparticles in cancer study. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester down-regulates claudin-2 expression at the transcriptional and post-translational levels and enhances chemosensitivity to doxorubicin in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Sonoki, Hiroyuki; Tanimae, Asami; Furuta, Takumi; Endo, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Ichihara, Kenji; Ikari, Akira

    2018-06-01

    Claudin-2 is highly expressed in human lung adenocarcinoma cells and involved in the promotion of proliferation. Here, we searched for a compound, which can decrease claudin-2 expression using lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. In the screening using compounds included in royal jelly and propolis, the protein level of claudin-2 was dose-dependently decreased by caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), whereas the mRNA level and promoter activity were only decreased by 50 μM CAPE. These results suggest that CAPE down-regulates claudin-2 expression mediated by two different mechanisms. CAPE (50 μM) decreased the level of p-NF-κB, whereas it increased that of IκB. The CAPE-induced decrease in promoter activity of claudin-2 was blocked by the mutation in an NF-κB-binding site. The inhibition of NF-κB may be involved in the decrease in mRNA level of claudin-2. The CAPE (10 μM)-induced decrease in claudin-2 expression was inhibited by chloroquine, a lysosomal inhibitor. CAPE increased the expression and activity of protein phosphatase (PP) 1 and 2A. The CAPE-induced decrease in claudin-2 expression was blocked by cantharidin, a potent PPs inhibitor. The cell proliferation was suppressed by CAPE, which was partially rescued by ectopic expression of claudin-2. In addition, the toxicity and accumulation of doxorubicin in 3D spheroid cells were enhanced by CAPE, which was inhibited by ectopic expression of claudin-2. Taken together, CAPE down-regulates claudin-2 expression at the transcriptional and post-translational levels, and enhances sensitivity of cells to doxorubicin in 3D culture conditions. CAPE may be a useful adjunctive compound in the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Toxicity of copper oxide nanoparticles in lung epithelial cells exposed at the air-liquid interface compared with in vivo assessment.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xuefang; Park, Jae Hong; Peters, Thomas M; Thorne, Peter S

    2015-04-01

    The toxicity of spark-generated copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) was evaluated in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) and lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549 cells) using an in vitro air-liquid interface (ALI) exposure system. Dose-response results were compared to in vivo inhalation and instillation studies of CuONPs. Cells were exposed to filtered, particle-free clean air (controls) or spark-generated CuONPs. The number median diameter, geometric standard deviation and total number concentration of CuONPs were 9.2 nm, 1.48 and 2.27×10(7)particles/cm(3), respectively. Outcome measures included cell viability, cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and proinflammatory chemokine production. Exposure to clean air (2 or 4h) did not induce toxicity in HBEC or A549 cells. Compared with controls, CuONP exposures significantly reduced cell viability, increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and IL-8 in a dose-dependent manner. A549 cells were significantly more susceptible to CuONP effects than HBEC. Antioxidant treatment reduced CuONP-induced cytotoxicity. When dose was expressed per area of exposed epithelium there was good agreement of toxicity measures with murine in vivo studies. This demonstrates that in vitro ALI studies can provide meaningful data on nanotoxicity of metal oxides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Polymeric Nano-Encapsulation of Curcumin Enhances its Anti-Cancer Activity in Breast (MDA-MB231) and Lung (A549) Cancer Cells Through Reduction in Expression of HIF-1α and Nuclear p65 (Rel A).

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammed N; Haggag, Yusuf A; Lane, Majella E; McCarron, Paul A; Tambuwala, Murtaza M

    2018-02-14

    The anti-cancer potential of curcumin, a natural NFκβ inhibitor, has been reported extensively in breast, lung and other cancers. In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that the therapeutic efficacy of curcumin is enhanced when formulated in a nanoparticulate carrier. However, the mechanism of action of curcumin at the molecular level in the hypoxic tumour micro-environment is not fully understood. Hence, the aim of our study was to investigate the mechanism of action of curcumin formulated as nanoparticles in in vitro models of breast and lung cancer under an hypoxic microenvironment. Biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) PLGA nanoparticles (NP), loaded with curcumin (cur-PLGA-NP), were fabricated using a solvent evaporation technique to overcome solubility issues and to facilitate intracellular curcumin delivery. Cytotoxicity of free curcumin and cur-PLGA-NP was evaluated in MDA-MB-231 and A549 cell lines using migration, invasion and colony formation assays. All treatments were performed under an hypoxic micro-environment and whole cell lysates from controls and test groups were used to determine the expression of HIF-1α and p65 levels using ELISA assays. A ten-fold increase in solubility, three-fold increase in anti-cancer activity and a significant reduction in the levels of cellular HIF-1α and nuclear p65 (Rel A) were observed for cur-PLGA-NP, when compared to free curcumin. Our findings indicate that curcumin can effectively lower the elevated levels of HIF-1α and nuclear p65 (Rel A) in breast and lung cancer cells under an hypoxic tumour micro-environment when delivered in nanoparticulate form. This applied means of colloidal delivery could explain the improved anti-cancer efficacy of curcumin and has further potential applications in enhancing the activity of anti-cancer agents of low solubility. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Drug Transporter Protein Quantification of Immortalized Human Lung Cell Lines Derived from Tracheobronchial Epithelial Cells (Calu-3 and BEAS2-B), Bronchiolar-Alveolar Cells (NCI-H292 and NCI-H441), and Alveolar Type II-like Cells (A549) by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Atsushi; Matsumaru, Takehisa; Yamamura, Norio; Suzuki, Shinobu; Uchida, Yasuo; Tachikawa, Masanori; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of drug transport in the human lung is an important issue in pulmonary drug discovery and development. For this purpose, there is an increasing interest in immortalized lung cell lines as alternatives to primary cultured lung cells. We recently reported the protein expression in human lung tissues and pulmonary epithelial cells in primary culture, (Sakamoto A, Matsumaru T, Yamamura N, Uchida Y, Tachikawa M, Ohtsuki S, Terasaki T. 2013. J Pharm Sci 102(9):3395-3406) whereas comprehensive quantification of protein expressions in immortalized lung cell lines is sparse. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the drug transporter protein expression of five commercially available immortalized lung cell lines derived from tracheobronchial cells (Calu-3 and BEAS2-B), bronchiolar-alveolar cells (NCI-H292 and NCI-H441), and alveolar type II cells (A549), by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based approaches. Among transporters detected, breast cancer-resistance protein in Calu-3, NCI-H292, NCI-H441, and A549 and OCTN2 in BEAS2-B showed the highest protein expression. Compared with data from our previous study,(Sakamoto A, Matsumaru T, Yamamura N, Uchida Y, Tachikawa M, Ohtsuki S, Terasaki T. 2013. J Pharm Sci 102(9):3395-3406) NCI-H441 was the most similar with primary lung cells from all regions in terms of protein expression of organic cation/carnitine transporter 1 (OCTN1). In conclusion, the protein expression profiles of transporters in five immortalized lung cell lines were determined, and these findings may contribute to a better understanding of drug transport in immortalized lung cell lines. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  4. Airborne nitro-PAHs induce Nrf2/ARE defense system against oxidative stress and promote inflammatory process by activating PI3K/Akt pathway in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yu; Zhou, Qian; Wang, Tiantian; Jiang, Yuting; Zhong, Yufang; Qian, Guangren; Zhu, Tong; Qiu, Xinghua; An, Jing

    2017-10-01

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) is a worldwide health issue of concern. However, limited information is available regarding the toxic contributions of the nitro-derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs). This study intend to examine whether 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) and 3-nitrofluoranthene (3-NF) could activate the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2/antioxidant response element (Nrf2/ARE) antioxidant defense system, and whether the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) pathway participates in regulating pro-inflammatory responses in A549 cells. Firstly, 1-NP and 3-NF concentration-dependently induced cellular apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, DNA damage, S phase cell cycle arrest and differential expression of related cytokine genes. Secondly, 1-NP and 3-NF activated the Nrf2/ARE defense system, as evidenced by increased protein expression levels and nuclear translocation of transcription factor Nrf2, elevated Nrf2/ARE binding activity, up-regulated expression of the target gene heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Significantly increased protein expression of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and phosphorylation level of Akt indicated that the PI3K/Akt pathway was activated during pro-inflammatory process. Further, both PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) and Akt inhibitor (MK-2206) reversed the elevated TNF-α expression to control level. Our results suggested that Nrf2/ARE pathway activation might cause an initiation step in cellular protection against oxidative stress caused by nitro-PAHs, and the PI3K/Akt pathway participated in regulating inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (lGF-1) inhibit repair of potentially lethal radiation damage and chromosome aberrations and later DNA repair kinetics in plateau-phase A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jayanth, V.R.; Belfi, C.A.; Swick, A.R.

    1995-08-01

    Plateau-phase A549 cells exhibit a high capacity for repair of potentially lethal radiation damage (PLD) when allowed to recover in their own spent medium. Addition of either insulin or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) to the spent medium 60 to 120 min before irradiation significantly inhibits PLD repair. The 9-h recovery factor (survival with holding/survival without holding)is reduced from 10.8 {plus_minus} 0.7 to 3.4 {plus_minus}0.3 by insulin and to 3.0 {plus_minus} 0.4 by IGF-1. Neither growth factor alters the cell age distribution of the plateau-phase cells, increases the rate of incorporation of 5-bromo-2{prime}-deoxyuridine into DNA, or alters the extent of radiation-inducedmore » mitotic delay in cells subcultured immediately after irradiation. Both insulin and IGF-1 alter the kinetics for rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), slowing the fast component of rejoining significantly. However, these growth factors have no effect on the initial level of DSBs or on the percentage of residual unrejoined breaks at 120 min postirradiation. Both growth factors affect repair of lesions leading to dicentric, but not to acentric, chromosome aberrations significantly. In control cells (treated with phosphate-buffered saline, 90 min prior to irradiation), the half-time for disappearance of dicentrics was 4.1 h (3.4 to 5.1 h), and 47.1 {plus_minus} 3.7% of the residual damage remained at 24 h postirradiation. Insulin and IGF-1 increased the half-time for disappearance of dicentrics to 5.2 h (3.9 to 7.7 h) and 5.7 h (5.5 to 5.9 h), respectively, and increased residual damage to 56.1 {plus_minus}5.9% and 60.8 {plus_minus} 6.0%, respectively. Overall, these data show that insulin and IGF-1 inhibit PLD repair in A54j9 cells by mechanisms which are independent of changes in cell cycle parameters. The data suggest that the growth factors act by inducing changes in chromatin conformation which promote misrepair of radiation-damaged DNA. 49 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.« less

  6. Evaluation of permeability alteration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition induced by transforming growth factor-β1 in A549, NCI-H441, and Calu-3 cells: Development of an in vitro model of respiratory epithelial cells in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Togami, Kohei; Yamaguchi, Kotaro; Chono, Sumio; Tada, Hitoshi

    2017-07-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lethal lung disease, which is accompanied by changes in lung structure. With regard to treatment, aerosolized drugs administered intrapulmonarily are rapidly distributed into the plasma and do not remain in the lungs due to damage to the alveolar epithelium that occurs from pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we sought to develop an in vitro model of respiratory epithelial cells in IPF for the evaluation of the intrapulmonary distribution of aerosolized drugs. We investigated transforming growth factor (TGF)-β 1 -induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and permeability alteration in A549, NCI-H441, and Calu-3 cell monolayers. After TGF-β 1 treatment of A549, NCI-H441, and Calu-3 cells, EMT markers including E-cadherin and vimentin and tight junction proteins including claudins-1, -3, and -5 were stained using immunofluorescence methods and detected using immunoblotting methods. Transport experiments were performed using TGF-β 1 -treated cell monolayers and fluorescein isothiocyanate dextrans (FD; 4.4, 10, and 70kDa). In addition, TGF-β 1 -induced apoptosis and necrosis were evaluated by flow cytometry using Annexin V and ethidium homodimer III, respectively. In NCI-H441 cells, incomplete EMT, destruction of claudins-1 and -3, and enhancement of FD permeability were caused by TGF-β 1 treatment. In A549 cells, complete EMT occurred but was not adequate for transport experiments because of low transepithelial electrical resistance. Whereas in Calu-3 cells, no changes were observed. TGF-β 1 -induced apoptosis and necrosis were not observed in any of the cell lines. Incomplete EMT and permeability enhancement were observed in the alveolar epithelium of IPF. Therefore, our results indicate that TGF-β 1 -treated NCI-H441 cell monolayers may serve as a useful in vitro model of respiratory epithelial cells for IPF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Combined treatment with apatinib and docetaxel in A549 xenograft mice and its cellular pharmacokinetic basis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Si-Qi; Wang, Guang-Ji; Zhang, Jing-Wei; Xie, Yuan; Sun, Run-Bin; Fei, Fei; Huang, Jing-Qiu; Wang, Ying; Aa, Ji-Ye; Zhou, Fang

    2018-05-17

    Apatinib, a small-molecule inhibitor of VEGFR-2, has attracted much attention due to its encouraging anticancer activity in third-line clinical treatment for many malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Its usage in second-line therapy with chemotherapeutic drugs is still under exploration. In this study we investigated the antitumor effect of apatinib combined with docetaxel against NSCLC and its cellular pharmacokinetic basis. A549 xenograft nude mice were treated with apatinib (100 mg/kg every day for 20 days) combined with docetaxel (8 mg/kg, ip, every four days for 5 times). Apatinib significantly enhanced the antitumor effect of docetaxel and alleviated docetaxel-induced liver damage as well as decreased serum transaminases (ALT and AST). LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that apatinib treatment significantly increased the docetaxel concentration in tumors (up to 1.77 times) without enhancing the docetaxel concentration in the serum, heart, liver, lung and kidney. Furthermore, apatinib decreased docetaxel-induced upregulation of P-glycoprotein in tumors. The effects of apatinib on the uptake, efflux and subcellular distribution of docetaxel were investigated in A549 and A549/DTX (docetaxel-resistant) cells in vitro. A cellular pharmacokinetic study revealed that apatinib significantly increased cellular/subcellular accumulation (especially in the cytosol) and decreased the efflux of docetaxel in A549/DTX cells through P-gp, while apatinib exerted no significant effect on the cellular pharmacokinetics of docetaxel in A549 cells. Consequently, the IC 50 value of docetaxel in A549/DTX cells was more significantly decreased by apatinib than that in A549 cells. These results demonstrate that apatinib has potential for application in second-line therapy combined with docetaxel for NSCLC patients, especially for docetaxel-resistant or multidrug-resistant patients.

  8. Open Reading Frame 3 of Genotype 1 Hepatitis E Virus Inhibits Nuclear Factor-κappa B Signaling Induced by Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in Human A549 Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Deying; Wang, Jingjing; Zheng, Zizheng; Xia, Ningshao

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the primary causative agents of acute hepatitis, and represents a major cause of severe public health problems in developing countries. The pathogenesis of HEV is not well characterized, however, primarily due to the lack of well-defined cell and animal models. Here, we investigated the effects of genotype 1 HEV open reading frame 3 (ORF3) on TNF-α-induced nucleus factor-κappa B (NF-κB) signaling. Human lung epithelial cells (A549) were transiently transfected with ORF3 containing plasmids. These cells were then stimulated with TNF-α and the nucleus translocation of the p65 NF-κB subunit was assessed using western blot and laser confocal microscopy. DNA-binding activity of p65 was also examined using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), and the suppression of NF-κB target genes were detected using real-time RT-PCR and ELISA. These results enabled us to identify the decreased phosphorylation levels of IKBα. We focused on the gene of negative regulation of NF-κB, represented by TNF-α-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3, also known as A20). Reducing the levels of A20 with siRNAs significantly enhances luciferase activation of NF-κB. Furthermore, HEV ORF3 regulated A20 primarily via activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), involved in unfolded protein response (UPR), resulting in the degradation or inactivation of the receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1), a major upstream activator of IKB kinase compounds (IKKs). Consequently, the phosphorylation of IKBα and the nucleus translocation of p65 are blocked, which contributes to diminished NF-κB DNA-binding activation and NF-κB-dependent gene expression. The findings suggest that genotype 1 HEV, through ORF3, may transiently activate NF-κB through UPR in early stage, and subsequently inhibit TNF-α-induced NF-κB signaling in late phase so as to create a favorable virus replication environment. PMID:24959724

  9. Transcriptomic and metabolomic approaches to investigate the molecular responses of human cell lines exposed to the flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinkang; Williams, Timothy D; Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa; Harrad, Stuart; Chipman, James K; Viant, Mark R

    2015-12-01

    The potential for human exposure to the brominated flame retardant, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) has given rise to health concerns, yet there is relatively limited knowledge about its possible toxic effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms that may mediate any impacts on health. In this study, unbiased transcriptomic and metabolomic approaches were employed to investigate the potential molecular changes that could lead to the toxicity of HBCD under concentrations relevant to human exposure conditions using in vitro models. A concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of HBCD to A549 and HepG2/C3A cells was observed based on MTT assays or CCK-8 assays with EC50 values of 27.4 μM and 63.0 μM, respectively. Microarray-based transcriptomics and mass spectrometry-based metabolomics revealed few molecular changes in A549 cells or HepG2/C3A cells following a 24-hour exposure to several sub-lethal concentrations (2 to 4000 nM) of HBCD. Quantification of the level of HBCD in the HepG2/C3A exposed cells suggested that the flame retardant was present at concentrations several orders of magnitude higher than those reported to occur in human tissues. We conclude that at the concentrations known to be achievable following exposure in humans, HBCD exhibits no detectable acute toxicity in A549 cells, representative of the lung, or in HepG2/C3A cells, that are hepatocytes with some xenobiotic metabolic capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclear Heat Shock Response and Novel Nuclear Domain 10 Reorganization in Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Infected A549 Cells Identified by High-Resolution Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Brasier, Allan R.; Spratt, Heidi; Wu, Zheng; Boldogh, Istvan; Zhang, Yuhong; Garofalo, Roberto P.; Casola, Antonella; Pashmi, Jawad; Haag, Anthony; Luxon, Bruce; Kurosky, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The pneumovirus respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of epidemic respiratory tract infection. Upon entry, RSV replicates in the epithelial cytoplasm, initiating compensatory changes in cellular gene expression. In this study, we have investigated RSV-induced changes in the nuclear proteome of A549 alveolar type II-like epithelial cells by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). Replicate 2D gels from uninfected and RSV-infected nuclei were compared for changes in protein expression. We identified 24 different proteins by peptide mass fingerprinting after matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MS), whose average normalized spot intensity was statistically significant and differed by ±2-fold. Notable among the proteins identified were the cytoskeletal cytokeratins, RNA helicases, oxidant-antioxidant enzymes, the TAR DNA binding protein (a protein that associates with nuclear domain 10 [ND10] structures), and heat shock protein 70- and 60-kDa isoforms (Hsp70 and Hsp60, respectively). The identification of Hsp70 was also validated by liquid chromatography quadropole-TOF tandem MS (LC-MS/MS). Separate experiments using immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that RSV induced cytoplasmic Hsp70 aggregation and nuclear accumulation. Data mining of a genomic database showed that RSV replication induced coordinate changes in Hsp family proteins, including the 70, 70-2, 90, 40, and 40-3 isoforms. Because the TAR DNA binding protein associates with ND10s, we examined the effect of RSV infection on ND10 organization. RSV induced a striking dissolution of ND10 structures with redistribution of the component promyelocytic leukemia (PML) and speckled 100-kDa (Sp100) proteins into the cytoplasm, as well as inducing their synthesis. Our findings suggest that cytoplasmic RSV replication induces a nuclear heat shock response, causes ND10 disruption, and redistributes PML and Sp100 to the cytoplasm. Thus, a high

