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Sample records for a549 human non-small

  1. Curcumin inhibits interferon-{alpha} induced NF-{kappa}B and COX-2 in human A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jeeyun |; Im, Young-Hyuck | E-mail: imyh@smc.samsung.co.kr; Jung, Hae Hyun; Kim, Joo Hyun; Park, Joon Oh |; Kim, Kihyun |; Kim, Won Seog |; Ahn, Jin Seok

    2005-08-26

    The A549 cells, non-small cell lung cancer cell line from human, were resistant to interferon (IFN)-{alpha} treatment. The IFN-{alpha}-treated A549 cells showed increase in protein expression levels of NF-{kappa}B and COX-2. IFN-{alpha} induced NF-{kappa}B binding activity within 30 min and this increased binding activity was markedly suppressed with inclusion of curcumin. Curcumin also inhibited IFN-{alpha}-induced COX-2 expression in A549 cells. Within 10 min, IFN-{alpha} rapidly induced the binding activity of a {gamma}-{sup 32}P-labeled consensus GAS oligonucleotide probe, which was profoundly reversed by curcumin. Taken together, IFN-{alpha}-induced activations of NF-{kappa}B and COX-2 were inhibited by the addition of curcumin in A549 cells.

  2. Molecular Switch Role of Akt in Polygonatum odoratum Lectin-Induced Apoptosis and Autophagy in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zheng; Wang, Hailian; Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Kailiang; Qi, Wei; Bao, Jinku; Wang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Polygonatum odoratum lectin (POL), isolated from traditional Chinese medicine herb (Mill.) Druce, has drawn rising attention due to its wide biological activities. In the present study, anti-tumor effects, including apoptosis- and autophagy-inducing properties of POL, were determined by a series of cell biology methods such as MTT, cellular morphology observation, flow cytometry, immunoblotting. Herein, we found that POL could simultaneously induce apoptosis and autophagy in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. POL initiated apoptosis through inhibiting Akt-NF-κB pathway, while POL triggered autophagy via suppressing Akt-mTOR pathway, suggesting the molecular switch role of Akt in regulating between POL-induced apoptosis and autophagy. Moreover, ROS was involved in POL-induced inhibition of Akt expression, and might therefore mediate both apoptosis and autophagy in A549 cells. In addition, POL displayed no significant cytotoxicity toward normal human embryonic lung fibroblast HELF cells. Due to the anti-tumor activities, POL might become a potent anti-cancer drug in future therapy, which might pave the way for exploring GNA-related lectins into effective drugs in cancer treatment. PMID:24992302

  3. Human Noxin is an anti-apoptotic protein in response to DNA damage of A549 non-small cell lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Won, Kyoung-Jae; Im, Joo-Young; Yun, Chae-Ok; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Kim, Young Joo; Lee, Jung-Sun; Jung, Young-Jin; Kim, Bo-Kyung; Song, Kyung Bin; Kim, Young-Ho; Chun, Ho-Kyung; Jung, Kyeong Eun; Kim, Moon-Hee; Won, Misun

    2014-06-01

    Human Noxin (hNoxin, C11Orf82), a homolog of mouse noxin, is highly expressed in colorectal and lung cancer tissues. hNoxin contains a DNA-binding C-domain in RPA1, which mediates DNA metabolic processes, such as DNA replication and DNA repair. Expression of hNoxin is associated with S phase in cancer cells and in normal cells. Expression of hNoxin was induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Knockdown of hNoxin caused growth inhibition of colorectal and lung cancer cells. The comet assay and western blot analysis revealed that hNoxin knockdown induced apoptosis through activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/p53 in non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cells. Furthermore, simultaneous hNoxin knockdown and treatment with DNA-damaging agents, such as camptothecin (CPT) and UV irradiation, enhanced apoptosis, whereas Trichostatin A (TSA) did not. However, transient overexpression of hNoxin rescued cells from DNA damage-induced apoptosis but did not block apoptosis in the absence of DNA damage. These results suggest that hNoxin may be associated with inhibition of apoptosis in response to DNA damage. An adenovirus expressing a short hairpin RNA against hNoxin transcripts significantly suppressed the growth of A549 tumor xenografts, indicating that hNoxin knockdown has in vivo anti-tumor efficacy. Thus, hNoxin is a DNA damage-induced anti-apoptotic protein and potential therapeutic target in cancer.

  4. Andrographolide down-regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chou, Fen-Pi; Wang, Chau-Jong; Hsuan, Shu-Wen; Wang, Cheng-Kun; Chen, Jing-Hsien

    2011-02-01

    Andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from a traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, is known to possess multiple pharmacological activities. In our previous study, Andro had been shown to inhibit non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cell migration and invasion via down-regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Here we demonstrated that Andro inhibited the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) in A549 cells. HIF-1{alpha} plays an important role in tumor growth, angiogenesis and lymph node metastasis of NSCLC. The Andro-induced decrease of cellular protein level of HIF-1{alpha} was correlated with a rapid ubiquitin-dependent degradation of HIF-1{alpha}, and was accompanied by increased expressions of hydroxyl-HIF-1{alpha} and prolyl hydroxylase (PHD2), and a later decrease of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) upon the treatment of Andro. The Andro-inhibited VEGF expression appeared to be a consequence of HIF-1{alpha} inactivation, because its DNA binding activity was suppressed by Andro. Molecular data showed that all these effects of Andro might be mediated via TGF{beta}1/PHD2/HIF-1{alpha} pathway, as demonstrated by the transfection of TGF{beta}1 overexpression vector and PHD2 siRNA, and the usage of a pharmacological MG132 inhibitor. Furthermore, we elucidated the involvement of Andro in HIF-1{alpha} transduced VEGF expression in A549 cells and other NSCLC cell lines. In conclusion, these results highlighted the potential effects of Andro, which may be developed as a chemotherapeutic or an anti-angiogenesis agent for NSCLC in the future.

  5. The antitumor effect of tanshinone IIA on anti-proliferation and decreasing VEGF/VEGFR2 expression on the human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cell line.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jun; Liu, Jiahui; Liu, Heng; Liang, Shihui; Lin, Meigui; Gu, Yueyu; Liu, Taoli; Wang, Dongmei; Ge, Hui; Mo, Sui-Lin

    2015-11-01

    The effects of tanshinone IIA on the proliferation of the human non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549 and its possible mechanism on the VEGF/VEGFR signal pathway were investigated. The exploration of the interaction between tanshinone IIA and its target proteins provides a feasible platform for studying the anticancer mechanism of active components of herbs. The CCK-8 assay was used to evaluate the proliferative activity of A549 cells treated with tanshinone IIA (2.5-80 μmol/L) for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Flow cytometry was used for the detection of cell apoptosis and cell cycle perturbation. VEGF and VEGFR2 expression were studied by Western blotting. The binding mode of tanshinone IIA within the crystal structure of the VEGFR2 protein was evaluated with molecular docking analysis by use of the CDOCKER algorithm in Discovery Studio 2.1. The CCK-8 results showed that tanshinone IIA can significantly inhibit A549 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry results showed that the apoptosis rate of tested group was higher than the vehicle control, and tanshinone IIA-treated cells accumulated at the S phase, which was higher than the vehicle control. Furthermore, the expression of VEGF and VEGFR2 was decreased in Western blot. Finally, molecular docking analysis revealed that tanshinone IIA could be stably docked into the kinase domain of VEGFR2 protein with its unique modes to form H-bonds with Cys917 and π-π stacking interactions with Val848. In conclusion, tanshinone IIA may suppress A549 proliferation, induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the S phase. This drug may suppress angiogenesis by targeting the protein kinase domains of VEGF/VEGFR2. PMID:26713270

  6. A polysaccharide fraction of adlay seed (Coixlachryma-jobi L.) induces apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiangyi; Liu, Wei; Wu, Junhua; Li, Mengxian; Wang, Juncheng; Wu, Jihui; Luo, Cheng

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A polysaccharide from adlay seed, its molecular mass, optical rotation and sugars was determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrated that a polysaccharide from adlay can induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polysaccharide inhibited the metabolism and proliferation of NSCLC A549 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polysaccharide may trigger apoptosis via the mitochondria-dependent pathway. -- Abstract: Different seed extracts from Coix lachryma-jobi (adlay seed) have been used for the treatment of various cancers in China, and clinical data support the use of these extracts for cancer therapy; however, their underlying molecular mechanisms have not been well defined. A polysaccharide fraction, designated as CP-1, was extracted from the C.lachryma-jobi L. var. using the ethanol subsiding method. CP-1 induced apoptosis in A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner, as determined by MTT assay. Apoptotic bodies were observed in the cells by scanning electronic microscopy. Apoptosis and DNA accumulation during S-phase of the cell cycle were determined by annexin V-FITC and PI staining, respectively, and measured by flow cytometry. CP-1 also extended the comet tail length on single cell gel electrophoresis, and disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential. Further analysis by western blotting showed that the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 proteins was increased. Taken together, our results demonstrate that CP-1 is capable of inhibiting A549 cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis via a mechanism primarily involving the activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. The assay data suggest that in addition to its nutritional properties, CP-1 is a very promising candidate polysaccharide for the development of anti-cancer medicines.

  7. Stellettin B Induces G1 Arrest, Apoptosis and Autophagy in Human Non-small Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cells via Blocking PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ran; Zhang, Qian; Peng, Xin; Zhou, Chang; Zhong, Yuxu; Chen, Xi; Qiu, Yuling; Jin, Meihua; Gong, Min; Kong, Dexin

    2016-01-01

    Until now, there is not yet antitumor drug with dramatically improved efficacy on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Marine organisms are rich source of novel compounds with various activities. We isolated stellettin B (Stel B) from marine sponge Jaspis stellifera, and demonstrated that it induced G1 arrest, apoptosis and autophagy at low concentrations in human NSCLC A549 cells. G1 arrest by Stel B might be attributed to the reduction of cyclin D1 and enhancement of p27 expression. The apoptosis induction might be related to the cleavage of PARP and increase of ROS generation. Moreover, we demonstrated that Stel B induced autophagy in A549 cells by use of various assays including monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), tandem mRFP-GFP-LC3 fluorescence microscopy, and western blot detection of the autophagy markers of LC3B, p62 and Atg5. Meanwhile, Stel B inhibited the expression of PI3K-p110, and the phosphorylation of PDK1, Akt, mTOR, p70S6K as well as GSK-3β, suggesting the correlation of blocking PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway with the above antitumor activities. Together, our findings indicate the antitumor potential of Stel B for NSCLC by targeting PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. PMID:27243769

  8. Synergistic effects of particulate matter (PM10) and SO2 on human non-small cell lung cancer A549 via ROS-mediated NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Yun, Yang; Gao, Rui; Yue, Huifeng; Li, Guangke; Zhu, Na; Sang, Nan

    2015-05-01

    Since a real atmospheric scenario usually represents a system involving multiple pollutants, air pollution studies typically focused on describing adverse effects associated with exposure to individual pollutants cannot reflect actual health risk. Particulate matter (PM10) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are two major pollutants derived from coal combustion processes and co-existing in coal-smoke air pollution, but their potentially synergistic toxicity remains elusive thus far. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic responses of PM10 and SO2, singly and in binary mixtures, using human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells, followed by clarifying the possible mechanisms for their interaction. The results indicated that the concomitant treatment of PM10 and SO2 at low concentrations led to synergistic injury in terms of cell survival and apoptosis occurrence, while PM10 and SO2 alone at the same concentrations did not cause damage to the cells. Also, radical oxygen species (ROS) production followed by nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation was involved in the above synergistic cytotoxicity, which was confirmed by the repression of the actions by an ROS inhibitor (NAC). This implies that assessment of health risk should consider the interactions between ambient PM and gaseous copollutants.

  9. Proteomic response to 5,6-dimethylxanthenone 4-acetic acid (DMXAA, vadimezan) in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells determined by the stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) approach.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shu-Ting; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Yang, Tianxin; Yang, Yin-Xue; Wang, Dong; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    5,6-Dimethylxanthenone 4-acetic acid (DMXAA), also known as ASA404 and vadimezan, is a potent tumor blood vessel-disrupting agent and cytokine inducer used alone or in combination with other cytotoxic agents for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and other cancers. However, the latest Phase III clinical trial has shown frustrating outcomes in the treatment of NSCLC, since the therapeutic targets and underlying mechanism for the anticancer effect of DMXAA are not yet fully understood. This study aimed to examine the proteomic response to DMXAA and unveil the global molecular targets and possible mechanisms for the anticancer effect of DMXAA in NSCLC A549 cells using a stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) approach. The proteomic data showed that treatment with DMXAA modulated the expression of 588 protein molecules in A549 cells, with 281 protein molecules being up regulated and 306 protein molecules being downregulated. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) identified 256 signaling pathways and 184 cellular functional proteins that were regulated by DMXAA in A549 cells. These targeted molecules and signaling pathways were mostly involved in cell proliferation and survival, redox homeostasis, sugar, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolism, cell migration, and invasion and programed cell death. Subsequently, the effects of DMXAA on cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, autophagy, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were experimentally verified. Flow cytometric analysis showed that DMXAA significantly induced G1 phase arrest in A549 cells. Western blotting assays demonstrated that DMXAA induced apoptosis via a mitochondria-dependent pathway and promoted autophagy, as indicated by the increased level of cytosolic cytochrome c, activation of caspase 3, and enhanced expression of beclin 1 and microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-II) in A549 cells. Moreover, DMXAA significantly promoted intracellular ROS

  10. Timosaponin AIII inhibits migration and invasion of A549 human non-small-cell lung cancer cells via attenuations of MMP-2 and MMP-9 by inhibitions of ERK1/2, Src/FAK and β-catenin signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Jung, Okkeun; Lee, Jongsung; Lee, Yu Jin; Yun, Jung-Mi; Son, Young-Jin; Cho, Jae Youl; Ryou, Chongsuk; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2016-08-15

    Timosaponin AIII (TAIII) is a type of steroidal saponins isolated from Anemarrhena asphodeloides. It was known to improve learning and memory deficits through anti-inflammatory effects. TAIII was also reported to induce autophagy preceding mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in HeLa cancer cells and inhibit the growth of human colorectal cancer cells, thus regarded as a potential candidate for anti-cancer agent. In this study, we verified apoptosis-inducing and cell-cycle-arresting effects of TAIII in A549 human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Then, we report that TAIII suppresses migration and invasion of A549 human NSCLC cells. We propose that two matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), MMP-2 and MMP-9, which are well known to be involved in cancer-metastasis, are attenuated by the treatment of TAIII. TAIII exerts its suppressive effects on MMP-2 and MMP-9 via inhibitions of ERK1/2, Src/FAK and β-catenin signalings which are closely related with the regulations of MMP-2 and MMP-9. PMID:27422337

  11. Phloretin induces apoptosis of non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cells via JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Min, Jie; Huang, Kenan; Tang, Hua; Ding, Xinyu; Qi, Chen; Qin, Xiong; Xu, Zhifei

    2015-12-01

    Phloretin (Ph) existing in apples, pears and various vegetables is known to have antitumor activities in several cancer cell lines. However, little is known about its effect on human lung cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to see whether Ph could induce apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, and explore the possible underlying mechanism of action. We found that Ph markedly induced cell apoptosis of NSCLC cell line A549, and inhibited the migration of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The expression level of BAX, cleaved caspase-3 and -9, and degraded form of PARP was increased and Bcl-2 was decreased after Ph treatment. In addition, the phosphorylation of P38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 was increased in a dose‑dependent manner in parallel with Ph treatment. Inhibition of P38 MAPK and JNK1/2 by specific inhibitors significantly abolished the Ph-induced activation of the caspase-3 and -9. In vivo tumor-suppression assay further indicated that Ph (20 mg/kg) displayed a more significant inhibitory effect on A549 xenografts in tumor growth. All these findings indicate that Ph is able to inhibit NSCLC A549 cell growth by inducing apoptosis through P38 MAPK and JNK1/2 pathways, and therefore may prove to be an adjuvant to the treatment of NSCLC.

  12. Phloretin induces apoptosis of non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cells via JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Min, Jie; Huang, Kenan; Tang, Hua; Ding, Xinyu; Qi, Chen; Qin, Xiong; Xu, Zhifei

    2015-12-01

    Phloretin (Ph) existing in apples, pears and various vegetables is known to have antitumor activities in several cancer cell lines. However, little is known about its effect on human lung cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to see whether Ph could induce apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, and explore the possible underlying mechanism of action. We found that Ph markedly induced cell apoptosis of NSCLC cell line A549, and inhibited the migration of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The expression level of BAX, cleaved caspase-3 and -9, and degraded form of PARP was increased and Bcl-2 was decreased after Ph treatment. In addition, the phosphorylation of P38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 was increased in a dose‑dependent manner in parallel with Ph treatment. Inhibition of P38 MAPK and JNK1/2 by specific inhibitors significantly abolished the Ph-induced activation of the caspase-3 and -9. In vivo tumor-suppression assay further indicated that Ph (20 mg/kg) displayed a more significant inhibitory effect on A549 xenografts in tumor growth. All these findings indicate that Ph is able to inhibit NSCLC A549 cell growth by inducing apoptosis through P38 MAPK and JNK1/2 pathways, and therefore may prove to be an adjuvant to the treatment of NSCLC. PMID:26503828

  13. Phloretin induces apoptosis of non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cells via JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways

    PubMed Central

    MIN, JIE; LI, XU; HUANG, KENAN; TANG, HUA; DING, XINYU; QI, CHEN; QIN, XIONG; XU, ZHIFEI

    2015-01-01

    Phloretin (Ph) existing in apples, pears and various vegetables is known to have antitumor activities in several cancer cell lines. However, little is known about its effect on human lung cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to see whether Ph could induce apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, and explore the possible underlying mechanism of action. We found that Ph markedly induced cell apoptosis of NSCLC cell line A549, and inhibited the migration of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The expression level of BAX, cleaved caspase-3 and -9, and degraded form of PARP was increased and Bcl-2 was decreased after Ph treatment. In addition, the phosphorylation of P38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 was increased in a dose-dependent manner in parallel with Ph treatment. Inhibition of P38 MAPK and JNK1/2 by specific inhibitors significantly abolished the Ph-induced activation of the caspase-3 and -9. In vivo tumor-suppression assay further indicated that Ph (20 mg/kg) displayed a more significant inhibitory effect on A549 xenografts in tumor growth. All these findings indicate that Ph is able to inhibit NSCLC A549 cell growth by inducing apoptosis through P38 MAPK and JNK1/2 pathways, and therefore may prove to be an adjuvant to the treatment of NSCLC. PMID:26503828

  14. Lysyl oxidase mediates hypoxia-induced radioresistance in non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Chongwen; Gu, Runxia; Jin, Honglin; Sun, Yao; Li, Zhenyu; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-induced radioresistance has been well known as the main obstacle in cancer radiotherapy. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) was previously demonstrated to play an important role in hypoxia-induced biological behaviors, such as metastasis and angiogenesis, through hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), which is an important contributing factor to radioresistance in tumor cells. However, how LOX plays a role in hypoxia-induced radioresistance has yet to be determined. Here, we found that LOX expression was in accordance with HIF-1α expression, and LOX expression at the mRNA and protein level, and enzymatic activity were remarkably upregulated in the hypoxic A549 cells, compared with normoxic A549 cells. Inhibition of LOX resulted in the reduction of the ability to repair double-stranded breaks (DSBs), promotion of apoptosis, relief of G2/M cycle arrest, and eventually reduction of hypoxia-induced radioresistance in the hypoxic A549 cells. This suggests that LOX may play an important role in hypoxia-induced radioresistance. Together, our results might suggest a novel potential therapeutic target in the management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PMID:26515140

  15. In vitro effects of mitomycin C on the proliferation of the non-small-cell lung cancer line A549

    PubMed Central

    An, Qi; Han, Chao; Zhou, Yubing; Li, Feng; Li, Duolu; Zhang, Xiaojian; Yu, Zujiang; Duan, Zhenfeng; Kan, Quancheng

    2015-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of death from cancer in the United States. Chemotherapy prolongs survival among patients with advanced disease, but at the cost of clinically significant adverse effects. As a novel promising oncotherapy method, induced differentiation by mitomycin C has been applied for NSCLC therapy at recent year. In this study, the molecular mechanism of differentiation interruption by mitomycin C in the NSCLC line A549 was investigated. High dosage of mitomycin C (300 µM) could significantly inhibit cell proliferation (P < 0.05) by 48.39 ± 3.32% (P < 0.05), under which cell shrinkage and disruption were observed. Flow cytometry assay showed that the proportion of G1/G0 cells significantly increased, while that of S and G2/M cells significantly decreased after treatment of mitomycin C (10 or 300 µM) for 24 h. These results indicated that cell arrest by mitomycin C appeared. Additionally, up-regulation of retinoblastoma (Rb) gene by low concentration of mitomycin C (10 µM) was detected using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot assay, indicating a role in the regulation of cell cycle inhibition of this cell line. PMID:26884968

  16. Investigation of Radiation-induced Transcriptome Profile of Radioresistant Non-small Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cells Using RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hee Jung; Kim, Namshin; Seong, Ki Moon; Youn, HyeSook; Youn, BuHyun

    2013-01-01

    Radioresistance is a main impediment to effective radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite several experimental and clinical studies of resistance to radiation, the precise mechanism of radioresistance in NSCLC cells and tissues still remains unclear. This result could be explained by limitation of previous researches such as a partial understanding of the cellular radioresistance mechanism at a single molecule level. In this study, we aimed to investigate extensive radiation responses in radioresistant NSCLC cells and to identify radioresistance-associating factors. For the first time, using RNA-seq, a massive sequencing-based approach, we examined whole-transcriptome alteration in radioresistant NSCLC A549 cells under irradiation, and verified significant radiation-altered genes and their chromosome distribution patterns. Also, bioinformatic approaches (GO analysis and IPA) were performed to characterize the radiation responses in radioresistant A549 cells. We found that epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration and inflammatory processes could be meaningfully related to regulation of radiation responses in radioresistant A549 cells. Based on the results of bioinformatic analysis for the radiation-induced transcriptome alteration, we selected seven significant radiation-altered genes (SESN2, FN1, TRAF4, CDKN1A, COX-2, DDB2 and FDXR) and then compared radiation effects in two types of NSCLC cells with different radiosensitivity (radioresistant A549 cells and radiosensitive NCI-H460 cells). Interestingly, under irradiation, COX-2 showed the most significant difference in mRNA and protein expression between A549 and NCI-H460 cells. IR-induced increase of COX-2 expression was appeared only in radioresistant A549 cells. Collectively, we suggest that COX-2 (also known as prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2)) could have possibility as a putative biomarker for radioresistance in NSCLC cells. PMID:23533613

  17. Potent organometallic osmium compounds induce mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and S-phase cell cycle arrest in A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    van Rijt, Sabine H; Romero-Canelón, Isolda; Fu, Ying; Shnyder, Steve D; Sadler, Peter J

    2014-05-01

    The problems of acquired resistance associated with platinum drugs may be addressed by chemotherapeutics based on other transition metals as they offer the possibility of novel mechanisms of action. In this study, the cellular uptake and induction of apoptosis in A549 human non-small cell lung cancer cells of three promising osmium(II) arene complexes containing azopyridine ligands, [Os(η(6)-arene)(p-R-phenylazopyridine)X]PF6, where arene is p-cymene or biphenyl, R is OH or NMe2, and X is Cl or I, were investigated. These complexes showed time-dependent (4–48 h) potent anticancer activity with highest potency after 24 h (IC50 values ranging from 0.1 to 3.6 μM). Cellular uptake of the three compounds as quantified by ICP-MS, was independent of their logP values (hydrophobicity). Furthermore, maximum cell uptake was observed after 24 h, with evident cell efflux of the osmium after 48 and 72 h of exposure, which correlated with the corresponding IC50 values. The most active compound 2, [Os(η(6)-p-cymene)(NMe2-phenylazopyridine)I]PF6, was taken up by lung cancer cells predominately in a temperature-dependent manner indicating that energy-dependent mechanisms are important in the uptake of 2. Cell fractionation studies showed that all three compounds accumulated mainly in cellular membranes. Furthermore, compound 2 induced apoptosis and caused accumulation in the S-phase of the cell cycle. In addition, 2 induced cytochrome c release and alterations in mitochondrial membrane potential even after short exposure times, indicating that mitochondrial apoptotic pathways are involved. This study represents the first steps towards understanding the mode of action of this promising class of new osmium-based chemotherapeutics.

  18. Sinomenine inhibits A549 human lung cancer cell invasion by mediating the STAT3 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shulong; Gao, Yebo; Hou, Wei; Liu, Rui; Qi, Xin; Xu, Xia; Li, Jie; Bao, Yanju; Zheng, Honggang; Hua, Baojin

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the failure of lung cancer treatment may occur as a result of tumor invasion and metastasis. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), an epithelial-mesenchymal transition-inducing transcription factor, is a key signaling molecule involved in the proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. Sinomenine is an alkaloid compound with an antineoplastic potential against a variety of cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to assess the antitumor mechanisms of sinomenine in the A549 human lung cancer cell line. The results demonstrated that sinomenine manifested dose-dependent cytotoxicity and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. The protein expression of Janus kinase 2, STAT3, phosphorylated-STAT3, Snail, N-cadherin and vimentin decreased in sinomenine-treated cells, while E-cadherin protein expression increased. The regulation of STAT3, N-cadherin and E-cadherin by sinomenine was further confirmed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescent staining. It was demonstrated that sinomenine exerts inhibitory effects on A549 human lung cancer cell invasion, possibly through the inhibition of STAT3 signaling. These results provide a novel insight into the role of sinomenine in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:27446441

  19. Studies on cytotoxic constituents from the leaves of Elaeagnus oldhamii Maxim. in non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chi-Ren; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Ho, Yu-Ling; Wang, Ching-Ying; Yang, Chang-Syun; Lin, Cheng-Wen; Chang, Yuan-Shiun

    2014-07-04

    Elaeagnus oldhamii Maxim. is a commonly used traditional herbal medicine. In Taiwan the leaves of E. oldhamii Maxim. are mainly used for treating lung disorders. Twenty five compounds were isolated from the leaves of E. oldhamii Maxim. in the present study. These included oleanolic acid (1), 3-O-(Z)-coumaroyl oleanolic acid (2), 3-O-(E)-coumaroyl oleanolic acid (3), 3-O-caffeoyl oleanolic acid (4), ursolic acid (5), 3-O-(Z)-coumaroyl ursolic acid (6), 3-O-(E)-coumaroyl ursolic acid (7), 3-O-caffeoyl ursolic acid (8), 3β, 13β-dihydroxyolean-11-en-28-oic acid (9), 3β, 13β-dihydroxyurs-11-en-28-oic acid (10), uvaol (11), betulin (12), lupeol (13), kaempferol (14), aromadendrin (15), epigallocatechin (16), cis-tiliroside (17), trans-tiliroside (18), isoamericanol B (19), trans-p-coumaric acid (20), protocatechuic acid (21), salicylic acid (22), trans-ferulic acid (23), syringic acid (24) and 3-O-methylgallic acid (25). Of the 25 isolated compounds, 21 compounds were identified for the first time in E. oldhamii Maxim. These included compounds 1, 4, 5 and 8-25. These 25 compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against the growth of non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells by the MTT assay, and the corresponding structure-activity relationships were discussed. Among these 25 compounds, compound 6 displayed the best activity against the A549 cell line in vitro (CC50=8.56±0.57 μg/mL, at 48 h of MTT asssay). Furthermore, compound 2, 4, 8 and 18 exhibited in vitro cytotoxicity against the A549 cell line with the CC50 values of less than 20 μg/mL at 48 h of MTT asssay. These five compounds 2, 4, 6, 8 and 18 exhibited better cytotoxic activity compared with cisplatin (positive control, CC50 value of 14.87±1.94 μg/mL, at 48 h of MTT asssay). The result suggested that the five compounds might be responsible for its clinical anti-lung cancer effect.

  20. Cedrol induces autophagy and apoptotic cell death in A549 non-small cell lung carcinoma cells through the P13K/Akt signaling pathway, the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the generation of ROS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shi-Yi; Li, Xue-Bo; Hou, Sheng-Guang; Sun, Yao; Shi, Yi-Ran; Lin, Song-Sen

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the anticancer effects of cedrol in A549 human non-small cell lung cancer cells by examining the effects of cedrol on apoptosis induction, the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway, autophagy, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP). The anticancer effects of cedrol were examined using A549 human lung carcinoma cells as an in vitro model. Cell viability was determined using MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays, and an inverted phase contrast microscope was used to examine the morphological changes in these cells. Cedrol‑triggered autophagy was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the cells, as well as by western blot analysis of microtubule-associated protein light-chain 3 (LC3)B expression. Intracellular ROS generation was measured by flow cytometry using 5-(6)-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (CM-DCFH2-DA) staining and MTP was measured using flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that cedrol reduced cell viability and induced cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistic evaluations indicated that cedrol induced apoptosis by reducing the MTP and by decreasing the levels of phosphorylated (p-)PI3K and p-Akt. Cedrol induced autophagy, which was confirmed by TEM analysis, by increasing intracellular ROS formation in a concentration-dependent manner, which was almost completely reversed by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and tocopherol. Taken together, these findings reveal that cedrol inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in A549 cells through mitochondrial and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Our findings also reveal that cedrol induced pro-death autophagy by increasing intracellular ROS production.

  1. Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid Treatment Reveals Crosstalks among Proteome, Ubiquitylome and Acetylome in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Quan; Cheng, Zhongyi; Zhu, Jun; Xu, Weiqing; Peng, Xiaojun; Chen, Chuangbin; Li, Wenting; Wang, Fengsong; Cao, Lejie; Yi, Xingling; Wu, Zhiwei; Li, Jing; Fan, Pingsheng

    2015-01-01

    Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is a well-known histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and has been used as practical therapy for breast cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). It is previously demonstrated that SAHA treatment could extensively change the profile of acetylome and proteome in cancer cells. However, little is known about the impact of SAHA on other protein modifications and the crosstalks among different modifications and proteome, hindering the deep understanding of SAHA-mediated cancer therapy. In this work, by using SILAC technique, antibody-based affinity enrichment and high-resolution LC-MS/MS analysis, we investigated quantitative proteome, acetylome and ubiquitylome as well as crosstalks among the three datasets in A549 cells toward SAHA treatment. In total, 2968 proteins, 1099 acetylation sites and 1012 ubiquitination sites were quantified in response to SAHA treatment, respectively. With the aid of intensive bioinformatics, we revealed that the proteome and ubiquitylome were negatively related upon SAHA treatment. Moreover, the impact of SAHA on acetylome resulted in 258 up-regulated and 99 down-regulated acetylation sites at the threshold of 1.5 folds. Finally, we identified 55 common sites with both acetylation and ubiquitination, among which ubiquitination level in 43 sites (78.2%) was positive related to acetylation level. PMID:25825284

  2. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid treatment reveals crosstalks among proteome, ubiquitylome and acetylome in non-small cell lung cancer A549 cell line.

    PubMed

    Wu, Quan; Cheng, Zhongyi; Zhu, Jun; Xu, Weiqing; Peng, Xiaojun; Chen, Chuangbin; Li, Wenting; Wang, Fengsong; Cao, Lejie; Yi, Xingling; Wu, Zhiwei; Li, Jing; Fan, Pingsheng

    2015-01-01

    Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is a well-known histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and has been used as practical therapy for breast cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). It is previously demonstrated that SAHA treatment could extensively change the profile of acetylome and proteome in cancer cells. However, little is known about the impact of SAHA on other protein modifications and the crosstalks among different modifications and proteome, hindering the deep understanding of SAHA-mediated cancer therapy. In this work, by using SILAC technique, antibody-based affinity enrichment and high-resolution LC-MS/MS analysis, we investigated quantitative proteome, acetylome and ubiquitylome as well as crosstalks among the three datasets in A549 cells toward SAHA treatment. In total, 2968 proteins, 1099 acetylation sites and 1012 ubiquitination sites were quantified in response to SAHA treatment, respectively. With the aid of intensive bioinformatics, we revealed that the proteome and ubiquitylome were negatively related upon SAHA treatment. Moreover, the impact of SAHA on acetylome resulted in 258 up-regulated and 99 down-regulated acetylation sites at the threshold of 1.5 folds. Finally, we identified 55 common sites with both acetylation and ubiquitination, among which ubiquitination level in 43 sites (78.2%) was positive related to acetylation level. PMID:25825284

  3. Irradiated human endothelial progenitor cells induce bystander killing in human non-small cell lung and pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Turchan, William T; Shapiro, Ronald H; Sevigny, Garrett V; Chin-Sinex, Helen; Pruden, Benjamin; Mendonca, Marc S

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To investigate whether irradiated human endothelial progenitor cells (hEPC) could induce bystander killing in the A549 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and help explain the improved radiation-induced tumor cures observed in A549 tumor xenografts co-injected with hEPC. Materials and methods We investigated whether co-injection of CBM3 hEPC with A549 NSCLC cells would alter tumor xenograft growth rate or tumor cure after a single dose of 0 or 5 Gy of X-rays. We then utilized dual chamber Transwell dishes, to test whether medium from irradiated CBM3 and CBM4 hEPC would induce bystander cell killing in A549 cells, and as an additional control, in human pancreatic cancer MIA PaCa-2 cells. The CBM3 and CBM4 hEPC were plated into the upper Transwell chamber and the A549 or MIA PaCa-2 cells were plated in the lower Transwell chamber. The top inserts with the CBM3 or CBM4 hEPC cells were subsequently removed, irradiated, and then placed back into the Transwell dish for 3 h to allow for diffusion of any potential bystander factors from the irradiated hEPC in the upper chamber through the permeable membrane to the unirradiated cancer cells in the lower chamber. After the 3 h incubation, the cancer cells were re-plated for clonogenic survival. Results We found that co-injection of CBM3 hEPC with A549 NSCLC cells significantly increased the tumor growth rate compared to A549 cells alone, but paradoxically also increased A549 tumor cure after a single dose of 5 Gy of X-rays (p < 0.05). We hypothesized that irradiated hEPC may be inducing bystander killing in the A549 NSCLC cells in tumor xenografts, thus improving tumor cure. Bystander studies clearly showed that exposure to the medium from irradiated CBM3 and CBM4 hEPC induced significant bystander killing and decreased the surviving fraction of A549 and MIA PaCa-2 cells to 0.46 (46%) ± 0.22 and 0.74 ± 0.07 (74%) respectively (p < 0.005, p < 0.0001). In addition, antibody depletion

  4. Migration-stimulating factor (MSF) is over-expressed in non-small cell lung cancer and promotes cell migration and invasion in A549 cells over-expressing MSF

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Xuefeng; Ma, Qunfeng; Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Zhipei; Wang, Yunjie

    2013-10-15

    Migration-stimulating factor (MSF), an oncofetal truncated isoform of fibronectin, is a potent stimulator of cell invasion. However, its distribution and motogenic role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have never been identified. In this study, real-time PCR and immunohistochemical staining (IHC) were performed to detect MSF mRNA and protein levels in tumor tissues and matched adjacent tumor-free tissues. Furthermore, to examine the effect of MSF on invasiveness, MSF was upregulated in A549 cells. The invasiveness and viability of A549 cells were then determined using a transwell migration assay and the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) viability assays, respectively. The expression level of MSF in NSCLC tissue was markedly higher than in matched adjacent tumor-free tissue. Additionally, the level of MSF protein expression in stage III and IV NSCLC samples was higher than in stage I and II NSCLC samples. More importantly, we also demonstrated that migration and invasion of A549 cells increased substantially after upregulating MSF, although proliferation remained unchanged. Meanwhile, we found no correlation between increasing motility and invasiveness of MSF-overexpressing cells and expression levels and activities of matrix metalloprotease MMP-2 and MMP-9. Our current study shows that MSF plays a role in migration and invasion of A549 cells and suggests that MSF may be a potential biomarker of NSCLC progression. - Highlights: • MSF expression was upregulated in NSCLC and correlated with TNM stages. • MSF may be a new biomarker for NSCLC progression. • MSF promoted migration and invasion in A549 cells, independent of MMP-2/MMP-9 expression.

  5. Trichomonas vaginalis induces cytopathic effect on human lung alveolar basal carcinoma epithelial cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Salvador-Membreve, Daile Meek C; Jacinto, Sonia D; Rivera, Windell L

    2014-12-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, the causative agent of trichomoniasis is generally known to inhabit the genitourinary tract. However, several case reports with supporting molecular and immunological identifications have documented its occurrence in the respiratory tract of neonates and adults. In addition, the reports have documented that its occurrence is associated with respiratory failures. The medical significance or consequence of this association is unclear. Thus, to establish the possible outcome from the interaction of T. vaginalis with lung cells, the cytopathic effects of the parasites were evaluated using monolayer cultures of the human lung alveolar basal carcinoma epithelial cell line A549. The possible effect of association of T. vaginalis with A549 epithelial cells was analyzed using phase-contrast, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide), crystal-violet and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling) assays were conducted for cytotoxicity testing. The results demonstrate that T. vaginalis: (1) adheres to A549 epithelial cells, suggesting a density-dependent parasite-cell association; (2) adherence on A549 is through flagella, membrane and axostyle; (3) causes cell detachment and cytotoxicity (50-72.4%) to A549 and this effect is a function of parasite density; and (4) induces apoptosis in A549 about 20% after 6 h of incubation. These observations indicate that T. vaginalis causes cytopathic effects on A549 cell. To date, this is the first report showing a possible interaction of T. vaginalis with the lung cells using A549 monolayer cultures. Further studies are recommended to completely elucidate this association.

  6. Novel CHOP activator LGH00168 induces necroptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells via ROS-mediated ER stress and NF-κB inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yi-ming; Peng, Yan-min; Zhu, Qiong-hua; Gao, An-hui; Chao, Bo; He, Qiao-jun; Li, Jia; Hu, You-hong; Zhou, Yu-bo

    2016-01-01

    Aim: C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) is a transcription factor that is activated at multiple levels during ER stress and plays an important role in ER stress-induced apoptosis. In this study we identified a novel CHOP activator, and further investigated its potential to be a therapeutic agent for human lung cancer. Methods: HEK293-CHOP-luc reporter cells were used in high-throughput screening (HTS) to identify CHOP activators. The cytotoxicity against cancer cells in vitro was measured with MTT assay. The anticancer effects were further examined in A549 human non-small cell lung cancer xenograft mice. The mechanisms underlying CHOP activation were analyzed using luciferase assays, and the anticancer mechanisms were elucidated in A549 cells. Results: From chemical libraries of 50 000 compounds, LGH00168 was identified as a CHOP activator, which showed cytotoxic activities against a panel of 9 cancer cell lines with an average IC50 value of 3.26 μmol/L. Moreover, administration of LGH00168 significantly suppressed tumor growth in A549 xenograft bearing mice. LGH00168 activated CHOP promoter via AARE1 and AP1 elements, increased DR5 expression, decreased Bcl-2 expression, and inhibited the NF-κB pathway. Treatment of A549 cells with LGH00168 (10 μmol/L) did not induce apoptosis, but lead to RIP1-dependent necroptosis, accompanied by cell swelling, plasma membrane rupture, lysosomal membrane permeabilization, MMP collapse and caspase 8 inhibition. Furthermore, LGH00168 (10 and 20 μmol/L) dose-dependently induced mito-ROS production in A549 cells, which was reversed by the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, 10 mmol/L). Moreover, NAC significantly diminished LGH00168-induced CHOP activation, NF-κB inhibition and necroptosis in A549 cells. Conclusion: LGH00168 is a CHOP activator that inhibits A549 cell growth in vitro and lung tumor growth in vivo. PMID:27264312

  7. Radix Tetrastigma hemsleyani flavone inhibits proliferation, migration, and invasion of human lung carcinoma A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Liangrui; Zheng, Junxian; Sun, Qianqian; Wei, Kemin; Hu, Yijuan

    2016-01-01

    Radix Tetrastigma hemsleyani flavone (RTHF) is widely used as a traditional herb and has detoxification and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of RTHF on the growth and metastasis of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and evaluated its mechanisms. A549 cells were treated with RTHF at various concentrations for different periods. In vitro Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and colony formation methods showed that RTHF had dose- and time-dependent antiproliferation effects on A549 cells. A cell adhesion assay showed that RTHF decreased A549 cell adhesion in a dose-dependent manner. Cell invasion and migration were investigated using the Transwell assay and observed using an inverted microscope; the results showed that cell metastasis was significantly lower in the treatment group than that in the control group (P<0.01). Expression of metastasis-related matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. The results showed that the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 decreased, while that of TIMP-2 increased significantly in the RTHF group when compared with the results of the control group. These results show that RTHF exhibits antigrowth and antimetastasis activity in lung cancer A549 cells by decreasing the expression of MMP-2/-9 and TIMP-1 and increasing that of TIMP-2. PMID:26893573

  8. Human lung epithelial cell A549 proteome data after treatment with titanium dioxide and carbon black.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Ngoc Q; Goegan, Patrick; Mohottalage, Susantha; Breznan, Dalibor; Ariganello, Marianne; Williams, Andrew; Elisma, Fred; Karthikeyan, Subramanian; Vincent, Renaud; Kumarathasan, Premkumari

    2016-09-01

    Here, we have described the dataset relevant to the A549 cellular proteome changes after exposure to either titanium dioxide or carbon black particles as compared to the non-exposed controls, "Proteomic changes in human lung epithelial cells (A549) in response to carbon black and titanium dioxide exposures" (Vuong et al., 2016) [1]. Detailed methodologies on the separation of cellular proteins by 2D-GE and the subsequent mass spectrometry analyses using MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS are documented. Particle exposure-specific protein expression changes were measured via 2D-GE spot volume analysis. Protein identification was done by querying mass spectrometry data against SwissProt and RefSeq protein databases using Mascot search engine. Two-way ANOVA analysis data provided information on statistically significant A549 protein expression changes associated with particle exposures. PMID:27508218

  9. Human lung epithelial cell A549 proteome data after treatment with titanium dioxide and carbon black.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Ngoc Q; Goegan, Patrick; Mohottalage, Susantha; Breznan, Dalibor; Ariganello, Marianne; Williams, Andrew; Elisma, Fred; Karthikeyan, Subramanian; Vincent, Renaud; Kumarathasan, Premkumari

    2016-09-01

    Here, we have described the dataset relevant to the A549 cellular proteome changes after exposure to either titanium dioxide or carbon black particles as compared to the non-exposed controls, "Proteomic changes in human lung epithelial cells (A549) in response to carbon black and titanium dioxide exposures" (Vuong et al., 2016) [1]. Detailed methodologies on the separation of cellular proteins by 2D-GE and the subsequent mass spectrometry analyses using MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS are documented. Particle exposure-specific protein expression changes were measured via 2D-GE spot volume analysis. Protein identification was done by querying mass spectrometry data against SwissProt and RefSeq protein databases using Mascot search engine. Two-way ANOVA analysis data provided information on statistically significant A549 protein expression changes associated with particle exposures.

  10. Aptamer based electrochemical sensor for detection of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rachna; Varun Agrawal, Ved; Sharma, Pradeep; Varshney, R.; Sinha, R. K.; Malhotra, B. D.

    2012-04-01

    We report results of the studies relating to development of an aptamer-based electrochemical biosensor for detection of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The aminated 85-mer DNA aptamer probe specific for the A549 cells has been covalently immobilized onto silane self assembled monolayer (SAM) onto ITO surface using glutaraldehyde as the crosslinker. The results of cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry studies reveal that the aptamer functionalized bioelectrode can specifically detect lung cancer cells in the concentration range of 103 to 107 cells/ml with detection limit of 103 cells/ml within 60 s. The specificity studies of the bioelectrode have been carried out with control KB cells. No significant change in response is observed for control KB cells as compared to that of the A549 target cells.

  11. β-Elemonic acid inhibits the cell proliferation of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells: The role of MAPK, ROS activation and glutathione depletion.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tsu-Tuan; Lu, Chien-Lin; Lin, Hen-I; Chen, Bing-Fang; Jow, Guey-Mei

    2016-01-01

    β-elemonic acid, a known triterpene, exhibits anti-inflammatory effects, yet research on the pharmacological effects of β-elemonic acid is rare. We investigated the anticancer effects and the related molecular mechanisms of β-elemonic acid on human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cells. The effects of β-elemonic acid on the growth of A549 cells were studied using a 3-(4,5)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptosis was detected using Annexin V staining. The effect of β-elemonic acid on the cell cycle of A549 cells was assessed using the propidium iodide method. The change in reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected using a dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay with microscopic examination. The expression levels of Bcl-2 family proteins, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family proteins and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) were detected using western blot analysis. Our data revealed that β-elemonic acid strongly induced human A549 lung cancer cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner as determined by the MTT assay. β-elemonic acid-induced cell death was considered to be apoptotic when the phosphatidylserine exposure was observed using Annexin V staining. The death of human A549 lung cancer cells was caused by apoptosis induced by activation of ROS activity, increase in the sub-G1 proportion, downregulation of Bcl-2 expression, upregulation of Bax expression and inhibition of the MAPK signaling pathways. These results clearly demonstrated that β-elemonic acid inhibits proliferation by inducing hypoploid cells and cell apoptosis. Moreover, the anticancer effects of β-elemonic acid were related to the MAPK signaling pathway, ROS activation and glutathione depletion in human A549 lung cancer cells.

  12. Functional expression of nicotine influx transporter in A549 human alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tega, Yuma; Yuzurihara, Chihiro; Kubo, Yoshiyuki; Akanuma, Shin-ichi; Ehrhardt, Carsten; Hosoya, Ken-ichi

    2016-02-01

    Nicotine is a potent addictive alkaloid, and is rapidly absorbed through the alveoli of the lung. However, the transport mechanism of nicotine at the human alveolar epithelial barrier has not been investigated in great detail. In the present study, the transport mechanism of nicotine across alveolar epithelium was investigated in vitro using A549 cells, a human adenocarcinoma-derived cell line with an alveolar epithelial cell like phenotype. Nicotine uptake by A549 cells exhibited time-, temperature-, and concentration-dependence with a Km of 50.4 μM. These results suggest that a carrier-mediated transport process is involved in nicotine transport in human alveolar epithelial cells. Nicotine uptake by A549 cells was insensitive to change in extracellular pH. Moreover, nicotine uptake by A549 cells could be inhibited by organic cations such as verapamil and pyrilamine, but not typical substrates of organic cation transporters and β2-agonist. These results suggest that a novel, not yet molecularly identified, organic cation transporter plays a role in nicotine transport which is unlikely to interact with β2-agonist transport. This nicotine influx transporter in human alveolar epithelium might have implications for the rapid absorption of nicotine into the systemic circulation. PMID:26830082

  13. Cepharanthine induces apoptosis through reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction in human non-small-cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hua, Peiyan; Sun, Mei; Zhang, Guangxin; Zhang, Yifan; Tian, Xin; Li, Xin; Cui, Ranji; Zhang, Xingyi

    2015-05-01

    Cepharanthine is a medicinal plant-derived natural compound which possesses potent anti-cancer properties. However, there is little report about its effects on lung cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of cepharanthine on the cell viability and apoptosis in human non-small-cell lung cancer H1299 and A549 cells. It was found that cepharanthine inhibited the growth of H1299 and A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner which was associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species(ROS) and the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm). These effects were markedly abrogated when cells were pretreated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a specific ROS inhibitor, indicating that the apoptosis-inducing effect of cepharanthine in lung cancer cells was mediated by ROS. In addition, cepharanthine triggered apoptosis in non-small lung cancer cells via the upregulation of Bax, downregulation of Bcl-2 and significant activation of caspase-3 and PARP. These results provide the rationale for further research and preclinical investigation of cepharanthine's anti-tumor effect against human non-small-cell lung cancer.

  14. Effect of fucoidan from Turbinaria conoides on human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial (A549) cells.

    PubMed

    Alwarsamy, Madhavarani; Gooneratne, Ravi; Ravichandran, Ramanibai

    2016-11-01

    Fucoidan was purified from seaweed, Turbinaria conoides. Isolated fragments were characterized with NMR ((13)C, (1)H), Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectronomy (GC-MS) and HPLC analysis. The autohydrolysate of fucoidans consisted of sulfated fuco-oligosaccharides having the backbone of α-(1, 3)-linked fuco-pyranose derivatives and minor components of galactose, glucose, mannose and xylose sugars. Fucoidan induced a dose-dependent reduction in cell survival of lung cancer A549 cells by MTT assay (GI50, 75μg/mL). However, it was not cytotoxic to a non-tumorigenic human keratinocyte cell line of skin tissue (HaCaT) (GI50>1.0mg/mL). The apoptotic cells in fucoidan-treated A549 cells were visualized by laser confocal microscopy and cell cycle analysis showed induction of G0/G1 phase arrest of the cell progression cycle. Further, CFSE labeling and flow cytometry highlighted that fucoidan significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the proliferation rate of A549 cells by up to 2-fold compared with the control cells. It is concluded that fucoidan has the potential to act as an anti-proliferative agent on lung carcinoma (A549) cells.

  15. Effect of fucoidan from Turbinaria conoides on human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial (A549) cells.

    PubMed

    Alwarsamy, Madhavarani; Gooneratne, Ravi; Ravichandran, Ramanibai

    2016-11-01

    Fucoidan was purified from seaweed, Turbinaria conoides. Isolated fragments were characterized with NMR ((13)C, (1)H), Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectronomy (GC-MS) and HPLC analysis. The autohydrolysate of fucoidans consisted of sulfated fuco-oligosaccharides having the backbone of α-(1, 3)-linked fuco-pyranose derivatives and minor components of galactose, glucose, mannose and xylose sugars. Fucoidan induced a dose-dependent reduction in cell survival of lung cancer A549 cells by MTT assay (GI50, 75μg/mL). However, it was not cytotoxic to a non-tumorigenic human keratinocyte cell line of skin tissue (HaCaT) (GI50>1.0mg/mL). The apoptotic cells in fucoidan-treated A549 cells were visualized by laser confocal microscopy and cell cycle analysis showed induction of G0/G1 phase arrest of the cell progression cycle. Further, CFSE labeling and flow cytometry highlighted that fucoidan significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the proliferation rate of A549 cells by up to 2-fold compared with the control cells. It is concluded that fucoidan has the potential to act as an anti-proliferative agent on lung carcinoma (A549) cells. PMID:27516266

  16. Teroxirone inhibited growth of human non-small cell lung cancer cells by activating p53

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jing-Ping; Lin, Kai-Han; Liu, Chun-Yen; Yu, Ya-Chu; Wu, Pei-Tsun; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Su, Chun-Li; Chen, Kwun-Min; Fang, Kang

    2013-11-15

    In this work, we demonstrated that the growth of human non-small-cell-lung-cancer cells H460 and A549 cells can be inhibited by low concentrations of an epoxide derivative, teroxirone, in both in vitro and in vivo models. The cytotoxicity was mediated by apoptotic cell death through DNA damage. The onset of ultimate apoptosis is dependent on the status of p53. Teroxirone caused transient elevation of p53 that activates downstream p21 and procaspase-3 cleavage. The presence of caspase-3 inhibitor reverted apoptotic phenotype. Furthermore, we showed the cytotoxicity of teroxirone in H1299 cells with stable ectopic expression of p53, but not those of mutant p53. A siRNA-mediated knockdown of p53 expression attenuated drug sensitivity. The in vivo experiments demonstrated that teroxirone suppressed growth of xenograft tumors in nude mice. Being a potential therapeutic agent by restraining cell growth through apoptotic death at low concentrations, teroxirone provides a feasible perspective in reversing tumorigenic phenotype of human lung cancer cells. - Highlights: • Teroxirone repressed tumor cell growth in nude mice of human lung cancer cells. • The apoptotic cell death reverted by caspase-3 inhibitor is related to p53 status. • Teroxirone provides a good candidate for lung cancer treatment.

  17. Safrole oxide induces apoptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Aiying; Zhang, Shangli; Miao, Junying; Zhao, Baoxiang

    2004-09-01

    3,4-(Methylenedioxy)-1-(2',3'-epoxypropyl)-benzene (safrole oxide) was synthesized in the authors' laboratory. To investigate the effects of safrole oxide on the growth and apoptosis of A549 human lung cancer cells, the authors treated the cells with safrole oxide, 112.36 to 449.44 micromol/L, for 24 to 48 hours. The results showed that the drug led A549 cells to apoptosis and blocked cell cycle completely at G1 phase and partly at G(2)-M phase. To further study the correlated mechanism, the authors examined P53 and H-Ras protein expressions by using immunofluorescence assay. They found that the expression of P53 was dramatically up-regulated but the expression of H-Ras was hardly affected by safrole oxide, 224.72 micromol/L, within 24 hours. Taken together, these results revealed that safrole oxide could induce apoptosis of A549 cells and suggested that safrole oxide might perform its function by blocking cells completely at G1 phase and partly at G(2)-M phase, and also by up-regulating the expression of P53 protein. These findings would raise exciting possibilities for cancer therapy in future.

  18. Isolinderalactone inhibits proliferation of A549 human non‑small cell lung cancer cells by arresting the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase and inducing a Fas receptor and soluble Fas ligand-mediated apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-An; Lin, En-Shyh; Tsai, Ming-Ju; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Kuo, Po-Lin

    2014-05-01

    Lung cancer is currently the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. In Taiwan, lung cancer is also the type of malignancy that is the major cause of cancer-mortality. Investigating the mechanism of apoptosis of lung cancer cells is important in the treatment of lung cancer. In the present study, isolinderalactone was demonstrated to exhibit anticancer effects in A549 human non-small cell lung cancer cells. The effect of isolinderalactone on apoptosis, cell cycle distribution p21 levels and the Fas receptor and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) were assayed in order to determine the mechanism underlying the anticancer effect of isolinderalactone. It was demonstrated that isolinderalactone may induce p21 expression and then cause the cell cycle arrest of A549 cells. The data of the present study also revealed that the Fas/sFasL apoptotic system is significant in the mechanism of isolinderalactone‑induced apoptosis of A549 cells. These novel findings demonstrated that isolinderalactone may cause the cell cycle arrest of A549 cells by induction of p21, and induce apoptosis of A549 human non-small-cell lung carcinoma cells through the Fas/sFasL apoptotic system. PMID:24604009

  19. Dexamethasone suppresses the growth of human non-small cell lung cancer via inducing estrogen sulfotransferase and inactivating estrogen

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-jie; Li, Jian; Hao, Fang-ran; Yuan, Yin; Li, Jing-yun; Lu, Wei; Zhou, Tian-yan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Dexamethasone (DEX) is a widely used synthetic glucocorticoid, which has shown anti-cancer efficacy and anti-estrogenic activity. In this study we explored the possibility that DEX might be used as an endocrine therapeutic agent to treat human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: The viability and proliferation of human NSCLC cell lines A549 and H1299 were assessed in vitro. Anti-tumor action was also evaluated in A549 xenograft nude mice treated with DEX (2 or 4 mg·kg−1·d−1, ig) or the positive control tamoxifen (50 mg·kg−1·d−1, ig) for 32 d. The expression of estrogen sulfotransferase (EST) in tumor cells and tissues was examined. The intratumoral estrogen levels and uterine estrogen responses were measured. Results: DEX displayed mild cytotoxicity to the NSCLC cells (IC50 >500 μmol/L) compared to tamoxifen (IC50 <50 μmol/L), but it was able to inhibit the cell proliferation at low micromolar ranges. Furthermore, DEX (0.1–10 μmol/L) dose-dependently up-regulated EST expression in the cells, and inhibited the cell migration in vitro. Triclosan, a sulfation inhibitor, was able to diminish DEX-caused inhibition on the cell viability. In A549 xenograft nude mice, DEX or tamoxifen administration remarkably suppressed the tumor growth. Moreover, DEX administration dose-dependently increased EST expression in tumor tissues, and reduced intratumoral estrogen levels as well as the volumes and weights of uterine. Conclusion: DEX suppresses the growth of A549 xenograft tumors via inducing EST and decreasing estradiol levels in tumor tissues, suggesting that DEX may be used as anti-estrogenic agent for the treatment of NSCLC. PMID:27133297

  20. Interferon-α reduces the gefitinib sensitivity of human non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Chi; Weng, Shanshan; Duan, Yin; Ding, Ling; Zhang, Suzhan

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study Many studies have shown that interferon-α (IFN-α) enhances the antiproliferative effect of gefitinib in some solid tumours. We aimed to determine the effect of combining IFN-α with gefitinib in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines (A549, H1299, HCC827) with different EGFR and K-Ras gene statuses. Material and methods An MTT assay was used to assess cell proliferation. Apoptosis was detected by an Annexin V/propidium iodide assay using flow cytometry, and western blotting was used to determine the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor/phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/p-EGFR) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3/phosphorylated signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3/p-STAT3). Results There was an additive interaction when gefitinib was combined with IFN-α in all cell lines; however, there was antagonism when gefitinib followed IFN-α pretreatment in three cell lines. Notably, IFN-α pretreatment significantly reduced the gefitinib sensitivity of HCC827 cells. Surprisingly, while IFN-α inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation in cell lines, gefitinib could do so. Conclusions The results might confirm the hypothesis that IFN-α induces gefitinib sensitivity of NSCLC, and IFN-α inhibits phosphorylation of STAT3, which may be dependent on EGFR signal activation playing a role in the reduction of gefitinib sensitivity after IFN-α treatment in NSCLC cell lines. PMID:27688730

  1. Interferon-α reduces the gefitinib sensitivity of human non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Chi; Weng, Shanshan; Duan, Yin; Ding, Ling; Zhang, Suzhan

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study Many studies have shown that interferon-α (IFN-α) enhances the antiproliferative effect of gefitinib in some solid tumours. We aimed to determine the effect of combining IFN-α with gefitinib in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines (A549, H1299, HCC827) with different EGFR and K-Ras gene statuses. Material and methods An MTT assay was used to assess cell proliferation. Apoptosis was detected by an Annexin V/propidium iodide assay using flow cytometry, and western blotting was used to determine the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor/phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/p-EGFR) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3/phosphorylated signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3/p-STAT3). Results There was an additive interaction when gefitinib was combined with IFN-α in all cell lines; however, there was antagonism when gefitinib followed IFN-α pretreatment in three cell lines. Notably, IFN-α pretreatment significantly reduced the gefitinib sensitivity of HCC827 cells. Surprisingly, while IFN-α inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation in cell lines, gefitinib could do so. Conclusions The results might confirm the hypothesis that IFN-α induces gefitinib sensitivity of NSCLC, and IFN-α inhibits phosphorylation of STAT3, which may be dependent on EGFR signal activation playing a role in the reduction of gefitinib sensitivity after IFN-α treatment in NSCLC cell lines.

  2. Burkholderia pseudomallei Biofilm Promotes Adhesion, Internalization and Stimulates Proinflammatory Cytokines in Human Epithelial A549 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kunyanee, Chanikarn; Kamjumphol, Watcharaporn; Taweechaisupapong, Suwimol; Kanthawong, Sakawrat; Wongwajana, Suwin; Wongratanacheewin, Surasak; Hahnvajanawong, Chariya; Chareonsudjai, Sorujsiri

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes melioidosis. Inhalational exposure leading to pulmonary melioidosis is the most common clinical manifestation with significant mortality. However, the role of B. pseudomallei biofilm phenotype during bacterial-host interaction remains unclear. We hypothesize that biofilm phenotype may play a role in such interactions. In this study, B. pseudomallei H777 (biofilm wild type), B. pseudomallei M10 (biofilm mutant) and B. pseudomallei C17 (biofilm-complemented) strains were used to assess the contribution of biofilm to adhesion to human lung epithelial cells (A549), intracellular interactions, apoptosis/necrosis and impact on proinflammatory responses. Confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that B. pseudomallei H777 and C17 produced biofilm, whereas M10 did not. To determine the role of biofilm in host interaction, we assessed the ability of each of the three strains to interact with the A549 cells at MOI 10. Strain H777 exhibited higher levels of attachment and invasion compared to strain M10 (p < 0.05). In addition, the biofilm-complemented strain, C17 exhibited restored bacterial invasion ability. Flow cytometry combined with a double-staining assay using annexin V and propidium iodide revealed significantly higher numbers of early apoptotic and late apoptotic A549 cells when these were infected with strain H777 (1.52%) and C17 (1.43%) compared to strain M10 (0.85%) (p < 0.05). Strains H777 and C17 were able to stimulate significant secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 compared with the biofilm mutant (p < 0.05). Together, these findings demonstrated the role of biofilm-associated phenotypes of B. pseudomallei in cellular pathogenesis of human lung epithelial cells with respect to initial attachment and invasion, apoptosis and proinflammatory responses. PMID:27529172

  3. Burkholderia pseudomallei Biofilm Promotes Adhesion, Internalization and Stimulates Proinflammatory Cytokines in Human Epithelial A549 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kunyanee, Chanikarn; Kamjumphol, Watcharaporn; Taweechaisupapong, Suwimol; Kanthawong, Sakawrat; Wongwajana, Suwin; Wongratanacheewin, Surasak; Hahnvajanawong, Chariya

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes melioidosis. Inhalational exposure leading to pulmonary melioidosis is the most common clinical manifestation with significant mortality. However, the role of B. pseudomallei biofilm phenotype during bacterial-host interaction remains unclear. We hypothesize that biofilm phenotype may play a role in such interactions. In this study, B. pseudomallei H777 (biofilm wild type), B. pseudomallei M10 (biofilm mutant) and B. pseudomallei C17 (biofilm-complemented) strains were used to assess the contribution of biofilm to adhesion to human lung epithelial cells (A549), intracellular interactions, apoptosis/necrosis and impact on proinflammatory responses. Confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that B. pseudomallei H777 and C17 produced biofilm, whereas M10 did not. To determine the role of biofilm in host interaction, we assessed the ability of each of the three strains to interact with the A549 cells at MOI 10. Strain H777 exhibited higher levels of attachment and invasion compared to strain M10 (p < 0.05). In addition, the biofilm-complemented strain, C17 exhibited restored bacterial invasion ability. Flow cytometry combined with a double-staining assay using annexin V and propidium iodide revealed significantly higher numbers of early apoptotic and late apoptotic A549 cells when these were infected with strain H777 (1.52%) and C17 (1.43%) compared to strain M10 (0.85%) (p < 0.05). Strains H777 and C17 were able to stimulate significant secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 compared with the biofilm mutant (p < 0.05). Together, these findings demonstrated the role of biofilm-associated phenotypes of B. pseudomallei in cellular pathogenesis of human lung epithelial cells with respect to initial attachment and invasion, apoptosis and proinflammatory responses. PMID:27529172

  4. Treatment with a Small Synthetic Compound, KMU-193, induces Apoptosis in A549 Human Lung Carcinoma Cells through p53 Up-Regulation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Young; Shin, Kyeong-Cheol; Lee, Jinho; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Kim, Shin; Park, Jong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent advances in therapeutic strategies for lung cancer, mortality still is increasing. In the present study, we investigated the anti-cancer effects of KMU-193, 2-(4-Ethoxy-phenyl)-N-{5-[2-fluoro-4-(4-methyl- piperazine-1-carbonyl)-phenylamino]-1H-indazol-3-yl}-acetamide in a human non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549. KMU-193 strongly inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells, but it did not have anti-proliferative effect in other types of cancer cell lines. KMU-193 further induced apoptosis in association with activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PLC-γ1. However, KMU-193 had no apoptotic effect in untransformed cells such as TMCK-1 and BEAS-2B. Interestingly, pretreatment with z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, strongly abrogated KMU- 193-induced apoptosis. KMU-193 treatment enhanced the expression levels of p53 and PUMA. Importantly, p53 siRNA transfection attenuated KMU-193-induced apoptosis. Collectively, these results for the first time demonstrate that KMU-193 has strong apoptotic effects on A549 cells and these are largely mediated through caspase-3- and p53-dependent pathways. PMID:26320467

  5. Maclurin suppresses migration and invasion of human non-small-cell lung cancer cells via anti-oxidative activity and inhibition of the Src/FAK-ERK-β-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Ku, Min Jung; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jongsung; Cho, Jae Youl; Chun, Taehoon; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2015-04-01

    Recent reports indicated that ROS is closely related with cancer metastasis. ROS targets major signaling molecules which are known to be involved in migration and invasion of cancer cells. Here we report that maclurin, a major phenolic component of ethanol extracted mulberry twigs, exerts anti-metastatic effect in A549 human non-small-cell lung cancer cells. Maclurin suppresses intracellular ROS level in A549 human non-small-cell lung cancer cells. Also, maclurin down-regulates Src and ERK, which are well known to be regulated with redox state. Suppressed Src/FAK and ERK signalings activate GSK3-β, thus inhibiting nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. As a result, transcriptional expressions of two major gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) were significantly down-regulated. Consequently, migration and invasion of A549 human non-small-cell lung cancer cells were attenuated. Anti-metastatic effect of maclurin on A549 human non-small-cell lung cancer cells were diminished by the treatment of hydrogen peroxide, thus further implicating that the effect of maclurin may be strongly related with its anti-oxidative activity. Thus, our data indicate that the anti-metastatic effect of maclurin is exerted by anti-oxidative activity and inhibition of Src/FAK-ERK-β-catenin signaling pathway.

  6. Integrin αv promotes proliferation by activating ERK 1/2 in the human lung cancer cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shijie; Fan, Limin; Pan, Xufeng; Sun, Yifeng; Zhao, Heng

    2015-02-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) constitutes ~85% of lung cancers. However, the mechanisms underlying the progression of NSCLC remain unclear. In this study, we found the mRNA and protein expression levels of integrin αv are both increased in NSCLC tissues compared to healthy ones, which indicates that integrin αv may play an important role in NSCLC progression. To further investigate the roles of integrin αv in NSCLC, we overexpressed the integrin αv gene in the NSCLC cell line A549, and found that the cell proliferative ability increased. The apoptosis of A549 cells was inhibited with overexpression of integrin αv. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the role of integrin αv in promoting NSCLC progression, we studied the expression of proteins from a number of important pathways associated with tumorigenesis, and found that the extracellular signal regulated protein kinase (ERK)1/2 signaling pathway may be involved in the mediation of the observed integrin αv effects. component of an important pathway for tumorigenesis, the ERK 1/2. Following inhibition of ERK 1/2 signaling, the proliferation of A549 cells induced by integrin αv was reduced, while the inhibition of apoptosis was attenuated. Our findings demonstrate that integrin αv promotes the proliferation of the human lung cancer cell line A549 by activating the ERK 1/2 signaling pathway, which suggests that this pathway may be a promising target for the treatment of human lung cancer.

  7. Telomere shortening and cell senescence induced by perylene derivatives in A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Taka, Thanachai; Huang, Liming; Wongnoppavich, Ariyaphong; Tam-Chang, Suk-Wah; Lee, T Randall; Tuntiwechapikul, Wirote

    2013-02-15

    Cancer cells evade replicative senescence by re-expressing telomerase, which maintains telomere length and hence chromosomal integrity. Telomerase inhibition would lead cancer cells to senesce and therefore prevent cancer cells from growing indefinitely. G-quadruplex ligands can attenuate telomerase activity by inducing G-quadruplex formation at the 3'-overhang of telomere and at the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter; the former prevents telomerase from accessing the telomere, and the latter acts as a transcriptional silencer. The present investigation found that perylene derivatives PM2 and PIPER induced G-quadruplex formation from both telomeric DNA and the hTERT promoter region in vitro. Further, TRAP assay showed that these compounds inhibited telomerase in a dose-dependent manner. When A549 human lung cancer cells were treated with these compounds, hTERT expression was down-regulated. Moreover, the crude protein extract from these treated cells exhibited less telomerase activity. In the long-term treatment of A549 lung cancer cells with sub-cytotoxic dose of these perylenes, telomere shortening, reduction of cell proliferation and tumorigenicity, and cell senescence were observed. The results of this study indicate that perylene derivatives warrant further consideration as effective agents for cancer therapy.

  8. Manipulations in HIWI level exerts influence on the proliferation of human non-small cell lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YUGUANG; LIU, JIA; WU, GUANGYAO; YANG, FANG

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide, although molecular imaging techniques, including fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, have markedly improved the diagnosis of lung cancer. HIWI is a member of the human piwi family, members of which are known for their roles in RNA silencing. HIWI has been shown to serve a crucial function in stem cell self-renewal, and previous studies have reported HIWI overexpression in lung cancers. Furthermore, HIWI has been proposed to regulate the maintenance of cancer stem cell populations in lung cancers. The present study investigated the mRNA and protein expression levels of HIWI in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) specimens harvested from 57 patients, using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. Subsequently, the HIWI expression level was manipulated using gain-of-function and loss-of-function strategies, and the role of HIWI in the proliferation of human A549 NSCLC cells was investigated using Cell Counting Kit-8 and colony formation assays. The mRNA and protein expression levels of HIWI were significantly upregulated in the intratumor NSCLC specimens, as compared with the peritumor specimens. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression levels of HIWI in A549 cells were successfully manipulated using the two strategies. Overexpression and knockout of HIWI were associated with the promotion and inhibition of A549 cell proliferation, respectively. The results of the present study suggested that HIWI is overexpressed in NSCLC tissues and demonstrated that upregulation of HIWI may promote the growth of lung cancer cells; thus suggesting that HIWI may have an oncogenic role in lung cancer. PMID:27168836

  9. Atorvastatin overcomes gefitinib resistance in KRAS mutant human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Bi, H; Hou, J; Zhang, X; Zhang, C; Yue, L; Wen, X; Liu, D; Shi, H; Yuan, J; Liu, J; Liu, B

    2013-09-26

    The exact influence of statins on gefitinib resistance in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells with KRAS mutation alone or KRAS/PIK3CA and KRAS/PTEN comutations remains unclear. This work found that transfection of mutant KRAS plasmids significantly suppressed the gefitinib cytotoxicity in Calu3 cells (wild-type KRAS). Gefitinib disrupted the Kras/PI3K and Kras/Raf complexes in Calu3 cells, whereas not in Calu3 KRAS mutant cells. These trends were corresponding to the expression of pAKT and pERK in gefitinib treatment. Atorvastatin (1 μM) plus gefitinib treatment inhibited proliferation, promoted cell apoptosis, and reduced the AKT activity in KRAS mutant NSCLC cells compared with gefitinib alone. Atorvastatin (5 μM) further enhanced the gefitinib cytotoxicity through concomitant inhibition of AKT and ERK activity. Atorvastatin could interrupt Kras/PI3K and Kras/Raf complexes, leading to suppression of AKT and ERK activity. Similar results were also obtained in comutant KRAS/PTEN or KRAS/PIK3CA NSCLC cells. Furthermore, mevalonate administration reversed the effects of atorvastatin on the Kras/Raf and Kras/PI3K complexes, as well as AKT and ERK activity in both A549 and Calu1 cells. The in vivo results were similar to those obtained in vitro. Therefore, mutant KRAS-mediated gefitinib insensitivity is mainly derived from failure to disrupt the Kras/Raf and Kras/PI3K complexes in KRAS mutant NSCLC cells. Atorvastatin overcomes gefitinib resistance in KRAS mutant NSCLC cells irrespective of PIK3CA and PTEN statuses through inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase-dependent disruption of the Kras/Raf and Kras/PI3K complexes.

  10. Genistein inhibits A549 human lung cancer cell proliferation via miR-27a and MET signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Zang, Aimin; Jia, Youchao; Shang, Yanhong; Zhang, Zhuoqi; Ge, Kun; Zhang, Jinchao; Fan, Wufang; Wang, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Genistein is a soybean isoflavone; in its aglycone it has various biological activities. Animal experiments, clinical studies and epidemiological investigations suggest that genistein has preventative and curative functions for a number of diseases, particularly in cancer. The present study explored the potential anti-cancer effect of genistein by observing its role in inhibiting A549 human lung cancer cell proliferation and investigating the possible mechanism. A549 cells were exposed to various concentrations of genistein (0, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µM; dissolved in physiological saline) for 1, 2 and 3 days. Subsequently, the viability of A549 cells was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, cell apoptosis was examined using a flow cytometer, caspase 3/9 activity was measured using commercial kits, reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze the miR-27a expression and western blotting was used to investigate MET protein expression. The results suggested a significant inhibition of A549 cell growth following treatment with genistein in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The current study also indicated that treatment with genistein significantly induces cell apoptosis and promotes caspase-3/9 activation of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Further functional assays revealed that the anti-cancer effect of genistein activated microRNA-27a (miR-27a) expression levels and reduced MET protein expression in A549 cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that genistein inhibits A549 human lung cancer cell proliferation. Furthermore, this study reports, for the first time, a correlation between the anti-cancer effect of genistein and miR-27a-mediated MET signaling.

  11. Genistein inhibits A549 human lung cancer cell proliferation via miR-27a and MET signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Zang, Aimin; Jia, Youchao; Shang, Yanhong; Zhang, Zhuoqi; Ge, Kun; Zhang, Jinchao; Fan, Wufang; Wang, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Genistein is a soybean isoflavone; in its aglycone it has various biological activities. Animal experiments, clinical studies and epidemiological investigations suggest that genistein has preventative and curative functions for a number of diseases, particularly in cancer. The present study explored the potential anti-cancer effect of genistein by observing its role in inhibiting A549 human lung cancer cell proliferation and investigating the possible mechanism. A549 cells were exposed to various concentrations of genistein (0, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µM; dissolved in physiological saline) for 1, 2 and 3 days. Subsequently, the viability of A549 cells was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, cell apoptosis was examined using a flow cytometer, caspase 3/9 activity was measured using commercial kits, reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze the miR-27a expression and western blotting was used to investigate MET protein expression. The results suggested a significant inhibition of A549 cell growth following treatment with genistein in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The current study also indicated that treatment with genistein significantly induces cell apoptosis and promotes caspase-3/9 activation of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Further functional assays revealed that the anti-cancer effect of genistein activated microRNA-27a (miR-27a) expression levels and reduced MET protein expression in A549 cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that genistein inhibits A549 human lung cancer cell proliferation. Furthermore, this study reports, for the first time, a correlation between the anti-cancer effect of genistein and miR-27a-mediated MET signaling. PMID:27602162

  12. 4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide effects human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells by regulating the expression of POLD4

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, QIN-MIAO; ZENG, YI-MING; ZHANG, HUA-PING; LV, LIANG-CHAO; YANG, DONG-YONG; LIN, HUI-HUANG

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the expression of POLD4 in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells under 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) stimulation to investigate the role of POLD4 in smoking-induced lung cancer. The lung cancer A549 cell line was treated with 4NQO, with or without MG132 (an inhibitor of proteasome activity), and subsequently the POLD4 level was determined by western blot analysis. Secondly, the cell sensitivity to 4NQO and Taxol was determined when the POLD4 expression level was downregulated by siRNA. The POLD4 protein levels in the A549 cells decreased following treatment with 4NQO; however, MG132 could reverse this phenotype. Downregulation of the POLD4 expression by siRNA enhanced A549 cell sensitivity to 4NQO, but not to Taxol. In conclusion, 4NQO affects human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells by regulating the expression of POLD4. PMID:26998273

  13. Direct and in vitro observation of growth hormone receptor molecules in A549 human lung epithelial cells by nanodiamond labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, C.-Y.; Perevedentseva, E.; Tu, J.-S.; Chung, P.-H.; Cheng, C.-L.; Liu, K.-K.; Chao, J.-I.; Chen, P.-H.; Chang, C.-C.

    2007-04-01

    This letter presents direct observation of growth hormone receptor in one single cancer cell using nanodiamond-growth hormone complex as a specific probe. The interaction of surface growth hormone receptor of A549 human lung epithelial cells with growth hormone was observed using nanodiamond's unique spectroscopic signal via confocal Raman mapping. The growth hormone molecules were covalent conjugated to 100nm diameter carboxylated nanodiamonds, which can be recognized specifically by the growth hormone receptors of A549 cell. The Raman spectroscopic signal of diamond provides direct and in vitro observation of growth hormone receptors in physiology condition in a single cell level.

  14. Feroniellin A-induced autophagy causes apoptosis in multidrug-resistant human A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kaewpiboon, Chutima; Surapinit, Serm; Malilas, Waraporn; Moon, Jeong; Phuwapraisirisan, Preecha; Tip-Pyang, Santi; Johnston, Randal N; Koh, Sang Seok; Assavalapsakul, Wanchai; Chung, Young-Hwa

    2014-04-01

    During the screening of natural chemicals that can reverse multidrug resistance in human A549 lung cancer cells resistant to etoposide (A549RT-eto), we discovered that Feroniellin A (FERO), a novel furanocoumarin, shows toxicity toward A549RT-eto cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. FERO reduced the expression of NF-κB, leading to downregulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), encoded by MDR1, which eventually sensitized A549RT-eto cells to apoptosis. FERO specifically diminished transcription and promoter activity of MDR1 but did not inhibit the expression of other multidrug resistance genes MRP2 and BCRP. Moreover, co-administration of FERO with Bay11-7802, an inhibitor of NF-κB, accelerated apoptosis of A549RT-eto cells through decreased expression of P-gp, indicating that NF-κB is involved in multidrug resistance. Conversely, addition of Z-VAD, a pan-caspase inhibitor, blocked FERO-induced apoptosis in A549RT-eto cells but did not block downregulation of P-gp, indicating that a decrease in P-gp expression is necessary but not sufficient for FERO-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, we found that FERO also induces autophagy, which is characterized by the conversion of LC3 I to LC3 II, induction of GFP-LC3 puncta, enhanced expression of Beclin-1 and ATG5, and inactivation of mTOR. Furthermore, suppression of Beclin-1 by siRNA reduced FERO-induced apoptosis in A549RT-eto cells and activation of autophagy by rapamycin accelerated FERO-induced apoptosis, suggesting that autophagy plays an active role in FERO-induced apoptosis. Herein, we report that FERO reverses multidrug resistance in A549RT-eto cells and exerts its cytotoxic effect by induction of both autophagy and apoptosis, which suggests that FERO can be a useful anticancer drug for multidrug-resistant lung cancer. PMID:24535083

  15. Feroniellin A-induced autophagy causes apoptosis in multidrug-resistant human A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kaewpiboon, Chutima; Surapinit, Serm; Malilas, Waraporn; Moon, Jeong; Phuwapraisirisan, Preecha; Tip-Pyang, Santi; Johnston, Randal N; Koh, Sang Seok; Assavalapsakul, Wanchai; Chung, Young-Hwa

    2014-04-01

    During the screening of natural chemicals that can reverse multidrug resistance in human A549 lung cancer cells resistant to etoposide (A549RT-eto), we discovered that Feroniellin A (FERO), a novel furanocoumarin, shows toxicity toward A549RT-eto cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. FERO reduced the expression of NF-κB, leading to downregulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), encoded by MDR1, which eventually sensitized A549RT-eto cells to apoptosis. FERO specifically diminished transcription and promoter activity of MDR1 but did not inhibit the expression of other multidrug resistance genes MRP2 and BCRP. Moreover, co-administration of FERO with Bay11-7802, an inhibitor of NF-κB, accelerated apoptosis of A549RT-eto cells through decreased expression of P-gp, indicating that NF-κB is involved in multidrug resistance. Conversely, addition of Z-VAD, a pan-caspase inhibitor, blocked FERO-induced apoptosis in A549RT-eto cells but did not block downregulation of P-gp, indicating that a decrease in P-gp expression is necessary but not sufficient for FERO-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, we found that FERO also induces autophagy, which is characterized by the conversion of LC3 I to LC3 II, induction of GFP-LC3 puncta, enhanced expression of Beclin-1 and ATG5, and inactivation of mTOR. Furthermore, suppression of Beclin-1 by siRNA reduced FERO-induced apoptosis in A549RT-eto cells and activation of autophagy by rapamycin accelerated FERO-induced apoptosis, suggesting that autophagy plays an active role in FERO-induced apoptosis. Herein, we report that FERO reverses multidrug resistance in A549RT-eto cells and exerts its cytotoxic effect by induction of both autophagy and apoptosis, which suggests that FERO can be a useful anticancer drug for multidrug-resistant lung cancer.

