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Sample records for a549 human pulmonary

  1. Extract from Nandina domestica inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Takuro; Akaishi, Tatsuhiro; Okumura, Hidenobu; Abe, Kazuho

    2012-01-01

    Extract from fruits of Nandina domestica THUNBERG (NDE) has been used to improve cough and breathing difficulty in Japan for many years. To explore whether NDE may alleviate respiratory inflammation, we investigated its effect on expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and production of prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) in human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells in culture. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 6 µg/mL) resulted in an increase of COX-2 expression and PGE₂ production in A549 cells. Both the LPS-induced COX-2 expression and PGE₂ production were significantly inhibited by NDE (1-10 µg/mL) in a concentration-dependent manner. NDE did not affect COX-1 expression nor COX activity. These results suggest that NDE downregulates LPS-induced COX-2 expression and inhibits PGE₂ production in pulmonary epithelial cells. Furthermore, higenamine and nantenine, two major constituents responsible for tracheal relaxing effect of NDE, did not mimic the inhibitory effect of NDE on LPS-induced COX-2 expression in A549 cells. To identify active constituent(s) of NDE responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect, NDE was introduced in a polyaromatic absorbent resin column and stepwise eluted to yield water fraction, 20% methanol fraction, 40% methanol fraction, 99.8% methanol fraction, and 99.5% acetone fraction. However, none of these five fractions alone inhibited LPS-induced COX-2 expression. On the other hand, exclusion of water fraction from NDE abolished the inhibitory effect of NDE on LPS-induced COX-2 expression. These results suggest that constituent(s) present in water fraction is required but not sufficient for the anti-inflammatory activity of NDE, which may result from interactions among multiple constituents.

  2. Picfeltarraenin IA inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine production by the nuclear factor-κB pathway in human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rong; Wang, Qing; Ouyang, Yang; Wang, Qian; Xiong, Xudong

    2016-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of picfeltarraenin IA (IA) on respiratory inflammation by analyzing its effect on interleukin (IL)-8 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. The expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) in human pulmonary adenocarcinoma epithelial A549 cells in culture was also examined. Human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells and the human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cell line were used in the current study. Cell viability was measured using a methylthiazol tetrazolium assay. The production of IL-8 and PGE2 was investigated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of COX2 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-p65 was examined using western blot analysis. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 µg/ml) resulted in the increased production of IL-8 and PGE2, and the increased expression of COX2 in the A549 cells. Furthermore, IA (0.1-10 µmol/l) significantly inhibited PGE2 production and COX2 expression in cells with LPS-induced IL-8, in a concentration-dependent manner. The results suggested that IA downregulates LPS-induced COX2 expression, and inhibits IL-8 and PGE2 production in pulmonary epithelial cells. Additionally, IA was observed to suppress the expression of COX2 in THP-1 cells, and also to regulate the expression of COX2 via the NF-κB pathway in the A549 cells, but not in the THP-1 cells. These results indicate that IA regulates LPS-induced cytokine release in A549 cells via the NF-κB pathway.

  3. Phosphorylation of p53 at serine 15 in A549 pulmonary epithelial cells exposed to vanadate: Involvement of ATM pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Katsura; Inageda, Kiyoshi; Nishitai, Gen

    2007-04-01

    When A549 cells were exposed to sodium metavanadate (NaVO{sub 3}), the pentavalent species of vanadium (vanadate), phosphorylation of p53 protein at Ser15 was found in a time (8-48 h)- and dose (10-200 {mu}M)-dependent manner. After the incubation with 50 or 100 {mu}M NaVO{sub 3} for 48 h, accumulation of p53 protein was accompanied with Ser15 phosphorylation. Among serines in p53 protein immunoprecipitated from A549 cells treated with 100 {mu}M NaVO{sub 3} for 48 h, only Ser15 was markedly phosphorylated. Treatment with other vanadate compounds, sodium orthovanadate (Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4}) and ammonium metavanadate (NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3}), also induced Ser15 phosphorylation andmore » accumulation of p53 protein. While phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) was found in cells treated with NaVO{sub 3}, treatment with U0126 did not suppress Ser15 phosphorylation. On the other hand, treatment with wortmannin or caffeine, the inhibitors to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase related kinases (PIKKs), suppressed both NaVO{sub 3}-induced Ser15 phosphorylation and accumulation of p53 protein. The silencing of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) expression using short-interference RNA resulted in the marked suppression of Ser15 phosphorylation in A549 cells exposed to NaVO{sub 3}. However, treatment with antioxidants such as catalase and N-acetylcysteine did not suppress NaVO{sub 3}-induced Ser15 phosphorylation. Transcriptional activation of p53 and DNA fragmentation in A549 cells treated with NaVO{sub 3} were suppressed only slightly by S15A mutation, suggesting that Ser15 phosphorylation is not essential for these responses. The present results showed that vanadate induces the phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15 depending on ATM, one of the members of PIKK family, in this human pulmonary epithelial cell line.« less

  4. Involvement of lysosomal dysfunction in silver nanoparticle-induced cellular damage in A549 human lung alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Miyayama, Takamitsu; Matsuoka, Masato

    2016-01-01

    While silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in consumer and medical products, the mechanism by which AgNPs cause pulmonary cytotoxicity is not clear. AgNP agglomerates are found in endo-lysosomal structures within the cytoplasm of treated cells. In this study, the functional role of lysosomes in AgNP-induced cellular damage was examined in A549 human lung alveolar epithelial cells. We evaluated the intracellular distribution of AgNPs, lysosomal pH, cellular viability, Ag dissolution, and metallothionein (MT) mRNA levels in AgNP-exposed A549 cells that were treated with bafilomycin A1, the lysosomal acidification inhibitor. Exposure of A549 cells to citrate-coated AgNPs (20 nm diameter) for 24 h induced cellular damage and cell death at 100 and 200 μg Ag/ml, respectively. Confocal laser microscopic examination of LysoTracker-stained cells showed that AgNPs colocalized with lysosomes and their agglomeration increased in a dose-dependent manner (50-200 μg Ag/ml). In addition, the fluorescence signals of LysoTracker were reduced following exposure to AgNPs, suggesting the elevation of lysosomal pH. Treatment of A549 cells with 200 nM bafilomycin A1 and AgNPs (50 μg Ag/ml) further reduced the fluorescence signals of LysoTracker. AgNP-induced cell death was also increased by bafilomycin A1 treatment. Finally, treatment with bafilomycin A1 suppressed the dissolution of Ag and decreased the mRNA expression levels of MT-I and MT-II following exposure to AgNPs. The perturbation of lysosomal pH by AgNP exposure may play a role in AgNP agglomeration and subsequent cellular damage in A549 cells.

  5. Anticancer activity of polysaccharide from Glehnia littoralis on human lung cancer cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Gao, Weiping; Song, Zhuoyue; Xiong, Qingping; Xu, Yingtao; Han, Yun; Yuan, Jun; Zhang, Rong; Cheng, Yunbo; Fang, Jiansong; Li, Weirong; Wang, Qi

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anticancer activity of polysaccharide (PGL) from Glehnia littoralis on human lung cancer cell line A549. Based on MTT assay, the results suggested that PGL could significantly reduce A549 cells proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, PGL displayed an inhibitory activity for the A549 cells migration in Transwell migration assay. The results from both flow cytometry analysis and Hochst 3342 staining of apoptotic cells indicated that PGL could promote apoptosis, and induce cycle arrest of A549 cells. Moreover, immunofluorescence assay elucidated PGL could also down-regulate expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Overall, these results showed that PGL exerts a strong anticancer action through inhibiting the A549 cells migration, proliferation and inducing cell apoptosis. It could be a new source of natural anticancer agent against lung cancer with potential value in supplements and medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Aptamer based electrochemical sensor for detection of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rachna; Varun Agrawal, Ved; Sharma, Pradeep; Varshney, R.; Sinha, R. K.; Malhotra, B. D.

    2012-04-01

    We report results of the studies relating to development of an aptamer-based electrochemical biosensor for detection of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The aminated 85-mer DNA aptamer probe specific for the A549 cells has been covalently immobilized onto silane self assembled monolayer (SAM) onto ITO surface using glutaraldehyde as the crosslinker. The results of cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry studies reveal that the aptamer functionalized bioelectrode can specifically detect lung cancer cells in the concentration range of 103 to 107 cells/ml with detection limit of 103 cells/ml within 60 s. The specificity studies of the bioelectrode have been carried out with control KB cells. No significant change in response is observed for control KB cells as compared to that of the A549 target cells.

  7. Anti-inflammatory effects of embelin in A549 cells and human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Seung; Cho, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, Ki-Suk; Kim, Kang-Hoon; Park, Jiyoung; Kim, Yumi; Jung, Ji Hoon; Kim, Kwanil; Jung, Hee-Jae; Jang, Hyeung-Jin

    2018-02-01

    Allergic asthma is the most common type in asthma, which is defined as a chronic inflammatory disease of the lung. In this study, we investigated whether embelin (Emb), the major component of Ardisia japonica BL. (AJB), exhibits anti-inflammatory effects on allergic asthma via inhibition of NF-κB activity using A549 cells and asthmatic airway epithelial tissues. Inflammation was induced in A549 cells, a human airway epithelial cell line, by IL-1β (10 ng/ml) treatment for 4 h. The effects of Emb on NF-κB activity and COX-2 protein expression in inflamed airway epithelial cells and human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues were analyzed via western blot. The secretion levels of NF-κB-mediated cytokines/chemokines, including IL-4, 6, 9, 13, TNF-α and eotaxin, were measured by a multiplex assay. Emb significantly blocked NF-κB activity in IL-1β-treated A549 cells and human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues. COX-2 expression was also reduced in both IL-1β-treated A549 cells and asthmatic tissues Emb application. Emb significantly reduced the secretion of IL-4, IL-6 and eotaxin in human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues by inhibiting activity of NF-κB. The results of this study suggest that Emb may be used as an anti-inflammatory agent via inhibition of NF-κB and related cytokines.

  8. Ghrelin ameliorates the human alveolar epithelial A549 cell apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chunrong; Zheng, Haichong; He, Wanmei

    Ghrelin is a gastric acyl-peptide that plays an inhibitory role in cell apoptosis. Herein we investigate the protective effects of ghrelin in LPS-induced apoptosis of human alveolar epithelial A549 cells, along with the possible molecular mechanisms. LPS exposure impaired cell viability and increased apoptosis of A549 cells significantly in concentration- and time-dependent manners embodied in increased Bax and cleaved caspase-3 production, coupled with decreased Bcl-2 levels. Simultaneously, LPS remarkably decreased the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinas (ERK) in A549 cells. However, ghrelin'pretreatment ameliorated LPS-caused alterations in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 expression, whereas activatedmore » the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling. These results demonstrate that ghrelin lightens LPS-induced apoptosis of human alveolar epithelial cells partly through activating the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathway and thereby might benefit alleviating septic ALI. -- Graphical abstract: Ghrelin ameliorates the human alveolar epithelial A549 cells apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide partly through activating the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathway. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •It has been observed that LPS insult significantly increased apoptosis in A549 cells. •Both Akt and ERK signaling are critical adapter molecules to mediate the ghrelin-mediated proliferative effect. •Ghrelin may have a therapeutic effect in the prevention of LPS-induced apoptosis.« less

  9. [Apoptosis inducing effect of Hechanpian on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shao-Quan; Zhou, Dai-Han; Lin, Li-Zhu

    2010-06-01

    To study the apoptosis inducing effects of Hechanpian (HCP) on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. HCP containing rat serum was prepared and applied on A549 cells. The cell growth inhibition rate was tested by MTT assay; the effect of HCP on cell apoptosis was observed with Propidium iodide (PI) staining and flow cytometry analysis; the mRNA expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was detected through RT-PCR. The growth of A549 cells was obviously inhibited after being treated by HCP containing serum, and the cells presented an apoptotic change. The cell apoptosis rate after treated by serum containing 10% and 20% HCP was 20.5% and 33.2%, respectively, significantly higher than that in the control (6.1% in cells didn't treated with HCP, P < 0.05). Compared with control, EGFR mRNA expression in HCP treated cells was significantly lower (P < 0.05). HCP has apoptosis inducing effect on A549 cell, and its molecular mechanism is probably correlated with the inhibition of EGFR gene transcription.

  10. Curcumin induced autophagy anticancer effects on human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Furong; Gao, Song; Yang, Yuxuan; Zhao, Xiaodan; Fan, Yameng; Ma, Wenxia; Yang, Danrong; Yang, Aimin; Yu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the anticancer effects of curcumin-induced autophagy and its effects on the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line, inverted phase contrast microscopy was used to observe alterations to the cytomorphology of cells. An MTT assay was used to measure cell viability. Autophagy was detected using acridine orange (AO) staining and 3-methyladenine (3-MA) was used as an autophagy-specific inhibitor. Dose- and time-dependent A549 cell viability inhibition was observed following curcumin treatment. A dose-dependent increase in the red fluorescent structures in A549 cells was identified following curcumin treatment for 48 h through AO staining. In addition, the activation of autophagy was determined through changes in the number of autophagic vesicles (AVs; fluorescent particles) infected with monodansylcadaverine (MDC). The fluorescence intensity and density of AVs in the curcumin-treated groups were higher at 48 h compared with the control group. Finally, the MTT assay demonstrated that the survival rates of the curcumin-treated cells were increased when pretreated with 3-MA for 3 h, indicating that the inhibitory effect of curcumin on A549 cells is reduced following the inhibition of autophagy. Furthermore, AO and MDC staining confirmed that 3-MA does inhibit the induction of autophagy. Thus, it was hypothesized that the induction of autophagy is partially involved in the reduction of cell viability observed following curcumin treatment. The anticancer effects of curcumin on A549 cells can be reduced using autophagy inhibitors. This suggests a possible cancer therapeutic application of curcumin through the activation of autophagy. These findings have improved the understanding of the mechanism underlying the anticancer property of curcumin. PMID:28928819

  11. Effects of TGF-β signaling blockade on human A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng-Cheng; Wu, Lei-Ming; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Ni; Chen, Wen-Shu; Fu, Xiang-Ning

    2011-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is overexpressed in a wide variety of cancer types including lung adenocarcinoma (LAC), and the TGF-β signaling pathway plays an important role in tumor development. To determine whether blockade of the TGF-β signaling pathway can inhibit the malignant biological behavior of LAC, RNA interference (RNAi) technology was used to silence the expression of TGF-β receptor, type II (TGFβRII) in the LAC cell line, A549, and its effects on cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis were examined. Three specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) designed for targeting human TGFβRII were transfected into A549 cells. The expression of TGFβRII was detected by Western blot analysis. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT and clonogenic assays. Cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. The invasion and metastasis of A549 cells were investigated using the wound healing and Matrigel invasion assays. The expression of PI3K, phosphorylated Smad2, Smad4, Akt, Erk1/2, P38 and MMPs was detected by Western blot analysis. The TGFβRII siRNA significantly reduced the expression of TGFβRII in A549 cells. The knockdown of TGFβRII in A549 cells resulted in the suppression of cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis and induced cell apoptosis. In addition to the Smad-dependent pathway, independent pathways including the Erk MAPK, PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK pathways, as well as the expression of MMPs and VEGF, were inhibited. In conclusion, TGF-β signaling is required for LAC progression. Therefore, the blockade of this signaling pathway by the down-regulation of TGFβRII using SiRNA may provide a potential gene therapy for LAC.

  12. Curcumin induced autophagy anticancer effects on human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Liu, Furong; Gao, Song; Yang, Yuxuan; Zhao, Xiaodan; Fan, Yameng; Ma, Wenxia; Yang, Danrong; Yang, Aimin; Yu, Yan

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the anticancer effects of curcumin-induced autophagy and its effects on the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line, inverted phase contrast microscopy was used to observe alterations to the cytomorphology of cells. An MTT assay was used to measure cell viability. Autophagy was detected using acridine orange (AO) staining and 3-methyladenine (3-MA) was used as an autophagy-specific inhibitor. Dose- and time-dependent A549 cell viability inhibition was observed following curcumin treatment. A dose-dependent increase in the red fluorescent structures in A549 cells was identified following curcumin treatment for 48 h through AO staining. In addition, the activation of autophagy was determined through changes in the number of autophagic vesicles (AVs; fluorescent particles) infected with monodansylcadaverine (MDC). The fluorescence intensity and density of AVs in the curcumin-treated groups were higher at 48 h compared with the control group. Finally, the MTT assay demonstrated that the survival rates of the curcumin-treated cells were increased when pretreated with 3-MA for 3 h, indicating that the inhibitory effect of curcumin on A549 cells is reduced following the inhibition of autophagy. Furthermore, AO and MDC staining confirmed that 3-MA does inhibit the induction of autophagy. Thus, it was hypothesized that the induction of autophagy is partially involved in the reduction of cell viability observed following curcumin treatment. The anticancer effects of curcumin on A549 cells can be reduced using autophagy inhibitors. This suggests a possible cancer therapeutic application of curcumin through the activation of autophagy. These findings have improved the understanding of the mechanism underlying the anticancer property of curcumin.

  13. Synergistic Antitumor Effect of Oligogalacturonides and Cisplatin on Human Lung Cancer A549 Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cian-Song; Huang, Ai-Chun; Huang, Ping-Hsiu; Lo, Diana; Wang, Yuh-Tai; Wu, Ming-Chang

    2018-06-14

    Cisplatin (DPP), a clinically potent antineoplastic agent, is limited by its severe adverse effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oligogalacturonides (OGA) and DDP on human lung cancer A549 cells. The combined use of OGA and DDP had a synergistic effect on the growth inhibition of A549 cells, changed the cell cycle distribution, and enhanced apoptotic response, especially in sequential combination treatment group of DDP 12 h + OGA 12 h. Western blot analyses showed that the combination treatment of OGA and DDP upregulated Bax, p53, and Caspase-3 and downregulated Bcl-2 proteins. More importantly, DDP-induced toxicity was attenuated by OGA and DDP combination treatment in normal HEK293 cells. Our data suggests that the combined use of OGA from natural sources and DDP could be an important new adjuvant therapy for lung cancer as well as offer important insights for reducing kidney toxicity of DDP and delaying the development of DDP resistance.

  14. Cytotoxicity and gene expression profiling of polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride in human alveolar A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ha-Na; Zerin, Tamanna; Podder, Biswajit; Song, Ho-Yeon; Kim, Yong-Sik

    2014-06-01

    In Korea, lung disease of children and pregnant women associated with humidifier disinfectant use has become a major concern. A common sterilizer is polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG), a member of the guanidine family of antiseptics. This study was done to elucidate the putative cytotoxic effect of PHMG and the PHMG-mediated altered gene expression in human alveolar epithelial A549 cells in vitro. Cell viability analyses revealed the potent cytotoxicity of PHMG, with cell death evident at as low as 5 μg/mL. Death was dose- and time-dependent, and was associated with formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, and apoptosis significantly, at even 2 μg/mL concentration. The gene expression profile in A549 cells following 24 h exposure to 5 μg/mL of PHMG was investigated using DNA microarray analysis. Changes in gene expression relevant to the progression of cell death included induction of genes related to apoptosis, autophagy, fibrosis, and cell cycle. However, the expressions of genes encoding antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes were down-regulated or not affected. The altered expression of selected genes was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses. The collective data suggest that PHMG confers cellular toxicity through the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and alteration of gene expression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ferrous glycinate regulates cell energy metabolism by restrictinghypoxia-induced factor-1α expression in human A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yung-Ting; Jheng, Jhong-Huei; Lo, Mei-Chen; Chen, Wei-Lu; Wang, Shyang-Guang; Lee, Horng-Mo

    2018-06-04

    Iron or oxygen regulates the stability of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). We investigated whether ferrous glycinate would affect HIF-1α accumulation, aerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial energy metabolism in human A549 lung cancer cells. Incubation of A549 cells with ferrous glycinate decreased the protein levels of HIF-1α, which was abrogated by proteosome inhibitor, or prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor. The addition of ferrous glycinate decreased protein levels of glucose transporter-1, hexokinase-2, and lactate dehydrogenase A, and decreased pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-1 (PDK-1) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) phosphorylation in A549 cells. Ferrous glycinate also increased the expression of the mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), and the mitochondrial protein, cytochrome c oxidase (COX-IV). Silencing of HIF-1α expression mimicked the effects of ferrous glycinate on PDK-1, PDH, TFAM and COX-IV in A549 cells. Ferrous glycinate increased mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production in A549 cells. These results suggest that ferrous glycinate may reverse Warburg effect through down regulating HIF-1α in A549 cells.

  16. Ultrafine particles (UFPs) from domestic wood stoves: genotoxicity in human lung carcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Marabini, Laura; Ozgen, Senem; Turacchi, Silvia; Aminti, Stefania; Arnaboldi, Francesca; Lonati, Giovanni; Fermo, Paola; Corbella, Lorenza; Valli, Gianluigi; Bernardoni, Vera; Dell'Acqua, Manuela; Vecchi, Roberta; Becagli, Silvia; Caruso, Donatella; Corrado, Galli L; Marinovich, Marina

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, results on the potential toxicity of ultrafine particles (UFPs d<100nm) emitted by the combustion of logwood and pellet (hardwood and softwood) are reported. The data were collected during the TOBICUP (TOxicity of BIomass COmbustion generated Ultrafine Particles) project, carried out by a team composed of interdisciplinary research groups. The genotoxic evaluation was performed on A549 cells (human lung carcinomacells) using UFPs whose chemical composition was assessed by a suite of analytical techniques. Comet assay and γ-H2AX evaluation show a significant DNA damage after 24h treatment. The interpretation of the results is based on the correlation among toxicological results, chemical-physical properties of UFPs, and the type and efficiency conditions in residential pellet or logwood stoves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide effects human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells by regulating the expression of POLD4

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, QIN-MIAO; ZENG, YI-MING; ZHANG, HUA-PING; LV, LIANG-CHAO; YANG, DONG-YONG; LIN, HUI-HUANG

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the expression of POLD4 in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells under 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) stimulation to investigate the role of POLD4 in smoking-induced lung cancer. The lung cancer A549 cell line was treated with 4NQO, with or without MG132 (an inhibitor of proteasome activity), and subsequently the POLD4 level was determined by western blot analysis. Secondly, the cell sensitivity to 4NQO and Taxol was determined when the POLD4 expression level was downregulated by siRNA. The POLD4 protein levels in the A549 cells decreased following treatment with 4NQO; however, MG132 could reverse this phenotype. Downregulation of the POLD4 expression by siRNA enhanced A549 cell sensitivity to 4NQO, but not to Taxol. In conclusion, 4NQO affects human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells by regulating the expression of POLD4. PMID:26998273

  18. Jolkinolide A and Jolkinolide B Inhibit Proliferation of A549 Cells and Activity of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lei; Zhang, Shan-Qiang; Liu, Lei; Sun, Yu; Wu, Yu-Xuan; Xie, Li-Ping; Liu, Ji-Cheng

    2017-01-14

    BACKGROUND Jolkinolide A (JA) and Jolkinolide B (JB) are diterpenoids extracted from the roots of Euphorbia fischeriana Steud and have been shown to have anti-tumor activity. However, their effects on the ability of tumor cells to invade blood vessels and metastasize remain largely unknown. Investigations into the effects of JA and JB on the angiogenesis of tumor tissues may facilitate the identification of new natural drugs with anti-tumor growth and metastasis activities. MATERIAL AND METHODS We used different concentrations of JA and JB (20 μg/ml, 40 μg/ml, 60 μg/ml, 80 μg/ml, and 100 μg/ml) to stimulate A549 cells and then studied the effects on the growth and metastasis of lung cancers. In addition, we used conditional media from A549 cells (A549-CM) stimulated by either JA or JB in different concentrations to culture human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). RESULTS We found that both JA and JB significantly inhibited the Akt-STAT3-mTOR signaling pathway and reduced the expression of VEGF in A549 cells, but JB exhibited more significant inhibitory effects than JA. The JB-stimulated A549 cell conditional media had a greater inhibitory effect on the proliferation and migration of HUVECs than did the conditional media of JA-stimulated A549 cells. This effect gradually increased with increasing concentrations of either type of Jolkinolide. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that JA and JB inhibited VEGF expression in A549 cells through the inhibition of the Akt-STAT3-mTOR signaling pathway, and directly inhibited the proliferation and migration of HUVECs. These findings are of great significance for the development of new plant-derived chemotherapy agents for the treatment of cancer.

  19. Jolkinolide A and Jolkinolide B Inhibit Proliferation of A549 Cells and Activity of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Lei; Zhang, Shan-Qiang; Liu, Lei; Sun, Yu; Wu, Yu-Xuan; Xie, Li-Ping; Liu, Ji-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Background Jolkinolide A (JA) and Jolkinolide B (JB) are diterpenoids extracted from the roots of Euphorbia fischeriana Steud and have been shown to have anti-tumor activity. However, their effects on the ability of tumor cells to invade blood vessels and metastasize remain largely unknown. Investigations into the effects of JA and JB on the angiogenesis of tumor tissues may facilitate the identification of new natural drugs with anti-tumor growth and metastasis activities. Material/Methods We used different concentrations of JA and JB (20 μg/ml, 40 μg/ml, 60 μg/ml, 80 μg/ml, and 100 μg/ml) to stimulate A549 cells and then studied the effects on the growth and metastasis of lung cancers. In addition, we used conditional media from A549 cells (A549-CM) stimulated by either JA or JB in different concentrations to culture human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Results We found that both JA and JB significantly inhibited the Akt-STAT3-mTOR signaling pathway and reduced the expression of VEGF in A549 cells, but JB exhibited more significant inhibitory effects than JA. The JB-stimulated A549 cell conditional media had a greater inhibitory effect on the proliferation and migration of HUVECs than did the conditional media of JA-stimulated A549 cells. This effect gradually increased with increasing concentrations of either type of Jolkinolide. Conclusions Our results suggest that JA and JB inhibited VEGF expression in A549 cells through the inhibition of the Akt-STAT3-mTOR signaling pathway, and directly inhibited the proliferation and migration of HUVECs. These findings are of great significance for the development of new plant-derived chemotherapy agents for the treatment of cancer. PMID:28087861

  20. Group B Streptococcus serotypes III and V induce apoptosis and necrosis of human epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, Andréia Ferreira Eduardo; Pereira, Camila Serva; Santos, Gabriela Da Silva; Carvalho, Técia Maria Ulisses; Hirata, Raphael; De Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luiza; Rosa, Ana Cláudia De Paula; Nagao, Prescilla Emy

    2011-05-01

    Although group B Streptococcus (GBS) has been classically described as an exclusively extracellular pathogen, growing evidence suggests that it may be internalized by epithelial cells. However, the fates of intracellular GBS and of infected respiratory epithelial cells remain unclear. Little is known about the bacterial components involved in these processes. The present study investigated the bacterial internalization by A549 cells and the apoptosis/necrosis of the infected human epithelial cells. The morphological changes in A549 cells observed from 2 h post-infection with GBS included vacuolization and the formation of apoptotic bodies. Flow cytometry revealed that 81.2% of apoptotic A549 cells were infected with GBS serotype III 90356-liquor. Moreover, a double-staining assay using propidium iodide (PI)/Annexin V (AV) gave information about the numbers of viable (PI-/AV-) (18.27%) vs. early apoptotic (PI-/AV+) (73.83%) and late apoptotic cells (PI+/AV+) (7.37%) during infection of A549 cells with GBS III 90356-liquor. In addition, 37% necrotic cells were observed in A549 cells infected with GBS serotype V 90186-blood. In conclusion, GBS serotypes III and V induce apoptosis of epithelial cells in the early stages of GBS infection, resulting in tissue destruction, bacterial spreading and, in consequence, invasive disease or systemic infection.

  1. Apoptosis of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells induced by prodigiosin analogue obtained from an entomopathogenic bacterium Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Jin, Zhi-Xiong; Wan, Yong-Ji

    2010-12-01

    An entomopathogenic bacterial strain SCQ1 was isolated from silkworm (Bombyx mori) and identified as Serratia marcescens via 16S rRNA gene analysis. This strain produces a red pigment that causes acute septicemia of silkworm. The red pigment of strain SCQ1 was identified as prodigiosin analogue (PGA) with various reported biological activities. In this study, we found that low concentration of PGA showed significant anticancer activity in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, but has little effect in human bone marrow stem cells, in vitro. By exposure to different concentrations of PGA for 24 h, morphological changes and the MTT assay showed that A549 cell line was very sensitive to PGA, with IC(50) value about 2.2 mg/L. Early stage of apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry while A549 cells were treated with PGA for 4 and 12 h, respectively. The proportion of dead cells was increased with treatment time or the concentrations of PGA, but it was inversely proportional to that of apoptotic cells. These results indicate that PGA obtained from strain SCQ1 induces apoptosis in A549 cells, but the molecular mechanisms of cell death are complicated, and the S. marcescens strain SCQ1 may serve as a source of the anticancer compound, PGA.

  2. Molecular mechanisms underlying mangiferin-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in A549 human lung carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    SHI, WEI; DENG, JIAGANG; TONG, RONGSHENG; YANG, YONG; HE, XIA; LV, JIANZHEN; WANG, HAILIAN; DENG, SHAOPING; QI, PING; ZHANG, DINGDING; WANG, YI

    2016-01-01

    Mangiferin, which is a C-glucosylxanthone (1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone-C2-β-D-glucoside) purified from plant sources, has recently gained attention due to its various biological activities. The present study aimed to determine the apoptotic effects of mangiferin on A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. In vitro studies demonstrated that mangiferin exerted growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects against A549 cells. In addition, mangiferin exhibited anti-tumor properties in A549 xenograft mice in vivo. Mangiferin triggered G2/M phase cell cycle arrest via down-regulating the cyclin-dependent kinase 1-cyclin B1 signaling pathway, and induced apoptotic cell death by inhibiting the protein kinase C-nuclear factor-κB pathway. In addition, mangiferin was able to enhance the antiproliferative effects of cisplatin on A549 cells, thus indicating the potential for a combined therapy. Notably, mangiferin exerted anticancer effects in vivo, where it was able to markedly decrease the volume and weight of subcutaneous tumor mass, and expand the lifespan of xenograft mice. The present study clarified the molecular mechanisms underlying mangiferin-induced antitumor activities, and suggested that mangiferin may be considered a potential antineoplastic drug for the future treatment of cancer. PMID:26935347

  3. Molecular mechanisms underlying mangiferin-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in A549 human lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Deng, Jiagang; Tong, Rongsheng; Yang, Yong; He, Xia; Lv, Jianzhen; Wang, Hailian; Deng, Shaoping; Qi, Ping; Zhang, Dingding; Wang, Yi

    2016-04-01

    Mangiferin, which is a C‑glucosylxanthone (1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone-C2-β-D-glucoside) purified from plant sources, has recently gained attention due to its various biological activities. The present study aimed to determine the apoptotic effects of mangiferin on A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. In vitro studies demonstrated that mangiferin exerted growth‑inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects against A549 cells. In addition, mangiferin exhibited anti-tumor properties in A549 xenograft mice in vivo. Mangiferin triggered G2/M phase cell cycle arrest via downregulating the cyclin-dependent kinase 1-cyclin B1 signaling pathway, and induced apoptotic cell death by inhibiting the protein kinase C-nuclear factor-κB pathway. In addition, mangiferin was able to enhance the antiproliferative effects of cisplatin on A549 cells, thus indicating the potential for a combined therapy. Notably, mangiferin exerted anticancer effects in vivo, where it was able to markedly decrease the volume and weight of subcutaneous tumor mass, and expand the lifespan of xenograft mice. The present study clarified the molecular mechanisms underlying mangiferin-induced antitumor activities, and suggested that mangiferin may be considered a potential antineoplastic drug for the future treatment of cancer.

  4. Global secretome characterization of A549 human alveolar epithelial carcinoma cells during Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is one of the major etiological agents for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in all age groups. The early host response to M. pneumoniae infection relies on the concerted release of proteins with various biological activities. However, no comprehensive analysis of the secretory proteins has been conducted to date regarding the host response upon M. pneumoniae infection. Results We employed the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based label-free quantitative proteomic technology to identify and characterize the members of the human alveolar epithelial carcinoma A549 cell secretome during M. pneumoniae infection. A total of 256 proteins were identified, with 113 being differentially expressed (>1.5-fold change), among which 9 were only expressed in control cells, 10 only in M. pneumoniae-treated cells, while 55 were up-regulated and 39 down-regulated by M. pneumoniae. The changed expression of some of the identified proteins was validated by RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis. Cellular localization analysis of the secretome data revealed 59.38% of the proteins were considered as “putative secretory proteins”. Functional analysis revealed that the proteins affected upon M. pneumoniae infection were mainly related to metabolic process, stress response, and immune response. We further examined the level of one up-regulated protein, IL-33, in clinical samples. The result showed that IL-33 levels were significantly higher in the plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of M. pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) patients. Conclusions The present study provided systematic information about the changes in the expression of secretory proteins during M. pneumoniae infection, which is useful for the discovery of specific biomarkers and targets for pharmacological intervention. PMID:24507763

  5. Effects of Nrf2 knockdown on the properties of irradiated cell conditioned medium from A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Hironori; Murakami, Kanna; Nawamaki, Mikoto; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2018-05-01

    The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays an important role in cellular defense against oxidative stress. Recent studies have demonstrated that Nrf2 is a useful target for cancer treatment, including radiation therapy. Ionizing radiation affects, not only the irradiated cells, but also the non-irradiated neighboring cells, and this effect is known as radiation-induced bystander effect. Upon exposure to radiation, the irradiated cells transmit signals to the non-irradiated cells via gap junctions or soluble factors. These signals in turn cause biological effects, such as a decrease in the clonogenic potential and cell death, in the non-irradiated neighboring cells. Nrf2 inhibition enhances cellular radiosensitivity. However, whether this modification of radiosensitivity by Nrf2 inhibition affects the radiation-induced bystander effects is unknown. In this study, we prepared an Nrf2 knockdown human lung cancer cell A549 and investigated whether the effects of irradiated cell conditioned medium (ICCM) on cell growth and cell death induction of non-irradiated cells vary depending on the Nrf2 knockdown. We found that Nrf2 knockdown resulted in a decrease in the cell growth and an increase in the radiosensitivity of A549 cells. When non-irradiated A549 cells were transfected with control siRNA and treated with ICCM, no significant difference was observed in the cell growth and proportion of Annexin V + dead cells between ICCM from non-irradiated cells and that from 2 or 8 Gy-irradiated cells. Similarly, no significant difference was observed in the cell growth and cell death induction upon treatment with ICCM in the Nrf2 knockdown A549 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that Nrf2 knockdown decreases cell growth and enhances the radiosensitivity of A549 cells; however, it does not alter the effect of ICCM on cell growth.

  6. [Overexpression of Keap1 inhibits the cell proliferation and metastasis and overcomes the drug resistance in human lung cancer A549 cells].

    PubMed

    Weng, X; Yan, Y Y; Tong, Y H; Fan, Y; Zeng, J M; Wang, L L; Lin, N M

    2016-06-23

    To investigate the effect of Keap1-Nrf2 pathway on cell proliferation, metastasis and drug resistance of human lung cancer A549 cell line. A549-Keap1 cell line, constantly expressing wild type Keap1, was established by lentiviral transfection. Real-time RT-PCR and western blot were used to determine the expression of Nrf2 and its target gene in A549 cells. Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay, flow cytometry, colony formation assay, transwell assay, and cell wound-healing assay were performed to explore the effect of wild type Keap1 expression on the proliferation, invasion, migration and drug resistance of A549 cells. Over-expressed Keap1 decreased the expression of Nrf2 protein and the mRNA level of its downstream target genes and inhibited the ability of cell proliferation and clone formation of A549 cells. Keap1 overexpression induced G0/G1 phase arrest. The percentage of A549-Keap1 cells in G0/G1 phase was significantly higher than that of A549-GFP cells (80.2±5.9)% vs. (67.1±0.9%)(P<0.05). Compared with the invasive A549-Keap1 cells (156.33±17.37), the number of invasive A549-GFP cells was significantly higher (306.67±22.19) in a high power field. Keap1 overexpression significantly enhanced the sensitivity of A549 cells to carboplatin and gemcitabine (P<0.01). The IC50s of carboplatin in A549-Keap1 and A549-GFP cells were (52.1±3.3) μmol/L and (107.8±12.9) μmol/L, respectively. The IC50s of gemcitabine in A549-Keap1 and A549-GFP cells were (6.8±1.2) μmol/L and (9.9±0.5) μmol/L, respectively. Keap1 overexpression significantly inhibits the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream target genes, suppresses tumor cell proliferation and metastasis, and enhances the sensitivity of A549 cells to anticancer drugs.

  7. Dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR]: molecular design, synthetic organic chemistry reactions, and antineoplastic cytotoxic potency against pulmonary adenocarcinoma (A549)

    PubMed Central

    Coyne, Cody P; Narayanan, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Corticosteroids are effective in the management of a variety of disease states, such as several forms of neoplasia (leukemia and lymphoma), autoimmune conditions, and severe inflammatory responses. Molecular strategies that selectively “target” delivery of corticosteroids minimize or prevents large amounts of the pharmaceutical moiety from passively diffusing into normal healthy cell populations residing within tissues and organ systems. Materials and methods The covalent immunopharmaceutical, dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR] was synthesized by reacting dexamethasone-21-monophosphate with a carbodiimide reagent to form a dexamethasone phosphate carbodiimide ester that was subsequently reacted with imidazole to create an amine-reactive dexamethasone-(C21-phosphorylimidazolide) intermediate. Monoclonal anti-EGFR immunoglobulin was combined with the amine-reactive dexamethasone-(C21-phosphorylimidazolide) intermediate, resulting in the synthesis of the covalent immunopharmaceutical, dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR]. Following spectrophotometric analysis and validation of retained epidermal growth factor receptor type 1 (EGFR)-binding avidity by cell-ELISA, the selective anti-neoplasic cytotoxic potency of dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR] was established by MTT-based vitality stain methodology using adherent monolayer populations of human pulmonary adenocarcinoma (A549) known to overexpress the tropic membrane receptors EGFR and insulin-like growth factor receptor type 1. Results The dexamethasone:IgG molar-incorporation-index for dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR] was 6.95:1 following exhaustive serial microfiltration. Cytotoxicity analysis: covalent bonding of dexamethasone to monoclonal anti-EGFR immunoglobulin did not significantly modify the ex vivo antineoplastic cytotoxicity of dexamethasone against pulmonary adenocarcinoma at and between the standardized dexamethasone equivalent concentrations of 10

  8. Dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR]: molecular design, synthetic organic chemistry reactions, and antineoplastic cytotoxic potency against pulmonary adenocarcinoma (A549).

    PubMed

    Coyne, Cody P; Narayanan, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Corticosteroids are effective in the management of a variety of disease states, such as several forms of neoplasia (leukemia and lymphoma), autoimmune conditions, and severe inflammatory responses. Molecular strategies that selectively "target" delivery of corticosteroids minimize or prevents large amounts of the pharmaceutical moiety from passively diffusing into normal healthy cell populations residing within tissues and organ systems. The covalent immunopharmaceutical, dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR] was synthesized by reacting dexamethasone-21-monophosphate with a carbodiimide reagent to form a dexamethasone phosphate carbodiimide ester that was subsequently reacted with imidazole to create an amine-reactive dexamethasone-(C21-phosphorylimidazolide) intermediate. Monoclonal anti-EGFR immunoglobulin was combined with the amine-reactive dexamethasone-(C21-phosphorylimidazolide) intermediate, resulting in the synthesis of the covalent immunopharmaceutical, dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR]. Following spectrophotometric analysis and validation of retained epidermal growth factor receptor type 1 (EGFR)-binding avidity by cell-ELISA, the selective anti-neoplasic cytotoxic potency of dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR] was established by MTT-based vitality stain methodology using adherent monolayer populations of human pulmonary adenocarcinoma (A549) known to overexpress the tropic membrane receptors EGFR and insulin-like growth factor receptor type 1. The dexamethasone:IgG molar-incorporation-index for dexamethasone-(C21-phosphoramide)-[anti-EGFR] was 6.95:1 following exhaustive serial microfiltration. Cytotoxicity analysis: covalent bonding of dexamethasone to monoclonal anti-EGFR immunoglobulin did not significantly modify the ex vivo antineoplastic cytotoxicity of dexamethasone against pulmonary adenocarcinoma at and between the standardized dexamethasone equivalent concentrations of 10(-9) M and 10(-5) M. Rapid increases in

  9. Curcumin promotes apoptosis in A549/DDP multidrug-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells through an miRNA signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian, E-mail: zhangjian197011@yahoo.com; Zhang, Tao; Ti, Xinyu

    2010-08-13

    Research highlights: {yields} Curcumin had anti-cancer effects on A549/DDP multidrug-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells {yields} Curcumin promotes apoptosis in A549/DDP cells through a miRNA signaling pathway {yields} Curcumin induces A549/DDP cell apoptosis by downregulating miR-186* {yields} miR-186* may serve as a potential gene therapy target for refractory lung cancer that is sensitive to curcumin -- Abstract: Curcumin extracted from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa L. has been shown to have inhibitory effects on cancers through its anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities. Emerging evidence demonstrates that curcumin can overcome drug resistance to classical chemotherapies. Thus, the mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor activities ofmore » curcumin require further study. In our study, we first demonstrated that curcumin had anti-cancer effects on A549/DDP multidrug-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Further studies showed that curcumin altered miRNA expression; in particular, significantly downregulated the expression of miR-186* in A549/DDP. In addition, transfection of cells with a miR-186* inhibitor promoted A549/DDP apoptosis, and overexpression of miR-186* significantly inhibited curcumin-induced apoptosis in A549/DDP cells. These observations suggest that miR-186* may serve as a potential gene therapy target for refractory lung cancer that is sensitive to curcumin.« less

  10. Formoxanthone C, isolated from Cratoxylum formosum ssp. pruniflorum, reverses anticancer drug resistance by inducing both apoptosis and autophagy in human A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kaewpiboon, Chutima; Boonnak, Nawong; Kaowinn, Sirichat; Chung, Young-Hwa

    2018-02-15

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) cancer toward cancer chemotherapy is one of the obstacles in cancer therapy. Therefore, it is of interested to use formoxanthone C (1,3,5,6-tetraoxygenated xanthone; XanX), a natural compound, which showed cytotoxicity against MDR human A549 lung cancer (A549RT-eto). The treatment with XanX induced not only apoptosis- in A549RT-eto cells, but also autophagy-cell death. Inhibition of apoptosis did not block XanX-induced autophagy in A549RT-eto cells. Furthermore, suppression of autophagy by beclin-1 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) did not interrupt XanX-induced apoptosis, indicating that XanX can separately induce apoptosis and autophagy. Of interest, XanX treatment reduced levels of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) protein overexpressed in A549RT-etocells. The co-treatment with XanX and HDAC4 siRNA accelerated both autophagy and apoptosis more than that by XanX treatment alone, suggesting survival of HDAC4 in A549RT-eto cells. XanX reverses etoposide resistance in A549RT-eto cells by induction of both autophagy and apoptosis, and confers cytotoxicity through down-regulation of HDAC4. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Cellular uptake and toxic effects of fine and ultrafine metal-sulfate particles in human A549 lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Könczöl, Mathias; Goldenberg, Ella; Ebeling, Sandra; Schäfer, Bianca; Garcia-Käufer, Manuel; Gminski, Richard; Grobéty, Bernard; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Merfort, Irmgard; Gieré, Reto; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2012-12-17

    Ambient airborne particulate matter is known to cause various adverse health effects in humans. In a recent study on the environmental impacts of coal and tire combustion in a thermal power station, fine crystals of PbSO(4) (anglesite), ZnSO(4)·H(2)O (gunningite), and CaSO(4) (anhydrite) were identified in the stack emissions. Here, we have studied the toxic potential of these sulfate phases as particulates and their uptake in human alveolar epithelial cells (A549). Both PbSO(4) and CaSO(4) yielded no loss of cell viability, as determined by the WST-1 and NR assays. In contrast, a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity was observed for Zn sulfate. For all analyzed sulfates, an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), assessed by the DCFH-DA assay and EPR, was observed, although to a varying extent. Again, Zn sulfate was the most active compound. Genotoxicity assays revealed concentration-dependent DNA damage and induction of micronuclei for Zn sulfate and, to a lower extent, for CaSO(4), whereas only slight effects could be found for PbSO(4). Moreover, changes of the cell cycle were observed for Zn sulfate and PbSO(4). It could be shown further that Zn sulfate increased the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) DNA binding activity and activated JNK. During our TEM investigations, no effect on the appearance of the A549 cells exposed to CaSO(4) compared to the nonexposed cells was observed, and in our experiments, only one CaSO(4) particle was detected in the cytoplasm. In the case of exposure to Zn sulfate, no particles were found in the cytoplasm of A549 cells, but we observed a concentration-dependent increase in the number and size of dark vesicles (presumably zincosomes). After exposure to PbSO(4), the A549 cells contained isolated particles as well as agglomerates both in vesicles and in the cytoplasm. Since these metal-sulfate particles are emitted into the atmosphere via the flue gas of coal-fired power stations, they may be

  12. Antimetastatic Effects of Phyllanthus on Human Lung (A549) and Breast (MCF-7) Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sau Har; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Wang, Seok Mui; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2011-01-01

    Background Current chemotherapeutic drugs kill cancer cells mainly by inducing apoptosis. However, they become ineffective once cancer cell has the ability to metastasize, hence the poor prognosis and high mortality rate. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimetastatic potential of Phyllanthus (P. niruri, P. urinaria, P. watsonii, and P. amarus) on lung and breast carcinoma cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Cytotoxicity of Phyllanthus plant extracts were first screened using the MTS reduction assay. They were shown to inhibit MCF-7 (breast carcinoma) and A549 (lung carcinoma) cells growth with IC50 values ranging from 50–180 µg/ml and 65–470 µg/ml for methanolic and aqueous extracts respectively. In comparison, they have lower toxicity on normal cells with the cell viability percentage remaining above 50% when treated up to 1000 µg/ml for both extracts. After determining the non-toxic effective dose, several antimetastasis assays were carried out and Phyllanthus extracts were shown to effectively reduce invasion, migration, and adhesion of both MCF-7 and A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner, at concentrations ranging from 20–200 µg/ml for methanolic extracts and 50–500 µg/ml for aqueous extracts. This was followed by an evaluation of the possible modes of cell death that occurred along with the antimetastatic activity. Phyllanthus was shown to be capable of inducing apoptosis in conjunction with its antimetastastic action, with more than three fold increase of caspases-3 and -7, the presence of DNA-fragmentation and TUNEL-positive cells. The ability of Phyllanthus to exert antimetastatic activities is mostly associated to the presence of polyphenol compounds in its extracts. Conclusions/Significance The presence of polyphenol compounds in the Phyllanthus plant is critically important in the inhibition of the invasion, migration, and adhesion of cancer cells, along with the involvement of apoptosis induction. Hence

  13. Apigenin inhibits cell proliferation, migration, and invasion by targeting Akt in the A549 human lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhongping; Tang, Miaomiao; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Zhuyi; Lu, Rongzhu; Lu, Jian

    2017-04-01

    Apigenin (APG), a widely distributed flavonoid in vegetables and fruits, with low toxicity, and a nonmutagenic characteristic, has been reported to have many targets. Evidence indicates that APG can inhibit the proliferation, migration, invasion, and metastasis of some tumor cells, but the mechanism, specifically in lung cancer, is unclear. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway regulates a diverse set of cellular functions relevant to the growth and progression of lung cancer, including proliferation, survival, migration, and invasion. Our results showed that APG exerted anti-proliferation, anti-migration, and anti-invasion effects in A549 human lung cancer cells by targeting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiszol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenytetrazolium bromide assay and colony formation assay showed that APG suppressed cell proliferation in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Cell motility and invasiveness were assayed using a wound healing and Transwell assay, suggesting that APG inhibited the migration and invasion of A549 cells. Western blot analyses were carried out to examine the Akt signaling pathways. The results confirmed that APG decreased Akt expression and its activation. Then, cells were transfected with Akt-active and Akt-DN plasmids separately. The migration and invasion of A549 cells were significantly changed, constitutively activating Akt or knocking down Akt, indicating that APG can suppress the migration and invasion of lung cancer cells by modulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Furthermore, the results indicated that APG not only suppressed phosphorylation of Akt, thereby preventing its activation, but also inhibited its downstream gene expression of matrix metalloproteinases-9, glycogen synthase kinase-3β, and HEF1. Together, APG is a new inhibitor of Akt in lung cancer and a potential natural compound for cancer chemoprevention.

  14. Methyl methanesulfonate induces necroptosis in human lung adenoma A549 cells through the PIG-3-reactive oxygen species pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Shan, Shigang; Chi, Linfeng; Zhang, Guanglin; Gao, Xiangjing; Li, Hongjuan; Zhu, Xinqiang; Yang, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) is an alkylating agent that can induce cell death through apoptosis and necroptosis. The molecular mechanisms underlying MMS-induced apoptosis have been studied extensively; however, little is known about the mechanism for MMS-induced necroptosis. Therefore, we first established MMS-induced necroptosis model using human lung carcinoma A549 cells. It was found that, within a 24-h period, although MMS at concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 μM can induce DNA damage, only at higher concentrations (400 and 800 μM) MMS treatment lead to necroptosis in A549 cells, as it could be inhibited by the specific necroptotic inhibitor necrostatin-1, but not the specific apoptotic inhibitor carbobenzoxy-valyl-alanyl-aspartyl-[O-methyl]-fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD-fmk). MMS-induced necroptosis was further confirmed by the induction of the necroptosis biomarkers including the depletion of cellular NADH and ATP and leakage of LDH. This necroptotic cell death was also concurrent with the increased expression of p53, p53-induced gene 3 (PIG-3), high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1), and receptor interaction protein kinase (RIP) but not the apoptosis-associated caspase-3 and caspase-9 proteins. Elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was also involved in this process as the specific ROS inhibitor (4-amino-2,4-pyrrolidine-dicarboxylic acid (APDC)) can inhibit the necroptotic cell death. Interestingly, knockdown of PIG-3 expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment can inhibit the generation of ROS. Taken together, these results suggest that MMS can induce necroptosis in A549 cells, probably through the PIG-3-ROS pathway.

  15. Nanoparticles of Selaginella doederleinii leaf extract inhibit human lung cancer cells A549

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syaefudin; Juniarti, A.; Rosiyana, L.; Setyani, A.; Khodijah, S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate cytotoxicity effect of nanoparticles of Selaginella doederleinii (S. doederleinii) leaves extract. S. doederleinii was extracted by maceration method using 70%(v/v) ethanol as solvent. Phytochemical content was analyzed qualitatively by using Harborne and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) methods. Nanoparticle extract was prepared by ionic gelation using chitosan as encapsulant agent. Anticancer activity was performed by using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results showed that S. doederleinii contains of flavonoids. Nanoparticle of S. doederleinii leaves extract greatly inhibited A549 cells growth (cancer cells), with IC50 of 3% or 1020 μg/ml. These nanoparticles extract also inhibited the growth of Chang cells (normal cells), with IC50 of 4% or 1442 μg/ml. The effective concentration of nanoparticles extract which inhibits cancer cells without harming the normal cells is 0.5% or 167 μg/ml. Further studies are needed to obtain the concentration of nanoparticles extract which can selectively suppress cancer cells.

  16. Curcumin inhibits interferon-{alpha} induced NF-{kappa}B and COX-2 in human A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jeeyun; Im, Young-Hyuck; Jung, Hae Hyun

    2005-08-26

    The A549 cells, non-small cell lung cancer cell line from human, were resistant to interferon (IFN)-{alpha} treatment. The IFN-{alpha}-treated A549 cells showed increase in protein expression levels of NF-{kappa}B and COX-2. IFN-{alpha} induced NF-{kappa}B binding activity within 30 min and this increased binding activity was markedly suppressed with inclusion of curcumin. Curcumin also inhibited IFN-{alpha}-induced COX-2 expression in A549 cells. Within 10 min, IFN-{alpha} rapidly induced the binding activity of a {gamma}-{sup 32}P-labeled consensus GAS oligonucleotide probe, which was profoundly reversed by curcumin. Taken together, IFN-{alpha}-induced activations of NF-{kappa}B and COX-2 were inhibited by the addition of curcumin in A549more » cells.« less

  17. Seleno-short-chain chitosan induces apoptosis in human non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells through ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yana; Zhang, Shaojing; Wang, Pengfei; Fu, Shengnan; Wu, Di; Liu, Anjun

    2017-12-01

    Seleno-short-chain chitosan (SSCC) is a synthesized chitosan derivative. In this study, antitumor activity and underlying mechanism of SSCC on human non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells were investigated in vitro. The MTT assay showed that SSCC could inhibit cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and 200 μg/ml SSCC exhibited significantly toxic effects on A549 cells. The cell cycle assay showed that SSCC triggered S phase cell cycle arrest in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was related to a downregulation of S phase associated cyclin A. The DAPI staining and Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining identified that the SSCC could induce A549 cells apoptosis. Further studies found that SSCC led to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by DCFH-DA and Rhodamin 123 staining, respectively. Meanwhile, free radical scavengers N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) pretreatment confirmed that SSCC-induced A549 cells apoptosis was associated with ROS generation. Furthermore, real-time PCR and western blot assay showed that SSCC up-regulated Bax and down-regulated Bcl-2, subsequently incited the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytoplasm, activated the increase of cleaved-caspase 3 and finally induced A549 cells apoptosis in vitro. In general, the present study demonstrated that SSCC induced A549 cells apoptosis via ROS-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.

  18. Houttuynia cordata Thunb extract modulates G0/G1 arrest and Fas/CD95-mediated death receptor apoptotic cell death in human lung cancer A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Houttuynia cordata Thunb (HCT) is commonly used in Taiwan and other Asian countries as an anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antiviral herbal medicine. In this study, we investigated the anti-human lung cancer activity and growth inhibition mechanisms of HCT in human lung cancer A549 cells. Results In order to investigate effects of HCT on A549 cells, MTT assay was used to evaluate cell viability. Flow cytometry was employed for cell cycle analysis, DAPI staining, and the Comet assay was used for DNA fragmentation and DNA condensation. Western blot analysis was used to analyze cell cycle and apoptotic related protein levels. HCT induced morphological changes including cell shrinkage and rounding. HCT increased the G0/G1 and Sub-G1 cell (apoptosis) populations and HCT increased DNA fragmentation and DNA condensation as revealed by DAPI staining and the Comet assay. HCT induced activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3. Fas/CD95 protein levels were increased in HCT-treated A549 cells. The G0/G1 phase and apoptotic related protein levels of cyclin D1, cyclin A, CDK 4 and CDK 2 were decreased, and p27, caspase-8 and caspase-3 were increased in A549 cells after HCT treatment. Conclusions The results demonstrated that HCT-induced G0/G1 phase arrest and Fas/CD95-dependent apoptotic cell death in A549 cells PMID:23506616

  19. MiR-21 suppresses the anticancer activities of curcumin by targeting PTEN gene in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Bai, W; Zhang, W

    2014-08-01

    Curcumin, a natural phytochemical, exhibits potent anticancer activities. Here, we sought to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the cytotoxic effects of curcumin against human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. MTT assay and annexin-V/PI staining were used to analyze the effects of curcumin on the proliferation and apoptosis of A549 cells. The expression of microRNA-21 in curcumin-treated A549 cells was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. The protein level of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a putative target of microRNA-21, was determined by Western blot analysis. Transfection of A549 cells with microRNA-21 mimic or PTEN small interfering RNA was performed to modulate the expression of microRNA-21 and PTEN under the treatment of curcumin. Curcumin at 20-40 μM inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Curcumin treatment produced a dose-dependent and significant (P < 0.05) suppression of microRNA-21 expression, compared to untreated A549 cells. Moreover, the protein level of PTEN, a putative target of microRNA-21, was significantly elevated in curcumin-treated A549 cells, as determined by Western blot analysis. Transfection of A549 cells with microRNA-21 mimic or PTEN small interfering RNA significantly (P < 0.05) reversed the growth suppression and apoptosis induction by curcumin, compared to corresponding controls. Our data suggest a novel molecular mechanism in which inhibition of microRNA-21 and upregulation of PTEN mediate the anticancer activities of curcumin in NSCLC cells. Suppression of microRNA-21 may thus have therapeutic benefits against this malignancy.

  20. MicroRNA regulatory networks reflective of polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate-induced fibrosis in A549 human alveolar adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Da Young; Jeong, Mi Ho; Bang, In Jae; Kim, Ha Ryong; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2018-05-01

    Polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG-phosphate), an active component of humidifier disinfectant, is suspected to be a major cause of pulmonary fibrosis. Fibrosis, induced by recurrent epithelial damage, is significantly affected by epigenetic regulation, including microRNAs (miRNAs). The aim of this study was to investigate the fibrogenic mechanisms of PHMG-phosphate through the profiling of miRNAs and their target genes. A549 cells were treated with 0.75 μg/mL PHMG-phosphate for 24 and 48 h and miRNA microarray expression analysis was conducted. The putative mRNA targets of the miRNAs were identified and subjected to Gene Ontology analysis. After exposure to PHMG-phosphate for 24 and 48 h, 46 and 33 miRNAs, respectively, showed a significant change in expression over 1.5-fold compared with the control. The integrated analysis of miRNA and mRNA microarray results revealed the putative targets that were prominently enriched were associated with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cell cycle changes, and apoptosis. The dose-dependent induction of EMT by PHMG-phosphate exposure was confirmed by western blot. We identified 13 putative EMT-related targets that may play a role in PHMG-phosphate-induced fibrosis according to the Comparative Toxicogenomic Database. Our findings contribute to the comprehension of the fibrogenic mechanism of PHMG-phosphate and will aid further study on PHMG-phosphate-induced toxicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Human Parvovirus B19 and Bocavirus VP1 Unique Region on Tight Junction of Human Airway Epithelial A549 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chun-Ching; Shi, Ya-Fang; Yang, Jiann-Jou; Hsiao, Yuan-Chao; Tzang, Bor-Show; Hsu, Tsai-Ching

    2014-01-01

    As is widely recognized, human parvovirus B19 (B19) and human bocavirus (HBoV) are important human pathogens. Obviously, both VP1 unique region (VP1u) of B19 and HBoV exhibit the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-like enzymatic activity and are recognized to participate in the pathogenesis of lower respiratory tract illnesses. However, exactly how, both VP1u from B19 and HBoV affect tight junction has seldom been addressed. Therefore, this study investigates how B19-VP1u and HBoV-VP1u may affect the tight junction of the airway epithelial A549 cells by examining phospholipase A2 activity and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) as well as performing immunoblotting analyses. Experimental results indicate that TEER is more significantly decreased in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-α (10 ng), two dosages of B19-VP1u and BoV-VP1u (400 ng and 4000 ng) or bee venom PLA2 (10 ng) than that of the control. Accordingly, more significantly increased claudin-1 and decreased occludin are detected in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-α or both dosages of HBoV-VP1u than that of the control. Additionally, more significantly decreased Na+/K+ ATPase is observed in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-α, high dosage of B19-VP1u or both dosages of BoV-VP1u than that of the control. Above findings suggest that HBoV-VP1u rather than B19 VP1u likely plays more important roles in the disruption of tight junction in the airway tract. Meanwhile, this discrepancy appears not to be associated with the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-like enzymatic activity. PMID:25268969

  2. [The effect and mechanism of vinorelbine on cisplatin resistance of human lung cancer cell line A549/DDP].

    PubMed

    Qi, Chunsheng; Gao, Sen; Li, Huiqiang; Gao, Weizhen

    2014-02-01

    Drug resistance is a major obstacle on lung cancer treatment and Vinorelbine is an effective drug to inhibition of tumor proliferation and metastasis. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of Vinorelbine on reversing the cisplatin resistance of human lung cancer A549/DDP cell line. With 1 μmol/L and 5 μmol/L Vinorelbine treatment, MTS assay was employed to determine the effect of the cisplatin sensitivity of tumor cells, flow cytometry to determine the apoptosis rate and change of Rh-123 content; Western blot to determine the expression of MDR1, Bcl-2, surviving, PTEN, caspase-3/8 and phosphorylation level of Akt (p-Akt); Real-time PCR was to determine the mRNA expression of MDR1, Bcl-2, survivin and PTEN. Finally the transcriptional activities of NF-κB, Twist and Snail were determined by reporter gene system. With 1 μmol/L and 5 μmol/L Vinorelbine treatment, the sensitivity of cancer cells to cisplatin was increased by 1.91- and 2.54- folds respectively, flow cytometry showed that the content of Rh-123 was elevated 1.93- and 2.95- folds and apoptosis rate was increased 2.25- and 3.82- folds, Western blot showed that the expression of multidrug resistance related proteins MDR, Bcl-2 and survivin were downregulated, caspase-3/8 and PTEN was upregulated, phosphorylation of Akt was downregulated as well, real-time assay showed that the mRNA expression of MDR1 was downregulated 43.5% and 25.8%, Bcl-2 was downregulated 57.3% and 34.1%, survivin was downregulated 37.6% and 12.4%, PTEN was upregulated 183.4% and 154.2%, the transcriptional activities of NF-κB was downregulated 53.2% and 34.5%, Twist was downregulated 61.4% and 33.5%, and Snail was downregulated 57.8% and 18.7%. Vinorelbine treatment led to increase of cisplatin sensitivity of A549/DDP cells and the mechanisms included the regulation of PTEN/AKT/NF-κB signal pathway to decreased drug resistance gene expression and increased pro-apoptosis gene expression.

  3. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of host responses in human lung epithelial (A549) cells during influenza virus infection.

    PubMed

    Dapat, Clyde; Saito, Reiko; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Horigome, Tsuneyoshi

    2014-01-22

    The emergence of antiviral drug-resistant influenza viruses highlights the need for alternative therapeutic strategies. Elucidation of host factors required during virus infection provides information not only on the signaling pathways involved but also on the identification of novel drug targets. RNA interference screening method had been utilized by several studies to determine these host factors; however, proteomics data on influenza host factors are currently limited. In this study, quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of human lung cell line (A549) infected with 2009 pandemic influenza virus A (H1N1) virus was performed. Phosphopeptides were enriched from tryptic digests of total protein of infected and mock-infected cells using a titania column on an automated purification system followed by iTRAQ labeling. Identification and quantitative analysis of iTRAQ-labeled phosphopeptides were performed using LC-MS/MS. We identified 366 phosphorylation sites on 283 proteins. Of these, we detected 43 upregulated and 35 downregulated proteins during influenza virus infection. Gene ontology enrichment analysis showed that majority of the identified proteins are phosphoproteins involved in RNA processing, immune system process and response to infection. Host-virus interaction network analysis had identified 23 densely connected subnetworks. Of which, 13 subnetworks contained proteins with altered phosphorylation levels during by influenza virus infection. Our results will help to identify potential drug targets that can be pursued for influenza antiviral drug development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro investigation of oxide nanoparticle and carbon nanotube toxicity and intracellular accumulation in A549 human pneumocytes.

    PubMed

    Simon-Deckers, A; Gouget, B; Mayne-L'hermite, M; Herlin-Boime, N; Reynaud, C; Carrière, M

    2008-11-20

    If released in the environment, nanomaterials might be inhaled by populations and cause damage to the deepest regions of the respiratory tract, i.e., the alveolar compartment. To model this situation, we studied the response of A549 human pneumocytes after exposure to aluminium oxide or titanium oxide nanoparticles, and to multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The influence of size, crystalline structure and chemical composition was investigated. After a detailed identification of nanomaterial physico-chemical characteristics, cells were exposed in vitro and viability and intracellular accumulation were assessed. In our conditions, carbon nanotubes were more toxic than metal oxide nanoparticles. Our results confirmed that both nanotubes and nanoparticles are able to rapidly enter into cells, and distribute in the cytoplasm and intracellular vesicles. Among nanoparticles, we demonstrate significant difference in biological response as a function of size, crystalline phase and chemical composition. Their toxicity was globally lower than nanotubes toxicity. Among nanotubes, the length did not influence cytotoxicity, neither the presence of metal catalyst impurities.

  5. Chrysophanol-induced cell death (necrosis) in human lung cancer A549 cells is mediated through increasing reactive oxygen species and decreasing the level of mitochondrial membrane potential.

    PubMed

    Ni, Chien-Hang; Yu, Chun-Shu; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Yang, Jai-Sing; Huang, Hui-Ying; Chen, Po-Yuan; Wu, Shin-Hwar; Ip, Siu-Wan; Chiang, Su-Yin; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2014-05-01

    Chrysophanol (1,8-dihydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone) is one of the anthraquinone compounds, and it has been shown to induce cell death in different types of cancer cells. The effects of chrysophanol on human lung cancer cell death have not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to examine chrysophanol-induced cytotoxic effects and also to investigate such influences that involved apoptosis or necrosis in A549 human lung cancer cells in vitro. Our results indicated that chrysophanol decreased the viable A549 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Chrysophanol also promoted the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+) and decreased the levels of mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨm ) and adenosine triphosphate in A549 cells. Furthermore, chrysophanol triggered DNA damage by using Comet assay and DAPI staining. Importantly, chrysophanol only stimulated the cytocheome c release, but it did not activate other apoptosis-associated protein levels including caspase-3, caspase-8, Apaf-1, and AIF. In conclusion, human lung cancer A549 cells treated with chrysophanol exhibited a cellular pattern associated with necrotic cell death and not apoptosis in vitro. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 29: 740-749, 2014. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  6. Up-Regulation of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and Chemokine Production in Avian Influenza H9N2 Virus-Infected Human Lung Epithelial Cell Line (A549).

    PubMed

    Farzin, Hamidreza; Toroghi, Reza; Haghparast, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Influenza H9N2 virus mostly infects avian species but poses a potential health risk to humans. Little is known about the mammalian host immune responses to H9N2 virus. To obtain insight into the innate immune responses of human lung epithelial cells to the avian H9N2 virus, the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine in the human airway epithelial cells infected with avian H9N2 virus were examined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). H9N2 virus was able to cultivate in the human lung epithelial cell line (A549) and stimulate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6) and chemokine (IL-8). Expressions of cytokine genes were up-regulated to a significantly higher level for IL-1β (p < 0.01), IL-6 (p < 0.01 after 12 hours and p < 0.05 after 24 hours) and IL-8 (p < 0.01 after 12 hours and p < 0.001 after 24 hours) in virus-cultured A549 cells as compared with non-virus-cultured cells. The amount of IL-6 and IL-1β proteins secreted into the culture medium was also increased after virus culture infection of A549 cell line compared to non-virus-cultured A549 cells and were significant in both IL-1β (p < 0.05 in 18 hours and p < 0.001 in 24-48 hours harvested supernatant) and IL-6 (p < 0.001). Silencing the p65 component of NF-κB in A549 cells suppressed the stimulatory effects of influenza virus on secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine. The findings in this study will broaden our understanding of host innate immune mechanisms and the pathogenesis of H9N2 influenza viruses in human respiratory epithelium.

  7. EGCG reverses human neutrophil elastase-induced migration in A549 cells by directly binding to HNE and by regulating α1-AT

    PubMed Central

    Xiaokaiti, Yilixiati; Wu, Haoming; Chen, Ya; Yang, Haopeng; Duan, Jianhui; Li, Xin; Pan, Yan; Tie, Lu; Zhang, Liangren; Li, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    Lung carcinogenesis is a complex process that occurs in unregulated inflammatory environment. EGCG has been extensively investigated as a multi-targeting anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory compound. In this study, we demonstrated a novel mechanism by which EGCG reverses the neutrophil elastase-induced migration of A549 cells. We found that neutrophil elastase directly triggered human adenocarcinoma A549 cell migration and that EGCG suppressed the elevation of tumor cell migration induced by neutrophil elastase. We observed that EGCG directly binds to neutrophil elastase and inhibits its enzymatic activity based on the CDOCKER algorithm, MD stimulation by GROMACS, SPR assay and elastase enzymatic activity assay. As the natural inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, α1-antitrypsin is synthesized in tumor cells. We further demonstrated that the expression of α1-antitrypsin was up-regulated after EGCG treatment in neutrophil elastase-treated A549 cells. We preliminarily discovered that the EGCG-mediated induction of α1-antitrypsin expression might be correlated with the regulatory effect of EGCG on the PI3K/Akt pathway. Overall, our results suggest that EGCG ameliorates the neutrophil elastase-induced migration of A549 cells. The mechanism underlying this effect may include two processes: EGCG directly binds to neutrophil elastase and inhibits its enzymatic activity; EGCG enhances the expression of α1-antitrypsin by regulating the PI3K/AKT pathway. PMID:26177797

  8. EGCG reverses human neutrophil elastase-induced migration in A549 cells by directly binding to HNE and by regulating α1-AT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaokaiti, Yilixiati; Wu, Haoming; Chen, Ya; Yang, Haopeng; Duan, Jianhui; Li, Xin; Pan, Yan; Tie, Lu; Zhang, Liangren; Li, Xuejun

    2015-07-01

    Lung carcinogenesis is a complex process that occurs in unregulated inflammatory environment. EGCG has been extensively investigated as a multi-targeting anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory compound. In this study, we demonstrated a novel mechanism by which EGCG reverses the neutrophil elastase-induced migration of A549 cells. We found that neutrophil elastase directly triggered human adenocarcinoma A549 cell migration and that EGCG suppressed the elevation of tumor cell migration induced by neutrophil elastase. We observed that EGCG directly binds to neutrophil elastase and inhibits its enzymatic activity based on the CDOCKER algorithm, MD stimulation by GROMACS, SPR assay and elastase enzymatic activity assay. As the natural inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, α1-antitrypsin is synthesized in tumor cells. We further demonstrated that the expression of α1-antitrypsin was up-regulated after EGCG treatment in neutrophil elastase-treated A549 cells. We preliminarily discovered that the EGCG-mediated induction of α1-antitrypsin expression might be correlated with the regulatory effect of EGCG on the PI3K/Akt pathway. Overall, our results suggest that EGCG ameliorates the neutrophil elastase-induced migration of A549 cells. The mechanism underlying this effect may include two processes: EGCG directly binds to neutrophil elastase and inhibits its enzymatic activity; EGCG enhances the expression of α1-antitrypsin by regulating the PI3K/AKT pathway.

  9. EGCG reverses human neutrophil elastase-induced migration in A549 cells by directly binding to HNE and by regulating α1-AT.

    PubMed

    Xiaokaiti, Yilixiati; Wu, Haoming; Chen, Ya; Yang, Haopeng; Duan, Jianhui; Li, Xin; Pan, Yan; Tie, Lu; Zhang, Liangren; Li, Xuejun

    2015-07-16

    Lung carcinogenesis is a complex process that occurs in unregulated inflammatory environment. EGCG has been extensively investigated as a multi-targeting anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory compound. In this study, we demonstrated a novel mechanism by which EGCG reverses the neutrophil elastase-induced migration of A549 cells. We found that neutrophil elastase directly triggered human adenocarcinoma A549 cell migration and that EGCG suppressed the elevation of tumor cell migration induced by neutrophil elastase. We observed that EGCG directly binds to neutrophil elastase and inhibits its enzymatic activity based on the CDOCKER algorithm, MD stimulation by GROMACS, SPR assay and elastase enzymatic activity assay. As the natural inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, α1-antitrypsin is synthesized in tumor cells. We further demonstrated that the expression of α1-antitrypsin was up-regulated after EGCG treatment in neutrophil elastase-treated A549 cells. We preliminarily discovered that the EGCG-mediated induction of α1-antitrypsin expression might be correlated with the regulatory effect of EGCG on the PI3K/Akt pathway. Overall, our results suggest that EGCG ameliorates the neutrophil elastase-induced migration of A549 cells. The mechanism underlying this effect may include two processes: EGCG directly binds to neutrophil elastase and inhibits its enzymatic activity; EGCG enhances the expression of α1-antitrypsin by regulating the PI3K/AKT pathway.

  10. Anacardic acid, a histone acetyltransferase inhibitor, modulates LPS-induced IL-8 expression in a human alveolar epithelial cell line A549

    PubMed Central

    Takizawa, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    Objective and design: The histone acetylation processes, which are believed to play a critical role in the regulation of many inflammatory genes, are reversible and regulated by histone acetyltransferases (HATs), which promote acetylation, and histone deacetylases (HDACs), which promote deacetylation. We studied the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on histone acetylation and its role in the regulation of interleukin (IL)-8 expression.  Material: A human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 was used in vitro. Methods: Histone H4 acetylation at the IL-8 promoter region was assessed by a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. The expression and production of IL-8 were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and specific immunoassay. Effects of a HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), and a HAT inhibitor, anacardic acid, were assessed.  Results: Escherichia coli-derived LPS showed a dose- and time-dependent stimulatory effect on IL-8 protein production and mRNA expression in A549 cells in vitro. LPS showed a significant stimulatory effect on histone H4 acetylation at the IL-8 promoter region by ChIP assay. Pretreatment with TSA showed a dose-dependent stimulatory effect on IL-8 release from A549 cells as compared to LPS alone. Conversely, pretreatment with anacardic acid inhibited IL-8 production and expression in A549 cells.  Conclusion: These data suggest that LPS-mediated proinflammatory responses in the lungs might be modulated via changing chromatin remodeling by HAT inhibition. PMID:24627774

  11. Inhibition of Raf-MEK-ERK and hypoxia pathways by Phyllanthus prevents metastasis in human lung (A549) cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sau Har; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Manikam, Rishya; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2013-10-20

    Lung cancer constitutes one of the malignancies with the greatest incidence and mortality rates with 1.6 million new cases and 1.4 million deaths each year. Prognosis remains poor due to deleterious development of multidrug resistance resulting in less than 15% lung cancer patients reaching five years survival. We have previously shown that Phyllanthus induced apoptosis in conjunction with its antimetastastic action. In the current study, we aimed to determine the signaling pathways utilized by Phyllanthus to exert its antimetastatic activities. Cancer 10-pathway reporter array was performed to screen the pathways affected by Phyllanthus in lung carcinoma cell line (A549) to exert its antimetastatic effects. Results from this array were then confirmed with western blotting, cell cycle analysis, zymography technique, and cell based ELISA assay for human total iNOS. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was subsequently carried out to study the differential protein expressions in A549 after treatment with Phyllanthus. Phyllanthus was observed to cause antimetastatic activities by inhibiting ERK1/2 pathway via suppression of Raf protein. Inhibition of this pathway resulted in the suppression of MMP2, MMP7, and MMP9 expression to stop A549 metastasis. Phyllanthus also inhibits hypoxia pathway via inhibition of HIF-1α that led to reduced VEGF and iNOS expressions. Proteomic analysis revealed a number of proteins downregulated by Phyllanthus that were involved in metastatic processes, including invasion and mobility proteins (cytoskeletal proteins), transcriptional proteins (proliferating cell nuclear antigen; zinc finger protein), antiapoptotic protein (Bcl2) and various glycolytic enzymes. Among the four Phyllanthus species tested, P. urinaria showed the greatest antimetastatic activity. Phyllanthus inhibits A549 metastasis by suppressing ERK1/2 and hypoxia pathways that led to suppression of various critical proteins for A549 invasion and migration.