  11. [Effect of ginseng rare ginsenoside components combined with paclitaxel on A549 lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2018-04-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine combined with anticancer drugs is a new direction of clinical cancer therapy in recent years. In this study, the optimal ratio of ginseng rare ginsenoside components and paclitaxel was optimized by MTT method, and the proliferative, apoptotic and anti-tumor effects of lung cancer A549 cells were investigated. It was found that the inhibitory effect on the proliferation of lung cancer A549 cells was the same as that on paclitaxel when the ratio of rare ginseng rare ginsenoside components to paclitaxel was 4∶6. Further studies showed that the combined therapy significantly increased the inductive effect of apoptosis in A549 cells, and up-regulated the expression of caspase-3 protein and down-regulated the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. The tumor-bearing mice model showed that the combination therapy of ginseng rare ginsenoside components and paclitaxel could significantly inhibit the growth of tumor and alleviate the toxic and side effects of paclitaxel on liver. A multi-component system of ginseng rare ginsenoside components-paclitaxel was established in this paper. The proliferation and growth of lung cancer A549 cells were inhibited by paclitaxel-induced apoptosis, the dosage of paclitaxel and the toxicity of paclitaxel were reduced, and the effect of anti-lung cancer was enhanced, which provided a theoretical basis for later studies and clinical application. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. Role of ATM in bystander signaling between human monocytes and lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Somnath; Ghosh, Anu; Krishna, Malini

    2015-12-01

    The response of a cell or tissue to ionizing radiation is mediated by direct damage to cellular components and indirect damage mediated by radiolysis of water. Radiation affects both irradiated cells and the surrounding cells and tissues. The radiation-induced bystander effect is defined by the presence of biological effects in cells that were not themselves in the field of irradiation. To establish the contribution of the bystander effect in the survival of the neighboring cells, lung carcinoma A549 cells were exposed to gamma-irradiation, 2Gy. The medium from the irradiated cells was transferred to non-irradiated A549 cells. Irradiated A549 cells as well as non-irradiated A549 cells cultured in the presence of medium from irradiated cells showed decrease in survival and increase in γ-H2AX and p-ATM foci, indicating a bystander effect. Bystander signaling was also observed between different cell types. Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated and gamma-irradiated U937 (human monocyte) cells induced a bystander response in non-irradiated A549 (lung carcinoma) cells as shown by decreased survival and increased γ-H2AX and p-ATM foci. Non-stimulated and/or irradiated U937 cells did not induce such effects in non-irradiated A549 cells. Since ATM protein was activated in irradiated cells as well as bystander cells, it was of interest to understand its role in bystander effect. Suppression of ATM with siRNA in A549 cells completely inhibited bystander effect in bystander A549 cells. On the other hand suppression of ATM with siRNA in PMA stimulated U937 cells caused only a partial inhibition of bystander effect in bystander A549 cells. These results indicate that apart from ATM, some additional factor may be involved in bystander effect between different cell types. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Anti-tumor activity and mechanism of apoptosis of A549 induced by ruthenium complex.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dongdong; Mou, Zhipeng; Li, Nuan; Zhang, Weiwei; Wang, Yazhe; Yang, Endong; Wang, Weiyun

    2016-12-01

    Two new ruthenium (II) polypyridyl complexes [Ru(MeIm) 4 (pip)] 2+ (1) and [Ru(MeIm) 4 (4-npip)] 2+ (2) were synthesized under the guidance of computational studies (DFT). Their binding property to human telomeric G-quadruplex studied by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, the fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) melting assay and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy for validating the theoretical prediction. Both of them were evaluated for their potential anti-proliferative activity against four human tumor cell lines. Complex 2 shows growth inhibition against all the cell lines tested, especially the human lung tumor cell (A549). The RTCA analysis not only validated the inhibition activity but also showed the ability of reducing A549 cells' migration. DNA-flow cytometric analysis, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and the scavenger measurements of reactive oxygen species (ROS) analysis carried out to investigate the mechanism of cell growth inhibition and apoptosis-inducing effect of complex 2. The results demonstrated that complex 2 induces tumor cells apoptosis by acting on both mitochondrial homeostasis destruction and death receptor signaling pathways. And those suggested that complex 2 could be a candidate for further evaluation as a chemotherapeutic agent against human tumor.

  14. In vitro investigation of oxide nanoparticle and carbon nanotube toxicity and intracellular accumulation in A549 human pneumocytes.

    PubMed

    Simon-Deckers, A; Gouget, B; Mayne-L'hermite, M; Herlin-Boime, N; Reynaud, C; Carrière, M

    2008-11-20

    If released in the environment, nanomaterials might be inhaled by populations and cause damage to the deepest regions of the respiratory tract, i.e., the alveolar compartment. To model this situation, we studied the response of A549 human pneumocytes after exposure to aluminium oxide or titanium oxide nanoparticles, and to multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The influence of size, crystalline structure and chemical composition was investigated. After a detailed identification of nanomaterial physico-chemical characteristics, cells were exposed in vitro and viability and intracellular accumulation were assessed. In our conditions, carbon nanotubes were more toxic than metal oxide nanoparticles. Our results confirmed that both nanotubes and nanoparticles are able to rapidly enter into cells, and distribute in the cytoplasm and intracellular vesicles. Among nanoparticles, we demonstrate significant difference in biological response as a function of size, crystalline phase and chemical composition. Their toxicity was globally lower than nanotubes toxicity. Among nanotubes, the length did not influence cytotoxicity, neither the presence of metal catalyst impurities.

  15. A mononuclear Cu(II) complex with 5,6-diphenyl-3-(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazine: Synthesis, crystal structure, DNA- and BSA-binding, molecular modeling, and anticancer activity against MCF-7, A-549, and HT-29 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Anjomshoa, Marzieh; Hadadzadeh, Hassan; Torkzadeh-Mahani, Masoud; Fatemi, Seyed Jamilaldin; Adeli-Sardou, Mahboubeh; Rudbari, Hadi Amiri; Nardo, Viviana Mollica

    2015-01-01

    The copper(II) complex of 1,2,4-triazine derivatives, [Cu(dppt)2(H2O)](PF6)2(dppt is 5,6-diphenyl-3-(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazine), has been synthesized and fully characterized by spectroscopic methods and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The in vitro DNA-binding studies of the complex have been investigated by several methods. The results showed that the complex intercalates into the base pairs of DNA. The complex also indicated good binding propensity to BSA. The results of molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulation methods confirm the experimental results. Finally, the in vitro cytotoxicity indicate that the complex has excellent anticancer activity against the three human carcinoma cell lines, MCF-7, A-549, and HT-29, with IC50 values of 9.8, 7.80, and 4.50 μM, respectively. The microscopic analyses of the cancer cells demonstrate that the Cu(II) complex apparently induced apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Functions of TGF-β-exposed plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Saas, Philippe; Perruche, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) belong to the family of dendritic cells and possess specific features that distinguish them from conventional dendritic cells. For instance, pDC are the main interferon-alpha-secreting cells. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells exert both proinflammatory and regulatory functions. This is attested by the involvement of pDC through interferon-alpha secretion in several autoimmune diseases, and by the implication of pDC in tolerance. The same is true for TGF-β that plays a dual role in inflammation. In this review, we discuss recent data on pDC and TGF-β interactions. As with many cell types, pDCs are able to respond to TGF-β using the classic Smad signaling pathway. In addition, pDCs are capable to secrete TGF-β, in particular in response to TGF-β exposure. Exposure of pDCs to TGF-β prevents type I interferon secretion in response to TLR7/9 ligands. In contrast, the consequences of TGF-β on the antigen-presenting cell capacities of pDC are less clear, since TGF-β-exposed pDCs may lead to both regulatory T-cell and interleukin-17-secreting cell polarization. Here, we discuss the factors that may influence this polarization. We also discuss how pDCs exposed to TGF-β may participate in tolerance induction and maintenance, or, on the contrary, in autoimmune diseases.

  17. Decrease of reactive oxygen species-related biomarkers in the tissue-mimic 3D spheroid culture of human lung cells exposed to zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunjoo; Jeon, Won Bae; Kim, Soonhyun; Lee, Soo-Keun

    2014-05-01

    Common 2-dimensional (2D) cell cultures do not adequately represent cell-cell and cell-matrix signaling and substantially different diffusion/transport pathways. To obtain tissue-mimic information on nanoparticle toxicity from in vitro cell tests, we used a 3-dimensional (3D) culture of human lung cells (A549) prepared with elastin-like peptides modified with an arginine-glycine-aspartate motif. The 3D cells showed different cellular phenotypes, gene expression profiles, and functionalities compared to the 2D cultured cells. In gene array analysis, 3D cells displayed the induced extracellular matrix (ECM)-related biological functions such as cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, cellular function and maintenance, connective tissue development and function, molecular transport, and tissue morphology. Additionally, the expression of ECM-related molecules, such as laminin, fibronectin, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), was simultaneously induced at both mRNA and protein levels. When 0.08-50 microg/ml zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) were administered to 2D and 3D cells, the cell proliferation was not significantly changed. The level of molecular markers for oxidative stress, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), Bcl-2, ATP synthase, and Complex IV (cytochrome C oxidase), was significantly reduced in 2D culture when exposed to 10 microg/ml ZnO-NPs, but no significant decrease was detected in 3D culture when exposed to the same concentration of ZnO-NPs. In conclusion, the tissue-mimic phenotype and functionality of 3D cells could be achieved through the elevated expression of ECM components. The 3D cells were expected to help to better predict the nanotoxicity of ZnO-NPs at tissue-level by increased cell-cell and cell-ECM adhesion and signaling. The tissue-mimic morphology would also be useful to simulate the diffusion/transport of the nanoparticles in vitro.

  18. The preparation of <100 particles per trial having the same mole fraction of 12 inorganic compounds at diameters of 6.8, 3.8, or 2.6 [mu]m followed by their deposition onto human lung cells (A549) with measurement of the relative downstream differential expression of ICAM-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eleghasim, Ndukauba M.; Haddrell, Allen E.; van Eeden, Stephen; Agnes, George R.

    2006-12-01

    The characterization of particulate matter suspended in the troposphere (PM10) based on size is an important basis for assessing the extent of their adverse effects on human health. The relevance of such assessments is anticipated to be significantly improved through the continued development of tools that can identify the chemical components within individual ambient particles, and the injury that they cause. We use recently reported methodology to create mimics of ambient particle types of known size and chemical composition that are levitated within an ac trap. The ac trap uses electric fields to levitate the particles that have a given mass and net elementary charge, and as such the ac trap is a mass-to-charge filter. The ac trap was used to levitate populations of particles where the size of particles in any given population could be altered. The levitated particles are delivered direct from the ac trap to human lung cells (A549), in vitro, with downstream measurement of differential expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and counting of the number of particles actually delivered to the culture using an optical microscope. In this study, the chemical composition of the ambient particle mimics was restricted to inorganic compounds whose relative abundance was purposely designed to mimic the average abundance in Environmental Health Center-93 (EHC-93) particles. The sizes of the multilelement particle types prepared were 6.8 +/- 0.5, 3.8 +/- 0.3, 2.6 +/- 0.2 (mean +/- S.D.). Particles of either elemental carbon, or elemental carbon containing glycerol were used as control particle types. In any given experiment, a known number of particles, but always <100, of a given size, were deposited onto a small region of an A549 cell culture. Following an 18-h incubation period and anti-body labeling of ICAM-1, the fluorescence emission from a 1.07 mm2 area of the cell culture centered at the site of particle deposition was acquired. The relative

  19. Chalepin: A Compound from Ruta angustifolia L. Pers Exhibits Cell Cycle Arrest at S phase, Suppresses Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (NF-κB) Pathway, Signal Transducer and Activation of Transcription 3 (STAT3) Phosphorylation and Extrinsic Apoptotic Pathway in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Carcinoma (A549).

    PubMed

    Richardson, Jaime Stella Moses; Aminudin, Norhaniza; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri

    2017-10-01

    Plants have been a major source of inspiration in developing novel drug compounds in the treatment of various diseases that afflict human beings worldwide. Ruta angustifolia L. Pers known locally as Garuda has been conventionally used for various medicinal purposes such as in the treatment of cancer. A dihydrofuranocoumarin named chalepin, which was isolated from the chloroform extract of the plant, was tested on its ability to inhibit molecular pathways of human lung carcinoma (A549) cells. Cell cycle analysis and caspase 8 activation were conducted using a flow cytometer, and protein expressions in molecular pathways were determined using Western blot technique. Cell cycle analysis showed that cell cycle was arrested at the S phase. Further studies using Western blotting technique showed that cell cycle-related proteins such as cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and inhibitors of CDKs correspond to a cell cycle arrest at the S phase. Chalepin also showed inhibition in the expression of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway, signal transducer and activation of transcription 3 (STAT-3), cyclooxygenase-2, and c-myc were also downregulated upon treatment with chalepin. Chalepin was found to induce extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Death receptors 4 and 5 showed a dramatic upregulation at 24 h. Analysis of activation of caspase 8 with the flow cytometer showed an increase in activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Activation of caspase 8 induced cleavage of BH3-interacting domain death agonist, which initiated a mitochondrial-dependent or -independent apoptosis. Chalepin causes S phase cell cycle arrest, NF-κB pathway inhibition, and STAT-3 inhibition, induces extrinsic apoptotic pathway, and could be an excellent chemotherapeutic agent. This study reports the capacity of an isolated bioactive compound known as chalepin to suppress the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells pathway, signal

  20. The efficiency of photovoltaic cells exposed to pulsed laser light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, R. A.; Landis, G. A.; Jenkins, P.

    1993-01-01

    Future space missions may use laser power beaming systems with a free electron laser (FEL) to transmit light to a photovoltaic array receiver. To investigate the efficiency of solar cells with pulsed laser light, several types of GaAs, Si, CuInSe2, and GaSb cells were tested with the simulated pulse format of the induction and radio frequency (RF) FEL. The induction pulse format was simulated with an 800-watt average power copper vapor laser and the RF format with a frequency-doubled mode-locked Nd:YAG laser. Averaged current vs bias voltage measurements for each cell were taken at various optical power levels and the efficiency measured at the maximum power point. Experimental results show that the conversion efficiency for the cells tested is highly dependent on cell minority carrier lifetime, the width and frequency of the pulses, load impedance, and the average incident power. Three main effects were found to decrease the efficiency of solar cells exposed to simulated FEL illumination: cell series resistance, LC 'ringing', and output inductance. Improvements in efficiency were achieved by modifying the frequency response of the cell to match the spectral energy content of the laser pulse with external passive components.

  1. Synthesis of protein in intestinal cells exposed to cholera toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.W.; Berg, W.D. Jr.; Coppenhaver, D.H.

    1987-11-01

    The mechanism by which cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), formed by intestinal epithelial cells in response to cholera toxin, ultimately results in alterations in water and electrolyte transport is poorly understood. Several studies have indicated that inhibitors of transcription or translation block much of the transport of ions and water in the intestine and edema formation in tissue elicited by cholera toxin. Data presented in this study confirmed the inhibitory effects of cycloheximide on cholera toxin-induced fluid accumulation in the rabbit intestinal loop model. Neither cycloheximide nor actinomycin D altered the amount of cyclic AMP that accumulated in intestinal cells andmore » Chinese hamster ovary cells exposed to cholera toxin. An increase in (/sup 3/H) leucine incorporation was readily demonstrable in intestinal epithelial cells from rabbits challenged with Vibrio cholerae. Similarly, intestinal epithelial cells incubated with cholera toxin for 4 hr synthesized substantially more protein than controls as determined by relative incorporation of (/sup 35/S) methionine. Most of the new protein synthesized in response to cholera toxin was membrane associated and of high molecular weight. The possible significance of the toxin-induced protein relative to cholera pathogenesis was discussed.« less

  2. Necrosis in human neuronal cells exposed to paraquat.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Naho; Aki, Toshihiko; Funakoshi, Takeshi; Noritake, Kanako; Unuma, Kana; Uemura, Koichi

    2018-01-01

    Paraquat (PQ) is an herbicide that was once used worldwide, but is now prohibited in many nations due to its high toxicity to humans. However, there are still rare cases of the fetal intoxication of PQ, which was purchased prior to the prohibition in Japan. In this study, several cell death pathways, the mitochondrial stress response, and autophagy were examined in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to PQ. The results reveal the decrease of a mitochondrial stress sensitive-BNIP3 (Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa-interacting protein 3) protein, the suppression of autophagic flux, and the lack of apoptosis as well as other regulated forms of necrosis, such as necroptosis and ferroptosis. Taken together, our preliminary survey of cellular responses against PQ shows that, although responses of mitochondria and autophagy are observed, subsequent cell death is necrosis. Mechanism of PQ-induced SH-SY5Y cell death should be complicated and cannot be explained thoroughly by already-known mechanisms.