  16. Apoptosis of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells induced by prodigiosin analogue obtained from an entomopathogenic bacterium Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Jin, Zhi-Xiong; Wan, Yong-Ji

    2010-12-01

    An entomopathogenic bacterial strain SCQ1 was isolated from silkworm (Bombyx mori) and identified as Serratia marcescens via 16S rRNA gene analysis. This strain produces a red pigment that causes acute septicemia of silkworm. The red pigment of strain SCQ1 was identified as prodigiosin analogue (PGA) with various reported biological activities. In this study, we found that low concentration of PGA showed significant anticancer activity in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, but has little effect in human bone marrow stem cells, in vitro. By exposure to different concentrations of PGA for 24 h, morphological changes and the MTT assay showed that A549 cell line was very sensitive to PGA, with IC(50) value about 2.2 mg/L. Early stage of apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry while A549 cells were treated with PGA for 4 and 12 h, respectively. The proportion of dead cells was increased with treatment time or the concentrations of PGA, but it was inversely proportional to that of apoptotic cells. These results indicate that PGA obtained from strain SCQ1 induces apoptosis in A549 cells, but the molecular mechanisms of cell death are complicated, and the S. marcescens strain SCQ1 may serve as a source of the anticancer compound, PGA.

  17. Inonotus obliquus-derived polysaccharide inhibits the migration and invasion of human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells via suppression of MMP-2 and MMP-9.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki Rim; Lee, Jong Seok; Song, Jeong Eun; Ha, Suk Jin; Hong, Eock Kee

    2014-12-01

    Polysaccharides isolated from the fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus (PFIO) are known to possess various pharmacological properties including antitumor activity. However, the anti-metastatic effect and its underlying mechanistic signaling pathway involved these polysaccharides in human non-small cell lung carcinoma remain unknown. The present study therefore aimed to determine the anti-metastatic potential and signaling pathways of PFIO in the highly metastatic A549 cells. We found that PFIO suppressed the migration and invasive ability of A549 cells while decreasing the expression levels and activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. Furthermore, PFIO decreased the phosphorylation levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) as well as the expression level of COX-2, and inhibited the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in A549 cells. These results suggested that PFIO could suppress the invasion and migration of human lung carcinoma by reducing the expression levels and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 via suppression of MAPKs, PI3K/AKT, and NF-κB signaling pathways.

  18. Induction of the endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy in human lung carcinoma A549 cells by anacardic acid.

    PubMed

    Seong, Yeong-Ae; Shin, Pyung-Gyun; Yoon, Jin-Soo; Yadunandam, Anandam Kasin; Kim, Gun-Do

    2014-03-01

    Anacardic acid (AA, 2-hydroxy-6-pentadecylbenzoic acid), a constituent of the cashew-nut shell, has a variety of beneficial effects on the treatment of cancer and tumors. However, the fact that AA induces ER stress and autophagy in cancer cell is not known. We investigated the effect of AA on ER-stress and autophagy-induced cell death in cancer cells. Because of our interest in lung cancer, we used the non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells treated with 3.0 μg/ml of AA for this research. In this research we found that AA induces intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization and ER stress. AA induced the ER stress-inducing factors, especially IRE1α, and the hallmarks of UPR, Grp78/Bip and GADD153/CHOP. AA inhibited the expression of p-PERK and its downstream substrate, p-elF2α. We also demonstrated that AA induces autophagy. Up-regulation of autophagy-related genes and the appearance of autophagosome in transfected cells with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-LC3 and GFP-Beclin1 plasmids showed the induction of autophagy in AA-treated A549 cells. The morphological analysis of intracellular organelles by TEM also showed the evidence that AA induces ER stress and autophagy. For the first time, our research showed that AA induces ER stress and autophagy in cancer cells. PMID:23955513

  19. Capsaicin-induced genotoxic stress does not promote apoptosis in A549 human lung and DU145 prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lewinska, Anna; Jarosz, Paulina; Czech, Joanna; Rzeszutek, Iwona; Bielak-Zmijewska, Anna; Grabowska, Wioleta; Wnuk, Maciej

    2015-02-01

    Capsaicin is the major pungent component of the hot chili peppers of the genus Capsicum, which are consumed worldwide as a food additive. More recently, the selective action of capsaicin against cancer cells has been reported. Capsaicin was found to induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation of a wide range of cancer cells in vitro, whereas being inactive against normal cells. As data on capsaicin-induced genotoxicity are limited and the effects of capsaicin against human lung A549 and DU145 prostate cancer cells were not explored in detail, we were interested in determining whether capsaicin-associated genotoxicity may also provoke A549 and DU145 cell death. Capsaicin-induced decrease in metabolic activity and cell proliferation, and changes in the cell cycle were limited to high concentrations used (≥ 100 μM), whereas, at lower concentrations, capsaicin stimulated both DNA double strand breaks and micronuclei production. Capsaicin was unable to provoke apoptotic cell death when used up to 250 μM concentrations. Capsaicin induced oxidative stress, but was ineffective in provoking the dissipation of the mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential. A different magnitude of p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) recruitment contributed to diverse capsaicin-induced genotoxic effects in DU145 and A549 cells. Capsaicin was also found to be a DNA hypermethylating agent in A549 cells. In summary, we have shown that genotoxic effects of capsaicin may contribute to limited susceptibility of DU145 and A549 cancer cells to apoptosis in vitro, which may question the usefulness of capsaicin-based anticancer therapy, at least in a case of lung and prostate cancer. PMID:25813723

  20. Capsaicin-induced genotoxic stress does not promote apoptosis in A549 human lung and DU145 prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lewinska, Anna; Jarosz, Paulina; Czech, Joanna; Rzeszutek, Iwona; Bielak-Zmijewska, Anna; Grabowska, Wioleta; Wnuk, Maciej

    2015-02-01

    Capsaicin is the major pungent component of the hot chili peppers of the genus Capsicum, which are consumed worldwide as a food additive. More recently, the selective action of capsaicin against cancer cells has been reported. Capsaicin was found to induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation of a wide range of cancer cells in vitro, whereas being inactive against normal cells. As data on capsaicin-induced genotoxicity are limited and the effects of capsaicin against human lung A549 and DU145 prostate cancer cells were not explored in detail, we were interested in determining whether capsaicin-associated genotoxicity may also provoke A549 and DU145 cell death. Capsaicin-induced decrease in metabolic activity and cell proliferation, and changes in the cell cycle were limited to high concentrations used (≥ 100 μM), whereas, at lower concentrations, capsaicin stimulated both DNA double strand breaks and micronuclei production. Capsaicin was unable to provoke apoptotic cell death when used up to 250 μM concentrations. Capsaicin induced oxidative stress, but was ineffective in provoking the dissipation of the mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential. A different magnitude of p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) recruitment contributed to diverse capsaicin-induced genotoxic effects in DU145 and A549 cells. Capsaicin was also found to be a DNA hypermethylating agent in A549 cells. In summary, we have shown that genotoxic effects of capsaicin may contribute to limited susceptibility of DU145 and A549 cancer cells to apoptosis in vitro, which may question the usefulness of capsaicin-based anticancer therapy, at least in a case of lung and prostate cancer.

  1. Oxidative stress and inflammatory response to printer toner particles in human epithelial A549 lung cells.

    PubMed

    Könczöl, Mathias; Weiß, Adilka; Gminski, Richard; Merfort, Irmgard; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2013-02-01

    Reports on adverse health effects related to occupational exposure to toner powder are still inconclusive. Therefore, we have previously conducted an in vitro-study to characterize the genotoxic potential of three commercially available black printer toner powders in A549 lung cells. In these cell-based assays it was clearly demonstrated that the tested toner powders damage DNA and induce micronucleus (MN) formation. Here, we have studied the cytotoxic and proinflammatory potential of these three types of printer toner particles and the influence of ROS and NF-κB induction in order to unravel the underlying mechanisms. A549 cells were exposed to various concentrations of printer toner particle suspensions for 24 h. The toner particles were observed to exert significant cytotoxic effects in the WST-1 and neutral red (NR)-assays, although to a varying extent. Caspase 3/7 activity increased, while the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was not affected. Particles of all three printer toner powders induced concentration-dependent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as measured in the DCFH-DA assay. Furthermore, toner particle exposure enhanced interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 production, which is in agreement with activation of the transcription factor NF-κB in A549 cells shown by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Therefore, it can be concluded that exposure of A549 lung cells to three selected printer toner powders caused oxidative stress through induction of ROS. Increased ROS formation may trigger genotoxic effects and activate proinflammatory pathways.

  2. Safrole oxide induces apoptosis by activating caspase-3, -8, and -9 in A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Aiying; Zhao, Baoxiang; Yin, Deling; Zhang, Shangli; Miao, Junying

    2006-01-01

    Previously we found that 3,4-(methylenedioxy)-1-(2',3'-epoxypropyl)-benzene (safrole oxide) induced a typical apoptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells. In this study, we further investigated which caspases were activated by safrole oxide during the apoptosis. The data showed that the activity of caspase-3, -8, and -9 was significantly enhanced by the compound, which suggested that safrole oxide might be used as a caspase promoter to initiate lung cancer cell apoptosis.

  3. The targeted inhibitory effects of human amniotic fluid stem cells carrying CXCR4 promoter and DAL-1 on non-small cell lung carcinoma growth.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Li, S; Cai, T; Wang, H; Xie, X; Liu, Z; Zhang, Y

    2016-02-01

    The differentially expressed in adenocarcinoma of the lung-1 (DAL-1) protein has been demonstrated to be suppressive to various types of tumors including lung cancer. This study aimed to determine the targeted effects of human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFS cells) carrying CXCR4 promoter driven conditionally replicable adenovirus vector overexpressing DAL-1 (Ad-CXCR4-DAL-1) on non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) growth. The apoptotic effects of virus vectors were assessed using flow cytometry, and the cytotoxicity analyzed by CCK-8 assay. In vivo imaging system was used to determine the homing capability of hAFS cells. A549 cell xenograft mouse model was created to assess the in vivo effect of DAL-1 overexpression on NSCLC growth. We found that infection of Ad-CXCR4-DAL-1 increased the apoptosis of A549 NSCLC cells but not 16HBE normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Ad-CXCR4-DAL-1 administered via intratumoral injection led to significant reduced growth and greater necrosis of A549 xenograft tumors comparing to null vector treated animals. When infused via tail vein, hAFS cells carrying Ad-CXCR4-DAL-1 homed to lung cancer xenografts, caused virus replication and DAL-1 overexpression, and led to significant lower growth and greater necrosis of A549 cell xenografts comparing to non-treatment control. In conclusion, hAFS cells are capable of carrying Ad-CXCR4-DAL-1 vectors, specifically targeting to lung cancer, and causing oncolytic effects when administered in vivo.

  4. In vitro evaluation of the cellular effect of indium tin oxide nanoparticles using the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Tabei, Yosuke; Sonoda, Akinari; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Biju, Vasudevanpillai; Makita, Yoji; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Horie, Masanori

    2015-05-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) is widely used in liquid crystal displays (LCDs) or plasma and mobile phone displays. Elevated production and usage of ITO in such displays have led to increased concerns over the safety of industrial workers exposed to particulate aerosols produced during cutting, grinding and polishing of these materials. However, the cellular effects of ITO nanoparticles (NPs) are still unclear, although it has been reported that micro-scale ITO particles induce cytotoxicity. The aim of this study was to examine the potential of ITO NPs to induce cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and DNA damage using human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Here, stable dispersions of a medium containing ITO NPs were obtained using pre-adsorption and centrifugal fractionation methods, and the A549 cells were incubated in this medium. The ITO NPs showed low cytotoxic effects as shown by the WST-1 and LDH assays. Transmission electron microscopy observations showed the cellular uptake of ITO NPs. The ITO NPs increased the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species and the expression of the heme oxygenase 1 gene. Further, the results of alkaline comet assays showed that ITO NPs induced DNA damage. Thus, these results suggest that ITO NPs possess a genotoxic potential on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

  5. Vitamin D Analogs Potentiate the Antitumor Effect of Imatinib Mesylate in a Human A549 Lung Tumor Model

    PubMed Central

    Maj, Ewa; Filip-Psurska, Beata; Świtalska, Marta; Kutner, Andrzej; Wietrzyk, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    In previous papers, we presented data on studies on the anticancer activity of the vitamin D3 analogs, named PRI-2191 and PRI-2205, in different cancer models. In this study, we showed the improved antiproliferative activity of a combination of imatinib mesylate (Gleevec, GV) and cytostatic agents in in vitro studies, when used with a third compound, namely PRI-2191, in an A549 human lung cancer model. Furthermore, we analyzed the influence of both PRI-2191, as well as PRI-2205 on the anticancer activity of GV in mice bearing A549 tumors. The route of PRI-2191 analog administration showed a significant impact on the outcome of GV treatment: subcutaneous injection was more efficient and less toxic than oral gavage. Moreover, both vitamin D compounds increased the anticancer activity of GV; however, they might also potentiate some adverse effects. We also evaluated in tumor tissue the expression of VEGF, PDGF-BB, vitamin D receptor, CYP27B1, CYP24, p53 and Bcl-2, as well as PDGF receptors: α and β. We observed the upregulation of p53 expression and the downregulation of Bcl-2, as well as VEGF in A549 tumors as a result of the tested treatment. However, vitamin D analogs did not significantly influence the expression of these proteins. PMID:26580599

  6. Vitamin D Analogs Potentiate the Antitumor Effect of Imatinib Mesylate in a Human A549 Lung Tumor Model.

    PubMed

    Maj, Ewa; Filip-Psurska, Beata; Świtalska, Marta; Kutner, Andrzej; Wietrzyk, Joanna

    2015-11-13

    In previous papers, we presented data on studies on the anticancer activity of the vitamin D₃ analogs, named PRI-2191 and PRI-2205, in different cancer models. In this study, we showed the improved antiproliferative activity of a combination of imatinib mesylate (Gleevec, GV) and cytostatic agents in in vitro studies, when used with a third compound, namely PRI-2191, in an A549 human lung cancer model. Furthermore, we analyzed the influence of both PRI-2191, as well as PRI-2205 on the anticancer activity of GV in mice bearing A549 tumors. The route of PRI-2191 analog administration showed a significant impact on the outcome of GV treatment: subcutaneous injection was more efficient and less toxic than oral gavage. Moreover, both vitamin D compounds increased the anticancer activity of GV; however, they might also potentiate some adverse effects. We also evaluated in tumor tissue the expression of VEGF, PDGF-BB, vitamin D receptor, CYP27B1, CYP24, p53 and Bcl-2, as well as PDGF receptors: α and β. We observed the upregulation of p53 expression and the downregulation of Bcl-2, as well as VEGF in A549 tumors as a result of the tested treatment. However, vitamin D analogs did not significantly influence the expression of these proteins.

  7. Vitamin D Analogs Potentiate the Antitumor Effect of Imatinib Mesylate in a Human A549 Lung Tumor Model.

    PubMed

    Maj, Ewa; Filip-Psurska, Beata; Świtalska, Marta; Kutner, Andrzej; Wietrzyk, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    In previous papers, we presented data on studies on the anticancer activity of the vitamin D₃ analogs, named PRI-2191 and PRI-2205, in different cancer models. In this study, we showed the improved antiproliferative activity of a combination of imatinib mesylate (Gleevec, GV) and cytostatic agents in in vitro studies, when used with a third compound, namely PRI-2191, in an A549 human lung cancer model. Furthermore, we analyzed the influence of both PRI-2191, as well as PRI-2205 on the anticancer activity of GV in mice bearing A549 tumors. The route of PRI-2191 analog administration showed a significant impact on the outcome of GV treatment: subcutaneous injection was more efficient and less toxic than oral gavage. Moreover, both vitamin D compounds increased the anticancer activity of GV; however, they might also potentiate some adverse effects. We also evaluated in tumor tissue the expression of VEGF, PDGF-BB, vitamin D receptor, CYP27B1, CYP24, p53 and Bcl-2, as well as PDGF receptors: α and β. We observed the upregulation of p53 expression and the downregulation of Bcl-2, as well as VEGF in A549 tumors as a result of the tested treatment. However, vitamin D analogs did not significantly influence the expression of these proteins. PMID:26580599

  8. Monitoring microRNAs using a molecular beacon in CD133+/ CD338+ human lung adenocarcinoma-initiating A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Yao, Quan; Sun, Jian-Guo; Ma, Hu; Zhang, An-Mei; Lin, Sheng; Zhu, Cong-Hui; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Zheng-Tang

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and a lack of effective methods for early diagnosis has greatly impacted the prognosis and survival rates of the affected patients. Tumor-initiating cells (TICs) are considered to be largely responsible for tumor genesis, resistance to tumor therapy, metastasis, and recurrence. In addition to representing a good potential treatment target, TICs can provide clues for the early diagnosis of cancer. MicroRNA (miRNA) alterations are known to be involved in the initiation and progression of human cancer, and the detection of related miRNAs in TICs is an important strategy for lung cancer early diagnosis. As Hsa-miR-155 (miR-155) can be used as a diagnostic marker for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), a smart molecular beacon of miR-155 was designed to image the expression of miR-155 in NSCLC cases. TICs expressing CD133 and CD338 were obtained from A549 cells by applying an immune magnetic bead isolation system, and miR-155 was detected using laser-scanning confocal microscopy. We found that intracellular miR- 155 could be successfully detected using smart miR-155 molecular beacons. Expression was higher in TICs than in A549 cells, indicating that miR-155 may play an important role in regulating bio-behavior of TICs. As a non-invasive approach, molecular beacons could be implemented with molecular imaging to diagnose lung cancer at early stages.

  9. A novel small molecule, Rosline, inhibits growth and induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in human lung cancer cells A549 through a reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ting; Feng, Yang; Jin, Wenling; Pan, Hui; Li, Haizhou; Zhao, Yang

    2016-06-01

    Chemical screening using synthetic small molecule libraries has provided a huge amount of novel active molecules. It generates lead compound for drug development and brings focus on molecules for mechanistic investigations on many otherwise intangible biological processes. In this study, using non-small cell lung cancer cell A549 to screen against a structurally novel and diverse synthetic small molecule library of 2,400 compounds, we identified a molecule named rosline that has strong anti-proliferation activity on A549 cells with a 50% cell growth inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of 2.87 ± 0.39 µM. We showed that rosline treatment increased the number of Annexin V-positive staining cell, as well as G2/M arrest in their cell cycle progression. Further, we have demonstrated that rosline induces a decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δφm ) and an increase of caspases 3/7 and 9 activities in A549 cells, although having no effect on the activity of caspase 8. Moreover, we found that rosline could induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibit the phosphorylation of signaling molecule Akt in A549 cells. Alternatively, an antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) significantly attenuated rosline's effects on the mitochondrial membrane potential, caspases 3/7 and 9 activities, cell viabilities and the phosphorylation of Akt. Our results demonstrated that ROS played an important role in the apoptosis of A549 cells induced by rosline. PMID:27006094

  10. Sensitivity of A-549 human lung cancer cells to nanoporous zinc oxide conjugated with Photofrin.

    PubMed

    Fakhar-e-Alam, Muhammad; Ali, Syed Muhammad Usman; Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Kimleang, Khun; Atif, M; Kashif, Muhammad; Loong, Foo Kai; Hashim, Uda; Willander, Magnus

    2012-05-01

    In the present study, we demonstrated the use of nanoporous zinc oxide (ZnO NPs) in photodynamic therapy. The ZnO NPs structure possesses a high surface to volume ratio due to its porosity and ZnO NPs can be used as an efficient photosensitizer carrier system. We were able to grow ZnO NPs on the tip of borosilicate glass capillaries (0.5 μm diameter) and conjugated this with Photofrin for efficient intracellular drug delivery. The ZnO NPs on the capillary tip could be excited intracellularly with 240 nm UV light, and the resultant 625 nm red light emitted in the presence of Photofrin activated a chemical reaction that produced reactive oxygen species (ROS). The procedure was tested in A-549 cells and led to cell death within a few minutes. The morphological changes in necrosed cells were examined by microscopy. The viability of control and treated A-549 cells with the optimum dose of UV/visible light was assessed using the MTT assay, and ROS were detected using a fluorescence microscopy procedure.

  11. Cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and genotoxicity induced by glass fibers on human alveolar epithelial cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Rapisarda, Venerando; Loreto, Carla; Ledda, Caterina; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Bracci, Massimo; Santarelli, Lory; Renis, Marcella; Ferrante, Margherita; Cardile, Venera

    2015-04-01

    Man-made vitreous fibers have been widely used as insulation material as asbestos substitutes; however their morphology and composition raises concerns. In 1988 the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified fiberglass, rock wool, slag wool, and ceramic fibers as Group 2B, i.e. possibly carcinogenic to humans. In 2002 it reassigned fiberglass, rock and slag wool, and continuous glass filaments to Group 3, not classifiable as carcinogenic to humans. The aim of this study was to verify the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects and oxidative stress production induced by in vitro exposure of human alveolar epithelial cells A549 to glass fibers with a predominant diameter <3 μm (97%) and length >5 μm (93%). A549 cells were incubated with 5, 50, or 100 μg/ml (2.1, 21, and 42 μg/cm(2), respectively) of glass fibers for 72 h. Cytotoxicity and DNA damage were tested by the MTT and the Comet assay, respectively. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression by Western blotting, production of nitric oxide (NO) with Griess reagent, and concentration of reactive oxygen species by fluorescent quantitative analysis with 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA). The results showed that glass fiber exposure significantly reduced cell viability and increased DNA damage and oxidative stress production in a concentration-dependent manner, demonstrating that glass fibers exert cytotoxic and genotoxic effects related to increased oxidative stress on the human alveolar cell line A549.

  12. Curcumin promotes apoptosis in A549/DDP multidrug-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells through an miRNA signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Tao; Ti, Xinyu; Shi, Jieran; Wu, Changgui; Ren, Xinling; Yin, Hong

    2010-08-13

    Research highlights: {yields} Curcumin had anti-cancer effects on A549/DDP multidrug-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells {yields} Curcumin promotes apoptosis in A549/DDP cells through a miRNA signaling pathway {yields} Curcumin induces A549/DDP cell apoptosis by downregulating miR-186* {yields} miR-186* may serve as a potential gene therapy target for refractory lung cancer that is sensitive to curcumin -- Abstract: Curcumin extracted from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa L. has been shown to have inhibitory effects on cancers through its anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities. Emerging evidence demonstrates that curcumin can overcome drug resistance to classical chemotherapies. Thus, the mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor activities of curcumin require further study. In our study, we first demonstrated that curcumin had anti-cancer effects on A549/DDP multidrug-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Further studies showed that curcumin altered miRNA expression; in particular, significantly downregulated the expression of miR-186* in A549/DDP. In addition, transfection of cells with a miR-186* inhibitor promoted A549/DDP apoptosis, and overexpression of miR-186* significantly inhibited curcumin-induced apoptosis in A549/DDP cells. These observations suggest that miR-186* may serve as a potential gene therapy target for refractory lung cancer that is sensitive to curcumin.

  13. Claudin-18 inhibits cell proliferation and motility mediated by inhibition of phosphorylation of PDK1 and Akt in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Shimobaba, Shun; Taga, Saeko; Akizuki, Risa; Hichino, Asami; Endo, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Masahiko; Yamazaki, Yasuhiro; Sugatani, Junko; Ikari, Akira

    2016-06-01

    Abnormal expression of claudin subtypes has been reported in various cancers. However, the pathological role of each claudin has not been clarified in detail. Claudin-18 was absent in human non-small cell and small cell lung cancers, although it is expressed in normal lung tissues. Here, we examined the effect of claudin-18 expression on the expression of junctional proteins, cell proliferation, and cell motility using human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Real-time PCR and western blotting showed that exogenous expression of claudin-18 had no effect on the expression of junctional proteins including claudin-1, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, and E-cadherin. Claudin-18 was mainly distributed in cell-cell contact areas concomitant with ZO-1. Cell proliferation was significantly decreased at 48 and 72h after seeding of claudin 18-expressing cells. Claudin-18 suppressed cell motility, whereas it increased cell death in anoikis. Claudin-18 decreased phosphorylated (p)-3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) and p-Akt levels without affecting p-epidermal growth factor receptor and p-phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) levels. Furthermore, claudin-18 was bound with PDK1 and suppressed the nuclear localization of PDK1. We suggest that claudin-18 suppresses the abnormal proliferation and motility of lung epithelial cells mediated by inhibition of the PI3K/PDK1/Akt signaling pathway.

  14. A comprehensive proteomic view of responses of A549 type II alveolar epithelial cells to human respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    PubMed

    Dave, Keyur A; Norris, Emma L; Bukreyev, Alexander A; Headlam, Madeleine J; Buchholz, Ursula J; Singh, Toshna; Collins, Peter L; Gorman, Jeffrey J

    2014-12-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus is a major respiratory pathogen for which there are no suitable antivirals or vaccines. A better understanding of the host cell response to this virus may redress this problem. The present report concerns analysis of multiple independent biological replicates of control and 24 h infected lysates of A549 cells by two different proteomic workflows. One workflow involved fractionation of lysates by in-solution protein IEF and individual fractions were digested using trypsin prior to capillary HPLC-LTQ-OrbitrapXL-MS/MS. A second workflow involved digestion of whole cell lysates and analysis by nanoUltraHPLC-LTQ-OrbitrapElite-MS/MS. Both workflows resulted in the quantification of viral proteins exclusively in lysates of infected cells in the relative abundances anticipated from previous studies. Unprecedented numbers (3247 - 5010) of host cell protein groups were also quantified and the infection-specific regulation of a large number (191) of these protein groups was evident based on a stringent false discovery rate cut-off (<1%). Bioinformatic analyses revealed that most of the regulated proteins were potentially regulated by type I, II, and III interferon, TNF-α and noncanonical NF-κB2 mediated antiviral response pathways. Regulation of specific protein groups by infection was validated by quantitative Western blotting and the cytokine-/key regulator-specific nature of their regulation was confirmed by comparable analyses of cytokine treated A549 cells. Overall, it is evident that the workflows described herein have produced the most comprehensive proteomic characterization of host cell responses to human respiratory syncytial virus published to date. These workflows will form the basis for analysis of the impacts of specific genes of human respiratory syncytial virus responses of A549 and other cell lines using a gene-deleted version of the virus. They should also prove valuable for the analysis of the impact of other infectious

  15. A Comprehensive Proteomic View of Responses of A549 Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cells to Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection*

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Keyur A.; Norris, Emma L.; Bukreyev, Alexander A.; Headlam, Madeleine J.; Buchholz, Ursula J.; Singh, Toshna; Collins, Peter L.; Gorman, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus is a major respiratory pathogen for which there are no suitable antivirals or vaccines. A better understanding of the host cell response to this virus may redress this problem. The present report concerns analysis of multiple independent biological replicates of control and 24 h infected lysates of A549 cells by two different proteomic workflows. One workflow involved fractionation of lysates by in-solution protein IEF and individual fractions were digested using trypsin prior to capillary HPLC-LTQ-OrbitrapXL-MS/MS. A second workflow involved digestion of whole cell lysates and analysis by nanoUltraHPLC-LTQ-OrbitrapElite-MS/MS. Both workflows resulted in the quantification of viral proteins exclusively in lysates of infected cells in the relative abundances anticipated from previous studies. Unprecedented numbers (3247 - 5010) of host cell protein groups were also quantified and the infection-specific regulation of a large number (191) of these protein groups was evident based on a stringent false discovery rate cut-off (<1%). Bioinformatic analyses revealed that most of the regulated proteins were potentially regulated by type I, II, and III interferon, TNF-α and noncanonical NF-κB2 mediated antiviral response pathways. Regulation of specific protein groups by infection was validated by quantitative Western blotting and the cytokine-/key regulator-specific nature of their regulation was confirmed by comparable analyses of cytokine treated A549 cells. Overall, it is evident that the workflows described herein have produced the most comprehensive proteomic characterization of host cell responses to human respiratory syncytial virus published to date. These workflows will form the basis for analysis of the impacts of specific genes of human respiratory syncytial virus responses of A549 and other cell lines using a gene-deleted version of the virus. They should also prove valuable for the analysis of the impact of other infectious

  16. CDK-associated Cullin 1 promotes cell proliferation with activation of ERK1/2 in human lung cancer A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Tian Jun; Gao, Fei; Yang, Tian; Thakur, Asmitanand; Ren, Hui; Li, Yang; Zhang, Shuo; Wang, Ting; Chen, Ming Wei

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •CDK-associated Cullin 1 (CAC1) expression increases in human lung carcinoma. •CAC1 promotes the proliferation of lung cancer A549 cells. •CAC1 promotes human lung cancer A549 cell proliferation with activation of ERK1/2. -- Abstract: Lung cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death in the world, but the mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the expression of CDK-associated Cullin 1 (CAC1) in lung cancer, the effect of CAC1 on the proliferation of human lung cancer A549 cells, and the activation of signaling pathways of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Results showed that CAC1 expression was higher levels in human lung carcinoma than normal lung tissue, and CAC1 siRNA reduced the proliferation of lung cancer A549 cells by decreasing cell activity and cell division in vitro. The proportion of cells treated with CAC1 siRNA increased in the G1 phase and decreased in the S and G2/M phase, indicative of G1 cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, the proportions of early/late apoptosis in lung cancer A549 cells were enhanced with CAC1 siRNA treatment. It was also found that activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and p38 signaling pathways were involved in the proliferation of A549 cells. After CAC1 siRNA treatment, p-ERK1/2 levels decreased, and meanwhile p-p38 level increased, A549 cell proliferation increased when ERK1/2 signaling is activated by PMA. Our findings demonstrated that CAC1 promoted the proliferation of human lung cancer A549 cells with activation of ERK1/2 signaling pathways, suggesting a potential cure target for treatment of human lung cancer.

  17. Ultrasensitive cytosensing based on an aptamer modified nanobiosensor with a bioconjugate: Detection of human non-small-cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mir, Tanveer A; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Gurudatt, N G; Won, Mi-Sook; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2015-12-15

    A novel aptamer-based amperometric nanobiosensor was designed for the sensitive and selective detection of A549 human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. The cytosensing was performed using a MUC1 aptamer probe with a bioconjugate, where the probe was fabricated by the covalent immobilization on a conducting polymer nanocomposite formed through the self-assembly of 4-([2,2':5',2''-terthiophen]-3'-yl) benzoic acid (TTBA) on AuNPs. A bioconjugate composed of hydrazine and aptamer attached on AuNPs was used to reveal the selectively amplified detection signal. The cells were quantitatively analyzed using chronoamperometric measurements, and the results were further compared and confirmed using microscopic and DPV methods based on silver staining cytosensing experiments. The proposed aptasensor showed a high affinity for MUC1 positive lung cancer cells (A549) compared with the other control cancer cells, including human prostate (PC3), MUC1 negative normal lung (MRC-5), and liver tumors (HepG2) cells. An excellent dynamic range of the proposed method was obtained from 15 to 1×10(6) cells/mL with a detection limit of 8 cells/mL.

  18. Methyl methanesulfonate induces necroptosis in human lung adenoma A549 cells through the PIG-3-reactive oxygen species pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Shan, Shigang; Chi, Linfeng; Zhang, Guanglin; Gao, Xiangjing; Li, Hongjuan; Zhu, Xinqiang; Yang, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) is an alkylating agent that can induce cell death through apoptosis and necroptosis. The molecular mechanisms underlying MMS-induced apoptosis have been studied extensively; however, little is known about the mechanism for MMS-induced necroptosis. Therefore, we first established MMS-induced necroptosis model using human lung carcinoma A549 cells. It was found that, within a 24-h period, although MMS at concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 μM can induce DNA damage, only at higher concentrations (400 and 800 μM) MMS treatment lead to necroptosis in A549 cells, as it could be inhibited by the specific necroptotic inhibitor necrostatin-1, but not the specific apoptotic inhibitor carbobenzoxy-valyl-alanyl-aspartyl-[O-methyl]-fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD-fmk). MMS-induced necroptosis was further confirmed by the induction of the necroptosis biomarkers including the depletion of cellular NADH and ATP and leakage of LDH. This necroptotic cell death was also concurrent with the increased expression of p53, p53-induced gene 3 (PIG-3), high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1), and receptor interaction protein kinase (RIP) but not the apoptosis-associated caspase-3 and caspase-9 proteins. Elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was also involved in this process as the specific ROS inhibitor (4-amino-2,4-pyrrolidine-dicarboxylic acid (APDC)) can inhibit the necroptotic cell death. Interestingly, knockdown of PIG-3 expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment can inhibit the generation of ROS. Taken together, these results suggest that MMS can induce necroptosis in A549 cells, probably through the PIG-3-ROS pathway.

  19. Antimetastatic Effects of Phyllanthus on Human Lung (A549) and Breast (MCF-7) Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sau Har; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Wang, Seok Mui; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2011-01-01

    Background Current chemotherapeutic drugs kill cancer cells mainly by inducing apoptosis. However, they become ineffective once cancer cell has the ability to metastasize, hence the poor prognosis and high mortality rate. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimetastatic potential of Phyllanthus (P. niruri, P. urinaria, P. watsonii, and P. amarus) on lung and breast carcinoma cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Cytotoxicity of Phyllanthus plant extracts were first screened using the MTS reduction assay. They were shown to inhibit MCF-7 (breast carcinoma) and A549 (lung carcinoma) cells growth with IC50 values ranging from 50–180 µg/ml and 65–470 µg/ml for methanolic and aqueous extracts respectively. In comparison, they have lower toxicity on normal cells with the cell viability percentage remaining above 50% when treated up to 1000 µg/ml for both extracts. After determining the non-toxic effective dose, several antimetastasis assays were carried out and Phyllanthus extracts were shown to effectively reduce invasion, migration, and adhesion of both MCF-7 and A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner, at concentrations ranging from 20–200 µg/ml for methanolic extracts and 50–500 µg/ml for aqueous extracts. This was followed by an evaluation of the possible modes of cell death that occurred along with the antimetastatic activity. Phyllanthus was shown to be capable of inducing apoptosis in conjunction with its antimetastastic action, with more than three fold increase of caspases-3 and -7, the presence of DNA-fragmentation and TUNEL-positive cells. The ability of Phyllanthus to exert antimetastatic activities is mostly associated to the presence of polyphenol compounds in its extracts. Conclusions/Significance The presence of polyphenol compounds in the Phyllanthus plant is critically important in the inhibition of the invasion, migration, and adhesion of cancer cells, along with the involvement of apoptosis induction. Hence

  20. Nanoparticles of Selaginella doederleinii leaf extract inhibit human lung cancer cells A549

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syaefudin; Juniarti, A.; Rosiyana, L.; Setyani, A.; Khodijah, S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate cytotoxicity effect of nanoparticles of Selaginella doederleinii (S. doederleinii) leaves extract. S. doederleinii was extracted by maceration method using 70%(v/v) ethanol as solvent. Phytochemical content was analyzed qualitatively by using Harborne and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) methods. Nanoparticle extract was prepared by ionic gelation using chitosan as encapsulant agent. Anticancer activity was performed by using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results showed that S. doederleinii contains of flavonoids. Nanoparticle of S. doederleinii leaves extract greatly inhibited A549 cells growth (cancer cells), with IC50 of 3% or 1020 μg/ml. These nanoparticles extract also inhibited the growth of Chang cells (normal cells), with IC50 of 4% or 1442 μg/ml. The effective concentration of nanoparticles extract which inhibits cancer cells without harming the normal cells is 0.5% or 167 μg/ml. Further studies are needed to obtain the concentration of nanoparticles extract which can selectively suppress cancer cells.

  1. Mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human lung cancer A549 cells by 4-methylsulfinyl-3-butenyl isothiocyanate from radish seeds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Wang, Wei; Huo, Po; Liu, Cai-Qin; Jin, Jian-Chang; Shen, Lian-Qing

    2014-01-01

    4-Methylsulfinyl-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (MTBITC) found in the radish (Raphanus sativus L.), is a well- known anticancer agent. In this study, the mechanisms of the MTBITC induction of cell apoptosis in human A549 lung cancer cells were investigated. Our PI staining results showed that MTBITC treatment significantly increased the apoptotic sub-G1 fraction in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanism of apoptosis induced by MTBITC was investigated by testing the change of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), the expression of mRNAs of apoptosis-related genes by RT-PCR, and the activities of caspase-3 and -9 by caspase colorimetric assay. MTBITC treatment decreased mitochondrial membrane potential by down-regulating the rate of Bcl-2/ Bax and Bcl-xL/Bax, and activation of caspase-3 and -9. Therefore, mitochondrial pathway and Bcl-2 gene family could be involved in the mechanisms of A549 cell apoptosis induced by MTBITC. PMID:24716946

  2. Anticancer property of gallic acid in A549, a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, and possible mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Dharmendra K.; Nandakumar, Nivedita; Devasagayam, Thomas Paul Asir

    2011-01-01

    Gallic acid is widely distributed in plants, fruits and foods with a range of biological activities. In the present study the possible mechanisms of gallic acid anticancer properties were explored in A549, a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line. Our study shows that it inhibited the A549 cell growth and decreased cell viability monitored at 24 h. It also inhibited cell proliferation in dose- and time-dependent manner as measured by 3-[4,5-methylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay at 24 and 48 h. Morphological examination of the cells after gallic acid treatment showed the typical feature of cell death such as cell shrinkage and rounding up of the cells. Clonogenic assay indicated that gallic acid treatments inhibited the colony formation. DNA fragmentation assay indicated the disappearance of the genomic DNA in dose-dependent manner. To find out possible mechanisms, mitochondrial potential and intracellular reactive oxygen species were measured. It was observed that gallic acid treatment decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and increased intracellular reactive oxygen species. Further caspases activity was measured and it was found that gallic acid activated the caspase-3 but not caspase-8 indicating the involvement of intrinsic pathway of cell apoptosis. PMID:21297918

  3. Portulaca oleracea Seed Oil Exerts Cytotoxic Effects on Human Liver Cancer (HepG2) and Human Lung Cancer (A-549) Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Al-Sheddi, Ebtesam Saad; Farshori, Nida Nayyar; Al-Oqail, Mai Mohammad; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz Ali; Siddiqui, Maqsood Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea (Family: Portulacaceae), is well known for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, anti- bacterial, and anti-tumor activities. However, cytotoxic effects of seed oil of Portulaca oleracea against human liver cancer (HepG2) and human lung cancer (A-549) cell lines have not been studied previously. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxic effects of Portulaca oleracea seed oil on HepG2 and A-549 cell lines. Both cell lines were exposed to various concentrations of Portulaca oleracea seed oil for 24h. After the exposure, percentage cell viability was studied by (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT), neutral red uptake (NRU) assays, and cellular morphology by phase contrast inverted microscopy. The results showed a concentration-dependent significant reduction in the percentage cell viability and an alteration in the cellular morphology of HepG2 and A-549 cells. The percentage cell viability was recorded as 73%, 63%, and 54% by MTT assay and 76%, 61%, and 50% by NRU assay at 250, 500, and 1000 μg/ml, respectively in HepG2 cells. Percentage cell viability was recorded as 82%, 72%, and 64% by MTT assay and 83%, 68%, and 56% by NRU assay at 250, 500, and 1000 μg/ml, respectively in A-549 cells. The 100 μg/ml and lower concentrations were found to be non cytotoxic to A-549 cells, whereas decrease of 14% and 12% were recorded by MTT and NRU assay, respectively in HepG2 cells. Both HepG2 and A-549 cell lines exposed to 250, 500, and 1000 μg/ ml of Portulaca oleracea seed oil lost their normal morphology, cell adhesion capacity, become rounded, and appeared smaller in size. The data from this study showed that exposure to seed oil of Portulaca oleracea resulted in significant cytotoxicity and inhibition of growth of the human liver cancer (HepG2) and human lung cancer (A-549) cell lines. PMID:25921149

  4. Short-Course Treatment With Gefitinib Enhances Curative Potential of Radiation Therapy in a Mouse Model of Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bokobza, Sivan M.; Jiang, Yanyan; Weber, Anika M.; Devery, Aoife M.; Ryan, Anderson J.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the combination of radiation and an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) in preclinical models of human non-small cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Sensitivity to an EGFR TKI (gefitinib) or radiation was assessed using proliferation assays and clonogenic survival assays. Effects on receptor signal transduction pathways (pEGFR, pAKT, pMAPK) and apoptosis (percentage of cleaved PARP Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)) were assessed by Western blotting. Radiation-induced DNA damage was assessed by γH2AX immunofluorescence. Established (≥100 mm{sup 3}) EGFR-mutated (HCC287) or EGFR wild-type (A549) subcutaneous xenografts were treated with radiation (10 Gy, day 1) or gefitinib (50 mg/kg, orally, on days 1-3) or both. Results: In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines with activating EGFR mutations (PC9 or HCC827), gefitinib treatment markedly reduced pEGFR, pAKT, and pMAPK levels and was associated with an increase in cleaved PARP but not in γH2AX foci. Radiation treatment increased the mean number of γH2AX foci per cell but did not significantly affect EGFR signaling. In contrast, NSCLC cell lines with EGFR T790M (H1975) or wild-type EGFR (A549) were insensitive to gefitinib treatment. The combination of gefitinib and radiation treatment in cell culture produced additive cell killing with no evidence of synergy. In xenograft models, a short course of gefitinib (3 days) did not significantly increase the activity of radiation treatment in wild-type EGFR (A549) tumors (P=.27), whereas this combination markedly increased the activity of radiation (P<.001) or gefitinib alone (P=.002) in EGFR-mutated HCC827 tumors, producing sustained tumor regressions. Conclusions: Gefitinib treatment increases clonogenic cell killing by radiation but only in cell lines sensitive to gefitinib alone. Our data suggest additive rather than synergistic interactions between gefitinib and radiation and that a

  5. Effects of fatty acids on benzo[a]pyrene uptake and metabolism in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Barhoumi, Rola; Mouneimne, Youssef; Chapkin, Robert S; Burghardt, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    Dietary supplementation with natural chemoprotective agents is receiving considerable attention because of health benefits and lack of toxicity. In recent in vivo and in vitro experimental studies, diets rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been shown to provide significant anti-tumor action. In this investigation, the effects of control fatty acids (oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid (LA)) and n-3 PUFA, e.g., docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the uptake and metabolism of the carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) was investigated in A549 cells, a human adenocarcinoma alveolar basal epithelial cell line. A549 cells activate BaP through the cytochrome P450 enzyme system to form reactive metabolites, a few of which covalently bind to DNA and proteins. Therefore, multiphoton microscopy spectral analysis combined with linear unmixing was used to identify the parent compound and BaP metabolites formed in cells, in the presence and absence of fatty acids. The relative abundance of select metabolites was associated with altered P450 activity as determined using ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in cells cultured in the presence of BSA-conjugated fatty acids. In addition, the parent compound within cellular membranes increases significantly in the presence of each of the fatty acids, with the greatest accumulation observed following DHA treatment. DHA treated cells exhibit significantly lower pyrene-like metabolites indicative of lower adducts including DNA adducts compared to control BSA, OA or LA treated cells. Further, DHA reduced the abundance of the proximate carcinogen BaP 7,8-dihydrodiol and the 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene metabolites compared to other treatments. The significant changes in BaP metabolites in DHA treated cells may be mediated by the effects on the physicochemical properties of the membrane known to affect enzyme activity related to phase I and phase II metabolism. In summary, DHA is a highly bioactive chemo

  6. Extract of Bryophyllum laetivirens reverses etoposide resistance in human lung A549 cancer cells by downregulation of NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Kaewpiboon, Chutima; Srisuttee, Ratakorn; Malilas, Waraporn; Moon, Jeong; Kaowinn, Sirichat; Cho, Il-Rae; Johnston, Randal N; Assavalapsakul, Wanchai; Chung, Young-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Since multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the main reasons for failure in cancer treatment, its suppression may increase the efficacy of cancer therapy. In the present study we attempted to identify a new and effective anticancer drug against MDR cancer cells. We first found that lung cancer A549 cells resistant to etoposide (A549RT-eto) exhibit upregulation of NF-κB and SIRT1 in comparison to A549 parental cells. During a search for anticancer drug candidates from medicinal plant sources, we found that an extract fraction (F14) of Bryophyllum laetivirens leaves downregulated expression of NF-κB and SIRT1, sensitizing the levels of A549RT-eto cells to apoptosis through downregulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which is encoded by the MDR1 gene. To address whether NF-κB is involved in resistance to etoposide through P-gp, we treated A549RT-eto cells with Bay11-7802, an inhibitor of NF-κB. We then observed that Bay11-7802 treatment reduced P-gp expression levels, and furthermore combined treatment with the F14 extract and Bay11-7802 accelerated apoptosis through a decrease in P-gp levels, suggesting that NF-κB is involved in MDR. To address whether upregulation of SIRT1 is involved in resistance to etoposide through P-gp, we treated A549RT-eto cells with SIRT1 siRNA or nicotinamide (NAM), an inhibitor of SIRT1. we found that suppression of SIRT1 did not reduce P-gp levels. furthermore, the combined treatment with the F14 extract, and SIRT1 siRNA or NAM did not accelerate apoptosis, indicating that SIRT1 is not involved in the regulation of P-gp levels in A549RT-eto cells. Taken together, we suggest that upregulation of NF-κB determines etoposide resistance through P-gp expression in human A549 lung cancer cells. We herein demonstrated that B. laetivirens extract reverses etoposide resistance in human A549 lung cancer cells through downregulation of NF-κB. PMID:24220725

  7. Extract of Bryophyllum laetivirens reverses etoposide resistance in human lung A549 cancer cells by downregulation of NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Kaewpiboon, Chutima; Srisuttee, Ratakorn; Malilas, Waraporn; Moon, Jeong; Kaowinn, Sirichat; Cho, Il-Rae; Johnston, Randal N; Assavalapsakul, Wanchai; Chung, Young-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Since multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the main reasons for failure in cancer treatment, its suppression may increase the efficacy of cancer therapy. In the present study we attempted to identify a new and effective anticancer drug against MDR cancer cells. We first found that lung cancer A549 cells resistant to etoposide (A549RT-eto) exhibit upregulation of NF-κB and SIRT1 in comparison to A549 parental cells. During a search for anticancer drug candidates from medicinal plant sources, we found that an extract fraction (F14) of Bryophyllum laetivirens leaves downregulated expression of NF-κB and SIRT1, sensitizing the levels of A549RT-eto cells to apoptosis through downregulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which is encoded by the MDR1 gene. To address whether NF-κB is involved in resistance to etoposide through P-gp, we treated A549RT-eto cells with Bay11-7802, an inhibitor of NF-κB. We then observed that Bay11-7802 treatment reduced P-gp expression levels, and furthermore combined treatment with the F14 extract and Bay11-7802 accelerated apoptosis through a decrease in P-gp levels, suggesting that NF-κB is involved in MDR. To address whether upregulation of SIRT1 is involved in resistance to etoposide through P-gp, we treated A549RT-eto cells with SIRT1 siRNA or nicotinamide (NAM), an inhibitor of SIRT1. we found that suppression of SIRT1 did not reduce P-gp levels. furthermore, the combined treatment with the F14 extract, and SIRT1 siRNA or NAM did not accelerate apoptosis, indicating that SIRT1 is not involved in the regulation of P-gp levels in A549RT-eto cells. Taken together, we suggest that upregulation of NF-κB determines etoposide resistance through P-gp expression in human A549 lung cancer cells. We herein demonstrated that B. laetivirens extract reverses etoposide resistance in human A549 lung cancer cells through downregulation of NF-κB.

  8. In vitro and in vivo studies on the inhibitory effects of myocardial cell culture medium on growth of a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, A549

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Y.; Zhou, J.; Fu, S.Z.; Fan, J.; Wu, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the heart is one of the body’s vital organs, with an abundant blood supply, metastasis to the heart is considered rare. In a previous study, we found that the myocardial microenvironment might contain a low molecular weight natural tumour suppressor. The present study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effect of cardiac myocyte–conditioned medium (cmcm) on the growth of A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Methods An mtt assay was used to detect the inhibition ratio with respect to A549 proliferation. Human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549 cell strain) were transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice to produce tumours. The xenograft tumour growth in mice was observed after selected drug administration. Results After treatment with cmcm and cisplatin (Cis), A549 cell viability significantly declined (p < 0.001). The cell viability in the cmcm and Cis groups were 53.42% ± 3.45% and 58.45% ± 6.39% respectively. Growth of implanted tumour cells in vivo was significantly inhibited in the cmcm group, the group treated with recombinant human adenovirus–p53, and the Cis-treated group compared with a control group. The inhibition rates were 41.44% in the cmcm group, 41.34% in the p53 group, and 64.50% in the Cis group. Lung metastasis capacity was significantly reduced in the presence of cmcm (p < 0.05). Lung metastasis inhibition rates in mice were 56.52% in the cmcm group, 47.83% in the p53 group, and 82.61% in the Cis group. With cmcm, the lives of A549-tumour-bearing mice could be significantly prolonged without any effect on weight loss. Conclusions Use of cmcm has the effect of reducing A549 cell viability, tumour volume, and lung metastasis rate, while prolonging survival duration without severe toxicity. PMID:26966411

  9. Sulforaphene-Carboplatin Combination Synergistically Enhances Apoptosis by Disruption of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential and Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Saswata; Rhee, Yun-Hee; Ahn, Jin-Chul

    2016-09-01

    Worldwide non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) causes substantial morbidity and mortality among human populations. Due to the severe side effects and low survival rate of patients with the conventional drugs, implementation of new combination therapies is much needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a combination therapy with a conventional drug and a natural medicine. We compared the combination of chemotherapy drug carboplatin and the radish-derived isothiocyanate compound sulforaphene, which synergistically induces higher apoptosis and growth inhibition in A549, to the drug alone in human NSCLC cells. We found that this combination group significantly induced higher depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and intracellular reactive oxygen species generation than the single drug dose, followed by cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase after 24 h of incubation. In addition to that, the Western blot assays showed that combination treatment inhibited the expression of Bcl-2 and successively upregulated the expression of Bax, cytochrome C, apoptosis-inducing factor, caspase-9 and -3, and cleaved poly ADP ribose polymerase. It also modulated the expression of PI3K, p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (1/2), and p-c-Jun N-terminal kinase indicating the involvement of antiproliferative properties. Further pretreatment with pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk was carried out to confirm the effect of caspases in the combination therapy-induced apoptosis. To summarize, this is the first report that sulforaphene-carboplatin combination treatment synergistically promotes enhanced apoptosis and antiproliferative effect over single drug treatment against A549, human NSCLC cells through caspase activation, MMP disruption, and cell cycle arrest. This study demonstrates that the duel character of this combination therapy may be an effective replacement for conventional therapy alone against NSCLC. PMID:27467015

  10. Effects of Human Parvovirus B19 and Bocavirus VP1 Unique Region on Tight Junction of Human Airway Epithelial A549 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chun-Ching; Shi, Ya-Fang; Yang, Jiann-Jou; Hsiao, Yuan-Chao; Tzang, Bor-Show; Hsu, Tsai-Ching

    2014-01-01

    As is widely recognized, human parvovirus B19 (B19) and human bocavirus (HBoV) are important human pathogens. Obviously, both VP1 unique region (VP1u) of B19 and HBoV exhibit the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-like enzymatic activity and are recognized to participate in the pathogenesis of lower respiratory tract illnesses. However, exactly how, both VP1u from B19 and HBoV affect tight junction has seldom been addressed. Therefore, this study investigates how B19-VP1u and HBoV-VP1u may affect the tight junction of the airway epithelial A549 cells by examining phospholipase A2 activity and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) as well as performing immunoblotting analyses. Experimental results indicate that TEER is more significantly decreased in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-α (10 ng), two dosages of B19-VP1u and BoV-VP1u (400 ng and 4000 ng) or bee venom PLA2 (10 ng) than that of the control. Accordingly, more significantly increased claudin-1 and decreased occludin are detected in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-α or both dosages of HBoV-VP1u than that of the control. Additionally, more significantly decreased Na+/K+ ATPase is observed in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-α, high dosage of B19-VP1u or both dosages of BoV-VP1u than that of the control. Above findings suggest that HBoV-VP1u rather than B19 VP1u likely plays more important roles in the disruption of tight junction in the airway tract. Meanwhile, this discrepancy appears not to be associated with the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-like enzymatic activity. PMID:25268969

  11. Effects of human Parvovirus B19 and Bocavirus VP1 unique region on tight junction of human airway epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chun-Ching; Shi, Ya-Fang; Yang, Jiann-Jou; Hsiao, Yuan-Chao; Tzang, Bor-Show; Hsu, Tsai-Ching

    2014-01-01

    As is widely recognized, human parvovirus B19 (B19) and human bocavirus (HBoV) are important human pathogens. Obviously, both VP1 unique region (VP1u) of B19 and HBoV exhibit the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-like enzymatic activity and are recognized to participate in the pathogenesis of lower respiratory tract illnesses. However, exactly how, both VP1u from B19 and HBoV affect tight junction has seldom been addressed. Therefore, this study investigates how B19-VP1u and HBoV-VP1u may affect the tight junction of the airway epithelial A549 cells by examining phospholipase A2 activity and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) as well as performing immunoblotting analyses. Experimental results indicate that TEER is more significantly decreased in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-α (10 ng), two dosages of B19-VP1u and BoV-VP1u (400 ng and 4000 ng) or bee venom PLA2 (10 ng) than that of the control. Accordingly, more significantly increased claudin-1 and decreased occludin are detected in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-α or both dosages of HBoV-VP1u than that of the control. Additionally, more significantly decreased Na+/K+ ATPase is observed in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-α, high dosage of B19-VP1u or both dosages of BoV-VP1u than that of the control. Above findings suggest that HBoV-VP1u rather than B19 VP1u likely plays more important roles in the disruption of tight junction in the airway tract. Meanwhile, this discrepancy appears not to be associated with the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-like enzymatic activity.

  12. Raman spectroscopy identifies radiation response in human non-small cell lung cancer xenografts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harder, Samantha J.; Isabelle, Martin; Devorkin, Lindsay; Smazynski, Julian; Beckham, Wayne; Brolo, Alexandre G.; Lum, Julian J.; Jirasek, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    External beam radiation therapy is a standard form of treatment for numerous cancers. Despite this, there are no approved methods to account for patient specific radiation sensitivity. In this report, Raman spectroscopy (RS) was used to identify radiation-induced biochemical changes in human non-small cell lung cancer xenografts. Chemometric analysis revealed unique radiation-related Raman signatures that were specific to nucleic acid, lipid, protein and carbohydrate spectral features. Among these changes was a dramatic shift in the accumulation of glycogen spectral bands for doses of 5 or 15 Gy when compared to unirradiated tumours. When spatial mapping was applied in this analysis there was considerable variability as we found substantial intra- and inter-tumour heterogeneity in the distribution of glycogen and other RS spectral features. Collectively, these data provide unique insight into the biochemical response of tumours, irradiated in vivo, and demonstrate the utility of RS for detecting distinct radiobiological responses in human tumour xenografts.

  13. Flavonoids isolated from Citrus platymamma induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Nagappan, Arulkumar; Lee, Ho Jeong; Saralamma, Venu Venkatarame Gowda; Park, Hyeon Soo; Hong, Gyeong Eun; Yumnam, Silvia; Raha, Suchismita; Charles, Shobana Nancy; Shin, Sung Chul; Kim, Eun Hee; Lee, Won Sup; Kim, Gon Sup

    2016-01-01

    Citrus platymamma hort. ex Tanaka belongs to the Rutaceae family and is widely used in folk medicines in Korea due to its anti-proliferative, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities. However, the molecular mechanism of its anti-cancer effect is not well understood. The present study was conducted to elucidate the anti-cancer effect and molecular mechanism of flavonoids from Citrus platymamma (FCP) on A549 cells. FCP displayed concentration-dependent inhibition on A549 cells proliferation. Further, flow cytometry revealed that FCP significantly increased the sub-G1 (apoptotic cell population) and G2/M phase population, and the total number of apoptotic cells, in a dose-dependent manner. Nuclear condensation and fragmentation were also observed upon staining with Hoechst 33342 in FCP-treated A549 cells. Immunoblotting demonstrated a dose-dependent downregulation of cyclin B1, cyclin-dependent kinase 1, cell division cycle 25c, pro-caspases −3, −6, −8 and −9, and poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in FCP-treated A549 cells. In addition, FCP induced caspase-3 activation and subsequent PARP cleavage, and increased the B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2-associated X protein/Bcl-extra large ratio in A549 cells. These findings suggest that FCP induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis of A549 cells. The present study provides evidence that FCP may be useful in the treatment of human lung cancer. PMID:27446443

  14. Quantitative proteomic analysis of A549 cells infected with human respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    Munday, Diane C; Emmott, Edward; Surtees, Rebecca; Lardeau, Charles-Hugues; Wu, Weining; Duprex, W Paul; Dove, Brian K; Barr, John N; Hiscox, Julian A

    2010-11-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a major cause of pediatric lower respiratory tract disease to which there is no vaccine or efficacious chemotherapeutic strategy. Although RNA synthesis and virus assembly occur in the cytoplasm, HRSV is known to induce nuclear responses in the host cell as replication alters global gene expression. Quantitative proteomics was used to take an unbiased overview of the protein changes in transformed human alveolar basal epithelial cells infected with HRSV. Underpinning this was the use of stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture coupled to LC-MS/MS, which allowed the direct and simultaneous identification and quantification of both cellular and viral proteins. To reduce sample complexity and increase data return on potential protein localization, cells were fractionated into nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts. This resulted in the identification of 1,140 cellular proteins and six viral proteins. The proteomics data were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis to identify defined canonical pathways and functional groupings. Selected data were validated using Western blot, direct and indirect immunofluorescence confocal microscopy, and functional assays. The study served to validate and expand upon known HRSV-host cell interactions, including those associated with the antiviral response and alterations in subnuclear structures such as the nucleolus and ND10 (promyelocytic leukemia bodies). In addition, novel changes were observed in mitochondrial proteins and functions, cell cycle regulatory molecules, nuclear pore complex proteins and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking proteins. These data shed light into how the cell is potentially altered to create conditions more favorable for infection. Additionally, the study highlights the application and advantage of stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture coupled to LC-MS/MS for the analysis of virus-host interactions.

  15. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of Ebenus boissieri Barbey on human lung cancer cell line A549

    PubMed Central

    Aydemir, Esra Arslan; Simsek, Ece; Imir, Nilüfer; Göktürk, Ramazan Süleyman; Yesilada, Erdem; Fiskin, Kayahan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fabaceae family members are known to possess preventive and therapeutic potentials against various types of cancers. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of hydroalcoholic extracts from the aerial parts and roots of an endemic Ebenus species; Ebenus boissieri Barbey in human lung cancer cell line. Materials and Methods: After treatment with hydroalcoholic extracts cytotoxic activities of both extracts were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, whereas caspase-3 activity, tumor necrosis factor-a lpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) releasewere measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results: According to in vitro assay results, the increase in all caspases activity suggested that extracts induce cells to undergo apoptosis. Especially, induction in caspase-3 activity was the most remarkable result of this study. Both aerial part and root extracts induced apoptosis by increasing caspase-3 activity, TNF-α and IFN-γ release. When compared to their relative controls, the concentrations of both TNF-α and IFN-γ in extract-treated groups were significantly and dose dependently exalted. Conclusion: Taken together, our results indicate that the hydroalcoholic extracts of E. boissieri can be considered as a source of new anti-apoptotic and therefore anti-carcinogenic agent. PMID:26109772

  16. Ginger extract inhibits human telomerase reverse transcriptase and c-Myc expression in A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tuntiwechapikul, Wirote; Taka, Thanachai; Songsomboon, Chonnipa; Kaewtunjai, Navakoon; Imsumran, Arisa; Makonkawkeyoon, Luksana; Pompimon, Wilart; Lee, T Randall

    2010-12-01

    The rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) has been reputed to have many curative properties in traditional medicine, and recent publications have also shown that many agents in ginger possess anticancer properties. Here we show that the ethyl acetate fraction of ginger extract can inhibit the expression of the two prominent molecular targets of cancer, the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and c-Myc, in A549 lung cancer cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The treated cells exhibited diminished telomerase activity because of reduced protein production rather than direct inhibition of telomerase. The reduction of hTERT expression coincided with the reduction of c-Myc expression, which is one of the hTERT transcription factors; thus, the reduction in hTERT expression might be due in part to the decrease of c-Myc. As both telomerase inhibition and Myc inhibition are cancer-specific targets for cancer therapy, ginger extract might prove to be beneficial as a complementary agent in cancer prevention and maintenance therapy. PMID:21091248

  17. Okadaic acid inhibits cell multiplication and induces apoptosis in a549 cells, a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Renjun; Lv, Lili; Zhao, Yunfeng; Yang, Nana

    2014-01-01

    This essay aims to research the effect of okadaic acid (OA) on A549 cell multiplication, and cell apoptosis induced by OA was observed by cell morphology. MTT assay, trypan blue exclusion test (TBET), Giemsa staining method and acridine orange (AO) fluorescence staining assay were applied. The results of cell survival evaluated by TBET and colorimetric assay with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) showed: The number of A549 cells was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Cytomorphology observation of okadaic acid-treated cells showed that cells became shrinkage and turned round, some cells floated in the nutrient medium with nucleus agglutination broken, resulting in apoptotic bodies. Above-mentioned results indicated that OA exerted significantly inhibitory effect on A549 cell multiplication due to the apoptosis induced by OA. PMID:25232383

  18. Safrole oxide induces apoptosis by up-regulating Fas and FasL instead of integrin beta4 in A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Du, AiYing; Zhao, BaoXiang; Miao, JunYing; Yin, DeLing; Zhang, ShangLi

    2006-04-01

    Previously, we found that 3,4-(methylenedioxy)-1-(2',3'-epoxypropyl)-benzene (safrole oxide) induced a typical apoptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells by activating caspase-3, -8, and -9. In this study, we further investigated which upstream pathways were activated by safrole oxide during the apoptosis. Immunofluorescence assay combined with laser scanning confocal microscopy revealed that both Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) were up-regulated by the small molecule. In addition, Fas protein distribution was altered, showing a clustering distribution instead of a homogeneous one. Subsequently, Western blot analysis confirmed the up-regulations of Fas and its membrane-binding form of FasL (m-FasL), as well as P53 protein. Conversely, safrole oxide hardly affected integrin beta4 subunit expression or distribution, which was reflected from the data obtained by immunofluorescence assay combined with laser scanning confocal microscopy. The results suggested that Fas/FasL pathway might be involved in safrole oxide-induced apoptosis of A549 cells, while integrin beta4 might be irrelevant to the apoptosis. Nevertheless, we first found the strong expression of integrin beta4 in A549 cells. The study first suggested that safrole oxide might be used as a small molecular promoter of Fas/FasL pathway to elicit apoptosis in A549 cells, which would lay the foundation for us to insight into the new strategies for lung cancer therapy.

  19. EGCG reverses human neutrophil elastase-induced migration in A549 cells by directly binding to HNE and by regulating α1-AT

    PubMed Central

    Xiaokaiti, Yilixiati; Wu, Haoming; Chen, Ya; Yang, Haopeng; Duan, Jianhui; Li, Xin; Pan, Yan; Tie, Lu; Zhang, Liangren; Li, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    Lung carcinogenesis is a complex process that occurs in unregulated inflammatory environment. EGCG has been extensively investigated as a multi-targeting anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory compound. In this study, we demonstrated a novel mechanism by which EGCG reverses the neutrophil elastase-induced migration of A549 cells. We found that neutrophil elastase directly triggered human adenocarcinoma A549 cell migration and that EGCG suppressed the elevation of tumor cell migration induced by neutrophil elastase. We observed that EGCG directly binds to neutrophil elastase and inhibits its enzymatic activity based on the CDOCKER algorithm, MD stimulation by GROMACS, SPR assay and elastase enzymatic activity assay. As the natural inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, α1-antitrypsin is synthesized in tumor cells. We further demonstrated that the expression of α1-antitrypsin was up-regulated after EGCG treatment in neutrophil elastase-treated A549 cells. We preliminarily discovered that the EGCG-mediated induction of α1-antitrypsin expression might be correlated with the regulatory effect of EGCG on the PI3K/Akt pathway. Overall, our results suggest that EGCG ameliorates the neutrophil elastase-induced migration of A549 cells. The mechanism underlying this effect may include two processes: EGCG directly binds to neutrophil elastase and inhibits its enzymatic activity; EGCG enhances the expression of α1-antitrypsin by regulating the PI3K/AKT pathway. PMID:26177797

  20. EGCG reverses human neutrophil elastase-induced migration in A549 cells by directly binding to HNE and by regulating α1-AT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaokaiti, Yilixiati; Wu, Haoming; Chen, Ya; Yang, Haopeng; Duan, Jianhui; Li, Xin; Pan, Yan; Tie, Lu; Zhang, Liangren; Li, Xuejun

    2015-07-01

    Lung carcinogenesis is a complex process that occurs in unregulated inflammatory environment. EGCG has been extensively investigated as a multi-targeting anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory compound. In this study, we demonstrated a novel mechanism by which EGCG reverses the neutrophil elastase-induced migration of A549 cells. We found that neutrophil elastase directly triggered human adenocarcinoma A549 cell migration and that EGCG suppressed the elevation of tumor cell migration induced by neutrophil elastase. We observed that EGCG directly binds to neutrophil elastase and inhibits its enzymatic activity based on the CDOCKER algorithm, MD stimulation by GROMACS, SPR assay and elastase enzymatic activity assay. As the natural inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, α1-antitrypsin is synthesized in tumor cells. We further demonstrated that the expression of α1-antitrypsin was up-regulated after EGCG treatment in neutrophil elastase-treated A549 cells. We preliminarily discovered that the EGCG-mediated induction of α1-antitrypsin expression might be correlated with the regulatory effect of EGCG on the PI3K/Akt pathway. Overall, our results suggest that EGCG ameliorates the neutrophil elastase-induced migration of A549 cells. The mechanism underlying this effect may include two processes: EGCG directly binds to neutrophil elastase and inhibits its enzymatic activity; EGCG enhances the expression of α1-antitrypsin by regulating the PI3K/AKT pathway.

  1. Proteomic analysis of selective cytotoxic anticancer properties of flavonoids isolated from Citrus platymamma on A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nagappan, Arulkumar; Venkatarame Gowda Saralamma, Venu; Hong, Gyeong Eun; Lee, Ho Jeong; Shin, Sung Chul; Kim, Eun Hee; Lee, Won Sup; Kim, Gon Sup

    2016-10-01

    Citrus platymamma Hort. ex Tanaka (Byungkyul in Korean) has been used in Korean folk medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disorders and cancer. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the anticancer properties of flavonoids isolated from C. platymamma (FCP) remains to be elucidated. Therefore, the present study attempted to identify the key proteins, which may be important in the anticancer effects of FCP on A549 cells using a proteomic approach. FCP showed a potent cytotoxic effect on the A549 human lung cancer cells, however, it had no effect on WI‑38 human fetal lung fibroblasts at the same concentrations. Furthermore, 15 differentially expressed protein spots (spot intensities ≥2‑fold change; P<0.05) were obtained from comparative proteome analysis of two‑dimensional gel electrophoresis maps of the control (untreated) and FCP‑treated A549 cells. Finally, eight differentially expressed proteins, one of which was upregulated and seven of which were downregulated, were successfully identified using matrix‑assisted laser desorption/ionization time‑of‑flight/time‑of‑flight tandem mass spectrometry and peptide mass fingerprinting analysis. Specifically, proteins involved in signal transduction were significantly downregulated, including annexin A1 (ANXA1) and ANXA4, whereas 14‑3‑3ε was upregulated. Cytoskeletal proteins, including cofilin‑1 (CFL1), cytokeratin 8 (KRT8) and KRT79, and molecular chaperones/heat shock proteins, including endoplasmin, were downregulated. Proteins involved in protein metabolism, namely elongation factor Ts were also downregulated. Consistent with results of the proteome analysis, the immunoblotting results showed that 14‑3‑3ε was upregulated, whereas CFL1, ANXA4 and KRT8 were downregulated in the FCP‑treated A549 cells. The majority of the proteins were involved in tumor growth, cell cycle, apoptosis, migration and signal transduction. These findings provide novel insights into the molecular

  2. Raman spectroscopy identifies radiation response in human non-small cell lung cancer xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Harder, Samantha J.; Isabelle, Martin; DeVorkin, Lindsay; Smazynski, Julian; Beckham, Wayne; Brolo, Alexandre G.; Lum, Julian J.; Jirasek, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    External beam radiation therapy is a standard form of treatment for numerous cancers. Despite this, there are no approved methods to account for patient specific radiation sensitivity. In this report, Raman spectroscopy (RS) was used to identify radiation-induced biochemical changes in human non-small cell lung cancer xenografts. Chemometric analysis revealed unique radiation-related Raman signatures that were specific to nucleic acid, lipid, protein and carbohydrate spectral features. Among these changes was a dramatic shift in the accumulation of glycogen spectral bands for doses of 5 or 15 Gy when compared to unirradiated tumours. When spatial mapping was applied in this analysis there was considerable variability as we found substantial intra- and inter-tumour heterogeneity in the distribution of glycogen and other RS spectral features. Collectively, these data provide unique insight into the biochemical response of tumours, irradiated in vivo, and demonstrate the utility of RS for detecting distinct radiobiological responses in human tumour xenografts. PMID:26883914

  3. Curcumin reverses cis-platin resistance and promotes human lung adenocarcinoma A549/DDP cell apoptosis through HIF-1α and caspase-3 mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ming-Xiang; Zhao, Yi-Lin; Li, Yan; Miao, Qing; Li, Zhi-Kui; Ren, Xin-Ling; Song, Li-Qiang; Yin, Hong; Zhang, Jian

    2012-06-15

    Curcumin, a yellow pigment derived from Curcuma longa Linn, has been favored by the Eastern as dietary ingredients for centuries. During the past decade, extensive investigations have revealed curcumin sensitized various chemotherapeutic agents in human breast, colon, pancreas, gastric, liver, brain and hematological malignant disorders in vivo and in vitro. Several pathways and specific targets including NF-κB, STAT3, COX-2, Akt and multidrug resistant protein have been identified to facilitate curcumin as a chemosensitizer. Recent studies suggest HIF-1α participated in the development of drug resistance in cancer cells and targeting HIF-1α either by RNAi or siRNA successfully overcame chemotherapeutic resistance. To investigate the mechanism basis of curcumin as a chemosensitizer in lung cancer, we examined curcumin's effects on HIF-1α in cis-platin (DDP) sensitive A549 and resistant A549/DDP cell lines by RT-PCR and Western blot. HIF-1α in A549/DDP cells was found to be overexpressed at both mRNA and protein levels together with a poor response to DDP. Results from transient transfection and flow cytometry showed the HIF-1α abnormality contributed to DDP resistance in A549/DDP lung cancer cells. Combined curcumin and DDP treatment markedly inhibited A549/DDP cells proliferation, reversed DDP resistance and triggered apoptotic death by promoting HIF-1α degradation and activating caspase-3, respectively. Expression of HIF-1α-dependent P-gp also seemed to decrease as response to curcumin in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings shed light on drug resistant reversing effect of curcumin in lung cancer cells by inhibiting HIF-1α expression and activating caspase-3. PMID:22483553

  4. Inhibition of Raf-MEK-ERK and Hypoxia pathways by Phyllanthus prevents metastasis in human lung (A549) cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lung cancer constitutes one of the malignancies with the greatest incidence and mortality rates with 1.6 million new cases and 1.4 million deaths each year. Prognosis remains poor due to deleterious development of multidrug resistance resulting in less than 15% lung cancer patients reaching five years survival. We have previously shown that Phyllanthus induced apoptosis in conjunction with its antimetastastic action. In the current study, we aimed to determine the signaling pathways utilized by Phyllanthus to exert its antimetastatic activities. Methods Cancer 10-pathway reporter array was performed to screen the pathways affected by Phyllanthus in lung carcinoma cell line (A549) to exert its antimetastatic effects. Results from this array were then confirmed with western blotting, cell cycle analysis, zymography technique, and cell based ELISA assay for human total iNOS. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was subsequently carried out to study the differential protein expressions in A549 after treatment with Phyllanthus. Results Phyllanthus was observed to cause antimetastatic activities by inhibiting ERK1/2 pathway via suppression of Raf protein. Inhibition of this pathway resulted in the suppression of MMP2, MMP7, and MMP9 expression to stop A549 metastasis. Phyllanthus also inhibits hypoxia pathway via inhibition of HIF-1α that led to reduced VEGF and iNOS expressions. Proteomic analysis revealed a number of proteins downregulated by Phyllanthus that were involved in metastatic processes, including invasion and mobility proteins (cytoskeletal proteins), transcriptional proteins (proliferating cell nuclear antigen; zinc finger protein), antiapoptotic protein (Bcl2) and various glycolytic enzymes. Among the four Phyllanthus species tested, P. urinaria showed the greatest antimetastatic activity. Conclusions Phyllanthus inhibits A549 metastasis by suppressing ERK1/2 and hypoxia pathways that led to suppression of various critical proteins for A549

  5. Winter fine particulate matter from Milan induces morphological and functional alterations in human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549).

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, Maurizio; Mantecca, Paride; Corvaja, Viviana; Longhin, Eleonora; Perrone, Maria Grazia; Bolzacchini, Ezio; Camatini, Marina

    2009-07-10

    Samples of PM(2.5) were gravimetrically collected during the winter 2005/2006 in the urban area of Milan (North Italy). Samples were chemically characterized and the particles were detached from filters to determine their cytotoxic effects on the A549 cell line. Based on the potential toxicological relevance of its components, Milan winter PM(2.5) contained high concentrations of pro-oxidant transition metals and PAHs, while re-suspended particles showed a relatively high frequency of dimensional classes ranging from 40 nm to 300 nm. A549 cells exposed to particle suspensions showed a concentration-dependent decrease in viability, starting from 10 microg/cm(2). Phagocytosis of particles by A549 cells and particle aggregates were morphologically characterized and seemed to depend on both particle concentration and exposure time, with the majority of particles being engulfed in membrane-bound vacuoles after 24h of exposure. The ability of ultrafine particles to penetrate and spread throughout the cells was also verified. Cell membrane lysis and mitochondrial ultrastructural disruption appeared to be the main modifications induced by PM(2.5) on A549 cells. Concomitantly to the adverse effects observed in terms of cell mortality and ultrastructural lesions, a significant intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed, suggesting that the cytotoxicity, exerted by the winter PM(2.5) in Milan, derived also from its oxidative potential, probably associated with particle-adsorbed metals and PAHs. PMID:19433270

  6. Neuropilin 1 expression correlates with the Radio-resistance of human non-small-cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dong, Juan Cong; Gao, Hui; Zuo, Si Yao; Zhang, Hai Qin; Zhao, Gang; Sun, Shi Long; Han, Hai Ling; Jin, Lin Lin; Shao, Li Hong; Wei, Wei; Jin, Shun Zi

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between over-expression of the neuropilin 1 (NRP1) gene and growth, survival, and radio-sensitivity of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells. 3-[4,5-dimethylthylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium broide (MTT) and colony assays were then performed to determine the effect of NRP1 inhibition on the in vitro growth of NSCLC cells. The Annexin V-Fluorescein Isothiocyanate (FITC) apoptosis detection assay was performed to analyse the effect of NRP1 enhancement on apoptosis of NSCLC cells. Transwell invasion and migration assays were employed to examine the metastatic ability of A549 cells post X-ray irradiation. In addition, Western blot assays were carried out to detect the protein level of VEGFR2, PI3K and NF-κB. Finally, to examine the effect of shNRP1 on proliferation and radio-sensitivity in vivo, a subcutaneous tumour formation assay in nude mice was performed. Microvessel density in tumour tissues was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The stable transfected cell line (shNRP1-A549) showed a significant reduction in colony-forming ability and proliferation not only in vitro, but also in vivo. Moreover, shRNA-mediated NRP1 inhibition also significantly enhanced the radio-sensitivity of NSCLC cells both in vitro and in vivo. The over-expression of NRP1 was correlated with growth, survival and radio-resistance of NSCLC cells via the VEGF-PI3K- NF-κB pathway, and NRP1 may be a molecular therapeutic target for gene therapy or radio-sensitization of NSCLC.