  12. Inhibition of Raf-MEK-ERK and Hypoxia pathways by Phyllanthus prevents metastasis in human lung (A549) cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lung cancer constitutes one of the malignancies with the greatest incidence and mortality rates with 1.6 million new cases and 1.4 million deaths each year. Prognosis remains poor due to deleterious development of multidrug resistance resulting in less than 15% lung cancer patients reaching five years survival. We have previously shown that Phyllanthus induced apoptosis in conjunction with its antimetastastic action. In the current study, we aimed to determine the signaling pathways utilized by Phyllanthus to exert its antimetastatic activities. Methods Cancer 10-pathway reporter array was performed to screen the pathways affected by Phyllanthus in lung carcinoma cell line (A549) to exert its antimetastatic effects. Results from this array were then confirmed with western blotting, cell cycle analysis, zymography technique, and cell based ELISA assay for human total iNOS. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was subsequently carried out to study the differential protein expressions in A549 after treatment with Phyllanthus. Results Phyllanthus was observed to cause antimetastatic activities by inhibiting ERK1/2 pathway via suppression of Raf protein. Inhibition of this pathway resulted in the suppression of MMP2, MMP7, and MMP9 expression to stop A549 metastasis. Phyllanthus also inhibits hypoxia pathway via inhibition of HIF-1α that led to reduced VEGF and iNOS expressions. Proteomic analysis revealed a number of proteins downregulated by Phyllanthus that were involved in metastatic processes, including invasion and mobility proteins (cytoskeletal proteins), transcriptional proteins (proliferating cell nuclear antigen; zinc finger protein), antiapoptotic protein (Bcl2) and various glycolytic enzymes. Among the four Phyllanthus species tested, P. urinaria showed the greatest antimetastatic activity. Conclusions Phyllanthus inhibits A549 metastasis by suppressing ERK1/2 and hypoxia pathways that led to suppression of various critical proteins for A549

  13. Inflammatory effects induced by selected limonene oxidation products: 4-OPA, IPOH, 4-AMCH in human bronchial (16HBE14o-) and alveolar (A549) epithelial cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lipsa, Dorelia; Leva, Paolo; Barrero-Moreno, Josefa; Coelhan, Mehmet

    2016-11-16

    Limonene, a monoterpene abundantly present in most of the consumer products (due to its pleasant citrus smell), easily undergoes ozonolysis leading to several limonene oxidation products (LOPs) such as 4-acetyl-1-methylcyclohexene (4-AMCH), 4-oxopentanal (4-OPA) and 3-isopropenyl-6-oxoheptanal (IPOH). Toxicological studies have indicated that human exposure to limonene and ozone can cause adverse airway effects. However, little attention has been paid to the potential health impact of specific LOPs, in particular of IPOH, 4-OPA and 4-AMCH. This study evaluates the cytotoxic effects of the selected LOPs on human bronchial epithelial (16HBE14o-) and alveolar epithelial (A549) cell lines by generating concentration-response curves using the neutral red uptake assay and analyzing the inflammatory response with a series of cytokines/chemokines. The cellular viability was mostly reduced by 4-OPA [IC 50 =1.6mM (A549) and 1.45mM (16HBE14o-)] when compared to IPOH [IC 50 =3.5mM (A549) and 3.4mM (16HBE14o-)] and 4-AMCH [IC 50 could not be calculated]. As a result from the inflammatory response, IPOH [50μM] induced an increase of both IL-6 and IL-8 secretion in A549 (1.5-fold change) and in 16HBE14o- (2.8- and 7-fold change respectively). 4-OPA [50μM] treatment of A549 increased IL-6 (1.4-times) and IL-8 (1.3-times) levels, while in 16HBE14o- had an opposite effect. A549 treated with 4-AMCH [50μM] elevate both IL-6 and IL-8 levels by 1.2-times, while in 16HBE14o- had an opposite effect. Based on our results, lung cellular injury characterized by inflammatory cytokine release was observed for both cell lines treated with the selected chemicals at concentrations that did not affect their cellular viability. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhanced expression of PKM2 associates with the biological properties of cancer stem cells from A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chang-Ying; Yan, Chen; Luo, Lan; Goto, Shinji; Urata, Yoshishige; Xu, Jian-Jun; Wen, Xiao-Ming; Kuang, Yu-Kang; Tou, Fang-Fang; Li, Tao-Sheng

    2017-04-01

    Cancer cells express the M2 isoform of glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase (PKM2) for favoring the survival under a hypoxic condition. Considering the relative low oxygen microenvironment in stem cell niche, we hypothesized that an enhanced PKM2 expression associates with the biological properties of cancer stem cells. We used A549 human lung cancer cell line and surgical resected lung cancer tissue samples from patients for experiments. We confirmed the co-localization of PKM2 and CD44, a popular marker for cancer stem cells in lung cancer tissue samples from patients. The expression of PKM2 was clearly observed in approximately 80% of the A549 human lung cancer cells. Remarkably, enhanced expression of PKM2 was specially observed in these cells that also positively expressed CD44. Downregulation of PKM2 in CD44+ cancer stem cells by siRNA significantly impaired the potency for spheroid formation, decreased the cell survival under fetal bovine serum deprivation and hypoxic conditions, but increased their sensitivity to anti-cancer drug of cisplatin and γ-ray. The enhanced expression of PKM2 seems to associate with the biological properties of cancer stem cells from A549 human lung cancer cells. Selective targeting of PKM2 may provide a new strategy for cancer therapy, especially for patients with therapeutic resistance.

  15. Mineral fiber-mediated activation of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase c in human bronchoalveolar carcinoma-derived alveolar epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Loreto, Carla; Carnazza, Maria Luisa; Cardile, Venera; Libra, Massimo; Lombardo, Laura; Malaponte, Grazia; Martinez, Giuseppina; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Papa, Veronica; Cocco, Lucio

    2009-02-01

    Given the role of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) isozymes in the control of cell growth and differentiation we were prompted to analyze the expression of some of these PLC in human bronchoalveolar carcinoma-derived alveolar epithelial A549 cells. The effects of several fluoro-edenite fibers were compared with those of tremolite, a member of the calcic amphibole group of asbestos that originates from Calabria (Italy), and crocidolite, that, due to its high toxicity, is one of the most studied asbestos amphiboles. Our data show an increased expression of both PLC beta1 and PLC gamma1 in A549 cells treated with asbestos-like fibers, hinting at a role of PLC signalling in those cancerous cells.

  16. Neferine augments therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin through ROS- mediated non-canonical autophagy in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549 cells).

    PubMed

    Kalai Selvi, Sivalingam; Vinoth, Amirthalingam; Varadharajan, Thiyagarajan; Weng, Ching Feng; Vijaya Padma, Viswanadha

    2017-05-01

    Combination of dietary components with chemotherapy drugs is an emerging new strategy for cancer therapy to increase antitumor responses. Neferine, major bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the seed embryo of Nelumbo nucifera (Lotus). In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of the combinatorial regimen of neferine and cisplatin compared to cisplatin high dose in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. Co-treatment with neferine enhanced cisplatin-induced autophagy in A549 cells was accompanied by Acidic vesicular accumulation (AVO), enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH), down regulation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, conversion of LC3B-I to LC3B-II. This enhanced autophagy developed via a non-canonical mechanism that did not require Beclin-1, PI3KCIII. In conclusion, these results suggest that neferine enhances cisplatin -induced autophagic cancer cell death through downregulation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pro-survival pathway and ROS- mediated Beclin-1 and PI3K CIII independent autophagy in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549 cells). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Copper(II) complexes with naringenin and hesperetin: cytotoxic activity against A 549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells and investigation on the mode of action.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, Lenka V; Gouvea, Ligiane R; Sousa, Anna C; Albuquerque, Ronniel M; Teixeira, Sarah Fernandes; de Azevedo, Ricardo Alexandre; Louro, Sonia R W; Ferreira, Adilson Kleber; Beraldo, Heloisa

    2016-02-01

    Copper(II) complexes [Cu(H2O)2 (L1)(phen)](ClO4) (1) and [Cu(H2O)(L2)(phen)](ClO4) (2) (HL1 = naringenin; HL2 = hesperetin) were obtained, in which an anionic flavonoid ligand is attached to the metal center along with 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) as co-ligand. Complexes (1) and (2) were assayed for their cytotoxic activity against A549 lung carcinoma and against normal lung fibroblasts (LL-24) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). We found IC50 = 16.42 µM (1) and IC50 = 5.82 µM (2) against A549 tumor cells. Complexes (1) and (2) exhibited slight specificity, being more cytotoxic against malignant than against non-malignant cells. 1 and 2 induced apoptosis on A549 cells in a mitochondria-independent pathway, and showed antioxidant activity. The antioxidant effect of the complexes could possibly improve their apoptotic action, most likely by a PI3K-independent reduction of autophagy. Complexes (1) and (2) interact in vitro with calf thymus DNA by an intercalative binding mode. EPR data indicated that 1 and 2 interact with human serum albumin (HSA) forming mixed ligand species.

  18. Mechanisms underlying regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis by hnRNP B1 in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Juan; Tang, Feng-ming; Pu, Dan; Xu, Dan; Wang, Tao; Li, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein B1 (hnRNP B1), a nuclear RNA binding protein, has been reported to occur in early-stage lung cancer and in premalignant lesions. DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is known to be involved in the repair of double-strand DNA breaks. Reduced capacity to repair DNA has been associated with the risk of lung cancer. We investigated a link between hnRNP B1 and DNA-PK and their effects on proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. We found that hnRNP B1 and DNA-PK interact with each other in a complex fashion. Reducing hnRNP B1 expression in A549 cells with the use of RNAi led to upregulation of p53 activity through upregulation of DNA-PK activity but without inducing p53 expression. Further, suppression of hnRNP B1 in A549 cells slowed cell proliferation, promoted apoptosis, and induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 stage. The presence of NU7026 reduced the arrest of cells at the G1 stage and reduced the apoptosis rate while promoting cell growth. Taken together, our results demonstrate that by regulating DNA-PK activity, hnRNP B1 can affect p53-mediated cell cycle progression and apoptosis, resulting in greater cell survival and subsequent proliferation.

  19. Effects of exogenous IL-37 on the biological characteristics of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and the chemotaxis of regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Hua; Zhou, Bi-Yun; Wu, Guo-Cai; Liao, De-Quan; Li, Jing; Liang, Si-Si; Wu, Xian-Jin; Xu, Jun-Fa; Chen, Yong-Hua; Di, Xiao-Qing; Lin, Qiong-Yan

    2018-02-14

    This study aims to investigate the effects of exogenous interleukin (IL)-37 on the biological characteristics of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and the chemotaxis of regulatory T (Treg) cells. After isolating the CD4+ CD25+ Treg cells from the peripheral blood, flow cytometry was used to detect the purity of the Treg cells. A549 cells were divided into blank (no transfection), empty plasmid (transfection with pIRES2-EGFP empty plasmid) or IL-37 group (transfection with pIRES2-EGFP-IL-37 plasmid). RT-PCR was used to detect mRNA expression of IL-37 and ELISA to determine IL-37 and MMP-9 expressions. Western blotting was applied to detect the protein expressions of PCNA, Ki-67, Cyclin D1, CDK4, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9. MTT assay, flow cytometry, scratch test and transwell assay were performed to detect cell proliferation, cycle, apoptosis, migration and invasion. Effect of exogenous IL-37 on the chemotaxis of Treg cells was measured through transwell assay. Xenograft models in nude mice were eastablished to detect the impact of IL-37 on A549 cells. The IL-37 group had a higher IL-37 expression, cell apoptosis in the early stage and percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase than the blank and empty plasmid groups. The IL-37 group had a lower MMP-9 expression, optical density (OD), percentage of cells in the S and G2/M phases, migration, invasion and chemotaxis of CD4+CD25+ Foxp3+ Treg cells. The xenograft volume and weight of nude mice in the IL-37 group were lower than those in the blank and empty plasmid groups. Compared with the blank and empty plasmid groups, the IL-37 group had significantly reduced expression of PCNA, Ki-67, Cyclin D1 and CDK4 but elevated expression of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9. Therefore, exogenous IL-37 inhibits the proliferation, migration and invasion of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells as well as the chemotaxis of Treg cells while promoting the apoptosis of A549 cells.

  20. Shikonin Induces Apoptosis, Necrosis, and Premature Senescence of Human A549 Lung Cancer Cells through Upregulation of p53 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Yueh-Chiao; Liu, Tsun-Jui; Lai, Hui-Chin

    2015-01-01

    Shikonin, a natural naphthoquinone pigment isolated from Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has been reported to suppress growth of various cancer cells. This study was aimed to investigate whether this chemical could also inhibit cell growth of lung cancer cells and, if so, works via what molecular mechanism. To fulfill this, A549 lung cancer cells were treated with shikonin and then subjected to microscopic, biochemical, flow cytometric, and molecular analyses. Compared with the controls, shikonin significantly induced cell apoptosis and reduced proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Specially, lower concentrations of shikonin (1–2.5 μg/mL) cause viability reduction; apoptosis and cellular senescence induction is associated with upregulated expressions of cell cycle- and apoptotic signaling-regulatory proteins, while higher concentrations (5–10 μg/mL) precipitate both apoptosis and necrosis. Treatment of cells with pifithrin-α, a specific inhibitor of p53, suppressed shikonin-induced apoptosis and premature senescence, suggesting the role of p53 in mediating the actions of shikonin on regulation of lung cancer cell proliferation. These results indicate the potential and dose-related cytotoxic actions of shikonin on A549 lung cancer cells via p53-mediated cell fate pathways and raise shikonin a promising adjuvant chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of lung cancer in clinical practice. PMID:25737737

  1. Development of drug-loaded chitosan hollow nanoparticles for delivery of paclitaxel to human lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jie; Liu, Ying; Wu, Chao; Qiu, Yang; Xu, Xiaoyan; Lv, Huiling; Bai, Andi; Liu, Xuan

    2017-08-01

    In this study, biodegradable chitosan hollow nanospheres (CHN) were fabricated using polystyrene nanospheres (PS) as templates. CHN were applied to increase the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs. The lung cancer drug paclitaxel (PTX), which is used as a model drug, was loaded into CHN by the adsorption equilibrium method. The drug-loaded sample (PTX-CHN) offered sustained PTX release and good bioavailability. The state characterization of PTX by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the PTX absorbed into CHN existed in an amorphous state. An in vitro toxicity experiment indicated that CHN were nontoxic as carriers of poorly water-soluble drugs. The PTX-CHN produced a marked inhibition of lung cancer A549 cells proliferation and encouraged apoptosis. A cell uptake experiment indicated that PTX-CHN was successfully taken up by lung cancer A549 cells. Furthermore, a degradation experiment revealed that CHN were readily biodegradable. These findings state clearly that CHN can be regarded as promising biomaterials for lung cancer treatment.

  2. MiR-509-3-5p causes aberrant mitosis and anti-proliferative effect by suppression of PLK1 in human lung cancer A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xian-Hui; Lu, Yao; Liang, Jing-Jing

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potent post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression and play roles in DNA damage response (DDR). PLK1 is identified as a modulator of DNA damage checkpoint. Although down-regulation of PLK1 by certain microRNAs has been reported, little is known about the interplay between PLK1 and miR-509-3-5p in DDR. Here we have demonstrated that miR-509-3-5p repressed PLK1 expression by targeting PLK1 3′-UTR, thereby causing mitotic aberration and growth arrest of human lung cancer A549 cells. Repression of PLK1 by miR-509-3-5p was further evidenced by over-expression of miR-509-3-5p in A549, HepG2 and HCT116p53{sup −/−} cancer cells, in which PLK1 protein wasmore » suppressed. Consistently, miR-509-3-5p was stimulated, while PLK1 protein was down-regulated in A549 cells exposed to CIS and ADR, suggesting that suppression of PLK1 by miR-509-3-5p is a component of CIS/ADR-induced DDR pathway. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence labeling showed that over-expression of miR-509-3-5p in A549 induced G2/M arrest and aberrant mitosis characterized by abnormal bipolar mitotic spindles, condensed chromosomes, lagging DNA and chromosome bridges. In addition, over-expression of miR-509-3-5p markedly blocked A549 cell proliferation and sensitized the cells to CIS and ADR treatment. Taken together, miR-509-3-5p is a feasible suppressor for cancer by targeting PLK1. Our data may provide aid in potential design of combined chemotherapy and in our better understanding of the roles of microRNAs in response to DNA damage. - Highlights: • MiR-509-3-5p represses PLK1 expression by targeting PLK1 3ГЉВ№-UTR. • Expression of miR-509-3-5p is induced and PLK1 repressed upon DNA damage. • Overexpression of miR-509-3-5p induces G2/M arrest and aberrant mitosis. • MiR-509-3-5p inhibits cell proliferation and sensitizes cells to DNA damage agents.« less

  3. Asiatic Acid (AA) Sensitizes Multidrug-Resistant Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549/DDP Cells to Cisplatin (DDP) via Downregulation of P-Glycoprotein (MDR1) and Its Targets.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qilai; Liao, Meixiang; Hu, Haibo; Li, Hongliang; Wu, Longhuo

    2018-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp, i.e., MDR1) is associated with the phenotype of multidrug resistance (MDR) and causes chemotherapy failure in the management of cancers. Searching for effective MDR modulators and combining them with anticancer drugs is a promising strategy against MDR. Asiatic acid (AA), a natural triterpene isolated from the plant Centella asiatica, may have an antitumor activity. The present study assessed the reversing effect of AA on MDR and possible molecular mechanisms of AA action in MDR1-overexpressing cisplatin (DDP)-resistant lung cancer cells, A549/DDP. Human lung adenocarcinoma A549/DDP cells were either exposed to different concentrations of AA or treated with DDP, and their viability was measured by the MTT assay. A Rhodamine 123 efflux assay, immunofluorescent staining, ATPase assay, reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and western blot analysis were conducted to elucidate the mechanisms of action of AA on MDR. Our results showed that AA significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of DDP toward A549/DDP cells but not its parental A549 cells. Furthermore, AA strongly inhibited P-gp expression by blocking MDR1 gene transcription and increased the intracellular accumulation of the P-gp substrate Rhodamine 123 in A549/DDP cells. Nuclear factor (NF)-kB (p65) activity, IkB degradation, and NF-kB/p65 nuclear translocation were markedly inhibited by pretreatment with AA. Additionally, AA inhibited the MAPK-ERK pathway, as indicated by decreased phosphorylation of ERK1 and -2, AKT, p38, and JNK, thus resulting in reduced activity of the Y-box binding protein 1 (YB1) via blockage of its nuclear translocation. AA reversed P-gp-mediated MDR by inhibition of P-gp expression. This effect was likely related to downregulation of YB1, and this effect was mediated by the NF-kB and MAPK-ERK pathways. AA may be useful as an MDR reversal agent for combination therapy in clinical trials. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Depleted aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) reverses cisplatin resistance of human lung adenocarcinoma cell A549/DDP.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yunyan; Wu, Shuangshuang; Xu, Wei; Liang, Yan; Li, Yue; Zhao, Weihong; Wu, Jianqing

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin is the standard first-line chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, resistance to chemotherapy has been a major obstacle in the management of NSCLC. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) overexpression has been observed in a variety of cancers, including lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ALDH1A1 expression on cisplatin resistance and explore the mechanism responsible. Reverse transcriptase-PCR was applied to measure the messenger RNA expression of ALDH1A1, while Western blot assay was employed to evaluate the protein expression of ALDH1A1, B-cell lymphoma 2, Bcl-2-like protein 4, phospho-protein kinase B (p-AKT) and AKT. A short hairpin RNA was used to knockdown ALDH1A1 expression. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to determine the effect of ALDH1A1 decrease on cell viability. The cell apoptotic rate was tested using flow cytometry assay. ALDH1A1 is overexpressed in cisplatin resistant cell line A549/DDP, compared with A549. ALDH1A1 depletion significantly decreased A549/DDP proliferation, increased apoptosis, and reduced cisplatin resistance. In addition, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) / AKT pathway is activated in A549/DDP, and ALDH1A1 knockdown reduced the phosphorylation level of AKT. Moreover, the combination of ALDH1A1-short hairpin RNA and PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitor LY294002 markedly inhibited cell viability, enhanced apoptotic cell death, and increased cisplatin sensitivity. These results suggest that ALDH1A1 depletion could reverse cisplatin resistance in human lung cancer cell line A549/DDP, and may act as a potential target for the treatment of lung cancers resistant to cisplatin. © 2016 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. In vitro cytotoxicity effect and antibacterial performance of human lung epithelial cells A549 activity of Zinc oxide doped TiO2 nanocrystals: Investigation of bio-medical application by chemical method.

    PubMed

    Kaviyarasu, K; Geetha, N; Kanimozhi, K; Maria Magdalane, C; Sivaranjani, S; Ayeshamariam, A; Kennedy, J; Maaza, M

    2017-05-01

    We report the synthesis of high quality ZnO doped TiO 2 nanocrystals by chemical method at room temperature (RT), it can cause serious oxidative stress and DNA damage to human lung epithelial cells (A549) lines. Our aim in this study, to reduce the cytotoxicity effect of ZnO doped TiO 2 nanocrystals are widely in biological fields. Several studies have been performed to understand the influence of ZnO doped titanium dioxide (TiO 2 -NPs) on cell function; however the effects of nanoparticle against to exposure on the cell membrane have been duly addressed fascinatingly so far. However, In this interaction, which may alter cell metabolism and integrity, it is one of the importance to understand the modifications of the cell membrane, mechanisms of pulmonary A549 cell lines nanoparticles were uptake and the molecular pathway during the initial cell responses are still unclear and much more investigative efforts are need to properly characterize the ZnO doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles were reported successfully. In particular of the epithelial cells, upon particles are exposed human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549) to various concentrations of composition, structure and morphology of the nanocrystals were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). XRD assessed the crystal structure of the nanocrystals which identified peaks associated with (002), (100) and (101) planes of hexagonal wurtzite-type ZnO with lattice constants of a=b=3.249Å and c=5.219Å. The IR results showed high purity of products and indicated that the nanocrystals are made up of TiO and ZnO bonds. The Photoluminescence (PL) spectra are dominated by a strong narrow band edge emission tunable in the blue region of the visible spectra indicating a narrow size distribution of ZnO/TiO 2 nanocrystals which exhibits antibacterial activity over a broad range of bacterial species and in particular against Stre. Mut where it out competes four other

  6. Ameliorative Effects of Dimetylthiourea and N-Acetylcysteine on Nanoparticles Induced Cyto-Genotoxicity in Human Lung Cancer Cells-A549

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Ritesh Kumar; Rahman, Qamar; Kashyap, Mahendra Pratap; Lohani, Mohtashim; Pant, Aditya Bhushan

    2011-01-01

    We study the ameliorative potential of dimetylthiourea (DMTU), an OH• radical trapper and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a glutathione precursor/H2O2 scavenger against titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) induced cyto-genotoxicity in cultured human lung cancer cells-A549. Cytogenotoxicity was induced by exposing the cells to selected concentrations (10 and 50 µg/ml) of either of TiO2-NPs or MWCNTs for 24 h. Anti-cytogenotoxicity effects of DMTU and NAC were studied in two groups, i.e., treatment of 30 minutes prior to toxic insult (short term exposure), while the other group received DMTU and NAC treatment during nanoparticles exposure, i.e., 24 h (long term exposure). Investigations were carried out for cell viability, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), micronuclei (MN), and expression of markers of oxidative stress (HSP27, CYP2E1), genotoxicity (P53) and CYP2E1 dependent n- nitrosodimethylamine-demethylase (NDMA-d) activity. In general, the treatment of both DMTU and NAC was found to be effective significantly against TiO2-NPs and MWCNTs induced cytogenotoxicity in A549 cells. Long-term treatment of DMTU and NAC during toxic insults has shown better prevention than short-term pretreatment. Although, cells responded significantly to both DMTU and NAC, but responses were chemical specific. In part, TiO2-NPs induced toxic responses were mediated through OH• radicals generation and reduction in the antioxidant defense system. While in the case of MWCNTs, adverse effects were primarily due to altering/hampering the enzymatic antioxidant system. Data indicate the applicability of human lung cancer cells-A549 as a pre-screening tool to identify the target specific prophylactic and therapeutic potential of drugs candidate molecules against nanoparticles induced cellular damages. PMID:21980536

  7. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles-mediated in vitro cytotoxicity does not induce Hsp70 and Grp78 expression in human bronchial epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Aueviriyavit, Sasitorn; Phummiratch, Duangkamol; Kulthong, Kornphimol; Maniratanachote, Rawiwan

    2012-10-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO(2)NPs) are increasingly being used in various industrial applications including the production of paper, plastics, cosmetics and paints. With the increasing number of nano-related products, the concern of governments and the general public about the health and environmental risks, especially with regard to occupational and other environmental exposure, are gradually increasing. However, there is insufficient knowledge about the actual affects upon human health and the environment, as well as a lack of suitable biomarkers for assessing TiO(2)NP-induced cytotoxicity. Since the respiratory tract is likely to be the main exposure route of industrial workers to TiO(2)NPs, we investigated the cytotoxicity of the anatase and rutile crystalline forms of TiO(2)NPs in A549 cells, a human alveolar type II-like epithelial cell line. In addition, we evaluated the transcript and protein expression levels of two heat shock protein (HSP) members, Grp78 and Hsp70, to ascertain their suitability as biomarkers of TiO(2)NP-induced toxicity in the respiratory system. Ultrastructural observations confirmed the presence of TiO(2)NPs inside cells. In vitro exposure of A549 cells to the anatase or rutile forms of TiO(2)NPs led to cell death and induced intracellular ROS generation in a dose-dependent manner, as determined by the MTS and dichlorofluorescein (DCF) assays, respectively. In contrast, the transcript and protein expression levels of Hsp70 and Grp78 did not change within the same TiO(2)NPs dose range (25-500 μg/ml). Thus, whilst TiO(2)NPs can cause cytotoxicity in A549 cells, and thus potentially in respiratory cells, Hsp70 and Grp78 are not suitable biomarkers for evaluating the acute toxicological effects of TiO(2)NPs in the respiratory system.

  8. Chlorogenic acid regulates apoptosis and stem cell marker-related gene expression in A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Kazuo; Izawa, Yuri; Onodera, Daiki; Tagami, Motoki

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies indicated that chlorogenic acid, a compound present in many fruits and vegetables, has anti-cancer activities. We report that chlorogenic acid regulates the expression of apoptosis-related genes and self-renewal-related stem cell markers in cancer cells. The lung cancer cell line A549 was cultured with or without chlorogenic acid. The presence of chlorogenic acid decreased cell proliferation as measured by MTT activity. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed that treatment of cells with chlorogenic acid reduced the expression of BCL2 but increased that of both BAX and CASP3. Chlorogenic acid enhanced annexin V expression as measured using fluorescently labeled annexin V. Chlorogenic acid also induced p38 MAPK and JNK gene expression. Meanwhile, several agents, including SB203580 (p38 MAP kinase inhibitor), N-acetylcysteine (antioxidant inhibitor), dipyridamole (phosphodiesterase inhibitor), and apocynin (NADPH-oxidase inhibitor) blocked chlorogenic acid-induced BAX gene expression. Chlorogenic acid reduced gene expression levels of stem cell-associated markers NANOG, POU5F1, and SOX2. Together these results indicate that chlorogenic acid affects the expression of apoptosis-related genes that are part of oxidative stress and p38 MAP-dependent pathways, as well as genes encoding stem cell markers. In conclusion, chlorogenic acid may contribute to the polyphenolic anti-cancer effect associated with consumption of vegetables and fruits.

  9. Genotoxicity and apoptotic activity of biologically synthesized magnesium oxide nanoparticles against human lung cancer A-549 cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeed, Shahnaz; Danish, Mohammed; Muhadi, Nur Farisyah Bahriah Binti

    2018-06-01

    The study focussed on the synthesis of magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles from an aqueous extract of Penicillium species isolated from soil. A suitable amount of magnesium nitrate (MgNO3) was mixed with the aqueous extract of Penicillium. Then the colour of the solution changed due to the formation of MgO nanoparticles. These nascent formed MgO nanoparticles were further confirmed by using UV spectrophotometry which showed the maximum absorption at 215 nm indicating the formation of MgO nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to find the possible functional groups and proteins involving the stabilization of MgO nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study revealed the size, the shape as well as the dispersity of the prepared MgO nanoparticles and showed that they were well dispersed around 12–24 nm (scale 200 nm). The anticancer activity against A-549 cell line of these green synthesized MgO nanoparticles was evaluated. The result showed good anticancer effect after 24 h of incubation. Nevertheless these MgO nanoparticles showed less effect on normal Vero cells. Further apoptotic study clearly displayed the effect of MgO nanoparticles on cancer cells. The effect was observed through chromatin condensation by forming apoptotic bodies using propidium iodide, acridine orange and ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining technique. The DNA was isolated to confirm the DNA damage; the observation clearly showed DNA damage when compared with DNA ladder.

  10. Toxicity of wood smoke particles in human A549 lung epithelial cells: the role of PAHs, soot and zinc.

    PubMed

    Dilger, Marco; Orasche, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Ralf; Paur, Hanns-Rudolf; Diabaté, Silvia; Weiss, Carsten

    2016-12-01

    Indoor air pollution is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Specifically, the health impact of emissions from domestic burning of biomass and coal is most relevant and is estimated to contribute to over 4 million premature deaths per year worldwide. Wood is the main fuel source for biomass combustion and the shift towards renewable energy sources will further increase emissions from wood combustion even in developed countries. However, little is known about the constituents of wood smoke and biological mechanisms that are responsible for adverse health effects. We exposed A549 lung epithelial cells to collected wood smoke particles and found an increase in cellular reactive oxygen species as well as a response to bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In contrast, cell vitality and regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 were not affected. Using a candidate approach, we could recapitulate WSP toxicity by the combined actions of its constituents soot, metals and PAHs. The soot fraction and metals were found to be the most important factors for ROS formation, whereas the PAH response can be mimicked by the model PAH benzo[a]pyrene. Strikingly, PAHs adsorbed to WSPs were even more potent in activating target gene expression than B[a]P individually applied in suspension. As PAHs initiate multiple adverse outcome pathways and are prominent carcinogens, their role as key pollutants in wood smoke and its health effects warrants further investigation. The presented results suggest that each of the investigated constituents soot, metals and PAHs are major contributors to WSP toxicity. Mitigation strategies to prevent adverse health effects of wood combustion should therefore not only aim at reducing the emitted soot and PAHs but also the metal content, through the use of more efficient combustion appliances, and particle precipitation techniques, respectively.

  11. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship study on anti-cancer activity of 3,4-dihydroquinazoline derivatives against human lung cancer A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sehyeon; Choi, Min Ji; Kim, Minju; Lee, Sunhoe; Lee, Jinsung; Lee, Seok Joon; Cho, Haelim; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Lee, Jae Yeol

    2015-03-01

    A series of 3,4-dihydroquinazoline derivatives with anti-cancer activities against human lung cancer A549 cells were subjected to three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies using the comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) approaches. The most potent compound, 1 was used to align the molecules. As a result, the best prediction was obtained with CoMSIA combined the steric, electrostatic, hydrophobic, hydrogen bond donor, and hydrogen bond acceptor fields (q2 = 0.720, r2 = 0.897). This model was validated by an external test set of 6 compounds giving satisfactory predictive r2 value of 0.923 as well as the scrambling stability test. This model would guide the design of potent 3,4-dihydroquinazoline derivatives as anti-cancer agent for the treatment of human lung cancer.

  12. Reactive oxygen species mediated DNA damage in human lung alveolar epithelial (A549) cells from exposure to non-cytotoxic MFI-type zeolite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Kunal; Naha, Pratap C; Naydenova, Izabela; Mintova, Svetlana; Byrne, Hugh J

    2012-12-17

    Increasing utilization of engineered nanoparticles in the field of electronics and biomedical applications demands an assessment of risk associated with deliberate or accidental exposure. Metal based nanoparticles are potentially most important of all the nanoparticles in terms of health risks. Microporous alumino-silicates and pure silicates named as zeolites and zeo-type materials with variety of structures, chemical compositions, particle sizes and morphologies have a significant number of industrial uses such as in catalysis, sorption and ion-exchange processes. In particular, the nanosized particles due to their unique properties are used in hybrid organic-inorganic materials for photography, photonics, electronics, labeling, imaging, and sensing. The aim of the current study is to investigate pure silica MFI-type zeolites nanoparticles with sizes of 50nm and 100nm (samples MFI-50 and MFI-100) under suspended conditions and their toxicological effects on human lung alveolar (A549) cells under in vitro conditions. Live cell imaging showed that the nanoparticles precipitated from the colloidal suspension of cell culture media as large agglomerates, coming in contact with the cell surface through sedimentation. A cellular proliferative capacity test showed the zeolite nanoparticles to exhibit no significant cytotoxicity below a concentration of 100μg/ml. However, both the MFI-50 and MFI-100 nanoparticles induced high intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and elevated mitochondrial membrane potential in the A549 cells over the measured time period of 12h and at concentrations up to ≤50μg/ml. DNA fragmentation analysis using the comet assay showed that the MFI-50 and MFI-100 nanoparticles cause genotoxicity in a concentration dependent manner. Furthermore, the rate at which maximum genomic damage was caused by MFI-100 nanoparticles in the A549 cells was found to be high as compared to the MFI-50 nanoparticles. However, the damage caused by the

  13. QSAR and docking based semi-synthesis and in vitro evaluation of 18 β-glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives against human lung cancer cell line A-549.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Dharmendra Kumar; Kalani, Komal; Khan, Feroz; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar

    2013-12-01

    For the prediction of anticancer activity of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA-1) analogs against the human lung cancer cell line (A-549), a QSAR model was developed by forward stepwise multiple linear regression methodology. The regression coefficient (r(2)) and prediction accuracy (rCV(2)) of the QSAR model were taken 0.94 and 0.82, respectively in terms of correlation. The QSAR study indicates that the dipole moments, size of smallest ring, amine counts, hydroxyl and nitro functional groups are correlated well with cytotoxic activity. The docking studies showed high binding affinity of the predicted active compounds against the lung cancer target EGFR. These active glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives were then semi-synthesized, characterized and in-vitro tested for anticancer activity. The experimental results were in agreement with the predicted values and the ethyl oxalyl derivative of GA-1 (GA-3) showed equal cytotoxic activity to that of standard anticancer drug paclitaxel.

  14. Effects of karanjin on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human A549, HepG2 and HL-60 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jian-Ru; Chen, Qian-Qian; Lam, Christopher Wai-Kei; Zhang, Wei

    2015-07-26

    We have investigated the potential anticancer effects of karanjin, a principal furanoflavonol constituent of the Chinese medicine Fordia cauliflora, using cytotoxic assay, cell cycle arrest, and induction of apoptosis in three human cancer cell lines (A549, HepG2 and HL-60 cells). MTT cytotoxic assay showed that karanjin could inhibit the proliferation and viability of all three cancer cells. The induction of cell cycle arrest was observed via a PI (propidium iodide)/RNase Staining Buffer detection kit and analyzed by flow cytometry: karanjin could dose-dependently induce cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in the three cell lines. Cell apoptosis was assessed by Annexin V-FITC/PI staining: all three cancer cells treated with karanjin exhibited significantly increased apoptotic rates, especially in the percentage of late apoptosis cells. Karanjin can induce cancer cell death through cell cycle arrest and enhance apoptosis. This compound may be effective clinically for cancer pharmacotherapy.

  15. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human lung epithelial A549 cells caused by airborne volatile organic compounds emitted from pine wood and oriented strand boards.

    PubMed

    Gminski, Richard; Tang, Tao; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2010-06-16

    Due to the massive reduction of air-change rates in modern, energy-saving houses and dwellings, the contribution of volatile organic compound (VOCs) emissions from wood-based materials to indoor air quality has become increasingly important. To evaluate toxicity of VOC mixtures typically emitted from pine wood and oriented strand boards (OSB) and their main constituents (selected terpenes and aldehydes), cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were investigated in human A549 lung cells. To facilitate exposure directly via gas phase, a 250 L emission chamber was combined with a Vitrocell exposure system. VOC exposure concentrations were measured by GC/MSD. Biological effects were determined after an exposure time of 1h by measuring cytotoxicity (erythrosine B staining) and genotoxicity (comet assay). Neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic effects were observed for VOC mixtures emitted from pine wood or OSB at loading factors of approximately 13 m(2)/m(3) (worst case conditions) of the panels (with maximum VOC levels of about 80 mg/m(3)) in comparison to clean air. While alpha-pinene and Delta(3)-carene did not induce toxic effects even at exposure concentrations of up to 1800 mg/m(3) and 600 mg/m(3), respectively, hexanal showed a cytotoxic effect at 2000 mg/m(3). The alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes 2-heptenal and 2-octenal caused genotoxic effects in concentrations exceeding 100mg/m(3) and 40 mg/m(3), respectively. In conclusion, high concentrations of VOCs and VOC mixtures emitted from pine wood and OSB did not lead to adverse effects in A549 human lung cells even at concentrations 10(2) to 10(5)-fold higher than those found in normal indoor air. Attention must be paid to mutagenic and possibly carcinogenic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Multidimensional effects of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter felis, and human lung (L132) and lung carcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Han, Jae Woong; Zhang, Xi-Feng; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are prominent group of nanomaterials and are recognized for their diverse applications in various health sectors. This study aimed to synthesize the AgNPs using the leaf extract of Artemisia princeps as a bio-reductant. Furthermore, we evaluated the multidimensional effect of the biologically synthesized AgNPs in Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter felis, and human lung (L132) and lung carcinoma (A549) cells. UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy confirmed the synthesis of AgNPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the AgNPs are specifically indexed to a crystal structure. The results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicate that biomolecules are involved in the synthesis and stabilization of AgNPs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies showed the average size distribution of the particle between 10 and 40 nm, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed that the AgNPs were significantly well separated and spherical with an average size of 20 nm. AgNPs caused dose-dependent decrease in cell viability and biofilm formation and increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA fragmentation in H. pylori and H. felis. Furthermore, AgNPs induced mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in A549 cells; conversely, AgNPs had no significant effects on L132 cells. The results from this study suggest that AgNPs could cause cell-specific apoptosis in mammalian cells. Our findings demonstrate that this environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of AgNPs and that the prepared AgNPs have multidimensional effects such as anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activity against H. pylori and H. felis and also cytotoxic effects against human cancer cells. This report describes comprehensively the effects of AgNPs on bacteria and mammalian cells. We believe that biologically synthesized AgNPs will open a new avenue towards various biotechnological and biomedical applications in the near future.

  17. Multidimensional effects of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter felis, and human lung (L132) and lung carcinoma A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Han, Jae Woong; Zhang, Xi-Feng; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are prominent group of nanomaterials and are recognized for their diverse applications in various health sectors. This study aimed to synthesize the AgNPs using the leaf extract of Artemisia princeps as a bio-reductant. Furthermore, we evaluated the multidimensional effect of the biologically synthesized AgNPs in Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter felis, and human lung (L132) and lung carcinoma (A549) cells. UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy confirmed the synthesis of AgNPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the AgNPs are specifically indexed to a crystal structure. The results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicate that biomolecules are involved in the synthesis and stabilization of AgNPs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies showed the average size distribution of the particle between 10 and 40 nm, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed that the AgNPs were significantly well separated and spherical with an average size of 20 nm. AgNPs caused dose-dependent decrease in cell viability and biofilm formation and increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA fragmentation in H. pylori and H. felis. Furthermore, AgNPs induced mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in A549 cells; conversely, AgNPs had no significant effects on L132 cells. The results from this study suggest that AgNPs could cause cell-specific apoptosis in mammalian cells. Our findings demonstrate that this environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of AgNPs and that the prepared AgNPs have multidimensional effects such as anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activity against H. pylori and H. felis and also cytotoxic effects against human cancer cells. This report describes comprehensively the effects of AgNPs on bacteria and mammalian cells. We believe that biologically synthesized AgNPs will open a new avenue towards various biotechnological and biomedical applications in the near future.

  18. Oxidative stress, DNA damage, and inflammation induced by ambient air and wood smoke particulate matter in human A549 and THP-1 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Møller, Peter; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Sharma, Anoop Kumar; Wallin, Håkan; Bossi, Rossana; Autrup, Herman; Mølhave, Lars; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Briedé, Jacob Jan; de Kok, Theo Martinus; Loft, Steffen

    2011-02-18

    Combustion of biomass and wood for residential heating and/or cooking contributes substantially to both ambient air and indoor levels of particulate matter (PM). Toxicological characterization of ambient air PM, especially related to traffic, is well advanced, whereas the toxicology of wood smoke PM (WSPM) is poorly assessed. We assessed a wide spectrum of toxicity end points in human A549 lung epithelial and THP-1 monocytic cell lines comparing WSPM from high or low oxygen combustion and ambient PM collected in a village with many operating wood stoves and from a rural background area. In both cell types, all extensively characterized PM samples (1.25-100 μg/mL) induced dose-dependent formation of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage in terms of strand breaks and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase sites assessed by the comet assay with WSPM being most potent. The WSPM contained more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), less soluble metals, and expectedly also had a smaller particle size than PM collected from ambient air. All four types of PM combined increased the levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine dose-dependently in A549 cells, whereas there was no change in the levels of etheno-adducts or bulky DNA adducts. Furthermore, mRNA expression of the proinflammatory genes monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α as well as the oxidative stress gene heme oxygenase-1 was upregulated in the THP-1 cells especially by WSPM and ambient PM sampled from the wood stove area. Expression of oxoguanine glycosylase 1, lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1, and interleukin-6 did not change. We conclude that WSPM has small particle size, high level of PAH, low level of water-soluble metals, and produces high levels of free radicals, DNA damage as well as inflammatory and oxidative stress response gene expression in cultured human cells.

  19. PM2.5 induces Nrf2-mediated defense mechanisms against oxidative stress by activating PIK3/AKT signaling pathway in human lung alveolar epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaobei; Rui, Wei; Zhang, Fang; Ding, Wenjun

    2013-06-01

    It has been well documented in in vitro studies that ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM(2.5)) is capable of inducing oxidative stress, which plays a key role in PM(2.5)-mediated cytotoxicity. Although nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has been shown to regulate the intracellular defense mechanisms against oxidative stress, a potential of the Nrf2-mediated cellular defense against oxidative stress induced by PM(2.5) remains to be determined. This study was aimed to explore the potential signaling pathway of Nrf2-mediated defense mechanisms against PM(2.5)-induced oxidative stress in human type II alveolar epithelial A549 cells. We exposed A549 cells to PM(2.5) particles collected from Beijing at a concentration of 16 μg/cm(2). We observed that PM(2.5) triggered an increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a time-dependent manner during a period of 2 h exposure. We also found that Nrf2 overexpression suppressed and Nrf2 knockdown increased PM(2.5)-induced ROS generation. Using Western blot and confocal microscopy, we found that PM(2.5) exposure triggered significant translocation of Nrf2 into nucleus, resulting in AKT phosphorylation and significant transcription of ARE-driven phases II enzyme genes, such as NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO-1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) in A549 cells. Evaluation of signaling pathways showed that a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002), but not an ERK 1/2 inhibitor (PD98059) or a p38 MAPK (SB203580), significantly down-regulated PM(2.5)-induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and HO-1 mRNA expression, indicating PI3K/AKT is involved in the signaling pathway leads to the PM(2.5)-induced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and subsequent Nrf2-mediated HO-1 transcription. Taken together, our results suggest that PM(2.5)-induced ROS may function as signaling molecules to activate Nrf

  20. Metabolic pathway catalyzed by Vanin-1 pantetheinase plays a suppressive role in influenza virus replication in human alveolar epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Nobuko; Yashiro, Masato; Ogawa, Hirohito; Namba, Hikaru; Nosaka, Nobuyuki; Fujii, Yousuke; Morishima, Tsuneo; Tsukahara, Hirokazu; Yamada, Masao

    2017-08-05

    Our previous analysis of gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood from patients with influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 pneumonia revealed elevated transcription levels of the vanin-1 (vascular non-inflammatory molecule 1, VNN1) gene, which encodes an epithelial ectoenzyme with pantetheinase activity involved in recycling coenzyme A. Here, to elucidate the role of VNN1 in influenza A virus (IAV) H1N1 infection, we investigated the change of VNN1 expression in the context of IAV infection and the effects of its related substances, i.e., its direct substrate pantetheine and its two metabolites pantothenic acid and cysteamine on the replication of IAV in the human alveolar epithelial carcinoma cell line A549. The messenger RNA expression of VNN1 in A549 cells was significantly increased (by 4.9-fold) after IAV infection under an elevated concentration of pantetheine. Moreover, VNN1 mRNA levels were elevated by > 100-fold in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially TNF-α and IL-1β. Pantetheine significantly reduced the IAV replication and IAV Matrix 1 (M1) mRNA levels when it was administered prior to and during infection. In addition, cysteamine treatment during IAV infection significantly reduced the viral replication and IAV M1 mRNA levels, whereas pantothenic acid did not. These findings suggest that the metabolic pathway catalyzed by VNN1 pantetheinase plays a suppressive role in IAV infection in the respiratory tract, especially in severe conditions under hypercytokinemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Therapeutic effects of gold nanoparticles synthesized using Musa paradisiaca peel extract against multiple antibiotic resistant Enterococcus faecalis biofilms and human lung cancer cells (A549).

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, S; Vaseeharan, B; Malaikozhundan, B; Gopi, N; Ekambaram, P; Pachaiappan, R; Velusamy, P; Murugan, K; Benelli, G; Suresh Kumar, R; Suriyanarayanamoorthy, M

    2017-01-01

    Botanical-mediated synthesis of nanomaterials is currently emerging as a cheap and eco-friendly nanotechnology, since it does not involve the use of toxic chemicals. In the present study, we focused on the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using the aqueous peel extract of Musa paradisiaca (MPPE-AuNPs) following a facile and cheap fabrication process. The green synthesized MPPE-AuNPs were bio-physically characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, TEM, Zeta potential analysis and EDX. MPPE-AuNPs were crystalline in nature, spherical to triangular in shape, with particle size ranging within 50 nm. The biofilm inhibition activity of MPPE-AuNPs was higher against multiple antibiotic resistant (MARS) Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis. Light and confocal laser scanning microscopic observations evidenced that the MPPE-AuNPs effectively inhibited the biofilm of E. faecalis when tested at 100 μg mL -1 . Cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that MPPE-AuNPs were effective in inhibiting the viability of human A549 lung cancer cells at higher concentrations of 100 μg mL -1 . The morphological changes in the MPPE-AuNPs treated A549 lung cancer cells were visualized under phase-contrast microscopy. Furthermore, the ecotoxicity of MPPE-AuNPs on the freshwater micro crustacean Ceriodaphnia cornuta were evaluated. Notably, no mortality was recorded in MPPE-AuNPs treated C. cornuta at 250 μg mL -1 . This study concludes that MPPE-AuNPs are non-toxic, eco-friendly and act as a multipurpose potential biomaterial for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative physicochemical and biological characterization of NIST Interim Reference Material PM2.5 and SRM 1648 in human A549 and mouse RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Mitkus, Robert J; Powell, Jan L; Zeisler, Rolf; Squibb, Katherine S

    2013-12-01

    The epidemiological association between exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and adverse health effects is well-known. Here we report the size distribution, metals content, endotoxin content, and biological activity of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Interim Reference Material (RM) PM2.5. Biological activity was measured in vitro by effects on cell viability and the release of four inflammatory immune mediators, from human A549 alveolar epithelial cells or murine RAW264.7 monocytes. A dose range covering three orders of magnitude (1-1000μg/mL) was tested, and biological activity was compared to an existing Standard Reference Material (SRM) for urban PM (NIST SRM 1648). Robust release of IL-8 and MCP-1 from A549 cells was observed in response to IRM PM2.5 exposures. Significant TNF-α, but not IL-6, secretion from RAW264.7 cells was observed in response to both IRM PM2.5 and SRM 1648 particle types. Cytokine or chemokine release at high doses often occurred in the presence of cytotoxicity, likely as a result of externalization of preformed mediator. Our results are consistent with a local cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory mechanism of response to exposure to inhaled ambient PM2.5 and reinforce the continued relevance of in vitro assays for mechanistic research in PM toxicology. Our study furthers the goal of developing reference samples of environmentally relevant particulate matter of various sizes that can be used for hypothesis testing by multiple investigators. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Dual‑sensitive HRE/Egr1 promoter regulates Smac overexpression and enhances radiation‑induced A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell death under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Li, Chang-Feng; Chen, Li-Bo; Li, Dan-Dan; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Bao-Gang; Jin, Jing-Peng; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Bin

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to construct an expression vector carrying the hypoxia/radiation dual‑sensitive chimeric hypoxia response element (HRE)/early growth response 1 (Egr‑1) promoter in order to overexpress the therapeutic second mitochondria‑derived activator of caspases (Smac). Using this expression vector, the present study aimed to explore the molecular mechanism underlying radiotherapy‑induced A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell death and apoptosis under hypoxia. The plasmids, pcDNA3.1‑Egr1‑Smac (pE‑Smac) and pcDNA3.1‑HRE/Egr-1‑Smac (pH/E‑Smac), were constructed and transfected into A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells using the liposome method. CoCl2 was used to chemically simulate hypoxia, followed by the administration of 2 Gy X‑ray irradiation. An MTT assay was performed to detect cell proliferation and an Annexin V‑fluorescein isothiocyanate apoptosis detection kit was used to detect apoptosis. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses were used for the detection of mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Infection with the pE‑Smac and pH/E‑Smac plasmids in combination with radiation and/or hypoxia was observed to enhance the expression of Smac. Furthermore, Smac overexpression was found to enhance the radiation‑induced inhibition of cell proliferation and promotion of cycle arrest and apoptosis. The cytochrome c/caspase‑9/caspase‑3 pathway was identified to be involved in this regulation of apoptosis. Plasmid infection in combination with X‑ray irradiation was found to markedly induce cell death under hypoxia. In conclusion, the hypoxia/radiation dual‑sensitive chimeric HRE/Egr‑1 promoter was observed to enhance the expression of the therapeutic Smac, as well as enhance the radiation‑induced inhibition of cell proliferation and promotion of cycle arrest and apoptosis under hypoxia. This apoptosis was found to involve the mitochondrial pathway.

  4. Effects of calcitriol (1, 25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3) on the inflammatory response induced by H9N2 influenza virus infection in human lung A549 epithelial cells and in mice.

    PubMed

    Gui, Boxiang; Chen, Qin; Hu, Chuanxia; Zhu, Caihui; He, Guimei

    2017-01-23

    H9N2 influenza viruses circulate globally and are considered to have pandemic potential. The hyper-inflammatory response elicited by these viruses is thought to contribute to disease severity. Calcitriol plays an important role in modulating the immune response to viral infections. However, its unknown whether calcitriol can attenuate the inflammatory response elicited by H9N2 influenza virus infection. Human lung A549 epithelial cells were treated with calcitriol (100 nM) and then infected with an H9N2 influenza virus, or infected and then treated with calcitriol (30 nM). Culture supernatants were collected every 24 h post infection and the viral growth kinetics and inflammatory response were evaluated. Calcitriol (5 mg/kg) was administered daily by intraperitoneal injection to BABL/c mice for 15 days following H9N2 influenza virus infection. Mice were monitored for clinical signs of disease, lung pathology and inflammatory responses. Calcitriol treatment prior to and post infection with H9N2 influenza significantly decreased expression of the influenza M gene, IL-6, and IFN-β in A549 cells, but did not affect virus replication. In vivo, we found that calcitriol treatment significantly downregulated pulmonary inflammation in mice 2 days post-infection, but increased the inflammatory response 4 to 6 days post-infection. In contrast, the antiviral cytokine IFN-β was significantly higher in calcitriol-treated mice than in the untreated infected mice at 2 days post-infection, but lower than in untreated infected mice on days 4 and 8 post-infection. The elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the decreased levels of antiviral cytokine are consistent with the period of maximum body weight loss and the lung damage in calcitriol-treated mice. These results suggest that calcitriol treatment might have a negative impact on the innate immune response elicited by H9N2 infection in mice, especially at the later stage of influenza virus infection. This study

  5. Combined treatment of curcumin and small molecule inhibitors suppresses proliferation of A549 and H1299 human non-small-cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Ping; Kuo, Li-Kuo; Chuu, Chih-Pin

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a phenolic compound present in turmeric and is ingested daily in many parts of the world. Curcumin has been reported to cause inhibition on proliferation and induction of apoptosis in many human cancer cell lines, including non-small cell lung cancer cells (NSCLC). However, the clinical application of curcumin is restricted by its low bioavailability. In this report, it was observed that combined treatment of a low dosage of curcumin (5-10 µM) with a low concentration (0.1-2.5 µM) of small molecule inhibitors, including AG1478, AG1024, PD173074, LY294002 and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) increased the growth inhibition in two human NSCLC cell lines: A549 and H1299 cells. The observation suggested that combined treatment of a low dosage of curcumin with inhibitors against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1R), fibroblast growth factors receptor (FGFR), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K) or NF-κB signaling pathway may be a potential adjuvant therapy beneficial to NSCLC patients. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (noni) downregulates HIF-1α protein expression through inhibition of PKB, ERK-1/2, JNK-1 and S6 in manganese-stimulated A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jang, Byeong-Churl

    2012-03-01

    High exposure of manganese is suggested to be a risk factor for many lung diseases. Evidence suggests anticancerous and antiangiogenic effects by products derived from Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit. In this study, we investigated the effect of noni fruit juice (NFJ) on the expression of HIF-1α, a tumor angiogenic transcription factor in manganese-chloride (manganese)-stimulated A549 human lung carcinoma cells. Treatment with manganese largely induced expression of HIF-1α protein but did not affect HIF-1α mRNA expression in A549 cells, suggesting the metal-mediated co- and/or post-translational HIF-1α upregulation. Manganese treatment also led to increased phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated protein kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase-1 (JNK-1), protein kinase B (PKB), S6 and eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2α (eIF-2α) in A549 cells. Of note, the exposure of NFJ inhibited the manganese-induced HIF-1α protein upregulation in a concentration-dependent manner. Importantly, as assessed by results of pharmacological inhibition and siRNA transfection studies, the effect of NFJ on HIF-1α protein downregulation seemed to be largely associated with the ability of NFJ to interfere with the metal's signaling to activate PKB, ERK-1/2, JNK-1 and S6 in A549 cells. It was further shown that NFJ could repress the induction of HIF-1α protein by desferoxamine or interleukin-1β (IL-1β), another HIF-1α inducer in A549 cells. Thus, the present study provides the first evidence that NFJ has the ability to strongly downregulate manganese-induced HIF-1α protein expression in A549 human lung cancer cells, which may suggest the NFJ-mediated beneficial effects on lung pathologies in which manganese and HIF-1α overexpression play pathogenic roles.

  7. A methoxyflavanone derivative from the Asian medicinal herb (Perilla frutescens) induces p53-mediated G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Hafeez, Amer Ali; Fujimura, Takashi; Kamei, Rikiya; Hirakawa, Noriko; Baba, Kenji; Ono, Kazuhisa; Kawamoto, Seiji

    2017-07-14

    Perilla frutescens is an Asian dietary herb consumed as an essential seasoning in Japanese cuisine as well as used for a Chinese medicine. Here, we report that a newly found methoxyflavanone derivative from P. frutescens (Perilla-derived methoxyflavanone, PDMF; 8-hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxyflavanone) shows carcinostatic activity on human lung adenocarcinoma, A549. We found that treatment with PDMF significantly inhibited cell proliferation and decreased viability through induction of G 2 /M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The PDMF stimulation induces phosphorylation of tumor suppressor p53 on Ser15, and increases its protein amount in conjunction with up-regulation of downstream cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 Cip1/Waf1 and proapoptotic caspases, caspase-9 and caspase-3. We also found that small interfering RNA knockdown of p53 completely abolished the PDMF-induced G 2 /M cell cycle arrest, and substantially abrogated its proapoptotic potency. These results suggest that PDMF represents a useful tumor-preventive phytochemical that triggers p53-driven G 2 /M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

  8. Fabrication of nano-silver particles using Cymodocea serrulata and its cytotoxicity effect against human lung cancer A549 cells line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, P.; Sathishkumar, G.; Sankar, R.

    2015-03-01

    The present study reports, green synthesis of bioactive silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under different temperature (60 °C, room temperature and 4° refrigerator) using the aqueous extract of sea grass Cymodocea serrulata as a potential bioreductant. Increased temperature fabricates more AgNPs compare to room temperature and refrigerator condition. At first the reduction of Ag+ ions were confirmed through color change which produces an absorbance spectra at 420 nm in UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Additionally various exclusive instrumentations such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) were authorizes the biosynthesis and physio-chemical characterization of AgNPs. From Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, it was identified that the water soluble fractions of the sea grass mainly responsible for reduction of ionic silver (Ag+) into (Ag0) nano-ranged particles and also they act as stabilizing agent to sustain the durability of NPs for long period of time. Further, synthesized AgNPs shows potential cytotoxicity against human lung cancer A549 cells (LD50-100 μg/ml). The overall results suggest that C. serrulata is a valuable bioresource to generate rapid and eco-friendly bioactive AgNPs towards cancer therapy.

  9. Exosome cargo reflects TGF-β1-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) status in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyeon; Kim, Tae Yeon; Lee, Myung Shin; Mun, Ji Young; Ihm, Chunhwa; Kim, Soon Ae

    2016-09-16

    It has been suggested that tumor cells secrete exosomes to modify the local microenvironment, which then promotes intercellular communication and metastasis. Although exosomes derived from cancer cells may contribute to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in untransformed cells, few studies have defined exosome cargo upon induction of EMT. In this study, we investigated the changes in exosomal cargo from the epithelial to mesenchymal cell phenotype by inducing EMT with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. The protein content of the exosomes reflects the change in the cell phenotype. In addition, miR-23a was significantly enriched in the exosomes after mesenchymal transition. Following treatment of exosomes from mesenchymal cells via EMT induction with TGF-β1 to the epithelial cell type, phenotypic changes in protein expression level and cell morphology were observed. Autologous treatment of exosomes enhanced the transcriptional activity and abundance of β-catenin. Our results suggest that the exosomal protein and miRNA content reflects the physiological condition of its source and that exosomes induce phenotypic changes via autocrine signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of a Short Cell-Penetrating Peptide from Bovine Lactoferricin for Intracellular Delivery of DNA in Human A549 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Betty R.; Huang, Yue-Wern; Aronstam, Robert S.; Lee, Han-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been shown to deliver cargos, including protein, DNA, RNA, and nanomaterials, in fully active forms into live cells. Most of the CPP sequences in use today are based on non-native proteins that may be immunogenic. Here we demonstrate that the L5a CPP (RRWQW) from bovine lactoferricin (LFcin), stably and noncovalently complexed with plasmid DNA and prepared at an optimal nitrogen/phosphate ratio of 12, is able to efficiently enter into human lung cancer A549 cells. The L5a CPP delivered a plasmid containing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) coding sequence that was subsequently expressed in cells, as revealed by real-time PCR and fluorescent microscopy at the mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Treatment with calcium chloride increased the level of gene expression, without affecting CPP-mediated transfection efficiency. Zeta-potential analysis revealed that positively electrostatic interactions of CPP/DNA complexes correlated with CPP-mediated transport. The L5a and L5a/DNA complexes were not cytotoxic. This biomimetic LFcin L5a represents one of the shortest effective CPPs and could be a promising lead peptide with less immunogenic for DNA delivery in gene therapy. PMID:26942714

  11. Identification of a Short Cell-Penetrating Peptide from Bovine Lactoferricin for Intracellular Delivery of DNA in Human A549 Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Betty R; Huang, Yue-Wern; Aronstam, Robert S; Lee, Han-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been shown to deliver cargos, including protein, DNA, RNA, and nanomaterials, in fully active forms into live cells. Most of the CPP sequences in use today are based on non-native proteins that may be immunogenic. Here we demonstrate that the L5a CPP (RRWQW) from bovine lactoferricin (LFcin), stably and noncovalently complexed with plasmid DNA and prepared at an optimal nitrogen/phosphate ratio of 12, is able to efficiently enter into human lung cancer A549 cells. The L5a CPP delivered a plasmid containing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) coding sequence that was subsequently expressed in cells, as revealed by real-time PCR and fluorescent microscopy at the mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Treatment with calcium chloride increased the level of gene expression, without affecting CPP-mediated transfection efficiency. Zeta-potential analysis revealed that positively electrostatic interactions of CPP/DNA complexes correlated with CPP-mediated transport. The L5a and L5a/DNA complexes were not cytotoxic. This biomimetic LFcin L5a represents one of the shortest effective CPPs and could be a promising lead peptide with less immunogenic for DNA delivery in gene therapy.

  12. Role of {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} integrin receptor in endocytosis of crocidolite and its effect on intracellular glutathione levels in human lung epithelial (A549) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pande, Priyadarshini; Mosleh, Tariq A.; Aust, Ann E.

    Crocidolite, containing 27% iron by weight, is the most carcinogenic form of asbestos. Crocidolite fibers are endocytized by {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} integrin receptors in rabbit pleural mesothelial cells. We show here that crocidolite fibers are endocytized in human lung epithelial (A549) cells and in primary small airway epithelial (SAEC) cells. Presence of the integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} blocking antibody, P1F6, significantly reduced the uptake of crocidolite fibers in A549 cells. Thus, the integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} receptor is involved in endocytosis of crocidolite fibers in A549 cells as well. Previously, it has been observed that asbestos fibers lead to changesmore » in the intracellular redox environment, i.e. a marked decrease in intracellular glutathione concentrations and an increase in the extracellular glutathione in A549 cells. In addition, the decrease in intracellular glutathione was found to be largely independent of iron present on the surface of the fiber. A549 cells were treated with crocidolite in the presence of endocytosis inhibitor cytochalasin D. Our data indicate that, upon preventing endocytosis, we were able to reverse the decrease in total intracellular glutathione. The decrease in total intracellular glutathione could also be prevented in the presence of the monoclonal antibody P1F6. Thus, we observed that endocytosis of crocidolite fibers via integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} receptor is linked to the marked decrease in total intracellular glutathione in A549 cells.« less

  13. A novel small molecule, Rosline, inhibits growth and induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in human lung cancer cells A549 through a reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ting; Feng, Yang; Jin, Wenling; Pan, Hui; Li, Haizhou; Zhao, Yang

    2016-06-01

    Chemical screening using synthetic small molecule libraries has provided a huge amount of novel active molecules. It generates lead compound for drug development and brings focus on molecules for mechanistic investigations on many otherwise intangible biological processes. In this study, using non-small cell lung cancer cell A549 to screen against a structurally novel and diverse synthetic small molecule library of 2,400 compounds, we identified a molecule named rosline that has strong anti-proliferation activity on A549 cells with a 50% cell growth inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of 2.87 ± 0.39 µM. We showed that rosline treatment increased the number of Annexin V-positive staining cell, as well as G2/M arrest in their cell cycle progression. Further, we have demonstrated that rosline induces a decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δφm ) and an increase of caspases 3/7 and 9 activities in A549 cells, although having no effect on the activity of caspase 8. Moreover, we found that rosline could induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibit the phosphorylation of signaling molecule Akt in A549 cells. Alternatively, an antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) significantly attenuated rosline's effects on the mitochondrial membrane potential, caspases 3/7 and 9 activities, cell viabilities and the phosphorylation of Akt. Our results demonstrated that ROS played an important role in the apoptosis of A549 cells induced by rosline. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  14. A flavonoid isolated from Streptomyces sp. (ERINLG-4) induces apoptosis in human lung cancer A549 cells through p53 and cytochrome c release caspase dependant pathway.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, C; Sangeetha, B; Duraipandiyan, V; Raj, M Karunai; Ignacimuthu, S; Al-Dhabi, N A; Balakrishna, K; Parthasarathy, K; Arulmozhi, N M; Arasu, M Valan

    2014-12-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anticancer activity of a flavonoid type of compound isolated from soil derived filamentous bacterium Streptomyces sp. (ERINLG-4) and to explore the molecular mechanisms of action. Cytotoxic properties of ethyl acetate extract was carried out against A549 lung cancer cell line using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cytotoxic properties of isolated compound were investigated in A549 lung cancer cell line, COLO320DM cancer cell line and Vero cells. The compound showed potent cytotoxic properties against A549 lung cancer cell line and moderate cytotoxic properties against COLO320DM cancer cell line. Isolated compound showed no toxicity up to 2000 μg/mL in Vero cells. So we have chosen the A549 lung cancer cell line for further anticancer studies. Intracellular visualization was done by using a laser scanning confocal microscope. Apoptosis was measured using DNA fragmentation technique. Treatment of the A549 cancer cells with isolated compound significantly reduced cell proliferation, increased formation of fragmented DNA and apoptotic body. Activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 indicated that compound may be inducing intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways. Bcl-2, p53, pro-caspases, caspase-3, caspase-9 and cytochrome c release were detected by western blotting analysis after compound treatment (123 and 164 μM). The activities of pro-caspases-3, caspase-9 cleaved to caspase-3 and caspase-9 gradually increased after the addition of isolated compound. But Bcl-2 protein was down regulated after treatment with isolated compound. Molecular docking studies showed that the compound bound stably to the active sites of caspase-3 and caspase-9. These results strongly suggest that the isolated compound induces apoptosis in A549 cancer cells via caspase activation through cytochrome c release from mitochondria. The present results might provide helpful suggestions for the design of

  15. The antitumor effect of tanshinone IIA on anti-proliferation and decreasing VEGF/VEGFR2 expression on the human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cell line.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jun; Liu, Jiahui; Liu, Heng; Liang, Shihui; Lin, Meigui; Gu, Yueyu; Liu, Taoli; Wang, Dongmei; Ge, Hui; Mo, Sui-Lin

    2015-11-01

    The effects of tanshinone IIA on the proliferation of the human non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549 and its possible mechanism on the VEGF/VEGFR signal pathway were investigated. The exploration of the interaction between tanshinone IIA and its target proteins provides a feasible platform for studying the anticancer mechanism of active components of herbs. The CCK-8 assay was used to evaluate the proliferative activity of A549 cells treated with tanshinone IIA (2.5-80 μmol/L) for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Flow cytometry was used for the detection of cell apoptosis and cell cycle perturbation. VEGF and VEGFR2 expression were studied by Western blotting. The binding mode of tanshinone IIA within the crystal structure of the VEGFR2 protein was evaluated with molecular docking analysis by use of the CDOCKER algorithm in Discovery Studio 2.1. The CCK-8 results showed that tanshinone IIA can significantly inhibit A549 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry results showed that the apoptosis rate of tested group was higher than the vehicle control, and tanshinone IIA-treated cells accumulated at the S phase, which was higher than the vehicle control. Furthermore, the expression of VEGF and VEGFR2 was decreased in Western blot. Finally, molecular docking analysis revealed that tanshinone IIA could be stably docked into the kinase domain of VEGFR2 protein with its unique modes to form H-bonds with Cys917 and π-π stacking interactions with Val848. In conclusion, tanshinone IIA may suppress A549 proliferation, induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the S phase. This drug may suppress angiogenesis by targeting the protein kinase domains of VEGF/VEGFR2.

  16. The antitumor effect of tanshinone IIA on anti-proliferation and decreasing VEGF/VEGFR2 expression on the human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jun; Liu, Jiahui; Liu, Heng; Liang, Shihui; Lin, Meigui; Gu, Yueyu; Liu, Taoli; Wang, Dongmei; Ge, Hui; Mo, Sui-lin

    2015-01-01

    The effects of tanshinone IIA on the proliferation of the human non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549 and its possible mechanism on the VEGF/VEGFR signal pathway were investigated. The exploration of the interaction between tanshinone IIA and its target proteins provides a feasible platform for studying the anticancer mechanism of active components of herbs. The CCK-8 assay was used to evaluate the proliferative activity of A549 cells treated with tanshinone IIA (2.5−80 μmol/L) for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Flow cytometry was used for the detection of cell apoptosis and cell cycle perturbation. VEGF and VEGFR2 expression were studied by Western blotting. The binding mode of tanshinone IIA within the crystal structure of the VEGFR2 protein was evaluated with molecular docking analysis by use of the CDOCKER algorithm in Discovery Studio 2.1. The CCK-8 results showed that tanshinone IIA can significantly inhibit A549 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry results showed that the apoptosis rate of tested group was higher than the vehicle control, and tanshinone IIA-treated cells accumulated at the S phase, which was higher than the vehicle control. Furthermore, the expression of VEGF and VEGFR2 was decreased in Western blot. Finally, molecular docking analysis revealed that tanshinone IIA could be stably docked into the kinase domain of VEGFR2 protein with its unique modes to form H-bonds with Cys917 and π–π stacking interactions with Val848. In conclusion, tanshinone IIA may suppress A549 proliferation, induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the S phase. This drug may suppress angiogenesis by targeting the protein kinase domains of VEGF/VEGFR2. PMID:26713270

  17. A polysaccharide fraction of adlay seed (Coixlachryma-jobi L.) induces apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiangyi; Liu, Wei; Wu, Junhua

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A polysaccharide from adlay seed, its molecular mass, optical rotation and sugars was determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrated that a polysaccharide from adlay can induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polysaccharide inhibited the metabolism and proliferation of NSCLC A549 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polysaccharide may trigger apoptosis via the mitochondria-dependent pathway. -- Abstract: Different seed extracts from Coix lachryma-jobi (adlay seed) have been used for the treatment of various cancers in China, and clinical data support the use of these extracts for cancer therapy; however, their underlying molecular mechanisms have not been well defined. A polysaccharide fraction, designated asmore » CP-1, was extracted from the C.lachryma-jobi L. var. using the ethanol subsiding method. CP-1 induced apoptosis in A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner, as determined by MTT assay. Apoptotic bodies were observed in the cells by scanning electronic microscopy. Apoptosis and DNA accumulation during S-phase of the cell cycle were determined by annexin V-FITC and PI staining, respectively, and measured by flow cytometry. CP-1 also extended the comet tail length on single cell gel electrophoresis, and disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential. Further analysis by western blotting showed that the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 proteins was increased. Taken together, our results demonstrate that CP-1 is capable of inhibiting A549 cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis via a mechanism primarily involving the activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. The assay data suggest that in addition to its nutritional properties, CP-1 is a very promising candidate polysaccharide for the development of anti-cancer medicines.« less

  18. Drug Transporter Protein Quantification of Immortalized Human Lung Cell Lines Derived from Tracheobronchial Epithelial Cells (Calu-3 and BEAS2-B), Bronchiolar-Alveolar Cells (NCI-H292 and NCI-H441), and Alveolar Type II-like Cells (A549) by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Atsushi; Matsumaru, Takehisa; Yamamura, Norio; Suzuki, Shinobu; Uchida, Yasuo; Tachikawa, Masanori; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of drug transport in the human lung is an important issue in pulmonary drug discovery and development. For this purpose, there is an increasing interest in immortalized lung cell lines as alternatives to primary cultured lung cells. We recently reported the protein expression in human lung tissues and pulmonary epithelial cells in primary culture, (Sakamoto A, Matsumaru T, Yamamura N, Uchida Y, Tachikawa M, Ohtsuki S, Terasaki T. 2013. J Pharm Sci 102(9):3395-3406) whereas comprehensive quantification of protein expressions in immortalized lung cell lines is sparse. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the drug transporter protein expression of five commercially available immortalized lung cell lines derived from tracheobronchial cells (Calu-3 and BEAS2-B), bronchiolar-alveolar cells (NCI-H292 and NCI-H441), and alveolar type II cells (A549), by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based approaches. Among transporters detected, breast cancer-resistance protein in Calu-3, NCI-H292, NCI-H441, and A549 and OCTN2 in BEAS2-B showed the highest protein expression. Compared with data from our previous study,(Sakamoto A, Matsumaru T, Yamamura N, Uchida Y, Tachikawa M, Ohtsuki S, Terasaki T. 2013. J Pharm Sci 102(9):3395-3406) NCI-H441 was the most similar with primary lung cells from all regions in terms of protein expression of organic cation/carnitine transporter 1 (OCTN1). In conclusion, the protein expression profiles of transporters in five immortalized lung cell lines were determined, and these findings may contribute to a better understanding of drug transport in immortalized lung cell lines. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  19. PKM2 Thr454 phosphorylation increases its nuclear translocation and promotes xenograft tumor growth in A549 human lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Zhenhai, E-mail: tomsyu@163.com; Huang, Liangqian; Qiao, Pengyun

    Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is a key enzyme of glycolysis which is highly expressed in many tumor cells, and plays an important role in the Warburg effect. In previous study, we found PIM2 phosphorylates PKM2 at Thr454 residue (Yu, etl 2013). However, the functions of PKM2 Thr454 modification in cancer cells still remain unclear. Here we find PKM2 translocates into the nucleus after Thr454 phosphorylation. Replacement of wild type PKM2 with a mutant (T454A) enhances mitochondrial respiration, decreases pentose phosphate pathway, and enhances chemosensitivity in A549 cells. In addition, the mutant (T454A) PKM2 reduces xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. Thesemore » findings demonstrate that PKM2 T454 phosphorylation is a potential therapeutic target in lung cancer.« less

  20. PKM2 Thr454 phosphorylation increases its nuclear translocation and promotes xenograft tumor growth in A549 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenhai; Huang, Liangqian; Qiao, Pengyun; Jiang, Aifang; Wang, Li; Yang, Tingting; Tang, Shengjian; Zhang, Wei; Ren, Chune

    2016-05-13

    Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is a key enzyme of glycolysis which is highly expressed in many tumor cells, and plays an important role in the Warburg effect. In previous study, we found PIM2 phosphorylates PKM2 at Thr454 residue (Yu, etl 2013). However, the functions of PKM2 Thr454 modification in cancer cells still remain unclear. Here we find PKM2 translocates into the nucleus after Thr454 phosphorylation. Replacement of wild type PKM2 with a mutant (T454A) enhances mitochondrial respiration, decreases pentose phosphate pathway, and enhances chemosensitivity in A549 cells. In addition, the mutant (T454A) PKM2 reduces xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. These findings demonstrate that PKM2 T454 phosphorylation is a potential therapeutic target in lung cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Selective Cytotoxicity and Combined Effects of Camptothecin or Paclitaxel with Sodium-R-Alpha Lipoate on A549 Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Sherif; Gao, Dayuan; Sinko, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer and remains the deadliest form of cancer in the US and worldwide. New therapies are highly sought after to improve outcome. The effect of sodium-R-alpha lipoate on camptothecin- and paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity was evaluated on A549 NSCLC and BEAS-2B ‘normal’ lung epithelial cells. Combination indices (CI) and dose reduction indices (DRI) were investigated by studying the cytotoxicity of sodium-R-alpha lipoate (0–16 mM), camptothecin (0–25 nM) and paclitaxel (0–0.06 nM) alone and in combination. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium-bromide (MTT) was used to assess cytotoxicity. The combinational cytotoxic effects of sodium-R-alpha lipoate with camptothecin or paclitaxel were analyzed using a simulation of dose effects (CompuSyn®3.01). The effects of sodium-R-alpha lipoate on camptothecin- and paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity varied based on concentrations and treatment times. It was found that sodium-R-alpha lipoate wasn’t cytotoxic towards BEAS-2B cells at any of the concentrations tested. For A549 cells, CIs [(additive (CI=1); synergistic (CI<1); antagonistic (CI>1)] were lower and DRIs were higher for the camptothecin/sodium-R-alpha-lipoate combination (CI=~0.17–1.5; DRI=~2.2–22.6) than the paclitaxel/sodium-R-alpha-lipoate combination (CI=~0.8–9.9; DRI=~0.10–5.8) suggesting that the camptothecin regimen was synergistic and that the addition of sodium-R-alpha lipoate was important for reducing the camptothecin dose and potential for adverse effects. PMID:24063429

  2. A novel herbal formula induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in association with suppressing the PI3K/AKT pathway in human lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Fei; Jiang, Miao; Huang, Zhenzhou; Chen, Meijuan; Chen, Kejun; Zhou, Jing; Yin, Lian; Tang, Yuping; Wang, Mingyan; Ye, Lihong; Zhan, Zhen; Duan, Jinao; Fu, Haian; Zhang, Xu

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, the incidence of lung cancer, as well as the mortality rate from this disease, has increased. Moreover, because of acquired drug resistance and adverse side effects, the effectiveness of current therapeutics used for the treatment of lung cancer has decreased significantly. Chinese medicine has been shown to have significant antitumor effects and is increasingly being used for the treatment of cancer. However, as the mechanisms of action for many Chinese medicines are undefined, the application of Chinese medicine for the treatment of cancer is limited. The formula tested has been used clinically by the China National Traditional Chinese Medicine Master, Professor Zhonging Zhou for treatment of cancer. In this article, we examine the efficacy of Ke formula in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer and elucidate its mechanism of action. A Balb/c nude mouse xenograft model using A549 cells was previously established. The mice were randomly divided into normal, mock, Ke, cisplatin (DDP), and co-formulated (Ke + DDP) groups. After 15 days of drug administration, the animals were sacrificed, body weight and tumor volume were recorded, and the tumor-inhibiting rate was calculated. A cancer pathway finder polymerase chain reaction array was used to monitor the expression of 88 genes in tumor tissue samples. The potential antiproliferation mechanism was also investigated by Western blot analysis. Ke formula minimized chemotherapy-related weight loss in tumor-bearing mice without exhibiting distinct toxicity. Ke formula also inhibited tumor growth, which was associated with the downregulation of genes in the PI3K/AKT, MAPK, and WNT/β-catenin pathways. The results from Western blot analyses further indicated that Ke blocked the cell cycle progression at the G1/S phase and induced apoptosis mainly via the PI3K/AKT pathway. Ke formula inhibits tumor growth in an A549 xenograft mouse model with no obvious side effects. Moreover, Ke exhibits synergistic

  3. Fisetin inhibits the growth and migration in the A549 human lung cancer cell line via the ERK1/2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjian; Huang, Shaoxiang

    2018-03-01

    Lung cancer is the most prevalent malignant tumor type in the developed world and the discovery of novel anti-tumor drugs is a research hotspot. Fisetin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, has been reported to have anti-cancer effects in multiple tumor types. The present study found that fisetin inhibited the growth and migration of non-small cell lung cancer in vitro . MTT, wound-healing, cell-matrix adhesion and Transwell assays were performed and demonstrated that fisetin suppressed proliferation, migration, adhesion and invasion, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that fisetin induced apoptosis in the A549 cell line by decreasing the expression of c-myc, cyclin-D1, cyclooxygenase-2, B cell lymphoma-2, CXC chemokine receptor type 4, cluster of differentiation 44 and metalloproteinase-2/9, increasing the expression of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKN) 1A/B, CDKN2D and E-cadherin and increasing the activity of caspase-3/9 via targeting the extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway. The results provided comprehensive evidence for the anti-tumor effects of fisetin in non-small cell lung cancer in vitro , which may provide a novel approach for clinical treatment.