  3. Cytotoxicity, cytokine release and ER stress-autophagy gene expression in endothelial cells and alveolar-endothelial co-culture exposed to pristine and carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shiwei; Zhao, Xuqi; Li, Siyu; Liao, Tuqiang; Long, Jimin; Yu, Zhiqiang; Cao, Yi

    2018-06-18

    Recently we found that direct exposure of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) might induce toxicological responses through the modulation of ER stress gene expression, but whether this signal could be transferred from other cells to endothelial cells (ECs) is unknown. This study investigated the toxicity of pristine and carboxylated MWCNTs to HUVECs and alveolar-endothelial co-culture, the later of which could mimic the possible signaling communications between ECs and MWCNT exposed alveolar cells. The results showed that direct contact with high levels of MWCNTs induced cytotoxicity and modulated expression of genes associated with ER stress (HSPA5, DDIT3 and XBP-1s) and autophagy (BECN1 and ATG12) both in A549-THP-1 macrophages cultured in the upper chambers as well as HUVECs. However, most of these responses were minimal or negligible in HUVECs cultured in the lower chambers. Moreover, significantly increased cytokine release (interleukin-6 and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) was only observed in MWCNT exposed HUVECs (p < 0.01) but not HUVECs cultured in the lower chambers (p > 0.05). The minimal or even absent response was likely due to relatively low translocation of MWCNTs from upper chambers to lower chambers, whereas A549-macrophages cultured in the upper chambers internalized large amount MWCNTs. The results indicated that ER stress-autophagy signaling might not be able to transfer from alveolar cells to endothelial cells unless sufficient MWCNTs are translocated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cytochrome c oxidase is activated by the oncoprotein Ras and is required for A549 lung adenocarcinoma growth

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Constitutive activation of Ras in immortalized bronchial epithelial cells increases electron transport chain activity, oxygen consumption and tricarboxylic acid cycling through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that members of the Ras family may stimulate respiration by enhancing the expression of the Vb regulatory subunit of cytochrome c oxidase (COX). Results We found that the introduction of activated H-RasV12 into immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells increased eIF4E-dependent COX Vb protein expression simultaneously with an increase in COX activity and oxygen consumption. In support of the regulation of COX Vb expression by the Ras family, we also found that selective siRNA-mediated inhibition of K-Ras expression in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells reduced COX Vb protein expression, COX activity, oxygen consumption and the steady-state concentration of ATP. We postulated that COX Vb-mediated activation of COX activity may be required for the anchorage-independent growth of A549 cells as soft agar colonies or as lung xenografts. We transfected the A549 cells with COX Vb small interfering or shRNA and observed a significant reduction of their COX activity, oxygen consumption, ATP and ability to grow in soft agar and as poorly differentiated tumors in athymic mice. Conclusion Taken together, our findings indicate that the activation of Ras increases COX activity and mitochondrial respiration in part via up-regulation of COX Vb and that this regulatory subunit of COX may have utility as a Ras effector target for the development of anti-neoplastic agents. PMID:22917272

  5. Biliary epithelium and liver B cells exposed to bacteria activate intrahepatic MAIT cells through MR1

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, Hannah C.; van Wilgenburg, Bonnie; Kurioka, Ayako; Parekh, Krishan; Stirling, Kathryn; Roberts, Sheree; Dutton, Emma E.; Hunter, Stuart; Geh, Daniel; Braitch, Manjit K.; Rajanayagam, Jeremy; Iqbal, Tariq; Pinkney, Thomas; Brown, Rachel; Withers, David R.; Adams, David H.; Klenerman, Paul; Oo, Ye H.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Mucosal-Associated Invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like T cells characterised by the invariant TCR-chain, Vα7.2-Jα33, and are restricted by MR1, which presents bacterial vitamin B metabolites. They are important for antibacterial immunity at mucosal sites; however, detailed characteristics of liver-infiltrating MAIT (LI-MAIT) and their role in biliary immune surveillance remain unexplored. Methods The phenotype and intrahepatic localisation of human LI-MAIT cells was examined in diseased and normal livers. MAIT cell activation in response to E. coli-exposed macrophages, biliary epithelial cells (BEC) and liver B cells was assessed with/without anti-MR1. Results Intrahepatic MAIT cells predominantly localised to bile ducts in the portal tracts. Consistent with this distribution, they expressed biliary tropic chemokine receptors CCR6, CXCR6, and integrin αEβ7. LI-MAIT cells were also present in the hepatic sinusoids and possessed tissue-homing chemokine receptor CXCR3 and integrins LFA-1 and VLA-4, suggesting their recruitment via hepatic sinusoids. LI-MAIT cells were enriched in the parenchyma of acute liver failure livers compared to chronic diseased livers. LI-MAIT cells had an activated, effector memory phenotype, expressed α4β7 and receptors for IL-12, IL-18, and IL-23. Importantly, in response to E. coli-exposed macrophages, liver B cells and BEC, MAIT cells upregulated IFN-γ and CD40 Ligand and degranulated in an MR1-dependent, cytokine-independent manner. In addition, diseased liver MAIT cells expressed T-bet and RORγt and the cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-17. Conclusions Our findings provide the first evidence of an immune surveillance effector response for MAIT cells towards BEC in human liver; thus they could be manipulated for treatment of biliary disease in the future. PMID:26743076

  6. Biliary epithelium and liver B cells exposed to bacteria activate intrahepatic MAIT cells through MR1.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Hannah C; van Wilgenburg, Bonnie; Kurioka, Ayako; Parekh, Krishan; Stirling, Kathryn; Roberts, Sheree; Dutton, Emma E; Hunter, Stuart; Geh, Daniel; Braitch, Manjit K; Rajanayagam, Jeremy; Iqbal, Tariq; Pinkney, Thomas; Brown, Rachel; Withers, David R; Adams, David H; Klenerman, Paul; Oo, Ye H

    2016-05-01

    Mucosal-Associated Invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like T cells characterised by the invariant TCR-chain, Vα7.2-Jα33, and are restricted by MR1, which presents bacterial vitamin B metabolites. They are important for antibacterial immunity at mucosal sites; however, detailed characteristics of liver-infiltrating MAIT (LI-MAIT) and their role in biliary immune surveillance remain unexplored. The phenotype and intrahepatic localisation of human LI-MAIT cells was examined in diseased and normal livers. MAIT cell activation in response to E. coli-exposed macrophages, biliary epithelial cells (BEC) and liver B cells was assessed with/without anti-MR1. Intrahepatic MAIT cells predominantly localised to bile ducts in the portal tracts. Consistent with this distribution, they expressed biliary tropic chemokine receptors CCR6, CXCR6, and integrin αEβ7. LI-MAIT cells were also present in the hepatic sinusoids and possessed tissue-homing chemokine receptor CXCR3 and integrins LFA-1 and VLA-4, suggesting their recruitment via hepatic sinusoids. LI-MAIT cells were enriched in the parenchyma of acute liver failure livers compared to chronic diseased livers. LI-MAIT cells had an activated, effector memory phenotype, expressed α4β7 and receptors for IL-12, IL-18, and IL-23. Importantly, in response to E. coli-exposed macrophages, liver B cells and BEC, MAIT cells upregulated IFN-γ and CD40 Ligand and degranulated in an MR1-dependent, cytokine-independent manner. In addition, diseased liver MAIT cells expressed T-bet and RORγt and the cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-17. Our findings provide the first evidence of an immune surveillance effector response for MAIT cells towards BEC in human liver; thus they could be manipulated for treatment of biliary disease in the future. Copyright © 2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibition of DNA-PKcs enhances radiosensitivity and increases the levels of ATM and ATR in NSCLC cells exposed to carbon ion irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lina; Liu, Yuanyuan; Sun, Chao; Yang, Xinrui; Yang, Zhen; Ran, Juntao; Zhang, Qiuning; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Xiaohu

    2015-11-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) exhibits radioresistance to conventional rays, due to its DNA damage repair systems. NSCLC may potentially be sensitized to radiation treatment by reducing those factors that continuously enhance the repair of damaged DNA. In the present study, normal lung fibroblast MRC-5 and lung cancer A549 cells were treated with NU7026 and CGK733, which are inhibitors of the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (PKcs) and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR), respectively, followed by exposure to X-rays and carbon ion irradiation. The cytotoxic activity, cell survival rate, DNA damage repair ability, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis rate of the treated cells were analyzed with MTT assay, colony formation assay, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry, respectively. The transcription and translation levels of the ATM, ATR and DNA-PKcs genes were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. The results indicated that the radiosensitivity and DNA repair ability of A549 cells were reduced, and the percentages of apoptotic cells and those arrested at the G 2 /M phase of the cell cycle were significantly increased, following ionizing radiation with inhibitor-pretreatment. The expression levels of ATM, ATR, DNA-PKcs and phosphorylated histone H2AX, a biomarker for DNA double-strand breaks, were all upregulated at the transcriptional or translational level in A549 cells treated with carbon ion irradiation, compared with the control and X-rays-treated cells. In addition, the treatment with 5-50 µM NU7026 or CGK733 did not produce any obvious cytotoxicity in MRC-5 cells, and the effect of the DNA-PKcs-inhibitor on enhancing the radiosensitivity of A549 cells was stronger than that observed for the ATM and ATR-inhibitor. These findings demonstrated a minor role for ATM and ATR in radiation-induced cell death, since the upregulation of

  8. Ultrastructural changes in tracheal epithelial cells exposed to oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpott, D. E.; Harrison, G. A.; Turnbill, C.; Black, S.

    1977-01-01

    White albino rats were sacrificed after 24, 36, 48, 72, and 96 h of exposure to 100% O2 at 1 atm. Tissue was prepared for the scanning electron microscope (SEM) by Critical Point Drying and for the transmission electron microscope (TEM) by plastic embedding. Scanning microscopy showed a loss of microvilli after 48 h of exposure. Cilia appeared relatively normal with SEM, but TEM revealed changes in the outer membrane. In TEM, nonciliated cells appeared swollen and often encroached on the ciliated cells. A heavy mucous blanket remained even after processing. All the changes observed that are induced by oxygen exposure contribute to mucostasis, reducing and/or halting mucociliary clearance.

  9. Proliferation of human mammary cancer cells exposed to 27-hydroxycholesterol

    PubMed Central

    CRUZ, PAMELA; TORRES, CRISTIAN; RAMÍREZ, MARÍA EUGENIA; EPUÑÁN, MARÍA JOSÉ; VALLADARES, LUIS EMILIO; SIERRALTA, WALTER DANIEL

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the possible mechanisms by which certain estradiol receptor (ER)-positive mammary tumor cells remain resistant to treatment with anti-estrogens or inhibitors of local estradiol (E2) production. To this end, we compared the proliferative effects on mammary cancer cells of the novel selective ER modulator 27-hydroxycholesterol (27OHC) to those of E2, and evaluated their inhibition by ICI 182,780 (ICI). Analysis of the effects on the cell cycle of 27OHC and E2 in the absence or presence of ICI was conducted. In ER-positive mammary tumor cells, we detected the blocking of 27OHC proliferation-stimulatory activity by simvastatin, as well as the inhibition of E2-stimulated proliferation by an α-fetoprotein-derived cyclic nonapeptide. The effects reported herein may be extrapolated to infiltrating mammary cancer, where the activity of local macrophages may stimulate tumor growth. We suggest that increased breast cancer growth in obese patients may be related to increased 27OHC circulatory levels. PMID:22993572

  10. Proliferation of human mammary cancer cells exposed to 27-hydroxycholesterol.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Pamela; Torres, Cristian; Ramírez, María Eugenia; Epuñán, María José; Valladares, Luis Emilio; Sierralta, Walter Daniel

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the possible mechanisms by which certain estradiol receptor (ER)-positive mammary tumor cells remain resistant to treatment with anti-estrogens or inhibitors of local estradiol (E(2)) production. To this end, we compared the proliferative effects on mammary cancer cells of the novel selective ER modulator 27-hydroxycholesterol (27OHC) to those of E(2), and evaluated their inhibition by ICI 182,780 (ICI). Analysis of the effects on the cell cycle of 27OHC and E(2) in the absence or presence of ICI was conducted. In ER-positive mammary tumor cells, we detected the blocking of 27OHC proliferation-stimulatory activity by simvastatin, as well as the inhibition of E(2)-stimulated proliferation by an α-fetoprotein-derived cyclic nonapeptide. The effects reported herein may be extrapolated to infiltrating mammary cancer, where the activity of local macrophages may stimulate tumor growth. We suggest that increased breast cancer growth in obese patients may be related to increased 27OHC circulatory levels.

  11. Correlation between dielectric property by dielectrophoretic levitation and growth activity of cells exposed to electric field.

    PubMed

    Hakoda, Masaru; Hirota, Yusuke

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a system analyzing cell activity by the dielectrophoresis method. Our previous studies revealed a correlation between the growth activity and dielectric property (Re[K(ω)]) of mouse hybridoma 3-2H3 cells using dielectrophoretic levitation. Furthermore, it was clarified that the differentiation activity of many stem cells could be evaluated by the Re[K(ω)] without differentiation induction. In this paper, 3-2H3 cells exposed to an alternating current (AC) electric field or a direct current (DC) electric field were cultivated, and the influence of damage by the electric field on the growth activity of the cells was examined. To evaluate the activity of the cells by measuring the Re[K(ω)], the correlation between the growth activity and the Re[K(ω)] of the cells exposed to the electric field was examined. The relations between the cell viability, growth activity, and Re[K(ω)] in the cells exposed to the AC electric field were obtained. The growth activity of the cells exposed to the AC electric field could be evaluated by the Re[K(ω)]. Furthermore, it was found that the adverse effects of the electric field on the cell viability and the growth activity were smaller in the AC electric field than the DC electric field.

  12. 103. DETAIL OF ZINC CLEANER CELL INTERIOR (EXPOSED AT F/45 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    103. DETAIL OF ZINC CLEANER CELL INTERIOR (EXPOSED AT F/45 FOR DEPTH OF FIELD PURPOSES). NOTE GALIGHER STYLE BAFFLES AND TENDENCY OF ZINC TO BUILD UP ON CELL COMPONENTS. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  13. Cell damage of hepatoma-22 cells exposed to continuous wave ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pan; Wang, Xiaobing; Liu, Quanhong

    2012-01-01

    processes. Moreover the mechanical effect might also be involved in inducing cell damage because there was significant mitochondria membrane potential loss and no visible ROS detection when cells were exposed to ultrasound for 30 s.

  14. NK Cell-derived Exosomes From NK Cells Previously Exposed to Neuroblastoma Cells Augment the Antitumor Activity of Cytokine-activated NK Cells.

    PubMed

    Shoae-Hassani, Alireza; Hamidieh, Amir Ali; Behfar, Maryam; Mohseni, Rashin; Mortazavi-Tabatabaei, Seyed A; Asgharzadeh, Shahab

    2017-09-01

    Immune cell-derived exosomes can increase immunity against tumors. In contrast, tumor-derived exosomes can reduce the immunity and can change the tumor microenvironment to further develop and provide metastasis. These effects take place by an alteration in the innate and adaptive immune cell functions. In this experiment, we studied the natural killer (NK) cells' effectiveness on tumor cells after expansion and thereafter incubated it with exosomes. The exosomes were derived from 2 populations of NK cells: (1) naive NK cells and, (2) NK cells previously exposed to neuroblastoma (NB) cells. Moreover, we have studied the NB-derived exosomes on NK cell function. The molecular load of the characterized exosomes (by means of nanoparticle-tracking analysis, flow cytometry, scanning electron microscopy, and western blot) from NK cells exposed to the NB cell revealed their expression of natural killer cell receptors in addition to CD56, NKG2D, and KIR2DL2 receptors. These exosomes were used to treat NK cells and thereafter administered to NB tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed some kind of NK cells' education by the exosomes. This education from NK cells previously exposed to NB cell-derived exosomes caused efficient and greater cytotoxicity against NB tumors, but NB-derived exosomes act as tumor promoters by providing a tumor supporting niche. Hence, this method of preparing the exosomes has a dramatic effect on activation of anti-NK cells against NB cells.

  15. Comparing genotoxic signatures in cord blood cells from neonates exposed in utero to zidovudine or tenofovir

    PubMed Central

    Vivanti, Alexandre; Soheili, Tayebeh S.; Cuccuini, Wendy; Luce, Sonia; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Lechenadec, Jerome; Cordier, Anne-Gael; Azria, Elie; Soulier, Jean; Cavazzana, Marina; Blanche, Stéphane; André-Schmutz, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Zidovudine and tenofovir are the two main nucleos(t)ide analogs used to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. In vitro, both drugs bind to and integrate into human DNA and inhibit telomerase. The objective of the present study was to assess the genotoxic effects of either zidovudine or tenofovir-based combination therapies on cord blood cells in newborns exposed in utero. Design: We compared the aneuploid rate and the gene expression profiles in cord blood samples from newborns exposed either to zidovudine or tenofovir-based combination therapies during pregnancy and from unexposed controls (n = 8, 9, and 8, respectively). Methods: The aneuploidy rate was measured on the cord blood T-cell karyotype. Gene expression profiles of cord blood T cells and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells were determined with microarrays, analyzed in a gene set enrichment analysis and confirmed by real-time quantitative PCRs. Results: Aneuploidy was more frequent in the zidovudine-exposed group (26.3%) than in the tenofovir-exposed group (14.2%) or in controls (13.3%; P < 0.05 for both). The transcription of genes involved in DNA repair, telomere maintenance, nucleotide metabolism, DNA/RNA synthesis, and the cell cycle was deregulated in samples from both the zidovudine and the tenofovir-exposed groups. Conclusion: Although tenofovir has a lower clastogenic impact than zidovudine, gene expression profiling showed that both drugs alter the transcription of DNA repair and telomere maintenance genes. PMID:25513819

  16. Comparing genotoxic signatures in cord blood cells from neonates exposed in utero to zidovudine or tenofovir.

    PubMed

    Vivanti, Alexandre; Soheili, Tayebeh S; Cuccuini, Wendy; Luce, Sonia; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Lechenadec, Jerome; Cordier, Anne-Gael; Azria, Elie; Soulier, Jean; Cavazzana, Marina; Blanche, Stéphane; André-Schmutz, Isabelle

    2015-07-17

    Zidovudine and tenofovir are the two main nucleos(t)ide analogs used to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. In vitro, both drugs bind to and integrate into human DNA and inhibit telomerase. The objective of the present study was to assess the genotoxic effects of either zidovudine or tenofovir-based combination therapies on cord blood cells in newborns exposed in utero. We compared the aneuploid rate and the gene expression profiles in cord blood samples from newborns exposed either to zidovudine or tenofovir-based combination therapies during pregnancy and from unexposed controls (n = 8, 9, and 8, respectively). The aneuploidy rate was measured on the cord blood T-cell karyotype. Gene expression profiles of cord blood T cells and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells were determined with microarrays, analyzed in a gene set enrichment analysis and confirmed by real-time quantitative PCRs. Aneuploidy was more frequent in the zidovudine-exposed group (26.3%) than in the tenofovir-exposed group (14.2%) or in controls (13.3%; P < 0.05 for both). The transcription of genes involved in DNA repair, telomere maintenance, nucleotide metabolism, DNA/RNA synthesis, and the cell cycle was deregulated in samples from both the zidovudine and the tenofovir-exposed groups. Although tenofovir has a lower clastogenic impact than zidovudine, gene expression profiling showed that both drugs alter the transcription of DNA repair and telomere maintenance genes.

  17. Dendritic cells exposed in vitro to TGF-β1 ameliorate experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis

    PubMed Central

    YARILIN, D; DUAN, R; HUANG, Y-M; XIAO, B-G

    2002-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) is an animal model for human myasthenia gravis (MG), characterized by an autoaggressive T-cell-dependent antibody-mediated immune response directed against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) of the neuromuscular junction. Dendritic cells (DC) are unique antigen-presenting cells which control T- and B-cell functions and induce immunity or tolerance. Here, we demonstrate that DC exposed to TGF-β1 in vitro mediate protection against EAMG. Freshly prepared DC from spleen of healthy rats were exposed to TGF-β1 in vitro for 48 h, and administered subcutaneously to Lewis rats (2 × 106DC/rat) on day 5 post immunization with AChR in Freund’s complete adjuvant. Control EAMG rats were injected in parallel with untreated DC (naive DC) or PBS. Lewis rats receiving TGF-β1-exposed DC developed very mild symptoms of EAMG without loss of body weight compared with control EAMG rats receiving naive DC or PBS. This effect of TGF-β1-exposed DC was associated with augmented spontaneous and AChR-induced proliferation, IFN-γ and NO production, and decreased levels of anti-AChR antibody-secreting cells. Autologous DC exposed in vitro to TGF-β1 could represent a new opportunity for DC-based immunotherapy of antibody-mediated autoimmune diseases. PMID:11876742

  18. NF-κB Decoy Oligodeoxynucleotide Enhanced Osteogenesis in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Exposed to Polyethylene Particle

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tzu-Hua; Sato, Taishi; Barcay, Katherine R.; Waters, Heather; Loi, Florence; Zhang, Ruth; Pajarinen, Jukka; Egashira, Kensuke; Yao, Zhenyu

    2015-01-01

    Excessive generation of wear particles after total joint replacement may lead to local inflammation and periprosthetic osteolysis. Modulation of the key transcription factor NF-κB in immune cells could potentially mitigate the osteolytic process. We previously showed that local delivery of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) particles recruited osteoprogenitor cells and reduced osteolysis. However, the biological effects of modulating the NF-κB signaling pathway on osteoprogenitor/mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) remain unclear. Here we showed that decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) increased cell viability when primary murine MSCs were exposed to UHMWPE particles, but had no effects on cellular apoptosis. Decoy ODN increased transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in MSCs exposed to UHMWPE particles. Mechanistic studies showed that decoy ODN upregulated OPG expression through a TGF-β1-dependent pathway. By measuring the alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin levels, Runx2 and osteopontin expression, and performing a bone mineralization assay, we found that decoy ODN increased MSC osteogenic ability when the cells were exposed to UHMWPE particles. Furthermore, the cellular response to decoy ODN and UHMWPE particles with regard to cell phenotype, cell viability, and osteogenic ability was confirmed using primary human MSCs. Our results suggest that modulation of wear particle-induced inflammation by NF-κB decoy ODN had no adverse effects on MSCs and may potentially further mitigate periprosthetic osteolysis by protecting MSC viability and osteogenic ability. PMID:25518013

  19. Uptake and efflux of rhenium in cells exposed to rhenium diseleno-ether and tissue distribution of rhenium and selenium after rhenium diseleno-ether treatment in mice.