  7. Discovery of a novel small molecule, 1-ethoxy-3-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-propanol, that induces apoptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Ai-Ying; Zhao, Bao-Xiang; Yin, De-Ling; Zhang, Shang-Li; Miao, Jun-Ying

    2005-07-01

    A novel small molecule, 1-ethoxy-3-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-propanol (EOD), was synthesized in our laboratory. Previously, we reported pharmacological properties of EOD, triggering apoptosis in Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Here, we further investigated the effects of EOD on the growth of A549 human lung cancer cells. EOD treatment induced apoptosis in A549 cells via up-regulating the expression of P53 protein, blocking cell cycle partly at G1 phase, and ultimately activating caspase-3. In contrast, caspase-8 might be irrelevant to EOD-triggered apoptosis. This study indicated that EOD might be a potential chemopreventive agent for lung cancer. The work would encourage us to add more novel compounds to our 'library' of small molecules derived through modern synthetic organic chemistry, and would drive us to determine the proteins that the compounds target.

  8. The South Pacific epidemic strain of Zika virus replicates efficiently in human epithelial A549 cells leading to IFN-β production and apoptosis induction.

    PubMed

    Frumence, Etienne; Roche, Marjolaine; Krejbich-Trotot, Pascale; El-Kalamouni, Chaker; Nativel, Brice; Rondeau, Philippe; Missé, Dorothée; Gadea, Gilles; Viranaicken, Wildriss; Desprès, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging flavivirus since the first epidemics in South Pacific in 2007. The recent finding that ZIKV is now circulating in Western Hemisphere and can be associated to severe human diseases, warrants the need for its study. Here we evaluate the susceptibility of human lung epithelial A549 cells to South Pacific epidemic strain of ZIKV isolated in 2013. We showed that ZIKV growth in A549 cells is greatly efficient. ZIKV infection resulted in the secretion of IFN-β followed by the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, and transcriptional activity of IFIT genes. At the maximum of virus progeny production, ZIKV triggers mitochondrial apoptosis through activation of caspases-3 and -9. Whereas at early infection times, the rapid release of IFN-β which exerts an antiviral effect against ZIKV might delay apoptosis in infected cells.

  9. Quantitative Phosphoproteomic Profiling of Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Schweppe, Devin K.; Rigas, James R.; Gerber, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Within the molecular scope of NCSLC, a complex landscape of dysregulated cellular signaling has emerged, defined largely by mutations in select mediators of signal transduction, including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma (ALK) kinases. Consequently, these mutant kinases become constitutively activated and targets for chemotherapeutic intervention. Encouragingly, small molecule inhibitors of these pathways have shown promise in clinical trials or are approved for clinical use. However, many protein kinases are dysregulated in NSCLC without genetic mutations. To quantify differences in tumor cell signaling that are transparent to genomic methods, we established a super-SILAC internal standard derived from NSCLC cell lines grown in vitro and labeled with heavy lysine and arginine, and deployed them in a phosphoproteomics workflow. We identified 9019 and 8753 phosphorylation sites in two separate tumors. Relative quantification of phosphopeptide abundance between tumor samples allowed for the determination of specific hubs and pathways differing between each tumor. Sites downstream of Ras showed decreased inhibitory phosphorylation (Raf/Mek) and increased activating phosphorylation (Erk1/2) in one tumor versus another. In this way, we were able to quantitatively access oncogenic kinase signaling in primary human tumors. PMID:23911959

  10. 5-demethyltangeretin inhibits human non-small cell lung cancer cell growth by inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Charoensinphon, Noppawat; Qiu, Peiju; Dong, Ping; Zheng, Jinkai; Ngauv, Pearline; Cao, Yong; Li, Shiming; Ho, Chi-Tang; Xiao, Hang

    2013-01-01

    Scope Tangeretin and 5-demethyltangeretin (5DT) are two closely related polymethoxyflavones found in citrus fruits. We investigated growth inhibitory effects on three human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Methods and results Cell viability assay demonstrated that 5DT inhibited NSCLC cell growth in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and IC50s of 5DT were 79-fold, 57-fold and 56-fold lower than those of tangeretin in A549, H460, and H1299 cells, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis showed that 5DT induced extensive G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in NSCLC cells, while tangeretin at 10-fold higher concentrations did not. The apoptosis induced by 5DT was further confirmed by activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP. Moreover, 5DT dose-dependently upregulated p53 and p21Cip1/Waf1, and downregulated Cdc-2 (Cdk-1) and cyclin B1. HPLC analysis revealed that the intracellular levels of 5DT in NSCLC cells were 2.7 - 4.9-fold higher than those of tangeretin after the cells were treated with 5DT or tangeretin at the same concentration. Conclusions our results demonstrated that 5DT inhibited NSCLC cell growth by inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. These effects were much stronger than those produced by tangeretin, which is partially due to the higher intracellular uptake of 5DT than tangeretin. PMID:23926120

  11. Apoptotic action of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activation in human non small-cell lung cancer is mediated via proline oxidase-induced reactive oxygen species formation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Young; Ahn, Jin Hee; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong

    2007-09-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma ligands have been shown to inhibit human lung cancers by inducing apoptosis and differentiation. In the present study, we elucidated the apoptotic mechanism of PPARgamma activation in human lung cancers by using a novel PPARgamma agonist, 1-(trans-methylimino-N-oxy)-6-(2-morpholinoethoxy)-3-phenyl-(1H-indene-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (KR-62980), and rosiglitazone. PPARgamma activation selectively inhibited cell viability of non-small-cell lung cancer with little effect on small-cell lung cancer and normal lung cells. The cell death induced by PPARgamma activation presented apoptotic features of oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation in A549 human non-small-cell lung cancer cell line. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was accompanied by increased expression of proline oxidase (POX), a redox enzyme expressed in mitochondria, upon incubation with the agonists. POX RNA interference treatment blocked PPARgamma-induced ROS formation and cytotoxicity, suggesting that POX plays a functional role in apoptosis through ROS formation. The apoptotic effects by the agonists were antagonized by bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, a PPARgamma antagonist, and by knockdown of PPARgamma expression, indicating the involvement of PPARgamma in these actions. The results of the present study suggest that PPARgamma activation induces apoptotic cell death in non-small-cell lung carcinoma mainly through ROS formation via POX induction.

  12. Human microRNA-24 modulates highly pathogenic avian-origin H5N1 influenza A virus infection in A549 cells by targeting secretory pathway furin.

    PubMed

    Loveday, Emma-Kate; Diederich, Sandra; Pasick, John; Jean, François

    2015-01-01

    A common critical cellular event that many human enveloped viruses share is the requirement for proteolytic cleavage of the viral glycoprotein by furin in the host secretory pathway. For example, the furin-dependent proteolytic activation of highly pathogenic (HP) influenza A (infA) H5 and H7 haemagglutinin precursor (HA0) subtypes is critical for yielding fusion-competent infectious virions. In this study, we hypothesized that viral hijacking of the furin pathway by HP infA viruses to permit cleavage of HA0 could represent a novel molecular mechanism controlling the dynamic production of fusion-competent infectious virus particles during the viral life cycle. We explored the biological role of a newly identified furin-directed human microRNA, miR-24, in this process as a potential post-transcriptional regulator of the furin-mediated activation of HA0 and production of fusion-competent virions in the host secretory pathway. We report that miR-24 and furin are differentially expressed in human A549 cells infected with HP avian-origin infA H5N1. Using miR-24 mimics, we demonstrated a robust decrease in both furin mRNA levels and intracellular furin activity in A549 cells. Importantly, pretreatment of A549 cells with miR-24 mimicked these results: a robust decrease of H5N1 infectious virions and a complete block of H5N1 virus spread that was not observed in A549 cells infected with low-pathogenicity swine-origin infA H1N1 virus. Our results suggest that viral-specific downregulation of furin-directed microRNAs such as miR-24 during the life cycle of HP infA viruses may represent a novel regulatory mechanism that governs furin-mediated proteolytic activation of HA0 glycoproteins and production of infectious virions.

  13. Monitoring of TGF-β 1-Induced Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transformation Process by Measuring Cell Adhesion Force with a Microfluidic Device.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Gao, AnXiu; Yu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process in which epithelial cells lose their cell polarity and cell-cell adhesion, and gain migratory and invasive properties. It is believed that EMT is associated with initiation and completion of the invasion-metastasis cascade. In this study, an economic approach was developed to fabricate a microfluidic device with less instrumentation requirement for the investigation of EMT by quantifying cell adhesion force. Fluid shear force was precisely controlled by a homemade microfluidic perfusion apparatus and interface. The adhesion capability of the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 on different types of extracellular matrix protein was studied. In addition, effects of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) on EMT in A549 cells were investigated by characterizing the adhesion force changes and on-chip fluorescent staining. The results demonstrate that the microfluidic device is a potential tool to characterize the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process by measuring cell adhesion force.

  14. Influence of serum on in situ proliferation and genotoxicity in A549 human lung cells exposed to nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Corradi, Sara; Gonzalez, Laetitia; Thomassen, Leen C J; Bilaničová, Dagmar; Birkedal, Renie K; Pojana, Giulio; Marcomini, Antonio; Jensen, Keld A; Leyns, Luc; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline

    2012-06-14

    In this work in situ proliferation of A549 human lung epithelial carcinoma cells exposed to nanomaterials (NMs) was investigated in the presence or absence of 10% serum. NMs were selected based on chemical composition, size, charge and shape (Lys-SiO(2), TiO(2), ZnO, and multi walled carbon nanotubes, MWCNTs). Cells were treated with NMs and 4h later, cytochalasin-B was added. 36 h later, cell morphology was analyzed under a light microscope. Nuclearity was scored to determine the cytokinesis-block proliferation index (CBPI). CBPI, based on percentage of mono-, bi- and multi-nucleated cells, reflects cell toxicity and cell cycle delay. For some conditions depending on NM type (TiO(2) and MWCNT) and serum concentration (0%) scoring of CBPI was impossible due to overload of agglomerated NMs. Moreover, where heavy agglomeration occurs, micronuclei (MN) detection and scoring under microscope was prevented. A statistically significant decrease of CBPI was found for ZnO NM suspended in medium in the absence or presence of 10% serum at 25 μg/ml and 50 μg/ml, respectively and for Lys-SiO(2) NM at 3.5 μg/ml in 0% serum. Increase in MN frequency was observed in cells treated in 10% serum with 50 μg/ml ZnO. In 0% serum, the concentrations tested led to high toxicity. No genotoxic effects were induced by Lys-SiO(2) both in the absence or presence of serum up to 5 μg/ml. No toxicity was detected for TiO(2) and MWCNTs in both 10% and 0% serum, up to the dose of 250 μg/ml. Restoration of CBPI comparable to untreated control was shown for cells cultured without serum and treated with 5 μg/ml of Lys-SiO(2) NM pre-incubated in 100% serum. This observation confirms the protective effect of serum on Lys-SiO(2) NM cell toxicity. In conclusion in situ CBPI is proposed as a simple preliminary assay to assess both NMs induced cell toxicity and feasibility of MN scoring under microscope.

  15. Copper(II) complexes with naringenin and hesperetin: cytotoxic activity against A 549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells and investigation on the mode of action.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, Lenka V; Gouvea, Ligiane R; Sousa, Anna C; Albuquerque, Ronniel M; Teixeira, Sarah Fernandes; de Azevedo, Ricardo Alexandre; Louro, Sonia R W; Ferreira, Adilson Kleber; Beraldo, Heloisa

    2016-02-01

    Copper(II) complexes [Cu(H2O)2 (L1)(phen)](ClO4) (1) and [Cu(H2O)(L2)(phen)](ClO4) (2) (HL1 = naringenin; HL2 = hesperetin) were obtained, in which an anionic flavonoid ligand is attached to the metal center along with 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) as co-ligand. Complexes (1) and (2) were assayed for their cytotoxic activity against A549 lung carcinoma and against normal lung fibroblasts (LL-24) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). We found IC50 = 16.42 µM (1) and IC50 = 5.82 µM (2) against A549 tumor cells. Complexes (1) and (2) exhibited slight specificity, being more cytotoxic against malignant than against non-malignant cells. 1 and 2 induced apoptosis on A549 cells in a mitochondria-independent pathway, and showed antioxidant activity. The antioxidant effect of the complexes could possibly improve their apoptotic action, most likely by a PI3K-independent reduction of autophagy. Complexes (1) and (2) interact in vitro with calf thymus DNA by an intercalative binding mode. EPR data indicated that 1 and 2 interact with human serum albumin (HSA) forming mixed ligand species.

  16. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) in non small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Joh, Joongho; Jenson, A Bennett; Moore, Grace D; Rezazedeh, Arash; Slone, Stephen P; Ghim, Shin-je; Kloecker, Goetz H

    2010-12-01

    Certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) induce cancers, especially cervical cancers in women. A meta-analysis of the literature suggests that HPV is also associated with 20%-25% of non small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Merkel cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV) causes most Merkel cell carcinomas in immunocompromised hosts, and is associated with some squamous carcinomas of skin in immunocompetent individuals. Since both oncogenic viruses appear to involve the tonsils and, therefore, have clear access to the lungs, we examined that the possible association of HPV and MCPyV infections with lung cancers, especially, NSCLC. DNAs were extracted from 51 frozen tissues from 30 lung cancer patients, and examined for the presence of HPV and MCPyV by PCR and DNA sequencing analysis. Clinical data was correlated with the viral status. HPVs were only detected in 5 adenocarcinomas (16.7% of all lung cancers examined). Three were positive for HPV-16, 1 for HPV-11 and 1 had an unknown HPV type DNA. None was identified in benign tissue. MCPyV DNA was detected in 5 NSCLCs (16.7%). Three of the 5 were identified in squamous carcinomas, 1 in adenocarcinoma, and 1 in an unspecified NSCLC. Two additional samples were positive for MCPyV DNA within benign adjacent lung tissue only. In one adenocarcinoma, HPV-11 was identified in an adenocarcinoma, and MCPyV DNA was detected in the adjacent "benign" tissue. HPV and MCPyV were directly associated with 33.3% of NSCLC. Further studies are necessary to determine if polyomavirus and papillomavirus are necessary risk factors for some cases of NSCLC.

  17. Detection of human papillomavirus in non-small cell carcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sing Yun; Keeney, Michael; Law, Mark; Donovan, Janis; Aubry, Marie-Christine; Garcia, Joaquin

    2015-11-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is an etiologic agent in squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) arising in the oropharynx and cervix, and a proven prognostic factor in oropharyngeal SqCC. Many studies have found HPV in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Recent studies advocate the detection of messenger RNA transcripts of E6/E7 as more reliable evidence of transcriptively active HPV in tumor cells. The clinical significance of finding HPV remains unclear in NSCLC. This study sought to determine the prevalence of biologically active HPV infection in NSCLC comparing different methodologies. Surgical pathology material from resected primary lung adenocarcinoma (ADC; n=100) and SqCC (n=96) were retrieved to construct tissue microarrays. In situ hybridization (ISH) for hrHPV DNA (DNA-ISH), hrHPV E6/E7 RNA (RNA-ISH), and p16 immunohistochemistry were performed. Cases of oropharyngeal SqCC with known HPV infection were used as positive controls. Expression of p16 was scored as positive if at least 70% of tumor cells showed diffuse and strong nuclear and cytoplasmic staining. Punctate nuclear hybridization signals by DNA-ISH in the malignant cells defined an HPV-positive carcinoma. Of the 196 patients (range, 33-87 years; 108 men), p16 was positive in 19 ADCs and 9 SqCCs, but HPV DNA-ISH and RNA-ISH were negative in all cases. Our study did not detect HPV infection by DNA-ISH or RNA-ISH in any cases of primary NSCLC despite positive p16 expression in a portion of ADC and SqCC. p16 should therefore not be used as a surrogate marker for HPV infection in NSCLC.

  18. Progesterone and estrogen receptor expression and activity in human non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marquez-Garban, Diana C.; Mah, Vei; Alavi, Mohammad; Maresh, Erin L.; Chen, Hsiao-Wang; Bagryanova, Lora; Horvath, Steve; Chia, David; Garon, Edward; Goodglick, Lee; Pietras, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer mortality in male and female patients in the US. Although it is clear that tobacco smoking is a major cause of lung cancer, about half of all women with lung cancer worldwide are never-smokers. Despite a declining smoking population, the incidence of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the predominant form of lung cancer, has reached epidemic proportions particularly in women. Emerging data suggest that factors other than tobacco, namely endogenous and exogenous female sex hormones, have a role in stimulating NSCLC progression. Aromatase, a key enzyme for estrogen biosynthesis, is expressed in NSCLC. Clinical data show that women with high levels of tumor aromatase (and high intratumoral estrogen) have worse survival than those with low aromatase. The present and previous studies also reveal significant expression and activity of estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ) in both extranuclear and nuclear sites in most NSCLC. We now report further on the expression of progesterone receptor (PR) transcripts and protein in NSCLC. PR transcripts were significantly lower in cancerous as compared to non-malignant tissue. Using immunohistochemistry, expression of PR was observed in the nucleus and/or extranuclear compartments in the majority of human tumor specimens examined. Combinations of estrogen and progestins administered in vitro cooperate in promoting tumor secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor and, consequently, support tumor-associated angiogenesis. Further, dual treatment with estradiol and progestin increased the numbers of putative tumor stem/progenitor cells. Thus, ER- and/or PR-targeted therapies may offer new approaches to manage NSCLC. PMID:21600232

  19. [XAF1 inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 in vitro].

    PubMed

    Chen, Donglai; Zhang, Fuquan; Sang, Yonghua; Zhu, Rongying; Zhang, Hongtao; Chen, Yongbing

    2014-12-01

    背景与目的 XAF1是重要的肿瘤细胞生长抑制因子,其低表达与多种肿瘤细胞有关。研究肿瘤抑制基因XAF1对人肺腺癌细胞株A549的作用及机制。方法 利用重组腺病毒Ad5/F35-XAF1和对照腺病毒Ad5/F35-NULL瞬时转染A549细胞,用逆转录聚合酶链式反应(reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, RT-PCR)和Western blot方法检测A549细胞株中XAF1 mRNA和蛋白质的表达;MTT检测细胞增殖率、流式细胞仪检测细胞凋亡率,并用Western blot法检测凋亡相关蛋白的表达。结果 腺病毒介导的XAF1瞬时转染肺腺癌A549细胞后,XAF1 mRNA及蛋白表达水平明显提高,并能明显抑制该细胞增殖和促进细胞凋亡,蛋白质印记法显示凋亡相关蛋白PARP、Caspase-3、Caspase-8的裂解条带。结论 恢复XAF1基因在人肺腺癌A549细胞中表达后,能明显抑制该肿瘤细胞增殖并促进其凋亡,其机制可能与XAF1激活肺癌细胞相关凋亡途径有关。

  20. Estrogen upregulates MICA/B expression in human non-small cell lung cancer through the regulation of ADAM17.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jing; Nie, Yunzhong; Lv, Mingming; Shen, Sunan; Tang, Ruijing; Xu, Yujun; Hou, Yayi; Zhao, Shuli; Wang, Tingting

    2015-11-01

    Estrogen is involved in promoting lung cancer cell division and metastasis. MICA and MICB function as ligands for NKG2D, an important immunoreceptor expressed on natural killer (NK) cells. However, whether estrogen regulates MICA/B expression and affects tumor immune escape remains unknown. In this study, we measured the mRNA levels of MICA, MICB and ADAM17in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines treated with estrogen. Surface expression of MICA/B on LTEP-a2 and A549 was detected using flow cytometry. We demonstrate that both mRNA and secretory protein levels of MICA/B in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines were upregulated by estradiol. Estradiol enhanced the expression of ADAM17, which was associated with the secretion of MICA/B. This secretion of MICA/B downregulated the NKG2D receptor on the surface of NK92 cells and impaired the cytotoxic activity of NK cells. Estradiol enhanced the expression of ADAM17, which was associated with the secretion of MICA/B. Furthermore, a significant correlation between the concentration of estradiol and the expression of MICA was found in tumor tissues of NSCLC patients. Therefore, we conclude that estrogen can regulate the expression and secretion of MICA/B through ADAM17, which helps lung cancer cells escape NKG2D-mediated immune surveillance.

  1. Comparison of oxycodone and morphine on the proliferation, apoptosis and expression of related molecules in the A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Mi; Jin, Li; Li, Renqi; Zhu, Sihai; Ji, Muhuo; Li, Weiyan

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effects of oxycodone and morphine hydrochloride on the proliferation, apoptosis and migration of A549 lung cancer cells. A549 human lung cancer cells were cultured in vitro and treated with oxycodone or morphine at various concentrations (10, 20 and 40 µg/ml). Cell migration was determined using a wound healing assay, whereas apoptosis was detected using flow cytometry. Reverse transcription quantitative-polymerase chain reaction was performed in order to assess the apoptosis-related gene expression levels, including p53, B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax). The levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The expression levels of intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 were determined by immunofluorescence. In the present study, oxycodone and morphine induced apoptosis in A549 lung cancer cells with similar potency; however, >20 µg/ml oxycodone was more effective at inhibiting cell proliferation (P<0.05) and migration (P<0.05), as compared with morphine at the same concentration. Oxycodone induced a dose-dependent increase in the expression levels of p53 and Bax apoptosis-related genes, whereas it decreased the gene expression levels of Bcl-2. Furthermore, oxycodone decreased, whereas morphine increased, the expression levels of ICAM-1 in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, at 40 µg/ml, the expression levels of VEGF and uPA in the morphine group were significantly higher than those demonstrated in the oxycodone group (P<0.05). In conclusion, oxycodone was more effective in inhibiting the proliferation and migration of A549 lung cancer cells, as compared with morphine. PMID:27446244

  2. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Protein Kinase Activity Is Frequently Elevated in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma and Supports Tumour Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    O′Flaherty, Linda; Pardo, Olivier E.; Dzien, Piotr; Phillips, Lois; Morgan, Carys; Pawade, Joya; May, Margaret T.; Sohail, Muhammad; Hetzel, Martin R.; Seckl, Michael J.; Tavaré, Jeremy M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is a central regulator of cellular metabolism, development and growth. GSK3 activity was thought to oppose tumourigenesis, yet recent studies indicate that it may support tumour growth in some cancer types including in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). We examined the undefined role of GSK3 protein kinase activity in tissue from human NSCLC. Methods The expression and protein kinase activity of GSK3 was determined in 29 fresh frozen samples of human NSCLC and patient-matched normal lung tissue by quantitative immunoassay and western blotting for the phosphorylation of three distinct GSK3 substrates in situ (glycogen synthase, RelA and CRMP-2). The proliferation and sensitivity to the small-molecule GSK3 inhibitor; CHIR99021, of NSCLC cell lines (Hcc193, H1975, PC9 and A549) and non-neoplastic type II pneumocytes was further assessed in adherent culture. Results Expression and protein kinase activity of GSK3 was elevated in 41% of human NSCLC samples when compared to patient-matched control tissue. Phosphorylation of GSK3α/β at the inhibitory S21/9 residue was a poor biomarker for activity in tumour samples. The GSK3 inhibitor, CHIR99021 dose-dependently reduced the proliferation of three NSCLC cell lines yet was ineffective against type II pneumocytes. Conclusion NSCLC tumours with elevated GSK3 protein kinase activity may have evolved dependence on the kinase for sustained growth. Our results provide further important rationale for exploring the use of GSK3 inhibitors in treating NSCLC. PMID:25486534

  3. Effect of Recombinant Human Endostatin on Radiosensitivity in Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Xiaodong; Dai Peng; Wu Jin; Song Daan; Yu Jinming

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To observe the effects of recombinant human endostatin (RHES) on the radiosensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: First, 10 hypoxia-positive cases of pathology-diagnosed NSCLC selected from 15 patients were used to determine the normalization window, a period during which RHES improves NSCLC hypoxia. Second, 50 hypoxia-positive cases of pathology-diagnosed NSCLC (Stages I-III) were randomly divided into a RHES plus radiotherapy group (25 cases) and a radiotherapy-alone group (25 cases). Intensity = modulated radiotherapy with a total dose of 60 Gy in 30 fractions for 6 weeks was adopted in the two groups. The target area included primary foci and metastatic lymph nodes. In the RHES plus radiotherapy group, RHES (15 mg/day) was intravenously given during the normalization window. Results: After RHES administration, the tumor-to=normal tissue radioactivity ratio and capillary permeability surface were first decreased and then increased, with their lowest points on the fifth day compared with the first day (all p < 0.01). Blood flow was first increased and then decreased, with the highest point on the fifth day, compared with the first and tenth day (all p < 0.01). In the RHES plus radiotherapy group and the radiotherapy-alone group, the total effective rates (complete response plus partial response) were 80% and 44% (p = 0.009), respectively. The median survival times were 21.1 {+-} 0.97 months and 16.5 {+-} 0.95 months (p = 0.004), respectively. The 1-year and 2-year local control rates were 78.9 {+-} 8.4% and 68.1 {+-} 7.8% (p = 0.027) and 63.6 {+-} 7.2% and 43.4 {+-} 5.7% (p = 0.022), respectively. The 1-year and 2-year overall survival rates were 83.3 {+-} 7.2% and 76.6 {+-} 9.3% (p = 0.247) and 46.3 {+-} 2.4% and 37.6 {+-} 9.1% (p = 0.218), respectively. Conclusion: The RHES normalization window is within about 1 week after administration. RHES combined with radiotherapy within the normalization window has better short

  4. Streptococcus pneumoniae ClpL Modulates Adherence to A549 Human Lung Cells through Rap1/Rac1 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Cuong Thach; Le, Nhat-Tu; Tran, Thao Dang-Hien; Kim, Eun-Hye; Park, Sang-Sang; Luong, Truc Thanh; Chung, Kyung-Tae; Pyo, Suhkneung

    2014-01-01

    Caseinolytic protease L (ClpL) is a member of the HSP100/Clp chaperone family, which is found mainly in Gram-positive bacteria. ClpL is highly expressed during infection for refolding of stress-induced denatured proteins, some of which are important for adherence. However, the role of ClpL in modulating pneumococcal virulence is poorly understood. Here, we show that ClpL impairs pneumococcal adherence to A549 lung cells by inducing and activating Rap1 and Rac1, thus increasing phosphorylation of cofilin (inactive form). Moreover, infection with a clpL mutant (ΔclpL) causes a greater degree of filopodium formation than D39 wild-type (WT) infection. Inhibition of Rap1 and Rac1 impairs filopodium formation and pneumococcal adherence. Therefore, ClpL can reduce pneumococcal adherence to A549 cells, likely via modulation of Rap1- and Rac1-mediated filopodium formation. These results demonstrate a potential role for ClpL in pneumococcal resistance to host cell adherence during infection. This study provides insight into further understanding the interactions between hosts and pathogens. PMID:24980975

  5. Determination of in vitro free radical scavenging and antiproliferative effect of Pennisetum alopecuroides on cultured A549 human lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Githa Elizabeth; Mathew, Bijo; Gokul, S.; Krishna, Rahul; Farisa, M. P.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Pennisetum alopecuroides (Poaceae) is a grass predominantly distributed in tropics and sub tropics. It is used as a cattle feed in many regions. Aim: The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro free radical scavenging and antiproliferative activity of ethanol extract of P. alopecuroides (EEPA) on cultured A549 human lung cancer cell lines. Settings and Design: The anti-oxidant activity of ethanol extract was evaluated at dose level 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/ml. The in vitro antiproliferative activity was measured at doses of 10, 50, and 100 μg/ml. Materials and Methods: The free radical scavenging activity of the EEPA was determined by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and in vitro antiproliferative activity on A549 human lung cancer cells was conducted by using MTT assay method. Results: The phytochemical screening revealed that the P. alopecuroides contained alkaloids, tannins, saponins, and flavonoids as the major secondary metabolites. The IC50 value of DPPH scavenging activity was found to be 44.41 μg/ml and 31.02 μg/ml  for a mixture of EEPA and standard ascorbic acid, respectively. In vitro MTT assay showed that EEPA had anti-proliferation effects on A549 cells in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions: This is the 1st time a pharmacological exploration of P. alopecuroides grasses has been conducted. We have shown that P. alopecuroides exhibits good free radical scavenging and strong in vitro cytotoxic activities against human lung cancer cell lines. PMID:26120234

  6. Carcinogenic chromium(VI) induces cross-linking of vitamin C to DNA in vitro and in human lung A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Quievryn, George; Messer, Joseph; Zhitkovich, Anatoly

    2002-03-01

    Reductive activation of carcinogenic Cr(VI) is required for the induction of DNA damage and mutations. Here, we examined the formation of Cr-DNA adducts in the reactions of Cr(VI) with its dominant biological reducer, vitamin C (ascorbate). Reductive conversion of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by ascorbate produced stable Cr-DNA adducts, of which approximately 25% constituted ascorbate-Cr(III)-DNA cross-links. No evidence was found for the involvement of Cr(V) or Cr(IV) intermediates in the formation of either binary or ternary adducts. The cross-linking reaction was consistent with the attack of DNA by transient Cr(III)-ascorbate complexes. The yield of Cr(III)-DNA adducts was similar on dsDNA and AGT, ACT, or CT oligonucleotides and was strongly inhibited by Mg(2+), suggesting predominant coordination of Cr(III) to DNA phosphate oxygens. We also detected cross-linking of ascorbate to DNA in Cr(VI)-exposed human lung A549 cells that were preincubated with dehydroascorbic acid to create normal levels of intracellular ascorbate. Ascorbate-Cr-DNA cross-links accounted for approximately 6% of the total Cr-DNA adducts in A549 cells. Shuttle-vector experiments showed that ascorbate-Cr-DNA cross-links were mutagenic in human cells. Our results demonstrate that in addition to reduction of Cr(VI) to DNA-reactive Cr(III), vitamin C contributes to the genotoxicity of Cr(VI) via a direct chemical modification of DNA. The absence of Asc in A549 and other human cultured cells indicates that cells maintained under the usual in vitro conditions lack the most important reducing agent for Cr(VI) and would primarily display slow thiol-dependent activation of Cr(VI).

  7. Effects of targeted silencing of FOXC1 gene on proliferation and in vitro migration of human non-small-cell lung carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sumei; Jiao, Shunchang; Jia, Youchao; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of targeted silencing of forkhead box C1 (FOXC1) gene with small interfering RNA (siRNA) on the proliferation and in vitro migration of human non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) A549 and NCIH460 cells, and to explore the molecular mechanism. Methods: These cells were divided into FOXC1 siRNA groups and negative control groups. Results: Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) showed that compared with normal cells and paracancerous tissues, FOXC1 mRNA expressions in NSCLC cells and tissues were significantly higher (P<0.05). qRT-PCR and Western blot showed that FOXC1 siRNA effectively silenced FOXC1 gene expression in NSCLC cells. EdU labeling assay revealed that the proliferative capacity significantly decreased compared with that of normal control group after FOXC1 silencing (P<0.05). Significantly fewer cells in the transfected group migrated than those in negative control group did. After FOXC1 silencing, NSCLC cells were arrested in the G0/G1 phase, which were significantly different from those in negative control group (P<0.05). Compared with negative control group, the expression of cyclin D1 decreased and that of E-cadherin increased. Meanwhile, vimentin and MMP-2 expressions significantly reduced (P<0.05). FOXC1 siRNA effectively silenced FOXC1 gene expressions in NSCLC cells, inhibited their proliferation and invasion, and arrested them in the G0/G1 phase, suggesting that FOXC1 affected proliferation probably by regulating the expression of cell cycle-related protein cyclin D1. Conclusion: Silencing FOXC1 may evidently inhibit the migration of these cells by reversing the EMT process through suppressing cadherin, being associated with the expressions of extracellular MMPs. PMID:27648121

  8. MicroRNA-107 inhibits tumor growth and metastasis by targeting the BDNF-mediated PI3K/AKT pathway in human non-small lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Huan; Li, Yang; Lv, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal expression of microRNA-107 (miR-107) was found in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, little is known about its role and molecular mechanism in NSCLC progression and metastasis. Therefore, the aims of this study were to clarify the potential role of miR-107 and molecular mechanism in NSCLC progression and metastasis. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay showed that miR-107 expression levels were significantly decreased in NSCLC tissue and cell lines. Low miR-107 levels in tumor tissue correlated with advanced TNM stage and lymph node metastasis. Function assays showed that overexpression of miR-107 suppressed cell proliferation, migration and invasion in A549 cells in vitro, and inhibited NSCLC tumor growth in vivo. Further mechanism assays suggested the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was identified as a target gene of miR-107 in NSCLC cells. In addition, BDNF expression was upregulated, and inversely correlated with miR-107 in NSCLC tissues. Enforced overexpression of BDNF effectively reversed the tumor suppressive functions of miR-107 on NSCLC proliferation, migration and invasion. miR-107 overexpression or downregulation of BDNF was able to inhibit activation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Taken together, our findings present the first evidence that miR-107 could suppress NSCLC metastasis by targeting BDNF and indirectly regulating PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, which might lead to a potential therapeutic strategy focusing on miR-107 and BDNF for human NSCLC. PMID:27498977

  9. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of size-fractionated iron oxide (magnetite) in A549 human lung epithelial cells: role of ROS, JNK, and NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Könczöl, Mathias; Ebeling, Sandra; Goldenberg, Ella; Treude, Fabian; Gminski, Richard; Gieré, Reto; Grobéty, Bernard; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Merfort, Irmgard; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2011-09-19

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) of varying size and composition is known to cause health problems in humans. The iron oxide Fe(3)O(4) (magnetite) may be a major anthropogenic component in ambient PM and is derived mainly from industrial sources. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of four different size fractions of magnetite on signaling pathways, free radical generation, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity in human alveolar epithelial-like type-II cells (A549). The magnetite particles used in the exposure experiments were characterized by mineralogical and chemical techniques. Four size fractions were investigated: bulk magnetite (0.2-10 μm), respirable fraction (2-3 μm), alveolar fraction (0.5-1.0 μm), and nanoparticles (20-60 nm). After 24 h of exposure, the A549 cells were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to study particle uptake. TEM images showed an incorporation of magnetite particles in A549 cells by endocytosis. Particles were found as agglomerates in cytoplasm-bound vesicles, and few particles were detected in the cytoplasm but none in the nucleus. Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as determined by the 2',7'-dichlorfluorescein-diacetate assay (DCFH-DA), as well as genotoxic effects, as measured by the cytokinesis block-micronucleus test and the Comet assay, were observed for all of the studied fractions after 24 h of exposure. Moreover, activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) without increased nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB)-binding activity but delayed IκB-degradation was observed. Interestingly, pretreatment of cells with magnetite and subsequent stimulation with the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) led to a reduction of NF-κB DNA binding compared to that in stimulation with TNFα alone. Altogether, these experiments suggest that ROS formation may play an important role in the genotoxicity of magnetite in A549 cells but that activation of JNK seems to be

  10. ROS/Autophagy/Nrf2 Pathway Mediated Low-Dose Radiation Induced Radio-Resistance in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cell.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ni; Wu, Lijun; Yuan, Hang; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) can induce radio-resistance to following high dose radiation in various mammalian cells. The protective role of LDIR has been thought to be associated with the overall outcomes of cancer radiotherapy. NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that plays pivotal roles in maintaining cellular oxidative equilibrium. Since oxidative stress has been indicated to be a mediator of LDIR induced radio-resistance, the role of Nrf2 in this process was investigated in this research. Our results showed that in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell, 5cGy alpha particle induced radio-resistance to following 75cGy alpha particle radiation. The expression level of Nrf2 and its target Heme Oxygenase-1(HO-1) increased after 5cGy radiation. Both the shRNA of Nrf2 and the chemical inhibitor of HO-1 suppressed the induced radio-resistance, indicating the involvement of Nrf2 antioxidant pathway in this process. Further, we found 5cGy radiation stimulated autophagy process in A549. Inhibition of the autophagy process resulted in suppression of the radio-resistance and the induced expression of Nrf2 and HO-1. ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) blocked the autophagy process induced by 5cGy alpha particle, the upregulation of Nrf2 and HO-1, as well as the induced radio-resistance. In conclusion, ROS elevation caused by LDIR promoted Autophagy/Nrf2-HO-1 and conferred radio-resistance in A549.

  11. In vitro effects induced by diesel exhaust at an air-liquid interface in a human lung alveolar carcinoma cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Tomoko; Hosaka, Mitsugu; Nakae, Dai

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the effects induced in vitro in human adenocarcinoma-derived alveolar basal epithelial A549 cells by diesel particulate matter (DPM) administered into the culture medium or by diesel exhaust administered at an air-liquid interface. When A549 cells were exposed to DPM in the culture medium, cell proliferation was inhibited at doses of 10-100 μg/mL; generation of interleukin (IL)-8 and the antioxidant enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), were inhibited at a dose of 100 μg/mL, and hydroxyl radicals were produced, but could be inhibited by catalase or superoxide dismutase. In contrast, when A549 cells were exposed to diesel exhaust, cell proliferation was inhibited in the absence, but not in the presence, of a diesel particulate filter (DPF); in the absence of a DPF IL-8 was produced in the same amount as in the control cells but was suppressed in the presence of a DPF; HO-1 mRNA was transiently over-expressed in the presence of a DPF, and it was also increased slightly produced in the absence of a DPF but statistically not significant in the presence of a DPF, and it was also increased slightly produced in the absence of a DPF but statistically not significant; HO-1 was transiently produced independent of the absence or the presence of a DPF; and hydroxyl radicals were weakly produced, even in the presence of a DPF but could be inhibited by catalase or superoxide dismutase. It is thus suggested that oxidative stress may be induced by exposure to DPM or diesel exhaust and thereby exerts cytotoxic effect. The introduction of a DPF is effective to protect cells from the toxicity of diesel exhaust presumably by suppression of an oxidative stress.

  12. In vitro effects induced by diesel exhaust at an air-liquid interface in a human lung alveolar carcinoma cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Tomoko; Hosaka, Mitsugu; Nakae, Dai

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the effects induced in vitro in human adenocarcinoma-derived alveolar basal epithelial A549 cells by diesel particulate matter (DPM) administered into the culture medium or by diesel exhaust administered at an air-liquid interface. When A549 cells were exposed to DPM in the culture medium, cell proliferation was inhibited at doses of 10-100 μg/mL; generation of interleukin (IL)-8 and the antioxidant enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), were inhibited at a dose of 100 μg/mL, and hydroxyl radicals were produced, but could be inhibited by catalase or superoxide dismutase. In contrast, when A549 cells were exposed to diesel exhaust, cell proliferation was inhibited in the absence, but not in the presence, of a diesel particulate filter (DPF); in the absence of a DPF IL-8 was produced in the same amount as in the control cells but was suppressed in the presence of a DPF; HO-1 mRNA was transiently over-expressed in the presence of a DPF, and it was also increased slightly produced in the absence of a DPF but statistically not significant in the presence of a DPF, and it was also increased slightly produced in the absence of a DPF but statistically not significant; HO-1 was transiently produced independent of the absence or the presence of a DPF; and hydroxyl radicals were weakly produced, even in the presence of a DPF but could be inhibited by catalase or superoxide dismutase. It is thus suggested that oxidative stress may be induced by exposure to DPM or diesel exhaust and thereby exerts cytotoxic effect. The introduction of a DPF is effective to protect cells from the toxicity of diesel exhaust presumably by suppression of an oxidative stress. PMID:25983017

  13. Induction of COX-2 protein expression by vanadate in A549 human lung carcinoma cell line through EGF receptor and p38 MAPK-mediated pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, P.-S.; Mak, O.-T.; Huang, H.-J. . E-mail: haojen@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2006-01-13

    Vanadate is a transition metal widely distributed in the environment. It has been reported that vanadate associated with air pollution particles can modify DNA synthesis, causing cell growth arrest, and apoptosis. Moreover, vanadium exposure was also found to cause the synthesis of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, and prostaglandin E{sub 2}. Here, we found that exposure of A549 human lung carcinoma cells to vanadate led to extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun NH{sub 2}-terminal protein kinases (JNKs), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) activation, and COX-2 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, but not PD098059 and SP600125, specific inhibitor of MKK1 and selective inhibitor of JNK, respectively, suppressed COX-2 expression. Furthermore, the epithelial growth factor (EGF) receptor specific inhibitor (PD153035) reduced vanadate-induced COX-2 expression. However, scavenging of vanadate-induced reactive oxygen species by catalase, a specific H{sub 2}O{sub 2} inhibitor, or DPI, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, resulted in no inhibition on COX-2 expression. Together, we suggested that EGF receptor and p38 MAPK signaling pathway may be involved in vanadate-induced COX-2 protein expression in A549 human lung carcinoma cell line.

  14. Steroid sulphatase and oestrogen sulphotransferase in human non-small-cell lung carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Iida, S; Kakinuma, H; Miki, Y; Abe, K; Sakurai, M; Suzuki, S; Niikawa, H; Akahira, J; Suzuki, T; Sasano, H

    2013-01-01

    Background: Steroid sulphatase (STS) is one of the steroid-metabolising enzymes involved in desulphating inactive steroid sulphates and oestrogen sulphotransferase (EST) sulphates active oestrogen. The roles of both STS and EST have not been examined in oestrogen-dependent non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: We evaluated the immunoreactivity of STS and EST in NSCLC cases using immunohistochemistry. The function of STS and EST was further demonstrated using NSCLC cell lines. Results: The immunoreactivity of STS and EST was detected in 49.5% and 27.8% of NSCLC cases, respectively. The immunoreactivity of STS was significantly higher in female adenocarcinoma cases. The STS-positive NSCLCs were also significantly correlated in an inversed manner with tumour size and cell proliferation and tended to be associated with better clinical outcome. However, the immunoreactivity of EST was significantly correlated with intracellular oestradiol concentration. Results of in vitro analysis demonstrated that oestrone sulphate (E1-S) induced and pregnenolone sulphate (Preg-S) inhibited the proliferation in STS-expressing cell lines. The inhibition by Preg-S was reversed by a specific progesterone receptor blocker. Simultaneous addition of E1-S and Preg-S significantly suppressed the proliferation. Conclusion: In NSCLC patients, STS is considered a good prognostic factor. Results of our present study also indicated the benefits of potential progesterone therapy for NSCLC patients. PMID:23531699

  15. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship study on anti-cancer activity of 3,4-dihydroquinazoline derivatives against human lung cancer A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sehyeon; Choi, Min Ji; Kim, Minju; Lee, Sunhoe; Lee, Jinsung; Lee, Seok Joon; Cho, Haelim; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Lee, Jae Yeol

    2015-03-01

    A series of 3,4-dihydroquinazoline derivatives with anti-cancer activities against human lung cancer A549 cells were subjected to three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies using the comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) approaches. The most potent compound, 1 was used to align the molecules. As a result, the best prediction was obtained with CoMSIA combined the steric, electrostatic, hydrophobic, hydrogen bond donor, and hydrogen bond acceptor fields (q2 = 0.720, r2 = 0.897). This model was validated by an external test set of 6 compounds giving satisfactory predictive r2 value of 0.923 as well as the scrambling stability test. This model would guide the design of potent 3,4-dihydroquinazoline derivatives as anti-cancer agent for the treatment of human lung cancer.

  16. Toxic Effects of the Major Components of Diesel Exhaust in Human Alveolar Basal Epithelial Cells (A549).

    PubMed

    Rossner, Pavel; Strapacova, Simona; Stolcpartova, Jitka; Schmuczerova, Jana; Milcova, Alena; Neca, Jiri; Vlkova, Veronika; Brzicova, Tana; Machala, Miroslav; Topinka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the toxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) and 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) in A549 cells. Cells were treated for 4 h and 24 h with: B[a]P (0.1 and 1 μM), 1-NP (1 and 10 μM) and 3-NBA (0.5 and 5 μM). Bulky DNA adducts, lipid peroxidation, DNA and protein oxidation and mRNA expression of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, NQO1, POR, AKR1C2 and COX2 were analyzed. Bulky DNA adducts were induced after both treatment periods; the effect of 1-NP was weak. 3-NBA induced high levels of bulky DNA adducts even after 4-h treatment, suggesting rapid metabolic activation. Oxidative DNA damage was not affected. 1-NP caused protein oxidation and weak induction of lipid peroxidation after 4-h incubation. 3-NBA induced lipid peroxidation after 24-h treatment. Unlike B[a]P, induction of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, measured as mRNA expression levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, was low after treatment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) nitro-derivatives. All test compounds induced mRNA expression of NQO1, POR, and AKR1C2 after 24-h treatment. AKR1C2 expression indicates involvement of processes associated with reactive oxygen species generation. This was supported further by COX2 expression induced by 24-h treatment with 1-NP. In summary, 3-NBA was the most potent genotoxicant, whereas 1-NP exhibited the strongest oxidative properties. PMID:27571070

  17. Toxic Effects of the Major Components of Diesel Exhaust in Human Alveolar Basal Epithelial Cells (A549)

    PubMed Central

    Rossner, Pavel; Strapacova, Simona; Stolcpartova, Jitka; Schmuczerova, Jana; Milcova, Alena; Neca, Jiri; Vlkova, Veronika; Brzicova, Tana; Machala, Miroslav; Topinka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the toxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) and 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) in A549 cells. Cells were treated for 4 h and 24 h with: B[a]P (0.1 and 1 μM), 1-NP (1 and 10 μM) and 3-NBA (0.5 and 5 μM). Bulky DNA adducts, lipid peroxidation, DNA and protein oxidation and mRNA expression of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, NQO1, POR, AKR1C2 and COX2 were analyzed. Bulky DNA adducts were induced after both treatment periods; the effect of 1-NP was weak. 3-NBA induced high levels of bulky DNA adducts even after 4-h treatment, suggesting rapid metabolic activation. Oxidative DNA damage was not affected. 1-NP caused protein oxidation and weak induction of lipid peroxidation after 4-h incubation. 3-NBA induced lipid peroxidation after 24-h treatment. Unlike B[a]P, induction of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, measured as mRNA expression levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, was low after treatment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) nitro-derivatives. All test compounds induced mRNA expression of NQO1, POR, and AKR1C2 after 24-h treatment. AKR1C2 expression indicates involvement of processes associated with reactive oxygen species generation. This was supported further by COX2 expression induced by 24-h treatment with 1-NP. In summary, 3-NBA was the most potent genotoxicant, whereas 1-NP exhibited the strongest oxidative properties. PMID:27571070

  18. Role of {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} integrin receptor in endocytosis of crocidolite and its effect on intracellular glutathione levels in human lung epithelial (A549) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pande, Priyadarshini; Mosleh, Tariq A.; Aust, Ann E. . E-mail: aaust@cc.usu.edu

    2006-01-15

    Crocidolite, containing 27% iron by weight, is the most carcinogenic form of asbestos. Crocidolite fibers are endocytized by {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} integrin receptors in rabbit pleural mesothelial cells. We show here that crocidolite fibers are endocytized in human lung epithelial (A549) cells and in primary small airway epithelial (SAEC) cells. Presence of the integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} blocking antibody, P1F6, significantly reduced the uptake of crocidolite fibers in A549 cells. Thus, the integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} receptor is involved in endocytosis of crocidolite fibers in A549 cells as well. Previously, it has been observed that asbestos fibers lead to changes in the intracellular redox environment, i.e. a marked decrease in intracellular glutathione concentrations and an increase in the extracellular glutathione in A549 cells. In addition, the decrease in intracellular glutathione was found to be largely independent of iron present on the surface of the fiber. A549 cells were treated with crocidolite in the presence of endocytosis inhibitor cytochalasin D. Our data indicate that, upon preventing endocytosis, we were able to reverse the decrease in total intracellular glutathione. The decrease in total intracellular glutathione could also be prevented in the presence of the monoclonal antibody P1F6. Thus, we observed that endocytosis of crocidolite fibers via integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} receptor is linked to the marked decrease in total intracellular glutathione in A549 cells.

  19. Reactive oxygen species mediated DNA damage in human lung alveolar epithelial (A549) cells from exposure to non-cytotoxic MFI-type zeolite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Kunal; Naha, Pratap C; Naydenova, Izabela; Mintova, Svetlana; Byrne, Hugh J

    2012-12-17

    Increasing utilization of engineered nanoparticles in the field of electronics and biomedical applications demands an assessment of risk associated with deliberate or accidental exposure. Metal based nanoparticles are potentially most important of all the nanoparticles in terms of health risks. Microporous alumino-silicates and pure silicates named as zeolites and zeo-type materials with variety of structures, chemical compositions, particle sizes and morphologies have a significant number of industrial uses such as in catalysis, sorption and ion-exchange processes. In particular, the nanosized particles due to their unique properties are used in hybrid organic-inorganic materials for photography, photonics, electronics, labeling, imaging, and sensing. The aim of the current study is to investigate pure silica MFI-type zeolites nanoparticles with sizes of 50nm and 100nm (samples MFI-50 and MFI-100) under suspended conditions and their toxicological effects on human lung alveolar (A549) cells under in vitro conditions. Live cell imaging showed that the nanoparticles precipitated from the colloidal suspension of cell culture media as large agglomerates, coming in contact with the cell surface through sedimentation. A cellular proliferative capacity test showed the zeolite nanoparticles to exhibit no significant cytotoxicity below a concentration of 100μg/ml. However, both the MFI-50 and MFI-100 nanoparticles induced high intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and elevated mitochondrial membrane potential in the A549 cells over the measured time period of 12h and at concentrations up to ≤50μg/ml. DNA fragmentation analysis using the comet assay showed that the MFI-50 and MFI-100 nanoparticles cause genotoxicity in a concentration dependent manner. Furthermore, the rate at which maximum genomic damage was caused by MFI-100 nanoparticles in the A549 cells was found to be high as compared to the MFI-50 nanoparticles. However, the damage caused by the

  20. Multidimensional effects of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter felis, and human lung (L132) and lung carcinoma A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Han, Jae Woong; Zhang, Xi-Feng; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are prominent group of nanomaterials and are recognized for their diverse applications in various health sectors. This study aimed to synthesize the AgNPs using the leaf extract of Artemisia princeps as a bio-reductant. Furthermore, we evaluated the multidimensional effect of the biologically synthesized AgNPs in Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter felis, and human lung (L132) and lung carcinoma (A549) cells. UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy confirmed the synthesis of AgNPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the AgNPs are specifically indexed to a crystal structure. The results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicate that biomolecules are involved in the synthesis and stabilization of AgNPs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies showed the average size distribution of the particle between 10 and 40 nm, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed that the AgNPs were significantly well separated and spherical with an average size of 20 nm. AgNPs caused dose-dependent decrease in cell viability and biofilm formation and increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA fragmentation in H. pylori and H. felis. Furthermore, AgNPs induced mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in A549 cells; conversely, AgNPs had no significant effects on L132 cells. The results from this study suggest that AgNPs could cause cell-specific apoptosis in mammalian cells. Our findings demonstrate that this environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of AgNPs and that the prepared AgNPs have multidimensional effects such as anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activity against H. pylori and H. felis and also cytotoxic effects against human cancer cells. This report describes comprehensively the effects of AgNPs on bacteria and mammalian cells. We believe that biologically synthesized AgNPs will open a new avenue towards various biotechnological and biomedical applications in the near future.

  1. Novel complementation cell lines derived from human lung carcinoma A549 cells support the growth of E1-deleted adenovirus vectors.

    PubMed

    Imler, J L; Chartier, C; Dreyer, D; Dieterle, A; Sainte-Marie, M; Faure, T; Pavirani, A; Mehtali, M

    1996-01-01

    Replication-defective E1-deleted adenoviruses are attractive vectors for gene therapy or live vaccines. However, manufacturing methods required for their pharmaceutical development are not optimized. For example, the generation of E1-deleted adenovirus vectors relies on the complementation functions present in 293 cells. However, 293 cells are prone to the generation of replication competent particles as a result of recombination events between the viral DNA and the integrated adenovirus sequences present in the cell line. We report here that human lung A549 cells transformed with constitutive or inducible E1-expression vectors support the replication of E1-deficient adenoviruses. E1A transcription was elevated in most of the cell lines, and E1A proteins were expressed at levels similar to those of 293 cells. However, the levels of expression of E1A did not correlate with the efficiencies of complementation of E1-deleted viruses in A549 clones, since some clones complemented replication in the absence of induction of E1A expression. In addition, complementation of E1-deficient adenoviruses did not require expression of the E1B 55-kDa protein. Although these cell lines contain the coding and cis-acting regulatory sequences of the structural protein IX gene, they are not able to complement viruses in which this gene has been deleted. In contrast to 293 cells, such new complementation cell lines do not contain the left end of the adenoviral genome and thus represent a significant improvement over the currently used 293 cells, in which a single recombination event is sufficient to yield replication competent adenovirus. PMID:8929914

  2. Orally active microtubule-targeting agent, MPT0B271, for the treatment of human non-small cell lung cancer, alone and in combination with erlotinib.

    PubMed

    Tsai, A-C; Wang, C-Y; Liou, J-P; Pai, H-C; Hsiao, C-J; Chang, J-Y; Wang, J-C; Teng, C-M; Pan, S-L

    2014-04-10

    Microtubule-binding agents, such as taxanes and vinca alkaloids, are used in the treatment of cancer. The limitations of these treatments, such as resistance to therapy and the need for intravenous administration, have encouraged the development of new agents. MPT0B271 (N-[1-(4-Methoxy-benzenesulfonyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-7-yl]-1-oxy-isonicotinamide), an orally active microtubule-targeting agent, is a completely synthetic compound that possesses potent anticancer effects in vitro and in vivo. Tubulin polymerization assay and immunofluorescence experiment showed that MPT0B271 caused depolymerization of tubulin at both molecular and cellular levels. MPT0B271 reduced cell growth and viability at nanomolar concentrations in numerous cancer cell lines, including a multidrug-resistant cancer cell line NCI/ADR-RES. Further studies indicated that MPT0B271 is not a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), as determined by flow cytometric analysis of rhodamine-123 (Rh-123) dye efflux and the calcein acetoxymethyl ester (calcein AM) assay. MPT0B271 also caused G2/M cell-cycle arrest, accompanied by the up-regulation of cyclin B1, p-Thr161 Cdc2/p34, serine/threonine kinases polo-like kinase 1, aurora kinase A and B and the downregulation of Cdc25C and p-Tyr15 Cdc2/p34 protein levels. The appearance of MPM2 and the nuclear translocation of cyclin B1 denoted M phase arrest in MPT0B271-treated cells. Moreover, MPT0B271 induced cell apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner; it also reduced the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1 and increased the cleavage of caspase-3 and -7 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Finally, this study demonstrated that MPT0B271 in combination with erlotinib significantly inhibits the growth of the human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells as compared with erlotinib treatment alone, both in vitro and in vivo. These findings identify MPT0B271 as a promising new tubulin-binding compound for the treatment of various cancers.

  3. SchA-p85-FAK complex dictates isoform-specific activation of Akt2 and subsequent PCBP1-mediated post-transcriptional regulation of TGFβ-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human lung cancer cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xinying; Wang, Xin; Liu, Yuxia; Teng, Guigen; Wang, Yong; Zang, Xuefeng; Wang, Kaifei; Zhang, Jinghui; Xu, Yali; Wang, Jianxin; Pan, Lei

    2014-08-01

    A post-transcriptional pathway by which TGF-β modulates expression of specific proteins, Disabled-2 (Dab2) and Interleukin-like EMT Inducer (ILEI), inherent to epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in murine epithelial cells through Akt2-mediated phosphorylation of poly r(C) binding protein (PCBP1), has been previously elucidated. The aims of the current study were to determine if the same mechanism is operative in the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line, A549, and to delineate the underlying mechanism. Steady-state transcript and protein expression levels of Dab2 and ILEI were examined in A549 cells treated with TGF-β for up to 48 h. Induction of translational de-repression in this model was quantified by polysomal fractionation followed by qRT-PCR. The underlying mechanism of isoform-specific activation of Akt2 was elucidated through a combination of co-immunoprecipitation studies. TGF-β induced EMT in A549 cells concomitant with translational upregulation of Dab2 and ILEI proteins through isoform-specific activation of Akt2 followed by phosphorylation of PCBP1 at serine-43. Our experiments further elucidated that the adaptor protein SchA is phosphorylated at tyrosine residues following TGF-β treatment, which initiated a signaling cascade resulting in the sequential recruitment of p85 subunit of PI3K and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). The SchA-FAK-p85 complex subsequently selectively recruited and activated Akt2, not Akt1. Inhibition of the p85 subunit through phosphorylated 1257 peptide completely attenuated EMT in these cells. We have defined the underlying mechanism responsible for isoform-specific recruitment and activation of Akt2, not Akt1, during TGF-β-mediated EMT in A549 cells. Inhibition of the formation of this complex thus represents an important and novel therapeutic target in metastatic lung carcinoma. PMID:24819169

  4. The fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (noni) downregulates HIF-1α protein expression through inhibition of PKB, ERK-1/2, JNK-1 and S6 in manganese-stimulated A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jang, Byeong-Churl

    2012-03-01

    High exposure of manganese is suggested to be a risk factor for many lung diseases. Evidence suggests anticancerous and antiangiogenic effects by products derived from Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit. In this study, we investigated the effect of noni fruit juice (NFJ) on the expression of HIF-1α, a tumor angiogenic transcription factor in manganese-chloride (manganese)-stimulated A549 human lung carcinoma cells. Treatment with manganese largely induced expression of HIF-1α protein but did not affect HIF-1α mRNA expression in A549 cells, suggesting the metal-mediated co- and/or post-translational HIF-1α upregulation. Manganese treatment also led to increased phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated protein kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase-1 (JNK-1), protein kinase B (PKB), S6 and eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2α (eIF-2α) in A549 cells. Of note, the exposure of NFJ inhibited the manganese-induced HIF-1α protein upregulation in a concentration-dependent manner. Importantly, as assessed by results of pharmacological inhibition and siRNA transfection studies, the effect of NFJ on HIF-1α protein downregulation seemed to be largely associated with the ability of NFJ to interfere with the metal's signaling to activate PKB, ERK-1/2, JNK-1 and S6 in A549 cells. It was further shown that NFJ could repress the induction of HIF-1α protein by desferoxamine or interleukin-1β (IL-1β), another HIF-1α inducer in A549 cells. Thus, the present study provides the first evidence that NFJ has the ability to strongly downregulate manganese-induced HIF-1α protein expression in A549 human lung cancer cells, which may suggest the NFJ-mediated beneficial effects on lung pathologies in which manganese and HIF-1α overexpression play pathogenic roles.

  5. MicroRNA-429 induces tumorigenesis of human non-small cell lung cancer cells and targets multiple tumor suppressor genes

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, Yaoguo; Xu, Shidong; Ma, Jianqun; Wu, Jun; Jin, Shi; Cao, Shoubo; Yu, Yan

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • MiR-429 expression is upregulated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). • MiR-429 inhibits PTEN, RASSF8 and TIMP2 expression. • MiR-429 promotes metastasis and proliferation. • We report important regulatory mechanisms involved in NSCLC progression. • MiR-429 is a potential therapeutic target and diagnostic marker. - Abstract: Lung cancer is the major cause of cancer death globally. MicroRNAs are evolutionally conserved small noncoding RNAs that are critical for the regulation of gene expression. Aberrant expression of microRNA (miRNA) has been implicated in cancer initiation and progression. In this study, we demonstrated that the expression of miR-429 are often upregulated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) compared with normal lung tissues, and its expression level is also increased in NSCLC cell lines compared with normal lung cells. Overexpression of miR-429 in A549 NSCLC cells significantly promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion, whereas inhibition of miR-429 inhibits these effects. Furthermore, we demonstrated that miR-429 down-regulates PTEN, RASSF8 and TIMP2 expression by directly targeting the 3′-untranslated region of these target genes. Taken together, our results suggest that miR-429 plays an important role in promoting the proliferation and metastasis of NSCLC cells and is a potential target for NSCLC therapy.

  6. Protein C inhibits endocytosis of thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes in A549 lung cancer cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, I.; Majerus, P.W.

    1987-05-01

    We investigated the effect of protein C on the endocytosis of thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes. We previously showed that exposure of umbilical vein endothelial cells to thrombin stimulated the internalization and degradation of thrombin. A similar internalization was stimulated by a monoclonal antithrombomodulin antibody. We have repeated these studies in the presence of protein C and found that endocytosis of /sup 125/I-thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes, but not /sup 125/I-antithrombomodulin-thrombomodulin complexes, is inhibited. Activated protein C did not inhibit endocytosis of thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes. Protein C inhibited both internalization and degradation of /sup 125/I-thrombin and diisopropylphosphoryl (DIP) /sup 125/I-thrombin in human lung cancer cells (A549). These effects were observed at protein C concentrations found in human plasma. Protein S had no effect on the inhibition of endocytosis of thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes by protein C. We propose that protein C may regulate the rate of endocytosis of thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes in vivo and thereby control the capacity for endothelium to activate protein C.

  7. Expression and clinical significance of CXCR5/CXCL13 in human non-small cell lung carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    SINGH, RAJESH; GUPTA, PRANAV; KLOECKER, GOETZ H.; SINGH, SHAILESH; LILLARD, JAMES W.

    2014-01-01

    CXCR5 and/or CXCL13 expression is elevated in certain carcinomas and lymphomas. To determine if these factors are involved in progression of non-small cell lung cancer (LuCa), we evaluated their expression in patients with various forms of this disease. Lung biopsies from patients with non-neoplastic cells (n=8), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC; n=24), or adenocarcinoma (AC; n=54) were stained for CXCR5. Histopathological analysis of these samples showed significantly higher expression of CXCR5 (p<0.001) in carcinomas (i.e., SCCs and ACs) relative to non-neoplastic lung tissue. Nuclear and membrane CXCR5 intensities were highest in ACs, with median values of 185 and 130, respectively, followed by SCCs with median values of 170 and 110, respectively. The lowest nuclear and membrane expressions of CXCR5 were found in non-neoplastic tissues, having median values of 142 and 90, respectively. Sera from SCC patients (n=17), AC patients (n=14), and healthy controls (n=9) were tested for the presence of CXCL13. Serum CXCL13 levels in LuCa patients were higher than in healthy controls. CXCR5 expression in cell lines of human non-small cell lung carcinoma (NCI-H1915) and small cell lung carcinoma (SW-1271) were evaluated by flow cytometry. CXCR5 expression was higher in NCI-H1915 cells relative to SW-1271 cells. The functional significance of CXCR5 expression was tested in a migration assay. In response to CXCL13, more NCI-H1915 cells migrated than SW-1271 cells. These findings suggest that the CXCR5-CXCL13 axis influences LuCa progression. After validation in larger patient groups, CXCR5 and CXCL13 may prove useful as biomarkers for LuCa. Correspondingly, blockade of this axis could serve as an effective therapy for LuCa. PMID:25271023

  8. The histone demethylase PHF8 is an oncogenic protein in human non-small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yuzhou; Pan, Xufeng; Zhao, Heng

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • PHF8 overexpresses in human NSCLC and predicts poor survival. • PHF8 regulates lung cancer cell growth and transformation. • PHF8 regulates apoptosis in human lung cancer cells. • PHF8 promotes miR-21 expression in human lung cancer. • MiR-21 is critically essential for PHF8 function in human lung cancer cells. - Abstract: PHF8 is a JmjC domain-containing protein and erases repressive histone marks including H4K20me1 and H3K9me1/2. It binds to H3K4me3, an active histone mark usually located at transcription start sites (TSSs), through its plant homeo-domain, and is thus recruited and enriched in gene promoters. PHF8 is involved in the development of several types of cancer, including leukemia, prostate cancer, and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Herein we report that PHF8 is an oncogenic protein in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PHF8 is up-regulated in human NSCLC tissues, and high PHF8 expression predicts poor survival. Our in vitro and in vivo evidence demonstrate that PHF8 regulates lung cancer cell proliferation and cellular transformation. We found that PHF8 knockdown induces DNA damage and apoptosis in lung cancer cells. PHF8 promotes miR-21 expression in human lung cancer, and miR-21 knockdown blocks the effects of PHF8 on proliferation and apoptosis of lung cancer cells. In summary, PHF8 promotes lung cancer cell growth and survival by regulating miR-21.

  9. MiR-630 inhibits proliferation by targeting CDC7 kinase, but maintains the apoptotic balance by targeting multiple modulators in human lung cancer A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Cao, J-X; Lu, Y; Qi, J-J; An, G-S; Mao, Z-B; Jia, H-T; Li, S-Y; Ni, J-H

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAome analyses have shown microRNA-630 (miR-630) to be involved in the regulation of apoptosis. However, its apoptotic role is still debated and its participation in DNA replication is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that miR-630 inhibits cell proliferation by targeting cell-cycle kinase 7 (CDC7) kinase, but maintains the apoptotic balance by targeting multiple activators of apoptosis under genotoxic stress. We identified a novel regulatory mechanism of CDC7 gene expression, in which miR-630 downregulated CDC7 expression by recognizing and binding to four binding sites in CDC7 3'-UTR. We found that miR-630 was highly expressed in A549 and NIH3T3 cells where CDC7 was downregulated, but lower in H1299, MCF7, MDA-MB-231, HeLa and 2BS cells where CDC7 was upregulated. Furthermore, the induction of miR-630 occurred commonly in a variety of human cancer and immortalized cells in response to genotoxic agents. Importantly, downregulation of CDC7 by miR-630 was associated with cisplatin (CIS)-induced inhibitory proliferation in A549 cells. Mechanistically, miR-630 exerted its inhibitory proliferation by blocking CDC7-mediated initiation of DNA synthesis and by inducing G1 arrest, but maintains apoptotic balance under CIS exposure. On the one hand, miR-630 promoted apoptosis by downregulation of CDC7; on the other hand, it reduced apoptosis by downregulating several apoptotic modulators such as PARP3, DDIT4, EP300 and EP300 downstream effector p53, thereby maintaining the apoptotic balance. Our data indicate that miR-630 has a bimodal role in the regulation of apoptosis in response to DNA damage. Our data also support the notion that a certain mRNA can be targeted by several miRNAs, and in particular an miRNA may target a set of mRNAs. These data afford a comprehensive view of microRNA-dependent control of gene expression in the regulation of apoptosis under genotoxic stress. PMID:25255219

  10. Human Lung Cancer Cell Line A-549 ATCC Is Differentially Affected by Supranutritional Organic and Inorganic Selenium

    PubMed Central

    Flores Villavicencio, Lérida Liss; Cruz-Jiménez, Gustavo; Barbosa-Sabanero, Gloria; Kornhauser-Araujo, Carlos; Mendoza-Garrido, M. Eugenia; de la Rosa, Guadalupe; Sabanero-López, Myrna

    2014-01-01

    The effects of organic and inorganic forms of selenium (Se) on human cells have been extensively studied for nutritional concentrations; however, to date, little is known about the potential toxicity at supranutritional levels. In the present study we determined the effects of sodium selenite (SSe) and selenomethionine (SeMet) on cell growth and intracellular structures in lung cancer cells exposed at Se concentrations between 0 and 3 mM. Our results showed that SSe affected cell growth more rapidly than SeMet (24 h and 48 h, resp.). After 24 h of cells exposure to 0.5, 1.5, and 3 mM SSe, cell growth was reduced by 10, 50, and 60%, as compared to controls. After 48 h, nuclear fragmentation was evident in cells exposed to SSe, suggesting an induction to cell death. In contrast, SeMet did not affect cell proliferation, and the cells were phenotypically similar to controls. Microtubules and microfilaments structures were also affected by both Se compounds, again SSe being more toxic than SeMet. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the differential effects of organic and inorganic Se in supranutritional levels in lung cancer cells. PMID:25477771

  11. Baicalein Induces Caspase-dependent Apoptosis Associated with the Generation of ROS and the Activation of AMPK in Human Lung Carcinoma A549 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong Jae; Park, Cheol; Han, Min-Ho; Hong, Su-Hyun; Kim, Gi-Young; Hong, Sang Hoon; Kim, Nam Deuk; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Baicalein is one of the main bioactive flavonoids found in the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Here, we report that baicalein-induced growth inhibition was associated with the induction of apoptosis in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Baicalein stimulated the expression of DR5, FasL, and FADD, and activated caspase-8 by reducing the levels of FLIPs (FLICE-inhibitory proteins). The apoptotic cell death was also connected with an activation of caspase-9 and -3, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase; however, a blockage of caspase activation abolished baicalein-induced apoptotic potentials. Additionally, baicalein caused a mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), the truncation of Bid, and the translocation of pro-apoptotic Bax to the mitochondria, thereby inducing the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. In turn, baicalein increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); however, an ROS scavenger, N-acetylcysteine, notably attenuated baicalein-mediated loss of MMP and activation of caspases. Furthermore, baicalein activated the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. Consequently, baicalein-triggered cell death was attenuated by an AMPK inhibitor, but increased by an AMPK activator, compound C. Overall, the results suggest that the apoptotic activity of baicalein may be associated with caspase-dependent cascade through the activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic signaling pathways connected with ROS generation and AMPK activation.

  12. Identification of a Short Cell-Penetrating Peptide from Bovine Lactoferricin for Intracellular Delivery of DNA in Human A549 Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Betty R; Huang, Yue-Wern; Aronstam, Robert S; Lee, Han-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been shown to deliver cargos, including protein, DNA, RNA, and nanomaterials, in fully active forms into live cells. Most of the CPP sequences in use today are based on non-native proteins that may be immunogenic. Here we demonstrate that the L5a CPP (RRWQW) from bovine lactoferricin (LFcin), stably and noncovalently complexed with plasmid DNA and prepared at an optimal nitrogen/phosphate ratio of 12, is able to efficiently enter into human lung cancer A549 cells. The L5a CPP delivered a plasmid containing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) coding sequence that was subsequently expressed in cells, as revealed by real-time PCR and fluorescent microscopy at the mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Treatment with calcium chloride increased the level of gene expression, without affecting CPP-mediated transfection efficiency. Zeta-potential analysis revealed that positively electrostatic interactions of CPP/DNA complexes correlated with CPP-mediated transport. The L5a and L5a/DNA complexes were not cytotoxic. This biomimetic LFcin L5a represents one of the shortest effective CPPs and could be a promising lead peptide with less immunogenic for DNA delivery in gene therapy. PMID:26942714

  13. Baicalein Induces Caspase-dependent Apoptosis Associated with the Generation of ROS and the Activation of AMPK in Human Lung Carcinoma A549 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong Jae; Park, Cheol; Han, Min-Ho; Hong, Su-Hyun; Kim, Gi-Young; Hong, Sang Hoon; Kim, Nam Deuk; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Baicalein is one of the main bioactive flavonoids found in the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Here, we report that baicalein-induced growth inhibition was associated with the induction of apoptosis in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Baicalein stimulated the expression of DR5, FasL, and FADD, and activated caspase-8 by reducing the levels of FLIPs (FLICE-inhibitory proteins). The apoptotic cell death was also connected with an activation of caspase-9 and -3, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase; however, a blockage of caspase activation abolished baicalein-induced apoptotic potentials. Additionally, baicalein caused a mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), the truncation of Bid, and the translocation of pro-apoptotic Bax to the mitochondria, thereby inducing the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. In turn, baicalein increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); however, an ROS scavenger, N-acetylcysteine, notably attenuated baicalein-mediated loss of MMP and activation of caspases. Furthermore, baicalein activated the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. Consequently, baicalein-triggered cell death was attenuated by an AMPK inhibitor, but increased by an AMPK activator, compound C. Overall, the results suggest that the apoptotic activity of baicalein may be associated with caspase-dependent cascade through the activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic signaling pathways connected with ROS generation and AMPK activation. PMID:26971531

  14. Identification of a Short Cell-Penetrating Peptide from Bovine Lactoferricin for Intracellular Delivery of DNA in Human A549 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Betty R.; Huang, Yue-Wern; Aronstam, Robert S.; Lee, Han-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been shown to deliver cargos, including protein, DNA, RNA, and nanomaterials, in fully active forms into live cells. Most of the CPP sequences in use today are based on non-native proteins that may be immunogenic. Here we demonstrate that the L5a CPP (RRWQW) from bovine lactoferricin (LFcin), stably and noncovalently complexed with plasmid DNA and prepared at an optimal nitrogen/phosphate ratio of 12, is able to efficiently enter into human lung cancer A549 cells. The L5a CPP delivered a plasmid containing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) coding sequence that was subsequently expressed in cells, as revealed by real-time PCR and fluorescent microscopy at the mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Treatment with calcium chloride increased the level of gene expression, without affecting CPP-mediated transfection efficiency. Zeta-potential analysis revealed that positively electrostatic interactions of CPP/DNA complexes correlated with CPP-mediated transport. The L5a and L5a/DNA complexes were not cytotoxic. This biomimetic LFcin L5a represents one of the shortest effective CPPs and could be a promising lead peptide with less immunogenic for DNA delivery in gene therapy. PMID:26942714

  15. Fabrication of nano-silver particles using Cymodocea serrulata and its cytotoxicity effect against human lung cancer A549 cells line.

    PubMed

    Palaniappan, P; Sathishkumar, G; Sankar, R

    2015-03-01

    The present study reports, green synthesis of bioactive silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under different temperature (60°C, room temperature and 4° refrigerator) using the aqueous extract of sea grass Cymodocea serrulata as a potential bioreductant. Increased temperature fabricates more AgNPs compare to room temperature and refrigerator condition. At first the reduction of Ag(+) ions were confirmed through color change which produces an absorbance spectra at 420nm in UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Additionally various exclusive instrumentations such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) were authorizes the biosynthesis and physio-chemical characterization of AgNPs. From Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, it was identified that the water soluble fractions of the sea grass mainly responsible for reduction of ionic silver (Ag(+)) into (Ag(0)) nano-ranged particles and also they act as stabilizing agent to sustain the durability of NPs for long period of time. Further, synthesized AgNPs shows potential cytotoxicity against human lung cancer A549 cells (LD50-100μg/ml). The overall results suggest that C. serrulata is a valuable bioresource to generate rapid and eco-friendly bioactive AgNPs towards cancer therapy.

  16. Exosome cargo reflects TGF-β1-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) status in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyeon; Kim, Tae Yeon; Lee, Myung Shin; Mun, Ji Young; Ihm, Chunhwa; Kim, Soon Ae

    2016-09-16

    It has been suggested that tumor cells secrete exosomes to modify the local microenvironment, which then promotes intercellular communication and metastasis. Although exosomes derived from cancer cells may contribute to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in untransformed cells, few studies have defined exosome cargo upon induction of EMT. In this study, we investigated the changes in exosomal cargo from the epithelial to mesenchymal cell phenotype by inducing EMT with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. The protein content of the exosomes reflects the change in the cell phenotype. In addition, miR-23a was significantly enriched in the exosomes after mesenchymal transition. Following treatment of exosomes from mesenchymal cells via EMT induction with TGF-β1 to the epithelial cell type, phenotypic changes in protein expression level and cell morphology were observed. Autologous treatment of exosomes enhanced the transcriptional activity and abundance of β-catenin. Our results suggest that the exosomal protein and miRNA content reflects the physiological condition of its source and that exosomes induce phenotypic changes via autocrine signaling. PMID:27492069

  17. A Series of α-Amino Acid Ester Prodrugs of Camptothecin: In vitro Hydrolysis and A549 Human Lung Carcinoma Cell Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Manjeet; Chao, Piyun; Kutscher, Hilliard L.; Gao, Dayuan; Sinko, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify a camptothecin (CPT) prodrug with optimal release and cytotoxicity properties for immobilization on a passively targeted microparticle delivery system. A series of α-amino acid ester prodrugs of CPT were synthesized, characterized and evaluated. Four CPT prodrugs were synthesized with increasing aliphatic chain length (glycine (Gly) (2a), alanine (Ala) (2b), aminobutyric acid (Abu) (2c) and norvaline (Nva) (2d)). Prodrug reconversion was studied at pH 6.6, 7.0 and 7.4 corresponding to tumor, lung and extracellular/physiological pH, respectively. Cytotoxicity was evaluated in A549 human lung carcinoma cells using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The hydrolytic reconversion rate to parent CPT increased with decreasing side chain length as well as increasing pH. The Hill slope of 2d was significantly less than CPT and the other prodrugs tested, indicating a higher cell death rate at lower concentrations. These results suggest that 2d is the best candidate for a passively targeted sustained release lung delivery system. PMID:20063889

  18. Identification of a Short Cell-Penetrating Peptide from Bovine Lactoferricin for Intracellular Delivery of DNA in Human A549 Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Betty R; Huang, Yue-Wern; Aronstam, Robert S; Lee, Han-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been shown to deliver cargos, including protein, DNA, RNA, and nanomaterials, in fully active forms into live cells. Most of the CPP sequences in use today are based on non-native proteins that may be immunogenic. Here we demonstrate that the L5a CPP (RRWQW) from bovine lactoferricin (LFcin), stably and noncovalently complexed with plasmid DNA and prepared at an optimal nitrogen/phosphate ratio of 12, is able to efficiently enter into human lung cancer A549 cells. The L5a CPP delivered a plasmid containing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) coding sequence that was subsequently expressed in cells, as revealed by real-time PCR and fluorescent microscopy at the mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Treatment with calcium chloride increased the level of gene expression, without affecting CPP-mediated transfection efficiency. Zeta-potential analysis revealed that positively electrostatic interactions of CPP/DNA complexes correlated with CPP-mediated transport. The L5a and L5a/DNA complexes were not cytotoxic. This biomimetic LFcin L5a represents one of the shortest effective CPPs and could be a promising lead peptide with less immunogenic for DNA delivery in gene therapy.

  19. Fabrication of nano-silver particles using Cymodocea serrulata and its cytotoxicity effect against human lung cancer A549 cells line.

    PubMed

    Palaniappan, P; Sathishkumar, G; Sankar, R

    2015-03-01

    The present study reports, green synthesis of bioactive silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under different temperature (60°C, room temperature and 4° refrigerator) using the aqueous extract of sea grass Cymodocea serrulata as a potential bioreductant. Increased temperature fabricates more AgNPs compare to room temperature and refrigerator condition. At first the reduction of Ag(+) ions were confirmed through color change which produces an absorbance spectra at 420nm in UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Additionally various exclusive instrumentations such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) were authorizes the biosynthesis and physio-chemical characterization of AgNPs. From Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, it was identified that the water soluble fractions of the sea grass mainly responsible for reduction of ionic silver (Ag(+)) into (Ag(0)) nano-ranged particles and also they act as stabilizing agent to sustain the durability of NPs for long period of time. Further, synthesized AgNPs shows potential cytotoxicity against human lung cancer A549 cells (LD50-100μg/ml). The overall results suggest that C. serrulata is a valuable bioresource to generate rapid and eco-friendly bioactive AgNPs towards cancer therapy. PMID:25467657

  20. Fabrication of nano-silver particles using Cymodocea serrulata and its cytotoxicity effect against human lung cancer A549 cells line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, P.; Sathishkumar, G.; Sankar, R.