  4. Fisetin inhibits the growth and migration in the A549 human lung cancer cell line via the ERK1/2 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junjian; Huang, Shaoxiang

    2018-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most prevalent malignant tumor type in the developed world and the discovery of novel anti-tumor drugs is a research hotspot. Fisetin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, has been reported to have anti-cancer effects in multiple tumor types. The present study found that fisetin inhibited the growth and migration of non-small cell lung cancer in vitro. MTT, wound-healing, cell-matrix adhesion and Transwell assays were performed and demonstrated that fisetin suppressed proliferation, migration, adhesion and invasion, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that fisetin induced apoptosis in the A549 cell line by decreasing the expression of c-myc, cyclin-D1, cyclooxygenase-2, B cell lymphoma-2, CXC chemokine receptor type 4, cluster of differentiation 44 and metalloproteinase-2/9, increasing the expression of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKN) 1A/B, CDKN2D and E-cadherin and increasing the activity of caspase-3/9 via targeting the extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway. The results provided comprehensive evidence for the anti-tumor effects of fisetin in non-small cell lung cancer in vitro, which may provide a novel approach for clinical treatment. PMID:29467859

  5. Evaluation of permeability alteration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition induced by transforming growth factor-β1 in A549, NCI-H441, and Calu-3 cells: Development of an in vitro model of respiratory epithelial cells in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Togami, Kohei; Yamaguchi, Kotaro; Chono, Sumio; Tada, Hitoshi

    2017-07-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lethal lung disease, which is accompanied by changes in lung structure. With regard to treatment, aerosolized drugs administered intrapulmonarily are rapidly distributed into the plasma and do not remain in the lungs due to damage to the alveolar epithelium that occurs from pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we sought to develop an in vitro model of respiratory epithelial cells in IPF for the evaluation of the intrapulmonary distribution of aerosolized drugs. We investigated transforming growth factor (TGF)-β 1 -induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and permeability alteration in A549, NCI-H441, and Calu-3 cell monolayers. After TGF-β 1 treatment of A549, NCI-H441, and Calu-3 cells, EMT markers including E-cadherin and vimentin and tight junction proteins including claudins-1, -3, and -5 were stained using immunofluorescence methods and detected using immunoblotting methods. Transport experiments were performed using TGF-β 1 -treated cell monolayers and fluorescein isothiocyanate dextrans (FD; 4.4, 10, and 70kDa). In addition, TGF-β 1 -induced apoptosis and necrosis were evaluated by flow cytometry using Annexin V and ethidium homodimer III, respectively. In NCI-H441 cells, incomplete EMT, destruction of claudins-1 and -3, and enhancement of FD permeability were caused by TGF-β 1 treatment. In A549 cells, complete EMT occurred but was not adequate for transport experiments because of low transepithelial electrical resistance. Whereas in Calu-3 cells, no changes were observed. TGF-β 1 -induced apoptosis and necrosis were not observed in any of the cell lines. Incomplete EMT and permeability enhancement were observed in the alveolar epithelium of IPF. Therefore, our results indicate that TGF-β 1 -treated NCI-H441 cell monolayers may serve as a useful in vitro model of respiratory epithelial cells for IPF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Discovery of a Novel Anti-Cancer Agent Targeting Both Topoisomerase I & II as Well as Telomerase Activities in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo: Cinnamomum verum Component Cuminaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ta-Wei; Tsai, Kuen-Daw; Yang, Shu-Mei; Wong, Ho-Yiu; Liu, Yi-Heng; Cherng, Jonathan; Chou, Kuo-Shen; Wang, Yang-Tz; Cuizon, Janise; Cherng, Jaw-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamomum verum is used to make the spice cinnamon and has been used for more than 5000 years by both of the two most ancient forms of medicine in the words: Ayurveda and traditional Chinese herbal medicines for various applications such as adenopathy, rheumatism, dermatosis, dyspepsia, stroke, tumors, elephantiasis, trichomonas, yeast, and virus infections. We evaluated the anticancer effect of cuminaldehyde (CuA), a constituent of the bark of the plant, and its underlying molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The results show that cuminaldehyde suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis as indicated by mitochondrial membrane potential loss, activation of caspase 3 and 9, increase in annexin V+PI+ cells, and morphological characteristics of apoptosis, including blebbing of plasma membrane, nuclear condensation, fragmentation, apoptotic body formation, and comet with elevated tail intensity and moment. In addition, cuminaldehyde also induced lysosomal vacuolation with increased volume of acidic compartments (VAC), suppressions of both topoisomerase I & II as well as telomerase activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further study reveals the growth-inhibitory effect of cuminaldehyde was also evident in a nude mice model. Taken together, the data suggest that the growth-inhibitory effect of cuminaldehyde against A549 cells is accompanied by downregulations of proliferative control involving apoptosis, both topoisomerase I & II as well as telomerase activities, together with an upregulation of lysosomal vacuolation and VAC. Similar effects (including all of the above-mentioned effects) were found in other cell lines, including human lung squamous cell carcinoma NCI-H520 and colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 (results not shown). Our data suggest that cuminaldehyde could be a potential agent for anticancer therapy.

  7. Anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic effects of CB2R agonist (JWH-133) in non-small lung cancer cells (A549) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells: an in vitro investigation.

    PubMed

    Vidinský, B; Gál, P; Pilátová, M; Vidová, Z; Solár, P; Varinská, L; Ivanová, L; Mojžíš, J

    2012-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer has one of the highest mortality rates among cancer-suffering patients. It is well known that the unwanted psychotropic effects of cannabinoids (CBs) are mediated via the CB(1) receptor (R), and selective targeting of the CB(2)R would thus avoid side effects in cancer treatment. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of selective CB(2)R agonist, JWH-133, on A549 cells (non-small lung cancer) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Cytotoxicity assay and DNA fragmentation assay were employed to evaluate the influence of JWH-133 (3-(1,1-dimethylbutyl)- 1-deoxy-Δ8-tetrahydrocannabinol) on investigated cancer cells. In addition, migration assay and gelatinase zymography were performed in HUVECs to asses JWH-133 anti-angiogenic activity. Our study showed that JWH-133 exerted cytotoxic effect only at the highest concentration used (10(-4) mol/l), while inhibition of colony formation was also detected at the non-toxic concentrations (10(-5)-10(-8) mol/l). JWH-133 was also found to be able to induce weak DNA fragmentation in A549 cells. Furthermore, JWH-133 at non-toxic concentrations inhibited some steps in the process of angiogenesis. It significantly inhibited endothelial cell migration after 17 h of incubation at concentrations of 10(-4)-10(-6) mol/l. In addition, JWH-133 inhibited MMP-2 secretion as assessed by gelatinase zymography. The present study demonstrates the in vitro anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic potential of CB(2)R agonist, JWH-133, in nonsmall lung cancer cells and HUVECs. Our results generate a rationale for further in vivo efficacy studies with this compound in preclinical cancer models.

  8. A platycoside-rich fraction from the root of Platycodon grandiflorum enhances cell death in A549 human lung carcinoma cells via mainly AMPK/mTOR/AKT signal-mediated autophagy induction.

    PubMed

    Yim, Nam-Hui; Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Liang, Chun; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-12-24

    The root of Platycodon grandiflorum (PG), commonly known as Kilkyong in Korea, Jiegeng in China, and Kikyo in Japan, has been extensively used as a traditional anti-inflammatory medicine in Asia for the treatment of respiratory conditions, such as bronchitis, asthma, and tonsillitis. Platycosides isolated from PG are especially well-known for their anti-cancer effects. We investigated the involvement of autophagic cell death and other potential molecular mechanisms induced by the platycoside-containing butanol fraction of PG (PGB) in human lung carcinoma cells. PGB-induced growth inhibition and cell death were measured using a 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The effects of PGB on autophagy were determined by observing microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) redistribution with confocal microscopy. The PGB-mediated regulation of autophagy-associated proteins was investigated using Western blotting analysis. Furthermore, the anti-cancer mechanism of PGB was confirmed using chemical inhibitors. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-DAD system was used to analyze the platycosides in PGB. In A549 cells, PGB induced significant autophagic cell death. Specifically, PGB upregulated LC3-II in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and it redistributed LC3 via autophagosome formation in the cytoplasm. PGB treatment increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and subsequently suppressed the AKT/mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Furthermore, PGB inhibited cell proliferation by regulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. In this study, six types of platycosides were identified in the PGB using HPLC. PGB efficiently induced cancer cell death via autophagy and the modulation of the AMPK/mTOR/AKT and MAPK signaling pathways in A549 cells. Therefore, PGB may be an efficacious herbal anti-cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Artesunate induces AIF-dependent apoptosis in A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chen-juan; Chen, Tong-Sheng

    2012-03-01

    Artesunate (ART), a semi-synthetic derivative of the sesquiterpene artemisinin extracted from the Chinese herb Artemisia annua, exerts a broad spectrum of clinical activity against human cancers. It has been shown that ART induces cancer cells death through apoptosis pathway. This study investigated whether ART treatment induced reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent cell death in the apoptosis fashion in human lung adenocarconoma A549 cell line and the proapoptotic protein apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) is involved in ART-induced apoptosis. Cells treated with ART exhibited typical apoptotic morphology as chromatin condensation, margination and shrunken nucleus. ART treatment also induced a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and AIF release from mitochondria. Silencing AIF can remarkable attenuated ART-induced apoptosis. Collectively, ART induces apoptosis by caspase-independent intrinsic pathway in A549 cells.

  10. 6-Shogaol, an active constituent of dietary ginger, induces autophagy by inhibiting the AKT/mTOR pathway in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jen-Yu; Hsu, Ya-Ling; Li, Chien-Te; Ko, Ying-Chin; Ni, Wen-Chiu; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Kuo, Po-Lin

    2009-10-28

    This study is the first study to investigate the anticancer effect of 6-shogaol in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. 6-Shogaol inhibited cell proliferation by inducing autophagic cell death, but not, predominantly, apoptosis. Pretreatment of cells with 3-methyladenine (3-MA), an autophagy inhibitor, suppressed 6-shogaol mediated antiproliferation activity, suggesting that induction of autophagy by 6-shogaol is conducive to cell death. We also found that 6-shogaol inhibited survival signaling through the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway by blocking the activation of AKT and downstream targets, including the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), forkhead transcription factors (FKHR) and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta). Phosphorylation of both of mTOR's downstream targets, p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6 kinase) and 4E-BP1, was also diminished. Overexpression of AKT by AKT cDNA transfection decreased 6-shogaol mediated autophagic cell death, supporting inhibition of AKT beneficial to autophagy. Moreover, reduction of AKT expression by siRNA potentiated 6-shogaol's effect, also supporting inhibition of AKT beneficial to autophagy. Taken together, these findings suggest that 6-shogaol may be a promising chemopreventive agent against human non-small cell lung cancer.

  11. Comparative Cytotoxicity of Glycyrrhiza glabra Roots from Different Geographical Origins Against Immortal Human Keratinocyte (HaCaT), Lung Adenocarcinoma (A549) and Liver Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells.

    PubMed

    Basar, Norazah; Oridupa, Olayinka Ayotunde; Ritchie, Kenneth J; Nahar, Lutfun; Osman, Nashwa Mostafa M; Stafford, Angela; Kushiev, Habibjon; Kan, Asuman; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2015-06-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae), commonly known as 'liquorice', is a well-known medicinal plant. Roots of this plant have long been used as a sweetening and flavouring agent in food and pharmaceutical products, and also as a traditional remedy for cough, upper and lower respiratory ailments, kidney stones, hepatitis C, skin disorder, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, gastrointestinal ulcers and stomach ache. Previous pharmacological and clinical studies have revealed its antitussive, antiinflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective and cardioprotective properties. While glycyrrhizin, a sweet-tasting triterpene saponin, is the principal bioactive compound, several bioactive flavonoids and isoflavonoids are also present in the roots of this plant. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts of nine samples of the roots of G. glabra, collected from various geographical origins, was assessed against immortal human keratinocyte (HaCaT), lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and liver carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines using the in vitro 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide cell toxicity/viability assay. Considerable variations in levels of cytotoxicity were observed among various samples of G. glabra. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Lycium europaeum fruit extract: antiproliferative activity on A549 human lung carcinoma cells and PC12 rat adrenal medulla cancer cells and assessment of its cytotoxicity on cerebellum granule cells.

    PubMed

    Ghali, Wafa; Vaudry, David; Jouenne, Thierry; Marzouki, Mohamed Nejib

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a major worldwide health problem and one of the leading causes of death either in developed or developing countries. Plant extracts and derivatives have always been used for various disease treatments and many anticancer agents issued from plants and vegetables are clinically recognized and used all over the world. Lycium europaeum (Solanaceae) also called "wolfberry" was known since ancient times in the Mediterranean area as a medicinal plant and used in several traditional remedies. The Lycium species capacity of reducing the incidence of cancer and also of halting or reserving the growth of cancer was reported by traditional healers. In this study, the antiproliferative capacity, protective properties, and antioxidant activity of the hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of Lycium europaeum were investigated. Results showed that Lycium extract exhibits the ability to reduce cancer cell viability, inhibits proliferation, and induces apoptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells and PC12 rat adrenal medulla cancer cells, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Cytotoxic effect on normal rat cerebellum granule cells was assessed to be nonsignificant. Results also showed that Lycium fruit extract protected lipids, proteins, and DNA against oxidative stress damages induced by H2O2 via scavenging reactive oxygen species.

  13. The impact of anticancer activity upon Beta vulgaris extract mediated biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (ag-NPs) against human breast (MCF-7), lung (A549) and pharynx (Hep-2) cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, K; Ahmad, H; Manikandan, E; Thanigai Arul, K; Kavitha, K; Moodley, M K; Rajagopal, K; Balabhaskar, R; Bhaskar, M

    2017-08-01

    The present study tried for a phyto-synthetic method of producing silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) with size controlled as and eco-friendly route that can lead to their advanced production with decorative tranquil morphology. By inducing temperature fluctuation of the reaction mixture from 25 to 80°C the plasmon resonance band raised slowly which had an ultimate effect on size and shape of Ag-NPs as shown by UV-visible spectroscopy and TEM results. The biosynthesized nanoparticles showed good cytotoxic impact against MCF-7, A549 and Hep2 cells compared to normal cell lines. Compared to control plates, the percentage of cell growth inhibition was found to be high with as concentrations of Ag-NPs becomes more as determined by MTT assay. The AO/EtBr staining observations demonstrated that the mechanism of cell death induced by Ag-NPs was due to apoptosis in cancer cells. These present results propose that the silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) may be utilized as anticancer agents for the treatment of various cancer types. However, there is a need for study of in vivo examination of these nanoparticles to find their role and mechanism inside human body. Further, studies we plan to do biomarker fabrication from the green synthesized plant extract nanoparticles like silver, gold and copper nanoparticles with optimized shape and sizes and their enhancement of these noble nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Ghrelin promotes human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cell proliferation through PI3K/Akt/mTOR/P70S6K and ERK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jianhua; Yao, Jianfeng; Huang, Rongfu; Wang, Yueqin; Jia, Min; Huang, Yan

    2018-04-06

    Ghrelin is a gastric acyl-peptide that plays an important role in cell proliferation. In the present study, we explored the role of ghrelin in A549 cell proliferation and the possible molecular mechanisms. We found that ghrelin promotes A549 cell proliferation, knockdown of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) attenuated A549 cell proliferation caused by ghrelin. Ghrelin induced the rapid phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, ERK, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and P70S6K. PI3K inhibitor (LY 294002), ERK inhibitor (PD98059) and mTOR inhibitor (Rapamycin) inhibited ghrelin-induced A549 cell proliferation. Moreover, GHSR siRNA inhibited phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, ERK, mTOR and P70S6K induced by ghrelin. Akt and mTOR/P70S6K phosphorylation was inhibited by LY 294002 but not by PD98059. These results indicate that ghrelin promotes A549 cell proliferation via GHSR-dependent PI3K/Akt/mTOR/P70S6K and ERK signaling pathways. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pirfenidone inhibits TGF-β1-induced over-expression of collagen type I and heat shock protein 47 in A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pirfenidone is a novel anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory agent that inhibits the progression of fibrosis in animal models and in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We previously showed that pirfenidone inhibits the over-expression of collagen type I and of heat shock protein (HSP) 47, a collagen-specific molecular chaperone, in human lung fibroblasts stimulated with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in vitro. The increased numbers of HSP47-positive type II pneumocytes as well as fibroblasts were also diminished by pirfenidone in an animal model of pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin. The present study evaluates the effects of pirfenidone on collagen type I and HSP47 expression in the human alveolar epithelial cell line, A549 cells in vitro. Methods The expression of collagen type I, HSP47 and E-cadherin mRNAs in A549 cells stimulated with TGF-β1 was evaluated by Northern blotting or real-time PCR. The expression of collagen type I, HSP47 and fibronectin proteins was assessed by immunocytochemical staining. Results TGF-β1 stimulated collagen type I and HSP47 mRNA and protein expression in A549 cells, and pirfenidone significantly inhibited this process. Pirfenidone also inhibited over-expression of the fibroblast phenotypic marker fibronectin in A549 cells induced by TGF-β1. Conclusion We concluded that the anti-fibrotic effects of pirfenidone might be mediated not only through the direct inhibition of collagen type I expression but also through the inhibition of HSP47 expression in alveolar epithelial cells, which results in reduced collagen synthesis in lung fibrosis. Furthermore, pirfenidone might partially inhibit the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. PMID:22694981

  16. Long Term Culture of the A549 Cancer Cell Line Promotes Multilamellar Body Formation and Differentiation towards an Alveolar Type II Pneumocyte Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, James Ross; Abdullatif, Muhammad Bilal; Burnett, Edward C.; Kempsell, Karen E.; Conforti, Franco; Tolley, Howard; Collins, Jane E.; Davies, Donna E.

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary research requires models that represent the physiology of alveolar epithelium but concerns with reproducibility, consistency and the technical and ethical challenges of using primary or stem cells has resulted in widespread use of continuous cancer or other immortalized cell lines. The A549 ‘alveolar’ cell line has been available for over four decades but there is an inconsistent view as to its suitability as an appropriate model for primary alveolar type II (ATII) cells. Since most work with A549 cells involves short term culture of proliferating cells, we postulated that culture conditions that reduced proliferation of the cancer cells would promote a more differentiated ATII cell phenotype. We examined A549 cell growth in different media over long term culture and then used microarray analysis to investigate temporal regulation of pathways involved in cell cycle and ATII differentiation; we also made comparisons with gene expression in freshly isolated human ATII cells. Analyses indicated that long term culture in Ham’s F12 resulted in substantial modulation of cell cycle genes to result in a quiescent population of cells with significant up-regulation of autophagic, differentiation and lipidogenic pathways. There were also increased numbers of up- and down-regulated genes shared with primary cells suggesting adoption of ATII characteristics and multilamellar body (MLB) development. Subsequent Oil Red-O staining and Transmission Electron Microscopy confirmed MLB expression in the differentiated A549 cells. This work defines a set of conditions for promoting ATII differentiation characteristics in A549 cells that may be advantageous for studies with this cell line. PMID:27792742

  17. A549 Cells: Lung Carcinoma Cell Line for Adenovirus | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists at the National Cancer Institute have developed a cell line designated A549 that was derived from explanted cultures of human lung cancer tissue. The A549 cell line has been tested under the guidance of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) so, under current Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), these cells may be suitable for use in manufacturing constructs for use in clinical trials. The National Cancer Institute seeks parties to non-exclusively license this research material.

  18. Lipotoxin F of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an AlgU-dependent and alginate-independent outer membrane protein involved in resistance to oxidative stress and adhesion to A549 human lung epithelia.

    PubMed

    Damron, F Heath; Napper, Jennifer; Teter, M Allison; Yu, Hongwei D

    2009-04-01

    Chronic lung infection with P. aeruginosa and excessive neutrophil-associated inflammation are major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Overproduction of an exopolysaccharide known as alginate leads to the formation of mucoid biofilms that are resistant to antibiotics and host defences. Alginate overproduction or mucoidy is controlled by a stress-related ECF sigma factor AlgU/T. Mutation in the anti-sigma factor MucA is a known mechanism for conversion to mucoidy. Recently, we showed that inactivation of a kinase (KinB) in nonmucoid strain PAO1 results in overproduction of alginate. Here, we report the initial characterization of lipotoxin F (LptF, PA3692), an OmpA-like outer membrane protein that exhibited increased expression in the mucoid PAO1kinB mutant. The lipotoxin family of proteins has been previously shown to induce inflammation in lung epithelia, which may play a role in CF disease progression. Expression of LptF was observed to be AlgU-dependent and upregulated in CF isolates. Deletion of lptF from the kinB mutant had no effect on alginate production. Deletion of lptF from PAO1 caused a differential susceptibility to oxidants that can be generated by phagocytes. The lptF and algU mutants were more sensitive to hypochlorite than PAO1. However, the lptF mutant displayed increased resistance to hydrogen peroxide. LptF also contributed to adhesion to A549 human lung epithelial cells. Our data suggest that LptF is an outer membrane protein that may be important for P. aeruginosa survival in harsh environments, including lung colonization in CF.

  19. Lipotoxin F of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an AlgU-dependent and alginate-independent outer membrane protein involved in resistance to oxidative stress and adhesion to A549 human lung epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Damron, F. Heath; Napper, Jennifer; Teter, M. Allison; Yu, Hongwei D.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic lung infection with P. aeruginosa and excessive neutrophil-associated inflammation are major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Overproduction of an exopolysaccharide known as alginate leads to the formation of mucoid biofilms that are resistant to antibiotics and host defences. Alginate overproduction or mucoidy is controlled by a stress-related ECF sigma factor AlgU/T. Mutation in the anti-sigma factor MucA is a known mechanism for conversion to mucoidy. Recently, we showed that inactivation of a kinase (KinB) in nonmucoid strain PAO1 results in overproduction of alginate. Here, we report the initial characterization of lipotoxin F (LptF, PA3692), an OmpA-like outer membrane protein that exhibited increased expression in the mucoid PAO1kinB mutant. The lipotoxin family of proteins has been previously shown to induce inflammation in lung epithelia, which may play a role in CF disease progression. Expression of LptF was observed to be AlgU-dependent and upregulated in CF isolates. Deletion of lptF from the kinB mutant had no effect on alginate production. Deletion of lptF from PAO1 caused a differential susceptibility to oxidants that can be generated by phagocytes. The lptF and algU mutants were more sensitive to hypochlorite than PAO1. However, the lptF mutant displayed increased resistance to hydrogen peroxide. LptF also contributed to adhesion to A549 human lung epithelial cells. Our data suggest that LptF is an outer membrane protein that may be important for P. aeruginosa survival in harsh environments, including lung colonization in CF. PMID:19332805

  20. Proteomic response to 5,6-dimethylxanthenone 4-acetic acid (DMXAA, vadimezan) in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells determined by the stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) approach

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Shu-Ting; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Yang, Tianxin; Yang, Yin-Xue; Wang, Dong; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    5,6-Dimethylxanthenone 4-acetic acid (DMXAA), also known as ASA404 and vadimezan, is a potent tumor blood vessel-disrupting agent and cytokine inducer used alone or in combination with other cytotoxic agents for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and other cancers. However, the latest Phase III clinical trial has shown frustrating outcomes in the treatment of NSCLC, since the therapeutic targets and underlying mechanism for the anticancer effect of DMXAA are not yet fully understood. This study aimed to examine the proteomic response to DMXAA and unveil the global molecular targets and possible mechanisms for the anticancer effect of DMXAA in NSCLC A549 cells using a stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) approach. The proteomic data showed that treatment with DMXAA modulated the expression of 588 protein molecules in A549 cells, with 281 protein molecules being up regulated and 306 protein molecules being downregulated. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) identified 256 signaling pathways and 184 cellular functional proteins that were regulated by DMXAA in A549 cells. These targeted molecules and signaling pathways were mostly involved in cell proliferation and survival, redox homeostasis, sugar, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolism, cell migration, and invasion and programed cell death. Subsequently, the effects of DMXAA on cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, autophagy, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were experimentally verified. Flow cytometric analysis showed that DMXAA significantly induced G1 phase arrest in A549 cells. Western blotting assays demonstrated that DMXAA induced apoptosis via a mitochondria-dependent pathway and promoted autophagy, as indicated by the increased level of cytosolic cytochrome c, activation of caspase 3, and enhanced expression of beclin 1 and microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-II) in A549 cells. Moreover, DMXAA significantly promoted intracellular ROS

  1. Open Reading Frame 3 of Genotype 1 Hepatitis E Virus Inhibits Nuclear Factor-κappa B Signaling Induced by Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in Human A549 Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Deying; Wang, Jingjing; Zheng, Zizheng; Xia, Ningshao

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the primary causative agents of acute hepatitis, and represents a major cause of severe public health problems in developing countries. The pathogenesis of HEV is not well characterized, however, primarily due to the lack of well-defined cell and animal models. Here, we investigated the effects of genotype 1 HEV open reading frame 3 (ORF3) on TNF-α-induced nucleus factor-κappa B (NF-κB) signaling. Human lung epithelial cells (A549) were transiently transfected with ORF3 containing plasmids. These cells were then stimulated with TNF-α and the nucleus translocation of the p65 NF-κB subunit was assessed using western blot and laser confocal microscopy. DNA-binding activity of p65 was also examined using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), and the suppression of NF-κB target genes were detected using real-time RT-PCR and ELISA. These results enabled us to identify the decreased phosphorylation levels of IKBα. We focused on the gene of negative regulation of NF-κB, represented by TNF-α-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3, also known as A20). Reducing the levels of A20 with siRNAs significantly enhances luciferase activation of NF-κB. Furthermore, HEV ORF3 regulated A20 primarily via activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), involved in unfolded protein response (UPR), resulting in the degradation or inactivation of the receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1), a major upstream activator of IKB kinase compounds (IKKs). Consequently, the phosphorylation of IKBα and the nucleus translocation of p65 are blocked, which contributes to diminished NF-κB DNA-binding activation and NF-κB-dependent gene expression. The findings suggest that genotype 1 HEV, through ORF3, may transiently activate NF-κB through UPR in early stage, and subsequently inhibit TNF-α-induced NF-κB signaling in late phase so as to create a favorable virus replication environment. PMID:24959724

  2. Up-Regulation and Profibrotic Role of Osteopontin in Human Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Annie; Gibson, Kevin; Cisneros, José; Richards, Thomas J; Yang, Yinke; Becerril, Carina; Yousem, Samueal; Herrera, Iliana; Ruiz, Victor; Selman, Moisés; Kaminski, Naftali

    2005-01-01

    Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and lethal disorder characterized by fibroproliferation and excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix in the lung. Methods and Findings Using oligonucleotide arrays, we identified osteopontin as one of the genes that significantly distinguishes IPF from normal lungs. Osteopontin was localized to alveolar epithelial cells in IPF lungs and was also significantly elevated in bronchoalveolar lavage from IPF patients. To study the fibrosis-relevant effects of osteopontin we stimulated primary human lung fibroblasts and alveolar epithelial cells (A549) with recombinant osteopontin. Osteopontin induced a significant increase of migration and proliferation in both fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Epithelial growth was inhibited by the pentapeptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (GRGDS) and antibody to CD44, while fibroproliferation was inhibited by GRGDS and antibody to αvβ3 integrin. Fibroblast and epithelial cell migration were inhibited by GRGDS, anti-CD44, and anti-αvβ3. In fibroblasts, osteopontin up-regulated tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-1 and type I collagen, and down-regulated matrix metalloprotease-1 (MMP-1) expression, while in A549 cells it caused up-regulation of MMP-7. In human IPF lungs, osteopontin colocalized with MMP-7 in alveolar epithelial cells, and application of weakest link statistical models to microarray data suggested a significant interaction between osteopontin and MMP-7. Conclusions Our results provide a potential mechanism by which osteopontin secreted from the alveolar epithelium may exert a profibrotic effect in IPF lungs and highlight osteopontin as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in this incurable disease. PMID:16128620

  3. Xylitol induces cell death in lung cancer A549 cells by autophagy.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunjoo; Park, Mi Hee; Na, Hee Sam; Chung, Jin

    2015-05-01

    Xylitol is a widely used anti-caries agent that has anti-inflammatory effects. We have evaluated the potential of xylitol in cancer treatment. It's effects on cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were measured by MTT assay and LDH assay. Cell morphology and autophagy were examined by immunostaining and immunoblotting. Xylitol inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in these cancer cells: A549, Caki, NCI-H23, HCT-15, HL-60, K562, and SK MEL-2. The IC50 of xylitol in human gingival fibroblast cells was higher than in cancer cells, indicating that it is more specific for cancer cells. Moreover, xylitol induced autophagy in A549 cells that was inhibited by 3-methyladenine, an autophagy inhibitor. These results indicate that xylitol has potential in therapy against lung cancer by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing autophagy of A549 cells.

  4. Structure of a human pulmonary acinus.

    PubMed

    Berend, N; Rynell, A C; Ward, H E

    1991-02-01

    The structure of the human pulmonary acinus has been described infrequently. The aim of the study was to determine the branching pattern of respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts in a human acinus from the peripheral part of the lung, where space constraints may have affected airway branching patterns. The lungs were obtained from an 18 year old victim of a motor vehicle accident and fixed in inflation under a pressure of 25 cm H2O. A block was cut from the lower edge of the right lower lobe and embedded in plastic. Serial sections were cut and the branching pattern of airways subtended by a terminal bronchiole were followed. The acinus was bounded on two sides by pleura and on the remaining sides by connective tissue septa. The terminal bronchiole divided into two respiratory bronchioles, each of which gave rise to four systems of alveolar ducts. Between successive systems of alveolar ducts the respiratory bronchioles continued as single airways, becoming progressively more alveolated towards the periphery but not subtending further branches of respiratory bronchioles. The duct systems became less complex towards the periphery, near to the edge of the lung. The total volume of the acinus was similar to that found in previous studies. This branching pattern has not been described previously in a human acinus.

  5. Ac-SDKP suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition in A549 cells via HSP27 signaling.

    PubMed

    Deng, Haijing; Yang, Fang; Xu, Hong; Sun, Yue; Xue, Xinxin; Du, Shipu; Wang, Xiaojun; Li, Shifeng; Liu, Yan; Wang, Ruimin

    2014-08-01

    The synthetic tetrapeptide N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) has been shown to be a modulator of molecular aspects of the fibrosis pathway. This study reveals that Ac-SDKP exerts an anti-fibrotic effect on human type II alveolar epithelial cells (A549), which are a source of myofibroblasts once exposed to TGF-β1, by decreasing the expression of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27). We used A549 cells in vitro to detect morphological evidence of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by phase-contrast microscopy. Immunocytochemical and western blot analysis determined the distributions of cytokeratin 8 (CK8), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and SNAI1. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed a colocalization of HSP27 and SNAI1 on TGF-β1-induced A549 cells. These results also demonstrated that A549 cells became spindle-like when exposed to TGF-β1. Coincident with these morphological changes, expression levels of CK8 and E-cad decreased, while those of vimentin and α-SMA increased. This process was accompanied by increases in levels of HSP27, SNAI1, and type I and type III collagen. In vitro transfection experiments demonstrated that the inhibition of HSP27 in cultured A549 cells could decrease the expression of SNAI1 and α-SMA while increasing the expression of E-cad. A noticeable reduction in collagen types I and III was also evident. Our results found that Ac-SDKP inhibited the transition of cultured A549 cells to myofibroblasts and attenuated collagen synthesis through modulating the expression of HSP27. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Study on thaspine in inducing apoptosis of A549 cell].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-min; He, Lang-chong

    2007-04-01

    To investigate the effect of thaspine on the cellular proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle in A549 cell line. A549 cell was cultured with different concentrations of thaspine. Cellular proliferation was detected with MTT, apoptosis and cell cycle were checked with Flow Cytometer, and change of microstructure was observed by transmission electron microscope. Thaspine could inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis of A549 cell in a time-dose dependent manner. Cell cycle was significantly stopped at the S phase by thaspine with FCM technology. Under electronic microscope, the morphology of A549 cell showed nuclear karyopycnosis, chromatin agglutination and typical apoptotic body when the cell was treated with thaspine. Thaspine has the effects of anti-tumor and inducing apoptosis.

  7. Enhancement of recombinant myricetin on the radiosensitivity of lung cancer A549 and H1299 cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective Myricetin, a common dietary flavonoid is widely distributed in fruits and vegetables, and is used as a health food supplement based on its immune function, anti-oxidation, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of myricetin on combination with radiotherapy enhance radiosensitivity of lung cancer A549 and H1299 cells. Methods A549 cells and H1299 cells were exposed to X-ray with or without myricetin treatment. Colony formation assays, CCK-8 assay, flow cytometry and Caspase-3 level detection were used to evaluate the radiosensitization activity of myricetin on cell proliferation and apoptosis in vitro. Nude mouse tumor xenograft model was built to assessed radiosensitization effect of myricetin in vivo. Results Compared with the exposed group without myricetin treatment, the groups treated with myricetin showed significantly suppressed cell surviving fraction and proliferation, increased the cell apoptosis and increased Caspase-3 protein expression after X-ray exposure in vitro. And in vivo assay, growth speed of tumor xenografts was significantly decreased in irradiated mice treated with myricetin. Conclusions The study demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo evidence that combination of myricetin with radiotherapy can enhance tumor radiosensitivity of pulmonary carcinoma A549 and H1299 cells, and myricetin could be a potential radiosensitizer for lung cancer therapy. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/5791518001210633 PMID:24650056

  8. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of defence secretion of Ulomoides dermestoides on A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Rosana; Villaverde, M Luciana; Girotti, Juan R; Güerci, Alba; Juárez, M Patricia; de Bravo, Margarita G

    2011-06-14

    Ulomoides dermestoides (Fairmaire, 1893) is a cosmopolitan tenebrionid beetle reared by Argentine people who consume them alive as an alternative medicine in the treatment of different illnesses such as asthma, Parkinson's, diabetes, arthritis, HIV and specially cancer. To evaluate the cytotoxicity and DNA damage of the major volatile components released by Ulomoides dermestoides on human lung carcinoma epithelial cell line A549. The defence compounds of Ulomoides dermestoides were extracted with dichloromethane and analyzed and quantified by capillary gas chromatography. The toxicity effects of the beetle's extract against A549 cell line were evaluated. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT test and Trypan blue assay and genotoxicity was evaluated by the comet assay. The synthetic compounds, individually or combined, were also tested in A549 cells and normal mononuclear human cells. The defence compounds of Ulomoides dermestoides extracted with dichloromethane (methyl-1,4-benzoquinones, ethyl-1,4-benzoquinones and 1-pentadecene as major components) showed cytotoxic activity on A549 cells demonstrated by MTT test and Trypan blue assay, with IC(50) values of 0.26equivalent/ml and 0.34equivalent/ml, respectively (1equivalent=amount of components extracted per beetle). The inhibition of A549 cell proliferation with the synthetic blend (1,4-benzoquinone and 1-pentadecene) or 1,4-benzoquinone alone was similar to that obtained with the insect extract. 1-Pentadecene showed no inhibitory effect. Low doses of insect extract or synthetic blend (0.15equivalent/ml) inhibited mononuclear cell proliferation by 72.2±2.7% and induced significant DNA damage both in tumor and mononuclear cells. Results of this study demonstrated that defence compounds of Ulomoides dermestoides reduced cell viability and induced DNA damage. We also concluded that the insect benzoquinones are primarily responsible for inducing cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in culture cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier

  9. Hinokitiol Inhibits Migration of A549 Lung Cancer Cells via Suppression of MMPs and Induction of Antioxidant Enzymes and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Liu, Chao-Hong; Wu, Guan-Yi; Lee, Tzu-Yin; Manubolu, Manjunath; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Yang, Chih-Hao; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2018-01-01

    Hinokitiol, a natural monoterpenoid from the heartwood of Calocedrus formosana, has been reported to have anticancer effects against various cancer cell lines. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms and the inhibiting roles of hinokitiol on adenocarcinoma A549 cells remain to be fully elucidated. Thus, the current study was designed to evaluate the effect of hinokitiol on the migration of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells in vitro. The data demonstrates that hinokitiol does not effectively inhibit the viability of A549 cells at up to a 10 µM concentration. When treated with non-toxic doses (1–5 µM) of hinokitiol, the cell migration is markedly suppressed at 5 µM. Hinokitiol significantly reduced p53 expression, followed by attenuation of Bax in A549 cells. A dose-dependent inhibition of activated caspase-9 and -3 was observed in the presence of hinokitiol. An observed increase in protein expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -2/-9 in A549 cells was significantly inhibited by hinokitiol. Remarkably, when A549 cells were subjected to hinokitiol (1–5 µM), there was an increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) from the reduction in cells. In addition, the incubation of A549 cells with hinokitiol significantly activated the cytochrome c expression, which may be triggered by activation of caspase-9 followed by caspase-3. These observations indicate that hinokitiol inhibited the migration of lung cancer A549 cells through several mechanisms, including the activation of caspases-9 and -3, induction of p53/Bax and antioxidant CAT and SOD, and reduction of MMP-2 and -9 activities. It also induces cytochrome c expression. These findings demonstrate a new therapeutic potential for hinokitiol in lung cancer chemoprevention. PMID:29565268

  10. Hinokitiol Inhibits Migration of A549 Lung Cancer Cells via Suppression of MMPs and Induction of Antioxidant Enzymes and Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Liu, Chao-Hong; Wu, Guan-Yi; Lee, Tzu-Yin; Manubolu, Manjunath; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Yang, Chih-Hao; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2018-03-22

    Hinokitiol, a natural monoterpenoid from the heartwood of Calocedrus formosana , has been reported to have anticancer effects against various cancer cell lines. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms and the inhibiting roles of hinokitiol on adenocarcinoma A549 cells remain to be fully elucidated. Thus, the current study was designed to evaluate the effect of hinokitiol on the migration of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells in vitro. The data demonstrates that hinokitiol does not effectively inhibit the viability of A549 cells at up to a 10 µM concentration. When treated with non-toxic doses (1-5 µM) of hinokitiol, the cell migration is markedly suppressed at 5 µM. Hinokitiol significantly reduced p53 expression, followed by attenuation of Bax in A549 cells. A dose-dependent inhibition of activated caspase-9 and -3 was observed in the presence of hinokitiol. An observed increase in protein expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -2/-9 in A549 cells was significantly inhibited by hinokitiol. Remarkably, when A549 cells were subjected to hinokitiol (1-5 µM), there was an increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) from the reduction in cells. In addition, the incubation of A549 cells with hinokitiol significantly activated the cytochrome c expression, which may be triggered by activation of caspase-9 followed by caspase-3. These observations indicate that hinokitiol inhibited the migration of lung cancer A549 cells through several mechanisms, including the activation of caspases-9 and -3, induction of p53/Bax and antioxidant CAT and SOD, and reduction of MMP-2 and -9 activities. It also induces cytochrome c expression. These findings demonstrate a new therapeutic potential for hinokitiol in lung cancer chemoprevention.

  11. A novel genomic signature with translational significance for human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Yasmina; Tedrow, John; de Bernard, Simon; Birker-Robaczewska, Magdalena; Gibson, Kevin F; Guardela, Brenda Juan; Hess, Patrick; Klenk, Axel; Lindell, Kathleen O; Poirey, Sylvie; Renault, Bérengère; Rey, Markus; Weber, Edgar; Nayler, Oliver; Kaminski, Naftali

    2015-02-01

    The bleomycin-induced rodent lung fibrosis model is commonly used to study mechanisms of lung fibrosis and to test potential therapeutic interventions, despite the well recognized dissimilarities to human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Therefore, in this study, we sought to identify genomic commonalities between the gene expression profiles from 100 IPF lungs and 108 control lungs that were obtained from the Lung Tissue Research Consortium, and rat lungs harvested at Days 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 56 after bleomycin instillation. Surprisingly, the highest gene expression similarity between bleomycin-treated rat and IPF lungs was observed at Day 7. At this point of maximal rat-human commonality, we identified a novel set of 12 disease-relevant translational gene markers (C6, CTHRC1, CTSE, FHL2, GAL, GREM1, LCN2, MMP7, NELL1, PCSK1, PLA2G2A, and SLC2A5) that was able to separate almost all patients with IPF from control subjects in our cohort and in two additional IPF/control cohorts (GSE10667 and GSE24206). Furthermore, in combination with diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide measurements, four members of the translational gene marker set contributed to stratify patients with IPF according to disease severity. Significantly, pirfenidone attenuated the expression change of one (CTHRC1) translational gene marker in the bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis model, in transforming growth factor-β1-treated primary human lung fibroblasts and transforming growth factor-β1-treated human epithelial A549 cells. Our results suggest that a strategy focused on rodent model-human disease commonalities may identify genes that could be used to predict the pharmacological impact of therapeutic interventions, and thus facilitate the development of novel treatments for this devastating lung disease.

  12. A Novel Genomic Signature with Translational Significance for Human Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tedrow, John; de Bernard, Simon; Birker-Robaczewska, Magdalena; Gibson, Kevin F.; Guardela, Brenda Juan; Hess, Patrick; Klenk, Axel; Lindell, Kathleen O.; Poirey, Sylvie; Renault, Bérengère; Rey, Markus; Weber, Edgar; Nayler, Oliver; Kaminski, Naftali

    2015-01-01

    The bleomycin-induced rodent lung fibrosis model is commonly used to study mechanisms of lung fibrosis and to test potential therapeutic interventions, despite the well recognized dissimilarities to human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Therefore, in this study, we sought to identify genomic commonalities between the gene expression profiles from 100 IPF lungs and 108 control lungs that were obtained from the Lung Tissue Research Consortium, and rat lungs harvested at Days 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 56 after bleomycin instillation. Surprisingly, the highest gene expression similarity between bleomycin-treated rat and IPF lungs was observed at Day 7. At this point of maximal rat–human commonality, we identified a novel set of 12 disease-relevant translational gene markers (C6, CTHRC1, CTSE, FHL2, GAL, GREM1, LCN2, MMP7, NELL1, PCSK1, PLA2G2A, and SLC2A5) that was able to separate almost all patients with IPF from control subjects in our cohort and in two additional IPF/control cohorts (GSE10667 and GSE24206). Furthermore, in combination with diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide measurements, four members of the translational gene marker set contributed to stratify patients with IPF according to disease severity. Significantly, pirfenidone attenuated the expression change of one (CTHRC1) translational gene marker in the bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis model, in transforming growth factor-β1–treated primary human lung fibroblasts and transforming growth factor-β1–treated human epithelial A549 cells. Our results suggest that a strategy focused on rodent model–human disease commonalities may identify genes that could be used to predict the pharmacological impact of therapeutic interventions, and thus facilitate the development of novel treatments for this devastating lung disease. PMID:25029475

  13. Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein suppresses the growth of A549 cells via inhibiting nuclear transcription factor κB.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xu-Feng; Zhou, Dong; Liu, Quan-Xing; Zheng, Hong; Ding, Yan; Xu, Wen-Yue; Min, Jia-Xin; Dai, Ji-Gang

    2018-05-01

    Blocking the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is a promising strategy for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. The circumsporozoite protein (CSP), a key component of the sporozoite stage of the malaria parasite, was previously reported to block NF-κB activation in hepatocytes. Therefore, in the present study, the effect of CSP on the growth of the human lung cancer cell line, A549, was investigated. It was demonstrated that transfection with a recombinant plasmid expressing CSP was able to inhibit the proliferation of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner and induce the apoptosis of A549 cells. A NF-κB gene reporter assay indicated that CSP and its nuclear localization signal (NLS) motif were able to equally suppress the activation of NF-κB following stimulation with human recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in A549 cells. Furthermore, western blot analysis indicated that NLS did not affect the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB, but was able to markedly inhibit the nuclear translocation of NF-κB in TNF-α stimulated A549 cells. Therefore, the data suggest that CSP may be investigated as a potential novel NF-κB inhibitor for the treatment of lung cancer.

  14. A549 lung epithelial cells grown as three-dimensional aggregates: alternative tissue culture model for Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Carterson, A J; Höner zu Bentrup, K; Ott, C M; Clarke, M S; Pierson, D L; Vanderburg, C R; Buchanan, K L; Nickerson, C A; Schurr, M J

    2005-02-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) lung aggregate model was developed from A549 human lung epithelial cells by using a rotating-wall vessel bioreactor to study the interactions between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and lung epithelial cells. The suitability of the 3-D aggregates as an infection model was examined by immunohistochemistry, adherence and invasion assays, scanning electron microscopy, and cytokine and mucoglycoprotein production. Immunohistochemical characterization of the 3-D A549 aggregates showed increased expression of epithelial cell-specific markers and decreased expression of cancer-specific markers compared to their monolayer counterparts. Immunohistochemistry of junctional markers on A549 3-D cells revealed that these cells formed tight junctions and polarity, in contrast to the cells grown as monolayers. Additionally, the 3-D aggregates stained positively for the production of mucoglycoprotein while the monolayers showed no indication of staining. Moreover, mucin-specific antibodies to MUC1 and MUC5A bound with greater affinity to 3-D aggregates than to the monolayers. P. aeruginosa attached to and penetrated A549 monolayers significantly more than the same cells grown as 3-D aggregates. Scanning electron microscopy of A549 cells grown as monolayers and 3-D aggregates infected with P. aeruginosa showed that monolayers detached from the surface of the culture plate postinfection, in contrast to the 3-D aggregates, which remained attached to the microcarrier beads. In response to infection, proinflammatory cytokine levels were elevated for the 3-D A549 aggregates compared to monolayer controls. These findings suggest that A549 lung cells grown as 3-D aggregates may represent a more physiologically relevant model to examine the interactions between P. aeruginosa and the lung epithelium during infection.

  15. G4-Tetra DNA Duplex Induce Lung Cancer Cell Apoptosis in A549 Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaobo; Zhao, YiZhuo; Lu, Hu; Fu, Cuiping; Li, Xiao; Jiang, Liyan; Li, Shanqun

    2016-10-01

    The specific DNA is typically impermeable to the plasma membrane due to its natural characters, but DNA tetra structures (DTNs) can be readily uptake by cells in the absence of transfection agents, providing a new strategy to deliver DNA drugs. In this research, the delivery efficiency of tetrahedral DNA nanostructures was measured on adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial (A549) cells via delivering AS1411 (G4). The DNA tetra-AS1411 complex was rapidly and abundantly uptake by A549 cells, and the induced apoptosis was enhanced. Furthermore, biodistribution in mouse proved the rapid clearance from non-targeted organs in vivo. This study improved the understanding of potential function in DNA-based drug delivery and proved that DTNs-AS1411 could be potentially useful for the treatment of lung cancer.

  16. Effect of taxol from Pestalotiopsis mangiferae on A549 cells-In vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Kathiravan, Govindarajan; Sureban, Sripathi M.

    2009-01-01

    Pestalotiopsis mangiferae Coelomycete fungi were used to examine the production of taxol. The taxol isolated from this fungus is biologically active against cancer cell lines were investigated for its antiproliferative activity in human Non Small Cell Lung Cancer A549 cells. The results showed that the methylene chloride extraction of Pestalotiopsis mangiferae inhibited the proliferation of A 549 cells as measured by MTT and Trypan blue assay. Flow cytometric analysis showed that methylene chloride extraction of Pestalotiopsis mangiferae blocked cell cycle progression in G0/G1 phase. In addition fungal taxol induced A549 cell apoptosis as determined by propidium iodide staining. Further the percentage of LDH release was increased at increasing concentrations which is a measure of cell death. The levels of sialic acid levels and DNA, RNA and protein levels were decreased after treatment with methylene chloride extraction of Pestalotiopsis mangiferae. We suggests that methylene chloride extraction of Pestalotiopsis mangiferae might be considered for future therapeutic application with further studies against lung cancer. PMID:25206246

  17. Effect of taxol from Pestalotiopsis mangiferae on A549 cells-In vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kathiravan, Govindarajan; Sureban, Sripathi M

    2009-12-01

    Pestalotiopsis mangiferae Coelomycete fungi were used to examine the production of taxol. The taxol isolated from this fungus is biologically active against cancer cell lines were investigated for its antiproliferative activity in human Non Small Cell Lung Cancer A549 cells. The results showed that the methylene chloride extraction of Pestalotiopsis mangiferae inhibited the proliferation of A 549 cells as measured by MTT and Trypan blue assay. Flow cytometric analysis showed that methylene chloride extraction of Pestalotiopsis mangiferae blocked cell cycle progression in G0/G1 phase. In addition fungal taxol induced A549 cell apoptosis as determined by propidium iodide staining. Further the percentage of LDH release was increased at increasing concentrations which is a measure of cell death. The levels of sialic acid levels and DNA, RNA and protein levels were decreased after treatment with methylene chloride extraction of Pestalotiopsis mangiferae. We suggests that methylene chloride extraction of Pestalotiopsis mangiferae might be considered for future therapeutic application with further studies against lung cancer.

  18. Oxidative stress mediated apoptosis induced by nickel ferrite nanoparticles in cultured A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Ahmad, Javed; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; AlSalhi, Mohamad S; Alrokayan, Salman A

    2011-05-10

    Due to the interesting magnetic and electrical properties with good chemical and thermal stabilities, nickel ferrite nanoparticles are being utilized in many applications including magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery and hyperthermia. Recent studies have shown that nickel ferrite nanoparticles produce cytotoxicity in mammalian cells. However, there is very limited information concerning the toxicity of nickel ferrite nanoparticles at the cellular and molecular level. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and apoptosis induction by well-characterized nickel ferrite nanoparticles (size 26 nm) in human lung epithelial (A549) cells. Nickel ferrite nanoparticles induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity in A549 cells demonstrated by MTT, NRU and LDH assays. Nickel ferrite nanoparticles were also found to induce oxidative stress evidenced by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depletion of antioxidant glutathione (GSH). Further, co-treatment with the antioxidant L-ascorbic acid mitigated the ROS generation and GSH depletion due to nickel ferrite nanoparticles suggesting the potential mechanism of oxidative stress. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that following the exposure of A549 cells to nickel ferrite nanoparticles, the level of mRNA expressions of cell cycle checkpoint protein p53 and apoptotic proteins (bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9) were significantly up-regulated, whereas the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin and bcl-2) were down-regulated. Moreover, activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9 enzymes were also significantly higher in nickel ferrite nanoparticles exposed cells. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report showing that nickel ferrite nanoparticles induced apoptosis in A549 cells through ROS generation and oxidative stress via p53, survivin, bax/bcl-2 and caspase pathways. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of human pulmonary alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Capelli, A; Cerutti, C G; Lusuardi, M; Donner, C F

    1997-04-01

    An increase of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity has been observed in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients affected by pulmonary fibrosis in chronic interstitial lung disorders. To characterize the ALP isoenzymes in such cases, we used gel filtration, agarose gel electrophoresis, heat and amino acid inhibition assays, wheat-germ agglutinin (WGA) precipitation, and an immunoassay specific for the bone-isoform of ALP. Only one anodic band representing a high-molecular-weight isoform of ALP (Mr approximately 2,000 kDa) was observed on electrophoresis of BALF. The inhibition assay results were consistent for a tissue-nonspecific isoenzyme sensitive to a temperature of 56 degrees C (71.9 +/- 2.5% inhibition) and to homoarginine (65.7 +/- 1.9%), and resistant to L-phenylalanine and L-leucine. Less than 13% of ALP activity was heat-stable. After incubation of BALF specimens with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase D plus Nonidet P-40, or with phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C alone, an electrophoretic cathodic band (Mr approximately 220 kDa) appeared near the bone band of a standard serum. With the WGA assay, 84.4 +/- 3.3% of ALP precipitated and the band disappeared. After immunoassay for the bone isoform, a mean of less than 5% enzyme activity was measured. We conclude that the ALP found in BALF is a pulmonary isoform of a tissue nonspecific isoenzyme.

  20. Milrinone Relaxes Pulmonary Veins in Guinea Pigs and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Rieg, Annette D.; Suleiman, Said; Perez-Bouza, Alberto; Braunschweig, Till; Spillner, Jan W.; Schröder, Thomas; Verjans, Eva; Schälte, Gereon; Rossaint, Rolf; Uhlig, Stefan; Martin, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The phosphodiesterase-III inhibitor milrinone improves ventricular contractility, relaxes pulmonary arteries and reduces right ventricular afterload. Thus, it is used to treat heart failure and pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, its action on pulmonary veins (PVs) is not defined, although particularly PH due to left heart disease primarily affects the pulmonary venous bed. We examined milrinone-induced relaxation in PVs from guinea pigs (GPs) and humans. Material and Methods Precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) were prepared from GPs or from patients undergoing lobectomy. Milrinone-induced relaxation was studied by videomicroscopy in naïve PVs and in PVs pre-constricted with the ETA-receptor agonist BP0104. Baseline luminal area was defined as 100%. Intracellular cAMP was measured by ELISA and milrinone-induced changes of segmental vascular resistances were studied in the GP isolated perfused lung (IPL). Results In the IPL (GP), milrinone (10 µM) lowered the postcapillary resistance of pre-constricted vessels. In PCLS (GP), milrinone relaxed naïve and pre-constricted PVs (120%) and this relaxation was attenuated by inhibition of protein kinase G (KT 5823), adenyl cyclase (SQ 22536) and protein kinase A (KT 5720), but not by inhibition of NO-synthesis (L-NAME). In addition, milrinone-induced relaxation was dependent on the activation of KATP-, BKCa 2+- and Kv-channels. Human PVs also relaxed to milrinone (121%), however only if pre-constricted. Discussion Milrinone relaxes PVs from GPs and humans. In GPs, milrinone-induced relaxation is based on KATP-, BKCa 2+- and Kv-channel-activation and on cAMP/PKA/PKG. The relaxant properties of milrinone on PVs lead to reduced postcapillary resistance and hydrostatic pressures. Hence they alleviate pulmonary edema and suggest beneficial effects of milrinone in PH due to left heart disease. PMID:24498166

  1. Milrinone relaxes pulmonary veins in guinea pigs and humans.

    PubMed

    Rieg, Annette D; Suleiman, Said; Perez-Bouza, Alberto; Braunschweig, Till; Spillner, Jan W; Schröder, Thomas; Verjans, Eva; Schälte, Gereon; Rossaint, Rolf; Uhlig, Stefan; Martin, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The phosphodiesterase-III inhibitor milrinone improves ventricular contractility, relaxes pulmonary arteries and reduces right ventricular afterload. Thus, it is used to treat heart failure and pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, its action on pulmonary veins (PVs) is not defined, although particularly PH due to left heart disease primarily affects the pulmonary venous bed. We examined milrinone-induced relaxation in PVs from guinea pigs (GPs) and humans. Precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) were prepared from GPs or from patients undergoing lobectomy. Milrinone-induced relaxation was studied by videomicroscopy in naïve PVs and in PVs pre-constricted with the ETA-receptor agonist BP0104. Baseline luminal area was defined as 100%. Intracellular cAMP was measured by ELISA and milrinone-induced changes of segmental vascular resistances were studied in the GP isolated perfused lung (IPL). In the IPL (GP), milrinone (10 µM) lowered the postcapillary resistance of pre-constricted vessels. In PCLS (GP), milrinone relaxed naïve and pre-constricted PVs (120%) and this relaxation was attenuated by inhibition of protein kinase G (KT 5823), adenyl cyclase (SQ 22536) and protein kinase A (KT 5720), but not by inhibition of NO-synthesis (L-NAME). In addition, milrinone-induced relaxation was dependent on the activation of K ATP-, BK Ca (2+)- and Kv-channels. Human PVs also relaxed to milrinone (121%), however only if pre-constricted. Milrinone relaxes PVs from GPs and humans. In GPs, milrinone-induced relaxation is based on K ATP-, BK Ca (2+)- and Kv-channel-activation and on cAMP/PKA/PKG. The relaxant properties of milrinone on PVs lead to reduced postcapillary resistance and hydrostatic pressures. Hence they alleviate pulmonary edema and suggest beneficial effects of milrinone in PH due to left heart disease.

  2. Magnolol inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α-induced ICAM-1 expression via suppressing NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chunlian, Wu; Heyong, Wang; Jia, Xu; Jie, Huang; Xi, Chen; Gentao, Liu

    2014-12-01

    Magnolol is a traditional Chinese medicine from the root and bark of Magnolia officinalis. It has long been used to treat anxiety, cough, headache and allergies, as well as a variety of inflammations. Lung inflammation is a key event in the pathogenesis of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The present study sought to examine the effects of magnolol on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), activation of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in cultured human pulmonary epithelial cells, and adhesion of human macrophage-like U937 cells to A549 cells. A549 cells were incubated with magnolol at 25 and 50 μmol/l. Then, 20 ng/ml TNF-α was used to activate the cells. Magnolol inhibited the growth of human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Magnolol suppressed the adhesion of U937 cells to TNF-α-induced A549 cells. In cultured human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells, magnolol decreased TNF-α-induced upregulation of ICAM-1. Magnolol repressed TNF-α-induced activation of NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in A549 cells by inhibiting phosphorylation of NF-κB, p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, and stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). These findings support the hypothesis that magnolol inhibits the inflammatory process in lung epithelial A549 cells by suppressing the ICAM-1 and NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. Taken together, these results indicate that magnolol offers significant potential as a therapeutic treatment for inflammatory diseases of the lungs including asthma, sepsis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  3. Anti-tumor activity and mechanism of apoptosis of A549 induced by ruthenium complex.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dongdong; Mou, Zhipeng; Li, Nuan; Zhang, Weiwei; Wang, Yazhe; Yang, Endong; Wang, Weiyun

    2016-12-01

    Two new ruthenium (II) polypyridyl complexes [Ru(MeIm) 4 (pip)] 2+ (1) and [Ru(MeIm) 4 (4-npip)] 2+ (2) were synthesized under the guidance of computational studies (DFT). Their binding property to human telomeric G-quadruplex studied by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, the fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) melting assay and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy for validating the theoretical prediction. Both of them were evaluated for their potential anti-proliferative activity against four human tumor cell lines. Complex 2 shows growth inhibition against all the cell lines tested, especially the human lung tumor cell (A549). The RTCA analysis not only validated the inhibition activity but also showed the ability of reducing A549 cells' migration. DNA-flow cytometric analysis, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and the scavenger measurements of reactive oxygen species (ROS) analysis carried out to investigate the mechanism of cell growth inhibition and apoptosis-inducing effect of complex 2. The results demonstrated that complex 2 induces tumor cells apoptosis by acting on both mitochondrial homeostasis destruction and death receptor signaling pathways. And those suggested that complex 2 could be a candidate for further evaluation as a chemotherapeutic agent against human tumor.

  4. Salvianolic acid A reverses cisplatin resistance in lung cancer A549 cells by targeting c-met and attenuating Akt/mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xia-Li; Yan, Li; Zhu, Ling; Jiao, De-Min; Chen, Jun; Chen, Qing-Yong

    2017-09-01

    Drug resistance is one of the leading causes of chemotherapy failure in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of c-met in human lung cancer cisplatin resistance cell line (A549/DDP) and the reversal mechanism of salvianolic acid A (SAA), a phenolic active compound extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza. In this study, we found that A549/DDP cells exert up-regulation of c-met by activating the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. We also show that SAA could increase the chemotherapeutic efficacy of cisplatin, suggesting a synergistic effect of SAA and cisplatin. Moreover, we revealed that SAA enhanced sensitivity to cisplatin in A549/DDP cells mainly through suppression of the c-met/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Knockdown of c-met revealed similar effects as that of SAA in A549/DDP cells. In addition, SAA effectively prevented multidrug resistance associated protein1 (MDR1) up-regulation in A549/DDP cells. Taken together, our results indicated that SAA suppressed c-met expression and enhanced the sensitivity of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells to cisplatin through AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The preparation of <100 particles per trial having the same mole fraction of 12 inorganic compounds at diameters of 6.8, 3.8, or 2.6 [mu]m followed by their deposition onto human lung cells (A549) with measurement of the relative downstream differential expression of ICAM-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eleghasim, Ndukauba M.; Haddrell, Allen E.; van Eeden, Stephen; Agnes, George R.

    2006-12-01

    The characterization of particulate matter suspended in the troposphere (PM10) based on size is an important basis for assessing the extent of their adverse effects on human health. The relevance of such assessments is anticipated to be significantly improved through the continued development of tools that can identify the chemical components within individual ambient particles, and the injury that they cause. We use recently reported methodology to create mimics of ambient particle types of known size and chemical composition that are levitated within an ac trap. The ac trap uses electric fields to levitate the particles that have a given mass and net elementary charge, and as such the ac trap is a mass-to-charge filter. The ac trap was used to levitate populations of particles where the size of particles in any given population could be altered. The levitated particles are delivered direct from the ac trap to human lung cells (A549), in vitro, with downstream measurement of differential expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and counting of the number of particles actually delivered to the culture using an optical microscope. In this study, the chemical composition of the ambient particle mimics was restricted to inorganic compounds whose relative abundance was purposely designed to mimic the average abundance in Environmental Health Center-93 (EHC-93) particles. The sizes of the multilelement particle types prepared were 6.8 +/- 0.5, 3.8 +/- 0.3, 2.6 +/- 0.2 (mean +/- S.D.). Particles of either elemental carbon, or elemental carbon containing glycerol were used as control particle types. In any given experiment, a known number of particles, but always <100, of a given size, were deposited onto a small region of an A549 cell culture. Following an 18-h incubation period and anti-body labeling of ICAM-1, the fluorescence emission from a 1.07 mm2 area of the cell culture centered at the site of particle deposition was acquired. The relative

  6. β-elemene reverses the drug resistance of lung cancer A549/DDP cells via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.

    PubMed

    Yao, Cheng-Cai; Tu, Yuan-Rong; Jiang, Jie; Ye, Sheng-Fang; Du, Hao-Xin; Zhang, Yi

    2014-05-01

    β-elemene (β-ELE) is a new anticancer drug extracted from Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe and has been widely used to treat malignant tumors. Recent studies have demonstrated that β-ELE reverses the drug resistance of tumor cells. To explore the possible mechanisms of action of β-ELE, we investigated its effects on cisplatin-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma A549/DDP cells. The effects of β-ELE on the growth of A549/DDP cells in vitro were determined by MTT assay. Apoptosis was assessed by fluorescence microscopy with Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry with Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential was assessed using JC-1 fluorescence probe and laser confocal scanning microscopy, and intracellular reactive oxygen species levels were measured by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate staining and flow cytometry. Cytosolic glutathione content was determined using GSH kits. The expression of cytochrome c, caspase-3, procaspase-3 and the Bcl-2 family proteins was assessed by western blotting. The results demonstrated that β-ELE inhibited the proliferation of A549/DDP cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, β-ELE enhanced the sensitivity of A549/DDP cells to cisplatin and reversed the drug resistance of A549/DDP cells. Consistent with a role in activating apoptosis, β-ELE decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased intracellular reactive oxygen species concentration and decreased the cytoplasmic glutathione levels in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The combination of β-ELE and cisplatin enhanced the protein expression of cytochrome c, caspase-3 and Bad, and reduced protein levels of Bcl-2 and procaspase-3 in the A549/DDP lung cancer cells. These results define a pathway of procaspase‑3-β-ELE function that involves decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, leading to apoptosis triggered by the release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm and the modulation of apoptosis-related genes. The reversal of drug

  7. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell) was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 μg/mL), demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 μg/mL), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 μg/mL). A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 μg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells.

  8. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell) was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 μg/mL), demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 μg/mL), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 μg/mL). A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 μg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells. PMID:26345201

  9. ITE inhibits growth of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pang, Ling-Pin; Li, Yan; Zou, Qing-Yun; Zhou, Chi; Lei, Wei; Zheng, Jing; Huang, Shi-An

    2017-10-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a deadly disorder is associated with excessive growth of human pulmonary artery endothelial (HPAECs) and smooth muscle (HPASMCs) cells. Current therapies primarily aim at promoting vasodilation, which only ameliorates clinical symptoms without a cure. 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE) is an endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand, and mediates many cellular function including cell growth. However, the roles of ITE in human lung endothelial cells remain elusive. Herein, we tested a hypothesis that ITE inhibits growth of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells via AhR. Immunohistochemistry was performed to localize AhR expression in human lung tissues. The crystal violet method and MTT assay were used to determine ITE's effects on growth of HPAECs. The AhR activation in HPAECs was confirmed using Western blotting and RT-qPCR. The role of AhR in ITE-affected proliferation of HPAECs was assessed using siRNA knockdown method followed by the crystal violet method. Immunohistochemistry revealed that AhR was present in human lung tissues, primarily in endothelial and smooth muscle cells of pulmonary veins and arteries, as well as in bronchial and alveolar sac epithelia. We also found that ITE dose- and time-dependently inhibited proliferation of HPAECs with a maximum inhibition of 83% at 20 µM after 6 days of treatment. ITE rapidly decreased AhR protein levels, while it increased mRNA levels of cytochrome P450 (CYP), family 1, member A1 (CYP1A1) and B1 (CYP1B1), indicating activation of the AhR/CYP1A1 and AhR/CYP1B1 pathways in HPAECs. The AhR siRNA significantly suppressed AhR protein expression, whereas it did not significantly alter ITE-inhibited growth of HPAECs. ITE suppresses growth of HPAECs independent of AhR, suggesting that ITE may play an important role in preventing excessive growth of lung endothelial cells.

  10. Osthole induces G2/M arrest and apoptosis in lung cancer A549 cells by modulating PI3K/Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To explore the effects of Osthole on the proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of human lung cancer A549 cells. Methods Human lung cancer A549 cells were treated with Osthole at different concentrations. Cell proliferation was measured using the MTT assay. Cell cycle was evaluated using DNA flow cytometry analysis. Induction of apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. The expressions of Cyclin B1, p-Cdc2, Bcl-2, Bax, t-Akt and p-Akt were evaluated by Western blotting. Results Osthole inhibited the growth of human lung cancer A549 cells by inducing G2/M arrest and apoptosis. Western blotting demonstrated that Osthole down-regulated the expressions of Cyclin B1, p-Cdc2 and Bcl-2 and up-regulated the expressions of Bax in A549 cells. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway was also observed after treating A549 cells with Osthole. Conclusions Our findings suggest that Osthole may have a therapeutic application in the treatment of human lung cancer. PMID:21447176

  11. High-Throughput Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Dengue Virus Type 2 Infected A549 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Han-Chen; Hannemann, Holger; Heesom, Kate J.; Matthews, David A.; Davidson, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    Disease caused by dengue virus is a global health concern with up to 390 million individuals infected annually worldwide. There are no vaccines or antiviral compounds available to either prevent or treat dengue disease which may be fatal. To increase our understanding of the interaction of dengue virus with the host cell, we analyzed changes in the proteome of human A549 cells in response to dengue virus type 2 infection using stable isotope labelling in cell culture (SILAC) in combination with high-throughput mass spectrometry (MS). Mock and infected A549 cells were fractionated into nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts before analysis to identify proteins that redistribute between cellular compartments during infection and reduce the complexity of the analysis. We identified and quantified 3098 and 2115 proteins in the cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions respectively. Proteins that showed a significant alteration in amount during infection were examined using gene enrichment, pathway and network analysis tools. The analyses revealed that dengue virus infection modulated the amounts of proteins involved in the interferon and unfolded protein responses, lipid metabolism and the cell cycle. The SILAC-MS results were validated for a select number of proteins over a time course of infection by Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. Our study demonstrates for the first time the power of SILAC-MS for identifying and quantifying novel changes in cellular protein amounts in response to dengue virus infection. PMID:24671231

  12. [Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated to human immunodeficiency virus].

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Gutiérrez, José Luis; Santos-Martínez, Luis Efren; Rodríguez-Silverio, Juan; Baranda-Tovar, Francisco Martín; Rivera-Rosales, Rosa María; Flores-Murrieta, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    From the advent of the highly effective antiretroviral treatment, the life expectancy of patients with human immunodeficiency virus has increased significantly. At present, the causes of death are non-infectious complications. Between them, the pulmonary arterial hypertension has a special importance. It is important early detection to establish the therapeutic, with the objective of preventing a fatal outcome to future. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. MG132 as a proteasome inhibitor induces cell growth inhibition and cell death in A549 lung cancer cells via influencing reactive oxygen species and GSH level.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong Hwan; Park, Woo Hyun

    2010-07-01

    Carbobenzoxy-Leu-Leu-leucinal (MG132) as a proteasome inhibitor has been shown to induce apoptotic cell death through formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we evaluated the effects of MG132 on the growth of A549 lung cancer cells in relation to cell growth, ROS and glutathione (GSH) levels. Treatment with MG132 inhibited the growth of A549 cells with an IC(50) of approximately 20 microM at 24 hours. DNA flow cytometric analysis indicated that 0.5 approximately 30 microM MG132 induced a G1 phase arrest of the cell cycle in A549 cells. Treatment with 10 or 30 microM MG132 also induced apoptosis, as evidenced by sub-G1 cells and annexin V staining cells. This was accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP; Delta psi m). The intracellular ROS levels including O(2) (*-) were strongly increased in 10 or 30 microM MG132-treated A549 cells but were down-regulated in 0.1, 0.5 or 1 microM MG132-treated cells. Furthermore, 10 or 30 microM MG132 increased mitochondrial O(2) (*- ) level but 0.1, 0.5 or 1 microM MG132 decreased that. In addition, 10 or 30 microM MG132 induced GSH depletion in A549 cells. In conclusion, MG132 inhibited the growth of human A549 cells via inducing the cell cycle arrest as well as triggering apoptosis, which was in part correlated with the changes of ROS and GSH levels. Our present data provide important information on the anti-growth mechanisms of MG132 in A549 lung cancer cells in relation to ROS and GSH.