    PubMed

    Collery, Philippe; Bastian, Gérard; Santoni, François; Mohsen, Ahmed; Wei, Ming; Collery, Thomas; Tomas, Alain; Desmaele, Didier; D'Angelo, Jean

    2014-04-01

    We proposed a new water-soluble rhenium diseleno-ether compound (with one atom of Re and two atoms of Se) and investigated the uptake of Re into the nucleus of malignant cells in culture exposed to the compound for 48 h and its efflux from the nucleus after a post-exposure period of 48 h, as DNA is the main target of Re. We also studied the distribution of both Re and Se in the main organs after an oral administration of 10 or 40 mg/kg Re diseleno-ether to mice for four weeks, five days-a-week. Re and Se concentrations were assayed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, comparing two related groups. We observed that Re was well incorporated into the nucleus of malignant cells in the most sensitive cells MCF-7, derived from human breast cancer, and that there was no efflux of Re. In contrast, in MCF-7 resistant cells (MCF-7 Mdr and MCF-7 R), A549 and HeLa cells, there was significant efflux of Re from the nucleus after the wash-out period. In mice, an important and dose-dependent uptake of both Re and Se was observed in the liver, with lower concentrations in kidneys. The lowest concentrations were observed in blood, lung, spleen and bones. There was a significant increase of Re concentrations in the blood, liver and kidney in mice treated with Re diseleno-ether at the dose of 40 mg/kg/24 h versus those treated at the dose of 10 mg/kg/24 h. There was a significant increase of Se concentrations in all tissues with the dose of Re diseleno-ether of 10 mg/kg/24 h versus controls, and a significant increase in the liver in mice treated with dose of Re diseleno-ether of 40 mg/kg/24h versus those treated with 10 mg/kg/24 h. We are the first to demonstrate that a compound combining Re and Se in a single molecule, is able to deliver Re and Se to the organism via an oral route, for cancer treatment.

  20. Primary non-clear-cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina in a diethylstilbestrol exposed woman.

    PubMed

    Patel, Samit A; Sunde, Jan

    2014-04-01

    A 54-year-old woman with a history of in-utero diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure, who had a prior hysterectomy for symptomatic leiomyomata and dysmenorrhea, presented for vaginal bleeding. Vaginal biopsies showed a non-clear-cell adenocarcinoma, and the patient was subsequently treated with radiation therapy. We present a case of primary vaginal non-clear-cell adenocarcinoma in a patient with in-utero DES exposure. Continued monitoring of older DES-exposed women for vaginal lesions is warranted because of reported cases of non-clear-cell adenocarcinoma and persistent risk of clear cell adenocarcinoma. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  1. Determining adaptive and adverse oxidative stress responses in human bronical epithelial cells exposed to zinc

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining adaptive and adverse oxidative stress responses in human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to zincJenna M. Currier1,2, Wan-Yun Cheng1, Rory Conolly1, Brian N. Chorley1Zinc is a ubiquitous contaminant of ambient air that presents an oxidant challenge to the human lung...

  2. SIGNALING MECHANISMS IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO CARBON ULTRAFINE PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    SIGNALING MECHANISMS IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO CARBON ULTRAFINE PARTICLES
    Y.M. Kim, A.G. Lenz, R. Silbajoris, I. Jaspers and J.M. Samet. Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering and Center for Environmental Medicine, University of North Carolina, ...

  3. Ultrastructure of cells of Ulmus americana cultured in vitro and exposed to the culture filtrate of Ceratocystis ulmi

    Treesearch

    Paula M. Pijut; R. Daniel Lineberger; Subhash C. Domir; Jann M. Ichida; Charles R. Krause

    1990-01-01

    Calli of American elm susceptible and resistant to Dutch elm disease were exposed to a culture filtrate of a pathogenic isolate of Ceratocystis ulmi. Cells from untreated tissue exhibited typical internal composition associated with healthy, actively growing cells. All cells exposed to culture filtrate showed appreciable ultrastructural changes....

  4. Protein C Inhibitor (PCI) Binds to Phosphatidylserine Exposing Cells with Implications in the Phagocytosis of Apoptotic Cells and Activated Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, Daniela; Assinger, Alice; Einfinger, Katrin; Sokolikova, Barbora; Geiger, Margarethe

    2014-01-01

    Protein C Inhibitor (PCI) is a secreted serine protease inhibitor, belonging to the family of serpins. In addition to activated protein C PCI inactivates several other proteases of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems, suggesting a regulatory role in hemostasis. Glycosaminoglycans and certain negatively charged phospholipids, like phosphatidylserine, bind to PCI and modulate its activity. Phosphatidylerine (PS) is exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells and known as a phagocytosis marker. We hypothesized that PCI might bind to PS exposed on apoptotic cells and thereby influence their removal by phagocytosis. Using Jurkat T-lymphocytes and U937 myeloid cells, we show here that PCI binds to apoptotic cells to a similar extent at the same sites as Annexin V, but in a different manner as compared to live cells (defined spots on ∼10–30% of cells). PCI dose dependently decreased phagocytosis of apoptotic Jurkat cells by U937 macrophages. Moreover, the phagocytosis of PS exposing, activated platelets by human blood derived monocytes declined in the presence of PCI. In U937 cells the expression of PCI as well as the surface binding of PCI increased with time of phorbol ester treatment/macrophage differentiation. The results of this study suggest a role of PCI not only for the function and/or maturation of macrophages, but also as a negative regulator of apoptotic cell and activated platelets removal. PMID:25000564

  5. Caspase cascade regulated mitochondria mediated apoptosis in monocrotophos exposed PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, M P; Singh, A K; Siddiqui, M A; Kumar, V; Tripathi, V K; Khanna, V K; Yadav, S; Jain, S K; Pant, A B

    2010-11-15

    Monocrotophos (MCP) is a commonly used organophosphorus (OP) pesticide. We studied apoptotic changes in PC12 cells exposed to MCP. A significant induction in reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxide (LPO), and the ratio of glutathione disulfide (GSSG)/reduced glutathione (GSH) was observed in cells exposed to selected doses of MCP. Following the exposure of PC12 cells to MCP, the levels of protein and mRNA expressions of Caspase-3, Caspase-9, Bax, p53, P(21), Puma, and cytochrome-c were significantly upregulated, whereas the levels of Bcl(2), Bcl(w), and Mcl1 were downregulated. TUNEL assay, DNA laddering, and micronuclei induction show that long-term exposure of PC12 cells to MCP at higher concentration (10(-5) M) decreases the number of apoptotic events due to an increase in the number of necrotic cells. MCP-induced translocation of Bax and cytochrome-c proteins between the cytoplasm and mitochondria confirmed the role of p53 and Puma in mitochondrial membrane permeability. Mitochondria mediated apoptosis induction was confirmed by the increased activity of caspase cascade. We believe that this is the first report showing MCP-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells, which is mitochondria mediated and regulated through the caspase cascade. Our data demonstrates that MCP induced the apoptotic cell death in neuronal cells and identifies the possible cellular and molecular mechanisms of organophosphate pesticide-induced apoptosis in neuronal cells.

  6. The transcriptome of HIV-1 infected intestinal CD4+ T cells exposed to enteric bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Stephanie M.; Phang, Tzu; Lee, Eric J.; Helm, Karen; Kappes, John C.; McCarter, Martin D.

    2017-01-01

    Global transcriptome studies can help pinpoint key cellular pathways exploited by viruses to replicate and cause pathogenesis. Previous data showed that laboratory-adapted HIV-1 triggers significant gene expression changes in CD4+ T cell lines and mitogen-activated CD4+ T cells from peripheral blood. However, HIV-1 primarily targets mucosal compartments during acute infection in vivo. Moreover, early HIV-1 infection causes extensive depletion of CD4+ T cells in the gastrointestinal tract that herald persistent inflammation due to the translocation of enteric microbes to the systemic circulation. Here, we profiled the transcriptome of primary intestinal CD4+ T cells infected ex vivo with transmitted/founder (TF) HIV-1. Infections were performed in the presence or absence of Prevotella stercorea, a gut microbe enriched in the mucosa of HIV-1-infected individuals that enhanced both TF HIV-1 replication and CD4+ T cell death ex vivo. In the absence of bacteria, HIV-1 triggered a cellular shutdown response involving the downregulation of HIV-1 reactome genes, while perturbing genes linked to OX40, PPAR and FOXO3 signaling. However, in the presence of bacteria, HIV-1 did not perturb these gene sets or pathways. Instead, HIV-1 enhanced granzyme expression and Th17 cell function, inhibited G1/S cell cycle checkpoint genes and triggered downstream cell death pathways in microbe-exposed gut CD4+ T cells. To gain insights on these differential effects, we profiled the gene expression landscape of HIV-1-uninfected gut CD4+ T cells exposed to bacteria. Microbial exposure upregulated genes involved in cellular proliferation, MAPK activation, Th17 cell differentiation and type I interferon signaling. Our findings reveal that microbial exposure influenced how HIV-1 altered the gut CD4+ T cell transcriptome, with potential consequences for HIV-1 susceptibility, cell survival and inflammation. The HIV-1- and microbe-altered pathways unraveled here may serve as a molecular blueprint

  7. The Effect of K+ on Caspase Activity of Corneal Epithelial Cells Exposed to UVB

    PubMed Central

    Leerar, John R.; Glupker, Courtney D.; Schotanus, Mark P.; Ubels, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of human corneal limbal epithelial (HCLE) cells to UVB triggers rapid loss of K+ and apoptosis via activation of caspases-9, -8 and -3. It has been shown that preventing loss of intracellular K+ can inhibit apoptosis. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of K+ on the UVB-induced caspase activity. HCLE cells were exposed to 150 mJ/cm2 UVB, followed by measurement of caspase activity in cell lysates. Caspase activity was measured in the presence and absence of 100 mM K+ in the reaction buffer. UVB-induced activity of caspases-9, -8 and -3 all decreased in the presence of 100 mM K+. These results suggest that a role of high [K+] in the cell is to inhibit caspase activity. Therefore, when cells lose K+ in response to UVB, caspases are activated and cells go into apoptosis. This supports our hypothesis that K+ inhibits caspase activity. PMID:27456133

  8. SU-F-T-675: Down-Regulating the Expression of Cdc42 and Inhibition of Migration of A549 with Combined Treatment of Ionizing Radiation and Sevoflurane

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Y; Feng, J; Huang, Z

    Purpose: Cdc42 is involved in cell transformation, proliferation, invasion and metastasis of human cancer cells. Cdc42 overexpression has been reported in several types of cancers. This study investigated the combined treatment effects of ionizing radiation and sevoflurane on down-regulating Cdc42 expression and suppressing migration of human adenocarcinoma cell line A549. Methods: Samples of A549 cells with Cdc42 overexpression were created and Cdc42 expression was determined by Western blotting. Increase of migration speed by Cdc42-HA overexpression was confirmed with an initial in-vitro scratch assay. The cells grown in culture media were separated into 2 groups of 6 samples: one for themore » control and the other was treated with 4% sevoflurane for 5hrs prior to a single-fraction radiation of 4Gy using a 6MV beam. Cell migration speeds of the 2 groups were measured with an initial in-vitro scratch assay. The scratch was created with a pipette tip immediately after treatment and images at 4 post-treatment time points (0h, 3h, 6h, 12h) were acquired. The distance between the two separated sides at 0h was used as reference and subsequent changes of the distance over time was defined as the cell migration speed. Image processing and measurement were performed with an in-house software. The experiment was repeated three times independently to evaluate the repeatability and reliability. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 19.0. Results: Western blotting showed the treatment down-regulated Cdc42 overexpression. Quantitative analysis and two-tailed t-test showed that cell migration speed of the treated group was higher than the control group at all time points after treatment (p < 0.02). Conclusion: Combined treatment of 6MV photon and sevoflurane can cause the effects of down-regulating Cdc42 overexpression and decrease of migration speed of A549 cells which provides potential of clinical benefit for the cancer therapy. More investigation is needed to

  9. The effects of acute pesticide exposure on neuroblastoma cells chronically exposed to diazinon.

    PubMed

    Axelrad, J C; Howard, C V; McLean, W G

    2003-03-14

    Speculation about potential neurotoxicity due to chronic exposure to low doses of organophosphate (OP) pesticides is not yet supported by experimental evidence. The objective of this work was to use a cell culture model of chronic OP exposure to determine if such exposure can alter the sensitivity of nerve cells to subsequent acute exposure to OPs or other compounds. NB2a neuroblastoma cells were grown in the presence of 25 microM diazinon for 8 weeks. The OP was then withdrawn and the cells were induced to differentiate in the presence of various other pesticides or herbicides, including OPs and OP-containing formulations. The resulting outgrowth of neurite-like structures was measured by light microscopy and quantitative image analysis and the IC(50) for each OP or formulation was calculated. The IC(50) values in diazinon-pre-exposed cells were compared with the equivalent values in cells not pre-exposed to diazinon. The IC(50) for inhibition of neurite outgrowth by acute application of diazinon, pyrethrum, glyphosate or a commercial formulation of glyphosate was decreased by between 20 and 90% after pre-treatment with diazinon. In contrast, the IC(50) for pirimiphos methyl was unaffected and those for phosmet or chlorpyrifos were increased by between 1.5- and 3-fold. Treatment of cells with chlorpyrifos or with a second glyphosate-containing formulation led to the formation of abnormal neurite-like structures in diazinon-pre-exposed cells. The data support the view that chronic exposure to an OP may reduce the threshold for toxicity of some, but by no means all, environmental agents.

  10. Transcriptional modulation of a human monocytic cell line exposed to PM(10) from an urban area.

    PubMed

    Bastonini, Emanuela; Verdone, Loredana; Morrone, Stefania; Santoni, Angela; Settimo, Gaetano; Marsili, Giovanni; La Fortezza, Marco; Di Mauro, Ernesto; Caserta, Micaela

    2011-08-01

    Insight into the mechanisms by which ambient air particulate matter mediates adverse health effects is needed to provide biological plausibility to epidemiological studies demonstrating an association between PM(10) exposure and increased morbidity and mortality. In vitro studies of the effects of air pollution on human cells help to establish conditions for the analysis of cause-effect relationships. One of the major challenges is to test native atmosphere in its complexity, rather than the various components individually. We have developed an in vitro system in which human monocyte-macrophage U937 cells are directly exposed to filters containing different amounts of PM(10) collected in the city of Rome. Transcriptional profiling obtained after short exposure (1h) of cells to a filter containing 1666μg PM(10) (77.6μg/cm(2)) using a macroarray panel of 1176 genes reveals a significant change in the mRNA level (>2 fold) for 87 genes relative to cells exposed to a control filter. Overall, 9 out of 87 modulated genes were annotated as "lung cancer". qRT-PCR confirmed the induction of relevant genes involved in DNA repair and apoptosis, specifically: ERCC1, TDG, DAD1 and MCL1. In cells exposed for 10min, 1h and 3h to different amounts of PM(10), transcription of TNFα and TRAP1, which code for a key pro-inflammatory cytokine and a mitochondrial protein involved in cell protection from oxidative stress, respectively, was shown to be modulated in a time-dependent, but not a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these data indicate that it is possible to analyze the effects of untreated particulate matter on human cells by the direct-exposure approach we have developed, possibly providing new clues to traffic-related health hazard. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechanisms of mutagenesis in human cells exposed to 55 MeV protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gauny, S.; Wiese, C.; Kronenberg, A.

    2001-01-01

    Protons represent the major type of charged particle radiation in spaceflight environments. The purpose of this study was to assess mutations arising in human lymphoid cells exposed to protons. Mutations were quantitated at the thymidine kinase (TK1) locus in cell lines derived from the same donor: TK6 cells (wt TP53) and WTK1 cells (mutant TP53). WTK1 cells were much more susceptible to mutagenesis following proton exposure than TK6 cells. Intragenic deletions were observed among early-arising TK1 mutants in TK6 cells, but not in WTK1 cells where all of the mutants arose by LOH. Deletion was the predominant mode of LOH in TK6 cells, while allelic recombination was the major mode of LOH in WTK1 cells. Deletions were of variable lengths, from <1 cM to 64 cM, while mutations that arose by allelic recombination often extended to the telomere. In summary, proton exposures elicited many types of mutations at an autosomal locus in human cells. Most involved large scale loss of genetic information, either through deletion or by recombination.

  12. DNA DAMAGE IN BUCCAL EPITHELIAL CELLS FROM INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess DNA damage in buccal cells from individuals chronically exposed to arsenic via drinking water in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia. Buccal cells were collected from 19 Ba Men residents exposed to arsenic at 527.5 ? 23.7 g/L (mean ? SEM) and ...

  13. Natural killer cells in highly exposed hepatitis C-seronegative injecting drug users.

    PubMed

    Mina, M M; Cameron, B; Luciani, F; Vollmer-Conna, U; Lloyd, A R

    2016-06-01

    Injecting drug use remains the major risk factor for hepatitis C (HCV) transmission. A minority of long-term injecting drug users remain seronegative and aviraemic, despite prolonged exposure to HCV - termed highly exposed seronegative subjects. Natural killer (NK) cells have been implicated in this apparent protection. A longitudinal nested, three group case-control series of subjects was selected from a prospective cohort of seronegative injecting drug users who became incident cases (n = 11), remained seronegative (n = 11) or reported transient high-risk behaviour and remained uninfected (n = 11). The groups were matched by age, sex and initial risk behaviour characteristics. Stored peripheral blood mononuclear cells were assayed in multicolour flow cytometry to enumerate natural killer cell subpopulations and to assess functional activity using Toll-like receptor ligands before measurement of activation, cytokine production and natural cytotoxicity receptor expression. Principal components were derived to describe the detailed phenotypic characteristics of the major NK subpopulations (based on CD56 and CD16 co-expression), before logistic regression analysis to identify associations with exposed, seronegative individuals. The CD56(dim) CD16(+) (P = 0.05, OR 6.92) and CD56(dim) CD16(-) (P = 0.05, OR 6.07) principal components differed between exposed, seronegative individuals and pre-infection samples of the other two groups. These included CD56(dim) CD16(+) and CD56(dim) CD16(-) subsets with CD56(dim) CD16(+) IFN-γ and TNF-α on unstimulated cells, and CD56(dim) CD16(-) CD69(+) , CD107a(+) , IFN-γ and TNF-α following TLR stimulation. The cytotoxic CD56(dim) NK subset thus distinguished highly exposed, seronegative subjects, suggesting NK cytotoxicity may contribute to protection from HCV acquisition. Further investigation of the determinants of this association and prospective assessment of protection against HCV infection are warranted. © 2016 John Wiley

  14. Phosphatidylserine-exposing blood cells and microparticles induce procoagulant activity in non-valvular atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lixiu; Bi, Yayan; Yu, Muxin; Li, Tao; Tong, Dongxia; Yang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Cong; Guo, Li; Wang, Chunxu; Kou, Yan; Dong, Zengxiang; Novakovic, Valerie A; Tian, Ye; Kou, Junjie; Shammas, Masood A; Shi, Jialan

    2018-05-01

    The definitive role of phosphatidylserine (PS) in the prothrombotic state of non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) remains unclear. Our objectives were to study the PS exposure on blood cells and microparticles (MPs) in NVAF, and evaluate their procoagulant activity (PCA). NVAF patients without (n = 60) and with left atrial thrombi (n = 18) and controls (n = 36) were included in our study. Exposed PS was analyzed with flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. PCA was evaluated using clotting time, factor Xa (FXa), thrombin and fibrin formation. PS + blood cells and MPs were significantly higher in NVAF patients without and with left atrial thrombi (both P < 0.01) than in controls. Patients with left atrial thrombi showed increased PS + platelets, neutrophils, erythrocytes and MPs compared with patients without thrombi (all P < 0.05). Moreover, in patients with left atrial thrombi, MPs primarily originated from platelets (56.1%) followed by leukocytes (21.9%, including MPs from neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes), erythrocytes (12.2%) and endothelial cells (8.9%). Additionally, PS + blood cells and MPs contributed to markedly shortened coagulation time and dramatically increased FXa/thrombin/fibrin (all P < 0.001) generation in both NVAF groups. Furthermore, blockade of exposed PS on blood cells and MPs with lactadherin inhibited PCA by approximately 80%. Lastly, we found that the amount of PS + platelets and MPs was positively correlated with thrombus diameter (all p < 0.005). Our results suggest that exposed PS on blood cells and MPs play a procoagulant role in NVAF patients. Blockade of PS prior to thrombus formation might be a novel therapeutic approach in these patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. High content image analysis for human H4 neuroglioma cells exposed to CuO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuhai; Zhou, Xiaobo; Zhu, Jinmin; Ma, Jinwen; Huang, Xudong; Wong, Stephen T C

    2007-10-09

    High content screening (HCS)-based image analysis is becoming an important and widely used research tool. Capitalizing this technology, ample cellular information can be extracted from the high content cellular images. In this study, an automated, reliable and quantitative cellular image analysis system developed in house has been employed to quantify the toxic responses of human H4 neuroglioma cells exposed to metal oxide nanoparticles. This system has been proved to be an essential tool in our study. The cellular images of H4 neuroglioma cells exposed to different concentrations of CuO nanoparticles were sampled using IN Cell Analyzer 1000. A fully automated cellular image analysis system has been developed to perform the image analysis for cell viability. A multiple adaptive thresholding method was used to classify the pixels of the nuclei image into three classes: bright nuclei, dark nuclei, and background. During the development of our image analysis methodology, we have achieved the followings: (1) The Gaussian filtering with proper scale has been applied to the cellular images for generation of a local intensity maximum inside each nucleus; (2) a novel local intensity maxima detection method based on the gradient vector field has been established; and (3) a statistical model based splitting method was proposed to overcome the under segmentation problem. Computational results indicate that 95.9% nuclei can be detected and segmented correctly by the proposed image analysis system. The proposed automated image analysis system can effectively segment the images of human H4 neuroglioma cells exposed to CuO nanoparticles. The computational results confirmed our biological finding that human H4 neuroglioma cells had a dose-dependent toxic response to the insult of CuO nanoparticles.