    2015-03-01

    The present study reports, green synthesis of bioactive silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under different temperature (60 °C, room temperature and 4° refrigerator) using the aqueous extract of sea grass Cymodocea serrulata as a potential bioreductant. Increased temperature fabricates more AgNPs compare to room temperature and refrigerator condition. At first the reduction of Ag+ ions were confirmed through color change which produces an absorbance spectra at 420 nm in UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Additionally various exclusive instrumentations such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) were authorizes the biosynthesis and physio-chemical characterization of AgNPs. From Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, it was identified that the water soluble fractions of the sea grass mainly responsible for reduction of ionic silver (Ag+) into (Ag0) nano-ranged particles and also they act as stabilizing agent to sustain the durability of NPs for long period of time. Further, synthesized AgNPs shows potential cytotoxicity against human lung cancer A549 cells (LD50-100 μg/ml). The overall results suggest that C. serrulata is a valuable bioresource to generate rapid and eco-friendly bioactive AgNPs towards cancer therapy.

  1. Expression of LRIG1 is Associated With Good Prognosis for Human Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    An, Yuzhi; Zhao, Zibo; Ou, Pengju; Wang, Guangchuan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Somatic mutations, which are associated with a certain rate of response to targeted therapies, are ubiquitously found in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, it is largely unknown which group of patients may benefit from the respective treatments targeting different somatic mutations. Therefore, more effective prognostic and predictive markers are desperately needed for the treatment of NSCLC harboring different somatic mutations. The leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains (LRIG)-1 is a tumor suppressor gene that belongs to the LRIG family. LRIG1 expression has prognostic significance in various human cancers. In this study, we first used the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemical analysis of 36 and 182 NSCLC patient tissues to analyze the LRIG1 expression respectively. To investigate the prognostic value of LRIG1 in NSCLC, we examined the correlation between clinical features and overall survival (OS) with Cox proportional hazard regression. We also compared the sensitivity and specificity of LRIG1 in NSCLC prognosis by logistic regression to further evaluate the prognostic efficiency of LRIG1 in NSCLC. We found that the LRIG1 expression was associated with pathological type, differentiation status, and stage of NSCLC. The result showed that LRIG1 was an independent prognostic factor for OS of NSCLC patients. LRIG1 in combination with other clinicopathological risk factors was a stronger prognostic model than clinicopathological risk factors alone. Thus, the LRIG1 expression potentially offered a significant clinical value in directing personal treatment for NSCLC patients. PMID:26632716

  2. Mimulone-induced autophagy through p53-mediated AMPK/mTOR pathway increases caspase-mediated apoptotic cell death in A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    An, Hyun-Kyu; Kim, Kyoung-Sook; Lee, Ji-Won; Park, Mi-Hyun; Moon, Hyung-In; Park, Shin-Ji; Baik, Ji-Sue; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Lee, Young-Choon

    2014-01-01

    Anticancer properties and mechanisms of mimulone (MML), C-geranylflavonoid isolated from the Paulownia tomentosa fruits, were firstly elucidated in this study. MML prevented cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent way and triggered apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, MML-treated cells displayed autophagic features, such as the formation of autophagic vacuoles, a primary morphological feature of autophagy, and the accumulation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) puncta, another typical maker of autophagy, as determined by FITC-conjugated immunostaining and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining, respectively. The expression levels of LC3-I and LC3-II, specific markers of autophagy, were also augmented by MML treatment. Autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), pharmacological autophagy inhibitor, and shRNA knockdown of Beclin-1 reduced apoptotic cell death induced by MML. Autophagic flux was not significantly affected by MML treatment and lysosomal inhibitor, chloroquine (CQ) suppressed MML-induced autophagy and apoptosis. MML-induced autophagy was promoted by decreases in p53 and p-mTOR levels and increase of p-AMPK. Moreover, inhibition of p53 transactivation by pifithrin-α (PFT-α) and knockdown of p53 enhanced induction of autophagy and finally promoted apoptotic cell death. Overall, the results demonstrate that autophagy contributes to the cytotoxicity of MML in cancer cells harboring wild-type p53. This study strongly suggests that MML is a potential candidate for an anticancer agent targeting both autophagy and apoptotic cell death in human lung cancer. Moreover, co-treatment of MML and p53 inhibitor would be more effective in human lung cancer therapy. PMID:25490748

  3. Mimulone-Induced Autophagy through p53-Mediated AMPK/mTOR Pathway Increases Caspase-Mediated Apoptotic Cell Death in A549 Human Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Won; Park, Mi-Hyun; Moon, Hyung-In; Park, Shin-Ji; Baik, Ji-Sue; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Lee, Young-Choon

    2014-01-01

    Anticancer properties and mechanisms of mimulone (MML), C-geranylflavonoid isolated from the Paulownia tomentosa fruits, were firstly elucidated in this study. MML prevented cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent way and triggered apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, MML-treated cells displayed autophagic features, such as the formation of autophagic vacuoles, a primary morphological feature of autophagy, and the accumulation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) puncta, another typical maker of autophagy, as determined by FITC-conjugated immunostaining and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining, respectively. The expression levels of LC3-I and LC3-II, specific markers of autophagy, were also augmented by MML treatment. Autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), pharmacological autophagy inhibitor, and shRNA knockdown of Beclin-1 reduced apoptotic cell death induced by MML. Autophagic flux was not significantly affected by MML treatment and lysosomal inhibitor, chloroquine (CQ) suppressed MML-induced autophagy and apoptosis. MML-induced autophagy was promoted by decreases in p53 and p-mTOR levels and increase of p-AMPK. Moreover, inhibition of p53 transactivation by pifithrin-α (PFT-α) and knockdown of p53 enhanced induction of autophagy and finally promoted apoptotic cell death. Overall, the results demonstrate that autophagy contributes to the cytotoxicity of MML in cancer cells harboring wild-type p53. This study strongly suggests that MML is a potential candidate for an anticancer agent targeting both autophagy and apoptotic cell death in human lung cancer. Moreover, co-treatment of MML and p53 inhibitor would be more effective in human lung cancer therapy. PMID:25490748

  4. The environmental carcinogen 3-nitrobenzanthrone and its main metabolite 3-aminobenzanthrone enhance formation of reactive oxygen intermediates in human A549 lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Tanja . E-mail: tanja.hansen@item.fraunhofer.de; Seidel, Albrecht; Borlak, Juergen

    2007-06-01

    The environmental contaminant 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is highly mutagenic and a suspected human carcinogen. We aimed to evaluate whether 3-NBA is able to deregulate critical steps in cell cycle control and apoptosis in human lung epithelial A549 cells. Increased intracellular Ca{sup 2+} and caspase activities were detected upon 3-NBA exposure. As shown by cell cycle analysis, an increased number of S-phase cells was observed after 24 h of treatment with 3-NBA. Furthermore, 3-NBA was shown to inhibit cell proliferation when added to subconfluent cell cultures. The main metabolite of 3-NBA, 3-ABA, induced statistically significant increases in tail moment as judged by alkaline comet assay. The potential of 3-NBA and 3-ABA to enhance the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was demonstrated by flow cytometry using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA). The enzyme inhibitors allopurinol, dicumarol, resveratrol and SKF525A were used to assess the impact of metabolic conversion on 3-NBA-mediated ROS production. Resveratrol decreased dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence by 50%, suggesting a role for CYP1A1 in 3-NBA-mediated ROS production. Mitochondrial ROS production was significantly attenuated (20% reduction) by addition of rotenone (complex I inhibition) and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA, complex II inhibition). Taken together, the results of the present study provide evidence for a genotoxic potential of 3-ABA in human epithelial lung cells. Moreover, both compounds lead to increased intracellular ROS and create an environment favorable to DNA damage and the promotion of cancer.

  5. Astaxanthin down-regulates Rad51 expression via inactivation of AKT kinase to enhance mitomycin C-induced cytotoxicity in human non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jen-Chung; Chen, Jyh-Cheng; Wang, Tai-Jing; Zheng, Hao-Yu; Chen, Wen-Ching; Chang, Po-Yuan; Lin, Yun-Wei

    2016-04-01

    Astaxanthin has been demonstrated to exhibit a wide range of beneficial effects, including anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. However, the molecular mechanism of astaxanthin-induced cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells has not been identified. Rad51 plays a central role in homologous recombination, and studies show that chemo-resistant carcinomas exhibit high levels of Rad51 expression. In this study, astaxanthin treatment inhibited cell viability and proliferation of two NSCLC cells, A549 and H1703. Astaxanthin treatment (2.5-20 μM) decreased Rad51 expression and phospho-AKT(Ser473) protein level in a time and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, expression of constitutively active AKT (AKT-CA) vector rescued the decreased Rad51 mRNA and protein levels in astaxanthin-treated NSCLC cells. Combined treatment with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors (LY294002 or wortmannin) further decreased the Rad51 expression in astaxanthin-exposed A549 and H1703 cells. Knockdown of Rad51 expression by transfection with si-Rad51 RNA or cotreatment with LY294002 further enhanced the cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition of astaxanthin. Additionally, mitomycin C (MMC) as an anti-tumor antibiotic is widely used in clinical NSCLC chemotherapy. Combination of MMC and astaxanthin synergistically resulted in cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition in NSCLC cells, accompanied with reduced phospho-AKT(Ser473) level and Rad51 expression. Overexpression of AKT-CA or Flag-tagged Rad51 reversed the astaxanthin and MMC-induced synergistic cytotoxicity. In contrast, pretreatment with LY294002 further decreased the cell viability in astaxanthin and MMC co-treated cells. In conclusion, astaxanthin enhances MMC-induced cytotoxicity by decreasing Rad51 expression and AKT activation. These findings may provide rationale to combine astaxanthin with MMC for the treatment of NSCLC.

  6. Detection of Immunoglobulin G against E7 of Human Papillomavirus in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Storey, Raul; Joh, Joongho; Kwon, Amy; Jenson, A Bennett; Ghim, Shin-Je; Kloecker, Goetz H

    2013-01-01

    Background. A significant number of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC) have human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA integrated in their genome. This study sought to further establish HPV's possible etiologic link to NSCLC by evaluating an immune response to HPV's oncogene, E7, in patients with NSCLC. Patients and Methods. Antibodies (IgG) in serum against E7 for HPV 16 and 18 in 100 patients with NSCLC were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results. Sixteen NSCLC patients were found to have a high titration of IgG for HPV oncogenic E7 protein. 23.5% of adenocarcinomas (AC,) and 15.4% of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) were positive for IgG against HPV E7. HPV-18 (11%) had a slightly higher frequency than HPV-16 (6%). Of the six positive cases for HPV-16, 3 were AC, 2 SCC, and 1 NOS (not otherwise specified). For the 11 HPV-18 positives, 7 were AC, and 4 SCC. The one case with IgG against HPV 16 and 18 was AC. One case had high cross-reactive levels against E7 of HPV 16 and 18. Two (28%) of 7 patients who reported never smoking were positive for HPV, and 12 (13.6%) of 88 smokers were HPV positive. Conclusions. The study detected high levels of IgG against E7 in 16% of NSCLC patients. This adds evidence to a potential role of HPV in the pathogenesis of NSCLC.

  7. Detection of Immunoglobulin G against E7 of Human Papillomavirus in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Joh, Joongho; Kwon, Amy; Jenson, A. Bennett; Ghim, Shin-je; Kloecker, Goetz H.

    2013-01-01

    Background. A significant number of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC) have human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA integrated in their genome. This study sought to further establish HPV's possible etiologic link to NSCLC by evaluating an immune response to HPV's oncogene, E7, in patients with NSCLC. Patients and Methods. Antibodies (IgG) in serum against E7 for HPV 16 and 18 in 100 patients with NSCLC were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results. Sixteen NSCLC patients were found to have a high titration of IgG for HPV oncogenic E7 protein. 23.5% of adenocarcinomas (AC,) and 15.4% of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) were positive for IgG against HPV E7. HPV-18 (11%) had a slightly higher frequency than HPV-16 (6%). Of the six positive cases for HPV-16, 3 were AC, 2 SCC, and 1 NOS (not otherwise specified). For the 11 HPV-18 positives, 7 were AC, and 4 SCC. The one case with IgG against HPV 16 and 18 was AC. One case had high cross-reactive levels against E7 of HPV 16 and 18. Two (28%) of 7 patients who reported never smoking were positive for HPV, and 12 (13.6%) of 88 smokers were HPV positive. Conclusions. The study detected high levels of IgG against E7 in 16% of NSCLC patients. This adds evidence to a potential role of HPV in the pathogenesis of NSCLC. PMID:23533408

  8. The significance of PIWI family expression in human lung embryogenesis and non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Alfons; Tejero, Rut; Viñolas, Nuria; Cordeiro, Anna; Marrades, Ramon M; Fuster, Dolors; Caritg, Oriol; Moises, Jorge; Muñoz, Carmen; Molins, Laureano; Ramirez, Josep; Monzo, Mariano

    2015-10-13

    The expression of Piwi-interacting RNAs, small RNAs that bind to PIWI proteins, was until recently believed to be limited to germinal stem cells. We have studied the expression of PIWI genes during human lung embryogenesis and in paired tumor and normal tissue prospectively collected from 71 resected non-small-cell lung cancer patients. The mRNA expression analysis showed that PIWIL1 was highly expressed in 7-week embryos and downregulated during the subsequent weeks of development. PIWIL1 was expressed in 11 of the tumor samples but in none of the normal tissue samples. These results were validated by immunohistochemistry, showing faint cytoplasmic reactivity in the PIWIL1-positive samples. Interestingly, the patients expressing PIWIL1 had a shorter time to relapse (TTR) (p = 0.006) and overall survival (OS) (p = 0.0076) than those without PIWIL1 expression. PIWIL2 and 4 were downregulated in tumor tissue in comparison to the normal tissue (p < 0.001) and the patients with lower levels of PIWIL4 had shorter TTR (p = 0.048) and OS (p = 0.033). In the multivariate analysis, PIWIL1 expression emerged as an independent prognostic marker. Using 5-Aza-dC treatment and bisulfite sequencing, we observed that PIWIL1 expression could be regulated in part by methylation. Finally, an in silico study identified a stem-cell expression signature associated with PIWIL1 expression.

  9. Isogambogenic acid induces apoptosis-independent autophagic cell death in human non-small-cell lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianhong; Zhou, Yongzhao; Cheng, Xia; Fan, Yi; He, Shichao; Li, Shucai; Ye, Haoyu; Xie, Caifeng; Wu, Wenshuang; Li, Chunyan; Pei, Heying; Li, Luyuan; Wei, Zhe; Peng, Aihua; Wei, Yuquan; Li, Weimin; Chen, Lijuan

    2015-01-09

    To overcome drug resistance caused by apoptosis deficiency in patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), there is a need to identify other means of triggering apoptosis-independent cancer cell death. We are the first to report that isogambogenic acid (iso-GNA) can induce apoptosis-independent autophagic cell death in human NSCLC cells. Several features of the iso-GNA-treated NSCLC cells indicated that iso-GNA induced autophagic cell death. First, there was no evidence of apoptosis or cleaved caspase 3 accumulation and activation. Second, iso-GNA treatment induced the formation of autophagic vacuoles, increased LC3 conversion, caused the appearance of autophagosomes and increased the expression of autophagy-related proteins. These findings provide evidence that iso-GNA induces autophagy in NSCLC cells. Third, iso-GNA-induced cell death was inhibited by autophagic inhibitors or by selective ablation of Atg7 and Beclin 1 genes. Furthermore, the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin increased iso-GNA-induced cell death by enhancing autophagy. Finally, a xenograft model provided additional evidence that iso-GNA exhibited anticancer effect through inducing autophagy-dependent cell death in NSCLC cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated that iso-GNA exhibited an anticancer effect by inducing autophagy-dependent cell death in NSCLC cells, which may be an effective chemotherapeutic agent that can be used against NSCLC in a clinical setting.

  10. Isogambogenic acid induces apoptosis-independent autophagic cell death in human non-small-cell lung carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianhong; Zhou, Yongzhao; Cheng, Xia; Fan, Yi; He, Shichao; Li, Shucai; Ye, Haoyu; Xie, Caifeng; Wu, Wenshuang; Li, Chunyan; Pei, Heying; Li, Luyuan; Wei, Zhe; Peng, Aihua; Wei, Yuquan; Li, Weimin; Chen, Lijuan

    2015-01-01

    To overcome drug resistance caused by apoptosis deficiency in patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), there is a need to identify other means of triggering apoptosis-independent cancer cell death. We are the first to report that isogambogenic acid (iso-GNA) can induce apoptosis-independent autophagic cell death in human NSCLC cells. Several features of the iso-GNA-treated NSCLC cells indicated that iso-GNA induced autophagic cell death. First, there was no evidence of apoptosis or cleaved caspase 3 accumulation and activation. Second, iso-GNA treatment induced the formation of autophagic vacuoles, increased LC3 conversion, caused the appearance of autophagosomes and increased the expression of autophagy-related proteins. These findings provide evidence that iso-GNA induces autophagy in NSCLC cells. Third, iso-GNA-induced cell death was inhibited by autophagic inhibitors or by selective ablation of Atg7 and Beclin 1 genes. Furthermore, the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin increased iso-GNA-induced cell death by enhancing autophagy. Finally, a xenograft model provided additional evidence that iso-GNA exhibited anticancer effect through inducing autophagy-dependent cell death in NSCLC cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated that iso-GNA exhibited an anticancer effect by inducing autophagy-dependent cell death in NSCLC cells, which may be an effective chemotherapeutic agent that can be used against NSCLC in a clinical setting. PMID:25571970

  11. Antiestrogen fulvestrant enhances the antiproliferative effects of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors in human non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Garon, Edward B.; Pietras, Richard J.; Finn, Richard S.; Kamranpour, Naeimeh; Pitts, Sharon; Márquez-Garbán, Diana C.; Desai, Amrita J.; Dering, Judy; Hosmer, Wylie; von Euw, Erika M.; Dubinett, Steven M.; Slamon, Dennis J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Estrogen receptor (ER) signaling and its interaction with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a potential therapeutic target in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To explore cross-communication between ER and EGFR, we have correlated ER pathway gene and protein expression profiles and examined effects of antiestrogens with or without EGFR inhibitors in preclinical models of human NSCLC. Methods We evaluated 54 NSCLC cell lines for growth inhibition with EGFR inhibitors, antiestrogen treatment or the combination. Each line was evaluated for baseline ER pathway protein expression. The majority were also evaluated for baseline ER pathway gene expression. Human NSCLC xenografts were evaluated for effects of inhibition of each pathway either individually or in combination. Results The specific antiestrogen fulvestrant has modest single agent activity in vitro, but in many lines fulvestrant adds to effects of EGFR inhibitors, including synergy in the EGFR mutant, erlotinib-resistant H1975 line. ERα, ERβ, progesterone receptor (PR)-A, PR-B and aromatase proteins are expressed in all lines to varying degrees, with trends towards lower aromatase in more sensitive cell lines. Sensitivity to fulvestrant correlates with greater baseline ERα gene expression. Tumor stability is achieved in human tumor xenografts with either fulvestrant or EGFR inhibitors, but tumors regress significantly when both pathways are inhibited. Conclusions These data provide a rationale for further investigation of the antitumor activity of combined therapy with antiestrogen and anti-EGFR agents in the clinic. Future work should also evaluate dual ER and EGFR inhibition in the setting of secondary resistance to EGFR inhibition. PMID:23399957

  12. Oxidative damage to DNA and repair induced by Norwegian wood smoke particles in human A549 and THP-1 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Loft, Steffen; Kocbach, Anette; Schwarze, Per E; Møller, Peter

    2009-03-31

    Genotoxic effects of traffic-generated particulate matter (PM) are well described, whereas little data are available on PM from combustion of biomass and wood, which contributes substantially to air pollution world wide. The aim of this study was to compare the genotoxicity of wood smoke particulate matter (WSPM), authentic traffic-generated particles, mineral PM and standard reference material (SRM2975) of diesel exhaust particles in human A549 lung epithelial and THP-1 monocytic cell lines. DNA damage was measured as strand breaks (SB) and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) sites by the comet assay, whereas cell cytotoxicity was determined as lactate dehydrogenase release. The exposure to WSPM generated SB and FPG sites in both cell lines at concentrations from 2.5 or 25 microg/ml, which were not cytotoxic. Compared to all other studied particles, WSPM generated greater responses in terms of both SB and FPG sites. Organic extracts of WSPM and SRM2975 elicited higher levels of SB than native and washed PM at 25 and 100 microg/ml, whereas assay saturation precluded reliable assessment of FPG sites. During a 6h post-exposure period, in which the medium with PM had been replaced by fresh medium, 60% of the DNA lesions generated by WSPM were removed. In conclusion, WSPM generated more DNA damage than traffic-generated PM per unit mass in human cell lines, possibly due to the high level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in WSPM. This suggests that exposure to WSPM might be more hazardous than PM collected from vehicle exhaust with respect to development of lung cancer. PMID:19041418

  13. Ambient particulate matter (PM2.5): physicochemical characterization and metabolic activation of the organic fraction in human lung epithelial cells (A549).

    PubMed

    Billet, Sylvain; Garçon, Guillaume; Dagher, Zeina; Verdin, Anthony; Ledoux, Frédéric; Cazier, Fabrice; Courcot, Dominique; Aboukais, Antoine; Shirali, Pirouz

    2007-10-01

    To contribute to complete the knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of action involved in air pollution particulate matter (PM)-induced cytotoxicity, an aerosol was collected in Dunkerque, a French seaside City heavily industrialized. In this work, we focused our attention on its physical and chemical characteristics, its cytotoxicity, and its role in the induction of the volatile organic compound (VOC) and/or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-metabolizing enzymes in human lung epithelial cells (A549). Size distribution showed that 92.15% of the collected PM were PM2.5 and the specific surface area was 1 m2/g. Inorganic (i.e. Fe, Al, Ca, Na, K, Mg, Pb, etc.) and organic (i.e. VOC, PAH, etc.) chemicals were found in collected PM, revealing that much of them derived from wind-borne dust from the industrial complex and the heavy motor vehicle traffic. The thermal desorption study indicated that organic chemicals were not only adsorbed onto the surface but also highly incrusted in the structure of PM. The lethal concentrations at 10% and 50% of collected PM were 23.72 microg/mL (or 6.33microg/cm2) and 118.60 microg/mL (or 31.63 microg/cm2), respectively. The VOC and/or PAH-coated onto PM induced significant increases in mRNA expressions of cytochrome P450 (cyp) 1a1, cyp2e1, cyp2f1, nadph quinone oxydo-reductase-1, and glutathione s-transferase-pi 1, versus controls. Hence, we concluded that the metabolic activation of the very low doses of VOC and/or PAH-coated onto the inorganic condensation nuclei from Dunkerque City's PM is one of the underlying mechanisms of action closely involved in its cytotoxicity in human lung epithelial cells.

  14. Association of advanced glycation end products with A549 cells, a human pulmonary epithelial cell line, is mediated by a receptor distinct from the scavenger receptor family and RAGE.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Nahoko; Fukuhara-Takaki, Kaori; Jono, Tadashi; Nakajou, Keisuke; Eto, Nobuaki; Horiuchi, Seikoh; Takeya, Motohiro; Nagai, Ryoji

    2006-05-01

    Cellular interactions with advanced glycation end products (AGE)-modified proteins are known to induce several biological responses, not only endocytic uptake and degradation, but also the induction of cytokines and growth factors, combined responses that may be linked to the development of diabetic vascular complications. In this study we demonstrate that A549 cells, a human pulmonary epithelial cell line, possess a specific binding site for AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA) (K(d) = 27.8 nM), and additionally for EN-RAGE (extracellular newly identified RAGE binding protein) (K(d) = 118 nM). Western blot and RT-PCR analysis showed that RAGE (receptor for AGE) is highly expressed on A549 cells, while the expression of other known AGE-receptors such as galectin-3 and SR-A (class A scavenger receptor), are below the level of detection. The binding of (125)I-AGE-BSA to these cells is inhibited by unlabeled AGE-BSA, but not by EN-RAGE. In contrast, the binding of (125)I-EN-RAGE is significantly inhibited by unlabeled EN-RAGE and soluble RAGE, but not by AGE-BSA. Our results indicate that A549 cells possess at least two binding sites, one specific for EN-RAGE and the other specific for AGE-BSA. The latter receptor on A549 cells is distinct from the scavenger receptor family and RAGE.

  15. Smad2/3-Regulated Expression of DLX2 Is Associated with Radiation-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Radioresistance of A549 and MDA-MB-231 Human Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yeo-Jin; Baek, Ga-Young; Park, Hae-Ran; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee

    2016-01-01

    The control of radioresistance and metastatic potential of surviving cancer cells is important for improving cancer eradication by radiotheraphy. The distal-less homeobox2 (DLX2) gene encodes for a homeobox transcription factor involved in morphogenesis and its deregulation was found in human solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. Here we investigated the role of DLX2 in association with radiation-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stem cell-like properties and its regulation by Smad2/3 signaling in irradiated A549 and MDA-MB-231 human cancer cell lines. In irradiated A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells, EMT was induced as demonstrated by EMT marker expression, phosphorylation of Smad2/3, and migratory and invasive ability. Also, irradiated A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells showed increased cancer stem cells (CSCs) marker. Interestingly, DLX2 was overexpressed upon irradiation. Therefore, we examined the role of DLX2 in radiation-induced EMT and radioresistance. The overexpression of DLX2 alone induced EMT, migration and invasion, and CSC marker expression. The reduced colony-forming ability in irradiated cells was partially restored by DLX2 overexpression. On the other hand, the depletion of DLX2 using si-RNA abolished radiation-induced EMT, CSC marker expression, and phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in irradiated A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Also, depletion of DLX2 increased the radiation sensitivity in both cell lines. Moreover, knockdown of Smad2/3, a key activator of TGF-β1 pathway, abrogated the radiation-induced DLX2 expression, indicating that radiation-induced DLX2 expression is dependent on Smad2/3 signaling. These results demonstrated that DLX2 plays a crucial role in radioresistance, radiation-induced EMT and CSC marker expression, and the expression of DLX2 is regulated by Smad2/3 signaling in A549 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. PMID:26799321

  16. Smad2/3-Regulated Expression of DLX2 Is Associated with Radiation-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Radioresistance of A549 and MDA-MB-231 Human Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yeo-Jin; Baek, Ga-Young; Park, Hae-Ran; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee

    2016-01-01

    The control of radioresistance and metastatic potential of surviving cancer cells is important for improving cancer eradication by radiotheraphy. The distal-less homeobox2 (DLX2) gene encodes for a homeobox transcription factor involved in morphogenesis and its deregulation was found in human solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. Here we investigated the role of DLX2 in association with radiation-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stem cell-like properties and its regulation by Smad2/3 signaling in irradiated A549 and MDA-MB-231 human cancer cell lines. In irradiated A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells, EMT was induced as demonstrated by EMT marker expression, phosphorylation of Smad2/3, and migratory and invasive ability. Also, irradiated A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells showed increased cancer stem cells (CSCs) marker. Interestingly, DLX2 was overexpressed upon irradiation. Therefore, we examined the role of DLX2 in radiation-induced EMT and radioresistance. The overexpression of DLX2 alone induced EMT, migration and invasion, and CSC marker expression. The reduced colony-forming ability in irradiated cells was partially restored by DLX2 overexpression. On the other hand, the depletion of DLX2 using si-RNA abolished radiation-induced EMT, CSC marker expression, and phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in irradiated A549 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Also, depletion of DLX2 increased the radiation sensitivity in both cell lines. Moreover, knockdown of Smad2/3, a key activator of TGF-β1 pathway, abrogated the radiation-induced DLX2 expression, indicating that radiation-induced DLX2 expression is dependent on Smad2/3 signaling. These results demonstrated that DLX2 plays a crucial role in radioresistance, radiation-induced EMT and CSC marker expression, and the expression of DLX2 is regulated by Smad2/3 signaling in A549 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. PMID:26799321

  17. MiR-153 inhibits migration and invasion of human non-small-cell lung cancer by targeting ADAM19

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, Nianxi; Shen, Liangfang; Wang, Jun; He, Dan; Duan, Chaojun

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • Decreased miR-153 and up-regulated ADAM19 are correlated with NSCLC pathology. • MiR-153 inhibits the proliferation and migration and invasion of NSCLC cells in vitro. • ADAM19 is a direct target of miR-153. • ADAM19 is involved in miR-153-suppressed migration and invasion of NSCLC cells. - Abstract: MiR-153 was reported to be dysregulated in some human cancers. However, the function and mechanism of miR-153 in lung cancer cells remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-153 in human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using qRT-PCR, we demonstrated that miR-153 was significantly decreased in clinical NSCLC tissues and cell lines, and downregulation of miR-153 was significantly correlated with lymph node status. We further found that ectopic expression of miR-153 significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration and invasion of NSCLC cells in vitro, suggesting that miR-153 may be a novel tumor suppressor in NSCLC. Further integrated analysis revealed that ADAM19 is as a direct and functional target of miR-153. Luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that miR-153 directly targeted 3′UTR of ADAM19, and correlation analysis revealed an inverse correlation between miR-153 and ADAM19 mRNA levels in clinical NSCLC tissues. Knockdown of ADAM19 inhibited migration and invasion of NSCLC cells which was similar with effects of overexpression of miR-153, while overexpression of ADAM19 attenuated the function of miR-153 in NSCLC cells. Taken together, our results highlight the significance of miR-153 and ADAM19 in the development and progression of NSCLC.

  18. Cardiac troponin I is abnormally expressed in non-small cell lung cancer tissues and human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao; Liu, Jia-Bao; Bian, Zhi-Ping; Xu, Jin-Dan; Wu, Heng-Fang; Gu, Chun-Rong; Shi, Yi; Zhang, Ji-Nan; Chen, Xiang-Jian; Yang, Di

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is the only sarcomeric protein identified to date that is expressed exclusively in cardiac muscle. Its expression in cancer tissues has not been reported. Herein, we examined cTnI expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues, human adenocarcinoma cells SPCA-1 (lung) and BGC 823 (gastric) by immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis and real-time PCR. Immunopositivity for cTnI was demonstrated in 69.4% (34/49) NSCLC tissues evaluated, and was strong intensity in 35.3% (6/17) lung squamous cell carcinoma cases. The non-cancer-bearing lung tissues except tuberculosis (9/9, 100%) showed negative staining for cTnI. Seven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against human cTnI were applied in immunofluorescence. The result showed that the staining pattern within SPCA-1 and BGC 823 was dependent on the epitope of the cTnI mAbs. The membrane and nucleus of cancer cells were stained by mAbs against N-terminal peptides of cTnI, and cytoplasm was stained by mAbs against the middle and C-terminal peptides of cTnI. A ~25 kD band was identified by anti-cTnI mAb in SPCA-1 and BGC 823 extracts by western blot, as well as in cardiomyocyte extracts. The cTnI mRNA expressions in SPCA-1 and BGC 823 cells were about ten thousand times less than that in cardiomyocytes. Our study shows for the first time that cTnI protein and mRNA were abnormally expressed in NSCLC tissues, SPCA-1 and BGC 823 cells. These findings challenge the conventional view of cTnI as a cardiac-specific protein, enabling the potential use of cTnI as a diagnostic marker or targeted therapy for cancer.

  19. Human papilloma virus in non-small cell lung cancer in never smokers: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yoshikazu; Ando, Masahiko; Kubo, Akihito; Isa, Shun-Ichi; Yamamoto, Satomi; Tsujino, Kazuyuki; Kurata, Takayasu; Ou, Sai-Hong I; Takada, Minoru; Kawaguchi, Tomoya

    2014-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in never smokers has emerged as a global public health issue. The cause is still unclear, and few studies have focused on the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the never smokers. We performed a systematic search of PubMed for articles of HPV infection in human subjects with NSCLC up to September 2012. Although smoking status was not fully reported in all studies, we contacted the authors by e-mail to supplement this information. Differences in the distribution of patients with and without HPV infection were tested with the Chi squared test. We identified 46 eligible articles, including 23 from Asian countries (N=2337 NSCLC cases), 19 from European countries (N=1553) and 4 from North and South America (N=160). The HPV prevalence was 28.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 26.6-30.3%), 8.4% (95% CI 7.1-9.9%) and 21.3% (95% CI 15.2-28.4%), respectively. Eleven studies from East Asia (N=1110) and 4 from Europe (N=569) provided information on smoking status. The number of never smoker was 392 patients (33.9%) in East Asia and 54 patients (14.8%) in Europe. The HPV prevalence in East Asian countries was similar between never and ever smokers (33.9% vs 39.2%, P=0.080). Based on the literature confirming the presence of HPV in lung cancer in never smokers, the virus plays a role in carcinogenesis in the disease. There were different patterns of HPV prevalence between Asian and European countries in the never smokers as well as in ever smokers.

  20. Investigations on cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of laser printer emissions in human epithelial A549 lung cells using an air/liquid exposure system.

    PubMed

    Tang, Tao; Gminski, Richard; Könczöl, Mathias; Modest, Christoph; Armbruster, Benedikt; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2012-03-01

    Exposure to emissions from laser printers during the printing process is commonplace worldwide, both in the home and workplace environment. In the present study, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the emission from five low to medium-throughput laser printers were investigated with respect to the release of ozone (O(3) ), volatile organic compounds (VOC), particulate matter (PM), and submicrometer particles (SMP) during standby and operation. Experiments were conducted in a 1 m(3) emission chamber connected to a Vitrocell® exposure system. Cytotoxicity was determined by the WST-1 assay and genotoxicity by the micronucleus test in human A549 lung cells. The five laser printers emitted varying but generally small amounts of O(3) , VOC, and PM. VOC emissions included 13 compounds with total VOC concentrations ranging from 95 to 280 μg/m(3) (e.g., 2-butanone, hexanal, m,p-xylene, and o-xylene). Mean PM concentrations were below 2.4 μg/m(3). SMP number concentration levels during standby ranged from 9 to 26 particles/cm(3). However, three of the printers generated a 90 to 16 × 10(3) -fold increase of SMP during the printing process (maximum 294,460 particles/cm(3)). Whereas none of the printer emissions were found to cause cytotoxicity, emissions from two printers induced formation of micronuclei (P < 0.001), thus providing evidence for genotoxicity. As yet, differences in biological activity cannot be explained on the basis of the specific emission characteristics of the different printers. Because laser printing technology is widely used, studies with additional cytogenetic endpoints are necessary to confirm the DNA-damaging potency and to identify emission components responsible for genotoxicity.

  1. In vitro and in vivo antitumour activities of puerarin 6″-O-xyloside on human lung carcinoma A549 cell line via the induction of the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ti; Chen, Hui; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Jian

    2016-09-01

    Context Pueraria lobata (Leguminoseae) shows cytotoxic effects against cancer cells; however, its active components remain unclear. Objective This study investigated the antitumour activity of puerarin 6″-O-xyloside (POS) on the human lung carcinoma A549 cell line. Materials and methods The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine the cytotoxicity of POS (at 10, 20 and 40 μM) in vitro, and xenograft nude mice were established to evaluate the antitumour effect of POS (at 40 mg/kg/d) in vivo by 15 days intraperitoneal injection (ip). To explore its mechanism of action, flow cytometry was performed to determine the pro-apoptotic effect of POS (at 10, 20 and 40 μM). Subsequently, the expression of caspase-3, caspase-7, caspase-9, Bcl-2 and Bax in A549 cells were determined. Results POS showed significant cytotoxicity toward A549 cells (p < 0.05) by inducing apoptosis. Treatment with POS significantly upregulated the levels of caspase-3 (p < 0.01), caspase-7 (p < 0.01), caspase-9 (p < 0.01) and Bax (p < 0.01) in A549 cells, and Bcl-2 was downregulated (p < 0.01). Additionally, the in vivo animal study showed that POS significantly inhibited tumour growth in A549 cells (p < 0.01). Conclusion Our study demonstrated the POS has significant antitumour activities. The mechanisms are related to increased levels of caspase-3, caspase-7, caspase-9 and Bax, and reduced levels Bcl-2. PMID:26730946

  2. Alpha-chaconine-reduced metastasis involves a PI3K/Akt signaling pathway with downregulation of NF-kappaB in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yuan-Wei; Chen, Pin-Shern; Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Jeng, Ya-Fang; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2007-12-26

    Alpha-chaconine, isolated from Solanum tuberosum Linn., is a naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloid in potato sprouts. Some reports demonstrated that alpha-chaconine had various anticarcinogenic properties. The aim of this study is to investigate the inhibitory effect of alpha-chaconine on lung adenocarcinoma cell metastasis in vitro. We chose the highly metastatic A549 cells, which were treated with various concentrations of alpha-chaconine to clarify the potential of inhibiting A549 cells invasion and migration. Data showed that alpha-chaconine inhibited A549 cell invasion/migration according to wound healing assay and Boyden chamber assay. Our results also showed that alpha-chaconine could inhibit phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and Akt, whereas it did not affected phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulating kinase (ERK) and p38. In addition, alpha-chaconine significantly decreased the nuclear level of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and the binding ability of NF-kappaB. These results suggested that alpha-chaconine inhibited A549 cell metastasis by a reduction of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activities involving suppression of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/NF-kappaB (PI3K/Akt/NF-kappaB) signaling pathway. Inhibiting metastasis by alpha-chaconine might offer a pivotal mechanism for its effective chemotherapeutic action.

  3. Expression of cytochrome P450 2A13 in human non-small cell lung cancer and its clinical significance

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li; Fan, Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most important causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Human cytochrome P450 2A13 enzyme (CYP2A13) is predominantly expressed in the respiratory tract and could catalyze various carcinogens. In this study, we quantified CYP2A13 expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues and examined the relation between CYP2A13 and clinicopathologic factors. Thirty-five paired lung cancer and normal tissues were studied for the expression of the CYP2A13 gene by using real-time PCR and Western blotting assays. We also investigated the relationship between CYP2A13 expression and clinicopathologic factors such as age, gender, histology and lymph node status in tumor tissues. SPSS (17.0) statistical software was applied for data analysis. The real-time PCR results showed that there was no significant difference in the CYP2A13 mRNA transcript levels between tumor and paired normal tissues in the 35 samples and in 12 paired squamous cell carcinomas. In adenocarcinoma, the expression of CYP2A13 mRNA in tumor tissues was 12.5% of that in adjacent tissues (P < 0.05) and it was not associated with age, gender, histology and lymph node status of the patients. The amounts of CYP2A13 proteins detected by Western blotting assays correlated well with those of the corresponding mRNAs. In conclusion, the expression of CYP2A13 was downregulated in lung adenocarcinoma. CYP2A13 may be involved in the development and progression of lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:23720675

  4. Bcl-xL Silencing Induces Alterations in hsa-miR-608 Expression and Subsequent Cell Death in A549 and SK-LU1 Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Norahayu; In, Lionel L. A.; Harikrishna, Jennifer A.; Hasima, Noor

    2013-01-01

    Bcl-xL is an anti-apoptotic protein that is frequently found to be overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer leading to an inhibition of apoptosis and poor prognosis. Recently, the role of miRNAs in regulating apoptosis and cell survival during tumorigenesis has become evident, with cancer cells showing perturbed expression of various miRNAs. In this study, we utilized miRNA microarrays to determine if miRNA dysregulation in bcl-xL silenced lung adenocarcinoma cells could be involved in regulating cell death. Short interfering RNA-based transfection of A549 and SK-LU1 lung adenocarcinoma cells was successful in inducing a reduction in bcl-xL expression levels, resulting in a decrease in cell viability. A total of 10 miRNAs were found to be significantly differentially expressed when compared between siRNA-transfected and non-transfected cells including hsa-miR-181a, hsa-miR-769-5p, hsa-miR-361-5p, hsa-miR-1304 and hsa-miR-608. When overexpression studies on hsa-miR-608 was performed via transfection of miRNA mimics, cell death was found to be induced in A549 and SK-LU1 cells in comparison to untreated cells. This effect was reversed when knockdown studies involving anti-sense inhibitors were introduced. Combination of siRNA based silencing of bcl-xL (siBcl-xL) followed by anti-sense inhibitor transfection led to a decrease in the apoptotic population of A549 and SK-LU1 cells in comparison to cells only treated with siBcl-xL, illustrating the connection between bcl-xL, hsa-miR-608 and cell death. Gene target prediction analysis implicated the PI3K/AKT, WNT, TGF-β, and ERK signaling pathways as targets of bcl-xL induced miRNA alterations. We have demonstrated that bcl-xL silencing in A549 and SK-LU1 cells leads to the occurrence of cell death through the dysregulation of specific miRNAs. This study also provides a platform for anti-sense gene therapy whereby miRNA expression can be exploited to increase the apoptotic properties in lung adenocarcinoma cells. PMID

  5. Hedgehog Pathway Inhibition Radiosensitizes Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Jing; Aziz, Khaled; Chettiar, Sivarajan T.; Aftab, Blake T.; Armour, Michael; Gajula, Rajendra; Gandhi, Nishant; Salih, Tarek; Herman, Joseph M.; Wong, John; Rudin, Charles M.; Tran, Phuoc T.; Hales, Russell K.

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: Despite improvements in chemoradiation, local control remains a major clinical problem in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The Hedgehog pathway has been implicated in tumor recurrence by promoting survival of tumorigenic precursors and through effects on tumor-associated stroma. Whether Hedgehog inhibition can affect radiation efficacy in vivo has not been reported. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the effects of a targeted Hedgehog inhibitor (HhAntag) and radiation on clonogenic survival of human non-small cell lung cancer lines in vitro. Using an A549 cell line xenograft model, we examined tumor growth, proliferation, apoptosis, and gene expression changes after concomitant HhAntag and radiation. In a transgenic mouse model of Kras{sup G12D}-induced and Twist1-induced lung adenocarcinoma, we assessed tumor response to radiation and HhAntag by serial micro-computed tomography (CT) scanning. Results: In 4 human lung cancer lines in vitro, HhAntag showed little or no effect on radiosensitivity. By contrast, in both the human tumor xenograft and murine inducible transgenic models, HhAntag enhanced radiation efficacy and delayed tumor growth. By use of the human xenograft model to differentiate tumor and stromal effects, mouse stromal cells, but not human tumor cells, showed significant and consistent downregulation of Hedgehog pathway gene expression. This was associated with increased tumor cell apoptosis. Conclusions: Targeted Hedgehog pathway inhibition can increase in vivo radiation efficacy in lung cancer preclinical models. This effect is associated with pathway suppression in tumor-associated stroma. These data support clinical testing of Hedgehog inhibitors as a component of multimodality therapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

  6. Xilonix, a Novel True Human Antibody Targeting the Inflammatory Cytokine Interleukin-1 alpha, in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hong, David S.; Janku, Filip; Naing, Aung; Falchook, Gerald S.; Piha-Paul, Sarina; Wheler, Jennifer J.; Fu, Siqing; Tsimberidou, Apostolia M.; Stecher, Michael; Mohanty, Prasant; Simard, John; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2015-01-01

    Background Advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were treated as part of a Phase I dose escalation and expansion study evaluating a true human monoclonal antibody targeting IL-1α (Xilonix), which is intended to modulate the malignant phenotype—inhibiting tumor growth, spread and offering relief of symptoms. Methods Sixteen NSCLC patients were included. Patients failed a median of 4 chemotherapy regimens, including 10/16 failing anti-EGFR therapy. Disease progression was evaluated using a multi-modal approach: tumor response, patient reported outcomes (EORTC-QLQC30), and lean body mass (LBM). Patients received infusions every two or three weeks until progression, and were followed 24 months to assess survival. Results There were no infusion reactions, dose-limiting toxicities, or deaths due to therapy. Albeit not statistically significant, there was a trend in IL-6 (−2.6±18.5 (0.1 [−2.8-2.4]), platelet counts (−11±54 (−4[−36.0-1.0]), CRP (−3.3±30.2 (0.4 [−10.7-1.8]) and LBM (1.0±2.5 (0.4 [−0.5-2.6]). Self-reported outcomes revealed reductions in pain, fatigue and improvement in appetite. Median survival was 7.6 (IQR 4.4-11.5) months, stratification based on prior anti-EGFR therapy revealed a median survival of 9.4 months (IQR 7.6-12.5) for those pretreated (N=10) versus a survival of 4.8 months (IQR 4.3-5.7) for those without (N=6, logrank p=0.187). Conclusion Xilonix was well tolerated, with gains in LBM and improvement in symptoms suggesting a clinically important response. Although not statistically significant, the survival outcomes observed for patients with and without prior anti-EGFR therapy raises intriguing questions about the potential synergy of IL-1α blockade and anti-EGFR therapy. Further study for this agent in NSCLC is warranted. PMID:25822109

  7. Multifunctional gold nanocomposites designed for targeted CT/MR/optical trimodal imaging of human non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingwen; Sun, Yingqi; Chen, Qian; Wang, Le; Wang, Suhe; Tang, Yun; Shi, Xiangyang; Wang, Han

    2016-07-14

    Multifunctional gold nanocomposites, which were designed as dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles functionalized with gadolinium, cyanine dye (Cy5.5), and folic acid, were synthesized to be used as the first dendrimer-based clinical nanoprobes for targeted X-ray computed tomography/magnetic resonance/optical trimodal imaging in vitro and in vivo of human non-small cell cancer cells. PMID:27381000

  8. Ginsenoside Rg3 sensitizes human non-small cell lung cancer cells to γ-radiation by targeting the nuclear factor-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Li, Xiankui; Song, Yi-Min; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Fu-Rui; Yang, Rui; Wang, Hua-Qi; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2015-07-01

    At present, it is elusive how non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) develops resistance to γ-radiation; however, the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and NF-κB-regulated gene products have been proposed as mediators. Ginsenoside Rg3 is a steroidal saponin, which was isolated from Panax ginseng. Ginsenoside Rg3 possesses high pharmacological activity and has previously been shown to suppress NF-κB activation in various types of tumor cell. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine whether Rg3 could suppress NF-κB activation in NSCLC cells and sensitize NSCLC to γ-radiation, using an NSCLC cell line and NSCLC xenograft. A clone formation assay and lung tumor xenograft experiment were used to assess the radiosensitizing effects of ginsenoside Rg3. NF-κB/inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) modulation was ascertained using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay and western blot analysis. NF-κB-regulated gene products were monitored by western blot analysis. The present study demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg3 was able to sensitize A549 and H1299 lung carcinoma cells to γ-radiation and significantly enhance the efficacy of radiation therapy in C57BL/6 mice bearing a Lewis lung carcinoma cell xenograft tumor. Furthermore, ginsenoside Rg3 suppressed NF-κB activation, phosphorylation of IκB protein and expression of NF-κB-regulated gene products (cyclin D1, c-myc, B-cell lymphoma 2, cyclooxygenase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor), a number of which were induced by radiation therapy and mediate radioresistance. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that ginsenoside Rg3 may potentiate the antitumor effects of radiation therapy in NSCLC by suppressing NF-κB activity and NF-κB-regulated gene products, leading to the inhibition of tumor progression.

  9. Honokiol exhibits enhanced antitumor effects with chloroquine by inducing cell death and inhibiting autophagy in human non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiaoqin; Liu, Fang; Shang, Yue; Chen, Shu-Zhen

    2015-09-01

    Honokiol (HNK), a potential antitumor compound, has been widely studied in recent years. It induces apoptosis and affects autophagy in cancer cells, yet the mechanism of its antitumor efficacy remains obscure. Chloroquine (CQ), an autophagy inhibitor, is often applied to sensitize antitumor drugs in clinical trials. Here, we investigated the antitumor effect of HNK or CQ alone or in combination in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Using an experimental approach, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) or sulforhodamine B (SRB) was used to determine the cytotoxicity of the agents. The expression levels of proteins were detected by western blotting. Apoptosis was examined via Annexin V-FITC and PI staining. H460 cell xenografts in nude mice were used to study the effects of HNK and/or CQ in vivo. Transfection with siRNA was applied to knock down cathepsin D. The results demonstrated the enhanced effects of HNK combined with CQ on the inhibition of proliferation, induction of apoptosis in vitro and the reduction in growth in vivo. It was confirmed that HNK and/or CQ triggered apoptosis via a caspase-dependent manner. Furthermore, HNK significantly increased the expression of p62 and LC3-Ⅱ in the A549 and H460 cells and inhibited autophagy and induced apoptosis in a cathepsin D-involved manner. In conclusion, an enhanced antitumor effect was demonstrated following treatment with HNK combined with CQ by inhibiting autophagy and inducing apoptosis via a caspase-dependent and cathepsin D-involved manner. This combination may be a novel and useful antitumor approach for chemotherapy in NSCLC. PMID:26136140

  10. Synergistic antitumor effect of a combination of paclitaxel and carboplatin with nobiletin from Citrus depressa on non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Uesato, Shinichi; Yamashita, Hirofumi; Maeda, Ryu; Hirata, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto, Maho; Matsue, Saki; Nagaoka, Yasuo; Shibano, Makio; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Baba, Kimiye; Ju-ichi, Motoharu

    2014-04-01

    Non-small-cell lung carcinomas do not sufficiently respond to cancer chemotherapeutic drugs. Combination effects of cancer chemotherapy drugs (paclitaxel and carboplatin) with nobiletin or powdered Shiikuwasha extract from Citrus depressa were examined by isobologram and combination index analyses. It was demonstrated that the combination generated a synergistic inhibitory effect against the proliferation of the human non-small-cell lung carcinoma cell lines A549 and H460 and that of the two chemotherapy drugs, paclitaxel was responsible for this synergistic effect. Furthermore, the percentage of apoptotic cells was decreased with increasing rates of nobiletin to paclitaxel and carboplatin. These findings were considered to be attributed to the ability of nobiletin to regulate cells in the G1 phase, which escaped cell death initiated by paclitaxel and carboplatin. An antitumor activity assay showed that this combination significantly suppressed the growth of subcutaneous A549 tumor xenografts in nude mice.

  11. Overexpression of SAMD9 suppresses tumorigenesis and progression during non small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Qing; Yu, Tao; Ren, Yao-Yao; Gong, Ting; Zhong, Dian-Sheng

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • SAMD9 is down-regulated in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). • Knockdown of SAMD9 expression is increased the invasion, migration and proliferation in H1299 cells in vitro. • Overexpression of SAMD9 suppressed proliferation and invasion in A549 cells in vitro. • Depletion of SAMD9 increases tumor formation in vivo. - Abstract: The Sterile Alpha Motif Domain-containing 9 (SAMD9) gene has been recently emphasized during the discovery that it is expressed at a lower level in aggressive fibromatosis and some cases of breast and colon cancer, however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we found that SAMD9 is down-regulated in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Furthermore, knockdown of SAMD9 expression is increased the invasion, migration and proliferation in H1299 cells in vitro and overexpression of SAMD9 suppressed proliferation and invasion in A549 cells. Finally, depletion of SAMD9 increases tumor formation in vivo. Our results may provide a strategy for blocking NSCLC tumorigenesis and progression.

  12. α5-nAChR modulates nicotine-induced cell migration and invasion in A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haiji; Ma, Xiaoli

    2015-09-01

    Cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor in the development of human lung cancer. Nicotine, the major component in tobacco, not only contributes to carcinogenesis but also promotes tumor metastasis. By binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), nicotine induces the proliferation and migration of non-small cell lung cancer. Recently studies have indicated that α5-nAChR is highly associated with lung cancer risk and nicotine dependence. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether nicotine promotes the migration and invasion through activation of α5-nAChR in lung cancer. In the present study, A549 cell was exposed to 1μN nicotine for 8, 24 or 48h. Wound-healing assay and transwell assay were used to evaluate the capability of A549 cell migration and cell invasion, respectively. Silencing of α5-nAChR was done by siRNA. Western blotting and PCR were used to detect α5-nAChR expression. Nicotine can induce activation of α5-nAChR in association with increased migration and invasion of human lung cancer A549 cell. Treatment of cells with α5-nAChR specific siRNA blocks nicotine-stimulated activation of α5-nAChR and suppresses A549 cell migration and invasion. Reduction of α5-nAChR resulted in upregulation of E-cadherin, consistent with E-cadherin being inhibitive of cancer cell invasion. These findings suggest that nicotine-induced migration and invasion may occur in a mechanism through activation of α5-nAChR, which can contribute to metastasis or development of human lung cancer.

  13. PKM2 Thr454 phosphorylation increases its nuclear translocation and promotes xenograft tumor growth in A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenhai; Huang, Liangqian; Qiao, Pengyun; Jiang, Aifang; Wang, Li; Yang, Tingting; Tang, Shengjian; Zhang, Wei; Ren, Chune

    2016-05-13

    Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is a key enzyme of glycolysis which is highly expressed in many tumor cells, and plays an important role in the Warburg effect. In previous study, we found PIM2 phosphorylates PKM2 at Thr454 residue (Yu, etl 2013). However, the functions of PKM2 Thr454 modification in cancer cells still remain unclear. Here we find PKM2 translocates into the nucleus after Thr454 phosphorylation. Replacement of wild type PKM2 with a mutant (T454A) enhances mitochondrial respiration, decreases pentose phosphate pathway, and enhances chemosensitivity in A549 cells. In addition, the mutant (T454A) PKM2 reduces xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. These findings demonstrate that PKM2 T454 phosphorylation is a potential therapeutic target in lung cancer. PMID:27045080

  14. Polymeric Nanoparticles Containing Taxanes Enhance Chemoradiotherapeutic Efficacy in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Joohee; Park, Sung-Jin; Chung, Hye Kyung; Kang, Hye-Won; Lee, Sa-Won; Seo, Min Hyo; Park, Heon Joo; Song, Si Yeol; Jeong, Seong-Yun; Choi, Eun Kyung

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To reduce the side effects and improve the efficacy of chemoradiation therapy, taxanes were incorporated into polymeric nanoparticles (PNP), and their synergic effect on radiation therapy in non-small cell lung cancer was evaluated. Methods and Materials: The properties of PNP-taxanes were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The chemoradiotherapeutic efficacy of PNP-taxanes was determined by clonogenic assay, cellular morphology, and flow cytometry in A549 cells. In mice bearing A549-derived tumors, the tumor growth delay was examined after the treatment of PNP-taxanes and/or ionizing radiation (IR). Results: The PNP-taxanes were found to be approximately 45 nm in average diameter and to have high solubility in water. They showed the properties of active internalization into cells and preserved the anticancer effect of free taxanes. The survival fraction of A549 cells by clonogenic assay was significantly reduced in the group receiving combined treatment of PNP-taxanes and IR. In addition, in vivo radiotherapeutic efficacy was markedly enhanced by the intravenous injection of PNP-taxanes into the xenograft mice. Conclusions: We have demonstrated the feasibility of PNP-taxanes to enhance the efficacy of chemoradiation therapy. These results suggest PNP-taxanes can hold an invaluable and promising position in treating human cancers as a novel and effective chemoradiation therapy agent.

  15. Evaluation of angiogenesis with the expression of VEGF and CD34 in human non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Inda, A M; Andrini, L B; García, M N; García, A L; Fernández Blanco, A; Furnus, C C; Galletti, S M; Prat, G D; Errecalde, A L

    2007-09-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential process in the progression of malignant tumors and the most potent angiogenic factor is the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). On the other hand, the CD34 is an endothelial antigen that has been used to highlight the microvasculature vessel density (MVD) as a direct marker of the degree of neoangiogenesis. In the present study we report the VEGF expression and its relationship with MVD, measured by CD34, in two lineages of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCL): low differentiated adenocarcinomas and epidermoid carcinomas, in order to consider the possibility of using the correlation between both antibodies as a prognostic factor. Tumor sections were stained by immunohistochemistry for CD34 and VEGF. The results showed that the mean value of VEGF for adenocarcinoma was significantly higher than the one for epidermoid carcinoma (p < 0.001). However, the mean of MVD did not show significant differences between both types of tumors. The conventional factors taken into consideration (age over 60, sex, and presence of lymph nodes) was not significantly related to the angiogenic factors examined. In conclusion, we could affirm that CD34 is a better prognostic marker of neoangiogenesis in NSCLC, because both types of tumors have the same clinical prognosis, and so we expected the same behaviour from both markers.

  16. Non-small-cell lung cancer-induced immunosuppression by increased human regulatory T cells via Foxp3 promoter demethylation.

    PubMed

    Ke, Xing; Zhang, Shuping; Xu, Jian; Liu, Genyan; Zhang, Lixia; Xie, Erfu; Gao, Li; Li, Daqian; Sun, Ruihong; Wang, Fang; Pan, Shiyang

    2016-05-01

    Patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have immune defects that are poorly understood. Forkhead box protein P3 (Foxp3) is crucial for immunosuppression by CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). It is not well known how NSCLC induces Foxp3 expression and causes immunosuppression in tumor-bearing patients. Our study found a higher percentage of CD4(+) Tregs in the peripheral blood of NSCLC compared with healthy donors. NSCLC patients showed demethylation of eight CpG sites within the Foxp3 promoter with methylation ratios negatively correlated with CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T levels. Foxp3 expression in CD4(+) Tregs was directly regulated by Foxp3 promoter demethylation and was involved in immunosuppression by NSCLC. To verify the effect of tumor cells on the phenotype and function of CD4(+) Tregs, we established a coculture system using NSCLC cell line and healthy CD4(+) T cells and showed that SPC-A1 induced IL-10 and TGF-β1 secretion by affecting the function of CD4(+) Tregs. The activity of DNA methyltransferases from CD4(+) T was decreased during this process. Furthermore, eight CpG sites within the Foxp3 promoter also appeared to have undergone demethylation. Foxp3 is highly expressed in CD4(+) T cells, and this may be caused by gene promoter demethylation. These induced Tregs are highly immunosuppressive and dramatically inhibit the proliferative activity of naïve CD4(+) T cells. Our study provides one possible mechanism describing Foxp3 promoter demethylation changes by which NSCLC down-regulates immune responses and contributes to tumor progression. Foxp3 represents an important target for NSCLC anti-tumor immunotherapy.

  17. Gracilaria edulis exhibit antiproliferative activity against human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 without causing adverse toxic effect in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, Ravi; Muniasamy, Samuthirapandi; Archunan, Govindaraju; Devi, Kasi Pandima

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, the antiproliferative potential of various solvent extracts of Gracilaria edulis (GE) was tested against various cancer cell lines. In the A549 lung cancer cell line model, GE ethyl acetate extract (GEEA) (100 μg mL(-1)) treated group showed the maximum and significant (P < 0.05) growth inhibition at 48 h. The IC50 value was found to be 24.5 ± 19.1 μg mL(-1) at 48 h. Moreover, a low level of LDH release was observed at 48 h at various concentrations of (40, 60, 80 and 100 μg mL(-1)) GEEA extract-treated group compared to a control group. Changes in the cell morphology and echinoid spikes formation were observed at 48 h. Safety evaluation of GEEA in a non-cancerous liver cell line, PBMC and in Wistar rats positively revealed that the extract did not show any adverse toxic effects. The GEEA extract was partially purified by column chromatography and the active fraction was characterized through LC-MS analysis. Furthermore, HPLC and FT-IR analysis of the active fractions confirmed the presence of phytol, a diterpene compound with potent antiproliferative activity, which positively suggests that the red alga G. edulis contains a potent anticancer active principle.

  18. Cinnamomum verum Component 2-Methoxycinnamaldehyde: A Novel Anticancer Agent with Both Anti-Topoisomerase I and II Activities in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ho-Yiu; Tsai, Kuen-daw; Liu, Yi-Heng; Yang, Shu-mei; Chen, Ta-Wei; Cherng, Jonathan; Chou, Kuo-Shen; Chang, Chen-Mei; Yao, Belen T; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Cinnamomum verum is used to make the spice cinnamon and has been used as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. We evaluated the anticancer effect of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2-MCA), a constituent of the bark of the plant, and its underlying molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The results show that 2-MCA suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by an upregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax and Bak genes and downregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL genes, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-3 and -9, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis, including plasma membrane blebbing and long comet tail. In addition, 2-MCA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased volume of acidic compartment (VAC) and suppressions of nuclear transcription factors nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and both topoisomerase I and II activities. Further study reveals that the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of 2-MCA against A549 cells is accompanied by downregulations of NF-κB binding activity and proliferative control involving apoptosis and both topoisomerase I and II activities, together with an upregulation of lysosomal vacuolation and VAC. Our data suggest that 2-MCA could be a potential agent for anticancer therapy.

  19. Sp1 inhibition-mediated upregulation of VEGF 165 b induced by rh-endostatin enhances antiangiogenic and anticancer effect of rh-endostatin in A549.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-yu; Zhu, Fang; Hu, Jian-li; Peng, Gang; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Sheng; Chen, Xu; Zhang, Rui-guang; Chen, Ling-juan; Liu, Pian; Luo, Ming; Sun, Zhi-hua; Ren, Jing-hua; Huang, Li-li; Wu, Gang

    2011-08-01

    Recombinant human endostatin (rh-endostatin), a potential antiangiogenic agent, is used in non-small cell lung carcinoma treatment and represses vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) levels in tumor cell. However, precise affection of rh-endostatin on the proangiogenic VEGF isoforms (VEGF(165)) or antiangiogenic VEGF isoforms (VEGF(165)b) is not clear. We therefore tested the hypothesis that rh-endostatin could alter expression of these isoforms to regulate tumor growth. A549 cells were exposed to rh-endostatin, and the expression of VEGF(165) and VEGF(165)b was detected. The role of SP1 as a regulator of isoform expression was investigated. We then examined the anticancer and antiangiogenic efficacy of rh-endostatin in combination with exogenous VEGF(165)b against A549 cells, EA.HY 926 cells and xenograft model of human lung cancer. rh-Endostatin reduced VEGF(165) and induced VEGF(165)b as well as inhibited SP1 in A549 cells. SP1 inhibitor (betulinic acid) also developed those changes. VEGF(165)b-rh-endostatin combination was highly synergistic and inhibited growth, survival, and migration of A549 cells, VEGF-mediated VEGFR2 phosphorylation in EA.HY 926 cells, and tumor growth in xenograft model of human lung cancer. rh-Endostatin downregulates proangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) isoform and upregulates antiangiogenic VEGFA isoform, possibly through inhibition of SP1. Furthermore, VEGF(165)b sensitizes A549 to rh-endostatin treatment and enhances the anticancer effect of rh-endostatin.

  20. Multifunctional gold nanocomposites designed for targeted CT/MR/optical trimodal imaging of human non-small cell lung cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jingwen; Sun, Yingqi; Chen, Qian; Wang, Le; Wang, Suhe; Tang, Yun; Shi, Xiangyang; Wang, Han

    2016-07-01

    Multifunctional gold nanocomposites, which were designed as dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles functionalized with gadolinium, cyanine dye (Cy5.5), and folic acid, were synthesized to be used as the first dendrimer-based clinical nanoprobes for targeted X-ray computed tomography/magnetic resonance/optical trimodal imaging in vitro and in vivo of human non-small cell cancer cells.Multifunctional gold nanocomposites, which were designed as dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles functionalized with gadolinium, cyanine dye (Cy5.5), and folic acid, were synthesized to be used as the first dendrimer-based clinical nanoprobes for targeted X-ray computed tomography/magnetic resonance/optical trimodal imaging in vitro and in vivo of human non-small cell cancer cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis and characterization data of the nanoprobes; biocompatibility results; confirmation of the tumor cell uptake of the nanoprobes in vitro and in vivo; biodistribution results in vivo. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03143a

  1. Autocrine activity of BDNF induced by the STAT3 signaling pathway causes prolonged TrkB activation and promotes human non-small-cell lung cancer proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Liang, Yan; He, Zheng; An, Yunhe; Zhao, Weihong; Wu, Jianqing

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin superfamily, which has been implicated in the pathophysiology of the nervous system. Recently, several studies have suggested that BDNF and/or its receptor, tropomyosin related kinase B (TrkB), are involved in tumor growth and metastasis in several cancers, including prostate cancer, neuroblastoma, pancreatic ductal carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and lung cancer. Despite the increasing emphasis on BDNF/TrkB signaling in human tumors, how it participates in primary tumors has not yet been determined. Additionally, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that elicit signaling downstream of TrkB in the progression of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we report the significant expression of BDNF in NSCLC samples and show that BDNF stimulation increases the synthesis of BDNF itself through activation of STAT3 in lung cancer cells. The release of BDNF can in turn activate TrkB signaling. The activation of both TrkB and STAT3 contribute to downstream signaling and promote human non-small-cell lung cancer proliferation. PMID:27456333

  2. Induction of human microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 by activated oncogene RhoA GTPase in A549 human epithelial cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Hye Jin; Lee, Dong-Hyung; Park, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Juil; Do, Kee Hun; An, Tae Jin; Ahn, Young Sup; Park, Chung Berm; Moon, Yuseok

    2011-09-30

    Highlights: {yields} As a target of oncogene RhoA-linked signal, a prostaglandin metabolism is assessed. {yields} RhoA activation increases PGE{sub 2} levels and its metabolic enzyme mPGES-1. {yields} RhoA-activated NF-{kappa}B and EGR-1 are positively involved in mPGES-1 induction. -- Abstract: Oncogenic RhoA GTPase has been investigated as a mediator of pro-inflammatory responses and aggressive carcinogenesis. Among the various targets of RhoA-linked signals, pro-inflammatory prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}), a major prostaglandin metabolite, was assessed in epithelial cancer cells. RhoA activation increased PGE{sub 2} levels and gene expression of the rate-limiting PGE{sub 2} producing enzymes, cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPGES-1). In particular, human mPGES-1 was induced by RhoA via transcriptional activation in control and interleukin (IL)-1{beta}-activated cancer cells. To address the involvement of potent signaling pathways in RhoA-activated mPGES-1 induction, various signaling inhibitors were screened for their effects on mPGES-1 promoter activity. RhoA activation enhanced basal and IL-1{beta}-mediated phosphorylated nuclear factor-{kappa}B and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 proteins, all of which were positively involved in RhoA-induced gene expression of mPGES-1. As one potent down-stream transcription factor of ERK1/2 signals, early growth response gene 1 product also mediated RhoA-induced gene expression of mPGES-1 by enhancing transcriptional activity. Since oncogene-triggered PGE{sub 2} production is a critical modulator of epithelial tumor cells, RhoA-associated mPGES-1 represents a promising chemo-preventive or therapeutic target for epithelial inflammation and its associated cancers.

  3. Modulation of intrinsic in vitro resistance to carboplatin by edatrexate in the A549 human nonsmall cell lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Perez, E A; Hack, F M; Fletcher, T S; Chou, T C

    1994-01-01

    Edatrexate (10-ethyl-deazaaminopterin) is a methotrexate analog that has been shown to have greater antitumor activity and improved therapeutic index compared to its parent compound in preclinical systems. We have evaluated the ability of edatrexate to modulate the intrinsic resistance of the lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line to carboplatin. Concentration effects, exposure time and schedule dependence were assessed. Modulation of resistance was observed with edatrexate treatment (0.2 microM for 1 h) prior to carboplatin. The concentrations of carboplatin to achieve IC50 at the 1-, 3-, and 24-h IC50 were decreased by a mean of 16.8 times (12.2-22.2) with edatrexate preexposure. In contrast, there was little modulation observed of carboplatin resistance when carboplatin was administered prior to edatrexate. In addition, schedule dependency experiments were performed using the method described by Chou and Talalay, in which the ratio of carboplatin to edatrexate was constant or nonconstant, and both the potency of effects and the shapes of the concentration-effect curves were taken into account in a computerized analysis. These experiments also demonstrated schedule dependency. Although both treatments resulted in a reduced IC50 vs. carboplatin alone, the reduction was much greater when edatrexate was added first (12.59 vs. 2.59 times). We conclude that the combination of edatrexate and carboplatin demonstrates schedule-dependent modulation of intrinsic carboplatin resistance in this in vitro model at clinically achievable edatrexate plasma levels (0.01 to 10 microM). The greatest modulatory synergism was observed in the setting of edatrexate treatment before carboplatin. Our findings suggest a potentially useful schedule when combining edatrexate and carboplatin for the treatment of malignant disease.

  4. Nanoparticle delivery of pooled siRNA for effective treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Hu, Yunxia; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Jun; Liu, Feng; Huang, Leaf

    2012-08-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death. To explore the potential of small interfering RNA (siRNA) therapy for NSCLC, we have developed anisamide-targeted LCP to efficiently deliver siRNA into the cytoplasm of sigma receptor-expressing NSCLC cells. Targeted LCP demonstrated a 9-fold higher siRNA delivery efficiency compared to nontargeted LCP in A549 cells in vitro. To simultaneously target multiple oncogenic mechanisms, we coformulated three siRNA sequences targeting HDM2, c-myc and VEGF oncogenes, and investigated their efficacy of cell-killing in A549 and H460 cells in vitro. The results indicated that the pooled siRNA codelivered by the targeted LCP could effectively and simultaneously knock down HDM2, c-myc and VEGF expressions and significantly inhibit tumor cell growth. After iv injection of mice bearing A549 xenografted tumor with Texas Red-labeled siRNA formulated in the targeted LCP, siRNA was successfully delivered to and concentrated in the tumor cells. Repeated intravenous injections of mice with pooled siRNA formulated in the targeted LCP significantly impaired NSCLC growth in vivo (p < 0.01) for both A549 and H460 tumors, demonstrating an ED50 for the treatment of ∼ 0.2 mg/kg in A549 tumors. The enhanced antitumor activity is due to the fact that the silencing of HDM2/c-myc/VEGF could inhibit tumor proliferation and angiogenesis and also simultaneously induce tumor apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that the targeted LCP is a promising vector to deliver pooled siRNA into tumors and to achieve multiple target blocking. This is potentially a valid therapeutic modality in the gene therapy of human NSCLC.

  5. Yes-associated protein regulates the growth of human non-small cell lung cancer in response to matrix stiffness.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yonggang; Zhong, Weiliang; Ma, Ge; Zhang, Baoxiang; Tian, Hui

    2015-06-01

    The Yes‑associated protein (YAP) transcriptional coactivator is recognized as a crucial regulator of human cancer. However, its involvement in human non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in response to physical cues remains unclear. In this study, substrates with different rigidity were generated in order to evaluate the role of YAP, and its upstream regulators in the Hippo pathway, in the regulation of growth of an NSCLC cell line within particular environments. It was shown that the expression of the YAP protein in SPCA-1 NSCLC cells was significantly increased when cultured on a stiff substrate compared to a soft substrate. However, the expression of phospho‑YAP protein and large tumor suppressor kinase 1 (LATS1) were markedly decreased after culturing on the stiff substrate. Phosphorylation of YAP by LATS1 leads to cytoplasmic retention of YAP, which inhibits its function as a nuclear transcription coactivator. The study also found that the stiff substrate promoted the growth of NSCLC cells in vitro, and an increase in the transcription levels of Survivin, connective tissue growth factor, amphiregulin and Ki67, as well as a decrease in the expression level of YAP in the cytoplasm, and adecrease in p-YAP. In conclusion, the findings showed that the stiffness of the subcellular matrix altered the behavior of NSCLC cells, and that YAP regulated the growth of NSCLC cells in response to matrix stiffness, thereby suggesting a role for the Hippo‑YAP pathway in the response of NSCLC cell growth to specific microenvironments.

  6. A novel derivative of tetrandrine (H1) induces endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis and prosurvival autophagy in human non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yidan; Wang, Yu; Liu, Xianfang; Yan, Jiamei; Su, Ling; Liu, Xiangguo

    2016-08-01

    H1, a bromized derivative of tetrandrine, has been reported to induce apoptosis in human cancer cells. But, the underlying mechanism of apoptosis triggered by H1 is unclear. In the present study, we found that H1 triggered death receptor 5 (DR5)-dependent apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Further study showed that H1 activated ER stress through enforcing the expression of Bip/GRP78, IRE1α, p-eIF2α, and CHOP. Moreover, abrogating CHOP expression blocked DR5 upregulation and subsequent apoptosis, indicating that CHOP was essential for DR5-dependent apoptosis induced by H1. In addition, H1 greatly downregulated cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), and enhanced expression of c-FLIP protected cancer cells from apoptosis in spite of H1 therapy. Furthermore, we discovered that H1 induced autophagy in human NSCLC cells. Interestingly, the autophagy induced by H1 played a protective function in NSCLC cells and effectively weakened caspase-mediated apoptosis. In summary, these findings suggest that H1 induces DR5-dependent apoptosis in human NSCLC cells via stimulating ER stress signaling pathway, and pharmacologically inhibiting autophagy will be an efficient approach to synergize H1-caused apoptosis in lung cancer cells. PMID:26846103

  7. Artesunate induces AIF-dependent apoptosis in A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chen-juan; Chen, Tong-Sheng

    2012-03-01

    Artesunate (ART), a semi-synthetic derivative of the sesquiterpene artemisinin extracted from the Chinese herb Artemisia annua, exerts a broad spectrum of clinical activity against human cancers. It has been shown that ART induces cancer cells death through apoptosis pathway. This study investigated whether ART treatment induced reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent cell death in the apoptosis fashion in human lung adenocarconoma A549 cell line and the proapoptotic protein apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) is involved in ART-induced apoptosis. Cells treated with ART exhibited typical apoptotic morphology as chromatin condensation, margination and shrunken nucleus. ART treatment also induced a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and AIF release from mitochondria. Silencing AIF can remarkable attenuated ART-induced apoptosis. Collectively, ART induces apoptosis by caspase-independent intrinsic pathway in A549 cells.

  8. Pazopanib diminishes non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) growth and metastases in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Honglin; Yang, Fan; Shen, Wang; Wang, Yuli; Li, Xuebing; You, Jiacong; Zhou, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Background Anti-angiogenesis has been demonstrated to have a critical role in lung cancer pathogenesis. Here, we characterized the effect of the small-molecule angiogenesis inhibitor pazopanib on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Methods NSCLC cells were tested for viability and migration after incubation with varying concentrations of pazopanib. Further, the phosphorylation status of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, protein kinase B, and MEK were assessed in vitro. For in vivo testing, mice grafted with NSCLC cell lines L9981 and A549 were treated orally with pazopanib. Results Pazopanib inhibits signaling pathways in tumor cells, thus blocking NSCLC cell growth and migration in vitro and inducing tumor cell arrest at G0/G1 phase. We show that pazopanib could inhibit tumor cell growth, decrease metastases, and prolong survival in two mouse xenograft models of human NSCLC. Conclusion These preclinical studies of pazopanib show the possibility of clinical application and, ultimately, improvement in patient outcome. PMID:26273349

  9. Effect of Adjuvant Magnetic Fields in Radiotherapy on Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jianguo; Sheng, Huaying; Zhu, Chihong; Jiang, Hao; Ma, Shenglin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To explore sensitization and possible mechanisms of adjuvant magnetic fields (MFs) in radiotherapy (RT) of non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods. Human A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells were treated with MF, RT, and combined MF-RT. Colony-forming efficiency was calculated, cell cycle and apoptosis were measured, and changes in cell cycle- and apoptosis-related gene expression were measured by microarray. Results. A 0.5 T, 8 Hz stationary MF showed a duration-dependent inhibitory effect lasting for 1–4 hours. The MF-treated groups had significantly greater cell inhibition than did controls (P < 0.05). Surviving fractions and growth curves derived from colony-forming assay showed that the MF-only, RT-only, and MF-RT groups had inhibited cell growth; the MF-RT group showed a synergetic effect. Microarray of A549 cells exposed for 1 hour to MF showed that 19 cell cycle- and apoptosis-related genes had 2-fold upregulation and 40 genes had 2-fold downregulation. MF significantly arrested cells in G2 and M phases, apparently sensitizing the cells to RT. Conclusions. MF may inhibit A549 cells and can increase their sensitivity to RT, possibly by affecting cell cycle- and apoptosis-related signaling pathways. PMID:24224175

  10. Overexpression of PP2A inhibitor SET oncoprotein is associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in human non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hao; Gu, Yixue; Wang, Hongsheng; Yin, Jiang; Zheng, Guopei; Zhang, Zhijie; Lu, Minyin; Wang, Chenkun; He, Zhimin

    2015-01-01

    SET oncoprotein is an endogenous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), and SET-mediated PP2A inhibition is an important regulatory mechanism for promoting cancer initiation and progression of several types of human leukemia disease. However, its potential relevance in solid tumors as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains mostly unknown. In this study, we showed that SET was evidently overexpressed in human NSCLC cell lines and NSCLC tissues. Clinicopathologic analysis showed that SET expression was significantly correlated with clinical stage (p < 0.001), and lymph node metastasis (p < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with high SET expression had poorer overall survival rates than those with low SET expression. Moreover, knockdown of SET in NSCLC cells resulted in attenuated proliferative and invasive abilities. The biological effect of SET on proliferation and invasion was mediated by the inhibition of the PP2A, which in turn, activation of AKT and ERK, increased the expression of cyclin D1 and MMP9, and decreased the expression of p27. Furthermore, we observed that restoration of PP2A using SET antagonist FTY720 impaired proliferative and invasive potential in vitro, as well as inhibited tumor growth in vivo of NSCLC cells. Taken together, SET oncoprotein plays an important role in NSCLC progression, which could serve as a potential prognosis marker and a novel therapeutic target for NSCLC patients. PMID:25945834

  11. Emetine inhibits migration and invasion of human non-small-cell lung cancer cells via regulation of ERK and p38 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Cho, Eun Byul; Lee, Jongsung; Jung, Okkeun; Ryu, Byung Jun; Kim, Seong Hwan; Cho, Jae Youl; Ryou, Chongsuk; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2015-12-01

    Emetine is a natural compound originated from ipecac roots. It was commonly used as anti-protozoal and vomiting agent. The apoptosis-inducing effect of emetine makes it considered as a potential anti-cancer agent for various human cancers. Here in this study, we report that emetine inhibits migration and invasion of human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Modulation of three major mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), ERK, p38 and JNK, is well known to be involved in regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which are essential in tissue remodeling and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, for cancer cells to spread out from the origin of tumorigenesis. Emetine regulates two major MAPKs, p38 and ERK. Differential inhibition/stimulation of ERK and p38 induced differential suppressions of β-catenin and c-myc transcription factors. This leads to the selective down-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9, two major gelatinases which can degrade ECM components, and RECK, a negative regulator of MMP-9.