  14. A novel polysaccharide from Sargassum integerrimum induces apoptosis in A549 cells and prevents angiogensis in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ge; Kuang, Shan; Wu, Shimei; Jin, Weihua; Sun, Chaomin

    2016-05-24

    Many polysaccharides isolated from plants have exhibited promising antitumor activities. The aim of this study is to investigate the antitumor activity of the novel polysaccharide named SPS from Sargassum integerrimum, elucidate the underlying anticancer mechanism in a human lung cancer cell line A549, and evaluate its anti-angiogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo. The results show that SPS significantly reduces A549 cells viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner via MTT method. Flow cytometry analysis indicates that SPS could induce cell apoptosis, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest of A549 cells. Up-regulation of the expressions of P53 and Bax, down-regulation of the expression of Bcl-2, and activation of cleaved caspase-3, caspase-9 and PARP are also detected by western blotting after the treatment of SPS. In addition, SPS inhibits the proliferation, migration and cord formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro, and prevents the vascular development of zebrafish embryos in vivo. Altogether, our data prove the anticancer and anti-angiogenesis properties of SPS, and provide further insights into the potential pharmacological application of SPS as antitumor and anti-angiogenic agent against lung cancer.

  15. Phytol shows anti-angiogenic activity and induces apoptosis in A549 cells by depolarizing the mitochondrial membrane potential.

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, Ravi; Malar, Dicson Sheeja; Devi, Kasi Pandima

    2018-06-13

    In the present study, the antiproliferative activity of phytol and its mechanism of action against human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 were studied in detail. Results showed that phytol exhibited potent antiproliferative activity against A549 cells in a dose and time-dependent manner with an IC 50 value of 70.81 ± 0.32 μM and 60.7 ± 0.47 μM at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Phytol showed no adverse toxic effect in normal human lung cells (L-132), but mild toxic effect was observed when treated with maximum dose (67 and 84 μM). No membrane-damaging effect was evidenced by PI staining and SEM analysis. The results of mitochondrial membrane potential analysis, cell cycle analysis, FT-IR and Western blotting analysis clearly demonstrated the molecular mechanism of phytol as induction of apoptosis in A549 cells, as evidenced by formation of shrinked cell morphology with membrane blebbing, depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential, increased cell population in the sub-G0 phase, band variation in the DNA and lipid region, downregulation of Bcl-2, upregulation of Bax and the activation of caspase-9 and -3. In addition, phytol inhibited the CAM vascular growth as evidenced by CAM assay, which positively suggests that phytol has anti-angiogenic potential. Taken together, these findings clearly demonstrate the mode of action by which phytol induces cell death in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel synthetic chalcones induce apoptosis in the A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells harboring a KRAS mutation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiqiang; Hedblom, Andreas; Koerner, Steffi K; Li, Mailin; Jernigan, Finith E; Wegiel, Barbara; Sun, Lijun

    2016-12-01

    A series of novel chalcones were synthesized by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation reaction of tetralones and 5-/6-indolecarboxaldehydes. Treatment of human lung cancer cell line harboring KRAS mutation (A549) with the chalcones induced dose-dependent apoptosis. Cell cycle analyses and Western blotting suggested the critical role of the chalcones in interrupting G2/M transition of cell cycle. SAR study demonstrated that substituent on the indole N atom significantly affects the anticancer activity of the chalcones, with methyl and ethyl providing the more active compounds (EC 50 : 110-200nM), Compound 1g was found to be >4-fold more active in the A549 cells (EC 50 : 110nM) than in prostate (PC3) or pancreatic cancer (CLR2119, PAN02) cells. Furthermore, compound 1l selectively induced apoptosis of lung cancer cells A549 (EC 50 : 0.55μM) but did not show measurable toxicity in the normal lung bronchial epithelial cells (hBEC) at doses as high as 10μM, indicating specificity towards cancer cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Applying cybernetic technology to diagnose human pulmonary sounds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Yung; Chou, Cheng-Han

    2014-06-01

    Chest auscultation is a crucial and efficient method for diagnosing lung disease; however, it is a subjective process that relies on physician experience and the ability to differentiate between various sound patterns. Because the physiological signals composed of heart sounds and pulmonary sounds (PSs) are greater than 120 Hz and the human ear is not sensitive to low frequencies, successfully making diagnostic classifications is difficult. To solve this problem, we constructed various PS recognition systems for classifying six PS classes: vesicular breath sounds, bronchial breath sounds, tracheal breath sounds, crackles, wheezes, and stridor sounds. First, we used a piezoelectric microphone and data acquisition card to acquire PS signals and perform signal preprocessing. A wavelet transform was used for feature extraction, and the PS signals were decomposed into frequency subbands. Using a statistical method, we extracted 17 features that were used as the input vectors of a neural network. We proposed a 2-stage classifier combined with a back-propagation (BP) neural network and learning vector quantization (LVQ) neural network, which improves classification accuracy by using a haploid neural network. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve verifies the high performance level of the neural network. To expand traditional auscultation methods, we constructed various PS diagnostic systems that can correctly classify the six common PSs. The proposed device overcomes the lack of human sensitivity to low-frequency sounds and various PS waves, characteristic values, and a spectral analysis charts are provided to elucidate the design of the human-machine interface.

  18. Endothelin-1 increases expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and production of interlukin-8 in hunan pulmonary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hong; Chen, Ping; Cai, Ying; Chen, Yan; Wu, Qing-Hua; Li, Yun; Zhou, Rui; Fang, Xiang

    2008-03-01

    Inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and inflammatory cytokines play important roles in inflammatory processes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Endothelin-1 (ET-1) might be also involved in the pathophysilogical processes in COPD. In the present study, we determined whether ET-1 could regulate the expression of COX-2 and alter the production of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549). Induced sputum samples were collected from 13 stable COPD patients and 14 healthy subjects. The COX-2 protein, ET-1, PGE(2) and IL-8 in these sputum samples were analyzed. A549 cells were incubated with ET-1 in the presence or absence of celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor. The expression of COX-2 protein in the cell and the amounts of PGE(2) and IL-8 in the medium were measured. The levels of COX-2 protein, ET-1, PGE(2) and IL-8 were significantly increased in induced sputum from COPD patients when compared to healthy subjects. ET-1 increased the expression of COX-2 protein, as well as the production of PGE(2) in A549 cells. Increased production of PGE(2) was inhibited by celecoxib. ET-1 also increased the production of IL-8. Interestingly, ET-1-induced production of IL-8 was also inhibited by celecoxib. These findings indicate that ET-1 plays important roles in regulating COX-2 expression and production of IL-8 in A549 cells. ET-1 mediated production of IL-8 is likely through a COX-2-dependent mechanism.

  19. Human Pulmonary Infection by the Zoonotic Metastrongylus salmi Nematode. The First Reported Case in the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Calvopina, Manuel; Caballero, Henry; Morita, Tatsushi; Korenaga, Masataka

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary metastrongylosis, a zoonotic disease found primarily in pigs, is caused by eight different species of the cosmopolitan nematode Metastrongylus genus. To date, only four human cases have been reported, all from Europe. Herein, a severe case of pulmonary infection caused by Metastrongylus salmi in an Ecuadorian man, with successful treatment with ivermectin, is described. PMID:27382078

  20. Human Pulmonary Infection by the Zoonotic Metastrongylus salmi Nematode. The First Reported Case in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Calvopina, Manuel; Caballero, Henry; Morita, Tatsushi; Korenaga, Masataka

    2016-10-05

    Pulmonary metastrongylosis, a zoonotic disease found primarily in pigs, is caused by eight different species of the cosmopolitan nematode Metastrongylus genus. To date, only four human cases have been reported, all from Europe. Herein, a severe case of pulmonary infection caused by Metastrongylus salmi in an Ecuadorian man, with successful treatment with ivermectin, is described. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  1. Mechanisms of crystalline silica-induced pulmonary toxicity revealed by global gene expression profiling

    PubMed Central

    Sellamuthu, Rajendran; Umbright, Christina; Li, Shengqiao; Kashon, Michael; Joseph, Pius

    2015-01-01

    A proper understanding of the mechanisms underlying crystalline silica-induced pulmonary toxicity has implications in the management and potential prevention of the adverse health effects associated with silica exposure including silicosis, cancer and several auto-immune diseases. Human lung type II epithelial cells and rat lungs exposed to crystalline silica were employed as experimental models to determine global gene expression changes in order to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying silica-induced pulmonary toxicity. The differential gene expression profile induced by silica correlated with its toxicity in the A549 cells. The biological processes perturbed by silica exposure in the A549 cells and rat lungs, as identified by the bioinformatics analysis of the differentially expressed genes, demonstrated significant similarity. Functional categorization of the differentially expressed genes identified cancer, cellular movement, cellular growth and proliferation, cell death, inflammatory response, cell cycle, cellular development, and genetic disorder as top ranking biological functions perturbed by silica exposure in A549 cells and rat lungs. Results of our study, in addition to confirming several previously identified molecular targets and mechanisms involved in silica toxicity, identified novel molecular targets and mechanisms potentially involved in silica-induced pulmonary toxicity. Further investigations, including those focused on the novel molecular targets and mechanisms identified in the current study may result in better management and, possibly, reduction and/or prevention of the potential adverse health effects associated with crystalline silica exposure. PMID:22087542

  2. [Construction of BAD Lentivirus Vector and Its Effect on Proliferation in A549 Cell Lines].

    PubMed

    Huang, Na; He, Yan-qi; Zhu, Jing; Li, Wei-min

    2015-05-01

    To construct the recombinant lentivirus expressing vector BAD (Bcl-2-associated death protein) gene and to study its effect on A549 cell proliferation. The BAD gene was amplified from plasmid pAV-MCMV-BAD-GFP by PCR. The purified BAD gene fragment was inserted into a lentivirus vector (pLVX-IRES-ZsGreen 1), and the insertion was identified by PCR, restriction endonuclease analysis and DNA sequencing. A549 cells were then transfected with the packaged recombinant lentivirus, and resistant cell clones were selected with flow cytometry. The expression of BAD in A549 cell lines stably transduction with a lentivirus was examined using Western blot. The effect of BAD overexpression on proliferation of A549 cells was evaluated by using CCK-8 kit. Restriction enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing showed that the full-length BAD gene (507 bp) had been successfully subcloned into the lentiviral vector to result in the recombinant vector pLVX-IRES-ZsGreen 1. Monoclonal cell lines BAD-A549 was produced after transfection with the recombinant lentivirus and selected with flow cytometry. Stable expression of BAD protein was verified by Western blot. In vitro, the OD value in BAD group was significantly lower than that of control groups from 120-144 h (P<0. 05). A549 cell lines stably transduced with a lentivirus expressing the BAD gene had been successfully generated. In vitro, BAD overexpression significantly inhibited A549 cells proliferation.

  3. A continuum model for pressure-flow relationship in human pulmonary circulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Zhou, Qinlian; Gao, Jian; Yen, R T

    2011-06-01

    A continuum model was introduced to analyze the pressure-flow relationship for steady flow in human pulmonary circulation. The continuum approach was based on the principles of continuum mechanics in conjunction with detailed measurement of vascular geometry, vascular elasticity and blood rheology. The pulmonary arteries and veins were considered as elastic tubes and the "fifth-power law" was used to describe the pressure-flow relationship. For pulmonary capillaries, the "sheet-flow" theory was employed and the pressure-flow relationship was represented by the "fourth-power law". In this paper, the pressure-flow relationship for the whole pulmonary circulation and the longitudinal pressure distribution along the streamlines were studied. Our computed data showed general agreement with the experimental data for the normal subjects and the patients with mitral stenosis and chronic bronchitis in the literature. In conclusion, our continuum model can be used to predict the changes of steady flow in human pulmonary circulation.

  4. Zero-stress states of human pulmonary arteries and veins.

    PubMed

    Huang, W; Yen, R T

    1998-09-01

    The zero-stress states of the pulmonary arteries and veins from order 3 to order 9 were determined in six normal human lungs within 15 h postmortem. The zero-stress state of each vessel was obtained by cutting the vessel transversely into a series of short rings, then cutting each ring radially, which caused the ring to spring open into a sector. Each sector was characterized by its opening angle. The mean opening angle varied between 92 and 163 degrees in the arterial tree and between 89 and 128 degrees in the venous tree. There was a tendency for opening angles to increase as the sizes of the arteries and veins increased. We computed the residual strains based on the experimental measurements and estimated the residual stresses according to Hooke's law. We found that the inner wall of a vessel at the state in which the internal pressure, external pressure, and longitudinal stress are all zero was under compression and the outer wall was in tension, and that the magnitude of compressive stress was greater than the magnitude of tensile stress.

  5. Copper doping enhanced the oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, J; Siddiqui, M A; Akhtar, M J; Alhadlaq, H A; Alshamsan, A; Khan, S T; Wahab, R; Al-Khedhairy, A A; Al-Salim, A; Musarrat, J; Saquib, Q; Fareed, M; Ahamed, M

    2018-05-01

    Physicochemical properties of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs) can be tuned by doping with metals or nonmetals. Copper (Cu) doping improved the photocatalytic behavior of TiO 2 NPs that can be applied in various fields such as environmental remediation and nanomedicine. However, interaction of Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs with human cells is scarce. This study was designed to explore the role of Cu doping in cytotoxic response of TiO 2 NPs in human lung epithelial (A549) cells. Characterization data demonstrated the presence of both TiO 2 and Cu in Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs with high-quality lattice fringes without any distortion. The size of Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs (24 nm) was lower than pure TiO 2 NPs (30 nm). Biological results showed that both pure and Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. Low mitochondrial membrane potential and higher caspase-3 enzyme (apoptotic markers) activity were also observed in A549 cells exposed to pure and Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs. We further observed that cytotoxicity caused by Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs was higher than pure TiO 2 NPs. Moreover, antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine effectively prevented the reactive oxygen species generation, glutathione depletion, and cell viability reduction caused by Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs. This is the first report showing that Cu-doped TiO 2 NPs induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in A549 cells. This study warranted further research to explore the role of Cu doping in toxicity mechanisms of TiO 2 NPs.

  6. PD-1/PD-L1 Pathway Mediates the Alleviation of Pulmonary Fibrosis by Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Humanized Mice.

    PubMed

    Ni, Ke; Liu, Ming; Zheng, Jian; Wen, Liyan; Chen, Qingyun; Xiang, Zheng; Lam, Kowk-Tai; Liu, Yinping; Chan, Godfrey Chi-Fung; Lau, Yu-Lung; Tu, Wenwei

    2018-06-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic progressive lung disease with few treatments. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to be beneficial in pulmonary fibrosis because they have immunomodulatory capacity. However, there is no reliable model to test the therapeutic effect of human MSCs in vivo. To mimic pulmonary fibrosis in humans, we established a novel bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis model in humanized mice. With this model, the benefit of human MSCs in pulmonary fibrosis and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. In addition, the relevant parameters in patients with pulmonary fibrosis were examined. We demonstrate that human CD8 + T cells were critical for the induction of pulmonary fibrosis in humanized mice. Human MSCs could alleviate pulmonary fibrosis and improve lung function by suppressing bleomycin-induced human T-cell infiltration and proinflammatory cytokine production in the lungs of humanized mice. Importantly, alleviation of pulmonary fibrosis by human MSCs was mediated by the PD-1/programmed death-ligand 1 pathway. Moreover, abnormal PD-1 expression was found in circulating T cells and lung tissues of patients with pulmonary fibrosis. Our study supports the potential benefit of targeting the PD-1/programmed death-ligand 1 pathway in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis.

  7. TRIM25 is associated with cisplatin resistance in non-small-cell lung carcinoma A549 cell line via downregulation of 14-3-3σ.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xia; Qiu, Feng; Zou, Zhen

    2017-11-04

    Lung cancer, in particular, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin, CDDP) as first-line chemotherapy for NSCLC, but resistance occurs frequently. We previously reported that Tripartite motif protein 25 (TRIM25) was highly expressed in cisplatin-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells (A549/CDDP) in comparison with its parental A549 cells. Herein, we take a further step to demonstrate the association of TRIM25 and cisplatin resistance and also the underlying mechanisms. Knockdown of TRIM25 by RNA interference in A549/CDDP cells decreased half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) values and promoted apoptosis in response to cisplatin, whereas overexpression of TRIM25 had opposite effects. More importantly, we found that concomitant knockdown of 14-3-3σ and TRIM25 absolutely reversed the decreased MDM2, increased p53, increased cleaved-Capsese3 and decreased IC 50 value induced by knockdown of TRIM25 individually, suggesting that TRIM25 mediated cisplatin resistance primarily through downregulation of 14-3-3σ. Our results indicate that TRIM25 is associated with cisplatin resistance and 14-3-3σ-MDM2-p53 signaling pathway is involved in this process, suggesting targeting TRIM25 may be a potential strategy for the reversal of cisplatin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Phloretin induces apoptosis of non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cells via JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Min, Jie; Huang, Kenan; Tang, Hua; Ding, Xinyu; Qi, Chen; Qin, Xiong; Xu, Zhifei

    2015-12-01

    Phloretin (Ph) existing in apples, pears and various vegetables is known to have antitumor activities in several cancer cell lines. However, little is known about its effect on human lung cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to see whether Ph could induce apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, and explore the possible underlying mechanism of action. We found that Ph markedly induced cell apoptosis of NSCLC cell line A549, and inhibited the migration of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The expression level of BAX, cleaved caspase-3 and -9, and degraded form of PARP was increased and Bcl-2 was decreased after Ph treatment. In addition, the phosphorylation of P38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 was increased in a dose‑dependent manner in parallel with Ph treatment. Inhibition of P38 MAPK and JNK1/2 by specific inhibitors significantly abolished the Ph-induced activation of the caspase-3 and -9. In vivo tumor-suppression assay further indicated that Ph (20 mg/kg) displayed a more significant inhibitory effect on A549 xenografts in tumor growth. All these findings indicate that Ph is able to inhibit NSCLC A549 cell growth by inducing apoptosis through P38 MAPK and JNK1/2 pathways, and therefore may prove to be an adjuvant to the treatment of NSCLC.

  9. Phloretin induces apoptosis of non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cells via JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways

    PubMed Central

    MIN, JIE; LI, XU; HUANG, KENAN; TANG, HUA; DING, XINYU; QI, CHEN; QIN, XIONG; XU, ZHIFEI

    2015-01-01

    Phloretin (Ph) existing in apples, pears and various vegetables is known to have antitumor activities in several cancer cell lines. However, little is known about its effect on human lung cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to see whether Ph could induce apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, and explore the possible underlying mechanism of action. We found that Ph markedly induced cell apoptosis of NSCLC cell line A549, and inhibited the migration of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The expression level of BAX, cleaved caspase-3 and -9, and degraded form of PARP was increased and Bcl-2 was decreased after Ph treatment. In addition, the phosphorylation of P38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 was increased in a dose-dependent manner in parallel with Ph treatment. Inhibition of P38 MAPK and JNK1/2 by specific inhibitors significantly abolished the Ph-induced activation of the caspase-3 and -9. In vivo tumor-suppression assay further indicated that Ph (20 mg/kg) displayed a more significant inhibitory effect on A549 xenografts in tumor growth. All these findings indicate that Ph is able to inhibit NSCLC A549 cell growth by inducing apoptosis through P38 MAPK and JNK1/2 pathways, and therefore may prove to be an adjuvant to the treatment of NSCLC. PMID:26503828

  10. Functional characterization of the organic cation transporters (OCTs) in human airway pulmonary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ingoglia, Filippo; Visigalli, Rossana; Rotoli, Bianca Maria; Barilli, Amelia; Riccardi, Benedetta; Puccini, Paola; Dall'Asta, Valeria

    2015-07-01

    Organic cation transporters (OCT1-3) mediate the transport of organic cations including inhaled drugs across the cell membrane, although their role in lung epithelium hasn't been well understood yet. We address here the expression and functional activity of OCT1-3 in human airway epithelial cells A549, Calu-3 and NCl-H441. Kinetic and inhibition analyses, employing [(3)H]1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) as substrate, and the compounds quinidine, prostaglandine E2 (PGE2) and corticosterone as preferential inhibitors of OCT1, OCT2, and OCT3, respectively, have been performed. A549 cells present a robust MPP+ uptake mediated by one high-affinity component (Km~50μM) which is identifiable with OCT3. Corticosterone, indeed, completely inhibits MPP+ transport, while quinidine and PGE2 are inactive and SLC22A3/OCT3 silencing with siRNA markedly lowers MPP+ uptake. Conversely, Calu-3 exhibits both a high (Km<20μM) and a low affinity (Km>0.6mM) transport components, referable to OCT3 and OCT1, respectively, as demonstrated by the inhibition analysis performed at proper substrate concentrations and confirmed by the use of specific siRNA. These transporters are active also when cells are grown under air-liquid interface (ALI) conditions. Only a very modest saturable MPP+ uptake is measurable in NCl-H441 cells and the inhibitory effect of quinidine points to OCT1 as the subtype functionally involved in this model. Finally, the characterization of MPP+ transport in human bronchial BEAS-2B cells suggests that OCT1 and OCT3 are operative. These findings could help to identify in vitro models to be employed for studies concerning the specific involvement of each transporter in drug transportation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Induction of apoptosis in non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cells by PGD₂ metabolite, 15d-PGJ₂.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Jie; Mak, Oi-Tong

    2011-11-01

    PGD2 (prostaglandin D2) is a mediator in various pathophysiological processes, including inflammation and tumorigenesis. PGD2 can be converted into active metabolites and is known to activate two distinct receptors, DP (PGD2 receptor) and CRTH2/DP2 (chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells). In the past, PGD2 was thought to be involved principally in the process of inflammation. However, in recent years, several studies have shown that PGD2 has anti-proliferative ability against tumorigenesis and can induce cellular apoptosis via activation of the caspase-dependent pathway in human colorectal cancer cells, leukaemia cells and eosinophils. In the lung, where PGD2 is highly released when sensitized mast cells are challenged with allergen, the mechanism of PGD2-induced apoptosis is unclear. In the present study, A549 cells, a type of NSCLC (non-small cell lung carcinoma), were treated with PGD2 under various conditions, including while blocking DP and CRTH2/DP2 with the selective antagonists BWA868C and ramatroban respectively. We report here that PGD2 induces A549 cell death through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, although the process does not appear to involve either DP or CRTH2/DP2. Similar results were also found with H2199 cells, another type of NSCLC. We found that PGD2 metabolites induce apoptosis effectively and that 15d-PGJ2 (15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2) is a likely candidate for the principal apoptotic inducer in PGD2-induced apoptosis in NSCLC A549 cells.

  12. Cytochrome c oxidase is activated by the oncoprotein Ras and is required for A549 lung adenocarcinoma growth

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Constitutive activation of Ras in immortalized bronchial epithelial cells increases electron transport chain activity, oxygen consumption and tricarboxylic acid cycling through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that members of the Ras family may stimulate respiration by enhancing the expression of the Vb regulatory subunit of cytochrome c oxidase (COX). Results We found that the introduction of activated H-RasV12 into immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells increased eIF4E-dependent COX Vb protein expression simultaneously with an increase in COX activity and oxygen consumption. In support of the regulation of COX Vb expression by the Ras family, we also found that selective siRNA-mediated inhibition of K-Ras expression in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells reduced COX Vb protein expression, COX activity, oxygen consumption and the steady-state concentration of ATP. We postulated that COX Vb-mediated activation of COX activity may be required for the anchorage-independent growth of A549 cells as soft agar colonies or as lung xenografts. We transfected the A549 cells with COX Vb small interfering or shRNA and observed a significant reduction of their COX activity, oxygen consumption, ATP and ability to grow in soft agar and as poorly differentiated tumors in athymic mice. Conclusion Taken together, our findings indicate that the activation of Ras increases COX activity and mitochondrial respiration in part via up-regulation of COX Vb and that this regulatory subunit of COX may have utility as a Ras effector target for the development of anti-neoplastic agents. PMID:22917272

  13. Combined treatment with apatinib and docetaxel in A549 xenograft mice and its cellular pharmacokinetic basis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Si-Qi; Wang, Guang-Ji; Zhang, Jing-Wei; Xie, Yuan; Sun, Run-Bin; Fei, Fei; Huang, Jing-Qiu; Wang, Ying; Aa, Ji-Ye; Zhou, Fang

    2018-05-17

    Apatinib, a small-molecule inhibitor of VEGFR-2, has attracted much attention due to its encouraging anticancer activity in third-line clinical treatment for many malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Its usage in second-line therapy with chemotherapeutic drugs is still under exploration. In this study we investigated the antitumor effect of apatinib combined with docetaxel against NSCLC and its cellular pharmacokinetic basis. A549 xenograft nude mice were treated with apatinib (100 mg/kg every day for 20 days) combined with docetaxel (8 mg/kg, ip, every four days for 5 times). Apatinib significantly enhanced the antitumor effect of docetaxel and alleviated docetaxel-induced liver damage as well as decreased serum transaminases (ALT and AST). LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that apatinib treatment significantly increased the docetaxel concentration in tumors (up to 1.77 times) without enhancing the docetaxel concentration in the serum, heart, liver, lung and kidney. Furthermore, apatinib decreased docetaxel-induced upregulation of P-glycoprotein in tumors. The effects of apatinib on the uptake, efflux and subcellular distribution of docetaxel were investigated in A549 and A549/DTX (docetaxel-resistant) cells in vitro. A cellular pharmacokinetic study revealed that apatinib significantly increased cellular/subcellular accumulation (especially in the cytosol) and decreased the efflux of docetaxel in A549/DTX cells through P-gp, while apatinib exerted no significant effect on the cellular pharmacokinetics of docetaxel in A549 cells. Consequently, the IC 50 value of docetaxel in A549/DTX cells was more significantly decreased by apatinib than that in A549 cells. These results demonstrate that apatinib has potential for application in second-line therapy combined with docetaxel for NSCLC patients, especially for docetaxel-resistant or multidrug-resistant patients.

  14. The influence of incubation time on adenovirus quantitation in A549 cells by most probable number.

    PubMed

    Cashdollar, Jennifer L; Huff, Emma; Ryu, Hodon; Grimm, Ann C

    2016-11-01

    Cell culture based assays used to detect waterborne viruses typically call for incubating the sample for at least two weeks in order to ensure that all the culturable virus present is detected. Historically, this estimate was based, at least in part, on the length of time used for detecting poliovirus. In this study, we have examined A549 cells infected with human adenovirus type 2, and have found that a three week incubation of virus infected cells results in a higher number of detected viruses by quantal assay than what is seen after two weeks of incubation, with an average 955% increase in Most Probable Number (MPN) from 2 weeks to 3 weeks. This increase suggests that the extended incubation time is essential for accurately estimating viral titer, particularly for slow-growing viruses, UV treated samples, or samples with low titers of virus. In addition, we found that for some UV-treated samples, there was no detectable MPN at 2 weeks, but after 3 weeks, MPN values were obtained. For UV-treated samples, the average increase in MPN from 2 weeks to 3 weeks was 1401%, while untreated samples averaged a change in MPN of 674%, leading us to believe that the UV-damaged viral DNA may be able to be repaired such that viral replication then occurs. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Role of Hypoxia-Induced Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Human Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, William; Helan, Martin; Smelter, Dan; Sathish, Venkatachalem; Thompson, Michael; Pabelick, Christina M.; Johnson, Bruce; Prakash, Y. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypoxia effects on pulmonary artery structure and function are key to diseases such as pulmonary hypertension. Recent studies suggest that growth factors called neurotrophins, particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), can influence lung structure and function, and their role in the pulmonary artery warrants further investigation. In this study, we examined the effect of hypoxia on BDNF in humans, and the influence of hypoxia-enhanced BDNF expression and signaling in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Methods and Results 48h of 1% hypoxia enhanced BDNF and TrkB expression, as well as release of BDNF. In arteries of patients with pulmonary hypertension, BDNF expression and release was higher at baseline. In isolated PASMCs, hypoxia-induced BDNF increased intracellular Ca2+ responses to serotonin: an effect altered by HIF1α inhibition or by neutralization of extracellular BDNF via chimeric TrkB-Fc. Enhanced BDNF/TrkB signaling increased PASMC survival and proliferation, and decreased apoptosis following hypoxia. Conclusions Enhanced expression and signaling of the BDNF-TrkB system in PASMCs is a potential mechanism by which hypoxia can promote changes in pulmonary artery structure and function. Accordingly, the BDNF-TrkB system could be a key player in the pathogenesis of hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular diseases, and thus a potential target for therapy. PMID:26192455

  16. Stochastic simulation of human pulmonary blood flow and transit time frequency distribution based on anatomic and elasticity data.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Shi, Jun; Yen, R T

    2012-12-01

    The objective of our study was to develop a computing program for computing the transit time frequency distributions of red blood cell in human pulmonary circulation, based on our anatomic and elasticity data of blood vessels in human lung. A stochastic simulation model was introduced to simulate blood flow in human pulmonary circulation. In the stochastic simulation model, the connectivity data of pulmonary blood vessels in human lung was converted into a probability matrix. Based on this model, the transit time of red blood cell in human pulmonary circulation and the output blood pressure were studied. Additionally, the stochastic simulation model can be used to predict the changes of blood flow in human pulmonary circulation with the advantage of the lower computing cost and the higher flexibility. In conclusion, a stochastic simulation approach was introduced to simulate the blood flow in the hierarchical structure of a pulmonary circulation system, and to calculate the transit time distributions and the blood pressure outputs.

  17. Hybrid Lipid/Polymer Nanoparticles for Pulmonary Delivery of siRNA: Development and Fate Upon In Vitro Deposition on the Human Epithelial Airway Barrier.

    PubMed

    d'Angelo, Ivana; Costabile, Gabriella; Durantie, Estelle; Brocca, Paola; Rondelli, Valeria; Russo, Annapina; Russo, Giulia; Miro, Agnese; Quaglia, Fabiana; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Ungaro, Francesca

    2017-10-16

    Nowadays, the downregulation of genes involved in the pathogenesis of severe lung diseases through local siRNA delivery appears an interesting therapeutic approach. In this study, we propose novel hybrid lipid-polymer nanoparticles (hNPs) consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) and dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) as siRNA inhalation system. A panel of DPPC/PLGA hNPs was prepared by emulsion/solvent diffusion and fully characterized. A combination of model siRNAs against the sodium transepithelial channel (ENaC) was entrapped in optimized hNPs comprising or not poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) as third component. siRNA-loaded hNPs were characterized for encapsulation efficiency, release kinetics, aerodynamic properties, and stability in artificial mucus (AM). The fate and cytotoxicity of hNPs upon aerosolization on a triple cell co-culture model (TCCC) mimicking human epithelial airway barrier were assessed. Finally, the effect of siRNA-loaded hNPs on ENaC protein expression at 72 hours was evaluated in A549 cells. Optimized muco-inert hNPs encapsulating model siRNA with high efficiency were produced. The developed hNPs displayed a hydrodynamic diameter of ∼150 nm, a low polydispersity index, a negative ζ potential close to -25 mV, and a peculiar triphasic siRNA release lasting for 5 days, which slowed down in the presence of PEI. siRNA formulations showed optimal in vitro aerosol performance after delivery with a vibrating mesh nebulizer. Furthermore, small-angle X-ray scattering analyses highlighted an excellent stability upon incubation with AM, confirming the potential of hNPs for direct aerosolization on mucus-lined airways. Studies in TCCC confirmed that fluorescent hNPs are internalized inside airway epithelial cells and do not exert any cytotoxic or acute proinflammatory effect. Finally, a prolonged inhibition of ENaC protein expression was observed in A549 cells upon treatment with siRNA-loaded hNPs. Results demonstrate the great potential

  18. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa exopolysaccharide Psl facilitates surface adherence and NF-kappaB activation in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Matthew S; Pang, Bing; Mishra, Meenu; Swords, W Edward; Wozniak, Daniel J

    2010-06-29

    In order for the opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa to cause an airway infection, the pathogen interacts with epithelial cells and the overlying mucous layer. We examined the contribution of the biofilm polysaccharide Psl to epithelial cell adherence and the impact of Psl on proinflammatory signaling by flagellin. Psl has been implicated in the initial attachment of P. aeruginosa to biotic and abiotic surfaces, but its direct role in pathogenesis has not been evaluated (L. Ma, K. D. Jackson, R. M. Landry, M. R. Parsek, and D. J. Wozniak, J. Bacteriol. 188:8213-8221, 2006). Using an NF-kappaB luciferase reporter system in the human epithelial cell line A549, we show that both Psl and flagellin are necessary for full activation of NF-kappaB and production of the interleukin 8 (IL-8) chemokine. We demonstrate that Psl does not directly stimulate NF-kappaB activity, but indirectly as a result of increasing contact between bacterial cells and epithelial cells, it facilitates flagellin-mediated proinflammatory signaling. We confirm differential adherence of Psl and/or flagellin mutants by scanning electron microscopy and identify Psl-dependent membrane structures that may participate in adherence. Although we hypothesized that Psl would protect P. aeruginosa from recognition by the epithelial cell line A549, we instead observed a positive role for Psl in flagellin-mediated NF-kappaB activation, likely as a result of increasing contact between bacterial cells and epithelial cells.

  19. Ionizing Radiation Potentiates Dihydroartemisinin-Induced Apoptosis of A549 Cells via a Caspase-8-Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tongsheng; Chen, Min; Chen, Jingqin

    2013-01-01

    This report is designed to explore the molecular mechanism by which dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and ionizing radiation (IR) induce apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. DHA treatment induced a concentration- and time-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated cell death with typical apoptotic characteristics such as breakdown of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), caspases activation, DNA fragmentation and phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization. Inhibition of caspase-8 or -9 significantly blocked DHA-induced decrease of cell viability and activation of caspase-3, suggesting the dominant roles of caspase-8 and -9 in DHA-induced apoptosis. Silencing of proapoptotic protein Bax but not Bak significantly inhibited DHA-induced apoptosis in which Bax but not Bak was activated. In contrast to DHA treatment, low-dose (2 or 4 Gy) IR induced a long-playing generation of ROS. Interestingly, IR treatment for 24 h induced G2/M cell cycle arrest that disappeared at 36 h after treatment. More importantly, IR synergistically potentiated DHA-induced generation of ROS, activation of caspase-8 and -3, irreparable G2/M arrest and apoptosis, but did not enhance DHA-induced loss of Δψm and activation of caspase-9. Taken together, our results strongly demonstrate the remarkable synergistic efficacy of combination treatment with DHA and low-dose IR for A549 cells in which IR potentiates DHA-induced apoptosis largely by enhancing the caspase-8-mediated extrinsic pathway. PMID:23536891

  20. Venom present in sea anemone (Heteractis magnifica) induces apoptosis in non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells through activation of mitochondria-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Ramezanpour, Mahnaz; da Silva, Karen Burke; Sanderson, Barbara J S

    2014-03-01

    Lung cancer is a major cause of cancer deaths throughout the world and the complexity of apoptosis resistance in lung cancer is apparent. Venom from Heteractis magnifica caused dose-dependent decreases in survival of the human non-small-cell lung cancer cell line, as determined by the MTT and Crystal Violet assays. The H. magnifica venom induced cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis of A549 cells, as confirmed by annexin V/propidium iodide staining. The venom-induced apoptosis in A549 cells was characterized by cleavage of caspase-3 and a reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Interestingly, crude extracts from H. magnifica had less effect on the survival of non-cancer cell lines. In the non-cancer cells, the mechanism via which cell death occurred was through necrosis not apoptosis. These findings are important for future work using H. magnifica venom for pharmaceutical development to treat human lung cancer.

  1. Activities of ten essential oils towards Propionibacterium acnes and PC-3, A-549 and MCF-7 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zu, Yuangang; Yu, Huimin; Liang, Lu; Fu, Yujie; Efferth, Thomas; Liu, Xia; Wu, Nan

    2010-04-30

    Ten essential oils, namely, mint (Mentha spicata L., Lamiaceae), ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc., Zingiberaceae), lemon (Citrus limon Burm.f., Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., Rutaceae), jasmine (Jasminum grandiflora L., Oleaceae), lavender (Mill., Lamiaceae), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L., Compositae), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae), rose (Rosa damascena Mill., Rosaceae) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum N. Lauraceae) were tested for their antibacterial activities towards Propionibacterium acnes and in vitro toxicology against three human cancer cell lines. Thyme, cinnamon and rose essential oils exhibited the best antibacterial activities towards P. acnes, with inhibition diameters of 40 +/- 1.2 mm, 33.5 +/- 1.5 mm and 16.5 +/- 0.7 mm, and minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.016% (v/v), 0.016% (v/v) and 0.031% (v/v), respectively. Time-kill dynamic procedures showed that thyme, cinnamon, rose, and lavender essential oils exhibited the strongest bactericidal activities at a concentration of 0.25% (v/v), and P. acnes was completely killed after 5 min. The thyme essential oil exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity towards three human cancer cells. Its inhibition concentration 50% (IC(50)) values on PC-3, A549 and MCF-7 tumor cell lines were 0.010% (v/v), 0.011% (v/v) and 0.030% (v/v), respectively. The cytotoxicity of 10 essential oils on human prostate carcinoma cell (PC-3) was significantly stronger than on human lung carcinoma (A549) and human breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines.

  2. Therapeutic Targeting of CC Ligand 21 or CC Chemokine Receptor 7 Abrogates Pulmonary Fibrosis Induced by the Adoptive Transfer of Human Pulmonary Fibroblasts to Immunodeficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Elizabeth M.; Carpenter, Kristin; Jakubzick, Claudia; Kunkel, Steven L.; Flaherty, Kevin R.; Martinez, Fernando J.; Hogaboam, Cory M.

    2007-01-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) are a collection of pulmonary fibrotic diseases of unknown etiopathogenesis. CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) is expressed in IIP biopsies and primary fibroblast lines, but its role in pulmonary fibrosis was not previously examined. To study the in vivo role of CCR7 in a novel model of pulmonary fibrosis, 1.0 × 106 primary fibroblasts grown from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, or histologically normal biopsies were injected intravenously into C.B-17 severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)/beige (bg) mice. At days 35 and 63 after idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia fibroblast injection, patchy interstitial fibrosis and increased hydroxyproline were present in the lungs of immunodeficient mice. Adoptively transferred nonspecific interstitial pneumonia fibroblasts caused a more diffuse interstitial fibrosis and increased hydroxyproline levels at both times, but injected normal human fibroblasts did not induce interstitial remodeling changes in C.B-17SCID/bg mice. Systemic therapeutic immunoneutralization of either human CCR7 or CC ligand 21, its ligand, significantly attenuated the pulmonary fibrosis in groups of C.B-17SCID/bg mice that received either type of IIP fibroblasts. Thus, the present study demonstrates that pulmonary fibrosis is initiated by the intravenous introduction of primary human fibroblast lines into immunodeficient mice, and this fibrotic response is dependent on the interaction between CC ligand 21 and CCR7. PMID:17392156

  3. The induction of nitric oxide-mediated relaxation of human isolated pulmonary arteries by PACAP

    PubMed Central

    Cardell, Lars Olaf; Hjert, Ola; Uddman, Rolf

    1997-01-01

    The effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were analysed in human isolated circular segments of pulmonary arteries. Guinea-pig pulmonary arteries were used for comparison. The responses obtained were analysed in relation to the vascular endothelium and the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor NG-monomethyl L-arginine (L-NMMA).PACAP and VIP induced concentration-dependent relaxations of precontracted pulmonary arteries. The maximal dilator response (Imax,%) and the potency (pEC50 value) were the same for both peptides, and there were no differences in the effects obtained on human and guinea-pig segments. PACAP and VIP were both more potent that acetylcholine (ACh).Removal of the vascular endothelium abolished the PACAP induced dilator response in pulmonary arteries from both species. The VIP induced dilatation was unaffected, whereas the response to ACh was abolished. L-NMMA given before PACAP inhibited the dilatation. Furthermore, L-NMMA also reversed the dilatation already induced by PACAP and excess concentrations of L-arginine restored the dilator response of the L-NMMA treated arteries.PACAP is a potent dilator of human pulmonary arteries. Although the dilator effect seems to be similar in amplitude to the one induced by VIP, the present results suggest differences in the underlying mechanisms of action (endothelium-dependency) between the two peptides. PMID:9134222

  4. In vitro effects of nicotine on the non-small-cell lung cancer line A549.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tao; Zhou, Xue-Liang; Liu, Sheng; Rao, Chang-Xiu; Shi, Wen; Liu, Ji-Chun

    2016-04-01

    To investigate in vitro effects of nicotine on the non-small-cell lung cancer line A549. The case-control study was conducted at the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University from 1st January to 30th June, 2014 and comprised A549 cells which were treated with a series of concentrations of nicotine (0.01 µM, 0.1 µM, 1 µM and 10 µM) for 24 hours. Control cells were incubated under the same conditions without the addition of nicotine. Cell growth was detected by monotetrazolium salt [3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] assay. Cell apoptosis was detected by Haematoxylin and Eosin staining, immunofluorescence analysis of Filamentous actin and electron microscope observation. Nicotine had no significant effect on A549 cell growth at the dose of 0.01µM (p>0.05), but had significant growth inhibitory effects at the doses of 0.1µM, 1µM and 10µM (p< 0.05 each). A significant decrease in cell numbers was observed on staining (p< 0.05). Significant changes in the size and shape of cells and concomitant changes in cytoskeletons and organelles were observed by immunofluorescence and electron microscope observation (p< 0.05). The growth inhibitory effects of nicotine on A549 cells were found to be dose-dependent.

  5. [Effect of ginseng rare ginsenoside components combined with paclitaxel on A549 lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2018-04-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine combined with anticancer drugs is a new direction of clinical cancer therapy in recent years. In this study, the optimal ratio of ginseng rare ginsenoside components and paclitaxel was optimized by MTT method, and the proliferative, apoptotic and anti-tumor effects of lung cancer A549 cells were investigated. It was found that the inhibitory effect on the proliferation of lung cancer A549 cells was the same as that on paclitaxel when the ratio of rare ginseng rare ginsenoside components to paclitaxel was 4∶6. Further studies showed that the combined therapy significantly increased the inductive effect of apoptosis in A549 cells, and up-regulated the expression of caspase-3 protein and down-regulated the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. The tumor-bearing mice model showed that the combination therapy of ginseng rare ginsenoside components and paclitaxel could significantly inhibit the growth of tumor and alleviate the toxic and side effects of paclitaxel on liver. A multi-component system of ginseng rare ginsenoside components-paclitaxel was established in this paper. The proliferation and growth of lung cancer A549 cells were inhibited by paclitaxel-induced apoptosis, the dosage of paclitaxel and the toxicity of paclitaxel were reduced, and the effect of anti-lung cancer was enhanced, which provided a theoretical basis for later studies and clinical application. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  6. Oxidative stress is associated with increased pulmonary artery systolic pressure in humans.

    PubMed

    Ghasemzadeh, Nima; Patel, Riyaz S; Eapen, Danny J; Veledar, Emir; Al Kassem, Hatem; Manocha, Pankaj; Khayata, Mohamed; Zafari, A Maziar; Sperling, Laurence; Jones, Dean P; Quyyumi, Arshed A

    2014-06-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to the development of pulmonary hypertension in experimental models, but this association in humans is unknown. We investigated the relationship between pulmonary artery systolic pressure measured by echocardiography and plasma aminothiol oxidative stress markers, with the hypothesis that oxidative stress will be higher in those with pulmonary hypertension. A group of 347 patients aged 65±12 years from the Emory Cardiovascular Biobank underwent echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction and pulmonary artery systolic pressure. Plasma aminothiols, cysteine, its oxidized form, cystine, glutathione, and its oxidized disulphide were measured and the redox potentials (Eh) of cysteine/cystine and glutathione/oxidized glutathione couples were calculated. Non-normally distributed variables were log transformed (Ln). Univariate predictors of pulmonary artery systolic pressure included age (P<0.001), sex (P=0.002), mitral regurgitation (P<0.001), left ventricular ejection fraction (P<0.001), left atrial size (P<0.001), diabetes mellitus (P=0.03), plasma Ln cystine (β=9.53; P<0.001), Ln glutathione (β=-5.4; P=0.002), and Eh glutathione (β=0.21; P=0.001). A multivariate linear regression model adjusting for all confounding variables demonstrated that Ln cystine (β=6.56; P=0.007), mitral regurgitation (β=4.52; P<0.001), statin use (β=-3.39; P=0.03), left ventricular ejection fraction (β=-0.26; P=0.003), and age (β=0.17; P=0.003) were independent predictors of pulmonary artery systolic pressure. For each 1% increase in plasma cystine, pulmonary artery systolic pressure increased by 16%. This association persisted in the subgroup with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (≥50%) and no significant mitral regurgitation. Whether treatment of oxidative stress will improve pulmonary hypertension requires further study.

  7. β-Sitosterol targets Trx/Trx1 reductase to induce apoptosis in A549 cells via ROS mediated mitochondrial dysregulation and p53 activation.

    PubMed

    Rajavel, Tamilselvam; Packiyaraj, Pandian; Suryanarayanan, Venkatesan; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar; Ruckmani, Kandasamy; Pandima Devi, Kasi

    2018-02-01

    β-Sitosterol (BS), a major bioactive constituent present in plants and vegetables has shown potent anticancer effect against many human cancer cells, but the underlying mechanism remain elusive on NSCLC cancers. We found that BS significantly inhibited the growth of A549 cells without harming normal human lung and PBMC cells. Further, BS treatment triggered apoptosis via ROS mediated mitochondrial dysregulation as evidenced by caspase-3 & 9 activation, Annexin-V/PI positive cells, PARP inactivation, loss of MMP, Bcl-2-Bax ratio alteration and cytochrome c release. Moreover, generation of ROS species and subsequent DNA stand break were found upon BS treatment which was reversed by addition of ROS scavenger (NAC). Indeed BS treatment increased p53 expression and its phosphorylation at Ser15, while silencing the p53 expression by pifithrin-α, BS induced apoptosis was reduced in A549 cells. Furthermore, BS induced apoptosis was also observed in NCI-H460 cells (p53 wild) but not in the NCI-H23 cells (p53 mutant). Down-regulation of Trx/Trx1 reductase contributed to the BS induced ROS accumulation and mitochondrial mediated apoptotic cell death in A549 and NCI-H460 cells. Taken together, our findings provide evidence for the novel anti-cancer mechanism of BS which could be developed as a promising chemotherapeutic drug against NSCLC cancers.

  8. Green tea extract induces protective autophagy in A549 non-small lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Izdebska, Magdalena; Klimaszewska-Wiśniewska, Anna; Hałas, Marta; Gagat, Maciej; Grzanka, Alina

    2015-12-31

    For many decades, polyphenols, including green tea extract catechins, have been reported to exert multiple anti-tumor activities. However, to date the mechanisms of their action have not been completely elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of green tea extract on non-small lung cancer A549 cells. A549 cells following treatment with GTE were analyzed using the inverted light and fluorescence microscope. In order to evaluate cell sensitivity and cell death, the MTT assay and Tali image-based cytometer were used, respectively. Ultrastructural alterations were assessed using a transmission electron microscope. The obtained data suggested that GTE, even at the highest dose employed (150 μM), was not toxic to A549 cells. Likewise, the treatment with GTE resulted in only a very small dose-dependent increase in the population of apoptotic cells. However, enhanced accumulation of vacuole-like structures in response to GTE was seen at the light and electron microscopic level. Furthermore, an increase in the acidic vesicular organelles and LC3-II puncta formation was observed under the fluorescence microscope, following GTE treatment. The analysis of the functional status of autophagy revealed that GTE-induced autophagy may provide self-protection against its own cytotoxicity, since we observed that the blockage of autophagy by bafilomycin A1 decreased the viability of A549 cells and potentiated necrotic cell death induction in response to GTE treatment. Collectively, our results revealed that A549 cells are insensitive to both low and high concentrations of the green tea extract, probably due to the induction of cytoprotective autophagy. These data suggest that a potential utility of GTE in lung cancer therapy may lie in its synergistic combinations with drugs or small molecules that target autophagy, rather than in monotherapy.

  9. [HDAC1 expression and effect of TSA on proliferation and apoptosis of A549 cells].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hong; Zhang, Zhen-Xiang; Xu, Yong-Jian; Shao, Jing-Fang

    2003-09-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) shows a high expression in many cancer cells and the inhibitor of HDAC1, trichostatin A (TSA), can inhibit the growth of cancer cells. Hypoxia is a common feature of malignant tumors. This paper was designed to investigate the expression of HDAC1 of A549 cell strains in hypoxia condition and the effect of TSA on their proliferation and apoptosis. The authors designed 1 normoxia group (control group) and 5 hypoxia groups (test groups): hypoxia 6h group (A), TSA + hypoxia 6h (B), hypoxia 12h group (C), hypoxia 24h group (D), TSA + hypoxia 24h (E), hypoxia 48h group (F). The expression of HDAC1 in A549 cells was examined using Western blot analysis. Proliferation, the apoptotic rates of A549 cells and the effect of TSA on them were determined using MTT method, immunohistochemistry, TUNEL method, and flow cytometry. The expression of mRNA of HDAC1 and the effect of TSA on it were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The A values expressed by HDAC1 in A549 cell strains were 138+/-11 in the control group, 78+/-4, 86+/-5, 124+/-3, and 120+/-9 in test groups A, C, D, and F, respectively. The A values of HDAC1mRNA versus the A values of beta-Atin mRNA were 0.68+/-0.03 in the control group, 0.46+/-0.03, 0.45+/-0.02, 0.70+/-0.03, and 0.33+/-0.02 in test groups A, C, D, and F, respectively. The A values of the expression of PCNA in A549 cell strains were 0.13+/-0.03 in the control group, 0.10+/-0.02, 0.11+/-0.02, 0.16+/-0.02, and 0.11+/-0.03 in test groups A, B, D, and E, respectively. The A values of MTT in A549 cell strains were 0.50+/-0.06 in the control group, 0.41+/-0.04, 0.45+/-0.03, 0.59+/-0.02, and 0.45+/-0.03 in test groups A, B, D, and E, respectively. The A values of positive cells of apoptosis in A549 cell strains were 0.16+/-0.04 in the control group, 0.18+/-0.02, 0.18+/-0.05, 0.20+/-0.05, and 0.23+/-0.05 in test groups A, B, D, and E, respectively. The apoptotic rates in A549 cells were 1.11% in the

  10. Beta sitosterol and Daucosterol (phytosterols identified in Grewia tiliaefolia) perturbs cell cycle and induces apoptotic cell death in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Rajavel, Tamilselvam; Mohankumar, Ramar; Archunan, Govindaraju; Ruckmani, Kandasamy; Devi, Kasi Pandima

    2017-06-13

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths both in developed and developing countries. Since majority of the existing therapeutic methods harms both normal and malignant cells, a viable alternative is to switch into safe and beneficial traditional medicinal plants. Hence the present study was framed to identify selective anti-lung cancer agents from the medicinal plant Grewia tiliaefolia (GT). Cell viability experiments showed that benzene extract of GT (BGT) leaf effectively inhibited the growth of A549 cells, while being non-toxic to normal human lung L132 and PBMC cells. Ames and comet assays demonstrated that BGT is of non-mutagenic and non-genotoxic nature in untransformed cells. The hematological and histopathological profiles of the in vivo acute and sub-acute toxicity studies demonstrated that BGT is safe and tolerable. Importantly, western blot analysis and Annexin V-FITC staining confirmed that BGT promotes mitochondrial dependent apoptotic cell death in A549 cells by arresting cell cycle at G2/M phase. Bio-assay guided fractionation revealed the presence of phytosteols (β-sitosterol and daucosterol) which significantly inhibited the growth of A549 cells both alone and in combination. This study warrants that these phytosterols in alone or in combination can be considered as safe and potential drug candidates for lung cancer treatment.

  11. [Pulmonary pathology in fatal human influenza A (H1N1) infection].

    PubMed

    Duan, Xue-jing; Li, Yong; Gong, En-cong; Wang, Jue; Lü, Fu-dong; Zhang, He-qiu; Sun, Lin; Yue, Zhu-jun; Song, Chen-chao; Zhang, Shi-Jie; Li, Ning; Dai, Jie

    2011-12-01

    To study the pulmonary pathology in patients died of fatal human influenza A(H1N1) infection. Eight cases of fatal human influenza A (H1N1) infection, including 2 autopsy cases and 6 paramortem needle puncture biopsies, were enrolled into the study. Histologic examination, immunohistochemitry, flow cytometry and Western blotting were carried out. The major pathologic changes included necrotizing bronchiolitis with surrounding inflammation, diffuse alveolar damage and pulmonary hemorrhage. Influenza viral antigen expression was detected in the lung tissue by Western blotting. Immunohistochemical study demonstrated the presence of nuclear protein and hemagglutinin virus antigens in parts of trachea, bronchial epithelium and glands, alveolar epithelium, macrophages and endothelium. Flow cytometry showed that the apoptotic rate of type II pneumocytes (32.15%, 78.15%) was significantly higher than that of the controls (1.93%, 3.77%). Necrotizing bronchiolitis, diffuse alveolar damage and pulmonary hemorrhage followed by pulmonary fibrosis in late stage are the major pathologic changes in fatal human influenza A (H1N1) infection.

  12. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Exopolysaccharide Psl Facilitates Surface Adherence and NF-κB Activation in A549 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Matthew S.; Pang, Bing; Mishra, Meenu; Swords, W. Edward; Wozniak, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    In order for the opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa to cause an airway infection, the pathogen interacts with epithelial cells and the overlying mucous layer. We examined the contribution of the biofilm polysaccharide Psl to epithelial cell adherence and the impact of Psl on proinflammatory signaling by flagellin. Psl has been implicated in the initial attachment of P. aeruginosa to biotic and abiotic surfaces, but its direct role in pathogenesis has not been evaluated (L. Ma, K. D. Jackson, R. M. Landry, M. R. Parsek, and D. J. Wozniak, J. Bacteriol. 188:8213–8221, 2006). Using an NF-κB luciferase reporter system in the human epithelial cell line A549, we show that both Psl and flagellin are necessary for full activation of NF-κB and production of the interleukin 8 (IL-8) chemokine. We demonstrate that Psl does not directly stimulate NF-κB activity, but indirectly as a result of increasing contact between bacterial cells and epithelial cells, it facilitates flagellin-mediated proinflammatory signaling. We confirm differential adherence of Psl and/or flagellin mutants by scanning electron microscopy and identify Psl-dependent membrane structures that may participate in adherence. Although we hypothesized that Psl would protect P. aeruginosa from recognition by the epithelial cell line A549, we instead observed a positive role for Psl in flagellin-mediated NF-κB activation, likely as a result of increasing contact between bacterial cells and epithelial cells. PMID:20802825

  13. IFN-gamma Impairs Release of IL-8 by IL-1beta-stimulated A549 Lung Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Boost, Kim A; Sadik, Christian D; Bachmann, Malte; Zwissler, Bernhard; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Mühl, Heiko

    2008-01-01

    Background Production of interferon (IFN)-γ is key to efficient anti-tumor immunity. The present study was set out to investigate effects of IFNγ on the release of the potent pro-angiogenic mediator IL-8 by human A549 lung carcinoma cells. Methods A549 cells were cultured and stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1β alone or in combination with IFNγ. IL-8 production by these cells was analyzed with enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). mRNA-expression was analyzed by real-time PCR and RNase protection assay (RPA), respectively. Expression of inhibitor-κ Bα, cellular IL-8, and cyclooxygenase-2 was analyzed by Western blot analysis. Results Here we demonstrate that IFNγ efficiently reduced IL-8 secretion under the influence of IL-1β. Surprisingly, real-time PCR analysis and RPA revealed that the inhibitory effect of IFNγ on IL-8 was not associated with significant changes in mRNA levels. These observations concurred with lack of a modulatory activity of IFNγ on IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation as assessed by cellular IκB levels. Moreover, analysis of intracellular IL-8 suggests that IFNγ modulated IL-8 secretion by action on the posttranslational level. In contrast to IL-8, IL-1β-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression and release of IL-6 were not affected by IFNγ indicating that modulation of IL-1β action by this cytokine displays specificity. Conclusion Data presented herein agree with an angiostatic role of IFNγ as seen in rodent models of solid tumors and suggest that increasing T helper type 1 (Th1)-like functions in lung cancer patients e.g. by local delivery of IFNγ may mediate therapeutic benefit via mechanisms that potentially include modulation of pro-angiogenic IL-8. PMID:18801189

  14. Effects of tanshinone nanoemulsion and extract on inhibition of lung cancer cells A549

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W. D.; Liang, Y. J.; Chen, B. H.

    2016-12-01

    Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza), a Chinese medicinal herb, consists of several functional components including tanshinones responsible for prevention of several chronic diseases. This study intends to prepare tanshinone extract and nanoemulsion from danshen and determine their inhibition effect on lung cancer cells A549. A highly stable tanshinone nanoemulsion composed of Capryol 90, Tween 80, ethanol and deionized water with the mean particle size of 14.2 nm was successfully prepared. Tanshinone nanoemulsion was found to be more effective in inhibiting A549 proliferation than tanshinone extract. Both nanoemulsion and extract could penetrate into cytoplasm through endocytosis, with the former being more susceptible than the latter. A dose-dependent response in up-regulation of p-JNK, p53 and p21 and down-regulation of CDK2, cyclin D1 and cyclin E1 expressions was observed with the cell cycle arrested at G0/G1 phase. The cellular microcompartment change of A549 was also investigated. The study demonstrated that tanshinone nanoemulsion may be used as a botanic drug for treatment of lung cancer.

  15. Determinants of ventilation and pulmonary artery pressure during early acclimatization to hypoxia in humans.

    PubMed

    Fatemian, Marzieh; Herigstad, Mari; Croft, Quentin P P; Formenti, Federico; Cardenas, Rosa; Wheeler, Carly; Smith, Thomas G; Friedmannova, Maria; Dorrington, Keith L; Robbins, Peter A

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary ventilation and pulmonary arterial pressure both rise progressively during the first few hours of human acclimatization to hypoxia. These responses are highly variable between individuals, but the origin of this variability is unknown. Here, we sought to determine whether the variabilities between different measures of response to sustained hypoxia were related, which would suggest a common source of variability. Eighty volunteers individually underwent an 8-h isocapnic exposure to hypoxia (end-tidal P(O2)=55 Torr) in a purpose-built chamber. Measurements of ventilation and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) assessed by Doppler echocardiography were made during the exposure. Before and after the exposure, measurements were made of the ventilatory sensitivities to acute isocapnic hypoxia (G(pO2)) and hyperoxic hypercapnia, the latter divided into peripheral (G(pCO2)) and central (G(cCO2)) components. Substantial acclimatization was observed in both ventilation and PASP, the latter being 40% greater in women than men. No correlation was found between the magnitudes of pulmonary ventilatory and pulmonary vascular responses. For G(pO2), G(pCO2) and G(cC O2), but not the sensitivity of PASP to acute hypoxia, the magnitude of the increase during acclimatization was proportional to the pre-acclimatization value. Additionally, the change in G(pO2) during acclimatization to hypoxia correlated well with most other measures of ventilatory acclimatization. Of the initial measurements prior to sustained hypoxia, only G(pCO2) predicted the subsequent rise in ventilation and change in G(pO2) during acclimatization. We conclude that the magnitudes of the ventilatory and pulmonary vascular responses to sustained hypoxia are predominantly determined by different factors and that the initial G(pCO2) is a modest predictor of ventilatory acclimatization. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Physiological

  16. Fusion with human lung cancer cells elongates the life span of human umbilical endothelial cells and enhances the anti-tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xiyan; Fang, Chunju; Zhou, Jing; Xi, Yufeng; Zhang, Li; Wei, Yuquan; Yi, Tao; Wu, Yang; Zhao, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) have been proved as an effective whole-cell vaccine inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. However, HUVECs divide a very limited number of passages before entering replicative senescence, which limits its application for clinical situation. Here, we fused HUVECs with human pulmonary adenocarcinoma cell line A549s and investigated the anti-tumor immunity of the hybrids against mice Lewis lung cancer. HUVECs were fused with A549s using polyethylene glycol and were sorted by flow cytometry. The fusion cells (HUVEC-A549s) were confirmed by testing the expression of telomerase and VE-cadherin, the senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, and tube formation ability. HUVEC-A549s were then irradiated and injected into the C57BL/6 mice of protective, therapeutic, and metastatic models. The mechanism of the anti-tumor immunity was explored by analyzing mice sera, spleen T lymphocytes, tumor microenvironment, and histological changes. HUVEC-A549s coexpressed tumor and endothelial markers and maintained the vascular function of tube forming at passage 30 without showing signs of senescence. HUVEC-A549s could induce protective and therapeutic anti-tumor activity for LL(2) model and presented stronger activity against metastasis than HUVECs. Both humoral and cellular immunity were participated in the anti-angiogenic activity, as HUVECs-neutralizing IgG and HUVECs-toxic lymphocytes were increased. Angiogenic mediators (VEGF and TGF-β) and tumor microenvironment cells MDSCs and Tregs were also diminished. Our findings might provide a novel strategy for HUVECs-related immunotherapy, and this vaccine requires lower culture condition than primary HUVECs while enhancing the anti-tumor immunity.

  17. Isolated Human Pulmonary Artery Structure and Function Pre- and Post-Cardiopulmonary Bypass Surgery.

    PubMed

    Dora, Kim A; Stanley, Christopher P; Al Jaaly, Emad; Fiorentino, Francesca; Ascione, Raimondo; Reeves, Barnaby C; Angelini, Gianni D

    2016-02-23

    Pulmonary dysfunction is a known complication after cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass, ranging from subclinical functional changes to prolonged postoperative ventilation, acute lung injury, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Whether human pulmonary arterial function is compromised is unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare the structure and function of isolated and cannulated human pulmonary arteries obtained from lung biopsies after the chest was opened (pre-cardiopulmonary bypass) to those obtained at the end of cardiopulmonary bypass (post-cardiopulmonary bypass) from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Pre- and post-cardiopulmonary bypass lung biopsies were received from 12 patients undergoing elective surgery. Intralobular small arteries were dissected, cannulated, pressurized, and imaged using confocal microscopy. Functionally, the thromboxane mimetic U46619 produced concentration-dependent vasoconstriction in 100% and 75% of pre- and post-cardiopulmonary bypass arteries, respectively. The endothelium-dependent agonist bradykinin stimulated vasodilation in 45% and 33% of arteries pre- and post-cardiopulmonary bypass, respectively. Structurally, in most arteries smooth muscle cells aligned circumferentially; live cell viability revealed that although 100% of smooth muscle and 90% of endothelial cells from pre-cardiopulmonary bypass biopsies had intact membranes and were considered viable, only 60% and 58%, respectively, were viable from post-cardiopulmonary bypass biopsies. We successfully investigated isolated pulmonary artery structure and function in fresh lung biopsies from patients undergoing heart surgery. Pulmonary artery contractile tone and endothelium-dependent dilation were significantly reduced in post-cardiopulmonary bypass biopsies. The decreased functional responses were associated with reduced cell viability. URL: http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN34428459. Unique identifier: ISRCTN 34428459.

  18. Theophylline prevents NAD{sup +} depletion via PARP-1 inhibition in human pulmonary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Moonen, Harald J.J.; Geraets, Liesbeth; Vaarhorst, Anika

    2005-12-30

    Oxidative DNA damage, as occurs during exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), highly activates the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1). This can lead to cellular depletion of its substrate NAD{sup +}, resulting in an energy crisis and ultimately in cell death. Inhibition of PARP-1 results in preservation of the intracellular NAD{sup +} pool, and of NAD{sup +}-dependent cellular processes. In this study, PARP-1 activation by hydrogen peroxide decreased intracellular NAD{sup +} levels in human pulmonary epithelial cells, which was found to be prevented in a dose-dependent manner by theophylline, a widely used compound in the treatment of COPD. This enzymemore » inhibition by theophylline was confirmed in an ELISA using purified human PARP-1 and was found to be competitive by nature. These findings provide new mechanistic insights into the therapeutic effect of theophylline in oxidative stress-induced lung pathologies.« less

  19. Effects of nitrogen dioxide on pulmonary function in human subjects: an environmental chamber study

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, H.D.; Kulle, T.J.; McIlhany, M.L.

    Twenty human subjects with asthma and chronic bronchitis and 10 healthy adults were exposed to 0.5 ppM of nitrogen dioxide for 2 hr in an environment chamber. Seven of the 13 subjects with asthma experienced symptoms with exposure, while only one each of the subjects with bronchitis and the normal group experienced symptoms. Functional residual pulmonary capacity increased for those with asthma and bronchitis. 18 references, 5 tables.

  20. Pulmonary hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension; Sporadic primary pulmonary hypertension; Familial primary pulmonary hypertension; Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension; Primary pulmonary hypertension; PPH; Secondary pulmonary ...

  1. Doppler echo evaluation of pulmonary venous-left atrial pressure gradients: human and numerical model studies.

    PubMed

    Firstenberg, M S; Greenberg, N L; Smedira, N G; Prior, D L; Scalia, G M; Thomas, J D; Garcia, M J

    2000-08-01

    The simplified Bernoulli equation relates fluid convective energy derived from flow velocities to a pressure gradient and is commonly used in clinical echocardiography to determine pressure differences across stenotic orifices. Its application to pulmonary venous flow has not been described in humans. Twelve patients undergoing cardiac surgery had simultaneous high-fidelity pulmonary venous and left atrial pressure measurements and pulmonary venous pulsed Doppler echocardiography performed. Convective gradients for the systolic (S), diastolic (D), and atrial reversal (AR) phases of pulmonary venous flow were determined using the simplified Bernoulli equation and correlated with measured actual pressure differences. A linear relationship was observed between the convective (y) and actual (x) pressure differences for the S (y = 0.23x + 0.0074, r = 0.82) and D (y = 0.22x + 0.092, r = 0.81) waves, but not for the AR wave (y = 0. 030x + 0.13, r = 0.10). Numerical modeling resulted in similar slopes for the S (y = 0.200x - 0.127, r = 0.97), D (y = 0.247x - 0. 354, r = 0.99), and AR (y = 0.087x - 0.083, r = 0.96) waves. Consistent with numerical modeling, the convective term strongly correlates with but significantly underestimates actual gradient because of large inertial forces.

  2. Doppler echo evaluation of pulmonary venous-left atrial pressure gradients: human and numerical model studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firstenberg, M. S.; Greenberg, N. L.; Smedira, N. G.; Prior, D. L.; Scalia, G. M.; Thomas, J. D.; Garcia, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    The simplified Bernoulli equation relates fluid convective energy derived from flow velocities to a pressure gradient and is commonly used in clinical echocardiography to determine pressure differences across stenotic orifices. Its application to pulmonary venous flow has not been described in humans. Twelve patients undergoing cardiac surgery had simultaneous high-fidelity pulmonary venous and left atrial pressure measurements and pulmonary venous pulsed Doppler echocardiography performed. Convective gradients for the systolic (S), diastolic (D), and atrial reversal (AR) phases of pulmonary venous flow were determined using the simplified Bernoulli equation and correlated with measured actual pressure differences. A linear relationship was observed between the convective (y) and actual (x) pressure differences for the S (y = 0.23x + 0.0074, r = 0.82) and D (y = 0.22x + 0.092, r = 0.81) waves, but not for the AR wave (y = 0. 030x + 0.13, r = 0.10). Numerical modeling resulted in similar slopes for the S (y = 0.200x - 0.127, r = 0.97), D (y = 0.247x - 0. 354, r = 0.99), and AR (y = 0.087x - 0.083, r = 0.96) waves. Consistent with numerical modeling, the convective term strongly correlates with but significantly underestimates actual gradient because of large inertial forces.

  3. HOX genes in human lung: altered expression in primary pulmonary hypertension and emphysema.

    PubMed

    Golpon, H A; Geraci, M W; Moore, M D; Miller, H L; Miller, G J; Tuder, R M; Voelkel, N F

    2001-03-01

    HOX genes belong to the large family of homeodomain genes that function as transcription factors. Animal studies indicate that they play an essential role in lung development. We investigated the expression pattern of HOX genes in human lung tissue by using microarray and degenerate reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction survey techniques. HOX genes predominantly from the 3' end of clusters A and B were expressed in normal human adult lung and among them HOXA5 was the most abundant, followed by HOXB2 and HOXB6. In fetal (12 weeks old) and diseased lung specimens (emphysema, primary pulmonary hypertension) additional HOX genes from clusters C and D were expressed. Using in situ hybridization, transcripts for HOXA5 were predominantly found in alveolar septal and epithelial cells, both in normal and diseased lungs. A 2.5-fold increase in HOXA5 mRNA expression was demonstrated by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in primary pulmonary hypertension lung specimens when compared to normal lung tissue. In conclusion, we demonstrate that HOX genes are selectively expressed in the human lung. Differences in the pattern of HOX gene expression exist among fetal, adult, and diseased lung specimens. The altered pattern of HOX gene expression may contribute to the development of pulmonary diseases.

  4. Protocatechuic aldehyde ameliorates experimental pulmonary fibrosis by modulating HMGB1/RAGE pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Liang, E-mail: countryspring@sina.com; Ji, Yunxia, E-mail: 413499057@qq.com; Kang, Zechun, E-mail: davidjiangwl@163.com

    An abnormal high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) activation and a decrease in receptor for advanced glycation end-product (RAGE) play a key role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Protocatechuic aldehyde (PA) is a naturally occurring compound, which is extracted from the degradation of phenolic acids. However, whether PA has anti-fibrotic functions is unknown. In this study, the effects of PA on the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-mediated epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in A549 cells, on the apoptosis of human type I alveolar epithelial cells (AT I), on the proliferation of human lung fibroblasts (HLF-1) in vitro, and on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonarymore » fibrosis in vivo were investigated. PA treatment resulted in a reduction of EMT in A549 cells with a decrease in vimentin and HMGB, an increase of E-cadherin and RAGE, a reduction of HLF-1 proliferation with a decrease of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Apoptosis of AT I was attenuated with an increase of RAGE. PA ameliorated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats with a reduction of histopathological scores and collagen deposition, and a lower FGF-2, PDGF, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and HMGB1 expression, whereas higher RAGE was found in BLM-instilled lungs. Through the decrease of HGMB1 and the regulation of RAGE, PA reversed the EMT, inhibited HLF-1 proliferation as well as reduced apoptosis in AT I, and prevented pulmonary fibrosis in vivo. Collectively, our results demonstrate that PA prevents experimental pulmonary fibrosis by modulating HMGB1/RAGE pathway. - Highlights: • PA prevents EMT, reduces the apoptosis of AT1 in vitro. • PA decreases proliferation of HLF-1, reduces PDGF and FGF expression in vitro. • PA prevents experimental pulmonary fibrosis by modulating the HMGB1/RAGE pathway.« less

  5. Unraveling endothelin-1 induced hypercontractility of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Warburton, Rod; Taylor, Linda; Toksoz, Deniz; Hill, Nicholas; Polgar, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Contraction of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (HPASMC) isolated from pulmonary arterial hypertensive (PAH) and normal (non-PAH) subject lungs was determined and measured with real-time electrical impedance. Treatment of HPASMC with vasoactive peptides, endothelin-1 (ET-1) and bradykinin (BK) but not angiotensin II, induced a temporal decrease in the electrical impedance profile mirroring constrictive morphological change of the cells which typically was more robust in PAH as opposed to non-PAH cells. Inhibition with LIMKi3 and a cofilin targeted motif mimicking cell permeable peptide (MMCPP) had no effect on ET-1 induced HPASMC contraction indicating a negligible role for these actin regulatory proteins. On the other hand, a MMCPP blocking the activity of caldesmon reduced ET-1 promoted contraction pointing to a regulatory role of this protein and its activation pathway in HPASMC contraction. Inhibition of this MEK/ERK/p90RSK pathway, which is an upstream regulator of caldesmon phosphorylation, reduced ET-1 induced cell contraction. While the regulation of ET-1 induced cell contraction was found to be similar in PAH and non-PAH cells, a key difference was the response to pharmacological inhibitors and to siRNA knockdown of Rho kinases (ROCK1/ROCK2). The PAH cells required much higher concentrations of inhibitors to abrogate ET-1 induced contractions and their contraction was not affected by siRNA against either ROCK1 or ROCK2. Lastly, blocking of L-type and T-type Ca2+ channels had no effect on ET-1 or BK induced contraction. However, inhibiting the activity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase blunted ET-1 and BK induced HPASMC contraction in both PAH and non-PAH derived HPASMC. In summary, our findings here together with previous communications illustrate similarities and differences in the regulation PAH and non-PAH smooth muscle cell contraction relating to calcium translocation, RhoA/ROCK signaling and the activity of caldesmon. These findings

  6. Extracellular superoxide dismutase increased the therapeutic potential of human mesenchymal stromal cells in radiation pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Li; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Zai-Liang; You, Hua

    2017-05-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis induced by irradiation is a significant problem of radiotherapy in cancer patients. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) is found to be predominantly and highly expressed in the extracellular matrix of lung and plays a pivotal role against oxidative damage. Early administration of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) has been demonstrated to reduce fibrosis of damaged lung. However, injection of MSCs at a later stage would be involved in fibrosis development. The present study aimed to determine whether injection of human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) over-expressing SOD3 at the established fibrosis stage would have beneficial effects in a mice model of radiation pulmonary fibrosis. Herein, pulmonary fibrosis in mice was induced using Cobalt-60 ( 60 Co) irradiator with 20 Gy, followed by intravenous injection of UC-MSCs, transduced or not to express SOD3 at 2 h (early delivery) and 60 day (late delivery) post-irradiation, respectively. Our results demonstrated that the early administration of UC-MSCs could attenuate the microscopic damage, reduce collagen deposition, inhibit (myo)fibroblast proliferation, reduce inflammatory cell infiltration, protect alveolar type II (AE2) cell injury, prevent oxidative stress and increase antioxidant status, and reduce pro-fibrotic cytokine level in serum. Furthermore, the early treatment with SOD3-infected UC-MSCs resulted in better improvement. However, we failed to observe the therapeutic effects of UC-MSCs, transduced to express SOD3, during established fibrosis. Altogether, our results demonstrated that the early treatment with UC-MSCs alone significantly reduced radiation pulmonary fibrosis in mice through paracrine effects, with further improvement by administration of SOD3-infected UC-MSCs, suggesting that SOD3-infected UC-MSCs may be a potential cell-based gene therapy to treat clinical radiation pulmonary fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by

  7. Compartmentalized bronchoalveolar IFN-gamma and IL-12 response in human pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Maria Teresa; Torres, Martha; Nevels, Denarra; Perez-Redondo, Carlos Núñez; Ellner, Jerrold J; Sada, Eduardo; Schwander, Stephan K

    2009-01-01

    Human tuberculosis (TB) principally involves the lungs, where local immunity impacts on the load of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). Because concomitants of local Th1 immunity are still under-explored in humans, we characterized immune responses in bronchoalveolar cells (BACs) and systemically in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in persons with active pulmonary TB and in healthy community controls. PPD- and live M.tb-induced IFN-gamma-production were observed in CD4(+), CD8(+), gammadeltaTCR(+), and CD56(+) alveolar T cell subpopulations and NK cells (CD3(-)CD56(+)). IFN-gamma-producing CD4(+) T cells (mostly CD45RO(+)) were more abundant (p<0.05). M.tb-induced IL-12p70, but interestingly also IL-4, was increased (p<0.05) in BACs from TB patients. Constitutive expression of IL-12Rbeta1 and IL-12Rbeta2 mRNA in BACs and PBMCs and IFN-gammaR1 in BACs was similar in both study groups. Data were normalized to account for differences in proportions of alveolar T cells and macrophages in the study groups. IFN-gamma-production and its induction by IL-12R engagement occur virtually unimpaired in the bronchoalveolar spaces of patients with pulmonary TB. The reasons for the apparent failure to control M. tuberculosis growth during active pulmonary TB disease is unknown but could be the expression of locally acting immunosuppressive mechanisms that subvert the antimycobacterial effects of IFN-gamma.