  16. Comparisons of IL-8, ROS and p53 responses in human lung epithelial cells exposed to two extracts of PM2.5 collected from an e-waste recycling area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fangxing; Jin, Shiwei; Xu, Ying; Lu, Yuanan

    2011-04-01

    To identify the different effects of organic-soluble and water-soluble pollutants adsorbed on PM2.5 (PM: particulate matter) released from e-waste (electrical/electronic waste) on inflammatory response, oxidative stress and DNA damage, interleukin-8 (IL-8), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and p53 protein levels were determined and compared in human lung epithelial A549 cells exposed to extracts of PM2.5 collected from two sampling sites in an e-waste recycling area in China. It is found that both extracts induced increases of IL-8 release, ROS production and p53 protein expression. The differences between the organic-soluble and water-soluble extracts were determined as of significance for ROS production (p < 0.05) and p53 protein expression (p < 0.01). The ROS production and p53 protein expression induced by the organic-soluble extracts were found to be greater than those induced by the water-soluble extracts, for both sampling sites. The results indicated that PM2.5 collected from the e-waste recycling areas could lead to inflammatory response, oxidative stress and DNA damage, and the organic-soluble extracts had higher potential to induce such adverse effects on human health.

  17. Ceftaroline modulates the innate immune and host defense responses of immunocompetent cells exposed to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Bruno, A; Cipollina, C; Di Vincenzo, S; Siena, L; Dino, P; Di Gaudio, F; Gjomarkaj, M; Pace, E

    2017-09-05

    Cigarette smoke, the principal risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), negatively influences the effectiveness of the immune system's response to a pathogen. The antibiotic ceftaroline exerts immune-modulatory effects in bronchial epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke. The present study aims to assess the effects of ceftaroline on TLR2 and TLR4 expression, LPS binding and TNF-α and human beta defensin (HBD2) release in an undifferentiated and PMA-differentiated human monocyte cell line (THP-1) exposed or not to cigarette smoke extracts (CSE). TLR2, TLR4, and LPS binding were assessed by flow cytometry, TNF-α and HBD2 release were evaluated by ELISA. The constitutive expression of TLR2 and TLR4 and LPS binding were higher in differentiated compared to undifferentiated THP-1 cells. In undifferentiated THP-1 cells, CSE increased TLR2 and TLR4 protein levels, LPS binding and TNF-α release and reduced HBD2 release and ceftaroline counteracted all these effects. In differentiated THP-1, CSE did not significantly affect TLR2 and TLR4 expression and LPS binding but reduced HBD2 release and increased TNF-α release. Ceftaroline counteracted the effects of CSE on HBD2 release in differentiated THP-1. Ceftaroline counteracts the effect of CSE in immune cells by increasing the effectiveness of the innate immune system. This effect may also assist in reducing pathogen activity and recurrent exacerbations in COPD patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cell surface differences of Naegleria fowleri and Naegleria lovaniensis exposed with surface markers.

    PubMed

    González-Robles, Arturo; Castañón, Guadalupe; Cristóbal-Ramos, Ana Ruth; Hernández-Ramírez, Verónica Ivonne; Omaña-Molina, Maritza; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo

    2007-12-01

    Differences in the distribution of diverse cell surface coat markers were found between Naegleria fowleri and Naegleria lovaniensis. The presence of carbohydrate-containing components in the cell coat of the two species was detected by selective staining with ruthenium red and alcian blue. Using both markers, N. fowleri presented a thicker deposit than N. lovaniensis. The existence of exposed mannose or glucose residues was revealed by discriminatory agglutination with the plant lectin Concanavalin A. These sugar residues were also visualized at the cell surface of these parasites either by transmission electron microscopy or by fluorescein-tagged Concanavalin A. Using this lectin cap formation was induced only in N. fowleri. The anionic sites on the cell surface detected by means of cationized ferritin were more apparent in N. fowleri. Biotinylation assays confirmed that even though the two amoebae species have some analogous plasma membrane proteins, there is a clear difference in their composition.

  19. Chromosomal Aberrations in Normal and AT Cells Exposed to High Dose of Low Dose Rate Irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawata, T.; Shigematsu, N.; Kawaguchi, O.; Liu, C.; Furusawa, Y.; Hirayama, R.; George, K.; Cucinotta, F.

    2011-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a human autosomally recessive syndrome characterized by cerebellar ataxia, telangiectases, immune dysfunction, and genomic instability, and high rate of cancer incidence. A-T cell lines are abnormally sensitive to agents that induce DNA double strand breaks, including ionizing radiation. The diverse clinical features in individuals affected by A-T and the complex cellular phenotypes are all linked to the functional inactivation of a single gene (AT mutated). It is well known that cells deficient in ATM show increased yields of both simple and complex chromosomal aberrations after high-dose-rate irradiation, but, less is known on how cells respond to low-dose-rate irradiation. It has been shown that AT cells contain a large number of unrejoined breaks after both low-dose-rate irradiation and high-dose-rate irradiation, however sensitivity for chromosomal aberrations at low-dose-rate are less often studied. To study how AT cells respond to low-dose-rate irradiation, we exposed confluent normal and AT fibroblast cells to up to 3 Gy of gamma-irradiation at a dose rate of 0.5 Gy/day and analyzed chromosomal aberrations in G0 using fusion PCC (Premature Chromosomal Condensation) technique. Giemsa staining showed that 1 Gy induces around 0.36 unrejoined fragments per cell in normal cells and around 1.35 fragments in AT cells, whereas 3Gy induces around 0.65 fragments in normal cells and around 3.3 fragments in AT cells. This result indicates that AT cells can rejoin breaks less effectively in G0 phase of the cell cycle? compared to normal cells. We also analyzed chromosomal exchanges in normal and AT cells after exposure to 3 Gy of low-dose-rate rays using a combination of G0 PCC and FISH techniques. Misrejoining was detected in the AT cells only? When cells irradiated with 3 Gy were subcultured and G2 chromosomal aberrations were analyzed using calyculin-A induced PCC technique, the yield of unrejoined breaks decreased in both normal and AT

  20. Workers exposed to wood dust have an increased micronucleus frequency in nasal and buccal cells: results from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bruschweiler, Evin Danisman; Hopf, Nancy B; Wild, Pascal; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Fenech, Michael; Thomas, Philip; Hor, Maryam; Charriere, Nicole; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Danuser, Brigitta

    2014-05-01

    Wood dust is recognised as a human carcinogen, based on the strong association of wood dust exposure and the elevated risk of malignant tumours of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses [sino-nasal cancer (SNC)]. The study aimed to assess genetic damage in workers exposed to wood dust using biomarkers in both buccal and nasal cells that reflect genome instability events, cellular proliferation and cell death frequencies. Nasal and buccal epithelial cells were collected from 31 parquet layers, installers, carpenters and furniture workers (exposed group) and 19 non-exposed workers located in Switzerland. Micronucleus (MN) frequencies were scored in nasal and buccal cells collected among woodworkers. Other nuclear anomalies in buccal cells were measured through the use of the buccal micronucleus cytome assay. MN frequencies in nasal and buccal cells were significantly higher in the exposed group compared to the non-exposed group; odds ratio for nasal cells 3.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-5.1] and buccal cells 1.8 (95% CI 1.3-2.4). The exposed group had higher frequencies of cells with nuclear buds, karyorrhectic, pyknotic, karyolytic cells and a decrease in the frequency of basal, binucleated and condensed cells compared to the non-exposed group. Our study confirms that woodworkers have an elevated risk for chromosomal instability in cells of the aerodigestive tract. The MN assay in nasal cells may become a relevant biomonitoring tool in the future for early detection of SNC risk. Future studies should seek to standardise the protocol for MN frequency in nasal cells similar to that for MN in buccal cells.

  1. MANIFESTATIONS OF INJURY IN YEAST CELLS EXPOSED TO SUBZERO TEMPERATURES II.

    PubMed Central

    Mazur, Peter

    1961-01-01

    Mazur, Peter (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn.). Manifestations of injury in yeast cells exposed to subzero temperatures. II. Changes in specific gravity and in the concentration and quantity of cell solids. J. Bacteriol. 82:673–684. 1961.—It has previously been established that subjecting cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to rapid cooling to −30 C results in cell death and in certain morphological alterations. The alterations consisted of the loss of the central vacuole and a 50% decrease in volume. The present experiments were concerned with determining whether the volume decrease was the result of the loss of water alone or of water plus cellular solutes. The density of the “frozenthawed” cells was found to increase from 1.14 to 1.25 g/cm3 on the basis of measurements of the sedimentation rate of the cells. Interferometric and refractometric measurements indicated, furthermore, that the concentration of cell solids increased from 20 to 28%, whereas the total mass of cell solids decreased from 25 to 17 μμg/cell. The decrease in cell volume was thus shown to be the result of loss of solution from the cells, a solution containing 11 to 16% solids. Measurements of the rate of dialysis suggested that most or all of these solids had a molecular weight below 600. The findings are consistent with the view that low-temperature exposure destroyed the vacuolar membrane and sufficiently damaged the permeability barriers of the cell to permit escape of low molecular weight compounds. The damage was present a few seconds after thawing, and may, therefore, have been a direct result of intracellular ice crystals which, on the basis of previous studies, are believed to be responsible for death from low-temperature exposure. PMID:14471819

  2. Dose- and Time-Dependent Transcriptional Response of Ishikawa Cells Exposed to Genistein

    PubMed Central

    Naciff, Jorge M.; Khambatta, Zubin S.; Carr, Gregory J.; Tiesman, Jay P.; Singleton, David W.; Khan, Sohaib A.; Daston, George P.

    2016-01-01

    To further define the utility of the Ishikawa cells as a reliable in vitro model to determine the potential estrogenic activity of chemicals of interest, transcriptional changes induced by genistein (GES) in Ishikawa cells at various doses (10 pM, 1 nM, 100 nM, and 10 μM) and time points (8, 24, and 48 h) were identified using a comprehensive microarray approach. Trend analysis indicated that the expression of 5342 unique genes was modified by GES in a dose- and time-dependent manner (P ≤ 0.0001). However, the majority of gene expression changes induced in Ishikawa cells were elicited by the highest dose of GES evaluated (10 μM). The GES’ estrogenic activity was identified by comparing the Ishikawa cells’ response to GES versus 17 α-ethynyl estradiol (EE, at equipotent doses, ie, 10 μM vs 1 μM, respectively) and was defined by changes in the expression of 284 unique genes elicited by GES and EE in the same direction, although the magnitude of the change for some genes was different. Further, comparing the response of the Ishikawa cells exposed to high doses of GES and EE versus the response of the juvenile rat uterus exposed to EE, we identified 66 unique genes which were up- or down regulated in a similar manner in vivo as well as in vitro. Genistein elicits changes in multiple molecular pathways affecting various biological processes particularly associated with cell organization and biogenesis, regulation of translation, cell proliferation, and intracellular transport; processes also affected by estrogen exposure in the uterus of the rat. These results indicate that Ishikawa cells are capable of generating a biologically relevant estrogenic response and offer an in vitro model to assess this mode of action. PMID:26865667

  3. Cytoprotective effect of lacritin on human corneal epithelial cells exposed to benzalkonium chloride in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Mary M.; Baryla, Julia; Liu, Hong; Laurie, Gordon W.; McKown, Robert L.; Ashki, Negin; Bhayana, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most commonly found preservative in eye drops, and has been shown to cause ocular surface inflammation and toxicity. Lacritin is a human tear glycoprotein secreted from the lacrimal glands that has been found to be cytoprotective. This study was designed to determine if the presence of lacritin confers protection to a cultured human corneal epithelial (HCE) cell line, CRL-11515, and primary HCE cells after exposure to the ocular preservative agent BAK. Materials and Methods Recombinant human lacritin was cloned into intein fusion vectors, expressed in E. coli, and purified on chitin beads and DEAE Sepharose. Metabolic curves were established using the MTT assay after exposure of subconfluent CRL-11515 cells to BAK or lacritin. Western blot analysis of lipidated LC3 (LC3-II) provided a measure of autophagy in CRL-11515 cells exposed to lacritin and/or BAK. Results BAK reduced CRL-11515 cellular metabolic activity in a time and dose dependent manner. BAK-induced cellular stress was evident by elevated autophagy that increased with rising concentrations of BAK compared to control (P < 0.05). Lacritin increased HCE cell proliferation at an optimal dose of 1 nM. Preconditioning HCE cells with 1 nM lacritin for 24 hours prior to BAK exposure significantly dampened levels of LC3-II (P < 0.05) and promoted a significant increase in cellular metabolic activity (P < 0.01) compared to BAK alone. Conclusions These results suggest lacritin protects cultured HCE cells stressed with BAK. Lacritin may have the potential to be used as a topical adjunctive therapy in eyes chronically exposed to BAK. PMID:24401093

  4. Cytoprotective effect of lacritin on human corneal epithelial cells exposed to benzalkonium chloride in vitro.

    PubMed

    Feng, Mary M; Baryla, Julia; Liu, Hong; Laurie, Gordon W; McKown, Robert L; Ashki, Negin; Bhayana, Dinesh; Hutnik, Cindy M L

    2014-06-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most commonly found preservative in eye drops, and has been shown to cause ocular surface inflammation and toxicity. Lacritin is a human tear glycoprotein secreted from the lacrimal glands that has been found to be cytoprotective. This study was designed to determine if the presence of lacritin confers protection to a cultured human corneal epithelial (HCE) cell line, CRL-11515, and primary HCE cells after exposure to the ocular preservative agent BAK. Recombinant human lacritin was cloned into intein fusion vectors, expressed in E. coli, and purified on chitin beads and DEAE Sepharose. Metabolic curves were established using the MTT assay after exposure of sub-confluent CRL-11515 cells to BAK or lacritin. Western blot analysis of lipidated LC3 (LC3-II) provided a measure of autophagy in CRL-11515 cells exposed to lacritin and/or BAK. BAK reduced CRL-11515 cellular metabolic activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner. BAK-induced cellular stress was evident by elevated autophagy that increased with rising concentrations of BAK compared to control (p < 0.05). Lacritin increased HCE cell proliferation at an optimal dose of 1 nM. Preconditioning HCE cells with 1 nM lacritin for 24 h prior to BAK exposure significantly dampened levels of LC3-II (p < 0.05) and promoted a significant increase in cellular metabolic activity (p < 0.01) compared to BAK alone. These results suggest lacritin protects cultured HCE cells stressed with BAK. Lacritin may have the potential to be used as a topical adjunctive therapy in eyes chronically exposed to BAK.

  5. Effects of ozone exposure on human epithelial adenocarcinoma and normal fibroblasts cells.

    PubMed

    Poma, Anna; Colafarina, Sabrina; Aruffo, Eleonora; Zarivi, Osvaldo; Bonfigli, Antonella; Di Bucchianico, Sebastiano; Di Carlo, Piero

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies show variable ozone cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in cell cultures, laboratory animals and humans directly exposed to tropospheric ozone. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate and compare the cyto and genotoxic effects of ozone using adenocarcinoma human alveolar basal epithelial cells A549 and normal human fibroblasts Hs27. A cell culture chamber with controlled atmosphere (a simulation reactor) was built to inject a flow of 120 ppb of ozone, which is two times the threshold value for the protection of human health, fixed by the EU legislation. Cell proliferation was evaluated by a luminescent cell viability assay while we assessed the genotoxic potential of ozone by the induction of micronuclei as well as evaluating DNA strand breaks by the induction of micronuclei evaluated by means of the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay as well as evaluating DNA strand breaks by Alkaline Comet Assay (CA) or Comet Assay. A549 cells viability decreases significantly at 24 hours treatment with 120 ppb of O3 while at 48 hours and 72 hours O3 treated cells viability doesn't differ in respect to the control. However a significative decrease of A549 viability is shown at 72 hours vs. 48 hours in both treated and not-treated cells. The viability trend in the Hs27 cells did not show any significant changes in treated samples compared to the control in all conditions. The two genotoxicity biomarkers, the micronucleus and the comet tests, showed in both the cell types exposed to ozone, a significant increase in the number of micronuclei and in the tail DNA % in respect to the control even if at different times/cell type. Moreover, we found that O3 provokes genotoxic effects more evident in A549 cancer cells than in normal fibroblasts Hs27 ones. We applied a cell growth simulation model referred to ozone treated or not cell lines to confirm that the ozone exposure causes a slackening in the cells replication.