  12. Differential Expression of the RANKL/RANK/OPG System Is Associated with Bone Metastasis in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xianbo; Guo, Wei; Ren, Tingting; Lou, Zhiyuan; Lu, Xinchang; Zhang, Shuai; Lu, Qunshan; Sun, Yifeng

    2013-01-01

    Background Human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients exhibit a high propensity to develop skeletal metastasis, resulting in excessive osteolytic activity. The RANKL/RANK/OPG system, which plays a pivotal role in bone remodeling by regulating osteoclast formation and activity, is of potential interest in this context. Materials and Methods Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and immunohistochemical analysis were used to examine the expression of RANKL, RANK, and OPG in human NSCLC cell lines with different metastatic potentials, as well as in 52 primary NSCLC samples and 75 NSCLC bone metastasis samples. In primary NSCLC patients, the expression of these proteins was correlated with clinicopathological parameters. Recombinant human RANKL and transfected RANKL cDNA were added to the PAa cell line to evaluate the promoter action of RANKL during the process of metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Results Up-regulated RANKL, RANK, and OPG expression and increased RANKL:OPG ratio were detected in NSCLC cell lines and in tumor tissues with bone metastasis, and were correlated with higher metastatic potential. The metastatic potential of NSCLC in vitro and in vivo, including migration and invasion ability, was significantly enhanced by recombinant human RANKL and the transfection of RANKL cDNA, and was impaired after OPG was added. The increased expression of RANKL and OPG correlated with tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis. Conclusions Differential expression of RANKL, RANK, and OPG is associated with the metastatic potential of human NSCLC to skeleton, raising the possibility that the RANKL/RANK/OPG system could be a therapeutic target for the treatment of metastatic NSCLC patients. PMID:23516466

  13. NADPH:cytochrome c (P450) reductase activates tirapazamine (SR4233) to restore hypoxic and oxic cytotoxicity in an aerobic resistant derivative of the A549 lung cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, M P; Patterson, A V; Chinje, E C; Harris, A L; Stratford, I J

    2000-01-01

    Tirapazamine (TPZ, SR4233, WIN 59075) is a bioreductive drug that is activated in regions of low oxygen tension to a cytotoxic radical intermediate. This labile metabolite shows high selective toxicity towards hypoxic cells, such as those found in solid tumours. Under aerobic conditions, redox cycling occurs with subsequent generation of superoxide radicals, which are also cytotoxic. NADPH:cytochrome c (P450) reductase (P450R) is a one-electron reducing enzyme that efficiently activates TPZ. Recently a derivative of the A549 non-small cell lung cancer cell line (A549c50) was generated that showed substantially reduced P450R activity compared to its parental line (Elwell et al (1997) Biochem Pharmacol54: 249–257). Here, it is demonstrated that the A549c50 cells are markedly more resistant to TPZ under both aerobic and hypoxic conditions. In addition, these cells have a dramatically impaired ability to metabolize TPZ to its two-electron reduction product, SR4317, under hypoxic conditions when compared to wild-type cells. P450R activity in the A549c50 cells was reintroduced to similar levels as that seen in the parental A549 cells by transfection of the full-length cDNA for human P450R. These P450R over-expressing cells exhibit restored sensitivity to TPZ under both aerobic and hypoxic conditions, comparable to that found in the original parental A549 cells. Further, the ability of the transfected cells to metabolize TPZ to SR4317 under hypoxic conditions is also shown to be restored. This provides further evidence that P450R can play an important role in the activation, metabolism and toxicity of this lead bioreductive drug. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10682679

  14. Morphological changes and nuclear translocation of DLC1 tumor suppressor protein precede apoptosis in human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Baozhu Jefferson, Amy M.; Millecchia, Lyndell; Popescu, Nicholas C.; Reynolds, Steven H.

    2007-11-01

    We have previously shown that reactivation of DLC1, a RhoGAP containing tumor suppressor gene, inhibits tumorigenicity of human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells (NSCLC). After transfection of NSCLC cells with wild type (WT) DLC1, changes in cell morphology were observed. To determine whether such changes have functional implications, we generated several DLC1 mutants and examined their effects on cell morphology, proliferation, migration and apoptosis in a DLC1 deficient NSCLC cell line. We show that WT DLC1 caused actin cytoskeleton-based morphological alterations manifested as cytoplasmic extensions and membrane blebbings in most cells. Subsequently, a fraction of cells exhibiting DLC1 protein nuclear translocation (PNT) underwent caspase 3-dependent apoptosis. We also show that the RhoGAP domain is essential for the occurrence of morphological alterations, PNT and apoptosis, and the inhibition of cell migration. DLC1 PNT is dependent on a bipartite nuclear localizing sequence and most likely is regulated by a serine-rich domain at N-terminal part of the DLC1 protein. Also, we found that DLC1 functions in the cytoplasm as an inhibitor of tumor cell proliferation and migration, but in the nucleus as an inducer of apoptosis. Our analyses provide evidence for a possible link between morphological alterations, PNT and proapoptotic and anti-oncogenic activities of DLC1 in lung cancer.

  15. Morphological changes and nuclear translocation of DLC1 tumor suppressor protein precede apoptosis in human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bao-Zhu; Jefferson, Amy M; Millecchia, Lyndell; Popescu, Nicholas C; Reynolds, Steven H

    2007-11-01

    We have previously shown that reactivation of DLC1, a RhoGAP containing tumor suppressor gene, inhibits tumorigenicity of human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells (NSCLC). After transfection of NSCLC cells with wild type (WT) DLC1, changes in cell morphology were observed. To determine whether such changes have functional implications, we generated several DLC1 mutants and examined their effects on cell morphology, proliferation, migration and apoptosis in a DLC1 deficient NSCLC cell line. We show that WT DLC1 caused actin cytoskeleton-based morphological alterations manifested as cytoplasmic extensions and membrane blebbings in most cells. Subsequently, a fraction of cells exhibiting DLC1 protein nuclear translocation (PNT) underwent caspase 3-dependent apoptosis. We also show that the RhoGAP domain is essential for the occurrence of morphological alterations, PNT and apoptosis, and the inhibition of cell migration. DLC1 PNT is dependent on a bipartite nuclear localizing sequence and most likely is regulated by a serine-rich domain at N-terminal part of the DLC1 protein. Also, we found that DLC1 functions in the cytoplasm as an inhibitor of tumor cell proliferation and migration, but in the nucleus as an inducer of apoptosis. Our analyses provide evidence for a possible link between morphological alterations, PNT and proapoptotic and anti-oncogenic activities of DLC1 in lung cancer. PMID:17888903

  16. Methyl jasmonate induces apoptosis and pro-apoptotic autophagy via the ROS pathway in human non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mutian; Su, Ling; Xiao, Zhenna; Liu, Xianfang; Liu, Xiangguo

    2016-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MJ) is a botanical hormone that serves as a signal transduction intermediate and regulates cell death in stressed plants. MJ induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and non-apoptotic cell death selectively in cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism of MJ-induced apoptosis remains unclear. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism through which MJ induces apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We found that MJ triggered apoptosis via the DDIT3-TNFRSF10B-CASP axis. MJ treatment significantly decreased the expression of CFLAR (CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulator, an inhibitor of CASP8) in NSCLC cells, and ectopic expression of CFLAR partly protected cells from MJ-induced apoptosis. MJ also induced pro-apoptotic autophagy in NSCLC cells. Importantly, inhibition of ROS suppressed both MJ-induced apoptosis and autophagy. Taken together, MJ induces apoptosis and pro-apoptotic autophagy in NSCLC cells through the ROS pathway. Thus, MJ and its derivative treatment may serve as a novel chemotherapeutic strategy for cancer therapy. PMID:27186395

  17. Fisetin induces apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress in human non-small cell lung cancer through inhibition of the MAPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyoung Ah; Piao, Mei Jing; Madduma Hewage, Susara Ruwan Kumara; Ryu, Yea Seong; Oh, Min Chang; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Chae, Sungwook; Hyun, Jin Won

    2016-07-01

    Fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone), a dietary flavonoid compound, is currently being investigated for its anticancer effect in various cancer models, including lung cancer. Recent studies show that fisetin induces cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in the human non-small cell lung cancer line NCI-H460. In this study, we investigated whether fisetin can induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis in NCI-H460 cells. Fisetin induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and characteristic signs of ER stress: ER staining; mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload; expression of ER stress-related proteins; glucose-regulated protein (GRP)-78, phosphorylation of protein kinase RNA (PKR)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) and phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 α subunit; cleavage of activating transcription factor-6; phosphorylation of inositol-requiring kinase-1 and splicing of X-box transcription factor-1; induction of C/EBP homologous protein and cleaved caspase-12. siRNA-mediated knockdown of CHOP and ATF-6 attenuated fisetin-induced apoptotic cell death. In addition, fisetin induced phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK. Moreover, silencing of the MAPK signaling pathway prevented apoptotic cell death. In summary, our results indicate that, in NCI-H460 cells, fisetin induces apoptosis and ER stress that is mediated by induction of the MAPK signaling pathway.

  18. Targeting Hsp90 with small molecule inhibitors induces the over-expression of the anti-apoptotic molecule, survivin, in human A549, HONE-1 and HT-29 cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Survivin is a dual functioning protein. It inhibits the apoptosis of cancer cells by inhibiting caspases, and also promotes cancer cell growth by stabilizing microtubules during mitosis. Since the molecular chaperone Hsp90 binds and stabilizes survivin, it is widely believed that down-regulation of survivin is one of the important therapeutic functions of Hsp90 inhibitors such as the phase III clinically trialed compound 17-AAG. However, Hsp90 interferes with a number of molecules that up-regulate the intracellular level of survivin, raising the question that clinical use of Hsp90 inhibitors may indirectly induce survivin expression and subsequently enhance cancer anti-drug responses. The purpose of this study is to determine whether targeting Hsp90 can alter survivin expression differently in different cancer cell lines and to explore possible mechanisms that cause the alteration in survivin expression. Results Here, we demonstrated that Hsp90 inhibitors, geldanamycin and 17-AAG, induced the over-expression of survivin in three different human cancer cell lines as shown by Western blotting. Increased survivin mRNA transcripts were observed in 17-AAG and geldanamycin-treated HT-29 and HONE-1 cancer cells. Interestingly, real-time PCR and translation inhibition studies revealed that survivin was over-expressed partially through the up-regulation of protein translation instead of gene transcription in A549 cancer cells. In addition, 17-AAG-treated A549, HONE-1 and HT-29 cells showed reduced proteasomal activity while inhibition of 26S proteasome activity further increased the amount of survivin protein in cells. At the functional level, down-regulation of survivin by siRNA further increased the drug sensitivity to 17-AAG in the tested cancer cell lines. Conclusions We showed for the first time that down-regulation of survivin is not a definite therapeutic function of Hsp90 inhibitors. Instead, targeting Hsp90 with small molecule inhibitors will induce the

  19. Comparative Cytotoxicity of Glycyrrhiza glabra Roots from Different Geographical Origins Against Immortal Human Keratinocyte (HaCaT), Lung Adenocarcinoma (A549) and Liver Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells.

    PubMed

    Basar, Norazah; Oridupa, Olayinka Ayotunde; Ritchie, Kenneth J; Nahar, Lutfun; Osman, Nashwa Mostafa M; Stafford, Angela; Kushiev, Habibjon; Kan, Asuman; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2015-06-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae), commonly known as 'liquorice', is a well-known medicinal plant. Roots of this plant have long been used as a sweetening and flavouring agent in food and pharmaceutical products, and also as a traditional remedy for cough, upper and lower respiratory ailments, kidney stones, hepatitis C, skin disorder, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, gastrointestinal ulcers and stomach ache. Previous pharmacological and clinical studies have revealed its antitussive, antiinflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective and cardioprotective properties. While glycyrrhizin, a sweet-tasting triterpene saponin, is the principal bioactive compound, several bioactive flavonoids and isoflavonoids are also present in the roots of this plant. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts of nine samples of the roots of G. glabra, collected from various geographical origins, was assessed against immortal human keratinocyte (HaCaT), lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and liver carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines using the in vitro 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide cell toxicity/viability assay. Considerable variations in levels of cytotoxicity were observed among various samples of G. glabra.

  20. Comparative Cytotoxicity of Glycyrrhiza glabra Roots from Different Geographical Origins Against Immortal Human Keratinocyte (HaCaT), Lung Adenocarcinoma (A549) and Liver Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells.

    PubMed

    Basar, Norazah; Oridupa, Olayinka Ayotunde; Ritchie, Kenneth J; Nahar, Lutfun; Osman, Nashwa Mostafa M; Stafford, Angela; Kushiev, Habibjon; Kan, Asuman; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2015-06-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae), commonly known as 'liquorice', is a well-known medicinal plant. Roots of this plant have long been used as a sweetening and flavouring agent in food and pharmaceutical products, and also as a traditional remedy for cough, upper and lower respiratory ailments, kidney stones, hepatitis C, skin disorder, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, gastrointestinal ulcers and stomach ache. Previous pharmacological and clinical studies have revealed its antitussive, antiinflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective and cardioprotective properties. While glycyrrhizin, a sweet-tasting triterpene saponin, is the principal bioactive compound, several bioactive flavonoids and isoflavonoids are also present in the roots of this plant. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts of nine samples of the roots of G. glabra, collected from various geographical origins, was assessed against immortal human keratinocyte (HaCaT), lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and liver carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines using the in vitro 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide cell toxicity/viability assay. Considerable variations in levels of cytotoxicity were observed among various samples of G. glabra. PMID:25779384

  1. Lycium europaeum fruit extract: antiproliferative activity on A549 human lung carcinoma cells and PC12 rat adrenal medulla cancer cells and assessment of its cytotoxicity on cerebellum granule cells.

    PubMed

    Ghali, Wafa; Vaudry, David; Jouenne, Thierry; Marzouki, Mohamed Nejib

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a major worldwide health problem and one of the leading causes of death either in developed or developing countries. Plant extracts and derivatives have always been used for various disease treatments and many anticancer agents issued from plants and vegetables are clinically recognized and used all over the world. Lycium europaeum (Solanaceae) also called "wolfberry" was known since ancient times in the Mediterranean area as a medicinal plant and used in several traditional remedies. The Lycium species capacity of reducing the incidence of cancer and also of halting or reserving the growth of cancer was reported by traditional healers. In this study, the antiproliferative capacity, protective properties, and antioxidant activity of the hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of Lycium europaeum were investigated. Results showed that Lycium extract exhibits the ability to reduce cancer cell viability, inhibits proliferation, and induces apoptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells and PC12 rat adrenal medulla cancer cells, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Cytotoxic effect on normal rat cerebellum granule cells was assessed to be nonsignificant. Results also showed that Lycium fruit extract protected lipids, proteins, and DNA against oxidative stress damages induced by H2O2 via scavenging reactive oxygen species.

  2. Metformin inhibits growth of human non-small cell lung cancer cells via liver kinase B-1-independent activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    GUO, QIANQIAN; LIU, ZHIYAN; JIANG, LILI; LIU, MENGJIE; MA, JIEQUN; YANG, CHENGCHENG; HAN, LILI; NAN, KEJUN; LIANG, XUAN

    2016-01-01

    Metformin, the most widely administered oral anti-diabetic therapeutic agent, exerts its glucose-lowering effect predominantly via liver kinase B1 (LKB1)-dependent activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that metformin possesses potential antitumor effects. However, whether the antitumor effect of metformin is via the LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway remains to be determined. In the current study, the effects of metformin on proliferation, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) H460 (LKB1-null) and H1299 (LKB1-positive) cells were assessed, and the role of LKB1/AMPK signaling in the anti-growth effects of metformin were investigated. Cell viability was determined using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry, and protein expression levels were measured by western blotting. Metformin inhibited proliferation, induced significant cell cycle arrest at the G0–G1 phase and increased apoptosis in NSCLC cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, regardless of the level of LKB1 protein expression. Furthermore, knockdown of LKB1 with short hairpin RNA (shRNA) did not affect the antiproliferative effect of metformin in the H1299 cells. Metformin stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and subsequently suppressed the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin and its downstream effector, 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase in the two cell lines. These effects were abrogated by silencing AMPK with small interfering RNA (siRNA). In addition, knockdown of AMPK with siRNA inhibited the effect of metformin on cell proliferation in the two cell lines. These results provide evidence that the growth inhibition of metformin in NSCLC cells is mediated by LKB1-independent activation of AMPK, indicating that metformin may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of

  3. Enoxaparin sensitizes human non-small-cell lung carcinomas to gefitinib by inhibiting DOCK1 expression, vimentin phosphorylation, and Akt activation.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yan; Li, Xin; Duan, Jianhui; Yuan, Lan; Fan, Shengjun; Fan, Jingpu; Xiaokaiti, Yilixiati; Yang, Haopeng; Wang, Yefan; Li, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    Gefitinib is widely used for the treatment of lung cancer in patients with sensitizing epidermal growth factor receptor mutations, but patients tend to develop resistance after an average of 10 months. Low molecular weight heparins, such as enoxaparin, potently inhibit experimental metastasis. This study aimed to determine the potential of combined enoxaparin and gefitinib (enoxaparin + gefitinib) treatment to inhibit tumor resistance to gefitinib both in vitro and in vivo. A549 and H1975 cell migration was analyzed in wound closure and Transwell assays. Akt and extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 signaling pathways were identified, and a proteomics analysis was conducted using SDS-PAGE/liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Molecular interaction networks were visualized using the Cytoscape bioinformatics platform. Protein expression of dedicator of cytokinesis 1 (DOCK1) and cytoskeleton intermediate filament vimentin were identified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, and small interfering RNA transfection of A549 cells. In xenograft A549-luc-C8 tumors in nude mice, enoxaparin + gefitinib inhibited tumor growth and reduced lung colony formation compared with gefitinib alone. Furthermore, the combination had stronger inhibitory effects on cell migration than either agent used individually. Additional enoxaparin administration resulted in better effective inhibition of Akt activity compared with gefitinib alone. Proteomics and network analysis implicated DOCK1 as the key node molecule. Western blot verified the effective inhibition of the expression of DOCK1 and vimentin phosphorylation by enoxaparin + gefitinib compared with gefitinib alone. DOCK1 knockdown confirmed its role in cell migration, Akt expression, and vimentin phosphorylation. Our data indicate that enoxaparin sensitizes gefitinib antitumor and antimigration activity in lung cancer by suppressing DOCK1 expression, Akt activity, and vimentin phosphorylation

  4. Human Leukocyte Antigen G Polymorphism and Expression Are Associated with an Increased Risk of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Advanced Disease Stage

    PubMed Central

    Ben Amor, Amira; Beauchemin, Karine; Faucher, Marie-Claude; Hamzaoui, Agnes; Hamzaoui, Kamel; Roger, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G acts as negative regulator of the immune responses and its expression may enable tumor cells to escape immunosurveillance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of HLA-G allelic variants and serum soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) levels on risk of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We analyzed 191 Caucasian adults with NSCLC and 191 healthy subjects recruited between January 2009 and March 2014 in Ariana (Tunisia). Serum sHLA-G levels were measured by immunoassay and HLA-G alleles were determined using a direct DNA sequencing procedures. The heterozygous genotypes of HLA-G 010101 and -G 010401 were associated with increased risks of both NSCLC and advanced disease stages. In contrast, the heterozygous genotypes of HLA-G 0105N and -G 0106 were associated with decreased risks of NSCC and clinical disease stage IV, respectively. Serum sHLA-G levels were significantly higher in patients with NSCLC and particularly in those with advanced disease stages compared to healthy subjects. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves was 0.82 for controls vs patients. Given 100% specificity, the highest sensitivity achieved to detect NSCLC was 52.8% at a cutoff value of 24.9 U/ml. Patients with the sHLA-G above median level (≥ 50 U/ml) had a significantly shorter survival time. This study demonstrates that HLA-G allelic variants are independent risk factors for NSCLC. Serum sHLA-G levels in NSCLC patients could be useful biomarkers for the diagnostic and prognosis of NSCLC. PMID:27517300

  5. Human Leukocyte Antigen G Polymorphism and Expression Are Associated with an Increased Risk of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Advanced Disease Stage.

    PubMed

    Ben Amor, Amira; Beauchemin, Karine; Faucher, Marie-Claude; Hamzaoui, Agnes; Hamzaoui, Kamel; Roger, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G acts as negative regulator of the immune responses and its expression may enable tumor cells to escape immunosurveillance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of HLA-G allelic variants and serum soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) levels on risk of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We analyzed 191 Caucasian adults with NSCLC and 191 healthy subjects recruited between January 2009 and March 2014 in Ariana (Tunisia). Serum sHLA-G levels were measured by immunoassay and HLA-G alleles were determined using a direct DNA sequencing procedures. The heterozygous genotypes of HLA-G 010101 and -G 010401 were associated with increased risks of both NSCLC and advanced disease stages. In contrast, the heterozygous genotypes of HLA-G 0105N and -G 0106 were associated with decreased risks of NSCC and clinical disease stage IV, respectively. Serum sHLA-G levels were significantly higher in patients with NSCLC and particularly in those with advanced disease stages compared to healthy subjects. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves was 0.82 for controls vs patients. Given 100% specificity, the highest sensitivity achieved to detect NSCLC was 52.8% at a cutoff value of 24.9 U/ml. Patients with the sHLA-G above median level (≥ 50 U/ml) had a significantly shorter survival time. This study demonstrates that HLA-G allelic variants are independent risk factors for NSCLC. Serum sHLA-G levels in NSCLC patients could be useful biomarkers for the diagnostic and prognosis of NSCLC.

  6. Nobiletin inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of human non-small cell lung cancer cells by antagonizing the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Da, Chunli; Liu, Yuting; Zhan, Yiyi; Liu, Kai; Wang, Ruozheng

    2016-05-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical cellular process in cancer metastasis, during which epithelial polarized cells become motile mesenchymal cells. Since transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a potent inducer of EMT, blocking of TGF-β/Smad signaling has become a promising cancer therapy. Nobiletin, a polymethoxy flavonoid from Citrus depressa, has been shown to be valuable for cancer treatment, yet the mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, lung adenocarcinoma A549 and H1299 cells were used to evaluate the effect of nobiletin on EMT induced by TGF-β1. Nobiletin successfully inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT, migration, invasion and adhesion in vitro, accompanied by attenuation of MMP-2, MMP-9, p-Src, p-FAK, p-paxillin, Snail, Slug, Twist and ZEB1 expression. Nobiletin inhibited the transcriptional activity of Smads without changing the phosphorylation status or translocation of Smads induced by TGF-β1. Moreover, Smad3 is requisite in TGF-β1-stimulated EMT. Smad3 overexpression meaningfully impaired the ability of nobiletin to reverse TGF-β1-induced EMT. In vivo, nobiletin prohibited the growth of metastatic nodules in the lungs of nude mice. Moreover, nobiletin inhibited tumor growth and reversed EMT in mice bearing A549-Luc xenografts, as revealed by IVIS imaging and immunohistochemical analysis. Collectively, the data suggest that nobiletin prevents EMT by inactivating TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling.

  7. Nobiletin inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of human non-small cell lung cancer cells by antagonizing the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Da, Chunli; Liu, Yuting; Zhan, Yiyi; Liu, Kai; Wang, Ruozheng

    2016-05-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical cellular process in cancer metastasis, during which epithelial polarized cells become motile mesenchymal cells. Since transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a potent inducer of EMT, blocking of TGF-β/Smad signaling has become a promising cancer therapy. Nobiletin, a polymethoxy flavonoid from Citrus depressa, has been shown to be valuable for cancer treatment, yet the mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, lung adenocarcinoma A549 and H1299 cells were used to evaluate the effect of nobiletin on EMT induced by TGF-β1. Nobiletin successfully inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT, migration, invasion and adhesion in vitro, accompanied by attenuation of MMP-2, MMP-9, p-Src, p-FAK, p-paxillin, Snail, Slug, Twist and ZEB1 expression. Nobiletin inhibited the transcriptional activity of Smads without changing the phosphorylation status or translocation of Smads induced by TGF-β1. Moreover, Smad3 is requisite in TGF-β1-stimulated EMT. Smad3 overexpression meaningfully impaired the ability of nobiletin to reverse TGF-β1-induced EMT. In vivo, nobiletin prohibited the growth of metastatic nodules in the lungs of nude mice. Moreover, nobiletin inhibited tumor growth and reversed EMT in mice bearing A549-Luc xenografts, as revealed by IVIS imaging and immunohistochemical analysis. Collectively, the data suggest that nobiletin prevents EMT by inactivating TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling. PMID:26986176

  8. Ski prevents TGF-β-induced EMT and cell invasion by repressing SMAD-dependent signaling in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haiping; Zhan, Lei; Yang, Tianjie; Wang, Longqiang; Li, Chang; Zhao, Jun; Lei, Zhe; Li, Xiangdong; Zhang, Hong-Tao

    2015-07-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key event in cancer metastasis, which confers cancer cells with increased motility and invasiveness, and EMT is characterized by loss of epithelial marker E-cadherin and gain of mesenchymal marker N-cadherin. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling is a crucial inducer of EMT in various types of cancer. Ski is an important negative regulator of TGF-β signaling, which interacts with SMADs to repress TGF-β signaling activity. Although there is accumulating evidence that Ski functions as a promoter or suppressor in human types of cancer, the molecular mechanisms by which Ski affects TGF-β-induced EMT and invasion in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are not largely elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the mechanistic role of Ski in NSCLC metastasis. Ski was significantly reduced in metastatic NSCLC cells or tissues when compared with non-metastatic NSCLC cells or tissues. Moreover, following TGF-β stimulation Ski-silenced A549 cells had more significant features of EMT and a higher invasive activity when compared with A549 cells overexpressing Ski. Mechanistically, Ski-silenced and overexpressed A549 cells showed an increase and a reduction in the SMAD3 phosphorylation level, respectively. This was supported by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) promoter activity obtained in Ski-silenced and overexpressed A549 cells. However, after treatment of SIS3 (inhibitor of SMAD3 phosphorylation) followed by TGF-β1 stimulation, we did not observe any effect of Ski on TGF-β-induced EMT, and invasion in Ski-silenced and overexpressed A549 cells. In conclusion, our findings suggest that Ski represses TGF-β-induced EMT and invasion by inhibiting SMAD-dependent signaling in NSCLC.

  9. Protective effect of curcumin against formaldehyde-induced genotoxicity in A549 Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ben-Yan; Shi, Yu-Qin; Chen, Xin; Dai, Juan; Jiang, Zhong-Fa; Li, Ning; Zhang, Zhi-Bing

    2013-12-01

    Formaldehyde is ubiquitous in the environment. It is known to be a genotoxic substance. We hypothesized that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation are involved in formaldehyde-induced genotoxicity in human lung cancer cell lines A549. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of antioxidant on formaldehyde-induced genotoxicity in A549 Cell Lines. Formaldehyde exposure caused induction of DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs). Curcumin is an important antioxidant. Formaldehyde significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity. In addition, the activation of NF-κB and AP-1 were induced by formaldehyde treatment. Pretreatment with curcumin counteracted formaldehyde-induced oxidative stress, ameliorated DPCs and attenuated activation of NF-κB and AP-1 in A549 Cell Lines. These results, taken together, suggest that formaldehyde induced genotoxicity through its ROS and lipid peroxidase activity and caused DPCs effects in A549 cells.

  10. Enhanced Replication of Hepatitis E Virus Strain 47832c in an A549-Derived Subclonal Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Schemmerer, Mathias; Apelt, Silke; Trojnar, Eva; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Wenzel, Jürgen J.; Johne, Reimar

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a human pathogen with increasing importance. The lack of efficient cell culture systems hampers systematic studies on its replication cycle, virus neutralization and inactivation. Here, several cell lines were inoculated with the HEV genotype 3c strain 47832c, previously isolated from a chronically infected transplant patient. At 14 days after inoculation the highest HEV genome copy numbers were found in A549 cells, followed by PLC/PRF/5 cells, whereas HepG2/C3A, Huh-7 Lunet BLR and MRC-5 cells only weakly supported virus replication. Inoculation of A549-derived subclone cell lines resulted in most cases in reduced HEV replication. However, the subclone A549/D3 was susceptible to lower virus concentrations and resulted in higher virus yields as compared to parental A549 cells. Transcriptome analysis indicated a downregulation of genes for carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAM) 5 and 6, and an upregulation of the syndecan 2 (SDC2) gene in A549/D3 cells compared to A549 cells. However, treatment of A549/D3 cells or A549 cells with CEACAM- or syndecan 2-specific antisera did not influence HEV replication. The results show that cells supporting more efficient HEV replication can be selected from the A549 cell line. The specific mechanisms responsible for the enhanced replication remain unknown. PMID:27690085

  11. Toward chelerythrine optimization: Analogues designed by molecular simplification exhibit selective growth inhibition in non-small-cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rosania; Tavares, Maurício T; Teixeira, Sarah F; Azevedo, Ricardo A; C Pietro, Diego; Fernandes, Thais B; Ferreira, Adilson K; Trossini, Gustavo H G; Barbuto, José A M; Parise-Filho, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    A series of novel chelerythrine analogues was designed and synthesized. Antitumor activity was evaluated against A549, NCI-H1299, NCI-H292, and NCI-H460 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines in vitro. The selectivity of the most active analogues and chelerythrine was also evaluated, and we compared their cytotoxicity in NSCLC cells and non-tumorigenic cell lines, including human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and LL24 human lung fibroblasts. In silico studies were performed to establish structure-activity relationships between chelerythrine and the analogues. The results showed that analogue compound 3f induced significant dose-dependent G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in A549 and NCI-H1299 cells. Theoretical studies indicated that the molecular arrangement and electron characteristics of compound 3f were closely related to the profile of chelerythrine, supporting its activity. The present study presents a new and simplified chelerythrinoid scaffold with enhanced selectivity against NSCLC tumor cells for further optimization. PMID:27561984

  12. Inhibition of autophagy enhances heat-induced apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer cells through ER stress pathways.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wen-Yue; Zhou, Xiang-Dong; Yang, Juan; Chen, Ling-Xiu; Ran, Dan-Hua

    2016-10-01

    The occurrence and mechanisms of autophagy induced by heat stress are not well known in lung cancer cells. Here, we have demonstrated that heat stress induces autophagy in A549 and NCI-H460 cells through morphological and biochemical analyses. The inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine, 3-methyladenine and Beclin 1 siRNA enhanced heat-induced apoptosis. Moreover, the combination of chloroquine and heat stress inhibited tumor growth and enhanced apoptosis in vivo experiments. In addition, heat-induced autophagy involved the ER stress pathway (PERK- or IRE1-dependent). Further, heat treatment led to the increased phosphorylation of AMPK and the decreased phosphorylation of mTOR in vitro and in vivo. Knockdown of GRP78 inhibited the AMPK-mTOR pathway, and the AMPK inhibitor compound C decreased heat-induced autophagy, suggesting that activation of ER stress was involved in autophagy induction and promotion of the AMPK-mTOR pathway. In conclusion, our data suggested that the heat treatment of lung cancer cells triggered protective autophagy, as mediated by ER stress. Thus, inhibition of autophagy can be a promising strategy to enhance hyperthermia in the treatment of lung cancer patients.

  13. Downregulated TIPE2 is associated with poor prognosis and promotes cell proliferation in non-small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuexia; Li, Xiaohui; Liu, Gang; Sun, Rongqing; Wang, Lirui; Wang, Jing; Wang, Hongmin

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • TIPE2 is down-regulated in NSCLC tissues. • TIPE2 inhibits NSCLC cell proliferation, colony formation and invasion. • TIPE2 reduces the anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL protein and mesenchymal marker N-cadherin expression. - Abstract: The present study aims to investigate the expression pattern of TIPE2 protein and its clinical significance in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We investigated the expression levels of TIPE2 in 96 NSCLC tumor samples by immunohistochemistry and then analyzed its clinical significance. Furthermore, the role of TIPE2 on the biological properties of the NSCLC cell line H1299 and A549 was experimentally tested in vitro and in vivo. We found that the expression level of TIPE2 was significantly higher in normal lung tissues compared with NSCLC tissues (P < 0.001), and TIPE2 downregulation was significantly correlated with advanced TNM stage (P = 0.006). TIPE2 expression was lower in lung cancer cell lines than normal bronchial cell line HBE. Transfection of TIPE2 plasmid was performed in H1299 and A549 cells. TIPE2 overexpression inhibited lung cancer cell proliferation, colony formation and cell invasive in vitro, and prevented lung tumor growth in vivo. In addition, TIPE2 transfection reduced the anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL protein and mesenchymal marker N-cadherin expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that TIPE2 might serve as a tumor suppressor in NSCLC progression.

  14. Mast cells and histamine enhance the proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Stoyanov, Evgeniy; Uddin, Mohib; Mankuta, David; Dubinett, Steven M; Levi-Schaffer, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common form of lung cancer with an extremely low survival rate. It is characterized by a chronic inflammatory process with intense mast cell infiltrate that is associated with reduced survival. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that mast cells have an enhancing effect on NSCLC proliferation. To assess the tumor-promoting potential of mast cells, we used the human alveolar basal adenocarcinoma (A549) and the mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cell lines, umbilical cord blood-derived mast cells (CBMC) and the mast cell-deficient mouse Sash model. The proliferation rate of A549/LLC cells was markedly increased by mast cells and histamine. Histamine proliferating activity was mediated via H(1), H(2) and H(4) receptors and caused ERK phosphorylation. LLC induced in Sash mice or in wild-type mice treated with the mast cell stabilizer nedocromil sodium displayed an accelerated growth (number of metastic colonies in the lungs, total lung area and lung/total mice weight ratio). In summary, we have shown a significant effect of mast cells and histamine in enhancing NSCLC/LLCX growth in vitro, while in a mouse LLC model in vivo we have found that mast cells are important negative regulators of cancer development. Therefore our results would indicate a pro-tumorogenic effect of the mast cells in vitro on established lung tumor cell lines, and anti-tumorogenic effect in mice at lung cancer induction. In conclusion, mast cell/anti-histamine targeted therapies should carefully consider this dual effect. PMID:21733595

  15. Synergistic Effect of Sulindac and Simvastatin on Apoptosis in Lung Cancer A549 Cells through AKT-Dependent Downregulation of Survivin

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Suk; Seol, Chang-Hwan; Jung, Jae-Wan; Oh, Su-Jin; Hwang, Ki-Eun; Kim, Hwi-Jung; Jeong, Eun-Taik; Kim, Hak-Ryul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and statins are potential chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agents. The mechanism underlying the deregulation of survivin by NSAIDs and statins in human non-small cell lung cancer cells has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the synergistic interaction of sulindac and simvastatin in lung cancer A549 cells. Materials and Methods Cell viability was measured by an MTT assay, while the expression of apoptotic markers, AKT, and survivin in response to sulindac and simvastatin was examined by Western blotting. DNA fragmentation by apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry in A549 cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured by flow cytometry using H2DCFDA and MitoSOX Red, and the effects of pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine were tested. The effects of AKT on survivin expression in sulindac- and simvastatin-treated cells were assessed. Survivin was knocked down or overexpressed to determine its role in apoptosis induced by sulindac and simvastatin. Results Sulindac and simvastatin synergistically augmented apoptotic activity and intracellular ROS production in A549 cells. Inhibition of AKT by siRNA or LY294002 inhibited survivin, while AKT overexpression markedly increased survivin expression, even in the presence of sulindac and simvastatin. Moreover, survivin siRNA enhanced sulindac- and simvastatininduced apoptosis. In contrast, survivin upregulation protected against sulindac- and simvastatin-induced apoptosis. Conclusion Combined treatment with sulindac and simvastatin augmented their apoptotic potential in lung cancer cells through AKT signaling-dependent downregulation of survivin. These results indicate that sulindac and simvastatin may be clinically promising therapies for the prevention of lung cancer. PMID:25520153

  16. Encapsulated paclitaxel nanoparticles exhibit enhanced anti-tumor efficacy in A549 non-small lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guojin; Zang, Bao; Wang, Xiaowei; Liu, Gang; Zhao, Jianqiang

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, paclitaxel (PTX) were encapsulated with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-polylactide (PLA)/D-α tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) (PEG-PLA/TPGS) and the enhanced anti-tumor activity of this PTX mixed micelles (PTX-MM) was evaluated in lung cancer cells. The PTX-MM prepared by a solvent evaporation method was demonstrated to have high drug-loading efficiency (23.2%), high encapsulation efficiency (76.4%), and small size (59 nm). In vitro release assay showed the slow release behavior of PTX-MM, suggesting the good stability of the PTX-MM essential for long circulation time. In vitro kinetics assay demonstrated that PTX-MM could promote absorption and increase relative bioavailability. The anti-cancer efficiency of PTX-MM was also examined by both in vitro and in vivo studies. PTX-MM exhibits obvious cytotoxicity against lung cancer cells with much lower IC50 value when compared with commercial formulated PTX or PTX + TPGS. The xenograft tumor model studies on nude mice indicated that PTX-MM inhibits tumor growth more effectively than other formulations. It was also found that most of mixed micelles were integral in tumor site to exhibit anti-cancer activity. Our results suggested that the use of PTX-MM as an anti-cancer drug may be an effective approach to treat lung cancer. PMID:26525950

  17. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species mediates nicotine-induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression in human non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lili; Li, Lin; Wang, Weiqiang; Pan, Zhenhua; Zhou, Qinghua; Wu, Zhihao

    2012-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is not only a documented risk for lung carcinogenesis but also promotes lung cancer development. Nicotine, a major component of cigarette smoke but not a carcinogen by itself, has been found to induce proliferation, invasion and metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here we reported that proinvasive effect of nicotine is analogous to that of hypoxia and involves stabilization and activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, a key factor in determining the presence of HIF-1 and expression of its downstream metastasis-associated genes. Furthermore, nicotine-induced upregulation of HIF-1α was dependent on mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ecotopic expression of mitochondrial targeted catalase effectively prevented nicotine-induced accumulation of HIF-1α protein. In addition, we demonstrated that the effect of nicotine in upregulation of HIF-1α was mediated by Dihydro-β-erythroidine (DhβE)-sensitive nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and required synergistic cooperation of Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. These results suggest that exposure to nicotine could mimic effects of hypoxia to stimulate HIF-1α accumulation and activity that might underlie the high metastatic potential of lung cancer. PMID:22349311

  18. A Potent Derivative of Indolizino[6,7-b]Indole for Treatment of Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Wei; Wu, Ming-Hsi; Chen, Yi-Fan; Yen, Tsai-Yi; Lin, Yi-Wen; Chao, Shu-Hsin; Tala, Satishkumar; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Su, Tsann-Long; Lee, Te-Chang

    2016-04-01

    The therapeutic effect in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients is limited because of intrinsic and acquired resistance. Thus, an unmet need exists for the development of new drugs to improve the therapeutic efficacy in NSCLC patients. In this study, the novel small molecule indolizino[6,7-b]indole derivative BO-1978 was selected to evaluate its therapeutic effects on NSCLC and its preclinical toxicity in animal models. An in vitro cytotoxicity assay revealed that BO-1978 significantly suppressed the growth of various NSCLC cell lines with or without mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Mechanistically, we demonstrated that BO-1978 exhibited multiple modes of action, including inhibition of topoisomerase I/II and induction of DNA cross-linking. Treatment of NSCLC cells with BO-1978 caused DNA damage, disturbed cell cycle progression, and triggered apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, BO-1978 significantly suppressed the growth of EGFR wild-type and mutant NSCLC tumors in xenograft tumor and orthotopic lung tumor models with negligible body weight loss. The combination of BO-1978 with gefitinib further suppressed EGFR mutant NSCLC cell growth in xenograft tumor and orthotopic lung tumor models. Preclinical toxicity studies showed that BO-1978 administration did not cause apparent toxicity in mice. Based on its significant therapeutic efficacy and low drug toxicity, BO-1978 is a potential therapeutic agent for treatment of NSCLC.

  19. CMTM7 knockdown increases tumorigenicity of human non-small cell lung cancer cells and EGFR-AKT signaling by reducing Rab5 activation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ting; Yuan, Wanqiong; Mo, Xiaoning; Li, Henan; He, Qihua; Ma, Dalong; Han, Wenling

    2015-01-01

    The dysregulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling has been well documented to contribute to the progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the leading cause of cancer death in the world. EGF-stimulated EGFR activation induces receptor internalization and degradation, which plays an important role in EGFR signaling. This process is frequently deregulated in cancer cells, leading to enhanced EGFR levels and signaling. Our previous study on CMTM7 is only limited to a brief description of the relationship of overexpressed CMTM7 with EGFR-AKT signaling. The biological functions of endogenous CMTM7 and its molecular mechanism remained unclear. In this study, we show that the stable knockdown of CMTM7 augments the malignant potential of NSCLC cells and enhances EGFR-AKT signaling by decreasing EGFR internalization and degradation. Mechanistically, CMTM7 knockdown reduces the activation of Rab5, a protein known to be required for early endosome fusion. In NSCLC, the loss of CMTM7 would therefore serve to sustain aberrant EGFR-mediated oncogenic signaling. Together, our findings highlight the role of CMTM7 in the regulation of EGFR signaling in tumor cells, revealing CMTM7 as a novel molecule related to Rab5 activation. PMID:26528697

  20. Synthesis and cytotoxic activity of novel A-ring cleaved ursolic acid derivatives in human non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Vanessa I S; Bartholomeusz, Geoffrey A; Ayres, Mary; Gandhi, Varsha; Salvador, Jorge A R

    2016-11-10

    Ursolic acid (UA) is a pentacyclic triterpenoid with recognized anticancer properties. We prepared a series of new A-ring cleaved UA derivatives and evaluated their antiproliferative activity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines using 2D and 3D culture models. Compound 17, bearing a cleaved A-ring with a secondary amide at C3, was found to be the most active compound, with potency in 2D systems. Importantly, even in 3D systems, the effect was maintained albeit a slight increase in the IC50. The molecular mechanism underlying the anticancer activity was further investigated. Compound 17 induced apoptosis via activation of caspase-8 and caspase-7 and via decrease of Bcl-2. Moreover, induction of autophagy was also detected with increased levels of Beclin-1 and LC3A/B-II and decreased levels of mTOR and p62. DNA synthetic capacity and cell cycle profiles were not affected by the drug, but total RNA synthesis was modestly but significantly decreased. Given its activity and mechanism of action, compound 17 might represent a potential candidate for further cancer research.

  1. Xylitol induces cell death in lung cancer A549 cells by autophagy.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunjoo; Park, Mi Hee; Na, Hee Sam; Chung, Jin

    2015-05-01

    Xylitol is a widely used anti-caries agent that has anti-inflammatory effects. We have evaluated the potential of xylitol in cancer treatment. It's effects on cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were measured by MTT assay and LDH assay. Cell morphology and autophagy were examined by immunostaining and immunoblotting. Xylitol inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in these cancer cells: A549, Caki, NCI-H23, HCT-15, HL-60, K562, and SK MEL-2. The IC50 of xylitol in human gingival fibroblast cells was higher than in cancer cells, indicating that it is more specific for cancer cells. Moreover, xylitol induced autophagy in A549 cells that was inhibited by 3-methyladenine, an autophagy inhibitor. These results indicate that xylitol has potential in therapy against lung cancer by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing autophagy of A549 cells.

  2. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Smoking causes most cases (around 90%) of lung cancer. The risk depends on the number of cigarettes ...

  3. P53-regulated long non-coding RNA TUG1 affects cell proliferation in human non-small cell lung cancer, partly through epigenetically regulating HOXB7 expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, E-b; Yin, D-d; Sun, M; Kong, R; Liu, X-h; You, L-h; Han, L; Xia, R; Wang, K-m; Yang, J-s; De, W; Shu, Y-q; Wang, Z-x

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a novel class of transcripts, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), is being identified at a rapid pace. These RNAs have critical roles in diverse biological processes, including tumorigenesis. Here we report that taurine-upregulated gene 1 (TUG1), a 7.1-kb lncRNA, recruiting and binding to polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), is generally downregulated in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) tissues. In a cohort of 192 NSCLC patients, the lower expression of TUG1 was associated with a higher TNM stage and tumor size, as well as poorer overall survival (P<0.001). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that TUG1 expression serves as an independent predictor for overall survival (P<0.001). Further experiments revealed that TUG1 expression was induced by p53, and luciferase and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed that TUG1 was a direct transcriptional target of p53. TUG1 knockdown significantly promoted the proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the lncRNA-mediated regulation of the expression of HOX genes in tumorigenesis and development has been recently receiving increased attention. Interestingly, inhibition of TUG1 could upregulate homeobox B7 (HOXB7) expression; ChIP assays demonstrated that the promoter of HOXB7 locus was bound by EZH2 (enhancer of zeste homolog 2), a key component of PRC2, and was H3K27 trimethylated. This TUG1-mediated growth regulation is in part due to specific modulation of HOXB7, thus participating in AKT and MAPK pathways. Together, these results suggest that p53-regulated TUG1 is a growth regulator, which acts in part through control of HOXB7. The p53/TUG1/PRC2/HOXB7 interaction might serve as targets for NSCLC diagnosis and therapy. PMID:24853421

  4. In vitro cytotoxicity of gold nanorods in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ying; Shen, Yafeng; Huang, Libin; Lv, Gaojian; Lei, Changhai; Fan, Xiaoyan; Lin, Fangxing; Zhang, Yuxia; Wu, Lihui; Yang, Yongji

    2015-03-01

    Gold nanoparticles, which have unique physicochemical characteristics, are being used for an increasingly wide range of applications in biomedical research. In this study, gold nanorods (width of 25 nm, length of 52 nm) were found to be internalized by A549 cells and were primarily localized in the lysosomes and membranous vesicles. The integrity of the membranes of A549 cells exposed to gold nanorods for 4h was damaged, as indicated by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). Increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and decreased cell viability further indicated the concentration-dependent cytotoxicity of the gold nanorods to the A549 cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was induced in the A549 cells by the gold nanorods, and this effect was positively correlated with the concentration of the gold nanorods. The results of this study indicated that exposure to gold nanorods caused dose-dependent cytotoxicity in A549 cells and that oxidative stress may be the main factor causing cytotoxicity.

  5. Adenovirus vector infection of non-small-cell lung cancer cells is a trigger for multi-drug resistance mediated by P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Tomono, Takumi; Kajita, Masahiro; Yano, Kentaro; Ogihara, Takuo

    2016-08-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP-binding cassette protein involved in cancer multi-drug resistance (MDR). It has been reported that infection with some bacteria and viruses induces changes in the activities of various drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters, including P-gp. Although human adenoviruses (Ad) cause the common cold, the effect of Ad infection on MDR in cancer has not been established. In this study, we investigated whether Ad infection is a cause of MDR in A549, H441 and HCC827 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, using an Ad vector system. We found that Ad vector infection of NSCLC cell lines induced P-gp mRNA expression, and the extent of induction was dependent on the number of Ad vector virus particles and the infection time. Heat-treated Ad vector, which is not infectious, did not alter P-gp mRNA expression. Uptake experiments with doxorubicin (DOX), a P-gp substrate, revealed that DOX accumulation was significantly decreased in Ad vector-infected A549 cells. The decrease of DOX uptake was blocked by verapamil, a P-gp inhibitor. Our results indicated that Ad vector infection of NSCLC cells caused MDR mediated by P-gp overexpression. The Ad vector genome sequence is similar to that of human Ad, and therefore human Ad infection of lung cancer patients may lead to chemoresistance in the clinical environment.

  6. Selenium pretreatment attenuates formaldehyde-induced genotoxicity in A549 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu-Qin; Chen, Xin; Dai, Juan; Jiang, Zhong-Fa; Li, Ning; Zhang, Ben-Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Bing

    2014-11-01

    Formaldehyde is a major industrial chemical and has been extensively used in the manufacture of synthetic resins and chemicals. Numerous studies indicate that formaldehyde can induce various genotoxic effects in vitro and in vivo. A recent study indicated that formaldehyde impaired antioxidant cellular defences and enhanced lipid peroxidation. Selenium is an important antioxidant. We hypothesized that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation are involved in formaldehyde-induced genotoxicity in human lung cancer cell line, A549 cell line. To test the hypothesis, we investigated the effects of selenium on formaldehyde-induced genotoxicity in A549 cell lines. The results indicated that exposure to formaldehyde showed the induction of DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs). Formaldehyde significantly increased the malondialdehyde levels and decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. In addition, the activations of necrosis factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) were induced by the formaldehyde treatment. The pretreatment with selenium counteracted the formaldehyde-induced oxidative stress, ameliorated DPCs and attenuated the activation of NF-κB and AP-1 in A549 cell lines. All the results suggested that the pretreatment with selenium attenuated the formaldehyde-induced genotoxicity through its ROS scavenging and anti-DPCs effects in A549 cell lines.

  7. Cancer-associated fibroblasts promote non-small cell lung cancer cell invasion by upregulation of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) expression in an integrated bionic microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ting; Guo, Zhe; Fan, Hui; Song, Jing; Liu, Yuanbin; Gao, Zhancheng; Wang, Qi

    2016-05-01

    The tumor microenvironment is comprised of cancer cells and various stromal cells and their respective cellular components. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), a major part of the stromal cells, are a key determinant in tumor progression, while glucose-regulated protein (GRP)78 is overexpressed in many human cancers and is involved in tumor invasion and metastasis. This study developed a microfluidic-based three dimension (3D) co-culture device to mimic an in vitro tumor microenvironment in order to investigate tumor cell invasion in real-time. This bionic chip provided significant information regarding the role of GRP78, which may be stimulated by CAFs, to promote non-small cell lung cancer cell invasion in vitro. The data showed that CAF induced migration of NSCLC A549 and SPCA-1 cells in this three-dimensional invasion microdevice, which is confirmed by using the traditional Transwell system. Furthermore, CAF induced GRP78 expression in A549 and SPCA-1 cells to facilitate NSCLC cell migration and invasion, whereas knockdown of GRP78 expression blocked A549 and SPCA-1 cell migration and invasion capacity. In conclusion, these data indicated that CAFs might promote NSCLC cell invasion by up-regulation of GRP78 expression and this bionic chip microdevice is a robust platform to assess the interaction of cancer and stromal cells in tumor environment study. PMID:27016417

  8. Cancer-associated fibroblasts promote non-small cell lung cancer cell invasion by upregulation of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) expression in an integrated bionic microfluidic device

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jing; Liu, Yuanbin; Gao, Zhancheng; Wang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is comprised of cancer cells and various stromal cells and their respective cellular components. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), a major part of the stromal cells, are a key determinant in tumor progression, while glucose-regulated protein (GRP)78 is overexpressed in many human cancers and is involved in tumor invasion and metastasis. This study developed a microfluidic-based three dimension (3D) co-culture device to mimic an in vitro tumor microenvironment in order to investigate tumor cell invasion in real-time. This bionic chip provided significant information regarding the role of GRP78, which may be stimulated by CAFs, to promote non-small cell lung cancer cell invasion in vitro. The data showed that CAF induced migration of NSCLC A549 and SPCA-1 cells in this three-dimensional invasion microdevice, which is confirmed by using the traditional Transwell system. Furthermore, CAF induced GRP78 expression in A549 and SPCA-1 cells to facilitate NSCLC cell migration and invasion, whereas knockdown of GRP78 expression blocked A549 and SPCA-1 cell migration and invasion capacity. In conclusion, these data indicated that CAFs might promote NSCLC cell invasion by up-regulation of GRP78 expression and this bionic chip microdevice is a robust platform to assess the interaction of cancer and stromal cells in tumor environment study. PMID:27016417

  9. Cancer-associated fibroblasts promote non-small cell lung cancer cell invasion by upregulation of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) expression in an integrated bionic microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ting; Guo, Zhe; Fan, Hui; Song, Jing; Liu, Yuanbin; Gao, Zhancheng; Wang, Qi

    2016-05-01

    The tumor microenvironment is comprised of cancer cells and various stromal cells and their respective cellular components. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), a major part of the stromal cells, are a key determinant in tumor progression, while glucose-regulated protein (GRP)78 is overexpressed in many human cancers and is involved in tumor invasion and metastasis. This study developed a microfluidic-based three dimension (3D) co-culture device to mimic an in vitro tumor microenvironment in order to investigate tumor cell invasion in real-time. This bionic chip provided significant information regarding the role of GRP78, which may be stimulated by CAFs, to promote non-small cell lung cancer cell invasion in vitro. The data showed that CAF induced migration of NSCLC A549 and SPCA-1 cells in this three-dimensional invasion microdevice, which is confirmed by using the traditional Transwell system. Furthermore, CAF induced GRP78 expression in A549 and SPCA-1 cells to facilitate NSCLC cell migration and invasion, whereas knockdown of GRP78 expression blocked A549 and SPCA-1 cell migration and invasion capacity. In conclusion, these data indicated that CAFs might promote NSCLC cell invasion by up-regulation of GRP78 expression and this bionic chip microdevice is a robust platform to assess the interaction of cancer and stromal cells in tumor environment study.

  10. Genistein mediates the selective radiosensitizing effect in NSCLC A549 cells via inhibiting methylation of the keap1 gene promoter region

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiongxiong; Sun, Chao; Liu, Bingtao; Jin, Xiaodong; Li, Ping; Zheng, Xiaogang; Zhao, Ting; Li, Feifei; Li, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells often possess a hypermethylated Keap1 promoter, which decreases Keap1 mRNA and protein expression levels, thus impairing the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway and thereby leading to chemo- or radio-resistance. In this study, we showed that genistein selectively exhibited a radiosensitizing effect on NSCLC A549 cells but not on normal lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells. Genistein caused oxidative stress in A549 cells rather than MRC-5 cells, as determined by the oxidation of the ROS-sensitive probe DCFH-DA and oxidative damage marked by MDA, PCO or 8-OHdG content. In A549 instead of MRC-5 cells, genistein reduced the level of methylation in the Keap1 promoter region, leading to an increased mRNA expression, thus effectively inhibited the transcription of Nrf2 to the nucleus, which suppressed the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant and resulted in the upregulation of ROS. Importantly, when combined with radiation, genistein further increased the ROS levels in A549 cells whereas decreasing the radiation-induced oxidative stress in MRC-5 cells, possibly via increasing the expression levels of Nrf2, GSH and HO-1. Moreover, radiation combined with genistein significantly increased cell apoptosis in A549 but not MRC-5 cells. Together, the results herein show that the intrinsic difference in the redox status of A549 and MRC-5 cells could be the target for genistein to selectively sensitize A549 cells to radiation, thereby leading to an increase in radiosensitivity for A549 cells. PMID:27029077

  11. MiR-122 Induces Radiosensitization in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Debin; Jia, Hui; Qin, Mengmeng; Dai, Wenjie; Wang, Tao; Liang, Erguang; Dong, Guofu; Wang, Zuojun; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Feng, Fan

    2015-01-01

    MiR-122 is a novel tumor suppresser and its expression induces cell cycle arrest, or apoptosis, and inhibits cell proliferation in multiple cancer cells, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Radioresistance of cancer cell leads to the major drawback of radiotherapy for NSCLC and the induction of radiosensitization could be a useful strategy to fix this problem. The present work investigates the function of miR-122 in inducing radiosensitization in A549 cell, a type of NSCLC cells. MiR-122 induces the radiosensitization of A549 cells. MiR-122 also boosts the inhibitory activity of ionizing radiation (IR) on cancer cell anchor-independent growth and invasion. Moreover, miR-122 reduced the expression of its targeted genes related to tumor-survival or cellular stress response. These results indicate that miR-122 would be a novel strategy for NSCLC radiation-therapy. PMID:26389880

  12. A novel aminothiazole KY-05009 with potential to inhibit Traf2- and Nck-interacting kinase (TNIK) attenuates TGF-β1-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyeon; Moon, Seong-Hee; Kim, Bum Tae; Chae, Chong Hak; Lee, Joo Yun; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β triggers the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells via well-orchestrated crosstalk between Smad and non-Smad signaling pathways, including Wnt/β-catenin. Since EMT-induced motility and invasion play a critical role in cancer metastasis, EMT-related molecules are emerging as novel targets of anti-cancer therapies. Traf2- and Nck-interacting kinase (TNIK) has recently been considered as a first-in-class anti-cancer target molecule to regulate Wnt signaling pathway, but pharmacologic inhibition of its EMT activity has not yet been studied. Here, using 5-(4-methylbenzamido)-2-(phenylamino)thiazole-4-carboxamide (KY-05009) with TNIK-inhibitory activity, its efficacy to inhibit EMT in cancer cells was validated. The molecular docking/binding study revealed the binding of KY-05009 in the hinge region of TNIK, and the inhibitory activity of KY-05009 against TNIK was confirmed by an ATP competition assay (Ki, 100 nM). In A549 cells, KY-05009 significantly and strongly inhibited the TGF-β-activated EMT through the attenuation of Smad and non-Smad signaling pathways, including the Wnt, NF-κB, FAK-Src-paxillin-related focal adhesion, and MAP kinases (ERK and JNK) signaling pathways. Continuing efforts to identify and validate potential therapeutic targets associated with EMT, such as TNIK, provide new and improved therapies for treating and/or preventing EMT-based disorders, such as cancer metastasis and fibrosis. PMID:25337707

  13. CD40-CD40 ligand (CD154) engagement is required but not sufficient for modulating MHC class I, ICAM-1 and Fas expression and proliferation of human non-small cell lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Yamada, M; Shiroko, T; Kawaguchi, Y; Sugiyama, Y; Egilmez, N K; Chen, F A; Bankert, R B

    2001-05-15

    To determine the possible functional significance of CD40 expression on human non-small cell lung carcinomas and to assess the potential of CD40 as a therapeutic target, 18 lung tumor cell lines were established from biopsy tissues and were monitored for phenotypic changes on the cell surface and alterations in tumor cell proliferation after the ligation of CD40 with a trimeric fusion protein complex of CD40 ligand (CD40Lt). CD40 cross-linking resulted in up to a 6-fold increase in the surface expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, Fas and intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 in a subset of tumors expressing the highest levels of CD40. Suppression of tumor proliferation was seen after the ligation of CD40 on CD40Lt-responsive cell lines. The suppression was dose dependent, reversible and resulted from a delay of the tumor cells entering S-phase. No change in the cell phenotype or in proliferation were observed in CD40-negative tumors or in tumors expressing moderate-to-low levels of CD40 after incubation with CD40Lt. CD40-negative tumors transfected with the CD40 gene expressed high levels of CD40 on their surface, but were also unresponsive to CD40Lt cross-linking of CD40. Our data establish that CD40 is required (but not sufficient) for transducing a signal that results in phenotypic changes in human lung tumors and suppression in their proliferation. We conclude that CD40 on non-small cell lung tumors may represent a potential therapeutic target, but only on a subset of the CD40+ tumors.

  14. Silencing BMP-2 expression inhibits A549 and H460 cell proliferation and migration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is a member of the TGF-β superfamily that is closely correlated with many malignancies, particularly lung cancer. However, the effects of silenced BMP-2 on lung cancer cell proliferation and migration are not clear. Methods Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR, BMP-2 mRNA expression was detected in 61 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples. Survival curves were generated using follow-up data. Relationships between clinical or pathological characteristics and prognosis were analyzed. Cell viability assays and transwell migration assays were used to evaluate the effects of BMP-2 silencing on cell proliferation and migration of A549 and H460 cells. Results BMP-2 mRNA expression was higher in NSCLC tissues compared to matched adjacent normal tissues (P < 0.01). High BMP-2 expression levels were significantly associated with the occurrence of lymph node metastases and tumor stage (P < 0.05). There were significant differences in survival curves between groups with metastatic lymph nodes and non-metastatic lymph nodes, as well as between groups with low BMP-2 expression and groups with high BMP-2 expression. In addition, we observed decreased proliferation and migration rates of the NSCLC-derived cell lines A549 and H460 that were transfected with siBMP-2 (P < 0.05). Conclusion BMP-2 mRNA is overexpressed in NSCLC samples and is a risk factor for survival in patients with NSCLC. BMP-2 silencing can significantly inhibit A549 and H460 cell proliferation and migration. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/4263254471298866 PMID:24946687

  15. Mechanisms of collateral sensitivity to fluorouracil of a cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)-resistant human non-small lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Y.; Ohe, Y.; Nishio, K.; Ohmori, T.; Morikage, T.; Fujiwara, Y.; Saijo, N.

    1992-01-01

    A cisplatin(CDDP)-resistant subline of a human lung cancer cell line, PC-7/CDDP, was 4.7-fold more resistant to CDDP than the parent line in a colony-forming assay. The sensitivity of this cell line to anthracyclines, vinca-alkaloid, etoposide, mitomycin C, and bleomycin was similar to that of the parental line, PC-7. However, PC-7/CDDP exhibited 4-fold higher sensitivity to fluorouracil (FUra). Possible mechanisms associated with the collateral sensitivity to FUra were studied in PC-7/CDDP cells. The sensitivity of both cell lines to FUra did not correlate with the effect of FUra on RNA. On the other hand, FUra induced a greater reduction in dTTP pools and more single strand breaks in PC-7/CDDP than in PC-7 cells. These results suggest that the pathway for de novo deoxyribonucleotide synthesis may be a target for FUra in PC-7/CDDP cells. However, inhibition of thymidylate synthase after FUra treatment did not correlate with the DNA-directed activity of FUra. Based on the above findings, the decreased salvage synthesis of dTTP was considered a possible mechanism of the greater reduction of dTTP pools in PC-7/CDDP cells. However, the activity of dThd kinase was the same in both cell lines. In the presence of physiological concentrations of exogenous dThd in the serum, uptake of dThd was less in PC-7/CDDP cells than that in PC-7 cells. Our data suggest that FUra-induced cytotoxicity in PC-7/CDDP cells is associated with the inhibition of dTTP synthesis and that the decreased uptake of dThd is a possible mechanism of the collateral sensitivity to FUra in PC-7/CDDP cells. PMID:1319727

  16. COPD promotes migration of A549 lung cancer cells: the role of chemokine CCL21

    PubMed Central

    Kuźnar-Kamińska, Barbara; Mikuła-Pietrasik, Justyna; Sosińska, Patrycja; Książek, Krzysztof; Batura-Gabryel, Halina

    2016-01-01

    Patients with COPD develop lung cancer more frequently than healthy smokers. At the same time, molecular mediators promoting various aspects of cancer cell progression are still elusive. In this report, we examined whether COPD can be coupled with increased migration of non-small-cell lung cancer cells A549 and, if so, whether this effect may be related to altered production and activity of chemokines CCL21, CXCL5, and CXCL12. The study showed that the migration of A549 cells through the polycarbonate membrane and basement membrane extract toward a chemotactic gradient elicited by serum from patients with COPD was markedly higher as compared with serum from healthy donors. The concentration of CCL21 and CXCL12, but not CXCL5, in serum from patients with COPD was also increased. Experiments in which CCL21- and CXCL12-dependent signaling was blocked revealed that increased migration of the cancer cells upon treatment with serum from patients with COPD was mediated exclusively by CCL21. Collectively, our results indicate that COPD may contribute to the progression of lung cancer via CCL21-dependent intensification of cancer cell migration. PMID:27307721

  17. COPD promotes migration of A549 lung cancer cells: the role of chemokine CCL21.

    PubMed

    Kuźnar-Kamińska, Barbara; Mikuła-Pietrasik, Justyna; Sosińska, Patrycja; Książek, Krzysztof; Batura-Gabryel, Halina

    2016-01-01

    Patients with COPD develop lung cancer more frequently than healthy smokers. At the same time, molecular mediators promoting various aspects of cancer cell progression are still elusive. In this report, we examined whether COPD can be coupled with increased migration of non-small-cell lung cancer cells A549 and, if so, whether this effect may be related to altered production and activity of chemokines CCL21, CXCL5, and CXCL12. The study showed that the migration of A549 cells through the polycarbonate membrane and basement membrane extract toward a chemotactic gradient elicited by serum from patients with COPD was markedly higher as compared with serum from healthy donors. The concentration of CCL21 and CXCL12, but not CXCL5, in serum from patients with COPD was also increased. Experiments in which CCL21- and CXCL12-dependent signaling was blocked revealed that increased migration of the cancer cells upon treatment with serum from patients with COPD was mediated exclusively by CCL21. Collectively, our results indicate that COPD may contribute to the progression of lung cancer via CCL21-dependent intensification of cancer cell migration. PMID:27307721

  18. COPD promotes migration of A549 lung cancer cells: the role of chemokine CCL21.

    PubMed

    Kuźnar-Kamińska, Barbara; Mikuła-Pietrasik, Justyna; Sosińska, Patrycja; Książek, Krzysztof; Batura-Gabryel, Halina

    2016-01-01

    Patients with COPD develop lung cancer more frequently than healthy smokers. At the same time, molecular mediators promoting various aspects of cancer cell progression are still elusive. In this report, we examined whether COPD can be coupled with increased migration of non-small-cell lung cancer cells A549 and, if so, whether this effect may be related to altered production and activity of chemokines CCL21, CXCL5, and CXCL12. The study showed that the migration of A549 cells through the polycarbonate membrane and basement membrane extract toward a chemotactic gradient elicited by serum from patients with COPD was markedly higher as compared with serum from healthy donors. The concentration of CCL21 and CXCL12, but not CXCL5, in serum from patients with COPD was also increased. Experiments in which CCL21- and CXCL12-dependent signaling was blocked revealed that increased migration of the cancer cells upon treatment with serum from patients with COPD was mediated exclusively by CCL21. Collectively, our results indicate that COPD may contribute to the progression of lung cancer via CCL21-dependent intensification of cancer cell migration.

  19. FOXP4 modulates tumor growth and independently associates with miR-138 in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tian; Li, Hong; Thakur, Asmitananda; Chen, Tianjun; Xue, Jing; Li, Dan; Chen, Mingwei

    2015-09-01

    Family of forkhead box transcription factors, including forkhead box P4 (FOXP4), plays an important role in oncogenesis. The current study is to evaluate the role of FOXP4 in regulating human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot were performed to evaluate the gene and protein expressions of FOXP4 in six NSCLC cell lines and 55 NSCLC patients. Lentivirus of small hairpin RNA (FOXP4-shRNA) was used to downregulate FOXP4 in NSCLC cell lines A549 and H1703 cells. Its effect on NSCLC growth, invasion, and cell cycle were evaluated by cell proliferation assay, migration assay, and cell cycle assay, respectively. Dual luciferase assay and Western blot were used to examine whether microRNA-138 (miR-138) was an upstream regulator of FOXP4. The dependence of FOXP4 on miR-138 associated signaling pathway was evaluated by ectopically overexpressing enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a known miR-138 target in NSCLC. FOXP4 was highly expressed in both NSCLC cell lines and NSCLC patients. FOXP4 downregulation by FOXP4-shRNA markedly reduced cancer cell growth and invasion, as well as induced cell cycle arrest in A549 and H1703 cells. MiR-138 was confirmed to be an upstream regulator of FOXP4 and directly regulated FOXP4 expression in A549 and H1703 cells. FOXP4 downregulation-mediated inhibition on cancer cell growth and invasion was independent on overexpressing EZH2, another direct target of miR-138 in NSCLC. Our data demonstrated that FOXP4 was a critical regulator in NSCLC and independently associated with miR-138 regulation.

  20. Dihydroartemisinin inhibits cell proliferation via AKT/GSK3β/cyclinD1 pathway and induces apoptosis in A549 lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Kui; Li, Juan; Wang, Zhiling

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. The main types of lung cancer are small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC); non small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) includes squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma, Non small cell lung carcinoma accounts for about 80% of the total lung cancer cases. Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. The effects of DHA on cell growth and proliferation in lung cancer cells remain to be elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that DHA inhibited cell proliferation in the A549 lung cancer cell line through suppression of the AKT/Gsk-3β/cyclin D1 signaling pathway. DHA significantly inhibited cell proliferation of A549 cells in a concentration and time dependent manner as determined by MTS assay. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that DHA treatment of A549 cells resulted in cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, which correlated with apparent downregulation of both mRNA and protein levels of both PCNA and cyclin D1. These results suggest that DHA is a potential natural product for the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:25674233

  1. Upregulation of AQP3 and AQP5 induced by dexamethasone and ambroxol in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Ben, Yong; Chen, Jie; Zhu, Rong; Gao, Lei; Bai, Chunxue

    2008-04-30

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane channel proteins that play roles in the regulation of water permeability in many tissues. AQP1 and AQP5 expressed in lung provide the principal route for osmotically driven water transport. In the airways, AQP3 and AQP4 facilitate water transport. Dexamethasone and ambroxol are often used to treat patients with pulmonary diseases accompanied by airway hypersecretion. The role of AQPs in these effective treatments has not been addressed. In this study, we analyzed the expression of AQPs in a human airway epithelial cell line (A549 cells) and showed that AQP3 and 5, but not AQP1 and 4, were expressed in A549 cells. Both dexamethasone and ambroxol stimulated the expression of AQP3 and 5 at the mRNA and protein levels. The data suggest potential roles of AQP3 and 5 in the regulation of airway hypersecretion, perhaps ultimately providing a target for treating such diseases.

  2. G4-Tetra DNA Duplex Induce Lung Cancer Cell Apoptosis in A549 Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaobo; Zhao, YiZhuo; Lu, Hu; Fu, Cuiping; Li, Xiao; Jiang, Liyan; Li, Shanqun

    2016-10-01

    The specific DNA is typically impermeable to the plasma membrane due to its natural characters, but DNA tetra structures (DTNs) can be readily uptake by cells in the absence of transfection agents, providing a new strategy to deliver DNA drugs. In this research, the delivery efficiency of tetrahedral DNA nanostructures was measured on adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial (A549) cells via delivering AS1411 (G4). The DNA tetra-AS1411 complex was rapidly and abundantly uptake by A549 cells, and the induced apoptosis was enhanced. Furthermore, biodistribution in mouse proved the rapid clearance from non-targeted organs in vivo. This study improved the understanding of potential function in DNA-based drug delivery and proved that DTNs-AS1411 could be potentially useful for the treatment of lung cancer.

  3. Triptolide inhibits COX-2 expression by regulating mRNA stability in TNF-{alpha}-treated A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Lixin; Zhang, Shuang; Jiang, Zhenzhou; Huang, Xin; Wang, Tao; Huang, Xiao; Li, Han; Zhang, Luyong

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Triptolide inhibited COX-2 expression and the half-life of COX-2 mRNA is decreased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The HuR protein shuttling from nucleus to cytoplasm is inhibited by triptolide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Triptolide inhibited 3 Prime -UTR fluorescence reporter gene activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer COX-2 mRNA binding to HuR is decreased by triptolide in pull-down experiments. -- Abstract: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) over-expression is frequently associated with human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and involved in tumor proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and resistance to apoptosis. In the present study, the effects of triptolide on COX-2 expression in A549 cells were investigated and triptolide was found to inhibit TNF-{alpha}-induced COX-2 expression. In our further studies, it was found that triptolide decreased the half-life of COX-2 mRNA dramatically and that it inhibited 3 Prime -untranslated region (3 Prime -UTR) fluorescence reporter gene activity. Meanwhile, triptolide inhibited the HuR shuttling from nucleus to cytoplasm. After triptolide treatment, decreased COX-2 mRNA in pull-down experiments with anti-HuR antibodies was observed, indicating that the decreased cytoplasmic HuR is responsible for the decreased COX-2 mRNA. Taken together, our results provided evidence for the first time that triptolide inhibited COX-2 expression by COX-2 mRNA stability modulation and post-transcriptional regulation. These results provide a novel mechanism of action for triptolide which may be important in the treatment of lung cancer.

  4. Lipocortin 1 mediates dexamethasone-induced growth arrest of the A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Croxtall, J D; Flower, R J

    1992-01-01

    The synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (1 microM to 1 pM) strongly (maximum greater than 80%) inhibits proliferation of the A549 human lung adenocarcinoma line (EC50 greater than 1 nM) and leads to the appearance, or a further increase (approximately 3-fold) in the expression on the cell surface, of the calcium and phospholipid binding protein lipocortin (annexin) 1. Both these effects, which are shared by hydrocortisone (1 microM) but not by progesterone or aldosterone (1 microM), are inhibited by the antiglucocorticoids RU38486 and RU43044 (1 microM). The nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs indomethacin (1 microM) and naproxen (10 microM) and human recombinant lipocortin 1 (0.05-5.0 micrograms/ml) also produce growth arrest in this cell line. During proliferation A549 cells spontaneously release prostaglandin E2 [10-20 ng (28-57 pmol) per ml per 5-day period] into the growth medium. In concentrations that cause growth-arrest, dexamethasone, indomethacin, and lipocortin 1 abolish the generation of this eicosanoid by A549 cells. Prostaglandin E2 itself (0.01-1 pM) stimulates cell growth and partially reverses (approximately 50%) the inhibition of growth caused by dexamethasone and indomethacin. Addition of the neutralizing anti-lipocortin 1 monoclonal antibody 1A (5 micrograms/ml), but not the nonneutralizing anti-lipocortin monoclonal antibody 1B, substantially reversed (greater than 80%) the inhibitory activity of dexamethasone on both growth and prostaglandin E2 synthesis. The generation of prostaglandin E2 by A549 cells seems to be an important regulator of cell proliferation in vitro and the dexamethasone-induced suppression of proliferation in this model is attributable to eicosanoid inhibition caused by lipocortin 1. Images PMID:1533045

  5. Erlotinib Pretreatment Improves Photodynamic Therapy of Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Xenografts via Multiple Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gallagher-Colombo, Shannon M; Miller, Joann; Cengel, Keith A; Putt, Mary E; Vinogradov, Sergei A; Busch, Theresa M

    2015-08-01

    Aberrant expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a common characteristic of many cancers, including non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and ovarian cancer. Although EGFR is currently a favorite molecular target for the treatment of these cancers, inhibition of the receptor with small-molecule inhibitors (i.e., erlotinib) or monoclonal antibodies (i.e., cetuximab) does not provide long-term therapeutic benefit as standalone treatment. Interestingly, we have found that addition of erlotinib to photodynamic therapy (PDT) can improve treatment response in typically erlotinib-resistant NSCLC tumor xenografts. Ninety-day complete response rates of 63% are achieved when erlotinib is administered in three doses before PDT of H460 human tumor xenografts, compared with 16% after PDT-alone. Similar benefit is found when erlotinib is added to PDT of A549 NCSLC xenografts. Improved response is accompanied by increased vascular shutdown, and erlotinib increases the in vitro cytotoxicity of PDT to endothelial cells. Tumor uptake of the photosensitizer (benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A; BPD) is increased by the in vivo administration of erlotinib; nevertheless, this elevation of BPD levels only partially accounts for the benefit of erlotinib to PDT. Thus, pretreatment with erlotinib augments multiple mechanisms of PDT effect that collectively lead to large improvements in therapeutic efficacy. These data demonstrate that short-duration administration of erlotinib before PDT can greatly improve the responsiveness of even erlotinib-resistant tumors to treatment. Results will inform clinical investigation of EGFR-targeting therapeutics in conjunction with PDT.

  6. Co-expression of ILT4/HLA-G in human non-small cell lung cancer correlates with poor prognosis and ILT4-HLA-G interaction activates ERK signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanwen; Zhao, Jianqiang; Qiu, Lijun; Zhang, Pei; Li, Juan; Yang, Dong; Wei, Xiaojuan; Han, Yali; Nie, Siyue; Sun, Yuping

    2016-08-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common malignant tumor in the world, of which prognosis is generally poor due to insufficient mechanistic understanding. To explore the molecular pathogenesis of NSCLC, the co-expression of immunoglobulin-like transcript 4 (ILT4) and its ligand human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) in NSCLC tissues and cells were investigated. Here, we detected the expression of ILT4 and HLA-G in 81 tumor specimens from primary NSCLC patients, and we found that co-expression of ILT4/HLA-G was significantly associated with regional lymph node involvement, advanced stages, and the overall survival of patients. In NSCLC cell lines, HLA-G expression increased/decreased accordingly when ILT4 was up-/down-regulated, and ILT4 expression increased in a concentration-dependent manner via the stimulation of HLA-G fusion protein. Interestingly, HLA-G fusion protein could also up-regulate the phospho-ERK1/2 expression, which means the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling. All in all, our results indicate that the ILT4-HLA-G interaction might play an important role in NSCLC progression. Identification of ILT4 and HLA-G expression may provide an indicator to predict prognosis and guide prevention and treatment of NSCLC.

  7. MicroRNA-1228(*) inhibit apoptosis in A549 cells exposed to fine particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaobo; Ding, Zhen; Zhang, Chengcheng; Zhang, Xin; Meng, Qingtao; Wu, Shenshen; Wang, Shizhi; Yin, Lihong; Pu, Yuepu; Chen, Rui

    2016-05-01

    Studies have reported associations between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and respiratory disorders; however, the underlying mechanism is not completely clear owing to the complex components of PM2.5. microRNAs (miRNAs) demonstrate tremendous regulation to target genes, which are sensitive to exogenous stimulation, and facilitate the integrative understood of biological responses. Here, significantly modulated miRNA were profiled by miRNA microarray, coupled with bioinformatic analysis; the potential biological function of modulated miRNA were predicted and subsequently validated by cell-based assays. Downregulation of miR-1228-5p (miR-1228(*)) expression in human A549 cells were associated with PM2.5-induced cellular apoptosis through a mitochondria-dependent pathway. Further, overexpression of miR-1228(*) rescued the cellular damages induced by PM2.5. Thus, our results demonstrate that PM2.5-induced A549 apoptosis is initiated by mitochondrial dysfunction and miR-1228(*) could protect A549 cells against apoptosis. The involved pathways and target genes might be used for future mechanistic studies.