  8. Fused pulmonary lobes is a rat model of human Fraser syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Kiyozumi, Daiji; Nakano, Itsuko; Takahashi, Ken L.

    Highlights: {yields} Fused pulmonary lobes (fpl) mutant rats exhibit similar phenotypes to Fraser syndrome. {yields} The fpl gene harbors a nonsense mutation in Fraser syndrome-associated gene Frem2. {yields} Fpl mutant is defined as a first model of human Fraser syndrome in rats. -- Abstract: Fused pulmonary lobes (fpl) is a mutant gene that is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and causes various developmental defects, including fusion of pulmonary lobes, and eyelid and digit anomalies in rats. Since these developmental defects closely resemble those observed in patients with Fraser syndrome, a recessive multiorgan disorder, and its model animals, we investigatedmore » whether the abnormal phenotypes observed in fpl/fpl mutant rats are attributable to a genetic disorder similar to Fraser syndrome. At the epidermal basement membrane in fpl/fpl mutant neonates, the expression of QBRICK, a basement membrane protein whose expression is attenuated in Fraser syndrome model mice, was greatly diminished compared with control littermates. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of Fraser syndrome-related genes revealed that Frem2 transcripts were markedly diminished in QBRICK-negative embryos. Genomic DNA sequencing of the fpl/fpl mutant identified a nonsense mutation that introduced a stop codon at serine 2005 in Frem2. These findings indicate that the fpl mutant is a rat model of human Fraser syndrome.« less

  9. Budesonide Inhibits Intracellular Infection with Non-Typeable Haemophilus influenzae Despite Its Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Respiratory Cells and Human Lung Tissue: A Role for p38 MAP Kinase.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Christopher; Goldmann, Torsten; Rohmann, Kristina; Rupp, Jan; Marwitz, Sebastian; Rotta Detto Loria, Johannes; Limmer, Stefan; Zabel, Peter; Dalhoff, Klaus; Drömann, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are widely used in the treatment of obstructive lung diseases. Recent data suggest a higher pneumonia risk in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients treated with ICS. Since non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is the most common pathogen associated with acute exacerbations of COPD, we investigated the effects of budesonide (BUD) on NTHi-induced inflammation and invasive infection. The alveolar epithelial cell line A549 and specimens of human lung tissue (HLT) were used in our experiments. Intracellular infection was determined by a lysis/culture assay of infected cells. Activated p38 mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK) was assessed using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, expression of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) was determined by PCR, and CXCL-8 levels were measured using ELISA. Immunohistochemistry was used for detection of CXCL-8, platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R) and NTHi. BUD significantly reduced CXCL-8 secretion in A549 cells and lung tissue infected with NTHi. Furthermore, BUD decreased the expression of PAF-R in HLT and A549 cells. In A549 cells and HLT, BUD inhibited intracellular infection and - synergistically with NTHi - increased the expression of TLR2 (in A549 cells). TLR2 stimulation did not influence the intracellular infection of A549 cells, but p38 MAPK inhibition resulted in a significant reduction of infection. The present study adds new insights into the effects of glucocorticoids on pulmonary host defence after NTHi infection. Although the inflammatory response to infection is suppressed by BUD, interestingly, the intracellular infection is also inhibited. This effect seems to depend on the inhibition of p38 MAPK - a key enzyme in many pro-inflammatory pathways - as well as of PAF-R expression. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. [Astaxanthin inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of A549 lung cancer cells via blocking JAK1/STAT3 pathway].

    PubMed

    Wu, Chuntao; Zhang, Jinji; Liu, Tienan; Jiao, Guimei; Li, Changzai; Hu, Baoshan

    2016-06-01

    Objective To investigate the anti-tumor effects of astaxanthin on A549 lung cancer cells and the related mechanisms. Methods A549 cells were cultured with various concentrations of astaxanthin (20, 40, 60, 80, 100 μmol/L), and DMSO at the same concentrations served as vehicle controls. The viability of A549 cells was detected by CCK-8 assay; cell cycle and apoptosis were observed by flow cytometry; and the expressions of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax), signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3), and Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) were evaluated by Western blotting. Results CCK-8 assay showed that astaxanthin decreased the proliferation of A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry showed that astaxanthin increased the number of cells in the G0/G1 phase and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Western blotting showed that astaxanthin up-regulated the expression of Bax and down-regulated the expressions of Bcl-2, STAT3 and JAK1. Conclusion Astaxanthin functions as a potent inhibitor of A549 lung cancer cell growth by targeting JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway.

  11. Determinants of ventilation and pulmonary artery pressure during early acclimatization to hypoxia in humans

    PubMed Central

    Fatemian, Marzieh; Herigstad, Mari; Croft, Quentin P. P.; Formenti, Federico; Cardenas, Rosa; Wheeler, Carly; Smith, Thomas G.; Friedmannova, Maria; Dorrington, Keith L.

    2015-01-01

    Key points Lung ventilation and pulmonary artery pressure rise progressively in response to 8 h of hypoxia, changes described as ‘acclimatization to hypoxia’. Acclimatization responses differ markedly between humans for unknown reasons.We explored whether the magnitudes of the ventilatory and vascular responses were related, and whether the degree of acclimatization could be predicted by acute measurements of ventilatory and vascular sensitivities.In 80 healthy human volunteers measurements of acclimatization were made before, during, and after a sustained exposure to 8 h of isocapnic hypoxia.No correlation was found between measures of ventilatory and pulmonary vascular acclimatization.The ventilatory chemoreflex sensitivities to acute hypoxia and hypercapnia all increased in proportion to their pre‐acclimatization values following 8 h of hypoxia. The peripheral (rapid) chemoreflex sensitivity to CO2, measured before sustained hypoxia against a background of hyperoxia, was a modest predictor of ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia. This finding has relevance to predicting human acclimatization to the hypoxia of altitude. Abstract Pulmonary ventilation and pulmonary arterial pressure both rise progressively during the first few hours of human acclimatization to hypoxia. These responses are highly variable between individuals, but the origin of this variability is unknown. Here, we sought to determine whether the variabilities between different measures of response to sustained hypoxia were related, which would suggest a common source of variability. Eighty volunteers individually underwent an 8‐h isocapnic exposure to hypoxia (end‐tidal P O2=55 Torr) in a purpose‐built chamber. Measurements of ventilation and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) assessed by Doppler echocardiography were made during the exposure. Before and after the exposure, measurements were made of the ventilatory sensitivities to acute isocapnic hypoxia (GpO2) and

  12. SB203580 enhances the RV-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis in A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hai-yang; Zhuang, Cai-ping; Wang, Xiao-ping; Chen, Tong-sheng

    2012-03-01

    Resveratrol (RV), a naturally occurring phytoalexin, is known to possess a wide spectrum of chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects in various stages of human tumors. p38, a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) superfamily, is always activated by some extracellular stimulus to regulate many cellular signal transduction pathways, such as apoptosis, proliferation, and inflammation and so on. In this report, we assessed the effect of SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK signaling pathway, on the RV-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. CCK-8 assay showed that pretreatment with SB203580 significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of RV, which was further verified by analyzing the phosphatidylserine externalization using flow cytometry. In order to further confirm whether SB203580 accelerated apoptosis via the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, we analyzed the dysfunction of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) of cells stained with rhodamine 123 by using flow cytometry after treatment with RV in the absence and presence of SB203580. Our data for the first time reported that p38 inhibitor SB203580 enhanced the RV-induced apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway.

  13. Low level CO2 effects on pulmonary function in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexton, J.; Mueller, K.; Elliott, A.; Gerzer, D.; Strohl, K. P.; West, J. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether chamber exposure to low levels of CO2 results in functional alterations in gas mixing and closing volume in humans. Four healthy volunteer subjects were exposed to 0.7% CO2 and to 1.2% CO2. Spirometry, lung volumes, single breath nitrogen washout, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) by two methods, and cardiac output were measured in triplicate. Values were obtained over two non-consecutive days during the training period (control) and on days 2 or 3, 4, 6, 10, 13, and 23 of exposure to each CO2 level. Measurements were made during the same time of day. There was one day of testing after exposure, while still in the chamber but off carbon dioxide. The order of testing, up until measurements of DLCO and cardiac output, were randomized to avoid presentation effects. The consistent findings were a reduction in diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and a fall in cardiac output, occurring to a similar degree with both exposures. For the group as a whole, there was no indication of major effects on spirometry, lung volumes, gas mixing or dead space. We conclude that small changes may occur in the function of distal gas exchanging units; however, these effects were not associated with any adverse health effects. The likelihood of pathophysiologic changes in lung function or structure with 0.7 or 1.2% CO2 exposure for this period of time, is therefore, low.

  14. Withaferin A inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced expression of cell adhesion molecules by inactivation of Akt and NF-kappaB in human pulmonary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jung Hwa; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2009-05-01

    We here investigated the functional effect of withaferin A on airway inflammation and its action mechanism. Withaferin A inhibited the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in human lung epithelial A549 cells stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), resulting in the suppression of leukocyte adhesion to lung epithelial A549 cells. In addition, withaferin A inhibited TNF-alpha-induced expression of adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) protein and mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. Withaferin A prevented DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. It also inhibited phosphorylation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which are upstream in the regulation of adhesion molecules by TNF-alpha. Furthermore, withaferin A inhibited U937 monocyte adhesion to A549 cells stimulated by TNF-alpha, suggesting that it may inhibit the binding of these cells by regulating the expression of critical adhesion molecules by TNF-alpha. Taken together, these results suggest that withaferin A inhibits cell adhesion through inhibition of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression, at least in part, by blocking Akt and down-regulating NF-kappaB activity.

  15. Middle Infrared Radiation Induces G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest in A549 Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Tsai, Shang-Ru; Juan, Hsueh-Fen; Lee, Si-Chen

    2013-01-01

    There were studies investigating the effects of broadband infrared radiation (IR) on cancer cell, while the influences of middle-infrared radiation (MIR) are still unknown. In this study, a MIR emitter with emission wavelength band in the 3–5 µm region was developed to irradiate A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. It was found that MIR exposure inhibited cell proliferation and induced morphological changes by altering the cellular distribution of cytoskeletal components. Using quantitative PCR, we found that MIR promoted the expression levels of ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated), ATR (ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related and Rad3-related), TP53 (tumor protein p53), p21 (CDKN1A, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A) and GADD45 (growth arrest and DNA-damage inducible), but decreased the expression levels of cyclin B coding genes, CCNB1 and CCNB2, as well as CDK1 (Cyclin-dependent kinase 1). The reduction of protein expression levels of CDC25C, cyclin B1 and the phosphorylation of CDK1 at Thr-161 altogether suggest G2/M arrest occurred in A549 cells by MIR. DNA repair foci formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) marker γ-H2AX and sensor 53BP1 was induced by MIR treatment, it implies the MIR induced G2/M cell cycle arrest resulted from DSB. This study illustrates a potential role for the use of MIR in lung cancer therapy by initiating DSB and blocking cell cycle progression. PMID:23335992

  16. [Combined effects of interferon γ and γ ray irradiation on A549 cells in vitro].

    PubMed

    Xia, Hui; Zhang, Yi-ming; Yu, Chang-hai; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Bao-shi; Fang, Fang

    2012-02-07

    To define the role of interferon-γ on radiotherapy of lung cancer and explore a new way to clinical treatment. A549 cells were exposed to γ ray with or without IFN-γ co-treatment. MTT assay was performed to evaluate cell viability. Western blot was used to observe the expression of P53 protein. The results showed that co-treatment of IFN-γ decreased the cell viability significantly compared with the γ ray irradiation group (71.4% ± 2.1% vs 44.1% ± 3.1%, n = 7, P < 0.01). In addition, the expression of P53 protein also increased significantly after co-treatment (P < 0.01); Furthermore, the cell cycle was changed obviously in co-treatment group compared with γ ray irradiation group, S phase increased (12.9% vs 20.9%, n = 5, P < 0.05) and also blocked the G2/M phase (28.8% vs 38.9%, n = 5, P < 0.05). The results suggested that γ ray irradiation combined with IFN-γ can increase the efficiency of radiotherapy on A549 cells and there is much broad prospect in the clinical treatment of lung cancer.

  17. Silica nanoparticles and biological dispersants: genotoxic effects on A549 lung epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, David M.; Varet, Julia; Johnston, Helinor; Chrystie, Alison; Stone, Vicki

    2015-10-01

    Silica nanoparticle exposure could be intentional (e.g. medical application or food) or accidental (e.g. occupational inhalation). On entering the body, particles become coated with specific proteins depending on the route of entry. The ability of silica particles of different size and charge (non-functionalized 50 and 200 nm and aminated 50 and 200 nm) to cause genotoxic effects in A549 lung epithelial cells was investigated. Using the modified comet assay and the micronucleus assay, we examined the effect of suspending the particles in different dispersion media [RPMI or Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS), supplemented with bovine serum albumin (BSA), lung lining fluid (LLF) or serum] to determine if this influenced the particle's activity. Particle characterisation suggested that the particles were reasonably well dispersed in the different media, with the exception of aminated 50 nm particles which showed evidence of agglomeration. Plain 50, 200 nm and aminated 50 nm particles caused significant genotoxic effects in the presence of formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase when dispersed in HBSS or LLF. These effects were reduced when the particles were dispersed in BSA and serum. There was no significant micronucleus formation produced by any of the particles when suspended in any of the dispersants. The data suggest that silica particles can produce a significant genotoxic effect according to the comet assay in A549 cells, possibly driven by an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism which may be modified depending on the choice of dispersant employed.

  18. Evaluation of whole cigarette smoke induced oxidative stress in A549 and BEAS-2B cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shimin; Li, Xiang; Xie, Fuwei; Liu, Kejian; Liu, Huimin; Xie, Jianping

    2017-09-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex and oxidative aerosol. Previous researches on the hazards of cigarette smoke mainly focused on the adverse bioeffects induced by its condensates or gas vapor phase, which ignored the dynamic processes of smoking and the cigarette smoke aging. To overcome these disadvantages, we performed air-liquid interface exposure of whole smoke, which used native and unmodified smoke and ensured the exposure similar to physiological inhalation. Our results indicated that whole cigarette smoke induced lung epithelial cells (A549) and bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) damages in cytotoxicity assays (methyl thiazoly tetrazolium and neutral red uptake assays). In addition, A549 and BEAS-2B cells showed oxidative damages in whole smoke exposure, with concentration change of several biomarkers (reduced and oxidized glutathione, malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxyhydroxy-2-nonenal, extracellular superoxide dismutase, and 8-hydroxyl deoxyguanosine). These results indicate that whole smoke-induced oxidative stress occurs in two different kinds of cells at air-liquid interface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Asthma causes inflammation of human pulmonary arteries and decreases vasodilatation induced by prostaglandin I2 analogs.

    PubMed

    Foudi, Nabil; Badi, Aouatef; Amrane, Mounira; Hodroj, Wassim

    2017-12-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with increased cardiovascular events. This study assesses the presence of inflammation and the vascular reactivity of pulmonary arteries in patients with acute asthma. Rings of human pulmonary arteries obtained from non-asthmatic and asthmatic patients were set up in organ bath for vascular tone monitoring. Reactivity was induced by vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agents. Protein expression of inflammatory markers was detected by western blot. Prostanoid releases and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels were quantified using specific enzymatic kits. Protein expression of cluster of differentiation 68, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and cyclooxygenase-2 was significantly increased in arteries obtained from asthmatic patients. These effects were accompanied by an alteration of vasodilatation induced by iloprost and treprostinil, a decrease in cAMP levels and an increase in prostaglandin (PG) E 2 and PGI 2 synthesis. The use of forskolin (50 µmol/L) has restored the vasodilatation and cAMP release. No difference was observed between the two groups in reactivity induced by norepinephrine, angiotensin II, PGE 2 , KCl, sodium nitroprusside, and acetylcholine. Acute asthma causes inflammation of pulmonary arteries and decreases vasodilation induced by PGI 2 analogs through the impairment of cAMP pathway.

  20. Bio-fabrication of catalytic platinum nanoparticles and their in vitro efficacy against lungs cancer cells line (A549).

    PubMed

    Ullah, Sadeeq; Ahmad, Aftab; Wang, Aoke; Raza, Muslim; Jan, Amin Ullah; Tahir, Kamran; Rahman, Aziz Ur; Qipeng, Yuan

    2017-08-01

    Platinum based drugs are considered as effective agents against various types of carcinoma; however, the severe toxicity associated with the chemically prepared platinum complexes limit their practical applications. Similarly, water pollution caused by various organic moieties is another serious health problem worldwide. Hence, an intense need exists to develop new, effective and biocompatible materials with catalytic and biomedical applications. In the present contribution, we prepared platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) by a green route using phytochemicals as a source of reducing and stabilizing agents. Well dispersed and crystalline PtNPs of spherical shapes were prepared and characterized. The bio-fabricated PtNPs were used as catalyst and anticancer agents. Catalytic performance of the PtNPs showed that 84% of the methylene blue can be reduced in 32min under visible light irradiation (K=0.078min -1 ). Similarly the catalytic conversion of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol was achieved in <20min (K=0.124min -1 ). The in vitro anticancer study revealed that biogenic PtNPs are the efficient nano-agents possessing strong anticancer activity against the lungs cancer cells line (A549). Interestingly, the as prepared PtNPs were well tolerated by normal human cells, and therefore, could be effective and biocompatible agents in the treatment of different cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Oxidative Stress Facilitates IFN-γ-Induced Mimic Extracellular Trap Cell Death in A549 Lung Epithelial Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chiou-Feng; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chien, Shun-Yi; Tseng, Po-Chun; Wang, Yu-Chih; Tsai, Tsung-Ting

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that IFN-γ induces an autophagy-regulated mimic extracellular trap cell death (ETosis) in A549 human lung cancer cells. Regarding reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in ETosis, this study investigated the role of oxidative stress. After IFN-γ stimulation, a necrosis-like cell death mimic ETosis occurred accompanied by the inhibition of cell growth, aberrant nuclear staining, and nucleosome release. ROS were generated in a time-dependent manner with an increase in NADPH oxidase component protein expression. STAT1-mediated IFN regulatory factor-1 activation was essential for upregulating ROS production. By genetically silencing p47phox, IFN-γ-induced ROS and mimic ETosis were significantly attenuated. This mechanistic study indicated that ROS may mediate DNA damage followed by histone H3 citrullination. Furthermore, ROS promoted IFN-γ-induced mimic ETosis in cooperation with autophagy. These findings further demonstrate that ROS regulates IFN-γ-induced mimic ETosis in lung epithelial malignancy.

  2. Oxidative Stress Facilitates IFN-γ-Induced Mimic Extracellular Trap Cell Death in A549 Lung Epithelial Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chiou-Feng; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chien, Shun-Yi; Tseng, Po-Chun; Wang, Yu-Chih; Tsai, Tsung-Ting

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that IFN-γ induces an autophagy-regulated mimic extracellular trap cell death (ETosis) in A549 human lung cancer cells. Regarding reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in ETosis, this study investigated the role of oxidative stress. After IFN-γ stimulation, a necrosis-like cell death mimic ETosis occurred accompanied by the inhibition of cell growth, aberrant nuclear staining, and nucleosome release. ROS were generated in a time-dependent manner with an increase in NADPH oxidase component protein expression. STAT1-mediated IFN regulatory factor-1 activation was essential for upregulating ROS production. By genetically silencing p47phox, IFN-γ-induced ROS and mimic ETosis were significantly attenuated. This mechanistic study indicated that ROS may mediate DNA damage followed by histone H3 citrullination. Furthermore, ROS promoted IFN-γ-induced mimic ETosis in cooperation with autophagy. These findings further demonstrate that ROS regulates IFN-γ-induced mimic ETosis in lung epithelial malignancy. PMID:27575372

  3. VEGF isoforms have differential effects on permeability of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ourradi, Khadija; Blythe, Thomas; Jarrett, Caroline; Barratt, Shaney L; Welsh, Gavin I; Millar, Ann B

    2017-06-02

    Alternative splicing of Vascular endothelial growth factor-A mRNA transcripts (commonly referred as VEGF) leads to the generation of functionally differing isoforms, the relative amounts of which have potentially significant physiological outcomes in conditions such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The effect of such isoforms on pulmonary vascular permeability is unknown. We hypothesised that VEGF 165 a and VEGF 165 b isoforms would have differing effects on pulmonary vascular permeability caused by differential activation of intercellular signal transduction pathways. To test this hypothesis we investigated the physiological effect of VEGF 165 a and VEGF 165 b on Human Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Cell (HPMEC) permeability using three different methods: trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER), Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) and FITC-BSA passage. In addition, potential downstream signalling pathways of the VEGF isoforms were investigated by Western blotting and the use of specific signalling inhibitors. VEGF 165 a increased HPMEC permeability using all three methods (paracellular and transcellular) and led to associated VE-cadherin and actin stress fibre changes. In contrast, VEGF 165 b decreased paracellular permeability and did not induce changes in VE-cadherin cell distribution. Furthermore, VEGF 165 a and VEGF 165 b had differing effects on both the phosphorylation of VEGF receptors and downstream signalling proteins pMEK, p42/44MAPK, p38 MAPK, pAKT and peNOS. Interestingly specific inhibition of the pMEK, p38 MAPK, PI3 kinase and eNOS pathways blocked the effects of both VEGF 165 a and VEGF 165 b on paracellular permeability and the effect of VEGF 165 a on proliferation/migration, suggesting that this difference in cellular response is mediated by an as yet unidentified signalling pathway(s). This study demonstrates that the novel isoform VEGF 165 a and VEGF 165 b induce differing effects on permeability in

  4. [Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with human immunodeficiency virus: thirty years after its description].

    PubMed

    Sandoval Gutiérrez, José Luis

    2018-04-11

    The development of pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with human immunodeficiency virus reduces the probability of survival in the patient affected compared to those without cardiopulmonary disease. The pathophysiology is uncertain. There are several lines of research to associate the different proteins of the virus in the endothelial lesion. From a therapeutic point of view there are treatment modalities that allow an acceptable life expectancy. Copyright © 2018 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. [Pulmonary cystic disease may be a rare complication to recurrent respiratory human papilloma virus infection].

    PubMed

    Laurberg, Peter Thaysen; Weinreich, Ulla M Øller

    2014-12-08

    A 19-year-old woman with a history of juvenile laryngeal papillomatosis (JLP), treated since childhood with multiple resections, was admitted with symptoms of pneumonia. A chest X-ray and CAT-scan revealed multiple lung cysts and a bronchoalveolar lavage detected human papilloma virus 11. The patient responded well to antibiotics. A body plethysmography showed small lung volumes and low diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide, but normal volume diffusion capacity divided by alveolar volume. Pulmonary cystic disease should be considered when patients with JLP have symptoms of pneumonia.

  6. Histopathological Analogies in Chronic Pulmonary Lesions between Cattle and Humans: Basis for an Alternative Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Romero, Rafael; Nevárez-Garza, Alicia M.; Rodríguez-Tovar, Luis E.; Wong-González, Alfredo; Ledezma-Torres, Rogelio A.; Hernández-Vidal, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Most of the natural cases of pneumonia in feedlot cattle are characterized by a longer clinical course due to chronic lung lesions. Microscopically, these lesions include interstitial fibroplasia, bronchitis, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis obliterans, and epithelial metaplasia of the airways. Herein, the aim was to review, under a medical perspective, the pathologic mechanisms operating in these chronic pneumonic lesions in calves. Based on the similarities of these changes to those reported in bronchiolitis obliterans/organising pneumonia (BO/OP) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in human beings, calves are proposed as an alternative animal model. PMID:22629176

  7. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Pulmonary Infection in Humanized Mice Induces Human Anti-RSV Immune Responses and Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anurag; Wu, Wenzhu; Sung, Biin; Huang, Jing; Tsao, Tiffany; Li, Xiangming; Gomi, Rika; Tsuji, Moriya

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract disease, which causes high rates of morbidity and mortality in infants and the elderly. Models of human RSV pulmonary disease are needed to better understand RSV pathogenesis and to assess the efficacy of RSV vaccines. We assessed the RSV-specific human innate, humoral, and cellular immune responses in humanized mice (mice with a human immune system [HIS mice]) with functional human CD4+ T and B cells. These mice were generated by introduction of HLA class II genes, various human cytokines, and human B cell activation factor into immunodeficient NOD scid gamma (NSG) mice by the use of an adeno-associated virus vector, followed by engraftment of human hematopoietic stem cells. During the first 3 days of infection, HIS mice lost more weight and cleared RSV faster than NSG mice. Human chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3) and human interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression was detected in the RSV-infected HIS mice. The pathological features induced by RSV infection in HIS mice included peribronchiolar inflammation, neutrophil predominance in the bronchioalveolar lavage fluid, and enhanced airway mucus production. Human anti-RSV IgG and RSV-neutralizing antibodies were detected in serum and human anti-RSV mucosal IgA was detected in bronchioalveolar lavage fluid for up to 6 weeks. RSV infection induced an RSV-specific human gamma interferon response in HIS mouse splenocytes. These results indicate that human immune cells can induce features of RSV lung disease, including mucus hyperplasia, in murine lungs and that HIS mice can be used to elicit human anti-RSV humoral and cellular immunity. IMPORTANCE Infections with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are common and can cause severe lung disease in infants and the elderly. The lack of a suitable animal model with disease features similar to those in humans has hampered efforts to predict the efficacy of novel anti-RSV therapies and

  8. Preprocessing with Photoshop Software on Microscopic Images of A549 Cells in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhou-Xin; Yu, Hai-Bin; Shen, Jun-Ling; Li, Ya; Li, Jian-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    To establish a preprocessing method for cell morphometry in microscopic images of A549 cells in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Adobe Photoshop CS2 (Adobe Systems, Inc.) was used for preprocessing the images. First, all images were processed for size uniformity and high distinguishability between the cell and background area. Then, a blank image with the same size and grids was established and cross points of the grids were added into a distinct color. The blank image was merged into a processed image. In the merged images, the cells with 1 or more cross points were chosen, and then the cell areas were enclosed and were replaced in a distinct color. Except for chosen cellular areas, all areas were changed into a unique hue. Three observers quantified roundness of cells in images with the image preprocess (IPP) or without the method (Controls), respectively. Furthermore, 1 observer measured the roundness 3 times with the 2 methods, respectively. The results between IPPs and Controls were compared for repeatability and reproducibility. As compared with the Control method, among 3 observers, use of the IPP method resulted in a higher number and a higher percentage of same-chosen cells in an image. The relative average deviation values of roundness, either for 3 observers or 1 observer, were significantly higher in Controls than in IPPs (p < 0.01 or 0.001). The values of intraclass correlation coefficient, both in Single Type or Average, were higher in IPPs than in Controls both for 3 observers and 1 observer. Processed with Adobe Photoshop, a chosen cell from an image was more objective, regular, and accurate, creating an increase of reproducibility and repeatability on morphometry of A549 cells in epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

  9. Assessment of Cell Line Models of Primary Human Cells by Raman Spectral Phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    Swain, Robin J.; Kemp, Sarah J.; Goldstraw, Peter; Tetley, Teresa D.; Stevens, Molly M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Researchers have previously questioned the suitability of cell lines as models for primary cells. In this study, we used Raman microspectroscopy to characterize live A549 cells from a unique molecular biochemical perspective to shed light on their suitability as a model for primary human pulmonary alveolar type II (ATII) cells. We also investigated a recently developed transduced type I (TT1) cell line as a model for alveolar type I (ATI) cells. Single-cell Raman spectra provide unique biomolecular fingerprints that can be used to characterize cellular phenotypes. A multivariate statistical analysis of Raman spectra indicated that the spectra of A549 and TT1 cells are characterized by significantly lower phospholipid content compared to ATII and ATI spectra because their cytoplasm contains fewer surfactant lamellar bodies. Furthermore, we found that A549 spectra are statistically more similar to ATI spectra than to ATII spectra. The spectral variation permitted phenotypic classification of cells based on Raman spectral signatures with >99% accuracy. These results suggest that A549 cells are not a good model for ATII cells, but TT1 cells do provide a reasonable model for ATI cells. The findings have far-reaching implications for the assessment of cell lines as suitable primary cellular models in live cultures. PMID:20409492

  10. An imaging flow cytometry method to assess ricin trafficking in A549 human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jenner, Dominic; Chong, Damien; Walker, Nicola; Green, A Christopher

    2018-02-01

    The endocytosis and trafficking of ricin in mammalian cells is an important area of research for those producing ricin anti-toxins and other ricin therapeutics. Ricin trafficking is usually observed by fluorescence microscopy techniques. This gives good resolution and leads to a detailed understanding of the internal movement of ricin within cells. However, microscopy techniques are often hampered by complex analysis and quantification techniques, and the inability to look at ricin trafficking in large populations of cells. In these studies we have directly labelled ricin and assessed if its trafficking can be observed using Imaging Flow Cytometry (IFC) both to the cytoplasmic region of cells and specifically to the Golgi apparatus. Using IDEAS® data analysis software the specific fluorescence location of the ricin within the cells was analysed. Then, using cytoplasmic masking techniques to quantify the number of cells with endocytosed cytoplasmic ricin or cells with Golgi-associated ricin, kinetic endocytosis curves were generated. Here we present, to the authors' knowledge, the first example of using imaging flow cytometry for evaluating the subcellular transport of protein cargo, using the trafficking of ricin toxin in lung cells as a model. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Neutrophil-Derived MMP-8 Drives AMPK-Dependent Matrix Destruction in Human Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ong, Catherine W M; Elkington, Paul T; Brilha, Sara; Ugarte-Gil, Cesar; Tome-Esteban, Maite T; Tezera, Liku B; Pabisiak, Przemyslaw J; Moores, Rachel C; Sathyamoorthy, Tarangini; Patel, Vimal; Gilman, Robert H; Porter, Joanna C; Friedland, Jon S

    2015-05-01

    Pulmonary cavities, the hallmark of tuberculosis (TB), are characterized by high mycobacterial load and perpetuate the spread of M. tuberculosis. The mechanism of matrix destruction resulting in cavitation is not well defined. Neutrophils are emerging as key mediators of TB immunopathology and their influx are associated with poor outcomes. We investigated neutrophil-dependent mechanisms involved in TB-associated matrix destruction using a cellular model, a cohort of 108 patients, and in separate patient lung biopsies. Neutrophil-derived NF-kB-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) secretion was up-regulated in TB and caused matrix destruction both in vitro and in respiratory samples of TB patients. Collagen destruction induced by TB infection was abolished by doxycycline, a licensed MMP inhibitor. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contain MMP-8 and are increased in samples from TB patients. Neutrophils lined the circumference of human pulmonary TB cavities and sputum MMP-8 concentrations reflected TB radiological and clinical disease severity. AMPK, a central regulator of catabolism, drove neutrophil MMP-8 secretion and neutrophils from AMPK-deficient patients secrete lower MMP-8 concentrations. AMPK-expressing neutrophils are present in human TB lung biopsies with phospho-AMPK detected in nuclei. These data demonstrate that neutrophil-derived MMP-8 has a key role in the immunopathology of TB and is a potential target for host-directed therapy in this infectious disease.

  12. Neutrophil-Derived MMP-8 Drives AMPK-Dependent Matrix Destruction in Human Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Catherine W. M.; Elkington, Paul T.; Brilha, Sara; Ugarte-Gil, Cesar; Tome-Esteban, Maite T.; Tezera, Liku B.; Pabisiak, Przemyslaw J.; Moores, Rachel C.; Sathyamoorthy, Tarangini; Patel, Vimal; Gilman, Robert H.; Porter, Joanna C.; Friedland, Jon S.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary cavities, the hallmark of tuberculosis (TB), are characterized by high mycobacterial load and perpetuate the spread of M. tuberculosis. The mechanism of matrix destruction resulting in cavitation is not well defined. Neutrophils are emerging as key mediators of TB immunopathology and their influx are associated with poor outcomes. We investigated neutrophil-dependent mechanisms involved in TB-associated matrix destruction using a cellular model, a cohort of 108 patients, and in separate patient lung biopsies. Neutrophil-derived NF-kB-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) secretion was up-regulated in TB and caused matrix destruction both in vitro and in respiratory samples of TB patients. Collagen destruction induced by TB infection was abolished by doxycycline, a licensed MMP inhibitor. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contain MMP-8 and are increased in samples from TB patients. Neutrophils lined the circumference of human pulmonary TB cavities and sputum MMP-8 concentrations reflected TB radiological and clinical disease severity. AMPK, a central regulator of catabolism, drove neutrophil MMP-8 secretion and neutrophils from AMPK-deficient patients secrete lower MMP-8 concentrations. AMPK-expressing neutrophils are present in human TB lung biopsies with phospho-AMPK detected in nuclei. These data demonstrate that neutrophil-derived MMP-8 has a key role in the immunopathology of TB and is a potential target for host-directed therapy in this infectious disease. PMID:25996154

  13. Revelation of Different Nanoparticle-Uptake Behavior in Two Standard Cell Lines NIH/3T3 and A549 by Flow Cytometry and Time-Lapse Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Jochums, André; Friehs, Elsa; Sambale, Franziska; Lavrentieva, Antonina; Bahnemann, Detlef; Scheper, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The uptake of nanomaterials into different cell types is a central pharmacological issue for the determination of nanotoxicity as well as for the development of drug delivery strategies. Most responses of the cells depend on their intracellular interactions with nanoparticles (NPs). Uptake behavior can be precisely investigated in vitro, with sensitive high throughput methods such as flow cytometry. In this study, we investigated two different standard cell lines, human lung carcinoma (A549) and mouse fibroblast (NIH/3T3) cells, regarding their uptake behavior of titanium dioxide NPs. Cells were incubated with different concentrations of TiO2 NPs and samples were taken at certain time points to compare the uptake kinetics of both cell lines. Samples were analyzed with the help of flow cytometry by studying changes in the side and forward scattering signal. To additionally enable a detection via fluorescence, NPs were labeled with the fluorescent dye fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and propidium iodide (PI). We found that NIH/3T3 cells take up the studied NPs more efficiently than A549 cells. These findings were supported by time-lapse microscopic imaging of the cells incubated with TiO2 NPs. Our results confirm that the uptake behavior of individual cell types has to be considered before interpreting any results of nanomaterial studies. PMID:29051447

  14. Enhanced sensitivity of A549 cells to the cytotoxic action of anticancer drugs via suppression of Nrf2 by procyanidins from Cinnamomi Cortex extract

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnuma, Tomokazu; Matsumoto, Takashi; Itoi, Ayano

    Highlights: {yields} We found a novel inhibitor of Nrf2 known as a chemoresistance factor. {yields} Overexpressed Nrf2 in lung cancer cells was suppressed by Cinnamomi Cortex extract. {yields} Cytotoxic action of anticancer drugs in cells treated with the extract was enhanced. {yields} Procyanidin tetramers and pentamers were active components in suppressing Nrf2. -- Abstract: Nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an important cytoprotective transcription factor because Nrf2-regulated enzymes play a key role in antioxidant and detoxification processes. Recent studies have reported that lung cancer cells overexpressing Nrf2 exhibit increased resistance to chemotherapy. Suppression of overexpressed Nrf2 is needed for amore » new therapeutic approach against lung cancers. In the present study, we found that Cinnamomi Cortex extract (CCE) has an ability to suppress Nrf2-regulated enzyme activity and Nrf2 expression in human lung cancer A549 cells with high Nrf2 activity. Moreover, we demonstrated that CCE significantly enhances sensitivity of A549 cells to the cytotoxic action of doxorubicin and etoposide as well as increasing the intracellular accumulation of both drugs. These results suggest that CCE might be an effective concomitant agent to reduce anticancer drug resistance derived from Nrf2 overexpression. Bioactivity-guided fractionation revealed that procyanidin tetramers and pentamers contained in CCE were active components in suppressing Nrf2.« less

  15. Intracellular dynamics and fate of polystyrene nanoparticles in A549 Lung epithelial cells monitored by image (cross-) correlation spectroscopy and single particle tracking.

    PubMed

    Deville, Sarah; Penjweini, Rozhin; Smisdom, Nick; Notelaers, Kristof; Nelissen, Inge; Hooyberghs, Jef; Ameloot, Marcel

    2015-10-01

    Novel insights in nanoparticle (NP) uptake routes of cells, their intracellular trafficking and subcellular targeting can be obtained through the investigation of their temporal and spatial behavior. In this work, we present the application of image (cross-) correlation spectroscopy (IC(C)S) and single particle tracking (SPT) to monitor the intracellular dynamics of polystyrene (PS) NPs in the human lung carcinoma A549 cell line. The ensemble kinetic behavior of NPs inside the cell was characterized by temporal and spatiotemporal image correlation spectroscopy (TICS and STICS). Moreover, a more direct interpretation of the diffusion and flow detected in the NP motion was obtained by SPT by monitoring individual NPs. Both techniques demonstrate that the PS NP transport in A549 cells is mainly dependent on microtubule-assisted transport. By applying spatiotemporal image cross-correlation spectroscopy (STICCS), the correlated motions of NPs with the early endosomes, late endosomes and lysosomes are identified. PS NPs were equally distributed among the endolysosomal compartment during the time interval of the experiments. The cotransport of the NPs with the lysosomes is significantly larger compared to the other cell organelles. In the present study we show that the complementarity of ICS-based techniques and SPT enables a consistent elaborate model of the complex behavior of NPs inside biological systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. TXNIP mediates the differential responses of A549 cells to sodium butyrate and sodium 4-phenylbutyrate treatment.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xuefang; Wu, Nana; Dai, Juji; Li, Qiuxia; Xiao, XiaoQiang

    2017-02-01

    Sodium butyrate (NaBu) and sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4PBA) have promising futures in cancer treatment; however, their underlying molecular mechanisms are not clearly understood. Here, we show A549 cell death induced by NaBu and 4PBA are not the same. NaBu treatment induces a significantly higher level of A549 cell death than 4PBA. A gene expression microarray identified more than 5000 transcripts that were altered (>1.5-fold) in NaBu-treated A549 cells, but fewer than 2000 transcripts that were altered in 4PBA. Moreover, more than 100 cell cycle-associated genes were greatly repressed by NaBu, but slightly repressed by 4PBA; few genes were significantly upregulated only in 4PBA-treated cells. Gene expression was further validated by other experiments. Additionally, A549 cells that were treated with these showed changes in glucose consumption, caspase 3/7 activation and histone modifications, as well as enhanced mitochondrial superoxide production. TXNIP was strongly induced by NaBu (30- to 40-fold mRNA) but was only slightly induced by 4PBA (two to fivefold) in A549 cells. TXNIP knockdown by shRNA in A549 cells significantly attenuated caspase 3/7 activation and restored cell viability, while TXNIP overexpression significantly increased caspase 3/7 activation and cell death only in NaBu-treated cells. Moreover, TXNIP also regulated NaBu- but not 4PBA-induced H4K5 acetylation and H3K4 trimethylation, possibly by increasing WDR5 expression. Finally, we demonstrated that 4PBA induced a mitochondrial superoxide-associated cell death, while NaBu did so mainly through a TXNIP-mediated pathway. The above data might benefit the future clinic application. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The pathogenesis of bleomycin-induced lung injury in animals and its applicability to human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Williamson, James D; Sadofsky, Laura R; Hart, Simon P

    2015-03-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating disease of unknown etiology, for which there is no curative pharmacological therapy. Bleomycin, an anti-neoplastic agent that causes lung fibrosis in human patients has been used extensively in rodent models to mimic IPF. In this review, we compare the pathogenesis and histological features of human IPF and bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis (BPF) induced in rodents by intratracheal delivery. We discuss the current understanding of IPF and BPF disease development, from the contribution of alveolar epithelial cells and inflammation to the role of fibroblasts and cytokines, and draw conclusions about what we have learned from the intratracheal bleomycin model of lung fibrosis.

  18. Effect of Withaferin A on A549 cellular proliferation and apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yong; Sheng, Zhao-Ying; Chen, Yun; Bai, Chong

    2014-01-01

    To explore the effect of Withaferin A on A549 cellular proliferation and apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). NSCNC cell line A549 was selected to explore the effect of Withaferin A on A549 cellular proliferation, apoptosis and the PI3K/Akt signal pathway capable of regulating tumor biological behavior by assessment of cellular proliferation, cellular apoptotic rates and cellular cycling as well as by immuno-blotting. Withaferin A could inhibit A549 cellular proliferation and the control rate was dosage-dependent (P<0.05), which also increased time-dependently with the same dosage of Withaferin A (P<0.05). The apoptotic indexes in A549 cells treated with 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 μmol·L-1 Withaferin A for 48 h were significantly different (P<0.05). In addition, the apoptotic rates of each group in both early and advanced stages were higher than those in 0 μmol·L-1 (P<0.05), which were evidently higher after 48 h than those after 24 h (P<0.05). A549 cells treated by Withaferin A for 48 h were markedly lower in Bcl-2 level and obviously higher in Bax and cleaved caspase-3 levels than those treated by 0 μmol·L-1 Withaferin A (P<0.05), and there were significant differences among 5, 10 and 20 μmol·L-1 Withaferin A (P<0.05). The ratios of A549 cells treated by Withaferin A for 48 h in G0/G1 stage were higher than those in 0 μmol·L-1 , while those in S and G2/M stages were obviously lower than those in G2/M stage, and there were significant differences in 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 μmol·L-1 Withaferin A (P<0.05). Additionally, p-Akt/Akt values were in reverse association with dosage, and the differences were significant (P<0.05). Withaferin A can inhibit the proliferation and apoptosis of A549 cells by suppressing activation of the PI3K/Akt pathways.

  19. Variations in alveolar partial pressure for carbon dioxide and oxygen have additive not synergistic acute effects on human pulmonary vasoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Croft, Quentin P P; Formenti, Federico; Talbot, Nick P; Lunn, Daniel; Robbins, Peter A; Dorrington, Keith L

    2013-01-01

    The human pulmonary vasculature constricts in response to hypercapnia and hypoxia, with important consequences for homeostasis and adaptation. One function of these responses is to direct blood flow away from poorly-ventilated regions of the lung. In humans it is not known whether the stimuli of hypercapnia and hypoxia constrict the pulmonary blood vessels independently of each other or whether they act synergistically, such that the combination of hypercapnia and hypoxia is more effective than the sum of the responses to each stimulus on its own. We independently controlled the alveolar partial pressures of carbon dioxide (Paco 2) and oxygen (Pao 2) to examine their possible interaction on human pulmonary vasoconstriction. Nine volunteers each experienced sixteen possible combinations of four levels of Paco 2 (+6, +1, -4 and -9 mmHg, relative to baseline) with four levels of Pao 2 (175, 100, 75 and 50 mmHg). During each of these sixteen protocols Doppler echocardiography was used to evaluate cardiac output and systolic tricuspid pressure gradient, an index of pulmonary vasoconstriction. The degree of constriction varied linearly with both Paco 2 and the calculated haemoglobin oxygen desaturation (1-So2). Mixed effects modelling delivered coefficients defining the interdependence of cardiac output, systolic tricuspid pressure gradient, ventilation, Paco 2 and So2. No interaction was observed in the effects on pulmonary vasoconstriction of carbon dioxide and oxygen (p>0.64). Direct effects of the alveolar gases on systolic tricuspid pressure gradient greatly exceeded indirect effects arising from concurrent changes in cardiac output.

  20. Modulation of cGMP by human HO-1 retrovirus gene transfer in pulmonary microvessel endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Nader G; Quan, Shuo; Mieyal, Paul A; Yang, Liming; Burke-Wolin, Theresa; Mingone, Christopher J; Goodman, Alvin I; Nasjletti, Alberto; Wolin, Michael S

    2002-11-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) stimulates guanylate cyclase (GC) and increases guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) levels. We transfected rat-lung pulmonary endothelial cells with a retrovirus-mediated human heme oxygenase (hHO)-1 gene. Pulmonary cells that expressed hHO-1 exhibited a fourfold increase in HO activity associated with decreases in the steady-state levels of heme and cGMP without changes in soluble GC (sGC) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) proteins or basal nitrite production. Heme elicited significant increases in CO production and intracellular cGMP levels in both pulmonary endothelial and pulmonary hHO-1-expressing cells. N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of NOS, significantly decreased cGMP levels in heme-treated pulmonary endothelial cells but not heme-treated hHO-1-expressing cells. In the presence of exogenous heme, CO and cGMP levels in hHO-1-expressing cells exceeded the corresponding levels in pulmonary endothelial cells. Acute exposure of endothelial cells to SnCl2, which is an inducer of HO-1, increased cGMP levels, whereas chronic exposure decreased heme and cGMP levels. These results indicate that prolonged overexpression of HO-1 ultimately decreases sGC activity by limiting the availability of cellular heme. Heme activates sGC and enhances cGMP levels via a mechanism that is largely insensitive to NOS inhibition.

  1. Haemophilus influenzae genome evolution during persistence in the human airways in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Melinda M; Ahearn, Christian P; Gent, Janneane F; Kong, Yong; Gallo, Mary C; Munro, James B; D'Mello, Adonis; Sethi, Sanjay; Tettelin, Hervé; Murphy, Timothy F

    2018-04-03

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) exclusively colonize and infect humans and are critical to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In vitro and animal models do not accurately capture the complex environments encountered by NTHi during human infection. We conducted whole-genome sequencing of 269 longitudinally collected cleared and persistent NTHi from a 15-y prospective study of adults with COPD. Genome sequences were used to elucidate the phylogeny of NTHi isolates, identify genomic changes that occur with persistence in the human airways, and evaluate the effect of selective pressure on 12 candidate vaccine antigens. Strains persisted in individuals with COPD for as long as 1,422 d. Slipped-strand mispairing, mediated by changes in simple sequence repeats in multiple genes during persistence, regulates expression of critical virulence functions, including adherence, nutrient uptake, and modification of surface molecules, and is a major mechanism for survival in the hostile environment of the human airways. A subset of strains underwent a large 400-kb inversion during persistence. NTHi does not undergo significant gene gain or loss during persistence, in contrast to other persistent respiratory tract pathogens. Amino acid sequence changes occurred in 8 of 12 candidate vaccine antigens during persistence, an observation with important implications for vaccine development. These results indicate that NTHi alters its genome during persistence by regulation of critical virulence functions primarily by slipped-strand mispairing, advancing our understanding of how a bacterial pathogen that plays a critical role in COPD adapts to survival in the human respiratory tract.

  2. Neuron-derived orphan receptor 1 promoted human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells proliferation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-Guo; Lei, Wei; Li, Chang; Zeng, Da-Xiong; Huang, Jian-An

    2015-05-01

    As a transcription factor of the nuclear receptor superfamily, neuron-derived orphan receptor 1 (NOR1) is induced rapidly in response to various extracellular stimuli. But, it is still unclear its role in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells proliferation. Human PASMCs were cultured in vitro and stimulated by serum. The special antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AS-ODNs) were used to knockdown human NOR1 gene expression. Real-time PCR and Western-blot were used to evaluate the gene expression and protein levels. Fetal bovine serum (FBS) induced human PASMCs proliferation in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, FBS promoted NOR1 gene expression in a dose dependent manner and a time dependent manner. 10% FBS induced a maximal NOR1 mRNA levels at 2 h. FBS also induced a significant higher NOR1 protein levels as compared with control. The NOR1 over-expressed plasmid significantly promoted DNA synthesis and cells proliferation. Moreover, the special AS-ODNs against human NOR1 not only prevented NOR1 expression but also inhibited DNA synthesis and cells proliferation significantly. The NOR1 over-expression plasmid could up-regulate cyclin D1 expression markedly, but the AS-ODNs inhibited cyclin D1 expression significantly. So, we concluded that NOR1 could promote human PASMCs proliferation. Cyclin D1 might be involved in this process.

  3. Lipocalin-2 Promotes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Proliferation by Augmenting Intracellular Iron in Human Pulmonary Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoliang; Liu, Shenghua; Wang, Li; Meng, Liukun; Cui, Chuanjue; Zhang, Hao; Hu, Shengshou; Ma, Ning; Wei, Yingjie

    2017-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, a feature of many conditions associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH), is increasingly recognized as a common response to promote proliferation in the walls of pulmonary arteries. Increased expression of Lipocalin-2 in PH led us to test the hypothesis that Lipocalin-2, a protein known to sequester iron and regulate it intracellularly, might facilitate the ER stress and proliferation in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). In this study, we observed greatly increased Lcn2 expression accompanied with increased ATF6 cleavage in a standard rat model of pulmonary hypertension induced by monocrotaline. In cultured human PASMCs, Lcn2 significantly promoted ER stress (determined by augmented cleavage and nuclear localization of ATF6, up-regulated transcription of GRP78 and NOGO, increased expression of SOD2, and mild augmented mitochondrial membrane potential) and proliferation (assessed by Ki67 staining and BrdU incorporation). Lcn2 promoted ER stress accompanied with augmented intracellular iron levels in human PASMCs. Treatment human PASMCs with FeSO4 induced the similar ER stress and proliferation response and iron chelator (deferoxamine) abrogated the ER stress and proliferation induced by Lcn2 in cultured human PASMCs. In conclusion, Lcn2 significantly promoted human PASMC ER stress and proliferation by augmenting intracellular iron. The up-regulation of Lcn2 probably involved in the pathogenesis and progression of PH. PMID:28255266

  4. Predicting pulmonary fibrosis in humans after exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monita; Nikota, Jake; Halappanavar, Sabina; Castranova, Vincent; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Clippinger, Amy J

    2016-07-01

    The increased production and use of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in a diverse array of consumer, medical, and industrial applications have raised concerns about potential human exposure to these materials in the workplace and ambient environments. Inhalation is a primary route of exposure to MWCNTs, and the existing data indicate that they are potentially hazardous to human health. While a 90-day rodent inhalation test (e.g., OECD Test No. 413: subchronic inhalation toxicity: 90-day study or EPA Health Effects Test Guidelines OPPTS 870.3465 90-day inhalation toxicity) is recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics for MWCNTs (and other CNTs) if they are to be commercially produced (Godwin et al. in ACS Nano 9:3409-3417, 2015), this test is time and cost-intensive and subject to scientific and ethical concerns. As a result, there has been much interest in transitioning away from studies on animals and moving toward human-based in vitro and in silico models. However, given the multiple mechanisms of toxicity associated with subchronic exposure to inhaled MWCNTs, a battery of non-animal tests will likely be needed to evaluate the key endpoints assessed by the 90-day rodent study. Pulmonary fibrosis is an important adverse outcome related to inhalation exposure to MWCNTs and one that the non-animal approach should be able to assess. This review summarizes the state-of-the-science regarding in vivo and in vitro toxicological methods for predicting MWCNT-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

  5. Dissociation between systemic and pulmonary anti‐inflammatory effects of dexamethasone in humans

    PubMed Central

    Bartko, Johann; Stiebellehner, Leopold; Derhaschnig, Ulla; Schoergenhofer, Christian; Schwameis, Michael; Prosch, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Aims The local pulmonary inflammatory response has a different temporal and qualitative profile compared with the systemic inflammatory response. Although glucocorticoids substantially downregulate the systemic release of acute‐phase mediators, it is not clear whether they have comparable inhibitory effects in the human lung compartment. Therefore, we compared the anti‐inflammatory effects of a pure glucocorticoid agonist, dexamethasone, on bronchoalveolar lavage and blood cytokine concentrations in response to bronchially instilled endotoxin. Methods In this randomized, double‐blind and placebo‐controlled trial, 24 volunteers received dexamethasone or placebo and had endotoxin instilled into a lung segment and saline instilled into a contralateral segment, followed by bronchoalveolar lavage. Results Bronchially instilled endotoxin induced a local and systemic inflammatory response. Dexamethasone strongly blunted the systemic interleukin (IL) 6 and C‐reactive protein release. In sharp contrast, dexamethasone left the local release of acute‐phase mediators in the lungs virtually unchanged: bronchoalveolar lavage levels of IL‐6 were only 18% lower and levels of IL‐8 were even higher with dexamethasone compared with placebo, although the differences between treatments were not statistically significant (P = 0.07 and P = 0.08, respectively). However, dexamethasone had inhibitory effects on pulmonary protein extravasation and neutrophil migration. Conclusions The present study demonstrated a remarkable dissociation between the systemic anti‐inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids and its protective effects on capillary leak on the one hand and surprisingly low anti‐inflammatory effects in the lungs on the other. PMID:26647918

  6. p53/PUMA expression in human pulmonary fibroblasts mediates cell activation and migration in silicosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Haijun; Dai, Xiaoniu; Fang, Shencun; Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Yingming; Yao, Honghong; Zhang, Xilong; Chao, Jie

    2015-11-18

    Phagocytosis of SiO2 into the lung causes an inflammatory cascade that results in fibroblast proliferation and migration, followed by fibrosis. Clinical evidence has indicated that the activation of alveolar macrophages by SiO2 produces rapid and sustained inflammation characterized by the generation of monocyte chemotactic protein 1, which, in turn, induces fibrosis. However, the details of events downstream of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 activity in pulmonary fibroblasts remain unclear. Here, to elucidate the role of p53 in fibrosis induced by silica, both the upstream molecular mechanisms and the functional effects on cell proliferation and migration were investigated. Experiments using primary cultured adult human pulmonary fibroblasts led to the following results: 1) SiO2 treatment resulted in a rapid and sustained increase in p53 and PUMA protein levels; 2) the MAPK and PI3K pathways were involved in the SiO2-induced alteration of p53 and PUMA expression; and 3) RNA interference targeting p53 and PUMA prevented the SiO2-induced increases in fibroblast activation and migration. Our study elucidated a link between SiO2-induced p53/PUMA expression in fibroblasts and cell migration, thereby providing novel insight into the potential use of p53/PUMA in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for silicosis treatment.

  7. Role for miR-204 in human pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Courboulin, Audrey; Paulin, Roxane; Giguère, Nellie J.; Saksouk, Nehmé; Perreault, Tanya; Meloche, Jolyane; Paquet, Eric R.; Biardel, Sabrina; Provencher, Steeve; Côté, Jacques; Simard, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by enhanced proliferation and reduced apoptosis of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Because microRNAs have been recently implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis, we hypothesized that these regulatory molecules might be implicated in the etiology of PAH. In this study, we show that miR-204 expression in PASMCs is down-regulated in both human and rodent PAH. miR-204 down-regulation correlates with PAH severity and accounts for the proliferative and antiapoptotic phenotypes of PAH-PASMCs. STAT3 activation suppresses miR-204 expression, and miR-204 directly targets SHP2 expression, thereby SHP2 up-regulation, by miR-204 down-regulation, activates the Src kinase and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT). STAT3 also directly induces NFATc2 expression. NFAT and SHP2 were needed to sustain PAH-PASMC proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. Finally, delivery of synthetic miR-204 to the lungs of animals with PAH significantly reduced disease severity. This study uncovers a new regulatory pathway involving miR-204 that is critical to the etiology of PAH and indicates that reestablishing miR-204 expression should be explored as a potential new therapy for this disease. PMID:21321078

  8. Effects of nitrogen dioxide on pulmonary function in human subjects: an environmental chamber study

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, H.D.; Kulle, T.J.; McIlhany, M.L.

    Twenty human subjects with asthma and chronic bronchitis and 10 normal, healthy adults were exposed to 0.5 ppM of nitrogen dioxide for 2 h in an environmental chamber. Seven of the 13 subjects with asthma experienced symptoms with exposure, while only one each of the subjects with chronic bronchitis and the healthy, normal group experienced symptoms. Significant pulmonary function changes from control values with exposure to NO/sub 2/ were observed in decreased quasistatic compliance for the 10 normal subjects and the 20 subjects with asthma and chronic bronchitis. In addition, functional residual capacity increased significantly for the 20 subjects withmore » asthma and chronic bronchitis. The subjects with asthma and the subjects with chronic bronchitis as separate groups, however, did not show any significant changes with exposure. With this study we are reasonably confident that exposure of subjects with asthma and chronic bronchitis to 0.5 ppM NO/sub 2/ for 2 h does not produce a significant decrement in their pulmonary function.« less

  9. Non-ionic surfactant vesicles in pulmonary glucocorticoid delivery: characterization and interaction with human lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Marianecci, Carlotta; Paolino, Donatella; Celia, Christian; Fresta, Massimo; Carafa, Maria; Alhaique, Franco

    2010-10-01

    Non-ionic surfactant vesicles (NSVs) were proposed for the pulmonary delivery of glucocorticoids such as beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) for the treatment of inflammatory lung diseases, e.g. asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and various type of pulmonary fibrosis. The thin layer evaporation method followed by sonication was used to prepare small non-ionic surfactant vesicles containing beclomethasone dipropionate. Light scattering experiments showed that beclomethasone dipropionate-loaded non-ionic surfactant vesicles were larger than unloaded ones and showed a significant (P<0.001) decrease of the zeta potential. The morphological analysis, by freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy, showed the maintenance of a vesicular structure in the presence of the drug. The colloidal and storage stability were evaluated by Turbiscan Lab Expert, which evidenced the good stability of BDP-loaded non-ionic surfactant vesicles, thus showing no significant variations of mean size and no colloidal phase segregation. Primary human lung fibroblast (HLF) cells were used for in vitro investigation of vesicle tolerability, carrier-cell interaction, intracellular drug uptake and drug-loaded vesicle anti-inflammatory activity. The investigated NSVs did not show a significant cytotoxic activity at all incubation times for concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 1 μM. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed vesicular carrier localization at the level of the cytoplasm compartment, where the glucocorticoid receptor (target site) is localized. BDP-loaded non-ionic surfactant vesicles elicited a significant improvement of the HLF intracellular uptake of the drug with respect to the free drug solution, drug/surfactant mixtures and empty vesicles used as references. The treatment of HLF cells with BDP-loaded non-ionic surfactant vesicles determined a noticeable increase of the drug anti-inflammatory activity by reducing the secretion of both constitutive and interleukin-1

  10. Aspirin reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced pulmonary inflammation in human models of ARDS.

    PubMed

    Hamid, U; Krasnodembskaya, A; Fitzgerald, M; Shyamsundar, M; Kissenpfennig, A; Scott, C; Lefrancais, E; Looney, M R; Verghis, R; Scott, J; Simpson, A J; McNamee, J; McAuley, D F; O'Kane, C M

    2017-11-01

    Platelets play an active role in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Animal and observational studies have shown aspirin's antiplatelet and immunomodulatory effects may be beneficial in ARDS. To test the hypothesis that aspirin reduces inflammation in clinically relevant human models that recapitulate pathophysiological mechanisms implicated in the development of ARDS. Healthy volunteers were randomised to receive placebo or aspirin 75  or 1200 mg (1:1:1) for seven days prior to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhalation, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, allocation-concealed study. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed 6 hours after inhaling 50 µg of LPS. The primary outcome measure was BAL IL-8. Secondary outcome measures included markers of alveolar inflammation (BAL neutrophils, cytokines, neutrophil proteases), alveolar epithelial cell injury, systemic inflammation (neutrophils and plasma C-reactive protein (CRP)) and platelet activation (thromboxane B2, TXB2). Human lungs, perfused and ventilated ex vivo (EVLP) were randomised to placebo or 24 mg aspirin and injured with LPS. BAL was carried out 4 hours later. Inflammation was assessed by BAL differential cell counts and histological changes. In the healthy volunteer (n=33) model, data for the aspirin groups were combined. Aspirin did not reduce BAL IL-8. However, aspirin reduced pulmonary neutrophilia and tissue damaging neutrophil proteases (Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP)-8/-9), reduced BAL concentrations of tumour necrosis factor α and reduced systemic and pulmonary TXB2. There was no difference between high-dose and low-dose aspirin. In the EVLP model, aspirin reduced BAL neutrophilia and alveolar injury as measured by histological damage. These are the first prospective human data indicating that aspirin inhibits pulmonary neutrophilic inflammation, at both low and high doses. Further clinical studies are indicated to assess the role of aspirin in the

  11. Triptolide inhibits COX-2 expression by regulating mRNA stability in TNF-{alpha}-treated A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Lixin; Zhang, Shuang; Jiang, Zhenzhou

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Triptolide inhibited COX-2 expression and the half-life of COX-2 mRNA is decreased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The HuR protein shuttling from nucleus to cytoplasm is inhibited by triptolide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Triptolide inhibited 3 Prime -UTR fluorescence reporter gene activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer COX-2 mRNA binding to HuR is decreased by triptolide in pull-down experiments. -- Abstract: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) over-expression is frequently associated with human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and involved in tumor proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and resistance to apoptosis. In the present study, the effects of triptolide on COX-2 expression in A549 cells were investigated and triptolide was found to inhibit TNF-{alpha}-induced COX-2 expression.more » In our further studies, it was found that triptolide decreased the half-life of COX-2 mRNA dramatically and that it inhibited 3 Prime -untranslated region (3 Prime -UTR) fluorescence reporter gene activity. Meanwhile, triptolide inhibited the HuR shuttling from nucleus to cytoplasm. After triptolide treatment, decreased COX-2 mRNA in pull-down experiments with anti-HuR antibodies was observed, indicating that the decreased cytoplasmic HuR is responsible for the decreased COX-2 mRNA. Taken together, our results provided evidence for the first time that triptolide inhibited COX-2 expression by COX-2 mRNA stability modulation and post-transcriptional regulation. These results provide a novel mechanism of action for triptolide which may be important in the treatment of lung cancer.« less

  12. Irradiation-Dependent Effects on Tumor Perfusion and Endogenous and Exogenous Hypoxia Markers in an A549 Xenograft Model

    SciTech Connect

    Fokas, Emmanouil, E-mail: emmanouil.fokas@yahoo.d; Haenze, Joerg; Kamlah, Florentine

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: Hypoxia is a major determinant of tumor radiosensitivity, and microenvironmental changes in response to ionizing radiation (IR) are often heterogenous. We analyzed IR-dependent changes in hypoxia and perfusion in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma xenografts. Materials and Methods: Immunohistological analysis of two exogenously added chemical hypoxic markers, pimonidazole and CCI-103F, and of the endogenous marker Glut-1 was performed time dependently after IR. Tumor vessels and apoptosis were analyzed using CD31 and caspase-3 antibodies. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and fluorescent beads (Hoechst 33342) were used to monitor vascular perfusion. Results: CCI-103F signals measuring the fraction of hypoxic areas aftermore » IR were significantly decreased by approximately 50% when compared with pimonidazole signals, representing the fraction of hypoxic areas from the same tumors before IR. Interestingly, Glut-1 signals were significantly decreased at early time point (6.5 h) after IR returning to the initial levels at 30.5 h. Vascular density showed no difference between irradiated and control groups, whereas apoptosis was significantly induced at 10.5 h post-IR. DCE-MRI indicated increased perfusion 1 h post-IR. Conclusions: The discrepancy between the hypoxic fractions of CCI-103F and Glut-1 forces us to consider the possibility that both markers reflect different metabolic alterations of tumor microenvironment. The reliability of endogenous markers such as Glut-1 to measure reoxygenation in irradiated tumors needs further consideration. Monitoring tumor microvascular response to IR by DCE-MRI and measuring tumor volume alterations should be encouraged.« less

  13. Hypoxia induces arginase II expression and increases viable human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell numbers via AMPKα1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jianjing; Nelin, Leif D.

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation is one of the hallmark features of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. With only supportive treatment options available for this life-threatening disease, treating and preventing the proliferation of PASMCs is a viable therapeutic option. A key promoter of hypoxia-induced increases in the number of viable human PASMCs is arginase II, with attenuation of viable cell numbers following pharmacologic inhibition or siRNA knockdown of the enzyme. Additionally, increased levels of arginase have been demonstrated in the pulmonary vasculature of patients with pulmonary hypertension. The signaling pathways responsible for the hypoxic induction of arginase II in PASMCs, however, remain unknown. Hypoxia is a recognized activator of AMPK, which is known to be expressed in human PASMCs (hPASMCs). Activation of AMPK by hypoxia has been shown to promote cell survival in PASMCs. In addition, pharmacologic agents targeting AMPK have been shown to attenuate chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in animal models. The present studies tested the hypothesis that hypoxia-induced arginase II expression in hPASMCs is mediated through AMPK signaling. We found that pharmacologic inhibitors of AMPK, as well as siRNA knockdown of AMPKα1, prevented hypoxia-induced arginase II. The hypoxia-induced increase in viable hPASMC numbers was also prevented following both pharmacologic inhibition and siRNA knockdown of AMPK. Furthermore, we demonstrate that overexpression of AMPK induced arginase II protein expression and viable cells numbers in hPASMCs. PMID:28213467

  14. Induction of ER Stress-Mediated Apoptosis by α-Lipoic Acid in A549 Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong In; Lee, Chang Min; Park, Eok-Sung; Kim, Ki Nyun; Kim, Hyung Chul; Lee, Hae Young

    2012-01-01

    Background α-Lipoic acid (α-LA) has been studied as an anticancer agent as well as a therapeutic agent for diabetes and obesity. We performed this study to evaluate the anticancer effects and mechanisms of α-LA in a lung cancer cell line, A549. Materials and Methods α-LA-induced apoptosis of A549 cells was detected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis and a DNA fragmentation assay. Expression of apoptosis-related genes was analyzed by western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses. Results α-LA induced apoptosis and DNA fragmentation in A549 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. α-LA increased caspase activity and the degradation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. It induced expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related genes, such as glucose-regulated protein 78, C/EBP-homologous protein, and the short form of X-box binding protein-1, and decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was induced by α-LA, and the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine decreased the α-LA-induced increase in expression of apoptosis and ER stress-related proteins. Conclusion α-LA induced ER stress-mediated apoptosis in A549 cells via ROS. α-LA may therefore be clinically useful for treating lung cancer. PMID:22363901

  15. Differential modulation of glucocorticoid action by FK506 in A549 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Croxtall, Jamie D; Paul-Clark, Mark; Van Hal, Peter Th W

    2003-01-01

    Glucocorticoids inhibit the release of eicosanoid pro-inflammatory mediators. The immunosuppressant FK506 is known to enhance many aspects of glucocorticoid action. In the present study we show that FK506 (1 microM or 10 microM) inhibits the release of arachidonic acid and prostaglandin E2 from A549 cells and also inhibits their proliferation. Simultaneous treatment of FK506 together with the glucocorticoids dexamethasone, methyl-prednisolone, fluticasone or mometasone (10 nM) enhances the growth inhibitory effect of these steroids. Furthermore, the simultaneous use of FK506 and these glucocorticoids similarly results in enhanced inhibition of arachidonic acid release. When pretreated for 2 h, FK506 enhances glucocorticoid inhibition of COX2 (cyclo-oxygenase 2) expression. However, when administered simultaneously, FK506 blocks glucocorticoid inhibition of COX2 expression. Nuclear uptake of glucocorticoid receptors mediated by glucocorticoids is also blocked by the simultaneous administration of FK506. These results suggest that the effect of simultaneous treatment of FK506 with glucocorticoids differs significantly from that where pre-treatment of the immunosuppressant is used. Recently, immunophilin interchange has been identified as a first step in glucocorticoid receptor activation following ligand activation. We show here that the FKB51 (FK506-binding protein 51)-FKB52 switch is differentially regulated by glucocorticoid and FK506 treatment strategy. PMID:12948397

  16. RELM-β promotes human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation via FAK-stimulated surviving

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chunlong, E-mail: lclmd@sina.com; Li, Xiaohui; Luo, Qiong

    Resistin-like molecule-β (RELM-β), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and survivin may be involved in the proliferation of cultured human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (HPAMSCs), which is involved in pulmonary hypertension. HPAMSCs were treated with human recombinant RELM-β (rhRELM-β). siRNAs against FAK and survivin were transfected into cultured HPASMCs. Expression of FAK and survivin were examined by RT-PCR and western blot. Immunofluorescence was used to localize FAK. Flow cytometry was used to examine cell cycle distribution and cell death. Compared to the control group, all rhRELM-β-treated groups demonstrated significant increases in the expression of FAK and survivin (P<0.05). rhRELM-β significantly increasedmore » the proportion of HPASMCs in the S phase and decreased the proportion in G0/G1. FAK siRNA down-regulated survivin expression while survivin siRNA did not affect FAK expression. FAK siRNA effectively inhibited FAK and survivin expression in RELM-β-treated HPASMCs and partially suppressed cell proliferation. RELM-β promoted HPASMC proliferation and upregulated FAK and survivin expression. In conclusion, results suggested that FAK is upstream of survivin in the signaling pathway mediating cell proliferation. FAK seems to be important in RELM-β-induced HPASMC proliferation, partially by upregulating survivin expression. - Highlights: • rhRELM-β increased the expression of FAK and survivin. • rhRELM-β increased the proportion of HPASMCs in the S phase. • FAK is upstream of survivin in the signaling pathway mediating cell proliferation. • FAK is important in RELM-β-induced HPASMC proliferation, partly via survivin.« less

  17. mTOR inhibition of cardamonin on antiproliferation of A549 cells is involved in a FKBP12 independent fashion.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ying; Fang, Qi; Shi, Daohua; Niu, Peiguang; Chen, Yaoyao; Deng, Jie

    2014-03-18

    Cardamonin has previously demonstrated that it had an antiproliferative effect on vascular smooth muscle cells by inhibiting the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). The antiproliferative effect and the possible mechanism of combining with mTOR of cardamonin were investigated on A549 cells. Cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis were measured by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) and flow cytometry, respectively. mTOR and 12 kDa FK506 binding protein (FKBP12) were transfected into A549 cells by Lipofectamine. Western blots were used to examine the mTOR expressions and its activities, and the expressions of 70 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K), FKBP12 and Interleukin-2 (IL-2), respectively. Treated with cardamonin, the proliferation of A549 cells was inhibited. Meanwhile, cell cycle was blocked and DNA synthesis was decreased whereas cell apoptosis was promoted, and the activation of mTOR and p70S6K was decreased by cardamonin. Transfected with mTOR or FKBP12, proliferation of A549 cells was increased. Rapamycin had a similar degree of effect on antiproliferation of both transfected cells. However, the antiproliferative effect of cardamonin on mTOR transfected cells was stronger than that on FKBP12 transfected cells. Both rapamycin and cardamonin decreased the phosphorylation of mTOR and p70S6K in two kinds of transfected cells. Cardamonin had no effect on the expression of FKBP12 and IL-2, whereas the expressions were decreased by rapamycin. Cardamonin inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of A549 cells via mTOR. It might directly interact with mTOR independently of binding with FKBP12. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. SU-F-T-675: Down-Regulating the Expression of Cdc42 and Inhibition of Migration of A549 with Combined Treatment of Ionizing Radiation and Sevoflurane

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Y; Feng, J; Huang, Z

    Purpose: Cdc42 is involved in cell transformation, proliferation, invasion and metastasis of human cancer cells. Cdc42 overexpression has been reported in several types of cancers. This study investigated the combined treatment effects of ionizing radiation and sevoflurane on down-regulating Cdc42 expression and suppressing migration of human adenocarcinoma cell line A549. Methods: Samples of A549 cells with Cdc42 overexpression were created and Cdc42 expression was determined by Western blotting. Increase of migration speed by Cdc42-HA overexpression was confirmed with an initial in-vitro scratch assay. The cells grown in culture media were separated into 2 groups of 6 samples: one for themore » control and the other was treated with 4% sevoflurane for 5hrs prior to a single-fraction radiation of 4Gy using a 6MV beam. Cell migration speeds of the 2 groups were measured with an initial in-vitro scratch assay. The scratch was created with a pipette tip immediately after treatment and images at 4 post-treatment time points (0h, 3h, 6h, 12h) were acquired. The distance between the two separated sides at 0h was used as reference and subsequent changes of the distance over time was defined as the cell migration speed. Image processing and measurement were performed with an in-house software. The experiment was repeated three times independently to evaluate the repeatability and reliability. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 19.0. Results: Western blotting showed the treatment down-regulated Cdc42 overexpression. Quantitative analysis and two-tailed t-test showed that cell migration speed of the treated group was higher than the control group at all time points after treatment (p < 0.02). Conclusion: Combined treatment of 6MV photon and sevoflurane can cause the effects of down-regulating Cdc42 overexpression and decrease of migration speed of A549 cells which provides potential of clinical benefit for the cancer therapy. More investigation is needed to

  19. Evaluation of Anti-Metastatic Potential of the Combination of Fisetin with Paclitaxel on A549 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Klimaszewska-Wiśniewska, Anna; Hałas-Wiśniewska, Marta; Grzanka, Alina; Grzanka, Dariusz

    2018-02-27

    The identification and development of new agents with a therapeutic potential as well as novel drug combinations are gaining the attention of scientists and clinicians as a plausible approach to improve therapeutic regimens for chemoresistant tumors. We have recently reported that the flavonoid fisetin (FIS), at physiologically attainable concentrations, acts synergistically with clinically achievable doses of paclitaxel (PTX) to produce growth inhibitory and pro-death effects on A549 human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. To further investigate a potential therapeutic efficacy of the combination of fisetin with paclitaxel, we decided to assess its impact on metastatic capability of A549 cells as well as its toxicity toward normal human lung fibroblast. Cell viability, cell migration, and invasion were measured by thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, wound healing assay, and Transwell chamber assay, respectively. The expression of metastasis-related genes was assessed with quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Actin and vimentin filaments were examined under the fluorescence microscope. The combination of FIS and PTX significantly reduced cancer cell migration and invasion, at least partially, through a marked rearrangement of actin and vimentin cytoskeleton and the modulation of metastasis-related genes. Most of these effects of the combination treatment were significantly greater than those of individual agents. Paclitaxel alone was even more toxic to normal cells than the combination of this drug with the flavonoid, suggesting that FIS may provide some protection against PTX-mediated cytotoxicity. The combination of FIS and PTX is expected to have a synergistic anticancer efficacy and a significant potential for the treatment of NSCLC, however, further in vitro and in vivo studies are required to confirm this preliminary evidence.