  6. Chromosome Aberrations in Normal and Ataxia-Telangiectasia Cells Exposed to Heavy Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawata, T.; Ito, H.; Liu, C.; Shigematsu, N.; George, K.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2007-01-01

    Although cells derived from Ataxia Telangiectasia (AT) patients are known to exhibit abnormal responses to ionizing radiations, its underlying mechanism still remains unclear. Previously, the authors reported that at the same gamma-irradiation dose AT cells show higher frequencies of misrepair and deletions compared to normal human fibroblast cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of heavy ions beams on chromosomal aberrations in normal and AT cells. Normal and AT fibroblast cells arrested at G0/G1 phase were irradiated with 2 Gy of X-rays, 490 MeV/u Silicon (LET 55 keV/m), 500 MeV/u Iron (LET 185 keV/m) and 200 MeV/u Iron (LET 440 keV/m) particles, and then cells were allowed to repair for 24 hours at 37 degrees before subculture. Calyculin-A induced PCC method was employed to collect G2/M chromosomes and whole DNA probes 1 and 3 were used to analyze chromosomal aberrations such as color-junctions, deletions, simple exchanges (incomplete and reciprocal exanges) and complex-type exchanges. The percentages of aberrant cells were higher when normal and AT cells were exposed to heavy ions compared to X-rays, and had a tendency to increase with increasing LET up to 185 keV/m and then decreased at 440 keV/m. When the frequency of color-junctions per cell was compared after X-ray exposure, AT cells had around three times higher frequency of color-junctions (mis-rejoining) than normal cells. However, at 185 keV/m there was no difference in the frequency of color-junctions between two cell lines. It was also found that the frequency of simple exchanges per cell was almost constant in AT cells regardless LET levels, but it was LET dependent for normal cells. Interestingly, the frequency of simple exchanges was higher for AT cells when it was compared at 185 keV/m but AT cells had more complex-type exchanges at the same LET levels. Heavy ions are more efficient in inducing chromosome aberrations in normal and AT cells compared to X-rays, and the aberration types

  7. Colon Stem Cell and Crypt Dynamics Exposed by Cell Lineage Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Itzkovitz, Shalev; Elbaz, Judith; Maruvka, Yosef E.; Segev, Elad; Shlush, Liran I.; Dekel, Nava; Shapiro, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Stem cell dynamics in vivo are often being studied by lineage tracing methods. Our laboratory has previously developed a retrospective method for reconstructing cell lineage trees from somatic mutations accumulated in microsatellites. This method was applied here to explore different aspects of stem cell dynamics in the mouse colon without the use of stem cell markers. We first demonstrated the reliability of our method for the study of stem cells by confirming previously established facts, and then we addressed open questions. Our findings confirmed that colon crypts are monoclonal and that, throughout adulthood, the process of monoclonal conversion plays a major role in the maintenance of crypts. The absence of immortal strand mechanism in crypts stem cells was validated by the age-dependent accumulation of microsatellite mutations. In addition, we confirmed the positive correlation between physical and lineage proximity of crypts, by showing that the colon is separated into small domains that share a common ancestor. We gained new data demonstrating that colon epithelium is clustered separately from hematopoietic and other cell types, indicating that the colon is constituted of few progenitors and ruling out significant renewal of colonic epithelium from hematopoietic cells during adulthood. Overall, our study demonstrates the reliability of cell lineage reconstruction for the study of stem cell dynamics, and it further addresses open questions in colon stem cells. In addition, this method can be applied to study stem cell dynamics in other systems. PMID:21829376

  8. Antioxidative capacity and enzyme activity in Haematococcus pluvialis cells exposed to superoxide free radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Xiaoli; Sun, Yanhong; Lin, Wei

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidative capacity of astaxanthin and enzyme activity of reactive oxygen eliminating enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were studied in three cell types of Haematococcus pluvialis exposed to high concentrations of a superoxide anion radical (O{2/-}). The results show that defensive enzymes and astaxanthin-related mechanisms were both active in H. pluvialis during exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as O{2/-}. Astaxanthin reacted with ROS much faster than did the protective enzymes, and had the strongest antioxidative capacity to protect against lipid peroxidation. The defensive mechanisms varied significantly between the three cell types and were related to the level of astaxanthin that had accumulated in those cells. Astaxanthin-enriched red cells had the strongest antioxidative capacity, followed by brown cells, and astaxanthin-deficient green cells. Although there was no significant increase in expression of protective enzymes, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in red cells was sustained at a low level because of the antioxidative effect of astaxanthin, which quenched O{2/-} before the protective enzymes could act. In green cells, astaxanthin is very low or absent; therefore, scavenging of ROS is inevitably reliant on antioxidative enzymes. Accordingly, in green cells, these enzymes play the leading role in scavenging ROS, and the expression of these enzymes is rapidly increased to reduce excessive ROS. However, because ROS were constantly increased in this study, the enhance enzyme activity in the green cells was not able to repair the ROS damage, leading to elevated MDA content. Of the four defensive enzymes measured in astaxanthin-deficient green cells, SOD eliminates O{2/-}, POD eliminates H2O2, which is a by-product of SOD activity, and APX and CAT are then initiated to scavenge excessive ROS.

  9. Innate Lymphoid Cells Mediate Pulmonary Eosinophilic Inflammation, Airway Mucous Cell Metaplasia, and Type 2 Immunity in Mice Exposed to Ozone.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Kazuyoshi; Lewandowski, Ryan P; Jackson-Humbles, Daven N; Buglak, Nicholas; Li, Ning; White, Kaylin; Van Dyken, Steven J; Wagner, James G; Harkema, Jack R

    2017-08-01

    Exposure to elevated levels of ambient ozone in photochemical smog is associated with eosinophilic airway inflammation and nonatopic asthma in children. In the present study, we determined the role of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in the pathogenesis of ozone-induced nonatopic asthma by using lymphoid cell-sufficient C57BL/6 mice, ILC-sufficient Rag2 -/- mice (devoid of T and B cells), and ILC-deficient Rag2 -/- Il2rg -/- mice (depleted of all lymphoid cells including ILCs). Mice were exposed to 0 or 0.8 parts per million ozone for 1 day or 9 consecutive weekdays (4 hr/day). A single exposure to ozone caused neutrophilic inflammation, airway epithelial injury, and reparative DNA synthesis in all strains of mice, irrespective of the presence or absence of ILCs. In contrast, 9-day exposures induced eosinophilic inflammation and mucous cell metaplasia only in the lungs of ILC-sufficient mice. Repeated ozone exposures also elicited increased messenger RNA expression of transcripts associated with type 2 immunity and airway mucus production in ILC-sufficient mice. ILC-deficient mice repeatedly exposed to ozone had no pulmonary pathology or increased gene expression related to type 2 immunity. These results suggest a new paradigm for the biologic mechanisms underlying the development of a phenotype of childhood nonatopic asthma that has been linked to ambient ozone exposures.

  10. Human papillomavirus-exposed Langerhans cells are activated by stabilized Poly-I:C.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Diane M; Woodham, Andrew W; Rijkee, Laurie K; Skeate, Joseph G; Taylor, Julia R; Koopman, Maaike E; Brand, Heike E; Wong, Michael K; McKee, Greg M; Salazar, Andres M; Kast, W Martin

    2015-12-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) establish persistent infections because of evolved immune evasion mechanisms, particularly HPV-mediated suppression of the immune functions of Langerhans cells (LC), the antigen presenting cells of the epithelium. Polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid (Poly-I:C) is broadly immunostimulatory with the ability to enhance APC expression of costimulatory molecules and inflammatory cytokines resulting in T cell activation. Here we investigated the activation of primary human LC derived from peripheral blood monocytes after exposure to HPV16 virus like particles followed by treatment with stabilized Poly-I:C compounds (s-Poly-I:C), and their subsequent induction of HPV16-specific T cells. Our results indicate that HPV16 particles alone were incapable of inducing LC activation as demonstrated by the lack of costimulatory molecules, inflammatory cytokines, chemokine-directed migration, and HPV16-specific CD8 + T cells in vitro . Conversely, s-Poly-I:C caused significant upregulation of costimulatory molecules and induction of chemokine-directed migration of LC that were pre-exposed to HPV16. In HLA-A*0201-positive donors, s-Poly-I:C treatment was able to induce CD8 + T cell immune responses against HPV16-derived peptides. Thus, s-Poly-I:C compounds are attractive for translation into therapeutics in which they could potentially mediate clearance of persistent HPV infection.

  11. Selenite restores Pax6 expression in neuronal cells of chronically arsenic-exposed Golden Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Vázquez, Alain; Sampayo-Reyes, Adriana; González-Escalante, Laura; Hernández, Alba; Marcos, Ricard; Castorena-Torres, Fabiola; Lozano-Garza, Gerardo; Taméz-Guerra, Reyes; de León, Mario Bermúdez

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic is a worldwide environmental pollutant that generates public health concerns. Various types of cancers and other diseases, including neurological disorders, have been associated with human consumption of arsenic in drinking water. At the molecular level, arsenic and its metabolites have the capacity to provoke genome instability, causing altered expression of genes. One such target of arsenic is the Pax6 gene that encodes a transcription factor in neuronal cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two antioxidants, α-tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS) and sodium selenite, on Pax6 gene expression levels in the forebrain and cerebellum of Golden Syrian hamsters chronically exposed to arsenic in drinking water. Animals were divided into six groups. Using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR analysis, we confirmed that arsenic downregulates Pax6 expression in nervous tissues by 53 ± 21% and 32 ± 7% in the forebrain and cerebellum, respectively. In the presence of arsenic, treatment with α-TOS did not modify Pax6 expression in nervous tissues; however, sodium selenite completely restored Pax6 expression in the arsenic-exposed hamster forebrain, but not the cerebellum. Although our results suggest the use of selenite to restore the expression of a neuronal gene in arsenic-exposed animals, its use and efficacy in the human population require further studies.

  12. Apoptosis evaluation in epithelial cells exposed to different chemicals: relevance of floating cells.

    PubMed

    Turco, L; De Angelis, I; Stammati, A; Zucco, F

    2000-01-01

    The recent increase in understanding of cell death has promoted new approaches in toxicological studies, mainly those dealing with in vitro systems where the evaluation of cell death has been the most widely adopted end-point in measuring the effects of chemical toxicants. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of improving the traditional cytotoxicity test protocols in order to produce more specific information on the type of cell death induced by exposure to toxicants. In particular, we characterized the mode of cell death in an established epithelial cell line, HEp-2 cells, which is frequently used in cytotoxicity testing owing to its easy handling and standardization of culture conditions. Reference chemicals for apoptosis and necrosis were selected as controls, together with other molecules that have been shown, in preliminary studies, to induce various morphological and structural modifications in relation to cell death. The results obtained show that: (a) the floating fraction of treated cells gives the clearest picture of the necrotic/apoptotic distribution; (b) morphological analysis is crucial for characterization of apoptosis; (c) more than one cytotoxic end-point is necessary to clearly identify the type of cell death.

  13. Changes in biochemical processes in cerebellar granule cells of mice exposed to methylmercury.

    PubMed

    Bellum, Sairam; Bawa, Bhupinder; Thuett, Kerry A; Stoica, Gheorghe; Abbott, Louise C

    2007-01-01

    At postnatal day 34, male and female C57BL/6J mice were exposed orally once a day to a total of five doses totaling 1.0 or 5.0 mg/kg of methylmercuric chloride or sterile deionized water in moistened rodent chow. Eleven days after the last dose cerebellar granule cells were acutely isolated to measure reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and mitochondrial membrane potential using CM-H(2)DCFDA and TMRM dyes, respectively. For visualizing intracellular calcium ion distribution using transmission electron microscopy, mice were perfused 11 days after the last dose of methylmercury (MeHg) using the oxalate-pyroantimonate method. Cytosolic and mitochondrial protein fractions from acutely isolated granule cells were analyzed for cytochrome c content using Western blot analysis. Histochemistry (Fluoro-Jade dye) and immunohistochemistry (activated caspase 3) was performed on frozen serial cerebellar sections to label granule cell death and activation of caspase 3, respectively. Granule cells isolated from MeHg-treated mice showed elevated ROS levels and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential when compared to granule cells from control mice. Electron photomicrographs of MeHg-treated granule cells showed altered intracellular calcium ion homeostasis ([Ca(2+)](i)) when compared to control granule cells. However, in spite of these subcellular changes and moderate relocalization of cytochrome c into the cytosol, the concentrations of MeHg used in this study did not produce significant neuronal cell death/apoptosis at the time point examined, as evidenced by Fluoro-Jade and activated caspase 3 immunostaining, respectively. These results demonstrate that short-term in vivo exposure to total doses of 1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg MeHg through the most common exposure route (oral) can result in significant subcellular changes that are not accompanied by overt neuronal cell death.

  14. Effects of the pulse width on the reactive species production and DNA damage in cancer cells exposed to atmospheric pressure microsecond-pulsed helium plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joh, Hea Min; Choi, Ji Ye; Kim, Sun Ja; Kang, Tae Hong; Chung, T. H.

    2017-08-01

    Plasma-liquid and plasma-cell interactions were investigated using an atmospheric pressure dc microsecond-pulsed helium plasma jet. We investigated the effects of the electrical parameters such as applied voltage and pulse width (determined by the pulse frequency and duty ratio) on the production of reactive species in the gas/liquid phases and on the DNA damage responses in the cancer cells. The densities of reactive species including OH radicals were estimated inside the plasma-treated liquids using a chemical probe method, and the nitrite concentration was detected by Griess assay. Importantly, the more concentration of OH resulted in the more DNA base oxidation and breaks in human lung cancer A549 cells. The data are very suggestive that there is strong correlation between the production of OH in the plasmas/liquids and the DNA damage.

  15. T Cell Activation in South African HIV-Exposed Infants Correlates with Ochratoxin A Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Lianna Frances; Wood, Matthew P.; Fisher, Bridget S.; Jaspan, Heather B.; Sodora, Donald L.

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of non-breastmilk foods to HIV-infected infants is associated with increased levels of immune activation, which can impact the rate of HIV disease progression. This is particularly relevant in countries where mother-to-child transmission of HIV still occurs at unacceptable levels. The goal of this study was to evaluate the levels of the toxic food contaminant ochratoxin A (OTA) in HIV-exposed South African infants that are either breastfed or consuming non-breast milk foods. OTA is a common mycotoxin, found in grains and soil, which is toxic at high doses but has immunomodulatory properties at lower doses. Samples from HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed infants enrolled in prospective observational cohort studies were collected and analyzed at birth through 14 weeks of age. We observed that infants consuming non-breast milk foods had significantly higher plasma levels of OTA at 6 weeks of age compared to breastfed infants, increasing until 8 weeks of age. The blood levels of OTA detected were comparable to levels observed in OTA-endemic communities. OTA plasma levels correlated with HIV target cell activation (CCR5 and HLADR expression on CD4+ T cells) and plasma levels of the inflammatory cytokine CXCL10. These findings provide evidence that elevated OTA levels in South African infants are associated with the consumption of non-breastmilk foods and activation of the immune system. Reducing infant OTA exposure has the potential to reduce immune activation and provide health benefits, particularly in those infants who are HIV-exposed or HIV-infected. PMID:29312338

  16. [An immunocytochemical study of the C-cell function of the thyroid in rats exposed on the Kosmos-2044 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Loginov, V I

    1993-01-01

    Immunocytochemical analysis of thyroid gland C-cells of the rats exposed to a 14-day space flight revealed a decrease in the number of C-cells, volume of their nuclei and a declined percentage of active secretory C-cells, which point to a decline of calcitonin proactive and calcitonin secretory hypofunction of the thyroid C-cells system in flown rats. Tail suspension as a microgravity model caused similar changes in C-cells.

  17. Dose- and Time-Dependent Transcriptional Response of Ishikawa Cells Exposed to Genistein.

    PubMed

    Naciff, Jorge M; Khambatta, Zubin S; Carr, Gregory J; Tiesman, Jay P; Singleton, David W; Khan, Sohaib A; Daston, George P

    2016-05-01

    To further define the utility of the Ishikawa cells as a reliable in vitro model to determine the potential estrogenic activity of chemicals of interest, transcriptional changes induced by genistein (GES) in Ishikawa cells at various doses (10 pM, 1 nM, 100 nM, and 10 μM) and time points (8, 24, and 48 h) were identified using a comprehensive microarray approach. Trend analysis indicated that the expression of 5342 unique genes was modified by GES in a dose- and time-dependent manner (P ≤ 0.0001). However, the majority of gene expression changes induced in Ishikawa cells were elicited by the highest dose of GES evaluated (10 μM). The GES' estrogenic activity was identified by comparing the Ishikawa cells' response to GES versus 17 α-ethynyl estradiol (EE, at equipotent doses, ie, 10 μM vs 1 μM, respectively) and was defined by changes in the expression of 284 unique genes elicited by GES and EE in the same direction, although the magnitude of the change for some genes was different. Further, comparing the response of the Ishikawa cells exposed to high doses of GES and EE versus the response of the juvenile rat uterus exposed to EE, we identified 66 unique genes which were up- or down regulated in a similar manner in vivo as well as in vitro Genistein elicits changes in multiple molecular pathways affecting various biological processes particularly associated with cell organization and biogenesis, regulation of translation, cell proliferation, and intracellular transport; processes also affected by estrogen exposure in the uterus of the rat. These results indicate that Ishikawa cells are capable of generating a biologically relevant estrogenic response and offer an in vitro model to assess this mode of action. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Phosphorylation of Stats at Ser727 in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Junko; Nishitai, Gen; Inageda, Kiyoshi; Matsuoka, Masato

    2007-11-01

    The effects of cadmium exposure on serine phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stats) and an upstream kinase were examined in renal proximal tubular cells. In porcine LLC-PK1 cells treated with cadmium, Stat1 and Stat3 proteins were phosphorylated at Ser727 without changing total Stat protein levels. While phosphorylated forms of the members of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) increased in response to cadmium exposure, treatment with a p38 inhibitor, SB203580 reduced Ser727 phosphorylation of Stat1 and Stat3 markedly in LLC-PK1 cells. The expression of human matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), a Stats-inducible gene, was found to be up-regulated in human HK-2 cells exposed to cadmium, and suppressed by preincubation with SB203580. These results suggest that cadmium might induce the phosphorylation of Stat1 and Stat3 at Ser727 via the p38 pathway at least in part, and modulate gene expression in these proximal tubular cells. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Morphological and ultrastructural changes in tobacco BY-2 cells exposed to microcystin-RR.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenmin; Xing, Wei; Li, Dunhai; Liu, Yongding

    2009-08-01

    Tobacco BY-2 cells were exposed to microcystin-RR (MC-RR) at two concentrations, 60 microg mL(-1) and 120 microg mL(-1), to study the changes in morphology and ultrastructure of cells as a result of the exposure. Exposure to the lower concentration for 5 d led to typical apoptotic morphological changes including condensation of nuclear chromatin, creation of a characteristic 'half moon' structure, and cytoplasm shrinkage and decreased cell volume, as revealed through light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Exposure to the higher concentration, on the other hand, led to morphological and ultrastructural changes typical of necrosis, such as rupture of the plasma membrane and the nuclear membrane and a marked swelling of cells. The presence of many vacuoles containing unusual deposits points to the involvement of vacuoles in detoxifying MC-RR. Results of the present study indicate that exposure of tobacco BY-2 cells to MC-RR at a lower concentration (60 microg mL(-1)) results in apoptosis and that to a higher concentration (120 microg mL(-1)), in necrosis.