  8. TLE1 promotes EMT in A549 lung cancer cells through suppression of E-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xin; Ireland, Shubha Kale; Pham, Tri; Temple, Brandi; Chen, Renwei; Raj, Madhwa HG; Biliran, Hector

    2014-01-01

    The Groucho transcriptional corepressor TLE1 protein has recently been shown to be a putative lung specific oncogene, but its underlying oncogenic activity in lung cancer has not been fully elucidated. In this report, we investigated whether TLE1 regulates lung cancer aggressiveness using the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 as a model system. Through a combination of genetic approaches, we found that TLE1 potentiates Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in A549 cells in part through suppression of the tumor suppressor gene E-cadherin. Exogenous expression of TLE1 in A549 cells resulted in heightened EMT phenotypes (enhanced fibroblastoid morphology and increased cell migratory potential) and in molecular alterations characteristic of EMT (downregulation of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and upregulation of the mesenchymal marker Vimentin). Conversely, downregulation of endogenous TLE1 expression in these cells resulted in reversal of basal EMT characterized by a cuboidal-like epithelial cell phenotype, reduced cell motility, and upregulated E-cadherin expression. Mechanistic studies showed that TLE1 suppresses E-cadherin expression at the transcriptional level in part by recruiting Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) activity to the E-cadherin promoter. Consistently, the HDAC inhibitor TSA partially reversed the TLE1-induced E-cadherin downregulation and cell migration, suggesting a role for HDACs in TLE1-mediated transcriptional repression of E-cadherin and EMT function. These findings uncover a novel role of TLE1 in regulating EMT in A549 cells through its repressive effect on E-cadherin and provide a mechanism for TLE1 oncogenic activity in lung cancer. PMID:25446087

  9. MicroRNA-944 Affects Cell Growth by Targeting EPHA7 in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Minxia; Zhou, Kecheng; Cao, Yi

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have critical roles in lung tumorigenesis and development. To determine aberrantly expressed miRNAs involved in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and investigate pathophysiological functions and mechanisms, we firstly carried out small RNA deep sequencing in NSCLC cell lines (EPLC-32M1, A549 and 801D) and a human immortalized cell line 16HBE, we then studied miRNA function by cell proliferation and apoptosis. cDNA microarray, luciferase reporter assay and miRNA transfection were used to investigate interaction between the miRNA and target gene. miR-944 was significantly down-regulated in NSCLC and had many putative targets. Moreover, the forced expression of miR-944 significantly inhibited the proliferation of NSCLC cells in vitro. By integrating mRNA expression data and miR-944-target prediction, we disclosed that EPHA7 was a potential target of miR-944, which was further verified by luciferase reporter assay and microRNA transfection. Our data indicated that miR-944 targets EPHA7 in NSCLC and regulates NSCLC cell proliferation, which may offer a new mechanism underlying the development and progression of NSCLC. PMID:27681722

  10. Effect of functionalized and non-functionalized nanodiamond on the morphology and activities of antioxidant enzymes of lung epithelial cells (A549).

    PubMed

    Solarska-Ściuk, Katarzyna; Gajewska, Agnieszka; Glińska, Sława; Michlewska, Sylwia; Balcerzak, Łucja; Jamrozik, Agnieszka; Skolimowski, Janusz; Burda, Květoslava; Bartosz, Grzegorz

    2014-10-01

    The development of nanotechnology opens up new ways for biomedical applications of unmodified and modified diamond nanoparticles which are one of the most popular nanomaterials used in biology, biotechnology, medicine, cosmetics and engineering. They have been applied as diagnostic and therapeutic agents because they can be targeted to and localized in cells causing apoptosis and necrosis. The problem of biocompatibility of nanodiamonds at higher concentrations is thus of primary importance. The first step in the modification of DNPs is usually the introduction of hydrogen groups, which can bind other functional groups. The basic method to introduce -OH groups onto nanoparticles is the Fenton reaction. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of unmodified nanodiamond particles and nanoparticles modified by introduction of -OH groups and etoposide onto their surface reaction on human non-small lung cancer cells. A549 cells were incubated with 2-100μg/ml nanopowders and at 0.6-24μg/ml etoposide in the DMEM medium. We observed a decrease of cells viability and generation of reactive oxygen/ nitrogen species in the cells after incubation, estimated by oxidation of H2DCF-DA and DAF-FM-DA. Modified detonation nanoparticles affected also the cellular content of glutathione and activities of main antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase). The results of TEM microscopy show changes in cell morphology. These data demonstrate that modified nanoparticles induce oxidative stress in the target cells. PMID:25451571

  11. Absence of an essential regulatory influence of the adenovirus E1B 19-kilodalton protein on viral growth and early gene expression in human diploid WI38, HeLa, and A549 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Telling, G C; Perera, S; Szatkowski-Ozers, M; Williams, J

    1994-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the adenovirus (Ad) early region 1B 19-kDa protein (the 19K gene) result in multiple phenotypic effects upon infection of permissive human cells. It has been reported, for example, that Ad type 2 (Ad2) and Ad5 with mutations in the 19K gene (19K-defective mutants) have a marked growth advantage compared with wild-type virus in human diploid WI38 cells (E. White, B. Faha, and B. Stillman, Mol. Cell. Biol. 6:3763-3773, 1986), and it was proposed that this host range phenotype stems from the large increase in viral early gene expression reported to occur in the mutant-infected cells. These observations gave rise to the hypothesis that the 19-kDa protein (the 19K protein) normally functions as a negative regulator of Ad early gene expression and growth. We have tested this hypothesis and find that Ad5 and Ad12 wild-type viruses grow as efficiently as their respective 19K-defective mutants, in1 and dl337 and pm700 and in700, in WI38 and other human cell types. Neither the accumulation of E1A cytoplasmic mRNAs nor the synthesis of E1A and other viral early proteins in these cells is altered as a result of these mutations in the 19K gene, and we conclude that the 19K protein does not play an essential role in regulating viral early gene expression or viral growth in human cells. Images PMID:8254769

  12. Ophiopogonin B induces apoptosis, mitotic catastrophe and autophagy in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meijuan; Guo, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Ruolin; Wang, Xiaoxia; Jiang, Miao; Fu, Haian; Zhang, Xu

    2016-07-01

    Ophiopogonin B (OP-B), a saponin compound isolated from Radix Ophiopogon japonicus, was verified to inhibit cell proliferation in numerous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells in our previous study. However, the precise mechanisms of action have remained unclear. In the present study, we mainly investigated the effects of OP-B on adenocarcinoma A549 cells to further elaborate the underlying mechanisms of OP-B in different NSCLC cell lines. Detection by high content screening (HCS) and TUNEL assay verified that OP-B induced apoptosis in this cell line, while detection of Caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax showed that OP-B induced cell death was caspase and mitochondrial independent. Further experiments showed that OP-B induced cell cycle arrest in the S and G2/M phases by inhibiting the expression of Myt1 and phosphorylation of Histone H3 (Ser10), which resulted in mitotic catastrophe in the cells. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation of cell micro-morphology combined with detection of Atgs by western blot analysis showed that OP-B induced autophagy in this cell line. Autophagy inhibition by the lysosome inhibitor CQ or Beclin1-siRNA knockdown both attenuated cell viability, demonstrated that autophagy also being the vital reason resulted in cell death. More importantly, the xenograft model using A549 cells provided further evidence of the inhibition of OP-B on tumor proliferation. Immunohistochemistry detection of LC3 and Tunel assay both verified that high dose of OP-B (75 mg/kg) induced autophagy and apoptosis in vivo, and western blot detection of p-Histone H3 (Ser10), Survivin and XIAP further indicated the molecular mechanism of OP-B in vivo. As our findings revealed, multiple types of cell death overlapped in OP-B treated A549 cells, it displayed multitarget characteristics of the compounds extracted from the Chinese herbal, which may be used as candidate anticancer medicine in clinic.

  13. Potentiation of in vitro and in vivo antitumor efficacy of doxorubicin by cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor P276-00 in human non-small cell lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the present study, we show that the combination of doxorubicin with the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor P276-00 was synergistic at suboptimal doses in the non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell lines and induces extensive apoptosis than either drug alone in H-460 human NSCLC cells. Methods Synergistic effects of P276-00 and doxorubicin on growth inhibition was studied using the Propidium Iodide (PI) assay. The doses showing the best synergistic effect was determined and these doses were used for further mechanistic studies such as western blotting, cell cycle analysis and RT-PCR. The in vivo efficacy of the combination was evaluated using the H-460 xenograft model. Results The combination of 100 nM doxorubicin followed by 1200 nM P276-00 showed synergistic effect in the p53-positive and p53-mutated cell lines H-460 and H23 respectively as compared to the p53-null cell line H1299. Abrogation of doxorubicin-induced G2/M arrest and induction of apoptosis was observed in the combination treatment. This was associated with induction of tumor suppressor protein p53 and reduction of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Furthermore, doxorubicin alone greatly induced COX-2, a NF-κB target and Cdk-1, a target of P276-00, which was downregulated by P276-00 in the combination. Doxorubicin when combined with P276-00 in a sequence-specific manner significantly inhibited tumor growth, compared with either doxorubicin or P276-00 alone in H-460 xenograft model. Conclusion These findings suggest that this combination may increase the therapeutic index over doxorubicin alone and reduce systemic toxicity of doxorubicin most likely via an inhibition of doxorubicin-induced chemoresistance involving NF-κB signaling and inhibition of Cdk-1 which is involved in cell cycle progression. PMID:23343191

  14. Matrine reduces proliferation of human lung cancer cells by inducing apoptosis and changing miRNA expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Qi; Li, Yi; Qin, Jie; Wang, Qian; She, Ya-Li; Luo, Ya-Li; He, Jian-Xin; Li, Jing-Ya; Xie, Xiao-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Matrine, a main active component extracted from dry roots of Sophora flavecens , has been reported to exert antitumor effects on A549 human non-small lung cancer cells, but its mechanisms of action remain unclear. To determine effects of matrine on proliferation of A549 cells and assess possible mechanisms, MTT assays were employed to detect cytotoxicity, along with o flow cytometric analysis of DNA content of nuclei of cells following staining with propidium iodide to analyze cell cycle distribution. Western blotting was performed to determined expression levels of Bax, Bcl-2, VEGF and HDAC1, while a microarray was used to assessed changes of miRNA profiles. In the MTT assay, matrine suppressed growth of human lung cancer cell A549 in a dose- and time- dependent manner at doses of 0.25-2.5 mg/ml for 24h, 48h or 72h. Matrine induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and decreased the G2/M phase, while down-regulating the expression of Bcl2 protein, leading to a reduction in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. In addition, matrine down regulated the expression level of VEGF and HDAC1 of A549 cells. Microarray analysis demonstrated that matrine altered the expression level of miRNAs compared with untreated control A549 cells. In conclusion, matrine could inhibit proliferation of A549 cells, providing useful information for understanding anticancer mechanisms.

  15. Regulation of MAPKs Signaling Contributes to the Growth Inhibition of 1,7-Dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxyxanthone on Multidrug Resistance A549/Taxol Cells.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Jian; Jiang, Hui; Zhu, Yan-Hong; Wang, Ya-Qin; Zhang, Wen; Luan, Jia-Jie

    2016-01-01

    1,7-Dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxyxanthone (XAN) is a bioactive compound isolated from Securidaca inappendiculata Hassk. and validated with antiproliferative activities on a panel of cancer cell lines. This study was designed to investigate its growth inhibitory effects on multidrug resistance (MDR) non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell line A549/Taxol and explore the possible linkage between modulation of MAPKs and the bioactivities. Its growth inhibitory potency on the cells was estimated by MTT assay, and flow cytometric analysis was employed to investigate its potential cell cycle arrest and proapoptosis effects. Expressions of hallmark proteins were assessed by Western-Blot method. The results showed A549/Taxol cells were sensitive to XAN. XAN inhibited the proliferation of A549/Taxol cells in the time and concentration dependent manners. It acted as a potent inducer of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the cells. Western-Blot investigation validated the proapoptosis and cell cycle arrest activities of XAN and the potential of MDR reversion. Upregulation of p38 by XAN, which accounted for the cell cycle arrest at G2 phase, and the downregulation of ERK associated with the proapoptosis activity were also revealed. Further analysis found p53 may be the central role mediated the bioactivities of MAPKs in A549/Taxol cells. Based on these evidences, a conclusion has been deduced that XAN could be a potential agent for MDR NSCLC therapy targeting specifically MAPKs. PMID:27403196

  16. Regulation of MAPKs Signaling Contributes to the Growth Inhibition of 1,7-Dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxyxanthone on Multidrug Resistance A549/Taxol Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Jian; Jiang, Hui; Zhu, Yan-Hong; Wang, Ya-Qin; Zhang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    1,7-Dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxyxanthone (XAN) is a bioactive compound isolated from Securidaca inappendiculata Hassk. and validated with antiproliferative activities on a panel of cancer cell lines. This study was designed to investigate its growth inhibitory effects on multidrug resistance (MDR) non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell line A549/Taxol and explore the possible linkage between modulation of MAPKs and the bioactivities. Its growth inhibitory potency on the cells was estimated by MTT assay, and flow cytometric analysis was employed to investigate its potential cell cycle arrest and proapoptosis effects. Expressions of hallmark proteins were assessed by Western-Blot method. The results showed A549/Taxol cells were sensitive to XAN. XAN inhibited the proliferation of A549/Taxol cells in the time and concentration dependent manners. It acted as a potent inducer of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the cells. Western-Blot investigation validated the proapoptosis and cell cycle arrest activities of XAN and the potential of MDR reversion. Upregulation of p38 by XAN, which accounted for the cell cycle arrest at G2 phase, and the downregulation of ERK associated with the proapoptosis activity were also revealed. Further analysis found p53 may be the central role mediated the bioactivities of MAPKs in A549/Taxol cells. Based on these evidences, a conclusion has been deduced that XAN could be a potential agent for MDR NSCLC therapy targeting specifically MAPKs. PMID:27403196

  17. Cytochrome P450 ω-hydroxylase promotes angiogenesis and metastasis by upregulation of VEGF and MMP-9 in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei; Chen, Li; Yang, Yu-Qing; Falck, John R.; Guo, Austin M.; Li, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Cytochrome P450 (CYP) ω-hydroxylase, mainly consisting of CYP4A and CYP4F, converts arachidonic acid to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) that induces angiogenic responses in vivo and in vitro. The present study examined the role of CYP ω-hydroxylase in angiogenesis and metastasis of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods The effect of WIT003, a stable 20-HETE analog, on invasion was evaluated using a modified Boyden chamber in three NSCLC cell lines. A549 cells were transfected with CYP4A11 expression vector or exposed to CYP ω-hydroxylase inhibitor (HET0016) or 20-HETE antagonist (WIT002), and then ω-hydroxylation activity toward arachidonic acid and the levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and VEGF were detected. The in vivo effects of CYP ω-hydroxylase were tested in established tumor xenografts and an experimental metastasis model in athymic mice. Results Addition of WIT003 or overexpression of CYP4A11 with an associated increase in 20-HETE production significantly induced invasion and expression of VEGF and MMP-9. Treatment of A549 cells with HET0016 or WIT002 inhibited invasion with reduction in VEGF and MMP-9. The PI3 K or ERK inhibitors also attenuated expression of VEGF and MMP-9. Compared with control, CYP4A11 transfection significantly increased tumor weight, microvessel density (MVD), and lung metastasis by 2.5-fold, 2-fold, and 3-fold, respectively. In contrast, WIT002 or HET0016 decreased tumor volume, MVD, and spontaneous pulmonary metastasis occurrences. Conclusion CYP ω-hydroxylase promotes tumor angiogenesis and metastasis by upregulation of VEGF and MMP-9 via PI3 K and ERK1/2 signaling in human NSCLC cells. PMID:21120482

  18. Chloroquine potentiates the anti-cancer effect of lidamycin on non-small cell lung cancer cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Shang, Yue; Chen, Shu-zhen

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To assess the synergistic actions of lidamycin (LDM) and chloroquine (CQ), a lysosomal enzyme inhibitor, in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, and to elucidate the potential mechanisms. Methods: Human NSCLC cell lines A549 and H460 were treated with CQ and/or LDM. Cell proliferation was analyzed using MTT assay, and apoptosis was quantified using flow cytometry. Western blotting was used to detect the protein levels of caspase 3, PARP, Bcl-2, Bax, p53, LC3-I and LC3-II. A H460 cell xenograft model in BALB/c nude mice was used to evaluate the anticancer efficacy of CQ and LDM in vivo. Results: Both LDM and CQ concentration-dependently suppressed the proliferation of A549 and H460 cells in vitro (the IC50 values of LDM were 1.70±0.75 and 0.043±0.026 nmol/L, respectively, while the IC50 values of CQ were 71.3±6.1 and 55.6±12.5 μmol/L, respectively). CQ sensitized both NSCLC cell lines to LDM, and the majority of the coefficients of drug interaction (CDIs) for combination-doses were less than 1. The ratio of apoptosis of H460 cells induced by a combined treatment of CQ and LDM (77.0%±5.2%) was significantly higher than those caused by CQ (23.1%±4.2%) or by LDM (65.1%±4.1%) alone. Furthermore, the combined treatment markedly increased the cleaved PARP and cleaved caspase 3 in H460 cells, which were partly reversed by pretreatment with the caspase inhibitor zVAD.fmk. zVAD.fmk also partially reversed the inhibitory effect of the combination treatment on the proliferation of H460 cells. The combination therapy group had a notable increase in expression of Bax and a very slight decrease in expression of Bcl-2 and p53 protein. LDM alone scarcely affected the level of LC3-II in H460 cells, but slightly reduced CQ-induced LC3-II expression. 3-MA, an autophagy inhibitor also sensitized H460 cells to LDM. In nude mice bearing H460 cell xenograft, administration of LDM (25 μg/kg, iv) and CQ (60 mg/kg, ip) suppressed tumor growth by 57.14% and 73

  19. Alpha(v)beta5 integrins mediates Pseudomonas fluorescens interaction with A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Buommino, Elisabetta; Di Domenico, Marina; Paoletti, Iole; Fusco, Alessandra; De Gregorio, Vincenza; Cozza, Valentina; Rizzo, Antonietta; Tufano, Maria Antonietta; Donnarumma, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Interaction of pathogenic bacteria with human cells is usually an essential step in the infection process. The bacterial invasion is stimulated by microbial binding to mammalian extracellular matrix proteins such as vitronectin, fibronectin or integrins. We have recently shown that some strains isolated from a clinical environment are able to grow at/or above 37°C. In particular, we demonstrated that P. fluorescens AF181 binds specifically to the surface of A549 human respiratory epithelial cells and that adhesiveness modulates the inflammatory response. In this study, the involvement of Alpha(v)Beta5 integrins and its respective natural ligand vitronectin (VN) in P. fluorescens AF181 adherence and invasion was examined. The host cell cytoskeleton and cellular tyrosine kinases seem to be solicited during the P. fluorescens-respiratory cell interaction; consequently, cytochalasin D and genistein decreased the bacterial adherence and internalization. Gene silencing of α(v), β5 integrins and vitronectin reduced P. fluorescens adherence and internalization to A549 cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that Alpha(v)Beta5 integrins and their natural ligand VN are involved in P. fluorescens adherence and invasion in human epithelial cells.

  20. Apoptosis inducing ability of silver decorated highly reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites in A549 lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Khan, Merajuddin; Khan, Mujeeb; Al-Marri, Abdulhadi H; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H; Nayak, Vadithe Lakshma; Kamal, Ahmed; Adil, Syed F

    2016-01-01

    Recently, graphene and graphene-based materials have been increasingly used for various biological applications due to their extraordinary physicochemical properties. Here, we demonstrate the anticancer properties and apoptosis-inducing ability of silver doped highly reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites synthesized by employing green approach. These nano composites (PGE-HRG-Ag) were synthesized by using Pulicaria glutinosa extract (PGE) as a reducing agent and were evaluated for their anticancer properties against various human cancer cell lines with tamoxifen as the reference drug. A correlation between the amount of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of highly reduced graphene oxide (HRG) and the anticancer activity of nanocomposite was observed, wherein an increase in the concentration of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of HRG led to the enhanced anticancer activity of the nanocomposite. The nanocomposite PGE-HRG-Ag-2 exhibited more potent cytotoxicity than standard drug in A549 cells, a human lung cancer cell line. A detailed investigation was undertaken and Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis demonstrated that the nanocomposite PGE-HRG-Ag-2 showed G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Studies such as, measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Annexin V-FITC staining assay suggested that this compound induced apoptosis in human lung cancer cells. PMID:27022256

  1. Apoptosis inducing ability of silver decorated highly reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites in A549 lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Merajuddin; Khan, Mujeeb; Al-Marri, Abdulhadi H; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H; Nayak, Vadithe Lakshma; Kamal, Ahmed; Adil, Syed F

    2016-01-01

    Recently, graphene and graphene-based materials have been increasingly used for various biological applications due to their extraordinary physicochemical properties. Here, we demonstrate the anticancer properties and apoptosis-inducing ability of silver doped highly reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites synthesized by employing green approach. These nano composites (PGE-HRG-Ag) were synthesized by using Pulicaria glutinosa extract (PGE) as a reducing agent and were evaluated for their anticancer properties against various human cancer cell lines with tamoxifen as the reference drug. A correlation between the amount of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of highly reduced graphene oxide (HRG) and the anticancer activity of nanocomposite was observed, wherein an increase in the concentration of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of HRG led to the enhanced anticancer activity of the nanocomposite. The nanocomposite PGE-HRG-Ag-2 exhibited more potent cytotoxicity than standard drug in A549 cells, a human lung cancer cell line. A detailed investigation was undertaken and Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis demonstrated that the nanocomposite PGE-HRG-Ag-2 showed G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Studies such as, measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Annexin V-FITC staining assay suggested that this compound induced apoptosis in human lung cancer cells. PMID:27022256

  2. Apoptosis inducing ability of silver decorated highly reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites in A549 lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Khan, Merajuddin; Khan, Mujeeb; Al-Marri, Abdulhadi H; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H; Nayak, Vadithe Lakshma; Kamal, Ahmed; Adil, Syed F

    2016-01-01

    Recently, graphene and graphene-based materials have been increasingly used for various biological applications due to their extraordinary physicochemical properties. Here, we demonstrate the anticancer properties and apoptosis-inducing ability of silver doped highly reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites synthesized by employing green approach. These nano composites (PGE-HRG-Ag) were synthesized by using Pulicaria glutinosa extract (PGE) as a reducing agent and were evaluated for their anticancer properties against various human cancer cell lines with tamoxifen as the reference drug. A correlation between the amount of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of highly reduced graphene oxide (HRG) and the anticancer activity of nanocomposite was observed, wherein an increase in the concentration of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of HRG led to the enhanced anticancer activity of the nanocomposite. The nanocomposite PGE-HRG-Ag-2 exhibited more potent cytotoxicity than standard drug in A549 cells, a human lung cancer cell line. A detailed investigation was undertaken and Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis demonstrated that the nanocomposite PGE-HRG-Ag-2 showed G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Studies such as, measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Annexin V-FITC staining assay suggested that this compound induced apoptosis in human lung cancer cells.

  3. TRAIL-coated lipid-nanoparticles overcome resistance to soluble recombinant TRAIL in non-small cell lung cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Miguel, Diego; Gallego-Lleyda, Ana; María Ayuso, José; Erviti-Ardanaz, Sandra; Pazo-Cid, Roberto; del Agua, Celia; José Fernández, Luis; Ochoa, Ignacio; Anel, Alberto; Martinez-Lostao, Luis

    2016-05-01

    Purpose. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one the types of cancer with higher prevalence and mortality. Apo2-Ligand/TRAIL is a TNF family member able to induce apoptosis in tumor cells but not in normal cells. It has been tested in clinical trials against different types of human cancer including NSCLC. However, results of clinical trials have shown a limited efficacy of TRAIL-based therapies. Recently we have demonstrated that artificial lipid nanoparticles coated with bioactive Apo2L/TRAIL (LUV-TRAIL) greatly improved TRAIL cytotoxic ability being capable of killing chemoresistant hematological cancer cells. In the present work we have extended the study to NSCLC. Methods/patients. LUV-TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity was assessed on different NSCLC cell lines with different sensitivity to soluble TRAIL and on primary human tumor cells from three patients suffering from NSCLC cancer. We also tested LUV-TRAIL-cytotoxic ability in combination with several anti-tumor agents. Results. LUV-TRAIL exhibited a greater cytotoxic effect compared to soluble TRAIL both in A549 cells and primary human NSCLC cells. LUV-TRAIL-induced cell death was dependent on caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation. Moreover, combination of LUV-TRAIL with other anti-tumor agents such as flavopiridol, and SNS-032 clearly enhanced LUV-TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity against NSCLC cancer cells. Conclusion. The novel formulation of TRAIL based on displaying it on the surface of lipid nanoparticles greatly increases its anti-tumor activity and has clinical potential in cancer treatment.

  4. AZD5438, an Inhibitor of Cdk1, 2, and 9, Enhances the Radiosensitivity of Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavan, Pavithra; Tumati, Vasu; Yu Lan; Chan, Norman; Tomimatsu, Nozomi; Burma, Sandeep; Bristow, Robert G.; Saha, Debabrata

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) is one of the primary modalities for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, due to the intrinsic radiation resistance of these tumors, many patients experience RT failure, which leads to considerable tumor progression including regional lymph node and distant metastasis. This preclinical study evaluated the efficacy of a new-generation cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor, AZD5438, as a radiosensitizer in several NSCLC models that are specifically resistant to conventional fractionated RT. Methods and Materials: The combined effect of ionizing radiation and AZD5438, a highly specific inhibitor of Cdk1, 2, and 9, was determined in vitro by surviving fraction, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, and homologous recombination (HR) assays in 3 NSCLC cell lines (A549, H1299, and H460). For in vivo studies, human xenograft animal models in athymic nude mice were used. Results: Treatment of NSCLC cells with AZD5438 significantly augmented cellular radiosensitivity (dose enhancement ratio rangeing from 1.4 to 1.75). The degree of radiosensitization by AZD5438 was greater in radioresistant cell lines (A549 and H1299). Radiosensitivity was enhanced specifically through inhibition of Cdk1, prolonged G{sub 2}-M arrest, inhibition of HR, delayed DNA DSB repair, and increased apoptosis. Combined treatment with AZD5438 and irradiation also enhanced tumor growth delay, with an enhancement factor ranging from 1.2-1.7. Conclusions: This study supports the evaluation of newer generation Cdk inhibitors, such as AZD5438, as potent radiosensitizers in NSCLC models, especially in tumors that demonstrate variable intrinsic radiation responses.

  5. Development and in vitro evaluation of core-shell type lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles for the delivery of erlotinib in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Bivash; Mittal, Nivesh K; Balabathula, Pavan; Thoma, Laura A; Wood, George C

    2016-01-01

    Core-shell type lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (CSLPHNPs) have emerged as a multifunctional drug delivery platform. The delivery system combines mechanical advantages of polymeric core and biomimetic advantages of the phospholipid shell into a single platform. We report the development of CSLPHNPs composed of the lipid monolayer shell and the biodegradable polymeric core for the delivery of erlotinib, an anticancer drug, clinically used to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Erlotinib loaded CSLPHNPs were prepared by previously reported single-step sonication method using polycaprolactone (PCL) as the biodegradable polymeric core and phospholipid-shell composed of hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC) and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000 (DSPE-PEG2000). Erlotinib loaded CSLPHNPs were characterized for physicochemical properties including mean particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, morphology, thermal and infrared spectral analysis, drug loading, in vitro drug release, in vitro serum stability, and storage stability. The effect of critical formulation and process variables on two critical quality attributes (mean particle size and drug entrapment efficiency) of erlotinib loaded CSLPHNPs was studied and optimized. In addition, in vitro cellular uptake, luminescent cell viability assay and colony formation assay were performed to evaluate efficacy of erlotinib loaded CSLPHNPs in A549 cells, a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line. Optimized erlotinib loaded CSLPHNPs were prepared with mean particle size of about 170nm, PDI<0.2, drug entrapment efficiency of about 66% with good serum and storage stability. The evaluation of in vitro cellular efficacy results indicated enhanced uptake and efficacy of erlotinib loaded CSLPHNPs compared to erlotinib solution in A549 cells. Therefore, CSLPHNPs could be a potential delivery system for erlotinib in the therapy of NSCLC.

  6. DNA Repair Genes ERCC1 and BRCA1 Expression in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Chemotherapy Drug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Liu, Feng; Zhu, Jingyan; Chen, Peng; Liu, Hongxing; Liu, Qi; Han, Junqing

    2016-06-12

    BACKGROUND Surgery combined with chemotherapy is an important therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, chemotherapy drug resistance seriously hinders the curative effect. Studies show that DNA repair genes ERCC1 and BRCA1 are associated with NSCLC chemotherapy, but their expression and mechanism in NSCLC chemotherapy drug-resistant cells has not been elucidated. MATERIAL AND METHODS NSCLC cell line A549 and drug resistance cell line A549/DDP were cultured. Real-time PCR and Western blot analyses were used to detect ERCC1 and BRCA1 mRNA expression. A549/DDP cells were randomly divided into 3 groups: the control group; the siRNA-negative control group (scramble group); and the siRNA ERCC1 and BRCA1siRNA transfection group. Real-time PCR and Western blot analyses were used to determine ERCC1 and BRCA1 mRNA and protein expression. MTT was used to detect cell proliferation activity. Caspase 3 activity was tested by use of a kit. Western blot analysis was performed to detect PI3K, AKT, phosphorylated PI3K, and phosphorylated AKT protein expression. RESULTS ERCC1 and BRCA1 were overexpressed in A549/DDP compared with A549 (P<0.05). ERCC1 and BRCA1siRNA transfection can significantly reduce ERCC1 and BRCA1 mRNA and protein expression (P<0.05). Downregulating ERCC1 and BRCA1 expression obviously inhibited cell proliferation and increased caspase 3 activity (P<0.05). Downregulating ERCC1 and BRCA1 significantly decreased PI3K and AKT phosphorylation levels (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS ERCC1 and BRCA1 were overexpressed in NSCLC drug-resistant cells, and they regulated lung cancer occurrence and development through the phosphorylating PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

  7. DNA Repair Genes ERCC1 and BRCA1 Expression in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Chemotherapy Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuai; Liu, Feng; Zhu, Jingyan; Chen, Peng; Liu, Hongxing; Liu, Qi; Han, Junqing

    2016-01-01

    Background Surgery combined with chemotherapy is an important therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, chemotherapy drug resistance seriously hinders the curative effect. Studies show that DNA repair genes ERCC1 and BRCA1 are associated with NSCLC chemotherapy, but their expression and mechanism in NSCLC chemotherapy drug-resistant cells has not been elucidated. Material/Methods NSCLC cell line A549 and drug resistance cell line A549/DDP were cultured. Real-time PCR and Western blot analyses were used to detect ERCC1 and BRCA1 mRNA expression. A549/DDP cells were randomly divided into 3 groups: the control group; the siRNA-negative control group (scramble group); and the siRNA ERCC1 and BRCA1siRNA transfection group. Real-time PCR and Western blot analyses were used to determine ERCC1 and BRCA1 mRNA and protein expression. MTT was used to detect cell proliferation activity. Caspase 3 activity was tested by use of a kit. Western blot analysis was performed to detect PI3K, AKT, phosphorylated PI3K, and phosphorylated AKT protein expression. Results ERCC1 and BRCA1 were overexpressed in A549/DDP compared with A549 (P<0.05). ERCC1 and BRCA1siRNA transfection can significantly reduce ERCC1 and BRCA1 mRNA and protein expression (P<0.05). Downregulating ERCC1 and BRCA1 expression obviously inhibited cell proliferation and increased caspase 3 activity (P<0.05). Downregulating ERCC1 and BRCA1 significantly decreased PI3K and AKT phosphorylation levels (P<0.05). Conclusions ERCC1 and BRCA1 were overexpressed in NSCLC drug-resistant cells, and they regulated lung cancer occurrence and development through the phosphorylating PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. PMID:27289442

  8. Intratumoral injection of taxol in vivo suppresses A549 tumor showing cytoplasmic vacuolization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chaoyang; Chen, Tongsheng

    2012-04-01

    Based on our recent in vitro studies, this report was designed to explore the mechanism by which high concentration of taxol (70 µM) induced paraptosis-like cell death in human lung carcinoma (A549) cells, and to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of taxol using A549 tumor-bearing mice in vivo. Exposure of cells to taxol induced time-dependent cytotoxicity and cytoplasmic vacuolization without the involvement of Bax, Bak, Mcl-1, Bcl-XL, and caspase-3. Although taxol treatment induced activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) cleavage indicative of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, silencing ATF6 by shATF6 did not prevent taxol-induced both cytotoxcity and cytoplasmic vacuolization, suggesting that taxol-induced cytoplasmic vacuolization and cell death were not due to ER stress. Moreover, taxol-treated cells did not show DNA fragmentation and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the typical characteristics of apoptosis. In addition, taxol-induced cytoplasmic vacuolization did not show the cellular lysis, the characteristics of oncosis, and positive of β-galactosidase, the characteristic of senescence, indicating that taxol induced paraptosis-like cell death is neither oncosis nor senescence. Moreover, our in vivo data showed that intratumoral injection of taxol (50 mg/kg) in A549 tumor xenograft mice on day 1 and day 19 potently suppressed tumor growth showing significant ER vacuolization without toxicity. In conclusion, high concentration of taxol exhibits a significant anticancer activity by inducing paraptosis-like cell death in vitro and in vivo, without significant toxicity, suggesting a promising therapeutic strategy for apoptosis-resistance cancer by inducing ER vacuolization.

  9. αTAT1 downregulation induces mitotic catastrophe in HeLa and A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Chien, J-Y; Tsen, S-D; Chien, C-C; Liu, H-W; Tung, C-Y; Lin, C-H

    2016-01-01

    α-Tubulin acetyltransferase 1 (αTAT1) controls reversible acetylation on Lys40 of α-tubulin and modulates multiple cellular functions. αTAT1 depletion induced morphological defects of touch receptor neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans and impaired cell adhesion and contact inhibition in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, however, no morphological or proliferation defects in human RPE-hTERT cells were found after αTAT1-specific siRNA treatment. Here, we compared the effect of three αTAT1-specific shRNAs on proliferation and morphology in two human cell lines, HeLa and A549. The more efficient two shRNAs induced mitotic catastrophe in both cell lines and the most efficient one also decreased F-actin and focal adhesions. Further analysis revealed that αTAT1 downregulation increased γ-H2AX, but not other DNA damage markers p-CHK1 and p-CHK2, along with marginal change in microtubule outgrowth speed and inter-kinetochore distance. Overexpression of αTAT1 could not precisely mimic the distribution and concentration of endogenous acetylated α-tubulin (Ac-Tu), although no overt phenotype change was observed, meanwhile, this could not completely prevent αTAT1 downregulation-induced deficiencies. We therefore conclude that efficient αTAT1 downregulation could impair actin architecture and induce mitotic catastrophe in HeLa and A549 cells through mechanisms partly independent of Ac-Tu. PMID:27551500

  10. ABCC4 is required for cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaoting; Guo, Yinan; Yue, Wentao; Zhang, Lina; Gu, Meng; Wang, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Background Multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4), also known as ATP-cassette binding protein 4 (ABCC4), is a member of the MRP/ABCC subfamily of ATP-binding cassette transporters, which are capable of pumping a wide variety of drugs out of the cell. However, little is known about the function of ABCC4 in the proliferation of lung cancer cells. Methods ABCC4 mRNA and protein levels in lung cancer cell lines were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, respectively. A lentivirus-mediated RNA interference technique was used to inhibit ABCC4 mRNA expression in A549 and 801D cells. The function of ABCC4 in cell growth was investigated by MTS and colony formation assays. The role of ABCC4 in cell cycle progression was evaluated by flow cytometry and Western blot analysis. ABCC4 mRNA levels in 30 pairs of tumors and corresponding matched adjacent normal tissues from non-small cell lung cancer patients were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results ABCC4 was highly expressed in lung cancer cell lines. ABCC4 expression was markedly downregulated in A549 and 801D cells using the RNA interference technique. Suppression of ABCC4 expression inhibited cell growth. The percentage of cells in G1 phase was increased when ABCC4 expression was suppressed. Phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein was weakened, originating in the downregulation of ABCC4. ABCC4 mRNA was highly expressed in lung cancer tissue and lung cancer cell lines. Conclusion ABCC4 may play an important role in the control of A549 and 801D cell growth. ABCC4 is a potential target for lung cancer therapy. PMID:24591841

  11. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell) was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 μg/mL), demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 μg/mL), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 μg/mL). A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 μg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells.

  12. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell) was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 μg/mL), demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 μg/mL), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 μg/mL). A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 μg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells. PMID:26345201

  13. The preparation of <100 particles per trial having the same mole fraction of 12 inorganic compounds at diameters of 6.8, 3.8, or 2.6 [mu]m followed by their deposition onto human lung cells (A549) with measurement of the relative downstream differential expression of ICAM-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eleghasim, Ndukauba M.; Haddrell, Allen E.; van Eeden, Stephen; Agnes, George R.

    2006-12-01

    The characterization of particulate matter suspended in the troposphere (PM10) based on size is an important basis for assessing the extent of their adverse effects on human health. The relevance of such assessments is anticipated to be significantly improved through the continued development of tools that can identify the chemical components within individual ambient particles, and the injury that they cause. We use recently reported methodology to create mimics of ambient particle types of known size and chemical composition that are levitated within an ac trap. The ac trap uses electric fields to levitate the particles that have a given mass and net elementary charge, and as such the ac trap is a mass-to-charge filter. The ac trap was used to levitate populations of particles where the size of particles in any given population could be altered. The levitated particles are delivered direct from the ac trap to human lung cells (A549), in vitro, with downstream measurement of differential expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and counting of the number of particles actually delivered to the culture using an optical microscope. In this study, the chemical composition of the ambient particle mimics was restricted to inorganic compounds whose relative abundance was purposely designed to mimic the average abundance in Environmental Health Center-93 (EHC-93) particles. The sizes of the multilelement particle types prepared were 6.8 +/- 0.5, 3.8 +/- 0.3, 2.6 +/- 0.2 (mean +/- S.D.). Particles of either elemental carbon, or elemental carbon containing glycerol were used as control particle types. In any given experiment, a known number of particles, but always <100, of a given size, were deposited onto a small region of an A549 cell culture. Following an 18-h incubation period and anti-body labeling of ICAM-1, the fluorescence emission from a 1.07 mm2 area of the cell culture centered at the site of particle deposition was acquired. The relative

  14. TASK-1 Regulates Apoptosis and Proliferation in a Subset of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers.

    PubMed

    Leithner, Katharina; Hirschmugl, Birgit; Li, Yingji; Tang, Bi; Papp, Rita; Nagaraj, Chandran; Stacher, Elvira; Stiegler, Philipp; Lindenmann, Jörg; Olschewski, Andrea; Olschewski, Horst; Hrzenjak, Andelko

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide; survival times are poor despite therapy. The role of the two-pore domain K+ (K2P) channel TASK-1 (KCNK3) in lung cancer is at present unknown. We found that TASK-1 is expressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines at variable levels. In a highly TASK-1 expressing NSCLC cell line, A549, a characteristic pH- and hypoxia-sensitive non-inactivating K+ current was measured, indicating the presence of functional TASK-1 channels. Inhibition of TASK-1 led to significant depolarization in these cells. Knockdown of TASK-1 by siRNA significantly enhanced apoptosis and reduced proliferation in A549 cells, but not in weakly TASK-1 expressing NCI-H358 cells. Na+-coupled nutrient transport across the cell membrane is functionally coupled to the efflux of K+ via K+ channels, thus TASK-1 may potentially influence Na+-coupled nutrient transport. In contrast to TASK-1, which was not differentially expressed in lung cancer vs. normal lung tissue, we found the Na+-coupled nutrient transporters, SLC5A3, SLC5A6, and SLC38A1, transporters for myo-inositol, biotin and glutamine, respectively, to be significantly overexpressed in lung adenocarcinomas. In summary, we show for the first time that the TASK-1 channel regulates apoptosis and proliferation in a subset of NSCLC. PMID:27294516

  15. TASK-1 Regulates Apoptosis and Proliferation in a Subset of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Leithner, Katharina; Hirschmugl, Birgit; Li, Yingji; Tang, Bi; Papp, Rita; Nagaraj, Chandran; Stacher, Elvira; Stiegler, Philipp; Lindenmann, Jörg; Olschewski, Andrea; Olschewski, Horst; Hrzenjak, Andelko

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide; survival times are poor despite therapy. The role of the two-pore domain K+ (K2P) channel TASK-1 (KCNK3) in lung cancer is at present unknown. We found that TASK-1 is expressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines at variable levels. In a highly TASK-1 expressing NSCLC cell line, A549, a characteristic pH- and hypoxia-sensitive non-inactivating K+ current was measured, indicating the presence of functional TASK-1 channels. Inhibition of TASK-1 led to significant depolarization in these cells. Knockdown of TASK-1 by siRNA significantly enhanced apoptosis and reduced proliferation in A549 cells, but not in weakly TASK-1 expressing NCI-H358 cells. Na+-coupled nutrient transport across the cell membrane is functionally coupled to the efflux of K+ via K+ channels, thus TASK-1 may potentially influence Na+-coupled nutrient transport. In contrast to TASK-1, which was not differentially expressed in lung cancer vs. normal lung tissue, we found the Na+-coupled nutrient transporters, SLC5A3, SLC5A6, and SLC38A1, transporters for myo-inositol, biotin and glutamine, respectively, to be significantly overexpressed in lung adenocarcinomas. In summary, we show for the first time that the TASK-1 channel regulates apoptosis and proliferation in a subset of NSCLC. PMID:27294516

  16. Exendin-4 promotes extracellular-superoxide dismutase expression in A549 cells through DNA demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Hiroyuki; Mizukami, Koji; Hayashi, Mutsuna; Kamiya, Tetsuro; Hara, Hirokazu; Adachi, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Exendin-4 is an agonist of the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) and is used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Since human GLP-1R has been identified in various cells besides pancreatic cells, exendin-4 is expected to exert extrapancreatic actions. It has also been suggested to affect gene expression through epigenetic regulation, such as DNA methylation and/or histone modifications. Furthermore, the expression of extracellular-superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD), a major SOD isozyme that is crucially involved in redox homeostasis, is regulated by epigenetic factors. In the present study, we demonstrated that exendin-4 induced the demethylation of DNA in A549 cells, which, in turn, affected the expression of EC-SOD. Our results showed that the treatment with exendin-4 up-regulated the expression of EC-SOD through GLP-1R and demethylated some methyl-CpG sites (methylated cytosine at 5'-CG-3') in the EC-SOD gene. Moreover, the treatment with exendin-4 inactivated DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), but did not change their expression levels. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated for the first time that exendin-4 regulated the expression of EC-SOD by reducing the activity of DNMTs and demethylation of DNA within the EC-SOD promoter region in A549 cells. PMID:26798195

  17. Measuring Attachment and Internalization of Influenza A Virus in A549 Cells by Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Marie O; Stertz, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Attachment to target cells followed by internalization are the very first steps of the life cycle of influenza A virus (IAV). We provide here a detailed protocol for measuring relative changes in the amount of viral particles that attach to A549 cells, a human lung epithelial cell line, as well as in the amount of particles that are internalized into the cell. We use biotinylated virus which can be easily detected following staining with Cy3-labeled streptavidin (STV-Cy3). We describe the growth, purification and biotinylation of A/WSN/33, a widely used IAV laboratory strain. Cold-bound biotinylated IAV particles on A549 cells are stained with STV-Cy3 and measured using flow cytometry. To investigate uptake of viral particles, cold-bound virus is allowed to internalize at 37 °C. In order to differentiate between external and internalized viral particles, a blocking step is applied: Free binding spots on the biotin of attached virus on the cell surface are bound by unlabeled streptavidin (STV). Subsequent cell permeabilization and staining with STV-Cy3 then enables detection of internalized viral particles. We present a calculation to determine the relative amount of internalized virus. This assay is suitable to measure effects of drug-treatments or other manipulations on attachment or internalization of IAV. PMID:26575457

  18. High-Throughput Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Dengue Virus Type 2 Infected A549 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Han-Chen; Hannemann, Holger; Heesom, Kate J.; Matthews, David A.; Davidson, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    Disease caused by dengue virus is a global health concern with up to 390 million individuals infected annually worldwide. There are no vaccines or antiviral compounds available to either prevent or treat dengue disease which may be fatal. To increase our understanding of the interaction of dengue virus with the host cell, we analyzed changes in the proteome of human A549 cells in response to dengue virus type 2 infection using stable isotope labelling in cell culture (SILAC) in combination with high-throughput mass spectrometry (MS). Mock and infected A549 cells were fractionated into nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts before analysis to identify proteins that redistribute between cellular compartments during infection and reduce the complexity of the analysis. We identified and quantified 3098 and 2115 proteins in the cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions respectively. Proteins that showed a significant alteration in amount during infection were examined using gene enrichment, pathway and network analysis tools. The analyses revealed that dengue virus infection modulated the amounts of proteins involved in the interferon and unfolded protein responses, lipid metabolism and the cell cycle. The SILAC-MS results were validated for a select number of proteins over a time course of infection by Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. Our study demonstrates for the first time the power of SILAC-MS for identifying and quantifying novel changes in cellular protein amounts in response to dengue virus infection. PMID:24671231

  19. Promoter methylation status of tumor suppressor genes and inhibition of expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bangqing; Song, Jianfei; Luan, Jiaqiang; Sun, Xiaolin; Bai, Jian; Wang, Haiyong; Li, Angui; Zhang, Lifei; Feng, Xiaoyan; Du, Zhenzong

    2016-08-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic DNA modification catalyzed by DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). The purpose of this study was to investigate DNMT1 gene and protein expression and the effects of methylation status on tumor suppressor genes in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines grown in vitro and in vivo Human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, A549 and H838, were grown in vitro and inoculated subcutaneously into nude mice to form tumors and were then treated with the DNA methylation inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, with and without treatment with the benzamide histone deacetylase inhibitor, entinostat (MS-275). DNMT1 protein expression was quantified by Western blot. Promoter methylation status of tumor suppressor genes (RASSF1A, ASC, APC, MGMT, CDH13, DAPK, ECAD, P16, and GATA4) was evaluated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Methylation status of the tumor suppressor genes was regulated by the DNMT1 gene, with the decrease of DNMT1 expression following DNA methylation treatment. Demethylation of tumor suppressor genes (APC, ASC, and RASSF1A) restored tumor growth in nude mice. The results of this study support a role for methylation of DNA as a potential epigenetic clinical biomarker of prognosis or response to therapy and for DNMT1 as a potential therapeutic target in NSCLC. PMID:27190263

  20. GE11-modified liposomes for non-small cell lung cancer targeting: preparation, ex vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Huang, Fa-Zhen; Cheng, Li-Fang; Zhu, Ya-Qin; Hu, Qing; Li, Ling; Wei, Lin; Chen, Da-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a serious threat to human health, and 40%-80% of NSCLCs express high levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). GE11 is a novel peptide and exhibits high affinity for EGFR binding. The aim of this study was to construct and evaluate GE11-modified liposomes for targeted drug delivery to EGFR-positive NSCLC. Doxorubicin, a broad-spectrum antitumor agent, was chosen as the payload. GE11 was conjugated to the distal end of DSPE-PEG2000-Mal by an addition reaction with a conjugation efficiency above 90%. Doxorubicin-loaded liposomes containing GE11 (GE11-LP/DOX) at densities ranging from 0% to 15% were prepared by combination of a thin film hydration method and a post insertion method. Irrespective of GE11 density, the physicochemical properties of these targeted liposomes, including particle size, zeta potential, and drug entrapment efficiency, were nearly identical. Interestingly, the cytotoxic effect of the liposomes on A549 tumor cells was closely related to GE11 density, and liposomes with 10% GE11 had the highest tumor cell killing activity and a 2.6-fold lower half maximal inhibitory concentration than that of the nontargeted counterpart (PEG-LP/DOX). Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analysis revealed that GE11 significantly increased cellular uptake of the liposomes, which could be ascribed to specific EGFR-mediated endocytosis. It was found that multiple endocytic pathways were involved in entry of GE11-LP/DOX into cells, but GE11 assisted in cellular internalization mainly via the clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway. Importantly, the GE11-modified liposomes showed enhanced accumulation and prolonged retention in tumor tissue, as evidenced by a 2.2-fold stronger mean fluorescence intensity in tumor tissue than the unmodified liposomes at 24 hours. In summary, GE11-modified liposomes may be a promising platform for targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs in NSCLC. PMID:24611009

  1. GE11-modified liposomes for non-small cell lung cancer targeting: preparation, ex vitro and in vivo evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Liang; Huang, Fa-Zhen; Cheng, Li-Fang; Zhu, Ya-Qin; Hu, Qing; Li, Ling; Wei, Lin; Chen, Da-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a serious threat to human health, and 40%–80% of NSCLCs express high levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). GE11 is a novel peptide and exhibits high affinity for EGFR binding. The aim of this study was to construct and evaluate GE11-modified liposomes for targeted drug delivery to EGFR-positive NSCLC. Doxorubicin, a broad-spectrum antitumor agent, was chosen as the payload. GE11 was conjugated to the distal end of DSPE-PEG2000-Mal by an addition reaction with a conjugation efficiency above 90%. Doxorubicin-loaded liposomes containing GE11 (GE11-LP/DOX) at densities ranging from 0% to 15% were prepared by combination of a thin film hydration method and a post insertion method. Irrespective of GE11 density, the physicochemical properties of these targeted liposomes, including particle size, zeta potential, and drug entrapment efficiency, were nearly identical. Interestingly, the cytotoxic effect of the liposomes on A549 tumor cells was closely related to GE11 density, and liposomes with 10% GE11 had the highest tumor cell killing activity and a 2.6-fold lower half maximal inhibitory concentration than that of the nontargeted counterpart (PEG-LP/DOX). Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analysis revealed that GE11 significantly increased cellular uptake of the liposomes, which could be ascribed to specific EGFR-mediated endocytosis. It was found that multiple endocytic pathways were involved in entry of GE11-LP/DOX into cells, but GE11 assisted in cellular internalization mainly via the clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway. Importantly, the GE11-modified liposomes showed enhanced accumulation and prolonged retention in tumor tissue, as evidenced by a 2.2-fold stronger mean fluorescence intensity in tumor tissue than the unmodified liposomes at 24 hours. In summary, GE11-modified liposomes may be a promising platform for targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs in NSCLC. PMID:24611009

  2. Curcumin Inhibits Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells Metastasis through the Adiponectin/NF-κb/MMPs Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jong-Rung; Liu, Po-Len; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Chou, Shah-Hwa; Cheng, Yu-Jen; Hwang, Jhi-Jhu; Chong, Inn-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue is now considered as an endocrine organ involved in metabolic and inflammatory reactions. Adiponectin, a 244-amino acid peptide hormone, is associated with insulin resistance and carcinogenesis. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is the principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice, turmeric. Curcumin possesses antitumor effects, including the inhibition of neovascularization and regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis. However, the effects of adiponectin and curcumin on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated the expression of adiponectin in paired tumors and normal lung tissues from 77 patients with NSCLC using real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients with low adiponectin expression ratio (<1) had significantly longer survival time than those with high expression ratio (>1) (p = 0.015). Curcumin inhibited the migratory and invasive ability of A549 cells via the inhibition of adiponectin expression by blocking the adiponectin receptor 1. Curcumin treatment also inhibited the in vivo tumor growth of A549 cells and adiponectin expression. These results suggest that adiponectin can be a prognostic indicator of NSCLC. The effect of curcumin in decreasing the migratory and invasive ability of A549 cells by inhibiting adiponectin expression is probably mediated through NF-κB/MMP pathways. Curcumin could be an important potential adjuvant therapeutic agent for lung cancer in the future. PMID:26656720

  3. Curcumin Inhibits Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells Metastasis through the Adiponectin/NF-κb/MMPs Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jong-Rung; Liu, Po-Len; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Chou, Shah-Hwa; Cheng, Yu-Jen; Hwang, Jhi-Jhu; Chong, Inn-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue is now considered as an endocrine organ involved in metabolic and inflammatory reactions. Adiponectin, a 244–amino acid peptide hormone, is associated with insulin resistance and carcinogenesis. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is the principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice, turmeric. Curcumin possesses antitumor effects, including the inhibition of neovascularization and regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis. However, the effects of adiponectin and curcumin on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated the expression of adiponectin in paired tumors and normal lung tissues from 77 patients with NSCLC using real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that patients with low adiponectin expression ratio (<1) had significantly longer survival time than those with high expression ratio (>1) (p = 0.015). Curcumin inhibited the migratory and invasive ability of A549 cells via the inhibition of adiponectin expression by blocking the adiponectin receptor 1. Curcumin treatment also inhibited the in vivo tumor growth of A549 cells and adiponectin expression. These results suggest that adiponectin can be a prognostic indicator of NSCLC. The effect of curcumin in decreasing the migratory and invasive ability of A549 cells by inhibiting adiponectin expression is probably mediated through NF-κB/MMP pathways. Curcumin could be an important potential adjuvant therapeutic agent for lung cancer in the future. PMID:26656720

  4. Overview of KRAS-Driven Genetically Engineered Mouse Models of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Clare; Downward, Julian

    2015-01-01

    KRAS, the most frequently mutated oncogene in non-small cell lung cancer, has been utilized extensively to model human lung adenocarcinomas. The results from such studies have enhanced considerably an understanding of the relationship between KRAS and the development of lung cancer. Detailed in this overview are the features of various KRAS-driven genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of non-small cell lung cancer, their utilization, and the potential of these models for the study of lung cancer biology.

  5. A novel polysaccharide from Sargassum integerrimum induces apoptosis in A549 cells and prevents angiogensis in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ge; Kuang, Shan; Wu, Shimei; Jin, Weihua; Sun, Chaomin

    2016-01-01

    Many polysaccharides isolated from plants have exhibited promising antitumor activities. The aim of this study is to investigate the antitumor activity of the novel polysaccharide named SPS from Sargassum integerrimum, elucidate the underlying anticancer mechanism in a human lung cancer cell line A549, and evaluate its anti-angiogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo. The results show that SPS significantly reduces A549 cells viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner via MTT method. Flow cytometry analysis indicates that SPS could induce cell apoptosis, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest of A549 cells. Up-regulation of the expressions of P53 and Bax, down-regulation of the expression of Bcl-2, and activation of cleaved caspase-3, caspase-9 and PARP are also detected by western blotting after the treatment of SPS. In addition, SPS inhibits the proliferation, migration and cord formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro, and prevents the vascular development of zebrafish embryos in vivo. Altogether, our data prove the anticancer and anti-angiogenesis properties of SPS, and provide further insights into the potential pharmacological application of SPS as antitumor and anti-angiogenic agent against lung cancer. PMID:27216943

  6. A novel polysaccharide from Sargassum integerrimum induces apoptosis in A549 cells and prevents angiogensis in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ge; Kuang, Shan; Wu, Shimei; Jin, Weihua; Sun, Chaomin

    2016-01-01

    Many polysaccharides isolated from plants have exhibited promising antitumor activities. The aim of this study is to investigate the antitumor activity of the novel polysaccharide named SPS from Sargassum integerrimum, elucidate the underlying anticancer mechanism in a human lung cancer cell line A549, and evaluate its anti-angiogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo. The results show that SPS significantly reduces A549 cells viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner via MTT method. Flow cytometry analysis indicates that SPS could induce cell apoptosis, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest of A549 cells. Up-regulation of the expressions of P53 and Bax, down-regulation of the expression of Bcl-2, and activation of cleaved caspase-3, caspase-9 and PARP are also detected by western blotting after the treatment of SPS. In addition, SPS inhibits the proliferation, migration and cord formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro, and prevents the vascular development of zebrafish embryos in vivo. Altogether, our data prove the anticancer and anti-angiogenesis properties of SPS, and provide further insights into the potential pharmacological application of SPS as antitumor and anti-angiogenic agent against lung cancer. PMID:27216943

  7. miR-126 inhibits non-small cell lung cancer cells proliferation by targeting EGFL7

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yanqin; Bai, Yifeng; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Yu; Guo, Ying; Guo, Linlang

    2010-01-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent an abundant group of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, and have been demonstrated to play roles as tumor suppressor genes (oncogenes), and affect homeostatic processes such as development, cell proliferation, and cell death. Subsequently, epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 (EGFL7), which is confirmed to be involved in cellular responses such as cell migration and blood vessel formation, is identified as a potential miR-126 target by bioinformatics. However, there is still no evidence showing EGFL7's relationship with miR-126 and the proliferation of lung cancer cells. The aim of this work is to investigate whether miR-126, together with EGFL7, have an effect on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells' proliferation. Therefore, we constructed overexpressed miR-126 plasmid to target EGFL7 and transfected them into NSCLC cell line A549 cells. Then, we used methods like quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, flow cytometry assay, and immunohistochemistry staining to confirm our findings. The result was that overexpression of miR-126 in A549 cells could increase EGFL7 expression. Furthermore, the most notable finding by cell proliferation related assays is that miR-126 can inhibit A549 cells proliferation in vitro and inhibit tumor growth in vivo by targeting EGFL7. As a result, our study demonstrates that miR-126 can inhibit proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer cells through one of its targets, EGFL7.

  8. Inhibitory effect of traditional oriental medicine-derived monoamine oxidase B inhibitor on radioresistance of non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Son, Beomseok; Jun, Se Young; Seo, HyunJeong; Youn, HyeSook; Yang, Hee Jung; Kim, Wanyeon; Kim, Hyung Kook; Kang, ChulHee; Youn, BuHyun

    2016-01-01

    Increased survival of cancer cells mediated by high levels of ionizing radiation (IR) reduces the effectiveness of radiation therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the present study, danshensu which is a selected component of traditional oriental medicine (TOM) compound was found to reduce the radioresistance of NSCLC by inhibiting the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. Of the various TOM compounds reported to inhibit the IR activation of NF-κB, danshensu was chosen as a final candidate based on the results of structural comparisons with human metabolites and monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) was identified as the putative target enzyme. Danshensu decreased the activation of NF-κB by inhibiting MAOB activity in A549 and NCI-H1299 NSCLC cells. Moreover, it suppressed IR-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, expressions of NF-κB-regulated prosurvival and proinflammatory genes, and in vivo radioresistance of mouse xenograft models. Taken together, this study shows that danshensu significantly reduces MAOB activity and attenuates NF-κB signaling to elicit the radiosensitization of NSCLC. PMID:26906215

  9. Inhibitory effect of traditional oriental medicine-derived monoamine oxidase B inhibitor on radioresistance of non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Son, Beomseok; Jun, Se Young; Seo, HyunJeong; Youn, HyeSook; Yang, Hee Jung; Kim, Wanyeon; Kim, Hyung Kook; Kang, ChulHee; Youn, BuHyun

    2016-02-24

    Increased survival of cancer cells mediated by high levels of ionizing radiation (IR) reduces the effectiveness of radiation therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the present study, danshensu which is a selected component of traditional oriental medicine (TOM) compound was found to reduce the radioresistance of NSCLC by inhibiting the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. Of the various TOM compounds reported to inhibit the IR activation of NF-κB, danshensu was chosen as a final candidate based on the results of structural comparisons with human metabolites and monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) was identified as the putative target enzyme. Danshensu decreased the activation of NF-κB by inhibiting MAOB activity in A549 and NCI-H1299 NSCLC cells. Moreover, it suppressed IR-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, expressions of NF-κB-regulated prosurvival and proinflammatory genes, and in vivo radioresistance of mouse xenograft models. Taken together, this study shows that danshensu significantly reduces MAOB activity and attenuates NF-κB signaling to elicit the radiosensitization of NSCLC.

  10. Romidepsin induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, histone hyperacetylation and reduces matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 expression in bortezomib sensitized non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Karthik, Selvaraju; Sankar, Renu; Varunkumar, Krishnamoorthy; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2014-04-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been proven to be effective therapeutic agents to kill cancer cells through inhibiting HDAC activity or altering the structure of chromatin. We recently reported that chemotherapy by the HDAC inhibitor, romidepsin activates the anti- apoptotic transcription factor NF-κB in A549 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and fails to induce significant levels of apoptosis. We also demonstrated that NF-κB inhibition with proteasome inhibitor bortezomib enhanced HDAC inhibitor induced mitochondrial injury and sensitize A549 NSCLC cells to apoptosis through the generation of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we investigate whether combined treatment with romidepsin and bortezomib would induce apoptosis in A549 NSCLC cells by activating cell cycle arrest, enhanced generation of p21 and p53, down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2,9 also altering the acetylation status of histone proteins. Our data show that combination of romidepsin and bortezomib caused cell cycle arrest at Sub G0-G1 transition, up-regulation of cell cycle protein p21 and tumour suppressor protein p53. In addition, romidepsin down-regulated the expression of MMP-2,9 and hyperacetylation of histone H3 and H4 in bortezomib sensitised A549 NSCLC cells. From this study we concluded that romidepsin and bortezomib cooperatively inhibit A549 NSCLC cell proliferation by altering the histone acetylation status, expression of cell cycle regulators and MMPs. Romidepsin along with bortezomib might be an effective treatment approach for A549 NSCLC cells.

  11. Caveolin-1 regulates cell apoptosis and invasion ability in paclitaxel-induced multidrug-resistant A549 lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Fei; Zhang, Long; Zhou, Yongxin; Yi, Xianghua

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect and potential mechanism of caveolin-1 (Cav1) knockdown in paclitaxel-resistant lung cancer A549/Taxol cells. The human paclitaxel-resistant lung cancer cell line A549/Taxol was transfected with a Cav1 shRNA lentiviral vector. Interference efficiency for Cav1 was detected by real-time PCR and Western blotting. A MTT assay was used to determine cell proliferation, and flow cytometry was used to detect the cell cycle stage and apoptosis. Cell migration and invasion capability were detected by a transwell assay. Protein levels of related signaling molecules were detected by Western blotting. We successfully constructed a stable A549/Taxol cell line expressing low levels of Cav1. Cav1 knockdown significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced G0/G1 arrest and cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. In addition, these effects correlated significantly with a reduction in cyclin D1 expression and activation of the Bcl-2/Bax-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Furthermore, knockdown of Cav1 inhibited cell migration and invasion, and this may be related to the inhibition of AKT and the subsequent decreased protein expression of MMP2, MMP7 and MMP9. PMID:26464635

  12. 13-Methyl-palmatrubine induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in A549 cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingxian; Lu, Xingang; Lu, Chenghua; Wang, Chunying; Xu, Haizhu; Xu, Xiaoli; Gou, Haixin; Zhu, Bing; Du, Wangchun

    2016-01-01

    Corydalis yanhusuo, a well-known herbaceous plant, is commonly used in the treatment of inflammation, injury and pain. One natural agent isolated from Corydalis yanhusuo, 13-methyl-palmatrubine, was found to have a cytotoxic effect on cancer cells as reported in published studies. In the present study, we synthesized a potential anti-lung tumor agent, 13-methyl-palmatrubine and analyzed its activity. 13-Methyl-palmatrubine exhibited a cytotoxic effect on a panel of cancer cell lines in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Among all the tested cancer cell lines, lung cancer A549 cells were most sensitive to 13-methyl-palmatrubine treatment. Meanwhile 13-methyl-palmatrubine showed less cytotoxicity in human normal cells. Our investigation revealed that 13-methyl-palmatrubine induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, 13-methyl-palmatrubine treatment caused activation of P38 and JNK pathways and blocked the EGFR pathway. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that 13-methyl-palmatrubine inhibited the growth of A549 cells mediated by blocking of the EGFR signaling pathway and activation of the MAPK signaling pathway and provides a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of 13-methyl-palmatrubine. PMID:27633656

  13. Suppression of SCARA5 by Snail1 is essential for EMT-associated cell migration of A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, J; Hu, G; Chen, D; Gong, A-Y; Soori, G S; Dobleman, T J; Chen, X-M

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) might be a key event for cancer progression. The upregulation of Snail1, one of the most extensively studied EMT regulators, has been implicated in cancer metastasis, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study aims to identify that Snail1 targets regulating EMT-associated cancer cell migration. Human lung carcinoma A549 cells were treated with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), and EMT-associated phenotypic and functional alterations were monitored. TGF-β1 induced typical EMT-like morphological changes, ‘cadherin switching' and cell migration in A549 cells. TGF-β1 stimulation induced rapid and persistent upregulation of Snail1. Moreover, Snail1 upregulation was required for EMT-associated cell migration. Several metastasis suppressors with putative Snail1-binding sites in their promoters were dramatically repressed in A549 cells during TGF-β1-induced EMT. Gain- and loss-of Snail1 function experiments demonstrated that scavenger receptor class A member 5 (SCARA5) was negatively regulated by Snail1. Importantly, SCARA5 downregulation was essential for EMT-induced migration in A549 cells. The chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that Snail1 could bind to the E-box elements in SCARA5 promoter, implying that SCARA5 is a direct Snail1 target modulating cancer cell mobility during EMT. In addition, we showed that DNA methyltransferase 1 was physically associated with Snail1 to silence SCARA5 expression with an unidentified DNA methylation-independent mechanism, suggesting the complexity of Snail1-mediated epigenetic regulation. Collectively, our data demonstrated that EMT-regulator Snail1 suppresses the expression of SCARA5 to promote cancer progression, highlighting the possibility to target Snail1 and SCARA5 for cancer treatment. PMID:24061576

  14. Exosomes: decreased sensitivity of lung cancer A549 cells to cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xia; Yu, Shaorong; Li, Shuchun; Wu, Jianzhong; Ma, Rong; Cao, Haixia; Zhu, Yanliang; Feng, Jifeng

    2014-01-01

    Exosomes are small extracellular membrane vesicles of endocytic origin released by many cells that could be found in most body fluids. The main functions of exosomes are cellular communication and cellular waste clean-up. This study was conducted to determine the involvement of exosomes in the regulation of sensitivity of the lung cancer cell line A549 to cisplatin (DDP). When DDP was added to A549 cells, exosomes secretion was strengthened. Addition of the secreted exosomes to other A549 cells increased the resistance of these A549 cells to DDP. Upon exposure of A549 to DDP, the expression levels of several miRNAs and mRNAs reportedly associated with DDP sensitivity changed significantly in exosomes; these changes may mediate the resistance of A549 cells to DDP. Exosomes released by A549 cells during DDP exposure decreased the sensitivity of other A549 cells to DDP, which may be mediated by miRNAs and mRNAs exchange by exosomes via cell-to-cell communication. Although the detailed mechanism of resistance remains unclear, we believed that inhibition of exosomes formation and release might present a novel strategy for lung cancer treatment in the future. PMID:24586853

  15. In Vitro Evaluation of 3-Arylcoumarin Derivatives in A549 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    MUSA, MUSILIYU A.; JOSEPH, MOISE Y.; LATINWO, LEKAN M.; BADISA, VEERA; COOPERWOOD, JOHN S.

    2016-01-01

    Coumarins are naturally-occurring compounds with diverse and interesting biological activities. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro cytotoxic effect of 8-(acetyloxy)-3-[4-(acetyloxy)phenyl]-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl acetate (6); 8-(acetyloxy)-3-(4-methanesulfonyl phenyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl acetate (7); 4-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)phenyl acetate (8); 3-(4-methanesulfonylphenyl)-2H-chromen-2-one (9); 4-(4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)phenyl acetate (10); 3-(4-methanesulfonylphenyl)-4-methyl-2H-chromen-2-one (11); 8-(acetyloxy)-3-[4-(acetyloxy)phenyl]-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl acetate (12); and 5-(acetyloxy)-3-[4-(acetyloxy) phenyl]-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl acetate (13) in human lung (A549) cancer and normal lung (MRC-9) cell lines at different concentrations for 48 h using crystal violet dye binding assay. The cytotoxic effect of these coumarin derivatives were compared to the standard drug, docetaxel. Furthermore, the effect of the most active compound on the cell-cycle using propidium iodide, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) using tetramethyl rhodamine methyl ester (rhodamine-123) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production using 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (PCFDA) were also evaluated. Results Compound 7 had the greatest cytotoxic effect (cytotoxic concentration, CC50=24 μM) and selectivity (MRC-9; CC50 >100 μM; inactive) in the A549 cell line, and caused cells to arrest in the S phase of the cell cycle, loss of MMP and increased ROS production in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion These findings suggest that compound 7 could serve as a new lead for the development of novel synthetic compounds with enhanced anticancer activity. PMID:25667442

  16. Effects of Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles on A549 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masatoshi; Yoneda, Misao; Morohashi, Ayaka; Hori, Yasuki; Okamoto, Daiki; Sato, Akiko; Kurioka, Daisuke; Nittami, Tadashi; Hirokawa, Yoshifumi; Shiraishi, Taizo; Kawai, Kazuaki; Kasai, Hiroshi; Totsuka, Yukari

    2013-01-01

    Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MgNPs-Fe3O4) are widely used in medical applications, including magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery, and in hyperthermia. However, the same properties that aid their utility in the clinic may potentially induce toxicity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of MgNPs-Fe3O4 in A549 human lung epithelial cells. MgNPs-Fe3O4 caused cell membrane damage, as assessed by the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), only at a high concentration (100 μg/mL); a lower concentration (10 μg/mL) increased the production of reactive oxygen species, increased oxidative damage to DNA, and decreased the level of reduced glutathione. MgNPs-Fe3O4 caused a dose-dependent increase in the CD44+ fraction of A549 cells. MgNPs-Fe3O4 induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 at a concentration of 1 μg/mL, and in a dose-dependent manner. Despite these effects, MgNPs-Fe3O4 had minimal effect on cell viability and elicited only a small increase in the number of cells undergoing apoptosis. Together, these data suggest that MgNPs-Fe3O4 exert little or no cytotoxicity until a high exposure level (100 μg/mL) is reached. This dissociation between elevated indices of cell damage and a small effect on cell viability warrants further study. PMID:23892599

  17. Pre-irradiation with low-dose 12C6+ beam significantly enhances the efficacy of AdCMV-p53 gene therapy in human non-small lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bing; Zhang, Hong; Li, Wenjian; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Guangming; Xie, Yi; Hao, Jifang; Min, Fengling; Zhou, Qingming; Duan, Xin

    2007-04-01

    The combination of ionizing radiation and gene therapy has been investigated. However, there are very few reports about the combination of heavy-ion irradiation and gene therapy. To determine if the pre-exposure to low-dose heavy ion beam enhances the suppression of AdCMV-p53 on non-small lung cancer (NSLC), the cells pre-irradiated or non-irradiated were infected with 20, 40 MOI of AdCMV-p53. Survival fraction and the relative biology effect (RBE) were determined by clonogenic assay. The results showed that the proportions of p53 positive cells in 12C6+ beam induced AdCMV-p53 infected cells were more than 90%, which were significantly more than those in γ-ray induced AdCMV-p53 infected cells. The pre-exposure to low-dose 12C6+ beam significantly prevented the G0/G1 arrest and activated G2/M checkpoints. The pre-exposure to 12C6+ beam significantly improved cell to apoptosis. RBEs for the 12C6+ + AdCMV-p53 infection groups were 30% 60%, 20% 130% and 30% 70% more than those for the 12C6+-irradiated only, AdCMV-p53 infected only, and γ-irradiation induced AdCMVp53 infected groups, respectively. The data suggested that the pre-exposure to low-dose 12C6+ beam significantly promotes exogenous p53 expression in NSLC, and the suppression of AdCMV-p53 gene therapy on NSLC.

  18. Hu-antigen receptor (HuR) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in human non-small-cell lung carcinoma: associations with clinicopathological parameters, tumor proliferative capacity and patients' survival.

    PubMed

    Giaginis, Constantinos; Alexandrou, Paraskevi; Tsoukalas, Nikolaos; Sfiniadakis, Ioannis; Kavantzas, Nikolaos; Agapitos, Emmanuel; Patsouris, Efstratios; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2015-01-01

    Hu-antigen R (HuR) is considered to play a central role in tumor formation, growth, and metastasis by binding to messenger RNAs (mRNAs) encoding proteins such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducing their expression via mRNA stabilization and/or altered translation. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of HuR and COX-2 protein expression in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). HuR and COX-2 expression was assessed immunohistochemically on tissue microarrays of 81 surgically resected NSCLC and was analyzed in relation with clinicopathological characteristics and patients' survival. Enhanced total HuR expression was significantly associated with tumor histological type and presence of lymph node metastases, as well as with increased tumor proliferative capacity and poor patients' outcome (p = 0.039, p = 0.017, p = 0.033, and p = 0.022, respectively). Enhanced COX-2 expression was significantly associated with the presence of lymphovascular invasion and increased tumor proliferative capacity (p = 0.031 and p = 0.023, respectively). Concomitant elevated HuR/COX-2 expression levels were significantly associated with tumor histological type and increased proliferative capacity (p = 0.002 and p = 0.045, respectively). Enhanced total HuR expression, as well as its cytoplasmic localization, was significantly associated with increased COX-2 expression (p = 0.015 and p = 0.001, respectively). The present study supported evidence that HuR may participate in malignant transformation of NSCLC, reinforcing its usefulness as potential therapeutic target in this type of neoplasia.

  19. [Down-regulated βIII-tubulin expression can reverse paclitaxel resistance in A549/taxol cells lines].

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Yinling; Guo, Qisen

    2014-08-20

    背景与目的 化疗耐药导致肿瘤很快复发和/或转移,是目前肺癌死亡的主要原因之一。β-tubulin是抗微管药物的主要细胞靶点。已有的研究证明:βIII-tubulin高表达与非小细胞肺癌(non-small cell lung cancer, NSCLC)耐药有关。利用RNA干扰技术沉默耐紫杉醇A549细胞(A549/Taxol)中βIII-tubulin基因表达,探讨靶基因下调后对化疗药物紫杉醇的敏感性的变化以及细胞周期和细胞凋亡情况。方法 构建靶向βIII-tubulin的siRNA,以脂质体为载体介导βIII-tubulin siRNA转染A549/Taxol细胞,利用qRT-PCR检测细胞内βIII-tubulin mRNA的变化情况,并筛选出最佳干扰序列;Western blot法检测A549/Taxol细胞内βIII-tubulin蛋白表达的变化;MTT法检测转染后细胞株对紫杉醇敏感性的变化;流式细胞仪检测细胞周期和细胞凋亡的变化。结果 实时荧光qRT-PCR法显示转染后细胞株靶基因水平较对照组降低,其中βIII-tubulin siRNA-1序列抑制率最高为(87.73±4.87)%(P<0.01);Western blot显示转染后靶蛋白水平较对照组明显降低;MTT法表明紫杉醇处理转染后细胞株的细胞抑制率较对照组明显增加(51.77±4.60)%(P<0.01);细胞凋亡显示βIII-tubulin siRNA+Taxol组细胞早期凋亡率较对照组明显增加(P<0.01),两者的差异有统计学意义;细胞周期检测结果显示紫杉醇处理组的G2/M期细胞百分率高于对照组,且转染后紫杉醇处理组的细胞晚期凋亡率较对照组增加。结论 βIII-tubulin表达下调明显提高A549/Taxol细胞株对Taxol的敏感性。

  20. Octa-Arginine-Modified Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin: An Effective Treatment Strategy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Swati; Deshpande, Pranali P.; Perche, Federico; Dodwadkar, Namita S.; Sane, Shailendra D.; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy of octa-arginine (R8)-modified PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin (R8-PLD) for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer, for which the primary treatment modality currently consists of surgery and radiotherapy. Cell-penetrating peptide R8 modification of Doxorubicin-(Dox)-loaded liposomes was performed by post-insertion of an R8-conjugated amphiphilic PEG-PE copolymer (R8-PEG-DOPE) into the liposomal lipid bilayer. In vitro analysis with the non-small cell lung cancer cell line, A549 confirmed the efficient cellular accumulation of Dox, delivered by R8-PLD compared to PLD. It led to the early initiation of apoptosis and a 9-fold higher level of the apoptotic regulator, caspase 3/7 (9.24±0.34) compared to PLD (1.07±0.19) at Dox concentration of 100 µg/mL. The treatment of A549 monolayers with R8-PLD increased the level of cell death marker lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) secretion (1.2 ± 0.1 for PLD and 2.3 ± 0.1 for R8-PLD at Dox concentration of 100 µg/mL) confirming higher cytotoxicity of R8-PLD than PLD, which was ineffective under the same treatment regimen (cell viability 90 ± 6 % in PLD vs. 45 ± 2 % in R8-PLD after 24 h). R8-PLD had significantly higher penetration into the hypoxic A549 tumor spheroids compared to PLD. R8-PLD induced greater level of apoptosis to A549 tumor xenograft and dramatic inhibition of tumor volume and tumor weight reduction. The R8-PLD treated tumor lysate had a elevated caspase3/7 expression than with R8-PLD treatment. This suggested system improved the delivery efficiency of Dox in selected model of cancer which supports the potential usefulness of R8-PLD in cancer treatment, lung cancer in particular. PMID:23419527

  1. Octa-arginine-modified pegylated liposomal doxorubicin: an effective treatment strategy for non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Swati; Deshpande, Pranali P; Perche, Federico; Dodwadkar, Namita S; Sane, Shailendra D; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2013-07-10

    The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy of octa-arginine (R8)-modified pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (R8-PLD) for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer, for which the primary treatment modality currently consists of surgery and radiotherapy. Cell-penetrating peptide R8 modification of Doxorubicin-(Dox)-loaded liposomes was performed by post-insertion of an R8-conjugated amphiphilic PEG-PE copolymer (R8-PEG-DOPE) into the liposomal lipid bilayer. In vitro analysis with the non-small cell lung cancer cell line, A549 confirmed the efficient cellular accumulation of Dox, delivered by R8-PLD compared to PLD. It led to the early initiation of apoptosis and a 9-fold higher level of the apoptotic regulator, caspase 3/7 (9.24±0.34) compared to PLD (1.07±0.19) at Dox concentration of 100 μg/mL. The treatment of A549 monolayers with R8-PLD increased the level of cell death marker lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) secretion (1.2±0.1 for PLD and 2.3±0.1 for R8-PLD at Dox concentration of 100 μg/mL) confirming higher cytotoxicity of R8-PLD than PLD, which was ineffective under the same treatment regimen (cell viability 90±6% in PLD vs. 45±2% in R8-PLD after 24h). R8-PLD had significantly higher penetration into the hypoxic A549 tumor spheroids compared to PLD. R8-PLD induced greater level of apoptosis to A549 tumor xenograft and dramatic inhibition of tumor volume and tumor weight reduction. The R8-PLD treated tumor lysate had a elevated caspase 3/7 expression than with R8-PLD treatment. This suggested system improved the delivery efficiency of Dox in selected model of cancer which supports the potential usefulness of R8-PLD in cancer treatment, lung cancer in particular. PMID:23419527

  2. Curcumin-induced downregulation of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase inhibits cell proliferation and circumvents chemoresistance in non-small lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Chan; Baek, Suk-Hwan; Lee, Chuhee

    2015-12-01

    Lung cancer is still in the first place in terms of both incidence and mortality. In the present study, we demonstrated the effect of curcumin, a phytochemical of the plant Curcuma longa, on expression and activation of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) which plays an important role in cell survival, proliferation and anti-apoptosis. Curcumin treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 and H460 cells, was found to decrease Axl protein as well as mRNA levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Axl promoter activity was also reduced by curcumin, indicating that curcumin downregulates Axl expression at the transcriptional level. Moreover, Axl phosphorylation in response to binding of its ligand, Gas6, was abrogated by curcumin, suggesting the inhibitory effect of curcumin on Gas6-induced Axl activation. We next found cytotoxic effect of cucumin on both the parental A549 and H460 cells, and their variants which are resistant to cisplatin (A549/CisR and H460/CisR) and paclitaxel (A549/TR and H460/TR). Exposure of these cells to curcumin resulted in dose-dependent decline of cell viability and clonogenic ability. It is further observed that the anti-proliferative effect of curcumin on A549 cells overexpressing Axl protein was reduced, while that on H460 cells transfected Axl specific siRNA was augmented, confirming that curcumin inhibits cell proliferation via downregulation of Axl expression. In addition, curcumin was found to cause the induction of p21, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, and reduction of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), an anti-apoptotic molecule, in parental H460 cells as well as chemoresistant cells, H460/CisR and H460/TR. Taken together, our data imply that Axl RTK is a novel target of curcumin through which it exerts anti-proliferative effect in both parental and chemoresistant NSCLC cells.