  20. A novel synthetic compound exerts effective anti-tumour activity in vivo via the inhibition of tubulin polymerisation in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jun; Pang, Yanqing; Sheng, Jianfeng; Wang, Yali; Chen, Jie; Hu, Jinhui; Huang, Ling; Li, Xingshu

    2015-09-01

    Microtubules are critical elements that are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, and thus, they have become an attractive target for many anticancer drugs. A novel synthesised compound, 12P, was identified as new microtubule inhibitor. This compound inhibits tubulin polymerisation through binding to the colchicine-binding site of tubulin. 12P exhibits excellent anti-proliferative activities against a panel of human cancer cell lines, with IC₅₀ values range from 9 to 55nM. Interestingly, compound 12P also displayed equally potent cytotoxicity against several drug-resistant cell lines, and it showed high selectivity for active human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Further flow cytometric analysis showed that 12P induces G₂/M phase arrest and apoptosis in A549 cells. Cellular studies have revealed that the induction of apoptosis by 12P was associated with a collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), alterations in the expression of some cell cycle-related proteins (e.g. Cyclin B1, Cdc25c, Cdc2) and some apoptosis-related proteins (e.g. Bax, Bad, Bcl-2, Bcl-xl). Importantly, 12P significantly reduced the growth of xenograft tumours of A549 cells in vivo (tumour inhibitory rate of 12P: 84.2%), without any loss of body weight. Taken together, these in vitro and in vivo results suggested that 12P may become a promising lead compound for the development of new anticancer drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Genotoxicity of fine and coarse fraction ambient particulate matter in immortalised normal (TT1) and cancer‐derived (A549) alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Enlo‐Scott, Zachary; Nagy, Eszter; Mudway, Ian S.; Tetley, Teresa D.; Arlt, Volker M.; Phillips, David H.; Gollapudi, B.

    2018-01-01

    Human exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with adverse cardiopulmonary health effects, including lung cancer. Ambient PM represents a heterogeneous mixture of chemical classes including transition metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives such as nitro‐PAHs, many of which are classified as putative carcinogens. As the primary site of human exposure to PM is the lungs, we investigated the response of two alveolar epithelial cell lines, the tumour‐derived A549 and newly described TT1 cells, to fine and coarse PM collected from background and roadside locations. We show that coarse PM elicits a genotoxic response in the TT1 cells, with the strongest signal associated with the background sample. This response could be recapitulated using the organic extract derived from this sample. No responses were observed in PM‐challenged A549 cells. Fine PM failed to elicit a genotoxic response in either cell line despite the higher PAH concentrations within this fraction. Consistent with the lack of a simplistic association between PM PAH content and the observed genotoxic response, TT1 cells treated with benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) demonstrated no increase in the selected markers. In contrast, a pattern of response was observed in TT1 cells challenged with 3‐nitrobenzanthrone (3‐NBA) similar to that with coarse PM. Together, these data illustrated the suitability of the TT1 cell line for assessing PM‐induced genotoxicity and challenge the contention that fine roadside PM poses the higher cancer risk. Furthermore, the response to 3‐NBA and not BaP suggests a major contribution of nitro‐PAHs to the overall toxicity of PM. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 59:290–301, 2018. © 2018 The Authors Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Environmental Mutagen Society PMID:29368350

  2. Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} induces MMP-9 expression via p42/p44 MAPK, JNK, and nuclear factor-{kappa}B in A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.-C.; Tseng, Hsiao-Wei; Hsieh, Hsi-Lung

    2008-06-15

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), in particular MMP-9, have been shown to be induced by cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and contributes to airway inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying MMP-9 expression induced by TNF-{alpha} in human A549 cells remain unclear. Here, we showed that TNF-{alpha} induced production of MMP-9 protein and mRNA is determined by zymographic, Western blotting, RT-PCR and ELISA assay, which were attenuated by inhibitors of MEK1/2 (U0126), JNK (SP600125), and NF-{kappa}B (helenalin), and transfection with dominant negative mutants of ERK2 ({delta}ERK) and JNK ({delta}JNK), and siRNAs for MEK1, p42 and JNK2. TNF-{alpha}-stimulated phosphorylation of p42/p44 MAPK and JNKmore » were attenuated by pretreatment with the inhibitors U0126 and SP600125 or transfection with dominant negative mutants of {delta}ERK and {delta}JNK. Furthermore, the involvement of NF-{kappa}B in TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 production was consistent with that TNF-{alpha}-stimulated degradation of I{kappa}B-{alpha} and translocation of NF-{kappa}B into the nucleus which were blocked by helenalin, but not by U0126 and SP600125, revealed by immunofluorescence staining. The regulation of MMP-9 gene transcription by MAPKs and NF-{kappa}B was further confirmed by gene luciferase activity assay. MMP-9 promoter activity was enhanced by TNF-{alpha} in A549 cells transfected with wild-type MMP-9-Luc, which was inhibited by helenalin, U0126, or SP600125. In contrast, TNF-{alpha}-stimulated MMP-9 luciferase activity was totally lost in cells transfected with mutant-NF-{kappa}B MMP-9-luc. Moreover, pretreatment with actinomycin D and cycloheximide attenuated TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression. These results suggest that in A549 cells, phosphorylation of p42/p44 MAPK, JNK, and transactivation of NF-{kappa}B are essential for TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 gene expression.« less

  3. [Pulmonary hypertension in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: the role of antiretroviral therapy].

    PubMed

    Olalla, Julián; Urdiales, Daniel; Pombo, Marta; del Arco, Alfonso; de la Torre, Javier; Prada, José Luis

    2014-03-20

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a serious disorder, more prevalent in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is not entirely clear what role is played by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in PAH development or course. Our aim was to describe PAH prevalence in a series of HIV-infected patients and identify possible links with cumulative and current use of different antiretrovirals. Cross-sectional study of a cohort of HIV-infected patients attending a hospital in southern Spain. Demographic data, data on HIV infection status and on cumulative and recent antiretroviral treatment were recorded. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed in all study participants. PAH was defined as pulmonary artery systolic pressure of 36mmHg or more. A total of 400 patients participated in the study; 178 presented with tricuspid regurgitation and 22 of these presented with PAH (5.5%). No differences were encountered in age, sex, CD4 lymphocytes, proportion of naive patients or patients with AIDS. No differences were encountered in cumulative use of antiretrovirals. However, recent use of lamivudine was associated with a greater presence of PAH, whereas recent use of tenofovir and emtricitabine was associated with a lower presence of PAH. Logistic regression analysis was performed including the use of lamivudine, emtricitabine and tenofovir. Only recent use of tenofovir was associated with a lower presence of PAH (odds ratio 0.31; 95% confidence interval: 0.17-0.84). PAH prevalence in our study was similar to others series. Current use of tenofovir may be associated with lower PAH prevalence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Decellularization of human donor aortic and pulmonary valved conduits using low concentration sodium dodecyl sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Vafaee, Tayyebeh; Thomas, Daniel; Desai, Amisha; Jennings, Louise M.; Berry, Helen; Rooney, Paul; Kearney, John; Fisher, John

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The clinical use of decellularized cardiac valve allografts is increasing. Long‐term data will be required to determine whether they outperform conventional cryopreserved allografts. Valves decellularized using different processes may show varied long‐term outcomes. It is therefore important to understand the effects of specific decellularization technologies on the characteristics of donor heart valves. Human cryopreserved aortic and pulmonary valved conduits were decellularized using hypotonic buffer, 0.1% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulfate and nuclease digestion. The decellularized tissues were compared to cellular cryopreserved valve tissues using histology, immunohistochemistry, quantitation of total deoxyribose nucleic acid, collagen and glycosaminoglycan content, in vitro cytotoxicity assays, uniaxial tensile testing and subcutaneous implantation in mice. The decellularized tissues showed no histological evidence of cells or cell remnants and >97% deoxyribose nucleic acid removal in all regions (arterial wall, muscle, leaflet and junction). The decellularized tissues retained collagen IV and von Willebrand factor staining with some loss of fibronectin, laminin and chondroitin sulfate staining. There was an absence of major histocompatibility complex Class I staining in decellularized pulmonary valve tissues, with only residual staining in isolated areas of decellularized aortic valve tissues. The collagen content of the tissues was not decreased following decellularization however the glycosaminoglycan content was reduced. Only moderate changes in the maximum load to failure of the tissues were recorded postdecellularization. The decellularized tissues were noncytotoxic in vitro, and were biocompatible in vivo in a mouse subcutaneous implant model. The decellularization process will now be translated into a good manufacturing practices‐compatible process for donor cryopreserved valves with a view to future clinical use. Copyright © 2016 The Authors

  5. Pulmonary effects of inhaled zinc oxide in human subjects, guinea pigs, rats, and rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, T.; Chen, L.C.; Fine, J.M.

    1992-08-01

    Occupational exposure to freshly formed zinc oxide (ZnO) particles (less than 1.0 micron aerodynamic diameter) produces a well-characterized response known as metal fume fever. An 8-hr threshold limit value (TLV) of 5 mg/m3 has been established to prevent adverse health effects because of exposure to ZnO fumes. Because animal toxicity studies have demonstrated pulmonary effects near the current TLV, the present study examined the time course and dose-response of the pulmonary injury produced by inhaled ZnO in guinea pigs, rats, rabbits, and human volunteers. The test animals were exposed to 0, 2.5, or 5.0 mg/m3 ZnO for up to 3more » hr and their lungs lavaged. Both the lavage fluid and recovered cells were examined for evidence of inflammation or altered cell function. The lavage fluid from guinea pigs and rats exposed to 5 mg/m3 had significant increases in total cells, lactate dehydrogenase, beta-glucuronidase, and protein content. These changes were greatest 24 hr after exposure. Guinea pig alveolar macrophage function was depressed as evidenced by in vitro phagocytosis of opsonized latex beads. Significant changes in lavage fluid parameters were also observed in guinea pigs and rats exposed to 2.5 mg/m3 ZnO. In contrast, rabbits showed no increase in biochemical or cellular parameters following a 2-hr exposure to 5 mg/m3 ZnO. Differences in total lung burden of ZnO, as determined in additional animals by atomic absorption spectroscopy, appeared to account for the observed differences in species responses. Although the lungs of guinea pigs and rats retained approximately 20% and 12% of the inhaled dose, respectively, rabbits retained only 5%.« less

  6. Emodin ameliorates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats by suppressing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibroblast activation

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Ruijuan; Wang, Xia; Zhao, Xiaomei; Song, Nana; Zhu, Jimin; Wang, Jijiang; Wang, Jin; Xia, Chunmei; Chen, Yonghua; Zhu, Danian; Shen, Linlin

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of TGF-β1 is frequently encountered and promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and fibroblast activation in pulmonary fibrosis. The present study investigated whether emodin mediates its effect via suppressing TGF-β1-induced EMT and fibroblast activation in bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Here, we found that emodin induced apoptosis and inhibited cellular proliferation, migration and differentiation in TGF-β1-stimulated human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELFs). Emodin suppressed TGF-β1-induced EMT in a dose- and time-dependent manner in alveolar epithelial A549 cells. Emodin also inhibited TGF-β1-induced Smad2, Smad3 and Erk1/2 activation, suggesting that Smad2/3 and Erk1/2 inactivation mediated the emodin-induced effects on TGF-β1-induced EMT. Additionally, we provided in vivo evidence suggesting that emodin apparently alleviated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and improved pulmonary function by inhibiting TGF-β1 signaling and subsequently repressing EMT, fibroblast activation and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. Taken together, our data suggest that emodin mediates its effects mainly via inhibition of EMT and fibroblast activation and thus has a potential for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:27774992

  7. Emodin ameliorates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats by suppressing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibroblast activation.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ruijuan; Wang, Xia; Zhao, Xiaomei; Song, Nana; Zhu, Jimin; Wang, Jijiang; Wang, Jin; Xia, Chunmei; Chen, Yonghua; Zhu, Danian; Shen, Linlin

    2016-10-24

    Aberrant activation of TGF-β1 is frequently encountered and promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and fibroblast activation in pulmonary fibrosis. The present study investigated whether emodin mediates its effect via suppressing TGF-β1-induced EMT and fibroblast activation in bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Here, we found that emodin induced apoptosis and inhibited cellular proliferation, migration and differentiation in TGF-β1-stimulated human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELFs). Emodin suppressed TGF-β1-induced EMT in a dose- and time-dependent manner in alveolar epithelial A549 cells. Emodin also inhibited TGF-β1-induced Smad2, Smad3 and Erk1/2 activation, suggesting that Smad2/3 and Erk1/2 inactivation mediated the emodin-induced effects on TGF-β1-induced EMT. Additionally, we provided in vivo evidence suggesting that emodin apparently alleviated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and improved pulmonary function by inhibiting TGF-β1 signaling and subsequently repressing EMT, fibroblast activation and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. Taken together, our data suggest that emodin mediates its effects mainly via inhibition of EMT and fibroblast activation and thus has a potential for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis.

  8. Variations in Alveolar Partial Pressure for Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen Have Additive Not Synergistic Acute Effects on Human Pulmonary Vasoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    Croft, Quentin P. P.; Formenti, Federico; Talbot, Nick P.; Lunn, Daniel; Robbins, Peter A.; Dorrington, Keith L.

    2013-01-01

    The human pulmonary vasculature constricts in response to hypercapnia and hypoxia, with important consequences for homeostasis and adaptation. One function of these responses is to direct blood flow away from poorly-ventilated regions of the lung. In humans it is not known whether the stimuli of hypercapnia and hypoxia constrict the pulmonary blood vessels independently of each other or whether they act synergistically, such that the combination of hypercapnia and hypoxia is more effective than the sum of the responses to each stimulus on its own. We independently controlled the alveolar partial pressures of carbon dioxide (Paco 2) and oxygen (Pao 2) to examine their possible interaction on human pulmonary vasoconstriction. Nine volunteers each experienced sixteen possible combinations of four levels of Paco 2 (+6, +1, −4 and −9 mmHg, relative to baseline) with four levels of Pao 2 (175, 100, 75 and 50 mmHg). During each of these sixteen protocols Doppler echocardiography was used to evaluate cardiac output and systolic tricuspid pressure gradient, an index of pulmonary vasoconstriction. The degree of constriction varied linearly with both Paco 2 and the calculated haemoglobin oxygen desaturation (1-So 2). Mixed effects modelling delivered coefficients defining the interdependence of cardiac output, systolic tricuspid pressure gradient, ventilation, Paco 2 and So 2. No interaction was observed in the effects on pulmonary vasoconstriction of carbon dioxide and oxygen (p>0.64). Direct effects of the alveolar gases on systolic tricuspid pressure gradient greatly exceeded indirect effects arising from concurrent changes in cardiac output. PMID:23935847

  9. Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... together all groups are called pulmonary hypertension.) Group 1 Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Group 1 PAH includes: PAH ... information, go to "Types of Pulmonary Hypertension." ) Group 1 Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension ( ...

  10. Effect of three fatty acids from the leaf extract of Tiliacora triandra on P-glycoprotein function in multidrug-resistant A549RT-eto cell line

    PubMed Central

    Kaewpiboon, Chutima; Winayanuwattikun, Pakorn; Yongvanich, Tikamporn; Phuwapraisirisan, Preecha; Assavalapsakul, Wanchai

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cancer cells have the ability to develop resistance to chemotherapy drugs, which then leads to a reduced effectiveness and success of the treatment. Multidrug resistance (MDR) involves the resistance in the same cell/tissue to a diverse range of drugs of different structures. One of the characteristics of MDR is an overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which causes the efflux of the accumulated drug out of the cell. The MDR human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line with a high P-gp expression level (A549RT-eto) was used to investigate the bioactive compounds capable of reversing the etoposide resistance in this cell line. Materials and Methods: The leaves of Tiliacora triandra were sequentially extracted with hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. Only the hexane extract reduced the etoposide resistance of the A549RT-eto cell line, and was further fractionated by column chromatography using the TLC-pattern and the restoration of etoposide sensitivity as the selection criteria. Results: The obtained active fraction (F22) was found by nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analyses to be comprised of a 49.5:19.6:30.9 (w/w/w) mixture of hexadecanoic: octadecanoic acid: (Z)-6-octadecenoic acids. This stoichiometric mixture was recreated using pure fatty acids (MSFA) and gave a similar sensitization to etoposide and enhanced the relative rate of rhodamine-123 accumulation to a similar extent as F22, supporting the action via reducing P-gp activity. In contrast, the fatty acids alone did not show this effect. Conclusion: This is the first report of the biological activity from the leaves of T. triandra as a potential source of a novel chemosensitizer. PMID:25298673

  11. Effect of three fatty acids from the leaf extract of Tiliacora triandra on P-glycoprotein function in multidrug-resistant A549RT-eto cell line.

    PubMed

    Kaewpiboon, Chutima; Winayanuwattikun, Pakorn; Yongvanich, Tikamporn; Phuwapraisirisan, Preecha; Assavalapsakul, Wanchai

    2014-08-01

    Cancer cells have the ability to develop resistance to chemotherapy drugs, which then leads to a reduced effectiveness and success of the treatment. Multidrug resistance (MDR) involves the resistance in the same cell/tissue to a diverse range of drugs of different structures. One of the characteristics of MDR is an overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which causes the efflux of the accumulated drug out of the cell. The MDR human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line with a high P-gp expression level (A549RT-eto) was used to investigate the bioactive compounds capable of reversing the etoposide resistance in this cell line. The leaves of Tiliacora triandra were sequentially extracted with hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. Only the hexane extract reduced the etoposide resistance of the A549RT-eto cell line, and was further fractionated by column chromatography using the TLC-pattern and the restoration of etoposide sensitivity as the selection criteria. The obtained active fraction (F22) was found by nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analyses to be comprised of a 49.5:19.6:30.9 (w/w/w) mixture of hexadecanoic: octadecanoic acid: (Z)-6-octadecenoic acids. This stoichiometric mixture was recreated using pure fatty acids (MSFA) and gave a similar sensitization to etoposide and enhanced the relative rate of rhodamine-123 accumulation to a similar extent as F22, supporting the action via reducing P-gp activity. In contrast, the fatty acids alone did not show this effect. This is the first report of the biological activity from the leaves of T. triandra as a potential source of a novel chemosensitizer.

  12. Multifunctional polyamidoamine-modified selenium nanoparticles dual-delivering siRNA and cisplatin to A549/DDP cells for reversal multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenjing; Cao, Chengwen; Liu, Yanan; Yu, Qianqian; Zheng, Chuping; Sun, Dongdong; Ren, Xiaofan; Liu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major barrier against effective cancer treatment. Dual-delivering a therapeutic small interfering RNA (siRNA) and chemotherapeutic agents has been developed to reverse drug resistance in tumor cells. In this study, amine-terminated generation 5 polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers (G5.NH2)-modified selenium nanoparticles (G5@Se NP) were synthesized for the systemic dual-delivery of mdr1 siRNA and cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum-(II), DDP), which was demonstrated to enhance siRNA loading, releasing efficiency and gene-silencing efficacy. When the mdr1 siRNA was conjugated with G5@Se NP via electrostatic interaction, a significant down-regulation of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein expression was observed; G5@Se-DDP-siRNA arrested A549/DDP cells at G1 phase and led to enhanced cytotoxicity in A549/DDP cells through induction of apoptosis involving the AKT and ERK signaling pathways. Interestingly, G5@Se-DDP NP were much less reactive than DDP in the reactions with both MT and GSH, indicating that loading of DDP in a nano-delivery system could effectively prevent cell detoxification. Furthermore, animal studies demonstrated that the new delivery system of G5@Se-DDP-siRNA significantly enhanced the anti-tumor effect on tumor-bearing nude mice, with no appreciable abnormality in the major organs. These results suggest that G5@Se NP could be a potential platform to combine chemotherapy and gene therapy technology in the treatment of human disease. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Regional pulmonary blood flow measurement in humans with electron-beam computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, William W.; Konhilas, John; Wolfkiel, Christopher J.

    1995-05-01

    Electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) is a potentially useful modality to quantitate regional pulmonary flow (RPF) with minimal invasiveness, in part because it has good spatial and temporal resolution. The present studies used a single compartment model of indicator transport and EBCT to measure regional tissue flow in the lungs of human subjects. The model postulates that flow is proportional to maximal enhancement and assumes complete tissue accumulation of indicator before significant indicator washout (WO). EBCT flow studies were retrospectively analyzed with respect to RPF in 10 adult patients who had undergone clinically indicated or research cardiovascular studies. Time density curves from the left atrial (LA) cavity and one-third segments of left (LL) and right (RL) lungs (A: anterior, M: middle, and P: posterior segments) were used to calculate RPF. Washout was determined as the percent of the LA curve at the time of peak parenchymal opacification using gamma curve fits to both tissue data and the LA curve data. Mean +/- standard deviation RPF in ml/min/ml was 0.8 +/- 0.4, 1.1 +/- 0.4, and 1.3 +/- 0.4 for A, M, and P respectively for one-third regions in the left lung. Similar results were found in the right lung. No difference in RPF was found when images were measured either by including the largest of visible parenchymal vessels or when such vessels were excluded. Flow in A of LL and RL was less than that in M or P. Average WO was about 10%, with a range of 0-41% of the LA curve area. There was no significant difference between one-third segment WO using pairwise comparison on the left and right sides when tested separately. RPF values were greater in the posterior vs anterior regions of these supine patients. In conclusion, EBCT can detect gravity related flow differences in the human lung. EBCT has potential for clinical assessment of absolute regional pulmonary flow determination in animals and man.

  14. Blocking the NOTCH pathway can inhibit the growth of CD133-positive A549 cells and sensitize to chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Juntao; Mao, Zhangfan; Huang, Jie

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • Notch signaling pathway members are expressed lower levels in CD133+ cells. • CD133+ cells are not as sensitive as CD133− cells to chemotherapy. • GSI could inhibit the growth of both CD133+ and CD133− cells. • Blockade of Notch signaling pathway enhanced the effect of chemotherapy with CDDP. • DAPT/CDDP co-therapy caused G2/M arrest and elimination in CD133+ cells. - Abstract: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to play an important role in tumor growth and recurrence. These cells exhibit self-renewal and proliferation properties. CSCs also exhibit significant drug resistance compared with normal tumor cells. Finding new treatmentsmore » that target CSCs could significantly enhance the effect of chemotherapy and improve patient survival. Notch signaling is known to regulate the development of the lungs by controlling the cell-fate determination of normal stem cells. In this study, we isolated CSCs from the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. CD133 was used as a stem cell marker for fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). We compared the expression of Notch signaling in both CD133+ and CD133− cells and blocked Notch signaling using the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT (GSI-IX). The effect of combining GSI and cisplatin (CDDP) was also examined in these two types of cells. We observed that both CD133+ and CD133− cells proliferated at similar rates, but the cells exhibited distinctive differences in cell cycle progression. Few CD133+ cells were observed in the G{sub 2}/M phase, and there were half as many cells in S phase compared with the CD133− cells. Furthermore, CD133+ cells exhibited significant resistance to chemotherapy when treated with CDDP. The expression of Notch signaling pathway members, such as Notch1, Notch2 and Hes1, was lower in CD133+ cells. GSI slightly inhibited the proliferation of both cell types and exhibited little effect on the cell cycle. The inhibitory effects of DPP on these two types of cells

  15. Antimony trichloride induces a loss of cell viability via reactive oxygen species-dependent autophagy in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinyuan; Xing, Fengjun; Cong, Yewen; Zhuang, Yin; Han, Muxi; Wu, Zhiqiang; Yu, Shali; Wei, Haiyan; Wang, Xiaoke; Chen, Gang

    2017-12-01

    Antimony (Sb) is one of the most prevalent heavy metals and frequently leads to biological toxicity. Although autophagy is believed to be involved in metal-associated cytotoxicity, there is no evidence of its involvement following exposure. Moreover, the underlying mechanism of autophagy remains unclear. In this study, treatment with antimony trichloride caused autophagy in a dose- and time-dependent manner in A549 cells but did not affect the level of Atg5 or Atg7 mRNA expression. Furthermore, Sb enhanced autophagic flux while upregulating p62 gene and protein levels. The classic mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is not involved in Sb-induced autophagy. However, Sb-induced autophagy and the upregulation of p62 were inhibited by treatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Subsequent analyses demonstrated that the inhibition of autophagy protected A549 cells from a loss of cell viability, while the activation of autophagy by rapamycin had the opposite effect. These data suggest that reactive oxygen species-dependent autophagy mediates Sb-stimulated cell viability loss in A549 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Crocidolite asbestos causes an induction of p53 and apoptosis in cultured A-549 lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pääkkö, P; Rämet, M; Vähäkangas, K; Korpela, N; Soini, Y; Turunen, S; Jaworska, M; Gillissen, A

    1998-01-01

    A number of genotoxic chemicals and agents, such as benzo(a)pyrene and ultraviolet light, are able to induce nuclear accumulation of p53 protein. Usually, this response is transient and a consequence of stabilization of the wild-type p53 protein. After withdrawal of the exposure, the amount of p53 protein returns to a normal level within hours or a few days. We have studied the p53 response to the exposure of crocidolite asbestos in A-549 lung carcinoma cells using three different methods, i.e., p53 immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and metabolic labelling followed by p53 immunoprecipitation. With these techniques we demonstrate a dose-dependent p53 nuclear response to crocidolite exposure. The half-life of p53 protein in A-549 lung carcinoma cells cultured in serum-free media increased from 30 up to 80 min, and the protein reacted with a wild-type specific antibody suggesting that it was in a wild-type conformation. In situ 3'-end labelling of A-549 cells demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in apoptotic activity. Our data support the idea that increased apoptotic activity, induced by crocidolite, is mediated by p53.

  17. Evidence for minimal oxygen heterogeneity in the healthy human pulmonary acinus

    PubMed Central

    Tawhai, Merryn H.

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that the human pulmonary acinus operates at submaximal efficiency at rest due to substantial spatial heterogeneity in the oxygen partial pressure (Po2) in alveolar air within the acinus. Indirect measurements of alveolar air Po2 could theoretically mask significant heterogeneity if intra-acinar perfusion is well matched to Po2. To investigate the extent of intra-acinar heterogeneity, we developed a computational model with anatomically based structure and biophysically based equations for gas exchange. This model yields a quantitative prediction of the intra-acinar O2 distribution that cannot be measured directly. Temporal and spatial variations in Po2 in the intra-acinar air and blood are predicted with the model. The model, representative of a single average acinus, has an asymmetric multibranching respiratory airways geometry coupled to a symmetric branching conducting airways geometry. Advective and diffusive O2 transport through the airways and gas exchange into the capillary blood are incorporated. The gas exchange component of the model includes diffusion across the alveolar air-blood membrane and O2-hemoglobin binding. Contrary to previous modeling studies, simulations show that the acinus functions extremely effectively at rest, with only a small degree of intra-acinar Po2 heterogeneity. All regions of the model acinus, including the peripheral generations, maintain a Po2 >100 mmHg. Heterogeneity increases slightly when the acinus is stressed by exercise. However, even during exercise the acinus retains a reasonably homogeneous gas phase. PMID:21071589

  18. Critical Determinants of Uptake and Translocation of Nanoparticles by the Human Pulmonary Alveolar Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The ability to manipulate the size and surface properties of nanomaterials makes them a promising vector for improving drug delivery and efficacy. Inhalation is a desirable route of administration as nanomaterials preferentially deposit in the alveolar region, a large surface area for drug absorption. However, as yet, the mechanisms by which particles translocate across the alveolar epithelial layer are poorly understood. Here we show that human alveolar type I epithelial cells internalize nanoparticles, whereas alveolar type II epithelial cells do not, and that nanoparticles translocate across the epithelial monolayer but are unable to penetrate the tight junctions between cells, ruling out paracellular translocation. Furthermore, using siRNA, we demonstrate that 50 nm nanoparticles enter largely by passive diffusion and are found in the cytoplasm, whereas 100 nm nanoparticles enter primarily via clathrin- and also caveolin-mediated endocytosis and are found in endosomes. Functionalization of nanoparticles increases their uptake and enhances binding of surfactant which further promotes uptake. Thus, we demonstrate that uptake and translocation across the pulmonary epithelium is controlled by alveolar type I epithelial cells, and furthermore, we highlight a number of factors that should be considered when designing new nanomedicines in order to improve drug delivery to the lung. PMID:25360809

  19. [Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection: study of 4 cases].

    PubMed

    Pousada, Guillermo; Baloira, Adolfo; Castro-Añón, Olalla; Valverde, Diana

    2016-04-15

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare and progressive disease that can be inherited as autosomal dominant form. The BMPR2, ACVRL1 and ENG genes are main genes involved in the pathology. PAH associated to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is another rare disease with a low incidence, prevalence and survival. The main objective of this analysis was to study the clinical and molecular characteristics of PAH associated to HIV patients. We present 4 cases of HIV patients who developed PAH and have been treated with ambrisentan. Pathogenic mutations have been identify in analyzed genes in 3 of the four analyzed patients. In addition, these patients present other changes classified as benign after a thorough in silico analysis. We identified some changes in genetic modifiers that predispose to these patients to more severe phenotype. The clinical analysis can help to define monitoring for these patients and the administration of appropriate treatment. These patients also have shown several pathogenic mutations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Nebulized hypertonic saline and recombinant human DNase in the treatment of pulmonary atelectasis in newborns.

    PubMed

    Dilmen, Ugur; Karagol, Belma Saygili; Oguz, Serife Suna

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the efficacy of nebulized 3% hypertonic saline (HS) and recombinant human DNase (rhDNase) treatment for resolution of persistent atelectasis in newborns. Forty newborns (38 preterms) who did not respond to conventional treatment were enrolled to receive either nebulized 3% HS solution (n = 20) or rhDNase (n = 20) between September 2007 and March 2008. Clinical parameters, oxygen saturation and radiological response (chest X-ray scoring) were analyzed before and after administration of 3% HS or rhDNase. The patients of the nebulized 3% HS solution group improved better chest X-ray scores parameters than the patients of the rhDNase group: chest X-ray scores were 5.1 ± 1.9 vs 4.8 ± 1.7 before treatment and 1.0 ± 0.8 vs 2.1 ± 1.4 after treatment (P < 0.001). Resolution time of atelectasis did not differ between the two groups after whole treatment but the percentage of atelectasis resolution after 3 days treatment were 90% (18/20) in the 3% HS group and 70% (14/20) in the rhDNase group. The patients in the 3% HS group improved better also in clinical parameters in comparison to the rhDNase treatment. The difference of oxygen saturation before and after the treatment was 4.6 ± 0.8 in 3% HS group in comparison to 2.6 ± 0.1 in the rhDNase group (P < 0.05). All serum sodium levels were normal in two groups before and after the treatment modalities. This is the first study on the usefulness of nebulized 3% hypertonic saline solution in treating newborns with pulmonary atelectasis. In addition, 3% HS solution was a more effective therapeutic option on the basis of clinical and radiological improvement compared to rhDNase treatment in newborns with pulmonary atelectasis. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  1. Anti-invasive effect of Cyclamen pseudibericum extract on A549 non-small cell lung carcinoma cells via inhibition of ZEB1 mediated by miR-200c.

    PubMed

    Karagur, Ege Riza; Ozay, Cennet; Mammadov, Ramazan; Akca, Hakan

    2018-06-01

    Scientists are increasingly focusing attention on natural products of plant origin for use as agents in cancer protection and treatment. Cyclamen L. tuber extracts contain saponin glycosides that have been shown to have anti-cancer and other biological activities. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is thought to enhance malignant tumour progress. The transcriptional repressor zinc-finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) is an important inducer of EMT in different human tumours and has recently been shown to boost invasion by tumour cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of endemic Cyclamen pseudibericum (CP) saponin-rich tuber extract on the capacity of non-small cell lung cancer line A549 cells to proliferate, invade and migrate and also examined the expression levels of several invasion-migration-related microRNAs (miRNAs) to identify those which directly targeted ZEB1. The cytotoxicity effect of the CP extract on the A549 cancer cells was determined by the luminometric method. The half-minimal (50%) inhibitory concentration dose in the A549 cells was determined to be 41.64 ± 2.35 µg/mL. Using the Matrigel invasion chamber system and the wound healing assay we observed that the CP extract suppressed the invasion and migration capacity of A549 cells, respectively. The expression of miRNAs in A549 cells was evaluated by real-time PCR. Our data showed that overexpression of miRNA miR-200c hindered the EMT by increasing the expression of E-cadherin and decreasing the expression of both N-cadherin and vimentin through the direct targeting of ZEB1. These findings suggest that the saponin-rich tuber extract of CP may have considerable anti-cancer properties in lung cancer. Further studies are required to examine in detail the molecular-based mechanism involved in the EMT process of the extract along with isolation and identification of active saponin components.

  2. Abnormal neutrophil-pulmonary interaction in the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of pulmonary neutrophil kinetics in humans with in vivo /sup 111/indium neutrophil scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Warshawski, F.J.; Sibbald, W.J.; Driedger, A.A.

    1986-05-01

    In the absence of direct toxins, the majority of evidence from animal models suggests that neutrophils (PMN) are necessary for the full expression of the abnormal pulmonary permeability accompanying acute microvascular lung injury. We therefore studied the role of the PMN in the human correlate of this disease, the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), by assessing the pulmonary retention of infused autologous /sup 111/Indium-labeled PMN (PMN-In). We evaluated 79 patients, prospectively categorized as: active ARDS (Aa; n = 30), active ARDS and concurrent corticosteroid therapy (As; n = 11), resolving ARDS (Ar; n = 13), sepsis without pulmonary edema (S;more » n = 7), and cardiac pulmonary edema (C; n = 18). This clinical separation was confirmed by retrospective analysis of associated measures of hemodynamic and respiratory dysfunction. We found that both analog scintigrams (positive/negative for diffuse pulmonary PMN-In sequestration) and computer-assisted quantitative analysis in 46 patients (T 1/2 of first hour demargination and percentage of peak activity/pixel/second remaining at 17 to 20 h) showed a significant rank order decrease in the pulmonary retention of labeled PMN-In through the Groups Aa----As----S----Ar----C. Our findings recognized aspects of in vivo PMN-In behavior that implied pathophysiologic differences between groups of critically ill patients in either the PMN themselves or in PMN-pulmonary endothelial interaction. This demonstrates the possibility of abnormal in vivo PMN-endothelial interaction in ARDS by virtue of the greater pulmonary localization of PMN in active ARDS versus resolving disease, septic non-ARDS states, and cardiac pulmonary edema.« less

  3. Pulmonary edema

    MedlinePlus

    ... congestion; Lung water; Pulmonary congestion; Heart failure - pulmonary edema ... Pulmonary edema is often caused by congestive heart failure . When the heart is not able to pump efficiently, blood ...

  4. Acute Meteorite Dust Exposure and Pulmonary Inflammation - Implications for Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, A. D.; McCubbin, F. M.; Kaur, J.; Smirnov, A.; Galdanes, K.; Schoonen, M. A. A.; Chen, L. C.; Tsirka, S. E.; Gordon, T.

    2017-01-01

    The previous manned missions to the Moon represent milestones of human ingenuity, perseverance, and intellectual curiosity. However, one of the major ongoing concerns is the array of hazards associated with lunar surface dust. Not only did the dust cause mechanical and structural integrity issues with the suits, the dust 'storm' generated upon reentrance into the crew cabin caused "lunar hay fever" and "almost blindness [1-3]" (Figure 1). It was further reported that the allergic response to the dust worsened with each exposure [4]. The lack of gravity exacerbated the exposure, requiring the astronauts to wear their helmet within the module in order to avoid breathing the irritating particles [1]. Due to the prevalence of these high exposures, the Human Research Roadmap developed by NASA identifies the Risk of Adverse Health and Performance Effects of Celestial Dust Exposure as an area of concern [5]. Extended human exploration will further increase the probability of inadvertent and repeated exposures to celestial dusts. Going forward, hazard assessments of celestial dusts will be determined through sample return efforts prior to astronaut deployment. Studies on the lunar highland regolith indicate that the dust is not only respirable but also reactive [2, 6-9], and previous studies concluded that it is moderately toxic; generating a greater response than titanium oxide but a lower response than quartz [6]. The presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the surface of the dust has been implicated. However, there is actually little data related to physicochemical characteristics of particulates and pulmonary toxicity, especially as it relates to celestial dust exposure. As a direct response to this deficit, the present study evaluates the role of a particulate's innate geochemical features (e.g., bulk chemistry, internal composition, morphology, size, and reactivity) in generating adverse toxicological responses in vitro and in vivo. This highly interdisciplinary

  5. Pulmonary Inflammatory Responses To Acute Meteorite Dust Exposures - Implications For Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, A. D.; McCubbin, F. M.; Kaur, J.; Smirnov, A.; Galdanes, K.; Schoonen, M. A. A.; Chen, L. C.; Tsirka, S. E.; Gordon, T.

    2017-01-01

    The previous manned missions to the Moon represent milestones of human ingenuity, perseverance, and intellectual curiosity. However, one of the major ongoing concerns is the array of hazards associated with lunar surface dust. Not only did the dust cause mechanical and structural integrity issues with the suits, the dust 'storm' generated upon reentrance into the crew cabin caused "lunar hay fever" and "almost blindness" (Figure 1). It was further reported that the allergic response to the dust worsened with each exposure. The lack of gravity exacerbated the exposure, requiring the astronauts to wear their helmet within the module in order to avoid breathing the irritating particles. Due to the prevalence of these high exposures, the Human Research Roadmap developed by NASA identifies the Risk of Adverse Health and Performance Effects of Celestial Dust Exposure as an area of concern. Extended human exploration will further increase the probability of inadvertent and repeated exposures to celestial dusts. Going forward, hazard assessments of celestial dusts will be determined through sample return efforts prior to astronaut deployment. Studies on the lunar highland regolith indicate that the dust is not only respirable but also reactive, and previous studies concluded that it is moderately toxic; generating a greater response than titanium oxide but a lower response than quartz. The presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the surface of the dust has been implicated. However, there is actually little data related to physicochemical characteristics of particulates and pulmonary toxicity, especially as it relates to celestial dust exposure. As a direct response to this deficit, the present study evaluates the role of a particulate's innate geochemical features (e.g., bulk chemistry, internal composition, morphology, size, and reactivity) in generating adverse toxicological responses in vitro and in vivo. This highly interdisciplinary study evaluates the relative

  6. circHIPK2-mediated σ-1R promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress in human pulmonary fibroblasts exposed to silica.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhouli; Xiao, Qingling; Dai, Xiaoniu; Zhou, Zewei; Jiang, Rong; Cheng, Yusi; Yang, Xiyue; Guo, Huifang; Wang, Jing; Xi, Zhaoqing; Yao, Honghong; Chao, Jie

    2017-12-13

    Silicosis is characterized by fibroblast accumulation and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix. Although the roles of SiO 2 -induced chemokines and cytokines released from alveolar macrophages have received significant attention, the direct effects of SiO 2 on protein production and functional changes in pulmonary fibroblasts have been less extensively studied. Sigma-1 receptor, which has been associated with cell proliferation and migration in the central nervous system, is expressed in the lung, but its role in silicosis remains unknown. To elucidate the role of sigma-1 receptor in fibrosis induced by silica, both the upstream molecular mechanisms and the functional effects on cell proliferation and migration were investigated. Both molecular biological assays and pharmacological techniques, combined with functional experiments, such as migration and proliferation, were applied in human pulmonary fibroblasts from adults to analyze the molecular and functional changes induced by SiO 2 . SiO 2 induced endoplasmic reticulum stress in association with enhanced expression of sigma-1 receptor. Endoplasmic reticulum stress promoted migration and proliferation of human pulmonary fibroblasts-adult exposed to SiO 2 , inducing the development of silicosis. Inhibition of sigma-1 receptor ameliorated endoplasmic reticulum stress and fibroblast functional changes induced by SiO 2 . circHIPK2 is involved in the regulation of sigma-1 receptor in human pulmonary fibroblasts-adult exposed to SiO 2 . Our study elucidated a link between SiO 2 -induced fibrosis and sigma-1 receptor signaling, thereby providing novel insight into the potential use of sigma-1 receptor/endoplasmic reticulum stress in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for silicosis treatment.

  7. Protective role of gambogic acid in experimental pulmonary fibrosis in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yubei; Zhang, Guanghua; Ji, Yunxia; Zhua, Haibo; Lv, Changjun; Jiang, Wanglin

    2016-04-15

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disorder with poor prognosis. The treatment options for IPF are very limited. Gambogic acid (GA) has anticancer effect and anti-proliferative activity which is extracted from a dried yellow resin of the Garcinia hanburyi Hook.f. [Clusiaceae (Guttiferae)] in Southeast Asia. However, the anti-fibrotic activities of GA have not been previously investigated. In this study, the effects of GA on TGF-β1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in A549 cells and endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs), on the proliferation of human lung fibroblasts (HLF-1) were investigated in vitro, and on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis was investigated in vivo. In TGF-β1 stimulated A549 cells, treatment with GA resulted in a reduction of EMT with a decrease in vimentin and p-Smad3 and an increase in E-cadherin instead. In TGF-β1 stimulated HPMECs, treatment with GA resulted in a reduction of EndoMT with a decrease in vimentin, and an increase in VE-cadherin instead. In the hypoxic HPMECs, treatment with GA reduced Vasohibin-2 (VASH-2), whereas increased VASH-1. In TGF-β1 stimulated HLF-1, treatment with GA reduced HLF-1 proliferation with a decrease in platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) expressions. In vivo, treatment with GA for 2 weeks resulted in an amelioration of the BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats with a lower VASH-2. Instead, it was observed a higher VASH-1 expression at early stage of fibrosis at 1 mg/kg, with reductions of the pathological score, collagen deposition, α-SMA, PDGF and FGF-2 expressions at fibrotic stage at 0.5 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg. In summary, GA reversed EMT and EndoMT, as well as HLF-1 proliferation in vitro and prevented pulmonary fibrosis in vivo by modulating VASH-2/VASH-1 and suppressing the TGF-β1/Smad3 pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of human pulmonary fibroblast-derived MCP-1 in cell activation and migration in experimental silicosis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xueting; Fang, Shencun; Liu, Haijun

    Background: Silicosis is a systemic disease caused by inhaling silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}). Phagocytosis of SiO{sub 2} in the lung initiates an inflammatory cascade that results in fibroblast proliferation and migration and subsequent fibrosis. Clinical evidence indicates that the activation of alveolar macrophages by SiO{sub 2} produces rapid and sustained inflammation that is characterized by the generation of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), which induces fibrosis. Pulmonary fibroblast-derived MCP-1 may play a critical role in fibroblast proliferation and migration. Methods and results: Experiments using primary cultured adult human pulmonary fibroblasts (HPF-a) demonstrated the following results: 1) SiO{sub 2} treatment resultedmore » in the rapid and sustained induction of MCP-1 as well as the elevation of the CC chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) protein levels; 2) pretreatment of HPF-a with RS-102895, a specific CCR2 inhibitor, abolished the SiO{sub 2}-induced increase in cell activation and migration in both 2D and 3D culture systems; and 3) RNA interference targeting CCR2 prevented the SiO{sub 2}-induced increase in cell migration. Conclusion: These data demonstrated that the up-regulation of pulmonary fibroblast-derived MCP-1 is involved in pulmonary fibroblast migration induced by SiO{sub 2}. CCR2 was also up-regulated in response to SiO{sub 2}, and this up-regulation facilitated the effect of MCP-1 on fibroblasts. Our study deciphered the link between fibroblast-derived MCP-1 and SiO{sub 2}-induced cell migration. This finding provides novel insight into the potential of MCP-1 in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for silicosis. - Highlights: • Role of pulmonary fibroblast-derived MCP-1 in experimental silicosis was studied. • SiO{sub 2} induced MCP-1 release from cultured human pulmonary fibroblast (HPF-a). • SiO{sub 2} directly activated HPF-a via the MCP-1/CCR2 pathway. • SiO{sub 2} increased HPF-a migration in both 2D

  9. Targeting Interleukin-13 with Tralokinumab Attenuates Lung Fibrosis and Epithelial Damage in a Humanized SCID Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huilan; Oak, Sameer R.; Coelho, Ana Lucia; Herath, Athula; Flaherty, Kevin R.; Lee, Joyce; Bell, Matt; Knight, Darryl A.; Martinez, Fernando J.; Sleeman, Matthew A.; Herzog, Erica L.; Hogaboam, Cory M.

    2014-01-01

    The aberrant fibrotic and repair responses in the lung are major hallmarks of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Numerous antifibrotic strategies have been used in the clinic with limited success, raising the possibility that an effective therapeutic strategy in this disease must inhibit fibrosis and promote appropriate lung repair mechanisms. IL-13 represents an attractive target in IPF, but its disease association and mechanism of action remains unknown. In the present study, an overexpression of IL-13 and IL-13 pathway markers was associated with IPF, particularly a rapidly progressive form of this disease. Targeting IL-13 in a humanized experimental model of pulmonary fibrosis using tralokinumab (CAT354) was found to therapeutically block aberrant lung remodeling in this model. However, targeting IL-13 was also found to promote lung repair and to restore epithelial integrity. Thus, targeting IL-13 inhibits fibrotic processes and enhances repair processes in the lung. PMID:24325475

  10. [The influence of mitomycin C and paclitaxel on the proliferation and apoptosis of human pulmonary fibroblast].

    PubMed

    Chen, Nan; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Min; Wang, Ting; Wang, Yu-ling; Pei, Ying-hua

    2013-09-01

    To observe the inhibitory effect and potential mechanism of mitomycin C and paclitaxel on the proliferation of Human Pulmonary Fibroblast in vitro. So as to providing an experimental reference for the design of drug eluting airway stents. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay after different concentrations of mitomycin C or paclitaxel varying from 10(-1)1 mol/L to 10(-4) mol/L had been applied to the fibroblasts for 24, 48 or 72 h, respectively. Cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry using dual staining with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide 48 h after administering mitomycin C or paclitaxel at a concentration of 5×10(-6), 10(-5), 5×10(-5), 10(-4), 2×10(-4) mol/L, respectively. And the morphological character of cell apoptosis was observed by Hoechst 33342 fluorescent staining. The results of MTT revealed that cell proliferation were inhibited by mitomycin C and paclitaxel at all concentrations and exposure times. Among them, the inhibitory effect of mitomycin C were weak when the concentrations were between 10(-1)1 mol/L to 10(-8) mol/L. And within this context, the inhibitory ratio didn't correspond to the elevation of the concentration or the prolongation of the exposure times.However, when the concentration were between 10(-7) mol/L to 10(-4) mol/L, the inhibitory ratio rise progressively as the elevation of the concentration at all exposure times. The inhibitory ratio were 53.52%, 60.23%, 89.81% and 96.47% respectively when cells were treated by 10(-7), 10(-6), 10(-5) mol/L and 10(-4) mol/L mitomycin C for 72 h. An apparent "threshold dose effect" was observed in the paclitaxel treated groups.It's worth noting that the inhibitory ratio was only 48.22% when the cells had already been treated by 10(-5) mol/L paclitaxel for 72 h.However, when the concentration had reached 10(-4) mol/L, the inhibitory ratio sharply climbed to 93.38% even the cells had only been treated for 24 h. And the inhibitory ratio continued to rise as time prolonged. The

  11. Oxidative injury of the pulmonary circulation in the perinatal period: Short- and long-term consequences for the human cardiopulmonary system

    PubMed Central

    de Wijs-Meijler, Daphne P.; Duncker, Dirk J.; Tibboel, Dick; Schermuly, Ralph T.; Weissmann, Norbert; Merkus, Daphne; Reiss, Irwin K.M.

    2017-01-01

    Development of the pulmonary circulation is a complex process with a spatial pattern that is tightly controlled. This process is vulnerable for disruption by various events in the prenatal and early postnatal periods. Disruption of normal pulmonary vascular development leads to abnormal structure and function of the lung vasculature, causing neonatal pulmonary vascular diseases. Premature babies are especially at risk of the development of these diseases, including persistent pulmonary hypertension and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Reactive oxygen species play a key role in the pathogenesis of neonatal pulmonary vascular diseases and can be caused by hyperoxia, mechanical ventilation, hypoxia, and inflammation. Besides the well-established short-term consequences, exposure of the developing lung to injurious stimuli in the perinatal period, including oxidative stress, may also contribute to the development of pulmonary vascular diseases later in life, through so-called “fetal or perinatal programming.” Because of these long-term consequences, it is important to develop a follow-up program tailored to adolescent survivors of neonatal pulmonary vascular diseases, aimed at early detection of adult pulmonary vascular diseases, and thereby opening the possibility of early intervention and interfering with disease progression. This review focuses on pathophysiologic events in the perinatal period that have been shown to disrupt human normal pulmonary vascular development, leading to neonatal pulmonary vascular diseases that can extend even into adulthood. This knowledge may be particularly important for ex-premature adults who are at risk of the long-term consequences of pulmonary vascular diseases, thereby contributing disproportionately to the burden of adult cardiovascular disease in the future. PMID:28680565

  12. Genome sequencing of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in conjunction with a medical school human anatomy course.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Akash; Dougherty, Max; Findlay, Gregory M; Geisheker, Madeleine; Klein, Jason; Lazar, John; Machkovech, Heather; Resnick, Jesse; Resnick, Rebecca; Salter, Alexander I; Talebi-Liasi, Faezeh; Arakawa, Christopher; Baudin, Jacob; Bogaard, Andrew; Salesky, Rebecca; Zhou, Qian; Smith, Kelly; Clark, John I; Shendure, Jay; Horwitz, Marshall S

    2014-01-01

    Even in cases where there is no obvious family history of disease, genome sequencing may contribute to clinical diagnosis and management. Clinical application of the genome has not yet become routine, however, in part because physicians are still learning how best to utilize such information. As an educational research exercise performed in conjunction with our medical school human anatomy course, we explored the potential utility of determining the whole genome sequence of a patient who had died following a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Medical students performed dissection and whole genome sequencing of the cadaver. Gross and microscopic findings were more consistent with the fibrosing variant of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), as opposed to IPF per se. Variants in genes causing Mendelian disorders predisposing to IPF were not detected. However, whole genome sequencing identified several common variants associated with IPF, including a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs35705950, located in the promoter region of the gene encoding mucin glycoprotein MUC5B. The MUC5B promoter polymorphism was recently found to markedly elevate risk for IPF, though a particular association with NSIP has not been previously reported, nor has its contribution to disease risk previously been evaluated in the genome-wide context of all genetic variants. We did not identify additional predicted functional variants in a region of linkage disequilibrium (LD) adjacent to MUC5B, nor did we discover other likely risk-contributing variants elsewhere in the genome. Whole genome sequencing thus corroborates the association of rs35705950 with MUC5B dysregulation and interstitial lung disease. This novel exercise additionally served a unique mission in bridging clinical and basic science education.

  13. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of the Human Pulmonary Arteries with Experimental Validation.

    PubMed

    Bordones, Alifer D; Leroux, Matthew; Kheyfets, Vitaly O; Wu, Yu-An; Chen, Chia-Yuan; Finol, Ender A

    2018-05-21

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a chronic progressive disease characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure, caused by an increase in pulmonary arterial impedance. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used to identify metrics representative of the stage of PH disease. However, experimental validation of CFD models is often not pursued due to the geometric complexity of the model or uncertainties in the reproduction of the required flow conditions. The goal of this work is to validate experimentally a CFD model of a pulmonary artery phantom using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. Rapid prototyping was used for the construction of the patient-specific pulmonary geometry, derived from chest computed tomography angiography images. CFD simulations were performed with the pulmonary model with a Reynolds number matching those of the experiments. Flow rates, the velocity field, and shear stress distributions obtained with the CFD simulations were compared to their counterparts from the PIV flow visualization experiments. Computationally predicted flow rates were within 1% of the experimental measurements for three of the four branches of the CFD model. The mean velocities in four transversal planes of study were within 5.9 to 13.1% of the experimental mean velocities. Shear stresses were qualitatively similar between the two methods with some discrepancies in the regions of high velocity gradients. The fluid flow differences between the CFD model and the PIV phantom are attributed to experimental inaccuracies and the relative compliance of the phantom. This comparative analysis yielded valuable information on the accuracy of CFD predicted hemodynamics in pulmonary circulation models.

  14. Apatinib resensitizes cisplatin-resistant non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cell through reversing multidrug resistance and suppressing ERK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z-L; Jin, B-J; Cheng, C-G; Zhang, F-X; Wang, S-W; Wang, Y; Wu, B

    2017-12-01

    To observe the reversal effect of apatinib on the resistance to cisplatin (DDP) of A549/cisplatin (A549/DDP) cells and its relevant mechanism. A549/DDP cells were treated with the control method, apatinib alone, DDP alone and DDP combined with apatinib. The cell proliferation was detected by the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and the cell clone formation assay. The cell apoptosis was detected by Hoechst 33258 staining and annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) double labeling. The changes in apoptotic proteins, multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway proteins in each group after treatment were detected by Western blotting. MTT assay results showed that compared with A549 cells, A549/DDP cells had obvious resistance to DDP. MTT assay and cell clone formation assay revealed that the tumor inhibition rate of the sub-lethal dose of apatinib (10 μM) combined with DDP was higher than that of DDP alone. The apoptosis detection results indicated that the proportion of apoptotic cells in the apatinib (10 μM) combined with DDP group was significantly increased. Western blotting results revealed that compared with that in parental A549 cells, the expression level of MDR1 in A549/DDP cells was significantly increased, and the ERK signaling pathway was activated. In the apatinib combined with DDP group, the levels of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)-associated X (BAX) proteins were significantly upregulated, while the level of Bcl-2 proteins was downregulated. Apatinib could inhibit the expression of MDR1 and the activity of the ERK signaling pathway in a dose-dependent manner. Apatinib can restore the sensitivity of A549/DDP cells to DDP by down-regulating the expression level of MDR1 and inhibiting the activity of the ERK signaling pathway.

  15. Predictive role of computer simulation in assessing signaling pathways of crizotinib-treated A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Pu; Mou, Fei-Fei; Wang, Li-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Crizotinib has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with advanced NSCLC. However, understanding of mechanisms of action is still limited. In our studies, we confirmed crizotinib-induced apoptosis in A549 lung cancer cells. In order to assess mechanisms, small molecular docking technology was used as a preliminary simulation of signaling pathways. Interesting, our results of experiments were consistent with the results of computer simulation. This indicates that small molecular docking technology should find wide use for its reliability and convenience.

  16. Silencing the Snail-dependent RNA splice regulator ESRP1 drives malignant transformation of human pulmonary epithelial cells. | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is organized in cancer cells by a set of key transcription factors, but the significance of this process is still debated including in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here we report increased expression of the EMT-inducing transcription factor Snail in premalignant pulmonary lesions, relative to histologically normal pulmonary epithelium. In immortalized human pulmonary epithelial cells and isogenic derivatives, we documented Snail-dependent anchorage-independent growth in vitro and primary tumor growth and metastatic behavior in vivo.

  17. cDNA, deduced polypeptide structure and chromosomal assignment of human pulmonary surfactant proteolipid, SPL(pVal)

    SciTech Connect

    Glasser, S.W.; Korfhagen, T.R.; Weaver, T.E.

    1988-01-05

    In hyaline membrane disease of premature infants, lack of surfactant leads to pulmonary atelectasis and respiratory distress. Hydrophobic surfactant proteins of M/sub r/ = 5000-14,000 have been isolated from mammalian surfactants which enhance the rate of spreading and the surface tension lowering properties of phospholipids during dynamic compression. The authors have characterized the amino-terminal amino acid sequence of pulmonary proteolipids from ether/ethanol extracts of bovine, canine, and human surfactant. Two distinct peptides were identified and termed SPL(pVal) and SPL(Phe). An oligonucleotide probe based on the valine-rich amino-terminal amino acid sequence of SPL(pVal) was utilized to isolate cDNA and genomic DNAmore » encoding the human protein, termed surfactant proteolipid SPL(pVal) on the basis of its unique polyvaline domain. The primary structure of a precursor protein of 20,870 daltons, containing the SPL(pVal) peptide, was deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the cDNAs. Hybrid-arrested translation and immunoprecipitation of labeled translation products of human mRNA demonstrated a precursor protein, the active hydrophobic peptide being produced by proteolytic processing. Two classes of cDNAs encoding SPL(pVal) were identified. Human SPL(pVal) mRNA was more abundant in the adult than in fetal lung. The SPL(pVal) gene locus was assigned to chromosome 8.« less

  18. Oleiferoside W from the roots of Camellia oleifera C. Abel, inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang-Ping; Kang, Nai-Xin; Zhang, Mi-Ya; Gao, Hong-Wei; Li, Xiao-Ran; Liu, Yan-Li; Xu, Qiong-Ming; Yang, Shi-Lin

    2017-07-06

    Camellia oleifera C. Abel has been widely cultivated in China, and a group of bioactive constituents such as triterpeniod saponin have been isolated from C. oleifera C. Abel. In the current study, a new triterpeniod saponin was isolated from the EtOH extract of the roots of C. oleifera C. Abel, named as oleiferoside W, and the cytotoxic properties of oleiferoside W were evaluated in non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. At the same time the inducing apoptosis, the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ), the up-regulation of related pro-apoptotic proteins, such as cleaved-PARP, cleaved-caspase-3, and the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-2/Bax were measured on oleiferoside W. Furthermore, the function, inducing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis, of oleiferoside W could be reversed by N-acetylcysteine (NAC). In conclusion, our findings showed that oleiferoside W induced apoptosis involving mitochondrial pathway and increasing intracellular ROS production in the A549 cells, suggesting that oleiferoside W may have the possibility to be a useful anticancer agent for therapy in lung cancer.

  19. Exposure to diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) promotes the loss of alveolar epithelial phenotype of A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Rafael-Vázquez, L; García-Trejo, Semiramis; Aztatzi-Aguilar, O G; Bazán-Perkins, B; Quintanilla-Vega, B

    2018-05-17

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a widely used plasticizer that is metabolized to mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). Inhalation is an important exposure route for both phthalates, and their effects on lungs include inflammation, alteration of postnatal maturation (alveolarization), enlarged airspaces and cell differentiation changes, suggesting that alveolar epithelial cells-2 (AEC) are targets of phthalates. This study evaluated the cell progression, epithelial and mesenchymal markers, including surfactant secretion in A549 cells (AEC) that were exposed to DEHP (1-100 μM) or MEHP (1-50 μM) for 24-72 h. The results showed an increased cell proliferation at all concentrations of each phthalate at 24 and 48 h. Cell migration showed a concentration-dependent increase at 24 and 48 h of exposure to either phthalate and enlarged structures were seen. Decreased levels of both surfactants (SP-B/SP-C) were observed after the exposure to either phthalate at 48 h, and of SP-C positive cells exposed to MEHP, suggesting a loss of the epithelial phenotype. While a decrease in the epithelial marker E-cadherin and an increase in the mesenchymal marker fibronectin were observed following exposure to either phthalate. Our results showed that DEHP and MEHP altered the structure and migration of A549 cells and promoted the loss of the epithelial phenotype. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. MLKL-PITPα signaling-mediated necroptosis contributes to cisplatin-triggered cell death in lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Jing, Lin; Song, Fei; Liu, Zhenyu; Li, Jianghua; Wu, Bo; Fu, Zhiguang; Jiang, Jianli; Chen, Zhinan

    2018-02-01

    Necroptosis has been reported to be involved in cisplatin-induced cell death, but the mechanisms underlying the occurrence of necroptosis are not fully elucidated. In this study, we show that apart from apoptosis, cisplatin induces necroptosis in A549 cells. The alleviation of cell death by two necroptosis inhibitors-necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) and necrosulfonamide (NSA), and the phosphorylation of mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) at serine 358, suggest the involvement of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1)-RIPK3-MLKL signaling in cisplatin-treated A549 cells. Additionally, the initiation of cisplatin-induced necroptosis relies on autocrine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Furthermore, we present the first evidence that phosphatidylinositol transfer protein alpha (PITPα) is involved in MLKL-mediated necroptosis by interacting with the N terminal MLKL on its sixth helix and the preceding loop, which facilitates MLKL oligomerization and plasma membrane translocation in necroptosis. Silencing of PITPα expression interferes with MLKL function and reduces cell death. Our data elucidate that cisplatin-treated lung cancer cells undergo a new type of programmed cell death called necroptosis and shed new light on how MLKL translocates to the plasma membrane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Induction of cell death by pyropheophorbide-α methyl ester-mediated photodynamic therapy in lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Tu, Ping-Hua; Huang, Wen-Jun; Wu, Zhan-Ling; Peng, Qing-Zhen; Xie, Zhi-Bin; Bao, Ji; Zhong, Ming-Hua

    2017-03-01

    Pyropheophorbide-α methyl ester (MPPa) was a promising photosensitizer with stable chemical structure, strong absorption, higher tissue selectivity and longer activation wavelengths. The present study investigated the effect of MPPa-mediated photodynamic treatment on lung cancer A549 cells as well as the underlying mechanisms. Cell Counting Kit-8 was employed for cell viability assessment. Reactive oxygen species levels were determined by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Cell morphology was evaluated by Hoechst staining and transmission electron microscopy. Mitochondrial membrane potential, cellular apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were evaluated flow-cytometrically. The protein levels of apoptotic effectors were examined by Western blot. We found that the photocytotoxicity of MPPa showed both drug- and light- dose dependent characteristics in A549 cells. Additionally, MPPa-PDT caused cell apoptosis by reducing mitochondrial membrane potential, increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, inducing caspase-9/caspase-3 signaling activation as well as cell cycle arrest at G 0 /G 1 phase. These results suggested that MPPa-PDT mainly kills cells by apoptotic mechanisms, with overt curative effects, indicating that MPPa should be considered a potent photosensitizer for lung carcinoma treatment. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Increased levels of the long noncoding RNA, HOXA-AS3, promote proliferation of A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyue; Liu, Ying; Yan, Lixin; Zhang, Min; Yu, Xiufeng; Du, Wei; Wang, Siqi; Li, Qiaozhi; Chen, He; Zhang, Yafeng; Sun, Hanliang; Tang, Zhidong; Zhu, Daling

    2018-06-13

    Many long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified as powerful regulators of lung adenocarcinoma (LAD). However, the role of HOXA-AS3, a novel lncRNA, in LAD is largely unknown. In this study, we showed that HOXA-AS3 was significantly upregulated in LAD tissues and A549 cells. After knockdown of HOXA-AS3, cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were inhibited. Xenografts derived from A549 cells transfected with shRNA/HOXA-AS3 had significantly lower tumor weights and smaller tumor volumes. We also demonstrated that HOXA-AS3 increased HOXA6 mRNA stability by forming an RNA duplex. In addition, HOXA6 promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. Using a RNA pull-down assay, we found that HOXA-AS3 bonded with NF110, which regulated the cell localization of HOXA-AS3. Moreover, histone acetylation was involved in upregulation of HOXA-AS3. These results demonstrate that HOXA-AS3 was activated in LAD and supported cancer cell progression. Therefore, inhibition of HOXA-AS3 could be an effective targeted therapy for patients with LAD.

  3. Release behavior and toxicity profiles towards A549 cell lines of ciprofloxacin from its layered zinc hydroxide intercalation compound.

    PubMed

    Abdul Latip, Ahmad Faiz; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Stanslas, Johnson; Wong, Charng Choon; Adnan, Rohana

    2013-01-01

    Layered hydroxides salts (LHS), a layered inorganic compound is gaining attention in a wide range of applications, particularly due to its unique anion exchange properties. In this work, layered zinc hydroxide nitrate (LZH), a family member of LHS was intercalated with anionic ciprofloxacin (CFX), a broad spectrum antibiotic via ion exchange in a mixture solution of water:ethanol. Powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed the drug anions were successfully intercalated in the interlayer space of LZH. Specific surface area of the obtained compound was increased compared to that of the host due to the different pore textures between the two materials. CFX anions were slowly released over 80 hours in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution due to strong interactions that occurred between the intercalated anions and the host lattices. The intercalation compound demonstrated enhanced antiproliferative effects towards A549 cancer cells compared to the toxicity of CFX alone. Strong host-guest interactions between the LZH lattice and the CFX anion give rise to a new intercalation compound that demonstrates sustained release mode and enhanced toxicity effects towards A549 cell lines. These findings should serve as foundations towards further developments of the brucite-like host material in drug delivery systems.

  4. Release behavior and toxicity profiles towards A549 cell lines of ciprofloxacin from its layered zinc hydroxide intercalation compound

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Layered hydroxides salts (LHS), a layered inorganic compound is gaining attention in a wide range of applications, particularly due to its unique anion exchange properties. In this work, layered zinc hydroxide nitrate (LZH), a family member of LHS was intercalated with anionic ciprofloxacin (CFX), a broad spectrum antibiotic via ion exchange in a mixture solution of water:ethanol. Results Powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed the drug anions were successfully intercalated in the interlayer space of LZH. Specific surface area of the obtained compound was increased compared to that of the host due to the different pore textures between the two materials. CFX anions were slowly released over 80 hours in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution due to strong interactions that occurred between the intercalated anions and the host lattices. The intercalation compound demonstrated enhanced antiproliferative effects towards A549 cancer cells compared to the toxicity of CFX alone. Conclusions Strong host-guest interactions between the LZH lattice and the CFX anion give rise to a new intercalation compound that demonstrates sustained release mode and enhanced toxicity effects towards A549 cell lines. These findings should serve as foundations towards further developments of the brucite-like host material in drug delivery systems. PMID:23849189

  5. Grainyhead-like 2 (GRHL2) distribution reveals novel pathophysiological differences between human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and mouse models of pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mahavadi, Poornima; Sasikumar, Satish; Cushing, Leah; Hyland, Tessa; Rosser, Ann E.; Riccardi, Daniela; Lu, Jining; Kalin, Tanya V.; Kalinichenko, Vladimir V.; Guenther, Andreas; Ramirez, Maria I.; Pardo, Annie; Selman, Moisés; Warburton, David

    2013-01-01

    Chronic injury of alveolar lung epithelium leads to epithelial disintegrity in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We had reported earlier that Grhl2, a transcriptional factor, maintains alveolar epithelial cell integrity by directly regulating components of adherens and tight junctions and thus hypothesized an important role of GRHL2 in pathogenesis of IPF. Comparison of GRHL2 distribution at different stages of human lung development showed its abundance in developing lung epithelium and in adult lung epithelium. However, GRHL2 is detected in normal human lung mesenchyme only at early fetal stage (week 9). Similar mesenchymal reexpression of GRHL2 was also observed in IPF. Immunofluorescence analysis in serial sections from three IPF patients revealed at least two subsets of alveolar epithelial cells (AEC), based on differential GRHL2 expression and the converse fluorescence intensities for epithelial vs. mesenchymal markers. Grhl2 was not detected in mesenchyme in intraperitoneal bleomycin-induced injury as well as in spontaneously occurring fibrosis in double-mutant HPS1 and HPS2 mice, whereas in contrast in a radiation-induced fibrosis model, with forced Forkhead box M1 (Foxm1) expression, an overlap of Grhl2 with a mesenchymal marker was observed in fibrotic regions. Grhl2's role in alveolar epithelial cell plasticity was confirmed by altered Grhl2 gene expression analysis in IPF and further validated by in vitro manipulation of its expression in alveolar epithelial cell lines. Our findings reveal important pathophysiological differences between human IPF and specific mouse models of fibrosis and support a crucial role of GRHL2 in epithelial activation in lung fibrosis and perhaps also in epithelial plasticity. PMID:24375798

  6. Mechanisms responsible for the acceleration of pulmonary V̇O2 on-kinetics in humans after prolonged endurance training.

    PubMed

    Zoladz, Jerzy A; Grassi, Bruno; Majerczak, Joanna; Szkutnik, Zbigniew; Korostyński, Michal; Grandys, Marcin; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa; Korzeniewski, Bernard

    2014-11-01

    The effect of prolonged endurance training on the pulmonary V̇O2 on- and off-kinetics in humans, in relation to muscle mitochondria biogenesis, is investigated. Eleven untrained physically active men (means±SD: age 22.4±1.5 years, V̇O2peak 3,187±479 ml/min) performed endurance cycling training (4 sessions per week) lasting 20 wk. Training shortened τp of the pulmonary V̇O2 on-kinetics during moderate-intensity cycling by ∼19% from 28.3±5.2 to 23.0±4.0 s (P=0.005). τp of the pulmonary V̇O2 off-kinetics decreased by ∼11% from 33.7±7.2 to 30.0±6.6 (P=0.02). Training increased (in vastus lateralis muscle) mitochondrial DNA copy number in relation to nuclear DNA (mtDNA/nDNA) (+53%) (P=0.014), maximal citrate synthase (CS) activity (+38%), and CS protein content (+38%) (P=0.004), whereas maximal cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity after training tended to be only slightly (+5%) elevated (P=0.08). By applying to the experimental data, our computer model of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and using metabolic control analysis, we argue that COX activity is a much better measure of OXPHOS intensity than CS activity. According to the model, in the present study a training-induced increase in OXPHOS activity accounted for about 0-10% of the decrease in τp of muscle and pulmonary V̇O2 for the on-transient, whereas the remaining 90-100% is caused by an increase in each-step parallel activation of OXPHOS. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Tanshinone IIA combined with adriamycin inhibited malignant biological behaviors of NSCLC A549 cell line in a synergistic way.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jun; Liu, Jia-Hui; Liu, Heng; Liao, Xiao-Zhong; Chen, Yuling; Lin, Mei-Gui; Gu, Yue-Yu; Liu, Tao-Li; Wang, Dong-Mei; Ge, Hui; Mo, Sui-Lin

    2016-11-18

    The study was designed to develop a platform to verify whether the extract of herbs combined with chemotherapy drugs play a synergistic role in anti-tumor effects, and to provide experimental evidence and theoretical reference for finding new effective sensitizers. Inhibition of tanshinone IIA and adriamycin on the proliferation of A549, PC9 and HLF cells were assessed by CCK8 assays. The combination index (CI) was calculated with the Chou-Talalay method, based on the median-effect principle. Migration and invasion ability of A549 cells were determined by wound healing assay and transwell assay. Flow cytometry was used to detect the cell apoptosis and the distribution of cell cycles. TUNEL staining was used to detect the apoptotic cells. Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expression of Cleaved Caspase-3. Western blotting was used to detect the proteins expression of relative apoptotic signal pathways. CDOCKER module in DS 2.5 was used to detect the binding modes of the drugs and the proteins. Both tanshinone IIA and adriamycin could inhibit the growth of A549, PC9, and HLF cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, while the proliferative inhibition effect of tanshinone IIA on cells was much weaker than that of adriamycin. Different from the cancer cells, HLF cells displayed a stronger sensitivity to adriamycin, and a weaker sensitivity to tanshinone IIA. When tanshinone IIA combined with adriamycin at a ratio of 20:1, they exhibited a synergistic anti-proliferation effect on A549 and PC9 cells, but not in HLF cells. Tanshinone IIA combined with adriamycin could synergistically inhibit migration, induce apoptosis and arrest cell cycle at the S and G2 phases in A549 cells. Both groups of the single drug treatment and the drug combination up-regulated the expressions of Cleaved Caspase-3 and Bax, but down-regulated the expressions of VEGF, VEGFR2, p-PI3K, p-Akt, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3 protein. Compared with the single drug treatment groups, the drug

  8. Virodhamine relaxes the human pulmonary artery through the endothelial cannabinoid receptor and indirectly through a COX product

    PubMed Central

    Kozłowska, H; Baranowska, M; Schlicker, E; Kozłowski, M; Laudañski, J; Malinowska, B

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: The endocannabinoid virodhamine is a partial agonist at the cannabinoid CB1 receptor and a full agonist at the CB2 receptor, and relaxes rat mesenteric arteries through endothelial cannabinoid receptors. Its concentration in the periphery exceeds that of the endocannabinoid anandamide. Here, we examined the influence of virodhamine on the human pulmonary artery. Experimental approach: Isolated human pulmonary arteries were obtained during resections for lung carcinoma. Vasorelaxant effects of virodhamine were examined on endothelium-intact vessels precontracted with 5-HT or KCl. Key results: Virodhamine, unlike WIN 55,212-2, relaxed 5-HT-precontracted vessels concentration dependently. The effect of virodhamine was reduced by endothelium denudation, two antagonists of the endothelial cannabinoid receptor, cannabidiol and O-1918, and a high concentration of the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant (5 μM), but only slightly attenuated by the NOS inhibitor L-NAME and not affected by a lower concentration of rimonabant (100 nM) or by the CB2 and vanilloid receptor antagonists SR 144528 and capsazepine, respectively. The COX inhibitor indomethacin and the fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597 and combined administration of selective blockers of small (apamin) and intermediate and large (charybdotoxin) conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels attenuated virodhamine-induced relaxation. The vasorelaxant potency of virodhamine was lower in KCl- than in 5-HT-precontracted preparations. Conclusions and implications: Virodhamine relaxes the human pulmonary artery through the putative endothelial cannabinoid receptor and indirectly through a COX-derived vasorelaxant prostanoid formed from the virodhamine metabolite, arachidonic acid. One or both of these mechanisms may stimulate vasorelaxant Ca2+-activated K+ channels. PMID:18806815

  9. The Chromone Alkaloid, Rohitukine, Affords Anti-Cancer Activity via Modulating Apoptosis Pathways in A549 Cell Line and Yeast Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Safia; Kamil, Mohd; Jadiya, Pooja; Sheikh, Saba; Haque, Ejazul; Nazir, Aamir; Lakshmi, Vijai; Mir, Snober S.