  20. Dynamics of heat shock protein 60 in endothelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke extract

    PubMed Central

    Kreutmayer, Simone Barbara; Messner, Barbara; Knoflach, Michael; Henderson, Blair; Niederegger, Harald; Böck, Günther; Van der Zee, Ruurd; Wick, Georg; Bernhard, David

    2011-01-01

    Heat shock protein 60 (HSP60), expressed on the surface of endothelial cells (ECs) stressed by e.g. oxidized LDL or mechanical shear, was shown to function as an auto-antigen and thus as a pro-atherosclerotic molecule. The aim of this study was to determine whether cigarette smoke chemicals can lead to the activation of the “HSP60 pathway.” It was also our aim to elucidate the dynamics of HSP60 from gene expression to endothelial surface expression and secretion. Here we show for the first time that the exposure of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) results in an up-regulation of HSP60 mRNA. Live cell imaging analysis of a HSP60-EYFP fusion protein construct transfected into ECs revealed that mitochondrial structures collapse in response to CSE exposure. As a result, HSP60 is released from the mitochondria, transported to the cell surface, and released into the cell culture supernatant. Analysis of HSP60 in the sera of healthy young individuals exposed to secondhand smoke revealed significantly elevated levels of HSP60. Cigarette smoking is one of the most relevant risk factors for atherosclerosis. Herein, we provide evidence that cigarette smoke may initiate atherosclerosis in the sense of the “auto-immune hypothesis of atherosclerosis.” PMID:21798264

  1. Dynamics of heat shock protein 60 in endothelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke extract.

    PubMed

    Kreutmayer, Simone Barbara; Messner, Barbara; Knoflach, Michael; Henderson, Blair; Niederegger, Harald; Böck, Günther; Van der Zee, Ruurd; Wick, Georg; Bernhard, David

    2011-11-01

    Heat shock protein 60 (HSP60), expressed on the surface of endothelial cells (ECs) stressed by e.g. oxidized LDL or mechanical shear, was shown to function as an auto-antigen and thus as a pro-atherosclerotic molecule. The aim of this study was to determine whether cigarette smoke chemicals can lead to the activation of the "HSP60 pathway." It was also our aim to elucidate the dynamics of HSP60 from gene expression to endothelial surface expression and secretion. Here we show for the first time that the exposure of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) results in an up-regulation of HSP60 mRNA. Live cell imaging analysis of a HSP60-EYFP fusion protein construct transfected into ECs revealed that mitochondrial structures collapse in response to CSE exposure. As a result, HSP60 is released from the mitochondria, transported to the cell surface, and released into the cell culture supernatant. Analysis of HSP60 in the sera of healthy young individuals exposed to secondhand smoke revealed significantly elevated levels of HSP60. Cigarette smoking is one of the most relevant risk factors for atherosclerosis. Herein, we provide evidence that cigarette smoke may initiate atherosclerosis in the sense of the "auto-immune hypothesis of atherosclerosis." Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Genotoxic Changes to Rodent Cells Exposed in Vitro to Tungsten, Nickel, Cobalt and Iron

    PubMed Central

    Bardack, Stephanie; Dalgard, Clifton L.; Kalinich, John F.; Kasper, Christine E.

    2014-01-01

    Tungsten-based materials have been proposed as replacements for depleted uranium in armor-penetrating munitions and for lead in small-arms ammunition. A recent report demonstrated that a military-grade composition of tungsten, nickel, and cobalt induced a highly-aggressive, metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma when implanted into the leg muscle of laboratory rats to simulate a shrapnel wound. The early genetic changes occurring in response to embedded metal fragments are not known. In this study, we utilized two cultured rodent myoblast cell lines, exposed to soluble tungsten alloys and the individual metals comprising the alloys, to study the genotoxic effects. By profiling cell transcriptomes using microarray, we found slight, yet distinct and unique, gene expression changes in rat myoblast cells after 24 h metal exposure, and several genes were identified that correlate with impending adverse consequences of ongoing exposure to weapons-grade tungsten alloy. These changes were not as apparent in the mouse myoblast cell line. This indicates a potential species difference in the cellular response to tungsten alloy, a hypothesis supported by current findings with in vivo model systems. Studies examining genotoxic-associated gene expression changes in cells from longer exposure times are warranted. PMID:24619124

  3. Reduced cytotoxicity in PCB-exposed Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells pretreated with vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Murati, Teuta; Šimić, Branimir; Pleadin, Jelka; Vukmirović, Maja; Miletić, Marina; Durgo, Ksenija; Kniewald, Jasna; Kmetič, Ivana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate protective effects of vitamin E (50 -150 μM) in ovary cells upon cytotoxic effects induced by two structurally distinct PCB congeners - planar "dioxin-like" PCB 77 and non-planar di-ortho-substituted PCB 153 with an emphasis on identifying differences in the mechanism of vitamin E action depending on the structure of congeners. Application of three bioassays confirmed that PCBs decrease ovarian cell proliferation with slightly profound effects of PCB 77. PCB - induced ROS production and lipid peroxidation were significant for both congeners with also more noticeable effect for PCB 77. Vitamin E pre-incubation has improved viability of cells, reduced ROS formation and lipid peroxidation induced by PCBs' treatment. Preincubation with vitamin E was more effective when cells where treated with non-planar PCB 153. Altogether, vitamin E action was protective, congener specific and more effective when ovary cells were exposed to ortho-substituted PCB congener. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. DNA damage induction in human cells exposed to vanadium oxides in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Mercado, Juan J; Mateos-Nava, Rodrigo A; Altamirano-Lozano, Mario A

    2011-12-01

    Vanadium and vanadium salts cause genotoxicity and elicit variable biological effects depending on several factors. In the present study, we analyzed and compared the DNA damage and repair processes induced by vanadium in three oxidation states. We used human blood leukocytes in vitro and in a single cell gel electrophoresis assay at two pH values. We observed that vanadium(III) trioxide and vanadium(V) pentoxide produced DNA single-strand breaks at all of the concentrations (1, 2, 4, or 8 μg/ml) and treatment times (2, 4, or 6 h) tested. Vanadium(IV) tetraoxide treatment significantly increased DNA damage at all concentrations for 4 or 6 h of treatment but not for 2 h of treatment. The DNA repair kinetics indicated that most of the cells exposed to vanadium III and V for 4 h recovered within the repair incubation time of 90 min; however, those exposed to vanadium(IV) repaired their DNA within 120 min. The data at pH 9 indicated that vanadium(IV) tetraoxide induced DNA double-strand breaks. Our results show that the genotoxic effect of vanadium can be produced by any of its three oxidation states. However, vanadium(IV) induces double-strand breaks, and it is known that these lesions are linked with forming structural chromosomal aberrations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Phosphatidylserine-exposing blood and endothelial cells contribute to the hypercoagulable state in essential thrombocythemia patients.

    PubMed

    Tong, Dongxia; Yu, Muxin; Guo, Li; Li, Tao; Li, Jihe; Novakovic, Valerie A; Dong, Zengxiang; Tian, Ye; Kou, Junjie; Bi, Yayan; Wang, Jinghua; Zhou, Jin; Shi, Jialan

    2018-04-01

    The mechanisms of thrombogenicity in essential thrombocythemia (ET) are complex and not well defined. Our objective was to explore whether phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure on blood cells and endothelial cells (ECs) can account for the increased thrombosis and distinct thrombotic risks among mutational subtypes in ET. Using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, we found that the levels of PS-exposing erythrocytes, platelets, leukocytes, and serum-cultured ECs were significantly higher in each ET group [JAK2, CALR, and triple-negative (TN) (all P < 0.001)] than those in controls. Among ET patients, those with JAK2 mutations showed higher levels of PS-positive erythrocytes, platelets, neutrophils, and serum-cultured ECs than TN patients or those with CALR mutations, which show similar levels. Coagulation function assays showed that higher levels of PS-positive blood cells and serum-cultured ECs led to markedly shortened coagulation time and dramatically increased levels of FXa, thrombin, and fibrin production. This procoagulant activity could be largely blocked by addition of lactadherin (approx. 70% inhibition). Confocal microscopy showed that the FVa/FXa complex and fibrin fibrils colocalized with PS on ET serum-cultured ECs. Additionally, we found a relationship between D-dimer, prothrombin fragment F1 + 2, and PS exposure. Our study reveals a previously unrecognized link between hypercoagulability and exposed PS on cells, which might also be associated with distinct thrombotic risks among mutational subtypes in ET. Thus, blocking PS-binding sites may represent a new therapeutic target for preventing thrombosis in ET.

  6. Exosomes are released by bystander cells exposed to radiation-induced biophoton signals: Reconciling the mechanisms mediating the bystander effect

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Palomo, Cristian; McNeill, Fiona E.; Seymour, Colin B.; Rainbow, Andrew J.; Mothersill, Carmel E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of our study was to explore a possible molecular mechanism by which ultraviolet (UV) biophotons could elicit bystander responses in reporter cells and resolve the problem of seemingly mutually exclusive mechanisms of a physical UV signal & a soluble factor-mediated bystander signal. Methods The human colon carcinoma cell line, HCT116 p53 +/+, was directly irradiated with 0.5 Gy tritium beta particles to induce ultraviolet biophoton emission. Bystander cells were not directly irradiated but were exposed to the emitted UV biophotons. Medium was subsequently harvested from UV-exposed bystander cells. The exosomes extracted from this medium were incubated with reporter cell populations. These reporter cells were then assayed for clonogenic survival and mitochondrial membrane potential with and without prior treatment of the exosomes with RNase. Results Clonogenic cell survival was significantly reduced in reporter cells incubated with exosomes extracted from cells exposed to secondarily-emitted UV. These exosomes also induced significant mitochondrial membrane depolarization in receiving reporter cells. Conversely, exosomes extracted from non-UV-exposed cells did not produce bystander effects in reporter cells. The treatment of exosomes with RNase prior to their incubation with reporter cells effectively abolished bystander effects in reporter cells and this suggests a role for RNA in mediating the bystander response elicited by UV biophotons and their produced exosomes. Conclusion This study supports a role for exosomes released from UV biophoton-exposed bystander cells in eliciting bystander responses and also indicates a reconciliation between the UV-mediated bystander effect and the bystander effect which has been suggested in the literature to be mediated by soluble factors. PMID:28278290

  7. Exosomes are released by bystander cells exposed to radiation-induced biophoton signals: Reconciling the mechanisms mediating the bystander effect.

    PubMed

    Le, Michelle; Fernandez-Palomo, Cristian; McNeill, Fiona E; Seymour, Colin B; Rainbow, Andrew J; Mothersill, Carmel E

    2017-01-01

    The objective of our study was to explore a possible molecular mechanism by which ultraviolet (UV) biophotons could elicit bystander responses in reporter cells and resolve the problem of seemingly mutually exclusive mechanisms of a physical UV signal & a soluble factor-mediated bystander signal. The human colon carcinoma cell line, HCT116 p53 +/+, was directly irradiated with 0.5 Gy tritium beta particles to induce ultraviolet biophoton emission. Bystander cells were not directly irradiated but were exposed to the emitted UV biophotons. Medium was subsequently harvested from UV-exposed bystander cells. The exosomes extracted from this medium were incubated with reporter cell populations. These reporter cells were then assayed for clonogenic survival and mitochondrial membrane potential with and without prior treatment of the exosomes with RNase. Clonogenic cell survival was significantly reduced in reporter cells incubated with exosomes extracted from cells exposed to secondarily-emitted UV. These exosomes also induced significant mitochondrial membrane depolarization in receiving reporter cells. Conversely, exosomes extracted from non-UV-exposed cells did not produce bystander effects in reporter cells. The treatment of exosomes with RNase prior to their incubation with reporter cells effectively abolished bystander effects in reporter cells and this suggests a role for RNA in mediating the bystander response elicited by UV biophotons and their produced exosomes. This study supports a role for exosomes released from UV biophoton-exposed bystander cells in eliciting bystander responses and also indicates a reconciliation between the UV-mediated bystander effect and the bystander effect which has been suggested in the literature to be mediated by soluble factors.

  8. Proliferation and morphological transformation of RMK cells exposed to hydroquinine containing ionomers.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Veronica; Benghuzzi, Hamed; Tucci, Michell; Puckett, Aaron; Cason, Zelma

    2002-01-01

    Recent research in our laboratories has been directed towards the development of ionomeric polymers and monomers for use in biomedical applications such as adhesives, drug delivery matrices and tissue scaffolds. The chemical Hydroquinone (HQ) aids as a stabilizer and represents a major component in the development of the ionomers. However, hydroquinone in high concentration has the potential to initiate carcinogenic effects on cells. The curing reactions are based on free radical chemistry that require a radical scavenger, ascorbic acid (Asc) to adjust working and setting times and shelf-life stability. The few studies published on HQ have suggested that high dosages of HQ may stimulate apoptosis as well as an increased cellular leakage, however the effect of HQ on the biocompatability is unknown. Therefore the objectives of this study were to measure the functional capacity, cell proliferation and structural integrity of Rhesus monkey kidney epithelial (RMK) cells exposed to ionomer formulations containing 4 different levels of HQ. A total of 90 tubes of RMK (40,000 cells per tube) cells were divided equally into five equal groups. Group I served as a control and group II-V were subjected to ionomers containing 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 ppm HQ. Cell numbers, morphology, cellular and supermatant MDA levels, and total protein analysis were performed. The results suggest: (I) All ionomer groups increased cellular proliferation except for the 2000 ppm HQ group, (II) MDA levels were increased in cells containing 2000 ppm HQ at 24 hours; and 0 ppm at 48 hours. It may be concluded that HQ concentrations over 1000 ppm may adversely affect biocompatability.

  9. Direct and indirect air particle cytotoxicity in human alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Orona, N S; Astort, F; Maglione, G A; Saldiva, P H N; Yakisich, J S; Tasat, D R

    2014-08-01

    Air particulate matter has been associated with adverse impact on the respiratory system leading to cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects. The biological mechanisms behind these associations may be initiated by inhaled small size particles, particle components (soluble fraction) and/or mediators released by particle-exposed cells (conditioned media). The effect of Urban Air Particles from Buenos Aires (UAP-BA) and Residual Oil Fly Ash (ROFA) a surrogate of ambient air pollution, their Soluble Fractions (SF) and Conditioned Media (CM) on A549 lung epithelial cells was examined. After 24 h exposure to TP (10 and 100 μg/ml), SF or CM, several biological parameters were assayed on cultured A549 cells. We tested cell viability by MTT, superoxide anion (O₂(-)) generation by NBT and proinflammatory cytokine (TNFα, IL-6 and IL-8) production by ELISA. UAP-BA particles or its SF (direct effect) did not modify cell viability and generation of O₂(-) for any of the doses tested. On the contrary, UAP-BA CM (indirect effect) reduced cell viability and increased both generation of O₂(-) and IL-8 production. Exposure to ROFA particles, SF or ROFA CM reduced proliferation and O₂(-) but, stimulated IL-8. It is worth to note that UAP-BA and ROFA depicted distinct effects on particle-exposed A549 cells implicating morphochemical dependence. These in vitro findings support the hypothesis that particle-induced lung inflammation and disease may involve lung-derived mediators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome-wide screen exposes multiple CD8+ T cell epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, A S; Klein, M R; Corrah, T; Fox, A; Jaye, A; McAdam, K P; Brookes, R H

    2005-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I-restricted CD8+ T cells play a role in protective immunity against tuberculosis yet relatively few epitopes specific for the causative organism, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, are reported. Here a total genome-wide screen of M. tuberculosis was used to identify putative HLA-B*3501 T cell epitopes. Of 479 predicted epitopes, 13 with the highest score were synthesized and used to restimulate lymphocytes from naturally exposed HLA-B*3501 healthy individuals in cultured and ex vivo enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays for interferon (IFN)-γ. All 13 peptides elicited a response that varied considerably between individuals. For three peptides CD8+ T cell lines were expanded and four of the 13 were recognized permissively through the HLA-B7 supertype family. Although further testing is required we show the genome-wide screen to be feasible for the identification of unknown mycobacterial antigens involved in immunity against natural infection. While the mechanisms of protective immunity against M. tuberculosis infection remain unclear, conventional class I-restricted CD8+ T cell responses appear to be widespread throughout the genome. PMID:15762882

  11. Calcium dependent and independent cytokine synthesis by air pollution particle-exposed human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Noriho; Hayashi, Shizu; Gosselink, John

    2007-12-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution particles with a diameter of < 10 {mu}m (PM{sub 10}) has been associated with increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. We have shown that human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) exposed to PM{sub 10} produce pro-inflammatory mediators that contribute to a local and systemic inflammatory response. Changes in intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) have been demonstrated to regulate several functions of the airway epithelium including the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. The aim of the present study was to determine the nature and mechanism of calcium responses induced by PM{sub 10} in HBECs and its relationship tomore » cytokine synthesis. Methods: Primary HBECs were exposed to urban air pollution particles (EHC-93) and [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} responses were measured using the fluoroprobe (Fura-2). Cytokine levels were measured at mRNA and protein levels using real-time PCR and ELISA. Results: PM{sub 10} increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in a dose-dependent manner. This calcium response was reduced by blocking the influx of calcium into cells (i.e. calcium-free medium, NiCl{sub 2}, LaCl{sub 3}). PM{sub 10} also decreased the activity of calcium pumps. PM{sub 10} increased the production of IL-1{beta}, IL-8, GM-CSF and LIF. Preincubation with intracellular calcium chelator (BAPTA-AM) attenuated IL-1{beta} and IL-8 production, but not GM-CSF and LIF production. Conclusion: We conclude that exposure to PM{sub 10} induces an increase in cytosolic calcium and cytokine production in bronchial epithelial cells. Our results also suggest that PM{sub 10} induces the production of pro-inflammatory mediators via either intracellular calcium-dependent (IL-1{beta}, IL-8) or -independent (GM-CSF, LIF) pathways.« less

  12. The ADMA/DDAH/NO pathway in human vein endothelial cells exposed to arsenite.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Yáñez, Citlalli; Chin-Chan, Miguel; Sánchez-Peña, Luz C; Atzatzi-Aguilar, Octavio G; Olivares-Reyes, Jesus A; Segovia, José; Del Razo, Luz M

    2017-08-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure is related to cardiovascular disease, which is characterized by endothelial dysfunction and nitric oxide (NO) depletion. The mechanisms underlying NO depletion as related to iAs exposure are not fully understood. The endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), might be a molecular target of iAs. ADMA concentrations are regulated by proteins involved in its synthesis (arginine methyl transferase 1 [PRMT-1]) and degradation (dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase [DDAH]). Both, ADMA and NO are susceptible to oxidative stress. We aimed to determine the ADMA/DDAH/NO pathway in human vein endothelial cells (HUVEC-CS) exposed to arsenite. We exposed HUVEC-CS cells to 1, 2.5 and 5μM of arsenite for 24h. We proved that arsenite at 5μM was able to decrease NO levels with an associated increase in ADMA and depletion of l-arginine in HUVEC-CS cells. We also found a decrease in DDAH-1 protein expression with 5μM of arsenite compared to the control group. However, we did not observe significant differences in PRMT-1 protein expression at any of the concentrations of arsenite employed. Finally, arsenite (2.5 and 5μM) increased NADPH oxidase 4 protein levels compared with the control group. We conclude that ADMA, l-arginine and DDAH are involved in NO depletion produced by arsenite, and that the mechanism is related to oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Bioeffects Resulting from Prokaryotic Cells and Yeast Being Exposed to an 18 GHz Electromagnetic Field.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, The Hong Phong; Pham, Vy T H; Nguyen, Song Ha; Baulin, Vladimir; Croft, Rodney J; Phillips, Brian; Crawford, Russell J; Ivanova, Elena P

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which various biological effects are triggered by exposure to an electromagnetic field are not fully understood and have been the subject of debate. Here, the effects of exposing typical representatives of the major microbial taxa to an 18 GHz microwave electromagnetic field (EMF)were studied. It appeared that the EMF exposure induced cell permeabilisation in all of the bacteria and yeast studied, while the cells remained viable (94% throughout the exposure), independent of the differences in cell membrane fatty acid and phospholipid composition. The resulting cell permeabilisation was confirmed by detection of the uptake of propidium iodine and 23 nm fluorescent silica nanospheres using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Upon EMF exposure, the bacterial cell membranes are believed to become permeable through quasi-endocytosis processes. The dosimetry analysis revealed that the EMF threshold level required to induce the uptake of the large (46 nm) nanopsheres was between three and six EMF doses, with a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 3 kW/kg and 5 kW/kg per exposure, respectively, depending on the bacterial taxa being studied. It is suggested that the taxonomic affiliation and lipid composition (e.g. the presence of phosphatidyl-glycerol and/or pentadecanoic fatty acid) may affect the extent of uptake of the large nanospheres (46 nm). Multiple 18 GHz EMF exposures over a one-hour period induced periodic anomalous increases in the cell growth behavior of two Staphylococcus aureus strains, namely ATCC 25923 and CIP 65.8T.