  3. Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects in A549 Cells Exposed to 6 MV X-rays.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuning; Xu, Jing; Shao, Weixian; Geng, Chong; Li, Jia; Guo, Feng; Miao, Hui; Shen, Wenbin; Ye, Tao; Liu, Yazhou; Xu, Haiting; Zhang, Xuguang

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the bystander effects in A549 cells that have been exposed to 6MV X-ray. Control group, irradiated group, irradiated conditioned medium (ICM)-received group, and fresh medium group were designed in this study. A549 cells in the logarithmic growth phase were irradiated with 6MV X-ray at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2. In ICM-received group, post-irradiation A549 cells were cultured for 3 h and were transferred into non-irradiated A549 cells for further cultivation. Clone forming test was applied to detect the survival fraction of cells. Annexin V-FITC/PI double-staining assay was used to detect the apoptosis of A549 cells 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after 2-Gy 6MV X-ray irradiation, and the curves of apoptosis were drawn. The changes in the cell cycles 4, 48, 72, and 96 h after 2-Gy 6MV X-ray irradiation were detected using PI staining flow cytometry. With the increase of irradiation dose, the survival fraction of A549 cells after the application of 0.5 Gy irradiation was decreasing continuously. In comparison to the control group, the apoptosis rate of the ICM-received group was increased in a time-dependent pattern, with the highest apoptosis rate observed at 72 h (p < 0.05). Cell count in G2/M stages was obviously increased compared with that of the control group (p < 0.05), with the highest count observed at 72 h, after which G2/M stage arrest was diminished. ICM can cause apparent A549 cell damage, indicating that 6MV X-ray irradiation can induce bystander effect on A549 cells, which reaches a peak at 72 h.

  4. Inactivation of Src-to-ezrin pathway: a possible mechanism in the ouabain-mediated inhibition of A549 cell migration.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hye Kyoung; Ryu, Byung Jun; Choi, Sik-Won; Kim, Seong Hwan; Lee, Kyunglim

    2015-01-01

    Ouabain, a cardiac glycoside found in plants, is primarily used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and arrhythmia because of its ability to inhibit Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump. Recently ouabain has been shown to exert anticancer effects but the underlying mechanism is not clear. Here, we explored the molecular mechanism by which ouabain exerts anticancer effects in human lung adenocarcinoma. Employing proteomic techniques, we found 7 proteins downregulated by ouabain in A549 including p-ezrin, a protein associated with pulmonary cancer metastasis in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, when the relative phosphorylation levels of 39 intracellular proteins were compared between control and ouabain-treated A549 cells, p-Src (Y416) was also found to be downregulated by ouabain. Furthermore, western blot revealed the ouabain-mediated downregulation of p-FAK (Y925), p-paxillin (Y118), p130CAS, and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase subunits that have been shown to be involved in the migration of cancer cells. The inhibitory effect of ouabain and Src inhibitor PP2 on the migration of A549 cells was confirmed by Boyden chamber assay. Anticancer effects of ouabain in A549 cells appear to be related to its ability to regulate and inactivate Src-to-ezrin signaling, and proteins involved in focal adhesion such as Src, FAK, and p130CAS axis are proposed here. PMID:25866790

  5. Runx3 Expression Inhibits Proliferation and Distinctly Alters mRNA Expression of Bax in AGS and A549 Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Torshabi, Maryam; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Tabatabaei Yazdi, Mojtaba; Ostad, Seyyed Naser; Gharemani, Mohammad Hosein

    2011-01-01

    Runx3, a member of Runt-related transcription factor (Runx) proteins with tumor suppressor effect, is a tissue–restricted and cancer related transcription factor that regulate cell proliferation and growth, as well as differentiation. In the present study, exogenous Run3 was transiently expressed in AGS (human gastric adenocarcinoma), with undetectable Runx3 protein and in A549 (human lung carcinoma) with low levels of endogenous Runx3 protein. The GFP tagged Runx3 was transfected into AGS and A549 cells using fugene6 and PolyFect and Runx3 expression was confirmed by fluorescent microscopy and RT-PCR. The effect of Runx3 transfection on cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay and the results were confirmed by the trypan blue dye exclusion method. The effect of Runx3 expression on mRNA expression of BCL2-associated X protein (Bax) was evaluated using RT-PCR. In AGS and A549 cells, Runx3 expression inhibited cell proliferation (p < 0.01). The growth inhibition was less in A549 cells. We show that Runx3 expression increases Bax mRNA expression in AGS cells when compared with control (p < 0.05), but no significant differences in mRNA expression was observed in both examined cells. Runx3 expression has antiproliferative effect in AGS cell perhaps via increase in expression of Bax. The effect of Runx3 on A549 cells’ viability which has endogenous level of Runx3 is not related to Bax. These findings implicate a complex regulation by Runx3 in inhibition of cell proliferation utilizing Bax. PMID:24250365

  6. Isolation, Purification and Characterization of a Novel Steroidal Saponin Cholestanol Glucoside from Lasiodiplodia theobromae that Induces Apoptosis in A549 Cells.

    PubMed

    Valayil, Jinu Mathew; Kuriakose, Gini C; Jayabaskaran, C

    2016-01-01

    Search for novel anticancer lead molecules continues to be a major focus of cancer research due to the limitations of existing drugs such as lack of tumor selectivity, narrow therapeutic index and multidrug resistance of cancer types. Natural molecules often possess better pharmacokinetic traits compared to synthetic molecules as they continually evolve by natural selection process to interact with biological macromolecules. Microbial metabolites constitute nearly half of the pharmaceuticals in market today. Endophytic fungi, owing to its rich chemical diversity, are viewed as attractive sources of novel bioactive compounds. In the present study, we report the purification and characterization of a novel steroidal saponin, cholestanol glucoside (CG) from Saraca asoca endophytic fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae. The compound was assessed for its cytotoxic potentialities in six human cancer cell lines, A549, PC3, HepG2, U251, MCF7 and OVCAR3. CG exhibited significant cytotoxicities towards A549, PC3 and HepG2 among which A549 cells were most vulnerable to CG treatment. However, CG treatment exhibited negligible cytotoxicity in non malignant human lung fibroblast cell line (WI-38). Induction of cell death by CG treatment in A549 cells was further investigated. CG induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane permeability loss followed by apoptotic cell death. Mitochondrial membrane depolarization and apoptotic cell death in CG treated A549 cells were completely blocked in presence of an antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Hence it could be concluded that CG initiates apoptosis in cancer cells by augmenting the basal oxidative stress and that the generation of intracellular ROS is crucial for the induction of apoptosis. PMID:26338072

  7. c-Jun N-terminal Kinase-Dependent Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Pathway is Critically Involved in Arjunic Acid Induced Apoptosis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Joo, HyeEun; Lee, Hyun Joo; Shin, Eun Ah; Kim, Hangil; Seo, Kyeong-Hwa; Baek, Nam-In; Kim, Bonglee; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2016-04-01

    Though arjunic acid, a triterpene isolated from Terminalia arjuna, was known to have antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and cytotoxic effects, its underlying antitumor mechanism still remains unclear so far. Thus, in the present study, the molecular antitumor mechanism of arjunic acid was examined in A549 and H460 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Arjunic acid exerted cytotoxicity by 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and significantly increased sub-G1 population in A549 and H460 cells by cell cycle analysis. Consistently, arjunic acid cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), activated Bax, and phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), and also attenuated the expression of pro-caspase-3 and Bcl-2 in A549 and H460 cells. Furthermore, arjunic acid upregulated the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress proteins such as IRE1 α, ATF4, p-eIF2α, and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) in A549 and H460 cells. Conversely, CHOP depletion attenuated the increase of sub-G1 population by arjunic acid, and also JNK inhibitor SP600125 blocked the cytotoxicity and upregulation of IRE1 α and CHOP induced by arjunic acid in A549 and H460 cells. Overall, our findings suggest that arjunic acid induces apoptosis in NSCLC cells via JNK mediated ER stress pathway as a potent chemotherapeutic agent for NSCLC. PMID:26787261

  8. A negative regulation loop of long noncoding RNA HOTAIR and p53 in non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Nailiang; Xia, Yongfu; Yin, Rui; Liu, Jinping; Gao, Fuquan

    2016-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide, and the 5-year survival rate is still low despite advances in diagnosis and therapeutics. A long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) HOX antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) has been revealed to play important roles in NSCLC carcinogenesis but the detailed mechanisms are still unclear. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the regulation between the lncRNA HOTAIR and p53 in the NSCLC patient samples and cell lines. Our results showed that HOTAIR expression was significantly higher in the cancer tissues than that in the adjacent normal tissue, and was negatively correlated with p53 functionality rather than expression. When p53 was overexpressed in A549 cells, the lncRNA HOTAIR expression was downregulated, and the cell proliferation rate and cell invasion capacity decreased as a consequence. We identified two binding sites of p53 on the promoter region of HOTAIR, where the p53 protein would bind to and suppress the HOTAIR mRNA transcription. Inversely, overexpression of lncRNA HOTAIR inhibited the expression of p53 in A549 cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that HOTAIR modified the promoter of p53 and enhanced histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3). These studies identified a specific negative regulation loop of lncRNA HOTAIR and p53 in NSCLC cells, which revealed a new understanding of tumorigenesis in p53 dysfunction NSCLC cells.

  9. Different effects of LDH-A inhibition by oxamate in non-small cell lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Su, Dan; Zhao, Lin; Zhang, Dan; Xu, Jiaying; Wan, Jianmei; Fan, Saijun; Chen, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Higher rate of glycolysis has been long observed in cancer cells, as a vital enzyme in glycolysis, lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) has been shown with great potential as an anti-cancer target. Accumulating evidence indicates that inhibition of LDH-A induces apoptosis mediated by oxidative stress in cancer cells. To date, it's still unclear that whether autophagy can be induced by LDH-A inhibition. Here, we investigated the effects of oxamate, one classic inhibitor of LDH-A in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells as well as normal lung epithelial cells. The results showed that oxamate significantly suppressed the proliferation of NSCLC cells, while it exerted a much lower toxicity in normal cells. As previous studies reported, LDH-A inhibition resulted in ATP reduction and ROS (reactive oxygen species) burst in cancer cells, which lead to apoptosis and G2/M arrest in H1395 cells. However, when being exposed to oxamate, A549 cells underwent autophagy as a protective mechanism against apoptosis. Furthermore, we found evidence that LDH-A inhibition induced G0/G1 arrest dependent on the activation of GSK-3β in A549 cells. Taken together, our results provide useful clues for targeting LDH-A in NSCLC treatment and shed light on the discovery of molecular predictors for the sensitivity of LDH-A inhibitors. PMID:25361010

  10. Enhanced expression of stem cell markers and drug resistance in sphere-forming non-small cell lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Feng-Feng; Hu, Yong-He; Xiong, Lv-Ping; Tu, Xiao-Yun; Zhao, Ji-Hua; Chen, Sheng-Song; Song, Juan; Ye, Xiao-Qun

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence suggesting that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are playing critical roles in tumor progression, metastasis and drug resistance. However, the role of CSCs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains elusive. In this study, we enriched for stem-like cells from tumor spheres derived from NSCLC cell line A549 cultured in serum-free medium. Our results showed that sphere-derived cells expressed various stem cell markers such as CD44, CD133, Sox2 and Oct4. Compared with the corresponding cells in monolayer cultures, sphere-derived cells showed marked morphologic changes and increased expression of the stem cell markers CD133. Furthermore, we found that sphere-derived cells exhibited increased proliferation, cell-cycle progression as well as drug-resistant properties as compared to A549 adherent cells. Consistently, expression of several drug resistance proteins, including lung resistance-related protein (LRP), glutathion-S-transferase-π (GST-π) and multidrug resistance proteins-1 (MRP1) were all significantly enhanced in sphere-derived cells. These results indicate the enrichment of CSCs in sphere cultures and support their role in regulating drug resistance in NSCLC. PMID:26261505

  11. General Information about Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... most patients with non-small cell lung cancer, current treatments do not cure the cancer. If lung ... professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to- ...

  12. Nickel decreases cellular iron level and converts cytosolic aconitase to iron-regulatory protein 1 in A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Haobin; Davidson, Todd; Singleton, Steven; Garrick, Michael D.; Costa, Max . E-mail: costam@env.med.nyu.edu

    2005-08-15

    Nickel (Ni) compounds are well-established carcinogens and are known to initiate a hypoxic response in cells via the stabilization and transactivation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1{alpha}). This change may be the consequence of nickel's interference with the function of several Fe(II)-dependent enzymes. In this study, the effects of soluble nickel exposure on cellular iron homeostasis were investigated. Nickel treatment decreased both mitochondrial and cytosolic aconitase (c-aconitase) activity in A549 cells. Cytosolic aconitase was converted to iron-regulatory protein 1, a form critical for the regulation of cellular iron homeostasis. The increased activity of iron-regulatory protein 1 after nickel exposure stabilized and increased transferrin receptor (Tfr) mRNA and antagonized the iron-induced ferritin light chain protein synthesis. The decrease of aconitase activity after nickel treatment reflected neither direct interference with aconitase function nor obstruction of [4Fe-4S] cluster reconstitution by nickel. Exposure of A549 cells to soluble nickel decreased total cellular iron by about 40%, a decrease that likely caused the observed decrease in aconitase activity and the increase of iron-regulatory protein 1 activity. Iron treatment reversed the effect of nickel on cytosolic aconitase and iron-regulatory protein 1. To assess the mechanism for the observed effects, human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells over expressing divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) were compared to A549 cells expressing only endogenous transporters for inhibition of iron uptake by nickel. The inhibition data suggest that nickel can enter via DMT1 and compete with iron for entry into the cell. This disturbance of cellular iron homeostasis by nickel may have a great impact on the ability of the cell to regulate a variety of cell functions, as well as create a state of hypoxia in cells under normal oxygen tension. These effects may be very important in how nickel exerts phenotypic

  13. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of Aurora-B alters the metastatic behavior of A549 cells via modulation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, LONG DIAN; XIONG, XU; LONG, XIN HUA; LIU, ZHI LI; HUANG, SHAN HU; ZHANG, WEI

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has revealed that an elevated expression level of Aurora-B is associated with metastasis in various types of malignant tumor. However, it is currently unclear whether this molecule is involved in non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) metastasis, and the molecular mechanisms associated with Aurora-B and metastasis remain unknown. In the present study, in order to investigate whether Aurora-B is involved in the development and metastasis of NSCLC, the Aurora-B protein expression in NSCLC tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry and its association with metastasis was analyzed. The results revealed that the expression levels of the Aurora-B protein in tissues obtained from NSCLC patients with lymph node metastasis were significantly higher than those without metastatic disease. Furthermore, the effect of Aurora-B inhibition on A549 cell migration and invasion, as well as the activity of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway was evaluated. Aurora-B was inhibited in the A549 cells using short hairpin RNA, and the cell migration and invasion rates were investigated using wound healing and Transwell invasion assays. In addition, the expression of the main proteins in the PI3K/Akt/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 were measured by western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that cell migration and invasion were decreased as a result of silencing Aurora-B. Furthermore, the activity of the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway and the expression of MMP-2 and -9 protein were suppressed by silencing Aurora-B. The results of the present study indicate that the knockdown of Aurora-B suppresses A549 cell invasion and migration via the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in vitro and thus, targeting Aurora-B may present a potential treatment strategy for NSCLC. PMID:25295091

  14. Direct electric current treatment modifies mitochondrial function and lipid body content in the A549 cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Holandino, Carla; Teixeira, Cesar Augusto Antunes; de Oliveira, Felipe Alves Gomes; Barbosa, Gleyce Moreno; Siqueira, Camila Monteiro; Messeder, Douglas Jardim; de Aguiar, Fernanda Silva; da Veiga, Venicio Feo; Girard-Dias, Wendell; Miranda, Kildare; Galina, Antonio; Capella, Marcia Alves Marques; Morales, Marcelo Marcos

    2016-10-01

    Electrochemical therapy (EChT) entails treatment of solid tumors with direct electric current (DC). This work evaluated the specific effects of anodic flow generated by DC on biochemical and metabolic features of the A549 human lung cancer cell line. Apoptosis was evaluated on the basis of caspase-3 activity and mitochondrial transmembrane potential dissipation. Cell morphology was analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, and lipid droplets were studied through morphometric analysis and X-ray qualitative elemental microanalysis. High-resolution respirometry was used to assess mitochondrial respiratory parameters. Results indicated A549 viability decreased in a dose-dependent manner with a prominent drop between 18 and 24h after treatment (p<0.001), together with a two-fold increase in caspase-3 activity. AF-treatment induced a significantly increase (p<0.01) in the cell number with disrupted mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Furthermore, treated cells demonstrated important ultrastructural mitochondria damage and a three-fold increase in the cytoplasmic lipid bodies' number, quantified by morphometrical analyses. Conversely, 24h after treatment, the cells presented a two-fold increase of residual oxygen consumption, accounting for 45.3% of basal oxygen consumption. These results show remarkable alterations promoted by anodic flow on human lung cancer cells which are possibly involved with the antitumoral effects of EChT. PMID:27243447

  15. Proteomic analysis of cellular response induced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes exposure in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Ju, Li; Zhang, Guanglin; Zhang, Xing; Jia, Zhenyu; Gao, Xiangjing; Jiang, Ying; Yan, Chunlan; Duerksen-Hughes, Penelope J; Chen, Fanqing Frank; Li, Hongjuan; Zhu, Xinqiang; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The wide application of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) has raised serious concerns about their safety on human health and the environment. However, the potential harmful effects of MWCNT remain unclear and contradictory. To clarify the potentially toxic effects of MWCNT and to elucidate the associated underlying mechanisms, the effects of MWCNT on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells were examined at both the cellular and the protein level. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were examined, followed by a proteomic analysis (2-DE coupled with LC-MS/MS) of the cellular response to MWCNT. Our results demonstrate that MWCNT induces cytotoxicity in A549 cells only at relatively high concentrations and longer exposure time. Within a relatively low dosage range (30 µg/ml) and short time period (24 h), MWCNT treatment does not induce significant cytotoxicity, cell cycle changes, apoptosis, or DNA damage. However, at these low doses and times, MWCNT treatment causes significant changes in protein expression. A total of 106 proteins show altered expression at various time points and dosages, and of these, 52 proteins were further identified by MS. Identified proteins are involved in several cellular processes including proliferation, stress, and cellular skeleton organization. In particular, MWCNT treatment causes increases in actin expression. This increase has the potential to contribute to increased migration capacity and may be mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  16. Direct electric current treatment modifies mitochondrial function and lipid body content in the A549 cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Holandino, Carla; Teixeira, Cesar Augusto Antunes; de Oliveira, Felipe Alves Gomes; Barbosa, Gleyce Moreno; Siqueira, Camila Monteiro; Messeder, Douglas Jardim; de Aguiar, Fernanda Silva; da Veiga, Venicio Feo; Girard-Dias, Wendell; Miranda, Kildare; Galina, Antonio; Capella, Marcia Alves Marques; Morales, Marcelo Marcos

    2016-10-01

    Electrochemical therapy (EChT) entails treatment of solid tumors with direct electric current (DC). This work evaluated the specific effects of anodic flow generated by DC on biochemical and metabolic features of the A549 human lung cancer cell line. Apoptosis was evaluated on the basis of caspase-3 activity and mitochondrial transmembrane potential dissipation. Cell morphology was analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, and lipid droplets were studied through morphometric analysis and X-ray qualitative elemental microanalysis. High-resolution respirometry was used to assess mitochondrial respiratory parameters. Results indicated A549 viability decreased in a dose-dependent manner with a prominent drop between 18 and 24h after treatment (p<0.001), together with a two-fold increase in caspase-3 activity. AF-treatment induced a significantly increase (p<0.01) in the cell number with disrupted mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Furthermore, treated cells demonstrated important ultrastructural mitochondria damage and a three-fold increase in the cytoplasmic lipid bodies' number, quantified by morphometrical analyses. Conversely, 24h after treatment, the cells presented a two-fold increase of residual oxygen consumption, accounting for 45.3% of basal oxygen consumption. These results show remarkable alterations promoted by anodic flow on human lung cancer cells which are possibly involved with the antitumoral effects of EChT.

  17. Artemisinin induces A549 cell apoptosis dominantly via a reactive oxygen species-mediated amplification activation loop among caspase-9, -8 and -3.

    PubMed

    Gao, Weijie; Xiao, Fenglian; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Tongsheng

    2013-10-01

    This report is designed to explore the roles of caspase-8, -9 and -3 in artemisinin (ARTE)-induced apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cells (A549 cells). ARTE induced reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated apoptosis in dose- and time-dependent fashion. Although ARTE treatment did not induce Bid cleavage and significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, it induced release of Smac and AIF but not cytochrome c from mitochondria, and silencing of Bak but not Bax significantly prevented ARTE-induced cytotoxicity. Moreover, ARTE treatment induced ROS-dependent activation of caspase-9, -8 and -3. Of the utmost importance, silencing or inhibiting any one of caspase-8, -9 and -3 almost completely prevented ARTE-induced activation of all the three caspases and remarkably abrogated the cytotoxicity of ARTE, suggesting that ARTE triggered an amplification activation loop among caspase-9, -8 and -3. Collectively, our data demonstrate that ARTE induces a ROS-mediated amplification activation loop among caspase-9, -8 and -3 to dominantly mediate the apoptosis of A549 cells. PMID:23661289

  18. Artemisinin induces A549 cell apoptosis dominantly via a reactive oxygen species-mediated amplification activation loop among caspase-9, -8 and -3.

    PubMed

    Gao, Weijie; Xiao, Fenglian; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Tongsheng

    2013-10-01

    This report is designed to explore the roles of caspase-8, -9 and -3 in artemisinin (ARTE)-induced apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cells (A549 cells). ARTE induced reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated apoptosis in dose- and time-dependent fashion. Although ARTE treatment did not induce Bid cleavage and significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, it induced release of Smac and AIF but not cytochrome c from mitochondria, and silencing of Bak but not Bax significantly prevented ARTE-induced cytotoxicity. Moreover, ARTE treatment induced ROS-dependent activation of caspase-9, -8 and -3. Of the utmost importance, silencing or inhibiting any one of caspase-8, -9 and -3 almost completely prevented ARTE-induced activation of all the three caspases and remarkably abrogated the cytotoxicity of ARTE, suggesting that ARTE triggered an amplification activation loop among caspase-9, -8 and -3. Collectively, our data demonstrate that ARTE induces a ROS-mediated amplification activation loop among caspase-9, -8 and -3 to dominantly mediate the apoptosis of A549 cells.

  19. Taxol-induced paraptosis-like A549 cell death is not senescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao-yang; Chen, Tong-Sheng

    2011-03-01

    Our previous studies have shown that taxol, a potent anticancer agent, induces caspase-independent cell death and cytoplasmic vacuolization in human lung cancer cells. However, the mechanisms of taxol-induced cytoplasmic vacuolization are poorly understood. Cytoplasmic vacuolization have been reported to be a characteristic of cell senescence. Here, we employed confocal fluorescence microscopy imaging to study the reversibility of taxol-induced cytoplasmic vacuolization and whether taxol triggers senescence in A549 cells. We found that taxol-induced cytoplasmic vacuolization at 6 or 9 h after treatment with taxol did not decrease but increase at 24 h or 72 h after refreshing the culture medium without taxol, indicating taxol-induced cytoplasmic vacuolization is irreversible. We used SA-β-Gal (senescence-associated β-galactosidase) to assess whether taxol-induced cell death in cytoplasmic vacuolization fashion is senescence, and found that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-treated, but not taxol-treated cells is significantly stained by the SA-β-Gal, a senescence testing kit, indicating that the form of taxol-induced cell death is not senescence.

  20. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles and related cytotoxicity evaluation using A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Sathishkumar, M; Pavagadhi, S; Mahadevan, A; Balasubramanian, R

    2015-04-01

    Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has become an attractive area of research as it is environmentally benign. The toxicity of AuNPs synthesized by chemical routes has been widely studied. However, little is known about the toxicity associated with the biological synthesis of AuNPs. The present study was carried out to synthesize AuNPs using star anise (Illicium verum; a commercially available spice in abundance)and evaluate its toxicity using human epithelial lung cells (A549) in comparison with AuNPs synthesized by the traditional chemical methods (using sodium citrate and sodium borohydride). Apart from cell viability, markers of oxidative stress (reduced glutathione) and cell death (caspases) were also evaluated to understand the mechanisms of toxicity. Cell viability was observed to be 65.7 percent and 72.3 percent in cells exposed to chemically synthesized AuNPs at the highest dose (200nM) as compared to 80.2 percent for biologically synthesized AuNPs. Protective coating/capping of AuNPs by various polyphenolic compounds present in star anise extract appears to be a major contributor to lower toxicity observed in biologically synthesized AuNPs.

  1. Long Term Culture of the A549 Cancer Cell Line Promotes Multilamellar Body Formation and Differentiation towards an Alveolar Type II Pneumocyte Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, James Ross; Abdullatif, Muhammad Bilal; Burnett, Edward C.; Kempsell, Karen E.; Conforti, Franco; Tolley, Howard; Collins, Jane E.; Davies, Donna E.

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary research requires models that represent the physiology of alveolar epithelium but concerns with reproducibility, consistency and the technical and ethical challenges of using primary or stem cells has resulted in widespread use of continuous cancer or other immortalized cell lines. The A549 ‘alveolar’ cell line has been available for over four decades but there is an inconsistent view as to its suitability as an appropriate model for primary alveolar type II (ATII) cells. Since most work with A549 cells involves short term culture of proliferating cells, we postulated that culture conditions that reduced proliferation of the cancer cells would promote a more differentiated ATII cell phenotype. We examined A549 cell growth in different media over long term culture and then used microarray analysis to investigate temporal regulation of pathways involved in cell cycle and ATII differentiation; we also made comparisons with gene expression in freshly isolated human ATII cells. Analyses indicated that long term culture in Ham’s F12 resulted in substantial modulation of cell cycle genes to result in a quiescent population of cells with significant up-regulation of autophagic, differentiation and lipidogenic pathways. There were also increased numbers of up- and down-regulated genes shared with primary cells suggesting adoption of ATII characteristics and multilamellar body (MLB) development. Subsequent Oil Red-O staining and Transmission Electron Microscopy confirmed MLB expression in the differentiated A549 cells. This work defines a set of conditions for promoting ATII differentiation characteristics in A549 cells that may be advantageous for studies with this cell line. PMID:27792742

  2. Phosphorylation of p53 at serine 15 in A549 pulmonary epithelial cells exposed to vanadate: Involvement of ATM pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Katsura; Inageda, Kiyoshi; Nishitai, Gen; Matsuoka, Masato . E-mail: matsuoka@research.twmu.ac.jp

    2007-04-01

    When A549 cells were exposed to sodium metavanadate (NaVO{sub 3}), the pentavalent species of vanadium (vanadate), phosphorylation of p53 protein at Ser15 was found in a time (8-48 h)- and dose (10-200 {mu}M)-dependent manner. After the incubation with 50 or 100 {mu}M NaVO{sub 3} for 48 h, accumulation of p53 protein was accompanied with Ser15 phosphorylation. Among serines in p53 protein immunoprecipitated from A549 cells treated with 100 {mu}M NaVO{sub 3} for 48 h, only Ser15 was markedly phosphorylated. Treatment with other vanadate compounds, sodium orthovanadate (Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4}) and ammonium metavanadate (NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3}), also induced Ser15 phosphorylation and accumulation of p53 protein. While phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) was found in cells treated with NaVO{sub 3}, treatment with U0126 did not suppress Ser15 phosphorylation. On the other hand, treatment with wortmannin or caffeine, the inhibitors to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase related kinases (PIKKs), suppressed both NaVO{sub 3}-induced Ser15 phosphorylation and accumulation of p53 protein. The silencing of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) expression using short-interference RNA resulted in the marked suppression of Ser15 phosphorylation in A549 cells exposed to NaVO{sub 3}. However, treatment with antioxidants such as catalase and N-acetylcysteine did not suppress NaVO{sub 3}-induced Ser15 phosphorylation. Transcriptional activation of p53 and DNA fragmentation in A549 cells treated with NaVO{sub 3} were suppressed only slightly by S15A mutation, suggesting that Ser15 phosphorylation is not essential for these responses. The present results showed that vanadate induces the phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15 depending on ATM, one of the members of PIKK family, in this human pulmonary epithelial cell line.

  3. Identification and Testing of Novel CARP-1 Functional Mimetic Compounds as Inhibitors of Non-Small Cell Lung and Triple Negative Breast Cancers.

    PubMed

    Muthu, Magesh; Somagoni, Jaganmohan; Cheriyan, Vino T; Munie, Sara; Levi, Edi; Ashour, Abdelkader E; Yassin, Alaa Eldeen B; Alafeefy, Ahmed M; Sochacki, Paula; Polin, Lisa A; Reddy, Kaladhar B; Larsen, Scott D; Singh, Mandip; Rishi, Arun K

    2015-09-01

    The triple negative breast cancer (TNBCs) and non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) often acquire mutations that contribute to failure of drugs in clinic and poor prognosis, thus presenting an urgent need to develop new and improved therapeutic modalities. Here we report that CARP-1 functional mimetic (CFMs) compounds 4 and 5, and 4.6, a structurally related analog of CFM-4, are potent inhibitors of TNBC and NSCLC cells in vitro. Cell growth suppression by CFM-4 and -4.6 involved interaction and elevated expression of CARP-1/CCAR1 and Death Effector Domain (DED) containing DNA binding (DEDD)2 proteins. Apoptosis by these compounds also involved activation of pro-apoptotic stress-activated kinases p38 and JNK1/2, cleavage of PARP and loss of mitotic cyclin B1. Both the CFMs inhibited abilities of NSCLC and TNBC cells to migrate, invade, and form colonies in suspension, while disrupting tubule formation by the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Nano-lipid formulation of CFM-4 (CFM-4 NLF) enhanced its serum bioavailability when compared with the free CFM-4. Oral administration of CFM-4 NLF reduced weights and volume of the xenografted tumors derived from A549 NSCLC and MDA-MB-231 TNBC cells. Although no gross tissue or histological toxicities were noticed, the immuno-histochemical analysis revealed increased CARP-1 and DNA fragmentation in tumors of the CFM-4 NLF-treated animals. In conclusion, while stimulation of pro-apoptotic CARP-1 and DEDD2 expression and their binding underscore a novel mechanism of apoptosis transduction by CFM compounds, our proof-of-concept xenograft studies demonstrate therapeutic potential of CFM-4 for TNBC and NSCLC. PMID:26485930

  4. Treatment with insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor inhibitor reverses hypoxia-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Nurwidya, Fariz; Takahashi, Fumiyuki; Kobayashi, Isao; Murakami, Akiko; Kato, Motoyasu; Minakata, Kunihiko; Nara, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Muneaki; Yagishita, Shigehiro; Baskoro, Hario; Hidayat, Moulid; Shimada, Naoko; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2014-12-12

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) is expressed in many types of solid tumors including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and enhanced activation of IGF1R is thought to reflect cancer progression. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been established as one of the mechanisms responsible for cancer progression and metastasis, and microenvironment conditions, such as hypoxia, have been shown to induce EMT. The purposes of this study were to address the role of IGF1R activation in hypoxia-induced EMT in NSCLC and to determine whether inhibition of IGF1R might reverse hypoxia-induced EMT. Human NSCLC cell lines A549 and HCC2935 were exposed to hypoxia to investigate the expression of EMT-related genes and phenotypes. Gene expression analysis was performed by quantitative real-time PCR and cell phenotypes were studied by morphology assessment, scratch wound assay, and immunofluorescence. Hypoxia-exposed cells exhibited a spindle-shaped morphology with increased cell motility reminiscent of EMT, and demonstrated the loss of E-cadherin and increased expression of fibronectin and vimentin. Hypoxia also led to increased expression of IGF1, IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP3), and IGF1R, but not transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1). Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) with YC-1 abrogated activation of IGF1R, and reduced IGF1 and IGFBP3 expression in hypoxic cells. Furthermore, inhibition of IGF1R using AEW541 in hypoxic condition restored E-cadherin expression, and reduced expression of fibronectin and vimentin. Finally, IGF1 stimulation of normoxic cells induced EMT. Our findings indicated that hypoxia induced EMT in NSCLC cells through activation of IGF1R, and that IGF1R inhibition reversed these phenomena. These results suggest a potential role for targeting IGF1R in the prevention of hypoxia-induced cancer progression and metastasis mediated by EMT.

  5. Identification and Testing of Novel CARP-1 Functional Mimetic Compounds as Inhibitors of Non-Small Cell Lung and Triple Negative Breast Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Muthu, Magesh; Somagoni, Jaganmohan; Cheriyan, Vino T.; Munie, Sara; Levi, Edi; Ashour, Abdelkader E.; Yassin, Alaa Eldeen B.; Alafeefy, Ahmed M.; Sochacki, Paula; Polin, Lisa A.; Reddy, Kaladhar B.; Larsen, Scott D.; Singh, Mandip; Rishi, Arun K.

    2016-01-01

    The triple negative breast cancer (TNBCs) and non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) often acquire mutations that contribute to failure of drugs in clinic and poor prognosis, thus presenting an urgent need to develop new and improved therapeutic modalities. Here we report that CARP-1 functional mimetic (CFMs) compounds 4 and 5, and 4.6, a structurally related analog of CFM-4, are potent inhibitors of TNBC and NSCLC cells in vitro. Cell growth suppression by CFM-4 and -4.6 involved interaction and elevated expression of CARP-1/CCAR1 and Death Effector Domain (DED) containing DNA binding (DEDD)2 proteins. Apoptosis by these compounds also involved activation of pro-apoptotic stress-activated kinases p38 and JNK1/2, cleavage of PARP and loss of mitotic cyclin B1. Both the CFMs inhibited abilities of NSCLC and TNBC cells to migrate, invade, and form colonies in suspension, while disrupting tubule formation by the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Nano-lipid formulation of CFM-4 (CFM-4 NLF) enhanced its serum bioavailability when compared with the free CFM-4. Oral administration of CFM-4 NLF reduced weights and volume of the xenografted tumors derived from A549 NSCLC and MDA-MB-231 TNBC cells. Although no gross tissue or histological toxicities were noticed, the immuno-histochemical analysis revealed increased CARP-1 and DNA fragmentation in tumors of the CFM-4 NLF-treated animals. In conclusion, while stimulation of pro-apoptotic CARP-1 and DEDD2 expression and their binding underscore a novel mechanism of apoptosis transduction by CFM compounds, our proof-of-concept xenograft studies demonstrate therapeutic potential of CFM-4 for TNBC and NSCLC. PMID:26485930

  6. Ginkgo biloba Extract Decreases Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Migration by Downregulating Metastasis-Associated Factor Heat-Shock Protein 27

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jong-Rung; Liu, Po-Len; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Chou, Shah-Hwa; Yang, Ming-Chan; Cheng, Yu-Jen; Hwang, Jhi-Jhu; Yin, Wei-Hsian; Chong, Inn-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperones that protect proteins from damage. HSP27 expression is associated with cancer transformation and invasion. Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761), the most widely sold herbal supplement, has antiangiogenic effects and induces tumor apoptosis. Data regarding the effect of EGb761 on HSP expression is limited, particularly in cancer. HSP27 expression in paired tumors and normal lung tissues of 64 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were detected by real-time PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. NSCLC cell lines (A549/H441) were used to examine the migratory abilities in vitro. NSCLC tissue showed higher HSP27 expression than normal lung tissue. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that NSCLC patients with low HSP27 expression ratio (<1) had significantly longer survival time than those with a high expression ratio (>1) (p = 0.04). EGb761 inhibited HSP27 expression and migratory ability of A549/H441 cells, which is the same as HSP27-siRNA transfection effect. Moreover, EGb761 treatment activated the AKT and p38 pathways and did not affect the expression of PI3K, ERK, and JNK pathways. HSP27 is a poor prognostic indicator of NSCLC. EGb761 can decrease the migration ability of A549/H441 by inhibiting HSP27 expression most likely through AKT and p38 MAPK pathways activation. PMID:24618684

  7. Protective efficacy of IFN-ω AND IFN-λs against influenza viruses in induced A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Škorvanová, L; Švančarová, P; Svetlíková, D; Betáková, T

    2015-12-01

    The interferon system represents one of the components of the first line defence against influenza virus infection. Interferon omega (IFN-ω) is antigenetically different from IFN-α and IFN-β and can affect patients who are resistant to these IFNs. To improve the biological characterization of IFN-ω, we compared its activity with those of type I and type III IFNs in induced A549 cells. The antiviral effect on IFN-stimulated A549 cells was most apparent after infection with avian influenza virus. IFN-ω had statistically significant antiviral activity although less than IFN-β1a, IFN-λ1, or IFN-λ2. On the other hand, IFN-ω appeared more efficient than IFN-α2. Our results also indicate that IFN-λs were more suitable against human highly pathogenic virus. In this case, IFN-λ1 and IFN-λ2 were more potent than type I IFNs. PMID:26666190

  8. Polyurethane dispersion containing quaternized ammonium groups: An efficient nanosize gene delivery carrier for A549 cancer cell line transfection.

    PubMed

    Yousefpour Marzbali, Mahsa; Yari Khosroushahi, Ahmad; Movassaghpour, AliAkbar; Yeganeh, Hamid

    2016-01-25

    A novel polyurethane containing cationic ammonium groups (QPU) was synthesized and used as vector for gene therapy and cancer gene targeting. The synthesized QPU was characterized by Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy methods. An agarose gel retardation electrophoresis assay was conducted to verify the complete complex formation between QPU and pDNA. The particles size and zeta potential of neat polymers, plasmid DNA, polymers/DNA polyplexes were determined by the dynamic light scattering technique. The polyplexes cytotoxicity was determined using [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay and its transfection efficiency was examined qualitatively by fluorescent microscopy and quantitatively by flow cytometery methods. The gel retardation assay, particle size and zeta potential measurements were confirmed that the synthesized cationic polymer could condense DNA efficiently in the physiologic condition. QPU polyplexes showed a significantly lower cytotoxicity compared to Polyfect polyplexes in the examined human cancerous (A549) or normal cells (KDR). Based on our findings, the transfection efficiency by QPU was 2.2 fold higher than Polyfect in the A549 cells whereas in the KDR cells, the cell transfection by Polyfect was 18.1 fold higher than QPU. Due to low cytotoxicity for normal cells and high transfection efficiency in cancer cells, the potential applicability of designed QPU as a non-viral gene carrier for targeting of cancer gene therapy was confirmed.

  9. Ursolic acid and oleanolic acid from Eriobotrya fragrans inhibited the viability of A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Gao, Yongshun; Song, Gang; Lin, Shunquan

    2015-02-01

    Loquat {Eriobotrya japonica (Lindl.)}, a kind of Chinese herb, has many efficacies such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and curing chronic bronchitis. However, reports on the pharmacological action of wild loquat extract are limited. In this work, the A549 cell line was selected to study the inhibitory effect of ursolic acid and oleanolic acid (UA, OA) from the leaves of E. fragrans. Results showed that UA/OA inhibited A549 cell viability and induced apoptosis in a dose and time dependent manner. The cell fraction in the G0/G1 phase dramatically increased under treatment with UA/OA. Data showed that UA activated the expression of PARP. UA and OA down-regulated MMP-2 and Bcl-2; on the contrary, they up-regulated Bid. This work demonstrated that UA/OA extracted from wild loquat leaves can significantly inhibit the viability of A549 cells.

  10. miR-134 inhibits non-small cell lung cancer growth by targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Qin, Qin; Wei, Furong; Zhang, Jianbo; Wang, Xingwu; Li, Baosheng

    2016-10-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is frequently activated in a wide range of solid tumours and represents an important therapeutic target. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been recognized as a rational and potential modality for anti-EGFR therapies. However, more EGFR-targeting miRNAs need to be explored. In this study, we identified a novel EGFR-targeting miRNA, miRNA-134 (miR-134), in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. Luciferase assays confirmed that EGFR is a direct target of miR-134. In addition, the overexpression of miR-134 inhibited EGFR-related signaling and suppressed NSCLC cells proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis, suggesting that miR-134 functions as a tumour suppressor in NSCLC. Further mechanistic investigation including RNAi and rescue experiments suggested that the down-regulation of EGFR by miR-134 partially contributes to the antiproliferative role of miR-134. Last, in vivo experiments demonstrated that miR-134 suppressed tumour growth of A549 xenograft in nude mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that miR-134 inhibits non-small cell lung cancer growth by targeting the EGFR.

  11. Induction of p53-independent growth inhibition in lung carcinoma cell A549 by gypenosides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jung-Sen; Chiang, Tzu-Hsuan; Wang, Jinn-Shyan; Lin, Li-Ju; Chao, Wei-Chih; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Lu, Jyh-Feng; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study are to investigate antiproliferative effect and mechanisms of bioactive compounds from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (G. pentaphyllum) on lung carcinoma cell A549. Saponins, carotenoids and chlorophylls were extracted and fractionated by column chromatography, and were subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. The saponin fraction, which consisted mainly of gypenoside (Gyp) XXII and XXIII, rather than the carotenoid and chlorophyll ones, was effective in inhibiting A549 cell growth in a concentration- and a time-dependent manner as evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The estimated half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of Gyp on A549 cells was 30.6 μg/ml. Gyp was further demonstrated to induce an apparent arrest of the A549 cell cycle at both the S phase and the G2/M phase, accompanied by a concentration- and a time-dependent increase in the proportions of both the early and late apoptotic cells. Furthermore, Gyp down-regulated cellular expression of cyclin A and B as well as BCL-2, while up-regulated the expression of BAX, DNA degradation factor 35 KD, poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1, p53, p21 and caspase-3. Nevertheless, both the treatment of a p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α, and the small hairpin RNA-mediated p53 knockdown in the A549 cells did not alter the growth inhibition effect induced by Gyp. As a result, the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of A549 cells induced by Gyp would most likely proceed through p53-independent pathway(s). PMID:25781909

  12. Punica granatum (pomegranate) leaves extract induces apoptosis through mitochondrial intrinsic pathway and inhibits migration and invasion in non-small cell lung cancer in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Yali; Yang, Fangfang; Zheng, Weidong; Hu, Mingxing; Wang, Juanxiu; Ma, Sisi; Deng, Yuanle; Luo, Yi; Ye, Tinghong; Yin, Wenya

    2016-05-01

    Most conventional treatments on non-small cell lung carcinoma always accompany with awful side effects, and the incidence and mortality rates of this cancer are increasing rapidly worldwide. The objective of this study was to examine the anticancer effects of extract of Punica granatum (pomegranate) leaves extract (PLE) on the non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line A549, H1299 and mouse Lewis lung carcinoma cell line LL/2 in vitro, and explore its mechanisms of action. Our results have shown that PLE inhibited cell proliferation in non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry (FCM) assay showed that PLE affected H1299 cell survival by arresting cell cycle progression in G2/M phase in a dose-dependent manner and inducing apoptosis. Moreover, PLE could also decrease the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔYm), indicating that PLE may induce apoptosis via mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, PLE blocked H1299 cell migration and invasion, and the reduction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression were also observed in vitro. These results suggested that PLE could be an effective and safe chemotherapeutic agent in non-small cell lung carcinoma treatment by inhibiting proliferation, inducing apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and impairing cell migration and invasion. PMID:27133061

  13. An endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis inversely correlates with side population phenotype and function in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Han, H; Bourboulia, D; Jensen-Taubman, S; Isaac, B; Wei, B; Stetler-Stevenson, W G

    2014-02-27

    The side population (SP) in human lung cancer cell lines and tumors is enriched with cancer stem cells. An endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis known as tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), characterized for its ability to inhibit matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), has been shown by several laboratories to impede tumor progression through MMP-dependent or -independent mechanisms. We recently reported that forced expression of TIMP-2, as well as the modified form Ala+TIMP-2 (that lacks MMP inhibitory activity) significantly blocks growth of A549 human lung cancer cells in vivo. However, the mechanisms underlying TIMP-2 antitumor effects are not fully characterized. Here, we examine the hypothesis that the TIMP-2 antitumor activity may involve regulation of the SP in human lung cancer cells. Indeed, using Hoechst dye efflux assay and flow cytometry, as well as quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis, we found that endogenous TIMP-2 mRNA levels showed a significant inverse correlation with SP fraction size in six non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. In A549 cells expressing increased levels of TIMP-2, a significant decrease in SP was observed, and this decrease was associated with lowered gene expression of ABCG2, ABCB1 and AKR1C1. Functional analysis of A549 cells showed that TIMP-2 overexpression increased chemosensitivity to cytotoxic drugs. The SP isolated from TIMP-2-overexpressing A549 cells also demonstrated impaired migratory capacity compared with the SP from empty vector control. More importantly, our data provide strong evidence that these TIMP-2 functions occur independent of MMP inhibition, as A549 cells overexpressing Ala+TIMP-2 exhibited identical behavior to those overexpressing TIMP-2 alone. Our findings provide the first indication that TIMP-2 modulates SP phenotype and function, and suggests that TIMP-2 may act as an endogenous suppressor of the SP in human lung cancer cells.

  14. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway play distinct role in acetochlor-mediated toxicity and intrinsic apoptosis in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Zerin, Tamanna; Song, Ho-Yeon; Kim, Yong-Sik

    2015-02-01

    Acetochlor (ACETO), a member of the chloroacetanilide family of herbicides, is widely used globally and is very frequently detected in watersheds of agricultural lands and fresh water streams. The human health consequences of environmental exposure to ACETO are unknown. This study was designed to elucidate the effect and molecular mechanisms of ACETO on human alveolar A549 cells. Established assays of cell viability and cytotoxicity were performed to detect the potential effects of ACETO on A549 cells. ACETO generated reactive oxygen species, which may have been crucial to apoptosis-mediated cytotoxicity. ACETO-treatment showed a concentration dependent up-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins including Bax, Bak, BID and Bad, but a differential level of expression of anti-apoptotic proteins were observed, leading to the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to the cytoplasm as well as activation of caspase-3, and cleavage of caspase-9 and PARP. ACETO also induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Inhibition of the expression of ERK by PD98059 partially reversed ACETO-induced cytotoxicity, apoptosis and the expression of caspase-3, -9 and PARP in A549 cells. Comparative evaluation of the results indicates that the principal mechanism underlying ACETO-mediated cytotoxicity is likely to be through ERK-mediated intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. PMID:25291404

  15. Suitable parameter choice on quantitative morphology of A549 cell in epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zhou-Xin; Yu, Hai-Bin; Li, Jian-Sheng; Shen, Jun-Ling; Du, Wen-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of morphological changes in cells is an integral part of study on epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), however, only a few papers reported the changes in quantitative parameters and no article compared different parameters for demanding better parameters. In the study, the purpose was to investigate suitable parameters for quantitative evaluation of EMT morphological changes. A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line was selected for the study. Some cells were stimulated by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) for EMT, and other cells were as control without TGF-β1 stimulation. Subsequently, cells were placed in phase contrast microscope and three arbitrary fields were captured and saved with a personal computer. Using the tools of Photoshop software, some cells in an image were selected, segmented out and exchanged into unique hue, and other part in the image was shifted into another unique hue. The cells were calculated with 29 morphological parameters by Image Pro Plus software. A parameter between cells with or without TGF-β1 stimulation was compared statistically and nine parameters were significantly different between them. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve) of a parameter was described with SPSS software and F-test was used to compare two areas under the curves (AUCs) in Excel. Among them, roundness and radius ratio were the most AUCs and were significant higher than the other parameters. The results provided a new method with quantitative assessment of cell morphology during EMT, and found out two parameters, roundness and radius ratio, as suitable for quantification. PMID:26182364

  16. Imaging and characterization of stretch-induced ATP release from alveolar A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Grygorczyk, Ryszard; Furuya, Kishio; Sokabe, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Mechano-transduction at cellular and tissue levels often involves ATP release and activation of the purinergic signalling cascade. In the lungs, stretch is an important physical stimulus but its impact on ATP release, the underlying release mechanisms and transduction pathways are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effect of unidirectional stretch on ATP release from human alveolar A549 cells by real-time luciferin–luciferase bioluminescence imaging coupled with simultaneous infrared imaging, to monitor the extent of cell stretch and to identify ATP releasing cells. In subconfluent (<90%) cell cultures, single 1 s stretch (10–40%)-induced transient ATP release from a small fraction (≤1.5%) of cells that grew in number dose-dependently with increasing extent of stretch. ATP concentration in the proximity (≤150 μm) of releasing cells often exceeded 10 μm, sufficient for autocrine/paracrine purinoreceptor stimulation of neighbouring cells. ATP release responses were insensitive to the putative ATP channel blockers carbenoxolone and 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropyl-amino) benzoic acid, but were inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide and bafilomycin. In confluent cell cultures, the maximal fraction of responding cells dropped to <0.2%, but was enhanced several-fold in the wound/scratch area after it was repopulated by new cells during the healing process. Fluo8 fluorescence experiments revealed two types of stretch-induced intracellular Ca2+ responses, rapid sustained Ca2+ elevations in a limited number of cells and delayed secondary responses in neighbouring cells, seen as Ca2+ waves whose propagation was consistent with extracellular diffusion of released ATP. Our experiments revealed that a single >10% stretch was sufficient to initiate intercellular purinergic signalling in alveolar cells, which may contribute to the regulation of surfactant secretion and wound healing. PMID:23247110

  17. Imaging and characterization of stretch-induced ATP release from alveolar A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Grygorczyk, Ryszard; Furuya, Kishio; Sokabe, Masahiro

    2013-03-01

    Abstract  Mechano-transduction at cellular and tissue levels often involves ATP release and activation of the purinergic signalling cascade. In the lungs, stretch is an important physical stimulus but its impact on ATP release, the underlying release mechanisms and transduction pathways are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effect of unidirectional stretch on ATP release from human alveolar A549 cells by real-time luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence imaging coupled with simultaneous infrared imaging, to monitor the extent of cell stretch and to identify ATP releasing cells. In subconfluent (<90%) cell cultures, single 1 s stretch (10-40%)-induced transient ATP release from a small fraction (1.5%) of cells that grew in number dose-dependently with increasing extent of stretch. ATP concentration in the proximity (150 μm) of releasing cells often exceeded 10 μm, sufficient for autocrine/paracrine purinoreceptor stimulation of neighbouring cells. ATP release responses were insensitive to the putative ATP channel blockers carbenoxolone and 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropyl-amino) benzoic acid, but were inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide and bafilomycin. In confluent cell cultures, the maximal fraction of responding cells dropped to <0.2%, but was enhanced several-fold in the wound/scratch area after it was repopulated by new cells during the healing process. Fluo8 fluorescence experiments revealed two types of stretch-induced intracellular Ca(2+) responses, rapid sustained Ca(2+) elevations in a limited number of cells and delayed secondary responses in neighbouring cells, seen as Ca(2+) waves whose propagation was consistent with extracellular diffusion of released ATP. Our experiments revealed that a single >10% stretch was sufficient to initiate intercellular purinergic signalling in alveolar cells, which may contribute to the regulation of surfactant secretion and wound healing.

  18. Autophagy inhibition enhances isorhamnetin-induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    RUAN, YUSHU; HU, KE; CHEN, HONGBO

    2015-01-01

    Isorhamnetin (ISO) is a flavonoid from plants of the Polygonaceae family and is also an immediate metabolite of quercetin in mammals. To date, the anti-tumor effects of ISO and the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated in lung cancer cells. The present study investigated the inhibitory effects of ISO on the growth of human lung cancer A549 cells. Treatment of the lung cancer cells with ISO significantly suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation. ISO treatment also resulted in a significant increase in apoptotic cell death of A549 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Further investigation showed that the apoptosis proceeded via the mitochondria-dependent pathway as indicated by alteration of the mitochondrial membrane potential, the release of cytochrome C and caspase activation. Of note, treatment with ISO also induced the formation of autophagosomes and light chain 3-II protein in A549 cells. Furthermore, co-treatment with autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine and hydroxychloroquine significantly inhibited the ISO-induced autophagy and enhanced the ISO-induced apoptotic cell death in vitro as well as in vivo. Thus, the results of the present study suggested that ISO is a potential anti-lung cancer agent. In addition, the results indicated that the inhibition of autophagy may be a useful strategy for enhancing the chemotherapeutic effect of ISO on lung cancer cells. PMID:26238746

  19. TSPYL5 is involved in cell growth and the resistance to radiation in A549 cells via the regulation of p21{sup WAF1/Cip1} and PTEN/AKT pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eun Jin; Lee, So Yong; Kim, Tae Rim; Choi, Soo Im; Cho, Eun Wie; Kim, Kug Chan; Kim, In Gyu

    2010-02-12

    TSPYL5, encoding testis-specific Y-like protein, has been postulated to be a tumor suppressor gene, and its hypermethylation is often associated with human disease, especially cancer. In this study, we report that the TSPYL5 gene was less methylated (30%) in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells, which are relatively resistant to {gamma}-radiation, than in H460 lung cancer cells, in which the TSPYL5 gene was hypermethylated (95%); thus, the expression level of TSPYL5 is much higher in A549 cells than in H460 cells. We showed that TSPYL5 suppression with silencing RNA in A549 cells up-regulated cellular PTEN, followed by down-regulation of AKT activation. Therefore, blockage of TSPYL5 sensitized A549 cells to cytotoxic agents such as {gamma}-radiation. In addition, TSPYL5 suppression also showed an increased level of p21{sup WAF1/Cip1} and subsequently induced inhibition of cell growth in A549 cells. The overexpression of TSPYL5 in H460 cells showed the opposite effects. This study provides the first demonstration that TSPYL5 modulates cell growth and sensitization of cells to the detrimental effects of damaging agents via regulation of p21{sup WAF1/Cip1} and PTEN/AKT pathway.

  20. Chloroquine inhibits cell growth and induces cell death in A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chuandong; Wang, Weiwei; Zhao, Baoxiang; Zhang, Shangli; Miao, Junying

    2006-05-01

    To investigate the effects of chloroquine diphosphate (CQ) on lung cancer cell growth, we treated A549 cells, a lung cancer cell line, with the drug at various concentrations (0.25-128 microM) for 24-72 h. The results showed that, at lower concentrations (from 0.25 to 32 microM), CQ inhibited the growth of A549 cells and, at the same time, it induced vacuolation with increased volume of acidic compartments (VAC). On the other hand, at higher concentrations (64-128 microM), CQ induced apoptosis at 24 h, while its effect of inducing vacuolation declined. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay showed that with the treatment of CQ 32-64 microM for 72 h or 128 microM for 48 h, CQ induced necrosis of A549 cells. To understand the possible mechanism by which CQ acts in A549 cells, we further incubated the cells with this drug at the concentrations of 32 or 128 microM in the presence of D609, a specific inhibitor of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC). The results showed that D609 (50 microM) could inhibit the effects of CQ 32 microM on the viability and VAC, but it could not change the effects of CQ 128 microM on the same. Our data suggested that CQ inhibited A549 lung cancer cell growth at lower concentrations by increasing the volume of lysosomes and that PC-PLC might be involved in this process. The data also indicated that, at higher concentrations, CQ induced apoptosis and necrosis, but at this time its ability to increase the volume of lysosome gradually declined, and PC-PLC might not be implicated in the process. PMID:16413786

  1. Selective modulation of MHC class II chaperons by a novel IFN-γ-inducible class II transactivator variant in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Bau-Lin; Li, Chia-Hsuan; Chang, Chien-Chung

    2013-10-11

    Class II transactivator (CIITA) plays a critical role in controlling major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II gene expression. In this study, two novel alternatively spliced variants of human interferon (IFN)-γ-inducible CIITA, one missing exon 7 (CIITAΔE7), the other with TAG inserted at exon 4/5 junction (CIITA-TAG), were identified and characterized. Both variants are naturally occurring since they are present in primary cells. Unlike CIITA-TAG, CIITAΔE7 is expressed more abundantly in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells than in the non-transformed counterpart BEAS-2B cells following IFN-γ stimulation. Transfection experiments showed that CIITAΔE7 induced a markedly lower level of surface HLA-DR, -DP, -DQ expression than CIITA-TAG in A549 cells but not in BEAS-2B cells, although both variants elicited similar amounts of total DR, DP, and DQ proteins. This differential effect was correlated with, in A549 cells, decreased expression of Ii and HLA-DM genes, along with increased expression of HLA-DO genes. Ii and HLA-DM are chaperons assisting in HLA class II assembly, while HLA-DO functions to inhibit endosomal peptide loading and HLA class II membrane transport. These findings raise the possibility that CIITAΔE7 interacts with unknown cancer-associated factors to selectively modulate genes involved in the assembly and transport of HLA class II molecules.

  2. IL-4 and IL-13 induce SOCS-1 gene expression in A549 cells by three functional STAT6-binding motifs located upstream of the transcription initiation site.

    PubMed

    Hebenstreit, Daniel; Luft, Petra; Schmiedlechner, Angela; Regl, Gerhard; Frischauf, Anna-Maria; Aberger, Fritz; Duschl, Albert; Horejs-Hoeck, Jutta

    2003-12-01

    Proteins of the suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family have important functions as negative regulators of cytokine signaling. We show here that SOCS-1 expression can be induced in the human epithelial lung cell line A549 by IL-4 and IL-13. Analysis of reporter gene constructs under control of the SOCS-1 promoter provides evidence that IL-4- and IL-13-induced up-regulation is dependent on three IFN-gamma-activated sequence motifs of the sequence TTC(N)(4)GAA, which is known for binding STAT6. The three motifs are situated close to each other approximately 600 bp upstream of the transcriptional initiation site. When mutations were inserted into all three IFN-gamma-activated sequence motifs at the same time, IL-4-IL-13-induced luciferase activity was abrogated. With single and double mutants, promoter activity was diminished in comparison with the wild-type promoter. STAT6 is therefore required for IL-4-IL-13-dependent SOCS-1 expression in A549 cells, and the three identified binding motifs cooperate to induce maximal transcription. EMSAs conducted with nuclear extracts of IL-4- and IL-13-stimulated A549 cells showed that STAT6 was able to bind to each of the three binding motifs. Finally, cotransfection of a SOCS-1 expression vector inhibited activation of SOCS-1 promoter luciferase constructs. Thus, SOCS-1 is able to autoregulate its expression via a negative feedback loop.

  3. Enhanced expression levels of aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-4 in A549 cells exposed to silicon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiaohui; Wang, Hongli; Liu, Wei; Liu, Shupeng; Peng, Zihe; Sun, Yue; Zhao, Jinyuan; Jiang, Qiujie; Liu, Heliang

    2016-09-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs), water channel proteins in the cell membranes of mammals, have been reported to be important in maintaining the water balance of the respiratory system. However, little is known regarding the role of AQP in occupational pulmonary diseases such as silicosis. The present study investigated the expression of AQP1 and AQP4 in the human A549 alveolar epithelial cell line stimulated by silica (SiO2). A549 cells were cultured and divided into four groups: Control, SiO2‑stimulated, AQP1 inhibitor and AQP4 inhibitor. The cells of the SiO2‑stimulated group were stimulated with SiO2 dispersed suspension (50 mg/ml). The cells of the inhibitor group were pretreated with mercury (II) chloride (HgCl2; a specific channel inhibitor of AQP1) and 2‑(nicotinamide)‑1,3,4‑thiadiazole (TGN‑020; a specific channel inhibitor of AQP4) and stimulated with SiO2. The mRNA expression levels of AQP1 and AQP4 were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the protein expression levels of AQP1 and AQP4 were detected by western blotting and immunocytochemistry. Compared with the control group, the expression levels of AQP1 and AQP4 mRNA and protein in SiO2‑stimulated groups increased and subsequently decreased (AQP1 peaked at 2 h and AQP4 at 1h; both P<0.001 compared with control group). In the inhibitor group, expression levels were increased compared with controls; however, they were significantly decreased compared with the SiO2‑stimulated group at 2 h (AQP1; P<0.001) and 1 h (AQP4; P<0.001). The expression of AQP1 and AQP4 increased when exposed to SiO2, and this was inhibited by HgCl2 and TGN‑020, suggesting that AQP1 and AQP4 may contribute to A549 cell damage induced by SiO2. AQP1 and AQP4 may thus be involved in the initiation and development of silicosis.

  4. Enhanced expression levels of aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-4 in A549 cells exposed to silicon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiaohui; Wang, Hongli; Liu, Wei; Liu, Shupeng; Peng, Zihe; Sun, Yue; Zhao, Jinyuan; Jiang, Qiujie; Liu, Heliang

    2016-09-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs), water channel proteins in the cell membranes of mammals, have been reported to be important in maintaining the water balance of the respiratory system. However, little is known regarding the role of AQP in occupational pulmonary diseases such as silicosis. The present study investigated the expression of AQP1 and AQP4 in the human A549 alveolar epithelial cell line stimulated by silica (SiO2). A549 cells were cultured and divided into four groups: Control, SiO2‑stimulated, AQP1 inhibitor and AQP4 inhibitor. The cells of the SiO2‑stimulated group were stimulated with SiO2 dispersed suspension (50 mg/ml). The cells of the inhibitor group were pretreated with mercury (II) chloride (HgCl2; a specific channel inhibitor of AQP1) and 2‑(nicotinamide)‑1,3,4‑thiadiazole (TGN‑020; a specific channel inhibitor of AQP4) and stimulated with SiO2. The mRNA expression levels of AQP1 and AQP4 were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the protein expression levels of AQP1 and AQP4 were detected by western blotting and immunocytochemistry. Compared with the control group, the expression levels of AQP1 and AQP4 mRNA and protein in SiO2‑stimulated groups increased and subsequently decreased (AQP1 peaked at 2 h and AQP4 at 1h; both P<0.001 compared with control group). In the inhibitor group, expression levels were increased compared with controls; however, they were significantly decreased compared with the SiO2‑stimulated group at 2 h (AQP1; P<0.001) and 1 h (AQP4; P<0.001). The expression of AQP1 and AQP4 increased when exposed to SiO2, and this was inhibited by HgCl2 and TGN‑020, suggesting that AQP1 and AQP4 may contribute to A549 cell damage induced by SiO2. AQP1 and AQP4 may thus be involved in the initiation and development of silicosis. PMID:27431275

  5. Nickel decreases cellular iron level and converts cytosolic aconitase to iron-regulatory protein 1 in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haobin; Davidson, Todd; Singleton, Steven; Garrick, Michael D; Costa, Max

    2005-08-15

    Nickel (Ni) compounds are well-established carcinogens and are known to initiate a hypoxic response in cells via the stabilization and transactivation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha). This change may be the consequence of nickel's interference with the function of several Fe(II)-dependent enzymes. In this study, the effects of soluble nickel exposure on cellular iron homeostasis were investigated. Nickel treatment decreased both mitochondrial and cytosolic aconitase (c-aconitase) activity in A549 cells. Cytosolic aconitase was converted to iron-regulatory protein 1, a form critical for the regulation of cellular iron homeostasis. The increased activity of iron-regulatory protein 1 after nickel exposure stabilized and increased transferrin receptor (Tfr) mRNA and antagonized the iron-induced ferritin light chain protein synthesis. The decrease of aconitase activity after nickel treatment reflected neither direct interference with aconitase function nor obstruction of [4Fe-4S] cluster reconstitution by nickel. Exposure of A549 cells to soluble nickel decreased total cellular iron by about 40%, a decrease that likely caused the observed decrease in aconitase activity and the increase of iron-regulatory protein 1 activity. Iron treatment reversed the effect of nickel on cytosolic aconitase and iron-regulatory protein 1. To assess the mechanism for the observed effects, human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells over expressing divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) were compared to A549 cells expressing only endogenous transporters for inhibition of iron uptake by nickel. The inhibition data suggest that nickel can enter via DMT1 and compete with iron for entry into the cell. This disturbance of cellular iron homeostasis by nickel may have a great impact on the ability of the cell to regulate a variety of cell functions, as well as create a state of hypoxia in cells under normal oxygen tension. These effects may be very important in how nickel exerts phenotypic

  6. Up- regulation of miR-328-3p sensitizes non-small cell lung cancer to radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wei; Ma, Chao-nan; Zhou, Nan-nan; Li, Xian-dong; Zhang, Yi-jie

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are believed to be resistant against radiotherapy in certain types of cancers. The aim of our study was to determine the clinical application of miRNAs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Sixty NSCLC tissue samples and adjacent histologically normal tissues were obtained for miRNAs microarray analysis and validated by RT-qPCR. Correlation between miRNA expression level and clinicopathological features was evaluated. Our study examined the influence of changed miRNA expression on the damaged DNA and its associated radio sensitivity. Luciferase assay was performed to determine potential effects on the targeted gene. Our study identified fifteen altered miRNAs in which miR-328-3p was down regulated in NSCLC tumour tissue as compared to normal tissues. Down-expression of miR-328-3p was positively associated with an enhanced lymph node metastasis, advanced clinical stage and a shortened survival rate. miR-328-3p expression was decreased in A549 cells compared to other NSCLC cell lines. Up-regulation of miR-328-3p demonstrated a survival inhibition effect in A549 and restored NSCLC cells’ sensitivity to radio therapy. An increased miR-328-3p expression promoted irradiation-induced DNA damage in cells. γ-H2AX was identified as the direct target of miR-328-3p. Over-expressed miR-328-3p can improve the radiosensitvity of cells by altering the DNA damage/repair signalling pathways in NSCLC. PMID:27530148

  7. A negative regulation loop of long noncoding RNA HOTAIR and p53 in non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Nailiang; Xia, Yongfu; Yin, Rui; Liu, Jinping; Gao, Fuquan

    2016-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide, and the 5-year survival rate is still low despite advances in diagnosis and therapeutics. A long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) HOX antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) has been revealed to play important roles in NSCLC carcinogenesis but the detailed mechanisms are still unclear. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the regulation between the lncRNA HOTAIR and p53 in the NSCLC patient samples and cell lines. Our results showed that HOTAIR expression was significantly higher in the cancer tissues than that in the adjacent normal tissue, and was negatively correlated with p53 functionality rather than expression. When p53 was overexpressed in A549 cells, the lncRNA HOTAIR expression was downregulated, and the cell proliferation rate and cell invasion capacity decreased as a consequence. We identified two binding sites of p53 on the promoter region of HOTAIR, where the p53 protein would bind to and suppress the HOTAIR mRNA transcription. Inversely, overexpression of lncRNA HOTAIR inhibited the expression of p53 in A549 cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that HOTAIR modified the promoter of p53 and enhanced histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3). These studies identified a specific negative regulation loop of lncRNA HOTAIR and p53 in NSCLC cells, which revealed a new understanding of tumorigenesis in p53 dysfunction NSCLC cells. PMID:27695348

  8. Knockdown of TC-1 enhances radiosensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer via the Wnt/β-catenin pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dapeng; Li, Lei; Yan, Wei

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Thyroid cancer 1 (TC-1, C8ofr4) is widely expressed in vertebrates and associated with many kinds of tumors. Previous studies indicated that TC-1 functions as a positive regulator in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, its exact role and regulation mechanism in radiosensitivity of NSCLC are still unclear. The expression level of TC-1 was measured by qRT-PCR and western blot in NSCLC cell lines. Proliferation and apoptosis of NSCLC cells in response to TC-1 knockdown or/and radiation were determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was further examined by western blot in vitro and in vivo. Compared to TC-1 siRNA or radiotherapy alone, TC-1 silencing combined with radiation inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in NSCLC cell lines by inactivating of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Furthermore, inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by XAV939, a Wnt/β-catenin signaling inhibitor, contributed to proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction in NSCLC A549 cells. Combinative treatment of A549 xenografts with TC-1 siRNA and radiation caused significant tumor regression and inactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway relative to TC-1 siRNA or radiotherapy alone. The results from in vitro and in vivo studies indicated that TC-1 silencing sensitized NSCLC cell lines to radiotherapy through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:27029901

  9. Up- regulation of miR-328-3p sensitizes non-small cell lung cancer to radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei; Ma, Chao-Nan; Zhou, Nan-Nan; Li, Xian-Dong; Zhang, Yi-Jie

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are believed to be resistant against radiotherapy in certain types of cancers. The aim of our study was to determine the clinical application of miRNAs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Sixty NSCLC tissue samples and adjacent histologically normal tissues were obtained for miRNAs microarray analysis and validated by RT-qPCR. Correlation between miRNA expression level and clinicopathological features was evaluated. Our study examined the influence of changed miRNA expression on the damaged DNA and its associated radio sensitivity. Luciferase assay was performed to determine potential effects on the targeted gene. Our study identified fifteen altered miRNAs in which miR-328-3p was down regulated in NSCLC tumour tissue as compared to normal tissues. Down-expression of miR-328-3p was positively associated with an enhanced lymph node metastasis, advanced clinical stage and a shortened survival rate. miR-328-3p expression was decreased in A549 cells compared to other NSCLC cell lines. Up-regulation of miR-328-3p demonstrated a survival inhibition effect in A549 and restored NSCLC cells' sensitivity to radio therapy. An increased miR-328-3p expression promoted irradiation-induced DNA damage in cells. γ-H2AX was identified as the direct target of miR-328-3p. Over-expressed miR-328-3p can improve the radiosensitvity of cells by altering the DNA damage/repair signalling pathways in NSCLC. PMID:27530148

  10. [Immune Checkpoint Therapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Miyauchi, Eisaku; Inoue, Akira

    2016-06-01

    Nivolumab is an anti-PD-1 antibody that has recently been approved in Japan, and has shown high response rates and more favorable safety profiles in 2 phase III clinical trials. Accordingly, immune checkpoint therapy has now been included as a new standard treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer. These immune checkpoints are receptors expressed on T cells that regulate the immune response. The PD-1/PD-L1 signal inhibits cytotoxic T lymphocyte proliferation and survival, induces apoptosis of infiltrative T cells, and increases the amount of regulatory T cells in the tumor microenvironment. Therefore, severe immune-related adverse event(irAE)have been observed, including enterocolitis, neuropathies, and endocrinopathies. There are different management approaches to irAEs with conventional cytotoxic drugs. This article reviews the available data regarding immune checkpoint therapy for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. PMID:27306803

  11. β-HCG secretion by a non-small cell lung cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cirit Koçer, Burcu; Erdoğan, Yurdanur; Akıncı Özyürek, Berna; Büyükyaylacı Özden, Sertaç; Demirağ, Funda

    2016-03-01

    Paraneoplastic secretion of beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been rarely reported. A 43-year old male patient was admitted with dyspnea and chest pain. Thorax computed tomography (CT) revealed bilateral multiple masses and pleural effusion at right hemithorax. Positron emission tomography (PET)-CT showed pathologic 18 FDG uptake at mass lesions and mediastinal lymph nodes. The serum β-HCG level was elevated. A bronchoscopy was performed and endobronchial lesion was observed. Since a definitive diagnosis was not achieved by pathologic examination of biopsy specimen, bronchoscopy was repeated and a sample was taken by cryobiopsy. The pathologic examination revealed non-small cell lung cancer.In conclusion, the case was presented because of extremely rare occurence of NSCLC secreting β-HCG. PMID:27266288

  12. Low-Dose Acetylsalicylic Acid in Treating Patients With Stage I-III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-28

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  13. Zn-Responsive Proteome Profiling and Time-Dependent Expression of Proteins Regulated by MTF-1 in A549 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wen-jie; Song, Qun; Wang, Yan-hong; Li, Ke-jin; Mao, Li; Hu, Xin; Lian, Hong-zhen; Zheng, Wei-juan; Hua, Zi-chun

    2014-01-01

    Zinc plays a critical role in many biological processes. However, it is toxic at high concentrations and its homeostasis is strictly regulated by metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF-1) together with many other proteins to protect cells against metal toxicity and oxidative stresses. In this paper, we used high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) to profile global changes of the whole soluble proteome in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells in response to exogenous zinc treatment for 24 h. Eighteen differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI TOF/TOF and MASCOT search. In addition, we used Western blotting and RT-PCR to examine the time-dependent changes in expression of proteins regulated by MTF-1 in response to Zn treatment, including the metal binding protein MT-1, the zinc efflux protein ZnT-1, and the zinc influx regulator ZIP-1. The results indicated that variations in their mRNA and protein levels were consistent with their functions in maintaining the homeostasis of zinc. However, the accumulation of ZIP-1 transcripts was down-regulated while the protein level was up-regulated during the same time period. This may be due to the complex regulatory mechanism of ZIP-1, which is involved in multiple signaling pathways. Maximal changes in protein abundance were observed at 10 h following Zn treatment, but only slight changes in protein or mRNA levels were observed at 24 h, which was the time-point frequently used for 2DE analyses. Therefore, further study of the time-dependent Zn-response of A549 cells would help to understand the dynamic nature of the cellular response to Zn stress. Our findings provide the basis for further study into zinc-regulated cellular signaling pathways. PMID:25162517

  14. MG-2477, a new tubulin inhibitor, induces autophagy through inhibition of the Akt/mTOR pathway and delayed apoptosis in A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Viola, Giampietro; Bortolozzi, Roberta; Hamel, Ernest; Moro, Stefano; Brun, Paola; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Ferlin, Maria Grazia; Basso, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that MG-2477 (3-cyclopropylmethyl-7-phenyl-3H-pyrrolo[3,2-f]quinolin-9(6H)-one) inhibits the growth of several cancer cell lines in vitro. Here we show that MG-2477 inhibited tubulin polymerization and caused cells to arrest in metaphase. The detailed mechanism of action of MG-2477 was investigated in a non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line (A549). Treatment of A549 cells with MG-2477 caused the cells to arrest in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, with a concomitant accumulation of cyclin B. Moreover, the compound induced autophagy, which was followed at later times by apoptotic cell death. Autophagy was detected as early as 12 h by the conversion of microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3-I) to LC3-II, following cleavage and lipid addition to LC3-I. After 48 h of MG-2477 exposure, phosphatidylserine externalization on the cell membrane, caspase-3 activation, and PARP cleavage occurred, revealing that apoptotic cell death had begun. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy with 3-methyladenine or bafilomycin A1 increased apoptotic cell death, suggesting that the autophagy caused by MG-2477 played a protective role and delayed apoptotic cell death. Additional studies revealed that MG-2477 inhibited survival signaling by blocking activation of Akt and its downstream targets, including mTOR, and FHKR. Treatment with MG-2477 also reduced phosphorylation of mTOR downstream targets p70 ribosomal S6 kinase and 4E-BP1. Overexpression of Akt by transfection with a Myr-Akt vector decreased MG-2477 induced autophagy, indicating that Akt is involved. Taken together, these results indicated that the autophagy induced by MG-2477 delayed apoptosis by exerting an adaptive response following microtubule damage. PMID:21964343

  15. Knock down of the dual functional protein apurinic /apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 enhances the killing effect of hematoporphrphyrin derivative-mediated photodynamic therapy on non-small cell lung cancer cells in vitro and in a xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen-Zhou; Li, Meng-Xia; Zhang, Yun-Song; Xiang, De-Bing; Dai, Nan; Zeng, Lin-Li; Li, Zeng-Peng; Wang, Ge; Wang, Dong

    2010-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is considered to be effective treatment for many cancers including lung cancer, head and neck cancers, and prostate cancer. It uses the combination of nontoxic photosensitizers and harmless visible light to generate reactive oxygen species and kill cells. However, DNA repair and reactive oxygen species-induced signaling pathway activation play crucial roles in cellular response to PDT and may also result in therapeutic limitation of PDT. To improve the cancer therapeutic efficacy of PDT, we targeted apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1), which is essential for both DNA repair and redox regulation of gene transcription, as a potential candidate for PDT combined gene therapy. In our study, an adenovirus-mediated APE1 silencing strategy was introduced to test its therapeutic enhancement for the non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549 both in vitro and in vivo after hematoporphrphyrin derivative (HpD)-mediated PDT. The adenovirus vector Ad5/F35-shAPE1 was validated to significantly suppress the protein expression of APE1 in cultured A549 cell and in its xenograft of nude mice. Ad5/F35-shAPE1 effectively inhibited APE1 protein upregulation induced by PDT and resulted in an increase in A549 cell killing by photoirradiation compared with the hematoporphrphyrin derivative-PDT alone group. Ad5/F35-shAPE1 suppressed the DNA repair capacity for single-strand breaks and abolished the activation of some stress-related transcription factors such as hypoxia-induced factor (HIF)-1 that consequently lead to increased cell apoptosis after PDT. Additionally, knock down of APE1 enhanced the tumor suppression efficacy of PDT on the A549 xenograft. Our study indicated that APE1-targeted gene therapy combined with PDT is a promising strategy for enhancement of the efficacy of PDT in treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.