    2015-01-01

    The field of cancer research and treatment has made significant progress, yet we are far from having completely safe, efficient and specific therapies that target cancer cells and spare the healthy tissues. Natural compounds may reduce the problems related to cancer treatment. Currently, many plant products are being used to treat cancer. In this study, Rohitukine, a natural occurring chromone alkaloid extracted from Dysoxylum binectariferum, was investigated for cytotoxic properties against budding yeast as well as against lung cancer (A549) cells. We endeavored to specifically study Rohitukine in S. cerevisiae in the context of MAPK pathways as yeast probably represents the experimental model where the organization and regulation of MAPK pathways are best understood. MAPK are evolutionarily conserved protein kinases that transfer extracellular signals to the machinery controlling essential cellular processes like growth, migration, differentiation, cell division and apoptosis. We aimed at carrying out hypothesis driven studies towards targeting the important network of cellular communication, a critical process that gets awry in cancer. Employing mutant strains of genetic model system Saccharomyces cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae encodes five MAPKs involved in control of distinct cellular responses such as growth, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. Our study involves gene knockouts of Slt2 and Hog1 which are functional homologs of human ERK5 and mammalian p38 MAPK, respectively. We performed cytotoxicity assay to evaluate the effect of Rohitukine on cell viability and also determined the effects of drug on generation of reactive oxygen species, induction of apoptosis and expression of Slt2 and Hog1 gene at mRNA level in the presence of drug. The results of this study show a differential effect in the activity of drug between the WT, Slt2 and Hog1 gene deletion strain indicating involvement of MAPK pathway. Further, we investigated Rohitukine induced cytotoxic

  10. Plumbagin reduces osteopontin-induced invasion through inhibiting the Rho-associated kinase signaling pathway in A549 cells and suppresses osteopontin-induced lung metastasis in BalB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chi Gu; Im, Eunji; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Lee, Eun-Ok

    2017-05-01

    Lung cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer deaths in both men and women in the United States. It has been recently demonstrated that osteopontin (OPN) effectively inhibits cofilin activity through the focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/AKT/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) pathway to induce the invasion of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Plumbagin was isolated from the roots of the medicinal plant Plumbago zeylanica L. and has been reported to possess anticancer activities. However, the molecular mechanisms by which plumbagin inhibits the invasion of cancer cells is still unclear. In this study, the anti-invasive and anti-metastatic mechanisms of plumbagin were investigated in OPN-treated NSCLC A549 cells. OPN effectively induced the motility and invasion of NSCLC A549 cells and H1299 cells, which was strongly suppressed by plumbagin with no evidence of cytotoxicity. In addition, lamellipodia formation at the leading edge of cells by OPN was dramatically decreased in plumbagin-treated cells. Plumbagin caused an effective inhibition in OPN-induced the expression of ROCK1 as well as the phosphorylation of LIM kinase 1 and 2 (LIMK1/2), and cofilin. OPN-induced the phosphorylation of FAK and AKT was impaired without affecting their total forms by plumbagin treatment. OPN facilitated metastatic lung colonization, which was effectively suppressed in plumbagin-treated mice. Taken together, these results suggest that plumbagin reduces OPN-induced the invasion of NSCLC A549 cells, which resulted from inhibiting the ROCK pathway mediated by the FAK/AKT pathway and suppresses lung metastasis in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The reservoir-wave approach to characterize pulmonary vascular-right ventricular interactions in humans.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Anukul; Andersen, Mads J; Burrowes, Lindsay M; Bouwmeester, J Christopher; Grant, Andrew D; Belenkie, Israel; Fine, Nowell M; Borlaug, Barry A; Tyberg, John V

    2016-12-01

    Using the reservoir-wave approach (RWA) we previously characterized pulmonary vasculature mechanics in a normal canine model. We found reflected backward-traveling waves that decrease pressure and increase flow in the proximal pulmonary artery (PA). These waves decrease right ventricular (RV) afterload and facilitate RV ejection. With pathological alterations to the pulmonary vasculature, these waves may change and impact RV performance. Our objective in this study was to characterize PA wave reflection and the alterations in RV performance in cardiac patients, using the RWA. PA pressure, Doppler-flow velocity, and pulmonary arterial wedge pressure were measured in 11 patients with exertional dyspnea. The RWA was employed to analyze PA pressure and flow; wave intensity analysis characterized PA waves. Wave-related pressure was partitioned into two components: pressures due to forward-traveling and to backward-traveling waves. RV performance was assessed by examining the work done in raising reservoir pressure and that associated with the wave components of systolic PA pressure. Wave-related work, the mostly nonrecoverable energy expended by the RV to eject blood, tended to vary directly with mean PA pressure. Where PA pressures were lower, there were pressure-decreasing/flow-increasing backward waves that aided RV ejection. Where PA pressures were higher, there were pressure-increasing/flow-decreasing backward waves that impeded RV ejection. Pressure-increasing/flow-decreasing backward waves were responsible for systolic notches in the Doppler flow velocity profiles in patients with the highest PA pressure. Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by reflected waves that impede RV ejection and an increase in wave-related work. The RWA may facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. MicroRNA Profiling of Sendai Virus-Infected A549 Cells Identifies miR-203 as an Interferon-Inducible Regulator of IFIT1/ISG56

    PubMed Central

    Buggele, William A.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian type I interferon (IFN) response is a primary barrier for virus infection and is essential for complete innate and adaptive immunity. Both IFN production and IFN-mediated antiviral signaling are the result of differential cellular gene expression, a process that is tightly controlled at transcriptional and translational levels. To determine the potential for microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation of the antiviral response, small-RNA profiling was used to analyze the miRNA content of human A549 cells at steady state and following infection with the Cantell strain of Sendai virus, a potent inducer of IFN and cellular antiviral responses. While the miRNA content of the cells was largely unaltered by infection, specific changes in miRNA abundance were identified during Sendai virus infection. One miRNA, miR-203, was found to accumulate in infected cells and in response to IFN treatment. Results indicate that miR-203 is an IFN-inducible miRNA that can negatively regulate a number of cellular mRNAs, including an IFN-stimulated gene target, IFIT1/ISG56, by destabilizing its mRNA transcript. PMID:23785202

  13. The production of reactive oxygen species and the mitochondrial membrane potential are modulated during onion oil-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin-jiang; Stahl, Thorsten; Hu, Ying; Kassie, Fekadu; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2006-03-01

    Protective effects of Allium vegetables against cancers have been shown extensively in experimental animals and epidemiologic studies. We investigated cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis by onion oil extracted from Allium cepa, a widely consumed Allium vegetable, in human lung cancer A549 cells. GC/MS analysis suggested that propyl sulfides but not allyl sulfides are major sulfur-containing constituents of onion oil. Onion oil at 12.5 mg/L significantly induced apoptosis (13% increase of apoptotic cells) as indicated by sub-G1 DNA content. It also caused cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase; 25 mg/L onion oil increased the percentage of G2/M cells almost 6-fold compared with the dimethyl sulfoxide control. The action of onion oil may occur via a reactive oxygen species-dependent pathway because cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were blocked by the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and exogenous glutathione. Marked collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential suggested that dysfunction of the mitochondria may be involved in the oxidative burst and apoptosis induced by onion oil. Expression of phospho-cdc2 and phospho-cyclin B1 were downregulated by onion oil, perhaps accounting for the G2/M arrest. Overall, these results suggest that onion oil may exert chemopreventive action by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in tumor cells.

  14. Evaluation of Synergetic Anticancer Activity of Berberine and Curcumin on Different Models of A549, Hep-G2, MCF-7, Jurkat, and K562 Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Balakrishna, Acharya; Kumar, M Hemanth

    2015-01-01

    Ayurvedic system of medicine is using Berberis aristata and Curcuma longa herbs to treat different diseases including cancer. The study was performed to evaluate the synergetic anticancer activity of Berberine and Curcumin by estimating the inhibition of the cell proliferation by cytotoxicity assay using MTT method on specified human cell lines (A549, Hep-G2, MCF-7, Jurkat, and K562). All the cells were harvested from the culture and seeded in the 96-well assay plates at seeding density of 2.0 × 10(4) cells/well and were incubated for 24 hours. Test items Berberine with Curcumin (1 : 1), Curcumin 95% pure, and Berberine 95% pure were exposed at the concentrations of 1.25, 0.001, and 0.5 mg/mL, respectively, and incubated for a period of 48 hours followed by dispensing MTT solution (5 mg/mL). The cells were incubated at 37 ± 1°C for 4 hours followed by addition of DMSO for dissolving the formazan crystals and absorbance was read at 570 nm. Separate wells were prepared for positive control, controls (only medium with cells), and blank (only medium). The results had proven the synergetic anticancer activity of Berberine with Curcumin inducing cell death greater percentage of >77% when compared to pure curcumin with <54% and pure Berberine with <45% on average on all cell line models.

  15. Identification of cellular microRNA-136 as a dual regulator of RIG-I-mediated innate immunity that antagonizes H5N1 IAV replication in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lianzhong; Zhu, Jiping; Zhou, Hongbo; Zhao, Zongzheng; Zou, Zhong; Liu, Xiaokun; Lin, Xian; Zhang, Xue; Deng, Xuexia; Wang, Ruifang; Chen, Huanchun; Jin, Meilin

    2015-10-09

    H5N1 influenza A virus (IAV) causes severe respiratory diseases and high mortality rates in animals and humans. MicroRNAs are being increasingly studied to evaluate their potential as therapeutic entities to combat viral infection. However, mechanistic studies delineating the roles of microRNAs in regulating host-H5N1 virus interactions remain scarce. Here, we performed microRNA microarray analysis using A549 human lung epithelial cells infected with a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. The microRNA expression profile of infected cells identified a small number of microRNAs being dysregulated upon H5N1 influenza A virus infection. Of the differentially expressed microRNAs, miR-136 was up-regulated 5-fold and exhibited potent antiviral activity in vitro against H5N1 influenza A virus, as well as vesicular stomatitis virus. On the one hand, 3'-untranslated region (UTR) reporter analysis revealed a miR-136 binding site in the 3' UTR of IL-6. However, on the other hand, we subsequently determined that miR-136 meanwhile acts as an immune agonist of retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I), thereby causing IL-6 and IFN-β accumulation in A549 cells. Overall, this study implicates the dual role of miRNA-136 in the regulation of host antiviral innate immunity and suggests an important role for the microRNA-activated pathway in viral infection via pattern recognition receptors.

  16. Cis-acting sequences from a human surfactant protein gene confer pulmonary-specific gene expression in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Korfhagen, T.R.; Glasser, S.W.; Wert, S.E.

    1990-08-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is produced in late gestation by developing type II epithelial cells lining the alveolar epithelium of the lung. Lack of surfactant at birth is associated with respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants. Surfactant protein C (SP-C) is a highly hydrophobic peptide isolated from pulmonary tissue that enhances the biophysical activity of surfactant phospholipids. Like surfactant phospholipid, SP-C is produced by epithelial cells in the distal respiratory epithelium, and its expression increases during the latter part of gestation. A chimeric gene containing 3.6 kilobases of the promoter and 5{prime}-flanking sequences of the human SP-C gene was used to expressmore » diphtheria toxin A. The SP-C-diphtheria toxin A fusion gene was injected into fertilized mouse eggs to produce transgenic mice. Affected mice developed respiratory failure in the immediate postnatal period. Morphologic analysis of lungs from affected pups showed variable but severe cellular injury confined to pulmonary tissues. Ultrastructural changes consistent with cell death and injury were prominent in the distal respiratory epithelium. Proximal components of the tracheobronchial tree were not severely affected. Transgenic animals were of normal size at birth, and structural abnormalities were not detected in nonpulmonary tissues. Lung-specific diphtheria toxin A expression controlled by the human SP-C gene injured type II epithelial cells and caused extensive necrosis of the distal respiratory epithelium. The absence of type I epithelial cells in the most severely affected transgenic animals supports the concept that developing type II cells serve as precursors to type I epithelial cells.« less

  17. Human Adipose-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Attenuate Early Stage of Bleomycin Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis: Comparison with Pirfenidone

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Manoj; Fonseca, Lyle; Gowda, Shashank; Chougule, Basavraj; Hari, Aarya; Totey, Satish

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, irreversible, invariably fatal fibrotic lung disease with no lasting option for therapy. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could be a promising modality for the treatment of IPF. Aim of the study was to investigate improvement in survivability and anti-fibrotic efficacy of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) in comparison with pirfenidone in the bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis model. Methods Human AD-MSCs were administered intravenously on day 3, 6 and 9 after an intra-tracheal challenge with bleomycin, whereas, pirfenidone was given orally in drinking water at the rate of 100 mg/kg body weight three times a day daily from day 3 onward. AD-MSCs were labelled with PKH-67 before administration to detect engraftment. Disease severity and improvement was assessed and compared between sham control and vehicle control groups using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, biochemical and molecular analysis, histopathology and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) parameters at the end of study. Results Results demonstrated that AD-MSCs significantly increase survivability; reduce organ weight and collagen deposition better than pirfenidone group. Histological analyses and HRCT of the lung revealed that AD-MSCs afforded protection against bleomycin induced fibrosis and protect architecture of the lung. Gene expression analysis revealed that AD-MSCs potently suppressed pro-fibrotic genes induced by bleomycin. More importantly, AD-MSCs were found to inhibit pro-inflammatory related transcripts. Conclusions Our results provided direct evidence that AD-MSC-mediated immunomodulation and anti-fibrotic effect in the lungs resulted in marked protection in pulmonary fibrosis, but at an early stage of disease. PMID:27871152

  18. Mesenchymal stem cells promote cell invasion and migration and autophagy-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dan; Hu, Shiyuan; Tang, Chunlan; Liu, Guoxiang

    2018-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are recruited into the tumour microenvironment and promote tumour growth and metastasis. Tumour microenvironment-induced autophagy is considered to suppress primary tumour formation by impairing migration and invasion. Whether these recruited MSCs regulate tumour autophagy and whether autophagy affects tumour growth are controversial. Our data showed that MSCs promote autophagy activation, reactive oxygen species production, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as well as increased migration and invasion in A549 cells. Decreased expression of E-cadherin and increased expression of vimentin and Snail were observed in A549 cells cocultured with MSCs. Conversely, MSC coculture-mediated autophagy positively promoted tumour EMT. Autophagy inhibition suppressed MSC coculture-mediated EMT and reduced A549 cell migration and invasion slightly. Furthermore, the migratory and invasive abilities of A549 cells were additional increased when autophagy was further enhanced by rapamycin treatment. Taken together, this work suggests that microenvironments containing MSCs can promote autophagy activation for enhancing EMT; MSCs also increase the migratory and invasive abilities of A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. Mesenchymal stem cell-containing microenvironments and MSC-induced autophagy signalling may be potential targets for blocking lung cancer cell migration and invasion. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Depletion of hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 induces apoptotic sensitization of radioresistant A549 cells via reactive oxygen species-dependent p53 activation

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Hong Shik; Hong, Eun-Hee; Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791

    2013-09-27

    Highlights: •HRP-3 is a radiation- and anticancer drug-responsive protein in A549 cells. •Depletion of HRP-3 induces apoptosis of radio- and chemoresistant A549 cells. •Depletion of HRP-3 promotes ROS generation via inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. •Depletion of HRP-3 enhances ROS-dependent p53 activation and PUMA expression. -- Abstract: Biomarkers based on functional signaling have the potential to provide greater insight into the pathogenesis of cancer and may offer additional targets for anticancer therapeutics. Here, we identified hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 (HRP-3) as a radioresistance-related gene and characterized the molecular mechanism by which its encoded protein regulates the radio- and chemoresistant phenotypemore » of lung cancer-derived A549 cells. Knockdown of HRP-3 promoted apoptosis of A549 cells and potentiated the apoptosis-inducing action of radio- and chemotherapy. This increase in apoptosis was associated with a substantial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was attributable to inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway and resulted in enhanced ROS-dependent p53 activation and p53-dependent expression of PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis). Therefore, the HRP-3/Nrf2/HO-1/ROS/p53/PUMA cascade is an essential feature of the A549 cell phenotype and a potential radiotherapy target, extending the range of targets in multimodal therapies against lung cancer.« less

  20. Pulmonary Thromboembolism: Evaluation By Intravenous Angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pond, Gerald D.; Cook, Glenn C.; Woolfenden, James M.; Dodge, Russell R.

    1981-11-01

    Using perfusion lung scans as a guide, digital video subtraction angiography of the pulmonary arteries was performed in human subjects suspected of having pulmonary embolism. Dogs were employed as a pulmonary embolism model and both routine pulmonary angiography and intravenous pulmonary angiograms were obtained for comparison purposes. We have shown by our preliminary results that the technique is extremely promising as a safe and accurate alternative to routine pulmonary angiography in selected patients.

  1. Glutamine drives glutathione synthesis and contributes to radiation sensitivity of A549 and H460 lung cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Sappington, Daniel R.; Siegel, Eric R.; Hiatt, Gloria; Desai, Abhishek; Penney, Rosalind B.; Jamshidi-Parsian, Azemat; Griffin, Robert J.; Boysen, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Background Increased glutamine uptake is known to drive cancer cell proliferation, making tumor cells glutamine-dependent. Glutamine provides additional carbon and nitrogen sources for cell growth. The first step in glutamine utilization is its conversion to glutamate by glutaminase (GLS). Glutamate is a precursor for glutathione synthesis, and we investigated the hypothesis that glutamine drives glutathione synthesis and thereby contributes to cellular defense systems. Methods The importance of glutamine for glutathione synthesis was studied in H460 and A549 lung cancer cell lines using glutamine-free medium and Bis-2-(5-phenyl-acetamido-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)ethyl sulfide (BPTES) a GLS inhibitor. Metabolic activities were determined by targeted mass spectrometry. Results A significant correlation between glutamine consumption and glutathione excretion was demonstrated in H460 and A549 tumor cells. Culturing in the presence of [13C5]glutamine demonstrated that by 12 hrs >50% of excreted glutathione is derived from glutamine. Culturing in glutamine-free medium or treatment with BPTES, a glutaminase (GLS)-specific inhibitor, reduced cell proliferation and viability, and abolished glutathione excretion. Treatment with glutathione-ester prevented BPTES induced cytotoxicity. Inhibition of GLS markedly radiosensitized the lung tumor cell lines, suggesting an important role of glutamine-derived glutathione in determining radiation sensitivity. Conclusions We demonstrate here for the first time that a significant amount of extracellular glutathione is directly derived from glutamine. This finding adds yet another important function to the already known glutamine dependence of tumor cells and probably tumors as well. General significance Glutamine is essential for synthesis and excretion of glutathione to promote cell growth and viability. PMID:26825773

  2. Ultra-sensitive assay for paclitaxel in intracellular compartments of A549 cells using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Ma, Wenxiao; Sun, Yantong; Yang, Yan; Zhang, Weiping; Fawcett, J Paul; Du, Hongwei; Gu, Jingkai

    2013-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of paclitaxel in intracellular compartments using docetaxel as internal standard (IS) has been developed and validated. A549 cancer cells (10(6)) were incubated with paclitaxel (2ng/mL) for up to 4h and then subjected to sequential extraction of cytosolic, membrane/organelle, nuclear and cytoskeleton soluble protein. Fractions were ultrasonicated to release protein bound paclitaxel after which drug was extracted using liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether:dichloromethane (2:1, v/v). Chromatographic separation was then carried out on an Ascentis Express C18 column (50mm×4.6mm, 2.7μm) with a mobile phase of acetonitrile:0.1% formic acid in water (50:50, v/v). Detection involved electrospray positive ionization followed by multiple reactions monitoring of the precursor-to-product ion transitions of paclitaxel at m/z 854.4→286.3 and docetaxel at m/z 808.6→226.1. Assay validation based on samples of total cell extract in the same buffer as protein fractions showed the assay was linear over the range 2-600pg/mL with intra- and inter-day precision (as relative standard deviation) and accuracy (as relative error) of <7% and <±12%, respectively. Recovery was approximately 70% and matrix effects were minimal. The distribution of paclitaxel in subcellular components of A549 cancer cells was mainly into the cytoskeletal compartment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pulmonary tuberculosis

    MedlinePlus

    TB; Tuberculosis - pulmonary; Mycobacterium - pulmonary ... Pulmonary TB is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M tuberculosis) . TB is contagious. This means the bacteria is easily spread from an infected person ...

  4. Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... as pulmonary hypertension and interstitial lung disease can benefit as well. What is Pulmonary Rehabilitation? Pulmonary rehabilitation is a program of education and exercise that helps you manage your breathing ...

  5. Multi-walled carbon nanotube length as a critical determinant of bioreactivity with primary human pulmonary alveolar cells

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Berhanu, Deborah; Misra, Superb K.; Thorley, Andrew J.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Tetley, Teresa D.

    2015-01-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) length is suggested to critically determine their pulmonary toxicity. This stems from in vitro and in vivo rodent studies and in vitro human studies using cell lines (typically cancerous). There is little data using primary human lung cells. We addressed this knowledge gap, using highly relevant, primary human alveolar cell models exposed to precisely synthesized and thoroughly characterized MWCNTs. In this work, transformed human alveolar type-I-like epithelial cells (TT1), primary human alveolar type-II epithelial cells (ATII) and alveolar macrophages (AM) were treated with increasing concentrations of MWCNTs before measuring cytotoxicity, inflammatory mediator release and MAP kinase signalling. Strikingly, we observed that short MWCNTs (~0.6 µm in length) induced significantly greater responses from the epithelial cells, whilst AM were particularly susceptible to long MWCNTs (~20 µm). These differences in the pattern of mediator release were associated with alternative profiles of JNK, p38 and ERK1/2 MAP kinase signal transduction within each cell type. This study, using highly relevant target human alveolar cells and well defined and characterized MWCNTs, shows marked cellular responses to the MWCNTs that vary according to the target cell type, as well as the aspect ratio of the MWCNT. PMID:25780270

  6. Eradication of Human Hepatic and Pulmonary Melanoma Metastases in SCID Mice by Antibody--Interleukin 2 Fusion Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Jurgen C.; Pancook, James D.; Gillies, Stephen D.; Mendelsohn, John; Reisfeld, Ralph A.

    1996-04-01

    Antibody--cytokine fusion proteins combine the unique targeting ability of antibodies with the multifunctional activity of cytokines. Here, we demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy of such constructs for the treatment of hepatic and pulmonary metastases of different melanoma cell lines. Two antibody--interleukin 2 (IL-2) fusion proteins, ch225-IL2 and ch14.18-IL2, constructed by fusion of a synthetic sequence coding for human IL-2 to the carboxyl end of the Cγ 1 gene of the corresponding antibodies, were tested for their therapeutic efficacy against xenografted human melanoma in vivo. Tumorspecific fusion proteins completely inhibited the growth of hepatic and pulmonary metastases in C.B-17 scid/scid mice previously reconstituted with human lymphokine-activated killer cells, whereas treatment with combinations of the corresponding antibodies plus recombinant IL-2 only reduced the tumor load. Even when treatment with fusion proteins was delayed up to 8 days after inoculation of tumor cells, it still resulted in complete eradication of micrometastases that were established at that time point. Selection of tumor cell lines expressing or lacking the targeted antigen of the administered fusion protein proved the specificity of the observed antitumor effect. Biodistribution analysis demonstrated that the tumorspecific fusion protein accumulated not only in subcutaneous tumors but also in lungs and livers affected with micrometastases. Survival times of animals treated with the fusion protein were more than doubled as compared to those treated with the combination of the corresponding antibody plus IL-2. Our data demonstrate that an immunotherapeutic approach using cytokines targeted by antibodies to tumor sites has potent effects against disseminated human melanoma.

  7. 4-Methoxychalcone Enhances Cisplatin-Induced Oxidative Stress and Cytotoxicity by Inhibiting the Nrf2/ARE-Mediated Defense Mechanism in A549 Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Juhee; Lee, Sung Ho; Cho, Sera; Lee, Ik-Soo; Kang, Bok Yun; Choi, Hyun Jin

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcriptional regulator for the protection of cells against oxidative and xenobiotic stresses. Recent studies have demonstrated that high constitutive expression of Nrf2 is observed in many types of cancer cells showing resistance to anti-cancer drugs, suggesting that the suppression of overexpressed Nrf2 could be an attractive therapeutic strategy to overcome cancer drug resistance. In the present study, we aimed to find small molecule compounds that enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells to cisplatin induced cytotoxicity by suppressing Nrf2-mediated defense mechanism. A549 lung cancer cells were shown to be more resistant to the anti-cancer drug cisplatin than HEK293 cells, with higher Nrf2 signaling activity; constitutively high amounts of Nrf2-downstream target proteins were observed in A549 cells. Among the three chalcone derivatives 4-methoxy-chalcone (4-MC), hesperidin methylchalcone, and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, 4-MC was found to suppress transcriptional activity of Nrf2 in A549 cells but to activate it in HEK293 cells. 4-MC was also shown to down-regulate expression of Nrf2 and the downstream phase II detoxifying enzyme NQO1 in A549 cells. The PI3K/Akt pathway was found to be involved in the 4-MC-induced inhibition of Nrf2/ARE activity in A549 cells. This inhibition of Nrf2 signaling results in the accelerated generation of reactive oxygen species and exacerbation of cytotoxicity in cisplatin-treated A549 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the small molecule compound 4-MC could be used to enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells to the therapeutic effect of cisplatin through the regulation of Nrf2/ARE signaling. PMID:24046186

  8. Effects of quercetin on CDK4 mRNA and protein expression in A549 cells infected by H1N1

    PubMed Central

    WAN, QIAOFENG; WANG, HAO; LIN, YUAN; GU, LIGANG; HAN, MEI; YANG, ZHIWEI; ZHANG, YANLI; MA, RUI; WANG, LI; WANG, ZHISHENG

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of quercetin on the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK4) mRNA and protein in A549 lung epithelial tumor cells infected by H1N1. First, the Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide (MTT) method was used to determine H1N1 virulence, quercetin cytotoxicity and inhibition of the cytopathic effect of H1N1 on A549 cells by quercetin. Subsequently, 100 TCID50 H1N1 was used to infect A549 cells for 2 h prior to culture in maintenance media containing 10 mg/l quercetin. After 4, 12, 24 and 48 h of culture, the cells were collected and total RNA and protein were extracted. Fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were then performed to assess the expression of CDK4 mRNA and protein. The experiment demonstrated that the TCID50 of H1N1 in A549 cells was 10−4.75, the maximum non-toxic concentration of quercetin in A549 cells was 30–60 mg/l and the minimum effective concentration of quercetin for the inhibition of the H1N1 cytopathic effect on A549 cells was 10 mg/l. The results indicated that quercetin may significantly inhibit CDK4 mRNA and protein overexpression caused by H1N1 within 4–48 h. In conclusion, quercetin may protect against H1N1 infection by effectively reducing the mRNA and protein expression of CDK4 caused by H1N1 infection. PMID:24649026

  9. 4-methoxychalcone enhances cisplatin-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity by inhibiting the Nrf2/ARE-mediated defense mechanism in A549 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Juhee; Lee, Sung Ho; Cho, Sera; Lee, Ik-Soo; Kang, Bok Yun; Choi, Hyun Jin

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcriptional regulator for the protection of cells against oxidative and xenobiotic stresses. Recent studies have demonstrated that high constitutive expression of Nrf2 is observed in many types of cancer cells showing resistance to anti-cancer drugs, suggesting that the suppression of overexpressed Nrf2 could be an attractive therapeutic strategy to overcome cancer drug resistance. In the present study, we aimed to find small molecule compounds that enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells to cisplatin induced cytotoxicity by suppressing Nrf2-mediated defense mechanism. A549 lung cancer cells were shown to be more resistant to the anti-cancer drug cisplatin than HEK293 cells, with higher Nrf2 signaling activity; constitutively high amounts of Nrf2-downstream target proteins were observed in A549 cells. Among the three chalcone derivatives 4-methoxy-chalcone (4-MC), hesperidin methylchalcone, and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, 4-MC was found to suppress transcriptional activity of Nrf2 in A549 cells but to activate it in HEK293 cells. 4-MC was also shown to down-regulate expression of Nrf2 and the downstream phase II detoxifying enzyme NQO1 in A549 cells. The PI3K/Akt pathway was found to be involved in the 4-MC-induced inhibition of Nrf2/ARE activity in A549 cells. This inhibition of Nrf2 signaling results in the accelerated generation of reactive oxygen species and exacerbation of cytotoxicity in cisplatin-treated A549 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the small molecule compound 4-MC could be used to enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells to the therapeutic effect of cisplatin through the regulation of Nrf2/ARE signaling.

  10. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of nanosilver in stable GADD45α promoter-driven luciferase reporter HepG2 and A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Che, Bizhong; Luo, Qiulin; Zhai, Bingzhong; Fan, Guoqiang; Liu, Zhiyong; Cheng, Kaiming; Xin, Lili

    2017-09-01

    The intense commercial application of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been raising concerns about their potential adverse health effects to human. This study aimed to explore the potency of AgNPs to induce GADD45α gene, an important stress sensor, and its relationships with the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity elicited by AgNPs. Two established HepG2 and A549 cell lines containing the GADD45α promoter-driven luciferase reporter were treated with increasing concentrations of AgNPs for 48 hours. After the treatment, transcriptional activation of GADD45α indicated by luciferase activity, cell viability, cell cycle arrest, and levels of genotoxicity were determined. The uptake and intracellular localization of AgNPs, cellular Ag doses as well as Ag + release were also detected. AgNPs could activate GADD45α gene at the transcriptional level as demonstrated by the dose-dependent increases in luciferase activity in both the reporter cells. The relative luciferase activity was greater than 12× the control level in HepG2-luciferase cells at the highest concentration tested where the cell viability decreased to 17.0% of the control. These results was generally in accordance with the positive responses in cytotoxicity, cell cycle arrest of Sub G1 and G2/M phase, Olive tail moment, micronuclei frequency, and the cellular Ag content. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of AgNPs seems to occur mainly via particles uptake and the subsequent liberation of ions inside the cells. And furthermore, the GADD45α promoter-driven luciferase reporter cells, especially the HepG2-luciferase cells, could provide a new and valuable tool for predicting nanomaterials genotoxicity in humans. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Human Immunodeficiency Virus nef signature sequences are associated with pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Almodovar, Sharilyn; Knight, Rob; Allshouse, Amanda A; Roemer, Sarah; Lozupone, Catherine; McDonald, Daniel; Widmann, Jeremy; Voelkel, Norbert F; Shelton, Robert J; Suarez, Edu B; Hammer, Kenneth W; Goujard, Cecile; Petrosillo, Nicola; Simonneau, Gerald; Hsue, Priscilla Y; Humbert, Marc; Flores, Sonia C

    2012-06-01

    Severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with vascular remodeling is a long-term complication of HIV infection (HIV-PH) affecting 1/200 infected individuals vs. 1/200,000 frequency in the uninfected population. Factors accounting for increased PH susceptibility in HIV-infected individuals are unknown. Rhesus macaques infected with chimeric SHIVnef virions but not with SIV display PH-like pulmonary vascular remodeling suggesting that HIV-Nef is associated with PH; these monkeys showed changes in nef sequences that correlated with pathogenesis after passage in vivo. We further examined whether HIV-nef alleles in HIV-PH subjects have signature sequences associated with the disease phenotype. We evaluated specimens from participants with and without HIV-PH from European Registries and validated results with samples collected as part of the Lung-HIV Studies in San Francisco. We found that 10 polymorphisms in nef were overrepresented in blood cells or lung tissue specimens from European HIV-PH individuals but significantly less frequent in HIV-infected individuals without PH. These polymorphisms mapped to known functional domains in Nef. In the validation cohort, 7/10 polymorphisms in the HIV-nef gene were confirmed; these polymorphisms arose independently from viral load, CD4(+) T cell counts, length of infection, and antiretroviral therapy status. Two out of 10 polymorphisms were previously reported in macaques with PH-like pulmonary vascular remodeling. Cloned recombinant Nef proteins from clinical samples down-regulated CD4, suggesting that these primary isolates are functional. This study offers new insights into the association between Nef polymorphisms in functional domains and the HIV-PH phenotype. The utility of these polymorphisms as predictors of PH should be examined in a larger population.

  12. The Evaluation of a Pulmonary Display to Detect Adverse Respiratory Events Using High Resolution Human Simulator

    PubMed Central

    Wachter, S. Blake; Johnson, Ken; Albert, Robert; Syroid, Noah; Drews, Frank; Westenskow, Dwayne

    2006-01-01

    Objective Authors developed a picture-graphics display for pulmonary function to present typical respiratory data used in perioperative and intensive care environments. The display utilizes color, shape and emergent alerting to highlight abnormal pulmonary physiology. The display serves as an adjunct to traditional operating room displays and monitors. Design To evaluate the prototype, nineteen clinician volunteers each managed four adverse respiratory events and one normal event using a high-resolution patient simulator which included the new displays (intervention subjects) and traditional displays (control subjects). Between-group comparisons included (i) time to diagnosis and treatment for each adverse respiratory event; (ii) the number of unnecessary treatments during the normal scenario; and (iii) self-reported workload estimates while managing study events. Measurements Two expert anesthesiologists reviewed video-taped transcriptions of the volunteers to determine time to treat and time to diagnosis. Time values were then compared between groups using a Mann-Whitney-U Test. Estimated workload for both groups was assessed using the NASA-TLX and compared between groups using an ANOVA. P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results Clinician volunteers detected and treated obstructed endotracheal tubes and intrinsic PEEP problems faster with graphical rather than conventional displays (p < 0.05). During the normal scenario simulation, 3 clinicians using the graphical display, and 5 clinicians using the conventional display gave unnecessary treatments. Clinician-volunteers reported significantly lower subjective workloads using the graphical display for the obstructed endotracheal tube scenario (p < 0.001) and the intrinsic PEEP scenario (p < 0.03). Conclusion Authors conclude that the graphical pulmonary display may serve as a useful adjunct to traditional displays in identifying adverse respiratory events. PMID:16929038

  13. Pulmonary hemodynamics responses to hypoxia and/or CO2 inhalation during moderate exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Doutreleau, Stéphane; Enache, Irina; Pistea, Cristina; Geny, Bernard; Charloux, Anne

    2018-03-03

    In this study, we hypothesized that adding CO 2 to an inhaled hypoxic gas mixture will limit the rise of pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) induced by a moderate exercise. Eight 20-year-old males performed four constant-load exercise tests on cycle at 40% of maximal oxygen consumption in four conditions: ambient air, normobaric hypoxia (12.5% O 2 ), inhaled CO 2 (4.5% CO 2 ), and combination of hypoxia and inhaled CO 2 . Doppler echocardiography was used to measure systolic (s)PAP, cardiac output (CO). Total pulmonary resistance (TPR) was calculated. Arterialized blood pH was 7.40 at exercise in ambient and hypoxia conditions, whereas CO 2 inhalation and combined conditions showed acidosis. sPAP increases from rest in ambient air to exercise ranged as follows: ambient + 110%, CO 2 inhalation + 135%, combined + 184%, hypoxia + 217% (p < 0.001). CO was higher when inhaling O 2 -poor gas mixtures with or without CO 2 (~ 17 L min -1 ) than in the other conditions (~ 14 L min -1 , p < 0.001). Exercise induced a significant decrease in TPR in the four conditions (p < 0.05) but less marked in hypoxia (- 19% of the resting value in ambient air) than in ambient (- 33%) and in both CO 2 inhalation and combined condition (- 29%). We conclude that (1) acute CO 2 inhalation did not significantly modify pulmonary hemodynamics during moderate exercise. (2) CO 2 adjunction to hypoxic gas mixture did not modify CO, despite a higher CaO 2 in combined condition than in hypoxia. (3) TPR was lower in combined than in hypoxia condition, limiting sPAP increase in combined condition.

  14. Histone deacetylation contributes to low extracellular superoxide dismutase expression in human idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Crystal; Stearman, Robert S.; Venkataraman, Sujatha; Ferguson, Bradley S.; Swain, Kalin; Bowler, Russell P.; Geraci, Mark W.; Ihida-Stansbury, Kaori; Stenmark, Kurt R.; McKinsey, Timothy A.; Domann, Frederick E.

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation and histone acetylation, regulate gene expression in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). These mechanisms can modulate expression of extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3 or EC-SOD), a key vascular antioxidant enzyme, and loss of vascular SOD3 worsens outcomes in animal models of pulmonary arterial hypertension. We hypothesized that SOD3 gene expression is decreased in patients with IPAH due to aberrant DNA methylation and/or histone deacetylation. We used lung tissue and pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) from subjects with IPAH at transplantation and from failed donors (FD). Lung SOD3 mRNA expression and activity was decreased in IPAH vs. FD. In contrast, mitochondrial SOD (Mn-SOD or SOD2) protein expression was unchanged and intracellular SOD activity was unchanged. Using bisulfite sequencing in genomic lung or PASMC DNA, we found the methylation status of the SOD3 promoter was similar between FD and IPAH. Furthermore, treatment with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine did not increase PASMC SOD3 mRNA, suggesting DNA methylation was not responsible for PASMC SOD3 expression. Though total histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity, histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity, acetylated histones, and acetylated SP1 were similar between IPAH and FD, treatment with two selective class I HDAC inhibitors increased SOD3 only in IPAH PASMC. Class I HDAC3 siRNA also increased SOD3 expression. Trichostatin A, a pan-HDAC inhibitor, decreased proliferation in IPAH, but not in FD PASMC. These data indicate that histone deacetylation, specifically via class I HDAC3, decreases SOD3 expression in PASMC and HDAC inhibitors may protect IPAH in part by increasing PASMC SOD3 expression. PMID:27233998

  15. Effect of pulmonary surfactant on the dissolution, stability and uptake of zinc oxide nanowires by human respiratory epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Theodorou, Ioannis G.; Ruenraroengsak, Pakatip; Gow, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Chung, Kian Fan; Tetley, Teresa D.; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.

    2017-01-01

    Inhaled nanoparticles have high deposition rates in the alveolar region of the lung but the effects of pulmonary surfactant (PS) on nanoparticle bioreactivity are unclear. Here, the impact of PS on the stability and dissolution of ZnO nanowires (ZnONWs) was investigated, and linked with their bioreactivity in vitro with human alveolar epithelial type 1-like cells (TT1). Pre-incubation of ZnONWs with Curosurf® (a natural porcine PS) decreased their dissolution at acidic pH, through the formation of a phospholipid corona. Confocal live cell microscopy confirmed that Curosurf® lowered intracellular dissolution, thus delaying the onset of cell death compared to bare ZnONWs. Despite reducing dissolution, Curosurf® significantly increased the uptake of ZnONWs within TT1 cells, ultimately increasing their toxicity after 24h. Although serum, improved ZnONW dispersion in suspension similar to Curosurf®, it had no effect on ZnONW internalization and toxicity, indicating a unique role of PS in promoting particle uptake. In the absence of PS, ZnONW length had no effect on dissolution kinetics or degree of cellular toxicity, indicating a less important role of length in determining ZnONW bioreactivity. This work provides unique findings on the effects of PS on the stability and toxicity of ZnONWs, which could be important in the study of pulmonary toxicity and epithelial-endothelial translocation of nanoparticles in general. PMID:27441789

  16. [Pulmonary hypertension in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: current situation].

    PubMed

    Soto-Abánades, Clara Itzíar; Alcolea-Batres, Sergio; Ríos-Blanco, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    The increase in survival that has been achieved with the new treatments in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, has enabled clinicians and researchers to analyze issues that emerge in the long term in patients with HIV infection. Although the majority of cardiovascular complications have been widely described, the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension is still poorly understood, and is one of the more complex and feared complications as it worsens the prognosis and quality of life of these patients This article reviews newer aspects related to the aetiology, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of this disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Upregulation of Human Endogenous Retrovirus-K Is Linked to Immunity and Inflammation in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Saito, Toshie; Miyagawa, Kazuya; Chen, Shih-Yu; Tamosiuniene, Rasa; Wang, Lingli; Sharpe, Orr; Samayoa, Erik; Harada, Daisuke; Moonen, Jan-Renier A J; Cao, Aiqin; Chen, Pin-I; Hennigs, Jan K; Gu, Mingxia; Li, Caiyun G; Leib, Ryan D; Li, Dan; Adams, Christopher M; Del Rosario, Patricia A; Bill, Matthew; Haddad, Francois; Montoya, Jose G; Robinson, William H; Fantl, Wendy J; Nolan, Garry P; Zamanian, Roham T; Nicolls, Mark R; Chiu, Charles Y; Ariza, Maria E; Rabinovitch, Marlene

    2017-11-14

    Immune dysregulation has been linked to occlusive vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) that is hereditary, idiopathic, or associated with other conditions. Circulating autoantibodies, lung perivascular lymphoid tissue, and elevated cytokines have been related to PAH pathogenesis but without a clear understanding of how these abnormalities are initiated, perpetuated, and connected in the progression of disease. We therefore set out to identify specific target antigens in PAH lung immune complexes as a starting point toward resolving these issues to better inform future application of immunomodulatory therapies. Lung immune complexes were isolated and PAH target antigens were identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and localized by confocal microscopy. One PAH antigen linked to immunity and inflammation was pursued and a link to PAH pathophysiology was investigated by next-generation sequencing, functional studies in cultured monocytes and endothelial cells, and hemodynamic and lung studies in a rat. SAM domain and HD domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1), an innate immune factor that suppresses HIV replication, was identified and confirmed as highly expressed in immune complexes from 16 hereditary and idiopathic PAH versus 12 control lungs. Elevated SAMHD1 was localized to endothelial cells, perivascular dendritic cells, and macrophages, and SAMHD1 antibodies were prevalent in tertiary lymphoid tissue. An unbiased screen using metagenomic sequencing related SAMHD1 to increased expression of human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) in PAH versus control lungs (n=4). HERV-K envelope and deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase mRNAs were elevated in PAH versus control lungs (n=10), and proteins were localized to macrophages. HERV-K deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase induced SAMHD1 and proinflammatory cytokines (eg, interleukin 6, interleukin 1β, and tumor

  18. Assessing the utility of autofluorescence-based pulmonary optical endomicroscopy to predict the malignant potential of solitary pulmonary nodules in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seth, Sohan; Akram, Ahsan R.; McCool, Paul; Westerfeld, Jody; Wilson, David; McLaughlin, Stephen; Dhaliwal, Kevin; Williams, Christopher K. I.

    2016-08-01

    Solitary pulmonary nodules are common, often incidental findings on chest CT scans. The investigation of pulmonary nodules is time-consuming and often leads to protracted follow-up with ongoing radiological surveillance, however, clinical calculators that assess the risk of the nodule being malignant exist to help in the stratification of patients. Furthermore recent advances in interventional pulmonology include the ability to both navigate to nodules and also to perform autofluorescence endomicroscopy. In this study we assessed the efficacy of incorporating additional information from label-free fibre-based optical endomicrosopy of the nodule on assessing risk of malignancy. Using image analysis and machine learning approaches, we find that this information does not yield any gain in predictive performance in a cohort of patients. Further advances with pulmonary endomicroscopy will require the addition of molecular tracers to improve information from this procedure.

  19. Pulmonary uptake in indium-111-antimyosin fab fragment imaging following human cardia transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Folke, M.; Hesse, B.; Mortensen, S.A.

    1994-02-01

    Recent studies suggest that cardiac uptake of {sup 111}In-labeled antimyosin monoclonal antibody may be estimated semiquantitatively by calculating a heart-to-lung activity ratio, with pulmonary uptake serving as a reference region. The authors obtained 96 {sup 111}In-antimyosin scintigraphs to monitor rejection occurrence after heart transplantation in 26 patients. On five scintigraphs, the count rate density in ROIs over the lungs was markedly higher (mean 53% higher) than that in the immediately preceding and following scintigraphs, whereas the activity in the heart was essentially unchanged. Four of these scintigraphs coincided with ongoing pulmonary infection and the fifth with an occurrence of amore » high anti-CMV titer. The mechanism of apparent nonspecific antimyosin accumulation in the lungs is uncertain, although increased capillary permeability may be one possibility. Attention should be given to activity in the lungs if this activity is used as a reference in studies of {sup 111}In-antimyosin uptake in the heart. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.« less

  20. Effect of functionalized and non-functionalized nanodiamond on the morphology and activities of antioxidant enzymes of lung epithelial cells (A549).

    PubMed

    Solarska-Ściuk, Katarzyna; Gajewska, Agnieszka; Glińska, Sława; Michlewska, Sylwia; Balcerzak, Łucja; Jamrozik, Agnieszka; Skolimowski, Janusz; Burda, Květoslava; Bartosz, Grzegorz

    2014-10-05

    The development of nanotechnology opens up new ways for biomedical applications of unmodified and modified diamond nanoparticles which are one of the most popular nanomaterials used in biology, biotechnology, medicine, cosmetics and engineering. They have been applied as diagnostic and therapeutic agents because they can be targeted to and localized in cells causing apoptosis and necrosis. The problem of biocompatibility of nanodiamonds at higher concentrations is thus of primary importance. The first step in the modification of DNPs is usually the introduction of hydrogen groups, which can bind other functional groups. The basic method to introduce -OH groups onto nanoparticles is the Fenton reaction. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of unmodified nanodiamond particles and nanoparticles modified by introduction of -OH groups and etoposide onto their surface reaction on human non-small lung cancer cells. A549 cells were incubated with 2-100μg/ml nanopowders and at 0.6-24μg/ml etoposide in the DMEM medium. We observed a decrease of cells viability and generation of reactive oxygen/ nitrogen species in the cells after incubation, estimated by oxidation of H2DCF-DA and DAF-FM-DA. Modified detonation nanoparticles affected also the cellular content of glutathione and activities of main antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase). The results of TEM microscopy show changes in cell morphology. These data demonstrate that modified nanoparticles induce oxidative stress in the target cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cytotoxicity of the Roots of Trillium govanianum Against Breast (MCF7), Liver (HepG2), Lung (A549) and Urinary Bladder (EJ138) Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Khan, Kashif M; Nahar, Lutfun; Al-Groshi, Afaf; Zavoianu, Alexandra G; Evans, Andrew; Dempster, Nicola M; Wansi, Jean D; Ismail, Fyaz M D; Mannan, Abdul; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2016-10-01

    Trillium govanianum Wall. (Melanthiaceae alt. Trilliaceae), commonly known as 'nag chhatri' or 'teen patra', is a native species of the Himalayas. It is used in various traditional medicines containing both steroids and sex hormones. In folk medicine, the rhizomes of T. govanianum are used to treat boils, dysentery, inflammation, menstrual and sexual disorders, as an antiseptic and in wound healing. With the only exception of the recent report on the isolation of a new steroidal saponin, govanoside A, together with three known steroidal compounds with antifungal property from this plant, there has been no systematic pharmacological and phytochemical work performed on T. govanianum. This paper reports, for the first time, on the cytotoxicity of the methanol extract of the roots of T. govanianum and its solid-phase extraction (SPE) fractions against four human carcinoma cell lines: breast (MCF7), liver (HEPG2), lung (A549) and urinary bladder (EJ138), using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide cytotoxicity assay and liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of the SPE fractions. The methanol extract and all SPE fractions exhibited considerable levels of cytotoxicity against all cell lines, with the IC 50 values ranging between 5 and 16 µg/mL. Like other Trillium species, presence of saponins and sapogenins in the SPE fractions was evident in the liquid chromatography mass spectrometry data. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. VA/Q distribution during heavy exercise and recovery in humans: implications for pulmonary edema

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffartzik, W.; Poole, D. C.; Derion, T.; Tsukimoto, K.; Hogan, M. C.; Arcos, J. P.; Bebout, D. E.; Wagner, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    Ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) inequality has been shown to increase with exercise. Potential mechanisms for this increase include nonuniform pulmonary vasoconstriction, ventilatory time constant inequality, reduced large airway gas mixing, and development of interstitial pulmonary edema. We hypothesized that persistence of VA/Q mismatch after ventilation and cardiac output subside during recovery would be consistent with edema; however, rapid resolution would suggest mechanisms related to changes in ventilation and blood flow per se. Thirteen healthy males performed near-maximal cycle ergometry at an inspiratory PO2 of 91 Torr (because hypoxia accentuates VA/Q mismatch on exercise). Cardiorespiratory variables and inert gas elimination patterns were measured at rest, during exercise, and between 2 and 30 min of recovery. Two profiles of VA/Q distribution behavior emerged during heavy exercise: in group 1 an increase in VA/Q mismatch (log SDQ of 0.35 +/- 0.02 at rest and 0.44 +/- 0.02 at exercise; P less than 0.05, n = 7) and in group 2 no change in VA/Q mismatch (n = 6). There were no differences in anthropometric data, work rate, O2 uptake, or ventilation during heavy exercise between groups. Group 1 demonstrated significantly greater VA/Q inequality, lower vital capacity, and higher forced expiratory flow at 25-75% of forced vital capacity for the first 20 min during recovery than group 2. Cardiac index was higher in group 1 both during heavy exercise and 4 and 6 min postexercise. However, both ventilation and cardiac output returned toward baseline values more rapidly than did VA/Q relationships. Arterial pH was lower in group 1 during exercise and recovery. We conclude that greater VA/Q inequality in group 1 and its persistence during recovery are consistent with the hypothesis that edema occurs and contributes to the increase in VA/Q inequality during exercise. This is supported by observation of greater blood flows and acidosis and, presumably therefore

  3. Effective deactivation of A549 tumor cells in vitro and in vivo by RGD-decorated chitosan-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube loading docetaxel.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Zhang, Xiao-Xue; Huang, Hao-Yan; Chen, Li-Qing; Cui, Jing-Hao; Liu, Yanli; Jin, Hehua; Lee, Beom-Jin; Cao, Qing-Ri

    2018-05-30

    This study aims to construct and evaluate RGD-decorated chitosan (CS)-functionalized pH-responsive single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) carriers using docetaxel (DTX) as a model anticancer drug. DTX was loaded onto SWCNT via π-π stacking interaction (SWCNT-DTX), followed by the non-covalent conjugation of RGD-decorated CS to SWCNT-DTX to prepare RGD-CS-SWCNT-DTX. The RGD-CS-SWCNT-DTX showed significantly higher drug release than the pure drug, giving higher release rate at pH 5.0 (68%) than pH 7.4 (49%). The RGD-CS-SWCNT-DTX could significantly inhibit the growth of A549 tumor cells in vitro, and the uptake amount of A549 cells was obviously higher than that of MCF-7 cells. Meanwhile, the cellular uptake of RGD-CS-SWCNT-DTX was higher than that of CS-SWCNT-DTX in A549 cells, mainly through clathrin and caveolae-mediated endocytosis. The RGD-CS-SWCNT-DTX significantly inhibited tumor growth of A549 cell-bearing nude mice through active tumor-targeting ability. Furthermore, no pathological changes were found in tissues and organs. The result demonstrated that RGD-CS-SWCNT-DTX displayed high drug loading, pH-responsive drug release, remarkable antitumor effect in vitro and in vivo, and also good safety to animal body. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dehydrobruceine B enhances the cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity through regulation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhuqing; Yang, Guotao; Shen, Tao; Wang, Xiaoning; Li, Haizhen; Ren, Dongmei

    2017-05-01

    Dehydrobruceine B (DHB) is a quassinoid isolated from Brucea javanica. We have shown previously that DHB induced apoptosis on two kinds of lung cancer cell lines, A549 and NCI-H292. In the present study, we investigated the interactions of DHB and cisplatin (CDDP) on apoptotic-related cancer cell death. Synergistic effects on cell proliferation and apoptosis were observed when A549 cells were treated with DHB plus CDDP. DHB combined CDDP exposure increased depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytoplasm. The combination treatment also enhanced protein expression of Bax, reduced the protein levels of Bcl-xL and Bcl-2, and increased the cleavage of caspase-3, caspase-9 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). These results indicated that DHB sensitized A549 cells to cisplatin by regulating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. High constitutive expression of Nrf2 was found in A549 cells, which enhance the resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents including cisplatin. DHB reduced the protein levels of Nrf2 and its target genes, which may contribute to the increase of intracellular ROS level, consequently, induced mitochondria apoptosis. These results generated a rationale for further investigation of DHB combined with CDDP as a potential therapeutic strategy in lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Taspine derivative 12k suppressed A549 cell migration through the Wnt/β-catenin and EphrinB2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Dai, Bingling; Ma, Yujiao; Yang, Tianfeng; Wang, Wenjie; Zhang, Yanmin

    2017-03-01

    12k, a taspine derivative, has been demonstrated to have the potent anti-tumor activity in lung cancer and colorectal cancer. The study aims to further explore the underlying mechanisms of 12k on A549 cell migration in vitro. Our data demonstrated that 12k negatively regulated Wnt signaling pathway by suppressing the phosphorylation of LRP5/6, and inhibiting the expression and nuclear translocation of β-catenin. 12k was shown to downregulate MMP3 and MMP7 expression which regulated by β-catenin interacts with TCF/LEF in the nucleus, and effectively impaired the related migration protein expression of MMP2 and MMP9 in A549 cells. In addition, 12k repressed the EphrinB2 and its PDZ protein, impairing the VEGFR2 and VEGFR3 expression in A549 cells, as well as inhibited the downstream of VEGFR2 included PI3K/AKT/mTOR and ERK/MAPK signaling pathways. Taken together, our findings revealed that 12k suppressed migration of A549 cells through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and EphrinB2 related signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Perfluorocarbon reduces cell damage from blast injury by inhibiting signal paths of NF-κB, MAPK and Bcl-2/Bax signaling pathway in A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huaidong; Li, Chunsun; Yang, Zhen; Li, Yanqin; She, Danyang; Cao, Lu; Wang, Wenjie; Liu, Changlin; Chen, Liangan

    2017-01-01

    Background and objective Blast lung injury is a common type of blast injury and has very high mortality. Therefore, research to identify medical therapies for blast injury is important. Perfluorocarbon (PFC) is used to improve gas exchange in diseased lungs and has anti-inflammatory functions in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to determine whether PFC reduces damage to A549 cells caused by blast injury and to elucidate its possible mechanisms of action. Study design and methods A549 alveolar epithelial cells exposed to blast waves were treated with and without PFC. Morphological changes and apoptosis of A549 cells were recorded. PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to measure the mRNA or protein levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity levels were detected. Western blot was used to quantify the expression of NF-κB, Bax, Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3 and MAPK cell signaling proteins. Results A549 cells exposed to blast wave shrank, with less cell-cell contact. The morphological change of A549 cells exposed to blast waves were alleviated by PFC. PFC significantly inhibited the apoptosis of A549 cells exposed to blast waves. IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α cytokine and mRNA expression levels were significantly inhibited by PFC. PFC significantly increased MDA levels and decreased SOD activity levels. Further studies indicated that NF-κB, Bax, caspase-3, phospho-p38, phosphor-ERK and phosphor-JNK proteins were also suppressed by PFC. The quantity of Bcl-2 protein was increased by PFC. Conclusion Our research showed that PFC reduced A549 cell damage caused by blast injury. The potential mechanism may be associated with the following signaling pathways: 1) the signaling pathways of NF-κB and MAPK, which inhibit inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS); and 2) the signaling pathways of Bcl-2/Bax and caspase-3, which inhibit apoptosis. PMID:28323898

  7. Nur77 attenuates endothelin-1 expression via downregulation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK in A549 cells and in an ARDS rat model.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yujie; Zeng, Yi; Huang, Xia; Qin, Yueqiu; Luo, Weigui; Xiang, Shulin; Sooranna, Suren R; Pinhu, Liao

    2016-12-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by inflammatory injury to the alveolar and capillary barriers that results in impaired gas exchange and severe acute respiratory failure. Nuclear orphan receptor Nur77 has emerged as a regulator of gene expression in inflammation, and its role in the pathogenesis of ARDS is not clear. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential role of Nur77 and its underlying mechanism in the regulation of endothelin-1 (ET-1) expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced A549 cells and an ARDS rat model. We demonstrate that LPS induced Nur77 expression and nuclear export in A549 cells. Overexpression of Nur77 markedly decreased basal and LPS-induced ET-1 expression in A549 cells, whereas knockdown of Nur77 increased the ET-1 expression. LPS-induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK were blocked by Nur77 overexpression and augmented by Nur77 knockdown in A549 cells. In vivo, LPS induced Nur77 expression in lung in ARDS rats. Pharmacological activation of Nur77 by cytosporone B (CsnB) inhibited ET-1 expression in ARDS rats, decreased LPS-induced phosphorylation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK, and relieved lung, liver, and kidney injury. Pharmacological deactivation of Nur77 by 1,1-bis-(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-hydroxyphenyl)methane (DIM-C-pPhOH, C-DIM8) had no effect on ET-1 expression and lung injury. These results indicated that Nur77 decreases ET-1 expression by suppressing NF-κB and p38 MAPK in LPS-stimulated A549 cells in vitro, and, in an LPS-induced ARDS rat model, CsnB reduced ET-1 expression and lung injury in ARDS rats. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Modulation of endothelin receptors in the failing right ventricle of the heart and vasculature of the lung in human pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kuc, Rhoda E; Carlebur, Myrna; Maguire, Janet J; Yang, Peiran; Long, Lu; Toshner, Mark; Morrell, Nicholas W; Davenport, Anthony P

    2014-11-24

    In pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), increases in endothelin-1 (ET-1) contribute to elevated pulmonary vascular resistance which ultimately causes death by right ventricular (RV) heart failure. ET antagonists are effective in treating PAH but lack efficacy in treating left ventricular (LV) heart failure, where ETA receptors are significantly increased. The aim was to quantify the density of ETA and ETB receptors in cardiopulmonary tissue from PAH patients and the monocrotaline (MCT) rat, which recapitulates some of the pathophysiological features, including increased RV pressure. Radioligand binding assays were used to quantify affinity, density and ratio of ET receptors. In RV from human PAH hearts, there was a significant increase in the ratio of ETA to ETB receptors compared with normal hearts. In the RV of the MCT rat, the ratio also changed but was reversed. In both human and rat, there was no change in LV. In human PAH lungs, ETA receptors were significantly increased in the medial layer of small pulmonary arteries with no change detectable in MCT rat vessels. Current treatments for PAH focus mainly on pulmonary vasodilatation. The increase in ETA receptors in arteries provides a mechanism for the beneficial vasodilator actions of ET antagonists. The increase in the ratio of ETA in RV also implicates changes to ET signalling although it is unclear if ET antagonism is beneficial but the results emphasise the unexploited potential for therapies that target the RV, to improve survival in patients with PAH. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. 129 Xe chemical shift in human blood and pulmonary blood oxygenation measurement in humans using hyperpolarized 129 Xe NMR.

    PubMed

    Norquay, Graham; Leung, General; Stewart, Neil J; Wolber, Jan; Wild, Jim M

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the dependency of the 129 Xe-red blood cell (RBC) chemical shift on blood oxygenation, and to use this relation for noninvasive measurement of pulmonary blood oxygenation in vivo with hyperpolarized 129 Xe NMR. Hyperpolarized 129 Xe was equilibrated with blood samples of varying oxygenation in vitro, and NMR was performed at 1.5 T and 3 T. Dynamic in vivo NMR during breath hold apnea was performed at 3 T on two healthy volunteers following inhalation of hyperpolarized 129 Xe. The 129 Xe chemical shift in RBCs was found to increase nonlinearly with blood oxygenation at 1.5 T and 3 T. During breath hold apnea, the 129 Xe chemical shift in RBCs exhibited a periodic time modulation and showed a net decrease in chemical shift of ∼1 ppm over a 35 s breath hold, corresponding to a decrease of 7-10 % in RBC oxygenation. The 129 Xe-RBC signal amplitude showed a modulation with the same frequency as the 129 Xe-RBC chemical shift. The feasibility of using the 129 Xe-RBC chemical shift to measure pulmonary blood oxygenation in vivo has been demonstrated. Correlation between 129 Xe-RBC signal and 129 Xe-RBC chemical shift modulations in the lung warrants further investigation, with the aim to better quantify temporal blood oxygenation changes in the cardiopulmonary vascular circuit. Magn Reson Med 77:1399-1408, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  10. Dynamic Changes of Pulmonary Arterial Pressure and Ductus Arteriosus in Human Newborns From Birth to 72 Hours of Age

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Chunmiao; Zhao, Enfa; Zhou, Yinghua; Zhao, Huayun; Liu, Yunyao; Gao, Ningning; Huang, Xiaoxin; Liu, Baomin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Normal pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary hypertension assessment of newborns is rarely reported. The aim of the study is to explore dynamic changes of pulmonary arterial pressure and ductus arteriosus in human newborns from birth to 72 h of age with echocardiography. A total of 76 cases of normal newborns were prospectively detected by echocardiography after birth of 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h, respectively. Ductus arteriosus diameter, blood shunt direction, blood flow velocity, and pressure gradient were recorded. The brachial artery blood pressure were measured to estimate the pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) and pulmonary artery diastolic pressure (PADP) using patent ductus arteriosus pressure gradient method. The mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAMP) were calculated by equation of PAMP = PADP + 1/3(PASP-PADP). (1) There were 76 cases of normal newborns. Among them, 29 cases (38%) ductus arteriosus closed within 24 h, 59 cases (78%) closed within 48 h, 72 cases (95%) closed within 72 h, and 4 cases (5%) ductus arteriosus not closed within 72 h. (2) The ductus arteriosus diameter of 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h after birth was 4.60 ± 0.59 mm, 3.37 ± 0.59 mm, 2.47 ± 0.49 mm, 1.89 ± 0.41 mm, 1.61 ± 0.35 mm, and 1.20 ± 0.24 mm, respectively. Compared all of the ductus arteriosus diameter of the above time periods, there were statistically differences with P < 0.05, respectively. (3) The mean PASP in 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h after birth were 76.58 ± 7.28 mm Hg, 65.53 ± 9.25mm Hg, 52.51 ± 9.07 mm Hg, 43.83 ± 7.90 mm Hg, 38.07 ± 8.26 mm Hg, and 36 ± 6.48 mm Hg, respectively. The PADP of the above time period were 37.88 ± 5.56 mm Hg, 29.93 ± 7.91 mm Hg, 23.43 ± 7.37 mm Hg, 19.70 ± 8.51 mm Hg, 13.85 ± 5.58 mm Hg, 13.25 ± 6.18 mm Hg, respectively. The PAMP of the

  11. A critical role of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase in human telomerase reverse transcriptase induction by resveratrol in aortic smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Peixin; Riordan, Sean M.; Heruth, Daniel P.; Grigoryev, Dmitry N.; Zhang, Li Qin; Ye, Shui Qing

    2015-01-01

    Aging is the predominant risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and contributes to a considerably more severe outcome in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in red wine, is a caloric restriction mimetic with potential anti-aging properties which has emerged as a beneficial nutraceutical for patients with cardiovascular disease. Although resveratrol is widely consumed as a nutritional supplement, its mechanism of action remains to be elucidated fully. Here, we report that resveratrol activates human nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), SIRT4 and telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) in human aortic smooth muscle cells. Similar observations were obtained in resveratrol treated C57BL/6J mouse heart and liver tissues. Resverotrol can also augment telomerase activity in both human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells and A549 cells. Blocking NAMPT and SIRT4 expression prevents induction of hTERT in human aortic smooth muscle cells while overexpression of NAMPT elevates the telomerase activity induced by resveratrol in A549 cells. Together, these results identify a NAMPT-SIRT4-hTERT axis as a novel mechanism by which resveratrol may affect the anti-aging process in human aortic smooth muscle cells, mouse hearts and other cells. These findings enrich our understanding of the positive effects of resveratrol in human cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25926556

  12. Assays for in vitro monitoring of human airway smooth muscle (ASM) and human pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cell migration.

    PubMed

    Goncharova, Elena A; Goncharov, Dmitry A; Krymskaya, Vera P

    2006-01-01

    Migration of human pulmonary vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells contributes to vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis. Evidence also indicates that, in part, migration of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells may contribute to airway remodeling associated with asthma. Here we describe migration of VSM and ASM cells in vitro using Transwell or Boyden chamber assays. Because dissecting signaling mechanisms regulating cell migration requires molecular approaches, our protocol also describes how to assess migration of transfected VSM and ASM cells. Transwell or Boyden chamber assays can be completed in approximately 8 h and include plating of serum-deprived VSM or ASM cell suspension on membrane precoated with collagen, migration of cells toward chemotactic gradient and visual (Transwell) or digital (Boyden chamber) analysis of membrane. Although the Transwell assay is easy, the Boyden chamber assay requires hands-on experience; however, both assays are reliable cell-based approaches providing valuable information on how chemotactic and inflammatory factors modulate VSM and ASM migration.

  13. Persistent Pneumocystis colonization leads to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a non-human primate model of AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Shipley, Timothy W.; Kling, Heather M.; Morris, Alison; Patil, Sangita; Kristoff, Jan; Guyach, Siobhan E.; Murphy, Jessica M.; Shao, Xiuping; Sciurba, Frank C.; Rogers, Robert M.; Richards, Thomas; Thompson, Paul; Montelaro, Ronald C.; Coxson, Harvey O.; Hogg, James C.; Norris, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    HIV-infected patients are at increased risk for development of pulmonary complications, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Inflammation associated with sub-clinical infection has been postulated to promote COPD. Persistence of Pneumocystis (Pc) is associated with HIV and COPD, although a causal relationship has not been established. We used a simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) model of HIV infection to study pulmonary effects of Pc colonization. SHIV-infected/Pc-colonized monkeys developed progressive obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by increased emphysematous tissue and bronchial-associated lymphoid tissue. Elevated Th2 cytokines and pro-inflammatory mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid coincided with Pc colonization and pulmonary function decline. These results support the concept that an infectious agent contributes to development of HIV-associated lung disease and suggests that Pc colonization may be a risk factor for the development of HIV-associated COPD. Furthermore, this model allows examination of early host responses important to disease progression thus identifying potential therapeutic targets for COPD. PMID:20533880

  14. DNA vaccine-derived human IgG produced in transchromosomal bovines protect in lethal models of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Jay W; Brocato, Rebecca L; Kwilas, Steven A; Hammerbeck, Christopher D; Josleyn, Matthew D; Royals, Michael; Ballantyne, John; Wu, Hua; Jiao, Jin-an; Matsushita, Hiroaki; Sullivan, Eddie J

    2014-11-26

    Polyclonal immunoglobulin-based medical products have been used successfully to treat diseases caused by viruses for more than a century. We demonstrate the use of DNA vaccine technology and transchromosomal bovines (TcBs) to produce fully human polyclonal immunoglobulins (IgG) with potent antiviral neutralizing activity. Specifically, two hantavirus DNA vaccines [Andes virus (ANDV) DNA vaccine and Sin Nombre virus (SNV) DNA vaccine] were used to produce a candidate immunoglobulin product for the prevention and treatment of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). A needle-free jet injection device was used to vaccinate TcB, and high-titer neutralizing antibodies (titers >1000) against both viruses were produced within 1 month. Plasma collected at day 10 after the fourth vaccination was used to produce purified α-HPS TcB human IgG. Treatment with 20,000 neutralizing antibody units (NAU)/kg starting 5 days after challenge with ANDV protected seven of eight animals, whereas zero of eight animals treated with the same dose of normal TcB human IgG survived. Likewise, treatment with 20,000 NAU/kg starting 5 days after challenge with SNV protected immunocompromised hamsters from lethal HPS, protecting five of eight animals. Our findings that the α-HPS TcB human IgG is capable of protecting in animal models of lethal HPS when administered after exposure provides proof of concept that this approach can be used to develop candidate next-generation polyclonal immunoglobulin-based medical products without the need for human donors, despeciation protocols, or inactivated/attenuated vaccine antigen. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Functional ion channels in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells: Voltage-dependent cation channels

    PubMed Central

    Firth, Amy L.; Remillard, Carmelle V.; Platoshyn, Oleksandr; Fantozzi, Ivana; Ko, Eun A.; Yuan, Jason X.-J.

    2011-01-01

    The activity of voltage-gated ion channels is critical for the maintenance of cellular membrane potential and generation of action potentials. In turn, membrane potential regulates cellular ion homeostasis, triggering the opening and closing of ion channels in the plasma membrane and, thus, enabling ion transport across the membrane. Such transmembrane ion fluxes are important for excitation–contraction coupling in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC). Families of voltage-dependent cation channels known to be present in PASMC include voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels, voltage-dependent Ca2+-activated K+ (Kca) channels, L- and T- type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, voltage-gated Na+ channels and voltage-gated proton channels. When cells are dialyzed with Ca2+-free K+- solutions, depolarization elicits four components of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-sensitive Kvcurrents based on the kinetics of current activation and inactivation. In cell-attached membrane patches, depolarization elicits a wide range of single-channel K+ currents, with conductances ranging between 6 and 290 pS. Macroscopic 4-AP-sensitive Kv currents and iberiotoxin-sensitive Kca currents are also observed. Transcripts of (a) two Na+ channel α-subunit genes (SCN5A and SCN6A), (b) six Ca2+ channel α–subunit genes (α1A, α1B, α1X, α1D, α1Eand α1G) and many regulatory subunits (α2δ1, β1-4, and γ6), (c) 22 Kv channel α–subunit genes (Kv1.1 - Kv1.7, Kv1.10, Kv2.1, Kv3.1, Kv3.3, Kv3.4, Kv4.1, Kv4.2, Kv5.1, Kv 6.1-Kv6.3, Kv9.1, Kv9.3, Kv10.1 and Kv11.1) and three Kv channel β-subunit genes (Kvβ1-3) and (d) four Kca channel α–subunit genes (Sloα1 and SK2-SK4) and four Kca channel β-subunit genes (Kcaβ1-4) have been detected in PASMC. Tetrodotoxin-sensitive and rapidly inactivating Na+ currents have been recorded with properties similar to those in cardiac myocytes. In the presence of 20 mM external Ca2+, membrane depolarization from a holding potential of -100 mV elicits a rapidly

  16. [Houttuynia Cordata induces expression of human beta-defensin-2 mRNA in pulmonary epithelial cells in vitro].

    PubMed

    Luo, Li; Dong, Bi-rong; Teng, Li-hua

    2008-07-01

    To explore the effects of Houttuynia Cordata on expression of human beta-defensin-2 (HBD-2) in pulmonary epithelial cells (SPC-A-1) in vitro; and to observe the correlationship between the level of HBD-2 mRNA and the concentrations or treatment times of Houttuynia Cordata. The SPC-A-1 cells were cultured with different concentrations of Houttuynia Cordata in vitro, including 0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 microg/ml. And then, the SPC-A-1 cells were cultured with the optimal concentration of Houttuynia Cordata in different lengths of time, including 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 hours. After the treatment, the mRNA level of HBD-2 in pulmonary epithelial cells was detected by means of semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). After being cultured with Houttuynia Cordata, the expression of HBD-2 mRNA had positive correlation with the stimulus concentrations (rs=0.829, P=0.042) and stimulus time (rs=0.914, P=0.003). The highest expression of HBD-2 mRNA was induced by 100 microg/ml Houttuynia Cordata after 8-hour treatment. In comparison with the normal control group and the interleukin-1beta group, 100 microg/ml Houttuynia Cordata could significantly up-regulate the expression of HBD-2 mRNA in SPC-A-1 cells after 8-hour treatment (P<0.01). Houttuynia Cordata can up-regulate expression of HBD-2 mRNA in SPC-A-1 cells, and the highest expression level of HBD-2 mRNA can be obtained by culture with 100 microg/ml Houttuynia Cordata for 8 hours.

  17. Pulmonary Inflammatory Responses to Acute Meteorite Dust Exposures - Implications for Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, A. D.; McCubbin, F. M.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.; Kaur, J.; Smirnov, A.; Galdanes, K.; Schoonen, M. A. A.; Chen, L. C.; Tsirka, S. E.; Gordon, T.

    2018-01-01

    New initiatives to send humans to Mars within the next few decades are illustrative of the resurgence of interest in space travel. However, as with all exploration, there are risks. The Human Research Roadmap developed by NASA identifies the Risk of Adverse Health and Performance Effects of Celestial Dust Exposure as an area of concern. Extended human exploration will further increase the probability of inadvertent and repeated exposures to celestial dusts.

  18. Multiplex Analysis of Serum Cytokines in Humans with Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Morzunov, Sergey P; Khaiboullina, Svetlana F; St Jeor, Stephen; Rizvanov, Albert A; Lombardi, Vincent C

    2015-01-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an acute zoonotic disease transmitted primarily through inhalation of virus-contaminated aerosols. Hantavirus infection of endothelial cells leads to increased vascular permeability without a visible cytopathic effect. For this reason, it has been suggested that the pathogenesis of HPS is indirect with immune responses, such as cytokine production, playing a dominant role. In order to investigate their potential contribution to HPS pathogenesis, we analyzed the serum of hantavirus-infected subjects and healthy controls for 68 different cytokines, chemokines, angiogenic, and growth factors. Our analysis identified differential expression of cytokines that promote tissue migration of mononuclear cells including T lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells. Additionally, we observed a significant upregulation of cytokines known to regulate leukocyte migration and subsequent repair of lung tissue, as well as cytokines known to increase endothelial monolayer permeability and facilitate leukocyte transendothelial migration. Conversely, we observed a downregulation of cytokines associated with platelet numbers and function, consistent with the thrombocytopenia observed in subjects with HPS. This study corroborates clinical findings and extends our current knowledge regarding immunological and laboratory findings in subjects with HPS.

  19. The hedgehog system machinery controls transforming growth factor-β-dependent myofibroblastic differentiation in humans: involvement in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Cigna, Natacha; Farrokhi Moshai, Elika; Brayer, Stéphanie; Marchal-Somme, Joëlle; Wémeau-Stervinou, Lidwine; Fabre, Aurélie; Mal, Hervé; Lesèche, Guy; Dehoux, Monique; Soler, Paul; Crestani, Bruno; Mailleux, Arnaud A

    2012-12-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating disease of unknown cause. Key signaling developmental pathways are aberrantly expressed in IPF. The hedgehog pathway plays a key role during fetal lung development and may be involved in lung fibrogenesis. We determined the expression pattern of several Sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway members in normal and IPF human lung biopsies and primary fibroblasts. The effect of hedgehog pathway inhibition was assayed by lung fibroblast proliferation and differentiation with and without transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. We showed that the hedgehog pathway was reactivated in the IPF lung. Importantly, we deciphered the cross talk between the hedgehog and TGF-β pathway in human lung fibroblasts. TGF-β1 modulated the expression of key components of the hedgehog pathway independent of Smoothened, the obligatory signal transducer of the pathway. Smoothened was required for TGF-β1-induced myofibroblastic differentiation of control fibroblasts, but differentiation of IPF fibroblasts was partially resistant to Smoothened inhibition. Furthermore, functional hedgehog pathway machinery from the primary cilium, as well as GLI-dependent transcription in the nucleus, was required for the TGF-β1 effects on normal and IPF fibroblasts during myofibroblastic differentiation. These data identify the GLI transcription factors as potential therapeutic targets in lung fibrosis. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pulmonary physiology during pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Elliott, C G

    1992-04-01

    Acute pulmonary thromboembolism produces a number of pathophysiologic derangements of pulmonary function. Foremost among these alterations is increased pulmonary vascular resistance. For patients without preexistent cardiopulmonary disease, increased pulmonary vascular resistance is directly related to the degree of vascular obstruction demonstrated on the pulmonary arteriogram. Vasoconstriction, either reflexly or biochemically mediated, may contribute to increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Acute pulmonary thromboembolism also disturbs matching of ventilation and blood flow. Consequently, some lung units are overventilated relative to perfusion (increased dead space), while other lung units are underventilated relative to perfusion (venous admixture). True right-to-left shunting of mixed venous blood can occur through the lungs (intrapulmonary shunt) or across the atrial septum (intracardiac shunt). In addition, abnormalities of pulmonary gas exchange (carbon monoxide transfer), pulmonary compliance and airway resistance, and ventilatory control may accompany pulmonary embolism. Thrombolytic therapy can reverse the hemodynamic derangements of acute pulmonary thromboembolism more rapidly than anticoagulant therapy. Limited data suggest a sustained benefit of thrombolytic treatment on the pathophysiologic alterations of pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary gas exchange produced by acute pulmonary emboli.