  14. The Bioeffects Resulting from Prokaryotic Cells and Yeast Being Exposed to an 18 GHz Electromagnetic Field

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Vy T. H.; Nguyen, Song Ha; Baulin, Vladimir; Croft, Rodney J.; Phillips, Brian; Crawford, Russell J.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which various biological effects are triggered by exposure to an electromagnetic field are not fully understood and have been the subject of debate. Here, the effects of exposing typical representatives of the major microbial taxa to an 18 GHz microwave electromagnetic field (EMF)were studied. It appeared that the EMF exposure induced cell permeabilisation in all of the bacteria and yeast studied, while the cells remained viable (94% throughout the exposure), independent of the differences in cell membrane fatty acid and phospholipid composition. The resulting cell permeabilisation was confirmed by detection of the uptake of propidium iodine and 23 nm fluorescent silica nanospheres using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Upon EMF exposure, the bacterial cell membranes are believed to become permeable through quasi-endocytosis processes. The dosimetry analysis revealed that the EMF threshold level required to induce the uptake of the large (46 nm) nanopsheres was between three and six EMF doses, with a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 3 kW/kg and 5 kW/kg per exposure, respectively, depending on the bacterial taxa being studied. It is suggested that the taxonomic affiliation and lipid composition (e.g. the presence of phosphatidyl-glycerol and/or pentadecanoic fatty acid) may affect the extent of uptake of the large nanospheres (46 nm). Multiple 18 GHz EMF exposures over a one-hour period induced periodic anomalous increases in the cell growth behavior of two Staphylococcus aureus strains, namely ATCC 25923 and CIP 65.8T. PMID:27391488

  15. Cellular processes involved in human epidermal cells exposed to extremely low frequency electric fields.

    PubMed

    Collard, J-F; Hinsenkamp, M

    2015-05-01

    We observed on different tissues and organisms a biological response after exposure to pulsed low frequency and low amplitude electric or electromagnetic fields but the precise mechanism of cell response remains unknown. The aim of this publication is to understand, using bioinformatics, the biological relevance of processes involved in the modification of gene expression. The list of genes analyzed was obtained after microarray protocol realized on cultures of human epidermal explants growing on deepidermized human skin exposed to a pulsed low frequency electric field. The directed acyclic graph on a WebGestalt Gene Ontology module shows six categories under the biological process root: "biological regulation", "cellular process", "cell proliferation", "death", "metabolic process" and "response to stimulus". Enriched derived categories are coherent with the type of in vitro culture, the stimulation protocol or with the previous results showing a decrease of cell proliferation and an increase of differentiation. The Kegg module on WebGestalt has highlighted "cell cycle" and "p53 signaling pathway" as significantly involved. The Kegg website brings out interactions between FoxO, MAPK, JNK, p53, p38, PI3K/Akt, Wnt, mTor or NF-KappaB. Some genes expressed by the stimulation are known to have an exclusive function on these pathways. Analyses performed with Pathway Studio linked cell proliferation, cell differentiation, apoptosis, cell cycle, mitosis, cell death etc. with our microarrays results. Medline citation generated by the software and the fold change variation confirms a diminution of the proliferation, activation of the differentiation and a less well-defined role of apoptosis or wound healing. Wnt and DKK functional classes, DKK1, MACF1, ATF3, MME, TXNRD1, and BMP-2 genes proposed in previous publications after a manual analysis are also highlighted with other genes after Pathway Studio automatic procedure. Finally, an analysis conducted on a list of genes

  16. Photovoltaic studies of Dye Sensitized Solar cells Fabricated from Microwave Exposed Photo anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Anju; Sreekala, C. O.; Sreelatha, K. S.; Jinchu, I.

    2018-02-01

    The configuration of Dye Sensitized solar cells (DSSC), consists of sintered nanoparticle titanium dioxide film, dyes, electrolyte and counter electrodes. Upon the absorption of photons by the dye molecules, excitons are generated, subsequently electrons are injected into the TiO2 photoanode. Afterward the electrons injected into the TiO2 photoanode, to produce photocurrent, scavenged by redox couple, and the hole transport to the photo cathode. The power conversion efficiency of the device depends on the amount of dye adsorbed by the photoanode. This paper explores in enhancing the efficiency of the device by controlled microwave exposure. With same exposure time, the photoanode is exposed at three different frequencies. SEM analysis is carried out to find the porosity of the photoanode on exposure. Current density is found to have an effect on microwave exposure.

  17. Sildenafil Prevents Apoptosis of Human First-Trimester Trophoblast Cells Exposed to Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bolnick, Jay M.; Kilburn, Brian A.; Bolnick, Alan D.; Diamond, Michael P.; Singh, Manvinder; Hertz, Michael; Dai, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Human first-trimester trophoblast cells proliferate at low O2, but survival is compromised by oxidative stress, leading to uteroplacental insufficiency. The vasoactive drug, sildenafil citrate (Viagra, Sigma, St Louis, Missouri), has proven useful in reducing adverse pregnancy outcomes. An important biological function of this pharmaceutical is its action as an inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) phosphodiesterase type 5 activity, which suggests that it could have beneficial effects on trophoblast survival. To investigate whether sildenafil can prevent trophoblast cell death, human first-trimester villous explants and the HTR-8/SVneo cytotrophoblast cell line were exposed to hypoxia and reoxygenation (H/R) to generate oxidative stress, which induces apoptosis. Apoptosis was optimally inhibited during H/R by 350 ng/mL sildenafil. Sildenafil-mediated survival was reversed by l-NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride or cGMP antagonist, indicating a dependence on both nitric oxide (NO) and cGMP. Indeed, either a cGMP agonist or an NO generator was cytoprotective independent of sildenafil. These findings suggest a novel intervention route for patients with recurrent pregnancy loss or obstetrical placental disorders. PMID:25431453

  18. Cells exposed to nanosecond electrical pulses exhibit biomarkers of mechanical stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Caleb C.; Barnes, Ronald A.; Ibey, Bennett L.; Beier, Hope T.; Moen, Erick K.; Glickman, Randolph D.

    2015-03-01

    Exposure of cells to very short (<1 μs) electric pulses in the megavolt/meter range have been shown to cause disruption of the plasma membrane. This disruption is often characterized by the formation of numerous small pores (<2 nm in diameter) in the plasma membrane that last for several minutes, allowing the flow of ions into the cell. These small pores are called nanopores and the resulting damage to the plasma membrane is referred to as nanoporation. Nanosecond electrical pulse (nsEP) exposure can impart many different stressors on a cell, including electrical, electro-chemical, and mechanical stress. Thus, nsEP exposure is not a "clean" insult, making determination of the mechanism of nanoporation quite difficult. We hypothesize that nsEP exposure creates acoustic shock waves capable of causing nanoporation. Microarray analysis of primary adult human dermal fibroblasts (HDFa) exposed to nsEP, indicated several genes associated with mechanical stress were selectively upregulated 4 h post exposure. The idea that nanoporation is caused by external mechanical force from acoustic shock waves has, to our knowledge, not been investigated. This work will critically challenge the existing paradigm that nanoporation is caused solely by an electric-field driven event and could provide the basis for a plausible explanation for electroporation.

  19. From the Cover: Exposing Imidacloprid Interferes With Neurogenesis Through Impacting on Chick Neural Tube Cell Survival.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng; Wang, Guang; Zhang, Shi-Yao; Zhong, Shan; Qi, Guo-Long; Wang, Chao-Jie; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Lu, Da-Xiang; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-09-01

    As a neonicotinoid pesticide, imidacloprid is widely used to control insects in agriculture and fleas on domestic animals. However, it is not known whether imidacloprid exposure negatively affects neurogenesis during embryonic development. In this study, using a chick embryo model, we investigated the effects of imidacloprid exposure on neurogenesis at the earliest stage and during late-stage embryo development. Exposing HH0 chick embryos to imidacloprid in EC culture caused neural tube defects (NTDs) and neuronal differentiation dysplasia as determined by NF/Tuj1 labeling. Furthermore, we found that F-actin accumulation on the apical side of the neural tube was suppressed by exposure to imidacloprid, and the expression of BMP4 and Shh on the dorsal and ventral sides of the neural tubes, respectively, were also reduced, which in turn affects the dorsolateral hinge points during bending of the neural plate. In addition, exposure to imidacloprid reduced cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis, as determined by pHIS3 labeling and TUNEL staining, respectively, also contributing to the malformation. We obtained similar results in late-stage embryos exposed to imidacloprid. Finally, a bioinformatics analysis was employed to determine which genes identified in this study were involved in NTDs. The experimental evidence and bioinformatics analysis suggested that imidacloprid exposure during chick embryo development could increase the risk of NTDs and neural dysplasia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Human Invariant Natural Killer T Cells Respond to Antigen-Presenting Cells Exposed to Lipids from Olea europaea Pollen.

    PubMed

    Abos Gracia, Beatriz; López Relaño, Juan; Revilla, Ana; Castro, Lourdes; Villalba, Mayte; Martín Adrados, Beatriz; Regueiro, Jose Ramon; Fernández-Malavé, Edgar; Martínez Naves, Eduardo; Gómez Del Moral, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Allergic sensitization might be influenced by the lipids present in allergens, which can be recognized by natural killer T (NKT) cells on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of olive pollen lipids in human APCs, including monocytes as well as monocyte-derived macrophages (Mϕ) and dendritic cells (DCs). Lipids were extracted from olive (Olea europaea) pollen grains. Invariant (i)NKT cells, monocytes, Mϕ, and DCs were obtained from buffy coats of healthy blood donors, and their cell phenotype was determined by flow cytometry. iNKT cytotoxicity was measured using a lactate dehydrogenase assay. Gene expression of CD1A and CD1D was performed by RT-PCR, and the production of IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α cytokines by monocytes, Mϕ, and DCs was measured by ELISA. Our results showed that monocytes and monocyte-derived Mϕ treated with olive pollen lipids strongly activate iNKT cells. We observed several phenotypic modifications in the APCs upon exposure to pollen-derived lipids. Both Mϕ and monocytes treated with olive pollen lipids showed an increase in CD1D gene expression, whereas upregulation of cell surface CD1d protein occurred only in Mϕ. Furthermore, DCs differentiated in the presence of human serum enhance their surface CD1d expression when exposed to olive pollen lipids. Finally, olive pollen lipids were able to stimulate the production of IL-6 but downregulated the production of lipopolysaccharide- induced IL-10 by Mϕ. Olive pollen lipids alter the phenotype of monocytes, Mϕ, and DCs, resulting in the activation of NKT cells, which have the potential to influence allergic immune responses. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Detection of ozone-induced DNA single strand breaks in murine bronchoalveolar lavage cells acutely exposed in vivo.

    PubMed

    Haney, J T; Connor, T H; Li, L

    1999-04-01

    Single-strand breaks (SSBs) in DNA have been used a biomarker of oxidative damage. The comet assay, also known as single-cell gel electrophoresis, was used to investigate the ability of ozone (O(3)) to induce DNA SSBs in murine bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells. The comet assay is more sensitive than other techniques currently utilized for detecting SSBs and requires fewer cells. In the present study, 3 mice were exposed for 3 h to 0.25 ppm of O(3), and 3 to 0.5 ppm of O(3) for 3 h. Two air-exposed mice served as negative controls. All mice were euthanized 3 h after exposure, at which time BAL cells were recovered from the lungs and stained with ethidium bromide. BAL cells recovered from an air-exposed mouse were exposed to various concentrations of H(2)O(2) in vitro for 1 h at 4 degrees C. Excluding cells from the H(2)O(2) group (n = 25), 50 randomly selected BAL cells were graded by comet tail length into 1 of 4 categories: no damage (0 mm), low damage (1-10 mm), medium damage (11-30 mm), and high damage (31 + mm). The nonparametric Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used for statistical analysis, and p values lower than .05 were considered significant. The H(2)O(2) and the 0.25 and 0.5 ppm O3 groups showed statistically significant increases in DNA SSBs as compared to air-exposed controls. The results of this study indicate that (1) O(3) induces DNA strand breaks in murine BAL cells at 0.25 and 0.5 ppm, as evidenced by statistically significant increases in the length of comet tails for O(3)-exposed groups, and (2) the comet assay can be used to assess O(3)-induced SSBs for in vivo exposures. Therefore, it has the potential as a biomarker for in vivo oxidant exposures.

  2. Increased T-cell receptor mutation frequency in radiation-exposed residents living near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.

    PubMed

    Taooka, Yasuyuki; Takeichi, Nobuo; Noso, Yoshihiro; Kawano, Noriyuki; Apsalikov, Kazbek N; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2006-02-01

    From 1949 to 1989, 488 nuclear explosions were carried out in Semipalatinsk, and the cancer risk is increased in this region. Measuring somatic-cell mutation frequencies may be a useful tool for evaluating cancer risk within radiation-exposed populations. Here, we report the first evidence of increased T-cell receptor (TCR) mutations in peripheral blood from radiation-exposed residents of Semipalatinsk. The TCR mutation frequency in the highly exposed residents (Dolon and Sarzhal) was significantly higher than in the control group (Kokpekti). There was no statistically significant difference between the control group and the weakly exposed group (Kaynar and Semipalatinsk-city). The TCR mutation assay appeared to be a useful biological dosimeter even after a period of 40 years since radiation exposure. This may be the result of specific conditions, such as the presence of internal exposure.

  3. The protective effect of curcumin in Olfactory Ensheathing Cells exposed to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Bonfanti, Roberta; Musumeci, Teresa; Russo, Cristina; Pellitteri, Rosalia

    2017-02-05

    Curcumin, a phytochemical component derived from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa, has shown a great variety of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-depression and anti-oxidant activity. Therefore, in the last years it has been used as a therapeutic agent since it confers protection in different neurodegenerative diseases, cerebral ischemia and excitotoxicity. Olfactory Ensheathing Cells (OECs) are glial cells of the olfactory system. They are able to secrete several neurotrophic growth factors, promote axonal growth and support the remyelination of damaged axons. OEC transplantation has emerged as a possible experimental therapy to induce repair of spinal cord injury, even if the functional recovery is still limited. Since hypoxia is a secondary effect in spinal cord injury, this in vitro study investigates the protective effect of curcumin in OECs exposed to hypoxia. Primary OECs were obtained from neonatal rat olfactory bulbs and placed both in normal and hypoxic conditions. Furthermore, some cells were grown with basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) and/or curcumin at different concentration and times. The results obtained through immunocytochemical procedures and MTT test show that curcumin stimulates cell viability in OECs grown in normal and hypoxic conditions. Furthermore, the synergistic effect of curcumin and bFGF is the most effective exerting protection on OECs. Since spinal cord injury is often accompanied by secondary insults, such as ischemia or hypoxia, our results suggest that curcumin in combination with bFGF might be considered a possible approach for restoration in injuries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Study of damage to red blood cells exposed to different doses of γ-ray irradiation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Deyi; Peng, Mingxi; Zhang, Zhe; Dong, Guofei; Zhang, Yiqin; Yu, Hongwei

    2012-07-01

    The aims of this research were to study alterations in the ultrastructure of red blood cells, the changes in concentrations of plasma electrolytes and the killing effect of lymphocytes in samples of blood exposed to different doses of γ-ray irradiation. Blood samples were treated with different doses of γ-ray irradiation and then preserved for different periods. Specimens were prepared for standard electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. At the same time, changes in the concentrations of Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-) and pH values in the plasma as well as Fas and FasL expression of lymphocytes before and after irradiation were determined. The proportions of reversibly and irreversibly transformed cells, for example, echinocytes, sphero-echinocytes, and degenerated forms, increased with increasing doses of irradiation and storage period, while the number of discocyte shaped red blood cells decreased. The change in K(+) concentration was greater than that of Na+ or Cl(-) after irradiation and was dosage-dependent. Plasma pH was influenced by different doses of radiation and storage time. After exposure to (137)Cs γ-irradiation, the expression of both Fas and FasL in lymphocytes differed significantly from that in the control group: the expression was positively correlated with irradiation dose (r=0.95, 0.96), but no significant difference in the Fas/FasL ratio was observed (P>0.05). We conclude that the ultrastructure of red blood cells is not changed obviously by irradiation with some doses of γ-rays and various periods of storage. However, irradiation does have some dose-dependent and time-dependent adverse effects on the erythrocytes.

  5. Cytogenomics of hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) exposed cells: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Nigam, Akanksha; Priya, Shivam; Bajpai, Preeti; Kumar, Sushil

    2014-01-01

    The altered cellular gene expression profile is being hypothesized as the possible molecular basis navigating the onset or progress of various morbidities. This hypothesis has been evaluated here in respect of Cr6+ induced toxicity. Several studies using gene microarray show selective and strategic dysregulations of cellular genes and pathways induced by Cr6+. Relevant literature has been reviewed to unravel these changes in different test systems after exposure to Cr6+ and also to elucidate association if any, of the altered cytogenomics with Cr6+ induced toxicity or carcinogenicity. The aim was to verify the hypothesis for critical role of altered cytogenomics in onset of Cr6+ induced biological / clinical effects by identifying genes modulated commonly by the toxicant irrespective of test system or test concentrations / doses, and by scrutinizing their importance in regulation of the flow of mechanistically linked events crucial for resultant morbidities. Their probability as biomarkers to monitor the toxicant induced biological changes is speculative. The modulated genes have been found to cluster under the pathways that manage onset of oxidative stress, DNA damage, apoptosis, cell-cycle regulation, cytoskeleton, morphological changes, energy metabolism, biosynthesis, oncogenes, bioenergetics, and immune system critical for toxicity. In these studies, the identity of genes has been found to differ remarkably; albeit the trend of pathways’ dysregulation has been found to remain similar. We conclude that the intensity of dysregulation of genes or pathways involved in mechanistic events forms a sub-threshold or threshold level depending upon the dose and type (including speciation) of the toxicant, duration of exposure, type of target cells, and niche microenvironment of cells, and the intensity of sub-threshold or threshold level of the altered cytogenomics paves way in toxicant exposed cells eventually either to opt for reversal to differentiation and growth

  6. Enhanced inhibition of parvovirus B19 replication by cidofovir in extendedly exposed erythroid progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Bonvicini, Francesca; Bua, Gloria; Manaresi, Elisabetta; Gallinella, Giorgio

    2016-07-15

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) commonly induces self-limiting infections but can also cause severe clinical manifestations in patients with underlying haematological disorders or with immune system deficits. Currently, therapeutic options for B19V entirely rely on symptomatic and supportive treatments since a specific antiviral therapy is not yet available. Recently a first step in the research for active compounds inhibiting B19V replication has allowed identifying the acyclic nucleoside phosphonate cidofovir (CDV). Herein, the effect of CDV against B19V replication was characterized in human erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs) cultured and infected following different experimental approaches to replicate in vitro the infection of an expanding erythroid cell population in the bone marrow. B19V replication was selectively inhibited both in infected EPCs extendedly exposed to CDV 500μM (viral inhibition 82%) and in serially infected EPCs cultures with passage of the virus progeny, constantly under drug exposure (viral inhibition 99%). In addition, a potent inhibitory effect against B19V (viral inhibition 92%) was assessed in a short-term infection of EPCs treated with CDV 500μM 1day before viral infection. In the evaluated experimental conditions, the enhanced effect of CDV against B19V might be ascribed both to the increased intracellular drug concentration achieved by extended exposure, and to a progressive reduction in efficiency of the replicative process within treated EPCs population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes enter broccoli