  16. Focal Adhesion Kinase Inhibitors in Combination with Erlotinib Demonstrate Enhanced Anti-Tumor Activity in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Grant A.; Xiao, Bin; Zhao, Huijun; Al-Zahrani, Khalid N.; Hasim, Mohamed S.; Villeneuve, James; Sekhon, Harmanjatinder S.; Goss, Glenwood D.; Sabourin, Luc A.; Dimitroulakos, Jim; Addison, Christina L.

    2016-01-01

    Blockade of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activity has been a primary therapeutic target for non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). As patients with wild-type EGFR have demonstrated only modest benefit from EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), there is a need for additional therapeutic approaches in patients with wild-type EGFR. As a key component of downstream integrin signalling and known receptor cross-talk with EGFR, we hypothesized that targeting focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activity, which has also been shown to correlate with aggressive stage in NSCLC, would lead to enhanced activity of EGFR TKIs. As such, EGFR TKI-resistant NSCLC cells (A549, H1299, H1975) were treated with the EGFR TKI erlotinib and FAK inhibitors (PF-573,228 or PF-562,271) both as single agents and in combination. We determined cell viability, apoptosis and 3-dimensional growth in vitro and assessed tumor growth in vivo. Treatment of EGFR TKI-resistant NSCLC cells with FAK inhibitor alone effectively inhibited cell viability in all cell lines tested; however, its use in combination with the EGFR TKI erlotinib was more effective at reducing cell viability than either treatment alone when tested in both 2- and 3-dimensional assays in vitro, with enhanced benefit seen in A549 cells. This increased efficacy may be due in part to the observed inhibition of Akt phosphorylation when the drugs were used in combination, where again A549 cells demonstrated the most inhibition following treatment with the drug combination. Combining erlotinib with FAK inhibitor was also potent in vivo as evidenced by reduced tumor growth in the A549 mouse xenograft model. We further ascertained that the enhanced sensitivity was irrespective of the LKB1 mutational status. In summary, we demonstrate the effectiveness of combining erlotinib and FAK inhibitors for use in known EGFR wild-type, EGFR TKI resistant cells, with the potential that a subset of cell types, which includes A549, could be particularly

  17. Deactivation of A549 cancer cells in vitro by a dielectric barrier discharge plasma needle

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Jun; Chen Wei; Li Hui; Wang Xingquan; Lv Guohua; Wang Pengye; Khohsa, M. Latif; Guo Ming; Feng Kecheng; Yang Size

    2011-03-01

    An inactivation mechanism study on A549 cancer cells by means of a dielectric barrier discharge plasma needle is presented. The neutral red uptake assay provides a quantitative estimation of cell viability after plasma treatment. Experimental results show that the efficiency of argon plasma for the inactivation process is very dependent on power and treatment time. A 27 W power and 120 s treatment time along with 900 standard cubic centimeter per minute Ar flow and a nozzle-to-sample separation of 3 mm are the best parameters of the process. According to the argon emission spectra of the plasma jet and the optical microscope images of the A549 cells after plasma treatment, it is concluded that the reactive species (for example, OH and O) in the argon plasma play a major role in the cell deactivation.

  18. Brusatol Enhances the Radiosensitivity of A549 Cells by Promoting ROS Production and Enhancing DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaohui; Wang, Qin; Wang, Yan; Du, Liqing; Xu, Chang; Liu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has been identified as a master regulatory factor in the protection of cells from oxidative and electrophilic stress. However, overexpression of Nrf2 in lung cancer may cause chemoresistance, as well as radioresistance. In this study, we examined the relationship between radioresistance and Nrf2 protein levels in H1299, A549, and H460 cells, and finally chose the A549 cell line to continue with due to its strong radioresistance and high Nrf2 protein levels. We found that the Nrf2 inhibitor, brusatol, could prevent the increase and accumulation of Nrf2 after exposure to irradiation. Additionally, following treatment with 80 nM brusatol, A549 cells became sensitive to irradiation, suffering severe DNA damage. Combination treatment with brusatol and ionizing radiation (IR) can distinctly increase the level of reactive oxygen species in A549 cells, causing a 1.8-fold increase compared with the control, and a 1.4-fold increase compared with IR alone. In fact, in the treatment with both brusatol and IR, lung cancer cell proliferation is halted, gradually leading to cell death. Because Nrf2 is closely linked to DNA damage repair, inhibiting the function of Nrf2, as in brusatol treatment, may increase the DNA damage caused by radiotherapy or chemotherapy, possibly enhancing the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs. Our study is the first to demonstrate brusatol’s ability to enhance the responsiveness of lung cancer cells to irradiation, and its potential application as a natural sensitizer in radiotherapy. PMID:27347930

  19. Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling regulates cancer stem cells in lung cancer A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Ying; Wang, Xiuwen; Wang, Yawei; Ma, Daoxin

    2010-02-12

    Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling plays an important role not only in cancer, but also in cancer stem cells. In this study, we found that {beta}-catenin and OCT-4 was highly expressed in cisplatin (DDP) selected A549 cells. Stimulating A549 cells with lithium chloride (LiCl) resulted in accumulation of {beta}-catenin and up-regulation of a typical Wnt target gene cyclin D1. This stimulation also significantly enhanced proliferation, clone formation, migration and drug resistance abilities in A549 cells. Moreover, the up-regulation of OCT-4, a stem cell marker, was observed through real-time PCR and Western blotting. In a reverse approach, we inhibited Wnt signaling by knocking down the expression of {beta}-catenin using RNA interference technology. This inhibition resulted in down-regulation of the Wnt target gene cyclin D1 as well as the proliferation, clone formation, migration and drug resistance abilities. Meanwhile, the expression of OCT-4 was reduced after the inhibition of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling. Taken together, our study provides strong evidence that canonical Wnt signaling plays an important role in lung cancer stem cell properties, and it also regulates OCT-4, a lung cancer stem cell marker.

  20. Selective killing effect of oxytetracycline, propafenone and metamizole on A549 or Hela cells

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Guihua

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the selective killing effect of oxytetracycline, propafenone and metamizole on A549 or Hela cells. Methods Proliferation assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, apoptosis detecting, flow cytometry and western blot were performed. Results It was found that treatment with propafenone at the concentration of 0.014 g/L or higher for 48 h could induce apoptosis in Hela cells greatly, while it was not observed in oxytetracycline and metamizole at the concentration of 0.20 g/L for 48 h. Oxytetracycline, propafenone and metamizole all displayed evident inhibitory effects on the proliferation of A549 cells. The results of LDH assay demonstrated that the drugs at the test range of concentration did not cause necrosis in the cells. Propafenone could elevate the protein level of P53 effectively (P<0.01). Conclusions Oxytetracycline, propafenone and metamizol (dipyrone) all displayed evident inhibitory effects on the proliferation of A549 cells. Propafenone also displayed evident inhibitory effects on the proliferation of Hela cells. PMID:24385693

  1. PVM/MA-shelled selol nanocapsules promote cell cycle arrest in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Selol is an oily mixture of selenitetriacylglycerides that was obtained as a semi-synthetic compound containing selenite. Selol is effective against cancerous cells and less toxic to normal cells compared with inorganic forms of selenite. However, Selol’s hydrophobicity hinders its administration in vivo. Therefore, the present study aimed to produce a formulation of Selol nanocapsules (SPN) and to test its effectiveness against pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells (A549). Results Nanocapsules were produced through an interfacial nanoprecipitation method. The polymer shell was composed of poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride) (PVM/MA) copolymer. The obtained nanocapsules were monodisperse and stable. Both free Selol (S) and SPN reduced the viability of A549 cells, whereas S induced a greater reduction in non-tumor cell viability than SPN. The suppressor effect of SPN was primarily associated to the G2/M arrest of the cell cycle, as was corroborated by the down-regulations of the CCNB1 and CDC25C genes. Apoptosis and necrosis were induced by Selol in a discrete percentage of A549 cells. SPN also increased the production of reactive oxygen species, leading to oxidative cellular damage and to the overexpression of the GPX1, CYP1A1, BAX and BCL2 genes. Conclusions This study presents a stable formulation of PVM/MA-shelled Selol nanocapsules and provides the first demonstration that Selol promotes G2/M arrest in cancerous cells. PMID:25149827

  2. Therapeutic intervention of silymarin on the migration of non-small cell lung cancer cells is associated with the axis of multiple molecular targets including class 1 HDACs, ZEB1 expression, and restoration of miR-203 and E-cadherin expression

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Tripti; Prasad, Ram; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer and its metastasis is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality world-wide. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for about 90% of total lung cancer cases. Despite advancements in therapeutic approaches, only limited improvement has been achieved. Therefore, alternative strategies are required for the management of lung cancer. Here we report the chemotherapeutic effect of silymarin, a phytochemical from milk thistle plant (Silybum marianum L. Gaertn.), on NSCLC cell migration using metastatic human NSCLC cell lines (A549, H1299 and H460) together with the molecular targets underlying these effects. Using an in vitro cell migration assay, we found that treatment of human NSCLC cells (A549, H1299 and H460) with silymarin (0, 5, 10 and 20 µg/mL) for 24 h resulted in concentration-dependent inhibition of cell migration, which was associated with the inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and reduced levels of class 1 HDAC proteins (HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3 and HDAC8) and concomitant increases in the levels of histone acetyltransferase activity (HAT). Known HDAC inhibitors (sodium butyrate and trichostatin A) exhibited similar patterns of therapeutic effects on the lung cancer cells. Treatment of A549 and H460 cells with silymarin reduced the expression of the transcription factor ZEB1 and restored expression of E-cadherin. The siRNA knockdown of ZEB1 also reduced the expression of HDAC proteins and enhanced re-expression of the levels of E-cadherin in NSCLC cells. MicroRNA-203 (miR-203) acts as a tumor suppressor, regulates tumor cell invasion and is repressed by ZEB1 in cancer cells. Silymarin treatment restored the levels of miR-203 in NSCLC cells. These findings indicate that silymarin can effectively inhibit lung cancer cell migration and provide a coherent model of its mechanism of action suggesting that silymarin may be an important therapeutic option for the prevention or treatment of lung cancer metastasis when administered either

  3. Radiosensitizing Effects of Ectopic miR-101 on Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells Depend on the Endogenous miR-101 Level

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Susie; Wang Hongyan; Ng, Wooi Loon; Curran, Walter J.; Wang Ya

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Previously, we showed that ectopic miR-101 could sensitize human tumor cells to radiation by targeting ATM and DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to inhibit DNA repair, as the endogenous miR-101 levels are low in tumors in general. However, the heterogeneity of human cancers may result in an exception. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a few tumor cell lines with a high level of endogenous miR-101 would prove less response to ectopic miR-101. Methods and Materials: Fourteeen non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and one immortalized non-malignant lung epithelial cell line (NL20) were used for comparing endogenous miR-101 levels by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Based on the different miR-101 levels, four cell lines with different miR-101 levels were chosen for transfection with a green fluorescent protein-lentiviral plasmid encoding miR-101. The target protein levels were measured by using Western blotting. The radiosensitizing effects of ectopic miR-101 on these NSCLC cell lines were determined by a clonogenic assay and xenograft mouse model. Results: The endogenous miR-101 level was similar or lower in 13 NSCLC cell lines but was 11-fold higher in one cell line (H157) than in NL20 cells. Although ectopic miR-101 efficiently decreased the ATM and DNA-PKcs levels and increased the radiosensitization level in H1299, H1975, and A549 cells, it did not change the levels of the miR-101 targets or radiosensitivity in H157 cells. Similar results were observed in xenograft mice. Conclusions: A small number of NSCLC cell lines could have a high level of endogenous miR-101. The ectopic miR-101 was able to radiosensitize most NSCLC cells, except for the NSCLC cell lines that had a much higher endogenous miR-101 level. These results suggest that when we choose one miRNA as a therapeutic tool, the endogenous level of the miRNA in each tumor should be considered.

  4. Pneumopericardium as a non-small-cell lung carcinoma complication

    PubMed Central

    Kubisa, Anna; Dec, Paweł; Szewczak-Głodek, Małgorzata; Kochanowski, Leszek; Kubisa, Bartosz; Feledyk, Grzegorz; Czarnecka, Michalina; Wójcik, Janusz; Grodzki, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Below we present a case of a young man with symptoms of progressive weakness, fever, cough, rapid decrease in body weight and the presence of a tumor in the left axillary region. The chest radiography and echocardiography revealed gas bubbles in the pericardium. The more detailed diagnostics and computed tomography of the chest showed an infiltration of the left lung cavity and a fistula among the bronchus, pleural and pericardial cavities. Further diagnostics demonstrated that the pneumopericardium (diagnosed by means of chest radiograph and echocardiography) was a complication of a primary non-small-cell lung carcinoma.

  5. Dielectric barrier discharge plasma in Ar/O{sub 2} promoting apoptosis behavior in A549 cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Jun; Li Hui; Chen Wei; Lv Guohua; Wang Xingquan; Zhang Guoping; Wang Pengye; Ostrikov, Kostya; Yang Size

    2011-12-19

    The Ar/O{sub 2} plasma needle in the induction of A549 cancer cells apoptosis process is studied by means of real-time observation. The entire process of programmed cell death is observed. The typical morphological changes of A549 apoptosis are detected by 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, for example, chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation. Cell viability is determined and quantified by neutral red uptake assay, and the survival rate of A549 from Ar/O{sub 2} plasmas is presented. Further spectral analysis indicates the reactive species, including O and OH play crucial roles in the cell inactivation.

  6. Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Improving Lung Function in Patients With Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Undergoing Chemoradiation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-17

    Cachexia; Fatigue; Pulmonary Complications; Radiation Toxicity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  7. Nuclear β-catenin accumulation is associated with increased expression of Nanog protein and predicts poor prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the prognostic roles of β-catenin expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been reported in several immunohistochemical (IHC) studies, the results were not consistent because some studies lack sufficient number of the positive cases or did not evaluate the subcellular localization features of the protein. Method In this study, we have evaluated the expression levels and subcellular localization of β-catenin and Nanog proteins IHC staining in tissue specimens from 309 patients with NSCLC, and explored their association with clinicopathological features and patient outcome. Results We showed that patients with negative expression of membranous beta-catenin had a trend towards shorter survival (p=0.064) than those with positive expression. In contrast to previous studies, we found that increased expression of either cytoplasmic or nuclear β-catenin was strongly associated with poor prognosis and was an independent prognosticator for overall survival (p <0.01). We further found that NSCLC cells frequently exhibited an abundance of nuclear Nanog protein which was significantly correlated with nuclear β-catenin expression (p <0.01) and poor prognosis (p <0.01). Interestingly, immunofluorescent staining results revealed that increased expression of Nanog and nuclear translocation of β-catenin occurred concomitantly in response to epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR) signaling in A549 and H23 cells. Furthermore, western blot analysis show that nuclear β-catenin rather than cytoplasmic β-catenin expression in the A549 and H23 cells can be enhanced by adding EGF, Nanog expression in the A549 and H23 cells with knockdown of β-catenin can not be obviously enhanced by adding EGF. Conclusion We propose that evaluation of subcellular localization of β-catenin and Nanog expression is of clinical significance for patients with NSCLC. PMID:23648139

  8. Blocking NF-κB sensitizes non-small cell lung cancer cells to histone deacetylase inhibitor induced extrinsic apoptosis through generation of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Karthik, Selvaraju; Sankar, Renu; Varunkumar, Krishnamoorthy; Anusha, Chidambaram; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2015-02-01

    NF-κB signalling is one of the main cell survival pathways that attenuate the anticancer efficacy of therapeutic drugs. Previous studies demonstrated that the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor induces apoptosis in some malignancies through multiple mechanisms including up-regulation of death receptors, disruption of Hsp90 function and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, HDAC inhibitor also induces a cell survival signal through NF-κB activation. In this report, we found that romidepsin, a class I HDAC inhibitor, induces NF-κB activation in A549 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. We also found that inhibition of A549 cells with bortezomib (proteasome inhibitor) has blocked IκB degradation that leads to the loss of NF-κB activation and translocation which enhanced the romidepsin induced mitochondrial injury and sensitizes NSCLC cells to apoptosis. Romidepsin significantly enhances NF-κB reporter gene transcription and these effects were inhibited by bortezomib as determined by reporter gene assay. Consistently, the combined exposure of romidepsin and bortezomib reversed the effects on IκB degradation as evident with IL-8, p50 and p65 (NF-κB) expression. Apoptosis was markedly sensitized with greater ROS generation and more cell death in A549 cell lines. These events are most closely related in that bortezomib prevents the romidepsin mediated RelA acetylation and NF-κB activation, resulting in caspase activation. A strategy of blocking NF-κB activation to enhance HDAC inhibitor activity warrants further attention in NSCLC cells.

  9. Acrolein induces apoptosis through the death receptor pathway in A549 lung cells: role of p53.

    PubMed

    Roy, Julie; Pallepati, Pragathi; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Averill-Bates, Diana A

    2010-03-01

    Acrolein, a highly reactive alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde, is an omnipresent environmental pollutant. Chronic and acute human exposures occur through exogenous and endogenous sources, including food, vapors of overheated cooking oil, house and forest fires, cigarette smoke, and automobile exhaust. Acrolein is a toxic byproduct of lipid peroxidation, which has been implicated in pulmonary, cardiac, and neurodegenerative diseases. This study shows that p53 is an initiating factor in acrolein-induced death receptor activation during apoptosis in A549 human lung cells. Exposure of cells to acrolein (0-50 micromol/L) mainly caused apoptosis, which was manifested by execution phase events such as condensation of nuclear chromatin, phosphatidylserine externalization, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Levels of necrosis (approximately 5%) were low. Acrolein triggered the death receptor pathway of apoptosis, causing elevation of Fas ligand (FasL) and translocation of adaptor protein Fas-associated death domain to the plasma membrane. Acrolein caused activation of caspase-8, caspase-2, caspase-7, and the cross-talk pathway mediated by Bid cleavage. Activation of p53 and increased expression of p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) occurred in response to acrolein. FasL upregulation and caspase-8 activation were decreased by p53 inhibitor pifithrin-alpha and antioxidant polyethylene glycol catalase. These findings increase our knowledge about the induction of cell death pathways by acrolein, which has important implications for human health.

  10. New geranylated flavanones from the fruits of Paulownia catalpifolia Gong Tong with their anti-proliferative activity on lung cancer cells A549.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tian-yang; Jin, Xing; Tang, Wen-zhao; Wang, Xiao-jing; Zhao, Yun-xue

    2015-09-01

    Three new geranylated flavanones, named as paucatalinone A (1), B (2), and isopaucatalinone B (3), were isolated from the fruits of Paulownia catalpifolia Gong Tong (Scrophulariaceae). Their structures were well determined by means of IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR, and CD techniques. Paucatalinone A (1) is the first sample as a dimeric geranylated flavanone derivative isolated from natural products. Paucatalinone A (1) displayed good antiproliferative effects on human lung cancer cells A549 and resulted in a clear increase of the percentage of cells in G1 phase and a decrease in the percentage of cells in S and G2/M phases in comparison with control cells. PMID:26115572

  11. Progesterone receptor (PR) polyproline domain (PPD) mediates inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kawprasertsri, Sornsawan; Pietras, Richard J; Marquez-Garban, Diana C; Boonyaratanakornkit, Viroj

    2016-05-01

    Recent evidence has suggested a possible role for progesterone receptor (PR) in the progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, little is known concerning roles of PR in NSCLC. PR contains a polyproline domain (PPD), which directly binds to the SH3 domain of signaling molecules. Because PPD-SH3 interactions are essential for EGFR signaling, we hypothesized that the presence of PR-PPD interfered with EGFR-mediated signaling and cell proliferation. We examined the role of PR-PPD in cell proliferation and signaling by stably expressing PR-B, or PR-B with disrupting mutations in the PPD (PR-BΔSH3), from a tetracycline-regulated promoter in A549 NSCLC cells. PR-B dose-dependently inhibited cell growth in the absence of ligand, and progestin (R5020) treatment further suppressed the growth. Treatment with RU486 abolished PR-B- and R5020-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation. Expression of PR-BΔSH3 and treatment with R5020 or RU486 had no effect on cell proliferation. Furthermore, PR-B expression but not PR-BΔSH3 expression reduced EGF-induced A549 proliferation and activation of ERK1/2, in the absence of ligand. Taken together, our data demonstrated the significance of PR extranuclear signaling through PPD interactions in EGFR-mediated proliferation and signaling in NSCLC.

  12. Monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated (MMD) targeted by miR-140-5p regulates tumor growth in non-small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Weina; He, Fei

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Expression of MMD is increased in lung cancer tissues. • Knockdown of MMD inhibits growth of A549 and LLC cells in vitro and in vivo. • MMD is a direct functional target of miR-140-5p. • MiR-140-5p/MMD axis regulates Erk1/2 signaling. - Abstract: Monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated (MMD) is identified in macrophages as a gene associated with the differentiation from monocytes to macrophages. Recent microarray analysis for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) suggests that MMD is an important signature associated with relapse and survival among patients with NSCLC. Therefore, we speculate that MMD likely plays a role in lung cancer. In this study, we found that the protein level of MMD was increased in lung cancer compared to benign lung tissues, and knockdown of MMD inhibited the growth of A549 and Lewis lung cancer cells (LLC) in vitro and in vivo. Integrated analysis demonstrated that MMD was a direct functional target of miR-140-5p. Furthermore, we found that miR-140-5p/MMD axis could affect the cell proliferation of lung cancer cells by regulating Erk signaling. Together, our results highlight the significance of miR-140-5p/MMD axis in lung cancer, and miR-140-5p/MMD axis could serve as new molecular targets for the therapy against lung cancer.

  13. The Topoisomerase 1 Inhibitor Austrobailignan-1 Isolated from Koelreuteria henryi Induces a G2/M-Phase Arrest and Cell Death Independently of p53 in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tsung-Ying; Li, Ya-Ling; Wen, Chi-Luan; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Chen, Tzu-Hsiu

    2015-01-01

    Koelreuteria henryi Dummer, an endemic plant of Taiwan, has been used as a folk medicine for the treatment of hepatitis, enteritis, cough, pharyngitis, allergy, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and cancer. Austrobailignan-1, a natural lignan derivative isolated from Koelreuteria henryi Dummer, has anti-oxidative and anti-cancer properties. However, the effects of austrobailignan-1 on human cancer cells have not been studied yet. Here, we showed that austrobailignan-1 inhibited cell growth of human non-small cell lung cancer A549 and H1299 cell lines in both dose- and time-dependent manners, the IC50 value (48 h) of austrobailignan-1 were 41 and 22 nM, respectively. Data from flow cytometric analysis indicated that treatment with austrobailignan-1 for 24 h retarded the cell cycle at the G2/M phase. The molecular event of austrobailignan-1-mediated G2/M phase arrest was associated with the increase of p21Waf1/Cip1 and p27Kip1 expression, and decrease of Cdc25C expression. Moreover, treatment with 100 nM austrobailignan-1 for 48 h resulted in a pronounced release of cytochrome c followed by the activation of caspase-2, -3, and -9, and consequently induced apoptosis. These events were accompanied by the increase of PUMA and Bax, and the decrease of Mcl-1 and Bcl-2. Furthermore, our study also showed that austrobailignan-1 was a topoisomerase 1 inhibitor, as evidenced by a relaxation assay and induction of a DNA damage response signaling pathway, including ATM, and Chk1, Chk2, γH2AX phosphorylated activation. Overall, our results suggest that austrobailignan-1 is a novel DNA damaging agent and displays a topoisomerase I inhibitory activity, causes DNA strand breaks, and consequently induces DNA damage response signaling for cell cycle G2/M arrest and apoptosis in a p53 independent manner. PMID:26147394

  14. The Topoisomerase 1 Inhibitor Austrobailignan-1 Isolated from Koelreuteria henryi Induces a G2/M-Phase Arrest and Cell Death Independently of p53 in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun-Chi; Huang, Keh-Feng; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Li, Ya-Ling; Wen, Chi-Luan; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Chen, Tzu-Hsiu

    2015-01-01

    Koelreuteria henryi Dummer, an endemic plant of Taiwan, has been used as a folk medicine for the treatment of hepatitis, enteritis, cough, pharyngitis, allergy, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and cancer. Austrobailignan-1, a natural lignan derivative isolated from Koelreuteria henryi Dummer, has anti-oxidative and anti-cancer properties. However, the effects of austrobailignan-1 on human cancer cells have not been studied yet. Here, we showed that austrobailignan-1 inhibited cell growth of human non-small cell lung cancer A549 and H1299 cell lines in both dose- and time-dependent manners, the IC50 value (48 h) of austrobailignan-1 were 41 and 22 nM, respectively. Data from flow cytometric analysis indicated that treatment with austrobailignan-1 for 24 h retarded the cell cycle at the G2/M phase. The molecular event of austrobailignan-1-mediated G2/M phase arrest was associated with the increase of p21Waf1/Cip1 and p27Kip1 expression, and decrease of Cdc25C expression. Moreover, treatment with 100 nM austrobailignan-1 for 48 h resulted in a pronounced release of cytochrome c followed by the activation of caspase-2, -3, and -9, and consequently induced apoptosis. These events were accompanied by the increase of PUMA and Bax, and the decrease of Mcl-1 and Bcl-2. Furthermore, our study also showed that austrobailignan-1 was a topoisomerase 1 inhibitor, as evidenced by a relaxation assay and induction of a DNA damage response signaling pathway, including ATM, and Chk1, Chk2, γH2AX phosphorylated activation. Overall, our results suggest that austrobailignan-1 is a novel DNA damaging agent and displays a topoisomerase I inhibitory activity, causes DNA strand breaks, and consequently induces DNA damage response signaling for cell cycle G2/M arrest and apoptosis in a p53 independent manner. PMID:26147394

  15. TopBP1 contributes to the chemoresistance in non-small cell lung cancer through upregulation of p53

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Yinxiang; Huo, Yanan; Yu, Xican; Liu, Rongrong; Zhang, Shufen; Zheng, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Xianning

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs is a major obstacle in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) therapy. The molecular determinants of NSCLC resistance to doxorubicin are unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether topoisomerase IIβ binding protein 1 (TopBP1) was involved in the chemoresistance to doxorubicin in NSCLC cancer. We found that p53-deficient lung cancer cells (NCI-H1299) displayed the greatest resistance to doxorubicin compared with NCI-H358, A549, and HCC827 cells with p53 expression. The expression of TopBP1 was significantly higher in NCI-H1299 cells than the other three tumor cell lines. In addition, TopBP1 knockdown with specific small interfering RNA in NCI-H1299 cells enhanced the doxorubicin chemosensitivity and decreased the expression of p53 in the presence of doxorubicin. After doxorubicin administration, co-immunoprecipitation assay showed that TopBP1 promoted the expression of p53 in NCI-H1299 cells. These results for the first time demonstrated that TopBP1 plays an important role in NSCLC chemoresistance via upregulation of p53. Therefore, inhibition of TopBP1, in combination with chemotherapy, may represent a novel strategy for the treatment of chemotherapy-resistant NSCLC. PMID:27729767

  16. EF5 in Measuring Tumor Hypoxia in Patients With Stage I-III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-10

    Stage IA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

  17. Differential sensitivity to apoptosome apparatus activation in non-small cell lung carcinoma and the lung

    PubMed Central

    MORAVCIKOVA, ERIKA; KREPELA, EVZEN; PROCHAZKA, JAN; BENKOVA, KAMILA; PAUK, NORBERT

    2014-01-01

    The intrinsic apoptosis pathway represents an important mechanism of stress-induced death of cancer cells. To gain insight into the functional status of the apoptosome apparatus in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), we studied its sensitivity to activation, the assembly of apoptosome complexes and stability of their precursors, and the importance of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) in the regulation of apoptosome activity, using cell-free cytosols from NSCLC cell lines and NSCLC tumours and lungs from 62 surgically treated patients. Treatment of cytosol samples with cytochrome c (cyt-c) and dATP induced proteolytic processing of procaspase-9 to caspase-9, which was followed by procaspase-3 processing to caspase-3, and by generation of caspase-3-like activity in 5 of 7 studied NSCLC cell lines. Further analysis demonstrated formation of high-Mr Apaf-1 complexes associated with cleaved caspase-9 in the (cyt-c + dATP)-responsive COLO-699 and CALU-1 cells. By contrast, in A549 cells, Apaf-1 and procaspase-9 co-eluted in the high-Mr fractions, indicating formation of an apoptosome complex unable of procaspase-9 processing. Thermal pre-treatment of cell-free cytosols in the absence of exogenous cyt-c and dATP lead to formation of Apaf-1 aggregates, unable to recruit and activate procaspase-9 in the presence of cyt-c and dATP, and to generate caspase-3-like activity. Further studies showed that the treatment with cyt-c and dATP induced a substantially higher increase of caspase-3-like activity in cytosol samples from NSCLC tumours compared to matched lungs. Tumour histology, grade and stage had no significant impact on the endogenous and the (cyt-c + dATP)-induced caspase-3-like activity. Upon addition into the cytosol, the XIAP-neutralizing peptides AVPIAQK and ATPFQEG only moderately heightened the (cyt-c + dATP)-induced caspase-3-like activity in some NSCLC tumours. Taken together, the present study provides evidence that the apoptosome apparatus is

  18. Survivorship Care Planning in Patients With Colorectal or Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-12-16

    Stage I Colon Cancer; Stage I Rectal Cancer; Stage IA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

  19. Nicotine-mediated invasion and migration of non-small cell lung carcinoma cells by modulating STMN3 and GSPT1 genes in an ID1-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Inhibitor of DNA binding/Differentiation 1 (ID1) is a helix loop helix transcription factor that lacks the basic DNA binding domain. Over-expression of ID1 has been correlated with a variety of human cancers; our earlier studies had shown that reported ID1 is induced by nicotine or EGF stimulation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and its down regulation abrogates cell proliferation, invasion and migration. Here we made attempts to identify downstream targets of ID1 that mediate these effects. Methods A microarray analysis was done on two different NSCLC cell lines (A549 and H1650) that were transfected with a siRNA to ID1 or a control, non-targeting siRNA. Cells were stimulated with nicotine and genes that were differentially expressed upon nicotine stimulation and ID1 depletion were analyzed to identify potential downstream targets of ID1. The prospective role of the identified genes was validated by RT-PCR. Additional functional assays were conducted to assess the role of these genes in nicotine induced proliferation, invasion and migration. Experiments were also conducted to elucidate the role of ID1, which does not bind to DNA directly, affects the expression of these genes at transcriptional level. Results A microarray analysis showed multiple genes are affected by the depletion of ID1; we focused on two of them: Stathmin-like3 (STMN3), a microtubule destabilizing protein, and GSPT1, a protein involved in translation termination; these proteins were induced by both nicotine and EGF in an ID1 dependent fashion. Overexpression of ID1 in two different cell lines induced STMN3 and GSPT1 at the transcriptional level, while depletion of ID1 reduced their expression. STMN3 and GSPT1 were found to facilitate the proliferation, invasion and migration of NSCLC cells in response to nAChR activation. Attempts made to assess how ID1, which is a transcriptional repressor, induces these genes showed that ID1 down regulates the expression of two

  20. Chemotherapy for Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Martin F; Gerber, David E

    2016-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer has seen an unprecedented augmentation of therapeutic options over the last couple of years. Improved understanding of molecular drivers and the role of the immune system in cancer therapy have brought new drugs to the armamentarium. Despite these advances, cytotoxic chemotherapy remains a substantial part of therapy for most patients in locally advanced and metastatic stage. Initially thought to be a chemotherapy-resistant entity, meta-analyses in the mid-1990s demonstrated modest efficacy of platinum-based therapy. Further combination trials demonstrated enhanced efficacy for several regimen in first and second lines, including the introduction of antimetabolites, taxanes, and anti-angiogenic agents. Maintenance chemotherapy has been another novel, successful approach for management of metastatic disease. Herein, we summarize the current concepts of chemotherapy, its applicability to the different histologies, and novel concepts of therapy. PMID:27535392

  1. Current treatment options for non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Elizabeth S

    2012-08-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains a difficult-to-treat malignancy, and durable long-term survival is elusive for patients with advanced-stage disease. Chemotherapy, especially with platinum-based combinations, is the mainstay of treatment, yet these regimens yield only modest response and survival rates. Outcomes of recent clinical trials have shown that histology, mutation analyses, and biomarkers have an impact on the selection and combination of chemotherapeutic agents. Oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies are now part of the treatment schema. Other changes to the treatment paradigm include the duration of treatment and the use of maintenance therapy. Additionally, chemotherapy is now employed in earlier-stage disease in neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and combined-modality treatments. The aim of this article is to review the current systemic treatments for NSCLC.

  2. Treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    De Petris, L; Crinò, L; Scagliotti, G V; Gridelli, C; Galetta, D; Metro, G; Novello, S; Maione, P; Colucci, G; de Marinis, F

    2006-03-01

    In the last decade the treatment of advanced-metastatic non-small cell lung cancer has substantially improved. If in the early 90s there was still concern about the real efficacy of chemotherapy over best suppotive care alone in the advanced setting, constant developments in clinical research have demonstrated the survival advantage of active anti-cancer drugs not only in the first-line setting, but, lately, even in patients with recurrent disease after failure of two previous chemotherapy lines. With the premises of high throughput technologies, translational research is aiming to characterize patients and tumors on a molecular basis. With pharmacogenomics it would then be possible to accurately predict patient outcome and tailor the treatment strategy according to the geno-phenotype of single patients.

  3. [Therapy of Metastatic Non-small Cell Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Reinmuth, N; Gröschel, A; Schumann, C; Sebastian, M; Wiewrodt, R; Reck, M

    2016-09-01

    Lung cancer accounts for the leading cause of cancer deaths in Germany and is characterized by early metastasis formation. The majority of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) will receive systemic therapy for treatment of their disease. Importantly together with the identification of targetable oncogenic alterations, systemic treatment of NSCLC has dramatically changed in recent years with the implementation of various new agents such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors, anti angiogenic agents, and immune modulating drugs. However, these new therapeutic options also challenge the treating physician since molecular, histologic, and clinical factors need to be considered for the clinical decision-making. Moreover, supportive therapy including bronchoscopic therapy has evolved. The following therapy recommendations will summarize the up-to date treatment strategies for metastatic NSCLC. PMID:27603945

  4. SB203580 enhances the RV-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis in A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hai-yang; Zhuang, Cai-ping; Wang, Xiao-ping; Chen, Tong-sheng

    2012-03-01

    Resveratrol (RV), a naturally occurring phytoalexin, is known to possess a wide spectrum of chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects in various stages of human tumors. p38, a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) superfamily, is always activated by some extracellular stimulus to regulate many cellular signal transduction pathways, such as apoptosis, proliferation, and inflammation and so on. In this report, we assessed the effect of SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK signaling pathway, on the RV-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. CCK-8 assay showed that pretreatment with SB203580 significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of RV, which was further verified by analyzing the phosphatidylserine externalization using flow cytometry. In order to further confirm whether SB203580 accelerated apoptosis via the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, we analyzed the dysfunction of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) of cells stained with rhodamine 123 by using flow cytometry after treatment with RV in the absence and presence of SB203580. Our data for the first time reported that p38 inhibitor SB203580 enhanced the RV-induced apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway.

  5. Acrolein activates cell survival and apoptotic death responses involving the endoplasmic reticulum in A549 lung cells.

    PubMed

    Tanel, André; Pallepati, Pragathi; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Morin, Patrick; Averill-Bates, Diana A

    2014-05-01

    Acrolein, a highly reactive α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, is a product of endogenous lipid peroxidation. It is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that is generated mainly by smoke, overheated cooking oil and vehicle exhaust. Acrolein damages cellular proteins, which could lead to accumulation of aberrantly-folded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This study determines the mechanisms involved in acrolein-induced apoptosis mediated by the ER and possible links with the ER stress response in human A549 lung cells. The exposure of cells to acrolein (15-50μM) for shorter times of 15 to 30min activated several ER stress markers. These included the ER chaperone protein BiP and the three ER sensors: (i) the survival/rescue molecules protein kinase RNA (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK) and eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α) were phosphorylated; (ii) cleavage of activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) occurred, and (iii) inositol-requiring protein-1 alpha (IRE1α) was phosphorylated. Acrolein (25-50μM) caused apoptotic cell death mediated by the ER after 2h, which was characterised by the induction of CHOP and activation of ER proteases calpain and caspase-4. Calpain and caspase-7 were the initiating factors for caspase-4 activation in acrolein-induced apoptosis. These results increase our knowledge about cellular responses to acrolein in lung cells, which have implications for human health.

  6. Atorvastatin partially inhibits the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in A549 cells induced by TGF-β1 by attenuating the upregulation of SphK1.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Handong; Wang, Zili; Qu, Jieming

    2016-08-01

    Statins are the most effective drugs used in the reduction of intracellular synthesis of cholesterol. Numerous studies have confirmed that statins reduce the risk of multiple types of cancers. Statin use in cancer patients is associated with reduced cancer-related mortality. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a complicated process programmed by multiple genes, is an important mechanism of cancer metastasis. We explored the effect and mechanism of atorvastatin on the EMT process in A549 cells by establishing an EMT model in vitro induced by TGF-β1, and evaluated the effects of atorvastatin on the lower signaling pathway of TGF-β1 stimulation. Our results showed that atorvastatin partially inhibited the EMT process, and inhibited cell migration and actin filament remodeling. Transcriptional upregulation of ZEB1 and protein sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) induced by TGF-β1 was also suppressed. SphK1 plasmid transient transfection strengthened the EMT process induced by TGF-β1 in the presence of atorvastatin. Our experiments confirmed that atorvastatin can partially inhibit the EMT process of non-small cell lung cancer cells induced by TGF-β1 by attenuating the upregulation of SphK1. PMID:27349500

  7. MicroRNA-1290 promotes asiatic acid‑induced apoptosis by decreasing BCL2 protein level in A549 non‑small cell lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Bbeum; Kim, Karam; Bae, Seunghee; Choi, Yeonghmin; Cha, Hwa Jun; Kim, Soo Yeon; Lee, Jae Ho; Jeon, So Hyeon; Jung, Ho Jung; Ahn, Kyu Joong; An, In-Sook; An, Sungkwan

    2014-09-01

    Asiatic acid, a triterpenoid derived from Centella asiatica, is a putative anticancer agent in several types of cancer cells. Investigations of its biological role in negative regulation of cell growth have focused on the extent of induction of apoptosis in a cell-type-specific manner. In this study, we identified an important regulator of asiatic acid-induced cell death, microRNA (miR)-1290, which sensitizes cells to asiatic acid-induced cytotoxicity and negatively regulates BCL2 expression. Asiatic acid significantly upregulated miR-1290, and asiatic acid-induced cell death was shown to be dependent on miR-1290 activity. Molecular assays demonstrated that BCL2 mRNA is a direct target of miR-1290-mediated RNA interference. The results of functional studies suggest that miR-1290 suppresses cell viability and cell cycle progression. These data provide insight into miR-1290-mediated cellular mechanisms in asiatic acid-treated A549 non-small cell lung carcinoma cells. PMID:25016979

  8. Rho GTPases RhoA and Rac1 mediate effects of dietary folate on metastatic potential of A549 cancer cells through the control of cofilin phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Oleinik, Natalia V; Helke, Kristi L; Kistner-Griffin, Emily; Krupenko, Natalia I; Krupenko, Sergey A

    2014-09-19

    Folate, an important nutrient in the human diet, has been implicated in cancer, but its role in metastasis is not established. We have shown previously that the withdrawal of medium folate leads to the inhibition of migration and invasion of A549 lung carcinoma cells. Here we have demonstrated that medium folate regulates the function of Rho GTPases by enabling their carboxyl methylation and translocation to plasma membrane. Conversely, the lack of folate leads to the retention of these proteins in endoplasmic reticulum. Folate also promoted the switch from inactive (GDP-bound) to active (GTP-bound) GTPases, resulting in the activation of downstream kinases p21-activated kinase and LIM kinase and phosphorylation of the actin-depolymerizing factor cofilin. We have further demonstrated that in A549 cells two GTPases, RhoA and Rac1, but not Cdc42, are immediate sensors of folate status: the siRNA silencing of RhoA or Rac1 blocked effects of folate on cofilin phosphorylation and cellular migration and invasion. The finding that folate modulates metastatic potential of cancer cells was confirmed in an animal model of lung cancer using tail vein injection of A549 cells in SCID mice. A folate-rich diet enhanced lung colonization and distant metastasis to lymph nodes and decreased overall survival (35 versus 63 days for mice on a folate-restricted diet). High folate also promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cancer cells and experimental mouse tumors. Our study provides experimental evidence for a mechanism of metastasis promotion by dietary folate and highlights the interaction between nutrients and metastasis-related signaling.

  9. TGF-β and Hypoxia/Reoxygenation Promote Radioresistance of A549 Lung Cancer Cells through Activation of Nrf2 and EGFR

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sae-lo-oom; Ryu, Hwani; Son, A-rang; Seo, Bitna; Kim, Jooyoung; Jung, Seung-Youn; Song, Jie-Young; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Ahn, Jiyeon

    2016-01-01

    Although many studies have examined the roles of hypoxia and transforming growth factor- (TGF-) β separately in the tumor microenvironment, the effects of simultaneous treatment with hypoxia/reoxygenation and TGF-β on tumor malignancy are unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of redox signaling and oncogenes on cell proliferation and radioresistance in A549 human lung cancer cells in the presence of TGF-β under hypoxia/reoxygenation conditions. Combined treatment with TGF-β and hypoxia activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), a redox-sensitive transcription factor. Interestingly, Nrf2 knockdown suppressed the effects of combined treatment on EGFR phosphorylation. In addition, blockade of EGFR signaling also suppressed induction of Nrf2 following combined treatment with hypoxia and TGF-β, indicating that the combined treatment induced positive crosstalk between Nrf2 and EGFR. TGF-β and hypoxia/reoxygenation increased the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), while treatment with N-acetyl-l-cysteine abolished the activation of Nrf2 and EGFR. Treatment with TGF-β under hypoxic conditions increased the proliferation of A549 cells compared with that after vehicle treatment. Moreover, cells treated with the combined treatment exhibited resistance to ionizing radiation (IR), and knockdown of Nrf2 increased IR-induced cell death under these conditions. Thus, taken together, our findings suggested that TGF-β and hypoxia/reoxygenation promoted tumor progression and radioresistance of A549 cells through ROS-mediated activation of Nrf2 and EGFR. PMID:26904167

  10. ROS-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial dysfunction underlie apoptosis induced by resveratrol and arsenic trioxide in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shiyan; Chen, Chengzhi; Jiang, Xuejun; Zhang, Zunzhen

    2016-02-01

    Although it is well documented that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are associated with apoptosis, little is known about whether they are involved in the apoptotic cell death induced by resveratrol and arsenic trioxide (ATO) combination. In this study, we identified a series of sensitization effects of resveratrol on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells to ATO treatment, with the combination index (CI) of resveratrol and ATO less than 1. Then, we demonstrated that ER stress was contributed to this synergistic effect, which was manifested by increased the expression levels of ER stress hallmarks, including 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP 78), caspase 12 and C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP), In addition, mitochondrial dysfunction was observed after exposure of A549 cells to resveratrol or/and ATO, which was displayed by some alterations of mitochondria-related events, such as loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release and changes of Bax and Bcl-2 expressions. Our results further demonstrated that resveratrol and ATO-induced ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction were mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), showing that pre-treatment of N-acetyl-l-cysteine, a potent ROS scavenger, restored the ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in cells co-treated with resveratrol and ATO, thereby leading to the reduction of the apoptosis. Collectively, these results clearly suggest that ROS-mediated ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction were involved in the apoptosis induced by resveratrol and ATO in A549 cells, which provides a novel insight into the molecular mechanisms of resveratrol-mediated ATO-sensitization.

  11. Middle infrared radiation induces G2/M cell cycle arrest in A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsin-Yi; Shih, Meng-Her; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Tsai, Shang-Ru; Juan, Hsueh-Fen; Lee, Si-Chen

    2013-01-01

    There were studies investigating the effects of broadband infrared radiation (IR) on cancer cell, while the influences of middle-infrared radiation (MIR) are still unknown. In this study, a MIR emitter with emission wavelength band in the 3-5 µm region was developed to irradiate A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. It was found that MIR exposure inhibited cell proliferation and induced morphological changes by altering the cellular distribution of cytoskeletal components. Using quantitative PCR, we found that MIR promoted the expression levels of ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated), ATR (ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related and Rad3-related), TP53 (tumor protein p53), p21 (CDKN1A, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A) and GADD45 (growth arrest and DNA-damage inducible), but decreased the expression levels of cyclin B coding genes, CCNB1 and CCNB2, as well as CDK1 (Cyclin-dependent kinase 1). The reduction of protein expression levels of CDC25C, cyclin B1 and the phosphorylation of CDK1 at Thr-161 altogether suggest G(2)/M arrest occurred in A549 cells by MIR. DNA repair foci formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) marker γ-H2AX and sensor 53BP1 was induced by MIR treatment, it implies the MIR induced G(2)/M cell cycle arrest resulted from DSB. This study illustrates a potential role for the use of MIR in lung cancer therapy by initiating DSB and blocking cell cycle progression.

  12. Iron stimulates plasma-activated medium-induced A549 cell injury

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Tetsuo; Nonomura, Saho; Horiba, Minori; Hirayama, Tasuku; Kamiya, Tetsuro; Nagasawa, Hideko; Hara, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is applicable to living cells and has emerged as a novel technology for cancer therapy. Plasma has recently been shown to affect cells not only by direct irradiation, but also by indirect treatments with previously prepared plasma-activated medium (PAM). Iron is an indispensable element but is also potentially toxic because it generates the hydroxyl radical (•OH) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) via the Fenton reaction. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the contribution of iron to PAM-induced A549 adenocarcinoma cell apoptosis. We detected the generation of •OH and elevation of intracellular ferrous ions in PAM-treated cells and found that they were inhibited by iron chelator. The elevations observed in ferrous ions may have been due to their release from the intracellular iron store, ferritin. Hydroxyl radical-induced DNA injury was followed by the activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1, depletion of NAD+ and ATP, and elevations in intracellular Ca2+. The sensitivities of normal cells such as smooth muscle cells and keratinocytes to PAM were less than that of A549 cells. These results demonstrated that H2O2 in PAM and/or •OH generated in the presence of iron ions disturbed the mitochondrial-nuclear network in cancer cells. PMID:26865334

  13. A novel synthetic compound exerts effective anti-tumour activity in vivo via the inhibition of tubulin polymerisation in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jun; Pang, Yanqing; Sheng, Jianfeng; Wang, Yali; Chen, Jie; Hu, Jinhui; Huang, Ling; Li, Xingshu

    2015-09-01

    Microtubules are critical elements that are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, and thus, they have become an attractive target for many anticancer drugs. A novel synthesised compound, 12P, was identified as new microtubule inhibitor. This compound inhibits tubulin polymerisation through binding to the colchicine-binding site of tubulin. 12P exhibits excellent anti-proliferative activities against a panel of human cancer cell lines, with IC₅₀ values range from 9 to 55nM. Interestingly, compound 12P also displayed equally potent cytotoxicity against several drug-resistant cell lines, and it showed high selectivity for active human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Further flow cytometric analysis showed that 12P induces G₂/M phase arrest and apoptosis in A549 cells. Cellular studies have revealed that the induction of apoptosis by 12P was associated with a collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), alterations in the expression of some cell cycle-related proteins (e.g. Cyclin B1, Cdc25c, Cdc2) and some apoptosis-related proteins (e.g. Bax, Bad, Bcl-2, Bcl-xl). Importantly, 12P significantly reduced the growth of xenograft tumours of A549 cells in vivo (tumour inhibitory rate of 12P: 84.2%), without any loss of body weight. Taken together, these in vitro and in vivo results suggested that 12P may become a promising lead compound for the development of new anticancer drugs.

  14. Oxidative Stress Facilitates IFN-γ-Induced Mimic Extracellular Trap Cell Death in A549 Lung Epithelial Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chiou-Feng; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chien, Shun-Yi; Tseng, Po-Chun; Wang, Yu-Chih; Tsai, Tsung-Ting

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that IFN-γ induces an autophagy-regulated mimic extracellular trap cell death (ETosis) in A549 human lung cancer cells. Regarding reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in ETosis, this study investigated the role of oxidative stress. After IFN-γ stimulation, a necrosis-like cell death mimic ETosis occurred accompanied by the inhibition of cell growth, aberrant nuclear staining, and nucleosome release. ROS were generated in a time-dependent manner with an increase in NADPH oxidase component protein expression. STAT1-mediated IFN regulatory factor-1 activation was essential for upregulating ROS production. By genetically silencing p47phox, IFN-γ-induced ROS and mimic ETosis were significantly attenuated. This mechanistic study indicated that ROS may mediate DNA damage followed by histone H3 citrullination. Furthermore, ROS promoted IFN-γ-induced mimic ETosis in cooperation with autophagy. These findings further demonstrate that ROS regulates IFN-γ-induced mimic ETosis in lung epithelial malignancy. PMID:27575372

  15. Deguelin inhibits the migration and invasion of lung cancer A549 and H460 cells via regulating actin cytoskeleton rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Honggang; Jiao, Yan; Zhang, Zuncheng

    2015-01-01

    Deguelin, the main components from Mundulea sericea, was reported to suppress the growth of various cancer cells. However, the effect of Deguelin on tumor cell invasion and metastasis and its mechanism still unclear so far. In this study, we investigated the effects of Deguelin on the cell invasion in human lung cancer A549 and H460 cells. Our results demonstrate that Deguelin can significantly inhibited cell proliferation, cell migration and cell invasion. Moreover, Deguelin could also affected reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and decreased filopodia and lamellipodia formation. Furthermore, deguelin-treated tumors showed decreased the tumor metastasis related genes such as CD44, MMP2 and MMP9 at protein and mRNA levels and the content of CEA, SCC, NSE, CYFAR21-1. In addition, Deguelin down-regulated protein expression of Rac1 and Rock1, which are impotent in actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and cell motility. Together, our results suggest that Deguelin inhibit tumor growth and metastasis of lung cancer cells and might be a candidate compound for curing lung cancer. PMID:26884827

  16. Oxidative Stress Facilitates IFN-γ-Induced Mimic Extracellular Trap Cell Death in A549 Lung Epithelial Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chiou-Feng; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chien, Shun-Yi; Tseng, Po-Chun; Wang, Yu-Chih; Tsai, Tsung-Ting

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that IFN-γ induces an autophagy-regulated mimic extracellular trap cell death (ETosis) in A549 human lung cancer cells. Regarding reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in ETosis, this study investigated the role of oxidative stress. After IFN-γ stimulation, a necrosis-like cell death mimic ETosis occurred accompanied by the inhibition of cell growth, aberrant nuclear staining, and nucleosome release. ROS were generated in a time-dependent manner with an increase in NADPH oxidase component protein expression. STAT1-mediated IFN regulatory factor-1 activation was essential for upregulating ROS production. By genetically silencing p47phox, IFN-γ-induced ROS and mimic ETosis were significantly attenuated. This mechanistic study indicated that ROS may mediate DNA damage followed by histone H3 citrullination. Furthermore, ROS promoted IFN-γ-induced mimic ETosis in cooperation with autophagy. These findings further demonstrate that ROS regulates IFN-γ-induced mimic ETosis in lung epithelial malignancy. PMID:27575372

  17. Telomerase activity in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dobija-Kubica, Katarzyna; Bruliński, Krzysztof; Rogoziński, Paweł; Wiczkowski, Andrzej; Gawrychowska, Agata; Gawrychowski, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction High telomerase activity has been detected in the majority of malignant neoplasms including lung cancer. The purpose of the study was to attempt to use telomerase activity as a prognostic factor in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Material and methods Telomerase activity was analyzed in 47 tissue specimens taken from patients with NSCLC. The control group consisted of 30 specimens of non-cancerous lung parenchyma. Telomerase activity was measured by means of the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP). Results Telomerase activity in the neoplastic tissue was significantly higher than in the lung parenchyma that was free from neoplastic infiltration. There was no significant association between telomerase activity and age, gender, tobacco smoking, histological type of the tumor, or staging (pTNM). No association was found between the level of telomerase activity in NSCLC specimens and the two-year survival rate of patients (p = 0.326). A higher level of telomerase activity in poorly differentiated tumors (G3) as compared to moderately differentiated tumors (G2) was detected (p = 0.008). A positive association was identified between telomerase activity in pulmonary parenchyma free from tumor infiltration and the presence of leukocyte infiltration (p = 0.0001). Conclusions No association was found between the level of telomerase activity in NSCLC specimens and the two-year survival rate of patients. The study has revealed a positive association between telomerase activity and the grade of differentiation (G) in NSCLC. PMID:27212973

  18. Bilateral Choroidal Metastasis from Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Namad, Tariq; Wang, Jiang; Tilton, Annemarie; Abdel Karim, Nagla

    2014-01-01

    Breast and lung cancers are the most common primary neoplasms to manifest with choroidal metastases. The incidence of choroidal metastases from metastatic lung cancer was reported to be 2–6.7%. We report a case of bilateral choroidal metastasis from non-small cell lung cancer. A 59-year-old Caucasian female patient, never a smoker, was diagnosed with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma metastatic to the pleura, bones, and the brain. Her initial scan of the chest showed innumerable soft tissue nodules and mediastinal adenopathy compatible with metastatic disease. Her initial brain MRI showed numerous small enhancing lesions consistent with extensive disease. Unfortunately, during her follow-up visits, she presented with bulge on her left eye. Simultaneously, her follow-up chest scan showed increase in the size of the lung nodules. She continued to have a reasonable performance status at that time, except for mild increase in her dyspnea. The choroidal metastases require a multidisciplinary care and should be among the differential patients with malignancy who present with ocular symptoms. PMID:25295203

  19. Autophagy in non-small cell lung carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Shuan; Yang, Heng; Penninger, Josef M; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-01-01

    In a mouse model of non-small cell lung carcinogenesis, we recently found that the inactivation of the essential autophagy gene Atg5 causes an acceleration of the early phases of oncogenesis. Thus, hyperplastic lesions and adenomas are more frequent at early stages after adenoviral delivery of Cre recombinase via inhalation, when Cre—in addition to activating the KRasG12D oncogene—inactivates both alleles of the Atg5 gene. The accelerated oncogenesis of autophagy-deficient tumors developing in KRas;Atg5fl/fl mice (as compared with autophagy-competent KRas;Atg5fl/+ control tumors) correlates with an increased infiltration by FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). Depletion of such Tregs by means of specific monoclonal antibodies inhibits the accelerated oncogenesis of autophagy-deficient tumors down to the level observed in autophagy-competent controls. Subsequent analyses revealed that the combination of KRas activation and Atg5 inactivation favors the expression of ENTPD1/CD39, an ecto-ATPase that initiates the conversion of extracellular ATP, which is immunostimulatory, into adenosine, which is immunosuppressive. Pharmacological inhibition of ENTPD1 or blockade of adenosinergic receptors reduces the infiltration of KRas;Atg5fl/fl tumors by Tregs and reverses accelerated oncogenesis. Altogether these data favor a model according to which autophagy deficiency favors oncogenesis via changes in the tumor microenvironment that ultimately entail the Treg-mediated inhibition of anticancer immunosurveillance. PMID:24413089

  20. Blood-based biomarkers for monitoring antiangiogenic therapy in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Garzotto, Analia; Díaz-García, C Vanesa; Agudo-López, Alba; Prieto García, Elena; Ponce, Santiago; López-Martín, José A; Paz-Ares, Luis; Iglesias, Lara; Agulló-Ortuño, M Teresa

    2016-10-01

    Tumor angiogenesis pathways have been identified as important therapeutic targets in non-small cell lung cancer. However, no biomarkers have been described as predictors of response to antiangiogenic therapy in these patients. In this study, plasma levels of VEGF, bFGF, E-selectin, and S-ICAM and gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with chemotherapy plus bevacizumab were analyzed before and after treatment. Values were correlated with clinicopathological characteristics and treatment response. Plasma factor levels were measured using commercially available ELISA kits. The TaqMan(®) human angiogenesis array was used to investigate the effect of treatment on gene expression profiles. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and Gene Ontology enrichment analysis was performed for differentially expressed genes using WEB-based GEne SeT AnaLysis Toolkit. Our results suggest a benefit for patients with increased plasma levels of VEGF, E-selectin, and S-ICAM in the course of bevacizumab treatment. Also, we identified differentially expressed genes between paired blood samples from patients before and after treatment, and significantly perturbed pathways were predicted. These changes in gene expression and levels of plasma factors could be used to assess the effectiveness of antiangiogenic therapy, in addition to standard clinical and radiological evaluations. PMID:27568331

  1. Intracellular dynamics and fate of polystyrene nanoparticles in A549 Lung epithelial cells monitored by image (cross-) correlation spectroscopy and single particle tracking.

    PubMed

    Deville, Sarah; Penjweini, Rozhin; Smisdom, Nick; Notelaers, Kristof; Nelissen, Inge; Hooyberghs, Jef; Ameloot, Marcel

    2015-10-01

    Novel insights in nanoparticle (NP) uptake routes of cells, their intracellular trafficking and subcellular targeting can be obtained through the investigation of their temporal and spatial behavior. In this work, we present the application of image (cross-) correlation spectroscopy (IC(C)S) and single particle tracking (SPT) to monitor the intracellular dynamics of polystyrene (PS) NPs in the human lung carcinoma A549 cell line. The ensemble kinetic behavior of NPs inside the cell was characterized by temporal and spatiotemporal image correlation spectroscopy (TICS and STICS). Moreover, a more direct interpretation of the diffusion and flow detected in the NP motion was obtained by SPT by monitoring individual NPs. Both techniques demonstrate that the PS NP transport in A549 cells is mainly dependent on microtubule-assisted transport. By applying spatiotemporal image cross-correlation spectroscopy (STICCS), the correlated motions of NPs with the early endosomes, late endosomes and lysosomes are identified. PS NPs were equally distributed among the endolysosomal compartment during the time interval of the experiments. The cotransport of the NPs with the lysosomes is significantly larger compared to the other cell organelles. In the present study we show that the complementarity of ICS-based techniques and SPT enables a consistent elaborate model of the complex behavior of NPs inside biological systems.

  2. Alveolar epithelial cells (A549) exposed at the air-liquid interface to diesel exhaust: First study in TNO's powertrain test center.

    PubMed

    Kooter, Ingeborg M; Alblas, Marcel J; Jedynska, Aleksandra D; Steenhof, Maaike; Houtzager, Marc M G; van Ras, Martijn

    2013-12-01

    Air-liquid interface (ALI) exposures enable in vitro testing of mixtures of gases and particles such as diesel exhaust (DE). The main objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of exposing human lung epithelial cells at the ALI to complete DE generated by a heavy-duty truck in the state-of-the-art TNO powertrain test center. A549 cells were exposed at the air-liquid interface to DE generated by a heavy-duty Euro III truck for 1.5h. The truck was tested at a speed of ∼70kmh(-1) to simulate free-flowing traffic on a motorway. Twenty-four hours after exposure, cells were analyzed for markers of oxidative stress (GSH and HO-1), cytotoxicity (LDH and Alamar Blue assay) and inflammation (IL-8). DE exposure resulted in an increased oxidative stress response (significantly increased HO-1 levels and significantly reduced GSH/GSSH ratio), and a decreased cell viability (significantly decreased Alamar Blue levels and slightly increased LDH levels). However, the pro-inflammatory response seemed to decrease (decrease in IL-8). The results presented here demonstrate that we are able to successfully expose A549 cells at ALI to complete DE generated by a heavy-duty truck in TNO's powertrain test center and show oxidative stress and cytotoxicity responses due to DE exposure.

  3. Detection of DNA adducts of benzo[a]pyrene using immunoelectrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence. Analysis of A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, W G; Carnelley, T J; Murphy, P; Wang, H; Lee, J; Barker, S; Weinfeld, M; Le, X C

    2001-07-27

    Detection of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE)-damaged DNA in a human lung carcinoma cell line (A549) has been performed using free zone affinity capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). Using BPDE as a model carcinogenic compound, the speed, sensitivity and specificity of this technique was demonstrated. Under free zone conditions, an antibody bound adduct was baseline-resolved from an unbound adduct in less than 2 min. The efficiencies of separation were in excess of 6 x 10(5) and 1 x 10(6) plates per meter for the antibody-bound and unbound adducts, respectively. Separation using a low ionic strength buffer permitted the use of a high electric field (830 V/cm) without the loss of resolving power. Using LIF detection, a concentration detection limit of roughly 3 x 10(-10) M was achieved for a 90-mer oligonuleotide containing a single BDPE. The use of formamide in the incubation buffer to enhance denaturing of DNA did not affect the stability of the complex between the antibody and the adducts. Using a fluorescently labeled BPDE-modified DNA adduct probe, a competitive assay was established to determine the levels of BPDE-DNA adducts in A549 cells.

  4. Alveolar epithelial cells (A549) exposed at the air-liquid interface to diesel exhaust: First study in TNO's powertrain test center.

    PubMed

    Kooter, Ingeborg M; Alblas, Marcel J; Jedynska, Aleksandra D; Steenhof, Maaike; Houtzager, Marc M G; van Ras, Martijn

    2013-12-01

    Air-liquid interface (ALI) exposures enable in vitro testing of mixtures of gases and particles such as diesel exhaust (DE). The main objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of exposing human lung epithelial cells at the ALI to complete DE generated by a heavy-duty truck in the state-of-the-art TNO powertrain test center. A549 cells were exposed at the air-liquid interface to DE generated by a heavy-duty Euro III truck for 1.5h. The truck was tested at a speed of ∼70kmh(-1) to simulate free-flowing traffic on a motorway. Twenty-four hours after exposure, cells were analyzed for markers of oxidative stress (GSH and HO-1), cytotoxicity (LDH and Alamar Blue assay) and inflammation (IL-8). DE exposure resulted in an increased oxidative stress response (significantly increased HO-1 levels and significantly reduced GSH/GSSH ratio), and a decreased cell viability (significantly decreased Alamar Blue levels and slightly increased LDH levels). However, the pro-inflammatory response seemed to decrease (decrease in IL-8). The results presented here demonstrate that we are able to successfully expose A549 cells at ALI to complete DE generated by a heavy-duty truck in TNO's powertrain test center and show oxidative stress and cytotoxicity responses due to DE exposure. PMID:24161370

  5. MAGEA10 gene expression in non-small cell lung cancer and A549 cells, and the affinity of epitopes with the complex of HLA-A(∗)0201 alleles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Likui; Xu, Yuefang; Luo, Cheng; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Jinlu; Lee, Ming-Wei; Bai, Aiping; Chen, Guanhua; Frenz, Christopher M; Li, Zhengguo; Huang, Wenlin

    2015-09-01

    MAGEA10, a cancer/testis antigens expressed in tumors but not in normal tissues with the exception of testis and placenta, represents an attractive target for cancer immunotherapy. However, suppressive cytoenvironment and requirement of specific HLA-alleles presentation frequently led to immunotherapy failure. In this study MAGEA10 was scarcely expressed in cancer patients, but enhanced by viili polysaccharides, which indicates a possibility of increasing epitopes presentation. Furthermore the correlation of gene expression with methylation, indicated by R(2) value for MAGEA10 that was 3 times higher than the value for other MAGE genes tested, provides an explanation of why MAGEA10 was highly inhibited, this is also seen by Kaplan-Meier analysis because MAGEA10 did not change the patients' lifespan. By using Molecular-Docking method, 3 MAGEA10 peptides were found binding to the groove position of HLA-A(∗)0210 as same as MAGEA4 peptide co-crystallized with HLA-A(∗)0210, which indicates that they could be promising for HLA-A(∗)0201 presentation in immunotherapy. PMID:26058806

  6. Protein signature for non-small cell lung cancer prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Wu, Yong; Wang, Libo; Gao, Ling; Wang, Yingping; Liu, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Kai; Song, Jena; Wang, Hongxia; Bayer, Thomas A; Glaser, Laurel; Sun, Yezhou; Zhang, Weijia; Cutaia, Michael; Zhang, David Y; Ye, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Background: Current histopathological classification and TNM staging have limited accuracy in predicting survival and stratifying patients for appropriate treatment. The goal of the study is to determine whether the expression pattern of functionally important regulatory proteins can add additional values for more accurate classification and prognostication of non-small lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: The expression of 108 proteins and phosphoproteins in 30 paired NSCLC samples were assessed using Protein Pathway Array (PPA). The differentially expressed proteins were further confirmed using a tissue microarray (TMA) containing 94 NSCLC samples and were correlated with clinical data and survival. Results: Twelve of 108 proteins (p-CREB(Ser133), p-ERK1/2(Thr202/Tyr204), Cyclin B1, p-PDK1(Ser241), CDK4, CDK2, HSP90, CDC2p34, β-catenin, EGFR, XIAP and PCNA) were selected to build the predictor to classify normal and tumor samples with 97% accuracy. Five proteins (CDC2p34, HSP90, XIAP, CDK4 and CREB) were confirmed to be differentially expressed between NSCLC (n=94) and benign lung tumor (n=19). Over-expression of CDK4 and HSP90 in tumors correlated with a favorable overall survival in all NSCLC patients and the over-expression of p-CREB(Ser133) and CREB in NSCLC correlated with a favorable survival in smokers and those with squamous cell carcinoma, respectively. Finally, the four proteins (CDK4, HSP90, p-CREB and CREB) were used to calculate the risk score of each individual patient with NSCLC to predict survival. Conclusion: In summary, our data demonstrated a broad disturbance of functionally important regulatory proteins in NSCLC and some of these can be selected as clinically useful biomarkers for diagnosis, classification and prognosis. PMID:24959380

  7. In vitro anticancer activity of fucoidan from Turbinaria conoides against A549 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Marudhupandi, Thangapandi; Ajith Kumar, Thipramalai Thankappan; Lakshmanasenthil, Shanmugaasokan; Suja, Gunasekaran; Vinothkumar, Thirumalairaj

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the anticancer activity of fucoidan isolated from brown seaweed Turbinaria conoides. Extracted fucoidan contained 53 ± 0.69% of fucose and 38 ± 0.42% of sulphate, respectively. Functional groups and structural characteristics of the fucoidan were analyzed by FT-IR and NMR. In vitro anticancer effect was studied on A549 cell line. Fucoidan inhibited the growth of cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner and potent anticancer activities were 24.9-73.5% in the concentrations of 31.25-500 μg/ml. The CTC50 value against the cancer cell was found to be 45 μg/ml and the CTC50 value of normal Vero cell line is 325 μg/ml. This study suggests that the fucoidan from T. conoides could be significantly improved if the active component is further purified and tested for further investigation in various cancer cell lines.

  8. ERK1/2 activation modulates pyocyanin-induced toxicity in A549 respiratory epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Amanda; Davey, Andrew K; Perkins, Anthony V; Grant, Gary D; McFarland, Amelia J; McDermott, Catherine M; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra

    2014-02-01

    Pyocyanin (PCN), a virulence factor produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has many damaging effects on mammalian cells. Several lines of evidence suggest that this damage is primarily mediated by its ability to generate oxidative stress. However mechanisms underlying PCN-induced oxidative injury remain unclear. Although oxidative stress and subsequent MAPK signaling has been shown to modulate cell death in other models, its role in PCN-induced cytotoxicity remains unknown. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the role of redox-sensitive MAPK in PCN-induced toxicity in A549 cells. Here we show that PCN (50μM) rapidly increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation after 5min. Pre-treatment of A549 cells with the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 (10μM) decreased PCN-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and protected cells against apoptosis and cell injury suggesting a role for ERK signalling. In contrast, JNK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation remained unchanged following exposure to PCN and pretreatment with either the JNK or p38 MAPK inhibitors (10μM SP600125 and 10μM SB203580, respectively) did not afford protection against PCN toxicity. This would suggest that PCN-induced cytotoxicity appears to occur independently of JNK and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. Finally, although we confirm that oxidative stress contributes to PCN-induced toxicity, our data suggest the contribution of oxidative stress is independent of ERK1/2 signaling. These findings may provide insight for novel targeted therapies to reduce PCN-mediated lung injury in patients with chronic P. aeruginosa respiratory infections.

  9. Effect of soluble nickel on cellular energy metabolism in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haobin; Costa, Max

    2006-10-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient to most organisms, and is actively involved in oxygen delivery, electron transport, DNA synthesis, and many other biochemical reactions important for cell survival. We previously reported that nickel (Ni) ion exposure decreases cellular iron level and converts cytosolic aconitase (c-aconitase) to iron-regulatory protein-1 in A549 cells (Chen H, Davidson T, Singleton S, Garrick MD, Costa M. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 206:275-287, 2005). Here, we further investigated the effect of Ni ion exposure on the activity of mitochondrial iron-sulfur (Fe-S) enzymes and cellular energy metabolism. We found that acute Ni ion treatment up to 1 mM exhibits minimal toxicity in A549 cells. Ni ion treatment decreases the activity of several Fe-S enzymes related to cellular energy metabolism, including mitochondrial aconitase (m-aconitase), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I). Low doses of Ni ion for 4 weeks resulted in an increased cellular glycolysis and NADH to NAD+ (NADH/NAD+) ratio, although glycolysis was inhibited at higher levels. Collectively, our results show that Ni ions decrease the activity of cellular iron (Fe)-containing enzymes, inhibit oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos), and increase cellular glycolytic activity. Since increased glycolysis is one of the fundamental alterations of energy metabolism in cancer cells (the Warburg effect), the inhibition of Fe-S enzymes and subsequent changes in cellular energy metabolism caused by Ni ions may play an important role in Ni carcinogenesis. PMID:17018869

  10. Toxicological assessment of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on A549 human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Visalli, Giuseppa; Bertuccio, Maria Paola; Iannazzo, Daniela; Piperno, Anna; Pistone, Alessandro; Di Pietro, Angela

    2015-03-01

    An in vitro model resembling the respiratory epithelium was used to investigate the biological response to laboratory-made pristine and functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (pMWCNT and MWCNT-COOH). Cell uptake was analysed by MWCNT-COOH, FITC labelled and the effect of internalisation was evaluated on the endocytic apparatus, mitochondrial compartment and DNA integrity. In the dose range 12.5-100μgml(-1), cytotoxicity and ROS generation were assayed, evaluating the role of iron (the catalyst used in MWCNTs synthesis). We observed a correlation between MWCNTs uptake and lysosomal dysfunction and an inverse relationship between these two parameters and cell viability (P<0.01). In particular, pristine-MWCNT caused a time- and dose-dependent ROS increase and higher levels of lipid hydroperoxides compared to the controls. Mitochondrial impairment was observed. Conversely to the functionalised MWCNT, higher micronuclei (MNi) frequency was detected in mono- and binucleate pMWCNT-treated cells, underlining an aneugenic effect due to mechanical damage. Based on the physical and chemical features of MWCNTs, several toxicological pathways could be activated in respiratory epithelium upon their inhalation. The biological impacts of nano-needles were imputable to their efficient and very fast uptake and to the resulting mechanical damages in cell compartments. Lysosomal dysfunction was able to trigger further toxic effects.

  11. Synthesis and cytotoxicity evaluation of 4-amino-4-dehydroxylarctigenin derivatives in glucose-starved A549 tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Lei, Min; Gan, Xianwen; Zhao, Kun; Yu, Qiang; Hu, Lihong

    2015-02-01

    The natural product arctigenin (ATG) demonstrated preferential cytotoxicity to cancer cells under glucose starvation. A series of 4-amino-4-dehydroxylarctigenin derivatives based on lead compound ATG were designed and synthesized by bioisosteric modifications. Their cytotoxicities were evaluated in glucose-starved A549 tumor cells and the results indicated that the 4-amino-4-dehydroxylarctigenin showed more potent cytotoxicity than arctigenin, and the further substituent group on 4-amino would result in the cytotoxicities decreased significantly. 4-Substituted-arctigenin could selectively target on glucose-starved A549 tumor cells which provide an alternative strategy for anticancer drug development with minimal normal tissue toxicity.

  12. Synthesis and cytotoxicity evaluation of 4-amino-4-dehydroxylarctigenin derivatives in glucose-starved A549 tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Lei, Min; Gan, Xianwen; Zhao, Kun; Yu, Qiang; Hu, Lihong

    2015-02-01

    The natural product arctigenin (ATG) demonstrated preferential cytotoxicity to cancer cells under glucose starvation. A series of 4-amino-4-dehydroxylarctigenin derivatives based on lead compound ATG were designed and synthesized by bioisosteric modifications. Their cytotoxicities were evaluated in glucose-starved A549 tumor cells and the results indicated that the 4-amino-4-dehydroxylarctigenin showed more potent cytotoxicity than arctigenin, and the further substituent group on 4-amino would result in the cytotoxicities decreased significantly. 4-Substituted-arctigenin could selectively target on glucose-starved A549 tumor cells which provide an alternative strategy for anticancer drug development with minimal normal tissue toxicity. PMID:25571795

  13. Integrated molecular portrait of non-small cell lung cancers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), a leading cause of cancer deaths, represents a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, mostly comprising squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), adenocarcinoma (AC) and large-cell carcinoma (LCC). The objectives of this study were to utilize integrated genomic data including copy-number alteration, mRNA, microRNA expression and candidate-gene full sequencing data to characterize the molecular distinctions between AC and SCC. Methods Comparative genomic hybridization followed by mutational analysis, gene expression and miRNA microarray profiling were performed on 123 paired tumor and non-tumor tissue samples from patients with NSCLC. Results At DNA, mRNA and miRNA levels we could identify molecular markers that discriminated significantly between the various histopathological entities of NSCLC. We identified 34 genomic clusters using aCGH data; several genes exhibited a different profile of aberrations between AC and SCC, including PIK3CA, SOX2, THPO, TP63, PDGFB genes. Gene expression profiling analysis identified SPP1, CTHRC1and GREM1 as potential biomarkers for early diagnosis of the cancer, and SPINK1 and BMP7 to distinguish between AC and SCC in small biopsies or in blood samples. Using integrated genomics approach we found in recurrently altered regions a list of three potential driver genes, MRPS22, NDRG1 and RNF7, which were consistently over-expressed in amplified regions, had wide-spread correlation with an average of ~800 genes throughout the genome and highly associated with histological types. Using a network enrichment analysis, the targets of these potential drivers were seen to be involved in DNA replication, cell cycle, mismatch repair, p53 signalling pathway and other lung cancer related signalling pathways, and many immunological pathways. Furthermore, we also identified one potential driver miRNA hsa-miR-944. Conclusions Integrated molecular characterization of AC and SCC helped identify clinically relevant markers

  14. Combination of TRAIL and actinomycin D liposomes enhances antitumor effect in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liangran; Fan, Li; Ren, Jinfeng; Pang, Zhiqing; Ren, Yulong; Li, Jingwei; Wen, Ziyi; Qian, Yong; Zhang, Lin; Ma, Hang; Jiang, Xinguo

    2012-01-01

    The intractability of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to multimodality treatments plays a large part in its extremely poor prognosis. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising cytokine for selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells; however, many NSCLC cell lines are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The therapeutic effect can be restored by treatments combining TRAIL with chemotherapeutic agents. Actinomycin D (ActD) can sensitize NSCLC cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by upregulation of death receptor 4 (DR4) or 5 (DR5). However, the use of ActD has significant drawbacks due to the side effects that result from its nonspecific biodistribution in vivo. In addition, the short half-life of TRAIL in serum also limits the antitumor effect of treatments combining TRAIL and ActD. In this study, we designed a combination treatment of long-circulating TRAIL liposomes and ActD liposomes with the aim of resolving these problems. The combination of TRAIL liposomes and ActD liposomes had a synergistic cytotoxic effect against A-549 cells. The mechanism behind this combination treatment includes both increased expression of DR5 and caspase activation. Moreover, systemic administration of the combination of TRAIL liposomes and ActD liposomes suppressed both tumor formation and growth of established subcutaneous NSCLC xenografts in nude mice, inducing apoptosis without causing significant general toxicity. These results provide preclinical proof-of-principle for a novel therapeutic strategy in which TRAIL liposomes are safely combined with ActD liposomes.

  15. SET antagonist enhances the chemosensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer cells by reactivating protein phosphatase 2A

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Man-Hsin; Wang, Cheng-Yi; Chen, Yen-Lin; Chu, Pei-Yi; Hsiao, Yung-Jen; Tai, Wei-Tien; Chao, Ting-Ting; Yu, Hui-Chuan; Shiau, Chung-Wai; Chen, Kuen-Feng

    2016-01-01

    SET is known as a potent PP2A inhibitor, however, its oncogenic role including its tumorigenic potential and involvement in the development of chemoresistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not yet been fully discussed. In present study, we investigated the oncogenic role of SET by SET-knockdown and showed that SET silencing impaired cell growth rate, colony formation and tumor sphere formation in A549 cells. Notably, silencing SET enhanced the pro-apoptotic effects of paclitaxel, while ectopic expression of SET diminished the sensitivity of NSCLC cells to paclitaxel. Since the SET protein was shown to affect chemosensitivity, we next examined whether combining a novel SET antagonist, EMQA, sensitized NSCLC cells to paclitaxel. Both the in vitro and in vivo experiments suggested that EMQA and paclitaxel combination treatment was synergistic. Importantly, we found that downregulating p-Akt by inhibiting SET-mediated protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) inactivation determined the pro-apoptotic effects of EMQA and paclitaxel combination treatment. To dissect the critical site for EMQA functioning, we generated several truncated SET proteins. By analysis of the effects of EMQA on the binding affinities of different truncated SET proteins to PP2A-catalytic subunits, we revealed that the 227–277 amino-acid sequence is critical for EMQA-induced SET inhibition. Our findings demonstrate the critical role of SET in NSCLC, particularly in the development of chemoresistance. The synergistic effects of paclitaxel and the SET antagonist shown in current study encourage further validation of the clinical potential of this combination. PMID:26575017

  16. Profile of ramucirumab in the treatment of metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Maryann R; Binkowski, Chelsea; Hartung, Jessica; Towle, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor is an important therapeutic target due to the importance of this pathway in carcinogenesis. In particular, this pathway promotes and regulates angiogenesis as well as increases endothelial cell proliferation, permeability, and survival. Ramucirumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that specifically targets the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, the key receptor implicated in angiogenesis. Currently, ramucirumab is approved for the second-line treatment of metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in combination with docetaxel. In a Phase III clinical trial, ramucirumab was shown to improve the overall survival in patients with disease progression, despite platinum-based chemotherapy