  1. Different glucocorticoids vary in their genomic and non-genomic mechanism of action in A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Croxtall, Jamie D; van Hal, Peter Th W; Choudhury, Qam; Gilroy, Derek W; Flower, Rod J

    2002-01-01

    We have examined the effects of 12 glucocorticoids as inhibitors of A549 cell growth. Other than cortisone and prednisone, all the glucocorticoids inhibited cell growth and this was strongly correlated (r=0.91) with inhibition of prostaglandin (PG)E2 formation. The molecular mechanism by which the active steroids prevented PGE2 synthesis was examined and three groups were identified. Group A drugs did not inhibit arachidonic acid release but inhibited the induction of COX2. Group B drugs were not able to inhibit the induction of COX2 but inhibited arachidonic acid release through suppression of cPLA2 activation. Group C drugs were apparently able to bring about both effects. The inhibitory actions of all steroids was dependent upon glucocorticoid receptor occupation since RU486 reversed their effects. However, group A acted through the NF-κB pathway to inhibit COX2 as the response was blocked by the inhibitor geldanamycin which prevents dissociation of GR and the effect was blocked by APDC, the NF-κB inhibitor. On the other hand, the group B drugs were not inhibited by NF-κB inhibitors or geldanamycin but their effect was abolished by the src inhibitor PP2. Group C drugs depended on both pathways. In terms of PGE2 generation, there is clear evidence of two entirely separate mechanisms of glucocorticoid action, one of which correlates with NF-κB mediated genomic actions whilst the other, depends upon rapid effects on a cell signalling system which does not require dissociation of GR. The implications for these findings are discussed. PMID:11815387

  2. Synergistic Antiproliferative Effects of a New Cucurbitacin B Derivative and Chemotherapy Drugs on Lung Cancer Cell Line A549.

    PubMed

    Marostica, Lucas Lourenço; Silva, Izabella Thaís; Kratz, Jadel Müller; Persich, Lara; Geller, Fabiana Cristina; Lang, Karen Luise; Caro, Miguel Soriano Balparda; Durán, Fernando Javier; Schenkel, Eloir Paulo; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira

    2015-10-19

    Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents an important cause of mortality worldwide due to its aggressiveness and growing resistance to currently available therapy. Cucurbitacins have emerged as novel potential anticancer agents showing strong antiproliferative effects and can be promising candidates for combined treatments with clinically used anticancer agents. This study investigates the synergistic antiproliferative effects of a new semisynthetic derivative of cucurbitacin B (DACE) with three chemotherapy drugs: cisplatin (CIS), irinotecan (IRI), and paclitaxel (PAC) on A549 cells. The most effective combinations were selected for studies of the mechanism of action. Using an in silico tool, DACE seems to act by a different mechanism of action when compared with that of different classes of drugs already used in clinical settings. DACE also showed potent synergic effects with drugs, and the most potent combinations induced G2/M cell cycle arrest by modulating survivin and p53 expression, disruption of F-actin cytoskeleton, and cell death by apoptosis. These treatments completely inhibited the clonogenic potential and did not reduce the proliferation of nontumoral lung cells (MRC-5). DACE also showed relevant antimigratory and anti-invasive effects, and combined treatments modulated cell migration signaling pathways evolved with metastasis progression. The effects of DACE associated with drugs was potentiated by the oxidant agent l-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO), and attenuated by N-acetilcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant agent. The antiproliferative effects induced by combined treatments were attenuated by a pan-caspase inhibitor, indicating that the effects of these treatments are dependent on caspase activity. Our data highlight the therapeutic potential of DACE used in combination with known chemotherapy drugs and offer important insights for the development of more effective and selective therapies against lung cancer.

  3. Genotoxic and oxidative effects induced on A549 cells by extract of PM10 collected in an electric steel plant.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Delia; Ursini, Cinzia L; Maiello, Raffaele; Apostoli, Pietro; Catalani, Simona; Ciervo, Aureliano; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    The present study was aimed at assessing the carcinogenic risk of occupational exposure to PM10 in electric steel plants. PM10 was collected on cellulose filter respectively outside (site 1) and inside (site 2) the furnace area, was measured, extracted and its metal content was analysed by ICP-MS. Cells were exposed for 30 min, 2 and 4 hours to extract of filter from each site diluted at 0.004, 0.008 and 0.02%. The direct/oxidative DNA damage caused by PM10 was evaluated on A549 cells by Fpg-modified comet assay, analysing Tail moment (TM) and comet percentage. Air samples contained 1.08 mg/m3 of PM10 in site 1 and 5.54 mg/m3in site 2 and different amounts of metals with higher levels of Zn, Al, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ba in site 2 and of Fe, Mn, Sb in site 1. In cells exposed for 2h to PM10 from both sites, an oxidative DNA damage was found concentrations of 0.008% and 0.02%. For site 2, a direct DNA damage at 0.02% was also found. After 4h a direct/oxidative DNA damage was detected at 0.02% for site 2 and an oxidative DNA damage for site 1. The results indicate a moderate DNA damage induction by used diluitions of PM10 extracts with higher extent for more polluted site 2. These findings show the suitability of this experimental model to evaluate early DNA damage induced by complex mixtures containing metals on target organ, suggesting its use to study biological effects of occupational exposure to such substances.

  4. Development of a transmission alpha particle dosimetry technique using A549 cells and a Ra-223 source for targeted alpha therapy.

    PubMed

    Al Darwish, R; Staudacher, A H; Li, Y; Brown, M P; Bezak, E

    2016-11-01

    In targeted radionuclide therapy, regional tumors are targeted with radionuclides delivering therapeutic radiation doses. Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) is of particular interest due to its ability to deliver alpha particles of high linear energy transfer within the confines of the tumor. However, there is a lack of data related to alpha particle distribution in TAT. These data are required to more accurately estimate the absorbed dose on a cellular level. As a result, there is a need for a dosimeter that can estimate, or better yet determine the absorbed dose deposited by alpha particles in cells. In this study, as an initial step, the authors present a transmission dosimetry design for alpha particles using A549 lung carcinoma cells, an external alpha particle emitting source (radium 223; Ra-223) and a Timepix pixelated semiconductor detector. The dose delivery to the A549 lung carcinoma cell line from a Ra-223 source, considered to be an attractive radionuclide for alpha therapy, was investigated in the current work. A549 cells were either unirradiated (control) or irradiated for 12, 1, 2, or 3 h with alpha particles emitted from a Ra-223 source positioned below a monolayer of A549 cells. The Timepix detector was used to determine the number of transmitted alpha particles passing through the A549 cells and DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in the form of γ-H2AX foci were examined by fluorescence microscopy. The number of transmitted alpha particles was correlated with the observed DNA DSBs and the delivered radiation dose was estimated. Additionally, the dose deposited was calculated using Monte Carlo code SRIM. Approximately 20% of alpha particles were transmitted and detected by Timepix. The frequency and number of γ-H2AX foci increased significantly following alpha particle irradiation as compared to unirradiated controls. The equivalent dose delivered to A549 cells was estimated to be approximately 0.66, 1.32, 2.53, and 3.96 Gy after 12, 1, 2, and 3 h

  5. Gemcitabine-(5'-phosphoramidate)-[anti-IGF-1R]: molecular design, synthetic organic chemistry reactions, and antineoplastic cytotoxic potency in populations of pulmonary adenocarcinoma (A549).

    PubMed

    Coyne, Cody P; Narayanan, Lakshmi

    2017-03-01

    One molecular-based approach that increases potency and reduces dose-limited sequela is the implementation of selective 'targeted' delivery strategies for conventional small molecular weight chemotherapeutic agents. Descriptions of the molecular design and organic chemistry reactions that are applicable for synthesis of covalent gemcitabine-monophosphate immunochemotherapeutics have to date not been reported. The covalent immunopharmaceutical, gemcitabine-(5'-phosphoramidate)-[anti-IGF-1R] was synthesized by reacting gemcitabine with a carbodiimide reagent to form a gemcitabine carbodiimide phosphate ester intermediate which was subsequently reacted with imidazole to create amine-reactive gemcitabine-(5'-phosphorylimidazolide) intermediate. Monoclonal anti-IGF-1R immunoglobulin was combined with gemcitabine-(5'-phosphorylimidazolide) resulting in the synthetic formation of gemcitabine-(5'-phosphoramidate)-[anti-IGF-1R]. The gemcitabine molar incorporation index for gemcitabine-(5'-phosphoramidate)-[anti-IGF-R1] was 2.67:1. Cytotoxicity Analysis - dramatic increases in antineoplastic cytotoxicity were observed at and between the gemcitabine-equivalent concentrations of 10 -9  M and 10 -7  M where lethal cancer cell death increased from 0.0% to a 93.1% maximum (100.% to 6.93% residual survival), respectively. Advantages of the organic chemistry reactions in the multistage synthesis scheme for gemcitabine-(5'-phosphoramidate)-[anti-IGF-1R] include their capacity to achieve high chemotherapeutic molar incorporation ratios; option of producing an amine-reactive chemotherapeutic intermediate that can be preserved for future synthesis applications; and non-dedicated organic chemistry reaction scheme that allows substitutions of either or both therapeutic moieties, and molecular delivery platforms. © 2016 The Authors Chemical Biology & Drug Design Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The influence of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on the inflammatory cytokine response and protein expression in A549 cells exposed to PM2.5 collected in the Baton Rouge-Port Allen industrial corridor of Southeastern Louisiana in 2005.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Brian; Owens, John Wesley

    2014-03-01

    Hurricanes Katrina and Rita hit the coast of Louisiana in 2005 and killed more than 2000 people. The two storms resulted in a significant spike in particulate matter (PM2.5) levels across the state of Louisiana. This report focuses on PM2.5 samples collected in 2005 from two monitoring sites in the neighboring cities of Baton Rouge and Port Allen, Louisiana. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) revealed the presence of PM2.5-adsorbed representative and Fenton-active transition metals. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed the presence of 23 PAH compounds. Endotoxins were also detected. Metals and endotoxins were extracted with water. PAH were extracted with dichloromethane. In order to assess cytotoxicity, aqueous PM2.5 extracts were introduced to A549 Human Epithelial Lung Carcinoma Cells. Results indicated decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, with an LC50 of 235 µg/ml and 250 µg/ml, respectively, for the two sites featured here. Endotoxins alone were not cytotoxic. The concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and released LDH activity increased following exposure of A549 cells to aqueous PM2.5 extracts. Fluorescence microscopy revealed apoptotic and necrotic cell death mechanisms. ELISA revealed increased secretion of primary pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α. Global PCR gene expression revealed up-regulation of proteins associated with the cytokine storm; e.g. interleukins, chemokines, and TNF-α. Global antibody microarray was consistent with an inflammatory response, with up-regulation of cytokines involved in the down-field activation of the caspase cascade and kinase pathways. The up-regulation of metal-redox sensitive transcription factors, NF-κβ and AP-1, is consistent with a cell death mechanism initiated by Fenton-active transition metal redox catalysis.

  7. Sulfamic and succinic acid derivatives of 25-OH-PPD and their activities to MCF-7, A-549, HCT-116, and BGC-823 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wu-Xi; Cao, Jia-Qing; Wang, Xu-De; Guo, Jun-Hui; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2017-02-15

    In the search for new anti-tumor agents with higher potency than our previously identified compound 1 (25-OH-PPD, 25-hydroxyprotopanaxadiol), 12 novel sulfamic and succinic acid derivatives that could improve water solubility and contribute to good drug potency and pharmacokinetic profiles were designed and synthesized. Their in vitro anti-tumor activities in MCF-7, A-549, HCT-116, and BGC-823 cell lines and one normal cell line were tested by standard MTT assay. Results showed that compared with compound 1, compounds 2, 3, and 7 exhibited higher cytotoxic activity on A-549 and BGC-823 cell lines, together with lower toxicity in the normal cell. In particular, compound 2 exhibited the best anti-tumor activity in the in vitro assays, which may provide valuable data for the research and development of new anti-tumor agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cytotoxic, Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects of Perillyl Alcohol and Its Biotransformation Metabolite on A549 and HepG2 Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Oturanel, Ceren E; Kıran, İsmail; Özşen, Özge; Çiftçi, Gülşen A; Atlı, Özlem

    2017-01-01

    A monoterpene, perillyl alcohol, has attracted attention in medicinal chemistry since it exhibited chemo-preventive and therapeutic properties against a variety of cancers. In the present work, it was aimed to obtain derivatives of perillyl alcohol through microbial biotransformation and investigate their anticancer activities against A549 and HepG2 cancer cell lines. Biotransformation studies were carried out in a α-medium for 7 days at 25oC. XTT assay was performed to investigate the anticancer activities of perillyl alcohol and its biotransformation metabolite, dehydroperillic acid, against A549 and HepG2 cell lines and their selectivity using healthy cell line, NIH/3T3. Cell proliferation ELISA, BRDU (colorimetric) assay was used for measurement of proliferation in replicative cells in which DNA synthesis occurs. Flow cytometric analyses were also carried out for measuring apoptotic cell percentages, caspase 3 activation and mitochondrial membrane potential. Biotransformation of perillyl alcohol with Fusarium culmorum yielded dehydroperillic acid in a yield of 20.4 %. In in vitro anticancer studies, perillyl alcohol was found to exert cytotoxicity against HepG2 cell line with an IC50 value of 409.2 μg/mL. However, this effect was not found to be selective because of its higher IC50 (250 μg/mL) value against NIH/3T3 cell line. On the other hand, dehydroperillic acid was found to be effective and also selective against A549 cell line with an IC50 value of 125 μg/mL and a selectivity index (SI) value of 400. Apoptosis inducing effects of dehydroperillic acid was better in A549 cell line. Dehydroperillic acid may be a good candidate for therapy of lung adenocarcinoma and may show this anticancer activity by inducing apoptosis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Inhibition of TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activation and IL-8 release in A549 cells with the proteasome inhibitor MG-132.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, M A; Wernke-Dollries, K; Stark, J M

    1998-08-01

    The working hypothesis of the studies described herein was that inhibition of proteasome-mediated IkappaB degradation would inhibit TNF-alpha-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation, interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene transcription, and IL-8 protein release in A549 cells. Mutational analysis of the 5' flanking region of the IL-8 gene confirmed that an intact NF-kappaB site is necessary for TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 gene transcription. The addition of TNF-alpha to A549 cells resulted in rapid loss of IkappaB from the cytoplasm of cells, associated with a corresponding increase in NF-kappaB-binding activity in nuclear extracts from the cells. However, pretreatment of the cells with the proteasome inhibitor N-cbz-Leu-Leu-leucinal (MG-132, 10 microM) reversed the effects of TNF-alpha on IL-8 release from A549 cells (as determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) and on IL-8 gene transcription (as determined with reporter-gene assays). MG-132 reversed the effects of TNF-alpha on IkappaB degradation as determined by Western blot analysis. IkappaB phosphorylation and ubiquination were not altered by MG-132, which implies that the effects of MG-132 were secondary to proteasome inhibition. MG-132 also reversed the increase in NF-kappaB binding in nuclear extracts from TNF-alpha-treated cells. These studies show that inhibition of proteasome-mediated IkappaB degradation results in inhibition of TNF-alpha induced IL-8 production in A549 cells by limiting NF-kappaB-mediated gene transcription.

  10. Pulmonary haptoglobin (pHp) is part of the surfactant system in the human lung.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Mahdi; Goldmann, Torsten

    2012-11-20

    Since the existence of pHp was demonstrated, it has been shown that this molecule and its receptor CD163 are regulated by different stimuli. Furthermore, a comparably fast secretion of pHp was described as well as the immuno-stimulatory effects. The intention of this study was to elucidate the role of pHp in the human lungs further. Here we show, by means of confocal microscopy and immune-electron-microscopy, a clear co-localization of pHp with surfactant protein-B in lamellar bodies of alveolar epithelial cells type II. These results are underlined by immunohistochemical stainings in differently fixed human lung tissues, which show pHp in vesicular and released form. The images of the released form resemble the intended position of surfactant in the human alveolus. pHp is secreted by Alveolar epithelial cells type II as previously shown. Moreover, pHp is co-localized with Surfactant protein-B. We conclude that the presented data shows that pHp is a native part of the surfactant system in the human lung. http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2563584738239912.

  11. Pulmonary haptoglobin (pHp) is part of the surfactant system in the human lung

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Since the existence of pHp was demonstrated, it has been shown that this molecule and its receptor CD163 are regulated by different stimuli. Furthermore, a comparably fast secretion of pHp was described as well as the immuno-stimulatory effects. The intention of this study was to elucidate the role of pHp in the human lungs further. Here we show, by means of confocal microscopy and immune-electron-microscopy, a clear co-localization of pHp with Surfactant protein-B in lamellar bodies of Alveolar Epithelial Cells Type II. These results are underlined by immunohistochemical stainings in differently fixed human lung tissues, which show pHp in vesicular and released form. The images of the released form resemble the intended position of surfactant in the human alveolus. pHp is secreted by Alveolar epithelial cells type II as previously shown. Moreover, pHp is co-localized with Surfactant protein-B. We conclude that the presented data shows that pHp is a native part of the surfactant system in the human lung. Virtual slides http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2563584738239912. PMID:23164167

  12. Erythrocytosis and Pulmonary Hypertension in a Mouse Model of Human HIF2A Gain of Function Mutation*

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Qiulin; Kerestes, Heddy; Percy, Melanie J.; Pietrofesa, Ralph; Chen, Li; Khurana, Tejvir S.; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Lappin, Terence R. J.; Lee, Frank S.

    2013-01-01

    The central pathway for oxygen-dependent control of red cell mass is the prolyl hydroxylase domain protein (PHD):hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) pathway. PHD site specifically prolyl hydroxylates the transcription factor HIF-α, thereby targeting the latter for degradation. Under hypoxia, this modification is attenuated, allowing stabilized HIF-α to activate target genes, including that for erythropoietin (EPO). Studies employing genetically modified mice point to Hif-2α, one of two main Hif-α isoforms, as being the critical regulator of Epo in the adult mouse. More recently, erythrocytosis patients with heterozygous point mutations in the HIF2A gene have been identified; whether these mutations were polymorphisms unrelated to the phenotype could not be ruled out. In the present report, we characterize a mouse line bearing a G536W missense mutation in the Hif2a gene that corresponds to the first such human mutation identified (G537W). We obtained mice bearing both heterozygous and homozygous mutations at this locus. We find that these mice display, in a mutation dose-dependent manner, erythrocytosis and pulmonary hypertension with a high degree of penetrance. These findings firmly establish missense mutations in HIF-2α as a cause of erythrocytosis, highlight the importance of this HIF-α isoform in erythropoiesis, and point to physiologic consequences of HIF-2α dysregulation. PMID:23640890

  13. The key role of exudative lesions and their encapsulation: lessons learned from the pathology of human pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2015-01-01

    A review of the pathology of human pulmonary TB cases at different stages of evolution in the pre-antibiotic era suggests that neutrophils play an instrumental role in the progression toward active TB. This progression is determined by the type of lesion generated. Thus, exudative lesions, in which neutrophils are the major cell type, are both triggered by and induce local high bacillary load, and tend to enlarge and progress toward liquefaction and cavitation. In contrast, proliferative lesions are triggered by low bacillary loads, mainly comprise epithelioid cells and fibroblasts and tend to fibrose, encapsulate and calcify, thus controlling the infection. Infection of the upper lobes is key to the progression toward active TB for two main reasons, namely poor breathing amplitude, which allows local bacillary accumulation, and the high mechanical stress to which the interlobular septae (which enclose secondary lobes) are submitted, which hampers their ability to encapsulate lesions. Overall, progressing factors can be defined as internal (exudative lesion, local bronchogenous dissemination, coalescence of lesions), with lympho-hematological dissemination playing a very limited role, or external (exogenous reinfection). Abrogating factors include control of the bacillary load and the local encapsulation process, as directed by interlobular septae. The age and extent of disease depend on the quality and speed with which lesions liquefy and disseminate bronchially, the volume of the slough, and the amount and distribution of the sloughing debris dispersed.

  14. The key role of exudative lesions and their encapsulation: lessons learned from the pathology of human pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2015-01-01

    A review of the pathology of human pulmonary TB cases at different stages of evolution in the pre-antibiotic era suggests that neutrophils play an instrumental role in the progression toward active TB. This progression is determined by the type of lesion generated. Thus, exudative lesions, in which neutrophils are the major cell type, are both triggered by and induce local high bacillary load, and tend to enlarge and progress toward liquefaction and cavitation. In contrast, proliferative lesions are triggered by low bacillary loads, mainly comprise epithelioid cells and fibroblasts and tend to fibrose, encapsulate and calcify, thus controlling the infection. Infection of the upper lobes is key to the progression toward active TB for two main reasons, namely poor breathing amplitude, which allows local bacillary accumulation, and the high mechanical stress to which the interlobular septae (which enclose secondary lobes) are submitted, which hampers their ability to encapsulate lesions. Overall, progressing factors can be defined as internal (exudative lesion, local bronchogenous dissemination, coalescence of lesions), with lympho-hematological dissemination playing a very limited role, or external (exogenous reinfection). Abrogating factors include control of the bacillary load and the local encapsulation process, as directed by interlobular septae. The age and extent of disease depend on the quality and speed with which lesions liquefy and disseminate bronchially, the volume of the slough, and the amount and distribution of the sloughing debris dispersed. PMID:26136741

  15. Garcinol from Garcinia indica Downregulates Cancer Stem-like Cell Biomarker ALDH1A1 in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cells through DDIT3 Activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinhan; Wang, Liwen; Ho, Chi-Tang; Zhang, Kunsheng; Liu, Qiang; Zhao, Hui

    2017-05-10

    Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the predominant type of lung cancer. Patients with NSCLC show high mortality rates because of failure to clean up cancer stem cells (CSCs). The anticancer activity of phytochemical garcinol has been identified in various cancer cell models. However, the effect of garcinol on NSCLC cell lines is still lacking. Of the NSCLC cell lines we tested, A549 cells were the most sensitive to garcinol. Interestingly, Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 Family Member A1 (ALDH1A1) was preferentially expressed in A549 cells and downregulated by the addition of garcinol. We also found that garcinol enriched DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3) and then altered DDIT3-CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins beta (C/EBPβ) interaction resulting in a decreased binding of C/EBPβ to the endogenous ALDH1A1 promoter. Furthermore, garcinol's inhibition of ALDH1A1 was identified in a xenograft mice model. Garcinol repressed ALDH1A1 transcription in A549 cells through alterations in the interaction between DDIT3 and C/EBPβ. Garcinol could be a potential dietary phytochemical candidate for NSCLCs patients whose tumors harbored high ALDH1A1 expression.

  16. HMGA2 upregulation mediates Cd-induced migration and invasion in A549 cells and in lung tissues of mice.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huiyuan; Li, Zhiguo; Ge, Hong; Mei, Dan; Zhao, Lian; Jiang, Liping; Geng, Chengyan; Li, Qiujuan; Yao, Xiaofeng; Cao, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal widely found in a number of environmental matrices, and it induces serious adverse effects in various organs and tissues. In this study, the role of high mobility group A2 (HMGA2) in promoting migration and invasion in Cd-treated A549 cells and lung tissues of mice was investigated. Our findings showed that exposure to Cd (2 μM) for 48 h or subcutaneous injection of Cd daily for 6 weeks significantly enhanced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (p-FAK), and HMGA2 in A549 cells or lung tissues of mice. In A549 cells, HMGA2 knockdown significantly decreased expression of MMP-9, MMP-2 and p-FAK and inhibited the migration and invasion compared to that of only Cd-treated cultures. Overexpression of HMGA2 in HEK-293T cells increased expression of MMP-9, MMP-2 and p-FAK and enhanced the migration and invasion compared with the empty vector transfection group. In conclusion, upregulation of HMGA2 plays an important role in Cd-enhanced migration and invasion. Suppressing HMGA2 expression might have potential values in prevention of Cd-resulted toxicities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Paraquat induces extrinsic pathway of apoptosis in A549 cells by induction of DR5 and repression of anti-apoptotic proteins, DDX3 and GSK3 expression.

    PubMed

    Hathaichoti, Sasiphen; Visitnonthachai, Daranee; Ngamsiri, Pronrumpa; Niyomchan, Apichaya; Tsogtbayar, Oyu; Wisessaowapak, Churaibhon; Watcharasit, Piyajit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2017-08-01

    Paraquat (PQ) is a bipyridyl derivative herbicide known to cause lung toxicity partly through induction of apoptosis. Here we demonstrated that PQ caused apoptosis in A549 cells. PQ increased cleavage of caspase-8 and Bid, indicating caspase-8 activation and truncated Bid, the two key mediators of extrinsic apoptosis. Additionally, PQ treatment caused an increase in DR5 (death receptor-5) and caspase-8 interaction, indicating formation of DISC (death-inducing signaling complex). These results indicate that PQ induces apoptosis through extrinsic pathway in A549 cells. Moreover, PQ drastically increased DR5 expression and membrane localization. Furthermore, PQ caused prominent concentration dependent reductions of DDX3 (the DEAD box protein-3) and GSK3 (glycogen synthase kinase-3) which can associate with DR5 and prevent DISC formation. Additionally, PQ decreased DR5-DDX3 interaction, suggesting a reduction of DDX3/GSK3 anti-apoptotic complex. Inhibition of GSK3, which is known to promote extrinsic apoptosis by its pharmacological inhibitor, BIO accentuated PQ-induced apoptosis. Moreover, GSK3 inhibition caused a further decrease in PQ-reduced DR5-DDX3 interaction. Taken together, these results suggest that PQ may induce extrinsic pathway of apoptosis in A549 cells through upregulation of DR5 and repression of anti-apoptotic proteins, DDX3/GSK3 leading to reduction of anti-apoptotic complex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Low-dose carbon-based nanoparticle-induced effects in A549 lung cells determined by biospectroscopy are associated with increases in genomic methylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junyi; Tian, Meiping; Cui, Li; Dwyer, John; Fullwood, Nigel J.; Shen, Heqing; Martin, Francis L.

    2016-02-01

    Nanotechnology has introduced many manufactured carbon-based nanoparticles (CNPs) into our environment, generating a debate into their risks and benefits. Numerous nanotoxicology investigations have been carried, and nanoparticle-induced toxic effects have been reported. However, there remain gaps in our knowledge, primarily regarding mechanism. Herein, we assessed the global alterations induced by CNPs in A549 lung cells using biospectroscopy techniques, including attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). A549 cells were treated with fullerene (C60), long or short multi-walled carbon nanotubes, or single-walled carbon nanotubes at concentrations of 0.1 mg/L, 0.01 mg/L and 0.001 mg/L. Exposed cells were then analysed by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and SERS. Spectra were pre-processed via computational analysis, and information on biochemical alterations in exposed cells were identified. Additionally, global DNA methylation levels in cells exposed to CNPs at 0.1 mg/L were determined using HPLC-MS and genetic regulators (for DNA methylation) were checked by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. It was found that CNPs exert marked effects in A549 cells and also contribute to increases in global DNA methylation. For the first time, this study highlights that real-world levels of nanoparticles can alter the methylome of exposed cells; this could have enormous implications for their regulatory assessment.

  19. Freezing the Bioactive Conformation to Boost Potency: The Identification of BAY 85-8501, a Selective and Potent Inhibitor of Human Neutrophil Elastase for Pulmonary Diseases

    PubMed Central

    von Nussbaum, Franz; Li, Volkhart M-J; Allerheiligen, Swen; Anlauf, Sonja; Bärfacker, Lars; Bechem, Martin; Delbeck, Martina; Fitzgerald, Mary F; Gerisch, Michael; Gielen-Haertwig, Heike; Haning, Helmut; Karthaus, Dagmar; Lang, Dieter; Lustig, Klemens; Meibom, Daniel; Mittendorf, Joachim; Rosentreter, Ulrich; Schäfer, Martina; Schäfer, Stefan; Schamberger, Jens; Telan, Leila A; Tersteegen, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) is a key protease for matrix degradation. High HNE activity is observed in inflammatory diseases. Accordingly, HNE is a potential target for the treatment of pulmonary diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), acute lung injury (ALI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), bronchiectasis (BE), and pulmonary hypertension (PH). HNE inhibitors should reestablish the protease–anti-protease balance. By means of medicinal chemistry a novel dihydropyrimidinone lead-structure class was identified. Further chemical optimization yielded orally active compounds with favorable pharmacokinetics such as the chemical probe BAY-678. While maintaining outstanding target selectivity, picomolar potency was achieved by locking the bioactive conformation of these inhibitors with a strategically positioned methyl sulfone substituent. An induced-fit binding mode allowed tight interactions with the S2 and S1 pockets of HNE. BAY 85-8501 ((4S)-4-[4-cyano-2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-3,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-1-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carbonitrile) was shown to be efficacious in a rodent animal model related to ALI. BAY 85-8501 is currently being tested in clinical studies for the treatment of pulmonary diseases. PMID:26083237

  20. The Expression of AQP1 IS Modified in Lung of Patients With Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Addressing a Possible New Target.

    PubMed

    Galán-Cobo, Ana; Arellano-Orden, Elena; Sánchez Silva, Rocío; López-Campos, José Luis; Gutiérrez Rivera, César; Gómez Izquierdo, Lourdes; Suárez-Luna, Nela; Molina-Molina, María; Rodríguez Portal, José A; Echevarría, Miriam

    2018-01-01

    Activation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process (EMT) by which alveolar cells in human lung tissue undergo differentiation giving rise to a mesenchymal phenotype (fibroblast/miofibroblasts) has been well recognized as a key element in the origin of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Here we analyzed expression of AQP1 in lung biopsies of patients diagnosed with IPF, and compared it to biopsies derived from patients with diverse lung pneumonies, such as hypersensitivity pneumonitis, sarcoidosis or normal lungs. Immunostaining for AQP1 showed a clear increment of AQP1 localized in the alveolar epithelium in biopsies from IPF patients alone. Moreover, to examine the possible participation of AQP1 in the pathophysiology of IPF, we evaluated its role in the pro-fibrotic transformation induced by transforming growth factor (TGF-β) in vitro . Human alveolar epithelial cells (A549), and fibroblasts derived from an IPF patient (LL29), or fibroblasts from healthy normal lung tissue (MRC-5), were treated with TGF-β, and levels of expression of AQP1, as well as those of E-cadherin, vimentin, α-SMA and collagen were analyzed by RT-qPCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. An increase of AQP1 mRNA and protein after TGF-β treatment (4-72h) was observed either in A549 or IPF fibroblast-LL29 but not in MRC-5 fibroblasts. A gradual reduction of E-cadherin, and increased expression of vimentin, with no changes in α-SMA levels were observed in A549. Whereas in LL29 and MRC-5, TGF-β1 elicited a large production of collagen and α-SMA that was significantly greater in IPF fibroblast-LL29. Changes observed are consistent with activation of EMT by TGF-β, but whether modifications in AQP1 expression are responsible or independent events occurring at the same time is still unknown. Our results suggest that AQP1 plays a role in the pro-fibrotic TGF-β action and contributes to the etiology and pathophysiology of IPF. Understanding AQP1's role will help us comprehend

  1. Tumor-targeting magnetic lipoplex delivery of short hairpin RNA suppresses IGF-1R overexpression of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chunmao; Ding, Chao; Kong, Minjian

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We compared lipofection with magnetofection about difference of transfection efficiency on delivery a therapeutic gene in vitro and in vivo. {yields} We investigated the difference of shRNA induced by magnetofection and lipofection into A549 cell and subcutaneous tumor to knockdown IGF-1R overexpressed in A549 cell and A549 tumor. {yields} We investigated in vivo shRNA silenced IGF-1R overexpression 24, 48, and 72 h after shRNA intravenous injection into tumor-bearing mice by way of magnetofection and lipofection. {yields} Our results showed that magnetofection could achieve therapeutic gene targeted delivery into special site, which contributed to targeted gene therapy of lungmore » cancers. -- Abstract: Liposomal magnetofection potentiates gene transfection by applying a magnetic field to concentrate magnetic lipoplexes onto target cells. Magnetic lipoplexes are self-assembling ternary complexes of cationic lipids with plasmid DNA associated with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). Type1insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R), an important oncogene, is frequently overexpressed in lung cancer and mediates cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. In this study, we evaluated the transfection efficiency (percentage of transfected cells) and therapeutic potential (potency of IGF-1R knockdown) of liposomal magnetofection of plasmids expressing GFP and shRNAs targeting IGF-1R (pGFPshIGF-1Rs) in A549 cells and in tumor-bearing mice as compared to lipofection using Lipofectamine 2000. Liposomal magnetofection provided a threefold improvement in transgene expression over lipofection and transfected up to 64.1% of A549 cells in vitro. In vitro, IGF-1R specific-shRNA transfected by lipofection inhibited IGF-1R protein by 56.1 {+-} 6% and by liposomal magnetofection by 85.1 {+-} 3%. In vivo delivery efficiency of the pGFPshIGF-1R plasmid into the tumor was significantly higher in the liposomal magnetofection group than in the

  2. Suppression of A549 cell proliferation and metastasis by calycosin via inhibition of the PKC‑α/ERK1/2 pathway: An in vitro investigation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xu-Dong; Gu, Jun-Fei; Yuan, Jia-Rui; Feng, Liang; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2015-12-01

    The migration and invasion of lung cancer cells into the extracellular matrix contributes to the high mortality rates of lung cancer. The protein kinase C (PKC) and downstream signaling pathways are important in the invasion and migration of lung cancer cells. Calycosin (Cal), an effector chemical from Astragalus has been reported to affect the recurrence and metastasis of cancer cells via the regulation of the protein expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The inhibition of Cal on the migration and invasion of A549 cells was investigated in the present study. Cell viability and apoptosis assays were performed using MTT and flow cytometric analyses. A wound healing assay and Transwell invasion assay were performed to evaluate the effect of Cal on A549 cell migration and invasion. Invasion‑associated proteins, including MMP‑2, MMP‑9, E‑cadherin (E‑cad), integrin β1, PKC‑α and extracellular signal‑regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) were detected using western blotting. In addition, PKC‑α inhibitor, AEB071, and ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, were used to determine the association between the suppression of PKC‑α /ERK1/2 and invasion, MMP‑2, MMP‑9, E‑cad and integrin β1. Cal was observed to suppress cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. There were significant differences between the phorbol‑12‑myristate‑13‑acetate (TPA)‑induced A549 cells treated with Cal and the untreated cells in the rates of migration and invasion. The levels of MMP‑2, MMP‑9, E‑cad and integrin β1 in the TPA‑induced A549 cells changed markedly, compared with the untreated cells. In addition, the suppression of Cal was affected by the PKC inhibitor, AEB071, an ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059. The results of the present study indicated that Cal inhibited the proliferation, adhesion, migration and invasion of the TPA‑induced A549 cells. The Cal‑induced repression of PKC‑α/ERK1/2, increased the expression of E‑Cad and inhibited the expression

  3. [Effects of adenoviral vector containing human angiotensin II type 1 receptor antisense cDNA on biological action of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells].

    PubMed

    Tu, Ming-li; Wang, Han-qin; Lei, Huai-ding; Luo, Guo-shi; Liu, Xian-jun; Liu, Wei-shun; Xiong, Chang; Liu, Yu-quan; Ren, Si-qun

    2005-04-01

    To investigate the effect of human angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) antisense cDNA (ahAT(1)) on migration, proliferation, and apoptosis of cultured human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC). Two recombinant adenoviral vectors, AdCMVahAT(1) containing full length antisense cDNA targeting to human AT(1)R mRNA, and AdCMVLacZ containing LacZ, were constructed by orientation clone technology and homologous recombination. The PASMC was divided into 3 groups (DMEM, AdCMVLacZ, AdCMVahAT(1)) and different interventions were given to different groups. AT(1)R expression was detected by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry method; migration of PASMC was measured by Boyden's Chamer method. Other PASMC was divided into 4 groups (DMEM, AngII, AdCMVLacZ + AngII and AdCMVahAT(1) + AngII), and only the last 2 groups were respectively transfected with AdCMVLacZ and AdCMVahAT(1) before administration of AngII. From 6 h to 96 h after stimulation by AngII (10(-7) mol/L), proliferation index (PI) and apoptosis of PASMC were determined by flow cytometry. At the 48 h the level of AT(1)R mRNA was significantly less in PASMC transfected AdCMVahAT(1) than that in group DMEM and in group AdCMVLacZ. The protein level showed a same difference (P < 0.01). At 24 h the migration distance of PASMC also was significantly less in group AdCMVahAT(1) than that in group DMEM and Group AdCMVLacZ (P < 0.01). Stimulated by AngII for 48 h, in group AngII the PI of PASMC markedly increased (P < 0.01 vs group DMEM). But in Group AdCMVahAT(1) + AngII PI of PASMC clearly decreased (P < 0.01 vs group AngII and group DMEM respectively). There was no statistic difference of PI between group AdCMVLacZ + AngII and group AngII. Moreover, apoptosis peak emerged only in group AdCMVahAT(1) + AngII. The rate of apoptosis in those PASMC used AdCMVahAT(1) and AngII was 24.70 +/- 4.04 (P < 0.01 vs the other 3 groups respectively). These results indicate that AngII stimulates proliferation via AT(1

  4. A quasi-3D wire approach to model pulmonary airflow in human airways.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Ravishekar; Chen, Z J; Singh, Narender; Przekwas, Andrzej; Delvadia, Renishkumar; Tian, Geng; Walenga, Ross

    2017-07-01

    The models used for modeling the airflow in the human airways are either 0-dimensional compartmental or full 3-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. In the former, airways are treated as compartments, and the computations are performed with several assumptions, thereby generating a low-fidelity solution. The CFD method displays extremely high fidelity since the solution is obtained by solving the conservation equations in a physiologically consistent geometry. However, CFD models (1) require millions of degrees of freedom to accurately describe the geometry and to reduce the discretization errors, (2) have convergence problems, and (3) require several days to simulate a few breathing cycles. In this paper, we present a novel, fast-running, and robust quasi-3D wire model for modeling the airflow in the human lung airway. The wire mesh is obtained by contracting the high-fidelity lung airway surface mesh to a system of connected wires, with well-defined radii. The conservation equations are then solved in each wire. These wire meshes have around O(1000) degrees of freedom and hence are 3000 to 25 000 times faster than their CFD counterparts. The 3D spatial nature is also preserved since these wires are contracted out of the actual lung STL surface. The pressure readings between the 2 approaches showed minor difference (maximum error = 15%). In general, this formulation is fast and robust, allows geometric changes, and delivers high-fidelity solutions. Hence, this approach has great potential for more complicated problems including modeling of constricted/diseased lung sections and for calibrating the lung flow resistances through parameter inversion. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Enhanced Deposition by Electrostatic Field-Assistance Aggravating Diesel Exhaust Aerosol Toxicity for Human Lung Cells.

    PubMed

    Stoehr, Linda C; Madl, Pierre; Boyles, Matthew S P; Zauner, Roland; Wimmer, Monika; Wiegand, Harald; Andosch, Ancuela; Kasper, Gerhard; Pesch, Markus; Lütz-Meindl, Ursula; Himly, Martin; Duschl, Albert

    2015-07-21

    Air pollution is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, but conventional air quality monitoring gives no information about biological consequences. Exposing human lung cells at the air-liquid interface (ALI) to ambient aerosol could help identify acute biological responses. This study investigated electrode-assisted deposition of diesel exhaust aerosol (DEA) on human lung epithelial cells (A549) in a prototype exposure chamber. A549 cells were exposed to DEA at the ALI and under submerged conditions in different electrostatic fields (EFs) and were assessed for cell viability, membrane integrity, and IL-8 secretion. Qualitative differences of the DEA and its deposition under different EFs were characterized using scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) measurements, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Upon exposure to DEA only, cell viability decreased and membrane impairment increased for cells at the ALI; submerged cells were unaffected. These responses were enhanced upon application of an EF, as was DEA deposition. No adverse effects were observed for filtered DEA or air only, confirming particle-induced responses. The prototype exposure chamber proved suitable for testing DEA-induced biological responses of cells at the ALI using electrode-assisted deposition and may be useful for analysis of other air pollutants.

  6. [Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy].

    PubMed

    Lausberg, H F; Tscholl, D; Schäfers, H-J

    2004-08-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension with concomitant right heart failure may develop as a sequela of acute pulmonary embolism with organization instead of thrombolysis of intravascular clots. Medical therapy aims at prevention of recurrent embolism by anticoagulation and vascular remodelling using vasodilator therapy. Lung transplantation or combined heart-lung transplantation is associated with unsatisfactory long-term results and comorbidity and therefore remains justified only in selected patients. Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy allows specific treatment of intravascular obstruction. This closed endarterectomy of the pulmonary arteries requires deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and can be performed with a perioperative mortality of less than 10%. The procedure significantly decreases pulmonary vascular resistance and often normalizes pulmonary hemodynamics and gas exchange. Postoperatively the patients' clinical condition improves and the majority have normal exercise capacity and activity.

  7. Intestinal Parasite Co-infection among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases without Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in a Rural County in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-Xu; Chen, Jia-Xu; Wang, Li-Xia; Tian, Li-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Dong, Shuang-Pin; Hu, Xue-Guang; Liu, Jian; Wang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Yue; Yin, Xiao-Mei; He, Li-Jun; Yan, Qiu-Ye; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Xu, Bian-Li; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of co-infection with tuberculosis (TB) and intestinal parasites in humans have not been extensively investigated in China. A cross-section study was conducted in a rural county of Henan Province, China. Pulmonary TB (PTB) case-patients receiving treatment for infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and healthy controls matched for geographic area, age, and sex were surveyed by using questionnaires. Fecal and blood specimens were collected for detection of intestinal parasites, routine blood examination, and infection with human immunodeficiency virus. The chi-square test was used for univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models were used to adjust for potential confounding factors. A total of 369 persons with PTB and 366 healthy controls were included; all participants were negative for human immunodeficiency virus. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in persons with PTB was 14.9%, including intestinal protozoa (7.9%) and helminthes (7.6%). The infection spectrum of intestinal parasites was Entamoeba spp. (1.4%), Blastocystis hominis (6.2%), Trichomonas hominis (0.3%), Clonorchis sinensis (0.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.5%), Trichuris trichiura (2.2%), and hookworm (4.6%). The prevalence of intestinal parasites showed no significant difference between persons with PTB and healthy controls after adjusting for potential confounding factors. There was no factor that affected infection rates for intestinal parasites between the two groups. Infection with intestinal parasites of persons with PTB was associated with female sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01–4.17), body mass index ≤ 19 (AOR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.47–6.20), and anemia (AOR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.17–5.03). Infection of healthy controls was only associated with an annual labor time in farmlands > 2 months (AOR = 4.50, 95% CI = 2.03–10.00). In addition, there was no significant trend between rates of infection with

  8. Differential effects of airway anesthesia on ozone-induced pulmonary responses in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Schelegle, E S; Eldridge, M W; Cross, C E; Walby, W F; Adams, W C

    2001-04-01

    We examined the effect of tetracaine aerosol inhalation, a local anesthetic, on lung volume decrements, rapid shallow breathing, and subjective symptoms of breathing discomfort induced by the acute inhalation of 0.30 ppm ozone for 65 min in 22 ozone-sensitive healthy human subjects. After 50 min of ozone inhalation FEV(1) was reduced 24%, breathing frequency was increased 40%, tidal volume was decreased 31%, and total subjective symptom score was increased (71.2, compared with 3.8 for filtered air exposure). Inhalation of tetracaine aerosol resulted in marked reductions in ozone-induced subjective symptoms of throat tickle and/or irritation (92.1%), cough (78.5%), shortness of breath (72.5%), and pain on deep inspiration (69.4%). In contrast, inhalation of tetracaine aerosol (mass median aerodynamic diameter of 3.52 microm with a geometric standard deviation of 1.92) resulted in only minor and inconsistent rectification of FEV(1) decrements (5.0%) and breathing frequency (-3.8%) that was not significantly different from that produced by saline aerosol alone (FEV(1), 5.1% and breathing frequency, -2.7%). Our data are consistent with afferent endings located within the large conducting airways of the tracheobronchial tree being primarily responsible for ozone-induced subjective symptoms and provides strong evidence that ozone-induced inhibition of maximal inspiratory effort is not dependent on conscious sensations of inspiratory discomfort.

  9. Second harmonic generation microscopy analysis of extracellular matrix changes in human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tilbury, Karissa; Hocker, James; Wen, Bruce L.; Sandbo, Nathan; Singh, Vikas; Campagnola, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Patients with idiopathic fibrosis (IPF) have poor long-term survival as there are limited diagnostic/prognostic tools or successful therapies. Remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) has been implicated in IPF progression; however, the structural consequences on the collagen architecture have not received considerable attention. Here, we demonstrate that second harmonic generation (SHG) and multiphoton fluorescence microscopy can quantitatively differentiate normal and IPF human tissues. For SHG analysis, we developed a classifier based on wavelet transforms, principle component analysis, and a K-nearest-neighbor algorithm to classify the specific alterations of the collagen structure observed in IPF tissues. The resulting ROC curves obtained by varying the numbers of principal components and nearest neighbors yielded accuracies of >95%. In contrast, simpler metrics based on SHG intensity and collagen coverage in the image provided little or no discrimination. We also characterized the change in the elastin/collagen balance by simultaneously measuring the elastin autofluorescence and SHG intensities and found that the IPF tissues were less elastic relative to collagen. This is consistent with known mechanical consequences of the disease. Understanding ECM remodeling in IPF via nonlinear optical microscopy may enhance our ability to differentiate patients with rapid and slow progression and, thus, provide better prognostic information. PMID:25134793

  10. Influence of lung CT changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on the human lung microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Schloter-Hai, Brigitte; Kublik, Susanne; Granitsiotis, Michael S.; Boschetto, Piera; Stendardo, Mariarita; Barta, Imre; Dome, Balazs; Deleuze, Jean-François; Boland, Anne; Müller-Quernheim, Joachim; Prasse, Antje; Welte, Tobias; Hohlfeld, Jens; Subramanian, Deepak; Parr, David; Gut, Ivo Glynne; Greulich, Timm; Koczulla, Andreas Rembert; Nowinski, Adam; Gorecka, Dorota; Singh, Dave; Gupta, Sumit; Brightling, Christopher E.; Hoffmann, Harald; Frankenberger, Marion; Hofer, Thomas P.; Burggraf, Dorothe; Heiss-Neumann, Marion; Ziegler-Heitbrock, Loems; Schloter, Michael; zu Castell, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Background Changes in microbial community composition in the lung of patients suffering from moderate to severe COPD have been well documented. However, knowledge about specific microbiome structures in the human lung associated with CT defined abnormalities is limited. Methods Bacterial community composition derived from brush samples from lungs of 16 patients suffering from different CT defined subtypes of COPD and 9 healthy subjects was analyzed using a cultivation independent barcoding approach applying 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragment amplicons. Results We could show that bacterial community composition in patients with changes in CT (either airway or emphysema type changes, designated as severe subtypes) was different from community composition in lungs of patients without visible changes in CT as well as from healthy subjects (designated as mild COPD subtype and control group) (PC1, Padj = 0.002). Higher abundance of Prevotella in samples from patients with mild COPD subtype and from controls and of Streptococcus in the severe subtype cases mainly contributed to the separation of bacterial communities of subjects. No significant effects of treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids on bacterial community composition were detected within COPD cases with and without abnormalities in CT in PCoA. Co-occurrence analysis suggests the presence of networks of co-occurring bacteria. Four communities of positively correlated bacteria were revealed. The microbial communities can clearly be distinguished by their associations with the CT defined disease phenotype. Conclusion Our findings indicate that CT detectable structural changes in the lung of COPD patients, which we termed severe subtypes, are associated with alterations in bacterial communities, which may induce further changes in the interaction between microbes and host cells. This might result in a changed interplay with the host immune system. PMID:28704452

  11. Influence of lung CT changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on the human lung microbiome.

    PubMed

    Engel, Marion; Endesfelder, David; Schloter-Hai, Brigitte; Kublik, Susanne; Granitsiotis, Michael S; Boschetto, Piera; Stendardo, Mariarita; Barta, Imre; Dome, Balazs; Deleuze, Jean-François; Boland, Anne; Müller-Quernheim, Joachim; Prasse, Antje; Welte, Tobias; Hohlfeld, Jens; Subramanian, Deepak; Parr, David; Gut, Ivo Glynne; Greulich, Timm; Koczulla, Andreas Rembert; Nowinski, Adam; Gorecka, Dorota; Singh, Dave; Gupta, Sumit; Brightling, Christopher E; Hoffmann, Harald; Frankenberger, Marion; Hofer, Thomas P; Burggraf, Dorothe; Heiss-Neumann, Marion; Ziegler-Heitbrock, Loems; Schloter, Michael; Zu Castell, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Changes in microbial community composition in the lung of patients suffering from moderate to severe COPD have been well documented. However, knowledge about specific microbiome structures in the human lung associated with CT defined abnormalities is limited. Bacterial community composition derived from brush samples from lungs of 16 patients suffering from different CT defined subtypes of COPD and 9 healthy subjects was analyzed using a cultivation independent barcoding approach applying 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragment amplicons. We could show that bacterial community composition in patients with changes in CT (either airway or emphysema type changes, designated as severe subtypes) was different from community composition in lungs of patients without visible changes in CT as well as from healthy subjects (designated as mild COPD subtype and control group) (PC1, Padj = 0.002). Higher abundance of Prevotella in samples from patients with mild COPD subtype and from controls and of Streptococcus in the severe subtype cases mainly contributed to the separation of bacterial communities of subjects. No significant effects of treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids on bacterial community composition were detected within COPD cases with and without abnormalities in CT in PCoA. Co-occurrence analysis suggests the presence of networks of co-occurring bacteria. Four communities of positively correlated bacteria were revealed. The microbial communities can clearly be distinguished by their associations with the CT defined disease phenotype. Our findings indicate that CT detectable structural changes in the lung of COPD patients, which we termed severe subtypes, are associated with alterations in bacterial communities, which may induce further changes in the interaction between microbes and host cells. This might result in a changed interplay with the host immune system.

  12. Parasitic pulmonary eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Chitkara, Rajinder K; Krishna, Ganesh

    2006-04-01

    Parasitic infections, although common in tropical and subtropical regions, are prevalent worldwide because of changing immigration patterns and in international travel. The burden of worm infection is enormous and the intensity of infection is usually high among the poor and in immunocompromised individuals. Pulmonary eosinophilia occurs in almost all metazoan infections. In the Western world, the most common infections are caused by Strongyloides, Ascaris, Toxocara, and Ancylostoma species. Most of the nematodes multiply within the human host and cause pulmonary eosinophilia during larval migration through the lungs. Despite larval migration through the lungs, there is usually no permanent lung damage. The result is an increased number of eosinophils in the airways or lung parenchyma with or without peripheral eosinophilia. Löffler's syndrome, visceral larva migrans, and tropical pulmonary eosinophilia are the most common infections that cause pulmonary eosinophilia. The most serious parasitic eosinophilic lung disease is tropical pulmonary eosinophilia, a disorder caused by the filarial worms Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi, in which cases have typically been reported to masquerade acute or refractory bronchial asthma. Increasing awareness, newer diagnostic techniques, preventative measures, and antiparasitic drugs are important in reducing the worldwide morbidity and mortality from parasitic helminths and protozoa. This review focuses on common and some uncommon causes of pulmonary parasitic eosinophilia and their manifestations, diagnosis, and management.

  13. SU-F-T-677: Synergistic Effect(s) of Clotrimazole On Radiation Cell Survival of A549 Lung Cancer Cells in Glucose Vs. Galactose Media

    SciTech Connect

    Boss, G; Tambasco, M; Garakani, M

    Purpose: In order to determine the synergistic effect of clotrimazole on radiosensitivity of A549 lung cancer cells, and the effect of oxidative pathways on modulating radiosensitivity, we studied how these cells survived under varying amounts of radiation and clotrimazole as well ass when glucose was switched for galactose media. Methods: The glucose media was used to determine the presence of any synergistic effect of clotrimazole on radiation using values of radiation and clotrimazole concentrations, varying from 0 – 8 Gy and 0 – 20 µM, respectively. As a galactose diet is known to activate oxidative pathways, which do not relymore » on hexokinase II (HK2), all trials were repeated using galactose media to determine the extent that HK2 unbinding from the mitochondrial membrane plays a role in modulating the observed radiosensitivity. An apoptosis vs. necrosis assay was implemented to find out the modality by which cell death occurred. An intracellular lactate assay was performed to exhibit the extent of anaerobic glycolysis. Results: After running the primary experiments, it was found that in glucose media, the cancer cells showed higher cell kill when clotrimazole was added to the media, followed by the cells being irradiated. Conclusion: Given the preliminary results it is validated that under higher concentrations of clotrimazole, in glucose media, A549 lung cancer cells exhibit a lower amount of survival. While all results have not yet been gathered. We anticipate that in galactose media the A549 cells will exhibit this effect to a much smaller degree, if at all.« less

  14. Inhibition of mitogen activated protein kinases increases the sensitivity of A549 lung cancer cells to the cytotoxicity induced by a kava chalcone analog

    PubMed Central

    Warmka, Janel K.; Solberg, Eric L.; Zeliadt, Nicholette A.; Srinivasan, Balasubramanian; Charlson, Aaron T.; Xing, Chengguo; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V.

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in investigating the biological activity of chalcones, a major class of compounds found in the beverage kava, in order to develop potent and selective chemopreventive candidates. Consumption of kava in the South Pacific Islands is inversely correlated with cancer incidence, even among smokers. Accordingly, chalcones have anti-cancer activities in animal and cell culture models. To investigate signaling pathways that affect chalcone action we studied a potent analog, (E)-3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (chalcone-24). Chalcone-24 was selected from a series of chalcone analogs that were synthesized based on the structures derived from flavokawain compounds found in kava, and screened in A549 lung cancer cells for induction of cytotoxicity and inhibition of NF-κB, a transcription factor associated with cell survival. Incubation of A549 cells with chalcone-24 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability, inhibition of NF-κB, activation of caspases, and activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK); ERK1/2 and JNK are mitogen activated protein kinases that play central roles in regulating cell fate. Pharmacological inhibitors of ERK1/2 or JNK increased the sensitivity of A549 cells to chalcone-24-induced cytotoxicity, without affecting NF-κB or caspase activity. These results will help refine the synthesis of chalcone analogs to maximize the combination of actions required to prevent and treat cancer. PMID:22771807

  15. Inhibition of mitogen activated protein kinases increases the sensitivity of A549 lung cancer cells to the cytotoxicity induced by a kava chalcone analog.

    PubMed

    Warmka, Janel K; Solberg, Eric L; Zeliadt, Nicholette A; Srinivasan, Balasubramanian; Charlson, Aaron T; Xing, Chengguo; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V

    2012-08-03

    We are interested in investigating the biological activity of chalcones, a major class of compounds found in the beverage kava, in order to develop potent and selective chemopreventive candidates. Consumption of kava in the South Pacific Islands is inversely correlated with cancer incidence, even among smokers. Accordingly, chalcones have anti-cancer activities in animal and cell culture models. To investigate signaling pathways that affect chalcone action we studied a potent analog, (E)-3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (chalcone-24). Chalcone-24 was selected from a series of chalcone analogs that were synthesized based on the structures derived from flavokawain compounds found in kava, and screened in A549 lung cancer cells for induction of cytotoxicity and inhibition of NF-κB, a transcription factor associated with cell survival. Incubation of A549 cells with chalcone-24 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability, inhibition of NF-κB, activation of caspases, and activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK); ERK1/2 and JNK are mitogen activated protein kinases that play central roles in regulating cell fate. Pharmacological inhibitors of ERK1/2 or JNK increased the sensitivity of A549 cells to chalcone-24-induced cytotoxicity, without affecting NF-κB or caspase activity. These results will help refine the synthesis of chalcone analogs to maximize the combination of actions required to prevent and treat cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. SiRNA/DOX lodeded chitosan based nanoparticles: Development, Characterization and in vitro evaluation on A549 lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Seifi-Najmi, M; Hajivalili, M; Safaralizadeh, R; Sadreddini, S; Esmaeili, S; Razavi, R; Ahmadi, M; Mikaeili, H; Baradaran, B; Shams-Asenjan, K; Yousefi, M

    2016-09-30

    High-mobility group AT-hook2 (HMGA2), involved in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, has a pivotal role in lung cancer metastasis. Lung cancer therapy with HMGA2 suppressing small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been introduced recently while doxorubicin (DOX) has been used as a frequent cancer chemotherapy agent. Both reagents have been faced with obstacles in clinic which make them ineffective. NanoParticles (NPs) provided a platform for efficient co delivery of the anticancer drugs. The aim of this study was production and in vitro characterization of different pharmacological groups (siRNA, DOX or siRNA-DOX) of carboxymethyl dextran thrimethyl chitosan nanoparticles (CMDTMChiNPs) on cytotoxicity, gene expression, apoptosis and migration of metastatic lung cancer cell line (A-549). CMDTMChiNPs were synthesized and encapsulated with siRNA, DOX or siRNA-DOX. Then the effects of HMGA2 siRNA and DOX co delivery was assessed in A549 viability and target genes (HMGA2, Ecadherin, vimentin and MMP9) by MTT and real time PCR, respectively. In addition capability of apoptosis induction and anti-migratory features of formulated NPs were analyzed by flowcytometry and wound healing assays. SiRNA-DOX-CMDTM ChiNPs approximate size were 207±5 with poly dispersity index (PDI) and zeta potential of 0.4 and 16.3±0.3, respectively. NPs loaded with DOX and siRNA were the most efficient drug formulations in A549 cell cytotoxicity, altering of EMT markers, apoptosis induction and migration inhibition. Generally our results showed that co delivery of HMGA2 siRNA and DOX by novel designed CMDTMChiNPs is a new therapeutic approach with great potential efficiency for lung cancer treatment.

  17. Umbelliprenin is cytotoxic against QU-DB large cell lung cancer cell line but anti-proliferative against A549 adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Umbelliprenin is a natural compound, belonging to the class of sesquiterpene coumarins. Recently, umbelliprenin has attracted the researchers' attention for its antitumor activities against skin tumors. Its effect on lung cancer is largely unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of this natural compound, which is expected to have low adverse effects, on lung cancer. Methods The QU-DB large cell and A549 adenocarcinoma lung cancer cell lines were treated with umbelliprenin. IC50 values were estimated using methyl thiazolely diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, in which a decrease in MTT reduction can occur as a result of cell death or cell proliferation inhibition. To quantify the rate of cell death at IC50 values, flow cytometry using Annexin V-FITC (for apoptotic cells), and propidium iodide (for necrotic cells) dyes were employed. Results Data from three independent MTT experiments in triplicate revealed that IC50 values for QU-DB and A549 were 47 ± 5.3 μM and 52 ± 1.97 μM, respectively. Annexin V/PI staining demonstrated that umbelliprenin treatment at IC50 induced 50% cell death in QU-DB cells, but produced no significant death in A549 cells until increasing the umbelliprenin concentration to IC80. The pattern of cell death was predominantly apoptosis in both cell lines. When peripheral blood mononuclear cells were treated with 50 μM and less concentrations of umbelliprenin, no suppressive effect was observed. Conclusions We found cytotoxic/anti-proliferative effects of umbelliprenin against two different types of lung cancer cell lines. PMID:23351548

  18. Cancer Associated Fibroblast-Derived Hepatocyte Growth Factor Inhibits the Paclitaxel-Induced Apoptosis of Lung Cancer A549 Cells by Up-Regulating the PI3K/Akt and GRP78 Signaling on a Microfluidic Platform

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhiyun; He, Tianrui; Li, Encheng; Guo, Zhe; Liu, Fen; Jiang, Chunmeng; Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Tumor stroma and growth factors provide a survival environment to tumor cells and can modulate their chemoresistance by dysregulating several signal pathways. In this study, we fabricated a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to investigate the impact of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) from cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) on the Met/PI3K/AKT activation, glucose regulatory protein (GRP78) expression and the paclitaxel-induced A549 cell apoptosis. With a concentration gradient generator, the assembled chip was able to reconstruct a tumor microenvironment in vitro. We found high levels of HGF in the supernatants of CAF and the CAF matrix from the supernatants of activated HFL1 fibroblasts or HGF enhanced the levels of Met, PI3K and AKT phosphorylation and GRP78 expression in A549 cells cultured in a 3D cell chamber, which was abrogated by anti-HGF. Inhibition of Met attenuated the CAF matrix-enhanced PI3K/AKT phosphorylation and GRP78 expression while inhibition of PI3K reduced GRP78 expression, but not Met phosphorylation in A549 cells. Inhibition of GRP78 failed to modulate the CAF matrix-enhanced Met/PI3K/AKT phosphorylation in A549 cells. Furthermore, inhibition of PI3K or GRP78 enhanced spontaneous and paclitaxel-induced A549 cell apoptosis. Moreover, treatment with the CAF matrix inhibited spontaneous and medium or high dose of paclitaxel-induced A549 cell apoptosis. Inhibition of PI3K or GRP78 attenuated the CAF matrix-mediated inhibition on paclitaxel-induced A549 cell apoptosis. Our data indicated that HGF in the CAF matrix activated the Met/PI3K/AKT and up-regulated GRP78 expression, promoting chemoresistance to paclitaxel-mediated apoptosis in A549 cells. Our findings suggest that the microfluidic system may represent an ideal platform for signaling research and drug screening. PMID:26115510

  19. ROS-dependent Atg4 upregulation mediated autophagy plays an important role in Cd-induced proliferation and invasion in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wei; Sui, Linlin; Yan, Xiaona; Xie, Huaying; Jiang, Liping; Geng, Chengyan; Li, Qiujuan; Yao, Xiaofeng; Kong, Ying; Cao, Jun

    2018-01-05

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal that is widely used in industry and agriculture. In this study the role of autophagy in Cd-induced proliferation, migration and invasion was investigated in A549 cells. Exposure to Cd (2 μM) significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, induced autophagy and enhanced cell growth, migration and invasion in A549 cells. Western blot analysis showed that the expression of autophagy-related proteins, LC3-II, Beclin-1 and Atg4 and invasion-related protein MMP-9 were upregulated in Cd-treated cells. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) markedly prevented Cd-induced proliferation of A549 cells and the increasing protein level of LC3-II and Atg4. Blocking Atg4 expression by siRNA strongly reduced Beclin-1 and LC3-II protein expression and the number of autophagosome positive cells induced by Cd. Furthermore, Atg4 siRNA increased the number of cells at G0/G1 phase, reduced the number of S and G2/M phase cells, and inhibited Cd-induced cell growth significantly compared with that of Cd-treated Control siRNA cells. 3-MA pretreatment increased the percentage of G0/G1 phase cells, decreased S phase and G2/M phase percentage, and inhibited Cd-induced cell growth remarkably compared with that of only Cd-treated cells. Knocking down Atg4 reduced the number of cells that migrated and invaded through the Matrigel matrix significantly and led to a significant decrease of MMP-9 expression. In addition, in lung tissues of Cd-treated BALB/c mice, the increased expression of LC3-II, Beclin-1 and Atg4 were observed. Taken together, our results demonstrated that ROS-dependent Atg4-mediated autophagy plays an important role in Cd-induced cell growth, migration and invasion in A549 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. In vitro studies data on anticancer activity of Caesalpinia sappan L. heartwood and leaf extracts on MCF7 and A549 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Naik Bukke, Arunkumar; Nazneen Hadi, Fathima; Babu, K Suresh; Shankar, P Chandramati

    2018-08-01

    This article contains data on in vitro cytotoxicity activity of chloroform, methanolic and water extracts of leaf and heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan L. a medicinal plant against Breast cancer (MCF-7) and Lung cancer (A-549) cells. This data shows that Brazilin A, a natural bioactive compound in heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan L. induced cell death in breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. The therapeutic property was further proved by docking the Brazilin A molecule against BCL-2 protein (an apoptotic inhibitor) using auto dock tools.

  1. Effect of pulmonary vein isolation on the left-to-right atrial dominant frequency gradient in human atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Sorin; Dixit, Sanjay; Callans, David J; Lin, David; Marchlinski, Francis E; Gerstenfeld, Edward P

    2006-08-01

    We previously demonstrated the existence of a left-to-right atrial dominant frequency gradient during paroxysmal but not persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) in humans. One possible mechanism of the left-to-right dominant frequency gradient involves the role of the pulmonary veins (PVs) in AF maintenance. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of PV isolation on the dominant frequency gradient and outcome after PV isolation. Patients with either paroxysmal or persistent AF were studied. Recordings were made from catheters in the coronary sinus (CS), posterior right atrium (RA), and posterior left atrium (LA) during AF before and after PV isolation. Mean left-to-right dominant frequency gradient was measured before and after segmental PV isolation. Patients were followed for AF recurrence after PV isolation. Twenty-seven patients with paroxysmal (n = 15) or persistent (n = 12) AF were studied. In the paroxysmal group, baseline dominant frequency was greatest in the posterior LA with a significant left-to-right atrial dominant frequency gradient (posterior LA = 6.2 +/- 0.9 Hz, CS = 5.8 +/- 0.8 Hz, posterior RA = 5.4 +/- 0.9 Hz; P <.001). After PV isolation, there was no regional difference in dominant frequency (5.9 +/- 0.7 Hz vs 5.7 +/- 0.6 Hz vs 5.7 +/- 0.7 Hz, respectively; P = NS). In the persistent AF group, there was no overall difference in dominant frequency among sites before or after PV isolation (P = NS); however, patients with long-term freedom from AF after PV isolation had a higher left-to-right dominant frequency gradient compared with patients with recurrent AF (0.4 vs 0.1 Hz; P <.05). PV isolation results in a loss in the left-to-right dominant frequency gradient in patients with paroxysmal AF. This finding supports the critical role of PVs in the maintenance of ongoing paroxysmal AF. Patients with persistent AF and a baseline left-to-right dominant frequency gradient have a better success rate with PV isolation alone compared with

  2. Pulmonary eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Campos, Luiz Eduardo Mendes; Pereira, Luiz Fernando Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    Pulmonary eosinophilia comprises a heterogeneous group of diseases defined by eosinophilia in pulmonary infiltrates (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) or in tissue (lung biopsy specimens). Although the inflammatory infiltrate is composed of macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils and eosinophils, eosinophilia is an important marker for the diagnosis and treatment. Clinical and radiological presentations can include simple pulmonary eosinophilia, chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and pulmonary eosinophilia associated with a systemic disease, such as in Churg-Strauss syndrome and hypereosinophilic syndrome. Asthma is frequently concomitant and can be a prerequisite, as in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and Churg-Strauss syndrome. In diseases with systemic involvement, the skin, the heart and the nervous system are the most affected organs. The radiological presentation can be typical, or at least suggestive, of one of three types of pulmonary eosinophilia: chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, acute eosinophilic pneumonia and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. The etiology of pulmonary eosinophilia can be either primary (idiopathic) or secondary, due to known causes, such as drugs, parasites, fungal infection, mycobacterial infection, irradiation and toxins. Pulmonary eosinophilia can be also associated with diffuse lung diseases, connective tissue diseases and neoplasia.

  3. A familial case of alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins supports paternal imprinting of FOXF1 in human

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACD/MPV) is a rare developmental lung disorder that is uniformly lethal. Affected infants die within the first few weeks of their life despite aggressive treatment, although a few cases of late manifestation and longer survival have ...

  4. Analysis of A549 cell proteome alteration in response to recombinant influenza A virus nucleoprotein and its interaction with cellular proteins, a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, D; Tiwari, K; Rajala, M S

    Influenza A virus undergoes frequent changes of antigenicity and contributes to seasonal epidemics or unpredictable pandemics. Nucleoprotein, encoded by gene segment 5, is an internal protein of the virus and is conserved among strains of different host origins. In the current study, we analyzed the differentially expressed proteins in A549 cells transiently transfected with the recombinant nucleoprotein of influenza A virus by 2D gel electrophoresis. The resolved protein spots on gel were identified by MALDI-TOF/Mass spectrometry analysis. The majority of the host proteins detected to be differentially abundant in recombinant nucleoprotein-expressing cells as compared to vector-transfected cells are the proteins of metabolic pathways, glycolytic enzymes, molecular chaperones and cytoskeletal proteins. We further demonstrated the interaction of virus nucleoprotein with some of the identified host cellular proteins. In vitro binding assay carried out using the purified recombinant nucleoprotein (pET29a+NP-His) and A549 cell lysate confirmed the interaction between nucleoprotein and host proteins, such as alpha enolase 1, pyruvate kinase and β-actin. The preliminary data of our study provides the information on virus nucleoprotein interaction with proteins involved in glycolysis. However, studies are ongoing to understand the significance of these interactions in modulating the host factors during virus replication.

  5. MicroRNA-9 functions as a tumor suppressor and enhances radio-sensitivity in radio-resistant A549 cells by targeting neuropilin 1.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Kai; Shao, Li Hong; Zhang, Hai Qin; Jin, Linlin; Wei, Wei; Dong, Zhuo; Zhu, Yue Quan; Wu, Ning; Jin, Shun Zi; Xue, Li Xiang

    2018-03-01

    Radiotherapy is commonly used to treat lung cancer but may not kill all cancer cells, which may be attributed to the radiotherapy resistance that often occurs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). At present, the molecular mechanism of radio-resistance remains unclear. Neuropilin 1 (NRP1), a co-receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), was demonstrated to be associated with radio-resistance of NSCLC cells via the VEGF-phosphoinositide 3-kinase-nuclear factor-κB pathway in our previous study. It was hypothesized that certain microRNAs (miRs) may serve crucial functions in radio-sensitivity by regulating NRP1. Bioinformatics predicted that NRP1 was a potential target of miR-9, and this was validated by luciferase reporter assays. Functionally, miR-9-transfected A549 cells exhibited a decreased proliferation rate, increased apoptosis rate and attenuated migratory and invasive abilities. Additionally, a high expression of miR-9 also significantly enhanced the radio-sensitivity of A549 cells in vitro and in vivo . These data improve understanding of the mechanisms of cell radio-resistance, and suggest that miR-9 may be a molecular target for the prediction of radio-sensitivity in NSCLC.

  6. Cytotoxic Effects of 24-Methylenecyloartanyl Ferulate on A549 Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer Cells through MYBBP1A Up-Regulation and AKT and Aurora B Kinase Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Doello, Sofia; Liang, Zhibin; Cho, Il Kyu; Kim, Jung Bong; Li, Qing X

    2018-04-11

    Lung cancer is the second most prevalent cancer. Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer. The low efficacy in current chemotherapies impels us to find new alternatives to prevent or treat NSCLC. Rice bran oil is cytotoxic to A549 cells, a NSCLC cell line. Here, we identified 24-methylenecyloartanyl ferulate (24-mCAF) as the main component responsible for the cytotoxicity in A549 cells. An iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics analysis revealed that 24-mCAF inhibits cell proliferation and activates cell death and apoptosis. 24-mCAF induces up-regulation of Myb binding protein 1A (MYBBP1A), a tumor suppressor that halts cancer progression. 24-mCAF inhibits the activity of AKT and Aurora B kinase, two Ser/Thr kinases involved in MYBBP1A regulation and that represent important targets in NSCLC. This study provides the first insight of the effect of 24-mCAF, the main component of rice bran oil, on A459 cells at the cellular and molecular levels.

  7. The effect of agglomeration state of silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on cellular response of HepG2, A549 and THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Lankoff, Anna; Sandberg, Wiggo J; Wegierek-Ciuk, Aneta; Lisowska, Halina; Refsnes, Magne; Sartowska, Bożena; Schwarze, Per E; Meczynska-Wielgosz, Sylwia; Wojewodzka, Maria; Kruszewski, Marcin

    2012-02-05

    Nanoparticles (NPs) occurring in the environment rapidly agglomerate and form particles of larger diameters. The extent to which this abates the effects of NPs has not been clarified. The motivation of this study was to examine how the agglomeration/aggregation state of silver (20nm and 200nm) and titanium dioxide (21nm) nanoparticles may affect the kinetics of cellular binding/uptake and ability to induce cytotoxic responses in THP1, HepG2 and A549 cells. Cellular binding/uptake, metabolic activation and cell death were assessed by the SSC flow cytometry measurements, the MTT-test and the propidium iodide assay. The three types of particles were efficiently taken up by the cells, decreasing metabolic activation and increasing cell death in all the cell lines. The magnitude of the studied endpoints depended on the agglomeration/aggregation state of particles, their size, time-point and cell type. Among the three cell lines tested, A549 cells were the most sensitive to these particles in relation to cellular binding/uptake. HepG2 cells showed a tendency to be more sensitive in relation to metabolic activation. THP-1 cells were the most resistant to all three types of particles in relation to all endpoints tested. Our findings suggest that particle features such as size and agglomeration status as well as the type of cells may contribute to nanoparticles biological impact. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dynamic CT imaging of volumetric changes in pulmonary nodules correlates with physical measurements of stiffness.

    PubMed

    Lartey, Frederick M; Rafat, Marjan; Negahdar, Mohammadreza; Malkovskiy, Andrey V; Dong, Xinzhe; Sun, Xiaoli; Li, Mei; Doyle, Timothy; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Graves, Edward E; Loo, Billy W; Maxim, Peter G

    2017-02-01

    A major challenge in CT screening for lung cancer is limited specificity when distinguishing between malignant and non-malignant pulmonary nodules (PN). Malignant nodules have different mechanical properties and tissue characteristics ('stiffness') from non-malignant nodules. This study seeks to improve CT specificity by demonstrating in rats that measurements of volumetric ratios in PNs with varying composition can be determined by respiratory-gated dynamic CT imaging and that these ratios correlate with direct physical measurements of PN stiffness. Respiratory-gated MicroCT images acquired at extreme tidal volumes of 9 rats with PNs from talc, matrigel and A549 human lung carcinoma were analyzed and their volumetric ratios (δ) derived. PN stiffness was determined by measuring the Young's modulus using atomic force microscopy (AFM) for each nodule excised immediately after MicroCT imaging. There was significant correlation (p=0.0002) between PN volumetric ratios determined by respiratory-gated CT imaging and the physical stiffness of the PNs determined from AFM measurements. We demonstrated proof of concept that PN volume changes measured non-invasively correlate with direct physical measurements of stiffness. These results may translate clinically into a means of improving the specificity of CT screening for lung cancer and/or improving individual prognostic assessments based on lung tumor stiffness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pulmonary Edema

    MedlinePlus

    ... These measures can help reduce your risk. Preventing cardiovascular disease Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of pulmonary edema. You ... lead to serious conditions such as a stroke, cardiovascular disease and kidney failure. In many cases, you can ...

  10. Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is high blood pressure in the arteries to your lungs. It is a serious condition. If you have ... and you can develop heart failure. Symptoms of PH include Shortness of breath during routine activity, such ...